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Sample records for wipe dispensing system

  1. Dynamically programmable electronic pill dispenser system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boquete, Luciano; Rodriguez-Ascariz, Jose Manuel; Artacho, Irene; Cantos-Frontela, Joaquin; Peixoto, Nathalia

    2010-06-01

    Compliance in medicine dispensation has proven critical for dosage control, diagnosis, and treatment. We have designed, manufactured, and characterized a novel dynamically programmable e-pill dispensing system. Our system is initially programmed remotely through a cell phone. After programming, the system may be reconfigured in order to adapt pill dispensation to new conditions. In this paper we describe the mechanics, electronics, control, and communication protocols implemented. Our dyn-e-pill devices can be actuated for over 350 h with two pill retrievals per hour. We challenged the charging circuit and demonstrated that the system has a lifetime longer than 6 h with a 30 min charging cycle, while it lasts for 14 h of uninterrupted use with a full charge.

  2. Structure Design and Realization of Rapid Medicine Dispensing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangquan

    In this paper, the main components and function of rapid medicine dispensing system is analyzed, structure design of automatic feeding device, sloping storeroom, automatic dispensing device and automatic sorting device is completed. The system adopts medicine conveyer working in with manipulator to realize automatic batch supply of the boxed medicine, adopts sloping storeroom as warehouse of medicine to realize dense depositing, adopts dispensing mechanism which includes elevator, turning panel and electric magnet to realize rapid medicine dispensing, adopts sorting conveyor belt and sorting device to send medicine to designated outlet.

  3. Development of an Automatic Dispensing System for Traditional Chinese Herbs

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    Chi-Ying Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The gathering of ingredients for decoctions of traditional Chinese herbs still relies on manual dispensation, due to the irregular shape of many items and inconsistencies in weights. In this study, we developed an automatic dispensing system for Chinese herbal decoctions with the aim of reducing manpower costs and the risk of mistakes. We employed machine vision in conjunction with a robot manipulator to facilitate the grasping of ingredients. The name and formulation of the decoction are input via a human-computer interface, and the dispensing of multiple medicine packets is performed automatically. An off-line least-squared curve fitting method was used to calculate the amount of material grasped by the claws and thereby improve system efficiency as well as the accuracy of individual dosages. Experiments on the dispensing of actual ingredients demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed system.

  4. Methods and systems for integrating fluid dispensing technology with stereolithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Francisco; Wicker, Ryan; Palmer, Jeremy A.; Davis, Don W.; Chavez, Bart D.; Gallegos, Phillip L.

    2010-02-09

    An integrated system and method of integrating fluid dispensing technologies (e.g., direct-write (DW)) with rapid prototyping (RP) technologies (e.g., stereolithography (SL)) without part registration comprising: an SL apparatus and a fluid dispensing apparatus further comprising a translation mechanism adapted to translate the fluid dispensing apparatus along the Z-, Y- and Z-axes. The fluid dispensing apparatus comprises: a pressurized fluid container; a valve mechanism adapted to control the flow of fluid from the pressurized fluid container; and a dispensing nozzle adapted to deposit the fluid in a desired location. To aid in calibration, the integrated system includes a laser sensor and a mechanical switch. The method further comprises building a second part layer on top of the fluid deposits and optionally accommodating multi-layered circuitry by incorporating a connector trace. Thus, the present invention is capable of efficiently building single and multi-material SL fabricated parts embedded with complex three-dimensional circuitry using DW.

  5. Drug dispensing errors in a ward stock system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stig Ejdrup

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of drug dispensing errors in a traditional ward stock system operated by nurses and to investigate the effect of potential contributing factors. This was a descriptive study conducted in a teaching hospital from January 2005 to June 2007. In five...... wards, samples of dispensed solid drugs were collected prospectively and compared with the prescriptions. Data were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression. Overall, 2173 samples were collected, 95.5% of which were correctly dispensed (95% CI 94.5-96.2). In total, 124 errors in 6715...... opportunities for error were identified; error rate of 1.85 errors per 100 opportunities for error (95% CI 1.54-2.20). Omission of a dose was the predominant type of error while vitamins and minerals, drugs for acid-related diseases and antipsychotic drugs were the drugs most frequently affected by errors...

  6. A new manual dispensing system for in meso membrane protein crystallization with using a stepping motor-based dispenser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hato, Masakatsu; Hosaka, Toshiaki; Tanabe, Hiroaki; Kitsunai, Tokuji; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2014-09-01

    A reliable and easy to use manual dispensing system has been developed for the in meso membrane protein crystallization method. The system consists of a stepping motor-based dispenser with a new microsyringe system for dispensing, which allows us to deliver any desired volume of highly viscous lipidic mesophase in the range from ~50 to at least ~200 nl. The average, standard deviation, and coefficient of variation of 20 repeated deliveries of 50 nl cubic phase were comparable to those of a current robotic dispensing. Moreover, the bottom faces of boluses delivered to the glass crystallization plate were reproducibly circular in shape, and their centers were within about 100 μm from the center of the crystallization well. The system was useful for crystallizing membrane and soluble proteins in meso.

  7. The effect of wiping on skin resurfacing in a pig model using a high energy pulsed CO2 laser system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, E V; Mowlavi, A; Barnette, D; Glatter, R D; Grevelink, J M

    1999-02-01

    The impact of wiping in laser skin resurfacing has not been systematically studied. We examined the effects of wiping during single- and multiple-pass high energy pulsed CO2 laser skin resurfacing in a farm pig. Consequences of wiping were evaluated with regard to depth of residual thermal damage, tissue necrosis, and fibroplasia. Also, the impact of wiping on gross wound healing was observed. Wounds were followed for 21 days and biopsies were obtained on postoperative days 0, 1, and 21. Immediate postoperative biopsies of single-pass wounds showed equivalent residual thermal damage regardless of wiping; in contrast, biopsies from multiple-pass sites without wiping showed more extensive and variable residual thermal damage than wiped sites. On postoperative day one, single pass sites without wiping were grossly less erythematous than wiped sites, and biopsies showed less extensive necrosis and inflammation. In contrast, multiple pass sites without wiping were grossly more erythematous than corresponding wiped sites, and biopsies revealed significantly increased and variable necrosis. After 21 days, multiple pass sites without wiping were grossly more erythematous and showed a thicker band of fibroplasia microscopy. For single pass wounds, not wiping decreased the level of wounding. In contrast, not wiping in multiple pass wounds significantly increased the depth and variability of residual thermal damage and necrosis, resulting in prolonged healing.

  8. Feasibility study of a biocompatible pneumatic dispensing system using mouse 3T3-J2 fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangmin; Kim, Hojin; Kim, Joonwon

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents results for dispensing living cells using a pneumatic dispensing system to verify the feasibility of using this system to fabricate biomaterials. Living cells (i.e., mouse 3T3-J2 fibroblast) were dispensed with different dispensing pressures in order to evaluate the effect of dispensing process on cell viability and proliferation. Based on the results of a live-dead assay, more than 80% of cell viability has been confirmed which was reasonably similar to that in the control group. Furthermore, measurement of cell metabolic activity after dispensing confirmed that the dispensed cell proliferated at a rate comparable to that of the control group. These results demonstrate that the pneumatic dispensing system is a promising tool for fabrication of biomaterials.

  9. Nanoengineered cotton wipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advances in nanotechnology are creating synergy with nonwoven technology in cleaning and/or disinfecting power for the next generation of wipe products. However, there is little known about the use of cotton fiber in wipes as a nanoengineering tool, which self-produces silver nanoparticles -- one of...

  10. Automated reagent-dispensing system for microfluidic cell biology assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Jimmy; Masterman-Smith, Michael; Ramakrishnan, Ravichandran; Sun, Jing; Kokubun, Brent; van Dam, R Michael

    2013-12-01

    Microscale systems that enable measurements of oncological phenomena at the single-cell level have a great capacity to improve therapeutic strategies and diagnostics. Such measurements can reveal unprecedented insights into cellular heterogeneity and its implications into the progression and treatment of complicated cellular disease processes such as those found in cancer. We describe a novel fluid-delivery platform to interface with low-cost microfluidic chips containing arrays of microchambers. Using multiple pairs of needles to aspirate and dispense reagents, the platform enables automated coating of chambers, loading of cells, and treatment with growth media or other agents (e.g., drugs, fixatives, membrane permeabilizers, washes, stains, etc.). The chips can be quantitatively assayed using standard fluorescence-based immunocytochemistry, microscopy, and image analysis tools, to determine, for example, drug response based on differences in protein expression and/or activation of cellular targets on an individual-cell level. In general, automation of fluid and cell handling increases repeatability, eliminates human error, and enables increased throughput, especially for sophisticated, multistep assays such as multiparameter quantitative immunocytochemistry. We report the design of the automated platform and compare several aspects of its performance to manually-loaded microfluidic chips.

  11. Justice Dispensation through the Alternative Dispute Resolution System in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Agrawal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Law Commission of India in its 222nd report emphasized the need for Alternative Disputes Resolution (ADR for the dispensation of justice, because the courts are inaccessible owing to various factors, e.g., poverty, social and political backwardness, illiteracy, ignorance, procedural formalities and inordinate delay in judgments. During the ancient period the disputes were resolved in an informal manner by neutral third persons or people’s court in villages and it continued till the middle of the 20th century. Unfortunately, after the Independence of India in 1947, this system was dissuaded and the government permitted to continue the adversarial system of justice. In 1980, a committee was set up. It recommended Lok Adalats (People’s Courts. In 1987, the Legal Services Authorities Act was enacted. This Act obligates the states to provide free legal aid to poor persons. Besides this, the Act provides for the establishment of permanent Lok Adalats.This is one of the important modes of ADR. Lok Adalats have been established in all the districts of the country. They bring conciliatory settlement in complicated cases arising out of matrimonial, landlord-tenants, property, insurance and commercial disputes. There are four methods of ADR, viz., negotiation, mediation, conciliation and arbitration. Mediation and arbitration are widely preferred. They are alternatives to litigation. The Arbitration Act for the first time was enacted in 1889 and it was subsequently amended many times. On the objections raised by the Supreme Court of India and also on the adoption of UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration, in 1996 Arbitration and Conciliation Act was enacted. This law is almost the same as is almost in all the countries.Further, the Government of India established International Centre for Alternative Disputes Resolution (CADR with the objectives of promotion, propagation, and popularizing the settlement of domestic and

  12. Analysis of alcohol-based hand sanitizer delivery systems: efficacy of foam, gel, and wipes against influenza A (H1N1) virus on hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Elaine L; Cohen, Bevin; Baxter, Kathleen A

    2012-11-01

    Minimal research has been published evaluating the effectiveness of hand hygiene delivery systems (ie, rubs, foams, or wipes) at removing viruses from hands. The purposes of this study were to determine the effect of several alcohol-based hand sanitizers in removing influenza A (H1N1) virus, and to compare the effectiveness of foam, gel, and hand wipe products. Hands of 30 volunteers were inoculated with H1N1 and randomized to treatment with foam, gel, or hand wipe applied to half of each volunteer's finger pads. The log(10) count of each subject's treated and untreated finger pads were averaged. Log(10) reductions were calculated from these differences and averaged within treatment group. Between-treatment analysis compared changes from the untreated finger pads using analysis of covariance with treatment as a factor and the average log(10) untreated finger pads as the covariate. Log(10) counts on control finger pads were 2.7-5.3 log(10) of the 50% infectious dose for tissue culture (TCID(50)/0.1 mL) (mean, 3.8 ± 0.5 log(10) TCID(50)/0.1 mL), and treated finger pad counts for all test products were 0.5-1.9 log(10) TCID(50)/0.1 mL (mean, 0.53 ± 0.17 log(10) TCID(50)/0.1 mL). Treatments with all products resulted in a significant reduction in viral titers (>3 logs) at their respective exposure times that were statistically comparable. All 3 delivery systems (foam, gel, and wipe) produced significantly reduced viral counts on hands. Copyright © 2012 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Conversion of cold beverage dispenser's refrigeration system to R744 refrigerant

    OpenAIRE

    Visek, Matej; Elbel, Stefan; Hrnjak, Pega

    2016-01-01

    Cold beverage dispensers belong to the group of light commercial refrigeration machines that includes beverage coolers, ice machines and storage units for food items. Beverage dispensers use a vapor compression system to charge a thermal storage, usually an ice bank, which is used to indirectly cool tap water and beverage concentrate. For these machines, R290 (propane) and R744 (carbon dioxide) are among the favorite candidates to completely replace high GWP HFC refrigerants in the future. Be...

  14. Development of a Portable Sensitive Equipment Decontamination System. Volume 2: Activated Carbon Fiber Wipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Spent Activated carbon fiber fabric: Rationale—the JSSED and JPID ORD require that the process or system must not permit any residual health hazards...approved 2001): Standard Test Method for Stiffness of Nonwoven Fabrics Using the Cantilever Test • ASTM D 6829-02: Standard Test Method for...experimental flow sheet and Figure 9 is a photograph of the experimental setup. Stainless Steel Screen 5um Teflon• Membrane Filter Packing A •* Outlet

  15. Wipe Sample Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    calculated intake of 3.66E-07 (mg/kg/day) of thallium  3.66E-07 (mg/kg/d) HQ = 7.00E-05 (mg/kg/d) HQ = 5.2 E-03 UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Drinking Water...concentration in fish tissue • Estimate fish consumption • Concentration x consumption = mg Food Consumption Example UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Wipe Sample

  16. Automated drug dispensing system reduces medication errors in an intensive care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapuis, Claire; Roustit, Matthieu; Bal, Gaëlle; Schwebel, Carole; Pansu, Pascal; David-Tchouda, Sandra; Foroni, Luc; Calop, Jean; Timsit, Jean-François; Allenet, Benoît; Bosson, Jean-Luc; Bedouch, Pierrick

    2010-12-01

    We aimed to assess the impact of an automated dispensing system on the incidence of medication errors related to picking, preparation, and administration of drugs in a medical intensive care unit. We also evaluated the clinical significance of such errors and user satisfaction. Preintervention and postintervention study involving a control and an intervention medical intensive care unit. Two medical intensive care units in the same department of a 2,000-bed university hospital. Adult medical intensive care patients. After a 2-month observation period, we implemented an automated dispensing system in one of the units (study unit) chosen randomly, with the other unit being the control. The overall error rate was expressed as a percentage of total opportunities for error. The severity of errors was classified according to National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention categories by an expert committee. User satisfaction was assessed through self-administered questionnaires completed by nurses. A total of 1,476 medications for 115 patients were observed. After automated dispensing system implementation, we observed a reduced percentage of total opportunities for error in the study compared to the control unit (13.5% and 18.6%, respectively; perror (20.4% and 13.5%; perror showed a significant impact of the automated dispensing system in reducing preparation errors (perrors caused no harm (National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention category C). The automated dispensing system did not reduce errors causing harm. Finally, the mean for working conditions improved from 1.0±0.8 to 2.5±0.8 on the four-point Likert scale. The implementation of an automated dispensing system reduced overall medication errors related to picking, preparation, and administration of drugs in the intensive care unit. Furthermore, most nurses favored the new drug dispensation organization.

  17. Exploring safety systems for dispensing in community pharmacies: focusing on how staff relate to organizational components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Jasmine; Avery, Anthony J; Ashcroft, Darren; Boyd, Matthew; Phipps, Denham L; Barber, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Identifying risk is an important facet of a safety practice in an organization. To identify risk, all components within a system of operation should be considered. In clinical safety practice, a team of people, technologies, procedures and protocols, management structure and environment have been identified as key components in a system of operation. To explore risks in relation to prescription dispensing in community pharmacies by taking into account relationships between key components that relate to the dispensing process. Fifteen community pharmacies in England with varied characteristics were identified, and data were collected using non-participant observations, shadowing and interviews. Approximately 360 hours of observations and 38 interviews were conducted by the team. Observation field notes from each pharmacy were written into case studies. Overall, 52,500 words from 15 case studies and interview transcripts were analyzed using thematic and line-by-line analyses. Validation techniques included multiple data collectors co-authoring each case study for consensus, review of case studies by members of the wider team including academic and practicing community pharmacists, and patient safety experts and two presentations (internally and externally) to review and discuss findings. Risks identified were related to relationships between people and other key components in dispensing. This included how different levels of staff communicated internally and externally, followed procedures, interacted with technical systems, worked with management, and engaged with the environment. In a dispensing journey, the following categories were identified which show how risks are inextricably linked through relationships between human components and other key components: 1) dispensing with divided attention; 2) dispensing under pressure; 3) dispensing in a restricted space or environment; and, 4) managing external influences. To identify and evaluate risks effectively, an

  18. How can pharmacist remuneration systems in Europe contribute to generic medicine dispensing?

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    Dylst P

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Generic medicines can generate larger savings to health care budgets when their use is supported by incentives on both the supply-side and the demand-side. Pharmacists’ remuneration is one factor influencing the dispensing of generic medicines.Objective: The aim of this article is to provide an overview of different pharmacist remuneration systems for generic medicines in Europe, with a view to exploring how pharmacist remuneration systems can contribute to generic medicine dispensing.Methods: Data were obtained from a literature review, a Master thesis in Pharmaceutical Care at the Catholic University of Leuven and a mailing sent to all members of the Pharmaceutical Group of the European Union with a request for information about the local remuneration systems of community pharmacists and the possible existence of reports on discounting practices.Results: Pharmacists remuneration in most European countries consists of the combination of a fixed fee per item and a certain percentage of the acquisition cost or the delivery price of the medicines. This percentage component can be fixed, regressive or capped for very high-cost medicines and acts as a disincentive for dispensing generic medicines. Discounting for generic medicines is common practice in several European countries but information on this practice tends to be confidential. Nevertheless, data for Belgium, France, the Netherlands and United Kingdom indicated that discounting percentages varied from 10% to 70% of the wholesale selling price.Conclusion: Pharmacists can play an important role in the development of a generic medicines market. Pharmacists should not be financially penalized for dispensing generic medicines. Therefore, their remuneration should move towards a fee-for-performance remuneration instead of a price-dependent reimbursement which is currently used in many European countries. Such a fee-for-performance remuneration system provides a stimulus for generic medicines

  19. Determining the flare dispensing program effectiveness against conical-scan and spin-scan reticle systems via Gaussian mixture models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahingil, Mehmet C.; Aslan, Murat Ş.

    2013-05-01

    The reticle systems which are considered as the classical approach for determining the angular position of radiating targets in infrared band are widely used in early generation surface-to-air and air-to-air infrared guided missile seekers. One of the cost-effective ways of protecting aircrafts against these missiles is to dispense flare decoys from the countermeasure dispensing system (CMDS) integrated into the aircraft platform. Although this counter-measuring technique seems very simple, if not optimized carefully, it may not be effective for protecting the aircraft. Flares should be dispensed in accordance with a specific dispensing program which determines the number of flares to be dispensed from each dispenser of the CMDS and timing sequence of dispensing. Optimizing the parameters of the dispensing program is not trivial. It requires a good understanding of the operating principle of the threat seeker, operational capabilities of own platform and engagement scenario between them. In the present paper, we propose a complete simulation-based procedure to form an effectiveness boundary of flare dispensing programs against the spin-scan and conical-scan reticle seekers. The region of effectiveness is determined via Gaussian mixture models. The raw data is collected via extensive number of simulations using a MATLAB-coded simulator which models reticle-based seeker, aircraft radiation, aircraft motion, aircraft CMDS system, flare motion and flare radiation.

  20. Design and fabrication of a passive droplet dispenser for portable high resolution imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Tahseen; Watkins, Rachel; Cen, Zijian; Rubinstein, Jaden; Kong, Gary; Lee, Woei Ming

    2017-01-01

    Moldless lens manufacturing techniques using standard droplet dispensing technology often require precise control over pressure to initiate fluid flow and control droplet formation. We have determined a series of interfacial fluid parameters optimised using standard 3D printed tools to extract, dispense and capture a single silicone droplet that is then cured to obtain high quality lenses. The dispensing process relies on the recapitulation of liquid dripping action (Rayleigh-Plateau instability) and the capturing method uses the interplay of gravitational force, capillary forces and liquid pinning to control the droplet shape. The key advantage of the passive lens fabrication approach is rapid scale-up using 3D printing by avoiding complex dispensing tools. We characterise the quality of the lenses fabricated using the passive approach by measuring wavefront aberration and high resolution imaging. The fabricated lenses are then integrated into a portable imaging system; a wearable thimble imaging device with a detachable camera housing, that is constructed for field imaging. This paper provides the full exposition of steps, from lens fabrication to imaging platform, necessary to construct a standalone high resolution imaging system. The simplicity of our methodology can be implemented using a regular desktop 3D printer and commercially available digital imaging systems.

  1. Exploring safety systems for dispensing in community pharmacies: Focusing on how staff relate to organizational components ?

    OpenAIRE

    Harvey, Jasmine; Avery, Anthony J.; Ashcroft, Darren; Boyd, Matthew; Phipps, Denham L.; Barber, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Background Identifying risk is an important facet of a safety practice in an organization. To identify risk, all components within a system of operation should be considered. In clinical safety practice, a team of people, technologies, procedures and protocols, management structure and environment have been identified as key components in a system of operation. Objectives To explore risks in relation to prescription dispensing in community pharmacies by taking into account relationships betwe...

  2. [Impact of an automated dispensing system for medical devices in cardiac surgery department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clou, E; Dompnier, M; Kably, B; Leplay, C; Poupon, E; Archer, V; Paul, M

    2018-01-01

    To secure medical devices' management, the implementation of automated dispensing system in surgical service has been realized. The objective of this study was to evaluate security, organizational and economic impact of installing automated dispensing system for medical devices (ASDM). The implementation took place in a cardiac surgery department. Security impact was assessed by comparing traceability rate of implantable medical devices one year before and one year after installation. Questionnaire on nurses' perception and satisfaction completed this survey. Resupplying costs, stocks' evolution and investments for the implementation of ASDM were the subject of cost-benefit study. After one year, traceability rate is excellent (100%). Nursing staffs were satisfied with 87.5% by this new system. The introduction of ASDM allowed a qualitative and quantitative decrease in stocks, with a reduction of 30% for purchased medical devices and 15% for implantable medical devices in deposit-consignment. Cost-benefit analysis shows a rapid return on investment. Real stock decrease (purchased medical devices) is equivalent to 46.6% of investment. Implementation of ASDM allows to secure storage and dispensing of medical devices. This system has also an important economic impact and appreciated by users. Copyright © 2017 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Systems and Methods for RFID-Enabled Dispenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Lin, Gregory Y. (Inventor); Kennedy, Timothy F. (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor); Byerly, Diane (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Methods, apparatuses and systems for radio frequency identification (RFID)-enabled information collection are disclosed, including an enclosure, a collector coupled to the enclosure, an interrogator, a processor, and one or more RFID field sensors, each having an individual identification, disposed within the enclosure. In operation, the interrogator transmits an incident signal to the collector, causing the collector to generate an electromagnetic field within the enclosure. The electromagnetic field is affected by one or more influences. RFID sensors respond to the electromagnetic field by transmitting reflected signals containing the individual identifications of the responding RFID sensors to the interrogator. The interrogator receives the reflected signals, measures one or more returned signal strength indications ("RSSI") of the reflected signals and sends the RSSI measurements and identification of the responding RFID sensors to the processor to determine one or more facts about the influences. Other embodiments are also described.

  4. Implementing a bar-code assisted medication administration system: effects on the dispensing process and user perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaranayake, N R; Cheung, S T D; Cheng, K; Lai, K; Chui, W C M; Cheung, B M Y

    2014-06-01

    We assessed the effects of a bar-code assisted medication administration system used without the support of computerised prescribing (stand-alone BCMA), on the dispensing process and its users. The stand-alone BCMA system was implemented in one ward of a teaching hospital. The number of dispensing steps, dispensing time and potential dispensing errors (PDEs) were directly observed one month before and eight months after the intervention. Attitudes of pharmacy and nursing staff were assessed using a questionnaire (Likert scale) and interviews. Among 1291 and 471 drug items observed before and after the introduction of the technology respectively, the number of dispensing steps increased from five to eight and time (standard deviation) to dispense one drug item by one staff personnel increased from 0.8 (0.09) to 1.5 (0.12) min. Among 2828 and 471 drug items observed before and after the intervention respectively, the number of PDEs increased significantly (Ptechnology decreased significantly (P=0.003 and P=0.004 respectively) among users who participated in the before (N=16) and after (N=16) questionnaires surveys. Among the interviewees, pharmacy staff felt that the system offered less benefit to the dispensing process (9/16). Nursing staff perceived the system as useful in improving the accuracy of drug administration (7/10). Implementing a stand-alone BCMA system may slow down and complicate the dispensing process. Nursing staff believe the stand-alone BCMA system could improve the drug administration process but pharmacy staff believes the technology would be more helpful if supported by computerised prescribing. However, periodical assessments are needed to identify weaknesses in the process after implementation, and all users should be educated on the benefits of using this technology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Understanding the Role of Accredited Drug Dispensing Outlets in Tanzania's Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embrey, Martha; Vialle-Valentin, Catherine; Dillip, Angel; Kihiyo, Bernard; Mbwasi, Romuald; Semali, Innocent A; Chalker, John C; Liana, Jafary; Lieber, Rachel; Johnson, Keith; Rutta, Edmund; Kimatta, Suleiman; Shekalaghe, Elizabeth; Valimba, Richard; Ross-Degnan, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    People in many low-income countries access medicines from retail drug shops. In Tanzania, a public-private partnership launched in 2003 used an accreditation approach to improve access to quality medicines and pharmaceutical services in underserved areas. The government scaled up the accredited drug dispensing outlet (ADDO) program nationally, with over 9,000 shops now accredited. This study assessed the relationships between community members and their sources of health care and medicines, particularly antimicrobials, with a specific focus on the role ADDOs play in the health care system. Using mixed methods, we collected data in four regions. We surveyed 1,185 households and audited 96 ADDOs and 84 public/nongovernmental health facilities using a list of 17 tracer drugs. To determine practices in health facilities, we interviewed 1,365 exiting patients. To assess dispensing practices, mystery shoppers visited 306 ADDOs presenting one of three scenarios (102 each) about a child's respiratory symptoms. Of 614 household members with a recent acute illness, 73% sought outside care-30% at a public facility and 31% at an ADDO. However, people bought medicines more often at ADDOs no matter who recommended the treatment; of the 581 medicines that people had received, 49% came from an ADDO. Although health facilities and ADDOs had similar availability of antimicrobials, ADDOs had more pediatric formulations available (pdrugs from ADDOs are more expensive, but the difference in the median cost to treat pneumonia was relatively minimal (US$0.26 in a public facility and US$0.30 in an ADDO). Over 20% of households said they had someone with a chronic condition, with 93% taking medication, but ADDOs are allowed to sell very few chronic care-related medicines. ADDO dispensers are trained to refer complicated cases to a health facility, and notably, 99% of mystery shoppers presenting a pneumonia scenario received an antimicrobial (54%), a referral (90%), or both (45%), which are

  6. Understanding the Role of Accredited Drug Dispensing Outlets in Tanzania's Health System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Embrey

    Full Text Available People in many low-income countries access medicines from retail drug shops. In Tanzania, a public-private partnership launched in 2003 used an accreditation approach to improve access to quality medicines and pharmaceutical services in underserved areas. The government scaled up the accredited drug dispensing outlet (ADDO program nationally, with over 9,000 shops now accredited. This study assessed the relationships between community members and their sources of health care and medicines, particularly antimicrobials, with a specific focus on the role ADDOs play in the health care system.Using mixed methods, we collected data in four regions. We surveyed 1,185 households and audited 96 ADDOs and 84 public/nongovernmental health facilities using a list of 17 tracer drugs. To determine practices in health facilities, we interviewed 1,365 exiting patients. To assess dispensing practices, mystery shoppers visited 306 ADDOs presenting one of three scenarios (102 each about a child's respiratory symptoms.Of 614 household members with a recent acute illness, 73% sought outside care-30% at a public facility and 31% at an ADDO. However, people bought medicines more often at ADDOs no matter who recommended the treatment; of the 581 medicines that people had received, 49% came from an ADDO. Although health facilities and ADDOs had similar availability of antimicrobials, ADDOs had more pediatric formulations available (p<0.001. The common perception was that drugs from ADDOs are more expensive, but the difference in the median cost to treat pneumonia was relatively minimal (US$0.26 in a public facility and US$0.30 in an ADDO. Over 20% of households said they had someone with a chronic condition, with 93% taking medication, but ADDOs are allowed to sell very few chronic care-related medicines. ADDO dispensers are trained to refer complicated cases to a health facility, and notably, 99% of mystery shoppers presenting a pneumonia scenario received an

  7. FEM assisted calibration of a MEMS-based dispensing system with integrated piezoresistive force sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lishchynska, Maryna; Leïchlé, Thierry; Nicu, Liviu

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this work is a liquid dispensing system relying on the use of piezoresistive silicon microcantilevers. The experimental calibration of newly developed devices, required for global characterization of their mechanical, electromechanical properties and other performance characteristics, is usually complicated due to the structures' small size as well as cost and time consumption. On the other hand, closed-form analytical solutions to the nonlinear behaviour of devices of non-canonical geometry incorporating residual stresses are not commonly available either. Therefore, virtual calibration by means of computational modelling and simulation is not only adequate but also highly desirable. The finite element method has repeatedly proven its worth as a useful and efficient technique for the investigation of various mechanical and multiphysical systems, and has been extensively used in the design and analysis of MEMS. In the present work, the method is employed for virtual calibration of mechanical and electromechanical properties of novel liquid dispensing cantilevers. Separately, mechanical and electromechanical simulation results are in good agreement with experiment. Combined, these simulation data provide the ultimate calibration tool, allowing control over the force applied by depositing devices onto the substrate, and thereby preventing stiction problems and damage of fragile depositing surfaces

  8. Foam Dispenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    William G. Simpson, a NASA/Marshall employee, invented and patented a foam mixing dispensing device. He is supplying his Simpson mixer to a number of foam applications where it is used to apply foam for insulation purposes.

  9. Prototype of a Questionnaire and Quiz System for Supporting Increase of Health Awareness During Wait Time in Dispensing Pharmacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Takeshi; Chen, Poa-Min; Ozaki, Shinya; Ideguchi, Naoko; Miyaki, Tomoko; Nanbu, Keiko; Ikeda, Keiko

    For quit-smoking clinic and its campaign, there was a need for pharmacists to investigate pediatric patient's parent consciousness to tobacco harm utilizing wait time in a pediatric dispensing pharmacy. In this research, we developed the questionnaire and quiz total system using the tablet for user interface, in which people can easily answer the questionnaire/quiz and quickly see the total results on the spot in order to enhance their consciousness to the tobacco harm. The system also provides their tobacco dependence level based on the questionnaire results and some advice for their health and dietary habits due to the tobacco dependence level. From a field trial with one hundred four examinees in the pediatric dispensing pharmacy, the user interface was useful compared to conventional questionnaire form. The system could enhance their consciousness to tobacco harm and make their beneficial use of waiting time in dispensing pharmacy. Some interesting suggestions for improvement and new services were also obtained.

  10. A single-step lithography system based on an enhanced robotic adhesive dispenser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Jiyao; Rong, Weibin; Sun, Ding; Wang, Lefeng; Sun, Lining

    2016-09-01

    In the paper, we present a single-step lithography system whereby the robotically controlled micro-extrusion of resist adhesive onto a substrate surface to directly create resist adhesive patterns of interest. This system is modified from a robotic adhesive dispenser by shrinking the aperture of the nozzle to a few micrometers aiming to realize patterns at microscale. From experimental investigation, it is found that working factors including writing speed, working time, and applied pressure can be adopted to conveniently regulate the feature size (the width of the line features and the diameter of the dot features). To test its functionality, the system was used to pattern line features on silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ) and generate an array of square-like silicon microstructure by combining with wet etching. It provides a simple and flexible alternative tool to facilitate the development of microfabrication.

  11. Economic benefits of using a dose dispensing system at hospital units of the Mexican Institute of Social Security.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Ofelia-Uc Coyoc

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate the potential economic benefits at The Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS per its abbreviation in spanish according to the drug expenditure of using drug dispensing system, based on literature information. Materials and methods. A systematic review was performed to identify savings from drugs and reduction of medication errors. The total and mean health expenditure by level of medical attention was calculated using the dispensed collective prescriptions at IMSS during 2009. Three savings scenarios were applied. Results. The total drug savings were in a range of 870.49 Mexican million pesos to 4050.05 Mexican million pesos. Reductions of medication errors can contribute with additional savings up to 3455.56 Mexican million pesos. Conclusion. The drug dispensing system unit generates savings opportunities at the second and third level of attention. The maximum economic benefit was observed in the last level.

  12. Micromachined chemical jet dispenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swierkowski, S.P.

    1999-03-02

    A dispenser is disclosed for chemical fluid samples that need to be precisely ejected in size, location, and time. The dispenser is a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) device fabricated in a bonded silicon wafer and a substrate, such as glass or silicon, using integrated circuit-like fabrication technology which is amenable to mass production. The dispensing is actuated by ultrasonic transducers that efficiently produce a pressure wave in capillaries that contain the chemicals. The 10-200 {micro}m diameter capillaries can be arranged to focus in one spot or may be arranged in a larger dense linear array (ca. 200 capillaries). The dispenser is analogous to some ink jet print heads for computer printers but the fluid is not heated, thus not damaging certain samples. Major applications are in biological sample handling and in analytical chemical procedures such as environmental sample analysis, medical lab analysis, or molecular biology chemistry experiments. 4 figs.

  13. [Monitoring medication errors in personalised dispensing using the Sentinel Surveillance System method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Cebrián, M; Font-Noguera, I; Doménech-Moral, L; Bosó-Ribelles, V; Romero-Boyero, P; Poveda-Andrés, J L

    2011-01-01

    To assess the efficacy of a new quality control strategy based on daily randomised sampling and monitoring a Sentinel Surveillance System (SSS) medication cart, in order to identify medication errors and their origin at different levels of the process. Prospective quality control study with one year follow-up. A SSS medication cart was randomly selected once a week and double-checked before dispensing medication. Medication errors were recorded before it was taken to the relevant hospital ward. Information concerning complaints after receiving medication and 24-hour monitoring were also noted. Type and origin error data were assessed by a Unit Dose Quality Control Group, which proposed relevant improvement measures. Thirty-four SSS carts were assessed, including 5130 medication lines and 9952 dispensed doses, corresponding to 753 patients. Ninety erroneous lines (1.8%) and 142 mistaken doses (1.4%) were identified at the Pharmacy Department. The most frequent error was dose duplication (38%) and its main cause inappropriate management and forgetfulness (69%). Fifty medication complaints (6.6% of patients) were mainly due to new treatment at admission (52%), and 41 (0.8% of all medication lines), did not completely match the prescription (0.6% lines) as recorded by the Pharmacy Department. Thirty-seven (4.9% of patients) medication complaints due to changes at admission and 32 matching errors (0.6% medication lines) were recorded. The main cause also was inappropriate management and forgetfulness (24%). The simultaneous recording of incidences due to complaints and new medication coincided in 33.3%. In addition, 433 (4.3%) of dispensed doses were returned to the Pharmacy Department. After the Unit Dose Quality Control Group conducted their feedback analysis, 64 improvement measures for Pharmacy Department nurses, 37 for pharmacists, and 24 for the hospital ward were introduced. The SSS programme has proven to be useful as a quality control strategy to identify Unit

  14. Performance Evaluation of Strain Gauge Printed Using Automatic Fluid Dispensing System on Conformal Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairilhijra Khirotdin, Rd.; Faridzuan Ngadiron, Mohamad; Adzeem Mahadzir, Muhammad; Hassan, Nurhafizzah

    2017-08-01

    Smart textiles require flexible electronics that can withstand daily stresses like bends and stretches. Printing using conductive inks provides the flexibility required but the current printing techniques suffered from ink incompatibility, limited of substrates to be printed with and incompatible with conformal substrates due to its rigidity and low flexibility. An alternate printing technique via automatic fluid dispensing system is proposed and its performances on printing strain gauge on conformal substrates were evaluated to determine its feasibility. Process parameters studied including printing speed, deposition height, curing time and curing temperature. It was found that the strain gauge is proven functional as expected since different strains were induced when bent on variation of bending angles and curvature radiuses from designated bending fixtures. The average change of resistances were doubled before the strain gauge starts to break. Printed strain gauges also exhibited some excellence elasticity as they were able to resist bending up to 70° angle and 3 mm of curvature radius.

  15. Disposable baby wipes: efficacy and skin mildness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odio, M; Streicher-Scott, J; Hansen, R C

    2001-04-01

    The results of a series of four clinical studies demonstrated that disposable baby wipes were milder to the skin than use of a cotton washcloth and water, recognized as a "gold standard" for skin mildness. Importantly, the baby wipes caused no significant change from the baseline value in any of the skin parameters examined. This observation verified that the test wipes are minimally disruptive to the epidermal barrier and thus suitable for use on intact or compromised, irritated skin.

  16. Impact assessment of an automated drug-dispensing system in a tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-Carvalho, Débora; Alvim-Borges, José Luiz; Toscano, Cristiana Maria

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the costs and patient safety of a pilot implementation of an automated dispensing cabinet in a critical care unit of a private tertiary hospital in São Paulo/Brazil. This study considered pre- (January-August 2013) and post- (October 2013-October 2014) intervention periods. We considered the time and cost of personnel, number of adverse events, audit adjustments to patient bills, and urgent requests and returns of medications to the central pharmacy. Costs were evaluated based on a 5-year analytical horizon and are reported in Brazilian Reals (R$) and US dollars (USD). The observed decrease in the mean number of events reported with regard to the automated drug-dispensing system between pre- and post-implementation periods was not significant. Importantly, the numbers are small, which limits the power of the mean comparative analysis between the two periods. A reduction in work time was observed among the nurses and administrative assistants, whereas pharmacist assistants showed an increased work load that resulted in an overall 6.5 hours of work saved/day and a reduction of R$ 33,598 (USD 14,444) during the first year. The initial investment (R$ 206,065; USD 88,592) would have been paid off in 5 years considering only personnel savings. Other findings included significant reductions of audit adjustments to patient hospital bills and urgent requests and returns of medications to the central pharmacy. Evidence of the positive impact of this technology on personnel time and costs and on other outcomes of interest is important for decision making by health managers.

  17. Impact assessment of an automated drug-dispensing system in a tertiary hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora de-Carvalho

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the costs and patient safety of a pilot implementation of an automated dispensing cabinet in a critical care unit of a private tertiary hospital in São Paulo/Brazil. METHODS: This study considered pre- (January-August 2013 and post- (October 2013-October 2014 intervention periods. We considered the time and cost of personnel, number of adverse events, audit adjustments to patient bills, and urgent requests and returns of medications to the central pharmacy. Costs were evaluated based on a 5-year analytical horizon and are reported in Brazilian Reals (R$ and US dollars (USD. RESULTS: The observed decrease in the mean number of events reported with regard to the automated drug-dispensing system between pre- and post-implementation periods was not significant. Importantly, the numbers are small, which limits the power of the mean comparative analysis between the two periods. A reduction in work time was observed among the nurses and administrative assistants, whereas pharmacist assistants showed an increased work load that resulted in an overall 6.5 hours of work saved/day and a reduction of R$ 33,598 (USD 14,444 during the first year. The initial investment (R$ 206,065; USD 88,592 would have been paid off in 5 years considering only personnel savings. Other findings included significant reductions of audit adjustments to patient hospital bills and urgent requests and returns of medications to the central pharmacy. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence of the positive impact of this technology on personnel time and costs and on other outcomes of interest is important for decision making by health managers.

  18. The Case for Cotton Wipes and Nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The significant growth in the volume and number of wipe-based products for a wide variety of applications is consuming ever increasing amounts of fiber as raw material in wipes and other nonwoven products. The United States Department of Agriculture and Cotton Incorporated recognize both the economi...

  19. Automated drug dispensing systems in the intensive care unit: a financial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapuis, Claire; Bedouch, Pierrick; Detavernier, Maxime; Durand, Michel; Francony, Gilles; Lavagne, Pierre; Foroni, Luc; Albaladejo, Pierre; Allenet, Benoit; Payen, Jean-Francois

    2015-09-09

    To evaluate the economic impact of automated-drug dispensing systems (ADS) in surgical intensive care units (ICUs). A financial analysis was conducted in three adult ICUs of one university hospital, where ADS were implemented, one in each unit, to replace the traditional floor stock system. Costs were estimated before and after implementation of the ADS on the basis of floor stock inventories, expired drugs, and time spent by nurses and pharmacy technicians on medication-related work activities. A financial analysis was conducted that included operating cash flows, investment cash flows, global cash flow and net present value. After ADS implementation, nurses spent less time on medication-related activities with an average of 14.7 hours saved per day/33 beds. Pharmacy technicians spent more time on floor-stock activities with an average of 3.5 additional hours per day across the three ICUs. The cost of drug storage was reduced by €44,298 and the cost of expired drugs was reduced by €14,772 per year across the three ICUs. Five years after the initial investment, the global cash flow was €148,229 and the net present value of the project was positive by €510,404. The financial modeling of the ADS implementation in three ICUs showed a high return on investment for the hospital. Medication-related costs and nursing time dedicated to medications are reduced with ADS.

  20. Early experiences with the multidose drug dispensing system – A matter of trust?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wekre, Liv Johanne; Melby, Line; Grimsmo, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study early experiences with multidose drug dispensing (MDD) among different groups of health personnel. Design Qualitative study based on focus-group interviews. Setting Primary health care, Trondheim, Norway. Main outcome The importance of trust in the technology and in collaborating partners is actualized in the early implementation of MDD. Results GPs, home-care nurses, pharmacists, and medical secretaries trusted the new MDD technology. The quality of the GPs’ medication records improved. However, health personnel, including the GPs themselves, would not always trust the medication records of the GPs. Checking the multidose bags arriving from the pharmacy was considered unnecessary in the written routines dealing with MDD. However, home-care nurses experienced errors and continued to manually check the bags. Nurses in the home-care service felt a loss of knowledge with regard to the patients’ medications and in turn experienced reduced ability to give medical information to patients and to observe the effects of the drugs. The home-care services’ routines for drug handling were not always trusted by the other groups of health personnel involved. Conclusion Health personnel faced some challenges during the implementation of the MDD system, but most of them remained confident in the new system. Building trust has to be a process that runs in parallel with the introduction of new technology and the establishment of new routines for improving the quality in handling of medicines and to facilitate better cooperation and communication. PMID:21323496

  1. Allergenic Ingredients in Personal Hygiene Wet Wipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbeck, Kelly A; Warshaw, Erin M

    Wet wipes are a significant allergen source for anogenital allergic contact dermatitis. The aim of the study was to calculate the frequency of potentially allergenic ingredients in personal hygiene wet wipes. Ingredient lists from brand name and generic personal hygiene wet wipes from 4 large retailers were compiled. In the 54 personal hygiene wet wipes evaluated, a total of 132 ingredients were identified (average of 11.9 ingredients per wipe). The most common ingredients were Aloe barbadensis (77.8%), citric acid (77.8%), fragrance (72.2%), sorbic acid derivatives (63.0%), tocopherol derivatives (63.0%), glycerin (59.3%), phenoxyethanol (55.6%), disodium cocoamphodiacetate (53.7%), disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (42.6%), propylene glycol (42.6%), iodopropynyl butylcarbamate (40.7%), chamomile extracts (38.9%), sodium benzoate (35.2%), bronopol (22.2%), sodium citrate (22.2%), lanolin derivatives (20.4%), parabens (20.4%), polyethylene glycol derivatives (18.5%), disodium phosphate (16.7%), dimethylol dimethyl hydantoin (DMDM) (14.8%), and cocamidopropyl propylene glycol (PG)-dimonium chloride phosphate (11.1%). Of note, methylisothiazolinone (5.6%) was uncommon; methylchloroisothiazolinone was not identified in the personal hygiene wet wipes examined. There are many potential allergens in personal hygiene wet wipes, especially fragrance and preservatives.

  2. Wipe sampling - review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Daiane Cristini Barbosa de; Vicente, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Methods for characterization of solid, non-compactable radioactive wastes contaminated in the surface are developed aiming at estimating the waste radioisotopic inventory for regulatory compliance and operational purposes. The wastes of interest here are mainly composed of plastic, metallic, or other materials parts originated in the decommissioning and maintenance operations of nuclear facilities. One way of measuring surface contamination is the indirect method of wiping the contaminated surface and counting the wipe, a common method of detecting non-fixed contamination in the radiation protection routine. The wipe sampling is an important tool in controlling the quality of the workplace in nuclear and radioactive facilities. Although radioprotection regulations establish quantitative limits, the practice in the radiation protection routine is to use wipe sampling as a qualitative measurement. To product useful quantitative results for inventorying radioactive wastes, a quantitative approach must be adopted. A previous paper presented by the authors in the last INAC Conference discussed alternative wipe materials and protocols. The method of wipe sampling underwent small changes since it started to be used but still is the object of study, as it is attested by many recent papers and patents on the subject. This article consists of a literature review. Results of a survey in the literature about wipe sampling techniques that can be applied to waste characterization are presented. (author)

  3. Ethanol distribution, dispensing, and use: analysis of a portion of the biomass-to-biofuels supply chain using system dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimmerstedt, Laura J; Bush, Brian; Peterson, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 targets use of 36 billion gallons of biofuels per year by 2022. Achieving this may require substantial changes to current transportation fuel systems for distribution, dispensing, and use in vehicles. The U.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory designed a system dynamics approach to help focus government action by determining what supply chain changes would have the greatest potential to accelerate biofuels deployment. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed the Biomass Scenario Model, a system dynamics model which represents the primary system effects and dependencies in the biomass-to-biofuels supply chain. The model provides a framework for developing scenarios and conducting biofuels policy analysis. This paper focuses on the downstream portion of the supply chain-represented in the distribution logistics, dispensing station, and fuel utilization, and vehicle modules of the Biomass Scenario Model. This model initially focused on ethanol, but has since been expanded to include other biofuels. Some portions of this system are represented dynamically with major interactions and feedbacks, especially those related to a dispensing station owner's decision whether to offer ethanol fuel and a consumer's choice whether to purchase that fuel. Other portions of the system are modeled with little or no dynamics; the vehicle choices of consumers are represented as discrete scenarios. This paper explores conditions needed to sustain an ethanol fuel market and identifies implications of these findings for program and policy goals. A large, economically sustainable ethanol fuel market (or other biofuel market) requires low end-user fuel price relative to gasoline and sufficient producer payment, which are difficult to achieve simultaneously. Other requirements (different for ethanol vs. other biofuel markets) include the need for infrastructure for distribution and dispensing and

  4. Ethanol Distribution, Dispensing, and Use: Analysis of a Portion of the Biomass-to-Biofuels Supply Chain Using System Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimmerstedt, Laura J.; Bush, Brian; Peterson, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 targets use of 36 billion gallons of biofuels per year by 2022. Achieving this may require substantial changes to current transportation fuel systems for distribution, dispensing, and use in vehicles. The U.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory designed a system dynamics approach to help focus government action by determining what supply chain changes would have the greatest potential to accelerate biofuels deployment. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed the Biomass Scenario Model, a system dynamics model which represents the primary system effects and dependencies in the biomass-to-biofuels supply chain. The model provides a framework for developing scenarios and conducting biofuels policy analysis. This paper focuses on the downstream portion of the supply chain–represented in the distribution logistics, dispensing station, and fuel utilization, and vehicle modules of the Biomass Scenario Model. This model initially focused on ethanol, but has since been expanded to include other biofuels. Some portions of this system are represented dynamically with major interactions and feedbacks, especially those related to a dispensing station owner’s decision whether to offer ethanol fuel and a consumer’s choice whether to purchase that fuel. Other portions of the system are modeled with little or no dynamics; the vehicle choices of consumers are represented as discrete scenarios. This paper explores conditions needed to sustain an ethanol fuel market and identifies implications of these findings for program and policy goals. A large, economically sustainable ethanol fuel market (or other biofuel market) requires low end-user fuel price relative to gasoline and sufficient producer payment, which are difficult to achieve simultaneously. Other requirements (different for ethanol vs. other biofuel markets) include the need for infrastructure for distribution and dispensing and

  5. Cocksfoot mottle virus coat protein is dispensable for the systemic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olspert, Allan; Kamsol, Kristjan; Sarmiento, Cecilia; Gerassimenko, Jelena; Truve, Erkki

    2014-02-04

    The Sobemovirus genome consists of polycistronic single-stranded positive-sense RNA. The first ORF encodes P1, a suppressor of RNA silencing required for virus movement. The coat protein (CP) is expressed from the 3' proximal ORF3 via subgenomic RNA. In addition to its structural role, the CP of some sobemoviruses has been reported to be required for systemic movement and to interact with P1. The aim of this study was to analyse the role of Cocksfoot mottle virus (CfMV) CP in the suppression of RNA silencing and virus movement. Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression method was used for testing CfMV CP capacity to suppress RNA silencing. CP substitution and deletion mutants were generated to examine the role of this protein in CfMV infection, using three host plants (oat, barley and wheat). The viral movement was characterised with CfMV expressing EGFP fused to the C-terminus of CP. In the current study we show that CfMV CP is an additional RNA silencing suppressor. Interestingly, we observed that all CP mutant viruses were able to infect the three tested host plants systemically, although usually with reduced accumulation. CfMV expressing EGFP was detected in epidermal and mesophyll cells of inoculated leaves. Although EGFP fluorescence was not detected in upper leaves, some plants displayed CfMV symptoms. Analysis of the upper leaves revealed that the viruses had lost the EGFP sequence and sometimes also most of the CP gene. The present study demonstrates that CfMV CP suppresses RNA silencing but, surprisingly, is dispensable for systemic movement. Thus, CfMV does not move as virion in the tested host plants. The composition of the movement RNP complex remains to be elucidated.

  6. Medication incidents related to automated dose dispensing in community pharmacies and hospitals - A reporting system study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.C. Cheung (Ka Chun); P.M.L.A. van den Bemt (Patricia); M.L. Bouvy (Marcel); M.E. Wensing (Michel); P.A. de Smet (Peter)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Automated dose dispensing (ADD) is being introduced in several countries and the use of this technology is expected to increase as a growing number of elderly people need to manage their medication at home. ADD aims to improve medication safety and treatment adherence, but

  7. Medication incidents related to automated dose dispensing in community pharmacies and hospitals - A reporting system study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, Ka Chun; Van Den Bemt, Patricia M L A; Bouvy, Marcel L.; Wensing, Michel; De Smet, Peter A G M

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Automated dose dispensing (ADD) is being introduced in several countries and the use of this technology is expected to increase as a growing number of elderly people need to manage their medication at home. ADD aims to improve medication safety and treatment adherence, but it may

  8. Medication incidents related to automated dose dispensing in community pharmacies and hospitals - a reporting system study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, K.C.; Bemt, P.M. van den; Bouvy, M.L.; Wensing, M.J.; Smet, P.A. de

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Automated dose dispensing (ADD) is being introduced in several countries and the use of this technology is expected to increase as a growing number of elderly people need to manage their medication at home. ADD aims to improve medication safety and treatment adherence, but it may

  9. Early experiences with the multidose drug dispensing system – A matter of trust?

    OpenAIRE

    Wekre, Liv Johanne; Melby, Line; Grimsmo, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Beskriver en kvalitativ studie hvor hensikten var å undersøke helsepersonells erfaringer med multidose. Objective: to study early experiences with multidose drug dispensing (MDD) among different groups of health personnel. Design: qualitative study based on focus-group interviews. Setting: primary health care, Trondheim, Norway. Main outcome: the importance of trust in the technology and in collaborating partners is actualized in the early implementation of MDD. Results: GPs, home-care nur...

  10. Evaluating the Impact of Drug Dispensing Systems on the Safety and Efficiency in a Singapore Outpatient Pharmacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ong Yong Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Automation of pharmacy workflow can reduce medication errors as well as improve efficiency of the medication picking, packing and labeling process. Since September 2012, two drug dispensing systems (DDS began operations in the Singapore General Hospital Specialist Outpatient Clinic Pharmacy. This study sought to evaluate the impact of the DDS on safety and efficiency in the pharmacy. Methods: The primary outcome was the rate of prevented dispensing incidents contributed by DDS or manual picking of medications defined as the number of prevented dispensing incidents per 1000 medications picked. The secondary outcome was the productivity of each full time equivalent (FTE when assigned to either the DDS or manual picking stations. Data pertaining to the primary and secondary outcomes between January and December 2013 were collected and analyzed. The rate of prevented dispensing incidents was expressed in median (interquartile range and compared using Mann-Whitney U test. Other continuous variables were expressed in mean ± standard deviation and compared using independent samples t-test. Results: An average of 59494 medications was picked every month in the pharmacy. DDS accounted for 21.1 percent while manual picking accounted for 78.9 percent of all the medications picked. The median rate of prevented dispensing incidents per month committed by manual picking (2.73 was significantly higher than the DDS (0.00. DDS had greater productivity with each FTE in the DDS having an average of 6175 picks per month which was significantly higher than each FTE in the manual picking stations which had an average of 4867 picks per month. Conclusion: Installation of DDS in an outpatient pharmacy improved safety of the pharmacy workflow by automating the medication picking, packing and labeling process and minimizing human errors. Efficiency of the medication picking, packing and labeling process was also improved by the DDS as there were continuous

  11. Mathematical modeling of wiped-film evaporators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommerfeld, J.T.

    1976-05-01

    A mathematical model and associated computer program were developed to simulate the steady-state operation of wiped-film evaporators for the concentration of typical waste solutions produced at the Savannah River Plant. In this model, which treats either a horizontal or a vertical wiped-film evaporator as a plug-flow device with no backmixing, three fundamental phenomena are described: sensible heating of the waste solution, vaporization of water, and crystallization of solids from solution. Physical property data were coded into the computer program, which performs the calculations of this model. Physical properties of typical waste solutions and of the heating steam, generally as analytical functions of temperature, were obtained from published data or derived by regression analysis of tabulated or graphical data. Preliminary results from tests of the Savannah River Laboratory semiworks wiped-film evaporators were used to select a correlation for the inside film heat transfer coefficient. This model should be a useful aid in the specification, operation, and control of the full-scale wiped-film evaporators proposed for application under plant conditions. In particular, it should be of value in the development and analysis of feed-forward control schemes for the plant units. Also, this model can be readily adapted, with only minor changes, to simulate the operation of wiped-film evaporators for other conceivable applications, such as the concentration of acid wastes

  12. Advanced Medication Dispenser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Alexan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Medication dispensing is an important activity that can have major implications if done improperly. Dispensing must be done in the correct time interval, at the correct user, with the correct drug and dose. We propose a smart medication dispenser that can satisfy these needs and provide a mechanism for supervision. In order to ensure that the dispensing process is error free, the concept of a new smart medication container is used. A smart medication container is “smart” as it holds the medication dispensing parameters for the drugs it contains: dispensing time and date and name. Based on this information, the actual dispensing is done.

  13. BERYLLIUM MEASUREMENT IN COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE WET WIPES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youmans-Mcdonald, L.

    2011-02-18

    Analysis for beryllium by fluorescence is now an established method which is used in many government-run laboratories and commercial facilities. This study investigates the use of this technique using commercially available wet wipes. The fluorescence method is widely documented and has been approved as a standard test method by ASTM International and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The procedure involves dissolution of samples in aqueous ammonium bifluoride solution and then adding a small aliquot to a basic hydroxybenzoquinoline sulfonate fluorescent dye (Berylliant{trademark} Inc. Detection Solution Part No. CH-2) , and measuring the fluorescence. This method is specific to beryllium. This work explores the use of three different commercial wipes spiked with beryllium, as beryllium acetate or as beryllium oxide and subsequent analysis by optical fluorescence. The effect of possible interfering metals such as Fe, Ti and Pu in the wipe medium is also examined.

  14. Colling Wipe Samples for VX Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koester, C; Hoppes, W G

    2010-02-11

    This standard operating procedure (SOP) provides uniform procedures for the collection of wipe samples of VX residues from surfaces. Personnel may use this procedure to collect and handle wipe samples in the field. Various surfaces, including building materials (wood, metal, tile, vinyl, etc.) and equipment, may be sampled based on this procedure. The purpose of such sampling is to determine whether or not the relevant surfaces are contaminated, to determine the extent of their contamination, to evaluate the effectiveness of decontamination procedures, and to determine the amount of contaminant that might present as a contact hazard.

  15. Simple devices for dispensing [18F]FDG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O Park, Jong; Lee, Hyuk; Shin, Young Soon; Shin, Yong Hwan; Jin, Kwang Ho; Choe, Yearn Seong; Kim, Byung-Tae

    2005-01-01

    High dose [ 18 F]FDG is prepared routinely using an automated synthesizer. Accordingly, an automated dispenser is needed to dispense [ 18 F]FDG at the desired dose while reducing the operator's radiation exposure, and no dispenser capable of vial-to-vial and vial-to-syringe dispensing in one system is commercially available. Here, we describe simple devices for the vial-to-vial and vial-to-syringe dispensing of [ 18 F]FDG

  16. Dispenser Concept for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV, Drone, UAS)

    OpenAIRE

    Suri, Manan

    2017-01-01

    System, design and methodology to load and dispense different articles from an autonomous aircraft are disclosed. In one embodiment, the design of a unique detachable dispenser for delivery of articles is described along with an intelligent methodology of loading and delivering the articles to and from the dispenser. Design of the dispenser, interaction of the dispenser with the flight control unit and ground control or base-station, and interaction of the base station with the sender or reci...

  17. Hand wash and manual skin wipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, D.H.; Boeniger, M.F.; Hemmen, J. van

    2000-01-01

    Hand wash and skin wipes are major techniques that have been used for dermal exposure sampling. Both techniques remove chemicals either deposited on or transferred to the skin contaminant layer by a combination of chemical and mechanical actions. The paper overviews identified methods and

  18. Hydrogen Station Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Technical Status and Costs: Systems Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parks, G.; Boyd, R.; Cornish, J.; Remick, R.

    2014-05-01

    At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory commissioned an independent review of hydrogen compression, storage, and dispensing (CSD) for pipeline delivery of hydrogen and forecourt hydrogen production. The panel was asked to address the (1) cost calculation methodology, (2) current cost/technical status, (3) feasibility of achieving the FCTO's 2020 CSD levelized cost targets, and to (4) suggest research areas that will help the FCTO reach its targets. As the panel neared the completion of these tasks, it was also asked to evaluate CSD costs for the delivery of hydrogen by high-pressure tube trailer. This report details these findings.

  19. Perceptions of Dispensers Regarding Dispensing Practices in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A qualitative study with snowball sampling technique was used to identify fifteen dispensers working in community pharmacies in Islamabad, Peshawar and Lahore. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the dispensers until the point of saturation was obtained. The interviews which focused on three ...

  20. Automatic fluid dispenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellaris, P. C. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Fluid automatically flows to individual dispensing units at predetermined times from a fluid supply and is available only for a predetermined interval of time after which an automatic control causes the fluid to drain from the individual dispensing units. Fluid deprivation continues until the beginning of a new cycle when the fluid is once again automatically made available at the individual dispensing units.

  1. Potable water dispenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, H. R. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A dispenser particularly suited for use in dispensing potable water into food and beverage reconstitution bags is described. The dispenser is characterized by an expansible chamber, selectively adjustable stop means for varying the maximum dimensions, a rotary valve, and a linear valve coupled in a cooperating relation for delivering potable water to and from the chamber.

  2. Validation of a new protocol for ¹⁸F-FDG infusion using an automatic combined dispenser and injector system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecchi, Michela; Lucignani, Giovanni; Maioli, Claudio; Ignelzi, Giuseppe; Del Sole, Angelo

    2012-11-01

    In nuclear medicine, radiopharmaceuticals are usually administered in unit doses partitioned from multi-dose vials. The partitioning typically takes place in a radiopharmacy, depending on local practice. Automatic, as opposed to manual, partitioning and administration should reduce radiation exposure of the personnel involved, improve the accuracy of the administration and mitigate contamination. This study set out to verify and validate the (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) administration procedure performed using Intego (MEDRAD, Inc., Warrendale, PA, USA), a combined dispenser and injector system. We considered maintenance of sterility and the system's potential to improve, with respect to the manual procedure, the accuracy of net administered (18)F-FDG radioactivity in patients and the radiation protection of operators. A media-fill procedure was used to assess whether sterility is maintained during use of the Intego system. Simulating a typical working day's setup and use of the system, we investigated the accuracy of the net administered (18)F-FDG activity obtained with Intego versus the manual dose delivery system. We also measured personnel radiation exposure during use of Intego and during manual administration and recorded and compared environmental doses in the two conditions. The radiopharmaceutical remained sterile in all the tests performed. The accuracy of the net (18)F-FDG activity delivered to the patients was found to be within 3 % points, as required by European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) guidelines on (18)F-FDG imaging procedures. With Intego, the residual radioactivity in the tubing was 0.20 MBq, corresponding to approximately 0.07 % of the mean activity delivered. With manual injection, the residual radioactivity in the syringe averaged 7.37 MBq, corresponding to a mean error of 2.9 % in the delivered dose. During the injection step of the positron emission tomography (PET) procedure, whole-body and extremity radiation exposures were

  3. Validation of a new protocol for 18F-FDG infusion using an automatic combined dispenser and injector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecchi, Michela; Lucignani, Giovanni; Maioli, Claudio; Ignelzi, Giuseppe; Del Sole, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    In nuclear medicine, radiopharmaceuticals are usually administered in unit doses partitioned from multi-dose vials. The partitioning typically takes place in a radiopharmacy, depending on local practice. Automatic, as opposed to manual, partitioning and administration should reduce radiation exposure of the personnel involved, improve the accuracy of the administration and mitigate contamination. This study set out to verify and validate the 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) administration procedure performed using Intego trademark (MEDRAD, Inc., Warrendale, PA, USA), a combined dispenser and injector system. We considered maintenance of sterility and the system's potential to improve, with respect to the manual procedure, the accuracy of net administered 18 F-FDG radioactivity in patients and the radiation protection of operators. A media-fill procedure was used to assess whether sterility is maintained during use of the Intego trademark system. Simulating a typical working day's setup and use of the system, we investigated the accuracy of the net administered 18 F-FDG activity obtained with Intego trademark versus the manual dose delivery system. We also measured personnel radiation exposure during use of Intego trademark and during manual administration and recorded and compared environmental doses in the two conditions. The radiopharmaceutical remained sterile in all the tests performed. The accuracy of the net 18 F-FDG activity delivered to the patients was found to be within 3 % points, as required by European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) guidelines on 18 F-FDG imaging procedures. With Intego trademark, the residual radioactivity in the tubing was 0.20 MBq, corresponding to approximately 0.07 % of the mean activity delivered. With manual injection, the residual radioactivity in the syringe averaged 7.37 MBq, corresponding to a mean error of 2.9 % in the delivered dose. During the injection step of the positron emission tomography (PET) procedure, whole

  4. Simulation and Experiment Research of Non-contact Micro-liquid Reagent Dispensing

    OpenAIRE

    Yao Yufeng; Lu Shizhou; Liu Yaxin

    2013-01-01

    With the development of biological analytical techniques and high throughput screening techniques, a large number of automated biological agents dispensing systems are widely used in the field of life science research. Non-contact dispensing method characterized by its small dispensing volume, high dispensing precision and quick service speed which satisfies the requirements of biological agent’s distribution, becomes the mainstream dispensing method used in reagent dispensing systems. Howeve...

  5. Identifying trace evidence in data wiping application software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory H. Carlton

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available One area of particular concern for computer forensics examiners involves situations in which someone utilized software applications to destroy evidence. There are products available in the marketplace that are relatively inexpensive and advertised as being able to destroy targeted portions of data stored within a computer system. This study was undertaken to identify these tools and analyze them to determine the extent to which each of the evaluated data wiping applications perform their tasks and to identify trace evidence, if any, left behind on disk media after executing these applications. We evaluated five Windows 7 compatible software products whose advertised features include the ability for users to wipe targeted files, folders, or evidence of selected activities. We conducted a series of experiments that involved executing each application on systems with identical data, and we then analyzed the results and compared the before and after images for each application. We identified information for each application that is beneficial to forensics examiners when faced with similar situations. This paper describes our application selection process, our application evaluation methodology, and our findings. Following this, we describe limitations of this study and suggest areas of additional research that will benefit the study of digital forensics.

