WorldWideScience

Sample records for wintershall holding ag

  1. Use of riser tube rotation equipment in the Emlichheim and Landau petroleum mines of Wintershall AG Erdoelwerke; Einsatz von Steigrohrdrehvorrichtungen in den Erdoelfoerderbetrieben Emlichheim und Landau der Wintershall AG Erdoelwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caspari, R. [Wintershall AG Erdoelwerke, Emlichheim (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    Riser tube rotation equipment has been in use in the Emlichheim and Landau petroleum wells since 1994 in order to ensure longer life of the riser tubes. (orig.) [Deutsch] In den von Wintershall operierten Erdoelfoerderbetrieben Emlichheim und Landau werden ca. 90% der Bohrungen mit Gestaengetiefpumpen gefoerdert. Aufgrund der lagerstaettentechnischen Gegebenheiten, der Thermalmassnahmen in Emlichheim und der Infrastruktur der Betriebe koennen andere Foerderhilfsmittel wie Tauchkreiselpumpe, Excenterschneckenpumpe oder Gasliften nur bedingt zum Einsatz kommen. Ein wesentlicher Faktor fuer den wirtschaftlichen Betrieb dieser Bohrungen sind die Aufwaeltigungen zur Beseitigung von Schaeden an der Tiefpumpe, dem Pumpgestaenge und den Steigrohren. Waehrend die Einsatzdauer der Tiefpumpen und des Pumpgestaenges durch hoeherwertige Materialguete und geeignete Optimierungsmassnahmen erhoeht werden konnten, sind die Standzeiten der Steigrohre nahezu unveraendert geblieben. Um diese zu erhoehen, werden in den Erdoelfoerderbetrieben Emlichheim und Landau seit April 1994 Steigrohrdrehvorrichtungen eingesetzt. (orig.)

  2. 76 FR 59771 - Ag Processing Inc A Cooperative-Petition for Declaratory Order; Institute Proceeding and Hold...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... Surface Transportation Board Ag Processing Inc A Cooperative--Petition for Declaratory Order; Institute Proceeding and Hold Oral Argument In response to a petition filed by Ag Processing Inc A Cooperative (Ag... Company, Louis Dreyfus Corporation, and Perdue Agribusiness, Inc. as petitioners (collectively...

  3. Baseline survey B11-5 on the German Continental Shelf

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glorius, S.T.; Weide, van der B.E.; Kaag, N.H.B.M.

    2013-01-01

    A consortium, consisting of Wintershall Holding GmbH, GdF Suez, RWE Dea and EWE AG, is planning an exploration well in block B11-5, located within the Doggerbank (N2000 area). In order to assess any effect from this activity on the biological, physical and chemical properties of the seafloor

  4. Foreign activities of German producers of petroleum and natural gas; Auslandsaktivitaeten deutscher Erdoel-ErdgasProduzenten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-04-15

    The contribution under consideration is engaged in the foreign activities of German producers of natural gas and oil: Wintershall Holding AG (Kassel), RWE DEA AG (Hamburg), Petro Canada Germany GmbH (Essen), E.ON Ruhrgas AG (Essen), VNG Norge AG (Leipzig), Bavaria gas GmbH (Munich) and EWE AG (Oldenburg). Data according to the petroleum of petroleum and natural gas abroad are published for the period between 2007 and 2009. Besides this, the activities of these companies in individual countries are specified exactly.

  5. Foreign activities of German producers of petroleum and natural gas in 2011; Auslandsaktivitaeten deutscher Erdoel-Erdgas-Produzenten in 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2012-04-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on the foreign activities of the German producers of petroleum/natural gas Wintershall Holding GmbH (Kassel), RWE DEA AG (Hamburg), E.ON Ruhrgas AG (Essen), Petro-Canada Germany GmbH (Essen), VNG Verbundnetz Gas Aktiengesellschaft (Leipzig), Bayerngas Norge AS (Oslo, Norway) und EWE Aktiengesellschaft (Oldenburg) in the year 2011. In Norway, Wintershall has more than fourty licences, around twenty of tem self-operated. RWE DEA has the operating lead at five from nine field development projects. At E.ON Ruhrgas AG, the exploration and production are a high-growth segment with good perspectives in the future. In Norway, Bayerngas Norge As promoted nearly 6.3 billion kWh gas equivalent in 2011.

  6. Breath holding spell

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000967.htm Breath holding spell To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Some children have breath holding spells. This is an involuntary stop in breathing ...

  7. Breath-Holding Spells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Breath-Holding Spells KidsHealth / For Parents / Breath-Holding Spells What's in ... Spells Print en español Espasmos de sollozo About Breath-Holding Spells Many of us have heard stories about stubborn ...

  8. Safe and Effective Ag Nanoparticles Immobilized Antimicrobial NanoNonwovens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Jie; Chen, Menglin; Regina, Viduthalai R.

    2012-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with large surface-to-volume ratio have been widely studied as a valuable material for their strong antimicrobial effect. However, the practical applications of AgNPs in health care and water purification are often hampered by the concern of their toxicity...... retains the enhanced antimicrobial activities from nanofeatured AgNPs without detectable AgNPs leaching, which holds great potential for safe and recyclable use....

  9. Ruhrgas AG. Business report 2000; Ruhrgas AG. Geschaeftsbericht 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    A detailed account of the situation of the international gas market provides the basis of the status report of Ruhrgas AG and the group of affiliated companies. Emphasis is placed on gas procurement aspects, sales volumes, the construction and operation of natural gas distribution systems, and on development, utilization and application aspects. The activities and situation of major Ruhrgas AG holding companies are described, and the annual financial statements are documented. (orig.) [German] Ausgehend von einer eingehenden Beschreibung des internationalen Gasmarktes wird ein Lagebericht des Konzerns sowie der Ruhrgas AG gegeben. Dabei wird insbesondere auf Fragen der Gasbeschaffung, des Gasabsatzes, des Baus und Betriebs von Erdgasverteilungsnetzen, sowie der Entwicklung und der Anwendungstechnik eingegangen. Ferner wird ueber den Geschaeftsverlauf wesentlicher Ruhrgas-Beteiligungsgesellschaften berichtet. Abschliessend wird der Jahresabschluss dokumentiert. (orig.)

  10. Portable hand hold device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmon, Jr., John W. (Inventor); McQueen, Donald H. (Inventor); Sanders, Fred G. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A hand hold device (A) includes a housing (10) having a hand hold (14) and clamping brackets (32,34) for grasping and handling an object. A drive includes drive lever (23), spur gear (22), and rack gears (24,26) carried on rods (24a, 26a) for moving the clamping brackets. A lock includes ratchet gear (40) and pawl (42) biased between lock and unlock positions by a cantilever spring (46,48) and moved by handle (54). Compliant grip pads (32b, 34b) provide compliance to lock, unlock, and hold an object between the clamp brackets.

  11. Rock Equity Holdings, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of an Administrative Penalty Assessment in the form of an Expedited Storm Water Settlement Agreement against Rock Equity Holdings, LLC, for alleged violations at The Cove at Kettlestone/98th Street Reconstruction located at 3015

  12. Tube holding system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    A tube holding rig is described for the lateral support of tubes arranged in tight parcels in a heat exchanger. This tube holding rig includes not less than two tube supporting assemblies, with a space between them, located crosswise with respect to the tubes, each supporting assembly comprising a first set of parallel components in contact with the tubes, whilst a second set of components is also in contact with the tubes. These two sets of parts together define apertures through which the tubes pass [fr

  13. Water holding capacity and enzymatic modification of pressed potato fibres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramasamy, U.

    2014-01-01

    Cell wall polysaccharides (CWPs) contribute to the water holding capacity (WHC) of fibre rich feeds, such as pressed potato fibres (PPF). However, the role of CWPs on the WHC of PPF was unidentified so far.

    PPF was characterized to be abundant in arabinogalactan (AG) linked

  14. AGS experiments -- 1991, 1992, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depken, J.C.

    1994-04-01

    This report contains: (1) FY 1993 AGS schedule as run; (2) FY 1994--95 AGS schedule; (3) AGS experiments ≥ FY 1993 (as of 30 March 1994); (4) AGS beams 1993; (5) AGS experimental area FY 1991 physics program; (6) AGS experimental area FY 1992 physics program; (7) AGS experimental area FY 1993 physics program; (8) AGS experimental area FY 1994 physics program (planned); (9) a listing of experiments by number; (10) two-page summaries of each experiment; (11) listing of publications of AGS experiments; and (12) listing of AGS experiments

  15. AGS experiments - 1994, 1995, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depken, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    This report contains the following information on the Brookhaven AGS Accelerator complex: FY 1996 AGS schedule as run; FY 1997 AGS schedule (working copy); AGS beams 1997; AGS experimental area FY 1994 physics program; AGS experimental area FY 1995 physics program; AGS experimental area FY 1996 physics program; AGS experimental area FY 1997 physics program (in progress); a listing of experiments by number; two-phage summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; listing of publications of AGS experiments begins here; and listing of AGS experimenters begins here.

  16. AGS experiments - 1994, 1995, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depken, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    This report contains the following information on the Brookhaven AGS Accelerator complex: FY 1996 AGS schedule as run; FY 1997 AGS schedule (working copy); AGS beams 1997; AGS experimental area FY 1994 physics program; AGS experimental area FY 1995 physics program; AGS experimental area FY 1996 physics program; AGS experimental area FY 1997 physics program (in progress); a listing of experiments by number; two-phage summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; listing of publications of AGS experiments begins here; and listing of AGS experimenters begins here

  17. Blue breath holding is benign.

    OpenAIRE

    Stephenson, J B

    1991-01-01

    In their recent publication in this journal, Southall et al described typical cyanotic breath holding spells, both in otherwise healthy children and in those with brainstem lesions and other malformations. Their suggestions regarding possible autonomic disturbances may require further study, but they have adduced no scientific evidence to contradict the accepted view that in the intact child blue breath holding spells are benign. Those families in which an infant suffers an 'apparently life t...

  18. Bar-holding prosthetic limb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, Thomas W. (Inventor); Norton, William E. (Inventor); Belcher, Jewell G. (Inventor); Carden, James R. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A prosthetic device for below-the-elbow amputees is disclosed. The device has a removable effector, which is attached to the end of an arm cuff. The effector is comprised of a pair of C-shaped members that are oriented so as to face each other. Working in concert, the C-shaped members are able to hold a bar such as a chainsaw handle. A flat spring is fitted around the C-shaped members to hold them together.

  19. @AuAg nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rina; Soni, R. K.

    2014-09-01

    Bimetallic and trimetallic nanoparticles have attracted significant attention in recent times due to their enhanced electrochemical and catalytic properties compared to monometallic nanoparticles. The numerical calculations using Mie theory has been carried out for three-layered metal nanoshell dielectric-metal-metal (DMM) system consisting of a particle with a dielectric core (Al@Al2O3), a middle metal Ag (Au) layer and an outer metal Au (Ag) shell. The results have been interpreted using plasmon hybridization theory. We have also prepared Al@Al2O3@Ag@Au and Al@Al2O3@AgAu triple-layered core-shell or alloy nanostructure by two-step laser ablation method and compared with calculated results. The synthesis involves temporal separations of Al, Ag, and Au deposition for step-by-step formation of triple-layered core-shell structure. To form Al@Ag nanoparticles, we ablated silver for 40 min in aluminium nanoparticle colloidal solution. As aluminium oxidizes easily in water to form alumina, the resulting structure is core-shell Al@Al2O3. The Al@Al2O3 particle acts as a seed for the incoming energetic silver particles for multilayered Al@Al2O3@Ag nanoparticles is formed. The silver target was then replaced by gold target and ablation was carried out for different ablation time using different laser energy for generation of Al@Al2O3@Ag@Au core-shell or Al@Al2O3@AgAu alloy. The formation of core-shell and alloy nanostructure was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy. The absorption spectra show shift in plasmon resonance peak of silver to gold in the range 400-520 nm with increasing ablation time suggesting formation of Ag-Au alloy in the presence of alumina particles in the solution.

  20. Equations Holding in Hilbert Lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayet, René

    2006-07-01

    We produce and study several sequences of equations, in the language of orthomodular lattices, which hold in the ortholattice of closed subspaces of any classical Hilbert space, but not in all orthomodular lattices. Most of these equations hold in any orthomodular lattice admitting a strong set of states whose values are in a real Hilbert space. For some of these equations, we give conditions under which they hold in the ortholattice of closed subspaces of a generalised Hilbert space. These conditions are relative to the dimension of the Hilbert space and to the characteristic of its division ring of scalars. In some cases, we show that these equations cannot be deduced from the already known equations, and we study their mutual independence. To conclude, we suggest a new method for obtaining such equations, using the tensorial product.

  1. Blue breath holding is benign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, J B

    1991-01-01

    In their recent publication in this journal, Southall et al described typical cyanotic breath holding spells, both in otherwise healthy children and in those with brainstem lesions and other malformations. Their suggestions regarding possible autonomic disturbances may require further study, but they have adduced no scientific evidence to contradict the accepted view that in the intact child blue breath holding spells are benign. Those families in which an infant suffers an 'apparently life threatening event' deserve immense understanding and help, and it behoves investigators to exercise extreme care and self criticism in the presentation of new knowledge which may bear upon their management and their morale. PMID:2001115

  2. AGS experiments: 1993 - 1994 - 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depken, J.C.

    1996-04-01

    This report contains: FY 1995 AGS Schedule as Run; FY 1996-97 AGE Schedule (working copy); AGS Beams 1995; AGS Experimental Area FY 1993 Physics Program; AGS Experimental Area FY 1994 Physics Program; AGS Experimental Area FY 1995 Physics Program; AGS Experimental Area FY 1996 Physics Program (In progress); A listing of experiments by number; Two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; Listing of publications of AGS experiments begins here; and Listing of AGS experimenters begins here. This is the twelfth edition

  3. AGS experiments: 1993 - 1994 - 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depken, J.C.

    1996-04-01

    This report contains: FY 1995 AGS Schedule as Run; FY 1996-97 AGE Schedule (working copy); AGS Beams 1995; AGS Experimental Area FY 1993 Physics Program; AGS Experimental Area FY 1994 Physics Program; AGS Experimental Area FY 1995 Physics Program; AGS Experimental Area FY 1996 Physics Program (In progress); A listing of experiments by number; Two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; Listing of publications of AGS experiments begins here; and Listing of AGS experimenters begins here. This is the twelfth edition.

  4. 75 FR 81405 - Portfolio Holdings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... conservatorship. One commenter suggested strategies for reengineering the nation's mortgage finance system. In... necessary reforms for the housing finance system or to the question of what form the Enterprises will take... FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY 12 CFR Part 1252 RIN 2590-AA22 Portfolio Holdings AGENCY: Federal...

  5. The Capability to Hold Property

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, Rutger

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the question of whether a capability theory of justice (such as that of Martha Nussbaum) should accept a basic “capability to hold property.” Answering this question is vital for bridging the gap between abstract capability theories of justice and their institutional

  6. AGS intensity record

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleser, Ed

    1994-01-01

    As flashed in the September issue, this summer the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) reached a proton beam intensity of 4.05 x 10 13 protons per puise, claimed as the highest intensity ever achieved in a proton synchrotron. It is, however, only two-thirds of the way to its final goal of 6 x 10 13 . The achievement is the resuit of many years of effort. The Report of the AGS II Task Force, issued in February 1984, laid out a comprehensive programme largely based on a careful analysis of the PS experience at CERN. The AGS plan had two essential components: the construction of a new booster, and major upgrades to the AGS itself.

  7. SPECIALIZATION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL HOLDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Kołoszko-Chomentowska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, an attempt was made to assess the sustainability of agricultural holdings with diff erent directions of production. Agricultural holdings in the Podlaskie voivodeship registered in the FADN system in 2011–2012 were investigated. Assessment accounted for agroecological indicators (share of permanent grasslands, share of cereals in crops, soil coverage with vegetation, stock density and economic indicators (profi tableness of land and labor. Analysis was conducted according to a classifi cation into agricultural holding types: fi eldcrops, dairy cattle, and granivores. Fieldcrop and granivore holdings achieved more favourable environmental sustainability indicators. Holdings specializing in dairy cattle breeding posed a threat to the natural environment, mainly due to their excessive stock density. Economic sustainability assessment showed that granivore holdings were assessed most favorably. In these holdings, holding income per full-time worker was 37% greater than in fi eldcrop holdings and 57% greater than in dairy cattle holdings.

  8. Tunneling-recombination luminescence between Ag0 and Ag2+ in KCl:AgCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delbecq, C.J.; Dexter, D.L.; Yuster, P.H.

    1978-01-01

    Appropriate treatment of a KCl:AgCl crystal results in the trapping of electrons as silver atoms, Ag 0 , and positive holes as AgCl 4 2- , Ag 2+ , centers. Optical excitation of Ag 0 in such a crystal at T 0 and Ag 2+ pairs, similar to the Ag 0 -Cl 2 - tunneling-recombination studies we previously reported. We have shown that Ag 2+ centers are involved in the emission process by preferentially orienting the anisotropic Ag 2+ at 6 K by excitation with polarized light and observing that the afterglow is polarized. Upon warming to 50 K, where the preferentially oriented Ag 2+ can change orientation, a strong reversal in the degree of polarization occurs which finally decays to zero. The characteristics of this luminescence can be understood if we assume: (i) a tunneling-recombination mechanism in which the orientation of the electric vector of the emitted radiation depends on the position of the Ag 0 relative to the Ag 2+ and (ii) the tunneling is anisotropic and depends on the location of the Ag 0 relative to the anisotropic Ag 2+ . The latter assumption is based on the tetragonal (d-like) symmetry of the Ag 2+ complex. Good quantitative agreement between theory and experiment has been obtained on the decay kinetics, the degree of polarization, and the polarization reversal

  9. Sn-In-Ag phase equilibria and Sn-In-(Ag)/Ag interfacial reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Sinnwen; Lee Wanyu; Hsu Chiaming; Yang Chingfeng; Hsu Hsinyun; Wu Hsinjay

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Thermodynamic models of Sn-In and Sn-In-Ag are developed using the CALPHAD approach. → Reaction layer in the Sn-In-(Ag)/Ag couples at 100 deg. C is thinner than those at 25 deg. C, 50 deg. C, and 75 deg. C. → Reactions in the Sn-20 wt%In-2.8 wt%Ag/Ag couples are faster than those in the Sn-20 wt%In/Ag couples. - Abstract: Experimental verifications of the Sn-In and Sn-In-Ag phase equilibria have been conducted. The experimental measurements of phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties are used for thermodynamic modeling by the CALPHAD approach. The calculated results are in good agreement with experimental results. Interfacial reactions in the Sn-In-(Ag)/Ag couples have been examined. Both Ag 2 In and AgIn 2 phases are formed in the Sn-51.0 wt%In/Ag couples reacted at 100 and 150 deg. C, and only the Ag 2 In phase is formed when reacted at 25, 50 and 75 deg. C. Due to the different growth rates of different reaction phases, the reaction layer at 100 deg. C is thinner than those at 25 deg. C, 50 deg. C, and 75 deg. C. In the Sn-20.0 wt%In/Ag couples, the ζ phase is formed at 250 deg. C and ζ/AgIn 2 phases are formed at 125 deg. C. Compared with the Sn-20 wt%In/Ag couples, faster interfacial reactions are observed in the Sn-20.0 wt%In-2.8 wt%Ag/Ag couples, and minor Ag addition to Sn-20 wt%In solder increases the growth rates of the reaction phases.

  10. Do More Economists Hold Stocks?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte; Joensen, Juanna Schröter; Rangvid, Jesper

    A unique data set enables us to test the hypothesis that more economists than otherwise identical investors hold stocks due to informational advantages. We confirm that economists have a significantly higher probability of participating in the stock market than investors with any other education......, even when controlling for several background characteristics. We make use of a large register-based panel data set containing detailed information on the educational attainments and various financial and socioeconomic variables. We model the stock market participation decision by the probit model...

  11. Allowance Holdings and Transfers Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Allowance Holdings and Transfers Data Inventory contains measured data on holdings and transactions of allowances under the NOx Budget Trading Program (NBP), a...

  12. Ultrasonic methods for locating hold-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, D.N.; Olinger, C.T.

    1995-01-01

    Hold-up remains one of the major contributing factors to unaccounted for materials and can be a costly problem in decontamination and decommissioning activities. Ultrasonic techniques are being developed to noninvasively monitor hold-up in process equipment where the inner surface of such equipment may be in contact with the hold-up material. These techniques may be useful in improving hold-up measurements as well as optimizing decontamination techniques

  13. Functional Analysis and Intervention for Breath Holding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Lee; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A functional analysis of breath-holding episodes in a 7-year-old girl with severe mental retardation and Cornelia-de-Lange syndrome indicated that breath holding served an operant function, primarily to gain access to attention. Use of extinction, scheduled attention, and a picture card communication system decreased breath holding. (Author/SW)

  14. AGS experiments: 1990, 1991, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depken, J.C.

    1993-04-01

    This report contains a description of the following: AGS Experimental Area - High Energy Physics FY 1993 and Heavy Ion Physics FY 1993; Table of Beam Parameters and Fluxes; Experiment Schedule ''as run''; Proposed 1993 Schedule; A listing of experiments by number; Two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; Publications of AGS Experiments; and List of AGS Experimenters

  15. Gaze holding in healthy subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Bertolini

    Full Text Available Eccentric gaze in darkness evokes minor centripetal eye drifts in healthy subjects, as cerebellar control sufficiently compensates for the inherent deficiencies of the brainstem gaze-holding network. This behavior is commonly described using a leaky integrator model, which assumes that eye velocity grows linearly with gaze eccentricity. Results from previous studies in patients and healthy subjects suggest caution when this assumption is applied to eye eccentricities larger than 20 degrees. To obtain a detailed characterization of the centripetal gaze-evoked drift, we recorded horizontal eye position in 20 healthy subjects. With their head fixed, they were asked to fixate a flashing dot (50 ms every 2 sthat was quasi-stationary displacing(0.5 deg/s between ± 40 deg horizontally in otherwise complete darkness. Drift velocity was weak at all angles tested. Linearity was assessed by dividing the range of gaze eccentricity in four bins of 20 deg each, and comparing the slopes of a linear function fitted to the horizontal velocity in each bin. The slopes of single subjects for gaze eccentricities of ± 0-20 deg were, in median,0.41 times the slopes obtained for gaze eccentricities of ± 20-40 deg. By smoothing the individual subjects' eye velocity as a function of gaze eccentricity, we derived a population of position-velocity curves. We show that a tangent function provides a better fit to the mean of these curves when large eccentricities are considered. This implies that the quasi-linear behavior within the typical ocular motor range is the result of a tuning procedure, which is optimized in the most commonly used range of gaze. We hypothesize that the observed non-linearity at eccentric gaze results from a saturation of the input that each neuron in the integrating network receives from the others. As a consequence, gaze-holding performance declines more rapidly at large eccentricities.

  16. Gaze Holding in Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolini, Giovanni; Tarnutzer, Alexander A.; Olasagasti, Itsaso; Khojasteh, Elham; Weber, Konrad P.; Bockisch, Christopher J.; Straumann, Dominik; Marti, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Eccentric gaze in darkness evokes minor centripetal eye drifts in healthy subjects, as cerebellar control sufficiently compensates for the inherent deficiencies of the brainstem gaze-holding network. This behavior is commonly described using a leaky integrator model, which assumes that eye velocity grows linearly with gaze eccentricity. Results from previous studies in patients and healthy subjects suggest caution when this assumption is applied to eye eccentricities larger than 20 degrees. To obtain a detailed characterization of the centripetal gaze-evoked drift, we recorded horizontal eye position in 20 healthy subjects. With their head fixed, they were asked to fixate a flashing dot (50 ms every 2 s)that was quasi-stationary displacing(0.5 deg/s) between ±40 deg horizontally in otherwise complete darkness. Drift velocity was weak at all angles tested. Linearity was assessed by dividing the range of gaze eccentricity in four bins of 20 deg each, and comparing the slopes of a linear function fitted to the horizontal velocity in each bin. The slopes of single subjects for gaze eccentricities of ±0−20 deg were, in median,0.41 times the slopes obtained for gaze eccentricities of ±20−40 deg. By smoothing the individual subjects' eye velocity as a function of gaze eccentricity, we derived a population of position-velocity curves. We show that a tangent function provides a better fit to the mean of these curves when large eccentricities are considered. This implies that the quasi-linear behavior within the typical ocular motor range is the result of a tuning procedure, which is optimized in the most commonly used range of gaze. We hypothesize that the observed non-linearity at eccentric gaze results from a saturation of the input that each neuron in the integrating network receives from the others. As a consequence, gaze-holding performance declines more rapidly at large eccentricities. PMID:23637824

  17. Cladding technique for development of Ag-In-Cd decoupler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshigawara, M.; Harada, M.; Saito, S.; Kikuchi, K.; Kogawa, H.; Ikeda, Y.; Kawai, M.; Kurishita, H.; Konashi, K.

    2005-01-01

    To develop a Ag (silver)-In (indium)-Cd (cadmium) alloy decoupler, a method is needed to bond the decoupler between two plates of the Al alloy (A6061-T6). We found that a better HIP condition was temperature, pressure and holding time at 803 K, 100 MPa and 1 h, respectively, for small test pieces (φ 22 mm in diam. x 5 mm in height). Especially, a sandwich case (a Ag-In plate with thickness of 0.5 mm between two Ag-Cd plates with thickness of 1.25 mm) gave easier (or better) bonding results. Though a hardened layer is found in the bonding layer, the rupture strength of the bonding layer is more than 30 MPa, which is higher than the design stress in our application

  18. ALICE Holds Up to Challenge

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    ALICE's main austenitic stainless steel support structure (the Space Frame) has recently gone through many tests that proved quite challenging: insuring the structure is sound and lowering it horizontally into the ALICE cavern. This structure is constructed to hold the large volume detectors, such as the Time Projection Chamber, Transition Radiation Detector and Time of Flight inside the ALICE solenoid magnet. After the final assembly at CERN, two large mobile cranes were needed for the job of lifting and turning the 14 tonne frame onto its side. Once shifted, it was placed in Building SX2, one of the surface assembly areas designated for ALICE. The structure, which is 8 m in diameter and 7 m long, underwent many tests in its new position. Geometric control tests were performed by measuring each of the 18 cells and placing wooden or metal samples constructed to the same dimensions as the real thing inside the structure. The most important check was the movement of the real Time Projection Chamber from its s...

  19. Ag K- and L3-edge XAFS study on Ag species in Ag/Ga2O3 photocatalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, M; Yamamoto, N; Yoshida, T; Nomoto, T; Yamamoto, A; Yoshida, H; Yagi, S

    2016-01-01

    Ag loaded Ga 2 O 3 (Ag/Ga 2 O 3 ) shows photocatalytic activity for reduction of CO 2 with water. Ag L 3 -edge XANES and K-edge EXAFS spectra were measured for various Ag/Ga 2 O 3 samples, which suggested that structural and chemical states of Ag species varied with the loading amount of Ag and the preparation method. The Ag species were metallic Ag particles with an AgGaO 2 -like interface structure in the sample with high loading amount of Ag while predominantly Ag metal clusters in the sample with low loading amount of Ag. The XANES feature just above the edge represented the interaction between the Ag species and the Ga 2 O 3 surface, showing that the Ag metal clusters had more electrons in the d -orbitals by interacting with the Ga 2 O 3 surface, which would contribute the high photocatalytic activity. (paper)

  20. Ag transport in CrN-Ag nanocomposite coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulligan, C.P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); U.S. Army Armament Research Development and Engineering Center, Benet Laboratories, Watervliet, NY 12189 (United States); Papi, P.A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Gall, D., E-mail: galld@rpi.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    2012-09-01

    2-{mu}m-thick CrN-Ag composite coatings containing 22 at.% Ag were deposited on Si(001) by reactive co-sputtering at T{sub s} = 300, 400, and 500 Degree-Sign C. Subsequent vacuum annealing at T{sub a} = 425, 525, and 625 Degree-Sign C causes Ag transport to the surface. Auger electron spectroscopy and plan-view microscopy are used to quantify the Ag transport to the surface, which increases strongly with increasing {Delta}T = T{sub a} - T{sub s}. Compositional depth profiles and cross-sectional microscopy show that annealing causes a negligible Ag gradient through the composite layer, suggesting that the Ag transport is detachment-limited as opposed to diffusion-limited. Statistical analyses of Ag aggregate size-distributions within the matrix show that large aggregates ({>=} 50 nm) are unaffected by annealing, while the Ag in a large fraction of small aggregates (< 50 nm) moves to the surface, leaving behind 10-50 nm wide voids in the annealed composite. This indicates that the Ag from the smaller grains, with a higher chemical potential and thus a higher detachment rate, is transferred to the large grains on the surface which are 200-1000 nm wide. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CrN-Ag coatings were deposited at T{sub s} = 300-500 Degree-Sign C and annealed at T{sub a} = 425-625 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ag diffuses from aggregates in the coating to the surface, if T{sub a} > T{sub s}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer During annealing, aggregates < 50 nm become voids, those > 50 nm are unaffected. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Ag transport is detachment rather than diffusion limited.

  1. AGS experiments -- 1995, 1996 and 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depken, J.C.; Presti, P.L.

    1997-12-01

    This report contains (1) FY 1995 AGS schedule as run; (2) FY 1996 AGS schedule as run; (3) FY 1997 AGS schedule as run; (4) FY 1998--1999 AGS schedule (proposed); (5) AGS beams 1997; (6) AGS experimental area FY 1995 physics program; (7) AGS experimental area FY 1996 physics program; (8) AGS experimental area FY 1997 physics program; (9) AGS experimental area FY 1998--1999 physics program (proposed); (10) a listing of experiments by number; (11) two-page summaries of each experiment, in order by number; and (12) listing of publications of AGS experiments.

  2. AGS experiments - 1995, 1996 and 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depken, J.C.; Presti, P.L.

    1997-12-01

    This report contains (1) FY 1995 AGS schedule as run; (2) FY 1996 AGS schedule as run; (3) FY 1997 AGS schedule as run; (4) FY 1998--1999 AGS schedule (proposed); (5) AGS beams 1997; (6) AGS experimental area FY 1995 physics program; (7) AGS experimental area FY 1996 physics program; (8) AGS experimental area FY 1997 physics program; (9) AGS experimental area FY 1998--1999 physics program (proposed); (10) a listing of experiments by number; (11) two-page summaries of each experiment, in order by number; and (12) listing of publications of AGS experiments

  3. AGS experiments -- 1991, 1992, 1993. Tenth edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depken, J.C.

    1994-04-01

    This report contains: (1) FY 1993 AGS schedule as run; (2) FY 1994--95 AGS schedule; (3) AGS experiments {ge} FY 1993 (as of 30 March 1994); (4) AGS beams 1993; (5) AGS experimental area FY 1991 physics program; (6) AGS experimental area FY 1992 physics program; (7) AGS experimental area FY 1993 physics program; (8) AGS experimental area FY 1994 physics program (planned); (9) a listing of experiments by number; (10) two-page summaries of each experiment; (11) listing of publications of AGS experiments; and (12) listing of AGS experiments.

  4. AGS polarized H- source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kponou, A.; Alessi, J.G.; Sluyters, T.

    1985-01-01

    The AGS polarized H - source is now operational. During a month-long experimental physics run in July 1984, pulses equivalent to 15 μA x 300 μs (approx. 3 x 10 10 protons) were injected into the RFQ preaccelerator. Beam polarization, measured at 200 MeV, was approx. 75%. After the run, a program to increase the H - yield of the source was begun and significant progress has been made. The H - current is now frequently 20 to 30 μA. A description of the source and some details of our operating experience are given. We also briefly describe the improvement program

  5. Course holding by cyclists and moped riders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godthelp, J. & Wouters, P.I.J.

    1980-01-01

    Course holding by cyclists and moped riders includes both steering alongside a course and stabilising the vehicle. Inability to hold course may lead to conflicts with other road users. To design safe bicycle and moped facilities and to consider the safety of those existing, knowledge about

  6. 9 CFR 2.101 - Holding period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Compliance With Standards and Holding Period § 2.101 Holding period. (a) Any live dog... considered to have acquired a dog or cat which is sold through the auction sale. (1) That any live dog or cat...

  7. Preparation and antibacterial activities of Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticle composites made by pomegranate (Punica granatum) rind extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Ren, Yan-yu; Wang, Tao; Wang, Chuang

    Nano-silver and its composite materials are widely used in medicine, food and other industries due to their strong conductivity, size effect and other special performances. So far, more microbial researches have been applied, but a plant method is rarely reported. In order to open up a new way to prepare AgNP composites, pomegranate peel extract was used in this work to reduce Ag+ to prepare Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticle composites. UV-Vis was employed to detect and track the reduction of Ag+ and the forming process of AgNPs. The composition, structure and size of the crystal were analyzed by XRD and TEM. Results showed that, under mild conditions, pomegranate peel extract reacted with dilute AgNO3 solution to produce Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticle composites. At pH = 8 and 10 mmol/L of AgNO3 concentration, the size of the achieved composites ranged between 15 and 35 nm with spherical shapes and good crystallinity. The bactericidal experiment indicated that the prepared Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticles had strong antibacterial activity against gram positive bacteria and gram negative bacteria. FTIR analysis revealed that biological macromolecules with groups of sbnd NH2, sbnd OH, and others were distributed on the surface of the newly synthesized Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticles. This provided a useful clue to further study the AgNP biosynthesis mechanism.

  8. EPIDAUROS Biotechnologie AG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Hans-Peter; Kluge, Peter; Mauch, Simon

    2005-07-01

    EPIDAUROS Biotechnologie AG is a leading provider of pharmacogenetic consulting, genotyping and research services to the international pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, contract research organizations and healthcare providers. The company's mission is to improve safety, efficacy and predictability in drug development and drug therapy. EPIDAUROS determines its customers' needs in the field of pharmacogenetics using an in-depth consultancy process. The development and conduct of genotyping assays for drug-metabolizing enzymes, drug transporters and drug targets (for example, receptors)--all performed under stringent quality standards--are a major activity at EPIDAUROS. The company offers its research services to academic and industrial partners for the development of innovative diagnostic solutions by using its intellectual property.

  9. BROOKHAVEN: AGS improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleser, Ed

    1994-01-01

    The new Booster - AGS Alternating Gradient Synchrotron complex is providing beam while machine development to enhance performance also progresses, so far on schedule. In 1991 the Booster turned on and performed as requested - attesting to a successful construction and quality control programme. In 1992 beam was provided to users while the Booster met most of its operational goals - falling slightly short of its proton intensity goal of 0.5 x 10 13 protons per pulse (ppp). This would have been inconsequential except that the Booster intensity seemed to be hitting a fairly solid brick wall of undetermined origin. Since the goal for 1993 called for a doubling of the intensity, the situation seemed serious enough to schedule three months (February - April 1993) for Booster development

  10. AGS Experiments: 1989, 1990, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depken, J.C.

    1992-02-01

    This report contains: Experimental areas layout; table of beam parameters and fluxes; experiment schedule as run''; proposed 1992 schedule; a listing of experiments by number; two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; publications of AGS Experiments begin here; and list of AGS Experimenters begins here.

  11. AGS Experiments: 1989, 1990, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depken, J.C.

    1992-02-01

    This report contains: Experimental areas layout; table of beam parameters and fluxes; experiment schedule ``as run``; proposed 1992 schedule; a listing of experiments by number; two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; publications of AGS Experiments begin here; and list of AGS Experimenters begins here.

  12. AGS Experiments: 1989, 1990, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depken, J.C.

    1992-02-01

    This report contains: Experimental areas layout; table of beam parameters and fluxes; experiment schedule ''as run''; proposed 1992 schedule; a listing of experiments by number; two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; publications of AGS Experiments begin here; and list of AGS Experimenters begins here

  13. Collective behaviors of book holding durations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ren-De; Guo, Qiang; Han, Jing-Ti; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2016-10-01

    Duration can directly reflect the collective reading behaviors of library user book holding. In this paper, by introducing the burstiness and memory coefficients, we empirically investigate the collective book holding behavior of three university libraries. The statistical results show that there are similar properties among the students with different backgrounds, presenting the burstiness = - 0.2 and memory = 0.5 for three datasets, which indicates that memory and random effects coexist in student book holding durations. In addition, we analyze the behavior patterns without duplicate durations by merging a series of books borrowed and returned at the same time. The results show the average burstiness B increases to -0.16 and memory M drops to 0.16 for three datasets, which indicates that both duplicate behavior and student's preference affect the memory effect. Furthermore, we present a model which assumes student's next book holding duration follows the previous one with probability p, and with probability 1 - p, the student would hold the book independently. The experimental results show that the presented model can reproduce the burstiness and memory effect of student book holding durations when p = 0.5 for empirical datasets and p = 0.2 for de-duplicate datasets, which indicate that the student's preferential holding behavior occurs with the probability p. This work helps in deeply understanding the regularity of duration-based human behaviors.

  14. Construction of Ag/AgCl nanostructures from Ag nanoparticles as high-performance visible-light photocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Fan; Liu, Dongzhi; Wang, Tianyang; Li, Wei [Tianjin University, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology (China); Hu, Wenping [Tianjin University, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (China); Zhou, Xueqin, E-mail: zhouxueqin@tju.edu.cn [Tianjin University, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology (China)

    2016-11-15

    A combined strategy of in situ oxidation and assembly is developed to prepare Ag/AgCl nanospheres and nanocubes from Ag nanoparticles under room temperature. It is a new facile way to fabricate Ag/AgCl with small sizes and defined morphologies. Ag/AgCl nanospheres with an average size of 80 nm were achieved without any surfactants, while Ag/AgCl nanocubes with a mean edge length of 150 nm were obtained by introduction of N-dodecyl-N,N-dimethyl-2-ammonio-acetate. The possible formation mechanism involves the self-assembly of AgCl nanoparticles, Ostwald ripening and photoreduction of Ag{sup +} into Ag{sup 0} by the room light. The as-prepared Ag/AgCl nanospheres and nanocubes exhibit excellent photocatalytic activity and stability toward degradation of organic pollutants under visible-light irradiation. It is demonstrated that Ag/AgCl nanocubes display enhanced photocatalytic activity in comparison with Ag/AgCl nanospheres due to the more efficient charge transfer. This work may pave an avenue to construct various functional materials via the assembly strategy using nanoparticles as versatile building blocks.

  15. Breath-holding spells in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Ran D

    2015-02-01

    I have children in my clinic who experience seizurelike episodes in which they cry and hold their breath to the point of cyanosis and loss of consciousness. Their examination or investigation findings are normal and referral to a pediatric specialist results in no further investigation. Are breath-holding spells common, and what type of investigation is needed? A breath-holding spell is a benign paroxysmal nonepileptic disorder occurring in healthy children 6 to 48 months of age. The episodes start with a provocation such as emotional upset or minor injury, and might progress to breath holding, cyanosis, and syncope. The episodes are extremely frightening to watch but have benign consequences. Once a clinical diagnosis is made, it is recommended to conduct an electrocardiogram and to rule out anemia, but no further investigation or referral is warranted. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  16. Surface Hold Advisor Using Critical Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Caleb Hoi Kei (Inventor); Hsiao, Thomas Kun-Lung (Inventor); Mittler, Nathan C. (Inventor); Couluris, George J. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The Surface Hold Advisor Using Critical Sections is a system and method for providing hold advisories to surface controllers to prevent gridlock and resolve crossing and merging conflicts among vehicles traversing a vertex-edge graph representing a surface traffic network on an airport surface. The Advisor performs pair-wise comparisons of current position and projected path of each vehicle with other surface vehicles to detect conflicts, determine critical sections, and provide hold advisories to traffic controllers recommending vehicles stop at entry points to protected zones around identified critical sections. A critical section defines a segment of the vertex-edge graph where vehicles are in crossing or merging or opposite direction gridlock contention. The Advisor detects critical sections without reference to scheduled, projected or required times along assigned vehicle paths, and generates hold advisories to prevent conflicts without requiring network path direction-of-movement rules and without requiring rerouting, rescheduling or other network optimization solutions.

  17. Bioceres: AG Biotechnology from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Feeney

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this case we present a business decision-making situation in which the CEO of an Argentine Ag Biotech company, Bioceres, has to decide the best way to commercialize a new drought-tolerant transgenic technology. The company was founded by twenty three farmers, who shared a common dream that Argentina could become a benchmark in the development of Ag biotechnology. The case has strategic and financial implications, as well as decision-making situation involving a joint venture with an American biotechnology company. It also introduces to discussion the business models of Ag biotechnology companies in developing countries.

  18. Neutrino physics at the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolsky, P.

    1978-01-01

    The AGS neutrino beam is the last low energy (1 to 2 GeV) neutrino beam left. As more work is done at higher energies and as the whole realm of new physics (whose threshold seems barely attainable at AGS ν energies) is explored in increasing detail, it is appropriate to ask what physics remains to be done here. To answer this question, current theory and experiment are confronted, not in an attempt to confirm or refute theoretical (or experimental) prejudices, but to ask if present experiments at low energies are good enough. In the process, the recent AGS neutrino experimental program are reviewed

  19. Rattle-type hierarchical particles containing multilevel cores (Ag@AgCl@SiO2 and Au/Ag@AgCl@SiO2) as versatile catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huy, Do Xuan; Lee, Ha-Jin; Lee, Young Boo; Choi, Won San

    2014-07-01

    A protocol for the synthesis of rattle-type core@shell particles containing Ag@AgCl or Au/Ag@AgCl core structures was developed, and the use of these particles as catalysts for the decomposition of toxic materials was demonstrated. A monometallic Ag or bimetallic Au/Ag core was incorporated into the interior of SiO2 capsules via controlled heat treatment of metal nanoparticle/SiO2-coated polymer particles, resulting in the formation of rattle-type core@shell structures. By appropriate treatments, it was possible to transform the Ag or Au/Ag core into multilevel cores (Ag@AgCl or Au/Ag@AgCl) within the SiO2 capsules (Ag@AgCl@SiO2 or Au/Ag@AgCl@SiO2). This method for the synthesis of rattle-type core@shell particles is useful for further introducing AgCl fused with plasmonic materials into the capsule structures. The rattle-type core@shell structures were used as photocatalysts for the decomposition of organic pollutants such as methyl orange. Furthermore, these nanocatalysts containing semiconductors such as AgCl were also applied toward the reduction of nitrophenol (NPh) to aminophenol (APh). The Ag@AgCl@SiO2 or Au/Ag@AgCl@SiO2 catalysts showed excellent catalytic properties in the decomposition of toxic substances in terms of their activity and reusability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Involuntary Psychiatric Holds in Preadolescent Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Santillanes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Little is known about the use of involuntary psychiatric holds in preadolescent children. The primary objective was to characterize patients under the age of 10 years on involuntary psychiatric holds. Methods: This was a two-year retrospective study from April 2013 – April 2015 in one urban pediatric emergency department (ED. Subjects were all children under the age of 10 years who were on an involuntary psychiatric hold at any point during their ED visit. We collected demographic data including age, gender, ethnicity and details about living situation, child protective services involvement and prior mental health treatment, as well as ED disposition. Results: There were 308 visits by 265 patients in a two-year period. Ninety percent of involuntary psychiatric holds were initiated in the prehospital setting. The following were common characteristics: male (75%, in custody of child protective services (23%, child protective services involvement (42%, and a prior psychiatric hospitalization (32%. Fifty-six percent of visits resulted in discharge from the ED, 42% in transfer to a psychiatric hospital and 1% in admission to the pediatric medical ward. Median length of stay was 4.7 hours for discharged patients and 11.7 hours for patients transferred to psychiatric hospitals. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this study presents the first characterization of preadolescent children on involuntary psychiatric holds. Ideally, mental health screening and services could be initiated in children with similar high-risk characteristics before escalation results in placement of an involuntary psychiatric hold. Furthermore, given that many patients were discharged from the ED, the current pattern of utilization of involuntary psychiatric holds in young children should be reconsidered.

  1. Indentation Size Effect on Ag Nanoparticle-Modified Graphene/Sn-Ag-Cu Solders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L. Y.; Zhang, S. T.; Jing, H. Y.; Wang, L. X.; Wei, J.; Kong, X. C.; Han, Y. D.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the results for the indentation size effect (ISE) on the creep stress exponent and hardness of 0.03 wt.% Ag-modified graphene nanosheet Sn-Ag-Cu solder alloys, using constant loading/holding and multi-cycle (CMC) loading methods, respectively. At each maximum load, with increasing indentation depth, the creep exponent first decreased and then increased. At the same strain rate, the stress exponent also showed the same tendency, increasing as the indentation depth (peak load) increased and then decreased. The hardness was measured continuously with increasing indentation depth by the CMC loading method. The hardness did not exhibit a decrease as the indentation depth increased, which differs from the classical description of the ISE. After an initial decrease, the hardness then increased and finally decreased as the indentation depth increased. This study reviews the existing theories and formulations describing ISE with hardening effects. The experimental results fit well with the empirical formulation. The phenomenon of ISE accompanied by hardening effects has been explained physically via the interaction between geometrically necessary dislocations and grain boundaries.

  2. The mechanism of ionic conductivity in superionic conductors AgI, Ag2S and Ag3SI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyakov, V.I.

    1997-01-01

    The conductivity channels are studied and the conductivity model by silver ions in superionic conductors AgI, Ag 2 S, Ag 3 SI is proposed. It is shown the Ag + ions migration is of retardation-rotational character by annular crossing orbits, forming the flow channels near the crystallographic positions of tetrahedral, octohedral and triangular types. It is established that the most stable positions of Ag + ions are determined of vertexes of the Dirichlet polyhedron of stationary sublattice

  3. Neutron resonance spectroscopy of 107Ag and 109Ag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowie, L.Y.; Mitchell, G.E.; Stephenson, S.L.; Bowman, J.D.; Knudson, J.N.; Penttila, S.I.; Seestrom, S.J.; Yen, Y.; Yuan, V.W.; Crawford, B.E.; Roberson, N.R.; Delheij, P.P.; Haseyama, T.; Masaike, A.; Matsuda, Y.; Postma, H.; Sharapov, E.I.

    1997-01-01

    Parity violation has been observed in a number of previously unreported neutron resonances in silver. Analysis of these parity violation data requires improved neutron resonance spectroscopy. The neutron total cross section for natural silver was measured for E n =10 - 800 eV with the time-of-flight method at the Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center. The neutron capture reaction was studied with both a natural silver target and a highly enriched sample (98.29%) of 107 Ag. A total of 38 previously unreported resonances were observed. The combination of the two measurements allowed assignment of the newly observed resonances to 107 Ag or to 109 Ag. Resonance parameters were determined for almost all of the neutron resonances observed. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  4. How Ag Nanospheres Are Transformed into AgAu Nanocages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, Liane M.; Schurman, Charles A.; Kewalramani, Sumit; Shahjamali, Mohammad M.; Mirkin, Chad A.; Bedzyk, Michael J. (NWU)

    2017-08-23

    Bimetallic hollow, porous noble metal nanoparticles are of broad interest for biomedical, optical and catalytic applications. The most straightforward method for preparing such structures involves the reaction between HAuCl4 and well-formed Ag particles, typically spheres, cubes, or triangular prisms, yet the mechanism underlying their formation is poorly understood at the atomic scale. By combining in situ nanoscopic and atomic-scale characterization techniques (XAFS, SAXS, XRF, and electron microscopy) to follow the process, we elucidate a plausible reaction pathway for the conversion of citrate-capped Ag nanospheres to AgAu nanocages; importantly, the hollowing event cannot be explained by the nanoscale Kirkendall effect, nor by Galvanic exchange alone, two processes that have been previously proposed. We propose a modification of the bulk Galvanic exchange process that takes into account considerations that can only occur with nanoscale particles. This nanoscale Galvanic exchange process explains the novel morphological and chemical changes associated with the typically observed hollowing process.

  5. Level structure of 105Ag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewanjee, M.K.; Okon, O.B.; Bakhru, H.; Preiss, I.L.

    1979-01-01

    The excited lvels of 105 Ag have been investigated from the decay of 105 Cd with high-resolution Ge(Li) and Si(Li) detectors as well as with standard scintillation counters. 105 Cd was produced via 106 Cd (n,2n) 105 Cd and 102 Pd (α,n) 105 Cd reactions. Levels of the following energies (in keV) have been established in 105 Ag: 25.5, 53.2, 111.5, 198.0, 973.6, 1014.7, 1032.2, 1096.8, 1364.3, 1413.4, 1635.2, 1670.1, 1718.9, 1923.7, 1933.5, 1986.2, 2144.6, 2257.1, 2326.8, 2333.4, 2419.5, 2449.5, 2472.6, and 2582.0. The use of two Ge(Li) detectors in connection with the PDP-8/I computer and a program for two-dimensional analysis with a 4096-dual analog-to-digital converter revealed the presence of several previously unreported transitions in 105 Ag. Based on the γ-γ and β-γ coincidence results, a consistent lvel scheme for 105 Ag is given. The spin and parity assignments of levels of 105 Ag are discussed. (author)

  6. 12 CFR 1732.7 - Record hold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Banking OFFICE OF FEDERAL HOUSING ENTERPRISE OVERSIGHT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS RECORD RETENTION Record Retention Program § 1732.7 Record hold. (a) Definition. For... Enterprise or OFHEO that the Enterprise is to retain records relating to a particular issue in connection...

  7. Empowerment Amongst Teachers Holding Leadership Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avidov-Ungar, Orit; Friedman, Izhak; Olshtain, Elite

    2014-01-01

    This study used semi-structured in-depth interviews to explore empowerment patterns among teachers who hold leadership positions in school. Our qualitative analysis presents a hierarchical ladder with three types of empowerment amongst these teachers, ranging from limited empowerment through rewarding empowerment to change-enhancing empowerment.…

  8. Biosketch Ashok Venkitaraman holds the Ursula Zoellner ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ashok

    Ashok Venkitaraman holds the Ursula Zoellner Professorship of Cancer Research at the University of Cambridge, and is the Director of the Medical Research Council. (MRC) Cancer Cell Unit there. He learnt and practiced medicine at the Christian. Medical College, Vellore, before completing his Ph.D. at University College ...

  9. Towards a classification of weak hand holds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimmelman, V.; Sáfár, A.; Crasborn, O.

    2016-01-01

    The two symmetrical manual articulators (the hands) in signed languages are a striking modalityspecific phonetic property. The weak hand can maintain the end position of an articulation while the other articulator continues to produce additional signs. This weak hand spreading (hold) has been

  10. 47 CFR 73.7005 - Holding period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., utilities, music licensing fees, etc.). Any successive applicants proposing to assign or transfer the... receiving a decisive preference for fair distribution of service is required to construct and operate... preference is based for a period of four years of on-air operations. (c) The holding period in this section...

  11. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of Ag-TiO2/Ag heterogeneous films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ying; Wang, ShaoHua; Guo, PengFeng

    2015-11-01

    Ag-deposited TiO2 and Ag (Ag-TiO2/Ag) films coated on glass substrates were prepared using a simple sol-gel and dip-coating method. The Ag chemical state was investigated through X-ray diffractometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Results showed that the Ag mainly exists in metallic state in the Ag-TiO2 film. Ag-TiO2/Ag exhibits higher photocatalytic activity than individual Ag-TiO2 and TiO2/Ag films. This enhanced photocatalytic activity was attributed to high surface plasmon resonance effects and separation rates of photoinduced electron-hole pairs of Ag nanoparticles. Results were verified by photoluminescence and UV-Vis spectroscopy.

  12. Compare the photocatalytic properties of nanocomposites with tandem n (AgBr)-n (Ag2CO3) and p (AgCl)-n (Ag2CO3) heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadollahi, A.; Sohrabnezhad, Sh.; Ansari, R.

    2017-07-01

    In this work, Ag2CO3 nanoparticles (NPs) (as a n-type semiconductor) incorporated in mordenite zeolite (MOR) by a facile precipitation method. Silver halides, AgCl (as a p-type semiconductor) and AgBr (as a n-type semiconductor), with different weight percentage (20%, 40% and 50%) were coupled into Ag2CO3-MOR nanocomposite (NC) and producing a series of novel AgCl/Ag2CO3 (p-n heterojunction)-MOR and AgBr/Ag2CO3 (n-n heterojunction)-MOR NCs. The effects of silver halides on the Ag2CO3-MOR catalyst for the photocatalytic degradation of methyl blue (MB) under visible light irradiation have been investigated. The structure, composition and optical properties of NCs were investigated by UV-Visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The prepared AgX/Ag2CO3-MOR NCs with the optimal content of AgX (50 wt%) indicated higher photocatalytic activity than that of the Ag2CO3-MOR and Ag2CO3. The cycle experiments on the heterojuctions NCs indicated that photocatalytic stability of AgBr/Ag2CO3-MOR NC was more than AgCl/Ag2CO3-MOR NC in all cycles. On the basis of the experimental results, a possible mechanism for the enhanced photocatalytic activity and photoinduced stability of silver compounds was proposed.

  13. One-pot synthesis of Ag-SiO2-Ag sandwich nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chaorong; Mei Jie; Li Shuwen; Lu Nianpeng; Wang Lina; Chen Benyong; Dong Wenjun

    2010-01-01

    Ag-SiO 2 -Ag sandwich nanostructures were prepared by a facile one-pot synthesis method. The Ag core, SiO 2 shell and Ag nanoparticle shell were all synthesized with polyvinylpyrrolidone, catalysed by ammonia, in the one-pot reaction. The polyvinylpyrrolidone, acting as a smart reducing agent, reduced the Ag + to Ag cores and Ag shells separately. Furthermore, the polyvinylpyrrolidone served as a protective agent to prevent the silver cores from aggregating. The SiO 2 shell and outer layer Ag nanoparticles were obtained when tetraethyl orthosilicate and ammonia were added to the silver core solution. Ammonia, acting as the catalyst, accelerated the hydrolysis of the tetraethyl orthosilicate to SiO 2 , which coated the silver cores. Furthermore, Ag(NH 3 ) 2 + ions were formed when aqueous ammonia was added to the solution, which increased the reduction capability. Then the polyvinylpyrrolidone reduced the Ag(NH 3 ) 2 + ions to small Ag nanoparticles on the surface of the Ag-SiO 2 and formed Ag-SiO 2 -Ag sandwich structures with a standard deviation of less than 4%. This structure effectively prevented the Ag nanoparticles on the silica surface from aggregating. Furthermore, the Ag-SiO 2 -Ag sandwich structures showed good catalysis properties due to the large surface area/volume value and activity of surface atoms of Ag particles.