  6. Dissolvable microneedle fabrication using piezoelectric dispensing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Evin A; O'Mahony, Conor; Cronin, Michael; O'Mahony, Thomas; Moore, Anne C; Crean, Abina M

    2016-03-16

    Dissolvable microneedle (DMN) patches are novel dosage forms for the percutaneous delivery of vaccines. DMN are routinely fabricated by dispensing liquid formulations into microneedle-shaped moulds. The liquid formulation within the mould is then dried to create dissolvable vaccine-loaded microneedles. The precision of the dispensing process is critical to the control of formulation volume loaded into each dissolvable microneedle structure. The dispensing process employed must maintain vaccine integrity. Wetting of mould surfaces by the dispensed formulation is also an important consideration for the fabrication of sharp-tipped DMN. Sharp-tipped DMN are essential for ease of percutaneous administration. In this paper, we demonstrate the ability of a piezoelectric dispensing system to dispense picolitre formulation volumes into PDMS moulds enabling the fabrication of bilayer DMN. The influence of formulation components (trehalose and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) content) and piezoelectric actuation parameters (voltage, frequency and back pressure) on drop formation is described. The biological integrity of a seasonal influenza vaccine following dispensing was investigated and maintained voltage settings of 30 V but undermined at higher settings, 50 and 80 V. The results demonstrate the capability of piezoelectric dispensing technology to precisely fabricate bilayer DMN. They also highlight the importance of identifying formulation and actuation parameters to ensure controlled droplet formulation and vaccine stabilisation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Plug-in nanoliter pneumatic liquid dispenser with nozzle design flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, In Ho; Kim, Hojin; Lee, Sanghyun; Baek, Seungbum; Kim, Joonwon

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a novel plug-in nanoliter liquid dispensing system with a plug-and-play interface for simple and reversible, yet robust integration of the dispenser. A plug-in type dispenser was developed to facilitate assembly and disassembly with an actuating part through efficient modularization. The entire process for assembly and operation of the plug-in dispenser is performed via the plug-and-play interface in less than a minute without loss of dispensing quality. The minimum volume of droplets pneumatically dispensed using the plug-in dispenser was 124 nl with a coefficient of variation of 1.6%. The dispensed volume increased linearly with the nozzle size. Utilizing this linear relationship, two types of multinozzle dispensers consisting of six parallel channels (emerging from an inlet) and six nozzles were developed to demonstrate a novel strategy for volume gradient dispensing at a single operating condition. The droplet volume dispensed from each nozzle also increased linearly with nozzle size, demonstrating that nozzle size is a dominant factor on dispensed volume, even for multinozzle dispensing. Therefore, the proposed plug-in dispenser enables flexible design of nozzles and reversible integration to dispense droplets with different volumes, depending on the application. Furthermore, to demonstrate the practicality of the proposed dispensing system, we developed a pencil-type dispensing system as an alternative to a conventional pipette for rapid and reliable dispensing of minute volume droplets.

  8. ORF43 of maize rayado fino virus is dispensable for systemic infection of maize and transmission by leafhoppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Michael C; Weiland, John J; Todd, Jane; Stewart, Lucy R; Lu, Shunwen

    2016-04-01

    Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV) possesses an open reading frame (ORF43) predicted to encode a 43 kDa protein (p43) that has been postulated to be a viral movement protein. Using a clone of MRFV (pMRFV-US) from which infectious RNA can be produced, point mutations were introduced to either prevent initiation from three potential AUG initiation codons near the 5'-end of ORF43 or prematurely terminate translation of ORF43. Inoculation of maize seed via vascular puncture inoculation (VPI) resulted in plants exhibiting symptoms typical of MRFV infection for all mutants tested. Furthermore, corn leafhoppers (Dalbulus maidis) transmitted the virus mutants to healthy plants at a frequency similar to that for wild-type MRFV-US. Viral RNA recovered from plants infected with mutants both prior to and after leafhopper transmission retained mutations blocking ORF43 expression. The results indicate that ORF43 of MRFV is dispensable for both systemic infection of maize and transmission by leafhoppers.

  9. Resin-Powder Dispenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standfield, Clarence E.

    1994-01-01

    Resin-powder dispenser used at NASA's Langley Research Center for processing of composite-material prepregs. Dispenser evenly distributes powder (resin polymer and other matrix materials in powder form) onto wet uncured prepregs. Provides versatility in distribution of solid resin in prepreg operation. Used wherever there is requirement for even, continuous distribution of small amount of powder.

  10. Implantable Drug Dispenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, E. R. J.

    1983-01-01

    Drugs such as insulin are injected as needed directly into bloodstream by compact implantable dispensing unit. Two vapor cavities produce opposing forces on drug-chamber diaphragm. Heaters in cavities allow control of direction and rate of motion of bellows. Dispensing capsule fitted with coil so batteries can be recharged by induction.

  11. Small-Portion Water Dispenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joerns, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    Pressure regulated and flow timed to control amount dispensed. Dispenser provides measured amount of water for reconstituting dehydrated foods and beverages. Dispenser holds food or beverage package while being filled with either cold or room-temperature water. Other uses might include dispensing of fluids or medicine. Pressure regulator in dispenser reduces varying pressure of water supply to constant pressure. Electronic timer stops flow after predetermined length of time. Timed flow at regulated pressure ensures controlled volume of water dispensed.

  12. Medication incidents related to automated dose dispensing in community pharmacies and hospitals--a reporting system study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ka-Chun Cheung

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Automated dose dispensing (ADD is being introduced in several countries and the use of this technology is expected to increase as a growing number of elderly people need to manage their medication at home. ADD aims to improve medication safety and treatment adherence, but it may introduce new safety issues. This descriptive study provides insight into the nature and consequences of medication incidents related to ADD, as reported by healthcare professionals in community pharmacies and hospitals. METHODS: The medication incidents that were submitted to the Dutch Central Medication incidents Registration (CMR reporting system were selected and characterized independently by two researchers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Person discovering the incident, phase of the medication process in which the incident occurred, immediate cause of the incident, nature of incident from the healthcare provider's perspective, nature of incident from the patient's perspective, and consequent harm to the patient caused by the incident. RESULTS: From January 2012 to February 2013 the CMR received 15,113 incidents: 3,685 (24.4% incidents from community pharmacies and 11,428 (75.6% incidents from hospitals. Eventually 1 of 50 reported incidents (268/15,113 = 1.8% were related to ADD; in community pharmacies more incidents (227/3,685 = 6.2% were related to ADD than in hospitals (41/11,428 = 0.4%. The immediate cause of an incident was often a change in the patient's medicine regimen or relocation. Most reported incidents occurred in two phases: entering the prescription into the pharmacy information system and filling the ADD bag. CONCLUSION: A proportion of incidents was related to ADD and is reported regularly, especially by community pharmacies. In two phases, entering the prescription into the pharmacy information system and filling the ADD bag, most incidents occurred. A change in the patient's medicine regimen or relocation was the immediate causes of an

  13. Robust boson dispenser: Quantum state preparation in interacting many-particle systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshodko, Irina; Benseny, Albert; Busch, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    We present a technique to control the spatial state of a small cloud of interacting particles at low temperatures with almost perfect fidelity using spatial adiabatic passage. To achieve this, the resonant trap energies of the system are engineered in such a way that a single, well-defined eigenstate connects the initial and desired states and is isolated from the rest of the spectrum. We apply this procedure to the task of separating a small pre-defined number of particles (up to 10) from an initial cloud and show that it can be implemented in radio-frequency traps using experimentally realistic parameters.

  14. Evaluation of a metering, mixing, and dispensing system for mixing polysulfide adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Kurt B.

    1989-01-01

    Tests were performed to evaluate whether a metered mixing system can mix PR-1221 polysulfide adhesive as well as or better than batch-mixed adhesive; also, to evaluate the quality of meter-mixed PR-1860 and PS-875 polysulfide adhesives. These adhesives are candidate replacements for PR-1221 which will not be manufactured in the future. The following material properties were evaluated: peel strength, specific gravity and adhesive components of mixed adhesives, Shore A hardness, tensile adhesion strength, and flow rate. Finally, a visual test called the butterfly test was performed to observe for bubbles and unmixed adhesive. The results of these tests are reported and discussed.

  15. The kiss/kissr systems are dispensable for zebrafish reproduction: evidence from gene knockout studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Haipei; Liu, Yun; Luo, Daji; Ogawa, Satoshi; Yin, Yike; Li, Shuisheng; Zhang, Yong; Hu, Wei; Parhar, Ishwar S; Lin, Haoran; Liu, Xiaochun; Cheng, Christopher H K

    2015-02-01

    The kiss1/gpr54 signaling system is considered to be a critical regulator of reproduction in most vertebrates. However, this presumption has not been tested vigorously in nonmammalian vertebrates. Distinct from mammals, multiple kiss1/gpr54 paralogous genes (kiss/kissr) have been identified in nonmammalian vertebrates, raising the possibility of functional redundancy among these genes. In this study, we have systematically generated the zebrafish kiss1(-/-), kiss2(-/-), and kiss1(-/-);kiss2(-/-) mutant lines as well as the kissr1(-/-), kissr2(-/-), and kissr1(-/-);kissr2(-/-) mutant lines using transcription activator-like effector nucleases. We have demonstrated that spermatogenesis and folliculogenesis as well as reproductive capability are not impaired in all of these 6 mutant lines. Collectively, our results indicate that kiss/kissr signaling is not absolutely required for zebrafish reproduction, suggesting that the kiss/kissr systems play nonessential roles for reproduction in certain nonmammalian vertebrates. These findings also demonstrated that fish and mammals have evolved different strategies for neuroendocrine control of reproduction.

  16. Signaling through IL-17C/IL-17RE is dispensable for immunity to systemic, oral and cutaneous candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Heather R; Whibley, Natasha; Coleman, Bianca M; Garg, Abhishek V; Jaycox, Jillian R; Gaffen, Sarah L

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is a commensal fungal microbe of the human orogastrointestinal tract and skin. C. albicans causes multiple forms of disease in immunocompromised patients, including oral, vaginal, dermal and disseminated candidiasis. The cytokine IL-17 (IL-17A) and its receptor subunits, IL-17RA and IL-17RC, are required for protection to most forms of candidiasis. The importance of the IL-17R pathway has been observed not only in knockout mouse models, but also in humans with rare genetic mutations that impact generation of Th17 cells or the IL-17 signaling pathway, including Hyper-IgE Syndrome (STAT3 or TYK2 mutations) or IL17RA or ACT1 gene deficiency. The IL-17 family of cytokines is a distinct subclass of cytokines with unique structural and signaling properties. IL-17A is the best-characterized member of the IL-17 family to date, but far less is known about other IL-17-related cytokines. In this study, we sought to determine the role of a related IL-17 cytokine, IL-17C, in protection against oral, dermal and disseminated forms of C. albicans infection. IL-17C signals through a heterodimeric receptor composed of the IL-17RA and IL-17RE subunits. We observed that IL-17C mRNA was induced following oral C. albicans infection. However, mice lacking IL-17C or IL-17RE cleared C. albicans infections in the oral mucosa, skin and bloodstream at rates similar to WT littermate controls. Moreover, these mice demonstrated similar gene transcription profiles and recovery kinetics as WT animals. These findings indicate that IL-17C and IL-17RE are dispensable for immunity to the forms of candidiasis evaluated, and illustrate a surprisingly limited specificity of the IL-17 family of cytokines with respect to systemic, oral and cutaneous Candida infections.

  17. Pressure multiplying dispenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFord, Henry S.; Moss, Owen R.

    1986-01-01

    A pressure multiplying dispenser for delivering fluid, preferably as a spray to the atmosphere, from a source of fluid, preferably a spray bottle, is described. The dispenser includes in combination a hollow cylindrical member, a nozzle delivery tube within the cylindrical member and a hollow actuator piston slideable within the cylindrical member which acts to multiply the pressure of a squeeze applied to the spray bottle.

  18. Broad Spectrum Sanitizing Wipes with Food Additives, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microcide proposes to develop novel multipurpose non-toxic sanitizing wipes that are aqueous based, have shelf life of 3-5 years, have broad spectrum microbicidal...

  19. Evaluation and Prediction present of radionuclide for surface wipe sample in Emergency Related with Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalina Laili; Muhamat Omar; Woo, Y.M.

    2011-01-01

    Surface wipe samples of aircraft and container from Japan that were exposed to radioactive dust fallout due to Fukushima nuclear accident has been analysed using gamma spectrometry systems. The samples were analysed to determine their contamination levels. The surface of aircraft and container might be exposed to short and long lived fission and activation products. Thus, good evaluations, as well as a reliable and reasonable judgment were needed in order to determine the presence of fission and activation products. A work procedure has been developed to evaluate and predict the presence of fission and activation products in surface wipe samples. Good references, skilled and experienced level in analysis, a well calibrated and validated detector system were the important factors in determining the presence of fission and activation products in surface wipe samples. (author)

  20. Improving outpatient primary medication adherence with physician guided, automated dispensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moroshek JG

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Jacob G Moroshek1,2 1Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, 2Carlson School of Management, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA Background: Physician dispensing, different from pharmacist dispensing, is a way for practitioners to supply their patients with medications, at the point of care. The InstyMeds dispenser and logistics system can automate much of the dispensing, insurance adjudication, inventory management, and regulatory reporting that is required of physician dispensing. Objective: To understand the percentage of patients that exhibit primary adherence to medication in the outpatient setting when choosing InstyMeds. Method: The InstyMeds dispensing database was de-identified and analyzed for primary adherence. This is the ratio of patients who dispensed their medication to those who received an eligible prescription. Results: The average InstyMeds emergency department installation has a primary adherence rate of 91.7%. The maximum rate for an installed device was 98.5%. Conclusion: Although national rates of primary adherence have been found to be in the range of 70%, automated physician dispensing vastly improves the rate of adherence. Improved adherence should lead to better patient outcomes, fewer return visits, and lower healthcare costs. Keywords: automated dispensing, adherence, compliance, medication, physician dispensing, InstyMeds

  1. Mathematical modeling of wiped-film evaporators. [MAIN codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommerfeld, J.T.

    1976-05-01

    A mathematical model and associated computer program were developed to simulate the steady-state operation of wiped-film evaporators for the concentration of typical waste solutions produced at the Savannah River Plant. In this model, which treats either a horizontal or a vertical wiped-film evaporator as a plug-flow device with no backmixing, three fundamental phenomena are described: sensible heating of the waste solution, vaporization of water, and crystallization of solids from solution. Physical property data were coded into the computer program, which performs the calculations of this model. Physical properties of typical waste solutions and of the heating steam, generally as analytical functions of temperature, were obtained from published data or derived by regression analysis of tabulated or graphical data. Preliminary results from tests of the Savannah River Laboratory semiworks wiped-film evaporators were used to select a correlation for the inside film heat transfer coefficient. This model should be a useful aid in the specification, operation, and control of the full-scale wiped-film evaporators proposed for application under plant conditions. In particular, it should be of value in the development and analysis of feed-forward control schemes for the plant units. Also, this model can be readily adapted, with only minor changes, to simulate the operation of wiped-film evaporators for other conceivable applications, such as the concentration of acid wastes.

  2. Homogeneous Crystallization of Micro-DispensedTIPS-Pentacene Using a Two-Solvent System toEnable Printed Inverters on Foil Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indranil Bose

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We report on a micro-dispensing system for 6,13-Bis(triisopropylsilylethynylpentacene (TIPS-pentacene to enable homogenous crystallization and uniform filmmorphology of the dispensed droplets using a two-solvent mixture along with the use of aninsulating binder. This solution composition results in a controlled evaporation of the dropletin ambient air such that the Marangoni flow counteracts the outward convective flow toenable uniform radial crystal growth from the edge towards the center of the drops.The consequence of this process is the high degree of uniformity in the crystallization of thedrops, which results in a reduction in the performance spread of the organic field effecttransistors (OFET created using this process. The addition of the insulating binder furtherimproves the reduction in the spread of the results as a trade-off to the reduction in mobilityof the transistors. The transfer curves of the OFETs show a tight grouping due to thecontrolled self-alignment of the TIPS-pentacene crystals; this repeatability was furtherhighlighted by fabricating p-type inverters with driver to load ratios of 8:1, wherein theoutput inverter curves were also grouped tightly while exhibiting a gain of greater than 4 inthe switching region. Therefore, the reliability and repeatability of this process justifies itsuse to enable large area solution-processed printed circuits at the cost of reduced mobility.

  3. A chip-to-chip nanoliter microfluidic dispenser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianbin; Zhou, Ying; Qiu, Haiwei; Huang, Huang; Sun, Changhong; Xi, Jianzhong; Huang, Yanyi

    2009-07-07

    A high-throughput microfluidic device is developed to handle liquid dispensation in nanoliter range. The dispenser system shows no cross-contamination between the microwells, indicating its great potential in large-scale screening experiments. An array of 115 nl PCR reactions, as well as the single channel addressable chip demonstrate the high flexibility and wide applications of this novel system.

  4. Lyophilized spore dispenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, A. D. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A lyophilized spore dispenser is provided which produces a finely divided, monoparticulate cloud of bacterial spores. The spores are contained within a tightly sealed chamber, and a turbulator orifice connected to an air supply source provides a jet of air which stirs up the spores and causes the spores to be suspended in eddy currents within the chamber. This air jet also produces a positive pressure within the chamber which forces the spores out of an injection orifice.

  5. Study on optimized dispensing of F-18 FDG auto dispenser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Bong Geun; Lee, Sang Hun; Kim, Jong Eon; Kim, Won Tae; Kim, Tae Jeong [Dept. of Radiological Science, Kaya University, Kimhae (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    This is a study on the optimized dispensing of the auto dispenser used for the purpose of reducing the exposure dose and accurate radiation dose of radioisotope with regard to the PET/CT practitioners. The research method was to find the optimized dispensing method through evaluating the results according to the syringe type, dispensing rate, and vial pressure and through the application of corrected values. As a result of this study, 9.38 mCi has been dispensed on average in the case of 5 ml syringe, and the reproducibility close to 10 mCi was shown at the dispense of 9.55 mCi in the case of 3 ml syringe. In the evaluation according to the dispensing rate, the quantity of radioisotope close to 10 mCi was dispensed at the rate of 5 mm/min when the measurement was carried out by increasing the rate by 5 mm/min units in the order of 5, 10, 15 and 20 mm/min . In the evaluation result according to the vial pressure before/after the use of Needle filter, it was measured to be 9.53 mCi before use and 9.84 mCi after use confirming that the dispensing after using Needle filter showed the optimal value. In addition, in the evaluation of radioactivity before/after the application of corrected values according to the increase in dispense frequency, it was measured 9.53 mCi before correction and 10.07 mCi after correction confirming that the value with correction applied was closer to the quantitative value. Thus, a good optimized method was confirmed to use a 3 ml syringe with dispensing rate of 5 mm/min, to use a Needle filter at dispensing, and to set the corrected value of [y = 0.097 × χ] according to the dispensing frequency of equipment.

  6. Review Process for the Registration and Use Directions for Floor Wipe Towelette Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guidance provides Antimicrobials Division staff with guidance related to the registration requirements and use directions for presaturated/impregnated floor wipe towelette products. This document will be used for new and existing wipe registrations.

  7. Construction of a smart medication dispenser with high degree of scalability and remote manageability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, JuGeon; Park, KeeHyun

    2012-01-01

    We propose a smart medication dispenser having a high degree of scalability and remote manageability. We construct the dispenser to have extensible hardware architecture for achieving scalability, and we install an agent program in it for achieving remote manageability. The dispenser operates as follows: when the real-time clock reaches the predetermined medication time and the user presses the dispense button at that time, the predetermined medication is dispensed from the medication dispensing tray (MDT). In the proposed dispenser, the medication for each patient is stored in an MDT. One smart medication dispenser contains mainly one MDT; however, the dispenser can be extended to include more MDTs in order to support multiple users using one dispenser. For remote management, the proposed dispenser transmits the medication status and the system configurations to the monitoring server. In the case of a specific event such as a shortage of medication, memory overload, software error, or non-adherence, the event is transmitted immediately. All these operations are performed automatically without the intervention of patients, through the agent program installed in the dispenser. Results of implementation and verification show that the proposed dispenser operates normally and performs the management operations from the medication monitoring server suitably.

  8. Construction of a Smart Medication Dispenser with High Degree of Scalability and Remote Manageability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JuGeon Pak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a smart medication dispenser having a high degree of scalability and remote manageability. We construct the dispenser to have extensible hardware architecture for achieving scalability, and we install an agent program in it for achieving remote manageability. The dispenser operates as follows: when the real-time clock reaches the predetermined medication time and the user presses the dispense button at that time, the predetermined medication is dispensed from the medication dispensing tray (MDT. In the proposed dispenser, the medication for each patient is stored in an MDT. One smart medication dispenser contains mainly one MDT; however, the dispenser can be extended to include more MDTs in order to support multiple users using one dispenser. For remote management, the proposed dispenser transmits the medication status and the system configurations to the monitoring server. In the case of a specific event such as a shortage of medication, memory overload, software error, or non-adherence, the event is transmitted immediately. All these operations are performed automatically without the intervention of patients, through the agent program installed in the dispenser. Results of implementation and verification show that the proposed dispenser operates normally and performs the management operations from the medication monitoring server suitably.

  9. Multi-liquor dispenser series; Multi rika dispenser series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-10

    Fuji Electric Co. developed a series of dispensers (FTS-50W and FTM-50W) which enables the sale of a plurality of drinks by one machine by making a beer dispenser and a carbonated drink dispenser monolithic. Main characteristics are as follows. Beer and carbonated drink (soft drinks and alcohols such as shochu) can be sold by one machine (FTS is for 1 flavor and FTM is for 3 flavor). It has a portion function which enables the quantitative sale of carbonated drink just by pressing a button, and also has a function which enables only the sale of carbonated water. The cost reduction can be realized by standardizing the parts of other beer dispensers and soft drink dispensers. (NEDO)

  10. Disease propagation analysis and mitigation strategies for effective mass dispensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eva K; Chen, Chien H; Pietz, Ferninand; Benecke, Bernard

    2010-11-13

    Mass dispensing of medical countermeasures has been proven to be an effective and crucial means to contain the outbreak of highly infectious disease. The large influx of individuals to the point-of dispensing (POD) centers to receive vaccinations or prophylactic treatment, however, raises the potential risk of serious intra-facility cross-infections. To mitigate the effect, a thorough understanding of how disease propagates during the dispensing under different transmission parameters versus POD design and operational factors is necessary. In this study, we employ a large-scale simulation/optimization decision support system, RealOpt, to analyze the propagation of highly infectious disease within dispensing sites. The simulation results are validated and benchmarked by a mathematical model based on ordinary differential equations. Pros and cons of using analytical versus simulation tools are discussed. We further perform sensitivity analysis on the dynamics of intra-POD disease propagation, and explore feasible mitigation strategies for effective mass dispensing.

  11. E85 Dispenser Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, K.; Johnson, C.; Sears, T.; Bergeron, P.

    2009-12-01

    This study reviews E85 dispensing infrastructure advances and issues and evaluates the geographic concentration of flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs), E85 stations, ethanol production facilities, and E85 suppliers. Costs, space, financial incentives, and barriers to adding E85 fueling equipment at existing stations are also assessed. This study found that E85 is increasingly available in the U.S. in half of the states; however, the other half have minimal or no E85 fueling options. Despite these gains, E85 is only available at 1% of U.S. gasoline stations. Ethanol production reached 9.5 billion gallons in 2008, but less than 1% is consumed as E85. FFVs have not reached a significant concentration in any county, metropolitan area, or state.

  12. Wipe sampling for characterization of noncompactable radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbieri, Aline E.O.; Ferreira, Robson J.; Vicente, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Wipe sampling is a method of monitoring radioactive surface contamination on working area and on radioactive, non-compactable wastes, constituted of large pieces of replaced parts of equipment in nuclear and radioactive installations. In this method, sampling is executed by rubbing a disc of filter paper on the contaminated surface in such a way as to collect entirely or partially the deposited material. The target radioisotopes are subsequently measured directly on the wipe or extracted by appropriate radio analytical methods and then qualitatively and quantitatively determined. The collection factor, or the efficiency with which the material is removed from the surface and deposited on the smear, is the main source of error in quantitative measurements. The determination of the collection efficiency is the object of this communication. (author)

  13. Do new wipe materials outperform traditional lead dust cleaning methods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Roger D; Ong, Kee Hean; Emo, Brett; Kennedy, Jason; Brown, Christopher A; Condoor, Sridhar; Thummalakunta, Laxmi

    2012-01-01

    Government guidelines have traditionally recommended the use of wet mopping, sponging, or vacuuming for removal of lead-contaminated dust from hard surfaces in homes. The emergence of new technologies, such as the electrostatic dry cloth and wet disposable clothes used on mopheads, for removal of dust provides an opportunity to evaluate their ability to remove lead compared with more established methods. The purpose of this study was to determine if relative differences exist between two new and two older methods for removal of lead-contaminated dust (LCD) from three wood surfaces that were characterized by different roughness or texture. Standard leaded dust, coefficient of friction was performed for each wipe material. Analysis of variance was used to evaluate the surface and cleaning methods. There were significant interactions between cleaning method and surface types, p = 0.007. Cleaning method was found be a significant factor in removal of lead, p coefficient of friction, significantly different among the three wipes, is likely to influence the cleaning action. Cleaning method appears to be more important than texture in LCD removal from hard surfaces. There are some small but important factors in cleaning LCD from hard surfaces, including the limits of a Swiffer mop to conform to curved surfaces and the efficiency of the wetted shop towel and vacuuming for cleaning all surface textures. The mean percentage reduction in lead dust achieved by the traditional methods (vacuuming and wet wiping) was greater and more consistent compared to the new methods (electrostatic dry cloth and wet Swiffer mop). Vacuuming and wet wiping achieved lead reductions of 92% ± 4% and 91%, ± 4%, respectively, while the electrostatic dry cloth and wet Swiffer mops achieved lead reductions of only 89 ± 8% and  81 ± 17%, respectively.

  14. Remote Wiping and Secure Deletion on Mobile Devices: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leom, Ming Di; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Hunt, Ray

    2016-11-01

    Mobile devices have become ubiquitous in almost every sector of both private and commercial endeavors. As a result of such widespread use in everyday life, many users knowingly and unknowingly save significant amounts of personal and/or commercial data on these mobile devices. Thus, loss of mobile devices through accident or theft can expose users-and their businesses-to significant personal and corporate cost. To mitigate this data leakage issue, remote wiping features have been introduced to modern mobile devices. Given the destructive nature of such a feature, however, it may be subject to criminal exploitation (e.g., a criminal exploiting one or more vulnerabilities to issue a remote wiping command to the victim's device). To obtain a better understanding of remote wiping, we survey the literature, focusing on existing approaches to secure flash storage deletion and provide a critical analysis and comparison of a variety of published research in this area. In support of our analysis, we further provide prototype experimental results for three Android devices, thus providing both a theoretical and applied focus to this article as well as providing directions for further research. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. A comparison of surface wipe media for sampling lead on hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeniger, Mark

    2006-08-01

    Hand contamination by toxic agents such as lead presents a potentially significant health hazard to workers if the contamination is transferred to the mouth by food, smoking, or touching the mouth. One method to sample the mass of contamination on hands is to wipe the skin and analyze the wipe media for the analyte. Several commercially available, prewetted wipe media were evaluated and compared. The Palintest and Wash'n Dri media are made of cellulose fiber; the Ghost wipe is made of a nonwoven polyvinyl alcohol fiber. ASTM test method E1792 for surface lead sampling provides some specified minimum requirements and some general, nonspecific criteria that these media should meet. However, no objective determination of the performance or characteristics of these different wiping media were found in the open literature for sampling lead on hands, particularly relating to typical collection efficiency. To test the recovery of lead oxide dust collected from two hands, two different loading levels were used for each wipe medium. Four successive wipes were collected and analyzed individually. The results of this study indicate that only about 52-62% of the total lead loading is recovered with the first wipe, but that up to 75% recovery could be obtained by combining all three successive wipes. This study also describes testing several physical aspects of these wipes that included tensile strength, wetness, and drying rate, which are characteristics that are not specified by ASTM E1792. The results indicate a higher fragility among the cellulosic wipes, less moisture content, and higher drying rates than the Ghost wipe. This information should be helpful when selecting a wipe material that is best suited for an environmental or industrial hygiene surface or skin sampling task and might also be useful for improving such media in the future.

  16. Application of basic pharmacology and dispensing practice of antibiotics in accredited drug-dispensing outlets in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minzi OM

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OM Minzi,1 VS Manyilizu21Unit of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, School of Pharmacy, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 2Logistics System Strengthening Unit, John Snow Inc, Dar es Salaam, TanzaniaBackground: Provision of pharmaceutical services in accredited drug-dispensing outlets (ADDOs in Tanzania has not been reported. This study compared the antibiotics dispensing practice between ADDOs and part II shops, or duka la dawa baridi (DLDBs, in Tanzania.Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study that was conducted in ADDOs and DLDBs. A simulated client method for data collection was used, and a total of 85 ADDOs, located in Mvomero, Kilombero, and Morogoro rural districts, were compared with 60 DLDBs located in Kibaha district. The research assistants posed as simulated clients and requested to buy antibiotics from ADDOs and DLDBs after presenting a case scenario or disease condition. Among the diseases presented were those requiring antibiotics and those usually managed only by oral rehydration salt or analgesics. The simulated clients wanted to know the antibiotics that were available at the shop. The posed questions set a convincing ground to the dispenser either to dispense the antibiotic directly, request a prescription, or refer the patient to a health facility. Proportions were used to summarize categorical variables between ADDOs and DLDBs, and the chi-square test was used to test for statistical difference between the two drug-outlet types in terms of antibiotic-dispensing practice.Results: As many as 40% of trained ADDO dispensers no longer worked at the ADDO shops, so some of the shops employed untrained staff. A larger proportion of ADDOs than DLDBs dispensed antibiotics without prescriptions (P = 0.004. The overall results indicate that there was no difference between the two types of shops in terms of adhering to regulations for dispensing antibiotics. However, in some circumstances, eg

  17. Pathogen transfer and high variability in pathogen removal by detergent wipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramm, Lauren; Siani, Harsha; Wesgate, Rebecca; Maillard, Jean-Yves

    2015-07-01

    The rise in health care-associated infections has placed a greater emphasis on cleaning and disinfection practices. The majority of policies advocate using detergent-based products for routine cleaning, with detergent wipes increasingly being used; however, there is no information about their ability to remove and subsequently transfer pathogens in practice. Seven detergent wipes were tested for their ability to remove and transfer Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Clostridium difficile spores using the 3-stage wipe protocol. The ability of the detergent wipes to remove S aureus, A baumannii, and C difficile spores from a stainless steel surface ranged from 1.50 log10 (range, 0.24-3.25), 3.51 log10 (range, 3.01-3.81), and 0.96 log10 (range, 0.26-1.44), respectively, following a 10-second wiping time. All wipes repeatedly transferred significant amounts of bacteria/spores over 3 consecutive surfaces, although the percentage of total microorganisms transferred from the wipes after wiping was low for a number of products. Detergent-based wipe products have 2 major drawbacks: their variability in removing microbial bioburden from inanimate surfaces and a propensity to transfer pathogens between surfaces. The use of additional complementary measures such as combined detergent/disinfectant-based products and/or antimicrobial surfaces need to be considered for appropriate infection control and prevention. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A comparison of methods and materials for the analysis of leaded wipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Martin; Hallmark, Timothy S; Bartolucci, Alfred A

    2002-12-01

    The purposes of this study are: (1) to determine whether proficiency analytical test (PAT) materials from the American Industrial Hygiene Association can be used to provide quality data for portable X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) of lead in dust wipe surface samples; (2) to provide data to determine whether the on-site analysis of field dust wipe samples by XRF and the laboratory method of inductively coupled plasma emission analysis (ICP) are comparable; and (3) to determine if differences exist between different wipe materials. Several wipes meet the ASTM E1792 performance requirements of lead background level less than 5 microg per wipe, be only one layer thick, yield recovery rates of 80- 120% from spiked samples, remain damp throughout the sampling procedure, and do not contain aloe. The wipes used in this study were Pace Wipes, which are used for the PAT materials, and, for the field samples, Palintest Wipes, which were supplied by the instrument manufacturer, and Ghost Wipes, which are popular because they digest in hot, concentrated acid, so that chemical analysis is simplified. Twenty PAT wipe samples were obtained from four different proficiency test rounds. Surface wipe samples were taken at three different locations representing different industry types. All samples were analyzed using a portable XRF spectrometer and by ICP. Strong linear relationships were found for the analysis of wipe samples by ICP and by portable XRF. For the PAT samples, the results from the ICP and XRF analysis were not statistically equivalent, which indicates a bias in the ICP analysis. The bias was not excessive, since all ICP analyses fell within the acceptable range for the proficiency samples. The good correlation between the proficiency sample reference values and the XRF determinations is not surprising considering similar proficiency samples were used to calibrate the instrument response. Users of this portable XRF analyzer could enroll in the proficiency test program

  19. Recent advances in inkjet dispensing technologies: applications in drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiangcheng; Zheng, Qiang; Yang, Hu; Cai, Jin; Huang, Lei; Duan, Yanwen; Xu, Zhinan; Cen, Peilin

    2012-09-01

    Inkjet dispensing technology is a promising fabrication methodology widely applied in drug discovery. The automated programmable characteristics and high-throughput efficiency makes this approach potentially very useful in miniaturizing the design patterns for assays and drug screening. Various custom-made inkjet dispensing systems as well as specialized bio-ink and substrates have been developed and applied to fulfill the increasing demands of basic drug discovery studies. The incorporation of other modern technologies has further exploited the potential of inkjet dispensing technology in drug discovery and development. This paper reviews and discusses the recent developments and practical applications of inkjet dispensing technology in several areas of drug discovery and development including fundamental assays of cells and proteins, microarrays, biosensors, tissue engineering, basic biological and pharmaceutical studies. Progression in a number of areas of research including biomaterials, inkjet mechanical systems and modern analytical techniques as well as the exploration and accumulation of profound biological knowledge has enabled different inkjet dispensing technologies to be developed and adapted for high-throughput pattern fabrication and miniaturization. This in turn presents a great opportunity to propel inkjet dispensing technology into drug discovery.

  20. Medication dispensing errors and potential adverse drug events before and after implementing bar code technology in the pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Eric G; Cina, Jennifer L; Churchill, William; Patel, Nirali; Featherstone, Erica; Rothschild, Jeffrey M; Keohane, Carol A; Whittemore, Anthony D; Bates, David W; Gandhi, Tejal K

    2006-09-19

    Many dispensing errors made in hospital pharmacies can harm patients. Some hospitals are investing in bar code technology to reduce these errors, but data about its efficacy are limited. To evaluate whether implementation of bar code technology reduced dispensing errors and potential adverse drug events (ADEs). Before-and-after study using direct observations. Hospital pharmacy at a 735-bed tertiary care academic medical center. A bar code-assisted dispensing system was implemented in 3 configurations. In 2 configurations, all doses were scanned once during the dispensing process. In the third configuration, only 1 dose was scanned if several doses of the same medication were being dispensed. Target dispensing errors, defined as dispensing errors that bar code technology was designed to address, and target potential ADEs, defined as target dispensing errors that can harm patients. In the pre- and post-bar code implementation periods, the authors observed 115,164 and 253,984 dispensed medication doses, respectively. Overall, the rates of target potential ADEs and all potential ADEs decreased by 74% and 63%, respectively. Of the 3 configurations of bar code technology studied, the 2 configurations that required staff to scan all doses had a 93% to 96% relative reduction in the incidence of target dispensing errors (P dispensing errors (P dispensing errors and potential ADEs substantially decreased after implementing bar code technology. However, the technology should be configured to scan every dose during the dispensing process.

  1. Medication dispenser for narcotic rehabilitation patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Vien Q; Gale, Timothy J; Stack, Clive R

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a medication dispenser developed for narcotic rehabilitation programs. The dispenser holds up to four doses of medication and operates under remote supervision. A direct-into-mouth dispensing mechanism is a feature of the device. The mechanical dispenser mechanism includes a rotating barrel, medication tubes and dispensing slider unit. The electronic design involves a microprocessor PIC18F4550, stepper-motors, sensing devices a LabVIEW-based computer interface for remote supervisory control and monitoring. The dispenser stores medication and successfully delivers it directly into the mouth under remote supervision.

  2. Quat co-formulations optimized for use with cotton nonwoven disposable wipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaternary ammonium compounds, commonly referred to as quats, are cationic surfactants widely used as the active biocidal ingredient for disposable disinfecting wipes. The cationic nature of quats results in a strong ionic interaction and adsorption onto wipes materials that have an anionic surface...

  3. Lessons learned from surface wipe sampling for lead in three workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaucham, Catherine; Ceballos, Diana; King, Bradley

    2017-08-01

    Surface wipe sampling in the occupational environment is a technique widely used by industrial hygienists. Although several organizations have promulgated standards for sampling lead and other metals, uncertainty still exists when trying to determine an appropriate wipe sampling strategy and how to interpret sampling results. Investigators from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Health Hazard Evaluation Program have used surface wipe sampling as part of their exposure assessment sampling strategies in a wide range of workplaces. This article discusses wipe sampling for measuring lead on surfaces in three facilities: (1) a battery recycling facility; (2) a firing range and gun store; and (3) an electronic scrap recycling facility. We summarize our findings from the facilities and what we learned by integrating wipe sampling into our sampling plan. Wiping sampling demonstrated lead in non-production surfaces in all three workplaces and that the potential that employees were taking lead home to their families existed. We also found that the presence of metals such as tin can interfere with the colorimetric results. We also discuss the advantages and disadvantages of colorimetric analysis of surface wipe samples and the challenges we faced when interpreting wipe sampling results.

  4. Liquid DEP actuation and precision dispensing of variable volume droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Ravi; Paul, Reginald; Kaler, Karan V I S

    2010-11-21

    Droplet based microfluidic systems, in recent years, have demonstrated numerous advantages and exciting potential for Lab-On-a Chip applications. In order to fully realize the potential benefits of this technology, one requires precision dispensing and manipulation of droplets of known volume and sample concentration, in a rapid and controlled manner. In this article, we demonstrate the rapid and controlled microactuation of aqueous samples and subsequent dispensing of variable volume droplets in nanolitre to picolitre regime by using a coplanar tapered electrode structure that leverages the phenomena of liquid dielectrophoresis (L-DEP). The transient behavior of the tapered liquid jet departs significantly from that of a uniform liquid jet case and is not adequately explained in terms of a simplified lumped capacitance model as in the case of the uniform jet, during the L-DEP actuation. A more generalized numerical model is developed for the tapered actuation scheme to account for the experimental observations. We furthermore demonstrate that the density of the dispensed droplets can be proactively controlled by the judicious placement of electrode bumps and pinches in the electrode structure thus overcoming the limitations imposed by Rayleigh's instability criterion. The proposed droplet dispensing schemes are superior to existing L-DEP based dispensing schemes which are restricted in size and spacing of the dispensed droplets by Rayleigh's instability criteria and furthermore mostly restricted to equi-volume droplets.

  5. Sampling for Beryllium Surface Contamination using Wet, Dry and Alcohol Wipe Sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, Kent [Central Missouri State Univ., Warrensburg, MO (United States)

    2004-12-01

    This research project was conducted at the National Nuclear Security Administration's Kansas City Plant, operated by Honeywell Federal Manufacturing and Technologies, in conjunction with the Safety Sciences Department of Central Missouri State University, to compare relative removal efficiencies of three wipe sampling techniques currently used at Department of Energy facilities. Efficiencies of removal of beryllium contamination from typical painted surfaces were tested by wipe sampling with dry Whatman 42 filter paper, with water-moistened (Ghost Wipe) materials, and by methanol-moistened wipes. Test plates were prepared using 100 mm X 15 mm Pyrex Petri dishes with interior surfaces spray painted with a bond coat primer. To achieve uniform deposition over the test plate surface, 10 ml aliquots of solution containing 1 beryllium and 0.1 ml of metal working fluid were transferred to the test plates and subsequently evaporated. Metal working fluid was added to simulate the slight oiliness common on surfaces in metal working shops where fugitive oil mist accumulates over time. Sixteen test plates for each wipe method (dry, water, and methanol) were processed and sampled using a modification of wiping patterns recommended by OSHA Method 125G. Laboratory and statistical analysis showed that methanol-moistened wipe sampling removed significantly more (about twice as much) beryllium/oil-film surface contamination as water-moistened wipes (p< 0.001), which removed significantly more (about twice as much) residue as dry wipes (p <0.001). Evidence for beryllium sensitization via skin exposure argues in favor of wipe sampling with wetting agents that provide enhanced residue removal efficiency.

  6. 21 CFR 888.4200 - Cement dispenser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cement dispenser. 888.4200 Section 888.4200 Food... DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.4200 Cement dispenser. (a) Identification. A cement dispenser is a nonpowered syringe-like device intended for use in placing bone cement (§ 888.3027) into...

  7. A frequency conversion mode for dispenser in the service station based on flow rate signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y J; Tang, D; Huang, J B; Liu, J; Jia, P F

    2012-01-01

    Dispenser is an integrated fuel transport and measurement system at the service station. In this paper, we developed a frequency conversion mode for the dispenser, based on the flow rate signal which is obtained from the converter measuring flow capacity. After introducing the frequency conversion mode to dispenser, we obtained that pump rotates at a high speed when fuelled with high flow rate, and it rotates at a low speed when fuelled with low flow rate. This makes the fuel dispenser more energy-efficient and controllable. We also did some valve optimizations on the dispenser and developed a new control mode for preset refuelling based on the frequency conversion mode, Experimental and theoretical studies have shown that the new dispenser not only can meet the national standards, but also performs better than the ordinary one especially in preset refuelling.

  8. The frequency and potential causes of dispensing errors in a hospital pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beso, Adnan; Franklin, Bryony Dean; Barber, Nick

    2005-06-01

    To determine the frequency and types of dispensing errors identified both at the final check stage and outside of a UK hospital pharmacy, to explore the reasons why they occurred, and to make recommendations for their prevention. A definition of a dispensing error and a classification system were developed. To study the frequency and types of errors, pharmacy staff recorded details of all errors identified at the final check stage during a two-week period; all errors identified outside of the department and reported during a one-year period were also recorded. During a separate six-week period, pharmacy staff making dispensing errors identified at the final check stage were interviewed to explore the causes; the findings were analysed using a model of human error. Percentage of dispensed items for which one or more dispensing errors were identified at the final check stage; percentage for which an error was reported outside of the pharmacy department; the active failures, error producing conditions and latent conditions that result in dispensing errors occurring. One or more dispensing errors were identified at the final check stage in 2.1% of 4849 dispensed items, and outside of the pharmacy department in 0.02% of 194,584 items. The majority of those identified at the final check stage involved slips in picking products, or mistakes in making assumptions about the products concerned. Factors contributing to the errors included labelling and storage of containers in the dispensary, interruptions and distractions, a culture where errors are seen as being inevitable, and reliance on others to identify and rectify errors. Dispensing errors occur in about 2% of all dispensed items. About 1 in 100 of these is missed by the final check. The impact on dispensing errors of developments such as automated dispensing systems should be evaluated.

  9. 48 CFR 37.116 - Accepting and Dispensing of $1 Coin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accepting and Dispensing of $1 Coin. 37.116 Section 37.116 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... and Dispensing of $1 Coin. [72 FR 46362, Aug. 17, 2007] ...

  10. The impact of automation on workload and dispensing errors in a hospital pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, K Lynette; Barlow, Dave; Bithell, Anne; Hiom, Sarah; Lord, Sue; Pollard, Mike; Roberts, Dave; Way, Cheryl; Whittlesea, Cate

    2013-04-01

    To determine the effect of installing an original-pack automated dispensing system (ADS) on dispensary workload and prevented dispensing incidents in a hospital pharmacy. Data on dispensary workload and prevented dispensing incidents, defined as dispensing errors detected and reported before medication had left the pharmacy, were collected over 6 weeks at a National Health Service hospital in Wales before and after the installation of an ADS. Workload was measured by non-participant observation using the event recording technique. Prevented dispensing incidents were self-reported by pharmacy staff on standardised forms. Median workloads (measured as items dispensed/person/hour) were compared using Mann-Whitney U tests and rate of prevented dispensing incidents were compared using Chi-square test. Spearman's rank correlation was used to examine the association between workload and prevented dispensing incidents. A P value of ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Median dispensary workload was significantly lower pre-automation (9.20 items/person/h) compared to post-automation (13.17 items/person/h, P automation (0.28%) than pre-automation (0.64%, P automation (ρ = 0.23, P automation improves dispensing efficiency and reduces the rate of prevented dispensing incidents. It is proposed that prevented dispensing incidents frequently occurred during periods of high workload due to involuntary automaticity. Prevented dispensing incidents occurring after a busy period were attributed to staff experiencing fatigue after-effects. © 2012 The Authors. IJPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  11. [New technologies applied to the medication-dispensing process, error analysis and contributing factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Díaz, A M; Delgado Silveira, E; Pérez Menéndez-Conde, C; Pintor Recuenco, R; Gómez de Salazar López de Silanes, E; Serna Pérez, J; Mendoza Jiménez, T; Bermejo Vicedo, T

    2010-01-01

    Calculate error prevalence occurred in different medication-dispensing systems, the stages of occurrence, and contributing factors. Prospective observational study. The staging of the dispensing process were reviewed in five dispensing systems: Stock, Unitary-Dose dispensing systems (UDDS) without Computerized Prescription Order Entry (CPOE), CPOE-UDDS, Automated Dispensing Systems (ADS) without CPOE and CPOE-ADS. Dispensing errors were identified, together with the stages of occurrence of such errors and their contributing factors. 2,181 errors were detected among 54,169 opportunities of error. Error-rate: Stock, 10.7%; no-CPOE-UDDS, 3.7%, CPOE-UDDS, 2.2%, no-CPOE-ADS, 20.7%; CPOE-ADS, 2.9%. Most frequent stage when error occurs: Stock, preparation of order; no-CPOE-UDDS and CPOE-UDDS, filling of the unit dose cart; no-CPOE-ADS and CPOE-ADS, filling of the ADS. Most frequent error: Stock, no-CPOE-ADS and CPOE-ADS, omission; CPOE-UDDS, different amount of drug and no-CPOE-UDDS, extra medication. Contributing factor: Stock, CPOE-ADS and no-CPOE-ADS, stock out/supply problems; CPOE-UDDS, inexperienced personnel and deficient communication system between professionals; no-CPOE-UDDS, deficient communication system between professionals. Applying new technologies to the dispensing process has increased its safety, particularly, implementation of CPOE has enabled to reduce dispensing errors. Copyright © 2009 SEFH. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. High-Voltage Droplet Dispenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2003-01-01

    An apparatus that is extremely effective in dispensing a wide range of droplets has been developed. This droplet dispenser is unique in that it utilizes a droplet bias voltage, as well as an ionization pulse, to release a droplet. Apparatuses that deploy individual droplets have been used in many applications, including, notably, study of combustion of liquid fuels. Experiments on isolated droplets are useful in that they enable the study of droplet phenomena under well-controlled and simplified conditions. In this apparatus, a syringe dispenses a known value of liquid, which emerges from, and hangs onto, the outer end of a flat-tipped, stainless steel needle. Somewhat below the needle tip and droplet is a ring electrode. A bias high voltage, followed by a high-voltage pulse, is applied so as to attract the droplet sufficiently to pull it off the needle. The voltages are such that the droplet and needle are negatively charged and the ring electrode is positively charged.

  13. Final Rule: 2013 Conditional Exclusions From Solid Waste and Hazardous Waste for Solvent-Contaminated Wipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a regulation page for the final rule EPA issued on July 31, 2013 that modifies the hazardous waste management regulations for solvent-contaminated wipes under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

  14. Utilization of Sanitizing Wipes on Selected Coated Nonstick Food Contact Surfaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Powers, Edmund

    2002-01-01

    ... of field sanitation. The cleaning and bactericidal efficacy of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) sanitizing wipes was tested on specially coated non-stick food contact surfaces, also under investigation by the Army...

  15. Drying process for simulated BWR concentrated wastes in wiped film evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Hiroyuki; Tomura, Hisashi; Tomita, Toshihide; Minami, Yuji

    1991-01-01

    Several experiments were implemented using wiped-film evaporators fitted with sensors, which were designed for internal observations, in order to solve evaporating and drying process for concentrated wastes from a BWR plant in the wiped film evaporator. A computer simulation code was developed to check the experimental results obtained in the experiments. The computer simulation was confirmed to be reasonable and the calculated temperatures agree rather well with the measured temperatures. The computer simulation and observation of the interior of the wiped film evaporator led us to a clear understanding of the evaporation and drying processes during operation. This understanding helped the authors to operate the wiped-film evaporators in such a way as to achieve a volume reduction in radioactive wastes

  16. Towards more reliable automated multi-dose dispensing: retrospective follow-up study on medication dose errors and product defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palttala, Iida; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Honkanen, Outi; Suominen, Risto; Antikainen, Osmo; Hirvonen, Jouni; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2013-03-01

    To date, little is known on applicability of different types of pharmaceutical dosage forms in an automated high-speed multi-dose dispensing process. The purpose of the present study was to identify and further investigate various process-induced and/or product-related limitations associated with multi-dose dispensing process. The rates of product defects and dose dispensing errors in automated multi-dose dispensing were retrospectively investigated during a 6-months follow-up period. The study was based on the analysis of process data of totally nine automated high-speed multi-dose dispensing systems. Special attention was paid to the dependence of multi-dose dispensing errors/product defects and pharmaceutical tablet properties (such as shape, dimensions, weight, scored lines, coatings, etc.) to profile the most suitable forms of tablets for automated dose dispensing systems. The relationship between the risk of errors in dose dispensing and tablet characteristics were visualized by creating a principal component analysis (PCA) model for the outcome of dispensed tablets. The two most common process-induced failures identified in the multi-dose dispensing are predisposal of tablet defects and unexpected product transitions in the medication cassette (dose dispensing error). The tablet defects are product-dependent failures, while the tablet transitions are dependent on automated multi-dose dispensing systems used. The occurrence of tablet defects is approximately twice as common as tablet transitions. Optimal tablet preparation for the high-speed multi-dose dispensing would be a round-shaped, relatively small/middle-sized, film-coated tablet without any scored line. Commercial tablet products can be profiled and classified based on their suitability to a high-speed multi-dose dispensing process.

  17. [Food protective property of new liquid food container PID (Pouch in Dispenser) for microbes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominari, Keita; Tanaka, Asato; Shinoda, Yuma; Futase, Katsunori; Nei, Daisuke; Isshiki, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    We examined the content protection characteristics of the PID (Pouch in Dispenser) when it was used in the usual manner and when it was polluted artificially. When the PID was used in the usual manner, the nozzle was opened, and experiments were carried out with and without air-blowing. The invasion of bacteria into the PID was not detected. Also, no bacteria were detected in the material poured from the nozzle of the PID. When 3 strains of bacteria suspensions were intentionally smeared on the nozzle of the PID, invasion of bacteria was observed. When the PID was wiped with a dirty cloth, no invasion of bacteria into the PID was detected. It may be necessary to label the PID with the instruction that the nozzle should not be touched. The effected of changes in the water activity and pH, and the preservatives used, may also need to be considered, depending on the contents in the PID.

  18. Surface contamination of counting tools after mock dispensing of cyclophosphamide in a simulated outpatient pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Bruce W; Lander, Michael J; Christen, Catherine; Redic, Kimberly A

    2018-01-01

    Purpose The primary aim was to determine if dispensing of cyclophosphamide tablets resulted in accumulated residue on pharmacy counting tools during a simulated outpatient dispensing process. Secondary objectives included determining if cyclophosphamide contamination exceeded a defined threshold level of 1 ng/cm 2 and if a larger number of prescriptions dispensed resulted in increased contamination. Methods Mock prescriptions of 40 cyclophosphamide 50 mg tablets were counted on clean trays in three scenarios using a simulated outpatient pharmacy after assaying five cleaned trays as controls. The three scenarios consisted of five simulated dispensings of one, three, or six prescriptions dispensed per scenario. Wipe samples of trays and spatulas were collected and assayed for all trays, including the five clean trays used as controls. Contamination was defined as an assayed cyclophosphamide level at or above 0.001 ng/cm 2 and levels above 1 ng/cm 2 were considered sufficient to cause risk of human uptake. Mean contamination for each scenario was calculated and compared using one-way analysis of variance. P-values of contamination on trays used to count one, three, and six cyclophosphamide prescriptions was 0.51 ± 0.10 (p=0.0003), 1.02 ± 0.10 (p contamination. Increasing the number of prescriptions dispensed from 1 to 3, 1 to 6, and 3 to 6 counts increased contamination by 0.51 ± 0.15 (p = 0.0140), 1.31 + 0.15 (p contaminates pharmacy counting tools, and an increased number of prescriptions dispensed correlates with increased level of contamination. Counting out three or more prescriptions leads to trays having contamination that surpasses the threshold at which worker exposure may be increased. Pharmacies should consider devoting a separate tray to cyclophosphamide tablets, as cross-contamination could occur with other drugs and the efficacy of decontamination methods is unclear. Employee exposure could be minimized with the use

  19. 48 CFR 52.237-11 - Accepting and Dispensing of $1 Coin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of $1 Coin. 52.237-11 Section 52.237-11 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Clauses 52.237-11 Accepting and Dispensing of $1 Coin. As prescribed in 37.116-2, insert the following clause: Accepting and Dispensing of $1 Coin (SEP 2008) (a) This clause applies to service contracts that...

  20. New approaches to wipe sampling methods for antineoplastic and other hazardous drugs in healthcare settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Thomas H.; Smith, Jerome P.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose At the present time, the method of choice to determine surface contamination of the workplace with antineoplastic and other hazardous drugs is surface wipe sampling and subsequent sample analysis with a variety of analytical techniques. The purpose of this article is to review current methodology for determining the level of surface contamination with hazardous drugs in healthcare settings and to discuss recent advances in this area. In addition it will provide some guidance for conducting surface wipe sampling and sample analysis for these drugs in healthcare settings. Methods Published studies on the use of wipe sampling to measure hazardous drugs on surfaces in healthcare settings drugs were reviewed. These studies include the use of well-documented chromatographic techniques for sample analysis in addition to newly evolving technology that provides rapid analysis of specific antineoplastic Results Methodology for the analysis of surface wipe samples for hazardous drugs are reviewed, including the purposes, technical factors, sampling strategy, materials required, and limitations. The use of lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) and fluorescence covalent microbead immunosorbent assay (FCMIA) for surface wipe sample evaluation is also discussed. Conclusions Current recommendations are that all healthcare settings where antineoplastic and other hazardous drugs are handled include surface wipe sampling as part of a comprehensive hazardous drug-safe handling program. Surface wipe sampling may be used as a method to characterize potential occupational dermal exposure risk and to evaluate the effectiveness of implemented controls and the overall safety program. New technology, although currently limited in scope, may make wipe sampling for hazardous drugs more routine, less costly, and provide a shorter response time than classical analytical techniques now in use. PMID:28459100

  1. Standardized Method for Measuring Collection Efficiency from Wipe-sampling of Trace Explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkouteren, Jennifer R; Lawrence, Jeffrey A; Staymates, Matthew E; Sisco, Edward

    2017-04-10

    One of the limiting steps to detecting traces of explosives at screening venues is effective collection of the sample. Wipe-sampling is the most common procedure for collecting traces of explosives, and standardized measurements of collection efficiency are needed to evaluate and optimize sampling protocols. The approach described here is designed to provide this measurement infrastructure, and controls most of the factors known to be relevant to wipe-sampling. Three critical factors (the applied force, travel distance, and travel speed) are controlled using an automated device. Test surfaces are chosen based on similarity to the screening environment, and the wipes can be made from any material considered for use in wipe-sampling. Particle samples of the explosive 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) are applied in a fixed location on the surface using a dry-transfer technique. The particle samples, recently developed to simulate residues made after handling explosives, are produced by inkjet printing of RDX solutions onto polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) substrates. Collection efficiency is measured by extracting collected explosive from the wipe, and then related to critical sampling factors and the selection of wipe material and test surface. These measurements are meant to guide the development of sampling protocols at screening venues, where speed and throughput are primary considerations.

  2. Technology tackles dispensing in age of accountable care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldy, Joanne

    2013-06-01

    Increasingly, long-term care facilities are using technology to improve safety, reduce costs, and save time. The growing role of high-tech tools in this setting is driven partly by regulations calling for facilities to improve outcomes and streamline costs. One tool that long-term pharmacies and their facilities are turning to is the automated dispensing system. These systems vary in term of type, size, cost, and function; and they are approved for use in long-term care facilities in some but not all states. However, where they can be and are used, they often result in reduced medication management costs and improved safety and accuracy. At the same time, automated dispensing systems may make medication administration easier for nurses. While challenges to their implementation and use remain, automated dispensing systems likely will be a key part of health care's future. This article serves as an introduction to the automated dispensing systems, their use in long-term care, and their potential use as a new era of health care begins.

  3. A compact 133Xe gas dispenser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, T.; Harris, R.

    1977-01-01

    A dispenser for 133 Xe gas is described which is compact and simple to use, allowing the xenon to be dispensed from it shipping ampoule to suitable multi-dose injection vials in a controlled manner and with a high degree of operator safety. The apparatus has no joints and only a single rubber teat, minimizing the risks of adsorption and leakage. A scaled drawing of the dispenser is shown. (U.K.)

  4. Dose dispenser for radioactive gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwitz, N.H.; Gutkowski, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    An activity metering apparatus for metering predetermined activities of radioactive gas from a supply ampul to dose vials is described. The apparatus includes a shielded ampul housing, a fine metering valve communicating with the ampul housing chamber, a shielded vial housing and a hypodermic needle communicating with the metering valve and received through an opening in the vial housing. A Geiger-Muller tube is adjustably supported opposite an opening in the vial housing, whereby the activity of the radioactive gas dispensed to a partially evacuated vial within the vial chamber may be read directly by a standard laboratory rate meter

  5. THE UTILITY OF PHARMACY DISPENSING DATA FOR ART ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-06-19

    Jun 19, 2008 ... as a non-proprietary programme. iDART is a pharmacy application developed on open-source software that al- lows dispensing of ART both on site and from a remote pharmacy. The system has been developed in response to a need to manage large numbers of patients on ART sim- ply and effectively.

  6. Prescription habits of dispensing and non-dispensing doctors in Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trap, Birna; Hansen, Ebba Holme; Hogerzeil, Hans V

    2002-01-01

    The number of dispensing doctors has increased in the last decade, but the implication of this trend on the quality of health care and drug use is unknown. We present a comparative drug utilization study of 29 dispensing doctors and 28 non-dispensing doctors in Zimbabwe based on standard indicato...

  7. Evaluation of a disinfectant wipe intervention on fomite-to-finger microbial transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Gerardo U; Kitajima, Masaaki; Havas, Aaron; Gerba, Charles P; Reynolds, Kelly A

    2014-05-01

    Inanimate surfaces, or fomites, can serve as routes of transmission of enteric and respiratory pathogens. No previous studies have evaluated the impact of surface disinfection on the level of pathogen transfer from fomites to fingers. Thus, the present study investigated the change in microbial transfer from contaminated fomites to fingers following disinfecting wipe use. Escherichia coli (10(8) to 10(9) CFU/ml), Staphylococcus aureus (10(9) CFU/ml), Bacillus thuringiensis spores (10(7) to 10(8) CFU/ml), and poliovirus 1 (10(8) PFU/ml) were seeded on ceramic tile, laminate, and granite in 10-μl drops and allowed to dry for 30 min at a relative humidity of 15 to 32%. The seeded fomites were treated with a disinfectant wipe and allowed to dry for an additional 10 min. Fomite-to-finger transfer trials were conducted to measure concentrations of transferred microorganisms on the fingers after the disinfectant wipe intervention. The mean log10 reduction of the test microorganisms on fomites by the disinfectant wipe treatment varied from 1.9 to 5.0, depending on the microorganism and the fomite. Microbial transfer from disinfectant-wipe-treated fomites was lower (up to fomites. This is the first study quantifying microbial transfer from contaminated fomites to fingers after the use of disinfectant wipe intervention. The data generated in the present study can be used in quantitative microbial risk assessment models to predict the effect of disinfectant wipes in reducing microbial exposure.

  8. Investigation of thermal degradation with extrusion-based dispensing modules for 3D bioprinting technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyungseok; Yoo, James J; Kang, Hyun-Wook; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2016-02-04

    Recently, numerous three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting systems have been introduced for the artificial regeneration of tissues. Among them, the extrusion-based dispensing module is the most widely used because of the processability it gives various biomaterials. The module uses high forces and temperature to dispense materials through a micro-nozzle. Generally, the harsh conditions induce thermal degradation of the material in the dispensing procedure. The thermal degradation affects the properties of the materials, and the change of the properties should be carefully controlled, because it severely affects the regeneration of tissues. Therefore, in this research, the relationship between the dispensing module and the thermal degradation of material was investigated. Extrusion-based dispensing modules can be divided into the syringe type (ST) and filament type (FT) based on working principles. We prepared a poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) scaffold with the two methods at various time points. Then, the characteristics of the printed scaffolds were assessed by measuring molecular weight (M w), glass transition temperature (T g), in vitro degradation, compressive modulus, and cytocompatibility. The results showed that the PLGA scaffold with the FT dispensing module maintained its properties regardless of printing time points. In contrast, severe thermal degradation was observed in the scaffold group prepared by the ST dispensing module. Consequentially, it was obvious that the FT dispensing module was more suitable for producing scaffolds without severe thermal degradation.

  9. Surface wipe sampling for antineoplastic (chemotherapy) and other hazardous drug residue in healthcare settings: Methodology and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Thomas H; Zock, Matthew D; Snow, Amy H

    2016-09-01

    Surface wipe sampling for various hazardous agents has been employed in many occupational settings over the years for various reasons such as evaluation of potential dermal exposure and health risk, source determination, quality or cleanliness, compliance, and others. Wipe sampling for surface residue of antineoplastic and other hazardous drugs in healthcare settings is currently the method of choice to determine surface contamination of the workplace with these drugs. The purpose of this article is to review published studies of wipe sampling for antineoplastic and other hazardous drugs, to summarize the methods in use by various organizations and researchers, and to provide some basic guidance for conducting surface wipe sampling for these drugs in healthcare settings.  Recommendations on wipe sampling methodology from several government agencies and organizations were reviewed. Published reports on wipe sampling for hazardous drugs in numerous studies were also examined. The critical elements of a wipe sampling program and related limitations were reviewed and summarized.  Recommendations and guidance are presented concerning the purposes of wipe sampling for antineoplastic and other hazardous drugs in the healthcare setting, technical factors and variables, sampling strategy, materials required, and limitations. The reporting and interpretation of wipe sample results is also discussed.  It is recommended that all healthcare settings where antineoplastic and other hazardous drugs are handled consider wipe sampling as part of a comprehensive hazardous drug "safe handling" program. Although no standards exist for acceptable or allowable surface concentrations for these drugs in the healthcare setting, wipe sampling may be used as a method to characterize potential occupational dermal exposure risk and to evaluate the effectiveness of implemented controls and the overall safety program. A comprehensive safe-handling program for antineoplastic drugs may

  10. Wiping Is Inferior to Rubbing: A Note of Caution for Hand Hygiene With Alcohol-Based Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ory, Jérôme; Zingg, Walter; de Kraker, Marlieke E A; Soule, Hervé; Pittet, Didier

    2018-03-01

    We evaluated whether hand wiping is noninferior to hand rubbing in reducing the bacterial concentration on hands. In 20 healthy volunteers, hand wiping with or without an alcohol-based solution was inferior to hand rubbing with an alcohol-based solution. This finding warrants a note of caution for the application of wipes in health care. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;39:332-335.

  11. Design and Fabrication of a MEMS Flow Sensor and Its Application in Precise Liquid Dispensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liguo Chen

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A high speed MEMS flow sensor to enhance the reliability and accuracy of a liquid dispensing system is proposed. Benefitting from the sensor information feedback, the system can self-adjust the open time of the solenoid valve to accurately dispense desired volumes of reagent without any pre-calibration. First, an integrated high-speed liquid flow sensor based on the measurement of the pressure difference across a flow channel is presented. Dimensions of the micro-flow channel and two pressure sensors have been appropriately designed to meet the static and dynamic requirements of the liquid dispensing system. Experiments results show that the full scale (FS flow measurement ranges up to 80 μL/s, with a nonlinearity better than 0.51% FS. Secondly, a novel closed-loop control strategy is proposed to calculate the valve open time in each dispensing cycle, which makes the system immune to liquid viscosity, pressure fluctuation, and other sources of error. Finally, dispensing results show that the system can achieve better dispensing performance, and the coefficient of variance (CV for liquid dispensing is below 3% at 1 μL and below 4% at 100 nL.

  12. Antimalarial Drugs for Pediatrics - Prescribing and Dispensing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess dispensing and prescribing practices with regard to antimalarial drugs for pediatrics in private pharmacies and public hospitals in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study that assessed the knowledge and practice of 200 drug dispensers in the private community ...

  13. Hand-Controlled Brazing-Paste Dispenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.

    1994-01-01

    Hand control proven superior to foot control. Hand-operated switch added to hand-held brazing-alloy-paste dispenser yields improved, more consistent brazing-alloy beads. Dispenser used to apply paste between adjacent tubes in heat exchanger. Switch reliable and safe, and removed and reattached easily.

  14. Applying Inkjet Technology to Dispense Colloidal Nanoparticle Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    O, Annie; Mohar, Harjyot; Hernandez, Victor; Estrada, Arturo; Munoz, Leonel; Fan, Sewan; Fatuzzo, Laura; Jimenez, Steven

    2014-03-01

    The inkjet technology is widely employed to reliably deliver nanomaterials onto a substrate medium for further characterization and processing. To explore the feasibility of inkjet deposition for colloids, a novel drop-on-demand fluid dispenser is constructed to eject various types of liquids to produce atomized droplets. To make structured nanomaterials on a substrate using inkjet techniques, it is essential to determine the dynamical properties of the droplets as they are being formed. These would include the ejection speed, acceleration, terminal velocity and flight trajectories. For measuring these dynamic parameters, we successfully dispensed propylene glycol solution in different mixing ratios. This forms a reference fluid for establishing a baseline for our investigations. Our experimental data suggest that rapidly ejected droplets can be accurately modeled using Newton's equations and Stokes' law. In this conference, we describe our experiments consisting of an innovative inkjet dispensing apparatus in synchronization with a high-resolution camera imaging system. Furthermore, we plan to discuss our research efforts in dispensing microdroplets for relevant materials, such as chemical colloidal suspensions containing nanoparticles and polymer based fluids. Department of Education grant number P031S90007.