  14. 12 CFR 225.124 - Foreign bank holding companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign bank holding companies. 225.124 Section... SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.124 Foreign bank holding companies. (a) Effective December 1, 1971, the...

  15. 12 CFR 1252.1 - Enterprise portfolio holding criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Enterprise portfolio holding criteria. 1252.1 Section 1252.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTERPRISES PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS § 1252.1 Enterprise portfolio holding criteria. The Enterprises are required to comply with the portfolio holdings...

  16. AGS experiments---1987, 1988, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depken, J.C.

    1989-04-01

    This report contains: Experimental Areas Layout; Table of Beam Parameters and Fluxes; Experiment Schedule ''as run''; Experiment Long Range Schedule; A listing of experiments by number; Two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; Publications of AGS experiments; and List of experimenters

  17. AGS 20th anniversary celebration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baggett, N.V. (ed.)

    1980-05-22

    On May 22, 1980, a symposium was held at Brookhaven to celebrate the 20th birthday of the AGS, to recall its beginnings, and to review major discoveries that have been made with its beams. The talks at the symposium are recorded in this volume.

  18. AGS experiments, 1988, 1989, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depken, J.C.

    1991-04-01

    This report contains: experimental areas layout; table of beam parameters and fluxes; experiment schedule ''as run''; experiment long range schedule; a listing of experiments by number; two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; publications of AGS experiments; and list of experimenters

  19. AGS experiments: 1985, 1986, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depken, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    This report contains: Experimental areas layout, table of beam parameters and fluxes, experiment schedule ''as run,'' experiment long range schedule, a listing of experiments by number, two-page summaries of each experiment, also ordered by number, and publications of AGS experiments, 1982-1987

  20. AGS 20th anniversary celebration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baggett, N.V.

    1980-01-01

    On May 22, 1980, a symposium was held at Brookhaven to celebrate the 20th birthday of the AGS, to recall its beginnings, and to review major discoveries that have been made with its beams. The talks at the symposium are recorded in this volume

  1. Saskatchewan Energy Holdings Ltd. consolidated financial statements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The consolidated financial statements of Saskatchewan Energy Holdings Ltd. (formerly Saskatchewan Energy Corporation) as of December 31, 1990, and the consolidated statements of earnings and retained earnings and changes in cash position for the year are presented. Data include an inventory of supplies, natural gas in storage, property, plant and equipment. Financial statements are also presented for the year ending December 31, 1989, with comparative figures for the seven months ending December 31, 1988

  2. Synthesis, morphological control, and antibacterial properties of hollow/solid Ag2S/Ag heterodimers

    KAUST Repository

    Pang, Maolin

    2010-08-11

    Ag2S and Ag are important functional materials that have received considerable research interest in recent years. In this work, we develop a solution-based synthetic method to combine these two materials into hollow/solid Ag2S/Ag heterodimers at room temperature. Starting from monodisperse Cu2O solid spheres, CuS hollow spheres can be converted from Cu2O through a modified Kirkendall process, and the obtained CuS can then be used as a solid precursor for preparation of the Ag2S/Ag heterodimers through ion exchange and photo-assisted reduction. We have found that formation of the Ag2S/Ag heterodimers is instantaneous, and the size of Ag nanocrystals on the hollow spheres of Ag2S can be controlled by changing the concentration and power of reducing agents in the synthesis. The growth of Ag nanoparticles on hollow spheres of Ag2S in the dimers is along the [111] direction of the silver crystal; the light absorption properties have also been investigated. Furthermore, coupling or tripling of Ag2S/Ag heterodimers into dumbbell-like trimers ((Ag 2S)2/Ag, linear) and triangular tetramers ((Ag 2S)3/Ag, coplanar) can also be attained at 60°C by adding the bidentate ligand ethylenediamine as a cross-linking agent. To test the applicability of this highly asymmetric dipolar composite, photocatalytic inactivation of Escherichia coli K-12 in the presence of the as-prepared Ag 2S/Ag heterodimers has been carried out under UV irradiation. The added Ag2S/Ag heterodimers show good chemical stability under prolonged UV irradiation, and no appreciable solid dissolution is found. Possible mechanisms regarding the enhanced antibacterial activity have also been addressed. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  3. AGS experiments: 1990, 1991, 1992. Ninth edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depken, J.C.

    1993-04-01

    This report contains a description of the following: AGS Experimental Area - High Energy Physics FY 1993 and Heavy Ion Physics FY 1993; Table of Beam Parameters and Fluxes; Experiment Schedule ``as run``; Proposed 1993 Schedule; A listing of experiments by number; Two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; Publications of AGS Experiments; and List of AGS Experimenters.

  4. Laser-based synthesis of core Ag-shell AgI nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hua; Fan, Wai Yip

    2005-05-01

    A laser-controlled synthesis of silver iodide (AgI) nanoparticles with isolable AgI shell-Ag core stable intermediates is achieved via molecular iodine photodissociation in the presence of pure Ag nanoparticles dispersed in water. Ag nanoparticles were introduced into the solution containing sodium dodecylsulphate surfactants and iodine by ablating a piece of silver foil with a 532 nm pulsed Nd-YAG laser. Transmission electron microscopy images showed that different AgI shell-Ag core sizes could be achieved by controlling the photolysis of I 2 in solution. These nanoparticles were also found to catalyse an atom-economy Grignard-Barbier organic reaction.

  5. Photoinduced formation of Ag nanoparticles on the surface of As2S3/Ag thin bilayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binu, S; Khan, Pritam; Barik, A R; Sharma, Rituraj; Adarsh, K V; Golovchak, R; Jain, H

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we demonstrate the combined effect of photodoping and photoinduced-surface deposition in a bilayer of chalcogenide glass (ChG) and Ag as an alternative method to optically synthesize Ag nanoparticles (AgNP) on the surface of ChG. In our experiment, AgNP formation occurs through two distinct stages: In the first stage, Ag is transported through the As 2 S 3 layer as Ag + ions, and in the second stage Ag + ions are photo-deposited as AgNP. The ex situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements and AFM observations show photoinduced Ag mass transport and the formation of AgNP. (paper)

  6. Green synthesis of graphene/Ag nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Wenhui; Gu Yejian; Li Li

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A facile and green approach to synthesis of GNS/AgNPs is reported by employing sodium citrate as reductant, and this study represents the use of biocompounds for nontoxic and scalable production of GNS/AgNPs under a suitable concentration of silver ions and the prepared GNS/AgNPs can be used in the field of disinfection. Highlights: ► Graphene/Ag nanocomposites were prepared by a green and facile strategy based on sodium citrate. ► The influence of AgNO 3 amount on particle size and size range of AgNPs was studied. ► The surface plasmon resonance properties of AgNPs on graphene was investigated. ► The antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles was retained in the nanocomposites. - Abstract: Graphene/Ag nanocomposites (GNS/AgNPs) were fabricated via a green and facile method, employing graphite oxide (GO) as a precursor of graphene, AgNO 3 as a precursor of Ag nanoparticles, and sodium citrate as an environmentally friendly reducing and stabilizing agent. The synthesized GNS/AgNPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectra (RS), respectively. The results indicated that graphite oxide was completely reduced to graphene, and the silver ion was reduced by sodium citrate simultaneously. Under a suitable dosage of silver ions, well-dispersed AgNPs on the graphene sheets mostly centralized at 20–25 nm. The surface plasmon resonance property of AgNPs on graphene showed that there was a interaction between AgNPs and graphene supports. In addition, antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles was retained in the nanocomposites, suggesting that they can be potentially used as a graphene-based biomaterial.

  7. Development of aluminum (Al5083)-clad ternary Ag-In-Cd alloy for JSNS decoupled moderator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshigawara, M.; Harada, M.; Saito, S.; Oikawa, K.; Maekawa, F.; Futakawa, M.; Kikuchi, K.; Kato, T.; Ikeda, Y.; Naoe, T.; Koyama, T.; Ooi, T.; Zherebtsov, S.; Kawai, M.; Kurishita, H.; Konashi, K.

    2006-01-01

    To develop Ag (silver)-In (indium)-Cd (cadmium) alloy decoupler, a method is needed to bond the decoupler between Al alloy (Al5083) and the ternary Ag-In-Cd alloy. We found that a better HIP condition was temperature, pressure and holding time at 803 K, 100 MPa and 10 min. for small test pieces (φ22 mm in dia. x 6 mm in height). Hardened layer due to the formation of AlAg 2 was found in the bonding layer, however, the rupture strength of the bonding layer is more than 30 MPa, the calculated design stress. Bonding tests of a large size piece (200 x 200 x 30 mm 3 ), which simulated the real scale, were also performed according to the results of small size tests. The result also gave good bonding and enough required-mechanical-strength

  8. A conceptual holding model for veterinary applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Ferrè

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Spatial references are required when geographical information systems (GIS are used for the collection, storage and management of data. In the veterinary domain, the spatial component of a holding (of animals is usually defined by coordinates, and no other relevant information needs to be interpreted or used for manipulation of the data in the GIS environment provided. Users trying to integrate or reuse spatial data organised in such a way, frequently face the problem of data incompatibility and inconsistency. The root of the problem lies in differences with respect to syntax as well as variations in the semantic, spatial and temporal representations of the geographic features. To overcome these problems and to facilitate the inter-operability of different GIS, spatial data must be defined according to a “schema” that includes the definition, acquisition, analysis, access, presentation and transfer of such data between different users and systems. We propose an application “schema” of holdings for GIS applications in the veterinary domain according to the European directive framework (directive 2007/2/EC - INSPIRE. The conceptual model put forward has been developed at two specific levels to produce the essential and the abstract model, respectively. The former establishes the conceptual linkage of the system design to the real world, while the latter describes how the system or software works. The result is an application “schema” that formalises and unifies the information-theoretic foundations of how to spatially represent a holding in order to ensure straightforward information-sharing within the veterinary community.

  9. Are Economists More Likely to Hold Stocks?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte; Joensen, Eyðfrið Juanna Schrøter; Rangvid, Jesper

    A unique data set enables us to test the hypothesis that due to informational advantages economists are more likely to hold stocks than otherwise identical investors. Weconfirm that economists have a significantly higher probability of participating in the stockmarket than investors with any other...... education, even when controlling for several background characteristics. We make use of a large register-based panel data set containing detailed information on the educational attainments and various financial and socioeconomic variables.We model the stock market participation decision by the probit model....... The results are shown to be highly robust to various assumptions, including unobserved individual heterogeneityand instrumental variables estimation....

  10. Let's just hold a real vote.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Gareth

    2017-04-12

    The planned RCN consultation to gauge how nurses feel about balloting on industrial action is a step in the right direction, but for heaven's sake why don't we just hold a real vote? No one is interested in a test vote - not the media, not members. A real vote would be headline news and RCN members would be enthused and motivated. As it is, we are just kicking the ball into the long grass yet again. There will be a low turnout and we will end up shrugging our shoulders and saying 'There's nothing to be done'. Jeremy Hunt must be laughing his socks off.

  11. Hold-down device for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leclercq, J.; Bonnamour, M.

    1984-01-01

    The present device can be used in nuclear reactors and more particularly in pressurized water reactors consisting of coupled fuel assemblies, certain of which are equipped with non-displaceable elements carried by an unsertable member. The device comprises the unsertable member provided with at least two sets of springs which transmit the load of an upper structure common to the fuel assemblies ajacent that which supports the unsertable member. The device is used to hold-down fuel assemblies which are subjected to the forces of circulating coolant [fr

  12. The Economics of an Admissions Holding Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreyer, Kraftin E; Martin, Richard

    2017-06-01

    With increasing attention to the actual cost of delivering care, return-on-investment calculations take on new significance. Boarded patients in the emergency department (ED) are harmful to clinical care and have significant financial opportunity costs. We hypothesize that investment in an admissions holding unit for admitted ED patients not only captures opportunity cost but also significantly lowers direct cost of care. This was a three-phase study at a busy urban teaching center with significant walkout rate. We first determined the true cost of maintaining a staffed ED bed for one patient-hour and compared it to alternative settings. The opportunity cost for patients leaving without being seen was then conservatively estimated. Lastly, a convenience sample of admitted patients boarding in the ED was observed continuously from one hour after decision-to-admit until physical departure from the ED to capture a record of every interaction with a nurse or physician. Personnel costs per patient bed-hour were $58.20 for the ED, $24.80 for an inpatient floor, $19.20 for the inpatient observation unit, and $10.40 for an admissions holding area. An eight-bed holding unit operating at practical capacity would free 57.4 hours of bed space in the ED and allow treatment of 20 additional patients. This could yield increased revenues of $27,796 per day and capture opportunity cost of $6.09 million over 219 days, in return for extra staffing costs of $218,650. Analysis of resources used for boarded patients was determined by continuous observation of a convenience sample of ED-boarded patients, which found near-zero interactions with both nursing and physicians during the boarding interval. Resource expense per ED bed-hour is more than twice that in non-critical care inpatient units. Despite the high cost of available resources, boarded non-critical patients receive virtually no nursing or physician attention. An admissions holding unit is remarkably effective in avoiding the

  13. Direct electrospinning of Ag/polyvinylpyrrolidone nanocables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Jie; Chen, Menglin; Havelund, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    Core-sheath silver nanowire/polyvinylpyrrolidone (AgNW/PVP) nanocables have been fabricated via an efficient single-spinneret electrospinning method. The core-sheath structure is revealed by combining several characterization methods. A possible formation mechanism of the AgNW/PVP nanocable...... involving a strong stretching during the electrospinning process is proposed. Further, electrical measurements were performed on AgNW/PVP nanocables as well as bare AgNWs, which indicated the nanocables became insulating due to the isolation of highly conductive AgNWs by insulating PVP sheath. Therefore...

  14. Comparative study of antimicrobial activity of AgBr and Ag nanoparticles (NPs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Suchomel

    Full Text Available The diverse mechanism of antimicrobial activity of Ag and AgBr nanoparticles against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and also against several strains of candida was explored in this study. The AgBr nanoparticles (NPs were prepared by simple precipitation of silver nitrate by potassium bromide in the presence of stabilizing polymers. The used polymers (PEG, PVP, PVA, and HEC influence significantly the size of the prepared AgBr NPs dependently on the mode of interaction of polymer with Ag+ ions. Small NPs (diameter of about 60-70 nm were formed in the presence of the polymer with low interaction as are PEG and HEC, the polymers which interact with Ag+ strongly produce nearly two times bigger NPs (120-130 nm. The prepared AgBr NPs were transformed to Ag NPs by the reduction using NaBH4. The sizes of the produced Ag NPs followed the same trends--the smallest NPs were produced in the presence of PEG and HEC polymers. Prepared AgBr and Ag NPs dispersions were tested for their biological activity. The obtained results of antimicrobial activity of AgBr and Ag NPs are discussed in terms of possible mechanism of the action of these NPs against tested microbial strains. The AgBr NPs are more effective against gram-negative bacteria and tested yeast strains while Ag NPs show the best antibacterial action against gram-positive bacteria strains.

  15. Novel AgCl/Ag/AgFeO2 Z-scheme heterostructure photocatalyst with enhanced photocatalytic and stability under visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhe; He, Yiqiang

    2017-10-01

    A new AgCl/Ag/AgFeO2 composite was synthesized for the first time via a simple precipitation method. The very detailed characterizations were enforced in photocatalytic activity and stability. The photocatalytic performance was studied by the degradation of the rhodamine B (RhB, a cationic dye) under visible irradiation. The as-prepared AgCl/Ag/AgFeO2 photocatalyst exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity and stability under the visible light region compared to pure AgCl and AgFeO2. About 97.47% of RhB can be removed in 60 min by the optimized AgCl/Ag/AgFeO2 composite, which was ∼2.26 and ∼10.83 times as fast as that pure AgCl and pure AgFeO2. After three cycles visible light irradiation experiments found that degradation rate of RhB reached 76.35%, which was still higher than pure AgCl and AgFeO2. The obviously enhanced photocatalytic activity of AgCl/Ag/AgFeO2 composites can be attributed to the efficient separation of electron-hole pairs of the Z-scheme heterostructure between AgCl, Ag and AgFeO2. In this study, we also found the superoxide radicals (rad O2-) was considered to be the dominant active radical in the degradation of dye.

  16. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering of a Ag/oligo(phenyleneethynylene)/Ag sandwich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Melissa; Alexson, D M; Prokes, Sharka; Glembocki, Orest; Vivoni, Alberto; Hosten, Charles

    2011-02-01

    α,ω-Dithiols are a useful class of compounds in molecular electronics because of their ability to easily adsorb to two metal surfaces, producing a molecular junction. We have prepared Ag nanosphere/oligo(phenyleneethynylene)/Ag sol (AgNS/OPE/Ag sol) and Ag nanowire/oligo(phenyleneethynylene)/Ag sol (AgNW/OPE/Ag sol) sandwiches to simulate the architecture of a molecular electronic device. This was achieved by self-assembly of OPE on the silver nanosurface, deprotection of the terminal sulfur, and deposition of Ag sol atop the monolayer. These sandwiches were then characterized by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy. The resulting spectra were compared to the bulk spectrum of the dimer and to the Ag nanosurface/OPE SERS spectra. The intensities of the SERS spectra in both systems exhibit a strong dependence on Ag deposition time and the results are also suggestive of intense interparticle coupling of the electromagnetic fields in both the AgNW/OPE/Ag and the AgNS/OPE/Ag systems. Three previously unobserved bands (1219, 1234, 2037 cm(-1)) arose in the SER spectra of the sandwiches and their presence is attributed to the strong enhancement of the electromagnetic field which is predicted from the COSMOL computational package. The 544 cm(-1) disulfide bond which is observed in the spectrum of solid OPE but is absent in the AgNS/OPE/Ag and AgNW/OPE/Ag spectra is indicative of chemisorption of OPE to the nanoparticles through oxidative dissociation of the disulfide bond. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. SITUATION OF REGULATIONS FOR HOLDING COMPANIES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica Filofteia Braga

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present the tax facilities applicable to Romania on holding companies, ranking of the first 20 countries that investing in our country, their activities field and the necessity to approve the law holding company.

  18. Iron and zinc levels in breath-holding spells

    OpenAIRE

    DEDA, Gülhis; AKAR, M. Nejat; CİN, Şükrü; GENÇGÖNÜL, Handan

    2002-01-01

    Breath-Holding spells are a dramatic and commonly observed clinical phenomenon in childhood. The underlyingpathophysiologic mechanisms in breath-holding spells are result from autonomic nervous system dysregulation.Cerebral anoxia is the ultimate factor responsible for the loss of consciousness observed in the severe forms of breath-holding spells.It’s known that, there is relationbetween breath-holding spells and iron-deficiency anemia, and the spells resolve after oral iron supplemantation....

  19. Resistance switching of an individual Ag2S/Ag nanowire heterostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Changhao; Terabe, Kazuya; Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi; Aono, Masakazu

    2007-01-01

    Ag/Cu-based chalcogenide ionic conductors are candidates for use in applications in resistance-switching and nonvolatile memory devices. We report the investigation of the electrical properties of individual Ag 2 S/Ag heteronanowires (HNWs) by atomic force microscopy (AFM) using a nanoscale-tip electrode. Hysteretic current-voltage (IV) curves and the polarity-dependent resistance-switching phenomenon in an individual Ag 2 S/Ag HNW were observed. A local impedance spectroscopy measurement of Ag 2 S/Ag HNWs was performed to reveal the interface-related electrical characteristics. The DC-bias-dependent impedance spectra suggested the occurrence of charge and mass transfer at the interface of the electrode/mixed conductor. It is proposed that reversible resistance switching originates from the creation and rupture of filament-like conducting pathways inside the Ag 2 S/Ag HNW

  20. 42 CFR 412.344 - Hold-harmless payment methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hold-harmless payment methodology. 412.344 Section...-Related Costs § 412.344 Hold-harmless payment methodology. (a) General. A hospital paid under the hold-harmless payment methodology receives a payment per discharge based on the higher of: (1) 85 percent of...

  1. 49 CFR 178.338-9 - Holding time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Holding time. 178.338-9 Section 178.338-9... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.338-9 Holding time. (a) “Holding time” is the time, as determined by testing, that will elapse from loading until the pressure of the contents...

  2. Plasmonic Ag{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}/AgBr/Ag composite: Excellent photocatalytic performance and possible photocatalytic mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhongliao [College of Physics and Electronic Information, Anhui Key Laboratory of Energetic Materials, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei, 235000 (China); Zhang, Jinfeng, E-mail: zjf_y2004@126.com [College of Physics and Electronic Information, Anhui Key Laboratory of Energetic Materials, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei, 235000 (China); Lv, Jiali [College of Physics and Electronic Information, Anhui Key Laboratory of Energetic Materials, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei, 235000 (China); Dai, Kai, E-mail: daikai940@chnu.edu.cn [College of Physics and Electronic Information, Anhui Key Laboratory of Energetic Materials, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei, 235000 (China); Liang, Changhao [College of Physics and Electronic Information, Anhui Key Laboratory of Energetic Materials, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei, 235000 (China); Key Laboratory of Materials Physics and Anhui Key Laboratory of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, 230031 (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Novel Ag{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}/AgBr/Ag photocatalyst was prepared. • Ag{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}/AgBr/Ag showed high photocatalytic activity. • Ag{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}/AgBr/Ag showed long reusable life. - Abstract: Plasmonic Ag{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}/AgBr/Ag composite is fabricated by in-situ ion exchange and reduction methods at room temperature. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–vis diffuse reflectance (DRS), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. The results show that butterfly-like Ag{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} nanosheets served as the precursor, and Ag{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}/AgBr/Ag is formed in phase transformation with MoO{sub 4}{sup 2−} displaced by Br{sup −}. The ternary Ag{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}/AgBr/Ag composite photocatalysts show greatly enhanced photocatalytic activity in photodegrading methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation compared with AgBr and Ag{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}. The pseudo-first-order rate constant k{sub app} of Ag{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}/AgBr/Ag is 0.602 min{sup −1}, which is 11.6 and 18.3 times as high as that of AgBr and Ag{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}, respectively. Meanwhile, the efficiency of degradation still kept 90% after ten times cyclic experiments. Eventually, possible photocatalytic mechanism was proposed.

  3. Ag diffusion in cubic silicon carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrader, David; Khalil, Sarah M.; Gerczak, Tyler; Allen, Todd R.; Heim, Andrew J.; Szlufarska, Izabela; Morgan, Dane

    2011-01-01

    The diffusion of Ag impurities in bulk 3C-SiC is studied using ab initio methods based on density functional theory. This work is motivated by the desire to reduce transport of radioactive Ag isotopes through the SiC boundary layer in the Tristructural-Isotropic (TRISO) fuel pellet, which is a significant concern for the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) nuclear reactor concept. The structure and stability of charged Ag and Ag-vacancy clusters in SiC are calculated. Relevant intrinsic SiC defect energies are also determined. The most stable state for the Ag impurity in SiC is found to be a Ag atom substituting on the Si sub-lattice and bound to a C vacancy. Bulk diffusion coefficients are estimated for different impurity states and values are all found to have very high activation energy. The impurity state with the lowest activation energy for diffusion is found to be the Ag interstitial, with an activation energy of approximately 7.9 eV. The high activation energies for Ag diffusion in bulk 3C-SiC cause Ag transport to be very slow in the bulk and suggests that observed Ag transport in this material is due to an alternative mechanism (e.g., grain boundary diffusion).

  4. 78 FR 23162 - Supervision and Regulation Assessments for Bank Holding Companies and Savings and Loan Holding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... mentioned above, only top-tier foreign banking organizations with financial holding company status file Part... Nonbank Financial Companies Supervised by the Federal Reserve AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal... financial companies designated for Board supervision by the Financial Stability Oversight Council (Council...

  5. 78 FR 31590 - Sears Holdings Management Corporation, A Division Of Sears Holdings Corporation, Hoffman Estates...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... (``My position at Sears had nothing to do with Analytics or space Management. I worked in Marketing... firm clarified that one petitioner supplied print marketing management services, another petitioner... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-81,253] Sears Holdings Management...

  6. A mathematical model of aerosol holding chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zak, M; Madsen, J; Berg, E

    1999-01-01

    A mathematical model of aerosol delivery from holding chambers (spacers) was developed incorporating tidal volume (VT), chamber volume (Vch), apparatus dead space (VD), effect of valve insufficiency and other leaks, loss of aerosol by immediate impact on the chamber wall, and fallout of aerosol...... in the chamber with time. Four different spacers were connected via filters to a mechanical lung model, and aerosol delivery during "breathing" was determined from drug recovery from the filters. The formula correctly predicted the delivery of budesonide aerosol from the AeroChamber (Trudell Medical, London......-mentioned factors, initial loss of aerosol by impact on the chamber wall is most important for the efficiency of a spacer. With a VT of 195 mL, the AeroChamber and Babyhaler were emptied in two breaths, the NebuChamber in four breaths, and the Nebuhaler in six breaths. Insufficiencies of the expiratory valves were...

  7. A mathematical model of aerosol holding chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zak, M; Madsen, J; Berg, E

    1999-01-01

    A mathematical model of aerosol delivery from holding chambers (spacers) was developed incorporating tidal volume (VT), chamber volume (Vch), apparatus dead space (VD), effect of valve insufficiency and other leaks, loss of aerosol by immediate impact on the chamber wall, and fallout of aerosol...... in the chamber with time. Four different spacers were connected via filters to a mechanical lung model, and aerosol delivery during "breathing" was determined from drug recovery from the filters. The formula correctly predicted the delivery of budesonide aerosol from the AeroChamber (Trudell Medical, London......, Ontario, Canada), NebuChamber (Astra, Södirtälje, Sweden) and Nebuhaler (Astra) adapted for babies. The dose of fluticasone proportionate delivered by the Babyhaler (Glaxco Wellcome, Oxbridge, Middlesex, UK) was 80% of that predicted, probably because of incomplete priming of this spacer. Of the above...

  8. Should we Hold the Obese Responsible?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul; Andersen, Martin Marchman

    2014-01-01

    holding the obese responsible will have positive consequences. Taking these two conceptions of responsibility into account, the authors turn their analysis toward examining the relevant moral considerations to be taken into account when public policies regarding obesity rely on such a conception......It is a common belief that obesity is wholly or partially a question of personal choice and personal responsibility. It is also widely assumed that when individuals are responsible for some unfortunate state of affairs, society bears no burden to compensate them. This article focuses on two...... conceptualizations of responsibility: backward-looking and forward-looking conceptualizations. When ascertaining responsibility in a backward-looking sense, one has to determine how that state of affairs came into being or where the agent stood in relation to it. In contrast, a forward-looking conceptualization...

  9. Study of Ag+/PAA (polyacrylic acid) and Ag0/PAA aqueous system at equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keghouche, N.; Mostafavi, M.; Delcourt, M.O.

    1991-01-01

    When submitted to gamma radiation the system Ag + -PAA-water leads to clusters Ag 0 n /PAA (3 420 nm) interacting with the clusters. Potentiometric measurements carried out on Ag + solutions in the presence of PAA at various pH show that the deprotonated form (polyacrylate anion) is strongly bonded to Ag + , on the opposite of the protonated form of PAA. One of the oligomer clusters can be stabilized for more than one year. Studying it by infra-red spectrometry reveals important modifications in the vibration bands of the COO - group circa 1400 and 1600 cm -1 according to the bonding of PAA with Ag + or Ag 0 [fr

  10. New AGS fast extraction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, W.T.

    1980-09-01

    Both the high energy physics program and ISA injection require an improved fast extraction system from the AGS. The proposed new system consists of a fast kicker at H5 and an ejector magnet at H10. The H5 kicker is capable of producing 1.2 mrad deflection and rising up to 99% strength in 150 nsec with flat top ripple within +- 1%. It is found that the focusing strengths and positions of UQ3-UQ7 have to be modified to achieve an achromatic condition at the end of 8 0 -bend. Also, the conceptual design of the H5 magnet and the pulser system are discussed

  11. 12 CFR 225.82 - How does a bank holding company elect to become a financial holding company?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... financial holding company, or enforcing compliance with applicable law. ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How does a bank holding company elect to become a financial holding company? 225.82 Section 225.82 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM...

  12. Why Not Replace pH and pOH by Just One Real Acidity Grade, AG?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lubeck, Henk

    1999-07-01

    The definition of pH according to Sörensen (1909) as pH = -log [H+] offers some striking disadvantages to beginning students in a chemistry course, especially those with no knowledge of logarithms. They will face some puzzling consequences of this definition such as (i) pH of a neutral solution equals 7.0, a value which changes with temperature, and (ii) pH of an acidic solution will rise after dilution. The corresponding disadvantages hold good for pOH in alkaline solutions. These disadvantages disappear after replacing pH and pOH by AG, the acidity grade: AG = log [H+]/[OH-]. AG of neutral solutions equals 0 at all temperatures, whereas AG of acidic solutions is positive and of alkaline solutions, negative. AG offers some other minor advantages as well. Anybody using AG in calculations needs some knowledge of chemical equilibrium, in particular the reversible heterolytic dissociation of water. However, breaking with a long tradition appears to be the major obstacle to an introduction of AG.

  13. Ag nanoprisms with Ag₂S attachment.

    KAUST Repository

    Xiong, Shenglin

    2013-01-01

    Triangular Ag nanoprisms are a type of most-studied noble-metal nanostructures over the past decade owing to their special structural architecture and outstanding optical and catalytic properties for a wide range of applications. Nevertheless, in contrast to active research for the synthesis of phase-pure Ag nanoprisms, no asymmetric heterodimers containing Ag prisms have been developed so far, probably due to lack of suitable synthetic methods. Herein, we devise a simple ion-exchange method to synthesize Ag2S/Ag heterodimers at room temperature, through which Ag nanoprisms with controllable size and thickness can be fabricated. Formation chemistry and optical properties of the heterodimers have been investigated. These semiconductor/metal heterodimers have exhibited remarkable bactericidal activity to E. coli cells under visible light illumination.

  14. Flower-like Ag/AgCl microcrystals: Synthesis and photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daupor, Hasan; Wongnawa, Sumpun

    2015-01-01

    Silver/silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) composites with a novel flower-like morphology were prepared via a hot precipitation assisted by the vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) route. An aqueous solution of AlCl 3 was mixed with the vinyl acetate monomer and acetic acid before adding a AgNO 3 solution at a temperature of 100 °C. The octapod shaped flower-like Ag/AgCl particles (or “flower-like Ag/AgCl” hereinafter) has eight petals each of which was about 7–11 μm in length. The flower-like octapods were formed by preferential overgrowth along the <111> directions of the cubic seeds. Detailed studies of the growth process at different AlCl 3 concentrations revealed that the concave cube developed into a Rubik's cube where eight corners grew further into the flower-like structures. The VAM and acetic acid concentration strongly affected the growth of the Ag/AgCl to the flower-like structure and their optimum concentrations were determined. The morphologies of these particles were carefully examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The crystal structures and orientation relationship were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV–visible diffused reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The flower-like Ag/AgCl microcrystals were tested for their photocatalytic degradation of orange G dye (OG) catalyzed by visible light. From comparative test runs, the flower-like Ag/AgCl exhibited better photocatalytic activity than simple and commercial Ag/AgCl particles. - Highlights: • Interesting transformation of microcrystals Ag/AgCl from concave cube via Rubik's cube to flower-like shape. • The first to use VAM as morphology control reagent. • High photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation

  15. The cardiovascular response to the AGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardus, David; Mctaggart, Wesley G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports the preliminary results of experiments on human subjects conducted to study the cardiovascular response to various g-levels and exposure times using an artificial gravity simulator (AGS). The AGS is a short arm centrifuge consisting of a turntable, a traction system, a platform and four beds. Data collection hardware is part of the communication system. The AGS provides a steep acceleration gradient in subjects in the supine position.

  16. Transformation from Ag@Ag3PO4 to Ag@Ag2SO4 hybrid at room temperature: preparation and its visible light photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ting; Gao, Shanmin; Wang, Qingyao; Xu, Hui; Wang, Zeyan; Huang, Baibiao; Dai, Ying

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, Ag/Ag2SO4 hybrid photocatalysts were obtained via a facile redox-precipitation reaction approach by using Ag@Ag3PO4 nanocomposite as the precursor and KMnO4 as the oxidant. Multiple techniques, such as X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), photocurrent and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), were applied to investigate the structures, morphologies, optical, and electronic properties of as-prepared samples. The photocatalytic activities were evaluated by photodegradation of organic rhodamine B (RhB) and methyl orange (MO) under visible light irradiation. It was found that pure Ag2SO4 can partially transform into metallic Ag during the photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants, but the Ag/Ag2SO4 hybrids can maintain its structure stability and show enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity because of the surface plasma resonance effect of the metallic Ag.

  17. Si/Ag composite with bimodal micro-nano porous structure as a high-performance anode for Li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qin; Zhao, Dianyun; Duan, Huimei; Zhou, Qiuxia; Xu, Caixia

    2015-03-12

    A one-step dealloying method is employed to conveniently fabricate a bimodal porous (BP) Si/Ag composite in high throughput under mild conditions. Upon dealloying the carefully designed SiAgAl ternary alloy in HCl solution at room temperature, the obtained Si/Ag composite has a uniform bicontinuous porous structure in three dimensions with micro-nano bimodal pore size distribution. Compared with the traditional preparation methods for porous Si and Si-based composites, this dealloying route is easily operated and environmentally benign. More importantly, it is convenient to realize the controllable components and uniform distribution of Si and Ag in the product. Owing to the rich porosity of the unique BP structure and the incorporation of highly conductive Ag, the as-made Si/Ag composite possesses the improved conductivity and alleviated volume changes of the Si network during repeated charging and discharging. As expected, the BP Si/Ag anode exhibits high capacity, excellent cycling reversibility, long cycling life and good rate capability for lithium storage. When the current rate is up to 1 A g(-1), BP Si/Ag can deliver a stable reversible capacity above 1000 mA h g(-1), and exhibits a capacity retention of up to 89.2% against the highest capacity after 200 cycles. With the advantages of unique performance and easy preparation, the BP Si/Ag composite holds great application potential as an advanced anode material for Li-ion batteries.

  18. A study of the properties of core/shell/shell Ag/FeCo/Ag nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamzin, A. S.; Takahashi, M.; Maenosono, S.; Valiullin, A. A.

    2017-10-01

    The properties of heterophase core/shell/shell Ag/FeCo/Ag nanoparticles synthesized via a plasma method that are promising for biological applications are studied. As is established, the core/shell/shell Ag/FeCo/Ag nanoparticles exhibit a superparamagnetic state at room temperature that allows one to manage the hyperthermia process. The magnetic characteristics of core/shell/shell Ag/FeCo/Ag nanoparticles are interpreted by assuming partial oxidation of the surface layer of a ferromagnetic FeCo shell and formation of the antiferromagnetic CoxFe1-xO layer on the FeCo surface. The interaction between the surface antiferromagnetic CoxFe1-xO layer and the ferromagnetic FeCo shell causes the emergence of the exchange bias in Ag/FeCo/Ag nanoparticles.

  19. Synthesis of Cu-Ag@Ag particles using hyperbranched polyester as template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wen-Song

    2015-07-01

    In this manuscript, the third-generation hyperbranched polyester was synthesized with 2, 2-dimethylol propionic acid as AB2 monomer and pentaerythrite as core molecule by using step by step polymerization process at first. Then, the Cu-Ag particles were prepared by co-reduction of silver nitrate and copper nitrate with ascorbic acid in the aqueous solution using hyperbranched polyester as template. Finally, the Cu-Ag@Ag particles were prepared by coating silver on the surface of Cu-Ag particles by reduction of silver nitrate. The synthesized hyperbranched polyester and Cu-Ag@Ag particles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, UV-vis spectra, x-ray diffraction, Laser light scattering, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and SEM. UV-vis spectra results showed that the Cu-Ag@Ag particles had a strong absorption band at around 420 nm. Laser light scattering and SEM studies confirmed that the most frequent particle sizes of Cu-Ag@Ag particles were 1.2 um. TGA results indicated that the Cu-Ag@Ag particles had good thermal stability. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  20. The relationship between perceived discomfort of static posture holding and posture holding time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogutu, Jack; Park, Woojin

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have investigated mathematical characteristics of the discomfort-time relationship during prolonged static posture holding (SPH) on an individual basis. Consequently, the discomfort-time relationship is not clearly understood at individual trial level. The objective of this study was to examine discomfort-time sequence data obtained from a large number of maximum-duration SPH trials to understand the perceived discomfort-posture holding time relationship at the individual SPH trial level. Thirty subjects (15 male, 15 female) participated in this study as paid volunteers. The subjects performed maximum-duration SPH trials employing 12 different wholebody static postures. The hand-held load for all the task trials was a ``generic'' box weighing 2 kg. Three mathematical functions, that is, linear, logarithmic and power functions were examined as possible mathematical models for representing individual discomfort-time profiles of SPH trials. Three different time increase patterns (negatively accelerated, linear and positively accelerated) were observed in the discomfort-time sequences data. The power function model with an additive constant term was found to adequately fit most (96.4%) of the observed discomfort-time sequences, and thus, was recommended as a general mathematical representation of the perceived discomfort-posture holding time relationship in SPH. The new knowledge on the nature of the discomfort-time relationship in SPH and the power function representation found in this study will facilitate analyzing discomfort-time data of SPH and developing future posture analysis tools for work-related discomfort control.

  1. AgI/Ag3PO4 hybrids with highly efficient visible-light driven photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsumata, Hideyuki; Hayashi, Takahiro; Taniguchi, Masanao; Suzuki, Tohru; Kaneco, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • AgI/Ag 3 PO 4 hybrid was prepared via an in situ anion-exchange method. • AgI/Ag 3 PO 4 displays the excellent photocatalytic activity under visible light. • AgI/Ag 3 PO 4 readily transforms to be Ag@AgI/Ag 3 PO 4 system. • h + and O 2 ·− play the major role in the AO 7 decolorization over AgI/Ag 3 PO 4 . • The activity enhancement is ascribed to a Z-scheme system composed of Ag 3 PO 4 , Ag and AgI. - Abstract: Highly efficient visible-light-driven AgI/Ag 3 PO 4 hybrid photocatalysts with different mole ratios of AgI were prepared via an in situ anion-exchange method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and photoluminescence (PL) technique. Under visible light irradiation (>420 nm), the AgI/Ag 3 PO 4 photocatalysts displayed the higher photocatalytic activity than pure Ag 3 PO 4 and AgI for the decolorization of acid orange 7 (AO 7). Among the hybrid photocatalysts, AgI/Ag 3 PO 4 with 80% of AgI exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity for the decolorization of AO 7. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results revealed that AgI/Ag 3 PO 4 readily transformed to be Ag@AgI/Ag 3 PO 4 system while the photocatalytic activity of AgI/Ag 3 PO 4 remained after 5 recycling runs. In addition, the quenching effects of different scavengers displayed that the reactive h + and O 2 ·− play the major role in the AO 7 decolorization. The photocatalytic activity enhancement of AgI/Ag 3 PO 4 hybrids can be ascribed to the efficient separation of electron–hole pairs through a Z-scheme system composed of Ag 3 PO 4 , Ag and AgI, in which Ag nanoparticles act as the charge separation center

  2. AGS fast kicker magnet system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, W.T.; Cottingham, J.G.; Foelsche, H.; Frey, W.; Ghoshroy, S.; Schmidt, C.; Tuozzolo, J.

    1981-01-01

    A new fast extraction system from the AGS will be implemented to improve the neutrino beam and to serve for ISABELLE injection. The fast kicker for the system is of an open C-type design with a field strength of 1.25 kG at 2650 amperes. The pulser system is a mismatched, discharge type PFN which is capable of delivering a pulse of 3000 amperes peak current at 30 kV dc, with a 2.7 μsec pulse width, 170 nsec rise time, and flat top ripple within +-1%. It also serves as a prototype for an ISA injection magnet, and is to be operated in UHV in the 10 -11 Torr range. Special measures to achieve this goal are also discussed

  3. DESIGN OF INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF VERTICALLY INTEGRATED AGRICULTURAL HOLDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александр Витальевич ШМАТКО

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with an approach to the design and development of information systems for the management and optimization of the organizational structure of vertically integrated agricultural holdings. A review of the problems of building and improving the organizational structure of vertically integrated agricultural holding is made. A method of constructing a discrete model management structure agricultural holding, which minimizes the costs associated with attracting applicants to work, is proposed.

  4. 78 FR 57921 - A.G. Volney Center, Inc. (f/k/a Buddha Steel, Inc.), China Green Material Technologies, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] A.G. Volney Center, Inc. (f/k/a Buddha Steel, Inc.), China Green Material Technologies, Inc., China Tractor Holdings, Inc., and Franklin Towers....G. Volney Center, Inc. (f/k/a Buddha Steel, Inc.) because it has not filed any periodic reports...

  5. Machinability of experimental Ti-Ag alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Masafumi; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Okuno, Osamu

    2008-03-01

    This study investigated the machinability of experimental Ti-Ag alloys (5, 10, 20, and 30 mass% Ag) as a new dental titanium alloy candidate for CAD/CAM use. The alloys were slotted with a vertical milling machine and carbide square end mills under two cutting conditions. Machinability was evaluated through cutting force using a three-component force transducer fixed on the table of the milling machine. The horizontal cutting force of the Ti-Ag alloys tended to decrease as the concentration of silver increased. Values of the component of the horizontal cutting force perpendicular to the feed direction for Ti-20% Ag and Ti-30% Ag were more than 20% lower than those for titanium under both cutting conditions. Alloying with silver significantly improved the machinability of titanium in terms of cutting force under the present cutting conditions.

  6. Sports-related lung injury during breath-hold diving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Mijacika

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The number of people practising recreational breath-hold diving is constantly growing, thereby increasing the need for knowledge of the acute and chronic effects such a sport could have on the health of participants. Breath-hold diving is potentially dangerous, mainly because of associated extreme environmental factors such as increased hydrostatic pressure, hypoxia, hypercapnia, hypothermia and strenuous exercise. In this article we focus on the effects of breath-hold diving on pulmonary function. Respiratory symptoms have been reported in almost 25% of breath-hold divers after repetitive diving sessions. Acutely, repetitive breath-hold diving may result in increased transpulmonary capillary pressure, leading to noncardiogenic oedema and/or alveolar haemorrhage. Furthermore, during a breath-hold dive, the chest and lungs are compressed by the increasing pressure of water. Rapid changes in lung air volume during descent or ascent can result in a lung injury known as pulmonary barotrauma. Factors that may influence individual susceptibility to breath-hold diving-induced lung injury range from underlying pulmonary or cardiac dysfunction to genetic predisposition. According to the available data, breath-holding does not result in chronic lung injury. However, studies of large populations of breath-hold divers are necessary to firmly exclude long-term lung damage.

  7. Antibacterial biodegradable Mg-Ag alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Tie

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of magnesium alloys as degradable metals for biomedical applications is a topic of ongoing research and the demand for multifunctional materials is increasing. Hence, binary Mg-Ag alloys were designed as implant materials to combine the favourable properties of magnesium with the well-known antibacterial property of silver. In this study, three Mg-Ag alloys, Mg2Ag, Mg4Ag and Mg6Ag that contain 1.87 %, 3.82 % and 6.00 % silver by weight, respectively, were cast and processed with solution (T4 and aging (T6 heat treatment.The metallurgical analysis and phase identification showed that all alloys contained Mg4Ag as the dominant β phase. After heat treatment, the mechanical properties of all Mg-Ag alloys were significantly improved and the corrosion rate was also significantly reduced, due to presence of silver. Mg(OH2 and MgO present the main magnesium corrosion products, while AgCl was found as the corresponding primary silver corrosion product. Immersion tests, under cell culture conditions, demonstrated that the silver content did not significantly shift the pH and magnesium ion release. In vitro tests, with both primary osteoblasts and cell lines (MG63, RAW 264.7, revealed that Mg-Ag alloys show negligible cytotoxicity and sound cytocompatibility. Antibacterial assays, performed in a dynamic bioreactor system, proved that the alloys reduce the viability of two common pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus (DSMZ 20231 and Staphylococcus epidermidis (DSMZ 3269, and the results showed that the killing rate of the alloys against tested bacteria exceeded 90%. In summary, biodegradable Mg-Ag alloys are cytocompatible materials with adjustable mechanical and corrosion properties and show promising antibacterial activity, which indicates their potential as antibacterial biodegradable implant materials.

  8. Synthesis and characterizations of AgSCN nanospheres using AgCl as the precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ming; Ma Jing

    2009-01-01

    Nanospheres of AgSCN with an average radius of 30-80 nm have been prepared by a simple reaction between AgCl suspension and KSCN in the presence of gelatin. Gelatin played a decisive role as an inhibitor of the direct attack of SCN - ions to AgCl surfaces and coagulation of the growing AgSCN in producing the spherical AgSCN nanoparticles. The products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectra techniques. The electrical conductivity of thin films of as-prepared AgSCN nanoparticles and polyethylene oxide (PEO) at room temperature was measured. The maximum value of electrical conductivity of as-prepared AgSCN-PEO was 1.53 x 10 -5 S cm -1 .

  9. Evolution of AgX nanowires into Ag derivative nano/microtubes for highly efficient visible-light photocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won San; Byun, Gyo Yeon; Bae, Tae Sung; Lee, Ha-Jin

    2013-11-13

    Our study proposes a novel strategy for the synthesis of Ag derivatives (AgX@Ag (X = Cl and Br) or Ag nano/microtubes) using the controlled chemical reduction or electron-beam irradiation of AgX nanowires (NWs), which are formed from the controlled dewetting of a AgX thin film on colloidal particles. The size of the AgX@Ag and Ag nano/microtubes can be controlled using the AgCl NWs as templates and varying the concentration of NaX. By controlling the concentration of NaBr, heterojunction-structured AgCl/AgBr NWs (H-AgCl/AgBr NWs) can be produced from the AgCl NWs due to a partial ion-exchange reaction (low concentration), and the AgBr NWs produced after a complete ion-exchange reaction between Cl- and Br- are further grown into micrometer-sized AgBr wires (high concentration). The resulting AgX NWs can be transformed into corresponding AgX@Ag or Ag nano/microtubes via a controlled chemical or physical method. The AgX derivatives (AgX@Ag nanotubes (NTs) and AgX NWs) are tested as visible-light-induced photocatalysts for decomposition of methyl orange. The AgX@Ag NTs exhibit the best photocatalytic activities due to the advantages of the core@shell structure, allowing multiple reflections of visible light within the interior cavity, providing a well-defined and clean Ag/AgX interface, and preventing direct adsorption of pollutants on AgX because of the shell structure. These advantages allow AgX@Ag NTs to maintain high catalytic performance even after multiple uses. The approach can also be used as a direct method for preparing Ag nano/microtubes with a tailored size and as a new method for incorporating a AgX NW core into a Ag nano/microtube shell. Our approach is useful for synthesizing various types of one-dimensional heterostructured NWs or metal NTs with controlled structures and properties.

  10. Preparation and Characterization of γ-AgI in Superionic Composite Glasses (AgIx(AgPO31-x

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Suminta

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The γ-AgI phase was stabilized at room temperature in the composites glasses (AgIx(AgPO31-x with x = 0.6 and 0.7 via rapid quenching of their molten mixture. The measurement of the crystal structure has been carried out using an X-ray Difractometer at the Physics Departement of Ibaraki University, Japan. The micro strain and crystal size are derived from Hall’s equation. The X-ray diffraction pattern shows some Bragg peaks that correspond to the crystalline γ-AgI. By increasing the concentration of AgI, the peak width becomes more narrow and the position shifts to the higher angle. This indicates that the crystalline size and microstrain are increasing. The increase of micro strain (η, and particle size (D will increase the ionic mobility, thus increasing the ionic conductivity. It is concluded that solidification process on melt AgI into glass matrix AgPO3 not only decreases the micro strain and the particle size, but it also increases the ionic conductivity.

  11. AgCl/Ag3PO4: A stable Ag-Based nanocomposite photocatalyst with enhanced photocatalytic activity for the degradation of parabens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianhao; Shi, Huixian; Huang, Xiaobo; Shi, Huifang; An, Zhongfu

    2018-04-01

    An AgCl/Ag 3 PO 4 composite has been successfully fabricated by a simple desorption-precipitation method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV/Vis), and photoluminescence (PL) have been used to study the structural and physicochemical characteristics of the AgCl/Ag 3 PO 4 composite. The photocatalytic activity of the AgCl/Ag 3 PO 4 composite has been tested by the degradation of parabens under visible-light irradiation. 100% of MPB was degraded within 40 min in the AgCl/Ag 3 PO 4 -visible light system. Moreover, the photocatalytic activity of AgCl/Ag 3 PO 4 remained at 94% of the original level after five runs, which was much higher than that of pure Ag 3 PO 4 (25%). The obtained results confirmed that the AgCl/Ag 3 PO 4 composite exhibited significantly higher photocatalytic performance and improved stability compared with bare Ag 3 PO 4 . The enhanced photocatalytic performance of the AgCl/Ag 3 PO 4 composite could be mainly attributed to highly efficient charge separation through a synergistic effect of AgCl, Ag 3 PO 4 , and in situ photo-reduced Ag nanoparticles. Trapping experiments confirmed h + and ·O 2 - to be the two main active species in the photocatalytic process. Finally, a possible photocatalytic mechanism for the charge-transfer process is proposed to account for the enhanced photocatalytic performance of the AgCl/Ag 3 PO 4 composite. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Visible light driven photocatalysis and antibacterial activity of AgVO{sub 3} and Ag/AgVO{sub 3} nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Anamika [Department of Life Sciences, University of Mumbai, Santacruz (E), Mumbai 400 098 (India); Dutta, Dimple P., E-mail: dimpled@barc.gov.in [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Ballal, A. [Molecular Biology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Tyagi, A.K. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Fulekar, M.H. [School of Environment and Sustainable Development, Central University of Gujarat, Gandhinagar 382 030, Gujarat (India)

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ag/AgVO{sub 3} and pure AgVO{sub 3} nanowires synthesized by sonochemical process. • Characterization done using XRD, SEM, TEM, EDX and BET analysis. • Visible light degradation of RhB by Ag/AgVO{sub 3} within 45 min. • Antibacterial activity of Ag/AgVO{sub 3} demonstrated. - Abstract: Ag/AgVO{sub 3} nanowires and AgVO{sub 3} nanorods were synthesized in aqueous media via a facile sonochemical route. The as-synthesized products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area analysis, scanning electron microscopy together with an energy dispersion X-ray spectrum analysis, transmission electron microscopy and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The results revealed that inert atmosphere promotes the formation of Ag/AgVO{sub 3} nanowires. The photocatalytic studies revealed that the Ag/AgVO{sub 3} nanowires exhibited complete photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B within 45 min under visible light irradiation. The antibacterial activity of Ag/AgVO{sub 3} nanowires was tested against Escherechia coli and Bacillus subtilis. The minimum growth inhibitory concentration value was found to be 50 and 10 folds lower than for the antibiotic ciprofloxacin for E. coli and B. subtilis, respectively. The antibacterial properties of the β-AgVO{sub 3} nanorods prove that in case of the Ag dispersed Ag/AgVO{sub 3} nanowires, the enhanced antibacterial action is also due to contribution from the AgVO{sub 3} support.