  15. Louisiana SIP: LAC 33:III Ch 2132. Stage II Vapor Recovery Systems for Control of Vehicle Refuelling Emissions at Gasoline Dispensing Facilities; SIP effective 2011-08-04 (LAd34) and 2016-02-29 (LAd47) to 2017-09-27

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana SIP: LAC 33:III Ch 2132. Stage II Vapor Recovery Systems for Control of Vehicle Refuelling Emissions at Gasoline Dispensing Facilities; SIP effective 2011-08-04 (LAd34) and 2016-02-29 (LAd47) to 2017-09-27

  16. Topical Metered-dosing Dispenser Performance Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Kupiec, Thomas C; Vu, Nicole T

    2016-01-01

    Topical metered-dosing dispensers are designed for dosing accuracy and ease-of-use by the patients while protecting the packaged products from environmental exposure and contamination. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy, precision, and residual of available topical metered-dosing dispensers with different types of topical cream for practical application. Triplicate samples of five different dispensers were tested. This test was completed using three types of commercial topical cream-bases of dissimilar Total Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient Load Percentages, Transdermal Penetration Percentages, and Specific Gravities. The dispensers were evaluated according to specified dose-uniformity criteria for a total dispensing capacity of 30 mL at 0.5 mL per dose for 60 doses. The study shows Topi-CLICK performed with the best precision and accuracy of dosing in comparison to the airless-pump type dispensers. While the dispensing was highly variable with airless pumps and may require calibration for each packaged product, remarkably the performance of Topi-CLICK was not affected by different types of cream-bases and does not require additional metering calibration. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  17. Quality of drug interaction alerts in prescribing and dispensing software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweidan, Michelle; Reeve, James F; Brien, Jo-anne E; Jayasuriya, Pradeep; Martin, Jennifer H; Vernon, Graeme M

    2009-03-02

    To investigate the quality of drug interaction decision support in selected prescribing and dispensing software systems, and to compare this information with that found in a range of reference sources. A comparative study, conducted between June 2006 and February 2007, of the support provided for making decisions about 20 major and 20 minor drug interactions in six prescribing and three dispensing software systems used in primary care in Australia. Five electronic reference sources were evaluated for comparison. Sensitivity, specificity and quality of information; for major interactions: whether information on clinical effects, timeframe and pharmacological mechanism was included, whether management advice was helpful, and succinctness. Six of the nine software systems had a sensitivity rate > or = 90%, detecting most of the major interactions. Only 3/9 systems had a specificity rate of > or = 80%, with other systems providing inappropriate or unhelpful alerts for many minor interactions. Only 2/9 systems provided adequate information about clinical effects for more than half the major drug interactions, and 1/9 provided useful management advice for more than half of these. The reference sources had high sensitivity and in general provided more comprehensive clinical information than the software systems. Drug interaction decision support in commonly used prescribing and dispensing software has significant shortcomings.

  18. Enzyme Microarrays Assembled by Acoustic Dispensing Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, E. Y.; Diamond, S. L.

    2008-01-01

    Miniaturizing bioassays to the nanoliter scale for high-throughput screening reduces the consumption of reagents that are expensive or difficult to handle. Utilizing acoustic dispensing technology, nanodroplets containing 10 µM ATP (3 µCi/µL 32P) and reaction buffer in 10% glycerol were positionally dispensed to the surface of glass slides to form 40 nL compartments (100 droplets/slide) for Pim1 (Proviral integration site 1) kinase reactions. The reactions were activated by dispensing 4 nL of...

  19. Compounding & dispensing errors before and after implementing barcode technology in a nuclear pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Wendy; Shadid, Jill

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the incidence of compounding and dispensing errors changed significantly in a nuclear pharmacy after the pharmacy adopted a barcode assistance system. Nuclear pharmacy dispensing errors are extremely low compared to that of busy traditional pharmacies, but there is no data available describing the use of bar-coding assistance on the rate of dispensing errors in nuclear pharmacy. A retrospective review of dispensing errors pre-barcode assistance system implementation (2001 through 2004) and post-barcode assistance system implementation (February 2005 through 2009) was conducted using data from a nuclear pharmacy that dispenses approximately 500 prescriptions per day to nuclear medicine clinics and hospitals. Data was obtained from pharmacy error logs filed by the pharmacy as reported by an end user receiving the compounded preparation or the pharmacist having recognized the error before it reached the end user. Dispensing errors were defined as any deviation in the dispensed preparation from the prescribed order. Categories identified as incorrect were: dosage, drug, volume, procedure, patient, and delivery destination. Implementation of the barcode assistance system included installation of computers, software, barcoding devices, and training of personnel. The barcode assistance system provided barcodes for each compounding component, final preparation, syringe label, prescription, and shipping material. The barcode assistant system communicated directly with the dose calibrator, enabling the dose calibrator settings to automatically change according to time of administration and isotope required. The average error rate pre- and post-barcode assistance system was 0.012% and 0.002%, respectively (Pdispensing errors: wrong dosage (60%) and wrong drug (28%). Post-barcode assistance system, the major category was delivery destination (90%). The results suggest that the barcode assistance system has been instrumental

  20. Wipes coated with a singlet-oxygen-producing photosensitizer are effective against human influenza virus but not against norovirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaelen, Katharina; Bouwknegt, Martijn; Rutjes, Saskia; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; Duizer, Erwin

    2014-01-01

    Transmission of enteric and respiratory viruses, including human norovirus (hNoV) and human influenza virus, may involve surfaces. In food preparation and health care settings, surfaces are cleaned with wipes; however, wiping may not efficiently reduce contamination or may even spread viruses,

  1. Recommendations and requirements for soap and hand rub dispensers in healthcare facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assadian, Ojan; Kramer, Axel; Christiansen, Bärbel; Exner, Martin; Martiny, Heike; Sorger, Arno; Suchomel, Miranda

    2012-01-01

    Hand hygiene is one of the most important measures to prevent transmission of infectious agents and plays a major role in prevention of infection in any type of healthcare setting. While requirements for the efficacy of hand disinfectants are defined in European testing norms such as the EN 1500 for hygienic hand disinfection or EN 12791 for surgical hand preparation, no specific recommendations for hand rub dispensers and liquid soap dispensers have been given yet. Therefore, the intention of the present recommendation on soap and hand rub dispensers in healthcare facilities is to close this gap and to enhance future improvement of dispenser functionality and design. Regardless of manufacture and design of a hand rub or liquid soap dispensers the following requirements shall be met in healthcare facilities:Triggering the dispenser must be possible without using hands. Sensor- or elbow-operated dispensers both fulfill this requirement. Dispensers must be only refillable in a modality where the content, be it a hand rub or liquid soap, cannot be contaminated. This is achieved best by using replaceable cartridge systems. Refilling through "top-up" must not be possible. The disperser should allow usage of different types of cartridges made by different manufacturers. Dispensers must be operated and maintained such that a microbial contamination of the pump nozzle may easily be avoided. It must be possible to identify the products used in a dispenser easily and without any manipulation. Identifying the type of product, be it a hand rub or a liquid soap, as well as reading the product's name and critical manufacturers' warnings must be possible at any time. The disperser must allow identification of the level of the used product without any further manipulation at any time. The design of the dispenser must allow easy cleaning and disinfection the outside and inside of the dispenser. The manufacturer of the dispenser must provide the user with information on applicable

  2. A MEMS Flow Sensor for Self-adjusted Precise Non-Contact Liquid Dispensing

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Yaxin; Zhong Ming; Yao Yufeng

    2013-01-01

    A MEMS flow sensor was proposed to enhance the reliability and accuracy of liquid dispensing system. Benefiting from the feedback of sensor information, the system can self-adjust the open time of the solenoid vale to accurately dispensing desired reagent volume without pre-calibration. This study focuses on the design, fabrication and application of this flow sensor. Firstly, the design, fabrication and characteristics of the MEMS flow sensor based on the measurement of the pressure differen...

  3. [Quality indicators in the storage and dispensing process in a Hospital Pharmacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabuñal-Álvarez, M T; Calvin-Lamas, M; Feal-Cortizas, B; Martínez-López, L M; Pedreira-Vázquez, I; Martín-Herranz, M I

    2014-01-01

    To establish indicators for the evaluation of the quality of the storage and dispensing processes related to semiautomatic vertical (SAVCS) and horizontal (SAHCS) carousel systems. Descriptive observational study conducted between January-December 2012. Definition of quality indicators, a target value is established and an obtained value is calculated for 2012. Five quality indicators in the process of storage and dispensing of drugs were defined and calculated: indicator 1, error filling unidose trolleys: target (dispensing drugs to be assessed. Copyright © 2014 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Concomitant prescribing and dispensing errors at a Brazilian hospital: a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Dores Graciano Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the prevalence and types of prescribing and dispensing errors occurring with high-alert medications and to propose preventive measures to avoid errors with these medications. INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of adverse events in health care has increased, and medication errors are probably the most common cause of these events. Pediatric patients are known to be a high-risk group and are an important target in medication error prevention. METHODS: Observers collected data on prescribing and dispensing errors occurring with high-alert medications for pediatric inpatients in a university hospital. In addition to classifying the types of error that occurred, we identified cases of concomitant prescribing and dispensing errors. RESULTS: One or more prescribing errors, totaling 1,632 errors, were found in 632 (89.6% of the 705 high-alert medications that were prescribed and dispensed. We also identified at least one dispensing error in each high-alert medication dispensed, totaling 1,707 errors. Among these dispensing errors, 723 (42.4% content errors occurred concomitantly with the prescribing errors. A subset of dispensing errors may have occurred because of poor prescription quality. The observed concomitancy should be examined carefully because improvements in the prescribing process could potentially prevent these problems. CONCLUSION: The system of drug prescribing and dispensing at the hospital investigated in this study should be improved by incorporating the best practices of medication safety and preventing medication errors. High-alert medications may be used as triggers for improving the safety of the drug-utilization system.

  5. Concomitant prescribing and dispensing errors at a Brazilian hospital: a descriptive study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Maria das Dores Graciano; Rosa, Mário Borges; Franklin, Bryony Dean; Reis, Adriano Max Moreira; Anchieta, Lêni Márcia; Mota, Joaquim Antônio César

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the prevalence and types of prescribing and dispensing errors occurring with high-alert medications and to propose preventive measures to avoid errors with these medications. INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of adverse events in health care has increased, and medication errors are probably the most common cause of these events. Pediatric patients are known to be a high-risk group and are an important target in medication error prevention. METHODS: Observers collected data on prescribing and dispensing errors occurring with high-alert medications for pediatric inpatients in a university hospital. In addition to classifying the types of error that occurred, we identified cases of concomitant prescribing and dispensing errors. RESULTS: One or more prescribing errors, totaling 1,632 errors, were found in 632 (89.6%) of the 705 high-alert medications that were prescribed and dispensed. We also identified at least one dispensing error in each high-alert medication dispensed, totaling 1,707 errors. Among these dispensing errors, 723 (42.4%) content errors occurred concomitantly with the prescribing errors. A subset of dispensing errors may have occurred because of poor prescription quality. The observed concomitancy should be examined carefully because improvements in the prescribing process could potentially prevent these problems. CONCLUSION: The system of drug prescribing and dispensing at the hospital investigated in this study should be improved by incorporating the best practices of medication safety and preventing medication errors. High-alert medications may be used as triggers for improving the safety of the drug-utilization system. PMID:22012039

  6. Rational dispensing and use of artemether-lumefantrine during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    education on drug dispensing. Among the dispensers, 14.5% had high knowledge, 38.0% had medium knowledge and 47.5% had low knowledge on the use of ALu during pregnancy. About thirty three percent of the drug dispensers were willing to dispense ALu during the first trimester of pregnancy. Sixty two percent of the ...

  7. The Quality of Pharmacy Practice Among Dispensers in Private ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality of pharmacy practice provided by dispensers in private pharmacies was studied. Parameters used include levels of education of the dispensers, access to health information, knowledge and practice regarding dispensing of drugs to patients, and disposal of expired drugs. A total of 150 dispensers selected from ...

  8. Enzyme microarrays assembled by acoustic dispensing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, E Y; Diamond, S L

    2008-10-01

    Miniaturizing bioassays to the nanoliter scale for high-throughput screening reduces the consumption of reagents that are expensive or difficult to handle. Through the use of acoustic dispensing technology, nanodroplets containing 10 microM ATP (3 microCi/microL (32)P) and reaction buffer in 10% glycerol were positionally dispensed to the surface of glass slides to form 40-nL compartments (100 droplets/slide) for Pim1 (proviral integration site 1) kinase reactions. The reactions were activated by dispensing 4 nL of various levels of a pyridocarbazolo-cyclopentadienyl ruthenium complex Pim1 inhibitor, followed by dispensing 4 nL of a Pim1 kinase and peptide substrate solution to achieve final concentrations of 150 nM enzyme and 10 microM substrate. The microarray was incubated at 30 degrees C (97% R(h)) for 1.5 h. The spots were then blotted to phosphocellulose membranes to capture phosphorylated substrate. With phosphor imaging to quantify the washed membranes, the assay showed that, for doses of inhibitor from 0.75 to 3 microM, Pim1 was increasingly inhibited. Signal-to-background ratios were as high as 165, and average coefficients of variation for the assay were approximately 20%. Coefficients of variation for dispensing typical working buffers were under 5%. Thus, microarrays assembled by acoustic dispensing are promising as cost-effective tools that can be used in protein assay development.

  9. 78 FR 46447 - Conditional Exclusions From Solid Waste and Hazardous Waste for Solvent-Contaminated Wipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... percentile reflects the central tendency estimate of the risk distribution.\\13\\ For this analysis, the target... contaminated with the F001-F005 listed solvents.\\11\\ We estimated the potential risks from exposure to the F001... exposure. This methodology uses a probabilistic risk analysis of solvent-contaminated wipes to produce a...

  10. Patient and environmental service employee satisfaction of using germicidal bleach wipes for patient room cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronhalt, Kimberly C; McManus, James; Orenstein, Robert; Faller, Rebecca; Link, Mary

    2013-01-01

    More healthcare institutions are using bleach products which are sporicidal to reduce Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). There may be patient and employee concerns about the appearance of bleach residue left on surfaces, odors, and respiratory tract irritation. The intervention used bleach wipes for daily and terminal patient room cleaning to reduce transmission of CDI and was implemented on patient care units with a relatively high incidence of CDI. Both patients and Environmental Services (ES) staff were surveyed to assess their satisfaction of the bleach wipe product used during room cleaning. Patients (n = 94) (91%) continued to be very satisfied with how well their rooms were cleaned every day. Bleach wipes were well tolerated by patients (n = 44) (100%) surveyed on the medical units and less tolerated by patients (n = 50) (22%) on the hematology-oncology units. ES staff (6) reported less satisfaction and more respiratory irritation from using the bleach wipes; however, later their satisfaction improved. © 2012 National Association for Healthcare Quality.

  11. Putting evaporators to work: wiped film evaporator for high level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierks, R.D.; Bonner, W.F.

    1976-01-01

    At Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, a pilot scale, wiped film evaporator was tested for concentrating high level liquid wastes from Purex-type nuclear fuel recovery processes. The concentrates produced up to 60 wt-percent total solids; and the simplicity of operation and design of the evaporator gave promise for low maintenance and high reliability

  12. Separation of prescribing and dispensing in Malaysia: the history and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiong, John Jeh Lung; Mai, Chun Wai; Gan, Pou Wee; Johnson, James; Mak, Vivienne Sook Li

    2016-08-01

    This article serves as an update to the work by Shafie et al. (2012) which previously reviewed the benefits of policies separating prescribing and dispensing in various countries to advocate its implementation in Malaysia. This article seeks to strengthen the argument by highlighting not only the weaknesses of the Malaysian health care system from the historical, professional and economic viewpoints but also the shortcomings of both medical and pharmacy professions in the absence of separation of dispensing. It also provides a detailed insight into the ongoing initiatives taken to consolidate the role of pharmacists in the health care system in the advent of separation of dispensing. Under the two tier system in Malaysia at present, the separation of prescribing and dispensing is implemented only in government hospitals. The absence of this separation in the private practices has led to possible profit-oriented medical and pharmacy practices which hinder safe and cost-effective delivery of health services. The call for separation of dispensing has gained traction over the years despite various hurdles ranging from the formidable resistance from the medical fraternity to the public's scepticism towards the new policy. With historical testament and present evidence pointing towards the merits of a system in which doctors prescribe and pharmacists dispense, the implementation of this health care model is justified. © 2016 The Authors. IJPP © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  13. Effects of surface contamination and cleaning with hypochlorite wipes on the antibacterial activity of copper-alloyed antibacterial stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Takatsuna; Nishikubo, Hideyuki; Morikawa, Akifumi; Suzuki, Satoshi; Sato, Yoshihiro; Kikuchi, Yasushi

    2014-01-01

    Effects of surface contamination and cleaning with hypochlorite wipes on the antibacterial activity of copper-alloyed stainless steel were studied. The antibacterial activity of copper alloyed stainless steel decreased with the increase in the amount of surface contaminant, and the bacterial counts from specimens contaminated with a contaminant, e.g. 1.6 × 10(-2) μg/mm(2) of bovine serum albumin, were not significantly different from those from ordinary stainless steel specimens. The once contaminated surface could regain its antibacterial activity when it was sufficiently wiped clean with sterile wipes loaded with sodium hypochlorite solution.

  14. IoT for Real-Time Measurement of High-Throughput Liquid Dispensing in Laboratory Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumate, Justin; Baillargeon, Pierre; Spicer, Timothy P; Scampavia, Louis

    2018-04-01

    Critical to maintaining quality control in high-throughput screening is the need for constant monitoring of liquid-dispensing fidelity. Traditional methods involve operator intervention with gravimetric analysis to monitor the gross accuracy of full plate dispenses, visual verification of contents, or dedicated weigh stations on screening platforms that introduce potential bottlenecks and increase the plate-processing cycle time. We present a unique solution using open-source hardware, software, and 3D printing to automate dispenser accuracy determination by providing real-time dispense weight measurements via a network-connected precision balance. This system uses an Arduino microcontroller to connect a precision balance to a local network. By integrating the precision balance as an Internet of Things (IoT) device, it gains the ability to provide real-time gravimetric summaries of dispensing, generate timely alerts when problems are detected, and capture historical dispensing data for future analysis. All collected data can then be accessed via a web interface for reviewing alerts and dispensing information in real time or remotely for timely intervention of dispense errors. The development of this system also leveraged 3D printing to rapidly prototype sensor brackets, mounting solutions, and component enclosures.

  15. A Calibration-Free, Noncontact, Disposable Liquid Dispensing Cartridge Featuring an Online Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bammesberger, Stefan Borja; Malki, Imad; Ernst, Andreas; Zengerle, Roland; Koltay, Peter

    2014-08-01

    We present a noncontact liquid dispenser that uses a disposable cartridge for the calibration-free dosage of diverse biochemical reagents from the nanoliter to the microliter range. The dispensing system combines the advantages of a positive displacement syringe pump (responsible for defining the aliquot's volume with high accuracy) with a highly dynamic noncontact dispenser (providing kinetic energy to detach the liquid from the tip). The disposable, noncontact dispensing cartridge system renders elaborate washing procedures of tips obsolete. A noncontact sensor monitors the dispensing process to enable an online process control. To further increase confidence and reliability for particularly critical biomedical applications, an optional closed-loop control prevents malfunctions. The dispensing performance was characterized experimentally in the range of 0.25 to 10.0 µL using liquids of different rheological properties (viscosity 1.03-16.98 mPas, surface tension 30.49-70.83 mN/m) without adjusting or calibrating the actuation parameters. The precision ranged between a coefficient of variation of 0.5% and 5.3%, and the accuracy was below ±10%. The presented technology has the potential to contribute significantly to the improvement of biochemical liquid handling for laboratory automation in terms of usability, miniaturization, cost reduction, and safety. © 2013 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  16. [Dispensing antibiotics to outpatients in a Colombian population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Alba, Jorge E; González-Santos, Diana M

    2009-10-01

    Analysing how systemic antibiotic agents were dispensed to outpatients in a Colombian population between January 2005 and December 2006 and assessing their economic cost as antibiotic use and abuse have been related to serious bacterial resistance. This was a descriptive observational study of antibiotic drug use; a database was compiled from medication usage records maintained by dispensing pharmacies in 10 Colombian cities regarding the total of users who had received some type of antibiotic. The defined daily dose (DDD) and cost per 1,000 inhabitants/day were assessed. The commonly used antibiotic associations were analysed. DDD was 1.58 per 1,000 inhabitants per day. The antibiotics most frequently prescribed were penicillin (amoxiciline; dicloxaciline), followed by first-generation cephalosporines and sulphonamides. Injectable antibiotic use was 10.4 % in 2005 and 9.3 % in 2006; an association of anti-bacterial agents was used for 11 % of the patients. Total antibiotic dispensation cost in 2005 was US$ 1,708,350 and cost per 1,000 inhabitants per day was US$ 1.13 in 2005 and US$ 1 in 2006. DDD per 1,000 inhabitants per day and cost per inhabitant per day was low compared to other countries.

  17. An alternative direct compound dispensing method using the HP D300 digital dispenser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Raisa E; Zheng, Wei; McKew, John C; Chen, Catherine Z

    2013-10-01

    Evaluation of compound activity in vitro is crucial to drug discovery efforts and require that the compounds be accurately and reliably titrated and dispensed to the assay wells. The HP D300 dispenser uses inkjet technology to achieve small-volume dispensing that allows concentration-response testing using the direct dilution paradigm. Although inkjet technology has been long in existence, it is new to the field of screening and drug development. We have evaluated the D300 dispenser in a biochemical assay, a cell-based reporter gene assay, and a cytotoxicity assay. The software for this instrument is user friendly, and the compound-dispensing process is streamlined. However, a limitation is that this dispenser is currently applicable to only 96-well and 384-well plate formats and not to 1536-well high-density plates. Our results indicate that the D300 generates clean and reproducible results that correlate with those produced with more commonly used instruments such as the pin tool. We found that the instrument is useful and can improve the throughput of compound dispensing in 96-well and 384-well plates.

  18. Qualification of a precision pattern dispenser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ammel, Raf; Sobiech-Matura, Katarzyna; Wätjen, Uwe; Vercammen, Tom; Castelein, Pieter; Wuyts, Roel; Paul, Johan

    2018-04-01

    In order to automate sample preparation processes, a precision pattern dispenser was designed to reproducibly dispense radioactive solutions at pre-defined positions. It is composed of an automatic liquid sample handling unit coupled to an XYZ table. Qualification tests were conducted to evaluate the performance of the instrument and to assess the compliance with the requirements, in particular trueness (< 2%) and repeatability (< 1%). The instrument allows preparing sources in different source holders and on air filters, in a fast and accurate way. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. The Reliability of Swipe/Wipe Classification and Directionality Determination Methods in Bloodstain Pattern Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Sita K Y; Taylor, Michael C; Owens, Glynn; Elliot, Douglas A

    2017-07-01

    Swipe and wipe are types of transfer patterns commonly encountered at bloodied scenes. So far, there have been little published data on the reliability of evaluating these patterns. In this study, 36 bloodstain patterns were randomly assigned to 12 analysts in three separate trials, and the analysts were required to evaluate the pattern type and directionality. The results revealed that correct classifications of patterns type were problematic, with an overall error rate of 32%. Wipes created from wet bloodstains were the most difficult to identify due to the absence of signs of alteration. The directionality of swipes made with a gloved finger had a 100% success rate; however, for swipes made with cloth, the analysts mistook the direction in nearly every case, which is of significant concern, considering these are common patterns at crime scenes. This study suggested there is a need for revising the current protocols for interpretation of these pattern types. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  20. Contact dermatitis in a child from methlychloroisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone in moist wipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazandjieva, Jana; Gergovska, Malena; Darlenski, Razvigor

    2014-01-01

    Contact allergic reactions to methlychloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone also widely known as Kathon CG have been reported extensively reported. It is one of the most commonly used preservatives in rinse-off products, cosmetics, and others. Herein, a case of a 50-year-old girl is presented with chronic dermatitis in the anogenital area. The patient was patch tested and had positive reaction to Kathon CG. The detailed history taking revealed that the allergen was present in the moist cleaning wipes used instead of dry toilet paper. The presented case serves as a basis for a appraisal of the use of this preservative in wet wipes. In addition, the duration of the patch test protocol in children has also been discussed. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Evaluation of a Disinfectant Wipe Intervention on Fomite-to-Finger Microbial Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Gerardo U.; Kitajima, Masaaki; Havas, Aaron; Gerba, Charles P.; Reynolds, Kelly A.

    2014-01-01

    Inanimate surfaces, or fomites, can serve as routes of transmission of enteric and respiratory pathogens. No previous studies have evaluated the impact of surface disinfection on the level of pathogen transfer from fomites to fingers. Thus, the present study investigated the change in microbial transfer from contaminated fomites to fingers following disinfecting wipe use. Escherichia coli (108 to 109 CFU/ml), Staphylococcus aureus (109 CFU/ml), Bacillus thuringiensis spores (107 to 108 CFU/ml...

  2. Evaluation of a Push-Pull Approach for Aedes aegypti (L. Using a Novel Dispensing System for Spatial Repellents in the Laboratory and in a Semi-Field Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Obermayr

    Full Text Available The increase in insecticide resistant mosquito populations necessitates the exploration of novel vector control intervention measures. Push-pull strategies for insect control have been successful when used in integrated crop pest management. Through the combinatory use of deterring and attracting stimuli, the abundance of insect pests can be changed in a given area. A push-pull strategy might also significantly reduce human-vector contacts and augment existing mosquito control strategies, e.g. through the combination of an attractive trapping system and a potent spatial repellent. Our approach includes the BG-Sentinel (BGS trap in combination with catnip oil (Nepeta cataria, a known spatial repellent for Aedes aegypti. To impart a deterrent effect on mosquitoes at a distance, a homogenous and continuous dispersal of volatile repellent compounds is crucial. We have developed a repellent dispensing system that is easy to use and provides a homogenous dispersal of repellent in an air curtain. The use of five 9 V fans and custom-made repellent sachets containing 10% catnip essential oil created a repellent loaded air curtain that provided coverage of an area of 2 m2 (1.2 x 1.65 m. Air was sampled at four different heights in the curtain and analysed via thermal desorption (TD and consecutive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Nepetalactone, the main constituent of the oil, was detected in air at a concentration range of 80 to 100 μg/m3 and the amounts were comparable at all four sampling positions. When a human volunteer was sitting behind the repellent curtain and a BGS trap was installed in front of the curtain in laboratory push-pull trials, Ae. aegypti landing collections decreased significantly by 50% compared to repellent-free controls. However, in a semi-field environment, comparable protective effects could not be achieved and further research on suitable repellent concentrations for outdoor implementation will be required.

  3. Evaluation of a Push-Pull Approach for Aedes aegypti (L.) Using a Novel Dispensing System for Spatial Repellents in the Laboratory and in a Semi-Field Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermayr, Ulla; Ruther, Joachim; Bernier, Ulrich R; Rose, Andreas; Geier, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The increase in insecticide resistant mosquito populations necessitates the exploration of novel vector control intervention measures. Push-pull strategies for insect control have been successful when used in integrated crop pest management. Through the combinatory use of deterring and attracting stimuli, the abundance of insect pests can be changed in a given area. A push-pull strategy might also significantly reduce human-vector contacts and augment existing mosquito control strategies, e.g. through the combination of an attractive trapping system and a potent spatial repellent. Our approach includes the BG-Sentinel (BGS) trap in combination with catnip oil (Nepeta cataria), a known spatial repellent for Aedes aegypti. To impart a deterrent effect on mosquitoes at a distance, a homogenous and continuous dispersal of volatile repellent compounds is crucial. We have developed a repellent dispensing system that is easy to use and provides a homogenous dispersal of repellent in an air curtain. The use of five 9 V fans and custom-made repellent sachets containing 10% catnip essential oil created a repellent loaded air curtain that provided coverage of an area of 2 m2 (1.2 x 1.65 m). Air was sampled at four different heights in the curtain and analysed via thermal desorption (TD) and consecutive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Nepetalactone, the main constituent of the oil, was detected in air at a concentration range of 80 to 100 μg/m3 and the amounts were comparable at all four sampling positions. When a human volunteer was sitting behind the repellent curtain and a BGS trap was installed in front of the curtain in laboratory push-pull trials, Ae. aegypti landing collections decreased significantly by 50% compared to repellent-free controls. However, in a semi-field environment, comparable protective effects could not be achieved and further research on suitable repellent concentrations for outdoor implementation will be required.

  4. Chlorhexidine vaginal wipes prior to elective cesarean section: does it reduce infectious morbidity? A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Magdy R; Aref, Nisreen K; Sayed Ahmed, Waleed A; Arain, Farzana R

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of preoperative vaginal cleansing using chlorhexidine 0.25% antiseptic wipes on rates of postcesarean section (CS) infectious morbidities (endometritis, febrile morbidity and wound infection). This prospective randomized trial was conducted among 218 pregnant women scheduled for term elective CS. Patients were equally divided into two groups by simple randomization. After spinal anesthesia and catheterization under aseptic technique, the study group had preoperative vaginal cleansing using chlorhexidine 0.25% antiseptic wipes for about 1 min, while the control group did not. All cases received the prophylactic antibiotics and the usual abdominal scrub. All participants received the routine postoperative care without other interventions. Adverse postcesarean infectious morbidities such as endometritis, febrile morbidity and wound infection were observed at the time of hospital discharge and weekly for 6 weeks postpartum. Both groups were matched regarding the baseline patients' characteristics (age, gestational age, BMI, operative time and postoperative hospital stay). Overall, post-CS infectious morbidity were significantly reduced from 24.4% in the control group to 8.8% in the intervention group; p value chlorhexidine 0.25% wipes prior to elective CS appears to be effective in reducing rates of post-CS infectious morbidity mainly endometritis.

  5. Body wiping behaviors associated with cutaneous lipids in hylid tree frogs of Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeau, Tamatha R; Lillywhite, Harvey B

    2005-06-01

    Body wiping behavior, integumentary secretions and rates of evaporative water loss (EWL) were examined in six species of Florida tree frogs (Anura: Hylidae). Additionally, morphology of the integument and dermal glands were compared among these and one other Florida tree frog (Hyla andersonii), an arid-adapted tree frog (Phyllomedusa hypochondrialis), and a highly aquatic frog (Rana utricularia). An extra-epidermal layer of lipid and mucus, presumably secreted from dermal granular glands, was detected on the skin of all Florida hylid frogs examined. Distinct body wiping behaviors were observed in the hylid frogs, but these were less complex than those described previously in phyllomedusine frogs, which occupy arid habitats, secrete lipids onto their skin, and are regarded as relatively 'waterproof'. Florida hylids occupy seasonally arid habitats and appear to have reduced rates of EWL. The suite of traits we observed in these frogs have been previously documented in a rhacophorid tree frog from seasonally arid regions of India and likely represent an evolutionary convergent response to periodic dehydration stress. The presence of lipids that are spread by simple wiping behaviors to form an extra-epidermal water barrier may represent an early stage of the more advanced adaptations described in more waterproof arboreal frogs.

  6. On wiping the interior walls of 37-mm closed-face cassettes: an OSHA perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Warren; Stones, Fern; Lillquist, Dean

    2009-12-01

    As early as 1976, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) methods for analyzing metal samples collected using 37-mm polystyrene closed-face cassettes specified that any loose dust be transferred from the cassette to the digestion vessel, that the cassette be rinsed, and that, if necessary, the cassette be wiped out to help ensure that all particles that enter the cassette are included along with the filter as part of the sample for analysis. OSHA analytical methods for metal analysis were recently revised to explicitly require cassette wiping for all metal samples. This change was based on policy that any material entering the collection device constitutes part of the sample and on OSHA Salt Lake Technical Center research showing that invisible residue on the cassette walls can significantly contribute to the total sample results reported. OSHA procedures are consistent with guidance given in the NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods. This guidance concludes that internal deposits in sampling cassettes should be included in the analysis and that one way to accomplish this would be to wipe or wash the internal surfaces of the cassette and include the material along with the filter for analysis.

  7. Comparison of Lead Species in Household Dust Wipes, Soil, and Airborne Particulate Matter in El Paso, Texas, by X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingitore, N. E.; Clague, J.; Amaya, M. A.

    2006-12-01

    Understanding the interplay of indoor and outdoor sources of lead in an urban setting is one foundation in establishing risk for lead exposure in children in our cities. A household may be the source for lead contamination due to the deterioration of interior lead-based paint, or a sink if lead particles are tracked or blown into the home from such potential ambient sources as yard soil or urban street dust. In addressing this issue, X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) presents the opportunity to directly and quantitatively speciate lead at low concentrations in bulk samples. We performed XAS analyses on dust wipes from window sills or floors from 8 houses that exceeded Federal standards for lead in dust. We entered these data into a Principal Components Analysis (PCA) that also included El Paso environmental samples: lead-based paints, soils, and airborne particulate matter. A simple two-component mixing system accounted for more than 95% of the variance of this data set. Paint and lead oxide appear to be the principal components, with all the samples falling in a compositional range from pure paint to 75% paint, 25% lead oxide. Note that several different lead compounds are possible constituents of a given lead-based paint. The paints spread from one end out along perhaps a fifth of the range of the compositional axis, followed closely, but not overlapped, by the soil samples, which covered the remainder of the compositional range. Two of the dust wipes plotted within the paint range, and the remaining 6 dust wipes plotted randomly through the soil range. Samples of airborne particulate matter plotted in both the paint and soil ranges. These observations suggest that the lead on most of the dust wipes originated outside the house, probably from deteriorated exterior lead-based paint deposited in adjacent yards. This paint mixed with lead oxide present in the soil and entered the houses by the airborne route. The probable source of the oxide in the soil is former

  8. Methods for dispensing mercury into devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1987-04-28

    A process for dispensing mercury into devices which requires mercury. Mercury is first electrolytically separated from either HgO or Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 and plated onto a cathode wire. The cathode wire is then placed into a device requiring mercury.

  9. Emergency Contraceptive Pill Knowledge, Attitudes and Dispensing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... metropolis completed a questionnaire that assessed knowledge about ECP, attitude towards this contraceptive and actual dispensing practices. The results showed that the mean age of the respondents was 38.8 (10.9) years. There were more male (57.3%) than female respondents (42.7%). The overall mean knowledge ...

  10. Alcohol Dispenser Training in Amherst Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccelli, Carlene

    1986-01-01

    Reviews efforts of the Alcohol Dispenser Training program in Amherst, Massachusetts over a five-year period. Evaluations indicate that participants agree that training is worthwhile, that they are more aware of the effects of alcohol on their patrons, and that they have better knowledge of appropriate strategies for preventing intoxication of…

  11. Household Storage of Pharmaceuticals, Sources and Dispensing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The majority of drug store (53 %) and ordinary retail shop (75 %) sellers did not dispense correct doses of antimalarials due to low literacy and lack of dosage guidelines or package inserts. In order to reduce incidences of drug poisoning due to over-dosage or drug resistance due to under dosage, there is need to educate ...

  12. Dispensing and quality of Amoxycillin preparations in retail ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on dispensing practice and quality of amoxycillin capsules and syrups was conducted in retail pharmacies in 5 regions of Tanzania. Data on dispensing practice was collected by interviewing 75 dispensers through structured questionnaires. Quality of amoxycillin capsule formulations and dry powder for suspension ...

  13. 21 CFR 880.6430 - Liquid medication dispenser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquid medication dispenser. 880.6430 Section 880... Devices § 880.6430 Liquid medication dispenser. (a) Identification. A Liquid medication dispenser is a device intended for medical purposes that is used to issue a measured amount of liquid medication. (b...

  14. A cost-effective and versatile xenon gas dispenser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Joseph C; Lenz, Warren N; Reed, Terry L; McGough, Christopher G

    2005-04-01

    To modify a commercial xenon gas dispenser so that two xenon unit-dose vials could be combined with a modified dispenser to deliver a recommended dose. To maintain the same operating mechanism, changes were made only to the vial shield and the needle port of the original gas dispenser. The modified gas dispenser consisted of two puncture needles and two vial holders shielded with the same thickness of lead as the commercial dispenser. Our evaluation showed that the modified gas dispenser operated the same way as the commercial unit, and the average 133Xe residual activity in either one or two xenon unit-dose vials of the modified gas dispenser was not significantly different from that in one vial of the commercial xenon gas dispenser. The modified xenon gas dispenser allows the stock of xenon gas vials to be managed cost-effectively. The modified unit can be used to dispense two low-activity xenon gas vials to deliver a standard dose to a patient. Also, the modified gas dispenser can be used to combine different amounts of xenon activity in two unit-dose vials in order to customize the dose delivered to patients with special needs (e.g., obese patients). Our modified device can also function as a single-dose dispenser by placing an empty vial alongside the unit-dose vial of radioactive xenon gas.

  15. 21 CFR 872.3080 - Mercury and alloy dispenser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mercury and alloy dispenser. 872.3080 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3080 Mercury and alloy dispenser. (a) Identification. A mercury and alloy dispenser is a device with a spring-activated valve intended to measure and...

  16. Air, hand wipe, and surface wipe sampling for Bisphenol A (BPA) among workers in industries that manufacture and use BPA in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Cynthia J; Jackson, Matthew V; Christianson, Annette L; Clark, John C; Arnold, James E; Pretty, Jack R; Deddens, James A

    2017-11-01

    For decades, bisphenol A (BPA) has been used in making polycarbonate, epoxy, and phenolic resins and certain investment casting waxes, yet published exposure data are lacking for U.S. manufacturing workers. In 2013-2014, BPA air and hand exposures were quantified for 78 workers at six U.S. companies making BPA or BPA-based products. Exposure measures included an inhalable-fraction personal air sample on each of two consecutive work days (n = 146), pre- and end-shift hand wipe samples on the second day (n = 74 each), and surface wipe samples (n = 88). Potential determinants of BPA air and end-shift hand exposures (after natural log transformation) were assessed in univariate and multiple regression mixed models. The geometric mean (GM) BPA air concentration was 4.0 µg/m 3 (maximum 920 µg/m 3 ). The end-shift GM BPA hand level (26 µg/sample) was 10-times higher than the pre-shift level (2.6 µg/sample). BPA air and hand exposures differed significantly by industry and job. BPA air concentrations and end-shift hand levels were highest in the BPA-filled wax manufacturing/reclaim industry (GM Air = 48 µg/m 3 , GM Hand-End = 130 µg/sample) and in the job of working with molten BPA-filled wax (GM Air = 43 µg/m 3 , GM Hand-End = 180 µg/sample), and lowest in the phenolic resins industry (GM Air = 0.85 µg/m 3 , GM Hand-End = 0.43 µg/sample) and in the job of flaking phenolic resins (GM AIR = 0.62 µg/m 3 , GM Hand-End = 0.38 µg/sample). Determinants of increased BPA air concentration were industry, handling BPA containers, spilling BPA, and spending ≥50% of the shift in production areas; increasing age was associated with lower air concentrations. BPA hand exposure determinants were influenced by high values for two workers; for all other workers, tasks involving contact with BPA-containing materials and spending ≥50% of the shift in production areas were associated with increased BPA hand levels. Surface wipe BPA levels were significantly lower in

  17. Large area dispenser cathode applied to high current linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Anmin; China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang; Wu Dengxue; Liu Chenjun; Xia Liansheng; Wang Wendou; Zhang Kaizhi

    2005-01-01

    The paper introduced a dispenser cathode (411 M) which was 55 mm in diameter. A 200 kV long pulsed power generator with 2 μs flattop based on Marx-PEN and system with heat and voltage insulation were built. A 52 A space charge limited current was gained, when the temperature was 1165 degree C and the filament current was 18 A on the cathode and the voltage of the pulse was 75 kV at the cathode test stand. Experimental results show that the current values are consistent with the numerical simulation. The experiment reveals that the deflated gas will influence the cathode emission ability. (authors)

  18. Implementation of a virtual dispensing simulator to support US pharmacy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrone, Marcus; Kebodeaux, Clark; Fitzgerald, Jill; Holle, Lisa

    2017-07-01

    A key element for pharmacy practice defined by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) is medication use systems management. A web-based community pharmacy simulation originally created for Australian pharmacy students was adapted for pharmacy students in the United States (US). The objective of this study was to collaboratively adapt an existing international simulation program for utility in the US and measure student perceptions of a web-based community pharmacy simulation program in three US schools of pharmacy. An Australian development team in collaboration with US pharmacy school faculty modified the existing MyDispense software to create a virtual environment that accurately represented US community pharmacy practice. Students at three US schools of pharmacy used the newly adapted version of MyDispense and were surveyed on their prior experience in community pharmacy and their perceptions of MyDispense as a learning tool. Overall 241 (44%) students completed the satisfaction survey. Approximately 40% of these students worked in a community pharmacy before starting pharmacy school. Most students agreed or strongly agreed that MyDispense was straightforward to learn (76%), was more realistic than addressing similar paper cases (73%), and offered a learning opportunity to safely make errors (84%). Qualitative thematic analysis revealed that MyDispense allowed students to practice how to gather patient information and ask appropriate questions, counsel patients, and practice the dispensing process. Response to the US version of My Dispense is positive and proves to be a viable option for introducing and reinforcing community pharmacy practice skills to students during in their pharmacy education. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Physician drug dispensing in Switzerland: association on health care expenditures and utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trottmann, Maria; Frueh, Mathias; Telser, Harry; Reich, Oliver

    2016-07-08

    Several countries recently reassessed the roles of drug prescribing and dispensing, either by enlarging pharmacists' rights to prescribe (e.g. the US and the United Kingdom) or by limiting physicians' rights to dispense (e.g. Taiwan and South Korea). While integrating the two roles might increase supply and be convenient for patients, concern is that drug mark-ups incite providers to prescribe unnecessary drugs. We aimed to assess the association of physician dispensing (PD) in Switzerland on various outcomes. We performed a retrospective cohort study, using health care claims data for patients in the year 2013. The analysis of the association of PD was perfomed using a large patient level dataset and several target variables, including the number of different chemical agents, share of generic drugs, number of visits to physicians and expenditures. Different multivariate econometric models were applied in order to capture the association PD on the target variables. A total of 101'784 patients were enrolled in 2013, whereas 54 % were PD patients. We find that PD is associated with lower pharmaceutical expenditure per patient, which can be explained by an increased use of generic drugs. The decrease is compensated by higher use of physician services. We find no significant impact of physician dispensing on total health care expenditure. Our study offers insights for policy makers who are (re-)considering the separation between drug prescribing and dispensing, either by allowing physicians to dispense or pharmacists to prescribe certain drugs. In terms of total health care expenditures, we find no difference between the two systems, so we are doubtful that changing dispensing rights are a good measure to contain cost, at least in Switzerland.

  20. Dispensing an enzyme-conjugated solution into an ELISA plate by adapting ink-jet printers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonini, Luca; Accoto, Dino; Petroni, Silvia; Guglielmelli, Eugenio

    2008-04-24

    The rapid and precise delivery of small volumes of bio-fluids (from picoliters to nanoliters) is a key feature of modern bioanalytical assays. Commercial ink-jet printers are low-cost systems which enable the dispensing of tiny droplets at a rate which may exceed 10(4) Hz per nozzle. Currently, the main ejection technologies are piezoelectric and bubble-jet. We adapted two commercial printers, respectively a piezoelectric and a bubble-jet one, for the deposition of immunoglobulins into an ELISA plate. The objective was to perform a comparative evaluation of the two classes of ink-jet technologies in terms of required hardware modifications and possible damage on the dispensed molecules. The hardware of the two printers was modified to dispense an enzyme conjugate solution, containing polyclonal rabbit anti-human IgG labelled with HRP in 7 wells of an ELISA plate. Moreover, the ELISA assay was used to assess the functional activity of the biomolecules after ejection. ELISA is a common and well-assessed technique to detect the presence of particular antigens or antibodies in a sample. We employed an ELISA diagnostic kit for the qualitative screening of anti-ENA antibodies to verify the ability of the dispensed immunoglobulins to bind the primary antibodies in the wells. Experimental tests showed that the dispensing of immunoglobulins using the piezoelectric printer does not cause any detectable difference on the outcome of the ELISA test if compared to manual dispensing using micropipettes. On the contrary, the thermal printhead was not able to reliably dispense the bio-fluid, which may mean that a surfactant is required to modify the wetting properties of the liquid.

  1. Deterministic bead-in-droplet ejection utilizing an integrated plug-in bead dispenser for single bead-based applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hojin; Choi, In Ho; Lee, Sanghyun; Won, Dong-Joon; Oh, Yong Suk; Kwon, Donghoon; Sung, Hyung Jin; Jeon, Sangmin; Kim, Joonwon

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a deterministic bead-in-droplet ejection (BIDE) technique that regulates the precise distribution of microbeads in an ejected droplet. The deterministic BIDE was realized through the effective integration of a microfluidic single-particle handling technique with a liquid dispensing system. The integrated bead dispenser facilitates the transfer of the desired number of beads into a dispensing volume and the on-demand ejection of bead-encapsulated droplets. Single bead-encapsulated droplets were ejected every 3 s without any failure. Multiple-bead dispensing with deterministic control of the number of beads was demonstrated to emphasize the originality and quality of the proposed dispensing technique. The dispenser was mounted using a plug-socket type connection, and the dispensing process was completely automated using a programmed sequence without any microscopic observation. To demonstrate a potential application of the technique, bead-based streptavidin-biotin binding assay in an evaporating droplet was conducted using ultralow numbers of beads. The results evidenced the number of beads in the droplet crucially influences the reliability of the assay. Therefore, the proposed deterministic bead-in-droplet technology can be utilized to deliver desired beads onto a reaction site, particularly to reliably and efficiently enrich and detect target biomolecules.

  2. Use of an ultraviolet light at point-of-dispense faucet to eliminate Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerba, Charles P

    2015-05-01

    Tap water is believed to be a significant source of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in health care environments. This study evaluated an ultraviolet (UV) light point-of-dispense water treatment system for control of P aeruginosa. No P aeruginosa was detected in 30 different water dispensers in which the UV light device had been operating for 1-34 months. In comparison, P aeruginosa was found in other taps that did not feature this UV light system. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Dispensing care at the dispensing counter in the conditions of a Czech pharmacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macesková, B; Plevacová, H

    2005-03-01

    Evaluation of 108 cases when the pharmacist found a need to intervene into prescription verified the use of internationally employed system of classification of pharmaceutical interventions in the conditions of the Czech pharmacy of the basic type. The so-called dispensing care at the counter was provided by five participating pharmacists (out of seven working in the pharmacy) for a period of six months. The most frequently identified problems included: inappropriate use of medicaments--overdose, use at unsuitable time (28.7 %), a need to inform the patient (17.6 %), potentially ineffective therapy (12.9 %), drug interactions (7.4 %), suspected and potential undesirable effects of prescribed medicaments (7.4 %), and insufficient compliance (6.5 %). Solution of problems with medicaments was most frequently: a change in dosage (25.9 %), recommendation to consult the physician (24.1 %), and professional counselling on pharmacotherapy (23.1 %). The pharmacotherapeutic group identified as the one most frequently requiring a telephone consultation of the pharmacist and the physician was antibiotics, including antibacterial chemotherapeutic agents.

  4. Scanning Probe Microscope-Based Fluid Dispensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali Krishna Ghatkesar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Advances in micro and nano fabrication technologies have enabled fabrication of smaller and more sensitive devices for applications not only in solid-state physics but also in medicine and biology. The demand for devices that can precisely transport material, specifically fluids are continuously increasing. Therefore, integration of various technologies with numerous functionalities in one single device is important. Scanning probe microscope (SPM is one such device that has evolved from atomic force microscope for imaging to a variety of microscopes by integrating different physical and chemical mechanisms. In this article, we review a particular class of SPM devices that are suited for fluid dispensing. We review their fabrication methods, fluid-pumping mechanisms, real-time monitoring of dispensing, physics of dispensing, and droplet characterization. Some of the examples where these probes have already been applied are also described. Finally, we conclude with an outlook and future scope for these devices where femtolitre or smaller volumes of liquid handling are needed.

  5. Advancing microarray assembly with acoustic dispensing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, E Y; Diamond, S L

    2009-01-01

    In the assembly of microarrays and microarray-based chemical assays and enzymatic bioassays, most approaches use pins for contact spotting. Acoustic dispensing is a technology capable of nanoliter transfers by using acoustic energy to eject liquid sample from an open source well. Although typically used for well plate transfers, when applied to microarraying, it avoids the drawbacks of undesired physical contact with the sample; difficulty in assembling multicomponent reactions on a chip by readdressing, a rigid mode of printing that lacks patterning capabilities; and time-consuming wash steps. We demonstrated the utility of acoustic dispensing by delivering human cathepsin L in a drop-on-drop fashion into individual 50-nanoliter, prespotted reaction volumes to activate enzyme reactions at targeted positions on a microarray. We generated variable-sized spots ranging from 200 to 750 microm (and higher) and handled the transfer of fluorescent bead suspensions with increasing source well concentrations of 0.1 to 10 x 10(8) beads/mL in a linear fashion. There are no tips that can clog, and liquid dispensing CVs are generally below 5%. This platform expands the toolbox for generating analytical arrays and meets needs associated with spatially addressed assembly of multicomponent microarrays on the nanoliter scale.

  6. Concentrations and composition profiles of parabens in currency bills and paper products including sanitary wipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chunyang; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2014-03-15

    Parabens (alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid) are widely used as antimicrobial preservatives in personal care products, pharmaceuticals, and foodstuffs. Although parabens have been reported to be used as antimicrobials in certain types of papers (e.g., wet sanitary or hygiene wipes), little is known about the occurrence of these compounds in paper products. In this study, we determined the concentrations of six paraben analogs, methyl (MeP), ethyl (EtP), propyl (PrP), butyl (BuP), benzyl (BzP), and heptyl parabens (HepP), in 253 paper products divided into 18 categories, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). At least one of the six parabens was detected in almost all (detection rate: 98%) paper samples, and the total concentrations (∑PBs; sum of six parabens) ranged from 1.85 to 3,220,000 ng/g (geometric mean (GM): 103; median: 55.1 ng/g). Sanitary wipes contained very high concentrations of ∑PBs (GM: 8300 ng/g). Paper currencies, tickets, business cards, food cartons, flyers, and newspapers contained notable concentrations of ∑PBs, and the GM concentrations in these paper categories were on the order of a few tens to thousands of nanograms per gram. One source of parabens in paper products is the use of these chemicals as antifungal agents. MeP and PrP were the predominant analogs, accounting for approximately 62% and 16% of the total concentrations of parabens, respectively. On the basis of measured concentrations and frequency of handling of paper products, we estimated the daily intake (EDI) of parabens through dermal absorption. The GM and 95th percentile EDI values were 6.31 and 2050 ng/day, respectively, for the general population. Among the paper categories analyzed, sanitary wipes contributed to the majority (>90%) of the exposures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessment of informatization for the dispensing of medications at a university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Aparecida Dias Serafim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Informatics and automation are important tools for the reduction of work, errors and costs in a hospital pharmacy. OBJECTIVES: To describe the structuring and function of an informatized system for the dispensing of medications and to assess its effect on nursing and pharmacy services during the period from 1997 to 2003. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this descriptive and retrospective study, we performed an analysis of documents addressing the structuring and implementation of the informatized medication dispensing system. In addition, we analyzed the perceptions of nurses, pharmacists and pharmacy assistants who participated in the structuring phase of the system when interviewed about the effect of informatization on administrative aspects (e.g., requisition of medications, presentation of the dispensed medication and system operationalization. RESULTS: The major advantages provided by the new system were 1 the elimination of manual transcripts for prescribed medications, 2 increased speed, 3 better identification of the doses prescribed by physicians, 4 medication labels containing all necessary identification and 5 practicality and safety of optical bar code-based verification of the requested and dispensed medications. CONCLUSIONS: The great majority of the interviewees considered the informatized medication supply system to be of good quality. Analysis of the data provided information that could contribute to the expansion and refinement of the system, provide support for studies regarding the utilization of medications and offer new perspectives for work and productivity.

  8. Dispensing nano-pico droplets and liquid patterning by pyroelectrodynamic shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, P; Coppola, S; Grilli, S; Paturzo, M; Vespini, V

    2010-06-01

    Manipulating and dispensing liquids on the micrometre- and nanoscale is important in biotechnology and combinatorial chemistry, and also for patterning inorganic, organic and biological inks. Several methods for dispensing liquids exist, but many require complicated electrodes and high-voltage circuits. Here, we show a simple way to draw attolitre liquid droplets from one or multiple sessile drops or liquid film reservoirs using a pyroelectrohydrodynamic dispenser. Local pyroelectric forces, which are activated by scanning a hot tip or an infrared laser beam over a lithium niobate substrate, draw liquid droplets from the reservoir below the substrate, and deposit them on the underside of the lithium niobate substrate. The shooting direction is altered by moving the hot tip or laser to form various patterns at different angles and locations. Our system does not require electrodes, nozzles or circuits, and is expected to have many applications in biochemical assays and various transport and mixing processes.

  9. Results of Testing the Relative Oxidizing Hazard of Wipes and KMI Zeolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ams, Bridget Elaine [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2017-05-09

    This report includes the results from testing performed on the relative oxidizing hazard of a number of organic sorbing wipe materials, as well as KMI zeolite. These studies were undertaken to address a need by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Hazardous Materials Management group, which requires a material that can sorb small spills in a glovebox without creating a disposal hazard due to the potential for oxidation reactions, as requested in Request for Testing of Wipes and Zeolite for Los Alamos National Laboratory Hazardous Materials Group (NPl-7) (NPl-7-17-002) and Request for Testing of Chamois Material for Los Alamos National Laboratory Hazardous Materials Group (NPl-7) (NPl-7-17-005). This set oftests is a continuation of previous testing described in Results from Preparation and Testing of Sorbents Mixed with (DWT-RPT-003), which provided data for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Basis of Knowledge. The Basis of Knowledge establishes criteria for evaluating transuranic (TRU) waste that contains oxidizing chemicals.

  10. MESERAN Test Results for Elimination of Flammable Solvents in Wipe Applications at Pantex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. G. Benkovich

    2005-03-30

    In recent years, efforts have been made within the nuclear weapons complex (National Nuclear Security Administration) of the Department of Energy (DOE) to replace Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulated solvents (i.e., flammable, toxic, corrosive, and reactive) and ozone-depleting chemicals (ODC) with more benign alternatives. Within the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the Department of Defense (DoD) sectors, these solvents are used for cleaning hardware during routine maintenance operations. A primary goal of this study is to replace flammable solvents for wiping applications. Two cleaners, including a hydrofluoroether (HFE) and an azeotrope of the HFE and isopropyl alcohol (IPA), have been studied as potential replacements for flammable solvents. Cleaning efficacy, short-term and longterm materials compatibility, corrosion, drying times, flammability, environment, safety and health (ES&H) issues and accelerated aging studies are among the tests that are being conducted and that are used to screen candidate solvents by the interagency team performing this work. The results are compared to the traditionally used isopropyl alcohol, which serves as the baseline cleaner. This report details the results of MESERAN (Measurement and Evaluation of Surfaces by Evaporative Rate ANalysis) testing performed at the Kansas City Plant (KCP) to quantify the cleaning efficacy on samples contaminated with the various contaminants and cleaned by wiping with the various solvents being evaluated.

  11. Terra Firma-Forme Dermatosis in Singaporean Patients: The "Alcohol Wipe" Sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Choon Chiat; Oon, Hazel H; Ng, See Ket; Tee, Shang Ian; Jhingan, Anjali; Chong, Wei-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    The term terra firma-forme dermatosis arises from the Latin phrase terra firma , meaning dry land (dirt), thus implying dirt-like dermatosis. The authors highlight five cases of patients with terra firma-forme dermatosis presenting to our dermatology center between 2012 and 2013. All patients presented to the dermatologist for persistent reticulated brown patches on the skin. These patients ranged in age from 6 to 22 years. All patients had tried various cleansing soaps and agents but were unable to remove the patches. The condition was cosmetically unacceptable to the patients and parents. Clinically, these patients had reticulated brown patches. Rubbing 70% isopropyl alcohol wipes on the affected areas demonstrated clearance of the brown pigmented patches in all cases. The diagnosis of terra firma-forme dermatosis (TFFD) was confirmed by forceful rubbing with a gauze pad immersed in 70% isopropyl alcohol or ethyl alcohol. Patients should be reassured about the benign nature of TFFD and educated about the cleaning procedure. Recognition of this condition can assist physicians in making a diagnosis and therapy with a simple alcohol wipe, preventing further unnecessary tests for patients.

  12. In vitro prediction of in vivo skin damage associated with the wiping of dry tissue against skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, David W; Dvoracek, Barb; Vongsa, Rebecca

    2013-02-01

    The ideal gentle cleansing product is one that effectively removes soils while minimizing damage to the skin. Thus, measuring physical abrasion caused by cleansing tissues is critical to the continued development of gentle cleansing products. Current analysis of cleansing materials for skin gentleness is time consuming and requires expensive human subject testing. This report describes the development of a rapid and inexpensive bench assay for the assessment of skin abrasion caused by wiping. Coefficient of friction (COF) evaluations using bench methods were compared with results from clinical studies of repeated wiping and with confocal visualizations of excised skin. A Monitor/Slip and Friction instrument (model 32-06; TMI, Amityville, NY, USA) was used to measure tissue friction on simulated skin (Vitro-Skin, N19-5X; IMS, Milford, CT, USA). Clinical data from a 4-day repetitive forearm wiping study measuring transepidermal water loss (TEWL) in 30 subjects was compared with results from the bench top assay. In addition, excised skin samples were also treated using the COF bench assay and examined using confocal microscopy to visualize stratum corneum damage caused by wiping. Using the bench COF assay, we were able to distinguish between bath tissue codes by comparing average static friction value (ASFV) for the test codes, where lower ASFV indicated less abrasive tissue. The ASFV followed the same gentleness trend observed in the clinical study. Confocal microscopy of excised skin wiped with the same materials indicated stratum corneum damage consistent with the bench COF and clinical TEWL observations. We observed significant correlation between bench and clinical methods for measuring skin damage caused by wiping of skin with tissue. The bench method will facilitate rapid and inexpensive skin gentleness assessment of cleansing materials. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. A Simulated Learning Environment for Teaching Medicine Dispensing Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Jenny; Styles, Kim; Sewell, Keith; Trinder, Peta; Marriott, Jennifer; Maher, Sheryl; Naidu, Som

    2016-02-25

    To develop an authentic simulation of the professional practice dispensary context for students to develop their dispensing skills in a risk-free environment. A development team used an Agile software development method to create MyDispense, a web-based simulation. Modeled on virtual learning environments elements, the software employed widely available standards-based technologies to create a virtual community pharmacy environment. Assessment. First-year pharmacy students who used the software in their tutorials, were, at the end of the second semester, surveyed on their prior dispensing experience and their perceptions of MyDispense as a tool to learn dispensing skills. The dispensary simulation is an effective tool for helping students develop dispensing competency and knowledge in a safe environment.

  14. Skin care in the NICU patient: effects of wipes versus cloth and water on stratum corneum integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, Marty; Odio, Mauricio; Taylor, Teresa; White, Tamina; Sargent, Shelly; Sluder, Linda; Smith, Louise; Flower, Teresa; Mason, Beth; Rider, Maureen; Huebner, Amy; Bondurant, Pattie

    2009-01-01

    NICU patients are at risk of skin breakdown due to prematurity, irritant exposure, medical status and stress. There is a need to minimize damage, facilitate skin development and reduce infection risk, but the literature on the effects of skin care practices in NICU patients is limited. To test the hypothesis that baby diaper wipes with emollient cleansers and a soft cloth would minimize skin compromise relative to cloth and water. In 130 NICU infants (gestational age 23-41 weeks, at enrollment 30-51 weeks), measurements of skin condition, i.e., skin erythema, skin rash, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and surface acidity (pH), within the diaper and at diaper and chest control sites were determined daily for 5-14 days using standardized methods. Treatments were randomly assigned based on gestational age and starting skin irritation score: wipe A, wipe B, and the current cloth and water NICU standard of care. Perineal erythema and TEWL were significantly lower for wipes A and B than cloth and water beginning at day 5 for erythema (scores of 1.11 +/- 0.05, 1.2 +/- 0.05, and 1.4 +/- 0.06, respectively) and day 7 for TEWL (28.2 +/- 1.6, 28.8 +/- 1.6, and 35.2 +/- 1.6 g/m(2)/h, respectively). Wipe B produced a significantly lower skin pH (day 5, 5.47 +/- 0.03) than wipe A (5.71 +/- 0.03) and cloth and water (5.67 +/- 0.04). The starting skin condition, stool total, age and time on current standard impacted the outcomes. Both wipes are appropriate for use on medically stable NICU patients, including both full and preterm infants, and provide more normalized skin condition and barrier function versus the cloth and water standard. Wipe B may facilitate acid mantle development and assist in colonization, infection control and barrier repair. Neonatal skin continues to change for up to 8 weeks postnatally, presumably as it adapts to the dry extra-uterine environment. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Disease Propagation Analysis and Mitigation Strategies for Effective Mass Dispensing*

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Eva K; Chen, Chien H; Pietz, Ferninand; Benecke, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Mass dispensing of medical countermeasures has been proven to be an effective and crucial means to contain the outbreak of highly infectious disease. The large influx of individuals to the point-of dispensing (POD) centers to receive vaccinations or prophylactic treatment, however, raises the potential risk of serious intra-facility cross-infections. To mitigate the effect, a thorough understanding of how disease propagates during the dispensing under different transmission parameters versus ...

  16. Prescription, dispensation and marketing patterns of methylphenidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perini, Edson; Junqueira, Daniela Rezende Garcia; Lana, Lorena Gomes Cunha; Luz, Tatiana Chama Borges

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the patterns and legal requirements of methylphenidate consumption. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study of the data from prescription notification forms and balance lists of drugs sales – psychoactive and others – subject to special control in the fifth largest city of Brazil, in 2006. We determined the defined and prescribed daily doses, the average prescription and dispensation periods, and the regional sales distribution in the municipality. In addition, we estimated the costs of drug acquisition and analyzed the individual drug consumption profile using the Lorenz curve. RESULTS The balance lists data covered all notified sales of the drug while data from prescription notification forms covered 50.6% of the pharmacies that sold it, including those with the highest sales volumes. Total methylphenidate consumption was 0.37 DDD/1,000 inhabitants/day. Sales were concentrated in more developed areas, and regular-release tablets were the most commonly prescribed pharmaceutical formulation. In some regions of the city, approximately 20.0% of the prescriptions and dispensation exceeded 30 mg/day and 30 days of treatment. CONCLUSIONS Methylphenidate was widely consumed in the municipality and mainly in the most developed areas. Of note, the consumption of formulations with the higher abuse risk was the most predominant. Both its prescription and dispensation contrasted with current pharmacotherapeutic recommendations and legal requirements. Therefore, the commercialization of methylphenidate should be monitored more closely, and its use in the treatment of behavioral changes of psychological disorders needs to be discussed in detail, in line with the concepts of the quality use of medicines. PMID:26039389

  17. Quantitative Analysis of Organophosphate and Pyrethroid Insecticides, PyrethroidTransformation Products, Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Bisphenol A in Residential Surface Wipe Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface wipe sampling is a frequently used technique for measuring persistent pollutants in residential environments. One characteristic of this form of sampling is the need to extract the entire wipe sample to achieve adequate sensitivity and to ensure representativeness. Most s...

  18. Dispensation fra CFC-reglerne for selskaber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Peter Koerver

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen, der er fagfællebedømt, omhandler dispensationsbestemmelsen i SEL § 32, stk. 2, 2-4 pkt, hvorefter Skatterådet kan tillade, at indkomsten i et datterselskab med koncession til at udøve forskellig økonomisk virksomhed ikke skal være omfattet af reglerne om CFC-beskatning. I den forbindels...... analyseres de betingelser, som skal opfyldes for at opnå dispensation på baggrund af nyere administrativ praksis. Der ses på de danske CFC-reglers anvendelsesområde i den henseende....

  19. Dispenser printed electroluminescent lamps on textiles for smart fabric applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Marc; Torah, Russel; Tudor, John

    2016-04-01

    Flexible electroluminescent (EL) lamps are fabricated onto woven textiles using a novel dispenser printing process. Dispenser printing utilizes pressurized air to deposit ink onto a substrate through a syringe and nozzle. This work demonstrates the first use of this technology to fabricate EL lamps. The luminance of the dispenser printed EL lamps is compared to screen-printed EL lamps, both printed on textile, and also commercial EL lamps on polyurethane film. The dispenser printed lamps are shown to have a 1.5 times higher luminance than the best performing commercially available lamp, and have a comparable performance to the screen-printed lamps.

  20. 21 CFR 866.2500 - Microtiter diluting and dispensing device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2500... a mechanical device intended for medical purposes to dispense or serially dilute very small...