  13. How Important Is a Reproducible Breath Hold for Deep Inspiration Breath Hold Breast Radiation Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiant, David; Wentworth, Stacy; Liu, Han; Sintay, Benjamin

    2015-11-15

    Deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) for left-sided breast cancer has been shown to reduce heart dose. Surface imaging helps to ensure accurate breast positioning, but it does not guarantee a reproducible breath hold (BH) at DIBH treatments. We examine the effects of variable BH positions for DIBH treatments. Twenty-five patients who underwent free breathing (FB) and DIBH scans were reviewed. Four plans were created for each patient: FB, DIBH, FB_DIBH (the DIBH plans were copied to the FB images and recalculated, and image registration was based on breast tissue), and P_DIBH (a partial BH with the heart shifted midway between the FB and DIBH positions). The FB_DIBH plans give a "worst-case" scenario for surface imaging DIBH, where the breast is aligned by surface imaging but the patient is not holding their breath. Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests were used to compare the dose metrics. The DIBH plans gave lower heart dose and comparable breast coverage versus FB in all cases. The FB_DIBH plans showed no significant difference versus FB plans for breast coverage, mean heart dose, or maximum heart dose (P≥.10). The mean heart dose differed between FB_DIBH and FB by <2 Gy for all cases, and the maximum heart dose differed by <2 Gy for 21 cases. The P_DIBH plans showed significantly lower mean heart dose than FB (P<.01). The mean heart doses for the P_DIBH plans were

  14. Physiology of static breath holding in elite apneists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Anthony R; Drvis, Ivan; Dujic, Zeljko; MacLeod, David B; Ainslie, Philip N

    2018-03-07

    What is the topic of this review? This review provides an up-to-date assessment of the physiology involved with extreme static dry-land breath holding in trained apneists. What advances does it highlight? We specifically highlight the recent findings involved with the cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and metabolic function during a maximal breath hold in elite apneists. Breath hold related activities have been performed for centuries, but only recently within the last ∼30 years has it emerged as an increasingly popular competitive sport. In apnea sport, people compete in disciplines relating to underwater distances or simply maximal breath hold duration - with the current (oxygen un-supplemented) static breath hold record at 11:35 min. Remarkably, many ultra-elite apneists are able to supress respiratory urges to the point where consciousness fundamentally limits a breath hold duration. Here, arterial oxygen saturations as low as ∼50% have been reported. In such cases, oxygen conservation to maintain cerebral functioning is critical, where responses ascribed to the mammalian dive reflex - e.g., sympathetically mediated peripheral vaconstriction, and vagally mediated bradycardia - are central. In defence of maintaining global cerebral oxygen delivery during prolonged breath holds, the cerebral blood flow may increase by ∼100% from resting values. Interestingly, near the termination of prolonged dry static breath holds, recent studies also indicate that reductions in the cerebral oxidative metabolism can occur, likely attributable to the extreme hypercapnia and irrespective of the hypoxemia. In this review we highlight and discuss the recent data on the cardiovascular, metabolic and particularly cerebrovascular function in competitive apneists performing maximal static breath holds. The physiological adaptation and maladaptation with regular breath hold training are also summarized, and future research areas in this unique physiological field are highlighted

  15. Sea-urchin-like Fe3O4@C@Ag particles: an efficient SERS substrate for detection of organic pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yingjie; Chen, Jin; Ding, Qianqian; Lin, Dongyue; Dong, Ronglu; Yang, Liangbao; Liu, Jinhuai

    2013-06-01

    Ag-coated sea-urchin-like Fe3O4@C core-shell particles can be synthesized by a facile one-step solvothermal method, followed by deposition of high-density Ag nanoparticles onto the carbon surface through an in situ growth process, respectively. The as-synthesized Ag-coated Fe3O4@C particles can be used as a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate holding reproducible properties under an external magnetic force. The magnetic function of the particles allows concentrating the composite particles into small spatial regions, which can be exploited to decrease the amount of material per analysis while improving its SERS detection limit. In contrast to the traditional SERS substrates, the present Fe3O4@C@Ag particles hold the advantages of enrichment of organic pollutants for improving SERS detection limit and recycled utilization.Ag-coated sea-urchin-like Fe3O4@C core-shell particles can be synthesized by a facile one-step solvothermal method, followed by deposition of high-density Ag nanoparticles onto the carbon surface through an in situ growth process, respectively. The as-synthesized Ag-coated Fe3O4@C particles can be used as a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate holding reproducible properties under an external magnetic force. The magnetic function of the particles allows concentrating the composite particles into small spatial regions, which can be exploited to decrease the amount of material per analysis while improving its SERS detection limit. In contrast to the traditional SERS substrates, the present Fe3O4@C@Ag particles hold the advantages of enrichment of organic pollutants for improving SERS detection limit and recycled utilization. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional XRD patterns and SEM images of Fe3O4@C particles, SERS spectra of 4-ATP and 4-MPY using Fe3O4@C@Ag particles as the active substrates, magnetic behaviour of Fe3O4@C and Fe3O4@C@Ag particles. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr01273e

  16. Holdings of the Federal German Government in 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The report provides an overview of the direct and more important indirect holdings of the Federal German Government and its special assets ERP, Compensation Fund, Federal Mail and Federal Railway. Part A provides a total survey of the number of government holdings. For the direct holdings of the Federal Government and its special assets the shares in nominal capital and registered foundation capital, number of employees and dividend on profits are presented. In Parts B to M, the narrative parts, the most important holdings are reported on more in detail (sphere of activities, economic development, composition of the corporate bodies). The listing order does not reflect any order of importance. The following part N contains alphabetic indexes. Indexes I and II list all the direct holdings of the Federal Government and its special assets irrespective of the nominal capital volume and share of holdings. In index III, are listed only companies with corporate activites and a nominal capital of at least 100.000 German Marks of which the Federal Government and/or its special assets hold directly or indirectly at least 25 percent. Holdings of these undertakings of which the Federal Government does not have majority ownership, and which are not dependent on it under the regulations governing shareholdings either, are not considered. (orig.) [de

  17. Acute effects of cannabis on breath-holding duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Metrik, Jane

    2016-08-01

    Distress intolerance (an individual's perceived or actual inability to tolerate distressing psychological or physiological states) is associated with cannabis use. It is unknown whether a biobehavioral index of distress intolerance, breath-holding duration, is acutely influenced (increased or decreased) by cannabis. Such information may further inform understanding of the expression of psychological or physiological distress postcannabis use. This within-subjects study examined whether smoked marijuana with 2.7%-3.0% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), relative to placebo, acutely changed duration of breath holding. Participants (n = 88; 65.9% male) were nontreatment-seeking frequent cannabis users who smoked placebo or active THC cigarette on two separate study days and completed a breath-holding task postsmoking. Controlling for baseline breath-holding duration and participant sex, THC produced significantly shorter breath-holding durations relative to placebo. There was a significant interaction of drug administration × frequency of cannabis use, such that THC decreased breath-holding time among less frequent but not among more frequent users. Findings indicate that cannabis may exacerbate distress intolerance (via shorter breath-holding durations). As compared to less frequent cannabis users, frequent users display tolerance to cannabis' acute effects including increased ability to tolerate respiratory distress when holding breath. Objective measures of distress intolerance are sensitive to contextual factors such as acute drug intoxication, and may inform the link between cannabis use and the expression of psychological distress. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. A pacemaker for asystole in breath-holding spells

    OpenAIRE

    Legge, Leah M; Kantoch, Michal J; Seshia, Shashi S; Soni, Reeni

    2002-01-01

    Two cases of young children with frequent severe breath-holding spells complicated by prolonged asystole and seizures are reported. A ventricular pacemaker was implanted in each child, and both have subsequently remained free of syncope, although they continue to exhibit breath-holding behaviour.

  19. Korean Investment in EU through Holding Companies: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Bong Lee

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available When transnational enterprises set subsidiary companies in certain area, their major aim is to invest indirectly through the holding companies which hold invested share. Especially, because of the geographical neighborhood and economic integration, investing by holding companies is common in Europe. In Europe, taking full advantage of holding company is out of the following two reasons. Firstly, the efficiency and flexibility of the manage strategy of a group could be elevated by making full use of the holding company. Secondly, the transnational enterprises have the possibility of flexible management at the tax strategy level. Recently, the Korean companies are making the best use of holding companies when they are Marching into the EU. In the year 1996, group K purchased 8 enterprises of a certain industry section of B, a German company, setting holding companies in Germany. The analysis result of the case shows that the manage efficiency could be risen and the taxation could be reduced by way of making use of holding companies. As to the Korean investment efficiency of overseas indirect investment in EU, this thesis brought forward a blueprint about integrating the local companies.

  20. PBL og de sammensatte hold på kandidatuddannelser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engen, Mie; Fallov, Mia Arp; Jensen, Rune Hagel Skaarup

    Denne rapport omhandler pædagogiske udfordringer og muligheder i Aalborgs Problembaserede Læringstilgang (PBL), når den omsættes til pædagogisk og didaktisk handling på kandidatuddannelser med sammensatte hold. Sammensatte hold betyder i denne sammenhæng kandidatuddannelser, hvor de optagne stude...

  1. Course holding by cyclists and moped riders. (Revised version).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godhelp, J. & Wouters, P.I.J.

    1980-01-01

    Course holding by cyclists and moped riders includes both steering alongside a course and stabilising the vehicle. Inability to hold course may lead to conflicts with other road users. To design safe bicycle and moped facilities and to consider the safety of those existing, knowledge about

  2. Evaluation of Manometric Measures during Tongue-Hold Swallows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doeltgen, Sebastian H.; Witte, Ulrike; Gumbley, Freya; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Based on visual inspection, prior research documented increased movement of the posterior pharyngeal wall in healthy volunteers during tongue-hold swallows. This manometric study investigated the immediate effects of the tongue-hold maneuver on pharyngeal peak pressure generation, duration of pressure generation, and pressure slope…

  3. 12 CFR 925.22 - Adjustments in stock holdings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjustments in stock holdings. 925.22 Section... ASSOCIATES MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Stock Requirements § 925.22 Adjustments in stock holdings. (a) Adjustment in general. A Bank may from time to time increase or decrease the amount of stock any member is required to...

  4. A pacemaker for asystole in breath-holding spells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legge, Leah M; Kantoch, Michal J; Seshia, Shashi S; Soni, Reeni

    2002-01-01

    Two cases of young children with frequent severe breath-holding spells complicated by prolonged asystole and seizures are reported. A ventricular pacemaker was implanted in each child, and both have subsequently remained free of syncope, although they continue to exhibit breath-holding behaviour. PMID:20046299

  5. 7 CFR 981.52 - Holding requirement and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Holding requirement and delivery. 981.52 Section 981.52 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... delivery. Each handler shall, at all times, hold in his possession or under his control, in proper storage...

  6. 7 CFR 993.57 - Holding requirement and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Holding requirement and delivery. 993.57 Section 993... delivery. Each handler shall at all times, hold, in his possession or under his control, in proper storage... require that such delivery consist of natural condition prunes or it may arrange for such delivery to...

  7. Sulfurization Study on the Ag and Ag-Pd Reflectors for GaN-Based LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. H.; Liu, W. C.; Lin, Y. C.; Chung, C. C.; Zeng, W. J.; Chu, W. J.; Chung, T. Y.; Liu, C. Y.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we have established a sulfurization resistance test, which is an immersion process in 0.01 M Na2S solution for 10 min. By using this process, we found that the sulfurized Ag reflector drops significantly over 52%. However, the Ag-Pd alloy reflector does not drop as much as the Ag reflector. The minimum reduction rate (around 20%) occurs at the Ag-Pd reflector with a Pd content of 3.72 at.%. It means that there is an optimal surface Pd content (around 3.72 at.%) for the reduction in reflectivity. Above, two effects of Pd alloying atoms on the sulfurization of the surface Ag atoms have been drawn, which are (1) chemical-state change effect and (2) surface microstructure effect. We found that the chemical-state change effect retards the sulfurization of the surface Ag atoms, but the surface microstructure effect (increase in Ag (111) plane) promotes the sulfurization of the surface Ag atoms. Here, we believe that these two opposite effects explain that there is an optimal Pd content on the Ag-Pd surface for the resistance of the sulfurization on the Ag surface.

  8. Operation of the AGS polarized beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    A polarized proton physics run took place during January, 1988, at the Brookhaven AGS. It is the purpose of this paper to review the tune-up period preceding that run. This was the third such run at the AGS; the others occurred in June of 1984 and February of 1986. Some comparisons will be drawn among these. A thorough review of the history and hardware associated with the acceleration of polarized protons at the AGS can be found in the proceedings of the last meeting of this group at Protvino and will not be repeated here. 2 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  9. Cash Holdings Policy: a Dynamic Analysis of Brazilian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadwa Muhieddine Dahrouge

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates how corporate cash holdings were adjusted over time for Brazilian companies during the crisis of 2008-2009. We adopt a dynamic model of corporate cash holdings to evaluate the main determinants for the speed of adjustment of cash holdings at the optimum level. We find evidence that: a the adjustment costs of Brazilian companies are high implying a delay in reaching the optimum level of cash; b the low speed adjustment to the optimum level is due to the limited availability of credit and the high cost of bank debt; c during crisis, the changes in working capital are positively related to the level of cash holdings providing evidence that companies prefer finance to growth with liquidity; d companies have looked for long-term financing to secure liquidity rather than investing on fixed assets, implying a negative relationship between investment and cash holding.

  10. Experimental and theoretical investigation on photocatalytic activities of 1D Ag/Ag2WO4 nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Danqing; Huang, Weicheng; Li, Long; Liu, Lu; Sun, Xiaojun; Liu, Bo; Yang, Bin; Guo, Chongshen

    2017-09-01

    Ag2WO4 is a significant photocatalyst that responds to UV light irradiation only, which greatly hinders it for further practical application for solar light. To address this problem, herein, 1D plasmonic Ag/Ag2WO4 photocatalysts have been fabricated by a successive process including hydrothermal synthesis to obtain Ag2WO4 followed by an additional in situ chemical-reduction process for Ag decoration. Then, the structural features, optical properties, and electronic structures of Ag2WO4 and Ag/Ag2WO4 nanowires were systematically investigated via a combination of theoretical calculations and experimental evidence. The plasmon-enhanced Ag/Ag2WO4 nanowires exhibited higher visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity, which performed a desired photodestruction ratio of 91.2% on methylene blue within 60 min and good stability in five cycles. The Ag decoration greatly facilitates visible-light harvesting and thus promotes photogenerated radical oxidation to dye, which is evidenced by the higher hydroxyl radical level of Ag/Ag2WO4 detected in the ESR test during the photocatalytic process. The theoretical calculation based on density functional theory indicates that Ag nanoparticles formed on the surface of Ag2WO4 could narrow the band gap of Ag2WO4. In addition, the surface plasmon resonance absorption effect and fast charge transfer effect in the metal-semiconductor system contribute to the photocatalytic performance of Ag/Ag2WO4.

  11. AgSat Areas of Interest

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — The AgSat Areas of Interest map contains area polygons where satellite imagery will be collected for the Farm Service Agency (FSA) to provide imagery coverage for...

  12. Comparative toxicity study of Ag, Au, and Ag-Au bimetallic nanoparticles on Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Albee, Brian; Alemayehu, Matti; Diaz, Rocio; Ingham, Leigha; Kamal, Shawn; Rodriguez, Maritza; Bishnoi, Sandra Whaley

    2010-09-01

    A comparative assessment of the 48-h acute toxicity of aqueous nanoparticles synthesized using the same methodology, including Au, Ag, and Ag-Au bimetallic nanoparticles, was conducted to determine their ecological effect in freshwater environments through the use of Daphnia magna, using their mortality as a toxicological endpoint. D. magna are one of the standard organisms used for ecotoxicity studies due to their sensitivity to chemical toxicants. Particle suspensions used in toxicity testing were well-characterized through a combination of absorbance measurements, atomic force or electron microscopy, flame atomic absorption spectrometry, and dynamic light scattering to determine composition, aggregation state, and particle size. The toxicity of all nanoparticles tested was found to be dose and composition dependent. The concentration of Au nanoparticles that killed 50% of the test organisms (LC(50)) ranged from 65-75 mg/L. In addition, three different sized Ag nanoparticles (diameters = 36, 52, and 66 nm) were studied to analyze the toxicological effects of particle size on D. magna; however, it was found that toxicity was not a function of size and ranged from 3-4 μg/L for all three sets of Ag nanoparticles tested. This was possibly due to the large degree of aggregation when these nanoparticles were suspended in standard synthetic freshwater. Moreover, the LC(50) values for Ag-Au bimetallic nanoparticles were found to be between that of Ag and Au but much closer to that of Ag. The bimetallic particles containing 80% Ag and 20% Au were found to have a significantly lower toxicity to Daphnia (LC(50) of 15 μg/L) compared to Ag nanoparticles, while the toxicity of the nanoparticles containing 20% Ag and 80% Au was greater than expected at 12 μg/L. The comparison results confirm that Ag nanoparticles were much more toxic than Au nanoparticles, and that the introduction of gold into silver nanoparticles may lower their environmental impact by lowering the amount

  13. BNL AGS - a context for kaon factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littenberg, L.S.

    1983-05-01

    Figure 1 shows the Brookhaven site with the AGS-CBA complex highlighted. In this photograph the AGS is dwarfed by CBA and indeed during the past few years future plans for particle physics at BNL have been dominated by this enormous project. However, very recently interest in future physics use of the AGS has undergone a strong revival. Indeed, since the beginning of this year, two projects for augmenting the AGS have been proposed. Such projects could keep the AGS viable as a research machine for many years to come. In general such schemes will also improve the performance and increase the versatility of the CBA, and so are doubly valuable. It should be kept in mind that in spite of the fact the AGS has been perhaps the most fruitful machine in the history of high energy physics, its full capacities have never been exploited. Even without improvements at least one generation of rare K decay experiments beyond those currently launched seems feasible. Beyond that a major effort at any of the experiments discussed above could take it to the point where it would be limited by intrinsic physics background. To pursue a full program of physics at this level one would want to increase the intensity of the AGS as described. A ten-fold increase in K flux would remove such experiments from the category of all-out technological assaults and render them manageable by reasonably small groups of physicists. In addition, certain other, cleaner experiments, e.g., K/sub L/ 0 → e + e - or e + e - π 0 , could be pushed to limits unobtainable at the present AGS. The increased flux would also be welcomed by the neutrino and hypernuclear physics programs. Even experiments which do not at present require higher fluxes would benefit through the availability of purer beams and cleaner conditions

  14. Sonochemical synthesis of Ag/AgCl nanocubes and their efficient visible-light-driven photocatalytic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Deliang; Yoo, Seung Hwa; Huang, Qingsong; Ali, Ghafar; Cho, Sung Oh

    2012-04-23

    A novel one-step sonochemical approach to synthesize a plasmonic photocatalyst of AgCl nanocubes (ca. 115 nm in edge length) with a small amount of Ag metal species is presented. The nanoscale Ag/AgCl hybrid photocatalysts with cubic morphology are readily formed under ambient ultrasonic conditions and neither external heat treatment nor reducing agents are required. The size of the Ag/AgCl photocatalysts could be controlled by changing the concentrations of Ag(+) ions and polyvinylpyrrolidone molecules in precursor solutions. The compositions, microstructures, influencing factors, and possible growth mechanism of the Ag/AgCl hybrid nanocubes were systematically investigated. The Ag/AgCl photocatalysts show excellent photocatalytic performance for degradation of various dye molecules under visible light. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Reproducibility of BOLD signal change induced by breath holding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magon, Stefano; Basso, Gianpaolo; Farace, Paolo; Ricciardi, Giuseppe Kenneth; Beltramello, Alberto; Sbarbati, Andrea

    2009-04-15

    Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) contrast is influenced by some physiological factors such as blood flow and blood volume that can be a source of variability in fMRI analysis. Previous studies proposed to use the cerebrovascular response data to normalize or calibrate BOLD maps in order to reduce variability of fMRI data both among brain areas in single subject analysis and across subjects. Breath holding is one of the most widely used methods to investigate the vascular reactivity. However, little is known about the robustness and reproducibility of this procedure. In this study we investigated three different breath holding periods. Subjects were asked to hold their breath for 9, 15 or 21 s in three separate runs and the fMRI protocol was repeated after 15 to 20 days. Our data show that the BOLD response to breath holding after inspiration results in a complex shape due to physiological factors that influence the signal variation with a timing that is highly reproducible. Nevertheless, the reproducibility of the magnitude of the cerebrovascular response to CO(2), expressed as amplitude of BOLD signal and number of responding voxels, strongly depends on duration of breath holding periods. Breath holding period of 9 s results in high variability of the magnitude of the response while longer breath holding durations produce more robust and reproducible BOLD responses.

  16. Transformation of Ag nanocubes into Ag-Au hollow nanostructures with enriched Ag contents to improve SERS activity and chemical stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yin; Zhang, Qiang; Fu, Zheng-Wen; Qin, Dong

    2014-03-12

    We report a strategy to complement the galvanic replacement reaction between Ag nanocubes and HAuCl4 with co-reduction by ascorbic acid (AA) for the formation of Ag-Au hollow nanostructures with greatly enhanced SERS activity. Specifically, in the early stage of synthesis, the Ag nanocubes are sharpened at corners and edges because of the selective deposition of Au and Ag atoms at these sites. In the following steps, the pure Ag in the nanocubes is constantly converted into Ag(+) ions to generate voids owing to the galvanic reaction with HAuCl4, but these released Ag(+) ions are immediately reduced back to Ag atoms and are co-deposited with Au atoms onto the nanocube templates. We observe distinctive SERS properties for the Ag-Au hollow nanostructures at visible and near-infrared excitation wavelengths. When plasmon damping is eliminated by using an excitation wavelength of 785 nm, the SERS activity of the Ag-Au hollow nanostructures is 15- and 33-fold stronger than those of the original Ag nanocubes and the Ag-Au nanocages prepared by galvanic replacement without co-reduction, respectively. Additionally, Ag-Au hollow nanostructures embrace considerably improved stability in an oxidizing environment such as aqueous H2O2 solution. Collectively, our work suggests that the Ag-Au hollow nanostructures will find applications in SERS detection and imaging.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of Ag/AgBrO{sub 3} photocatalyst with high photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Limin, E-mail: songlmnk@sohu.com [College of Environment and Chemical Engineering & State Key Laboratory of Hollow-Fiber Membrane Materials and Membrane Processes, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin, 300387 (China); Li, Tongtong [College of Environment and Chemical Engineering & State Key Laboratory of Hollow-Fiber Membrane Materials and Membrane Processes, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin, 300387 (China); Zhang, Shujuan [College of Science, Tianjin University of Science & Technology, Tianjin, 300457 (China)

    2016-10-01

    A new Ag/AgBrO{sub 3} photocatalyst was prepared by mixing aqueous solutions of AgNO{sub 3} and NaBrO{sub 3}. The catalyst’s structure and performance were investigated with X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The UV–vis absorption spectrum of Ag/AgBrO{sub 3} exhibits a band gap of 3.97 eV. The results show that the Ag/AgBrO{sub 3} semiconductor can be excited by ultraviolet–visible light. The photodegradation of Rhodamine B displayed much higher photocatalytic activity than that of N-doped TiO{sub 2} under the same experimental conditions. Moreover, ·OH and ·O{sub 2}{sup −} generated in the photocatalysis played a key role of the photodegradation of Rhodamine B. - Highlights: • Ag/AgBrO{sub 3} with higher photodegradation ability was synthesized. • ·OH and ·O{sub 2}{sup −} radicals were the main active species in the oxidation of RhB. • The possible reaction mechanism was discussed in details.

  18. Resonance Transitions in the Spectra of the Ag6+–Ag8+ Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Ryabtsev

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of silver, excited in a vacuum spark, was recorded in the region 150–350 Å on a 3-m grazing incidence spectrograph. The resonance 4dk–(4dk−15p + 4dk−14f + 4p54dk+1 was studied in the Ag6+–Ag8+ spectra (Ag VII–Ag IX with k = 5–3, respectively. Several hundred lines were identified with the aid of the Cowan code and orthogonal operator technique calculations. The energy levels were found and the transition probabilities were calculated.

  19. RHIC/AGS Online Model Environments: Experiences and Design for AGS Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.; Niederer, J.; Satogata, T.; Alai Tafti, A.; Tsoupas, N.; Zeijts, J. van

    1999-01-01

    The RHIC/AGS online modeling environment, a general client-server modeling package that supports cdev and straightforward integration of diverse computational modeling engines (CMEs), is being adapted to model the AGS and Booster at BNL. This implementation uses a version of MAD modified at BNL that allows traditional lattice structure analysis, single pass beam line analysis, multi-particle tracking, interactive graphics, and the use of field maps. The on-line model system is still under development, a real working prototype exists and is being tested. This paper describes the system and experience with its design and use for AGS and AGS Booster online modeling

  20. Synthesis of Ag-liposome nano composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barani, Hossein; Montazer, Majid; Toliyat, Tayebeh; Samadi, Nasrin

    2010-12-01

    Silver nanoparticles were synthesized and stabilized by a simple, environment-friendly method in a liposomes structure. Liposomes were prepared by facing lecithin to the aqueous-phase solutions while stirring vigorously. The ratio of lecithin concentration to silver nitrate (K(Lec/Ag) = [Lecithin]/[AgNO(3)]) is the influencing factor in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The stability, size distribution, and antibacterial properties of synthesized silver nanoparticles were studied by ultraviolet (UV)-visible, dynamic light scattering, and antibacterial assay. The UV spectra indicated a single symmetric extinction peak at 400 nm, confirming the spherical shape of the synthesized silver nanoparticles. A high K(Lec/Ag) value leads to a reduction in the intensity of extinction spectra and increases the size of Ag-liposomes nanocomposites. The large Ag-liposomes nanocomposites are transformed to the smaller Ag-liposomes nanocomposites (from 342 to 190 nm) due to sonication treatment. The stabilized silver nanoparticles with various lecithin concentrations showed a good antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive bacterium, and Escherichia coli, a Gram-negative bacterium.

  1. Fabrication and size control of Ag nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Farbod

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available  The objective of this research was to fabricate Ag nanoparticles and control their sizes. Colloidal Ag nanoparticles with particle size of 30 nm were prepared by dissolving AgNO3 in ethanol and through the chemical reduction of Ag+ in alcohol solution. To control the nanoparticle size, different samples were fabricated by changing the AgNO3 and stabilizer concentrations and the effects of different factors on the shape and size of nanoparticles were investigated. The samples were characterized using SEM and EDX analysis. The results showed that by increasing the AgNO3 concentration, the average size of nanoparticles increases and nanoparticles lose their spherical shape. Also, we found that by using the stabilizer, it is possible to produce stable nanoparticles but increasing the stabilizer concentration caused an increase in size of nanoparticles. Fabrication of nanoparticles without using stabilizer was achieved but the results showed the nanoparticles size had a growth of 125 nm/h in the alcoholic media.

  2. New antiaxillary odour deodorant made with antimicrobial Ag-zeolite (silver-exchanged zeolite).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakane, T; Gomyo, H; Sasaki, I; Kimoto, Y; Hanzawa, N; Teshima, Y; Namba, T

    2006-08-01

    The causative substances for axillary osmidrosis, which are often found in apocrine sweat, are the decomposed/denatured products of short-chain fatty acid and other biological metabolite compounds produced by axillary-resident bacteria. Conventional underarm deodorants suppress the process of odour production mostly by the following mechanism: (1) suppression of perspiration, (2) reduction in numbers of resident bacteria, (3) deodorization and (4) masking. The most important and effective method to reduce odour is to suppress the growth of resident bacteria with antimicrobials, which have several drawbacks, especially in their safety aspect. To solve these problems, we focused on Ag-zeolite (silver-exchanged zeolite) that hold stable Ag, an inorganic bactericidal agent, in its structure, and therefore, poses less risk in safety. Its bactericidal effect on skin-resident bacteria was found to be excellent and comparable with that of triclosan, a most frequently used organic antimicrobial in this product category. The dose-response study of Ag-zeolite powder spray (0-40 w/w%) using 39 volunteers revealed that 5-40 w/w% Ag-zeolite could show a sufficient antimicrobial effect against skin-resident bacteria. The comparison study using 0.2 w/w% triclosan as the control and 10 w/w% Ag-zeolite indicated that: (1) one application of the powder spray containing 10 w/w% Ag-zeolite could show a sufficient antimicrobial effect against the resident bacteria and its effect continued for 24 h, (2) a powder spray containing 0.2 w/w% triclosan was unable to show a sufficient antimicrobial effect, and (3) no adverse event was observed. These studies show that Ag-zeolite has a superior antimicrobial ability that is rarely found in conventional antimicrobials used in deodorant products and a strong antiaxillary odour deodorant ability because of its long-lasting effect. During clinical study, patch tests with humans and other clinical studies of this product showed no adverse events

  3. Effect of holding office on the behavior of politicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enemark, Daniel; Gibson, Clark C.; McCubbins, Mathew D.; Seim, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    Reciprocity is central to our understanding of politics. Most political exchanges—whether they involve legislative vote trading, interbranch bargaining, constituent service, or even the corrupt exchange of public resources for private wealth—require reciprocity. But how does reciprocity arise? Do government officials learn reciprocity while holding office, or do recruitment and selection practices favor those who already adhere to a norm of reciprocity? We recruit Zambian politicians who narrowly won or lost a previous election to play behavioral games that provide a measure of reciprocity. This combination of regression discontinuity and experimental designs allows us to estimate the effect of holding office on behavior. We find that holding office increases adherence to the norm of reciprocity. This study identifies causal effects of holding office on politicians’ behavior. PMID:27856736

  4. Rock Equity Holdings, LLC - Clean Water Act Public Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of an Administrative Penalty Assessment in the form of an Expedited Storm Water Settlement Agreement against Rock Equity Holdings, LLC, for alleged violations at The Cove at Kettlestone/98th Street Reconstruction located at 3015

  5. 29 CFR 452.40 - Prior office holding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Candidacy for Office; Reasonable Qualifications § 452.40 Prior office holding. A.... 26 26 Wirtz v. Hotel, Motel and Club Employees Union, Local 6, 391 U.S. 492 at 504. The Court stated...

  6. Postural Change Alters Autonomic Responses to Breath-Holding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Indu; Medow, Marvin S.; Clarke, Debbie; Ocon, Anthony; Stewart, Julian M.

    2011-01-01

    We used breath-holding during inspiration as a model to study the effect of pulmonary stretch on sympathetic nerve activity. Twelve healthy subjects (7 females, 5 males; 19–27 yrs) were tested while they performed an inspiratory breath-hold, both supine and during a 60° head-up tilt (HUT 60). Heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), respiration, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), oxygen saturation (SaO2) and end tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) were recorded. Cardiac output (CO) and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were calculated. While breath-holding, ETCO2 increased significantly from 41±2 to 60±2 Torr during supine (pBreath-holding results in initial reductions of MSNA, MAP and HR by the pulmonary stretch reflex followed by increased sympathetic activity related to the arterial baroreflex and chemoreflex. PMID:20012144

  7. Bank holding companies' participation in credit insurance underwriting

    OpenAIRE

    Paul R. Watro

    1982-01-01

    A discussion of the public and corporate benefits associated with credit insurance underwriting by bank holding companies in the Fourth Federal Reserve District, featuring rate reduction guidelines, performance ratios, and earnings comparisons.

  8. Effect of holding office on the behavior of politicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enemark, Daniel; Gibson, Clark C; McCubbins, Mathew D; Seim, Brigitte

    2016-11-29

    Reciprocity is central to our understanding of politics. Most political exchanges-whether they involve legislative vote trading, interbranch bargaining, constituent service, or even the corrupt exchange of public resources for private wealth-require reciprocity. But how does reciprocity arise? Do government officials learn reciprocity while holding office, or do recruitment and selection practices favor those who already adhere to a norm of reciprocity? We recruit Zambian politicians who narrowly won or lost a previous election to play behavioral games that provide a measure of reciprocity. This combination of regression discontinuity and experimental designs allows us to estimate the effect of holding office on behavior. We find that holding office increases adherence to the norm of reciprocity. This study identifies causal effects of holding office on politicians' behavior.

  9. Antibacterial Ag/a-C nanocomposite coatings: The influence of nano-galvanic a-C and Ag couples on Ag ionization rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manninen, N.K., E-mail: nora.sousa@dem.uc.pt [SEG-CEMUC, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra, 3030-788 Coimbra (Portugal); GRF-CFUM, Physics Department, University of Minho, Campus of Azurém, 4800-058 Guimarães (Portugal); Calderon, S. [SEG-CEMUC, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra, 3030-788 Coimbra (Portugal); GRF-CFUM, Physics Department, University of Minho, Campus of Azurém, 4800-058 Guimarães (Portugal); Carvalho, I. [GRF-CFUM, Physics Department, University of Minho, Campus of Azurém, 4800-058 Guimarães (Portugal); CEB—Centre of Biological Engineering, LIBRO-Laboratório de Investigação em Biofilmes Rosário Oliveira, University of Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Henriques, M. [CEB—Centre of Biological Engineering, LIBRO-Laboratório de Investigação em Biofilmes Rosário Oliveira, University of Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Cavaleiro, A. [SEG-CEMUC, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra, 3030-788 Coimbra (Portugal); Carvalho, S. [SEG-CEMUC, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra, 3030-788 Coimbra (Portugal); GRF-CFUM, Physics Department, University of Minho, Campus of Azurém, 4800-058 Guimarães (Portugal)

    2016-07-30

    Highlights: • Amorphous carbon (a-C), Ag/a-C and Ag coatings were deposited by magnetron sputtering. • a-C/Ag coating shows antibacterial activity against S. epidermidis. • The formation of nano-galvanic couples in a-C/Ag enhances the Ag{sup +} ionization rate. • The Ag{sup +} ionization occurs along with Ag nanoparticles agglomeration in 0.9% NaCl. - Abstract: Biofilm formation has been pointed as a major concern in different industrial applications, namely on biomedical implants and surgical instruments, which has prompted the development of new strategies for production of efficient antimicrobial surfaces. In this work, nano-galvanic couples were created to enhance the antibacterial properties of silver, by embedding it into amorphous carbon (a-C) matrix. The developed Ag/a-C nanocomposite coatings, deposited by magnetron sputtering, revealed an outstanding antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis, promoting a total reduction in biofilm formation with no bacteria counts in all dilution. The open circuit potential (OCP) tests in 0.9% NaCl confirmed that a-C shows a positive OCP value, in contrast to Ag coating, thus enhancing the ionization of biocidal Ag{sup +} due to the nano-galvanic couple activation. This result was confirmed by the inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), which revealed a higher Ag ionization rate in the nanocomposite coating in comparison with the Ag coating. The surface of Ag/a-C and Ag coatings immersed in 0.9% NaCl were monitored by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) over a period of 24 h, being found that the Ag ionization determined by ICP-OES was accompanied by an Ag nanoparticles coalescence and agglomeration in Ag/a-C coating.

  10. Antibacterial Ag/a-C nanocomposite coatings: The influence of nano-galvanic a-C and Ag couples on Ag ionization rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manninen, N.K.; Calderon, S.; Carvalho, I.; Henriques, M.; Cavaleiro, A.; Carvalho, S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Amorphous carbon (a-C), Ag/a-C and Ag coatings were deposited by magnetron sputtering. • a-C/Ag coating shows antibacterial activity against S. epidermidis. • The formation of nano-galvanic couples in a-C/Ag enhances the Ag + ionization rate. • The Ag + ionization occurs along with Ag nanoparticles agglomeration in 0.9% NaCl. - Abstract: Biofilm formation has been pointed as a major concern in different industrial applications, namely on biomedical implants and surgical instruments, which has prompted the development of new strategies for production of efficient antimicrobial surfaces. In this work, nano-galvanic couples were created to enhance the antibacterial properties of silver, by embedding it into amorphous carbon (a-C) matrix. The developed Ag/a-C nanocomposite coatings, deposited by magnetron sputtering, revealed an outstanding antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis, promoting a total reduction in biofilm formation with no bacteria counts in all dilution. The open circuit potential (OCP) tests in 0.9% NaCl confirmed that a-C shows a positive OCP value, in contrast to Ag coating, thus enhancing the ionization of biocidal Ag + due to the nano-galvanic couple activation. This result was confirmed by the inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), which revealed a higher Ag ionization rate in the nanocomposite coating in comparison with the Ag coating. The surface of Ag/a-C and Ag coatings immersed in 0.9% NaCl were monitored by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) over a period of 24 h, being found that the Ag ionization determined by ICP-OES was accompanied by an Ag nanoparticles coalescence and agglomeration in Ag/a-C coating.

  11. Both released silver ions and particulate Ag contribute to the toxicity of AgNPs to earthworm Eisenia fetida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, L.; , van, Gestel C.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    To disentangle the contribution of ionic and nanoparticulate Ag to the overall toxicity to the earthworm Eisenia fetida, a semi-permeable membrane strategy was used to separate Ag+ released from silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in an aqueous exposure. Internal Ag fractionation, activities of antioxidant

  12. Search for chirality in 109Ag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timar, J.; Nyako, B.M.; Berek, G.; Gal, J.; Kalinka, G.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Molnar, J.; Zolnai, L.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The existence of nuclear chirality is one of the most intriguing questions of contemporary high-spin nuclear structure studies. Rotational doublet-band candidates for chiral structures have been observed mostly in two regions of the nuclear chart: around 134 Pr, and around 104 Rh. In this second region chirality in the Rh isotopes are rather well studied, chiral doubling have also been observed in 100 Tc, however, results obtained for chirality in the studied Ag nuclei ( 105 Ag and 106 Ag) look rather contradictory. Thus, it is interesting to study these doublet bands in the nearby higher-mass Ag nuclei. In order to search for a chiral-candidate partner band to the yrast πg 9/2 v(h 11/2 ) 2 band in 109 Ag, high-spin states of this nucleus have been studied using the 96 Zr( 18 O,p4n) reaction. The experiment was performed at iThemba LABS using 8 Clover detectors of the AFRODITE array and the DIAMANT charged-particle array to detect the γ-rays and the charged particles, respectively. Altogether ∼140 million γγ-coincidence events were collected. Approximately 10 million events of them correspond to the reaction channel producing 109 Ag. No chiral candidate partner band has been found to the πg 9/2 v(h 11/2 ) 2 band with this statistics, however, the level scheme could be extended by several new levels and γ-transitions. A preliminary level scheme of 109 Ag obtained from the ongoing data analysis is shown in Fig. 1

  13. Corporate Cash Holding Behavior and Financial Environment: A Critical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Tahir, Muhammad Sohail; Alifiah, Mohammad Norfian

    2015-01-01

    Research on corporate liquidity management practices has mainly focused on the trade-off between the potential costs and benefits of holding cash. However, in order to improve the firm financial performance, much remained to be understood, particularly, the cash holding behavior of firms. Furthermore, this study reveals that contemporary literature in the area of cash management may overlook the industry and institutional context of firms at sector level. In addition, sectors are important to...

  14. Cembrit Holding A/S: At the crossroads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2017-01-01

    This is a Teaching Note (product number: 8B17M008) for the "Cembrit Holding A/S: At the crossroads" case (product number - 9B17M008) published by Ivey Publishing.......This is a Teaching Note (product number: 8B17M008) for the "Cembrit Holding A/S: At the crossroads" case (product number - 9B17M008) published by Ivey Publishing....

  15. Impact of breath holding on cardiovascular respiratory and cerebrovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujic, Zeljko; Breskovic, Toni

    2012-06-01

    Human underwater breath-hold diving is a fascinating example of applied environmental physiology. In combination with swimming, it is one of the most popular forms of summer outdoor physical activities. It is performed by a variety of individuals ranging from elite breath-hold divers, underwater hockey and rugby players, synchronized and sprint swimmers, spear fishermen, sponge harvesters and up to recreational swimmers. Very few data currently exist concerning the influence of regular breath holding on possible health risks such as cerebrovascular, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. A literature search of the PubMed electronic search engine using keywords 'breath-hold diving' and 'apnoea diving' was performed. This review focuses on recent advances in knowledge regarding possibly harmful physiological changes and/or potential health risks associated with breath-hold diving. Available evidence indicates that deep breath-hold dives can be very dangerous and can cause serious acute health problems such a collapse of the lungs, barotrauma at descent and ascent, pulmonary oedema and alveolar haemorrhage, cardiac arrest, blackouts, nitrogen narcosis, decompression sickness and death. Moreover, even shallow apnoea dives, which are far more frequent, can present a significant health risk. The state of affairs is disturbing as athletes, as well as recreational individuals, practice voluntary apnoea on a regular basis. Long-term health risks of frequent maximal breath holds are at present unknown, but should be addressed in future research. Clearly, further studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms related to the possible development or worsening of different clinical disorders in recreational or competitive breath holding and to determine the potential changes in training/competition regimens in order to prevent these adverse events.

  16. The carbon holdings of northern Ecuador's mangrove forests

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Stuart E.; Lovette, John; Borbor, Mercy; Millones, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Within a GIS environment, we combine field measures of mangrove diameter, mangrove species distribution, and mangrove density with remotely sensed measures of mangrove location and mangrove canopy cover to estimate the mangrove carbon holdings of northern Ecuador. We find that the four northern estuaries of Ecuador contain approximately 7,742,999 t (plus or minus 15.47 percent) of standing carbon. Of particular high carbon holdings are the Rhizophora mangle dominated mangrove stands found in-...

  17. Estimating animal movement contacts between holdings of different production types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Tom; Sisson, Scott A; Lewerin, Susanna Stenberg; Wennergren, Uno

    2010-06-01

    Animal movement poses a great risk for disease transmission between holdings. Heterogeneous contact patterns are known to influence the dynamics of disease transmission and should be included in modeling. Using pig movement data from Sweden as an example, we present a method for quantification of between holding contact probabilities based on different production types. The data contained seven production types: Sow pool center, Sow pool satellite, Farrow-to-finish, Nucleus herd, Piglet producer, Multiplying herd and Fattening herd. The method also estimates how much different production types will determine the contact pattern of holdings that have more than one type. The method is based on Bayesian analysis and uses data from central databases of animal movement. Holdings with different production types are estimated to vary in the frequency of contacts as well as in what type of holding they have contact with, and the direction of the contacts. Movements from Multiplying herds to Sow pool centers, Nucleus herds to other Nucleus herds, Sow pool centers to Sow pool satellites, Sow pool satellites to Sow pool centers and Nucleus herds to Multiplying herds were estimated to be most common relative to the abundance of the production types. We show with a simulation study that these contact patterns may also be expected to result in substantial differences in disease transmission via animal movements, depending on the index holding. Simulating transmission for a 1 year period showed that the median number of infected holdings was 1 (i.e. only the index holding infected) if the infection started at a Fattening herd and 2161 if the infection started on a Nucleus herd. We conclude that it is valuable to include production types in models of disease transmission and the method presented in this paper may be used for such models when appropriate data is available. We also argue that keeping records of production types is of great value since it may be helpful in risk

  18. Cyanotic breath-holding spell: a life-threatening complication after radical resection of a cervicomedullary ganglioglioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Hironori; Yoshida, Yuya; Niida, Yo; Hasegawa, Mitsuhiro; Yamashita, Junkoh

    2005-01-01

    Cyanotic breath-holding spell is a benign and self-limiting disease of young children but occasionally associated with sudden, unexpected death. The authors report a rare case in a 2-year-old girl with a severe form that started after radical resection of a cervicomedullary ganglioglioma. She was admitted to our hospital because of delayed and unstable gait. Since magnetic resonance imaging showed a cervicomedullary tumor, she underwent a radical resection and histology showed the tumor to be a ganglioglioma. Postoperatively, the function of the lower cranial nerves and cerebellum deteriorated and hemiparesis on the left became apparent, but she returned to the preoperative state in a few months. In addition, mild sleep apnea (Ondine curse) and severe cyanotic breath-holding spells occurred. The former responded to medication but the latter failed and continued several times per day with a rapid onset and progression of hypoxemia, loss of consciousness, sweating and opisthotonos. Five months after the operation, the patient returned home with a portable oxygen saturation monitor equipped with an alarm. This case indicates that cyanotic breath-holding spell, as well as sleep apnea, is critical during the early postoperative period. This is the first report observing that such spells may occur as a complication of radical resection of a cervicomedullary tumor. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Molecular dynamics study on glass and molten state of AgI-AgPO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Shigeki

    2017-08-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation on molten and glass state of AgI-AgPO3 have been performed to investigate the structural features and transport properties. In MD, the screened Born-Mayer type potentials including the effect of polarizability of ions have been used. The structure, conductivity, shear viscosity, and Voronoi polyhedron are discussed in relation with the temperature change.

  20. Precipitation of Ag2Te in the thermoelectric material AgSbTe2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugar, Joshua D.; Medlin, Douglas L.

    2009-01-01

    The microstructure of AgSbTe 2 , prepared by solidification, is investigated using electron microscopy. During solidification and thermal treatment, the material separates into a two-phase mixture of a rocksalt phase, which is Ag 22 Sb 28 Te 50 , and silver telluride, Ag 2 Te. Ag 2 Te formation results either from eutectic solidification (large lamellar structures), or by solid-state precipitation (fine-scale particles). The crystal structure of the AgSbTe 2 phase determined by electron diffraction is consistent with a rocksalt structure that has a disordered cation sublattice. A preferred crystallographic orientation relationship at the interface between the matrix and the low-temperature monoclinic Ag 2 Te phase is defined and discussed. This orientation relationship is observed for both second-phase morphologies. In both cases, the orientation relationship originates from a topotactic (cube-on-cube) alignment of the Te sublattices in the initially cubic Ag 2 Te and the matrix at elevated temperature. This Te sublattice alignment is retained as the Ag 2 Te undergoes a cubic-to-monoclinic transformation during cooling. This orientation relationship is observed for both second-phase morphologies.

  1. Oxygen electrosorption on Ag(111) and Ag(110) electrodes in in NaOH solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droog, J.M.M.

    1980-01-01

    The first stages of the anodic oxidation of Ag(111) and Ag(110) electrodes in NaOH solution were studied by potential sweep voltammetry and ellipsometry. It was found that in the potential region studied, dissolution of silver species and electrosorption of oxygen occur. The (110) face is much more

  2. Radiation hardness of LuAG:Ce and LuAG:Pr scintillator crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Derdzyan, M V; Belsky, A; Dujardin, C; Lecoq, P; Lucchini, M; Ovanesyan, K L; Pauwels, K; Pedrini, C; Petrosyan, A G

    2012-01-01

    Single crystals of LuAG:Ce, LuAG:Pr and un-doped LuAG were grown by the vertical Bridgman method and studied for radiation hardness under gamma-rays with doses in the range 10-10(5) Gy (Co-60). A wide absorption band peaking at around 600 nm springs up in all three types of crystals after the irradiations. The second band peaking at around 375 nm appears in both LuAG:Pr and un-doped LuAG. Compositional variations have been done to reveal the spectral behavior of induced color centers in more detail and to understand their origin. Similarities in behavior of Yb2+ centers in as-grown garnets are found, indicating that radiation induced color centers can be associated with residual trace amounts of Yb present in the raw materials. Un-doped LuAG and LuAG:Ce demonstrate moderate radiation hardness (the induced absorption coefficients being equal to 0.05-0.08 cm(-1) for accumulated doses of 10(3)-10(4) Gy), while LuAG:Pr is less radiation hard. The ways to improve the radiation hardness are discussed.

  3. Characterization of Ag/Ag2SO4 system as reference electrode for in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    except the graphene nanoplatelets, carbon nanotubes, paper film and titanium foil were obtained from Sigma. Aldrich. The Ag/Ag2SO4 RE was situated between two lay- ers of the separator from the edge of the working and counter electrodes, besides these electrodes were rigor- ously positioned relative to each other to ...

  4. Observation of a Ag protrusion on a Ag2S island using a scanning tunneling microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Ohno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A silver sulfide (Ag2S island as an ionic conductor in resistive switching memories was formed and a protrusion of silver from the Ag2S formed by an electrochemical reaction was observed using a scanning tunneling microscope.

  5. Single breath-hold MR imaging of liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sun Jeong; Kim, Seong Hee; Kim, Sun Hee; Chae, Yoo Soon; Chung, Chun Phil; Kim, Yang Sook

    1993-01-01

    Single breath-hold gradient echo images with Small Tip Angle Gradient Echo (STAGE) were evaluated in the study of liver in 16 patients (4 normal liver, 5 hepatoma, 5 cholangiocarcinoma, 1 hemangioma, 1 cavernous transformation of portal vein). We obtained one slice of gradient echo during single breath-hold at the level of pathology defined on conventional spin echo image. Single breath-hold gradient echo images were compared with spin echo images for image quality and artifacts. Single breath-hold gradient image showed improved resolution of vascular detail and excellent contrast between lesion and adjacent normal liver in hepatoma. Cholangiocarcinoma showed decreased contrast between lesion and biliary trees but improved contrast between lesion and blood vessel. Cavernous transformation of portal vein was noted as tortuous vessel of high signal intensity. Single breath-hold gradient echo scan increased vascular artifact, but decreased respiratory artifact leading to improved image quality. Single breath-hold technique can reduce imaging time and improve image quality and may be used as complementary method to the spin echo scan

  6. Brain metabolite values in children with breath-holding spells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calik M

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mustafa Calik,1 Dilek Sen Dokumaci,2 Suna Sarikaya,3 Mahmut Demir,4 Ilhan Isik,5 Halil Kazanasmaz,4 Cemil Kaya,4 Hasan Kandemir6 1Department of Pediatric Neurology, 2Department of Radiology, 3Department of Neurology, 4Department of Pediatrics, Harran University School of Medicine, 5Department of Pediatric Neurology, Eyyubiye Training and Research Hospital, 6Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Harran University School of Medicine, Sanliurfa, Turkey Abstract: Breath-holding spells are benign, paroxysmal events with apnea and postural tone changes after a crying episode in infants. The objective of this study was to investigate the pathologies in brain metabolite values in the absence of seizure in children with breath-holding spells by using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS. Brain MRS examination was performed on 18 children with breath-holding spells and 13 neurologically normal children who were included as the control group. There was no significant difference in terms of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA, choline (Cho, creatine (Cr, and myoinositol (mI levels and also in terms of NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, and mI/Cr ratios between the patients and the control group (all P>0.05. Our study suggested that there is no permanent neuronal damage in patients with breath-holding spells. This result confirms the previous studies, which reported no permanent neuronal damage in patients with breath-holding spells. Keywords: brain metabolite, children, breath holding, magnetic resonance spectroscopy 

  7. Leverage, Asymmetric Information, Firm Value, and Cash Holdings in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldea Mita Cheryta

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to analyze the effect of leverage and asymmetry information on the firm value through cash holding as mediation variable. The populations of this research were all the firms which listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange since 2012 – 2015. A sample of this research was saturated sample and census, consisted 56 firms related the population criteria. This research used secondary data from the firm financial report through path analysis method. This research showed that leverage had a negative effect on the cash holdings, asymmetry information had a negative effect on the firm value through cash holding, and cash holding had a negative effect on the firm value. With leverage and effect on cash, holding cannot affect the firm value, due to investor risk-averse, investor risk seeker, and neutral investor has their own point of view in assessing the company. Cash holdings can lead to asymmetric information that can lead to agency a conflict that can affect a company’s performance, so that indirectly, with the existence of asymmetry, information had an effect on the declining the firm value.

  8. Ternary Ag/epoxy adhesive with excellent overall performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yan-Hong; Liu, Yu; Huang, Gui-Wen; Shen, Xiao-Jun; Xiao, Hong-Mei; Fu, Shao-Yun

    2015-04-22

    Excellent electrical conductivity (EC) generally conflicts with high lap shear strength (LSS) for electrically conductive adhesives (ECAs) since EC increases while LSS decreases with increasing conductive filler content. In this work, the ECAs with the excellent overall performance are developed based on the ternary hybrid of Ag microflakes (Ag-MFs), Ag nanospheres (Ag-NSs), and Ag nanowires (Ag-NWs). First, a low silver content adhesive system is determined. Then, the effects of the relative contents of Ag fillers on the EC and the LSS are studied. It is shown that a small amount of Ag-NSs or Ag-NWs can dramatically improve the EC for the Ag-MF/epoxy adhesives. The Ag-NSs and Ag-NWs with appropriate contents have a synergistic effect in improving the EC. Meanwhile, the LSS of the as-prepared adhesive with the appropriate Ag contents reaches an optimal value. Both the EC and the LSS of the as-prepared ternary hybrid ECA with a low content of 40 wt % Ag are higher than those of the commercial ECAs filled with the Ag-MF content over 60 wt %. Finally, the ternary hybrid ECA with the optimal formulation is shown to be promising for printing the radio frequency identification tag antennas as an immediate application example.

  9. Ag-Ag2S/reduced graphene oxide hybrids used as long-wave UV radiation emitting nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyao; Xu, Ruoyu; Ling, Min; He, Guanjie

    2017-10-01

    We report a facile thermal decomposition approach to synthesize Ag-Ag2S/reduced graphene oxide (Ag-Ag2S/rGO), the Ag-Ag2S nanoparticles uniformly dispersed on reduced graphene oxide with diameters of 10-20 nm. The photoluminescence spectra of Ag-Ag2S/rGO showed two obvious emission peaks at 327 and 339 nm with the excitation wavelength at 287 nm. Compared with Ag-Ag2S heterostructured clusters with two peaks at 407 and 430 nm, it showed a big blue shift and higher intensity, which makes it a novel candidate for long-wave UV radiation emitting nanocomposite.

  10. First-principles study of surface plasmons on Ag(111) and H/Ag(111)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Jun; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2011-01-01

    Linear-response time-dependent density functional theory is used to investigate the relation between molecular bonding and surface plasmons for the model system H/Ag(111). We employ an orbital-dependent exchange-correlation functional to obtain a correct description of the Ag 3d band, which...... is crucial to avoid overscreening the plasmon by the s-d interband transitions. For the clean surface, this approach reproduces the experimental plasmon energies and dispersion to within 0.15 eV. Adsorption of hydrogen shifts and damps the Ag(111) surface plasmon and induces a new peak in the loss function...... at 0.6 eV below the Ag(111) plasmon peak. This feature originates from interband transitions between states located on the hydrogen atoms and states on the Ag surface atoms....

  11. HBcrAg Identifies Patients Failing to Achieve HBeAg Seroconversion Treated with Pegylated Interferon Alfa-2b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Ma

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Effective antiviral treatment can decrease HBcrAg levels in the serum. The NPVs of HBcrAg for predicting HBeAg seroconversion at 24-week follow-up was 100%, but the PPVs were not satisfactory (all <31%. The serum HBcrAg levels of the patients with HBeAg seroconversion at the end of the 24-week follow-up steadily declined or even became undetectable during the LTFU.

  12. Predictive role of serum HBsAg and HBcrAg kinetics in patients with HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B receiving pegylated interferon-based therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuaypen, N; Posuwan, N; Chittmittraprap, S; Hirankarn, N; Treeprasertsuk, S; Tanaka, Y; Shinkai, N; Poovorawan, Y; Tangkijvanich, P

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the role of serum hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) kinetics in predicting long-term outcome of pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN)-based therapy in patients with hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB). A total of 121 Thai patients with HBeAg-negative CHB recruited from a previous randomized trial of 48-week PEG-IFN alone or combined with entecavir were enrolled. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and HBcrAg levels were serially examined. Paired biopsy samples taken at baseline and after treatment were assessed for intrahepatic covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA). Persistent virologic remission (PVR, defined by persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA <2000 IU/mL) and HBsAg clearance at 3 years after treatment were 29% (35/121) and 9% (11/121) respectively. Baseline HBcrAg correlated with HBV DNA and cccDNA but not with HBsAg. Baseline HBsAg, as well as HBsAg and HBcrAg, declines were associated with PVR, while HBsAg decline was predictive of HBsAg clearance. High baseline antigen levels (HBsAg ≥3.4 log 10 IU/mL plus HBcrAg ≥3.7 log 10 U/mL) yielded high negative predictive values of PVR (45/50, 90%) and HBsAg clearance (50/50, 100%). At week 12, declines of HBsAg, HBcrAg and both antigens combined of <0.5 log 10 yielded negative predictive values for PVR of 90% (71/79), 82% (61/74) and 96% (48/50) respectively. Quantitative HBcrAg was significantly associated with cccDNA in HBeAg-negative CHB. This novel antigen, together with HBsAg, could identify patients with low probability of PVR and HBsAg clearance in long-term follow-up. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A biodynamic understanding of dietborne and waterborne Ag uptake from Ag NPs in the sediment-dwelling oligochaete, Tubifex tubifex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tangaa, Stine Rosendal; Selck, Henriette; Winther-Nielsen, Margrethe

    2018-01-01

    environmental risk assessment. Here we characterized unidirectional parameters for uptake and elimination of silver (Ag) in the sediment-dwelling oligochaete Tubifex tubifex after waterborne (0.01–47 nmol Ag/L) and dietborne (0.4–482 nmol Ag/g dw sed.) exposures to Ag NPs and AgNO3, respectively. Worms...... accumulated Ag from AgNO3 more efficiently than from Ag NPs during waterborne exposure. The Ag uptake rate constants from water were 8.2 L/g/d for AgNO3 and 0.34 L/g/d for Ag NPs. Silver accumulated from both forms was efficiently retained in tissues, as no significant loss of Ag was detected after up to 20...... days of depuration in clean media. High mortality (~50%) during depuration (i.e. after 17 days) was only observed for worms exposed to waterborne AgNO3 (3 nmol/L). Sediment exposures to both Ag forms resulted in low accumulation, i.e., the uptake rate constants were 0.002 and 0.005 g/g/d for AgNO3...