  1. Dispenser printed electroluminescent lamps on textiles for smart fabric applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vos, Marc; Torah, Russel; Tudor, John

    2016-01-01

    Flexible electroluminescent (EL) lamps are fabricated onto woven textiles using a novel dispenser printing process. Dispenser printing utilizes pressurized air to deposit ink onto a substrate through a syringe and nozzle. This work demonstrates the first use of this technology to fabricate EL lamps. The luminance of the dispenser printed EL lamps is compared to screen-printed EL lamps, both printed on textile, and also commercial EL lamps on polyurethane film. The dispenser printed lamps are shown to have a 1.5 times higher luminance than the best performing commercially available lamp, and have a comparable performance to the screen-printed lamps. (paper)

  2. Close up of the glue dispenser. The white lines on the green frames are theapplied glue.

    CERN Multimedia

    Bernd Surrow

    1999-01-01

    The gantry motion control along with the pneumatic glue dispenser system allows precise control of the amount of glue applied to theframe. The glue is a special room temperature cure silicone basedglue chosen to minimize surface stresses on the silicon sensors dueto differential temperature contraction.

  3. Prescription habits of dispensing and non-dispensing doctors in Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trap, Birna; Hansen, Ebba Holme; Hogerzeil, Hans V

    2002-01-01

    , race, place of education, location of practice and patients seen per day showed that dispensing by doctors was associated with less clinically and economically appropriate prescribing. These findings suggest that the quality of health care--as related to drug use, patient safety and treatment cost...

  4. Analysis of costs to dispense prescriptions in independently owned, closed-door long-term care pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Norman V; Rupp, Michael T; Holdford, David A

    2014-03-01

    developed to examine the impact of shorter dispensing cycles on LTC pharmacies' CTD. A prescription volume increase of 19% was assumed based on converting only solid oral branded drugs to short-cycle dispensing. A diverse sample of 64 closed-door LTC pharmacies returned usable surveys. Sales from dispensing to LTC facilities accounted for more than 98% of total sales. Respondents indicated that they currently dispensed 23% of total doses in 14-day-or-less cycles and 76% in 28-31 day cycles. Most pharmacies used automated medication packaging technology, heat and cold package sealers, bar code systems, sterile compounding hoods, LTC printers or labelers, and electronic prescribing. The median CTD was $13.54 with an interquartile range (25th to 75th percentiles) of $10.51 to $17.66. More than half of dispensing-related costs were from personnel expense, of which pharmacists and managers accounted for more than 40%. The results of the fixed and variable cost modeling suggested that converting solid oral brand-name drugs from 30-day to 14-day dispensing cycles would lower the median per prescription CTD to between $11.63 and $12.54, depending on the assumptions made about the effects of semivariable costs. However, this decrease in per prescription dispensing cost is dwarfed by an increase in total dispensing cost incurred by pharmacies that results from doubling the monthly volume of short-cycle prescriptions that must be dispensed. The result is that the typical LTC pharmacy in our sample incurred a CTD of $13.54 if the medication is dispensed in a 30-day cycle or $23.26 if the medication is dispensed in two 14-day cycles (at a cost of $11.63 for each cycle dispensed). Our results indicated a median CTD of $13.54 for the typical independently owned, closed-door LTC pharmacy. Moving to a shorter cycle would reduce pharmacies' average per-prescription CTD but would increase the number of prescriptions dispensed per month. Our results indicated that transitioning solid oral

  5. Upgraded Technology for Contingent Stimulation of Mouth Wiping by Two Persons with Drooling and Profound Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Pichierri, Sabrina; Oliva, Doretta

    2009-01-01

    Many persons with developmental and physical disabilities experience drooling (i.e., loss of saliva from the mouth). Technology was recently developed to help two of these persons reduce the negative effects of drooling by increasing mouth-wiping responses. This study upgraded our initial approach and tested it with the two persons who we…

  6. Three-Dimensional Flow Modeling of a Self-wiping Corotating Twin-Screw Extruder. Part I : The Transporting Section

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goffart, D.; Wal, D.J. van der; Klomp, E.M.; Hoogstraten, H.W.; Janssen, L.P.B.M.; Breysse, L.; Trolez, Y.

    1996-01-01

    A three-dimensional modeling of the transporting elements in a self-wiping corotating twin-screw extruder has been carried out by using the finite element package Sepran. This simulation uses the 3D geometry of the channel rolled over the twin-screw, which consists of the intermeshing and normal

  7. THE SELF-WIPING CO-ROTATING TWIN-SCREW EXTRUDER AS A POLYMERIZATION REACTOR FOR METHACRYLATES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed, H.A.; Kiewiet, J.A.; van Dijk, J.H.; Janssen, L.P.B.M.

    1995-01-01

    The self-wiping co-rotating twin-screw extruder was studied as a reactor for two polymerizations in bulk: the homopolymerization of n-butylmethacrylate and the copolymerization of n-butylmethacrylate with 2-hydroxypropylmethacrylate. The influence of the extrusion parameters on the product was

  8. Potential Allergens in Disposable Diaper Wipes, Topical Diaper Preparations, and Disposable Diapers: Under-recognized Etiology of Pediatric Perineal Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, JiaDe; Treat, James; Chaney, Keri; Brod, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis in young children may be an under-recognized cause of perineal dermatitis. The diapered infant skin is uniquely susceptible to allergic contact dermatitis because of more permeable neonatal skin, a moist environment, frequent contact with irritants and resultant skin barrier breakdown, and exposure to topical products such as diaper wipes, diaper preparations, and disposable diapers. To our knowledge, potential allergens in these products have not been thoroughly catalogued or studied. We explore and review potential allergenic ingredients in diaper wipes, topical diaper preparations, and disposable diapers. We analyzed 63 diaper wipes, 41 topical diaper preparations, and the 3 top selling diaper brands available from two of the largest retailers in the United States. Each potential allergen is discussed, and epidemiologic studies of rates of sensitization to potential allergens in children are also reported. Botanical extracts, including members of the Compositae family, were the most commonly represented potential allergen in both diaper wipes and topical preparations. Other potential allergens identified with high frequency include α-tocopherol, fragrances, propylene glycol, parabens, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, and lanolin. Frequent culprits such as formaldehyde releasers and methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone were not prevalent in our analyzed products.

  9. Performance of a wiped film evaporator with simulated high level waste slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierks, R.D.; Bonner, W.F.

    1975-01-01

    The horizontal, reverse taper, wiped film evaporator that was evaluated demonstrated a number of positive characteristics with respect to its applicability in the solidification of nuclear fuel recovery process wastes. Foremost among these is its ability to remove the bulk (80 to 90 percent) of the liquid associated with any of the purex-type high level, intermediate level, or mixed waste slurries. The major disadvantage of the evaporator is its current inability to discharge a product that is low enough in liquid content to avoid sticking to the evaporator discharge nozzle. Also, while the indirect indications of the torque required to turn the rotor and the power drawn by the drive motor are indicative of the liquid content of the discharged product, no reliable correlation has been found to cover all of the possible flow rates and feed stock compositions that the evaporator may be required to handle. In addition, no reliable means has been found to indicate the presence or absence of product flow through the discharge nozzle. The lack of a positive means of moving the product concentrate out of the evaporator and into a high temperature receiver is an undesirable feature of the evaporator. Pulverized glass former, or frit, was added to the evaporator feedstock in a ratio of frit to metal oxides of 2 to 1, and the resulting mixture successfully evaporated to a concentrate containing about 50 percent solids. In general, the performance of the wiped film evaporator evaluated was favorable for its use in a nuclear waste fixation process, however further development of the rotor design, power input, and operating techniques will be required to produce a free flowing solid product

  10. Anthelmintic drug dispensing in South Africa: An analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More than two billion people worldwide are infected with helminths. The primary aim of the study was to evaluate the dispensing patterns of anthelmintic products using dispensing data of South African community pharmacies. A retrospective, cross-sectional drug utilisation study was conducted on a 2013 community ...

  11. Impact of Robotic Dispensing Machines in German Pharmacies on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To assess the impact of robotic dispensing machines in community pharmacies on staff efficiency and sales of over-the-counter drugs. Setting: The study was done on 253 community pharmacies in Germany that use a robotic dispensing machine manufactured by ROWA during 2008. Method: Data concerning the financial ...

  12. Dispensing of vitamin products by retail pharmacies in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design and setting: A retrospective drug utilisation study was conducted on community pharmacy electronic dispensing records in South Africa recorded in 2013. ... (A11CC01) was the most often dispensed (37.48% of all vitamin products), followed by plain Vitamin B-complex products (A11EA00) accounting for 32.77%.

  13. Dispensing patterns of prescription-only antiobesity preparations in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate the dispensing patterns of prescription-only antiobesity preparations in South Africa (classified as Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) group A08). Design: Retrospective, cross-sectional drug utilisation study using electronic dispensing records. Setting: Private sector ...

  14. Ocular Hazards in Ophthalmic Dispensing Industry in South East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of ocular hazards in ophthalmic dispensing industry in south east Nigeria was carried out using 70 subjects drawn from different towns in the region. Tables were used to analyze the data obtained from his study. Results showed that ocular hazards are involved in ophthalmic dispensing depending on the ...

  15. 21 CFR 200.50 - Ophthalmic preparations and dispensers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic preparations and dispensers. 200.50 Section 200.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... preparations and dispensers. (a)(1) Informed medical opinion is in agreement that all preparations offered or...

  16. Evaluation and remediation of bulk soap dispensers for biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Lindsey A; Ramsay, Bradley D; Goeres, Darla M; Fields, Matthew W; Zapka, Carrie A; Macinga, David R

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies evaluating bulk soap in public restroom soap dispensers have demonstrated up to 25% of open refillable bulk-soap dispensers were contaminated with ~ 6 log(10)(CFU ml(-1)) heterotrophic bacteria. In this study, plastic counter-mounted, plastic wall-mounted and stainless steel wall-mounted dispensers were analyzed for suspended and biofilm bacteria using total cell and viable plate counts. Independent of dispenser type or construction material, the bulk soap was contaminated with 4-7 log(10)(CFU ml(-1)) bacteria, while 4-6 log(10)(CFU cm(-2)) biofilm bacteria were isolated from the inside surfaces of the dispensers (n = 6). Dispenser remediation studies, including a 10 min soak with 5000 mg l(-1) sodium hypochlorite, were then conducted to determine the efficacy of cleaning and disinfectant procedures against established biofilms. The testing showed that contamination of the bulk soap returned to pre-test levels within 7-14 days. These results demonstrate biofilm is present in contaminated bulk-soap dispensers and remediation studies to clean and sanitize the dispensers are temporary.

  17. 14 CFR 137.39 - Economic poison dispensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Economic poison dispensing. 137.39 Section... AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.39 Economic poison dispensing. (a) Except as provided in... economic poison that is registered with the U.S. Department of Agriculture under the Federal Insecticide...

  18. Dispensing patterns of prescription-only antiobesity preparations in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ilse Truter

    dispensing database of approximately 54 million records dispensed by 327 community pharmacies in South Africa in 2013. A community pharmacy refers to pharmacies from which some, or all, of the services as prescribed in terms of regulation 18 of the. Regulations Relating to the Practice of Pharmacy in the Pharmacy.

  19. Trends in radiopharmaceutical dispensing in a regional nuclear pharmacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basmadjian, G.P.; Johnston, J.; Barker, K.; Ice, R.D.

    1982-01-01

    Dispensing trends for radiopharmaceuticals at a regional nuclear pharmacy over a 51-month period were studied. dispensing records of a regional nuclear pharmacy were analyzed with a forecasting procedure that uses univariate time data to produce time trends and autoregressive models. The overall number of prescriptions increased from 3500 to 5500 per quarter. Radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear cardiology studies increased from less than 0.1% to 17.5% of total prescriptions dispensed, while radiopharmaceuticals used for brain imaging showed a steady decline from 29% to 11% of total prescriptions dispensed. The demand for other radiopharmaceuticals increased in areas such as renal studies, bone studies, lung studies, liver-function studies, and 67 Ga tumor-uptake studies, and declined slightly for static liver studies. Changes in dispensing trends for radiopharmaceuticals will continue as the practice of nuclear medicine concentrates more on functional studies and as newer imaging techniques become used for other purposes

  20. Hospital pharmacy practice in Saudi Arabia: Dispensing and administration in the Riyadh region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsultan, Mohammed S; Khurshid, Fowad; Mayet, Ahmed Y; Al-Jedai, Ahmed H

    2012-10-01

    There is very little published data assessing hospital pharmacy practice in Saudi Arabia. Hence, a comprehensive survey has been undertaken to evaluate hospital pharmacy services of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Recently, we published the survey results on the prescribing and transcribing steps of the medication use process. This paper focuses on dispensing and administration. A modified-American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) survey questionnaire was personally delivered to the pharmacy directors of 48 hospitals in the Riyadh region. Three attempted follow-ups were made within 3 months to non-responders and the surveys were collected upon completion. The survey was conducted using similar methods to those of the ASHP surveys. Twenty-nine hospitals participated in the survey with a response rate of 60.4%. Centralized distribution (74%) is the most commonly used model for inpatient pharmacies. Overall, 21% of hospitals routinely use bar coding technology in medication dispensing. None of the hospitals are using a robotic distribution system to automate the dispensing of unit doses. Automated dispensing cabinets (ADCs) are used by 21% of hospitals as part of their decentralized distribution model. Sixty-one percent of hospital pharmacies have IV admixture preparation area in their facility. In the use of safety technology for medication administration, only one third of hospitals are using electronic medication administration records (eMARs), 7.4% had bar-code-assisted medication administration (BCMA) and 12% had smart infusion pumps. Hospital pharmacies in the Riyadh region are fairly well developed in providing dispensing and administration services. Further improvement can be achieved by increasing the use of new technologies such as bar-code technology, unit dose drug distribution systems, pharmacy-based IV admixture services, smart infusion pumps, and automated medication distribution.

  1. International Space Station USOS Potable Water Dispenser On-Orbit Functionality Versus Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Lovell, Randal W.

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) currently provides potable water dispensing for rehydrating crewmember food and drinking packages. There is one system located in the United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) and one system in the Russian Segment. Shuttle mission STS-126 delivered the USOS Potable Water Dispenser (PWD) to ISS on ULF2; subsequent activation occurred on November 2008. The PWD is capable of supporting an ISS crew of six, but nominally supplies only half this crew size. The PWD design provides incremental quantities of hot and ambient temperature potable water to US food and beverage packages. PWD receives iodinated water from the US Water Recovery System (WRS) Fuel Cell Water Bus, which feeds from the Water Processing Assembly (WPA). The PWD removes the biocidal iodine to make the water potable prior to dispensing. A heater assembly contained within the unit supplies up to 2.0 L of hot water (65 to 93 ?C) every 30 min. During a single meal, this quantity of water supports three to four crewmembers? food rehydration and beverages. The unit design has a functional life expectancy of 10 years, with replacement of limited life items, such as filters. To date, the PWD on-orbit performance is acceptable. Since activation of the PWD, there were several differences between on-orbit functionality and expected performance of hardware design. The comparison of on-orbit functionality to performance of hardware design is discussed for the following key areas: 1) microbial contamination, 2) no-dispense and water leakage scenarios, and 3) under-dispense scenarios.

  2. An automatic molecular dispenser of chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibrandi, Giuseppe; Amendola, Valeria; Bergamaschi, Greta; Dollenz, Riccardo; Fabbrizzi, Luigi; Licchelli, Maurizio; Lo Vecchio, Carmelo

    2013-03-11

    The combined activity of the 1.1.1-cryptand and of a dicopper(II) bistren cryptate complex including chloride makes the Cl(-) ion be continuously and slowly delivered to the solution, without any external intervention. The 1.1.1-cryptand slowly releases OH(-) ions, according to a defined kinetics, and each OH(-) ion displaces a Cl(-) ion from the cryptate. Chloride displacement induces a sharp colour change from bright yellow to aquamarine and can be conveniently monitored spectrophotometrically, even in diluted solutions. The 1.1.1-cryptand is the motor of a molecular dispenser (the dicopper(II) cryptate) delivering chloride ion automatically, from the inside of the solution. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Role of surface energy and nano-roughness in the removal efficiency of bacterial contamination by nonwoven wipes from frequently touched surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nicholas W M; Best, Emma L; Connell, Simon D; Goswami, Parikshit; Carr, Chris M; Wilcox, Mark H; Russell, Stephen J

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare associated infections (HCAIs) are responsible for substantial patient morbidity, mortality and economic cost. Infection control strategies for reducing rates of transmission include the use of nonwoven wipes to remove pathogenic bacteria from frequently touched surfaces. Wiping is a dynamic process that involves physicochemical mechanisms to detach and transfer bacteria to fibre surfaces within the wipe. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which systematic changes in fibre surface energy and nano-roughness influence removal of bacteria from an abiotic polymer surface in dry wiping conditions, without liquid detergents or disinfectants. Nonwoven wipe substrates composed of two commonly used fibre types, lyocell (cellulosic) and polypropylene, with different surface energies and nano-roughnesses, were manufactured using pilot-scale nonwoven facilities to produce samples of comparable structure and dimensional properties. The surface energy and nano-roughness of some lyocell substrates were further adjusted by either oxygen (O 2 ) or hexafluoroethane (C 2 F 6 ) gas plasma treatment. Static adpression wiping of an inoculated surface under dry conditions produced removal efficiencies of between 9.4% and 15.7%, with no significant difference ( p  nonwoven wipe substrates with a surface energy closest to that of the contaminated surface produced the highest E. coli removal efficiency, while the associated increase in fibre nano-roughness abrogated this trend with S. aureus and E. faecalis .

  4. International Space Station USOS Potable Water Dispenser On-Orbit Functionality vs Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Lovell, Randal W.

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) currently provides potable water dispensing for rehydrating crewmembers food and drinking packages with one system located in the United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) and one system in the Russian Segment. The USOS Potable Water Dispenser (PWD) was delivered to ISS on ULF2, Shuttle Mission STS-126, and was subsequently activated in November 2008. The PWD activation on ISS is capable of supporting an ISS crew of six but nominally supplies only half the crew. The PWD is designed to provide incremental quantities of hot and ambient temperature potable water to US style food packages. PWD receives iodinated water from the US Laboratory Fuel Cell Water Bus, which is fed from the Water Processing Assembly (WPA). The PWD removes the biocidal iodine to make the water potable prior to dispensing. A heater assembly contained within the unit supplies up to 2.0 liters of hot water (65 to 93oC) every thirty minutes. This quantity supports three to four crewmembers to rehydrate their food and beverages from this location during a single meal. The unit is designed to remain functional for up to ten years with replacement of limited life items such as filters. To date, the PWD on-orbit performance has been acceptable. Since activation of the PWD, there have been several differences between on-orbit functionality and expected performance of hardware design. The comparison of on-orbit functionality to performance of hardware design is outlined for the following key areas: microbiology, PWD to food package water leakage, no-dispense scenarios, under-dispense scenarios, and crewmember feedback on actual on-orbit use.

  5. Dispensing errors and counseling quality in 100 pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Elizabeth A; Barker, Kenneth N; Berger, Bruce A; Lloyd, Kimberly Braxton; Brackett, Patrick D

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the dispensing accuracy and counseling provided in community chain pharmacies. Cross-sectional study. Community chain pharmacies in large metropolitan areas of Florida, Georgia, New Jersey, and New York. Community chain pharmacies and trained shoppers. Trained shoppers presented a new prescription order for one of five study drugs to each randomly selected pharmacy, and all encounters with pharmacy staff were recorded on video by ABC News 20/20 staff using hidden cameras. Dispensing errors on prescriptions for selected medications were the indicator of prescription dispensing accuracy. Frequency of verbal counseling and information categories discussed or included in written information were used to assess the quality of counseling. Of 100 prescriptions dispensed, 22 had one or more deviation from the physician's written order, for a 22% dispensing error rate. Three of the errors were judged to be potentially harmful when dispensed to a typical patient requiring these therapies. A total of 43 shoppers (43%) received verbal counseling, including 16 cases in which the shopper prompted counseling. All shoppers received written information with their prescription, covering an average of 90% of the required topics. Some 68% of the warfarin shoppers purchased aspirin without the pharmacist verbally warning about taking the drugs simultaneously. The dispensing error rate of more than one in five prescriptions is similar to the rate found in a similar study conducted 14 years ago, but counseling frequency has decreased significantly during the period.

  6. Decentralized automated dispensing devices: systematic review of clinical and economic impacts in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Nicole W; Lo, Clifford; Babich, Michele; Shah, Kieran; Bansback, Nick J

    2014-03-01

    Technologies have been developed over the past 20 years to automate the stages of drug distribution in hospitals, including ordering, dispensing, delivery, and administration of medications, in attempts to decrease medication error rates. Decentralized automated dispensing devices (ADDs) represent one such technology that is being adopted by hospitals across Canada, but the touted benefits, in terms of improved patient safety and cost savings, are increasingly being questioned. To summarize and evaluate the existing literature reporting the clinical and economic impacts of using decentralized ADDs in hospitals. A literature search was conducted in MEDLINE, Embase, and all evidence-based medicine databases for the years 1992 to 2012 to identify English-language articles reporting on the use of ADDs in hospital wards. All randomized controlled trials, observational studies, before-and-after studies, time series analyses, cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analyses, and review articles were considered for inclusion. Studies evaluating pharmacy-based ADDs, such as bar code-based medication dispensing carousels, automated dispensing shelves, and combinations of various dispensing modalities, were excluded. Of 175 studies initially identified, 8 were retained for evidence synthesis. It appears that ADDs were effective in reducing medication storage errors and the time that nurses spent taking inventory of narcotics and controlled substances. There was no definitive evidence that using ADDs increased the time that nurses or pharmacists spent with patients, reduced medication errors resulting in patient harm, or reduced costs in Canadian hospitals. However, pharmacy technicians spent more time stocking the machines. ADDs have limited potential to decrease medication errors and increase efficiencies, but their impact is highly institution-specific, and use of this technology requires proper integration into an institution's medication distribution process. Before deploying

  7. Miniature-dispenser-based bioassay to evaluate the compatibility of powder formulations used in an entomovectoring approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommaerts, Veerle; Put, Kurt; Vandeven, Jessica; Smagghe, Guy

    2012-06-01

    Entomovectoring as a plant protection strategy demands the design of an appropriate bioassay to assess the risks of potential side effects of the powder formulations in the dispenser towards the vectoring insect. This study reports on the development of a laboratory miniature-dispenser-based bioassay. This bioassay system was used to investigate the compatibility of five model products, Prestop-Mix, Signum, kaolin, wheat flour and cellulose, with the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris L. The laboratory one-way miniature-dispenser bioassay showed that the fungicides and the carrier/diluent kaolin caused a worker mortality of > 70% after 5 weeks of exposure, while worker loss with wheat flour and cellulose was no higher than in the blank control (i.e. empty miniature dispenser) (dispenser bioassay comprised separated passageways and demonstrated that only kaolin was toxic (89 ± 11%). These results were also confirmed in a flight-cage experiment. In addition, a negative effect was observed against reproduction/colony development when nests were exposed to kaolin (P dispenser and flight-cage bioassays. In the context of entomovectoring technology, the developed laboratory two-way miniature-dispenser bioassay gives a reliable prediction of the hazards associated with powder products. Additionally, the present data indicate the possibility of using cellulose and kaolin as respective negative and positive control carriers/diluents in future risk assessment experiments. Overall, the results show that, apart from kaolin, the tested fungicides and carriers/diluents are safe to be used with B. terrestris. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. A new microfluidics-based droplet dispenser for ICPMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verboket, Pascal E; Borovinskaya, Olga; Meyer, Nicole; Günther, Detlef; Dittrich, Petra S

    2014-06-17

    In this work, a novel droplet microfluidic sample introduction system for inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) is proposed and characterized. The cheap and disposable microfluidic chip generates droplets of an aqueous sample in a stream of perfluorohexane (PFH), which is also used to eject them as a liquid jet. The aqueous droplets remain intact during the ejection and can be transported into the ICP with >50% efficiency. The transport is realized via a custom-built system, which includes a membrane desolvator necessary for the PFH vapor removal. The introduction system presented here can generate highly monodisperse droplets in the size range of 40-60 μm at frequencies from 90 to 300 Hz. These droplets produced very stable signals with a relative standard deviation (RSD) comparable to the one achieved with a commercial droplet dispenser. Using the current system, samples with a total volume of <1 μL can be analyzed. Moreover, the capabilities of the setup for introduction and quantitative elemental analysis of single cells were described using a test system of bovine red blood cells. In the future, other modules of the modern microfludics can be integrated in the chip, such as on-chip sample pretreatment or parallel introduction of different samples.

  9. Identification of risks associated with the prescribing and dispensing of oral anticancer medicines in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hammond, Lisa

    2012-09-09

    Background Oral anticancer medicines (OAM) facilitate transfer of cancer care into the community, where safeguards developed in hospitals that control their prescribing, dispensing and administration may not exist. Objective To determine if the systems of prescribing and dispensing OAM in Ireland facilitate clinical verification of the prescription, thereby ensuring treatment is tailored and appropriate for the patient. Setting Randomly selected community pharmacies in Ireland and all Irish hospitals with cancer services. Method A questionnaire was sent to a random selection of Irish community pharmacists. A different questionnaire was sent to all Irish hospitals treating cancer patients. One hundred OAM prescriptions were retrospectively reviewed, to assess the information presented and the potential barriers to a community pharmacist performing a clinical verification of the prescription. Main outcome measure Community pharmacist survey: problems experienced when dispensing OAM and risk factors identified with the current system. Hospital pharmacist survey: proportion of hospitals that clinically verify prescriptions for parenteral versus oral anticancer medicines and associated policies. OAM prescription review: proportion of OAM prescriptions that contained sufficient information for a community pharmacist to clinically verify the prescription and safely dispense the medication. Results Sixty-four percent of community pharmacist respondents felt they did not have enough information available to them to safely dispense these prescriptions, and 74 % felt that patients are at risk with the current Irish system of prescribing and dispensing OAM. Irish hospitals do not have systems to ensure that all OAM prescriptions are clinically verified by a pharmacist. Seventeen different agents were prescribed on the prescriptions reviewed. The information provided to the community pharmacist would have allowed them to clinically verify 7 % of the OAM prescriptions

  10. Wipe sampling for nicotine as a marker of thirdhand tobacco smoke contamination on surfaces in homes, cars, and hotels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Penelope J E; Matt, Georg E; Chatfield, Dale; Zakarian, Joy M; Fortmann, Addie L; Hoh, Eunha

    2013-09-01

    Secondhand smoke contains a mixture of pollutants that can persist in air, dust, and on surfaces for months or longer. This persistent residue is known as thirdhand smoke (THS). Here, we detail a simple method of wipe sampling for nicotine as a marker of accumulated THS on surfaces. We analyzed findings from 5 real-world studies to investigate the performance of wipe sampling for nicotine on surfaces in homes, cars, and hotels in relation to smoking behavior and smoking restrictions. The intraclass correlation coefficient for side-by-side samples was 0.91 (95% CI: 0.87-0.94). Wipe sampling for nicotine reliably distinguished between private homes, private cars, rental cars, and hotels with and without smoking bans and was significantly positively correlated with other measures of tobacco smoke contamination such as air and dust nicotine. The sensitivity and specificity of possible threshold values (0.1, 1, and 10 μg/m(2)) were evaluated for distinguishing between nonsmoking and smoking environments. Sensitivity was highest at a threshold of 0.1 μg/m(2), with 74%-100% of smoker environments showing nicotine levels above threshold. Specificity was highest at a threshold of 10 μg/m(2), with 81%-100% of nonsmoker environments showing nicotine levels below threshold. The optimal threshold will depend on the desired balance of sensitivity and specificity and on the types of smoking and nonsmoking environments. Surface wipe sampling for nicotine is a reliable, valid, and relatively simple collection method to quantify THS contamination on surfaces across a wide range of field settings and to distinguish between nonsmoking and smoking environments.

  11. What Attitudes Could Influence Antibiotic Dispensing without Prescription?

    OpenAIRE

    Roque, Fátima; Soares, Sara; Breitenfeld, Luiza; Figueiras, Adolfo; Herdeiro, Maria Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Excessive and inappropriate use of antibiotics, are attributed to inadequate prescription and self-medication with antibiotics obtained from leftovers from previous courses or self-medication with antibiotics dispensed in pharmacies without prescription.

  12. Taste masked thin films printed by jet dispensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoutaris, Nikolaos; Snowden, Martin; Douroumis, Dennis

    2015-10-30

    Taste masking of bitter active substances is an emerging area in the pharmaceutical industry especially for paediatric/geriatric medications. In this study we introduce the use of jet dispensing as a taste masking technology by printing mucosal thin films of three model bitter substances, Cetirizine HCl, Diphenylhydramine HCl and Ibuprofen. The process was used to dispense aqueous drugs/polymer solutions at very high speed where eventually the drugs were embedded in the polymer matrix. The in vivo evaluation of jet-dispensed mucosal films showed excellent taste masking for drug loadings from 20 to 40%. Jet dispensing was proved to make uniform, accurate and reproducible thin films with excellent content uniformity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Controllable evaporation of cesium from a dispenser oven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantz, U; Friedl, R; Fröschle, M

    2012-12-01

    This instrument allows controlled evaporation of the alkali metal cesium over a wide range of evaporation rates. The oven has three unique features. The first is an alkali metal reservoir that uses a dispenser as a cesium source. The heating current of the dispenser controls the evaporation rate allowing generation of an adjustable and stable flow of pure cesium. The second is a blocking valve, which is fully metallic as is the body of the oven. This construction both reduces contamination of the dispenser and enables the oven to be operated up to 300 °C, with only small temperature variations (dispenser oven can be easily transferred to the other alkali-metals.

  14. Foreign private capital inflows in Nigeria's democratic dispensation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FPCI) in Nigeria in the current democratic dispensation with a view to finding out whether the inflows have recorded significant increase since the institution of Democracy in the country. Relevant theories and empirical data were reviewed.

  15. 46 CFR 105.90-1 - Existing commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Existing commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum... AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Existing Commercial Fishing Vessels Dispensing Petroleum Products § 105.90-1 Existing commercial fishing vessels dispensing...

  16. Open Loop Heat Pipe Radiator Having a Free-Piston for Wiping Condensed Working Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Leonard M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An open loop heat pipe radiator comprises a radiator tube and a free-piston. The radiator tube has a first end, a second end, and a tube wall, and the tube wall has an inner surface and an outer surface. The free-piston is enclosed within the radiator tube and is capable of movement within the radiator tube between the first and second ends. The free-piston defines a first space between the free-piston, the first end, and the tube wall, and further defines a second space between the free-piston, the second end, and the tube wall. A gaseous-state working fluid, which was evaporated to remove waste heat, alternately enters the first and second spaces, and the free-piston wipes condensed working fluid from the inner surface of the tube wall as the free-piston alternately moves between the first and second ends. The condensed working fluid is then pumped back to the heat source.

  17. Taste masked thin films printed by jet dispensing

    OpenAIRE

    Scoutaris, Nikolaos; Snowden, Martin; Douroumis, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Taste masking of bitter active substances is an emerging area in the pharmaceutical industry especially for paediatric/geriatric medications. In this study we introduce the use of jet – dispensing as a taste masking technology by printing mucosal thin films of three model bitter substances, Cetirizine HCl, Diphenylhydramine HCl and Ibuprofen. The process was used to dispense aqueous drugs/polymer solutions at very high speed where eventually the drugs were embedded in the polymer matrix. The ...

  18. Dispensing by the community pharmacist: an unstoppable decline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D

    1988-12-01

    After posing the question ;Is your chemist really necessary?' this article demonstrates that the original role of the retail chemist - the preparation and safe dispensing of medicines - has become eroded. Furthermore, it is shown that the proposed new community roles are currently being carried out by other members of the primary care team. Finally, it is argued that the retail pharmacist may not give value for money and that doctor dispensing is a less expensive and safer alternative.

  19. Digital Imaging and Piezo-dispenser Actuator in Automatic Flocculation Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani TOMPERI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an image-based on-line control system for a coiled pipe flocculator. A digital imaging technique developed previously is utilized to measure the characteristic floc size and a high-pressure piezo-dispenser is introduced for accurate dosing and rapid mixing of the flocculant. The controller is a conventional PI controller. Step change experiments on feed water quality, flow rate and desired floc size have been carried out for controller tuning and testing. The paper shows that the piezo-dispenser provides better flocculation results than a conventional dosing pump, and the flocculation result can be automatically controlled even when the feed water quality rapidly changes. The proposed flocculator is a simple, inexpensive and practical system for long-term laboratory tests to investigate the functionality of flocculants on varying feed waters.

  20. A Review of the Anthropometric Characteristics, Grading and Dispensation of Junior and Youth Rugby Union Players in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Declan Alexander; McIntosh, Andrew Stuart; Denny, Greg

    2016-08-01

    The grading of Australian junior and youth rugby union players has received substantial media attention in recent years. Media reports have focussed on size mismatches observed between players, especially players with Polynesian heritage, and the concerned parents who fear for the safety of their child owing to perceived mismatches. Although such concerns are well meaning, few media reports recognise the need for substantial evidence to determine the best grading system for junior and youth rugby union players. The current study reviewed relevant literature pertinent to the grading and dispensation of junior and youth rugby union players. Using primary and secondary search strategies, a total of 33 articles reporting the anthropometric characteristics of junior and youth rugby players were identified. Anthropometric data from the literature were compared with normative population data and currently used dispensation criteria. Junior and youth rugby players were found to be taller and heavier than normative population data. Current dispensation criteria, in terms of body mass, were found to vary and it is suggested that criteria be revised and standardised across rugby unions throughout Australia. Although it is acknowledged that other factors are important for grading players, anthropometric characteristics should be considered as potential dispensation criteria to supplement current age-based grading for junior and youth rugby union players. Measuring the body mass and stature of each junior player upon pre-season registration is suggested, which would provide data to establish valid dispensation criteria for the following season.

  1. Computer vision-based automatic beverage dispenser prototype for user experience studies

    OpenAIRE

    Merchán, Fernando; Valderrama, Elba; Poveda, Martín

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents several aspects of the implementation of a prototype of automatic beverage dispenser with computer vision functionalities. The system presents touchless technologies including face recognition for user identification and hand gesture recognition for beverage selection. This prototype is a test platform to explore the acceptance of these technologies by consumers and to compare it with other technologies such as touch screens. We present both the technical aspects of the de...

  2. Surface dust wipes are the best predictors of blood leads in young children with elevated blood lead levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulson, Brian, E-mail: brian.gulson@mq.edu.au [Graduate School of the Environment, Macquarie University, North Ryde NSW 2109 (Australia); CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering, North Ryde NSW 2113 (Australia); Anderson, Phil [Information and Statistics Group, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia); Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia); Taylor, Alan [Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109 (Australia)

    2013-10-15

    Background: As part of the only national survey of lead in Australian children, which was undertaken in 1996, lead isotopic and lead concentration measurements were obtained from children from 24 dwellings whose blood lead levels were ≥15 µg/dL in an attempt to determine the source(s) of their elevated blood lead. Comparisons were made with data for six children with lower blood lead levels (<10 µg/dL). Methods: Thermal ionisation and isotope dilution mass spectrometry were used to determine high precision lead isotopic ratios ({sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb, {sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb) and lead concentrations in blood, dust from floor wipes, soil, drinking water and paint (where available). Evaluation of associations between blood and the environmental samples was based on the analysis of individual cases, and Pearson correlations and multiple regression analyses based on the whole dataset. Results and discussion: The correlations showed an association for isotopic ratios in blood and wipes (r=0.52, 95% CI 0.19–0.74), blood and soil (r=0.33, 95% CI −0.05–0.62), and blood and paint (r=0.56, 95% CI 0.09–0.83). The regression analyses indicated that the only statistically significant relationship for blood isotopic ratios was with dust wipes (B=0.65, 95% CI 0.35–0.95); there were no significant associations for lead concentrations in blood and environmental samples. There is a strong isotopic correlation of soils and house dust (r=0.53, 95% CI 0.20–0.75) indicative of a common source(s) for lead in soil and house dust. In contrast, as with the regression analyses, no such association is present for bulk lead concentrations (r=−0.003, 95% CI −0.37–0.36), the most common approach employed in source investigations. In evaluation of the isotopic results on a case by case basis, the strongest associations were for dust wipes and blood. -- Highlights: • Children with elevated blood lead ≥15 µg/dL compared with a group with <10

  3. Surface dust wipes are the best predictors of blood leads in young children with elevated blood lead levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulson, Brian; Anderson, Phil; Taylor, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Background: As part of the only national survey of lead in Australian children, which was undertaken in 1996, lead isotopic and lead concentration measurements were obtained from children from 24 dwellings whose blood lead levels were ≥15 µg/dL in an attempt to determine the source(s) of their elevated blood lead. Comparisons were made with data for six children with lower blood lead levels ( 208 Pb/ 206 Pb, 207 Pb/ 206 Pb and 206 Pb/ 204 Pb) and lead concentrations in blood, dust from floor wipes, soil, drinking water and paint (where available). Evaluation of associations between blood and the environmental samples was based on the analysis of individual cases, and Pearson correlations and multiple regression analyses based on the whole dataset. Results and discussion: The correlations showed an association for isotopic ratios in blood and wipes (r=0.52, 95% CI 0.19–0.74), blood and soil (r=0.33, 95% CI −0.05–0.62), and blood and paint (r=0.56, 95% CI 0.09–0.83). The regression analyses indicated that the only statistically significant relationship for blood isotopic ratios was with dust wipes (B=0.65, 95% CI 0.35–0.95); there were no significant associations for lead concentrations in blood and environmental samples. There is a strong isotopic correlation of soils and house dust (r=0.53, 95% CI 0.20–0.75) indicative of a common source(s) for lead in soil and house dust. In contrast, as with the regression analyses, no such association is present for bulk lead concentrations (r=−0.003, 95% CI −0.37–0.36), the most common approach employed in source investigations. In evaluation of the isotopic results on a case by case basis, the strongest associations were for dust wipes and blood. -- Highlights: • Children with elevated blood lead ≥15 µg/dL compared with a group with <10 µg/dL. • High precision lead isotopic ratios in blood, house dust wipes, soil, water, paint. • Associations for isotopic measures of blood and dust, blood and

  4. Construction of a Smart Medication Dispenser with High Degree of Scalability and Remote Manageability

    OpenAIRE

    Pak, JuGeon; Park, KeeHyun

    2012-01-01

    We propose a smart medication dispenser having a high degree of scalability and remote manageability. We construct the dispenser to have extensible hardware architecture for achieving scalability, and we install an agent program in it for achieving remote manageability. The dispenser operates as follows: when the real-time clock reaches the predetermined medication time and the user presses the dispense button at that time, the predetermined medication is dispensed from the medication dispens...

  5. Fabrication method of low f-number microlens arrays by using surface coating and epoxy dispensing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei; Pei, Jing; Pan, Long-fa; Zappe, Hans

    2014-04-01

    We describe a fabrication method for arrays of microlenses of low f-number by using a surface coating and dispensing technology. We demonstrate how to achieve a low f-number by selectively changing the surface wettability, as well as how to precisely control the f-number through control of the dispensing time. This advance enables the fabrication of arrays of microlenses with diameters varying from 400 to 1400 μm, f-number as low as 0.95. In addition, the optical performance tests indicate that this method is suitable for high performance microlens array fabrication. This dispensing technology may be low cost and allow fast fabrication of high-speed microlens arrays, and may thus be particularly useful for biologically inspired advanced optical systems.

  6. ASHP national survey of pharmacy practice in hospital settings: dispensing and administration--2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Craig A; Schneider, Philip J; Scheckelhoff, Douglas J

    2012-05-01

    Results of the 2011 ASHP national survey of pharmacy practice in hospital settings that pertain to dispensing and administration are presented. A stratified random sample of pharmacy directors at 1401 general and children's medical-surgical hospitals in the United States were surveyed by mail. In this national probability sample survey, the response rate was 40.1%. Decentralization of the medication-use system continues, with 40% of hospitals using a decentralized system and 58% of hospitals planning to use a decentralized model in the future. Automated dispensing cabinets were used by 89% of hospitals, robots were used by 11%, carousels were used in 18%, and machine-readable coding was used in 34% of hospitals to verify doses before dispensing. Overall, 65% of hospitals had a United States Pharmacopeia chapter 797 compliant cleanroom for compounding sterile preparations. Medication administration records (MARs) have become increasingly computerized, with 67% of hospitals using electronic MARs. Bar-code-assisted medication administration was used in 50% of hospitals, and 68% of hospitals had smart infusion pumps. Health information is becoming more electronic, with 67% of hospitals having partially or completely implemented an electronic health record and 34% of hospitals having computerized prescriber order entry. The use of these technologies has substantially increased over the past year. The average number of full-time equivalent staff per 100 occupied beds averaged 17.5 for pharmacists and 15.0 for technicians. Directors of pharmacy reported declining vacancy rates for pharmacists. Pharmacists continue to improve medication use at the dispensing and administration steps of the medication-use system. The adoption of new technology is changing the philosophy of medication distribution, and health information is rapidly becoming electronic.

  7. Effect on skin hydration of using baby wipes to clean the napkin area of newborn babies: assessor-blinded randomised controlled equivalence trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavender Tina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some national guidelines recommend the use of water alone for napkin cleansing. Yet, there is a readiness, amongst many parents, to use baby wipes. Evidence from randomised controlled trials, of the effect of baby wipes on newborn skin integrity is lacking. We conducted a study to examine the hypothesis that the use of a specifically formulated cleansing wipe on the napkin area of newborn infants ( Methods A prospective, assessor-blinded, randomised controlled equivalence trial was conducted during 2010. Healthy, term babies (n = 280, recruited within 48 hours of birth, were randomly assigned to have their napkin area cleansed with an alcohol-free baby wipe (140 babies or cotton wool and water (140 babies. Primary outcome was change in hydration from within 48 hours of birth to 4 weeks post-birth. Secondary outcomes comprised changes in trans-epidermal water loss, skin surface pH and erythema, presence of microbial skin contaminants/irritants at 4 weeks and napkin dermatitis reported by midwife at 4 weeks and mother during the 4 weeks. Results Complete hydration data were obtained for 254 (90.7 % babies. Wipes were shown to be equivalent to water and cotton wool in terms of skin hydration (intention-to-treat analysis: wipes 65.4 (SD 12.4 vs. water 63.5 (14.2, p = 0.47, 95 % CI -2.5 to 4.2; per protocol analysis: wipes 64.6 (12.4 vs. water 63.6 (14.3, p = 0.53, 95 % CI -2.4 to 4.2. No significant differences were found in the secondary outcomes, except for maternal-reported napkin dermatitis, which was higher in the water group (p = 0.025 for complete responses. Conclusions Baby wipes had an equivalent effect on skin hydration when compared with cotton wool and water. We found no evidence of any adverse effects of using these wipes. These findings offer reassurance to parents who choose to use baby wipes and to health professionals who support their use. Trial registration Current Controlled

  8. Slow Release of Plant Volatiles Using Sol-Gel Dispensers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, L; Sun, X L; Cai, X M; Chen, Z M

    2014-12-01

    The black citrus aphid, also known as the tea aphid, (Toxoptera aurantii Boyer) attacks economically important crops, including tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze). In the current study, silica sol-gel formulations were screened to find one that could carry and release C. sinensis plant volatiles to lure black citrus aphids in a greenhouse. The common plant volatile trans-2-hexen-1-al was used as a model molecule to screen for suitable sol-gel formulations. A zNose (Electronic Sensor Technology, Newbury Park, CA) transportable gas chromatograph was used to continuously monitor the volatile emissions. A sol-gel formulation containing tetramethyl orthosilicate and methyltrimethoxysilane in an 8:2 (vol:vol) ratio was selected to develop a slow-release dispenser. The half-life of trans-2-hexen-1-al in the sol-gel dispenser increased slightly with the volume of this compound in the dispenser. Ten different volatiles were tested in the sol-gel dispenser. Alcohols of 6-10 carbons had the longest half-lives (3.01-3.77 d), while esters of 6-12 carbons had the shortest (1.53-2.28 d). Release of these volatiles from the dispensers could not be detected by the zNose after 16 d (cis-3-hexenyl acetate) to 26 d (3,7-dimethylocta-1,6-dien-3-ol). In greenhouse experiments, trans-2-hexen-1-al and cis-3-hexen-1-ol released from the sol-gel dispensers attracted aphids for ≍17 d, and release of these volatiles could not be detected by the zNose after ≍24 d. The sol-gel dispensers performed adequately for the slow release of plant volatiles to trap aphids in the greenhouse. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  9. Risk models to improve safety of dispensing high-alert medications in community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Michael R; Smetzer, Judy L; Westphal, John E; Comden, Sharon Conrow; Horn, Donna M

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether sociotechnical probabilistic risk assessment can create accurate approximations of detailed risk models that describe error pathways, estimate the incidence of preventable adverse drug events (PADEs) with high-alert medications, rank the effectiveness of interventions, and provide a more informative picture of risk in the community pharmacy setting than is available currently. Developmental study. 22 community pharmacies representing three U.S. regions. Model-building group: six pharmacists and three technicians. Model validation group: 11 pharmacists; staff at two pharmacies observed. A model-building team built 10 event trees that estimated the incidence of PADEs for four high-alert medications: warfarin, fentanyl transdermal systems, oral methotrexate, and insulin analogs. Validation of event tree structure and incidence of defined PADEs with targeted medications. PADEs with the highest incidence included dispensing the wrong dose/strength of warfarin as a result of data entry error (1.83/1,000 prescriptions), dispensing warfarin to the wrong patient (1.22/1,000 prescriptions), and dispensing an inappropriate fentanyl system dose due to a prescribing error (7.30/10,000 prescriptions). PADEs with the lowest incidence included dispensing the wrong drug when filling a warfarin prescription (9.43/1 billion prescriptions). The largest quantifiable reductions in risk were provided by increasing patient counseling (27-68% reduction), conducting a second data entry verification process during product verification (50-87% reduction), computer alerts that can't be bypassed easily (up to 100% reduction), opening the bag at the point of sale (56% reduction), and use of barcoding technology (almost a 100,000% increase in risk if technology not used). Combining two or more interventions resulted in further overall reduction in risk. The risk models define thousands of ways process failures and behavioral elements combine to lead to PADEs. This level of

  10. Antiviral effects of polyphenols: development of bio-based cleaning wipes and filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catel-Ferreira, Manuella; Tnani, Hédia; Hellio, Claire; Cosette, Pascal; Lebrun, Laurent

    2015-02-01

    Polyphenol molecules play multiple essential roles in plant physiology such as defences against plant-pathogens and micro-organisms. The present study reports a chemical modification of the surface of non-woven cellulosic fibre filters (Kimwipes(®)) by fixing polyphenol in order to confer them antiviral properties. The grafting of the non-woven fibres by the antiviral entity was performed using laccase. T4D bacteriophage virus of Escherichia coli B was used as virus model. Catechin polyphenol was tested as antiviral entity. Proteomic experiments were performed to quantify the potential protein target of catechin on viruses. When the modified filter was in contact with the viral suspension a large improvement in the reduction of the viral concentration was observed (5-log after 1h). Thus, we propose that this material could be used as virucidal wipes for the virus elimination from contaminated surfaces. Virus filtration experiments were performed by spraying an aerial suspension of T4D bacteriophage virus through the designed filter. The best virus capture factor f (ratio of upstream to downstream virus contents) was obtained when using 2 functionalized filters (f=2.9×10(3)). When these 2 layers were placed inside a commercial medical mask in place of its cellulose layer (Kolmi M24001 mask) (f=3.5×10(4)), the f ratio then reached 2.6×10(5) for 2h of filtration. Based on these results, this novel bio-based antiviral mask represents a significant improvement over conventional medical masks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhanced Adherence in Patients Using an Automated Home Medication Dispenser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Charles; Schweighardt, Anne; Conn, Kelly M; Nelson, Dallas; Barbano, Richard; Marshall, Frederick; Brown, Jack

    2017-07-24

    Many factors contribute to medication nonadherence including psychological and memory disorders, aging, and pill burden. The Automated Home Medication Dispenser (AHMD) is a medication management system intended to help solve unintentional medication nonadherence. The purpose of this study was to determine if use of the AHMD improved medication adherence. We conducted a 6-month prospective, feasibility study assessing use of the AHMD in 21 patient-caregiver dyads. Patients were referred by their physician because of poor medication adherence and included if they resided in Rochester, NY and on at least two medications in pill form. Pill counts were performed at baseline to assess previous adherence. Prospective medication adherence was assessed using AHMD recorded dosing information. A paired t-test was used to compare previous and prospective adherence. The mean age of patients was 75.1 years. Fifteen patients (71.4%) and eight caregivers (38.1%) were women; half (47.6%) of caregivers lived with the patient. The most common patient comorbidities were hypertension (76.2%) and memory disorder (61.9%). Mean adherence increased from 49.0% at baseline to 96.8% after 6 months of AHMD use (p < .001). In a cohort of unintentionally nonadherent patients, use of the AHMD for 6 months significantly improved medication adherence.

  12. 21 CFR 1300.04 - Definitions relating to the dispensing of controlled substances by means of the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEFINITIONS § 1300.04 Definitions relating to the dispensing of controlled..., which comprise the interconnected worldwide network of networks that employ the Transmission Control... telecommunications system referred to in section 1834(m) of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1395m(m)), which...

  13. Prospective encounter study of the degree of adherence to patient care indicators related to drug dispensing in Health Care facilities: A Sri Lankan perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukshmy Menik Hettihewa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization-recommended patient care indicators in Government Hospitals were assessed in 422 patients attending the Outpatient Department in selected hospitals of the Galle district in Southern Province. The average dispensing time (ADT, percentage of drugs actually dispensed (PDAD, percentage of drugs adequately labeled (PDAL and patient′s knowledge on correct dosage (PKCD were compared in these selected teaching hospitals (TH, general hospitals (GHs and district hospitals (DHs in Galle. ADT in DH (1.16 min and GH (1.07 min were high when compared with ADT in TH (0.81 min. PDAD was 100% in DH, 97.79% in GH and lowest in TH (94.64%. PDAL was highest (22.66% in TH, 17.57% in GH and lowest in DH (1.57%. PKCD was 100% in GH and lowest in DH (0% and only 50% in TH in Galle district. We noted that there was a significant difference in ADT in all three categories (P < 0.05. We noted that dispensers spend only a short dispensing time and showed a tendency for dispensing errors. We found that PDAL was very low in all hospitals but PDAD was significantly high. Even though the ADT was high in DH, PKCD was 0% due to negligence in dispensing practices. We also noted a 100% PKCD only in GH due to the practice of a well-prepared correct labeling system in GH. We noticed that these patients were provided drugs with inadequate labeling and that patients had only a poor knowledge about the drug administration schedule. We conclude that there was a low dispenser-patient ratio in all three hospitals and that there was a need for an implementation plan for proper dispensing techniques by introducing a well-prepared drug labeling system in a printed format.

  14. Control of chaotic vibration in automotive wiper systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zheng; Chau, K.T.

    2009-01-01

    Chaotic vibration has been identified in the automotive wiper system at certain wiping speeds. This irregular vibration not only decreases the wiping efficiency, but also degrades the driving comfort. The purpose of this paper is to propose a new approach to stabilize the chaotic vibration in the wiper system. The key is to employ the extended time-delay feedback control in such a way that the applied voltage of the wiper motor is online adjusted according to its armature current feedback. Based on a practical wiper system, it is verified that the proposed approach can successfully stabilize the chaotic vibration, and provide a wide range of wiping speeds

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - LEAD IN DUST WIPE MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGY, PALINTEST, SCANNING ANALYZER , SA-5000 SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    ETV works in partnership with recognized standards and testing organizations and stakeholder groups consisting of regulators, buyers, and vendor organizations, with the full participation of individual technology developers. The program evaluates the performance of innovative

  16. 49 CFR 571.104 - Standard No. 104; Windshield wiping and washing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 2 of the applicable table following subparagraph S4.1.2.1 and (2) is within the area bounded by a perimeter line on the glazing surface 25 millimeters from the edge of the daylight opening. S4.1.2.1Areas A... 1966, using the angles specified in Columns 3 through 6 of Table I, II, III, or IV, as applicable...

  17. A pilot study of the efficacy of wipes containing chlorhexidine 0.3%, climbazole 0.5% and Tris-EDTA to reduce Malassezia pachydermatis populations on canine skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavana, Paola; Peano, Andrea; Petit, Jean-Yanique; Tizzani, Paolo; Perrot, Sébastien; Bensignor, Emmanuel; Guillot, Jacques

    2015-08-01

    Wipes containing chlorhexidine and azole derivates have been recommended for veterinary use. No study has been published about their activity against Malassezia pachydermatis. To evaluate the in vivo and in vitro activity of wipes soaked in a chlorhexidine, climbazole and Tris-EDTA solution against Malassezia pachydermatis. Five research colony shar-pei dogs. Wipes were applied once daily onto the left axilla, left groin and perianal area (protocol A), and twice daily on the right axilla, right groin and umbilical region (protocol B) for 3 days. In vivo activity was evaluated by quantifying Malassezia colonies through contact plates on the selected body areas before and after wipe application. The activity of the solution in which the wipes were soaked was assessed in vitro by contact tests following the European Standard UNI EN 1275 guidelines. Samples collected after wipe application showed a significant and rapid reduction of Malassezia yeast CFU. No significant difference in the Malassezia reduction was found between protocols A and B. In vitro assay showed 100% activity against Malassezia yeasts after a 15 min contact time with the wipe solution. Wipes containing chlorhexidine, climbazole and Tris-EDTA substantially reduced the M. pachydermatis population on the skin of dogs. The results, although this was an uncontrolled study performed on a small number of dogs, suggest that these wipes may be useful for topical therapy of Malassezia dermatitis involving the lips, paws, perianal area and skin folds. © 2015 ESVD and ACVD.

  18. Simple narcotic kits for controlled-substance dispensing and accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, J R; Levy, D A; Eagle, C J

    1994-04-01

    Operating rooms require a storage, dispensing and accounting system for restricted drugs which satisfies narcotics control authorities and is compatible with efficient care of patients. We describe narcotic kits containing fentanyl-morphine-midazolam, alfentanil-midazolam and sufentanil-midazolam, for general operating rooms, and two kits with larger quantities of fentanyl and sufentanil for cardiac operating rooms. The container for each kit is a video cassette holder which has a foam-rubber liner with sculpted depressions for each ampoule. Sealed kits are delivered each morning from pharmacy to the locked narcotics cupboard in the recovery room. On request, the recovery room nurse unlocks the cupboard and the anaesthetist signs out the required kit(s) for the day. A drug utilization form is enclosed with each kit, on which the anaesthetist records the amount of drug administered to each patient, and before returning the kit to the locked narcotics cupboard, the total amount of each drug used, discarded, and returned. Used kits are collected the following morning by a pharmacy technician who reconciles the contents and drug form of each kit. More than 40 staff anaesthetists and a similar number of residents have used the system for seven years, during which time 130,000 patients have passed through the operating rooms. Detection of one case of drug diversion by a staff anaesthetist was made partly by the control system, but mainly by behavioural changes. The system is simple, inexpensive, and effective and has been well received by the departments of pharmacy, anaesthesia, and nursing.

  19. Measurement and analysis of thermal photoemission from a dispenser cathode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin L. Jensen

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Photocathodes for free electron lasers (FELs are required to produce nano-Coulomb pulses in picosecond time scales with demonstrable reliability, lifetime, and efficiency. Dispenser cathodes, traditionally a rugged and long-lived thermionic source, are under investigation to determine their utility as a photocathode and have shown promise. The present study describes theoretical models under development to analyze experimental data from dispenser cathodes and to create predictive time-dependent models to predict their performance as an FEL source. Here, a steady-state model of a dispenser cathode with partial coverage of a low work function coating and surface nonuniformity is developed. Quantitative agreement is found for experimental data, especially with regard to temperature, field, laser intensity, and quantum efficiency versus laser wavelength dependence. In particular, for long wavelength incident lasers of sufficient intensity, the majority of the absorbed energy heats the electron gas and background lattice, and photoemission from the heated electron distribution constitutes the emitted current.

  20. [Survey on the microbial pollution of pure water in water dispenser and its disinfection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X; Li, X; Lu, B; Zhou, S

    2001-11-01

    The counts of bacteria, total coliforms and fungi of pure water in the water dispensers were detected and the regular pattern of bacterial reproduction in water were studied after the dispensers and water were disinfected. The results showed the bacterial pollution in the water dispensers was serious and the bacteria counts increased with the time of using dispensers lasted. The disinfectant could killed effectively the bacteria in the water sources but it could not control the new bacteria polluted and reproduced while the water dispensers were in use. It was suggested that the bacteria polluted from air should be prevented by taking effective methods and selecting appropriate organic materials for making dispensers.

  1. Thermal inkjet application in the preparation of oral dosage forms: dispensing of prednisolone solutions and polymorphic characterization by solid-state spectroscopic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meléndez, Peter A; Kane, Kevin M; Ashvar, Claudine S; Albrecht, Mary; Smith, Pamela A

    2008-07-01

    The utility of thermal inkjet (TIJ) technology for preparing solid dosage forms of drugs was examined. Solutions of prednisolone in a solvent mixture of ethanol, water, and glycerol (80/17/3 by volume) were dispensed onto poly(tetrafluoroethylene)-coated fiberglass films using TIJ cartridges and a personal printer and using a micropipette for comparison. The post-dried, TIJ-dispensed samples were shown to contain a mixture of prednisolone Forms I and III based on PXRD analyses that were confirmed by Raman analyses. The starting commercial material was determined to be Form I. Samples prepared by dispensing the solution from a micropipette initially showed only Form I; subsequent Raman mapping of these samples revealed the presence of two polymorphs. Raman mapping of the TIJ-dispensed samples also showed both polymorphs. The results indicate that the solvent mixture used in the dispensing solution combined with the thermal treatment of the samples after dispensing were likely the primary reason for the generation of the two polymorphs. The advantages of using a multidisciplinary approach to characterize drug delivery systems are demonstrated using solid state mapping techniques. Both PXRD and Raman spectroscopy were needed to fully characterize the samples. Finally, this report clarifies prednisolone's polymorphic nomenclature existent in the scientific literature.

  2. Dispensing of non-prescribed antibiotics in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almaaytah A

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ammar Almaaytah,1 Tareq L Mukattash,2 Julia Hajaj2 1Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, 2Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan Objective: Current regulations in Jordan state that antibiotics cannot be sold without a medical prescription. This study aimed to assess the percentage of pharmacies that dispense antibiotics without a medical prescription in the Kingdom of Jordan and identify and highlight the extent and seriousness of such practices among Jordanian pharmacies. Methods: A prospective study was performed, and five different clinical scenarios were simulated at pharmacies investigated including sore throat, otitis media, acute sinusitis, diarrhea, and urinary tract infection in childbearing-aged women. Three levels of demand were used to convince the pharmacists to sell an antibiotic. Results: A total of 202 total pharmacies in Jordan were visited in the present study. The majority of pharmacies (74.3% dispensed antibiotics without prescription with three different levels of demand. The percentage of pharmacies dispensing antibiotics without a prescription for the sore throat scenario was 97.6%, followed by urinary tract infection (83.3%, diarrhea (83%, and otitis media (68.4%. The lowest percentage of antibiotic dispensing was for the acute sinusitis simulation at 48.5%. Among the pharmacies that dispensed antibiotics, the pharmacists provided an explanation as the number of times per day the drug should be taken in 95.3% of the cases, explained the duration of treatment in 25.7%, and inquired about allergies prior to the sale of the antibiotic in only 17.3%. Only 52 pharmacies (25.7% refused to dispense any kind of antibiotics, the majority (61.5% of this refusal response came from acute sinusitis cases, while the minority (2.4% came from the sore throat cases. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate that antibiotics continue to be dispensed

  3. Dispensing of non-prescribed antibiotics in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaaytah, Ammar; Mukattash, Tareq L; Hajaj, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Objective Current regulations in Jordan state that antibiotics cannot be sold without a medical prescription. This study aimed to assess the percentage of pharmacies that dispense antibiotics without a medical prescription in the Kingdom of Jordan and identify and highlight the extent and seriousness of such practices among Jordanian pharmacies. Methods A prospective study was performed, and five different clinical scenarios were simulated at pharmacies investigated including sore throat, otitis media, acute sinusitis, diarrhea, and urinary tract infection in childbearing-aged women. Three levels of demand were used to convince the pharmacists to sell an antibiotic. Results A total of 202 total pharmacies in Jordan were visited in the present study. The majority of pharmacies (74.3%) dispensed antibiotics without prescription with three different levels of demand. The percentage of pharmacies dispensing antibiotics without a prescription for the sore throat scenario was 97.6%, followed by urinary tract infection (83.3%), diarrhea (83%), and otitis media (68.4%). The lowest percentage of antibiotic dispensing was for the acute sinusitis simulation at 48.5%. Among the pharmacies that dispensed antibiotics, the pharmacists provided an explanation as the number of times per day the drug should be taken in 95.3% of the cases, explained the duration of treatment in 25.7%, and inquired about allergies prior to the sale of the antibiotic in only 17.3%. Only 52 pharmacies (25.7%) refused to dispense any kind of antibiotics, the majority (61.5%) of this refusal response came from acute sinusitis cases, while the minority (2.4%) came from the sore throat cases. Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate that antibiotics continue to be dispensed without prescription in Jordan in violation with national regulations regarding this practice. The findings of this study could provide a layout for governmental health authorities to implement strict enfrorcment of national

  4. Non-Prescription Medicinal Products Exclusively Dispensed in Pharmacies in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Gonçalves

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Self-medication is a process through which the individual assumes a greater degree of responsibility for the management of a minor health problem, by acquiring a medicine that is accessible without the need to obtain a medical prescription. Access to health care is undergoing important changes in the European Union. In the presence of factors such as aging populations and economic constraints on health systems, greater emphasis to the efficient use of health resources has been given. Self-care, which comprises self-medication assumes, in this context, an important role by encouraging individuals to take greater responsibility for their own health and wellbeing, choose healthy life choices, consult the pharmacist when appropriate and to establish whether and when medical treatment should be sought. In order to promote the rational use of medicinal products, the subcategory of non-prescription medicinal products exclusively dispensed in pharmacies has gained expression in different European countries. As the name implies, this category includes medicines that, by their nature and given the framework of the condition for which they are intended, are considered safe for dispensing without the requirement of a prescription, possess some attribute that makes them elective for dispensing under the supervision of a health professional, in this case the pharmacist, in order to promote safety and efficiency in their use. The different Member States have advanced at different times with the implementation of this category of classification regarding the dispensing to the public of medicines. Portugal introduced in 2013 this category of medicines in its legal framework. If, on one hand, the big drivers for the classification of more medicines in categories non-prescription medicinal products and non-prescription medicinal products exclusively dispensed in pharmacies have been the greater empowerment of the patient regarding the management of his health and

  5. Increasing Access to Subsidized Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy through Accredited Drug Dispensing Outlets in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabra Michael

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Tanzania, many people seek malaria treatment from retail drug sellers. The National Malaria Control Program identified the accredited drug dispensing outlet (ADDO program as a private sector mechanism to supplement the distribution of subsidized artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs from public facilities and increase access to the first-line antimalarial in rural and underserved areas. The ADDO program strengthens private sector pharmaceutical services by improving regulatory and supervisory support, dispenser training, and record keeping practices. Methods The government's pilot program made subsidized ACTs available through ADDOs in 10 districts in the Morogoro and Ruvuma regions, covering about 2.9 million people. The program established a supply of subsidized ACTs, created a price system with a cost recovery plan, developed a plan to distribute the subsidized products to the ADDOs, trained dispensers, and strengthened the adverse drug reactions reporting system. As part of the evaluation, 448 ADDO dispensers brought their records to central locations for analysis, representing nearly 70% of ADDOs operating in the two regions. ADDO drug register data were available from July 2007-June 2008 for Morogoro and from July 2007-September 2008 for Ruvuma. This intervention was implemented from 2007-2008. Results During the pilot, over 300,000 people received treatment for malaria at the 448 ADDOs. The percentage of ADDOs that dispensed at least one course of ACT rose from 26.2% during July-September 2007 to 72.6% during April-June 2008. The number of malaria patients treated with ACTs gradually increased after the start of the pilot, while the use of non-ACT antimalarials declined; ACTs went from 3% of all antimalarials sold in July 2007 to 26% in June 2008. District-specific data showed substantial variation among the districts in ACT uptake through ADDOs, ranging from ACTs representing 10% of all antimalarial sales

  6. Implementation and optimization of automated dispensing cabinet technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Bryan C; Ferker, Michael

    2016-10-01

    A multifaceted automated dispensing cabinet (ADC) optimization initiative at a large hospital is described. The ADC optimization project, which was launched approximately six weeks after activation of ADCs in 30 patient care unit medication rooms of a newly established adult hospital, included (1) adjustment of par inventory levels (desired on-hand quantities of medications) and par reorder quantities to reduce the risk of ADC supply exhaustion and improve restocking efficiency, (2) expansion of ADC "common stock" (medications assigned to ADC inventories) to increase medication availability at the point of care, and (3) removal of some infrequently prescribed medications from ADCs to reduce the likelihood of product expiration. The purpose of the project was to address organizational concerns regarding widespread ADC medication stockouts, growing reliance on cart-fill medication delivery systems, and suboptimal medication order turnaround times. Leveraging of the ADC technology platform's reporting functionalities for enhanced inventory control yielded a number of benefits, including cost savings resulting from reduced pharmacy technician labor requirements (estimated at $2,728 annually), a substantial reduction in the overall weekly stockout percentage (from 3.2% before optimization to 0.5% eight months after optimization), an improvement in the average medication turnaround time, and estimated cost avoidance of $19,660 attributed to the reduced potential for product expiration. Efforts to optimize ADCs through par level optimization, expansion of common stock, and removal of infrequently used medications reduced pharmacy technician labor, decreased stockout percentages, generated opportunities for cost avoidance, and improved medication turnaround times. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Lobesia botrana IPM: electrospun polyester microfibers serve as biodegradable sex pheromone dispensers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Hans E; Langner, S S

    2013-01-01

    Modern insect pest management is faced with an increasingly sophisticated set of requirements. Control agent/dispenser combinations must be at the same time safe, nontoxic, inexpensive, reproducibly efficacious, environmentally compatible, biodegradable, and sustainable, and should be based on renewable resources. The methods employed preferably should be suitable for the growing and tightly controlled organic growing sector as well. All this calls for a level of sophistication and reproducibility previously unknown. Only very few systems can offer this kind of performance, but fortunately can be found in the area of suitable pheromone/dispenser combinations. This report is an attempt to adapt electrospun Ecoflex polyester micro fibers of the Greiner-Wendorff type to the very specific needs of the grape growing industry. Specifically required are "semi-intelligent" dispenser materials. On a weight basis, the electrospun product should achieve as high a proportion as possible of "retainable" sex pheromone (E,Z)-7,9-dodecadienyl acetate of Lobesia botrana (Lep.: Tortricidae) and should release it as uniformly as possible into the surrounding airspace. Using the Doye bioassay, some progress indeed has recently been achieved with electrospun Ecoflex microfibers of 0.5-3.5 microm diameter. They were employed as dispensers for programmed sex pheromone release with an effective mating disruption duration of up to seven weeks. With one microfiber/pheromone treatment, this covers one entire flight period of the trivoltine L. botrana. Mechanical application of this microfiber/pheromone preparation (with the option of automation) is possible. Disruption effects are comparable with those of commercially available dispensers of the Isonet type. Exposed under vineyard conditions, Ecoflex polyester fibers are a spider silk like material which is biodegradable within half a year. Thus, after releasing its pheromone load, it does not need removal, which saves one cultivation step

  8. Effect of Resin-modified Glass Ionomer Cement Dispensing/Mixing Methods on Mechanical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, T A; Abdulmajeed, A A; Altitinchi, A; Ahmed, S N; Donovan, T E

    2018-03-23

    Resin-modified glass ionomer cements (RMGIs) are often used for luting indirect restorations. Hand-mixing traditional cements demands significant time and may be technique sensitive. Efforts have been made by manufacturers to introduce the same cement using different dispensing/mixing methods. It is not known what effects these changes may have on the mechanical properties of the dental cement. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mechanical properties (diametral tensile strength [DTS], compressive strength [CS], and fracture toughness [FT]) of RMGIs with different dispensing/mixing systems. The RMGI specimens (n=14)-RelyX Luting (hand mix), RelyX Luting Plus (clicker-hand mix), RelyX Luting Plus (automix) (3M ESPE), GC Fuji PLUS (capsule-automix), and GC FujiCEM 2 (automix) (GC)-were prepared for each mechanical test and examined after thermocycling (n=7/subgroup) for 20,000 cycles to the following: DTS, CS (ISO 9917-1) and FT (ISO standard 6872; Single-edge V-notched beam method). Specimens were mounted and loaded with a universal testing machine until failure occurred. Two-/one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey honestly significantly different post hoc test was used to analyze data for statistical significance ( p<0.05). The interaction effect of both dispensing/mixing method and thermocycling was significant only for the CS test of the GC group ( p<0.05). The different dispensing/mixing methods had no effect on the DTS of the tested cements. The CS of GC Fuji PLUS was significantly higher than that of the automix version ( p<0.05). The FT decreased significantly when switching from RelyX (hand mix) to RelyX Luting Plus (clicker-hand mix) and to RelyX Luting Plus (automix) ( p<0.05). Except in the case of the DTS of the GC group and the CS of GC Fuji PLUS, thermocycling had a significant effect reducing the mechanical properties of the RMGI cements ( p<0.05). Introducing alternative dispensing/mixing methods for mixing RMGIs to reduce time and

  9. Development and evaluation of an emulsified paraffin wax dispenser for season-long mating disruption of Grapholita molesta in commercial peach orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lame, Frédérique M; Miller, James R; Attrerholt, Cynthia A; Gut, Larry J

    2007-08-01

    The University of California at Davis patented the use of emulsified wax to release pheromones for mating disruption. Advantages of these dispensers include low cost, self-adhesion, and biodegradation. We compared the efficacy and practicality of Confuse-OFM, a commercial emulsified wax formulation of oriental fruit moth, Grapiholita molesta (Busck), pheromone with those of Check-Mate OFM-F sprayable pheromone and Isomate-M 100 polyethylene tube dispensers in commercial peach (Prunus spp.) orchards. Efficacy was measured with male captures in pheromone-, virgin female-, and liquid attractant-baited bucket traps as well as by noting injury to shoots and fruit. Two applications of Confuse-OFM were as effective as two applications of CheckMate OFM-F and one application of Isomate-M 100. However, Confuse-OFM was tedious to apply and wasted pheromone with an initially high release rate. We developed a new emulsified wax formulation (Wax Dollops) that maintained release rates above a 5 mg/ha/h threshold twice as long as Confuse-OFM in the laboratory. Field trials confirmed that one application of 3-ml dollops (590 dollops per ha) provided season-long (approximately 15 wk) control equivalent to that of Isomate-M 100 and Confuse-OFM applied as described above. Several applicators were developed for Wax Dollops, including a pneumatic gun that shot dollops >2 m. However, the most efficient method for application was wiping dollops onto tree branches by using a flat-bladed spatula. This research was the basis for a new line of commercial pheromone pest control products equally effective to current commercial formulations but with advantages in cost and flexibility.