  14. 12 CFR 225.81 - What is a financial holding company?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies § 225.81 What is a financial holding company? (a) Definition. A financial holding... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is a financial holding company? 225.81...

  15. High Intensity Performance of the Brookhaven AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, L. A.; Alessi, J.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J. M.; Brown, K.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J. W.; Roser, T.; Smith, K. S.; VanAsselt, W.; Zhang, S. Y.

    1999-01-01

    The Brookhaven AGS provides 24 GeV protons for a multi-user program of fixed-target high energy physics experiments, such as the study of extremely rare Kaon decays. Up to 7 x 10 13 protons are slowly extracted over 2.2 seeds each 5.1 seconds. The muon storage ring of the g-2 experiment is supplied with bunches of 7 x 10 12 protons. Since the completion of the 1.9 GeV Booster synchrotron and installation of a new high-power rf system and transition jump system in the AGS various modes of operation have been explored to overcome space charge limits and beam instabilities at these extreme beam intensities. Experiments have been done using barrier cavities to enable accumulation of debunched beam in the AGS as a potential path to significantly higher intensities. We report on the present understanding of intensity limitations and prospects for overcoming them

  16. Spectrophotometry of the shell around AG Carinae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, P. Mila; Dufour, Reginald J.

    1990-01-01

    Spatially-resolved long-slit spectrophotometry are presented for two regions of the shell nebula around the P-Cygni variable star AG Carinae. The spectra cover the 3700-6800 A wavelength range. Emission-line diagnostics are used to derive extinction, electron temperatures, and densities for various positions in the nebula. The chemical abundances and ionization structure are calculated and compared with other types of planetary nebulae and shells around other luminous stars. It is found that the N/O and N/S ratios of Ag Car are high compared to solar neighborhood ISM values. The O/H depletion found for the AG Car shell approaches that found in the condensations of the Eta Car system.

  17. Upgrading the AGS polarized beam facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratner, L.G.

    1991-01-01

    Although present techniques for crossing depolarizing resonances in circular accelerators work, they are very time-consuming to implement and were only able to provide about a 40% polarized beam at 22 GeV in the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS). We propose to install a partial ''Siberian Snake'' solenoid in the AGS to eliminate the need to correct imperfection resonances and to make other modifications in our intrinsic resonance correctors. This will allow us to reach an energy of 25 GeV with 70% polarization and will enable the AGS to be an efficient injector of polarized protons into the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), as well as being able to carry on a fixed-target program with minimum set-up time. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  18. A High Intensity Hadron Facility, AGS II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.Y.; Lowenstein, D.I.

    1988-01-01

    We have present one of several possibilities for the evolution of the AGS complex into a high intensity hadron facility. One could consider other alternatives, such as using the AGS as the Collector and constructing a new 9-30 GeV machine. We believe the most responsible scenario must minimize the cost and downtime to the ongoing physics program. With a stepwise approach, starting with the Booster, the physics program can evolve without a single major commitment in funds. At each step an evaluation of the funds versus physics merit can be made. As a final aside, each upgrade at the AGS and Booster is presently being implemented to support an interleaved operation of both protons and ions. 1 fig., 6 tabs

  19. Effect of iron supplementation in children with breath holding spells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rahul; Omanakuttan, Divin; Singh, Amitabh; Jajoo, Mamta

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of iron supplementation in children with breath holding spells, irrespective of their iron status and study the factors associated with the response. This was a prospective interventional study. Study population comprised of patients aged 6-36 months, attending a paediatric outpatient department with recurrent episodes (more than three in last 4 weeks) of breath holding spells. Children with loss of consciousness or convulsive movements associated with breath holding spells were considered as severe. After baseline investigations, all enrolled patients were given elemental iron at the dose of 3 mg/kg/day as a single daily dose. Four weekly follow-ups were done until 3 months after initiation of the intervention. At 12 weeks, investigations were repeated and outcome assessed for remission or decrease in severity of breath holding episodes. A total of 100 children with breath holding spells received iron supplementation. Almost 73% of children showed complete response, with another 23% showing greater than 50% reduction in frequency. Frequency of spells at diagnosis and intolerance to oral iron were significantly associated with poor response to iron supplementation. Other factors such as age at onset, age at presentation, severity of spells, anaemia and serum iron parameters had no significant association with the response. Of the 27 children without iron deficiency (serum ferritin ≥ 30 µg/L), 77.7% responded completely to iron supplementation, similar to the iron-deficient group. Iron supplementation is effective in the management of breath holding spells. Non-anaemic and iron-replete children with breath holding spells also respond well to iron supplementation. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  20. Ag on Si(111) from basic science to application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belianinov, Aleksey [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    In our work we revisit Ag and Au adsorbates on Si(111)-7x7, as well as experiment with a ternary system of Pentacene, Ag and Si(111). Of particular interest to us is the Si(111)-(√3x√3)R30°}–Ag (Ag-Si-√3 hereafter). In this thesis I systematically explore effects of Ag deposition on the Ag-Si-√3 at different temperatures, film thicknesses and deposition fluxes. The generated insight of the Ag system on the Si(111) is then applied to generate novel methods of nanostructuring and nanowire growth. I then extend our expertise to the Au system on the Ag-Si(111) to gain insight into Au-Si eutectic silicide formation. Finally we explore behavior and growth modes of an organic molecule on the Ag-Si interface.

  1. Spin tracking study of the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Roser, T.; Luccio, A.

    1997-01-01

    In the recent polarized proton runs in the AGS, a 5% partial snake was used successfully to overcome the imperfection depolarizing resonances. Although some depolarization at intrinsic resonances are expected, the level of the depolarization does not agree with a simple model calculation. A spin tracking program is then used to simulate the real polarized proton beam in the AGS. The results show that, due to the linear coupling introduced by a solenoidal 5% partial snake, the polarized beam will be partially depolarized also at the so-called coupling resonance, which is related to the horizontal betatron tune. The synchrotron oscillation also affects the beam polarization to a smaller extent

  2. Siberian Snake solenoid for the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratner, L. G.

    1991-01-01

    Recent experiments at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) have demonstrated that ''Siberian Snakes'' can be used to preserve the polarization of an accelerated polarized beam in a circular accelerator. Retrofitting full snakes into accelerators such as the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) at Brookhaven is almost impossible due to space limitations, but a partial snake that can correct depolarization due to imperfection resonances with 1/20 to 1/30 of a full strength snake seems to present a viable option. We describe such a device for the AGS and give the design criteria in terms of simplicity of accelerator operation and level of achievable polarization. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  3. Optical absorption spectra of Ag-11 isomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Jose Ignacio; Fernandez, E. M.

    2009-01-01

    The optical absorption spectra of the three most; stable structural isomers of the Ag-11 cluster were calculated using the time-dependent, density functional theory within the Casida formalism. The slightly different, spectra, of the isomers may permit the identification of the ground-stale confi......The optical absorption spectra of the three most; stable structural isomers of the Ag-11 cluster were calculated using the time-dependent, density functional theory within the Casida formalism. The slightly different, spectra, of the isomers may permit the identification of the ground...

  4. Iron supplementation for breath-holding attacks in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehetner, Anthony A; Orr, Nigel; Buckmaster, Adam; Williams, Katrina; Wheeler, Danielle M

    2010-05-12

    Breath-holding attacks are common during childhood. Iron supplementation has been claimed to reduce the frequency or severity, or both, of breath-holding attacks in children. To assess the effect of iron supplementation on the frequency and severity of breath-holding attacks in children. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (up to April 2009). We scanned references of included trials. Pharmaceutical companies manufacturing oral iron supplements and some trial authors were contacted for any unpublished data or trials. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing iron supplementation with placebo or no therapy in children breath-holding episodes. These were reported by an observer. The primary outcome was reduction in the frequency (number over time) or severity (leading to cessation of loss of consciousness or convulsive movements), or both, of breath-holding attacks. Two authors (AZ and NO) independently selected studies and extracted data. Study authors were contacted for missing data, where necessary. Risk of bias was assessed using domain-based evaluation. In the presence of low heterogeneity, a fixed-effect meta-analysis was performed with pooled results presented as odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Two trials (87 children) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. In these trials, iron supplementation significantly reduced the frequency of breath-holding attacks in children (OR 76.48; 95% CI 15.65 to 373.72; P breath-holding attacks maintained this significance (OR 53.43; 95% CI 6.57 to 434.57; P = 0.0002). Iron supplementation (at 5 mg/kg/day of elemental iron for 16 weeks) appears to be useful in reducing the frequency and severity of breath-holding attacks. Supplementation is of particular benefit in children with iron deficiency anaemia, responses correlating with the improvements in haemoglobin

  5. Structure and stability of defective silicene on Ag(001) and Ag(111) substrates: A computer experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galashev, A. E.; Ivanichkina, K. A.; Vorob'ev, A. S.; Rakhmanova, O. R.

    2017-06-01

    The structure and stability of a two-layer defective silicene on Ag(001) and Ag(111) substrates have been investigated using the molecular dynamics method. The transformation of the radial distribution function of silicene due to the formation of monovacancies, divacancies, trivacancies, and hexavacancies is reduced primarily to a decrease in the intensity of the peaks and the disappearance of the "shoulder" in the second peak. With the passage of time, multivacancies can undergo coalescence with each other and the fragmentation into smaller vacancies, as well as form vacancy clusters. According to the geometric criterion, the Ag(001) substrate provides a higher stability of a perfect two-layer silicene. It has been found, however, that the defective silicene on this substrate has a lower energy only when it contains monovacancies and divacancies. A change in the size of defects leads to a change in the energy priority when choosing between the Ag(001) and Ag(111) substrates. The motion of a lithium ion inside an extended channel between two silicene sheets results in a further disordering of the defective structure of the silicene, during which the strongest stresses in the silicene are generated by forces directed perpendicular to the external electric field. These forces dominate in the silicene channel, the wall of which is supported by the Ag(001) or Ag(111) substrate.

  6. Brain metabolite values in children with breath-holding spells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calik, Mustafa; Sen Dokumaci, Dilek; Sarikaya, Suna; Demir, Mahmut; Isik, Ilhan; Kazanasmaz, Halil; Kaya, Cemil; Kandemir, Hasan

    2017-01-01

    Breath-holding spells are benign, paroxysmal events with apnea and postural tone changes after a crying episode in infants. The objective of this study was to investigate the pathologies in brain metabolite values in the absence of seizure in children with breath-holding spells by using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Brain MRS examination was performed on 18 children with breath-holding spells and 13 neurologically normal children who were included as the control group. There was no significant difference in terms of N -acetyl aspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), creatine (Cr), and myoinositol (mI) levels and also in terms of NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, and mI/Cr ratios between the patients and the control group (all P >0.05). Our study suggested that there is no permanent neuronal damage in patients with breath-holding spells. This result confirms the previous studies, which reported no permanent neuronal damage in patients with breath-holding spells.

  7. Ag@Ag8W4O16 nanoroasted rice beads with photocatalytic, antibacterial and anticancer activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvamani, Muthamizh; Krishnamoorthy, Giribabu; Ramadoss, Manigandan; Sivakumar, Praveen Kumar; Settu, Munusamy; Ranganathan, Suresh; Vengidusamy, Narayanan

    2016-01-01

    Increasing resistance of pathogens and cancer cell line towards antibiotics and anticancer agents has caused serious health problems in the past decades. Due to these problems in recent years, researchers have tried to combine nanotechnology with material science to have intrinsic antimicrobial and anticancer activity. The metals and metal oxides were investigated with respect to their antimicrobial and anticancer effects towards bacteria and cancer cell line. In the present work metal@metal tungstate (Ag@Ag 8 W 4 O 16 nanoroasted rice beads) is investigated for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus using Mueller-Hinton broth and the anticancer activity against B16F10 cell line was studied. Silver decorated silver tungstate (Ag@Ag 8 W 4 O 16 ) was synthesized by the microwave irradiation method using Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB). Ag@Ag 8 W 4 O 16 was characterized by using various spectroscopic techniques. The phase and crystalline nature were analyzed by using XRD. The morphological analysis was carried out using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM). Further, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Raman spectral analysis were carried out in order to ascertain the presence of functional groups in Ag@Ag 8 W 4 O 16 . The optical property was investigated using Diffuse Reflectance Ultraviolet–Visible Spectroscopy (DRS-UV–Vis) and the band gap was found to be 3.08 eV. Surface area of the synthesized Ag@Ag 8 W 4 O 16 wasanalyzed by BET analysis and Ag@Ag 8 W 4 O 16 was utilized for the degradation of organic dyes methylene blue and rhodamine B. The morphology of the Ag@Ag 8 W 4 O 16 resembles roasted rice beads with breath and length in nm range. The oxidation state of tungsten (W) and silver (Ag) was investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). - Highlights: • Synthesis of Ag@Ag 8 W 4 O 16 nanoroasted rice beads

  8. Bifunctional Ag@Pd-Ag Nanocubes for Highly Sensitive Monitoring of Catalytic Reactions by Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jumei; Liu, Jingyue; Yang, Yin; Qin, Dong

    2015-06-10

    We report a route to the facile synthesis of Ag@Pd-Ag nanocubes by cotitrating Na2PdCl4 and AgNO3 into an aqueous suspension of Ag nanocubes at room temperature in the presence of ascorbic acid and poly(vinylpyrrolidone). With an increase in the total titration volume, we observed the codeposition of Pd and Ag atoms onto the edges, corners, and side faces of the Ag nanocubes in a site-by-site fashion. By maneuvering the Pd/Ag ratio, we could optimize the SERS and catalytic activities of the Ag@Pd-Ag nanocubes for in situ SERS monitoring of the Pd-catalyzed reduction of 4-nitrothiophenol by NaBH4.

  9. A research on shape-controllable synthesis of Ag3PO4/AgBr and its degradation of ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingran; Yang, Xingyu; Zhu, Chenyu; Xie, Xin; Lin, Cuiping; Zhao, Yalei; Yan, Qishe

    2018-03-01

    Antibiotic ciprofloxacin is one of the commonly used broad spectrum fluoroquinolone human and veterinary drugs. Because of the overuse of human beings, the presence of ciprofloxacin has been detected in a variety of environmental matrices. To solve this problem, a facile, environmentally-friendly Ag 3 PO 4 /AgBr composite photocatalyst was synthesized by a simple precipitation method at room temperature in the presence of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). CTAB was served as surfactant and the source of bromide ions. The as-prepared Ag 3 PO 4 /AgBr microspheres were characterized by means of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS). The results revealed that the Ag 3 PO 4 /AgBr sample (synthesized with CTAB, 0.8 g) exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity to the photodegradation rate of 96.36%. Moreover, mechanism detection experiment indicated that h + was the major active species in the degradation process. So the enhanced photocatalytic activity of Ag 3 PO 4 /AgBr composites is attributed to its excellent separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs through Ag 3 PO 4 /AgBr heterojunction. Also, Ag 3 PO 4 /AgBr heterojunction has a lower band gap compared to pure Ag 3 PO 4 and pure AgBr, so higher efficiency of light harvesting is equipped.

  10. Effect of Ag in structural, electrical and magnetic properties of Ag-sheated Bi-2223 wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Sohrabi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available  In this study, the superconducting properties of Bi-2223/Ag wires, made by the PIT method have been studied. Powder samples were prepared using conventional solid state reaction method. After calcination, samples with different Ag percent (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 prepared and sintered at 830 °C. It was shown that Ag addition has not only affected the formation of the desired Bi-2223 phase and the microstructure of these wires, but also influenced on the critical current density (JC and critical temperature.

  11. Effect of cysteine and humic acids on bioavailability of Ag from Ag nanoparticles to a freshwater snail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoma, Samuel N.; Tasha Stoiber,; Croteau, Marie-Noele; Isabelle Romer,; Ruth Merrifeild,; Lead, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Metal-based engineered nanoparticles (NPs) will undergo transformations that will affect their bioavailability, toxicity and ecological risk when released to the environment, including interactions with dissolved organic material. The purpose of this paper is to determine how interactions with two different types of organic material affect the bioavailability of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Silver uptake rates by the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis were determined after exposure to 25 nmol l-1 of Ag as PVP AgNPs, PEG AgNPs or AgNO3, in the presence of either Suwannee River humic acid or cysteine, a high-affinity thiol-rich organic ligand. Total uptake rate of Ag from the two NPs was either increased or not strongly affected in the presence of 1 – 10 mg 1-1 humic acid. Humic substances contain relatively few strong ligands for Ag explaining their limited effects on Ag uptake rate. In contrast, Ag uptake rate was substantially reduced by cysteine. Three components of uptake from the AgNPs were quantified in the presence of cysteine using a biodynamic modeling approach: uptake of dissolved Ag released by the AgNPs, uptake of a polymer or large (>3kD) Ag-cysteine complex and uptake of the nanoparticle itself. Addition of 1:1 Ag:cysteine reduced concentrations of dissolved Ag, which contributed to, but did not fully explain the reductions in uptake. A bioavailable Ag-cysteine complex (> 3kD) appeared to be the dominant avenue of uptake from both PVP AgNPs and PEG AgNPs in the presence of cysteine. Quantifying the different avenues of uptake sets the stage for studies to assess toxicity unique to NPs.

  12. Control of cooperative manipulators in holding deformable objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkathiri, A. A.; Azlan, N. Z.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents the implementation of a control system to control cooperative manipulators to hold deformable objects. The aim is to hold the deformable object without having information on the shape and stiffness of the deformable object beforehand. The prototype of a pair of manipulators has been designed and built to test the controller. A force sensor and a rotary encoder are used to give feedback to the controller, which controls the DC motor actuators accordingly. A position proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller technique has been applied for one of the manipulators and a PID force control technique is applied to the other. Simulations and experimental tests have been conducted on models and the controller has been implemented on the real plant. Both simulation and test results prove that the implemented control technique has successfully provided the desired position and force to hold the deformable object with maximum experimental errors of 0.34mm and 50mN respectively.

  13. C-14/I-29 Preservation and Hold Time Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitchen, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-04-08

    Preservation and hold time of radionuclides must account for both nuclear half-lives and nonnuclear loss mechanisms, but variations in the latter are often neglected. Metals-based defaults are inappropriate for long-lived non-metals C-14 and I-129, which are vulnerable to chemical and biological volatilization. Non-acidification is already widely practiced for them. Recommended addition measures from radiological and chemical literature include glass containers where possible, water filtration where possible, headspace minimization, light shielding, cold (4°C) storage and unfiltered water hold time of 28 days. Soil hold time may need to be shortened when water-logged, excessively sandy, or still adjusting to significant new contamination.

  14. Magnetic insulation to improve voltage holding in electrostatic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisham, L. R.

    2009-01-01

    Voltage holding in high voltage electrostatic accelerators is a longstanding problem which limits the practically obtainable performance of most systems. This paper proposes an idea for improving the voltage holding in electrostatic accelerators by suppressing breakdowns between successive stages of an accelerator. The idea consists of flowing electric currents along the accelerator electrodes to produce magnetic fields which envelope each electrode and its support structure, so as to prevent very low energy electrons from leaving the surfaces of electrodes and subsequently picking up energy from the electric field. In order to be useful in some applications, this magnetic insulation would only need to produce modest gains in voltage holding capability, and its utility can be easily tested experimentally as described herein.

  15. Internationalization and Corporate Cash Holdings: Evidence from Brazil and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Arata

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This research expands on previous studies of cash holdings and their determinants by studying the relationship between the degree of internationalization and the level of corporate cash holdings. We used a sample of nonfinancial, publicly traded companies from Brazil and Mexico for the period from 2006 to 2010. Our results suggest that the degree of internationalization is a determinant of cash, and that cash holding increases quadratically as the degree of company internationalization grows. Such behavior was different from the North American company studies in Chiang and Wang (2011. Similar to previous studies, both Trade-off and Pecking Order predictions are relevant control variables in our model. Finally, companies held less cash on their balance sheets during the precrisis period.

  16. Enteroantigen (eAg)-binding B lymphocytes in the mouse - phenotype, distribution, function and eAg-specific antibody secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venning, Freja Albjerg; Trempenau, Mette Louise; Schmidt, Esben

    2013-01-01

    cells in causing proliferation of eAg-specific T cells. In comparison with eAg- B cells, eAg+ B cells secrete a significant amount of IL-10 in vitro, suggesting an anti-inflammatory potential. Compared with wild-type B cells, B cell receptor (BCR) transgenic, hen egg lysozyme-specific B cells show...... inferior eAg binding and T cell stimulatory activity suggesting involvement of the BCR in eAg binding and processing. After activation of CD19(+) B cells by eAg and hybridization with hypoxanthine-aminopterin-thymidine (HAT) sensitive ×63 lymphoma cells followed by cloning at limiting dilution conditions...

  17. Holding Pressure and Its Influence on Quality in PIM Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Petera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The PIM (powder injection molding process consists of several steps in which faults can occur. The quality of the part that is produced usually cannot be seen until the end of the process. It is therefore necessary to find a way to discover the fault earlier in the process. The cause of defects is very often “phase separation” (inhomogeneity in powder distribution, which can also be influenced by the holding pressure. This paper evaluates the powder distribution with a new method based on density measurement. Measurements were made using various holding pressure values.

  18. The Effect of Holding a Research Chair on Scientists’ Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirnezami, S.R.; Beaudry, C.

    2016-07-01

    This paper examines the effect of holding Canada Research Chair (CRC) on a scientist’s number of citations as a measure of research impact, based on an econometric analysis with combined data on Quebec scientists’ funding and journal publication. Using Generalized Least Square (GLS) method for regression analysis, the results show that holding either tier-1 or tier- 2 of CRC significantly and positively results in conducting research with higher impact. This finding, however, does not necessarily imply that the others are the lesser scientists. (Author)

  19. Development of a Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IB Specific Gene Model Enables Comparative Genome Analyses between Phytopathogenic R. solani AG1-IA, AG1-IB, AG3 and AG8 Isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Wibberg

    Full Text Available Rhizoctonia solani, a soil-born plant pathogenic basidiomycetous fungus, affects various economically important agricultural and horticultural crops. The draft genome sequence for the R. solani AG1-IB isolate 7/3/14 as well as a corresponding transcriptome dataset (Expressed Sequence Tags--ESTs were established previously. Development of a specific R. solani AG1-IB gene model based on GMAP transcript mapping within the eukaryotic gene prediction platform AUGUSTUS allowed detection of new genes and provided insights into the gene structure of this fungus. In total, 12,616 genes were recognized in the genome of the AG1-IB isolate. Analysis of predicted genes by means of different bioinformatics tools revealed new genes whose products potentially are involved in degradation of plant cell wall components, melanin formation and synthesis of secondary metabolites. Comparative genome analyses between members of different R. solani anastomosis groups, namely AG1-IA, AG3 and AG8 and the newly annotated R. solani AG1-IB genome were performed within the comparative genomics platform EDGAR. It appeared that only 21 to 28% of all genes encoded in the draft genomes of the different strains were identified as core genes. Based on Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI and Average Amino-acid Identity (AAI analyses, considerable sequence differences between isolates representing different anastomosis groups were identified. However, R. solani isolates form a distinct cluster in relation to other fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota. The isolate representing AG1-IB encodes significant more genes featuring predictable functions in secondary metabolite production compared to other completely sequenced R. solani strains. The newly established R. solani AG1-IB 7/3/14 gene layout now provides a reliable basis for post-genomics studies.

  20. Determination of Ag in technique process research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Tao; Zhang Lihua; Fan Dejun; Liu Huanliang; Wu Jizong

    2008-01-01

    Based on the chromogenic reaction of Ag with p-dimethylamino benzyl rhodanine, a new spectrophotometric method for determination of Ag in the presence of PVA-124 and Triton X-100 as surfactant is established. The factors such as acidity, reaction time and the concentration of surfactant were studied. The results show that the appropriate conditions are as the following. The concentrations of p-dimethylamino benzyl rhodanine, PVA and Triton X-100 are 0.1 g·L -1 , 10 g·L -1 and 0.16% respectively. Acidity is 1.0 mol·L -1 . Reaction time is 20 minutes. Absorption wavelength is 470 nm. The influence of several coexisting ions, especially Pu (Ⅳ) on analyzing Ag is also studied. The results indicate that when the concentration of Ag is less than five times of the concentration of Pu. PMBP is used to extract Pu (Ⅳ). The optimum extraction conditions are as follows. The concentration of PMBP is 0.1 mol·L-1. Acidity is 2.0 mol·L-1. The ratio of organic and water phase is 1:1. Extraction time is 3 minutes. Conformity to Berr's law was obtained with the scope of 0.1-1.0 μg·mL -1 . The determination limit of Ag is 0.1 μg·mL -1 . The relative standard deviation for this method is 2.6% (n=3). The recovery is 104-114%. (authors)

  1. Impressive Offshore Rig Built ''in the Woods''. Bentec launched new 2500 hp drilling rig for the Mittelplate field development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-06-01

    In May international rig design and manufacturer Bentec Drilling and Oilfield Systems, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Abbot Group plc, unveiled the new 2500 hp rig T-150 it has been building for the Mittelplate Consortium (RWE Dea AG as operator/Wintershall AG) at Bentec's manufacturing facility ''in the woods'' of Bad Bentheim, Germany. (orig.)

  2. Synthesis and Ag-loading-density-dependent photocatalytic activity of Ag@TiO{sub 2} hybrid nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Deliang, E-mail: dlchen@zzu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, 100 Science Road, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Chen, Qianqian; Ge, Lianfang; Yin, Li; Fan, Bingbing; Wang, Hailong; Lu, Hongxia; Xu, Hongliang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, 100 Science Road, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Zhang, Rui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, 100 Science Road, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Laboratory of Aeronautical Composites, Zhengzhou Institute of Aeronautical Industry Management, 2 University Road, Zhengzhou 450046 (China); Shao, Guosheng [UK-China Centre for Multi-functional Nanomaterials, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Institute for Renewable Energy and Environmental Technology, University of Bolton, Bolton BL3 5AB (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-01

    Silver-decorated TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (Ag@TiO{sub 2}) were synthesized by photoreducing Ag{sup +} species in an EG–ethanol solution in the presence of TiO{sub 2} (P25) nanoparticles. The TEM observations indicate that the Ag nanoclusters (NCs) with a size range of 1–3 nm were uniformly anchored on the surfaces of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. The Ag@TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites with various amounts of Ag NCs (0.5–10% in mass) were synthesized by changing the concentrations of Ag{sup +} in their precursors. The photocatalytic activity of the as-synthesized Ag@TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites was investigated by photodegradating RhB dye under visible-light irradiation (λ ≥ 400 nm). The results show that the as-obtained Ag@TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites show a novel Ag-loading-density-dependent photocatalytic activity, and that the Ag@TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst with ∼1% Ag NCs has the best photocatalytic performance with a high rate constant, 22 times higher than that of P25 TiO{sub 2} under the same condition. The enhanced photocatalytic performance should be attributed to the LSPR property of Ag NCs. The possible mechanism for the Ag-loading-density-dependent photocatalytic performance was discussed in detail.