  10. Rational dispensing and use of artemether-lumefantrine during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This was a prospective-descriptive study involving visits to 200 private retail pharmacies (using a mystery shopper) and interviewing pregnant women at the municipal public hospitals in Dar es Salaam, ... There is therefore a need for continuing training of drug dispensers regarding antimalarial drugs use in pregnancy.

  11. Dispensing apparatus for use in a cued food delivery task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deweese, Menton M; Claiborne, Kimberly N; Ng, Jennifer; Dirba, Danika D; Stewart, Hannah L; Schembre, Susan M; Versace, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Neurobiological models of obesity postulate that obese individuals have difficulty regulating food intake partly because they attribute excessive salience to stimuli signaling food availability. Typically, human studies that investigate the relationship between brain responses to food-related stimuli and obesity present food cues without subsequent delivery of food. However, in order to identify the brain correlates of cue reactivity, we must record brain responses to food-related cues signaling food availability. Therefore, we have developed a dispensing apparatus for use in a cued-food delivery task in which event-related potentials (ERPs) to food-related images predicting food delivery and images not predicting food delivery can be recorded. Here, we describe a method where:•The experimental apparatus dispenses an edible item (i.e., a chocolate candy) which may or may not be eaten, or a non-edible control item (e.g., a plastic bead).•Deposit boxes are available to store uneaten candies and the non-edible control items.•The dispensing mechanism is capable of recording the exact timestamp when each delivery event occurs (e.g., release from the dispenser, arrival in the receptacle, storage in the deposit box).

  12. Dispensing of drugs with and without a prescription from private ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is little literature available on dispensing patterns and unsupervised sale of medicines from pharmacies in Tanzania. The present study assessed the patterns of drug acquisition from pharmacies by customers: whether by prescription, recommended by pharmacist, or requested by a customer without a prescription.

  13. Antiprotozoal dispensing patterns in South Africa, with the focus on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary aim was to determine the dispensing patterns of antimalarial medicine in a community pharmacy patient population in South Africa. A retrospective, cross-sectional drug utilisation study was conducted on a 2013 pharmacy database. Medicines reimbursed by private medical aid schemes and private purchases ...

  14. Fabrication of Microdots Using Piezoelectric Dispensing Technique for Viscous Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Lin Tsai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A simple microfluidic control method that uses a piezoelectric dispenser head is developed to fabricate microdots. A glycerol mixture was used as the test fluid to simulate conductive metallic solutions. The orifice diameter of the dispenser was 50 μm. Investigations were conducted at room temperature (25 °C. For each bipolar waveform, fluid was extruded in the form of a stretching liquid column, which eventually retracted into the dispenser orifice. Microdots were obtained by governing the liquid transfer process between the dispenser orifice and the target surface, where the gap was smaller than the maximum extrusion length during liquid column formation. Three fluid behaviors were observed using high-speed imaging, namely extrusion, impact on the target surface, and pinch-off of liquid ligament. For gaps of below 70 μm, some of the fluid sticking on the target surface resulted in a microdot diameter of 26 μm (about half of the orifice diameter.

  15. Dispensing apparatus for use in a cued food delivery task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deweese, Menton M.; Claiborne, Kimberly N.; Ng, Jennifer; Dirba, Danika D.; Stewart, Hannah L.; Schembre, Susan M.; Versace, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Neurobiological models of obesity postulate that obese individuals have difficulty regulating food intake partly because they attribute excessive salience to stimuli signaling food availability. Typically, human studies that investigate the relationship between brain responses to food-related stimuli and obesity present food cues without subsequent delivery of food. However, in order to identify the brain correlates of cue reactivity, we must record brain responses to food-related cues signaling food availability. Therefore, we have developed a dispensing apparatus for use in a cued-food delivery task in which event-related potentials (ERPs) to food-related images predicting food delivery and images not predicting food delivery can be recorded. Here, we describe a method where:•The experimental apparatus dispenses an edible item (i.e., a chocolate candy) which may or may not be eaten, or a non-edible control item (e.g., a plastic bead).•Deposit boxes are available to store uneaten candies and the non-edible control items.•The dispensing mechanism is capable of recording the exact timestamp when each delivery event occurs (e.g., release from the dispenser, arrival in the receptacle, storage in the deposit box). PMID:26870667

  16. Exploring Some Issues In Commercial Drug Dispensing In A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Responses to a self-report questionnaire of 85 Commercial drug dispensers in Uyo township of South-Eastern Nigeria were used to analyze some issues in drug abuse control in Nigeria. Among other things, the findings revealed that; (1) self medication is reported to be widespread among clients;(2) over and under dose of ...

  17. Methods used to assess drug prescribing and dispensing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In assessing drug sellers performance, various methods have been used to collect data from drug sellers and other non professional providers. Some of these methods include exit interviews for patients after purchase of drugs, observations to assess drug sellers/dispensers roles and consumers behaviour, interviews with ...

  18. Aspects of microbial contamination of tablets dispensed in hospitals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: A research was carried out to investigate the incidence of microflora in tablets dispensed from large container packages used in hospitals and community pharmacies. It was designed to provide base-line data on the common biodegrading microorganisms associated with tablets in retail containers and to highlight ...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1246-96 - Fuel dispensing spitback procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1246-96 Fuel dispensing spitback procedure. (a) The... or methanol. The bag shall be designed and used so that liquid fuel does not spit back onto the... shall be folded as quickly as possible to prevent evaporation of collected emissions. (l) Within 5...

  20. Dispensing patterns of prescription-only antiobesity preparations in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ilse Truter

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate the dispensing patterns of prescription-only antiobesity preparations in ... Outcome measures: Number of patients by age and gender, prescribing frequency and cost of antiobesity prescriptions, and .... was used to detect differences between female and male patients.

  1. Design of a new non-sterile glove-dispensing unit to reduce touch-based contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R Amos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Despite best efforts by healthcare providers to sterilise their hands through hand washing prior to touching medical equipment and patients, bacteria are still present and can be spread through physical contact. We aimed to reduce the spread of touch-induced and airborne bacteria and virus spreading by using a touch-free glove-dispensing system that minimally exposes gloves in the box to air. Method The team met multiple times to undertake early prototyping and present ideas for the design. We experimented with folding gloves in varying patterns, similar to facial tissue-dispensing boxes, and tried several methods of opening/closing the glove box to determine the most effective way to access gloves with the least amount of physical contact. We considered the user experience and obtained user feedback after each design iteration. Results Ultimately, we decided on a vertically oriented box with optional holes for dispensing a glove on the side of the box or on the bottom by means of the pull-down drawer mechanism. This system will dispense a single glove at a time to the user with the option of using a pull-down drawer trigger to decrease the likelihood of physical contact with unused gloves. Both methods dispense a single glove. Conclusion: By reducing physical contact between the healthcare practitioner and the gloves, we are potentially reducing the spread of bacteria. This glove box design ensures that gloves are not exposed to the air in the clinic or hospital setting, thereby further reducing spread of airborne germs. This could assist in decreasing the risk of nosocomial infections in healthcare settings.

  2. 30 CFR 57.4262 - Underground transformer stations, combustible liquid storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... liquid storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms, compressor rooms, and hoist rooms. 57.4262 Section 57... storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms, compressor rooms, and hoist rooms. Transformer stations, storage and dispensing areas for combustible liquids, pump rooms, compressor rooms, and hoist rooms shall be...

  3. Evaluating dispensers loaded with codlemone and pear ester for disruption of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyvinyl chloride polymer (pvc) dispensers loaded with ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) plus the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone) of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), were compared with similar dispensers and a commercial dispenser (Isomate®-C Plus) loaded with codle...

  4. 40 CFR 165.82 - Scope of pesticide dispensing areas included.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... from any other container for the purpose of refilling a refillable container for sale or distribution..., application or purposes other than refilling for sale or distribution. (b) What pesticide dispensing areas are...) The pesticide dispensing area is used solely for dispensing pesticide from a rail car which does not...

  5. 46 CFR 105.05-1 - Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products... MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Application § 105.05-1 Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products. (a) The provisions of this part, with the exception of...

  6. Steam sterilization and automatic dispensing of [{sup 18}F]fludeoxyglucose (FDG) for injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karwath, Pascal [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany) and MC-Pharma GmbH (MCP), Bonn (Germany)]. E-mail: p.karwath@uni-bonn.de; Sartor, Johannes [MC-Pharma GmbH (MCP), Bonn (Germany); Gries, Wolfgang [MC-Pharma GmbH (MCP), Bonn (Germany); Wodarski, Christine [MC-Pharma GmbH (MCP), Bonn (Germany); Dittmar, Claus [MC-Pharma GmbH (MCP), Bonn (Germany); Biersack, Hans J. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Guhlke, Stefan [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany) and MC-Pharma GmbH (MCP), Bonn (Germany)]. E-mail: stefan.guhlke@ukb.uni-bonn.de

    2005-04-01

    For the purpose of implementing steam sterilization of 2-[{sup 18}F]FDG (FDG) in the final container into routine production, we have validated and established a fully automated dispensing and sterilization system, thereby considerably reducing the radiation burden to the personnel. Methods: The commercially available system combines aseptic dispensing of the product solution under a miniaturized laminar flow unit with subsequent steam sterilization, realized by heating of the product in the final containers by an autoclave included in the dispensing unit, thus incorporating current pharmaceutical manufacturing standards for the production of parental radiopharmaceuticals. The efficiency of the used sterilization cycle, the stability of FDG under the conditions of sterilization and the stability of the final product towards radiolysis was investigated with respect to various pH-formulations. Results: The system was found to be fully valid for filling of vials in a laminar flow class A (US-class 100) environment and for sterilization of FDG in the final container. The pH for sterilizing FDG solutions must be slightly acidic to avoid decomposition. A pH of 5.5 appears to be optimal and gives FDG of very high radiochemical purity ({approx}99%). In addition, radiolysis of FDG in solutions of high activity concentration was significantly lower at pH 5.5 than at neutral pH. Conclusion: Terminal sterilization enables the production of FDG in full compliance with GMP-regulations even in Class C or D (US class 10,000 or 100,000) laboratories.

  7. Steam sterilization and automatic dispensing of [18F]fludeoxyglucose (FDG) for injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karwath, Pascal; Sartor, Johannes; Gries, Wolfgang; Wodarski, Christine; Dittmar, Claus; Biersack, Hans J.; Guhlke, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    For the purpose of implementing steam sterilization of 2-[ 18 F]FDG (FDG) in the final container into routine production, we have validated and established a fully automated dispensing and sterilization system, thereby considerably reducing the radiation burden to the personnel. Methods: The commercially available system combines aseptic dispensing of the product solution under a miniaturized laminar flow unit with subsequent steam sterilization, realized by heating of the product in the final containers by an autoclave included in the dispensing unit, thus incorporating current pharmaceutical manufacturing standards for the production of parental radiopharmaceuticals. The efficiency of the used sterilization cycle, the stability of FDG under the conditions of sterilization and the stability of the final product towards radiolysis was investigated with respect to various pH-formulations. Results: The system was found to be fully valid for filling of vials in a laminar flow class A (US-class 100) environment and for sterilization of FDG in the final container. The pH for sterilizing FDG solutions must be slightly acidic to avoid decomposition. A pH of 5.5 appears to be optimal and gives FDG of very high radiochemical purity (∼99%). In addition, radiolysis of FDG in solutions of high activity concentration was significantly lower at pH 5.5 than at neutral pH. Conclusion: Terminal sterilization enables the production of FDG in full compliance with GMP-regulations even in Class C or D (US class 10,000 or 100,000) laboratories

  8. From dispensed to disposed: evaluating the effectiveness of disposal programs through a comparison with prescription drug monitoring program data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Kathleen L; Gregory, Eric; Sparks, Michael; Wolfson, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Organized disposal of controlled medications, such as take-back events and permanent drug donation boxes, is a prevention strategy that has been widely used to reduce the availability of controlled medications for diversion or abuse. However, little is known as to whether this strategy actually reduces the overall availability of these medications for the purposes of diversion or abuse. The objective of this study was to compare the number and types of controlled medications that were disposed through organized efforts to the number dispensed in local communities. The quantity and type of controlled medication collected from three take-back events and permanent drug donation boxes over 4-week-long periods in five counties in south-central Kentucky was measured and compared to the number of controlled medications dispensed, as reported by Kentucky All Schedule Prescription Electronic Reporting system. In 2013, 21,121,658 controlled medications units were dispensed in the participating counties. Of those, 46.9% were opioid analgesics, 13.1% tranquilizers, and 37.3% "other." During the assessment periods, a total of 21,503 controlled medication units were collected. Of those, 39.9% were opioid analgesics, 2.7% tranquilizers, and 57.4% "other." Annually, controlled medications disposed were estimated to account for 0.3% of those dispensed. Controlled medications collected by take-back events and permanent drug donation boxes constituted a miniscule proportion of the numbers dispensed. Our findings suggest that organized drug disposal efforts may have a minimal impact on reducing the availability of unused controlled medications at a community level.

  9. Measuring PM2.5, Ultrafine Particles, Nicotine Air and Wipe Samples Following the Use of Electronic Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melstrom, Paul; Koszowski, Bartosz; Thanner, Meridith Hill; Hoh, Eunha; King, Brian; Bunnell, Rebecca; McAfee, Tim

    2017-09-01

    Few studies have examined the extent of inhalation or dermal contact among bystanders following short-term, secondhand e-cigarette exposure. Measure PM2.5 (particles nicotine in air and deposited on surfaces and clothing pre-/during/post- a short-term (2-hour) e-cigarette exposure. E-cigarettes were used ad libitum by three experienced users for 2 hours during two separate sessions (disposable e-cigarettes, then tank-style e-cigarettes, or "tanks") in a 1858 ft3 room. We recorded: uncorrected PM2.5 (using SidePak); UF (using P-Trak); air nicotine concentrations (using air samplers; SKC XAD-4 canisters); ambient air exchange rate (using an air capture hood). Wipe samples were taken by wiping 100 cm2 room surfaces pre- and post- both sessions, and clean cloth wipes were worn during the exposure and collected at the end. Uncorrected PM2.5 and UF were higher (p nicotine levels were higher (p nicotine on surface samples were 2.1 ng/100 cm2/h using disposables and 4.0 ng/100 cm2/h using tanks; for cloth samples, it was 44.4 ng/100 cm2/h using disposables and 69.6 ng/100 cm2/h using tanks (p nicotine in the air; and accumulation of nicotine on surfaces and clothing. Short-term indoor e-cigarette use produced accumulation of nicotine on surfaces and clothing, which could lead to dermal exposure to nicotine. Short-term e-cigarette use produced elevated PM2.5 and ultrafine particles, which could lead to secondhand inhalation of these particles and any chemicals associated with them by bystanders. We measured significant differences in PM2.5 and ultrafine particles between disposable e-cigarettes and tank-style e-cigarettes, suggesting a difference in the exposure profiles of e-cigarette products. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  10. Pressurized liquid extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of fragrance allergens, musks, phthalates and preservatives in baby wipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeiro, Maria; Lamas, J Pablo; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Llompart, Maria

    2015-03-06

    Baby wipes and wet toilet paper are specific hygiene care daily products used on newborn and children skin. These products may contain complexes mixtures of harmful chemicals. A method based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been developed for the simultaneous determination of sixty-five chemical compounds (fragrance allergens, preservatives, musks, and phthalates) in wipes and wet toilet paper for children. These compounds are legislated in Europe according Regulation EC No 1223/2009, being twelve of them banned for their use in cosmetics, and one of them, 3-iodo-2-propynyl butylcarbamate (IPBC), is banned in products intended for children under 3 years. Also, propyl-, and butylparaben will be prohibited in leave-on cosmetic products designed for application on the nappy area of children under 3 years from April 2015. PLE is a fast, simple, easily automated technique, which permits to integrate a clean-up step during the extraction process reducing analysis time and stages. The proposed PLE-based procedure was optimized on real non-spiked baby wipe samples by means of experimental design to study the influence on extraction of parameters such as extraction solvent, temperature, extraction time, and sorbent type. Under the selected conditions, the method was validated showing satisfactory linearity, and intra-day, and inter-day precision. Recoveries were between 80-115% for most of the compounds with relative standard deviations (RSD) lower than 15%. Finally, twenty real samples were analyzed. Thirty-six of the target analytes were detected, highlighting the presence of phenoxyethanol in all analyzed samples at high concentration levels (up to 0.8%, 800μgg(-1)). Methyl paraben (MeP), and ethyl paraben (EtP) were found in 40-50% of the samples, and the recently banned isobutyl paraben (iBuP) and isopropyl paraben (iPrP), were detected in one and seven samples, respectively, at concentrations between

  11. Hand hygiene with soap and water is superior to alcohol rub and antiseptic wipes for removal of Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oughton, Matthew T; Loo, Vivian G; Dendukuri, Nandini; Fenn, Susan; Libman, Michael D

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate common hand hygiene methods for efficacy in removing Clostridium difficile. Randomized crossover comparison among 10 volunteers with hands experimentally contaminated by nontoxigenic C. difficile. Interventions included warm water with plain soap, cold water with plain soap, warm water with antibacterial soap, antiseptic hand wipes, alcohol-based handrub, and a control involving no intervention. All interventions were evaluated for mean reduction in colony-forming units (CFUs) under 2 contamination protocols: "whole hand" and "palmar surface." Results were analyzed according to a Bayesian approach, by using hierarchical models adjusted for multiple observations. Under the whole-hand protocol, the greatest adjusted mean reductions were achieved by warm water with plain soap (2.14 log(10) CFU/mL [95% credible interval (CrI), 1.74-2.54 log(10) CFU/mL]), cold water with plain soap (1.88 log(10) CFU/mL [95% CrI, 1.48-2.28 log(10) CFU/mL), and warm water with antibacterial soap (1.51 log(10) CFU/mL [95% CrI, 1.12-1.91 log(10) CFU/mL]), followed by antiseptic hand wipes (0.57 log(10) CFU/mL [95% CrI, 0.17-0.96 log(10) CFU/mL]). Alcohol-based handrub (0.06 log(10) CFU/mL [95% CrI, -0.34 to 0.45 log(10) CFU/mL]) was equivalent to no intervention. Under the palmar surface protocol, warm water with plain soap, cold water with plain soap, and warm water with antibacterial soap again yielded the greatest mean reductions, followed by antiseptic hand wipes (26.6, 26.6, 26.6, and 21.9 CFUs per plate, respectively), when compared with alcohol-based handrub. Hypothenar (odds ratio, 10.98 [95% CrI, 1.96-37.65]) and thenar (odds ratio, 6.99 [95% CrI, 1.25-23.41]) surfaces were more likely than fingertips to remain heavily contaminated after handwashing. Handwashing with soap and water showed the greatest efficacy in removing C. difficile and should be performed preferentially over the use of alcohol-based handrubs when contact with C. difficile is suspected or likely.

  12. Prescribing of rosiglitazone and pioglitazone following safety signals: analysis of trends in dispensing patterns in the Netherlands from 1998 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiter, Rikje; Visser, Loes E; van Herk-Sukel, Myrthe P P; Geelhoed-Duijvestijn, Petronella H; de Bie, Sandra; Straus, Sabine M J M; Mol, Peter G M; Romio, Silvana A; Herings, Ron M C; Stricker, Bruno H Ch

    2012-06-01

    Relevant safety signals in the EU are regularly communicated in so-called 'Direct Healthcare Professional Communications' (DHPCs) or European Medicines Agency (EMA) press releases. Trends of a decrease in the use of rosiglitazone following regulatory safety warnings have been described in the US. In the EU, however, relatively little is known about dispensing patterns following DHPCs or other safety signals such as EMA press releases. The objective of this study was to analyse trends in dispensing patterns of rosiglitazone and pioglitazone following DHPCs and EMA press releases in the EU member state, the Netherlands. Data for this study were obtained from the PHARMO Record Linking System, which includes drug dispensing records from community pharmacies of approximately 2.5 million individuals in the Netherlands. Over the period 1998-2008 an auto-regressive, integrated, moving average model (ARIMA) was fitted. The DHPC letters or EMA press releases were used as determinants. Adjustments were made for publication of certain literature. Stratification was performed for dispensings prescribed by general practitioners (GPs) and those prescribed by specialists. For rosiglitazone, four EMA press releases and two DHPCs were issued; for pioglitazone, one DHPC was issued. The number of rosiglitazone dispensings prescribed by GPs decreased significantly after publication of DHPCs and EMA press releases concerning the risk of macular oedema and risk of fractures (both p-values 0.001). The number of rosiglitazone dispensings decreased statistically significantly after publication of EMA press releases 2 and 3 concerning cardiovascular risks but not for EMA press release 4. Adjustment for certain publications in the literature reduced the effect of communicated safety issues on the proportion of dispensings. Although it is difficult to disentangle the effect of DHPCs and EMA press releases from the effect of reports published in the literature, our results suggest that

  13. Treatment of long bone osteomyelitis with a mechanically stable intramedullar antibiotic dispenser: nineteen consecutive cases with a minimum of 12 months follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancineto, Carlos Federico; Barla, Jorge Daniel

    2008-12-01

    Antibiotic cement beads are the most common system of local antibiotic delivery. Unfortunately, bead strings do not give mechanical support to the fracture site, stability being fundamental in osteomyelitis treatment. Local treatment associated with bone stability should improve the results in posttraumatic osteomyelitis. The objective of this article is to present our experience in the treatment of long bone osteomyelitis using an intramedullary, mechanically stable antibiotic dispenser. We present a retrospective review of a consecutive series of patients with a long bone osteomyelitis treated using an intramedullary, mechanically stable antibiotic dispenser. The dispenser used with a T-95 chest tube filled with poly(methyl methacrylate) + antibiotic (vancomycin, gentamycin, or both, tobramycin or imipenem; depending on culture results) and with a metal center (Ender nail). Fifteen patients were men and three were women, with an average age of 37 years (range, 18-52 years). In four cases, treatment involved the femur and in 15 the tibia. Positive cultures were obtained from each patient. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in 17 cases. The intramedullary dispenser was removed between 6 and 76 weeks after surgery. Success was defined as negative cultures after dispenser removal. Follow-up period was between 10 and 54 months. Negative cultures were obtained from intramedullary reaming after dispenser removal in all but one patient who could not finish treatment because of local intolerance to antibiotic treatment. None of the 17 patients presented an infection recurrence. The combination of local antibiotic treatment with bone segment stability showed acceptable results in our short series of patients. Further investigation on locked intramedullary antibiotic dispensers providing improved stability will help us learn about this difficult clinical scenario.

  14. Avaliação do nível de satisfação de usuários de aparelhos de amplificação sonora individuais dispensados pelo Sistema Único de Saúde Satisfaction evaluation in users of hearing aid dispensed by the Unified Health System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Danieli

    2011-06-01

    eficaz para avaliar o nível de satisfação dos usuários de AASIs dispensados pelo SUS avaliados neste estudo. Novas pesquisas são necessárias para complementar estes achados.PURPOSE: To culturally adapt the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life (SADL questionnaire to be administered in users of hearing aids dispensed by Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS. METHODS: Participants were 19 subjects, users of hearing aids dispensed by SUS for at least three weeks, with ages 60 or older, who had post-lingual hearing loss. Sixty three percent of them were male and 37% were female, with mean age of 73 years and mean duration of hearing aids use of five months. Subjects answered the SADL questionnaire and a single-item Satisfaction Scale, besides a few additional items. The internal consistency analysis of the SADL was carried out, as well as the descriptive analysis of the results, in order to compare them to the normative data reported by the questionnaire authors. The relationship between SADL's global scores and the Satisfaction Scale were also investigated. RESULTS: The results for the overall scores evidenced that subjects, in average, were satisfied with their hearing aids. The same was true for all subscales of the SADL, and the Personal Image subscale had the largest number of people very satisfied. The results were equivalent to those found by the questionnaire authors, and the SADL showed a good internal consistency (0.71. The single-item Satisfaction Scale was closely related to the global score of the SADL. For both satisfaction measures, most subjects demonstrated to be "satisfied" with their hearing aids, and there was a high significant correlation between both scales (0.935. CONCLUSION: In average, subjects were satisfied with their hearing aids dispensed by SUS. The Brazilian Portuguese version of the SADL proved to be an effective instrument to assess the level of satisfaction among the users of hearing aids

  15. The Impact of Feet Callosities, Arm Posture, and Usage of Electrolyte Wipes on Body Composition by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Morbidly Obese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roekenes, Jessica; Strømmen, Magnus; Kulseng, Bård; Martins, Catia

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of feet callosities, arm posture, and use of electrolyte wipes on body composition measurements by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) in morbidly obese adults. 36 morbidly obese patients (13 males, aged 28-70 years, BMI 41.6 ± 4.3 kg/m2) with moderate/severe feet callosities participated in this study. Body composition (percent body fat (%BF)) was measured while fasting using multi-frequency BIA (InBody 720®), before and after removal of callosities, with and without InBody® electrolyte wipes and custom-built auxiliary pads (to assess arm posture impact). Results from BIA were compared to air displacement plethysmography (ADP, BodPod®). Median %BF was significantly higher with auxiliary pads than without (50.1 (interquartile range 8.2) vs. 49.3 (interquartile range 9.1); p interquartile range 9.1) vs. 50.0 (interquartile range 7.9); NS) or use of wipes (49.6 (interquartile range 8.5) vs. 49.3 (interquartile range 9.1); NS). No differences in %BF were found between BIA and ADP (49.1 (IQR: 8.9) vs. 49.3 (IQR: 9.1); NS). Arm posture has a significant impact on %BF assessed by BIA, contrary to the presence of feet callosities and use of electrolyte wipes. Arm posture standardization during BIA for body composition assessment is, therefore, recommended. © 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  16. Effect of varying dispenser point source density on mating disruption of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lame, Frédérique M; Epstein, David; Gut, Larry J; Goldfarb, Heidi; Miller, James R

    2010-08-01

    Hand-applied dispensers are successfully used in mating disruption programs, but cost of labor to apply these dispensers limits their adoption. Creating hand-applied dispensers that release larger amounts of pheromone and that can be applied at lower densities per hectare could reduce the cost of mating disruption and increase its use. The effect of reducing the number of point sources per hectare while keeping the amount of pheromone applied per hectare constant on the success of Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) mating disruption was investigated with Confuse-OFM, paraffin disk, and Isomate-M Rosso dispensers. For all dispensers, as point source density decreased, numbers of moths captured increased, percentage of orientation disruption to traps decreased, and variability in these measures increased. Decreasing point source density, even while keeping the amount of pheromone applied per hectare constant is not a viable option for reducing the cost of G. molesta mating disruption with hand-applied dispensers. Puffers (aerosol dispensers) are applied at 2.5-5 dispensers per ha for G. molesta control. However, hand-applied dispensers fail when clumped at such low numbers of release sites. Potential explanations for the success of Puffers and the failure of hand-applied dispensers at very low point source densities are presented. The utility of paraffin disk dispensers as experimental devices also is discussed.

  17. Piezoelectric dispenser based on a piezoelectric-metal-cavity actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, K H; Sun, C L; Kwok, K W; Chan, H L W

    2009-07-01

    A piezoelectric dispenser has been fabricated based on the idea of a piezoelectric-metal-cavity (PMC) actuator. The PMC actuator consists of a metal ring sandwiched between two identical piezoelectric unimorphs. The radial contraction of the piezoelectric ceramic is converted into a flextensional motion of the unimorph, causing a large flexural displacement in the center part of the actuator. With the PMC actuator as a fluid chamber, the large flexural actuation can be used to produce the displacement needed to eject fluid. By applying an appropriate voltage to the piezoelectric unimorphs, a drop-on-demand ejection of ink or water can be achieved. The efficiency of fluid ejection can be enhanced after installing a valve in the fluid chamber. With the simple PMC structure, the dispenser can be operated with a low driving voltage of 12-15 V.

  18. Fabrication and Measurement of Low Work Function Cesiated Dispenser Photocathodes

    CERN Document Server

    Moody, Nathan A; Jensen, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    Photoinjector performance is a limiting factor in the continued development of high powered FELs and electron beam-based accelerators. Presently available photocathodes are plagued with limited efficiency and short lifetime in an RF-gun environment, due to contamination or evaporation of a photosensitive surface layer. An ideal photocathode should have high efficiency at long wavelengths, long lifetime in practical vacuum environments, and prompt emission. Cathodes with high efficiency typically have limited lifetime, and vice versa, and the needs of the photocathode are generally at odds with those of the drive laser. A potential solution is the low work function dispenser cathode, where lifetime issues are overcome by periodic in situ regeneration that restores the photosensitive surface layer, analogous to those used in the microwave power tube industry. This work reports on the fabrication techniques and performance of cesiated metal photocathodes and cesiated dispenser cathodes, with a focus on understan...

  19. Effect of pheromone dispenser density on timing and duration of approaches by peachtree borer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Luís A F; Grieshop, Matthew J; Gut, Larry J

    2010-10-01

    The timing and duration of approaches by male peachtree borer Synanthedon exitiosa Say (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) to commercial pheromone dispensers placed singly or at high density in peach orchards was determined by using field-deployed video cameras and digital video recorders. Cameras were trained on one dispenser, and one standard lure was placed in a peach orchard, and on 12 dispensers in a separate orchard where dispensers for mating disruption had been placed at 371 per hectare. Male moth approaches were video recorded at the peak of peachtree borer annual flight, from 13 to 18 August 2009. The mean approach timing (h:min:sec±SD) during the study period was 11:33:12 ± 00:46:43, 11:43:52 ± 00:45:58, and 11:41:21 ± 00:45:54 AM with the single dispenser, high-density dispensers, and lure, respectively. Day-to-day variability in approach timings suggested that there were no biologically significant differences among treatments. The frequency distribution of approach durations varied among treatments, as the high-density dispensers had mostly short approaches, while the distribution of approaches to the single dispenser and lure was wider. The median (interquartile range) approach duration was 3 (2-4), 1 (1-2), and 4 (2-6) seconds with the single dispenser, high-density dispensers, and lure, respectively. The relative rank of median approach durations was constant throughout the period, indicating differences among treatments. This study showed that the presence of pheromone dispensers for mating disruption did not cause an advancement of peachtree borer diel rhythm of response. Shorter approaches to dispensers placed at high density than singly suggest that dispenser retentiveness is not constant with peachtree borer, which may bias estimates of disruption activity as a function of dispenser density.

  20. Pharmacoepidemiological data from drug dispensing charities as a measure of health patterns in a population not assisted by the Italian National Health Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Bini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We analysed drug dispensation by charitable organisations in a year time. Drugs were grouped according to the Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical classification and the amount dispensed was calculated with the system of the Daily Defined Dose (DDD and expressed as DDD/1000 subjects/day. A number of 87,550 subjects were studied (13,308 Italians; 74,242 Immigrants. Though we noticed a great sesonal variability, the drugs most frequently dispensed were those for the respiratory, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal system and antibiotics, which is different from the rest of the Italian population and the immigrant population assisted by our National Health Service (NHS. We also found that chronic diseases are increasing in these subjects. We conclude that the subjects not receiving NHS assitance have, at least in part, different health patterns and requirements. This should be considered when planning tailored interventions.

  1. [Design and piloting of a structured service medication dispensing process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaurre, Raquel; García-Delgado, Pilar; Maurandi, M Dolores; Arrebola, Cristóbal; Gastelurrutia, Miguel Ángel; Martínez-Martínez, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to design and pilot a protocol for the dispensing of medications service. Using the requirements proposed in the Ministry of Health Pharmaceutical Care Consensus, a literature search was made applying qualitative consensus techniques. An observational, cross-sectional study was conducted from March to June 2009. A total of 53 community pharmacies from 24 Spanish counties. Patients who requested one or more particular medications with or without medical prescription for their own use or for someone in their care. The personalised medication information (IPM), the problems associated with the medications (PRM), and the negative results associated with the medication (RNM), detected by the pharmacist each time medication was dispensed, as well as the perception of the pharmacist on the operability of the protocol were recorded. A total of 870 medications were dispensed, with 423 (48.6%) cases of lack of personalised medication information (IPM) being detected. PRM were detected in 10.11% of the dispensed medications, as well as 68 (7.81%) suspected RNM: safety (n = 35; 51.5%), effectiveness (n = 29; 42.6%) and necessity (n = 4; 5.8%). Almost two-thirds (65.21%) of the pharmacists said that the protocol is in operation. The designed protocol helped to detect deficiencies in the information to the patients about their medications, as well as the PRM and RNM, and is shown to be tool that is easy to use and apply. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of Robotic Dispensing Machines in German Pharmacies on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a result of using a robotic dispensing machine, personnel costs were reduced by an average of 4.6% during the first 12 months after start-up. Over-the-counter sales increased in the same period by an average of 6.8%. Despite average initial costs of 118,000 euros, total costs within the first 12 months fell in 50% of cases ...

  3. Dispensing with conscience: a legal and ethical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernow, Jerome R; Grant, Donald G

    2008-11-01

    For over 30 years, pharmacists have exercised the right to dispense medications in accordance with moral convictions based upon a Judeo-Christian ethic. What many of these practitioners see as an apparent shift away from this time-honored ethic has resulted in a challenge to this right. To review and analyze pharmacy practice standards, legal proceedings, and ethical principles behind conflicts of conscientious objection in dispensing drugs used for emergency contraception. We first searched the terms conscience and clause and Plan B and contraception and abortion using Google, Yahoo, and Microsoft Networks (2006-September 26, 2008). Second, we used Medscape to search professional pharmacy and other medical journals, restricting our terms to conscience, Plan B, contraceptives, and abortifacients. Finally, we employed Loislaw, an online legal archiving service, and did a global search on the phrase conscience clause to determine the status of the legal discussion. To date, conflicts in conscientious objection have arisen when a pharmacist believes that dispensing an oral contraceptive violates his or her moral understanding for the promotion of human life. Up to this time, cases in pharmacy have involved only practitioners from orthodox Christian faith communities, primarily devout Roman Catholics. A pharmacist's right to refuse the dispensing of abortifacients for birth control according to moral conscience over against a woman's right to reproductive birth control has created a conflict that has yet to be reconciled by licensing agents, professional standards, or courts of law. Our analysis of prominent conflicts suggests that the underlying worldviews between factions make compromise improbable. Risks and liabilities are dependent upon compliance with evolving state laws, specific disclosure of a pharmacist's moral objections, and professionalism in the handling of volatile situations. Objecting pharmacists and their employers should have clear policies and

  4. Implementation of a prototype of a dispenser of chocolates

    OpenAIRE

    Velásquez Costa, José Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the implementation for a prototype of a chocolate filling and dispensing, using automation techniques for automatic control of the process. The design of the prototype was performed in a software CAD (computer aided design) and for the implementation was required pneumatic devices, sensors, programmable logic controller (PLC). All these components are integrated into a conveyor belt. El presente artículo describe la implementación del prototipo de una dispensadora y ...

  5. Direct-Dispense Polymeric Waveguides Platform for Optical Chemical Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Hajj-Hassan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe an automated robotic technique called direct-dispense to fabricate a polymeric platform that supports optical sensor arrays. Direct-dispense, which is a type of the emerging direct-write microfabrication techniques, uses fugitive organic inks in combination with cross-linkable polymers to create microfluidic channels and other microstructures. Specifically, we describe an application of direct-dispensing to develop optical biochemical sensors by fabricating planar ridge waveguides that support sol-gelderived xerogel-based thin films. The xerogel-based sensor materials act as host media to house luminophore biochemical recognition elements. As a prototype implementation, we demonstrate gaseous oxygen (O2 responsive optical sensors that operate on the basis of monitoring luminescence intensity signals. The optical sensor employs a Light Emitting Diode (LED excitation source and a standard silicon photodiode as the detector. The sensor operates over the full scale (0%-100% of O2 concentrations with a response time of less than 1 second. This work has implications for the development of miniaturized multisensor platforms that can be cost-effectively and reliably mass-produced.

  6. Evaluation of a liquid dispenser for assay development and enzymology in 1536-well format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butendeich, Heike; Pierret, Noëlle M; Numao, Shin

    2013-06-01

    Although developments in liquid dispensers have made the use of 1536-well plates for high-throughput screening (HTS) standard, there is still a gap in dispenser technology for performing matrix experiments with several components. Experiments such as those performed during assay development and enzymological studies are therefore still performed by manual pipetting in lower-density plates. We have evaluated a new dispenser, the Certus liquid dispenser (Gyger Fluidics GmbH, Switzerland), that is capable of flexible dispensing in 1536-well format, with a dead volume of less than 200 µL. Taking advantage of the precision of the dispenser for volumes down to 50 nL, we have created concentration gradients on plates by dispensing different volumes of reagent and then backfilling with buffer. Using this method and the flexibility of the dispenser software, we have performed several multidimensional experiments varying two to three components, including an assay development for an HTS, a mode of inhibition study, and a cofactor optimization, in which we determined 32 KM values. Overall, the flexibility of the plate layout for multiple components, the accuracy to dispense volumes ranging 2 log orders, and minimal reagent usage enable this dispenser for complex biochemical experiments.

  7. Electrolytic production and dispensing of hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.E.; Kuhn, I.F. Jr. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) is undoubtedly the only option that can meet both the California zero emission vehicle (ZEV) standard and the President`s goal of tripling automobile efficiency without sacrificing performance in a standard 5-passenger vehicle. The three major automobile companies are designing and developing FCEVs powered directly by hydrogen under cost-shared contracts with the Department of Energy. Once developed, these vehicles will need a reliable and inexpensive source of hydrogen. Steam reforming of natural gas would produce the least expensive hydrogen, but funding may not be sufficient initially to build both large steam reforming plants and the transportation infrastructure necessary to deliver that hydrogen to geographically scattered FCEV fleets or individual drivers. This analysis evaluates the economic feasibility of using small scale water electrolysis to provide widely dispersed but cost-effective hydrogen for early FCEV demonstrations. We estimate the cost of manufacturing a complete electrolysis system in large quantities, including compression and storage, and show that electrolytic hydrogen could be cost competitive with fully taxed gasoline, using existing residential off-peak electricity rates.

  8. Optimized filtration for reduced defectivity and improved dispense recipe in 193-nm BARC lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Phong; Pender, Joe; Lehmann, Thomas; Mc Ardle, Leo P.; Gotlinsky, Barry; Mesawich, Michael

    2004-05-01

    The implementation of 193 nm lithography into production has been complicated by high defectivity issues. Many companies have been struggling with high defect densities, forcing process and lithography engineers to focus their efforts on chemical filtration instead of process development. After-etch defects have complicated the effort to reduce this problem. In particular it has been determined that chemical filtration at the 90 nm node and below is a crucial item which current industry standard pump recipes and material choices are not able to address. LSI Logic and Pall Corporation have been working together exploring alternative materials and resist pump process parameters to address these issues. These changes will free up process development time by reducing these high defect density issues. This paper provides a fundamental understanding of how 20nm filtration combined with optimized resist pump set-up and dispense can significantly reduce defects in 193nm lithography. The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of 20 nanometer rated filters to reduce various defects observed in bottom anti reflective coating materials. Multiple filter types were installed on a Tokyo Electron Limited Clean Track ACT8 tool utilizing two-stage resist pumps. Lithographic performance of the filtered resist and defect analysis of patterned and non-patterned wafers were performed. Optimized pump start-up and dispense recipes also were evaluated to determine their effect on defect improvements. The track system used in this experiment was a standard production tool and was not modified from its original specifications.

  9. Cell dispensing in low-volume range with the immediate drop-on-demand technology (I-DOT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Lena; Büttner, Evy; Laske, Christopher; Traube, Andrea; Brode, Tobias; Traube, Andreas Florian; Bauernhansl, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Handling and dosing of cells comprise the most critical step in the microfabrication of cell-based assay systems for screening and toxicity testing. Therefore, the immediate drop-on-demand technology (I-DOT) was developed to provide a flexible noncontact liquid handling system enabling dispensing of cells and liquid without the risk of cross-contamination down to a precise volume in the nanoliter range. Liquid is dispensed from a source plate within nozzles at the bottom by a short compressed air pulse that is given through a quick release valve into the well, thus exceeding the capillary pressure in the nozzle. Droplets of a defined volume can be spotted directly onto microplates or other cell culture devices. We present a study on the performance and biological impact of this technology by applying the cell line MCF-7, human fibroblasts, and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). For all cell types tested, viability after dispensing is comparable to the control and exhibits similar proliferation rates in the absence of apoptotic cells, and the differentiation potential of hMSCs is not impaired. The immediate drop-on-demand technology enables accurate cell dosage and offers promising potential for single-cell applications. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  10. A new long-life trimedlure dispenser for Mediterranean fruit fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Ruiz, Javier; Sanchis, Juan; Navarro-Llopis, Vicente; Primo, Jaime

    2008-08-01

    New agricultural techniques are attempting to reduce the application of synthesized pesticides and replace them with new environmentally friendly methods such as mass trapping, mating disruption, or chemosterilization techniques. All these methods are based on the release of a lure for insect attraction or confusion. The success of the chosen method depends on the quality of the attractant emission from the dispenser. Currently, used dispensers with a polymeric matrix and new dispensers with mesoporous inorganic materials were evaluated to obtain more efficient emission kinetics. In this study, the selected pest was the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and the lure used was trimedlure (TML). The dispensers were validated by means of a field study comparing insect catches with attractant release values. As a result, we have demonstrated that mesoporous dispensers have a clearly longer lifetime than the polymeric plug. Furthermore, the attractant release rate is less dependent on temperature in mesoporous than in polymeric dispensers.

  11. Method and apparatus for producing drops using a drop-on-demand dispenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Alvin U.; Basaran, Osman A.

    2003-01-01

    A method and apparatus for dispensing fluid from a drop-on-demand (DOD) fluid dispenser. The method involves withdrawing fluid in the dispenser for a first duration of time, followed by a second duration of time during which the fluid is propelled toward the orifice of the dispenser. Following the period during which the fluid is propelled, there is a second withdrawing of the fluid into the dispenser. The duration of the propelling period is shorter than the duration of either the first withdrawing or the second withdrawing. The propelling of the fluid results in the extension of a small tongue of fluid from the meniscus of the fluid. The second withdrawing of the fluid results in a retraction of the meniscus into the passageway such that only the small tongue of fluid separates and is ejected from the dispenser.

  12. Mating disruption in apple orchards :dispenser release rates, generic blends and community impact

    OpenAIRE

    Gronning, Erik Kyle

    1994-01-01

    The release rates of two Pacific Biocontrol codling moth, one AgriSense grape berry moth and two Pacific Biocontrol grape berry moth dispensers were studied using gravimetric measurements. It was found that the addition of titanium dioxide to the polyethylene mixture significantly reduced the release rate of the dispenser when compared with a transparent design. The AgriSense dispenser's release rate could not be determined gravimetrically, possibly due to water absorption. The Pacific Biocon...

  13. Pola Bakteri Aerob Pada Dispenser Air Minum Kemasan Galon Pada Konsumen Di Kecamatan Malalayang Kota Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Kaban, Indra Y; Buntuan, Velma; Rares, Fredine E. S

    2015-01-01

    : The use of the dispenser on gallon bottled water consumers make the presentation of drinking water to be practical but dispensers hygiene generally overlooked by consumers. Poor microbiology quality of drinking water can cause disease, which one of them is diarrhea. To determine the condition of drinking water studies or clinical testing in the laboratory is required. This study aimed to determine the pattern of aerobic bacteria in water dispenser among consumers in the District Malalayang ...

  14. Pola Bakteri Aerob Pada Dispenser Air Minum Kemasan Galon Pada Konsumen Di Kecamatan Tikala Kota Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Sudradjat, Tri; Buntuan, Velma; Rares, Fredine E. S

    2015-01-01

    : Refill drinking water in gallons require dispensers to make the water more practible to drink. Use of dispenser that makes the presentation be practical, but may menyembabkan gathering bacteria because of the lack of consumer attention to the cleanliness of the dispenser. Drinking water quality is poor mikrobiologisnya can cause disease, one of which is diarrhea. Necessary research or clinical testing in the laboratory to determine whether drinking water is contaminated or not. This study a...

  15. Effect of dispenser location on taking free condoms in an outpatient cocaine abuse treatment clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrigan, Danielle R.; Kirby, Kimberly C.; Marlowe, Douglas B.

    1995-01-01

    Crack cocaine use increases risky sexual behavior and HIV exposure; therefore, safe sexual practices should be encouraged during cocaine addiction treatment. Research indicates that placing condom dispensers in private restrooms increases taking free condoms. We investigated two other dispenser locations (a day room vs. counselors' offices) and found that substantially more condoms were taken when dispensers were in the day room. This is an important issue for public health facilities without private restrooms. PMID:16795876

  16. Process development for a high-throughput fine line metallization approach based on dispensing technology

    OpenAIRE

    Pospischil, M.; Klawitter, M.; Kuchler, M.; Specht, J.; Gentischer, H.; Efinger, R.; Kroner, C.; Luegmair, M.; König, M.; Hörteis, M.; Mohr, C.; Wende, L.; Lossen, J.; Weiß, M.; Doll, O.

    2013-01-01

    In order to enhance prosperous dispensing technology towards an industrial application, besides a continuous process development, especially throughput rate has to be increased. In this study, paste rheology of two different dispensing pastes was transferred to CFD-simulation (CFD: Computational Fluid Dynamics) to investigate different nozzle geometries and print head designs. In the following, a single nozzle dispensing setup was used to verify simulative values by comparing them with those ...

  17. An automatic pellet dispenser for precise control of feeding topography in granivorous birds

    OpenAIRE

    Berkhoudt, H.; Van Der Reijden, D.; Heijmans, M.

    1987-01-01

    Design and construction of an automatic pellet dispenser for granivorous birds are described. The dispenser permits rapid pneumatic delivery of pellets (five pellets per second maximum) to one controlled position and does not interfere with simultaneous electrophysiological recording. In addition, the device continuously indicates presence or absence of a pellet in the delivery position. This automatic dispenser proved very effective in our studies of stereotyped topographies of feeding in gr...

  18. Regulations, Codes, and Standards (RCS) Template for California Hydrogen Dispensing Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivkin, C.; Blake, C.; Burgess, R.; Buttner, W.; Post, M.

    2012-11-01

    This report explains the Regulations, Codes, and Standards (RCS) requirements for hydrogen dispensing stations in the State of California. The reports shows the basic components of a hydrogen dispensing station in a simple schematic drawing; the permits and approvals that would typically be required for the construction and operation of a hydrogen dispensing station; and a basic permit that might be employed by an Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ).

  19. A Curriculum For Dispensing Optician A Case Study In Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duong Dieu MD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Until 2011 there had been no full-time training course for dispensing optician diploma in Vietnam. Most of the practicing opticians with no qualification and formal training have learnt their skills through apprentice. In response to the demand of the industry Nguyen Tat Thanh University Vietnam has teamed up with Bradford College United Kingdom to develop a curriculum for a of formal 2-year full-time training for dispensing optician. The curriculum is applied for 4 semesters and graduate gets called Intermediate Professional Diploma level included 4 semesters. In VN after high school students can obtain different many levels of study such as Intermediate Professional Diploma College Bachelor Master and PhD. The 1st semester is basis of Intermediate Professional Diploma level. The 2nd semester is the study of refractive error and primary care each for 4 weeks 100 hours in theory and primary eye care 4 weeks for theory 100 hours. Also in this semester the learners have practiced clinical rotation at the Ophthalmic Hospital Ophthalmic Service in General Hospital for 10 weeks. The 3rd semester is specialized of dispensing Optician included Lenses frame contact lenses and laboratory for optician. In the 4th semester the training concentrates in the management of the eyeglasses shop and practicing in making spectacles for customers are in the 4th semester. The 1st intake of the course was opened started in 2011 and had 30 students graduated in 2013. This paper describes the experience of developing the curriculum in the context of a developing country where the industry is still under regulated and less developed. The first program optician that privileged on primary eye care will be satisfied for community WHO 2020 1 optometrist for 50.000 people and 10 ophthalmologists for 1.000.000 people. Some characteristics of first course students have been noted. The result of this curriculum will be evaluated in the coming time.

  20. Guide to Permitting Hydrogen Motor Fuel Dispensing Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivkin, Carl [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Buttner, William [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burgess, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-28

    The purpose of this guide is to assist project developers, permitting officials, code enforcement officials, and other parties involved in developing permit applications and approving the implementation of hydrogen motor fuel dispensing facilities. The guide facilitates the identification of the elements to be addressed in the permitting of a project as it progresses through the approval process; the specific requirements associated with those elements; and the applicable (or potentially applicable) codes and standards by which to determine whether the specific requirements have been met. The guide attempts to identify all applicable codes and standards relevant to the permitting requirements.

  1. Definitionen af CFC-indkomst og adgangen til dispensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Peter Koerver

    2014-01-01

    I artiklen kommenteres to nyere afgørelser omhandlende CFC-reglerne for selskaber. Først behandles Skatterådets afgørelse i SKM2013.649.SR, der bl.a. angik, hvorvidt et udenlandsk datterselskabs indkomst udgjorde CFC-indkomst i form af vederlag for anvendelse af immaterielle aktiver. Derpå omtale...... kendelsen SKM2014.280.LSR, hvori Landsskatteretten - modsat Skatterådet - kom frem til, at betingelserne for dispensation fra CFC-reglerne var opfyldt....

  2. Dispensing rates of four common hearing aid product features: associations with variations in practice among audiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Earl E; Ricketts, Todd A

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop and examine a list of potential variables that may account for variability in the dispensing rates of four common hearing aid features. A total of 29 potential variables were identified and placed into the following categories: (1) characteristics of the audiologist, (2) characteristics of the hearing aids dispensed by the audiologist, (3) characteristics of the audiologist's patient population, and (4) evidence-based practice grades of recommendation for each feature. The potentially associative variables then were examined using regression analyses from the responses of 257 audiologists to a dispensing practice survey. There was a direct relation between price and level of hearing aid technology with the frequency of dispensing product features. There was also a direct relation between the belief by the audiologist that a feature might benefit patients and the frequency of dispensing that feature. In general, the results suggested that personal differences among audiologists and the hearing aids audiologists choose to dispense are related more strongly to dispensing rates of product features than to differences in characteristics of the patient population served by audiologists. An additional finding indicated that evidence-based practice recommendations were inversely related to dispensing rates of product features. This finding, however, may not be the result of dispensing trends as much as hearing aid manufacturing trends.

  3. The 340B discount program: outpatient prescription dispensing patterns through contract pharmacies in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Bobby L; Hou, John; Chou, Chia-Hung; Huang, Elbert S; Conti, Rena

    2014-11-01

    Section 340B of the Public Health Service Act provides qualified organizations serving vulnerable populations with deep discounts for some outpatient medications. A 2010 regulatory change widely expanded the 340B program's reach, allowing these organizations to contract with retail pharmacies to dispense medications for eligible patients. Little is known about which medications are dispensed by contract pharmacies under the expanded program. We provide the first comparison of 340B prescriptions and all prescriptions dispensed in contract pharmacies. We used 2012 data from Walgreens, the national leader in 340B contract pharmacies. Medications used to treat chronic conditions such as diabetes, high cholesterol levels, asthma, and depression accounted for an overwhelming majority of all prescriptions dispensed at Walgreens as part of the 340B program. A higher percentage of antiretrovirals used to treat HIV/AIDS were dispensed through 340B prescriptions than through all prescriptions dispensed at Walgreens. The majority of 340B prescriptions dispensed at Walgreens originated at tuberculosis clinics, consolidated health centers, disproportionate-share hospitals, and Ryan White clinics. Our results suggest that 340B contract pharmacies dispense medications used to treat Americans' chronic disease burden and disproportionately dispense medications used by key vulnerable populations targeted by the program. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  4. Refinement of Foam Backfill Technology for Expedient Airfield Damage Repair; Phase 2: Development of Prototype Foam Dispensing Equipment and Improved Tactics, Techniques and Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    ix Acronyms...COL Bryan S. Green was the Commander of ERDC, and Dr. David W. Pittman was the Director. ERDC TR-17-14 ix Unit Conversion Factors Multiply By...replaceable. With quick disconnects in place on the dispensing system, it is possible to replace the mixing nozzle in less than 1 min. 3.1.2 Initial

  5. Wiping frictional properties of electrospun hydrophobic/hydrophilic polyurethane nanofiber-webs on soda-lime glass and silicon-wafer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kei; Wei, Kai; Nakashima, Ryu; Kim, Ick Soo; Enomoto, Yuji

    2013-04-01

    In the present work, we conducted the frictional tests of hydrophobic and hydrophilic polyurethane (PUo and PUi) nanofiber webs against engineering materials; soda-lime glass and silicon wafer. PUi/glass combination, with highest hydrophilicity, showed the highest friction coefficient which decrease with the increase of the applied load. Furthermore, the effects of fluorine coating are also investigated. The friction coefficient of fluorine coated hydrophobic PU nanofiber (PUof) shows great decrease against the silicon wafer. Finally, wiping ability and friction property are investigated when the substrate surface is contaminated. Nano-particle dusts are effectively collected into the pores by wiping with PUo and PUi nanofiber webs both on glass and silicon wafer. The friction coefficient gradually increased with the increase of the applied load.

  6. A network collaboration implementing technology to improve medication dispensing and administration in critical access hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Douglas S; Ward, Marcia M; Loes, Jean L; O'Brien, John

    2010-01-01

    We report how seven independent critical access hospitals collaborated with a rural referral hospital to standardize workflow policies and procedures while jointly implementing the same health information technologies (HITs) to enhance medication care processes. The study hospitals implemented the same electronic health record, computerized provider order entry, pharmacy information systems, automated dispensing cabinets (ADC), and barcode medication administration systems. We conducted interviews and examined project documents to explore factors underlying the successful implementation of ADC and barcode medication administration across the network hospitals. These included a shared culture of collaboration; strategic sequencing of HIT component implementation; interface among HIT components; strategic placement of ADCs; disciplined use and sharing of workflow analyses linked with HIT applications; planning for workflow efficiencies; acquisition of adequate supply of HIT-related devices; and establishing metrics to monitor HIT use and outcomes.

  7. Microbial quality of drinking water from microfiltered water dispensers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchetti, R; De Luca, G; Dormi, A; Guberti, E; Zanetti, F

    2014-03-01

    A comparison was made between the microbial quality of drinking water obtained from Microfiltered Water Dispensers (MWDs) and that of municipal tap water. A total of 233 water samples were analyzed. Escherichia coli (EC), enterococci (ENT), total coliforms (TC), Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and heterotrophic plate count (HPC) at 22 °C and 37 °C were enumerated. In addition, information was collected about the principal structural and functional characteristics of each MWD in order to study the various factors that might influence the microbial quality of the water. EC and ENT were not detected in any of the samples. TC were never detected in the tap water but were found in 5 samples taken from 5 different MWDs. S. aureus was found in a single sample of microfiltered water. P. aeruginosa was found more frequently and at higher concentrations in the samples collected from MWDs. The mean HPCs at 22 °C and 37 °C were significantly higher in microfiltered water samples compared to those of the tap water. In conclusion, the use of MWDs may increase the number of bacteria originally present in tap water. It is therefore important to monitor the quality of the dispensed water over time, especially if it is destined for vulnerable users. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. PROJECT OF COAGULANT DISPENSER IN PULVERIZATION AERATOR WITH WIND DRIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Osuch

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Lakes are one of most important freshwater ecosystems, playing significant role in functioning of nature and human economy. Swarzędzkie Lake is good example of ecosystem, which in last half-century was exposed to the influence of strong anthropopressure. Direct inflow of sewage with large number of biogens coming to the lake with water of inflows caused distinct disturbance of its functioning. In autumn 2011 restoration begined on Swarzędzkie Lake for reduction of lake trophy and improvement of water quality. For achieving better and quicker effect, simultaneously combination of some methods was applied, among others method of oxygenation of over-bottom water with help of pulverization aerator and method of precise inactivation of phosphorus in water depths. Characterization and analysis of improved coagulant dispenser applying active substance only during work of pulverization aerator is the aim of this thesis. Principle of dispenser work, its structure and location in pulverization aerator were explained. It was stated, that introduction to water a factor initiating process of phosphorus inactivation causes significant reduction of mineral phosphorus in water and size of coagulant dose correlates with intensity of work of pulverization aerator with wind drive.

  9. The Impact of Feet Callosities, Arm Posture, and Usage of Electrolyte Wipes on Body Composition by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Morbidly Obese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Roekenes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study evaluated the impact of feet callosities, arm posture, and use of electrolyte wipes on body composition measurements by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA in morbidly obese adults. Methods: 36 morbidly obese patients (13 males, aged 28-70 years, BMI 41.6 ± 4.3 kg/m2 with moderate/severe feet callosities participated in this study. Body composition (percent body fat (%BF was measured while fasting using multi-frequency BIA (InBody 720®, before and after removal of callosities, with and without InBody® electrolyte wipes and custom-built auxiliary pads (to assess arm posture impact. Results from BIA were compared to air displacement plethysmography (ADP, BodPod®. Results: Median %BF was significantly higher with auxiliary pads than without (50.1 (interquartile range 8.2 vs. 49.3 (interquartile range 9.1; p Conclusion: Arm posture has a significant impact on %BF assessed by BIA, contrary to the presence of feet callosities and use of electrolyte wipes. Arm posture standardization during BIA for body composition assessment is, therefore, recommended.

  10. Assessment of Progressive Product Innovation on Key Environmental Indicators: Pampers® Baby Wipes from 2007–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Van Hoof

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Companies are increasingly conducting life cycle assessments (LCA of their products to understand potential product impacts on the environment, prioritize areas of innovation to create more sustainable products, and determine valid claims. This case study shows the results of product innovation by comparing an older (2007 and new (2013 version of a common hygiene product in Europe and the U.S. The standard methodology follows the ISO 14040/44 Guidelines for LCA. Results are reported for the impact indicators with high relevance for the product category: primary energy, global warming, particulates, agricultural land occupation, fossil fuel depletion, and solid waste generation. Generally, raw material supply chains for product and packaging contribute most (up to 82% to the calculated environmental impact indicators. Improvements vs. the 2007 baby wipe range between 4% and 14% in Europe and between 15% and 36% in the U.S. The improvement is driven by a new substrate technology that provides more surface area for cleaning, which results in lower use of resources. This case study illustrates three key environmental drivers behind this innovation: the corporate focus on R&D capability to design for environmentally improved products, the increased interest from retailers and consumers requiring accurate and relevant information on the performance and sustainability of products, and the company’s interest in deeper technical understanding of contributions from upstream material and process innovations on a product’s environmental profile.

  11. Exploring the rice dispensable genome using a metagenome-like assembly strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Wen; Li, Guangwei; Zhao, Hu; Wang, Gongwei; Lian, Xingming; Xie, Weibo

    2015-09-07

    The dispensable genome of a species, consisting of the dispensable sequences present only in a subset of individuals, is believed to play important roles in phenotypic variation and genome evolution. However, construction of the dispensable genome is costly and labor-intensive at present, and so the influence of the dispensable genome in genetic and functional genomic studies has not been fully explored. We construct the dispensable genome of rice through a metagenome-like de novo assembly strategy based on low-coverage (1-3×) sequencing data of 1483 cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) accessions. Thousands of protein-coding genes are successfully assembled, including most of the known agronomically important genes absent from the Nipponbare rice reference genome. We develop an integration approach based on alignment and linkage disequilibrium, which is able to assign genomic positions relative to the reference genome for more than 78.2 % of the dispensable sequences. We carry out association mapping studies for rice grain width and 840 metabolic traits using 0.46 million polymorphisms between the dispensable sequences of different rice accessions. About 23.5 % of metabolic traits have more significant association signals with polymorphisms from dispensable sequences than with SNPs from the reference genome, and 41.6 % of trait-associated SNPs have concordant genomic locations with associated dispensable sequences. Our results suggest the feasibility of building a species' dispensable genome using low-coverage population sequencing data. The constructed sequences will be helpful for understanding the rice dispensable genome and are complementary to the reference genome for identifying candidate genes associated with phenotypic variation.

  12. 76 FR 12372 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Dispensing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ...: Dispensing Records of Individual Practitioners ACTION: 60-Day Notice of Information Collection Under Review... technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology, e.g., permitting electronic...: Extension of a currently approved collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Dispensing Records of...

  13. 76 FR 27352 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Dispensing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ...: Dispensing Records of Individual Practitioners ACTION: 30-Day Notice of Information Collection under Review... collection techniques or other forms of information technology, e.g., permitting electronic submission of... currently approved collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Dispensing records of individual...

  14. 21 CFR 208.24 - Distributing and dispensing a Medication Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distributing and dispensing a Medication Guide... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL MEDICATION GUIDES FOR PRESCRIPTION DRUG PRODUCTS General Requirements for a Medication Guide § 208.24 Distributing and dispensing a Medication Guide. (a) The manufacturer...

  15. 21 CFR 1307.11 - Distribution by dispenser to another practitioner or reverse distributor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distribution by dispenser to another practitioner or reverse distributor. 1307.11 Section 1307.11 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION... Substances § 1307.11 Distribution by dispenser to another practitioner or reverse distributor. (a) A...

  16. 21 CFR 209.11 - Dispensing and distributing the side effects statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dispensing and distributing the side effects statement. 209.11 Section 209.11 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REQUIREMENT FOR AUTHORIZED DISPENSERS AND PHARMACIES TO DISTRIBUTE A...

  17. MANUAL FOOD AND BEVERAGE DISPENSING EQUIPMENT. NATIONAL SANITATION FOUNDATION STANDARD NO. 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI.

    THIS STANDARD COVERS THE SANITATION REQUIREMENTS FOR EQUIPMENT AND DEVICES WHICH DISPENSE FOOD OR BEVERAGE EITHER IN BULK OR PORTIONS. VENDING MACHINES OR BULK MILK DISPENSING EQUIPMENT ARE NOT COVERED IN THIS STANDARD. ITEMS COVERED INCLUDE THE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION, FOOD PROTECTION AND FREEDOM FROM HARBORAGES. MINIMUM…

  18. 46 CFR 105.45-1 - Loading or dispensing petroleum products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Loading or dispensing petroleum products. (a) A commercial fishing vessel must have aboard a letter of... letter while dispensing petroleum products. This letter of compliance issued to a vessel will state— (1... authorizing service as master, mate, pilot, or engineer. [CGD 79-116, 60 FR 17157, Apr. 4, 1995, as amended by...

  19. Cluster randomized trial of text message reminders to retail staff in tanzanian drug shops dispensing artemether-lumefantrine: effect on dispenser knowledge and patient adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruxvoort, Katia; Festo, Charles; Kalolella, Admirabilis; Cairns, Matthew; Lyaruu, Peter; Kenani, Mitya; Kachur, S Patrick; Goodman, Catherine; Schellenberg, David

    2014-10-01

    Artemisinin combination therapies are available in private outlets, but patient adherence might be compromised by poor advice from dispensers. In this cluster randomized trial in drug shops in Tanzania, 42 of 82 selected shops were randomized to receive text message reminders about what advice to provide when dispensing artemether-lumefantrine (AL). Eligible patients purchasing AL at shops in both arms were followed up at home and questioned about each dose taken. Dispensers were interviewed regarding knowledge of AL dispensing practices and receipt of the malaria-related text messages. We interviewed 904 patients and 110 dispensers from 77 shops. Although there was some improvement in dispenser knowledge, there was no difference between arms in adherence measured as completion of all doses (intervention 68.3%, control 69.8%, p [adjusted] = 0.6), or as completion of each dose at the correct time (intervention 33.1%, control 32.6%, p [adjusted] = 0.9). Further studies on the potential of text messages to improve adherence are needed. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  20. Phylogenomics reveals surprising sets of essential and dispensable clades of MIKC(c)-group MADS-box genes in flowering plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramzow, Lydia; Theißen, Günter

    2015-06-01

    MIKC(C)-group MADS-box genes are involved in the control of many developmental processes in flowering plants. All of these genes are members of one of 17 clades that had already been established in the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of extant angiosperms. These clades trace back to 11 seed plant-specific superclades that were present in the MRCA of extant seed plants. Due to their important role in plant development and evolution, the origin of the clades of MIKC(C)-group genes has been studied in great detail. In contrast, whether any of these ancestral clades has ever been lost completely in any species has not been investigated so far. Here, we determined the presence of these clades by BLAST, PSI-BLAST, and Hidden Markov Model searches and by phylogenetic methods in the whole genomes of 27 flowering plants. Our data suggest that there are only three superclades of which all members have been lost in at least one of the investigated flowering plant species, and only few additional losses of angiosperm-specific MIKC(C)-group gene clades could be identified. Remarkably, for one seed plant superclade (TM8-like genes) and one angiosperm clade (FLC-like genes), multiple losses were identified, suggesting that the function of these genes is dispensable or that gene loss might have even been adaptive. The clades of MIKC(C)-group genes that have never been wiped out in any of the investigated species comprises, in addition to the expected floral organ identity genes, also TM3-like (SOC1-like), StMADS11-like (SVP-like), AGL17-like and GGM13-like (Bsister) genes, suggesting that these genes are more important for angiosperm development and evolution than has previously been appreciated. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Focused ion beam-assisted technology in sub-picolitre micro-dispenser fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, M J; Campo, E M; Perez-Castillejos, R; Esteve, J; Plaza, J A; Caballero, D; Errachid, A

    2008-01-01

    Novel medical and biological applications are driving increased interest in the fabrication of micropipette or micro-dispensers. Reduced volume samples and drug dosages are prime motivators in this effort. We have combined microfabrication technology with ion beam milling techniques to successfully produce cantilever-type polysilicon micro-dispensers with 3D enclosed microchannels. The microfabrication technology described here allows for the designing of nozzles with multiple shapes. The contribution of ion beam milling has had a large impact on the fabrication process and on further customizing shapes of nozzles and inlet ports. Functionalization tests were conducted to prove the viability of ion beam-fabricated micro-dispensers. Self-assembled monolayers were successfully formed when a gold surface was patterned with a thiol solution dispensed by the fabricated micro-dispensers

  2. Influence of container structures and content solutions on dispensing time of ophthalmic solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiji Yoshikawa

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Keiji Yoshikawa1, Hiroshi Yamada21Yoshikawa Eye Clinic, Tokyo, Japan; 2Santen Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Osaka, JapanPurpose: To investigate the influence of container structures and content solutions on the time of dispensing from eye dropper bottles.Methods: Eye dropper bottle models, solution models (filtrate water/surfactant solution and a dispensing time measuring apparatus were prepared to measure the dispensing time.Results: With filtrate water and pressure thrust load of 0.3 MPa, the dispensing time significantly increased from 1.1 ± 0.5 seconds to 4.6 ± 1.1 seconds depending on the decrease of inner aperture diameters from 0.4 mm to 0.2 mm (P < 0.0001. When using the bottle models with inner aperture diameters of 0.4 mm or larger, the dispensing time became constant. The dispensing time using surfactant solution showed the same tendency as above. When pressure thrust load was large (0.07 MPa, the solution flew out continuously with inner aperture diameters of 0.4 mm or larger and the dispensing time could not be measured. The inner aperture diameter most strongly explained the variation of the dispensing time in both the content solutions in the multiple linear regression analysis (filtrate water: 46%, R2 = 0.462, surfactant solution: 56%, R2 = 0.563.Conclusions: Among content solutions and container structures, the dispensing time was mostly influenced by the diameter of the inner aperture of bottles.Keywords: dispensing time, model eye dropper bottle, model ophthalmic solution, nozzle internal space volume, nozzle inner aperture diameter

  3. Do Pregnant Women Report Use of Dispensed Medications?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Charlotte; Søndergaard, Charlotte; Thrane, Nana

    2001-01-01

    such as antihistamines, antibiotics, antacids, nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs, and gynecologic drugs. Thus, for the latter drug groups the prescription database may provide an incomplete identification of exposure. Neither data source is unbiased regarding actual drug intake. Nevertheless, our results indicate......Surveillance of drug safety in pregnancy often draws on administrative prescription registries. Noncompliance in the use of prescribed medication may be frequent among pregnant women owing to their fear of fetotoxic side effects. To estimate compliance in the use of prescription drugs dispensed...... during pregnancy, we compared prescription data from the North Jutland Prescription Database with information on drug use provided by pregnant women to the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC), which is a health interview survey. We used the North Jutland Prescription Database to identify all prescription...

  4. Interstate dispensing: a case for uniform, intuitive legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaitis, Nijole L; King, Michelle A; Hope, Denise L

    2014-09-01

    Australian health practitioner registration is national, whereas legislation regarding the handling of medicines is governed by individual States and Territories. To align with the July 2010 national registration scheme some legislative modifications were made concerning scheduled drugs and poisons, but many differences between jurisdictions remain. In Queensland, the Health (Drugs and Poisons) Regulation 1996 (Qld) allows for dispensing of controlled drugs written by interstate prescribers but not lower scheduled specified restricted and regulated restricted drugs. The aim of this study was to assess awareness of seemingly counterintuitive legislation by pharmacists practising in South-East Queensland. Of 125 Gold Coast pharmacies contacted, 54 (43.2%) agreed to participate. The majority of pharmacists (88.9%) had good knowledge regarding controlled drugs. In contrast, they demonstrated confusion regarding specified restricted and regulated restricted drugs (51.9% correct awareness). Uniform legislation between jurisdictions or more intuitive legislation would ease practitioner confusion.

  5. Presumed pseudobacteremia outbreak resulting from contamination of proportional disinfectant dispenser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebor, E; Llanes, C; Lafon, I; Ogier-Desserrey, A; Duez, J M; Pechinot, A; Caillot, D; Grandjean, M; Sixt, N; Neuwirth, C

    2007-03-01

    Reported here are the microbiological and epidemiological details of a presumed outbreak of aerobic gram-negative bacilli infections affecting 19 hematological patients, which was traced to contaminated disinfectant. Over a 5-month period, the following organisms were isolated from the blood cultures of 19 neutropenic patients: Pseudomonas fluorescens (n = 13), Achromobacter xylosoxidans (n = 12), Comamonas testosteroni (n = 2) or Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (n = 1). The affected patients were all treated with an expensive regimen of broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy. The same bacteria were recovered from environmental samples as well as from the water pipes of an apparatus for dispensing disinfectant (didecyldimethylammonium chloride). Genotyping results indicated that many of the clinical strains were identical to strains isolated from the apparatus. It was eventually discovered that the night staff was in the habit of disinfecting the blood-culture bottles before use, thereby contaminating the bottles with bacteria contained in the disinfectant. Contamination of the apparatus resulted from faulty maintenance.

  6. Spill-Resistant Alkali-Metal-Vapor Dispenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klipstein, William

    2005-01-01

    A spill-resistant vessel has been developed for dispensing an alkali-metal vapor. Vapors of alkali metals (most commonly, cesium or rubidium, both of which melt at temperatures slightly above room temperature) are needed for atomic frequency standards, experiments in spectroscopy, and experiments in laser cooling. Although the present spill-resistant alkali-metal dispenser was originally intended for use in the low-gravity environment of outer space, it can also be used in normal Earth gravitation: indeed, its utility as a vapor source was confirmed by use of cesium in a ground apparatus. The vessel is made of copper. It consists of an assembly of cylinders and flanges, shown in the figure. The uppermost cylinder is a fill tube. Initially, the vessel is evacuated, the alkali metal charge is distilled into the bottom of the vessel, and then the fill tube is pinched closed to form a vacuum seal. The innermost cylinder serves as the outlet for the vapor, yet prevents spilling by protruding above the surface of the alkali metal, no matter which way or how far the vessel is tilted. In the event (unlikely in normal Earth gravitation) that any drops of molten alkali metal have been shaken loose by vibration and are floating freely, a mesh cap on top of the inner cylinder prevents the drops from drifting out with the vapor. Liquid containment of the equivalent of 1.2 grams of cesium was confirmed for all orientations with rubbing alcohol in one of the prototypes later used with cesium.

  7. False negative rate and other performance measures of a sponge-wipe surface sampling method for low contaminant concentrations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einfeld, Wayne; Krauter, Paula A.; Boucher, Raymond M.; Tezak, Mathew; Amidan, Brett G. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA); Piepel, Greg F. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA)

    2011-05-01

    Recovery of spores from environmental surfaces is known to vary due to sampling methodology, techniques, spore size and characteristics, surface materials, and environmental conditions. A series of tests were performed to evaluate a new, validated sponge-wipe method. Specific factors evaluated were the effects of contaminant concentrations and surface materials on recovery efficiency (RE), false negative rate (FNR), limit of detection (LOD) - and the uncertainties of these quantities. Ceramic tile and stainless steel had the highest mean RE values (48.9 and 48.1%, respectively). Faux leather, vinyl tile, and painted wood had mean RE values of 30.3, 25.6, and 25.5, respectively, while plastic had the lowest mean RE (9.8%). Results show a roughly linear dependence of surface roughness on RE, where the smoothest surfaces have the highest mean RE values. REs were not influenced by the low spore concentrations tested (3 x 10{sup -3} to 1.86 CFU/cm{sup 2}). The FNR data were consistent with RE data, showing a trend of smoother surfaces resulting in higher REs and lower FNRs. Stainless steel generally had the lowest mean FNR (0.123) and plastic had the highest mean FNR (0.479). The LOD{sub 90} varied with surface material, from 0.015 CFU/cm{sup 2} on stainless steel up to 0.039 on plastic. Selecting sampling locations on the basis of surface roughness and using roughness to interpret spore recovery data can improve sampling. Further, FNR values, calculated as a function of concentration and surface material, can be used pre-sampling to calculate the numbers of samples for statistical sampling plans with desired performance, and post-sampling to calculate the confidence in characterization and clearance decisions.

  8. Arsenic levels in wipe samples collected from play structures constructed with CCA-treated wood: Impact on exposure estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barraj, Leila M. [Chemical Regulation and Food Safety, Exponent, Inc., Suite 1100, 1150 Connecticut Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20036 (United States)], E-mail: lbarraj@exponent.com; Scrafford, Carolyn G. [Chemical Regulation and Food Safety, Exponent, Inc., Suite 1100, 1150 Connecticut Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20036 (United States); Eaton, W. Cary [RTI International, 3040 Cornwallis Road, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Rogers, Robert E.; Jeng, Chwen-Jyh [Toxcon Health Sciences Research Centre Inc., 9607 - 41 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, T6E 5X7 (Canada)

    2009-04-01

    Lumber treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) has been used in residential outdoor wood structures and playgrounds. The U.S. EPA has conducted a probabilistic assessment of children's exposure to arsenic from CCA-treated structures using the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation model for the wood preservative scenario (SHEDS-Wood). The EPA assessment relied on data from an experimental study using adult volunteers and designed to measure arsenic in maximum hand and wipe loadings. Analyses using arsenic handloading data from a study of children playing on CCA-treated play structures in Edmonton, Canada, indicate that the maximum handloading values significantly overestimate the exposure that occurs during actual play. The objective of our paper is to assess whether the dislodgeable arsenic residues from structures in the Edmonton study are comparable to those observed in other studies and whether they support the conclusion that the values derived by EPA using modeled maximum loading values overestimate hand exposures. We compared dislodgeable arsenic residue data from structures in the playgrounds in the Edmonton study to levels observed in studies used in EPA's assessment. Our analysis showed that the dislodgeable arsenic levels in the Edmonton playground structures are similar to those in the studies used by EPA. Hence, the exposure estimates derived using the handloading data from children playing on CCA-treated structures are more representative of children's actual exposures than the overestimates derived by EPA using modeled maximum values. Handloading data from children playing on CCA-treated structures should be used to reduce the uncertainty of modeled estimates derived using the SHEDS-Wood model.

  9. Pheromone dispensers, including organic polymer fibers, described in the crop protection literature: comparison of their innovation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Hans E; Langner, S S; Eisinger, M-T

    2013-01-01

    parameters, they hold considerable promise for future pest control against a variety of pest insects. In combination with well known synthetic sex pheromones, they can be used for communication disruption studies. One example, the pheromone of the European grape vine moth Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in combination with Ecoflex fibers, has been thoroughly tested in vineyards of Freiburg, Southwest Germany, with promising results. Seven weeks of communication disruption have been achieved, long enough to cover any one of several flights of this multivoltine grape pest. Disruption effects of around 95% have been achieved which are statistically indistinguishable from positive controls tested simultaneously with Isonet LE fibers, while an untreated negative control is significantly different. Ecoflex is a cheap organic co-polyester and completely biodegradable within half a year. Thus, an extra recovery step as with some other dispensers is unnecessary. This co-polyester is also of proven non-toxicity. The extension of the seven week disruption period towards half a year (the entire duration of all 3 Lobesia flights combined) is desirable and is under additional investigation in the near future. The discovery of suitable mesofibers is protected by European and US patents. The pheromone literature appearing between 1959 and today contains more than 25,000 references. This wealth of information is immediately applicable to pest management. It has major impacts on chemical ecology and IPM. In this paper, an attempt is made to compare the systems described in the literature and to derive some predictions about their prospective innovation potential. Special emphasis is given to the new development of organic biodegradable microfibers. To this end, a new electronic searching algorithm is introduced for reviewing the entries to be found in 4 specific databases. Its prominent features will be described. Surprisingly we found no previous entries in the literature linking

  10. Evaluation of novel semiochemical dispensers simultaneously releasing pear ester and sex pheromone for mating disruption of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The performance of polyvinyl chloride polymer (pvc) dispensers loaded with two rates of ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) plus the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone) of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), was compared with similar dispensers and two commercial dispensers l...

  11. Handling test of eye drop dispenser--comparison of unit-dose pipettes with conventional eye drop bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkkari, Minna; Latvala, Terho; Ropo, Auli

    2010-06-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate how elderly people handle single-use eye drop dispensers (unit-dose pipettes) and to compare the performance with conventional eye drop bottles. In this open-label study, the handling of unit-dose pipettes and conventional eye drop bottles was compared in 41 elderly people who had little or no prior regular use of eye drop dispensers. The participants tested both types of dispenser once, and the following 7 variables were studied: ease/difficulty of opening the dispenser; influence of the size for handling of the dispenser; influence of the shape for handling of the dispenser; observation of the contents in the dispenser; the feeling of the dispenser in the hand; ease/difficulty of drop instillation on the eye from the dispenser; and overall performance of the eye drop dispenser. The dispensers contained isotonic saline, and a visual analog scale was used for assessment of each of the above variables. The mean age of the participants was 73 years. A statistically significant difference in favor of the unit-dose pipettes was found with respect to observation of the contents in the dispenser, ease of administration, and the overall performance. Women regarded the unit-dose pipettes generally better than the bottles, but such a difference was not seen in men. The study participants managed the unit-dose pipettes at least as well as the conventional eye drop bottles. If anything, the unit-dose pipettes appeared to be easier to use.

  12. Microfluidic EmbryoSort technology: towards in flow analysis, sorting and dispensing of individual vertebrate embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuad, Nurul M.; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2013-12-01

    The demand to reduce the numbers of laboratory animals has facilitated the emergence of surrogate models such as tests performed on zebrafish (Danio rerio) or African clawed frog's (Xenopus levis) eggs, embryos and larvae. Those two model organisms are becoming increasingly popular replacements to current adult animal testing in toxicology, ecotoxicology and also in drug discovery. Zebrafish eggs and embryos are particularly attractive for toxicological analysis due their size (diameter 1.6 mm), optical transparency, large numbers generated per fish and very straightforward husbandry. The current bottleneck in using zebrafish embryos for screening purposes is, however, a tedious manual evaluation to confirm the fertilization status and subsequent dispensing of single developing embryos to multitier plates to perform toxicity analysis. Manual procedures associated with sorting hundreds of embryos are very monotonous and as such prone to significant analytical errors due to operator's fatigue. In this work, we present a proofof- concept design of a continuous flow embryo sorter capable of analyzing, sorting and dispensing objects ranging in size from 1.5 - 2.5 mm. The prototypes were fabricated in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) transparent thermoplastic using infrared laser micromachining. The application of additive manufacturing processes to prototype Lab-on-a-Chip sorters using both fused deposition manufacturing (FDM) and stereolithography (SLA) were also explored. The operation of the device was based on a revolving receptacle capable of receiving, holding and positioning single fish embryos for both interrogation and subsequent sorting. The actuation of the revolving receptacle was performed using a DC motor and/or microservo motor. The system was designed to separate between fertilized (LIVE) and non-fertilized (DEAD) eggs, based on optical transparency using infrared (IR) emitters and receivers.

  13. No damage to bulk storage but entire customer bases wiped out in storm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that interviews with key LP-gas industry spokesmen in hurricane-ravaged South Florida following Andrew's terrifying visit presented a picture of unimaginable destruction and nearly immeasurable losses of property but miraculously, not a single significant incident involving leaks or the loss of bulk storage. In the worst reports of damage to propane company facilities, Homestead Gas loss at least one building and the Suburban/Petrolane office building in Homestead no longer exists. (Temporary office arrangements were established by Suburban/Petrolane.) The customer base of these companies has been hit very had. For a while, it appeared that one Suburban/Petrolane employee was unaccounted for but that report turned out to be false. Shortly after the storm, crews were out securing gas systems in whatever locations they could reach. In one instance in which regular travel proved impossible, the gas company was forced to travel the long way around-pulling resources out of its Key West district and going north to Homestead. It became necessary in many cases for personnel to purchase cellular phones in order to maintain contact between the office and field crew

  14. Evaluation of community pharmacies regarding dispensing practices of antibiotics in two districts of central Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Mukhtar

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the status of community pharmacies, their staff, and practices toward dispensing antibiotics. Cross-sectional, prospective. Community pharmacies in two districts of central Nepal, from March 2016 to May 2016. A systematic random sampling approach was adopted to sample 161 community pharmacies. Data on the registration status of pharmacies, qualification or training of dispensing staff, and the practice of dispensing antibiotics were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. Face to face interviews were carried out by a previously trained interviewer. Data were analyzed for descriptive and inferential statistics using IBM SPSS Statistics 21. Among 161 community pharmacies, 25% were not registered and most of them were located in rural areas. It was typical (66.5%) to dispense antibiotics without prescription and most (91.4%) of the staffs involved in dispensing were non-pharmacists. Furthermore, the study revealed common practices of replacing one brand of antibiotic with other brands (66%), dispensing incomplete courses of antibiotics (73%), and not giving any advice regarding antibiotic use (39%) or completion of a full course of therapy (80%). There were significant (p < 0.001) relationships between the location of pharmacies (rural vs urban) and the qualifications of the pharmacy staff. Dispensing antibiotics without prescription and by non-pharmacists are common in this region. The study also found several issues regarding the irrational use of antibiotics. Thus, there is an urgent need to address these issues and promote the informed use of antibiotics.

  15. Bacterial hand contamination and transfer after use of contaminated bulk-soap-refillable dispensers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapka, Carrie A; Campbell, Esther J; Maxwell, Sheri L; Gerba, Charles P; Dolan, Michael J; Arbogast, James W; Macinga, David R

    2011-05-01

    Bulk-soap-refillable dispensers are prone to extrinsic bacterial contamination, and recent studies demonstrated that approximately one in four dispensers in public restrooms are contaminated. The purpose of this study was to quantify bacterial hand contamination and transfer after use of contaminated soap under controlled laboratory and in-use conditions in a community setting. Under laboratory conditions using liquid soap experimentally contaminated with 7.51 log(10) CFU/ml of Serratia marcescens, an average of 5.28 log(10) CFU remained on each hand after washing, and 2.23 log(10) CFU was transferred to an agar surface. In an elementary-school-based field study, Gram-negative bacteria on the hands of students and staff increased by 1.42 log(10) CFU per hand (26-fold) after washing with soap from contaminated bulk-soap-refillable dispensers. In contrast, washing with soap from dispensers with sealed refills significantly reduced bacteria on hands by 0.30 log(10) CFU per hand (2-fold). Additionally, the mean number of Gram-negative bacteria transferred to surfaces after washing with soap from dispensers with sealed-soap refills (0.06 log(10) CFU) was significantly lower than the mean number after washing with contaminated bulk-soap-refillable dispensers (0.74 log(10) CFU; P soap (P soap from bulk-soap-refillable dispensers can increase the number of opportunistic pathogens on the hands and may play a role in the transmission of bacteria in public settings.

  16. Dispensing processes impact apparent biological activity as determined by computational and statistical analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Ekins

    Full Text Available Dispensing and dilution processes may profoundly influence estimates of biological activity of compounds. Published data show Ephrin type-B receptor 4 IC50 values obtained via tip-based serial dilution and dispensing versus acoustic dispensing with direct dilution differ by orders of magnitude with no correlation or ranking of datasets. We generated computational 3D pharmacophores based on data derived by both acoustic and tip-based transfer. The computed pharmacophores differ significantly depending upon dispensing and dilution methods. The acoustic dispensing-derived pharmacophore correctly identified active compounds in a subsequent test set where the tip-based method failed. Data from acoustic dispensing generates a pharmacophore containing two hydrophobic features, one hydrogen bond donor and one hydrogen bond acceptor. This is consistent with X-ray crystallography studies of ligand-protein interactions and automatically generated pharmacophores derived from this structural data. In contrast, the tip-based data suggest a pharmacophore with two hydrogen bond acceptors, one hydrogen bond donor and no hydrophobic features. This pharmacophore is inconsistent with the X-ray crystallographic studies and automatically generated pharmacophores. In short, traditional dispensing processes are another important source of error in high-throughput screening that impacts computational and statistical analyses. These findings have far-reaching implications in biological research.

  17. Sex pheromone dispenser type and trap design affect capture of dogwood borer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aijun; Leskey, Tracy C; Bergh, J Christopher; Walgenbach, James F

    2013-03-01

    Using a ternary sex pheromone blend [86:6:6 v:v:v (Z,Z)-3,13-octadecadienyl acetate: (E,Z)-2,13-octadecadienyl acetate: (Z,E)-3,13-octadecadienyl acetate], we tested the effect of dispenser type and trap design for capture of dogwood borer (DWB), Synanthedon scitula Harris (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) in apple orchards in West Virginia, Virginia, and North Carolina. Wing-style sticky traps baited with polyethylene vial pheromone dispensers captured more male DWB over the first 2 months than traps baited with rubber septum pheromone dispensers. However, catches in vial-baited traps decreased considerably after the first 2 months, possibly due to the antagonistic effect of 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy acetophenone that diffused from the polyethylene vials. By contrast, traps baited with rubber septum dispensers captured DWB males for at least 6 months; over the last four months of the flight season, catches in traps baited with a rubber septum were greater than those in traps baited with a vial dispenser. Therefore, the rubber septum dispenser is recommended for season-long monitoring of DWB. A release-rate study, using laboratory and field-aged dispensers, demonstrated that desorption of DWB sex pheromone from polyethylene vial or rubber septum dispensers followed first order kinetics, with half-lives of 1.6 and 10.7 months, respectively. Several trap designs, including wing-and delta-style sticky traps, and white and green "bucket-style" traps, baited with rubber septum dispensers were compared in commercial apple orchards for catch of DWB. Bucket traps caught more moths when moth populations were high, because the sticky surfaces of the 1C and delta traps likely became saturated. However, among the commercially available traps tested, no particular design gave consistently higher catches. Further work is needed to explore capture mechanisms and maintenance needs of different trap types.

  18. New approach for cystic fibrosis diagnosis based on chloride/potassium ratio analyzed in non-invasively obtained skin-wipe sweat samples by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ďurč, Pavol; Foret, František; Pokojová, Eva; Homola, Lukáš; Skřičková, Jana; Herout, Vladimír; Dastych, Milan; Vinohradská, Hana; Kubáň, Petr

    2017-05-01

    A new approach for sweat analysis used in cystic fibrosis (CF) diagnosis is proposed. It consists of a noninvasive skin-wipe sampling followed by analysis of target ions using capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductometric detection (C4D). The skin-wipe sampling consists of wiping a defined skin area with precleaned cotton swab moistened with 100 μL deionized water. The skin-wipe sample is then extracted for 3 min into 400 μL deionized water, and the extract is analyzed directly. The developed sampling method is cheap, simple, fast, and painless, and can replace the conventional pilocarpine-induced sweat chloride test commonly applied in CF diagnosis. The aqueous extract of the skin-wipe sample content is analyzed simultaneously by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductometric detection using a double opposite end injection. A 20 mmol/L L-histidine/2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid and 2 mmol/L 18-crown-6 at pH 6 electrolyte can separate all the major ions in less than 7 min. Skin-wipe sample extracts from 30 study participants-ten adult patients with CF (25-50 years old), ten pediatric patients with CF (1-15 years old), and ten healthy control individuals (1-18 years old)-were obtained and analyzed. From the analyzed ions in all samples, a significant difference between chloride and potassium concentrations was found in the CF patients and healthy controls. We propose the use of the Cl - /K + ratio rather than the absolute Cl - concentration and a cutoff value of 4 in skin-wipe sample extracts as an alternative to the conventional sweat chloride analysis. The proposed Cl - /K + ion ratio proved to be a more reliable indicator, is independent of the patient's age, and allows better differentiation between non-CF individuals and CF patients having intermediate values on the Cl - sweat test. Figure New approach for cystic fibrosis diagnosis based on skin-wipe sampling of forearm and analysis of ionic content (Cl - /K + ratio) in

  19. Comparison of latex body paint with wetted gauze wipes for sampling the chemical warfare agents VX and sulfur mustard from common indoor surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernon-Kenny, Laura A; Behringer, Deborah L; Crenshaw, Michael D

    2016-05-01

    Comparison of solvent-wetted gauze with body paint, a peelable surface sampling media, for the sampling of the chemical warfare agents VX and sulfur mustard from nine surfaces was performed. The nine surfaces sampled are those typical of interior public venues and include smooth, rough, porous, and non-porous surfaces. Overall, solvent-wetted gauze (wipes) performed better for the recovery of VX from non-porous surfaces while body paint (BP) performed better for the porous surfaces. The average percent VX recoveries using wipes and BP, respectively, are: finished wood flooring, 86.2%, 71.4%; escalator handrail, 47.3%, 26.7%; stainless steel, 80.5%, 56.1%; glazed ceramic tile, 81.8%, 44.9%; ceiling tile, 1.77%, 13.1%; painted drywall 7.83%, 21.1%; smooth cement, 0.64%, 10.3%; upholstery fabric, 24.6%, 23.1%; unfinished wood flooring, 9.37%, 13.1%. Solvent-wetted gauze performed better for the recovery of sulfur mustard from three of the relatively non-porous surfaces while body paint performed better for the more porous surfaces. The average percent sulfur mustard recoveries using wipes and BP, respectively, are: finished wood flooring, 30.2%, 2.97%; escalator handrail, 4.40%, 4.09%; stainless steel, 21.2%, 3.30%; glazed ceramic tile, 49.7%, 16.7%; ceiling tile, 0.33%, 11.1%; painted drywall 2.05%, 10.6%; smooth cement, 1.20%, 35.2%; upholstery fabric, 7.63%, 6.03%; unfinished wood flooring, 0.90%, 1.74%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hand sanitizer-dispensing door handles increase hand hygiene compliance: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiarz, Lukasz S; Savoie, Brent; McGuire, Mark; McConnell, Lauren; Nagy, Paul

    2014-04-01

    Improving rates of hand hygiene compliance (HHC) has been shown to reduce nosocomial disease. We compared the HHC for a traditional wall-mounted unit and a novel sanitizer-dispensing door handle device in a hospital inpatient ultrasound area. HHC increased 24.5%-77.1% (P sanitizer-dispensing door handle, whereas it remained unchanged for the other rooms. Technical improvements like a sanitizer-dispensing door handle can improve hospital HHC. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A study on rational drug prescribing and dispensing in outpatients in a tertiary care teaching hospital of Western Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, K; Mishra, P; Prabhu, M; Shankar, P R; Palaian, S; Bhandari, R B; Bista, D

    2006-01-01

    To analyze the prescriptions of out-patients for rational prescribing and dispensing and to evaluate the patient's knowledge regarding use of drugs, using INRUD indicators. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted at the Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal during the time period from June 10th to August 19th 2004. Totally 247 prescriptions were randomly selected for analysis, wherein 720 drugs were prescribed. Only 15% of drugs were prescribed by generic name, 21.67% of the total drugs consisted of fixed-dose combinations, only 40% of drugs were from the Essential drug list of Nepal and 29.44% (n=212) were from the WHO Essential drug list. It was found that more than half (54.17%) of the drugs were from Nepalese National Formulary and 35.69% were from WHO model formulary. Dermatological products were most commonly prescribed followed by drugs acting on central nervous system, antimicrobials and drugs acting on cardiovascular system. Among the drugs dispensed, 79.16% were oral followed by topical (18.19%) and parenteral forms (2.98%). Diagnosis was mentioned only in 3.23% (n=8) of the prescriptions and the average cost per prescription was found to be 241.11 Nepalese rupees (US$ 3.26). It was found out that pharmacist labelled only 0.4% of the medication envelopes with the name of the patient. However, 82.6% of the medication envelopes were labelled with name of the drug and 87.0% with drug strength. Only 53.8% (n=133) of the patient knew both the duration of the therapy and administration time of drugs. There is a need for educational intervention for prescribers and both managerial and educational intervention for the hospital pharmacists to improve prescribing and dispensing.

  2. Preliminary assessment on exposure of four typical populations to potentially toxic metals by means of skin wipes under the influence of haze pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhiguo; Wang, Mengmeng; Chen, Qiaoying; Zhang, Yajie; Dong, Wenjing; Yang, Tianfang; Yan, Guangxuan; Zhang, Xin; Pi, Yunqing; Xi, Benye; Bu, Qingwei

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the exposure risk of human beings to nine potentially toxic metals (PTMs), namely, Cu, Cr, Zn, As, Cd, Pb, Ni, Mn, and Co, skin wipe samples were collected from four types of populations, namely, children, undergraduates, security guards, and professional drivers, under different haze pollution levels in Xinxiang, China by using Ghost wipes. The Ghost wipes were quantitatively analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after microwave digestion. Generally, Zn (ND-1350μg/m 2 for undergraduates, ND-2660μg/m 2 for security guards, ND-2460μg/m 2 for children, and ND-2530μg/m 2 for professional drivers) showed the highest concentration among the four populations, followed by Cu (0.02-83.4μg/m 2 for undergraduates, ND-70.2μg/m 2 for security guards, 23.2-487μg/m 2 for children, and ND-116μg/m 2 for professional drivers). As (ND-5.7μg/m 2 for undergraduates, ND-2.3μg/m 2 for security guards, ND-21.1μg/m 2 for children, and ND-11.0μg/m 2 for professional drivers) and Co (ND-6.0μg/m 2 for undergraduates, ND-7.9μg/m 2 for security guards, ND-13.4μg/m 2 for children, and ND-2.1μg/m 2 for professional drivers) showed the lowest concentrations in all populations. Remarkable differences were found among the four populations and PTM levels decreased in the following order: children, professional drivers, security guards, and undergraduates. Gender variation was discovered for undergraduates and children. Generally, PTM contamination in skin wipes collected during a light haze pollution level was generally higher than that during a heavy haze pollution level, but PTM contamination was comparable between the two haze pollution levels for children. Non-carcinogenic exposure risks to As, Cd, and Pb for all populations were higher than those for the other six elements but all of them were within the acceptable safety threshold, indicating no apparent non-carcinogenic risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Parenteral medication prescriptions, dispensing and administration habits in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorj, Gereltuya; Sunderland, Bruce; Hendrie, Delia; Parsons, Richard

    2014-01-01

    High levels of injection prescribing were reported in Mongolia. Understanding the factors influencing the injection prescribing is essential to reduce their inappropriate use. The study evaluated the views, experiences and attitudes of community members associated with the prescribing of injections in Mongolia. A structured questionnaire focusing on respondents' characteristics, experiences and views about injections was developed and administered face-to-face to community members in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Standard descriptive statistics were used to summarize demographic data and responses to the questionnaires. Dependent variables were compared using Kruskal-Wallis Tests for independence. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS Version 21.0. Six hundred participants were approached and the response rate was 79% (n = 474). Almost half of the respondents were aged between 31 and 50 (n = 228, 48.1%) and 40.9% of respondents were male (n = 194). Most respondents were from Ulaanbaatar city (n = 407, 85.7%). All respondents had received injections in the past and 268 (56.5%) had received injection in the past year. The most common reason for having an injection in the past year was reported as treatment of a disease (n = 163, 60.8%), or for administration of vitamins (n = 70, 26.1%). Injections were prescribed by a doctor (n = 353, 74.9%), dispensed by a pharmacist (n = 283, 59.7%) and administered by a nurse (n = 277, 54.9%). Only 16% of all respondents had the expectation of receiving injections when they visited a doctor (n = 77). An important perception regarding injections was that they hastened the recovery process (n = 269, 56.8%). When asked their opinion about therapeutic injections, 40% of all respondents agreed that injections were a better medicine (n = 190) than oral medications, with older respondents strongly agreeing (p<0.001). Based on this total sample, approximately 1891 injections per 1000 patients were administered. The excessive injection

  4. Method and system for aligning fibers during electrospinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Carnell, Lisa A. (Inventor); Stephens, Ralph M (Inventor); Holloway, Nancy M. (Inventor); Rhim, Caroline (Inventor); Niklason, Laura (Inventor); Clark, Robert L. (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method and system are provided for aligning fibers in an electrospinning process. A jet of a fiberizable material is directed towards an uncharged collector from a dispensing location that is spaced apart from the collector. While the fiberizable material is directed towards the collector, an elliptical electric field is generated via the electrically charged dispenser and an oppositely-charged control location. The field spans between the dispensing location and the control location that is within line-of-sight of the dispensing location, and impinges upon at least a portion of the collector. Various combinations of numbers and geometries of dispensers, collectors, and electrodes can be used.

  5. wait and wipe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    yet they reported no sexual acts or 100% condom use. Interpretations that have been provided so far in trying to ... authors who reported this interesting finding however suggested caution in promoting any post-coital ... occur there during sexual intercourse due to friction are a risk factor for HIV transmission13,14. Sexually ...

  6. Continued Dispensing: what medications do patients believe should be available?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Hasn Abukres

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Continued Dispensing (CD is a new medication supply method for certain medications in Australia. It aims to prevent treatment interruption as a result of patients’ inability to obtain a new valid prescription. The only currently eligible patients for this service are statin and/or oral contraceptives users who have been using these medications for 6 months or more, have not utilized the CD method during the last 12 months, and cannot obtain an immediate appointment with the prescriber in order to get a new prescription. This study aimed to investigate patients’ attitudes towards potential extension and expansion of this medication supply method.Methods. A randomly selected 301 users of these medications from all Australian States were recruited using Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI.Result. The response rate was 79%. The majority of the participants (73.3% did not agree with current restriction on CD utilization frequency. They also supported, to varying degrees, inclusion of all the proposed medications (support ranged from 44.2–78.4%. In this regard, participants who suffered from a specific disease did not differ significantly from those without the disease except in case of patients with depression (p = 0.001.Conclusions. Participants of this study strongly supported both CD extension and expansion. A future critical review of the current version of CD is highly recommended in order to enhance CD capability to achieve its goals.

  7. Piwi genes are dispensable for normal hematopoiesis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona J Nolde

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC must engage in a life-long balance between self-renewal and differentiation to sustain hematopoiesis. The highly conserved PIWI protein family regulates proliferative states of stem cells and their progeny in diverse organisms. A Human piwi gene (for clarity, the non-italicized "piwi" refers to the gene subfamily, HIWI (PIWIL1, is expressed in CD34⁺ stem/progenitor cells and transient expression of HIWI in a human leukemia cell line drastically reduces cell proliferation, implying the potential function of these proteins in hematopoiesis. Here, we report that one of the three piwi genes in mice, Miwi2 (Piwil4, is expressed in primitive hematopoetic cell types within the bone marrow. Mice with a global deletion of all three piwi genes, Miwi, Mili, and Miwi2, are able to maintain long-term hematopoiesis with no observable effect on the homeostatic HSC compartment in adult mice. The PIWI-deficient hematopoetic cells are capable of normal lineage reconstitution after competitive transplantation. We further show that the three piwi genes are dispensable during hematopoietic recovery after myeloablative stress by 5-FU. Collectively, our data suggest that the function of the piwi gene subfamily is not required for normal adult hematopoiesis.

  8. All-printed capacitors with continuous solution dispensing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yang; Plötner, Matthias; Berndt, Andreas; Kumar, Amit; Voit, Brigitte; Pospiech, Doris; Fischer, Wolf-Joachim

    2017-09-01

    Printed electronics have been introduced into the commercial markets in recent years. Various printing technologies have emerged aiming to process printed electronic devices with low cost, environmental friendliness, and compatibility with large areas and flexible substrates. The aim of this study is to propose a continuous solution dispensing technology for processing all-printed thin-film capacitors on glass substrates using a leading-edge printing instrument. Among all printing technologies, this study provides concrete proof of the following outstanding advantages of this technology: high tolerance to inks, high throughput, low cost, and precise pattern transfers. Ag nanoparticle ink based on glycol ethers was used to print the electrodes. To obtain dielectric ink, a copolymer powder of poly(methyl methacrylate-co-benzoylphenyl methacrylate) containing crosslinkable side groups was dissolved in anisole. Various layouts were designed to support multiple electronic applications. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to investigate the all-printed capacitor layers formed using the proposed process. Additionally, the printed capacitors were electrically characterized under direct current and alternating current. The measured electrical properties of the printed capacitors were consistent with the theoretical results.

  9. Lyplal1 is dispensable for normal fat deposition in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A. Watson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have detected association between variants in or near the Lysophospholipase-like 1 (LYPLAL1 locus and metabolic traits, including central obesity, fatty liver and waist-to-hip ratio. LYPLAL1 is also known to be upregulated in the adipose tissue of obese patients. However, the physiological role of LYPLAL1 is not understood. To investigate the function of Lyplal1 in vivo we investigated the phenotype of the Lyplal1tm1a(KOMPWtsi homozygous mouse. Body composition was unaltered in Lyplal1 knockout mice as assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA scanning, both on normal chow and on a high-fat diet. Adipose tissue distribution between visceral and subcutaneous fat depots was unaltered, with no change in adipocyte cell size. The response to both insulin and glucose dosing was normal in Lyplal1tm1a(KOMPWtsi homozygous mice, with normal fasting blood glucose concentrations. RNAseq analysis of liver, muscle and adipose tissue confirmed that Lyplal1 expression was ablated with minimal additional changes in gene expression. These results suggest that Lyplal1 is dispensable for normal mouse metabolic physiology and that despite having been maintained through evolution Lyplal1 is not an essential gene, suggesting possible functional redundancy. Further studies will be required to clarify its physiological role.

  10. Dispensing of high concentration Ag nano-particles ink for ultra-low resistivity paper-based writing electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fuliang; Mao, Peng; He, Hu

    2016-02-17

    Paper-based writing electronics has received a lot of interest recently due to its potential applications in flexible electronics. To obtain ultra-low resistivity paper-based writing electronics, we developed a kind of ink with high concentration of Ag Nano-particles (up to 80 wt%), as well as a related dispensing writing system consisting an air compressor machine and a dispenser. Additionally, we also demonstrated the writability and practical application of our proposed ink and writing system. Based on the study on the effect of sintering time and pressure, we found the optimal sintering time and pressure to obtain high quality Ag NPs wires. The electrical conductivity of nano-silver paper-based electronics has been tested using the calculated resistivity. After hot-pressure sintering at 120 °C, 25 MPa pressure for 20 minutes, the resistivity of silver NPs conductive tracks was 3.92 × 10(-8) (Ωm), only 2.45 times of bulk silver. The mechanical flexibility of nano-silver paper-based electronics also has been tested. After 1000 bending cycles, the resistivity slightly increased from the initial 4.01 × 10(-8) to 5.08 × 10(-8) (Ωm). With this proposed ink preparation and writing system, a kind of paper-based writing electronics with ultra-low resistivity and good mechanical flexibility was achieved.

  11. A simple low-cost of liquid I-131 dispenser for routine radiopharmaceutical dispensing at nuclear medicine department, Institut Kanser Negara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Said, M. A.; Suhaimi, N. E. F. [Fakulti Sains dan Teknologi, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM, Bangi Selangor (Malaysia); Ashhar, Z. N., E-mail: aminhpj@gmail.com [Institut Kanser Negara, No 4, Jalan P7, Presint 7, 62250 Putrajaya (Malaysia); Zainon, R. [Advanced Medical & Dental Institute, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Bertam, 13200, Kepala Batas, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    In routine radiopharmaceutical Iodine-131 ({sup 131}I) dispensing, the amount of radiation dose received by the personnel depends on the distance between the personnel and the source, the time spent manipulating the source and the amount of shielding used to reduce the dose rate from the source. The novel iRAD-I131 dispenser using recycle {sup 131}I liquid lead pot will lead into low cost production, less maintenance and low dose received by the personnel that prepared the {sup 131}I. The new fabricated of low cost {sup 131}I dispenser was tested and the dose received by personnel were evaluated. The body of lead material is made from 2.5 cm lead shielded coated with epoxy paint to absorb the radiation dose up to 7.4 GBq of {sup 131} I. The lead pot was supported with two stainless steel rod. The Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) nanodot was used in this study to measure the dose rate at both extremities for every personnel who prepared the {sup 131}I. Each OSL nanodot was attached at the fingertip. Three different personnel (experienced between one to ten years above in preparing the radiopharmaceuticals) were participated in this study. The average equivalent dose at right and left hand were 122.694 ± 121.637 µSv/GBq and 77.281 ± 62.146 µSv/GBq respectively. This study found that the dose exposure received using iRAD-I131 was less up to seven times compared to the conventional method. The comparison of experimental data using iRAD-I131 and established radiopharmaceutical dispenser was also discussed. The innovation of {sup 131}I dispenser is highly recommended in a small radiopharmaceutical facility with limited budget. The novel iRAD-I131 enables implementation of higher output liquid dispensing with low radiation dose to the personnel.

  12. Tiger Teams Technical Assistance: Reliable, Universal Open Architecture for Card Access to Dispense Alternative Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-03-01

    Report discusses the dilemma of incorporating consistent, convenient, universal card access (or ''pay-at-the-pump'') systems into alternative fueling stations across the country. The state of California continues to be in the forefront of implementing alternative fuels for transportation applications. Aggressive efforts to deploy alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) in California have highlighted the need to provide adequate fueling stations and develop appropriate, user-friendly means to purchase fuel at the pump. Since these fuels are not typically provided by petroleum companies at conventional fueling stations, and acceptance of cash is often not an option, a payment method must be developed that is consistent with the way individual AFV operators are accustomed to purchasing automotive fuels--with a credit card. At the same time, large fleets like the California Department of General Services must be able to use a single fuel card that offers comprehensive fleet management services. The Gas Technology Institute's Infrastructure Working Group (IWG) and its stakeholders have identified the lack of a common card reader system as a hurdle to wider deployment of AFVs in California and the United States. In conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Clean Cities Program, the IWG has outlined a multi-phased strategy to systematically address the barriers to develop a more ''open'' architecture that's similar to the way gasoline and diesel are currently dispensed. Under the auspices of the IWG, survey results were gathered (circa 1999) from certain fuel providers, as a means to more carefully study card reader issues and their potential solutions. Pilot programs featuring card reader systems capable of accepting wider payment options have been attempted in several regions of the United States with mixed success. In early 2001, DOE joined the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the

  13. Dispensing Equipment Testing with Mid-Level Ethanol/Gasoline Test Fluid: Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyce, K.; Chapin, J. T.

    2010-11-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Nonpetroleum-Based Fuel Task addresses the hurdles to commercialization of biomass-derived fuels and fuel blends. One such hurdle is the unknown compatibility of new fuels with current infrastructure, such as the equipment used at service stations to dispense fuel into automobiles. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Vehicle Technology Program and the Biomass Program have engaged in a joint project to evaluate the potential for blending ethanol into gasoline at levels higher than nominal 10 volume percent. This project was established to help DOE and NREL better understand any potentially adverse impacts caused by a lack of knowledge about the compatibility of the dispensing equipment with ethanol blends higher than what the equipment was designed to dispense. This report provides data about the impact of introducing a gasoline with a higher volumetric ethanol content into service station dispensing equipment from a safety and a performance perspective.

  14. Hand sanitizer dispensers and associated hospital-acquired infections: friend or fomite?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiref, Simon D; Leitman, I Michael; Riley, William

    2012-06-01

    Waterless alcohol-based hand sanitizers are an increasingly popular method of hand hygiene and help prevent hospital-acquired infection (HAI). Whether hand sanitizer dispensers (HSDs) may themselves harbor pathogens or act as fomites has not been reported. All HSDs in the surgical intensive care unit of an urban teaching hospital were cultured at three sites: The dispenser lever, the rear underside, and the area surrounding the dispensing nozzle. All HSDs yielded one or more bacterial species, including commensal skin flora and enteric gram-negative bacilli. Colonization was greatest on the lever, where there is direct hand contact. Hand sanitizer dispensers can become contaminated with pathogens that cause HAI and thus are potential fomites.

  15. 21 CFR 866.2440 - Automated medium dispensing and stacking device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2440... stacking device is a device intended for medical purposes to dispense a microbiological culture medium into...

  16. Chemical Degradation of TMR Multilure Dispensers for Fruit Fly Detection Weathered Under California Climatic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Souder, Steven K; Morse, Joseph G; Grafton-Cardwell, Elizabeth E; Haviland, David R; Kabashima, John N; Faber, Ben A; Mackey, Bruce; Nkomo, Eddie; Cook, Peter J; Stark, John D

    2017-08-01

    Degradation models for multilure fruit fly trap dispensers were analyzed to determine their potential for use in large California detection programs. Solid three-component male lure TMR (trimedlure [TML], methyl eugenol [ME], raspberry ketone [RK]) dispensers impregnated with DDVP (2, 2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate) insecticide placed inside Jackson traps were weathered during summer (8 wk) and winter (12 wk) in five citrus-growing areas. Additionally, TMR wafers without DDVP, but with an insecticidal strip, were compared to TMR dispensers with DDVP. Weathered dispensers were sampled weekly and chemically analyzed. Percent loss of TML, the male lure for Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) Mediterranean fruit fly; ME, the male lure for Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), oriental fruit fly; RK, the male lure for Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), melon fly; and DDVP was measured. Based on regression analyses for the male lures, TML degraded the fastest followed by ME. Degradation of the more chemically stable RK was discontinuous, did not fit a regression model, but followed similar seasonal patterns. There were few location differences for all three male lures and DDVP. Dispensers degraded faster during summer than winter. An asymptotic regression model provided a good fit for % loss (ME, TML, and DDVP) for summer data. Degradation of DDVP in TMR dispensers was similar to degradation of DDVP in insecticidal strips. Based on these chemical analyses and prior bioassay results with wild flies, TMR dispensers could potentially be used in place of three individual male lure traps, reducing costs of fruit fly survey programs. Use of an insecticidal tape would not require TMR dispensers without DDVP to be registered with US-EPA. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  17. Automated dose dispensing in Danish primary health care - a technology under construction

    OpenAIRE

    Herborg, Hanne; Haugbølle, Lotte S.; Lee, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to conduct a health technology assessment (HTA) of automated dose dispensing in the Danish primary health care sector. The present article answers the sub question of how various groups of actors spoke about and understood the shaping of automated dose dispensing (positioning in discourses).Methods: The project utilized two methods: 11 qualitative research interviews with selected key actors and a net-based qualitative questionnaire of 97 selected pra...

  18. Dispensing Rates of Four Common Hearing Aid Product Features: Associations With Variations in Practice Among Audiologists

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Earl E.; Ricketts, Todd A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop and examine a list of potential variables that may account for variability in the dispensing rates of four common hearing aid features. A total of 29 potential variables were identified and placed into the following categories: (1) characteristics of the audiologist, (2) characteristics of the hearing aids dispensed by the audiologist, (3) characteristics of the audiologist's patient population, and (4) evidence-based practice grades of recommendation f...

  19. Multi-dose drug dispensing is a challenge across the primary-secondary care interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuther, Lene Orskov; Lysen, Charlotte; Faxholm, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Multi-dose drug dispensing (MDDD) signifies that the patient's medicine is packed in disposable bags corresponding to the dose that should be taken. The purpose of the present study was to investigate how a hospital MDDD instruction was followed.......Multi-dose drug dispensing (MDDD) signifies that the patient's medicine is packed in disposable bags corresponding to the dose that should be taken. The purpose of the present study was to investigate how a hospital MDDD instruction was followed....

  20. Efficacy of a New Post-Mouthwash Intervention (Wiping Plus Oral Nutritional Supplements) for Preventing Aspiration Pneumonia in Elderly People: A Multicenter, Randomized, Comparative Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiguchi, Takashi; Ohara, Hiroshi; Kamakura, Yayoi; Kikutani, Takeshi; Kuzuya, Masafumi; Enoki, Hiromi; Sanada, Hiromi; Matsuzaki, Masami; Maruyama, Michio

    2017-01-01

    Aspiration pneumonia is a common cause of death among the elderly (≥90-year-old) in nursing homes. Studies suggest that its incidence could be reduced by oral care interventions. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a new oral care intervention: wiping plus oral nutritional supplements (ONS). This prospective observational study was conducted in 252 patients (age 88.0 ± 6.5 years) in 75 nursing homes, rehabilitation hospitals, and other care facilities. Patients were randomly divided into an intervention group (n = 74) and a control group (n = 107), whose members received conventional oral care. Body mass index, activities of daily living (Barthel index), and complete blood count and biochemistry parameters were measured at 2, 4, 6, and 8 months. The cumulative incidence of pneumonia at 8 months tended to be lower in the intervention than in the control group (7.8 vs. 17.7%, p = 0.056) and was significantly lower for men in the intervention group (p = 0.046). Our new intervention "wiping plus providing ONS" method appears to help prevent aspiration pneumonia, thereby reducing mortality risk. In this study, we disseminate information on how this method is used in Japan. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. [Quality evaluation of rhubarb dispensing granules based on multi-component simultaneous quantitative analysis and bioassay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Peng; Zhang, Hai-Zhu; Zhang, Ding-Kun; Wu, Shan-Na; Niu, Ming; Wang, Jia-Bo; Xiao, Xiao-He

    2017-07-01

    This study attempts to evaluate the quality of Chinese formula granules by combined use of multi-component simultaneous quantitative analysis and bioassay. The rhubarb dispensing granules were used as the model drug for demonstrative study. The ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method was adopted for simultaneously quantitative determination of the 10 anthraquinone derivatives (such as aloe emodin-8-O-β-D-glucoside) in rhubarb dispensing granules; purgative biopotency of different batches of rhubarb dispensing granules was determined based on compound diphenoxylate tablets-induced mouse constipation model; blood activating biopotency of different batches of rhubarb dispensing granules was determined based on in vitro rat antiplatelet aggregation model; SPSS 22.0 statistical software was used for correlation analysis between 10 anthraquinone derivatives and purgative biopotency, blood activating biopotency. The results of multi-components simultaneous quantitative analysisshowed that there was a great difference in chemical characterizationand certain differences inpurgative biopotency and blood activating biopotency among 10 batches of rhubarb dispensing granules. The correlation analysis showed that the intensity of purgative biopotency was significantly correlated with the content of conjugated anthraquinone glycosides (Pquantitative analysis and bioassay can achieve objective quantification and more comprehensive reflection on overall quality difference among different batches of rhubarb dispensing granules. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  2. Understanding private retail drug outlet dispenser knowledge and practices in tuberculosis care in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutta, E; Tarimo, A; Delmotte, E; James, I; Mwakisu, S; Kasembe, D; Konduri, N; Silumbe, R; Kakanda, K; Valimba, R

    2014-09-01

    Private sector accredited drug dispensing outlets in Morogoro and pharmacies in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. To assess 1) the level of knowledge about tuberculosis (TB) among dispensers in Tanzania's retail pharmaceutical sector; 2) practices related to identification of patients with suspected TB; 3) the availability of educational materials and training; and 4) the availability of first- and second-line anti-tuberculosis treatment in retail drug outlets. A cross-sectional descriptive study involving the administration of a structured questionnaire among drug dispensers in 122 pharmacies and 173 accredited drug dispensing outlets. Private retail drug outlets are convenient; most are open at least 12 h per day, 7 days/week. Although 95% of dispensers identified persistent cough as a symptom of TB, only 1% had received TB-related training in the previous 3 years; 8% of outlets stocked first-line anti-tuberculosis medicines, which are legally prohibited from being sold at retail outlets. The majority of respondents reported seeing clients with TB-like symptoms, and of these 95% reported frequently referring clients to nearby health facilities. Private retail pharmaceutical outlets can potentially contribute to TB case detection and treatment; however, a coordinated effort is needed to train dispensers and implement appropriate referral procedures.

  3. A compact and integrated immunoassay with on-chip dispensing and magnetic particle handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirath, Helene; Peham, Johannes R; Schnetz, Guntram; Coll, Albert; Brandhoff, Lukas; Spittler, Andreas; Vellekoop, Michael J; Redl, Heinz

    2016-02-01

    We present a compact diagnostic platform for a rapid and sensitive detection of plasma biomarkers. The platform consists of a disposable microfluidic polymer chip, a processing device including a lens-free and cost efficient sensor system and a setup for dispersion of magnetic particles. The biomarkers of interest are quantified by magnetic bead based immunoassays with chemiluminescent readout technology. With a novel system for dispersion and manipulation of the magnetic particles in combination with chemiluminescence detection, the sensitivity of the immunoassay is improved and enables a rapid assay in a microfluidic format. In the disposable chip, extra chambers for storage and dispensing of biomarker specific reagents are integrated, which reduce the need of external dosing devices and thereby the cost of the platform is decreased. Plasma biomarkers for monitoring of sepsis could be quantified at 10 pg/mL concentrations within a total time of 30 min by the present system. This contribution is a fundamental step towards the development of an automatic and compact Point-of-Care testing device for monitoring of patients at the intensive care unit.

  4. Effects of reservoir dispenser height on efficacy of mating disruption of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, David L; Stelinski, Lukasz L; Miller, James R; Grieshop, Matthew J; Gut, Larry J

    2011-08-01

    The effect of varying the height of reservoir dispensers for mating disruption of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), was investigated. The goal was to improve the effectiveness of C. pomonella mating disruption through improved understanding of adult distribution within the tree canopy and the impact of pheromone dispenser placement on disruption. Two dispensers per tree were placed at 2 m and 4 m and/or one dispenser at each height on the tree at a label rate of 1000 units ha(-1) . Monitoring traps and tethered female moths were deployed in plots at 2 and 4 m heights to assess treatment effects by catches or matings respectively. Fewest male moths were captured with all dispensers placed at 4 m. Female mating was lowest, and with least variation between females tethered at 2 and 4 m, when dispensers were placed simultaneously at 2 and 4 m (28% mated). Mating was 32% with both dispensers at 4 m, 38% with both dispensers at 2 m and 46% in the no disruption control. Mating was highest across treatments when females were tethered at 2 m and dispensers placed at 4 m (40%), and when females were tethered at 4 m with dispensers placed at 2 m (46%). Traps at 4 m in trees captured more male moths than traps at 2 m, regardless of disruption dispenser positioning. Female mating was lowest when dispensers were placed simultaneously at 2 and 4 m, suggesting that current recommendations for placement of reservoir dispensers in tree crowns may be suboptimal. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Impact of Pharmacists’ Religious and Personal Beliefs in Dispensing Contraceptives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Krupa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Until recently, pharmacies were not permitted to dispense any emergency contraceptives to women to prevent pregnancy. No legal statutes existed under which pharmacists with religious, moral or ethical objections could refuse to fill a prescription for contraceptives, nor were there direct guidelines describing the pharmacist’s professional obligations. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to explore the frequency of cases in which pharmacists have refused, due to their personal beliefs, to provide counsel regarding contraceptives or have refused to refer to a patient to a different pharmacist or healthcare provider. This study will compare and contrast the differences between independent pharmacies and chain pharmacies (i.e. time spent, location, most common recommended contraception. Finally, this study will compare the results evident between male pharmacists and female pharmacists. Method: Quantitative method employed uses two interview questions directed to pharmacists: (1 “I am moving in with my fiancée/boyfriend next month and I have never used contraceptives. What are my options?” (2 “If I use a condom and it breaks, do I have any choices to prevent pregnancy after the fact?” The survey was conducted in two locations, the greater Philadelphia area and Hershey, PA. The survey was conducted through face-to-face interactions with pharmacists, either employed at independent pharmacy or at a chain pharmacy. Data collected from each pharmacist included number of approximate age/gender; minutes spent in each consultation with a patient; the kind of privacy provided during the consultation; and the referrals given, if any. Results: Fifty (50 pharmacists were interviewed. No pharmacist indicated that counseling would be denied, although one (1 pharmacist refused to counsel on Plan B and four (4 pharmacists referred the interviewer to a doctor immediately, indicating that all medications require a prescription. Two (2

  6. Back bombardment for dispenser and lanthanum hexaboride cathodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Bakr

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The back bombardment (BB effect limits wide usage of thermionic rf guns. The BB effect induces not only ramping-up of a cathode’s temperature and beam current, but also degradation of cavity voltage and beam energy during a macropulse. This paper presents a comparison of the BB effect for the case of dispenser tungsten-base (DC and lanthanum hexaboride (LaB_{6} thermionic rf gun cathodes. For each, particle simulation codes are used to simulate the BB effect and electron beam dynamics in a thermionic rf gun cathode. A semiempirical equation is also used to investigate the stopping range and deposited heat power of BB electrons in the cathode material. A numerical simulation method is used to calculate the change of the cathode temperature and current density during a single macropulse. This is done by solving two differential equations for the rf gun cavity equivalent circuit and one-dimensional thermal diffusion equation. High electron emission and small beam size are required for generation of a high-brightness electron beam, and so in this work the emission properties of the cathode are taken into account. Simulations of the BB effect show that, for a pulse of 6  μs duration, the DC cathode experiences a large change in the temperature compared with LaB_{6}, and a change in current density 6 times higher. Validation of the simulation results is performed using experimental data for beam current beyond the gun exit. The experimental data is well reproduced using the simulation method.

  7. The principle and physical models of novel jetting dispenser with giant magnetostrictive and a magnifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, C; Li, J H; Duan, J A; Deng, G L

    2015-12-16

    In order to develop jetting technologies of glue in LED and microelectronics packaging, giant-magnetostrictive-material (GMM) is firstly applied to increase jetting response, and a new magnifying device including a lever and a flexible hinge is designed to improve jetting characteristics. Physical models of the jetting system are derived from the magnifying structure and working principle, which involves circuit model, electro-magneto-displacement model, dynamic model and fluid-solid coupling model. The system model is established by combining mathematical models with Matlab-Simulink. The effectiveness of the GMM-based dispenser is confirmed by simulation and experiments. The jetting frequency significantly increases to 250 Hz, and dynamic behaviors jetting needle are evaluated that the velocity and displacement of the jetting needle reaches to 320 mm•s-1 and 0.11 mm respectively. With the increasing of the filling pressure or the amplitude of the current, the dot size will become larger. The dot size and working frequency can be easily adjusted.

  8. Four degree of freedom liquid dispenser for direct write capillary self-assembly with sub-nanoliter precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beroz, Justin; Bedewy, Mostafa; Reinker, Michael; Chhajer, Vipul; Awtar, Shorya; Hart, A John

    2012-01-01

    Capillary forces provide a ubiquitous means of organizing micro- and nanoscale structures on substrates. In order to investigate the mechanism of capillary self-assembly and to fabricate complex ordered structures, precise control of the meniscus shape is needed. We present a precision instrument that enables deposition of liquid droplets spanning from 2 nl to 300 μl, in concert with mechanical manipulation of the liquid-substrate interface with four degrees of freedom. The substrate has sub-100 nm positioning resolution in three axes of translation, and its temperature is controlled using thermoelectric modules. The capillary tip can rotate about the vertical axis while simultaneously dispensing liquid onto the substrate. Liquid is displaced using a custom bidirectional diaphragm pump, in which an elastic membrane is hydraulically actuated by a stainless steel syringe. The syringe is driven by a piezoelectric actuator, enabling nanoliter volume and rate control. A quantitative model of the liquid dispenser is verified experimentally, and suggests that compressibility in the hydraulic line deamplifies the syringe stroke, enabling sub-nanoliter resolution control of liquid displacement at the capillary tip. We use this system to contact-print water and oil droplets by mechanical manipulation of a liquid bridge between the capillary and the substrate. Finally, we study the effect of droplet volume and substrate temperature on the evaporative self-assembly of monodisperse polymer microspheres from sessile droplets, and demonstrate the formation of 3D chiral assemblies of micro-rods by rotation of the capillary tip during evaporative assembly.

  9. A Research Based on the metering and detecting Device for Industrial dispenser of non-contact technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Li, Jingjing; Wang, Jingying

    2017-12-01

    Based on the non-contact detection technology, for the needs of on-site measurement for industrial dispenser, the dispenser device is designed and utilized non-contact laser measuring technology with high precision for measurement of length and speed to measure the coordination of displacement stroke and speed. According to “GBT 26799-2011 technical conditions for General Dispenser”, several key parameters are detected by comparing the experimental results, to meet the metering requirements of industrial dispenser.

  10. Fibroblast activation protein is dispensable in the anti-influenza immune response in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sioh-Yang Tan

    Full Text Available Fibroblast activation protein alpha (FAP is a unique dual peptidase of the S9B serine protease family, being capable of both dipeptidyl peptidase and endopeptidase activities. FAP is expressed at low level in healthy adult organs including the pancreas, cervix, uterus, submaxillary gland and the skin, and highly upregulated in embryogenesis, chronic inflammation and tissue remodelling. It is also expressed by cancer-associated stromal fibroblasts in more than 90% of epithelial tumours. FAP has enzymatic and non-enzymatic functions in the growth, immunosuppression, invasion and cell signalling of tumour cells. FAP deficient mice are fertile and viable with no gross abnormality, but little data exist on the role of FAP in the immune system. FAP is upregulated in association with microbial stimulation and chronic inflammation, but its function in infection remains unknown. We showed that major populations of immune cells including CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, B cells, dendritic cells and neutrophils are generated and maintained normally in FAP knockout mice. Upon intranasal challenge with influenza virus, FAP mRNA was increased in the lungs and lung-draining lymph nodes. Nonetheless, FAP deficient mice showed similar pathologic kinetics to wildtype controls, and were capable of supporting normal anti-influenza T and B cell responses. There was no evidence of compensatory upregulation of other DPP4 family members in influenza-infected FAP-deficient mice. FAP appears to be dispensable in anti-influenza adaptive immunity.

  11. Dispensers, obeah and quackery: medical rivalries in post-slavery British Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Barros, Juanita

    2007-08-01

    This paper examines the ambiguous place of medical assistants-dispensers-in a post-slavery British Caribbean colony, British Guiana, from the end of slavery in the 1830s to the early twentieth century. Although the latter were crucial to the functioning of the colonial medical system, local physicians resented them, complaining about the economic threat they posed and at times condemning them as quacks. These attacks were part of a wider discussion about the composition of the medical profession and the role of medical auxiliaries in colonial society, and to an extent, they echoed debates conducted in other jurisdictions in this period. But in the British Caribbean, this discussion was significantly different. There, long-standing views about obeah-an Afro-Creole medico-religious practice-as a particularly dangerous and uncivilised type of quackery was part of the discursive context. That those participating in this debate included African-descended physicians whose arrival in the medical profession was recent and contested demonstrates the vexed and complex nature of professionalisation in a post-slavery society.

  12. Neutrophils are dispensable in the modulation of T cell immunity against cutaneous HSV-1 infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hor, Jyh Liang; Heath, William R.; Mueller, Scott N.

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophils rapidly infiltrate sites of inflammation during peripheral infection or tissue injury. In addition to their well described roles as pro-inflammatory phagocytes responsible for pathogen clearance, recent studies have demonstrated a broader functional repertoire including mediating crosstalk between innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. Specifically, neutrophils have been proposed to mediate antigen transport to lymph nodes (LN) to modulate T cell priming and to influence T cell migration to infected tissues. Using a mouse model of cutaneous herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection we explored potential contributions of neutrophils toward anti-viral immunity. While a transient, early influx of neutrophils was triggered by dermal scarification, we did not detect migration of neutrophils from the skin to LN. Furthermore, despite recruitment of neutrophils into LN from the blood, priming and expansion of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was unaffected following neutrophil depletion. Finally, we found that neutrophils were dispensable for the migration of effector T cells into infected skin. Our study suggests that the immunomodulatory roles of neutrophils toward adaptive immunity may be context-dependent, and are likely determined by the type of pathogen and anatomical site of infection. PMID:28112242

  13. Development of new ecological long-lasting dispensers of semiochemicals for the control of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Ortiz, Ricardo

    2015-12-01

    A new controlled-release pheromone 1,7-dioxaspiro[5,5]undecane dispenser has been developed, which is useful for monitoring the population and controlling Bactrocera oleae (Rossi, 1790) (Diptera: Tephritidae). For this purpose, several kinds of dispensers based on attapulgite were designed and tested in this study. The designed dispensers, together with the commercial-brand olive fruit fly 'Long-Life Lure', which was used as a reference, were evaluated in the field, and in parallel were subjected to an accelerated ageing process in a chamber with a constant temperature and air speed. The residual pheromone content was periodically determined by liquid-gas chromatography in order to obtain the half-life of dispensers and the pheromone release rate. The mesoporous dispenser proved to have the best performance in the field, with a half-life of 5 months and an average emission speed of 0.6 mg day(-1) , parameters very close to those obtained with the commercial dispenser tested. In addition, to evaluate the effectiveness of the different dispensers in the field, a duplicate comparative study of captures was designed, and a colony monitoring study of the olive fruit fly was performed using various food and sex attractants. Although no significant differences in captures were found between the dispensers tested, the highest number of captures was obtained on average with the mesoporous dispensers demonstrating good pheromone emission characteristics. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Impact of Formulation Properties and Process Parameters on the Dispensing and Depositioning of Drug Nanosuspensions Using Micro-Valve Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonhoeffer, Bastian; Kwade, Arno; Juhnke, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Flexible manufacturing processes with continuously adjustable dose strengths are considered particularly innovative and interesting for applications in personalized medicine, continuous manufacturing, or early drug development. A piezo-actuated micro-valve has been investigated for the dispensing and depositioning of drug nanosuspensions onto substrates to facilitate the manufacturing of solid oral dosage forms. The investigated micro-valve has been characterized regarding dispensing behavior, mass flow, accuracy, and robustness. The amount of dispensed drug compound during 1 dispensing event could be continuously adjusted from a few micrograms to several milligrams with high accuracy. Fluid properties, dispensing parameters of the micro-valve, and the resulting steady state mass flow could be correlated adequately for low-viscous drug nanosuspensions. High-speed imaging was used to investigate the dispensing behavior of the micro-valve regarding the evolution of the dispensed drug nanosuspension after ejection from the nozzle and the behavior during impact on flat and dry solid substrates. The experimentally determined breakup length of the dispensed liquid jet could be correlated with a semiempirical equation. From image sequences of the jet impact, We-Re phase diagrams could be established, providing a profound understanding and systematic guidance for the controlled depositioning of the entire dispensed drug nanosuspension onto the substrate. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Synthetic pheromones as a management technique - dispensers reduce Linepithema humile activity in a commercial vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Fabian L; Bell, Vaughn A; Suckling, David M; Lester, Philip J

    2016-04-01

    Invasive ants, such as the Argentine ant, have often been reported to facilitate honeydew-producing hemipteran pests such as mealybugs, which can be vectors of plant pathogens. Synthetic pheromones may offer a target-specific method to control such ants and consequently lower the abundance of honeydew-producing pests. Here we report the results of a trial to suppress Argentine ants in grapevines using ant pheromone dispensers. Compared with untreated controls, we observed a significant drop in Argentine ant activity on the ground, irrespective of whether pheromone dispensers were placed at ground level, within the canopy or in both locations. Ant counts in the canopy confirmed that Argentine ant abundance was reduced under the influence of the pheromone dispenser placed at ground level compared with untreated controls. However, placing dispensers only in the canopy did not reduce the numbers of ants within the canopy compared with untreated controls. Our results showed that pheromone dispensers can significantly reduce Argentine ant foraging in grapevines if they are positioned appropriately. This technique could potentially reduce the abundance of associated mealybugs and potentially attendant virus vectoring areawide. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Dispensing of antibiotics without prescription in Greece, 2008: another link in the antibiotic resistance chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachouras, D; Kavatha, D; Antoniadou, A; Giannitsioti, E; Poulakou, G; Kanellakopoulou, K; Giamarellou, H

    2010-02-18

    Antibiotic resistance has been associated with the use of antibiotics. The dispensing of antimicrobials without prescription is a potential source of inappropriate antibiotic use. In our study, antibiotics were requested without prescription from pharmacies in the metropolitan area of Athens in Greece in 2008. Twenty-one collaborators visited 174 pharmacies and asked for either amoxicillin/clavulanate acid or ciprofloxacin without providing a prescription or any other justification for the request. In Greece additional restrictions for fluoroquinolone prescriptions were implemented in 2003 after which a separate specific prescription form needs to be filled in by the prescriber, justifying the choice of any fluoroquinolone. Amoxicillin/clavulanate acid was dispensed in all cases. Furthermore, despite the regulation restricting the prescription of ciprofloxacin, this drug was dispensed by 53% of the pharmacies. It appears that the implementation of measures to restrict the use of certain antibiotics (e.g. ciprofloxacin that was studied in our case) was effective in reducing, although not eliminating, inappropriate dispensing. Overall, dispensing of antimicrobials without prescription is a widespread practice in the studied area and is contributing to the overuse of antibiotics.

  17. Optimizing Aerosol Dispensers for Mating Disruption of Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhee, Peter S; Miller, James R; Thomson, Donald R; Gut, Larry J

    2016-07-01

    Experiments were conducted in commercial apple orchards to determine if improved efficiencies in pheromone delivery may be realized by using aerosol pheromone dispensers for codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L., mating disruption. Specifically, we tested how reducing: pheromone concentration, period of dispenser operation, and frequency of pheromone emission from aerosol dispensers affected orientational disruption of male CM to pheromone-baited monitoring traps. Isomate® CM MIST formulated with 50 % less codlemone (3.5 mg/ emission) provided orientation disruption equal to the standard commercial formulation (7 mg / emission). Decreased periods of dispenser operation (3 and 6 h) and frequency of pheromone emission (30 and 60 min) provided a level of orientational disruption similar to the current standard protocol of releasing pheromone over a 12 h period on a 15 min cycle, respectively. These three modifications provide a means of substantially reducing the amount of pheromone necessary for CM disruption. The savings accompanying pheromone conservation could lead to increased adoption of CM mating disruption and, moreover, provide an opportunity for achieving higher levels of disruption by increasing dispenser densities.

  18. Older Adults’ Satisfaction with a Medication Dispensing Device in Home Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiris, George; Marek, Karen D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Older adults with multiple chronic conditions face the complex task of medication management involving multiple medications of varying doses at different times. Advances in telehealth technologies have resulted in home-based devices for medication management and health monitoring of older adults. We examined older adults’ perceptions of a telehealth medication dispensing device as part of a clinical trial involving home health care clients, nurse coordination and use of the medication dispensing device. Methods Ninety-six frail older adult participants who used the medication dispensing device for 12 months completed a satisfaction survey related to perceived usefulness and reliability. Results were analyzed and grouped by themes in the following areas: Ease of Use, Reliability, Medication Management Assistance, Routine Task Performance and Acceptability. Results Nearly all participants perceived the medication dispensing device as very easy to use, very reliable and helpful in management of their medications. Eighty-four percent of participants expressed a desire to use the machine in the future. Conclusion The technology-enhanced medication management device in this study is an acceptable tool for older adults to manage medication in collaboration with home care nurses. Improved usability and cost models for medication dispensers are areas for future research. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01321853 PMID:23323721

  19. High-throughput quality control of DMSO acoustic dispensing using photometric dye methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Catherine; Tran, Kristen; Szewczak, Alexander A

    2013-08-01

    One high-throughput technology gaining widespread adoption in industry and academia is acoustic liquid dispensing, in which focused sound waves eject nanoliter-sized droplets from a solution into a recipient microplate. This technology allows for direct dispensing of small-molecule compounds or reagents dissolved in DMSO, while keeping a low final concentration of organic solvent in an assay. However, acoustic dispensing presents unique quality control (QC) challenges when measuring the accuracy and precision of small dispense volumes ranging from 2.5 to 100 nL. As part of an effort to develop a rapid and cost-effective QC method for acoustic dispensing of 100% DMSO, we implemented the first high-throughput photometric dual-dye-based QC protocol in the nanoliter volume range. This technical note validates the new photometric 100% DMSO QC method and highlights its cost-effectiveness when compared with conventional low-throughput fluorimetric QC methods. In addition, a potential software solution is described for the analysis, storage, and display of accumulated high-throughput QC data, called LabGauge. As the need for high-throughput QC grows, conventional low-throughput methods can no longer meet demand. Validated high-throughput techniques, such as the dual-dye photometric method, will need to be implemented.

  20. Older adults' satisfaction with a medication dispensing device in home care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, Blaine; Demiris, George; Marek, Karen D

    2013-09-01

    Older adults with multiple chronic conditions face the complex task of medication management involving multiple medications of varying doses at different times. Advances in telehealth technologies have resulted in home-based devices for medication management and health monitoring of older adults. We examined older adults' perceptions of a telehealth medication dispensing device as part of a clinical trial involving home healthcare clients, nurse coordination and use of the medication dispensing device. Ninety-six frail older adult participants who used the medication dispensing device for 12 months completed a satisfaction survey related to perceived usefulness and reliability. Results were analyzed and grouped by themes in the following areas: Ease of Use, Reliability, Medication Management Assistance, Routine Task Performance and Acceptability. Nearly all participants perceived the medication dispensing device as very easy to use, very reliable and helpful in the management of their medications. Eighty-four percent of participants expressed a desire to use the machine in the future. The technology-enhanced medication management device in this study is an acceptable tool for older adults to manage medication in collaboration with home care nurses. Improved usability and cost models for medication dispensers are areas for future research.

  1. Patient preferences for direct hearing aid provision by a private dispenser. A discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grutters, Janneke P C; Joore, Manuela A; Kessels, Alfons G H; Davis, Adrian C; Anteunis, Lucien J C

    2008-08-01

    Our objective was to elicit patient preferences for transferring elements of hearing aid provision from the medical sector [Ear Nose and Throat (ENT) specialists and audiological centers] to private hearing aid dispensers, and to understand the trade-offs between different elements of hearing aid provision. A discrete choice experiment was administered from 150 hearing-impaired persons in the Netherlands. Mean age was 71 (range 18-95) and 57% were male. Participants preferred the initial assessment at the dispenser, higher accuracy in identifying persons in need of medical care, shorter duration of the total hearing aid provision, and a follow-up at the ENT specialist. They required compensation of at least euro 17 per 2 mo extra duration, euro 54 for an initial assessment at the ENT specialist, euro 119 per 10% decrease in accuracy, and euro 227 to forgo the follow-up at the ENT specialist. Preferences were influenced by sex, age, educational level, and experience with hearing aid provision. Hearing-impaired persons are receptive to transferring elements of hearing aid provision from the medical sector to private dispensers. Although safety and efficiency issues should also be considered, from the present study we can conclude that in the organization of hearing aid provision hearing-impaired persons prefer an initial assessment at a private dispenser when the dispenser is at least 95% as accurate as the ENT specialist, and prefer a follow-up visit at the ENT specialist.

  2. Radiological safety and GMP in the bulk batch manufacturing, formulation and dispensing of radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thulasidhasan, A.; Tiwary, Bikash; Kumar, Uma Sheri; Kale, Pooja; Tiwary, Richa; Gaurav, Ananad; Shah, B.K.; Topale, P.D.; Prabhakar, G.; Sachdev, S.S.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Radiopharmaceutical Program of BRIT is involved in the manufacturing of ready to use radiopharmaceuticals for therapy for the last three decades. Ready to use Radiopharmaceutical products include, 131 I-Sodium iodide solution and capsules for thyroid carcinoma and metastatic lesions, 131 I MIBG injection for diagnosis and therapy of adrenal medullae tumors and their mets, 153 Sm-EDTMP injection and 32 P- Sodium orthophosphate injection for bone pain palliative treatment. BRIT's radiopharmaceutical production facility is a radioisotope laboratory classified as Type-III facility for handling radioisotopes of Group-II, Group-III and Group-IV approved by AERB. This facility meets all the radiological safety requirements as per AERB guidelines. Production of above mentioned radiopharmaceuticals is carried out in Production Plants (PP), β, γ Glove boxes (GB) and Fume hoods (FH). Typical production procedure involves bulk processing, formulation, sterilization and dispensing of doses. Production Plants (PP) are exclusively designed facilities to carry out the production in a radiologically safe manner, at the same time maintaining aseptic conditions required for injectables as per the current GMP. Each production plant has a leak tight Isolator box, made up of high quality SS which has provisions for remote handling devices like, Tongs, dispensing systems, service points for vacuum, gas, compressed air, water and electric power. This Isolator box is shielded from all sides by required amount of lead (2 inch or 4 inch), and has an access port called 'Transport Port Box' with double door transport lock and is equipped with a trolley. Two filter unit systems are fitted at the top of the plant and each unit comprises of activated Charcoal filter and HEPA filter in tandem, this in turn is connected to special exhaust meant for radioactive gases. Similarly, the designs of β, γ Glove boxes (GB) and Fume hoods (FH) also incorporate all radiological safety features

  3. Dipping into the Clostridium difficile pool: Are alcohol-based dispensers fomites for C difficile?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, James A; Keul, Ryan R; Shanks, Justin D; Fader, Robert; Herrington, Jon D

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate alcohol-based dispensers as potential fomites for Clostridium difficile. A convenience sample of 120 alcohol-based dispensers was evaluated for the presence of C difficile either by culture or polymerase chain reaction for C difficile toxin. The results demonstrated that C difficile was not cultured, and C difficile toxin was not detected using polymerase chain reaction; however, gram-positive rods, Clostridium perfringens, Pantoea agglomerans, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, Peptostreptococcus, Bacillus spp, and microaerophilic Streptococcus were present within the overflow basins of the alcohol-based dispensers. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Drugs dispensed at the Division of Neonatology at University Hospital in Río Cuarto, Córdoba, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungo, Marta Stella Maris; Vega, Elena María

    2013-04-01

    The objective was to analyze the number of drugs dispensed by the Pharmacy Department to the Neonatology Division, to find out if the use of these drugs is described on the package insert approved by the Administración Nacional de Medicamentos, Alimentos y Tecnología, ANMAT (Drug, Food and Technology Administration of Argentina) and to compare such information with that provided by Medical Associations and Commissions. Analytical, observational and retrospective study in which drugs were analyzed based on dosage units, costs and relevance in the 2011 annual budget. We analyzed the information found in ANMAT-approved label inserts, in the Neonatal Pharmacopeia of the Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría and in the Formularies of the Confederación Médica Argentina and the Comisión Nacional del Medicamento (National Medication Commission). A total of 102 drugs (91 drug substances) were dispensed throughout 2011. Drugs most commonly supplied were: antiinfective agents for systemic use (24.51%), agents for the blood and blood forming organs, cardiovascular system, and nervous system (12.72% each). The total expenditure was ARS 263,285.52. Only 21 drugs accounted for 90.73% of the cost. Out of the 14 drugs in this group, only 1 had information related to its use in neonatology in all its labels (package inserts), only 4 in some of their product information and there was no information at all in any of the remaining 9 drugs. The Neonatal Pharmacopeia reported on 12 of the 14 drugs, while the Formularies made a reference to 9 of the 14 drugs. The most widely used drugs were antiinfectives for systemic use. A total of 21 drugs accounted for 90.73% of the annual cost in drugs. Out of 14, only 1 had information of its use in neonatology in all its labels and 9 corresponded to off-label use.

  5. Spectacle dispensing in Timor-Leste: tiered-pricing, cross-subsidization and financial viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramke, Jacqueline; Brian, Garry; Palagyi, Anna

    2012-08-01

    To examine the financial viability of the Timor-Leste National Spectacle Program as it increases spectacle availability, affordability and uptake, particularly for Timor's poor. In rural areas, three models of ready-made spectacles were dispensed according to a tiered pricing structure of US$3.00, 1.00, 0.10 and 0.00. In addition, custom-made spectacles were available in the capital, Dili. Spectacle costs, dispensing data and income for the National Spectacle Program for 18 months from March 2007 were analyzed. Rural services dispensed 3415 readymade spectacles: 47.1% to women, and 51.4% at subsidized prices, being 39.8% at US$0.10 and 11.6% free. A profit of US$1,529 was generated, mainly from the sale of US$3.00 spectacles. Women (odds ratio, OR, 1.3, 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.1-1.4) and consumers aged ≥65 years (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.7-2.6) were more likely to receive subsidized spectacles. Urban services dispensed 2768 spectacles; mostly US$3.00 readymade (52.8%) and custom-made single vision (29.6%) units. Custom-made spectacles accounted for 36.7% of dispensing, but 73.1% of the US$12,264 urban profit. The combined rural and urban profit covered all rural costs, leaving US$2,200 to meet administration and other urban expenses. It is instructive and encouraging that a national spectacle dispensing program in one of the ten poorest countries of the world can use tiered-pricing based on willingness-to-pay information to cover spectacle stock replacement costs and produce profit, while using cross-subsidization to provide spectacles to the poor.

  6. Association of emergency department albuterol dispensing with pediatric asthma revisits and readmissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, A Brad; Novotny, April; Bhisitkul, Donna M; Melton, James; Regan, Tim; Leckie, Maureen

    2017-06-01

    Although pediatric asthma continues to be a highly studied disease, data to suggest clear strategies to decrease asthma related revisits or readmissions is lacking. The purpose of our study was to assess the effect of emergency department (ED) direct dispensing of beta-agonist metered dose inhalers on pediatric asthma ED revisit and readmission rates. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of pediatric patients discharged from the pediatric ED with a diagnosis of asthma. Our primary outcome measured the rate of asthma revisits to the ED or admissions to the hospital within 28 days. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess ED beta-agonist MDI dispensing and revisit and/or readmission as the outcome. A total of 853 patients met eligibility for inclusion in the study, with 657 enrolled in the Baseline group and 196 enrolled in the ED-MDI group. The Baseline group experienced a revisit and readmission rate of 7.0% (46/657) versus 2.6% (5/196) in the ED-MDI group, (p = 0.026). ED direct dispensing of MDIs was found to be independently associated with a decreased risk of revisit or readmission (odds ratio 0.37; 95% confidence interval 0.14-0.95). In our study, ED direct dispensing of beta-agonist MDIs resulted in a reduction in 28-day revisit and readmission to the hospital. Further studies should be performed to evaluate the economic impact of reducing these revisits and readmissions against the costs of maintaining a dispensing program. Our findings may support modification of asthma programs to include dispensing MDIs from the emergency department.

  7. [Dispensing prescriptions to persons affiliated with the Seguro Popular de Salud de México].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Latorre, Francisco; Hernández-Llamas, Héctor; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio

    2008-01-01

    Measure and compare the percentage of prescriptions fully dispensed to persons with and without Popular Health Insurance (SPS in Spanish) who use ambulatory and general hospital services associated with the Mexico State Health Services (SESA in Spanish), and taking into account insurance status. SESA user satisfaction was also measured with respect to access to medication. Information for the study was taken from four surveys of SESA ambulatory and hospital units that included probabilistic samples with state representativity. Samples of ambulatory units were selected by stratification according to level of care and association to the SPS service network. The findings indicate that the percentage of prescriptions fully dispensed in SESA ambulatory units has improved, reaching approximately 90%, especially among those units offering services to persons affiliated with SPS. Nevertheless, these percentages continue to be lower than those of ambulatory units associated with social security institutions. Percentages of prescriptions fully dispensed have also improved in SESA hospital units, but continue to be relatively low. In nearly all states, as the percentage of prescriptions fully dispensed has increased, user satisfaction with access to medication has also improved. In 2006 more than 50% of the states had high levels of fully dispensed prescriptions among persons with SPS (> or =90%). The more significant problem exists among hospitals, since only 44% of users who received a prescription in SESA hospitals in 2006 had their prescriptions fully dispensed. This finding requires a review of SPS medication policies, which have favored highly prescribed low-cost medications at ambulatory services at the expense of higher cost and more therapeutically effective medications for hospital care, the latter having a greater impact on household budgets.

  8. Dispensing and bio-functionalization of giant unilamellar vesicles on a chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaler, K. V. I. S.; Prakash, R.

    2011-06-01

    Giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) [1], typically >10 μm in diameter, can serve as interesting models for mimicking biological membranes and furthermore can be usefully leveraged in drug delivery and bio-sensor applications. In this paper, we have demonstrated a chip based vesicle dispensing scheme that utilizes liquid dielectrophoresis (L-DEP) to dispense, precisely positioned GUVs over a range of diameter 30 - 100 μm, a capability that is not readily achieved by either conventional or microchannel technology. These GUVs can also be individually addressed and tailored for a variety of applications such as bio-sensing and cell-on-a-chip.

  9. PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION ON THE BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF MICROFILTERED DRINKING WATER DISPENSERS IN CATERING ESTABLISHMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Marzano

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The bacteriological quality of microfiltered drinking water dispensers was evaluated, through enumeration of heterotrophic plate count at 22 and 37 °C, total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The aim of this research was to control the hygiene of the microfiltered water and to evaluate the effectiveness of the microfiltration procedure on the survival of bacteria. In total, 54 water samples were analyzed. The results indicated a high contamination frequency with P. aeruginosa (25 and 20% in room temperature and chilled water samples, respectively and therefore the need to improve the efficacy and the frequency of the dispenser sanitation procedures.

  10. Dispensing of high concentration Ag nano-particles ink for ultra-low resistivity paper-based writing electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fuliang; Mao, Peng; He, Hu

    2016-01-01

    Paper-based writing electronics has received a lot of interest recently due to its potential applications in flexible electronics. To obtain ultra-low resistivity paper-based writing electronics, we developed a kind of ink with high concentration of Ag Nano-particles (up to 80 wt%), as well as a related dispensing writing system consisting an air compressor machine and a dispenser. Additionally, we also demonstrated the writability and practical application of our proposed ink and writing system. Based on the study on the effect of sintering time and pressure, we found the optimal sintering time and pressure to obtain high quality Ag NPs wires. The electrical conductivity of nano-silver paper-based electronics has been tested using the calculated resistivity. After hot-pressure sintering at 120 °C, 25 MPa pressure for 20 minutes, the resistivity of silver NPs conductive tracks was 3.92 × 10−8 (Ωm), only 2.45 times of bulk silver. The mechanical flexibility of nano-silver paper-based electronics also has been tested. After 1000 bending cycles, the resistivity slightly increased from the initial 4.01 × 10−8 to 5.08 × 10−8 (Ωm). With this proposed ink preparation and writing system, a kind of paper-based writing electronics with ultra-low resistivity and good mechanical flexibility was achieved. PMID:26883558

  11. Drugs associated with teratogenic mechanisms. Part I : dispensing rates among pregnant women in the Netherlands, 1998-2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gelder, Marleen M. H. J.; Roeleveld, Nel; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T. W.; Bos, Jens

    What are the dispensing rates of drugs suspected to be associated with teratogenic mechanisms among pregnant Dutch women? In a substantial proportion of pregnancies in our study population at least one drug associated with a teratogenic mechanism was dispensed in the first trimester of pregnancy.

  12. Assessing the optimal location for alcohol-based hand rub dispensers in a patient room in an intensive care unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boog, M.C.; Erasmus, V.; De Graaf, J.M.; Van Beeck, E.H.E.; Melles, M.; Van Beeck, E.F.

    2013-01-01

    Background The introduction of alcohol-based hand rub dispensers has had a positive influence on compliance of healthcare workers with the recommended guidelines for hand hygiene. However, establishing the best location for alcohol-based hand rub dispensers remains a problem, and no method is

  13. Assessing the optimal location for alcohol-based hand rub dispensers in a patient room in an intensive care unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C. Boog (Matthijs); V. Erasmus (Vicky); J.M. de Graaf (Jitske); E.A.H.E. van Beeck (Elise); M. Melles (Marijke); E.F. van Beeck (Ed)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The introduction of alcohol-based hand rub dispensers has had a positive influence on compliance of healthcare workers with the recommended guidelines for hand hygiene. However, establishing the best location for alcohol-based hand rub dispensers remains a problem, and no

  14. A Low-Cost, Normally Closed, Solenoid Valve for Non-Contact Dispensing in the Sub-µL Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Koltay

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a disposable, normally closed, non-contact dispensing valve for the sub-µL range. The miniaturized solenoid valve (diameter: 8 mm, height: 27.25 mm is compatible to standard Luer-Lock interfaces. A highly dynamic actuation principle enables opening times down to 1 ms. The dispensing performance was evaluated for water (η = 1.03 mPas and a 66% (w/w glycerol/water solution (η = 16.98 mPas, at pressures varying from 200 to 800 mbar. The experimentally determined minimal dispensing volume was 163 nL (CV 1.6% for water and 123 nL (CV 4.5% for 66% (w/w glycerol/water. The low-cost polymer valve enables high precision dispensing of liquid volumes down to the lower end of the sub-µL range comparable to high-end non-disposable micro-dispensing valves.

  15. Identification of Operating Parameters Most Strongly Influencing the Jetting Performance in a Piezoelectric Actuator-Driven Dispenser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Woo Sohn

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This work identifies crucial operating parameters which most significantly influence the jetting performances of piezostack-driven non-contact dispensers. This is achieved through experimental investigation and statistical analysis. After introducing the configuration and operating principle of the piezoelectric jetting dispenser, an experimental setup is constructed in order to test the jetting performance, such as the dispensed amount. After selecting four significant operating parameters for the light-emitting diode (LED-packaging process, two levels for each parameter are considered. Subsequently, the weight of a single dispensed dot is measured 100 times, and the average weight and standard deviation are calculated for each experimental set. The results are then statistically analyzed using a commercial software package. Finally, the crucial operating parameters which provide a low average weight and a minimum variation in the weight of a single dispensed dot are identified.

  16. Analyzing implementation dynamics using theory-driven evaluation principles: lessons learnt from a South African centralized chronic dispensing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magadzire, Bvudzai Priscilla; Marchal, Bruno; Mathys, Tania; Laing, Richard O; Ward, Kim

    2017-12-04

    Centralized dispensing of essential medicines is one of South Africa's strategies to address the shortage of pharmacists, reduce patients' waiting times and reduce over-crowding at public sector healthcare facilities. This article reports findings of an evaluation of the Chronic Dispensing Unit (CDU) in one province. The objectives of this process evaluation were to: (1) compare what was planned versus the actual implementation and (2) establish the causal elements and contextual factors influencing implementation. This qualitative study employed key informant interviews with the intervention's implementers (clinicians, managers and the service provider) [N = 40], and a review of policy and program documents. Data were thematically analyzed by identifying the main influences shaping the implementation process. Theory-driven evaluation principles were applied as a theoretical framework to explain implementation dynamics. The overall participants' response about the CDU was positive and the majority of informants concurred that the establishment of the CDU to dispense large volumes of medicines is a beneficial strategy to address healthcare barriers because mechanical functions are automated and distribution of medicines much quicker. However, implementation was influenced by the context and discrepancies between planned activities and actual implementation were noted. Procurement inefficiencies at central level caused medicine stock-outs and affected CDU activities. At the frontline, actors were aware of the CDU's implementation guidelines regarding patient selection, prescription validity and management of non-collected medicines but these were adapted to accommodate practical realities and to meet performance targets attached to the intervention. Implementation success was a result of a combination of 'hardware' (e.g. training, policies, implementation support and appropriate infrastructure) and 'software' (e.g. ownership, cooperation between healthcare

  17. Reducing the default dispense quantity for new opioid analgesic prescriptions: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachhuber, Marcus A; Nash, Denis; Southern, William N; Heo, Moonseong; Berger, Matthew; Schepis, Mark; Cunningham, Chinazo O

    2018-04-20

    As opioid analgesic consumption has grown, so have opioid use disorder and opioid-related overdoses. Reducing the quantity of opioid analgesics prescribed for acute non-cancer pain can potentially reduce risks to the individual receiving the prescription and to others who might unintentionally or intentionally consume any leftover tablets. Reducing the default dispense quantity for new opioid analgesic prescriptions in the electronic health record (EHR) is a promising intervention to reduce prescribing. This study is a prospective cluster randomised controlled trial with two parallel arms. Primary care sites (n=32) and emergency departments (n=4) will be randomised in matched pairs to either a modification of the EHR so that new opioid analgesic prescriptions default to a dispense quantity of 10 tablets (intervention) or to no EHR change (control). The dispense quantity will remain fully modifiable by providers in both arms. From 6 months preintervention to 18 months postintervention, patient-level data will be analysed (ie, the patient is the unit of inference). Patient eligibility criteria are: (A) received a new opioid analgesic prescription, defined as no other opioid analgesic prescription in the prior 6 months; (B) age ≥18 years; and (C) no cancer diagnosis within 1 year prior to the new opioid analgesic prescription. The primary outcome will be the quantity of opioid analgesics prescribed in the initial prescription. Secondary outcomes will include opioid analgesic reorders and health service utilisation within 30 days after the initial prescription. Outcomes will be compared between study arms using a difference-in-differences analysis. This study has been approved by the Montefiore Medical Center/Albert Einstein College of Medicine Institutional Review Board with a waiver of informed consent (2016-6036) and is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03003832, 6 December 2016). Findings will be disseminated through publication, conferences and meetings

  18. Comparison of three dispenser distribution patterns for pheromone mating disruption of Paralobesia viteana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Rufus; Mason, Keith S; Teixeira, Luis A F; Loeb, Greg; Hesler, Steve; Weigle, Tim; Muza, Andy; Timer, Jody; Saunders, Michael

    2012-06-01

    Over two growing seasons, Isomate GBM-Plus tube-type dispensers releasing the major pheromone component of grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were evaluated in vineyards (Vitis spp.) in Michigan, New York, and Pennsylvania. Dispensers were deployed in three different density-arrangement treatments: 124 dispensers per ha, 494 dispensers per ha, and a combined treatment with 124 dispensers per ha in the vineyard interior and 988 dispensers per ha at the vineyard border, equivalent to an overall density of 494 dispensers per ha. Moth captures and cluster infestation levels were compared at the perimeter and interior of vineyards receiving these different pheromone treatments and in vineyards receiving no pheromone. Orientation of male moths to pheromone-baited traps positioned at the perimeter and interior of vineyards was reduced as a result of mating disruption treatments compared with the nontreated control. These findings were consistent over both years of the study. Disruption of male moth captures in traps varied from 93 to 100% in treated vineyards, with the 494 dispensers per ha application rates providing significantly higher level of disruption than the 124 dispensers per ha rate, but only in 2007. Measurements of percentage of cluster infestation indicated much higher infestation at perimeters than in the interior of the vineyards in all three regions, but in both sample positions there was no significant effect of dispenser density on cluster infestation levels in either year. The contrasting results of high disruption of moth orientation to traps in vineyards that also had low levels of crop protection from this pheromone treatment are discussed in the context of strategies to improve mating disruption of this tortricid pest.

  19. Determinants of Department of Veterans Affairs hearing aid brand dispensing by individual audiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Earl E

    2011-01-01

    Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) audiologists were surveyed regarding their perceptions and evaluations of hearing aid (HA) brands on seven factors previously published in peer-reviewed research as important to the HA brand preference decision of audiologists. One of the seven factors formed a distinct dimension of brand differentiation based on Contract Pricing (dimension 1). Brand perceptions for the other six factors were highly correlated with one another; this dimension of correlated perceptions was labeled Propensity to Dispense Based on a Gestalt Percept (dimension 2). That is, a direct relation exists between the collective perception of HA brand and its likelihood of being dispensed. These two dimensions accounted for 93.1% of the variance in the perceived differences among the HA brands surveyed. Joint-space mapping was used to model the effect of altering perceptions on VA HA brand dispensing. Results indicate that few VA audiologists (7.7%) dispense HA brands in majority association with contract pricing. Instead, the vast majority (77%) form brand preferences in majority association with their individualized perceptions.

  20. Dispensing of psychotropic medication among 400,000 immigrants in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Termorshuizen, Fabian; Selten, Jean-Paul; Heerdink, Eibert R

    PURPOSE: Previously, a high prevalence of certain psychiatric disorders was shown among non-Western immigrants. This study explores whether this results in more prescriptions for psychotropic medication. METHODS: Data on dispensing of medication among adults living in the four largest Dutch cities

  1. A systematic approach for the location of hand sanitizer dispensers in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cure, Laila; Van Enk, Richard; Tiong, Ewing

    2014-09-01

    Compliance with hand hygiene practices is directly affected by the accessibility and availability of cleaning agents. Nevertheless, the decision of where to locate these dispensers is often not explicitly or fully addressed in the literature. In this paper, we study the problem of selecting the locations to install alcohol-based hand sanitizer dispensers throughout a hospital unit as an indirect approach to maximize compliance with hand hygiene practices. We investigate the relevant criteria in selecting dispenser locations that promote hand hygiene compliance, propose metrics for the evaluation of various location configurations, and formulate a dispenser location optimization model that systematically incorporates such criteria. A complete methodology to collect data and obtain the model parameters is described. We illustrate the proposed approach using data from a general care unit at a collaborating hospital. A cost analysis was performed to study the trade-offs between usability and cost. The proposed methodology can help in evaluating the current location configuration, determining the need for change, and establishing the best possible configuration. It can be adapted to incorporate alternative metrics, tailored to different institutions and updated as needed with new internal policies or safety regulation.

  2. Efficacy of a Feed Dispenser for Horses in Decreasing Cribbing Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Mazzola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cribbing is an oral stereotypy, tends to develop in captive animals as a means to cope with stress, and may be indicative of reduced welfare. Highly energetic diets ingested in a short time are one of the most relevant risk factors for the development of cribbing. The aim of this study was to verify whether feeding cribbing horses through a dispenser that delivers small quantities of concentrate when activated by the animal decreases cribbing behaviour, modifies feeding behaviour, or induces frustration. Ten horses (mean age 14 y, balanced for sex, breed, and size (mean height 162 cm, were divided into two groups of 5 horses each: Cribbing and Control. Animals were trained to use the dispenser and videorecorded continuously for 15 consecutive days from 1 h prior to feeding to 2 h after feeding in order to measure their behaviours. The feed dispenser, Quaryka®, induced an increase in time necessary to finish the ration in both groups of horses (P<0.05. With Quaryka, cribbers showed a significant reduction of time spent cribbing (P<0.05. After removal of the feed dispenser (Post-Quaryka, cribbing behaviour significantly increased. The use of Quaryka may be particularly beneficial in horses fed high-energy diets and ingesting the food too quickly.

  3. 22 CFR 401.19 - Reducing or extending time and dispensing with statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Reducing or extending time and dispensing with statements. 401.19 Section 401.19 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL JOINT COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND CANADA... any case where the Commission considers that such action would be in the public interest and not...

  4. Monitoring codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in orchards treated with pear ester and sex pheromone combo dispensers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lures for monitoring codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), were tested in apple and walnut blocks treated with Cidetrak CM-DA Combo dispensers loaded with pear ester, ethyl (E, Z)-2,4-decadienoate (PE), and sex pheromone (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone). Total and female moth catches with combin...

  5. Automated dose dispensing in Danish primary health care - a technology under construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herborg H

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to conduct a health technology assessment (HTA of automated dose dispensing in the Danish primary health care sector. The present article answers the sub question of how various groups of actors spoke about and understood the shaping of automated dose dispensing (positioning in discourses.Methods: The project utilized two methods: 11 qualitative research interviews with selected key actors and a net-based qualitative questionnaire of 97 selected practitioners.Results: Three main types of discourse were identified with respect to the development of automated dose dispensing, namely ‘optimistic’, ‘sceptical’ and ‘pragmatic’. A wide diversity of opinion about automated dose dispensing was identified among the three discourses and their attendant scenarios. A number of factors are found in all three types of discourse, and are therefore considered to express common recommendations for decision makers and practitioners. These factors are described in the article.Conclusions: The article argues in favour of HTA, which to a great extent clarifies and initiates the perspectives of various groups of actors about the same technology. Our analyses show that conscious strategies must be employed to make the technology work successfully with the actors involved. The preferences, ideas and proposals for future actions and initiatives identified in the project could be the basis for defining future development strategies.

  6. Evaluation of textile substrates for dispensing synthetic attractants for malaria mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mweresa, Collins K; Mukabana, Wolfgang R; Omusula, Philemon; Otieno, Bruno; Gheysens, Tom; Takken, Willem; van Loon, Joop J A

    2014-08-16

    The full-scale impact of odour-baited technology on the surveillance, sampling and control of vectors of infectious diseases is partly limited by the lack of methods for the efficient and sustainable dispensing of attractants. In this study we investigated whether locally-available and commonly used textiles are efficient substrates for the release of synthetic odorant blends attracting malaria mosquitoes. The relative efficacy of (a) polyester, (b) cotton, (c) cellulose + polyacrylate, and (d) nylon textiles as substrates for dispensing a synthetic odour blend (Ifakara blend 1(IB1)) that attracts malaria mosquitoes was evaluated in western Kenya. The study was conducted through completely randomized Latin square experimental designs under semi-field and field conditions. Traps charged with IB1-impregnated polyester, cotton and cellulose + polyacrylate materials caught significantly more female Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (semi-field conditions) and An. gambiae sensu lato (field conditions) mosquitoes than IB1-treated nylon (P = 0.001). The IB1-impregnated cellulose + polyacrylate material was the most attractive to female An. funestus mosquitoes compared to all other dispensing textile substrates (P dispensing material used. Thus, surveillance and intervention programmes for malaria and other mosquito vectors using attractive odour baits should select an odour-release material that optimizes the odour blend.

  7. Jet dispensing of multi-layered films for the co-delivery of three antihypertensive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoutaris, Nicolaos; Malamatari, Maria; Letellier, Adrien; Douroumis, Dennis

    2018-02-01

    Three-layer thin films comprising of two polymers as substrate (ethyl cellulose and, copovidone K28) and three antihypertensive agents (hydrochlorothiazide, amiloride HCl, and carvedilol) were printed using jet dispensing technology. Two film formulations with different ethyl cellulose to copovidone K28 ratio (i.e., 90/10 and 50/50 w/w) were prepared using a three-course dispensing. The films were characterized regarding surface morphology, solid-state properties, polymer-drug interactions, drug distribution in each layer, and in vitro drug release. All the components of the films were found to be in the amorphous state apart from hydrochlorothiazide which retained its crystallinity. FT-IR spectroscopy revealed hydrogen bond interactions between carvedilol and copovidone K28. Combinations of ethyl cellulose and copovidone K28 provide suitable polymeric film substrates with the ability to modify drug release. Particularly, decreased ethyl cellulose to copovidone K28 weight ratio was found to suppress the crystallization of hydrochlorothiazide and to increase the release rate of the dispensed drugs. Jet dispensing was found to be a rapid technology for the preparation of multi-layered films that can be used as personalized formulations for the delivery of combinations of drugs.

  8. Automated dose dispensing in Danish primary health care - a technology under construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herborg, Hanne; Haugbølle, Lotte S; Lee, Anne

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a health technology assessment (HTA) of automated dose dispensing in the Danish primary health care sector. The present article answers the sub question of how various groups of actors spoke about and understood the shaping of automated dose dispensing (positioning in discourses). THE PROJECT UTILIZED TWO METHODS: 11 qualitative research interviews with selected key actors and a net-based qualitative questionnaire of 97 selected practitioners. Three main types of discourse were identified with respect to the development of automated dose dispensing, namely 'optimistic', 'sceptical' and 'pragmatic'. A wide diversity of opinion about automated dose dispensing was identified among the three discourses and their attendant scenarios. A number of factors are found in all three types of discourse, and are therefore considered to express common recommendations for decision makers and practitioners. These factors are described in the article. The article argues in favour of HTA, which to a great extent clarifies and initiates the perspectives of various groups of actors about the same technology. Our analyses show that conscious strategies must be employed to make the technology work successfully with the actors involved. The preferences, ideas and proposals for future actions and initiatives identified in the project could be the basis for defining future development strategies.

  9. A Disposable Dispensing Valve for Non-Contact Microliter Applications in a 96-Well Plate Format

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Kartmann

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a miniaturized, disposable, normally-closed electromagnetic dispensing valve for the microliter range to process 96-well plates. The novel injection-molded valve is designed to fit into a 9 mm grid to realize an eight channel dispensing head, enabling the serial processing of well plates row-by-row. The presented dispensing valve design originates from a miniaturization study of a previously developed functional model. The outer diameter of the valve, including all actuating components, was reduced by 8 mm to an overall diameter of 8.5 mm without compromising the performance. Additionally, the actuation current of the valve could be reduced to 5 A. The valve is characterized for a volume range between 840 nL and 5.3 μL. The performance of the injection molded valve is competitive to commercially available dispensing valves, featuring the advantages of low fabrication costs, disposability, low mounting size, easy handling, and super silent actuation.

  10. Evaluation of textile substrates for dispensing synthetic attractants for malaria mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mweresa, C.K.; Mukabana, W.R.; Omusula, P.; Otieno, B.; Gheysens, G.; Takken, W.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The full-scale impact of odour-baited technology on the surveillance, sampling and control of vectors of infectious diseases is partly limited by the lack of methods for the efficient and sustainable dispensing of attractants. In this study we investigated whether locally-available and

  11. Validation of a proxy for estrogen receptor status in breast cancer patients using dispensing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srasuebkul, Preeyaporn; Dobbins, Timothy A; Pearson, Sallie-Anne

    2014-06-01

    To assess the performance of a proxy for estrogen receptor (ER) status in breast cancer patients using dispensing data. We derived our proxy using 167 patients. ER+ patients had evidence of at least one dispensing record for hormone therapy during the lookback period, irrespective of diagnosis date and ER- had no dispensing records for hormone therapy during the period. We validated the proxy against our gold standard, ER status from pathology reports or medical records. We assessed the proxy's performance using three lookback periods: 4.5 years, 2 years, 1 year. More than half of our cohort (62%) were >50 years, 54% had stage III/IV breast cancer at recruitment, (46%) were diagnosed with breast cancer in 2009 and 23% were diagnosed before 2006. Sensitivity and specificity were high for the 4.5 year lookback period (93%, 95% CI: 86-96%; and 95%: 83-99%), respectively) and remained high for the 2-year lookback period (91%: 84-95%; and 95%: 83-99%). Sensitivity decreased (83%: 75.2-89%) but specificity remained high (95%: 83-99%) using the 1-year lookback period and the period is long enough to allow sufficient time for hormone therapy to be dispensed. Our proxy accurately infers ER status in studies of breast cancer treatment based on secondary health data. The proxy is most robust with a minimum lookback period of 2 years. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Dispenser and trap design affect the effectiveness of sex pheromone on trap capture of dogwood borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The capture of dogwood borer (DWB), Synanthedon scitula Harris (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), was evaluated in field trapping studies using wing-style sticky traps baited with rubber septum or polyethylene vial dispensers containing the most effective sex pheromone ternary blend [86:6:6 v:v:v (Z,Z)-3,13-o...

  13. Evaluation of a digital dispenser for direct curve dilutions in a vaccine potency assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselle, Christopher; Whitehouse, Dana; Follmer, Thy; Ansbro, Fran; Bouaraphan, Silikhone; Guan, Liming; Wang, Sha-Ke; Shank-Retzlaff, Mary; Verch, Thorsten

    2017-03-01

    Dilutions are a common source of analytical error, both in terms of accuracy and precision, and a common source of analyst mistakes. When serial dilutions are used, errors compound, even when employing laboratory automation. Direct point dilutions instead of serial dilutions can reduce error but is often impractical as they require either large diluent volumes or very small sample volumes when performed with traditional liquid handling equipment. We evaluated preparation of dilution curves using a picoliter digital dispenser, the HP, Inc. / TECAN D300 which is capable of accurately delivering picoliter volumes directly into sample wells filled with assay diluent. Dilution linearity and variability of the direct dilutions were similar to or less than those generated with a traditional liquid handler as measured using a fluorophore assay and an ELISA used to measure vaccine potency. Minimum concentrations for detergent in the dispensed sample were identified but no correlation with detergent characteristics was observed. The tolerance to protein in the sample was evaluated as well with up to 5% BSA having no impact on dispense linearity and precision. We found the digital dispenser to reduce automation complexity while maintaining or improving assay performance in addition to facilitating complex plate lay-outs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The ClpXP protease is dispensable for degradation of unfolded proteins in Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahlhut, Steen G.; Alqarzaee, Abdulelah A.; Jensen, Camilla

    2017-01-01

    protein aggregates showing that ClpXP is dispensable for degradation of unfolded proteins in S. aureus. Consistent with this finding, transcriptomic profiling revealed strong induction of genes responding to protein folding stress in cells devoid of ClpP, but not in cells lacking only ClpXP. In the latter...

  15. Efficacy of a Feed Dispenser for Horses in Decreasing Cribbing Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzola, Silvia; Palestrini, Clara; Cannas, Simona; Fè, Eleonora; Bagnato, Gaia Lisa; Vigo, Daniele; Frank, Diane; Minero, Michela

    2016-01-01

    Cribbing is an oral stereotypy, tends to develop in captive animals as a means to cope with stress, and may be indicative of reduced welfare. Highly energetic diets ingested in a short time are one of the most relevant risk factors for the development of cribbing. The aim of this study was to verify whether feeding cribbing horses through a dispenser that delivers small quantities of concentrate when activated by the animal decreases cribbing behaviour, modifies feeding behaviour, or induces frustration. Ten horses (mean age 14 y), balanced for sex, breed, and size (mean height 162 cm), were divided into two groups of 5 horses each: Cribbing and Control . Animals were trained to use the dispenser and videorecorded continuously for 15 consecutive days from 1 h prior to feeding to 2 h after feeding in order to measure their behaviours. The feed dispenser, Quaryka®, induced an increase in time necessary to finish the ration in both groups of horses ( P dispenser (Post-Quaryka), cribbing behaviour significantly increased. The use of Quaryka may be particularly beneficial in horses fed high-energy diets and ingesting the food too quickly.

  16. Pseudo-outbreak of Phaeoacremonium parasiticum from a hospital ice dispenser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Molly; Embil, John M; Trepman, Elly; Adam, Heather; Myers, Renelle; Mutcher, Pam

    2014-08-01

    In 31 patients, Phaeoacremonium parasiticum was recovered from bronchoscopy specimens (biopsies and aspirates). The pseudo-outbreak was caused by contaminated ice used to control hemorrhage during bronchoscopy and was associated with deficiencies in equipment cleaning. The bronchoscopy technique was modified, the ice dispenser was disinfected, bronchoscope reprocessing was improved, and there were no recurrences.

  17. Smart DNA Fabrication Using Sound Waves: Applying Acoustic Dispensing Technologies to Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanigowska, Paulina; Shen, Yue; Zheng, Yijing; Rosser, Susan; Cai, Yizhi

    2016-02-01

    Acoustic droplet ejection (ADE) technology uses focused acoustic energy to transfer nanoliter-scale liquid droplets with high precision and accuracy. This noncontact, tipless, low-volume dispensing technology minimizes the possibility of cross-contamination and potentially reduces the costs of reagents and consumables. To date, acoustic dispensers have mainly been used in screening libraries of compounds. In this paper, we describe the first application of this powerful technology to the rapidly developing field of synthetic biology, for DNA synthesis and assembly at the nanoliter scale using a Labcyte Echo 550 acoustic dispenser. We were able to successfully downscale PCRs and the popular one-pot DNA assembly methods, Golden Gate and Gibson assemblies, from the microliter to the nanoliter scale with high assembly efficiency, which effectively cut the reagent cost by 20- to 100-fold. We envision that acoustic dispensing will become an instrumental technology in synthetic biology, in particular in the era of DNA foundries. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  18. Differentiation in the Amsterdam methadone dispensing circuit: determinants of methadone dosage and site of methadone prescription

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langendam, M. W.; van Haastrecht, H. J.; van Brussel, G. H.; Reurs, H.; van den Hoek, A. A.; Coutinho, R. A.; van Ameijden, E. J.

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the Methadone Dispensing Circuit in Amsterdam by identifying determinants of methadone dosage and client characteristics in the different types of methadone programmes. Four hundred and forty-four participants of a cohort study of drug users in Amsterdam who had consented to link data of

  19. Wafer level fabrication of single cell dispenser chips with integrated electrodes for particle detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoendube, Jonas; Yusof, Azmi; Kalkandjiev, Kiril; Zengerle, Roland; Koltay, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This work presents the microfabrication and experimental evaluation of a dispenser chip, designed for isolation and printing of single cells by combining impedance sensing and drop-on-demand dispensing. The dispenser chip features 50  ×  55 µm (width × height) microchannels, a droplet generator and microelectrodes for impedance measurements. The chip is fabricated by sandwiching a dry film photopolymer (TMMF) between a silicon and a Pyrex wafer. TMMF has been used to define microfluidic channels, to serve as low temperature (75 °C) bonding adhesive and as etch mask during 300 µm deep HF etching of the Pyrex wafer. Due to the novel fabrication technology involving the dry film resist, it became possible to fabricate facing electrodes at the top and bottom of the channel and to apply electrical impedance sensing for particle detection with improved performance. The presented microchip is capable of dispensing liquid and detecting microparticles via impedance measurement. Single polystyrene particles of 10 µm size could be detected with a mean signal amplitude of 0.39  ±  0.13 V (n=439) at particle velocities of up to 9.6 mm s −1 inside the chip. (paper)

  20. Container with heat or cold dispensing material comprising hydrogel with crosslinked hydrophilic polymer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Turnhout, J.

    2000-01-01

    PCT No. PCT/NL97/00102 Sec. 371 Date Oct. 20, 1998 Sec. 102(e) Date Oct. 20, 1998 PCT Filed Mar. 3, 1997 PCT Pub. No. WO97/33950 PCT Pub. Date Sep. 18, 1997A device for storing and gradually dispensing heat or cold includes a container having a partially heat-conducting wall enclosing a space with

  1. Through-Silicon-Via Underfill Dispensing for 3D Die/Interposer Stacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Fuliang

    The next generation packaging keeps up with the increased demands of functionality by using the third dimension. 3D chip stacking with TSVs has been identified as one of the major technologies to achieve higher silicon density and shorter interconnection. In order to protect solder interconnections from hostile environments and redistribute thermal stress caused by CTE mismatch, underfill should be applied for the under-chip spaces. In this study, TSV underfill dispensing is introduced to address the underfill challenge for 3D chip stacks. The material properties are first measured and the general trend indicates viscosity and contact angle dropping significantly with an increase in temperature, and surface tension falling slightly as the temperature increases. Underfill should assure a complete encapsulation, avoiding excessive filling time that can result in substantial manufacturing delays. Typically, the inflows for TSV underfill can be free droplets or a constant flow rate. For a constant inflow, the underfill flow is driven by pressure difference and the filling time is governed by flow radius, gap clearance and the constant flow rate. For an inflow of free droplets, the underfill flow is driven by capillary action and the filling time is related to viscosity, flow radius, gap clearance, surface tension, contact angle and TSV size. In general, TSV underfill dispensing with a constant inflow has much shorter filling time than dispensing with an inflow of free droplets. TSV underfill dispensing on a 3D chip stack may induce the risk of an edge flood failure. In order to avoid an edge flood, fluid pressure around the sidewalls of a 3D chip stack cannot exceed limit equilibrium pressure. For TSV dispensing with free droplets, there is no risk of forming an edge flood. However, for a constant inflow, TSV dispensing should be carefully controlled to avoid excessive pressure. Besides, it is suggested that the TSVs in stacked chips be aligned in the vertical

  2. Preliminary Compatibility Assessment of Metallic Dispenser Materials for Service in Ethanol Fuel Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawel, Steven J [ORNL; Kass, Michael D [ORNL; Janke, Christopher James [ORNL

    2009-11-01

    The compatibility of selected metals representative of those commonly used in dispensing systems was evaluated in an aggressive E20 formulation (CE20a) and in synthetic gasoline (Reference Fuel C) in identical testing to facilitate comparison of results. The testing was performed at modestly elevated temperature (nominally 60 C) and with constant fluid flow in an effort to accelerate potential interactions in the screening test. Based on weight change, the general corrosion of all individual coupons exposed in the vapor phase above Reference Fuel C and CE20a as well as all coupons immersed in Reference Fuel C was essentially nil (<0.3 {micro}m/y), with no evidence of localized corrosion such as pitting/crevice corrosion or selective leaching at any location. Modest discoloration was observed on the copper-based alloys (cartridge brass and phosphor bronze), but the associated corrosion films were quite thin and apparently protective. For coupons immersed in CE20a, four different materials exhibited net weight loss over the entire course of the experiment: cartridge brass, phosphor bronze, galvanized steel, and terne-plated steel. None of these exhibited substantial incompatibility with the test fluid, with the largest general corrosion rate calculated from coupon weight loss to be approximately 4 {micro}m/y for the cartridge brass specimens. Selective leaching of zinc (from brass) and tin (from bronze) was observed, as well as the presence of sulfide surface films rich in these elements, suggesting the importance of the role of sulfuric acid in the CE20a formulation. Analysis of weight loss data for the slightly corroded metals indicated that the corrosivity of the test environment decreased with exposure time for brass and bronze and increased for galvanized and terne-plated steel. Other materials immersed in CE20a - type 1020 mild steel, type 1100 aluminum, type 201 nickel, and type 304 stainless steel - each appeared essentially immune to corrosion at the test

  3. The hedgehog receptor patched1 in T cells is dispensable for adaptive immunity in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai D Michel

    Full Text Available Hedgehog (Hh signaling modulates T cell development and function but its exact role remains a matter of debate. To further address this issue we made use of conditional knock-out mice in which the Hh receptor Patched1 (Ptch is inactivated in the T cell lineage. Thymocyte development was moderately compromised by the deletion of Ptch as characterized by reduced numbers of CD4 and CD8 single-positive cells. In contrast, peripheral T cells were not affected. Proliferation and IFNγ secretion by Ptch-deficient T cells were indistinguishable from controls irrespectively of whether we used strong or suboptimal conditions for stimulation. Analysis of CTL and Treg cell functions did not reveal any differences between both genotypes, and T cell apoptosis induced by glucocorticoids or γ-irradiation was also similar. Surprisingly, absence of Ptch did not lead to an activation of canonic Hh signaling in peripheral T cells as indicated by unaltered expression levels of Gli1 and Gli2. To test whether we could uncover any role of Ptch in T cells in vivo we subjected the mutant mice to three different disease models, namely allogeneic bone marrow transplantation mimicking graft-versus-host disease, allergic airway inflammation as a model of asthma and growth of adoptively transferred melanoma cells as a means to test tumor surveillance by the immune system. Nonetheless, we were neither able to demonstrate any difference in the disease courses nor in any pathogenic parameter in these three models of adaptive immunity. We therefore conclude that the Hh receptor Ptch is dispensable for T cell function in vitro as well as in vivo.

  4. Pulsed arc plasma jet synchronized with drop-on-demand dispenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavier, F.; Lemesre, L.; Rat, V.; Bienia, M.; Lejeune, M.; Coudert, J.-F.

    2017-04-01

    This work concerns with the liquid injection in arc plasma spraying for the development of finely structured ceramics coatings. Nanostructured coatings can be now achieved with nanopowders dispersed in a liquid (SPS: Suspension Plasma Spraying) or with a salt dissolved into a liquid (SPPS: Solution Precursor Plasma Spraying) injected into the plasma jet. Controlling electric arc instabilities confined in non-transferred arc plasma torch is therefore a key issue to get reproducible coating properties. Adjustment of parameters with a mono-cathode arc plasma allows a new resonance mode called “Mosquito”. A pulsed arc plasma producing a periodic regular voltage signal with modulation of enthalpy is obtained. The basic idea is to synchronize the injection system with the arc to introduce the liquid material in each plasma oscillation in the same conditions, in order to control the plasma treatment of the material in-fly. A custom-developed pulsed arc plasma torch is used with a drop-on-demand dispenser triggered by the arc voltage. A delay is added to adjust the droplets emission time and their penetration into the plasma gusts. Indeed, the treatment of droplets is also shown to be dependent on this injection delay. A TiO2 suspension and an aqueous solution of aluminium nitrate were optimized to get ejectable inks forming individual droplets. The feasibility of the process was demonstrated for SPS and SPPS techniques. Coatings from the suspension and the solution were achieved. First synchronized sprayings show a good penetration of the droplets into the plasma. Coatings show a fine structure of cauliflowers shapes. The synchronization of the ejection allows a control of morphology and a better deposition efficiency. Further investigations will find the optimal operating parameters to show the full potential of this original liquid injection technique.

  5. The cytosolic glyoxalases of Plasmodium falciparum are dispensable during asexual blood-stage development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cletus A. Wezena

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The enzymes glyoxalase 1 and 2 (Glo1 and Glo2 are found in most eukaryotes and catalyze the glutathione-dependent conversion of 2-oxoaldehydes to 2-hydroxycarboxylic acids. Four glyoxalases are encoded in the genome of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, the cytosolic enzymes PfGlo1 and PfcGlo2, the apicoplast enzyme PftGlo2, and an inactive Glo1-like protein that also carries an apicoplast-targeting sequence. Inhibition or knockout of the Plasmodium glyoxalases was hypothesized to lead to an accumulation of 2-oxoaldehydes and advanced glycation end-products (AGE in the host-parasite unit and to result in parasite death. Here, we generated clonal P. falciparum strain 3D7 knockout lines for PFGLO1 and PFcGLO2 using the CRISPR-Cas9 system. Although 3D7Δglo1 knockout clones had an increased susceptibility to external glyoxal, all 3D7Δglo1 and 3D7Δcglo2 knockout lines were viable and showed no significant growth phenotype under standard growth conditions. Furthermore, the lack of PfcGlo2, but not PfGlo1, increased gametocyte commitment in the knockout lines. In summary, PfGlo1 and PfcGlo2 are dispensable during asexual blood-stage development while the loss of PfcGlo2 may induce the formation of transmissible gametocytes. These combined data show that PfGlo1 and PfcGlo2 are most likely not suited as targets for selective drug development.

  6. Mononuclear Phagocytes Are Dispensable for Cardiac Remodeling in Established Pressure-Overload Heart Failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindiya Patel

    Full Text Available Although cardiac and splenic mononuclear phagocytes (MPs, i.e., monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs, are key contributors to cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction, their role in pressure-overload remodeling is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that these immune cells are required for the progression of remodeling in pressure-overload heart failure (HF, and that MP depletion would ameliorate remodeling.C57BL/6 mice were subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC or sham operation, and assessed for alterations in MPs. As compared with sham, TAC mice exhibited expansion of circulating LyC6hi monocytes and pro-inflammatory CD206- cardiac macrophages early (1 w after pressure-overload, prior to significant hypertrophy and systolic dysfunction, with subsequent resolution during chronic HF. In contrast, classical DCs were expanded in the heart in a biphasic manner, with peaks both early, analogous to macrophages, and late (8 w, during established HF. There was no significant expansion of circulating DCs, or Ly6C+ monocytes and DCs in the spleen. Periodic systemic MP depletion from 2 to 16 w after TAC in macrophage Fas-induced apoptosis (MaFIA transgenic mice did not alter cardiac remodeling progression, nor did splenectomy in mice with established HF after TAC. Lastly, adoptive transfer of splenocytes from TAC HF mice into naïve recipients did not induce immediate or long-term cardiac dysfunction in recipient mice.Mononuclear phagocytes populations expand in a phasic manner in the heart during pressure-overload. However, they are dispensable for the progression of remodeling and failure once significant hypertrophy is evident and blood monocytosis has normalized.

  7. Control of bacterial contamination in microfiltered water dispensers (MWDs) by disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Franca; De Luca, Giovanna; Sacchetti, Rossella

    2009-01-15

    Three microfiltered water dispensers (MWDs) for domestic use were bacteriologically monitored over a period of 1 year to evaluate their hygienic status and to compare the ability of two disinfectants (peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide) to ensure adequate bacteriological quality of the dispensed water. To this end, two dispensers were purposely contaminated with a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa of environmental origin. A total of 324 samples of input and output water were analyzed. Heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria at 22 degrees C and 36 degrees C, total coliforms (CT), Escherichia coli (EC), enterococci (ENT), P. aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were enumerated. Throughout the study period, the supply water was always of excellent bacteriological quality. All water samples taken from the MWDs complied with the legal requirements for drinking water: CT, EC, ENT and S. aureus were all consistently absent. P. aeruginosa was never isolated from the uncontaminated dispenser. However, an increase in HPCs up to levels of 10(3)-10(4) cfu/mL was found in the dispensed water. Under the present operative conditions, hydrogen peroxide was seen to be more effective than peracetic acid in controlling bacterial contamination in the water circuits. Periodic disinfection with hydrogen peroxide made it possible to obtain water with HPC levels conforming to Italian regulations for drinking water (American Dental Association (ADA) (contaminated circuits, H(2)O(2) disinfection led to a reduction in the concentrations of P. aeruginosa to only a few colony forming units/100 mL or to a complete, albeit temporary, disappearance of the microorganism. In conclusion, hydrogen peroxide at 3% can be proposed as a suitable product for periodic disinfection of domestic MWDs, taking into consideration also its low cost and easy availability.

  8. Implementation and evaluation of carousel dispensing technology in a university medical center pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Jack; Ludwig, Brad

    2010-05-15

    The implementation of carousel dispensing technology (CDT) at a university medical center pharmacy and the associated changes in drug distribution are described. An evaluation of CDT was conducted in three phases: before implementation, during implementation, and after implementation. The preimplementation phase consisted of data collection and facility planning leading up to the physical installation. The implementation phase included the physical installation, carousel medication assignment, and user training. The postimplementation phase included data collection and analysis. The data collected were used to compare preimplementation and postimplementation time studies, labor requirements, inventory turns, and accuracy rates. The estimated labor savings comparing the preimplementation and postimplementation time studies for automated dispensing cabinet (ADC) refills, first-dose requests, supplemental cart fill, and medication procurement totaled 2.6 full-time equivalents (FTEs). After departmental reorganization, a net reduction of 2.0 technician FTEs was achieved. The average turnaround time for stat medication requests using CDT was 7.19 minutes, and the percentage of doses filled in less than 20 minutes was 95.1%. After implementing CDT, the average accuracy rate for all dispense requests increased from 99.02% to 99.48%. The inventory carrying cost was reduced by $25,059. CDT improved the overall efficiency and accuracy of medication dispensing in a university medical center pharmacy. Workflow efficiencies achieved in ADC refill, first-dose dispensing, supplemental cart fill, and the medication procurement process allowed the department to reduce the amount of technician labor required to support the medication distribution process, as well as reallocate technician labor to other areas in need.

  9. 3D chip stacking with through silicon-vias (TSVs) for vertical interconnect and underfill dispensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Fuliang; Lee, Shi-Wei Ricky; Zhang, Qiming

    2017-04-01

    3D chip stacking with through silicon vias (TSVs) has been identified as one of the major technologies for achieving higher silicon packaging density and shorter interconnect. The test vehicle presented in this paper is a 3D chip stack package. Each layer of the test vehicle has two silicon flip chips mounted at the bottom of a silicon interposer with solder bumps. The flip chip has the equivalent dimensions and pad patterns as commercial memory chips. The interposer, with multiple interconnect TSVs for electrical connection and a central TSV for underfill dispensing, can function as a logic chip or as a redistribution chip in a real application. The assembly steps of the test vehicle include conductive adhesive filling for the interconnect TSVs, bonding two bumped flip chips on an interposer (to form a single layer), vertical stacking of the single layers and underfill dispensing. For the filling of the interconnect TSVs, an auger-dispensing method is first adopted to overfill the interconnect TSVs, followed by removing the excessive adhesive beyond the interconnect TSVs by squeegeeing. A jet valve continuously dispenses free dots of an underfill encapsulant into the central TSVs. The central TSVs function as an entrance for underfill dispensing and an uninterrupted point-source to provide fluid for each layer. The free dots form a capillary flow to fill the under-chip spaces of the test vehicle. The usage of TSVs rather than chip edges eliminates the presence of a wide edge reservoir, resulting in smaller ‘keep-out’ area occupation on the substrate.

  10. Isolation of Raoultella planticola from refillable antimicrobial liquid soap dispensers in a dental setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Stephanie S; Tomlin, Nancy; Ruby, John D

    2015-04-01

    Liquid antimicrobial soaps are commonly used in the dental health care setting for hand washing to minimize the potential spread of infectious agents to health care workers and patients. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate possible bacterial contamination of antimicrobial liquid soap dispensers located in 2 institutional comprehensive dental care clinics. Fourteen soap dispensers and 16 original stock containers were sampled. A 1-milliliter aliquot was diluted in 10 mL of phosphate buffer (Tween-80; Acros). Serial dilutions were plated in duplicate on neutralizing agar and incubated for 7 days. Molecular identification was performed using 500 base pair comparisons of 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid sequencing. Taq polymerase chain reaction was performed with sequence-specific primers for Raoultella species. Bacterial growth was observed at 18 hours for 57% (8 of 14) of soap dispenser samples. Bacterial densities ranged from 4 × 10(2) to 6 × 10(9) colony-forming units per milliliter. Original commercial containers exhibited no growth. Isolates were identified as Raoultella (Klebsiella) planticola. This is the first study to the authors' knowledge indicating recovery of R. planticola from antimicrobial liquid soap dispensers. R. planticola is a recognized environmental opportunistic pathogen that potentially poses a health concern. These findings indicate compliance problems with infection prevention recommendations and support the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's recommendation that dispensers should not be topped off. High bacterial loads of R. planticola are inconsistent with infection control practices and are a concern because transmission and possible infection to the health care worker or the patient may occur. Copyright © 2015 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Twenty-year trends in benzodiazepine dispensing in the Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M M; Conigrave, K M; Day, C A; Nguyen, Y; Haber, P S

    2014-01-01

    Considerable concern has been expressed about overprescribing of benzodiazepines and related harms. Past analyses have relied on World Health Organization-defined daily doses (DDD) which are sometimes out of keeping with clinical usage. This study examines 20-year (1992-2011) trends of benzodiazepine dispensing in Australia using both DDD and Ashton equivalent dose. Data from the Drug Utilisation Sub-Committee and the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) website were analysed. Trends in number of prescriptions, DDD/1000 people/day and DDD/prescription were examined over time, and between states/territories. In the 20-year period, 174 080 904 scripts were recorded, with temazepam the most dispensed benzodiazepine (35% of scripts), followed by diazepam (23%). Overall recorded utilisation fell from 27.7 DDD/1000 people/day in 1992 to 20.8 in 2011 (24.9% decrease). There were striking changes in use of individual benzodiazepines over time, with reductions in oxazepam and flunitrazepam and dramatic increases in alprazolam. Since 1998, there has been a steady increase, albeit modest, in per script DDD. The DDD/1000 people/day for items dispensed through PBS/Repatriaton-PBS was highest in Tasmania and lowest in Northern Territory. Despite a modest overall decline in the amount of benzodiazepine dispensed, the level of use is still likely to reflect relative over-prescribing given the paucity of accepted indications for long-term use. Since 1998, there was a polynomial increase in quantity dispensed per script. The WHO-defined DDD for clonazepam seems inappropriate and could impede monitoring of its abuse. Other problems include lack of national data for medications not subsidised on PBS/Repatriation PBS. A broad policy approach is required, not one which targets only one particular benzodiazepine. © 2013 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  12. Prescripción, dispensación y sustitución de recetas de omeprazol Prescription, dispensation and sustitution of prescription forms of omeprazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Vaquero

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Comprobar y cuantificar, para un principio activo concreto (omeprazol 20 mg, y para unos médicos de atención primaria y oficinas de farmacia seleccionados, si las especialidades farmacéuticas prescritas en recetas oficiales de la Seguridad Social coinciden o no con las especialidades farmacéuticas dispensadas, o bien la dispensación se ha efectuado a criterio del farmacéutico al ir la receta prescrita en denominación oficial española (DOE, calculando el coste de las recetas en cada supuesto, expresado en DDD. Método: Revisión de 592 recetas oficiales de la Seguridad Social de un principio activo seleccionado (omeprazol 20 mg, prescritas por 56 médicos de atención primaria con alta prescripción de este principio activo, y dispensadas en 16 oficinas de farmacia. Resultados: Las recetas en que se respetó la prescripción del médico (50% de los casos resultaron ser más baratas que las prescritas en DOE y dispensadas EFG por el farmacéutico a su criterio (36% de los casos. En el supuesto de recetas en las que se produjeron sustituciones de la especialidad prescrita (14% de los casos, se dispensó en todos los casos una EFG y en el 76% fue de especialidades más caras. Conclusiones: Los resultados demuestran que el médico prescriptor valora el coste de la especialidad farmacéutica a la hora de prescribir y se decanta por especialidades más baratas aunque no sean EFG. El farmacéutico, cuando dispensa a su criterio o sustituye la especialidad prescrita, lo hace siempre por una EFG que en la mayoría de los casos resultó ser más cara.Objective: To verify and quantify, for a given active principle (omeprazole 20 mg and for selected primary care physicians and pharmacies, the extent to which the drug prescribed on official national health system prescription forms coincides with the drug dispensed or whether the drug was dispensed following the pharmacist's criteria because the prescription was drafted in terms of the

  13. Control of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia contamination of microfiltered water dispensers with peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchetti, Rossella; De Luca, Giovanna; Zanetti, Franca

    2009-06-30

    The abilities of peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide to remove or reduce Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in output water from microfiltered water dispensers (MWDs) were investigated. Two MWDs were inoculated with strains of P. aeruginosa and S. maltophilia isolated from water. Dispensers A and B were disinfected with 10% (v/v) peracetic acid (PAA) and 3% (v/v) hydrogen peroxide (HP) respectively. Each dispenser was disinfected three times at monthly intervals with contact times of 10, 30 and 40 min. Water dispensed by the MWDs was collected immediately before and after each treatment and then twice weekly for the remaining period. Once a week a sample of the tap water entering the dispensers was tested. P. aeruginosa and S. maltophilia were enumerated in the 90 samples collected during 6 months. In the output water from the dispensers before the first treatment, the number of the bacteria was 3 to 4 log cfu/100 mL. Treatment with PAA greatly reduced the numbers of P. aeruginosa and S. maltophilia in the dispensed water initially. However, by 2 days after treatment, the numbers increased and remained high. In the case of disinfection with HP for 40 min, P. aeruginosa was not detected in most of the samples (73.7%). Numbers of S. maltophilia decreased with increasing time after treatment.

  14. Study of eye drops dispensing and dose variability by using plastic dropper tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklubalová, Zdenka; Zatloukal, Zdenek

    2006-02-01

    The application of eye drops from flexible dropper bottles fitted with different types of dropper tips is associated with the high variability of eye drop weights. The aim of this report was to investigate the simultaneous effect of three factors influencing the mean weight of drops dispensing from two plastic dropper tips. Using a designed experiment (Box-Behnken), the effect of the concentration of benzalkonium chloride solutions (BAC) in the range of 0-0.02%, the dispensing angle from 90 degrees to 30 degrees from horizontal, and the residual volume of liquid in the dropper bottle from 4 to 10 mL on the mean drop weights were examined. The significant effect of the increase in BAC concentration resulted in a linear decrease in drop weights for both of the dropper tips investigated. The significant effect of the dispensing angle was influenced by the dropper tip design. For the dropper tip A, the effect of the dropper tip tilt was described by the quadratic equation with a minimum, which corresponded to the dispensing angle equal to that of 48 degrees from horizontal. Below this angle, the increase in drop weights occurred due to the drop formation from the wetted external surface of the tip orifice. The linear decrease in drop weights in response to the decrease in dispensing angle was detected for the dropper tip B. The regression equations and the contour line plots obtained allowed the drop weights to be estimated for the actual combinations of both the BAC concentration and the dispensing angle. The effect of the residual volume was found to be non-significant. Based on the formula of Tate's law, the direct proportion between surface tension of a solution and the radius of the effective perimeter of a dropper tip can be used to estimate the theoretical maximal weight of drops at the dispensing angle of 90 degrees . Using the stalagmometric values of surface tension of the BAC solutions, the maximal drop weights were estimated for both of the dropper tips

  15. Development of a new dispenser for microbiological control agents and evaluation of dissemination by bumblebees in greenhouse strawberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommaerts, Veerle; Put, Kurt; Vandeven, Jessica; Jans, Kris; Sterk, Guido; Hoffmann, Lucien; Smagghe, Guy

    2010-11-01

    To date, in modern agriculture, biological control strategies are increasingly becoming the preferred pest management approach. However, the success of microbiological control agents (MCAs) largely depends on efficient dissemination into the crop. The pollinator-and-vector technology employs pollinating insects like bees for a better dissemination. In this study, a new dispenser for bumblebee workers of Bombus terrestris L. was developed. Binab-T-vector and Prestop-Mix were used as two typical MCA products for dissemination. In a first series of experiments in the laboratory for optimisation, the newly developed dispenser was a two-way type dispenser, 20 cm long, with two rectangular compartments and different entrance and exit holes. In addition, the amounts of MCA loaded on the workers were 10 times higher with the new dispenser as compared with the side-by-side passageway (SSP) dispenser. Typically, the highest amounts were recovered from the thorax and legs of the workers. In a second series of experiments under greenhouse conditions with the use of queen-right B. terrestris hives, successful dissemination in strawberry flowers was obtained at different distances from the hive (0-8 m, 8-18 m and 18-21 m), and the workers inoculated the first, second and third flowers that were consecutively visited. In addition, the new dispenser caused no adverse effects on worker foraging intensity, whereas a dramatic reduction was scored with an SSP dispenser. Finally, the data suggested that it is necessary to refill the newly developed dispenser at 3 day intervals. The results demonstrated that, with the use of the newly developed dispenser, bumblebee workers carried high amounts of MCA, and this resulted in a successful dissemination of MCA into strawberry flowers. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Part 4 of a 4-part series Miscellaneous Products: Trends and Alternatives in Deodorants, Antiperspirants, Sunblocks, Shaving Products, Powders, and Wipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Sharon; Katta, Rajani; Nedorost, Susan; Warshaw, Erin; Zirwas, Matt; Selbo, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To provide updated data on the usage of ingredients that are common potential contact allergens in several categories of topical products. To identify useful alternative products with few or no common contact allergens. Design: In November 2009, the full ingredient lists of 5,416 skin, hair, and cosmetic products marketed by the CVS pharmacy chain were copied from CVS.com into Microsoft Word format for analysis. Computer searches were made in Microsoft Word using search/replace and sorting functions to accurately identify the presence of specific allergens in each website product. Measurements: Percentages of American Contact Dermatitis Society core series allergens (and other common preservatives and sunblocks) were calculated. Results: The usage of American Contact Dermatitis Society core series allergens (and other preservatives and sunblocks) in various miscellaneous categories of topical products is reported. Conclusion: Data on allergens and alternatives for ancillary skin care products are not widely published. This article reviews some of the common potential allergens in antiperspirants, deodorants, shaving products, sunblocks, powders, and wipes. Suitable available alternative products for patients with contact allergy are listed. PMID:22010054

  17. Part 4 of a 4-part series Miscellaneous Products: Trends and Alternatives in Deodorants, Antiperspirants, Sunblocks, Shaving Products, Powders, and Wipes: Data from the American Contact Alternatives Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheman, Andrew; Jacob, Sharon; Katta, Rajani; Nedorost, Susan; Warshaw, Erin; Zirwas, Matt; Selbo, Nicole

    2011-10-01

    To provide updated data on the usage of ingredients that are common potential contact allergens in several categories of topical products. To identify useful alternative products with few or no common contact allergens. In November 2009, the full ingredient lists of 5,416 skin, hair, and cosmetic products marketed by the CVS pharmacy chain were copied from CVS.com into Microsoft Word format for analysis. Computer searches were made in Microsoft Word using search/replace and sorting functions to accurately identify the presence of specific allergens in each website product. Percentages of American Contact Dermatitis Society core series allergens (and other common preservatives and sunblocks) were calculated. The usage of American Contact Dermatitis Society core series allergens (and other preservatives and sunblocks) in various miscellaneous categories of topical products is reported. Data on allergens and alternatives for ancillary skin care products are not widely published. This article reviews some of the common potential allergens in antiperspirants, deodorants, shaving products, sunblocks, powders, and wipes. Suitable available alternative products for patients with contact allergy are listed.

  18. Predictors of epinephrine dispensing and allergy follow-up after emergency department visit for anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motosue, Megan; Bellolio, M Fernanda; Van Houten, Holly K; Shah, Nilay D; Campbell, Ronna L

    2017-11-01

    National guidelines recommend that patients with anaphylaxis be prescribed an epinephrine auto-injector (EAI) and referred to an allergy/immunology (A/I) specialist. To evaluate guideline concordance and identify predictors of EAI dispensing and A/I follow-up in patients with anaphylaxis treated in the emergency department (ED). We identified patients seen in the ED for anaphylaxis from 2010 through 2014 from an administrative claims database using an expanded International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis code algorithm. Of 7,790 patients identified, 46.5% had an EAI dispensed and 28.8% had A/I follow-up within 1 year after discharge. On multivariable analysis, those 65 years or older (odds ratio [OR] 0.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.30-0.41) and with a medication trigger (OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.21-0.28) had a lower likelihood of EAI dispensing. Those younger than 5 years (OR 2.67, 95% CI 2.15-3.32) and with food (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.24-1.59) or venom (OR 4.48, 95% CI 3.51-5.72) triggers had a higher likelihood of EAI dispensing. Similarly, for A/I follow-up, the likelihood was lower for age 65 years or older (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.39-0.54) and medication trigger (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.56-0.78) and higher for age younger than 5 years (OR 3.15, 95% CI 2.63-3.77) and food trigger (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.22-1.58). Overall, 46.5% of patients with anaphylaxis in the ED had EAI dispensing and 28.8% had A/I follow-up. Patient age and triggers were associated with likelihood of EAI dispensing and A/I follow-up. Post-ED visit anaphylaxis management can be improved, with the potential to decrease future morbidity and mortality risk. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Drug-dispensing errors in the hospital pharmacy Erros de dispensação de medicamentos em farmácia hospitalar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Azevedo Anacleto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the dispensing error rate and to identify factors associated with them, and to propose prevention actions. METHODS: A cross-sectional study focusing on the occurrence of dispensing errors in a general hospital in Belo Horizonte that uses a mixed system (a combination of multidose and unit dose systems of collective and individualized dosing. RESULTS: A total of 422 prescription order forms were analyzed, registering 81.8% with at least 1 dispensing error. Opportunities for errors were higher in the pretyped prescription order forms (odds ratio = 4.5; P OBJETIVO: Determinar a taxa de erros de dispensação e identificar fatores associados, propondo ações de prevenção. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal investigou-se a ocorrência de erros de dispensação em um hospital geral de Belo Horizonte que emprega um sistema misto de dose coletiva e individualizada. RESULTADOS: Foram analisadas 422 prescrições, registrando em 81,8% destas pelo menos um erro de dispensação. Oportunidades de erros foram maiores nas prescrições pré-digitadas (Odds Ratio=4,5; p<0,001, naquelas com nove ou mais medicamentos (Odds Ratio=4,0; p<0,001 e com os injetáveis (Odds Ratio=5,0; p<0,001. Uma das equipes de profissionais apresentou maior chance de erros (Odds Ratio=2,0; p=0,02. A análise multivariada ratifica estes resultados. CONCLUSÃO: Conclui-se que o sistema de dispensação da farmácia apresenta muitas falhas latentes e poucas defesas, com diversas condições que predispõe a ocorrência de erros, contribuindo para a elevada taxa registrada.

  20. Picoliter Drop-On-Demand Dispensing for Multiplex Liquid Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Joseph P; Parent, Lucas R; Cantlon, Joshua; Eickhoff, Holger; Bared, Guido; Evans, James E; Gianneschi, Nathan C

    2016-06-01

    Liquid cell transmission electron microscopy (LCTEM) provides a unique insight into the dynamics of nanomaterials in solution. Controlling the addition of multiple solutions to the liquid cell remains a key hurdle in our ability to increase throughput and to study processes dependent on solution mixing including chemical reactions. Here, we report that a piezo dispensing technique allows for mixing of multiple solutions directly within the viewing area. This technique permits deposition of 50 pL droplets of various aqueous solutions onto the liquid cell window, before assembly of the cell in a fully controlled manner. This proof-of-concept study highlights the great potential of picoliter dispensing in combination with LCTEM for observing nanoparticle mixing in the solution phase and the creation of chemical gradients.

  1. Picoliter Drop-On-Demand Dispensing for Multiplex Liquid Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, Joseph P.; Parent, Lucas R.; Cantlon, Joshua; Eickhoff, Holger; Bared, Guido; Evans, James E.; Gianneschi, Nathan C.

    2016-05-03

    Abstract

    Liquid cell transmission electron microscopy (LCTEM) provides a unique insight into the dynamics of nanomaterials in solution. Controlling the addition of multiple solutions to the liquid cell remains a key hurdle in our ability to increase throughput and to study processes dependent on solution mixing including chemical reactions. Here, we report that a piezo dispensing technique allows for mixing of multiple solutions directly within the viewing area. This technique permits deposition of 50 pL droplets of various aqueous solutions onto the liquid cell window, before assembly of the cell in a fully controlled manner. This proof-of-concept study highlights the great potential of picoliter dispensing in combination with LCTEM for observing nanoparticle mixing in the solution phase and the creation of chemical gradients.

  2. Flow Channel Influence of a Collision-Based Piezoelectric Jetting Dispenser on Jet Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Zhou

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available To improve the jet performance of a bi-piezoelectric jet dispenser, mathematical and simulation models were established according to the operating principle. In order to improve the accuracy and reliability of the simulation calculation, a viscosity model of the fluid was fitted to a fifth-order function with shear rate based on rheological test data, and the needle displacement model was fitted to a nine-order function with time based on real-time displacement test data. The results show that jet performance is related to the diameter of the nozzle outlet and the cone angle of the nozzle, and the impacts of the flow channel structure were confirmed. The approach of numerical simulation is confirmed by the testing results of droplet volume. It will provide a reliable simulation platform for mechanical collision-based jet dispensing and a theoretical basis for micro jet valve design and improvement.

  3. SURVEY ON PROTOTHECA SPP. OCCURRENCE IN RAW MILK FROM AUTOMATIC DISPENSER: PUBLIC HEALTH CONCERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cammi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prototheca spp. are colorless unicellular algae ubiquitous in nature and opportunistic pathogens for humans and animals. Since Prototheca is an important cause of bovine mastitis, milk, as well as dairy products, can be contaminated and represent a potential mean of transmission of this microorganism to man. We carried out a survey on the automatic milk dispensers in the Emilia-Romagna Region (Northern Italy, to evaluate human exposure to Prototheca through raw milk. Milk samples were collected from 177 automatic dispensers, distributing milk from 117 dairy herds. Prototheca spp. was isolated on 17 milk samples (9,6 % produced by 14 dairy herds. The results of molecular characterization indicate that the isolates were P. zopfii genotipe 2 e P. blaschkeae, both species being associated whit human diseases. Our investigation points out the importance of raw milk as a carrier of microorganisms potentially harmful to humans.

  4. Accurate, consistent, and fast droplet splitting and dispensing in electrowetting on dielectric digital microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikapitiya, N. Y. Jagath B.; Nahar, Mun Mun; Moon, Hyejin

    2017-12-01

    This letter reports two novel electrode design considerations to satisfy two very important aspects of EWOD operation—(1) Highly consistent volume of generated droplets and (2) Highly improved accuracy in the generated droplet volume. Considering the design principles investigated two novel designs were proposed; L-junction electrode design to offer high throughput droplet generation and Y-junction electrode design to split a droplet very fast while maintaining equal volume of each part. Devices of novel designs were fabricated and tested, and the results are compared with those of conventional approach. It is demonstrated that inaccuracy and inconsistency of droplet volume dispensed in the device with novel electrode designs are as low as 0.17 and 0.10%, respectively, while those of conventional approach are 25 and 0.76%, respectively. The dispensing frequency is enhanced from 4 to 9 Hz by using the novel design.

  5. Measurement of Low Workfunction Cesiated Metals for Use in Dispenser Photocathodes

    CERN Document Server

    Moody, N A; O'Shea, P G

    2005-01-01

    Photoinjector performance is a limiting factor in the continued development of high powered FELs. Presently available photocathodes have limited efficiency and short lifetime in an RF-gun environment, due to contamination or evaporation of a photosensitive surface layer. An ideal photocathode should have high efficiency at visible wavelengths, long lifetime in practical vacuum environments, and prompt emission. High efficiency cathodes typically have limited lifetime, and the needs of the photocathode are generally at odds with those of the drive laser. A potential solution is the low work function dispenser cathode, where short lifetimes are overcome by periodic in situ regeneration that restores the photosensitive surface layer, analogous to methods used in the power tube industry. This work reports on the fabrication techniques and performance of cesiated metal photocathodes and cesiated dispenser cathodes, with a focus on understanding and improving quantum efficiency and lifetime, analyzing issues of emi...

  6. Nigeria Prisons and the Dispensation of Justice | Ajayi | AFRREV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria prison system was modeled by colonial prison administration with emphasis on punishment and deterrence. This contradicts the fundamental objective of prison establishment as a corrective institution, for reformation, rehabilitation and re-integration of inmates. The position of prison in criminal justice administration ...

  7. Photostability of Mecobalamin in Tablet and Capsule at the Dispensing Level

    OpenAIRE

    Saeki, Takao; Katagiri, Yoshihiro; Hirano, Hidenari; Naora, Kohji

    1984-01-01

    Photostability of mecobalamin in solid dosage forms was investigated at dispensing level. Commercial products of one tablet and five capsules were used in packaged and bared conditions. The sample products were exposed to light for 20 days at 1500 lux. Assay was by high-performance liquid chromatography. The amount of mecobalamin in tablet and capsules decreased with lapse of photoirradiation time. Significant difference in the rate of photodegradation was observed between the capsule dosage ...

  8. Validating a proxy for disease progression in metastatic cancer patients using prescribing and dispensing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Vikram; Adelstein, Barbara-Ann; Schaffer, Andrea; Srasuebkul, Preeyaporn; Dobbins, Timothy; Pearson, Sallie-Anne

    2017-10-01

    Routine data collections are used increasingly to examine outcomes of real-world cancer drug use. These datasets lack clinical details about important endpoints such as disease progression. To validate a proxy for disease progression in metastatic cancer patients using prescribing and dispensing claims. We used data from a cohort study of patients undergoing chemotherapy who provided informed consent to the collection of cancer-treatment data from medical records and linkage to pharmaceutical claims. We derived proxy decision rules based on changes to drug treatment in prescription histories (n = 36 patients) and validated the proxy in prescribing data (n = 62 patients). We adapted the decision rules and validated the proxy in dispensing data (n = 109). Our gold standard was disease progression ascertained in patient medical records. Individual progression episodes were the unit of analysis for sensitivity and Positive Predictive Value (PPV) calculations and specificity and Negative Predictive Value (NPV) were calculated at the patient level. The sensitivity of our proxy in prescribing data was 74.3% (95% Confidence Interval (CI), 55.6-86.6%) and PPV 61.2% (95% CI, 45.0-75.3%); specificity and NPV were 87.8% (95% CI, 73.8-95.9%) and 100% (95% CI, 90.3-100%), respectively. In dispensing data, the sensitivity of our proxy was 64% (95% CI, 55.0-77.0%) and PPV 56.0% (95% CI, 43.0-69.0%); specificity and NPV were 81% (95% CI, 70.05-89.0%) and 91.0% (95% CI, 82.0-97.0%), respectively. Our proxy overestimated episodes of disease progression. The proxy's performance is likely to improve if the date of prescribing is used instead of date of dispensing in claims data and by incorporating medical service claims (such as imaging prior to drug changes) in the algorithm. Our proxy is not sufficiently robust for use in real world comparative effectiveness research for cancer medicines. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Efficacy of a Feed Dispenser for Horses in Decreasing Cribbing Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzola, S.; Palestrini, C.; Cannas, S.; Fè, E.; Bagnato, G.L.; Vigo, D.; Frank, D.; Minero, M.

    2016-01-01

    Cribbing is an oral stereotypy, tends to develop in captive animals as a means to cope with stress, and may be indicative of reduced welfare. Highly energetic diets ingested in a short time are one of the most relevant risk factors for the development of cribbing. The aim of this study was to verify whether feeding cribbing horses through a dispenser that delivers small quantities of concentrate when activated by the animal decreases cribbing behaviour, modifies feeding behaviour, or induces ...

  10. PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION ON THE BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF MICROFILTERED DRINKING WATER DISPENSERS IN CATERING ESTABLISHMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    M.A. Marzano; C.M. Balzaretti

    2011-01-01

    The bacteriological quality of microfiltered drinking water dispensers was evaluated, through enumeration of heterotrophic plate count at 22 and 37 °C, total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The aim of this research was to control the hygiene of the microfiltered water and to evaluate the effectiveness of the microfiltration procedure on the survival of bacteria. In total, 54 water samples were analyzed. The results indicated a high contamination ...

  11. Use of simulated patients to evaluate combined oral contraceptive dispensing practices of community pharmacists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roque Obreli-Neto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Combined oral contraceptive (COC use is the most commonly used reversible method of birth control. The incorrect use of COCs is frequent and one of the most common causes of unintended pregnancies. Community pharmacists (CPs are in a strategic position to improve COC use because they are the last health professional to interact with patients before drug use. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the COC dispensing practices of CPs in a developing country. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted in community pharmacies of Assis and Ourinhos microregions, Brazil, between June 1, 2012, and October 30, 2012. Four simulated patients (SPs (with counseled audio recording visited community pharmacies with a prescription for Ciclo 21(® (a COC containing ethinyl estradiol 30 mcg + levonorgestrel 15 mcg. The audio recording of every SP visit was listened to independently by 3 researchers to evaluate the COC dispensing practice. The percentage of CPs who performed a screening for safe use of COCs (i.e., taking of patients' medical and family history, and measuring of blood pressure and provided counseling, as well as the quality of the screening and counseling, were evaluated. RESULTS: Of the 185 CPs contacted, 41 (22.2% agreed to participate in the study and finished the study protocol. Only 3 CPs asked the SP a question (1 question asked by each professional, and all of the questions were closed-ended, viz., "do you smoke?" (n = 2 and "what is your age?" (n = 1. None of the CPs measured the patient's blood pressure. Six CPs provided counseling when dispensing COCs (drug dosing, 5 CPs; possible adverse effects, 2 CPs, and one CP provided counseling regarding both aspects. CONCLUSION: The CPs evaluated did not dispense COC appropriately and could influence in the occurrence of negatives therapeutic outcomes such as adverse effects and treatment failure.

  12. Raw Milk Hygiene at Local Markets and Automatic Milk Dispenser Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Şteţca

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, direct sales of raw milk to the final consumer is developed based on the local regulations. These are in accordance to European Regulation that must meet some quality requirements for the total number of germs, somatic cells, without antibiotics, coming from healthy animals who did not suffer from diseases that can be transmitted to humans through milk. Raw milk is sold in Romania in local markets and by automatic milk dispenser machines. Based on these regulations, a study regarding the quality and security to human health of raw milk was conducted on the commercialized milk in local markets and automatic milk dispensers. During May-June 2014 samples of raw milk were collected from Cluj-Napoca local markets and automatic milk dispensers. All samples were kept to refrigeration conditions until the moment of analyze which took place at the sampling day. The following parameters were taken into account: fat content, protein, casein, lactose, nonfat dry matter, pH, milk freezing point, added water, antibiotics residues, milk urea, number of germ cells and somatic cells. All obtained results were verified by the validated methods applied. Our research can be forward conducted in order to verify the hygiene and composition of milk from the whole dairy chain. 

  13. Oseltamivir storage, distribution and dispensing following the 2009 H1N1 influenza outbreak in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Mendoza, Luis Meave; Schwartz, Brian; Méndez de Lira, José de Jesús; Wirtz, Veronika J

    2012-10-01

    During an influenza outbreak or pandemic, timely access to antivirals is essential to reduce disease severity and transmission. Best practices in antiviral procurement, storage, distribution, prescription and dispensing must be followed for prompt drug delivery. Mexico implemented a national pandemic preparedness plan in 2006 and created a strategic antiviral stockpile. Oseltamivir powder was stored centrally in bulk for distribution to all 31 states and the capital district during an influenza outbreak. San Luis Potosí, in northern Mexico, was one of the states most intensely affected by the 2009 H1N1 influenza outbreak. The oseltamivir powder was meant to be reconstituted locally but had to be reconstituted centrally during the 2009 influenza outbreak. Doubts arose surrounding the shelf-life of the reconstituted product. As a result of these problems, the first supply of the drug reached San Luis Potosí 11 days after the influenza outbreak had begun. Furthermore, dispensing criteria at the state level had to be changed in conformity with the availability of oseltamivir. Antiviral demand forecasts should be based on clearly defined distribution and dispensing criteria and decentralization of some of the medication stockpile should be considered. Mexico's national pandemic preparedness plan needs to be updated in accordance with the lessons learnt in 2009 to improve strategic stockpile management and ensure rapid delivery of oseltamivir to the population.

  14. Documentation of study medication dispensing in a prospective large randomized clinical trial: experiences from the ARISTOTLE Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, John H; Levy, Elliott; Lawrence, Jack; Hanna, Michael; Waclawski, Anthony P; Wang, Junyuan; Califf, Robert M; Wallentin, Lars; Granger, Christopher B

    2013-09-01

    In ARISTOTLE, apixaban resulted in a 21% reduction in stroke, a 31% reduction in major bleeding, and an 11% reduction in death. However, approval of apixaban was delayed to investigate a statement in the clinical study report that "7.3% of subjects in the apixaban group and 1.2% of subjects in the warfarin group received, at some point during the study, a container of the wrong type." Rates of study medication dispensing error were characterized through reviews of study medication container tear-off labels in 6,520 participants from randomly selected study sites. The potential effect of dispensing errors on study outcomes was statistically simulated in sensitivity analyses in the overall population. The rate of medication dispensing error resulting in treatment error was 0.04%. Rates of participants receiving at least 1 incorrect container were 1.04% (34/3,273) in the apixaban group and 0.77% (25/3,247) in the warfarin group. Most of the originally reported errors were data entry errors in which the correct medication container was dispensed but the wrong container number was entered into the case report form. Sensitivity simulations in the overall trial population showed no meaningful effect of medication dispensing error on the main efficacy and safety outcomes. Rates of medication dispensing error were low and balanced between treatment groups. The initially reported dispensing error rate was the result of data recording and data management errors and not true medication dispensing errors. These analyses confirm the previously reported results of ARISTOTLE. © 2013.

  15. The Reproducibility and Applicability of an EFD(®) Dispenser in the Prosthetic Technology of Maxillofacial Prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokland, L; Borsboom, P C F; Stokman, M A; Reintsema, H; van Oort, R P

    2013-09-01

    A reproducible method of dosing pigments can be beneficial and more efficient in the current colour matching procedure in maxillofacial prosthetics. In this study the reproducibility and applicability for pigment dosing of a commercial available EFD(®) dispenser were tested. The reproducibility of a Performus™ II type EFD(®) dispenser was tested by repeating dosing experiments with a set of eight syringes filled with pigment pastes (Factor 2; Flagstaff, USA). To evaluate conventional colour matching, four conventionally colour matched samples were polymerized and compared to the original ones. To investigate the reproducibility of the dispenser in practice, a fifth recipe was dispensed 10 times and colour differences were evaluated visually and as well calculated from measurements with a colour and translucency meter (CTM, PBSensortechnology bv). All dispensed amounts of pigment pastes showed a coefficient of variation in weight of less than 10 %. Evaluating the reproductions of four skin batches compared to the original batches, a ∆E2000 colour difference of 3-7 was measured. Evaluating ten reproductions of one skin coloured batch made with the dispenser, color difference ∆E2000 values compared to the average L*a*b* values, were less than 2 and no visual colour differences could be estimated. Conform these results, low colour differences could be measured with the CTM, indicating no visually observable consequences. Despite the estimated coefficient of variation, the reproducibility of the EFD(®) dispenser in terms of colour difference ∆E2000 of successive dispensing is applicable for colour reproduction in facial prosthetics. Segregation of the current color pastes in due time needs to be taken into consideration.

  16. Tritium Assay and Dispensing of KEPRI Tritium Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, S. H.; Song, K. M.; Lee, S. K.; Lee, K.W.; Ko, B. W.

    2009-01-01

    The Wolsong Tritium Removal Facility(WTRF) has been constructed to reduce tritium levels in the heavy water systems and environmental emissions at the site. The WTRF was designed to process 100 kg/h of heavy water with the overall tritium extraction efficiency of 97% per single pass and to produce ∼700 g of tritium as T2 per year at the feed concentration of 0.37 TBq/kg. The high purity tritium greater than 99% is immobilized as a metal hydride to secure its long term storage. The recovered tritium will be made available for industrial uses and some research applications in the future. Then KEPRI is constructing the tritium lab. to build-up infrastructure to support tritium research activities and to support tritium control and accountability systems for tritium export. This paper describes the initial phases of the tritium application program including the laboratory infrastructure to support the tritium related R and D activities and the tritium controls in Korea

  17. Exploratory study of the dispensing patterns of vaccines by a sample of community pharmacies in Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truter, Ilse

    2018-03-01

    Vaccination is one of the most cost-effective healthcare interventions. Pharmacies in South Africa provide a vaccination service where childhood immunizations, some travel vaccines and vaccines for specific populations are dispensed and administered, but little has been published on which vaccines are dispensed and at what cost. Areas covered: This retrospective drug utilization study determined the dispensing patterns of vaccines in community pharmacies during 2015 with the focus on the types and cost of vaccines dispensed in ATC group J07. Expert commentary: Of the 140 902 vaccines dispensed to 79 415 patients, viral vaccines (J07B) accounted for most of the prescriptions (82.7% of volume; 62.3% of cost), followed by bacterial vaccines (J07A) (17.1% of volume; 37.5% of cost), and bacterial and viral vaccines combined (0.2% of volume; 0.3% of cost). There was an increase in the dispensing patterns of viral vaccines (J07B) in the period just before the winter months. Half of all vaccines (50.4%) were for the influenza vaccine (J07BB01). This vaccine accounted for only 15.6% of the total cost of vaccines. The most expensive vaccines were pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine (13-valent adsorbed, pre-filled syringe) (J07AL01), followed by human papillomavirus bivalent vaccine (J07BM02).

  18. Pediatric burns due to hot water from water dispenser: a neglected issue that should be highly concerned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Bing; Xi, Hui-Jun; Wang, Jia-Lin; Yan, Ying; Tang, Hong-Tai; Zhu, Shi-Hui; Lü, Kai-Yang; Xia, Zhao-Fan

    2012-06-01

    More and more Chinese drink hot water from water dispensers while many children were scalded due to this change. The present study aimed to propose a feasible strategy for prevention. A retrospective study was conducted for all water dispensers related pediatric burns admitted to Changhai Hospital from January 2005 to December 2009. The number of new cases and incidences of pediatric burns due to hot water from water dispensers was significantly increasing year after year. In the total 238 involved cases, 175 cases happened on males and 78.9% were at the age of 1 - 4 years. The burn areas were mainly located in upper extremities. All water dispensers in the surveyed families had no isolate protection devices and 85.2% of their locations were easy for children to reach. Nearly half of the children were in the same room with their guardians when injured. Total 196 burned children were playing the taps of water dispensers before injured, unfortunately, 80.6% of them have not been stopped until burned. As the kind of burns is quite serious and with bad outcome, some recommendations should be followed, such as buying water dispensers with protection devices, keeping children from touching them and so on.

  19. Health care professionals’ perspectives on automated multi-dose drug dispensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardage C

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: During the 1980s, manual repackaging of multi-dose medications from pharmacies in Sweden was successively substituted with automated multi-dose drug dispensing (MDD. There are few studies evaluating the consequences of automated MDD with regard to patient safety, and those that investigate this issue are not very extensive. Objectives: To investigate Swedish health care professionals’ perceived experience of automated MDD and its effects on patient adherence and patient safety. Methods: Three questionnaire forms, one for physicians, nurses, and assistant nurses/nursing assistants, were developed based on reviews of the literature and pilot testing of the questions in the intended target groups. The target groups were health professionals prescribing or administrating MDD to patients. A sample (every sixth municipality was drawn from the sampling frame of Swedish municipalities, resulting in 40 municipalities, about 14% of all municipalities in Sweden. Email addresses of general practitioners were obtained from county councils, while the municipalities assisted in getting contact details for nurses, assistant nurses and nursing assistants. A total of 915 questionnaires were distributed electronically to physicians, 515 to nurses, and 4,118 to assistant nurses/nursing assistants. The data were collected in September and October 2012. Results: The response rate among physicians, nurses and assistant nurses/nursing assistants was 31%, 43% and 23%, respectively. The professionals reported that automated MDD reduces duplication of medication, contributes to correct dosages, helps patients take their medication at the right time, and reduces confusion among patients. Fifteen per cent of the physicians and about one-third of the nurses and assistant nurses/nursing assistants reported that generic substitution makes it more difficult for the patient to identify the various medicines available in the sachets. The physicians did, however

  20. Qualification, knowledge and experience of dispensers working at community pharmacies in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Azhar; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham M

    2011-04-01

    Pharmacies are managed by a variety of dispensers in terms of qualification, knowledge and experience in Pakistan. The study aimed to document the state of knowledge, experience and qualification of dispensers working at community pharmacies in Pakistan. A comparative cross sectional study was conducted at a randomly selected sample of 371 pharmacies in the three cities of Pakistan. A structured questionnaire for data collection was developed and finalized by focused group discussions and pilot testing. The data was coded, entered and analyzed by using SPSS Version 16. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests (p≤0.05) were performed to find out differences. Out of total sample of 371 pharmacies, 31.8 % (118) were in Islamabad, 32.4 % (120) in Peshawar and 35.8 % (133) were in Lahore. Fifty percent of the respondents had correct knowledge of range of room temperature at which medicines should be stored. Only 11.1% (41) of the respondents knew about OTC (over the counter drugs) which can be sold without prescription while 5.9 % (22) of the respondents were aware of POM (prescription only medicines) which can be only sold on a valid prescription. While 87.6% (325), 88.1% (327), 58.7% (318) and 95.7 % (355) of the respondents did not know the meaning of the dispensing abbreviations such as 'h.s', 'q.d', 'sos' and 'p.r.n'. The respondents did not know correctly the status of Deltacortil® (Prednisolone), Septran® (Sulfamethoxazole) and Fansidar® (Pyrimethamine and Sulfadoxine) either as OTC or POM in 26.7% (99), 64.2% (238), and 44.5 % (165) of the cases, respectively. There was a significant difference (p≤0.05) in knowledge of dispensers regarding storage temperature, prescription terminologies and status of medicines having different level of qualification and experience. The overall knowledge and training of dispensers working at community pharmacies is inadequate in Pakistan. However, pharmacists had relatively better knowledge regarding storage temperature

  1. Microbiological quality of drinking water from dispensers in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasi Daniela

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Water coolers are popular in office buildings and commercial stores and the quality of this source of drinking water has the potential to cause waterborne outbreaks, especially in sensitive and immunocompromised subjects. The aim of this study was to determine the quality of water plumbed in coolers from commercial stores in comparison with tap water in Italy. Methods For each sample, microbial parameters and chemical indicators of contamination were evaluated and information about the date of installation, time since last ordinary and extraordinary maintenance of water coolers was collected. Results In all samples the chemical parameters (nitrite, ammonium, free active chlorine residual did not exceed the reference values of the drinking water regulation; the pH value in 86.8% samples of the carbonated waters was lower than the reference limit. The microbiological results indicated that the bacteria count at 22°C and 37°C was higher than the required values in 71% and 81% for the non-carbonated water and in 86% and 88% for the carbonated one, respectively. Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli were not detected in any of the water samples. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found in only one sample of the tap water and in 28.9% and 23.7% of the non-carbonated and carbonated water samples, respectively. No statistically significant differences in bacterial counts at 22°C and 37°C have been found between the non-carbonated and carbonated water from the sampled coolers in relation with the time since the last filter was substituted. The bacteriological quality of tap water was superior to that of non-carbonated and carbonated water from coolers. Conclusion The results emphasize the importance of adopting appropriate routinely monitoring system in order to prevent or to diminish the chances of contamination of this water source.

  2. Microbiological quality of drinking water from dispensers in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Water coolers are popular in office buildings and commercial stores and the quality of this source of drinking water has the potential to cause waterborne outbreaks, especially in sensitive and immunocompromised subjects. The aim of this study was to determine the quality of water plumbed in coolers from commercial stores in comparison with tap water in Italy. Methods For each sample, microbial parameters and chemical indicators of contamination were evaluated and information about the date of installation, time since last ordinary and extraordinary maintenance of water coolers was collected. Results In all samples the chemical parameters (nitrite, ammonium, free active chlorine residual) did not exceed the reference values of the drinking water regulation; the pH value in 86.8% samples of the carbonated waters was lower than the reference limit. The microbiological results indicated that the bacteria count at 22°C and 37°C was higher than the required values in 71% and 81% for the non-carbonated water and in 86% and 88% for the carbonated one, respectively. Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli were not detected in any of the water samples. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found in only one sample of the tap water and in 28.9% and 23.7% of the non-carbonated and carbonated water samples, respectively. No statistically significant differences in bacterial counts at 22°C and 37°C have been found between the non-carbonated and carbonated water from the sampled coolers in relation with the time since the last filter was substituted. The bacteriological quality of tap water was superior to that of non-carbonated and carbonated water from coolers. Conclusion The results emphasize the importance of adopting appropriate routinely monitoring system in order to prevent or to diminish the chances of contamination of this water source. PMID:20102613

  3. Field Experiment of a Three-Chemical Controlled-Release Dispensers to Attract Codling Moth (Cydia pomonella) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Benjamin D; Landolt, Peter J

    2018-03-13

    Male and female codling moths, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were shown to be attracted to a three-chemical kairomonal lure consisting of pear ester, acetic acid, and n-butyl sulfide. A controlled-release device based on sachets was developed in the laboratory and field tested to optimize the attractiveness of C. pomonella to this combination of attractants, and to decrease material costs associated with the controlled-release of these chemicals. The lure was most effective when pear ester was released from a separate dispenser than when combined acetic acid and n-butyl sulfide. We found that acetic acid and n-butyl sulfide can be combined into one device without decreasing C. pomonella trap catches and that there is minimal pear release rate before trap catch is negatively affected. A sachet-based controlled-release system of pear ester, acetic acid, n-butyl sulfide is a cost-effective alternative to a vial and septa controlled-release system and allows for easier quantification of ideal release rates. A reduction in material costs associated with management are important in promoting the adoption of attract-and-kill and mass-trapping paradigms for C. pomonella management. These findings also have important consequences in interpreting studies that use different loads of pear ester, and emphasize the need to better understand the release rates of attractants.

  4. Orthotics, prosthesis and mobility aids (OPM dispensation in the Regional Health Department of the 3RD Region of Sao Paulo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Caminha Caro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the process of dispensation of orthotics, prostheses and mobility aids (OPM by the Unified Health System (SUS in the Regional Health Department of the 3rd Region (DRSIII of Sao Paulo state; perform a mapping of the existing physical rehabilitation services in that region; and subsequently correlate the data with applicable laws. Methodology: This is an exploratory cross-sectional qualitative study whose subjects were the main professionals involved in the process of OPM dispensation, or responsible for their acquisition flow in the cities of that region. Data collection was carried out through a semi-structured questionnaire, developed by the researchers themselves, composed of questions aiming to identify the physical rehabilitation centers in the towns, the staff members involved, the provision of assistive technology through SUS, delivery time and existence of waiting lists. Results and discussion: The data were statistically measured, categorized, described and correlated with the current legislation aimed to guarantee access to assistive technology. We observed that the practice around this resource in the 3rd region concentrates in a single care center, causing long waits and poor efficiency of the services provided, in addition to maintaining a paternalistic aspect. Conclusion: This study provides evidence that, although the right to access to assistive technology is legally guaranteed, there are still many difficulties and challenges around this practice.

  5. The univocal identification and safe dispensation of medicinal products across Europe – challenges and solution proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stroetmann, Karl A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Problem: The Smart Open Services for European Patients (epSOS the exchange of electronic Patient Summaries and ePrescriptions between selected member states of the European Union (EU. This project basically solved the ‘communication’ or message transfer problem. However, it encountered a serious ‘delivery’ problem: the safe dispensation of a medicinal product noted in a prescription from a given country by a retail pharmacist in another country. The reason for this was that the specified medicine could in many instances not univocally be identified – the same name may identify a product with a different active ingredient, or the product with identical composition may carry a different name in the other country. If the prescribed medicine had not been authorised for marketing in the other country, information on its attributes may not be available. This rendered dispensation by the pharmacist impossible, even where substitution would, in principle, be allowed and possible.Objectives: This paper reports on the goal, activities and achievements of the openMedicine project towards development of a digital solution and its implementation to meet this identification and the resulting delivery challenge. European-wide and cross-Atlantic endeavours to enhance pharmacovigilance by being able to match adverse event reports filed under different drug names which provide, however, for the same active ingredient(s were developed upon. And the need for and benefits of being able to trace for clinical purposes, e.g. the longer-term treatment with the same active ingredient, even when the name of the prescribed medicine changed several times, were explored.Methodological approach: The openMedicine project was funded by the European Commission (EC on behalf of member states to analyse this European-wide problem. Work benefitted from the epSOS project and work by the European Medicines Agency (EMA, the USA Federal Drug Agency (FDA, and standard

  6. Implementation of information systems at pharmacies - a case study from the re-regulated pharmacy market in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammar, Tora; Ohlson, Mats; Hanson, Elizabeth; Petersson, Göran

    2015-01-01

    When the Swedish pharmacy market was re-regulated in 2009, Sweden moved from one state-owned pharmacy chain to several private pharmacy companies, and four new dispensing systems emerged to replace the one system that had previously been used at all Swedish pharmacies for more than 20 years. The aim of this case study was to explore the implementation of the new information systems for dispensing at pharmacies. The vendors of the four dispensing systems in Sweden were interviewed, and a questionnaire was sent to the managers of the pharmacy companies. In addition, a questionnaire was sent to 350 pharmacists who used the systems for dispensing prescriptions. The implementation of four new dispensing systems followed a strict time frame set by political decisions, involved actors completely new to the market, lacked clear regulation and standards for functionality and quality assurance, was complex and resulted in variations in quality. More than half of the pharmacists (58%) perceived their current dispensing system as supporting safe dispensing of medications, 26% were neutral and 15% did not perceive it to support a safe dispensing. Most pharmacists (80%) had experienced problems with their dispensing system during the previous month. The pharmacists experienced problems included reliability issues, usability issues, and missing functionality. In this case study exploring the implementation of new information systems for dispensing prescriptions at pharmacies in Sweden, weaknesses related to reliability, functionality and usability were identified and could affect patient safety. The weaknesses of the systems seem to result from the limited time for the development and implementation, the lack of comprehensive and evidence-based requirements for dispensing systems, and the unclear distribution of quality assurance responsibilities among involved stakeholders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Polymer dispensing and embossing technology for the lens type LED packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chien-Lin Chang; Huang, Yu-Che; Hu, Syue-Fong; Chang, Chung-Min; Yip, Ming-Chuen; Fang, Weileun

    2013-06-01

    This study presents a ring-type micro-structure design on the substrate and its corresponding micro fabrication processes for a lens-type light-emitting diode (LED) package. The dome-type or crater-type silicone lenses are achieved by a dispensing and embossing process rather than a molding process. Silicone with a high viscosity and thixotropy index is used as the encapsulant material. The ring-type micro structure is adopted to confine the dispensed silicone encapsulant so as to form the packaged lens. With the architecture and process described, this LED package technology herein has three merits: (1) the flexibility of lens-type LED package designs is enhanced; (2) a dome-type package design is used to enhance the intensity; (3) a crater-type package design is used to enhance the view angle. Measurement results show the ratio between the lens height and lens radius can vary from 0.4 to 1 by changing the volume of dispensed silicone. The view angles of dome-type and crater-type packages can reach 155° ± 5° and 175° ± 5°, respectively. As compared with the commercial plastic leaded chip carrier-type package, the luminous flux of a monochromatic blue light LED is improved by 15% by the dome-type package (improved by 7% by the crater-type package) and the luminous flux of a white light LED is improved by 25% by the dome-type package (improved by 13% by the crater-type package). The luminous flux of monochromatic blue light LED and white light LED are respectively improved by 8% and 12% by the dome-type package as compare with the crater-type package.

  8. Increase in Naloxone Prescriptions Dispensed in US Retail Pharmacies Since 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher M; Lurie, Peter G; Compton, Wilson M

    2016-04-01

    Distribution of naloxone, traditionally through community-based naloxone programs, is a component of a comprehensive strategy to address the epidemic of prescription opioid and heroin overdose deaths in the United States. Recently, there has been increased focus on naloxone prescription in the outpatient setting, particularly through retail pharmacies, yet data on this practice are sparse. We found an 1170% increase in naloxone dispensing from US retail pharmacies between the fourth quarter of 2013 and the second quarter of 2015. These findings suggest that prescribing naloxone in the outpatient setting complements traditional community-based naloxone programs.

  9. Evaluation of antibiotics dispensing profile in Tubarão, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Rauber

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are drugs widely used in prophylaxis and treatment of a great number of diseases. However, their use must be carefully controlled as acquisition in pharmacies, often without medical prescription, is elevated. The role of pharmacists in these circumstances is to practice dispensation in a rational manner. Through a structured questionnaire with open and closed questions, this study investigated the profile of antibiotics dispensed in pharmacies of Tubarão, Santa Catarina, Brazil. From the responses, it was observed that 85.0% dispense this class of medicine without medical prescription, mainly for treatment of respiratory (62.8% and urinary (12.0% tract disorders. Moreover, pharmacists' guidance was largely focused on posology (66.6% and drug interaction (12.6%, in addition to the interactions with contraceptives, alcohol and milk. The importance of avoiding antibiotics dispensation without medical prescription must be emphasized, as well as the benefits of educating the population to promote the rational use of medicines.Antibióticos são fármacos amplamente utilizados na profilaxia e no tratamento de grande número de doenças. Entretanto, seu uso deve ser cuidadosamente controlado nas farmácias, uma vez que nestas a aquisição sem prescrição médica é elevada. O papel dos farmacêuticos nessas circunstâncias é o de praticar a dispensação de maneira racional. Por meio de questionário estruturado, com questões abertas e fechadas, investigou-se o perfil dos antibióticos dispensados em farmácias de Tubarão, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Pelas respostas, observou-se que 85% das dispensa essa classe de medicamentos sem prescrição médica, principalmente para o tratamento de problemas dos tratos respiratório (62,8% e urinário (12,0%. Além disso, a orientação dos farmacêuticos se focou amplamente na posologia (66,6%e nas interações com fármacos (12,6%, em adição às interações com anticoncepcionais, álcool e

  10. The study of neutron burst shape of a neutron tube driven by dispenser cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grishnyaev, Evgeny, E-mail: grishnjaev@mail.ru; Polosatkin, Sergey

    2016-08-21

    A slim-shaped portable DD-neutron generator is developed at Budker institute of Nuclear Physics. The generator is a combination of Cockcroft–Walton voltage multiplier and a sealed gas-filled neutron tube driven by dispenser cathode. Neutron burst shape in pulsed mode of neutron tube operation is measured with stroboscopic time spectrometry, implemented on scintillation detector, and modeled with Comsol Script 1.3 and Comsol Multiphysics 3.5. Modeling appears to be in good agreement with experimental results. Measured pulse rise and fall times are 110 ns and 100 ns respectively.

  11. International Space Station (ISS) Potable Water Dispenser (PWD) Beverage Adapter (BA) Redesign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgerly, Rachel; Benoit, Jace; Shindo, David

    2012-01-01

    The Potable Water Dispenser used on the International Space Station (ISS) interfaces with food and drink packages using the Beverage Adapter and Needle. Unexpected leakage has been seen in this interface. The Beverage Adapter used on ]orbit was returned to the ground for Test, Teardown, and Evaluation. The results of that investigation prompted a redesign of the Beverage Adapter and Needle. The Beverage Adapter materials were changed to be more corrosion resistant, and the Needle was redesigned to preclude leakage. The redesigns have been tested and proven.

  12. Policy implementation and financial incentives for nurses in South Africa: a case study on the occupation-specific dispensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duane Blaauw

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2007, the South African government introduced the occupation-specific dispensation (OSD, a financial incentive strategy, to attract, motivate, and retain health professionals in the public sector. Implementation commenced with the nursing sector, but there have been unintended negative consequences. Objective: First, to examine implementation of the OSD for nurses using Hogwood and Gunn's framework that outlines ‘perfect implementation’ pre-conditions. Second, to highlight the conditions for the successful implementation of financial incentives. Methods: A qualitative case study design using a combination of a document review and in-depth interviews with 42 key informants. Results: The study found that there were several implementation weaknesses. Only a few of the pre-conditions were met for OSD policy implementation. The information systems required for successful policy implementation, such as the public sector human resource data base and the South African Nursing Council register of specialised nurses were incomplete and inaccurate, thus undermining the process. Insufficient attention was paid to time and resources, dependency relationships, task specification, and communication and coordination. Conclusion: The implementation of financial incentives requires careful planning and management in order to avoid loss of morale and staff grievances.

  13. Policy implementation and financial incentives for nurses in South Africa: a case study on the occupation-specific dispensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditlopo, Prudence; Blaauw, Duane; Rispel, Laetitia C; Thomas, Steve; Bidwell, Posy

    2013-01-24

    In 2007, the South African government introduced the occupation-specific dispensation (OSD), a financial incentive strategy, to attract, motivate, and retain health professionals in the public sector. Implementation commenced with the nursing sector, but there have been unintended negative consequences. First, to examine implementation of the OSD for nurses using Hogwood and Gunn's framework that outlines 'perfect implementation' pre-conditions. Second, to highlight the conditions for the successful implementation of financial incentives. A qualitative case study design using a combination of a document review and in-depth interviews with 42 key informants. The study found that there were several implementation weaknesses. Only a few of the pre-conditions were met for OSD policy implementation. The information systems required for successful policy implementation, such as the public sector human resource data base and the South African Nursing Council register of specialised nurses were incomplete and inaccurate, thus undermining the process. Insufficient attention was paid to time and resources, dependency relationships, task specification, and communication and coordination. The implementation of financial incentives requires careful planning and management in order to avoid loss of morale and staff grievances.

  14. Implementation and development of an automated, ultra-high-capacity, acoustic, flexible dispensing platform for assay-ready plate delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Dylan; Northwood, Roger; Owen, Paul; Simkiss, Ellen; Brierley, Andrew; Cross, Kevin; Slaney, Andrew; Davis, Miranda; Bath, Colin

    2012-10-01

    Compound management faces the daily challenge of providing high-quality samples to drug discovery. The advent of new screening technologies has seen demand for liquid samples move toward nanoliter ranges, dispensed by contactless acoustic droplet ejection. Within AstraZeneca, a totally integrated assay-ready plate production platform has been created to fully exploit the advantages of this technology. This enables compound management to efficiently deliver large throughputs demanded by high-throughput screening while maintaining regular delivery of smaller numbers of compounds in varying plate formats for cellular or biochemical concentration-response curves in support of hit and lead optimization (structure-activity relationship screening). The automation solution, CODA, has the capability to deliver compounds on demand for single- and multiple-concentration ranges, in batch sizes ranging from 1 sample to 2 million samples, integrating seamlessly into local compound and test management systems. The software handles compound orders intelligently, grouping test requests together dependent on output plate type and serial dilution ranges so that source compound vessels are shared among numerous tests, ensuring conservation of sample, reduced labware and costs, and efficiency of work cell logistics. We describe the development of CODA to address the customer demand, challenges experienced, learning made, and subsequent enhancements.

  15. Providers′ knowledge, attitude and dispensing practices of E-Pills in government dispensaries of south district in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishore Vertika

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Delhi is one of the well developed districts in the capital with best public health care facilities. Knowledge, attitude and dispensing practices of emergency contraceptive pills (E-pills were assessed among health care providers of government dispensaries in South Delhi. Study Design: A descriptive epidemiological study. Materials and Methods: Both medical and paramedical (n = 428 providers in 63 government health care facilities were interviewed between August to December 2007 using a semi-structured interview schedule. Results: Among the different categories of the providers, medical officers were observed to be most knowledgeable about E-pills and the pharmacists were the least. The correct prescribed dose of E-pill was known only to 32% of the providers while 49% knew about its right time of intake. Misconceptions and apprehensions for promoting its use were very much prevalent even among medical officers as majority felt that open access to E-pills would increase promiscuity. The dispensing practice of providers was found positively ( P < 0.05 correlated with their knowledge. Training resulted a significant ( P < 0.05 improvement in knowledge, attitude and dispensing practice of the providers. Knowledge and training combined together contributed 35% to the dispensing practice (R 2 = 0.35. Conclusion: Besides knowledge, behavior change communication strategies should form a part of the training curricula of health care providers that would help to improve the dispensing practice of E-pills.

  16. College Cafeteria Signage Increases Water Intake but Water Position on the Soda Dispenser Encourages More Soda Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montuclard, Astrid Linn; Park-Mroch, Jennifer; O'Shea, Amy M J; Wansink, Brian; Irvin, Jill; Laroche, Helena H

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of improved water location visibility and water dispenser position on the soda dispenser on undergraduate students' beverage choices. Two focus groups with pilot intervention surveys before and after, adding a small sign above the soda dispensers' water button for 6 weeks in a large US university's all-you-can-eat, prepaid dining hall (measured with chi-square tests and logistic and ordinal logistic regression). Focus groups included 15 students. Survey participants included 357 students before and 301 after the intervention. After the intervention, more students reported ever having drunk water with the meal (66.4% to 77.0%; P = .003) and water consumption frequency increased (P = .005). Postintervention, the odds of drinking water increased by 1.57. Preference for other drinks was the main reason for not drinking water. A total of 59% of students had ever changed their preference from water to soda. The clear indication of the water's location increased students' reported water consumption. Further investigation is needed into how a non-independent water dispenser influences students' beverage choice. Clearly labeled, independent water dispensers are recommended. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of an automated dispenser for the delivery of medicinal or vaccine-laden baits to raccoons (Procyon lotor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyser, Timothy J; Redding, James V; Bevis, Crystal M; Page, L Kristen; Swihart, Robert K

    2015-04-01

    Medicinal baits are distributed to manage zoonotic diseases, including raccoon (Procyon lotor) rabies, but efficient distribution strategies are needed for suburban environments. We developed an automated dispenser that transfers fishmeal polymer baits at user-specified intervals from a magazine to a receptacle fitted with a filter that exploits raccoon dexterity to limit consumption by nontarget species. We introduce the concept of automated dispensers and describe bait removal success rates for raccoons versus nontarget species. We monitored visitation with remote cameras after deploying a dispenser, programmed to present two baits per night, in three disjunct forest patches in northwest Indiana. Raccoons removed 72% of baits; nontarget, white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) removed 11%; Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) removed 9%. Bait removal success varied significantly between raccoons (76%) and opossums (21%), improving bait delivery specificity relative to hand baiting. Accumulation of baits in receptacles resulted in excess (more than one) bait consumption (39% of baits consumed by raccoons were excess), suggesting design improvements are needed to present additional baits only after previous baits have been consumed. Automated dispensers successfully sustained bait availability throughout the operational period. Subsequent research is needed to determine whether a sustained availability of baits achieved with automated dispensers is more effective for the treatment of raccoons in suburban environments than traditional distribution methods.

  18. Unlocking the Potential of High-Throughput Drug Combination Assays Using Acoustic Dispensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Grace Ka Yan; Wilson, Stacy; Schmidt, Stephen; Moffat, John G

    2016-02-01

    Assessment of synergistic effects of drug combinations in vitro is a critical part of anticancer drug research. However, the complexities of dosing and analyzing two drugs over the appropriate range of doses have generally led to compromises in experimental design that restrict the quality and robustness of the data. In particular, the use of a single dose response of combined drugs, rather than a full two-way matrix of varying doses, has predominated in higher-throughput studies. Acoustic dispensing unlocks the potential of high-throughput dose matrix analysis. We have developed acoustic dispensing protocols that enable compound synergy assays in a 384-well format. This experimental design is considerably more efficient and flexible with respect to time, reagent usage, and labware than is achievable using traditional serial-dilution approaches. Data analysis tools integrated in Genedata Screener were used to efficiently deconvolute the combination compound mapping scheme and calculate compound potency and synergy metrics. We have applied this workflow to evaluate interactions among drugs targeting different nodes of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in a panel of cancer cell lines. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  19. Barriers, motivators and enablers for dispensing multifocal contact lenses in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thite, Nilesh; Shah, Ukti; Mehta, Jasmin; Jurkus, Janice

    2015-01-01

    To understand the potential barriers, motivators and enablers in dispensing multifocal contact lenses (MFCL). Two focus group discussions were conducted to design questionnaires regarding the prescribing habits for multifocal contact lenses (MFCL). Questions on potential barriers and motivators were included. The questionnaires were distributed among 133 eye care practitioners across Mumbai, India. Practitioners fitting one or less patient per month with MFCL completed the survey describing potential barriers, while those who prescribed more MFCL's per month completed the survey describing enablers and motivators. Responses from 102 practitioners were received. Most common potential barriers in prescribing MFCL were increased chair time (75%), lack of readily available trials (69%) and limitation in power range (63%). Lack of awareness among patients (90%) was the most common barrier from patients' outlook. Professional satisfaction (88%) and better business proposition (82%) were observed as main motivators while availability of the trials (84%) and correct patient selection (82%) were the major enablers. Graduate Optometrists felt dispensing MFCL did not offer a good business proposition (p=0.02). Experienced practitioners were observed to be least motivated (p=0.01) and believed that their patients found these lenses expensive (p=0.02). To enhance the MFCL practice, barriers like lack of awareness and limitations in power range must be addressed. Trial lens availability may motivate practitioners to prescribe MFCL. Further probing is required to understand lack of motivation among experienced practitioners. Copyright © 2014 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. RET/GFRα signals are dispensable for thymic T cell development in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso Rocha Martins Almeida

    Full Text Available Identification of thymocyte regulators is a central issue in T cell biology. Interestingly, growing evidence indicates that common key molecules control neuronal and immune cell functions. The neurotrophic factor receptor RET mediates critical functions in foetal hematopoietic subsets, thus raising the possibility that RET-related molecules may also control T cell development. We show that Ret, Gfra1 and Gfra2 are abundantly expressed by foetal and adult immature DN thymocytes. Despite the developmentally regulated expression of these genes, analysis of foetal thymi from Gfra1, Gfra2 or Ret deficient embryos revealed that these molecules are dispensable for foetal T cell development. Furthermore, analysis of RET gain of function and Ret conditional knockout mice showed that RET is also unnecessary for adult thymopoiesis. Finally, competitive thymic reconstitution assays indicated that Ret deficient thymocytes maintained their differentiation fitness even in stringent developmental conditions. Thus, our data demonstrate that RET/GFRα signals are dispensable for thymic T cell development in vivo, indicating that pharmacological targeting of RET signalling in tumours is not likely to result in T cell production failure.