  3. A comparative study about electronic structures at rubrene/Ag and Ag/rubrene interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumona Sinha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The contact between the electrode and the organic semiconductor is one of the most crucial factors in determining the organic device performance. The development and production technology of different organic devices require the understanding of different types of metal/organic semiconducting thin film interfaces. Comparisons about the electronic structures at Rubrene/Ag and Ag/Rubrene interfaces have been studied using photoemission spectroscopy. The Ag on rubrene interfaces is found to show more interesting and complex natures than its counterpart. The vacuum level (VL was shifted about 0.51 eV from push back effect for deposition of 5 Å rubrene onto Ag film whereas the electronic features of silver was only suppressed and no energy shift was resulted. While the deposition of 5 Å Ag onto rubrene film leads to the diffusion of the Ag atoms, as a cluster with quantum size effect, inside the film. Angle dependent XPS measurement indicates that diffused metal clusters were present at entire probed depth of the film. Moreover these clusters dope the uppermost surface of the rubrene film which consequences a shift of the electronic states of thick organic film towards higher binding energy. The VL was found to shift about 0.31 eV toward higher binding energy whereas the shift was around 0.21 eV for the electronic states of rubrene layer.

  4. Study of structural modification of PVA by incorporating Ag nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saini, I.; Sharma, A.; Rozra, J.

    2016-01-01

    Nanocomposites of PVA with Ag nanoparticles dispersed in it were synthesized using solution casting method. The morphology and size distribution of Ag nanoparticles embedded in PVA matrix were obtained by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE......-SEM). Raman spectroscopy was used to examine structural changes taking place inside polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix due to incorporation of Ag nanoparticle. Raman analysis indicates that Ag nanoparticles interact with PVA through H-bonding. © 2016 Author(s)....

  5. Study of structural modification of PVA by incorporating Ag nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saini, Isha; Sharma, Annu, E-mail: asharma@kuk.ac.in; Rozra, Jyoti; Aggarwal, Sanjeev [Department of Physics, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136119 (India); Dhiman, Rajnish [Department of Physics and Chemistry, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Sharma, Pawan K. [Department of Chemistry, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136119 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Nanocomposites of PVA with Ag nanoparticles dispersed in it were synthesized using solution casting method. The morphology and size distribution of Ag nanoparticles embedded in PVA matrix were obtained by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Raman spectroscopy was used to examine structural changes taking place inside polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix due to incorporation of Ag nanoparticle. Raman analysis indicates that Ag nanoparticles interact with PVA through H-bonding.

  6. Antibacterial Ag/a-C nanocomposite coatings: The influence of nano-galvanic a-C and Ag couples on Ag ionization rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manninen, N. K.; Calderon, S.; Carvalho, I.; Henriques, M.; Cavaleiro, A.; Carvalho, S.

    2016-07-01

    Biofilm formation has been pointed as a major concern in different industrial applications, namely on biomedical implants and surgical instruments, which has prompted the development of new strategies for production of efficient antimicrobial surfaces. In this work, nano-galvanic couples were created to enhance the antibacterial properties of silver, by embedding it into amorphous carbon (a-C) matrix. The developed Ag/a-C nanocomposite coatings, deposited by magnetron sputtering, revealed an outstanding antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis, promoting a total reduction in biofilm formation with no bacteria counts in all dilution. The open circuit potential (OCP) tests in 0.9% NaCl confirmed that a-C shows a positive OCP value, in contrast to Ag coating, thus enhancing the ionization of biocidal Ag+ due to the nano-galvanic couple activation. This result was confirmed by the inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), which revealed a higher Ag ionization rate in the nanocomposite coating in comparison with the Ag coating. The surface of Ag/a-C and Ag coatings immersed in 0.9% NaCl were monitored by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) over a period of 24 h, being found that the Ag ionization determined by ICP-OES was accompanied by an Ag nanoparticles coalescence and agglomeration in Ag/a-C coating.

  7. 12 CFR 575.14 - Subsidiary holding companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... company. The consideration for the shares shall be cash, tangible or intangible property (to the extent... debts and liabilities of the MHC subsidiary holding company, to receive the remaining assets of the MHC.... Beneficial Ownership Limitation. No person may directly or indirectly offer to acquire or acquire the...

  8. 49 CFR 176.145 - Segregation in single hold vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Segregation in single hold vessels. 176.145 Section 176.145 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Segregation § 176.145 Segregation in...

  9. Board of visitors committee to hold planning retreat

    OpenAIRE

    Hincker, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    The Academic Affairs Committees of the Virginia Tech Board of Visitors will hold a planning retreat in open session on Saturday, Sept 13 from 9:30 a.m. to noon in the Duck Pond Room at the Inn at Virginia Tech.

  10. Carbon Dioxide Changes in Hyperventilation and Breath-hold Diving

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-01-05

    Jan 5, 1974 ... South Africa. S. Afr. Med. l., 48, 18 (1974). Under conditions of normal atmospheric pressure, breath- holding results in important changes in the mechanism whereby the CO, is transported ... haemoglobin in the face of falling CO, output to the ... Hong,' in a field study of Korean diving women, noted that they ...

  11. Implementing the South African water policy: holding the vision ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Implementing the South African water policy: holding the vision while exploring an uncharted mountain. HM MacKay, KH Rogers, DJ Roux. Abstract. This paper discusses the long-term implementation of the South African National Water Policy of 1997, and addresses some of the difficult issues of the management and ...

  12. Brain damage in commercial breath-hold divers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyotaka Kohshi

    Full Text Available Acute decompression illness (DCI involving the brain (Cerebral DCI is one of the most serious forms of diving-related injuries which may leave residual brain damage. Cerebral DCI occurs in compressed air and in breath-hold divers, likewise. We conducted this study to investigate whether long-term breath-hold divers who may be exposed to repeated symptomatic and asymptomatic brain injuries, show brain damage on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI.Our study subjects were 12 commercial breath-hold divers (Ama with long histories of diving work in a district of Japan. We obtained information on their diving practices and the presence or absence of medical problems, especially DCI events. All participants were examined with MRI to determine the prevalence of brain lesions.Out of 12 Ama divers (mean age: 54.9±5.1 years, four had histories of cerebral DCI events, and 11 divers demonstrated ischemic lesions of the brain on MRI studies. The lesions were situated in the cortical and/or subcortical area (9 cases, white matters (4 cases, the basal ganglia (4 cases, and the thalamus (1 case. Subdural fluid collections were seen in 2 cases.These results suggest that commercial breath-hold divers are at a risk of clinical or subclinical brain injury which may affect the long-term neuropsychological health of divers.

  13. Voluntary breath holding affects spontaneous brain activity measured by magnetoencephalography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, N. A.; Reits, D.

    1999-01-01

    Spontaneous brain activity was measured by multichannel magnetoencephalography (MEG) during voluntary breath holds. Significant changes in the activity are limited to the alpha rhythm: 0.25 Hz frequency increase and narrowing of the peak. The area of alpha activity shifts slightly toward (fronto-)

  14. Considerable pancreatic tumor motion during breath-holding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, Eelco; van der Horst, Astrid; Versteijne, Eva; Bel, Arjan; van Tienhoven, Geertjan

    2016-01-01

    Breath-holding (BH) is often used to reduce abdominal organ motion during radiotherapy. However, for inhale BH, abdominal tumor motion during BH has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to quantify tumor motion during inhale BH and tumor position variations between consecutive inhale

  15. P Wave Dispersion in Children with Breath-holding Spells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahsin Gider

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A breath-holding spell (BHS is a clinical feature frequently seen in infancy and early childhood and generally bringing children to pediatric cardiology outpatient clinics with the suspicion of cardiac disease. In this study, P wave dispersion (PWD, which is a marker of regional differences in atrial depolarization in electrocardiography and has been demonstrated to be beneficial in defining the risk of supraventricular tachycardia in various patient groups, was studied in children who presented with breath-holding spells. Materials and Methods: Forty-seven patients with breath-holding spells and 36 healthy children as a control group were included in this study. We performed electrocardiography and transthoracic echocardiography on patients and controls. PWD, which is defined as the difference between maximum and minimum p wave duration, was also calculated. Statistical analysis in the study was performed using SPSS version 22.0 and p<0.05 was accepted as significant. Results: Our study indicated that there were no statistically significant differences between the patients and controls in minimum, maximum p wave duration and PWD. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that atrial conduction is probably unaffected in children with breath-holding spells.

  16. 31 CFR 223.16 - List of certificate holding companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false List of certificate holding companies. 223.16 Section 223.16 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE SURETY COMPANIES DOING BUSINESS...

  17. Analysis of breath holding for lung CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsuda, Toshizo; Eiho, Shigeru; Kuroda, Chikazumi; Hashimoto, Tsutomu

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: Movement artifact during lung CT can degrade image quality and, particularly in the case of computer aided diagnosis, make diagnosis inaccurate. In this study, diaphragmatic movement during full arrested inspiration in lung CT was evaluated to identify the optimum time after commencement of breath holding for image acquisition. Methods: For analysis two lung areas were used in this study. These areas, on two images from different time periods after breath holding on the same slice, were evaluated in 47 patients. Results: In approximately 74% of the patients 1 s after commencement of breath holding diaphragm motion was noted to be in the cranial direction. A comparison of the lung areas after 30 s and those after 1 s and 4 s showed significant differences. Those after 7 s showed no significant difference. Conclusions: The results show that the lung base should be scanned at 7 s from the commencement of breath holding. Also, the lungs should also be scanned from the base to apex

  18. Physiological alterations in UV-irradiated cells: liquid holding recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragao, B.R.

    1980-01-01

    The biochemical and physiological alterations that occur in ultraviolet irradiated cells, during liquid holding have been studied. Incubation in buffer acts not to interfer directly with the mechanic repairs but by promoting metabolic alterations that would block some irreversible and lethal physiological responses. (L.M.J.) [pt

  19. The myth of the early aviation patent hold-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katznelson, Ron D; Howells, John

    2015-01-01

    The prevailing historical accounts of the formation of the U.S. aircraft “patent pool” in 1917 assume the U.S. Government necessarily intervened to alleviate a patent hold-up among private aircraft manufacturers. We show these accounts to be inconsistent with the historical facts. We show that de...

  20. 76 FR 54717 - Supervised Securities Holding Companies Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... changes can the Board incorporate to make the regulation easier to understand? IV. Administrative Law... of foreign law that such company be subject to comprehensive consolidated supervision. Taking these... OO; Docket No. R-1430] RIN 7100-AD 81 Supervised Securities Holding Companies Registration AGENCY...

  1. 77 FR 32881 - Supervised Securities Holding Company Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ...), The Report of Foreign Banking Organizations (FR Y-7), The Consolidated Financial Statements for Bank... Y-9ES), The Supplement to the Consolidated Financial Statements for Bank Holding Companies (FR Y-9CS... comprehensive consolidated supervision by a foreign regulator, a nonbank financial company supervised by the...

  2. Joint moments required to hold a posture while somersaulting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikl, Joanne

    2018-02-01

    A pure somersault is a key skill in diving and gymnastics, and involves rotation about the transverse axis of the body. As the rotational speed increases the effort required to maintain a specified posture increases. This paper derives equations for the joint moments required for an athlete to hold three sport specific postures as a function of rotational speed. The joint moment is related to the isometric muscular strength and is the limiting factor of an athlete in their ability to hold a fixed posture while somersaulting. One inertial property data set was used to explore the joint moments required for three sport specific postures -tuck, pike and layout-. Even though the joint moments are proportional to the square of angular velocity, the constant of proportionality differs for each joint, and so greater isometric strength is required at some joints; especially the hips and through the torso. The situation when the hands were allowed to hold the legs and when they did not has been considered. It was found that the arms holding an observed point on the lower legs could reduce the joint moments required through the legs and torso. The direction of the pull of the hands against the legs is critical for effectiveness. For the tuck this included a large component tangential to the shank and so emphasises the need to maximise friction between the shank and hands. For the pike the pull normal to the shank was more important. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Automated Inventory Control System for Nigeria Power Holding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    2013-09-01

    Sep 1, 2013 ... Automated Inventory Control System for Nigeria Power Holding. Ekechukwu Boniface. 1. , Henry Nwokoye. 1. , Abara Josiah Chukwuemeka. 2. 1Department of Computer Science, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, PMB5025 Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria boni_eke@yahoo.com. 2Department of Physics, Federal ...

  4. 26 CFR 25.2701-6 - Indirect holding of interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AND GIFT TAXES GIFT TAX; GIFTS MADE AFTER DECEMBER 31, 1954 Special Valuation Rules § 25.2701-6..., an individual is treated as holding an equity interest to the extent the interest is held indirectly through a corporation, partnership, estate, trust, or other entity. If an equity interest is treated as...

  5. 33 CFR 100.30 - Approval required for holding event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... event. 100.30 Section 100.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... holding event. (a) An event for which application is required under § 100.15(a) shall be held only after approval of such event by the District Commander, except that applications referred to a State under § 100...

  6. Electrochemical sensing and photocatalysis using Ag-TiO 2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The superior performance of the Ag-TiO2 composite microwires is attributed to improved surface reactivity, mass transport and catalytic property as a result of wiring the TiO2 surface with Ag nanoparticles. Compared to the TiO2 microwires, Ag-TiO2 microwires exhibited three times higher sensitivity in the detection of ...

  7. AGS experiments -- 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999. Fifteenth edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo Presti, P.

    1999-03-01

    This report is a compilation of two-page summaries for AGS experiments for FY 1996, FY 1997, FY 1998, FY 1999. The bulk of the experiments are for high energy physics and nuclear physics programs. Also included are the run schedules for the AGS for each of those years and a listing of publications of AGS experiments for 1982--1999.

  8. AGS experiments - 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999. Fifteenth edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo Presti, P.

    1999-03-01

    This report is a compilation of two-page summaries for AGS experiments for FY 1996, FY 1997, FY 1998, FY 1999. The bulk of the experiments are for high energy physics and nuclear physics programs. Also included are the run schedules for the AGS for each of those years and a listing of publications of AGS experiments for 1982--1999

  9. Mechanical alloying of the FeNi-Ag system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, G.; Ibarra, D.; Ochoa, J.; Villalba, R.; Sagarzazu, A.

    2007-01-01

    The Fe-Ni-Ag system is of particular interest for its potential applications as soft magnetic granular material with small magnetic grains embedded in a non-magnetic metal matrix. Under equilibrium conditions: Fe-Ag and Ni-Ag are immiscible and Fe-Ni shows complete solubility. These materials are particularly important for magnetoresistivity properties. The properties of these alloys are closely related to their microstructure; therefore, a detailed study of the transformations occurring during milling was undertaken using pre-alloyed Fe x Ni 100-x (x = 30, 50 and 70) further milled with different Ag content to give the following alloys compositions (Fe x -Ni 100-x ) 100-y Ag y (y = 5, 20, 60). Consolidation of the mechanically alloyed powders by sintering at 950 o C was performed. Morphological and structural characterization of the sintered powders was carried out by scanning and transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Fe 30 Ni 70 and Fe 50 Ni 50 formed ordered FeNi 3 compound. Fe 70 Ni 30 showed the formation of a mixture of γ-(Fe,Ni) and α-Fe(Ni) solid solutions. The mixture of these systems with Ag showed the metal solid solutions surrounded by Ag islands of Fe x Ni y -Ag, There was also evidence of Ag diffusing into the γ-(Fe,Ni). High Ag content (60%) shows formation of islands of FeNi surrounded by Ag. Sintering is always improved with the Ag content

  10. Ultrasound lung "comets" increase after breath-hold diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrechts, Kate; Germonpré, Peter; Charbel, Brian; Cialoni, Danilo; Musimu, Patrick; Sponsiello, Nicola; Marroni, Alessandro; Pastouret, Frédéric; Balestra, Costantino

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze the ultrasound lung comets (ULCs) variation, which are a sign of extra-vascular lung water. Forty-two healthy individuals performed breath-hold diving in different conditions: dynamic surface apnea; deep variable-weight apnea and shallow, face immersed without effort (static maximal and non-maximal). The number of ULCs was evaluated by means of an ultrasound scan of the chest, before and after breath-hold diving sessions. The ULC score increased significantly from baseline after dynamic surface apnea (p = 0.0068), after deep breath-hold sessions (p = 0.0018), and after static maximal apnea (p = 0.031). There was no statistically significant difference between the average increase of ULC scores after dynamic surface apnea and deep breath-hold diving. We, therefore, postulate that extravascular lung water accumulation may be due to other factors than (deep) immersion alone, because it occurs during dynamic surface apnea as well. Three mechanisms may be responsible for this. First, the immersion-induced hydrostatic pressure gradient applied on the body causes a shift of peripheral venous blood towards the thorax. Second, the blood pooling effect found during the diving response Redistributes blood to the pulmonary vascular bed. Third, it is possible that the intense involuntary diaphragmatic contractions occurring during the "struggle phase" of the breath-hold can also produce a blood shift from the pulmonary capillaries to the pulmonary alveoli. A combination of these factors may explain the observed increase in ULC scores in deep, shallow maximal and shallow dynamic apneas, whereas shallow non-maximal apneas seem to be not "ULC provoking".

  11. Formation of bimetallic Ag-Pd nanoclusters via the reaction between Ag nanoclusters and Pd2+ ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Hsiang; Sarma, Loka Subramanyam; Wang, Guo-Rung; Chen, Jiun-Ming; Shih, Shou-Chu; Tang, Mau-Tsu; Liu, Ding-Goa; Lee, Jyh-Fu; Chen, Jing-Ming; Hwang, Bing-Joe

    2006-06-01

    We have investigated systematically the mechanistic aspects of the Ag-Pd bimetallic cluster formation within sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT) reverse micelles by using in-situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). A two-step sequential reduction method is employed for the synthesis of Ag-Pd bimetallic clusters. The first step involves preparation of Ag nanoclusters, by mixing the Ag+ ions containing the AOT microemulsion system with a reducing agent hydrazine (N2H4) containing the AOT microemulsion system. In the second step, the addition of Pd2+ ions to Ag nanoclusters led to the formation of Ag-Pd bimetallic clusters via the reaction between Ag nanoclusters and Pd2+ ions in AOT reverse micelles. The reduction of silver ions and the formation of corresponding Ag nanoclusters are monitored as a function of the dosage of the reducing agent, hydrazine. In-situ XAS allowed probing of the reaction between Ag nanoclusters and Pd2+ ions during the formation of Ag-Pd bimetallic clusters. Analysis of Ag and Pd K-edge XAS spectra reveals that in the final stage Ag-Pd clusters, in which "Ag" atoms prefer to be surrounded by "Pd" and "Pd" atoms prefer to be surrounded by "Pd", were formed. On the basis of XAS results presented here, we are able to propose a structural model for each step so that this work provides a detailed insight into the mechanism of nucleation and growth of Ag-Pd bimetallic clusters. We also discussed the atomic distribution of Ag and Pd atoms in Ag-Pd bimetallic clusters based on the calculated XAS structural parameters.

  12. The effect of soil properties on the toxicity and bioaccumulation of Ag nanoparticles and Ag ions in Enchytraeus crypticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topuz, Emel; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2017-10-01

    Standard natural Lufa soils (2.2, 2.3 and 5M) with different organic carbon contents (0.67-1.61%) and pH CaCl2 (5.5-7.3) were spiked with ionic Ag (AgNO 3 ) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (AgNP-PVP) and citrate (AgNP-Cit) coated Ag nanoparticles (NPs). Enchytraeus crypticus were exposed for 21 days to assess effects on survival and reproduction. Soil, pore water and animals were analyzed for Ag. AgNP-Cit had a strong increasing effect on soil pH, leading to high enchytraeid mortality at concentrations higher than 60-100mg Ag/kg dry soil which made it impossible to determine the influence of soil properties on its toxicity. LC50s were lower for AgNO 3 than for AgNP-PVP (92-112 and 335-425mg Ag/kg dry soil, respectively) and were not affected by soil properties. AgNO 3 and AgNP-PVP had comparable reproductive toxicity with EC50s of 26.9-75.2 and 28.2-92.3mg Ag/kg dry soil, respectively; toxicity linearly increased with decreasing organic carbon content of the soils but did not show a clear effect of soil pH. Ag uptake in the enchytraeids was higher at higher organic carbon content, but could not explain differences in toxicity between soils. This study indicates that the bioavailability of both ionic and nanoparticulate Ag is mainly affected by soil organic carbon, with little effect of soil pH. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. In situ oxidation synthesis of Ag/AgCl core-shell nanowires and their photocatalytic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yingpu; Ye, Jinhua

    2009-11-21

    Ag/AgCl core-shell nanowires with uniform structure have been synthesized in large quantities via an in situ oxidation reaction between pentagonal Ag nanowires and FeCl(3) solution at room temperature, which exhibit excellent photocatalytic performance for decomposition of methylene orange under visible-light irradiation.

  14. New insight into daylight photocatalysis of AgBr@Ag: synergistic effect between semiconductor photocatalysis and plasmonic photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jing; Li, Hao; Zhang, Lizhi

    2012-05-14

    Noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) are often used as electron scavengers in conventional semiconductor photocatalysis to suppress electron-hole (e(-)-h(+) ) recombination and promote interfacial charge transfer, and thus enhance photocatalytic activity of semiconductors. In this contribution, it is demonstrated that noble metal NPs such as Ag NPs function as visible-light harvesting and electron-generating centers during the daylight photocatalysis of AgBr@Ag. Novel Ag plasmonic photocatalysis could cooperate with the conventional AgBr semiconductor photocatalysis to enhance the overall daylight activity of AgBr@Ag greatly because of an interesting synergistic effect. After a systematic investigation of the daylight photocatalysis mechanism of AgBr@Ag, the synergistic effect was attributed to surface plasmon resonance induced local electric field enhancement on Ag, which can accelerate the generation of e(-)-h(+) pairs in AgBr, so that more electrons are produced in the conduction band of AgBr under daylight irradiation. This study provides new insight into the photocatalytic mechanism of noble metal/semiconductor systems as well as the design and fabrication of novel plasmonic photocatalysts. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Ag/AgCl Loaded Bi2WO6 Composite: A Plasmonic Z-Scheme Visible Light-Responsive Photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangchao Meng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchical flower-like Bi2WO6 was successfully synthesized by facile hydrothermal method at low pH. And Ag/AgCl was loaded by photoreduction on its surface. As-prepared photocatalysts were characterized by various techniques. Bi2WO6 was successfully synthesized at a size of 2-3 μm. Depositing Ag/AgCl did not destroy the crystal structure, and both Ag+ and metallic Ag0 were found. The band gap of the composite was 2.57 eV, which indicates that visible light could be the activating irradiation. In the photocatalytic activity test, the composite with 10 wt% Ag/AgCl boasted the highest removal efficiency (almost 100% in 45 min. The significant enhancement can be attributed to the surface plasmon resonance (SPR effect and the establishment of heterostructures between Ag/AgCl and Bi2WO6. A possible mechanism of photocatalytic oxidation in the presence of Ag/AgCl-Bi2WO6 was proposed. This work sheds light on the potential applications of plasmonic metals in photocatalysis to enhance their activities.

  16. Biochemical Synthesis of Ag/AgCl Nanoparticles for Visible-Light-Driven Photocatalytic Removal of Colored Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiyun Zhao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic removal of organic pollution such as waste colored dyes was a promising technique for environment technique. However, effective photocatalysts were needed to enhance the photocatalytic efficiency. Ag/AgCl was regarded as high performance catalyst for photocatalytic degradation. Ag/AgCl nanoparticles were biochemically prepared with metabolin of living fungi which was used as reductant and characterized by X-Ray diffraction (XRD, UV-visible spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The Ag/AgCl nanoparticle composites showed spherical aggregation shape with an average size of about 3–5 nm which is well inside the quantum regime. The UV-visible study showed that Ag/AgCl nanoparticles had strong visible light absorption and exhibited excellent visible-light-driven photocatalytic performance. Photocatalytic results indicated that the obtained Ag/AgCl nanoparticles were suitable for photocatalytic removal of RhB dye under visible light irradiation. The excellent photocatalytic activities could be attributed to the quantum size nanoparticles and the Plasmon resonance of Ag/AgCl composites.

  17. 78 FR 64596 - Celerity Partners IV, LLC, Celerity AHI Holdings SPV, LLC, and All Aboard America! Holdings, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... Delaware. Applicants currently control two carriers, Hotard Coaches, Inc. (Coaches) and Industrial Bus Lines, Inc. d/b/a All Aboard America! (Industrial).\\2\\ Coaches and Industrial hold authority from the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) as motor carriers of passengers (license nos. MC...

  18. Effect of nano/micro-Ag compound particles on the bio-corrosion, antibacterial properties and cell biocompatibility of Ti-Ag alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mian; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Lan; Han, Yong; Lu, Zheng; Qin, Gaowu; Zhang, Erlin

    2017-06-01

    In this research, Ti-Ag alloys were prepared by powder metallurgy, casting and heat treatment method in order to investigate the effect of Ag compound particles on the bio-corrosion, the antibacterial property and the cell biocompatibility. Ti-Ag alloys with different sizes of Ag or Ag-compounds particles were successfully prepared: small amount of submicro-scale (100nm) Ti 2 Ag precipitates with solid solution state of Ag, large amount of nano-scale (20-30nm) Ti 2 Ag precipitates with small amount of solid solution state of Ag and micro-scale lamellar Ti 2 Ag phases, and complete solid solution state of Ag. The mechanical tests indicated that both nano/micro-scale Ti 2 Ag phases had a strong dispersion strengthening ability and Ag had a high solid solution strengthening ability. Electrochemical results shown the Ag content and the size of Ag particles had a limited influence on the bio-corrosion resistance although nano-scale Ti 2 Ag precipitates slightly improved corrosion resistance. It was demonstrated that the nano Ag compounds precipitates have a significant influence on the antibacterial properties of Ti-Ag alloys but no effect on the cell biocompatibility. It was thought that both Ag ions release and Ti 2 Ag precipitates contributed to the antibacterial ability, in which nano-scale and homogeneously distributed Ti 2 Ag phases would play a key role in antibacterial process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Barrier bucket experiment at the AGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fujieda

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A barrier bucket experiment with two dedicated barrier cavities was performed at the Brookhaven AGS. One of the barrier cavities was a magnetic alloy (MA–loaded cavity and the other was a ferrite-loaded cavity. They generated a single sine wave with a peak voltage of 40 kV at a repetition rate of 351 kHz. A barrier rf system was established with these cavities and five bunches from the AGS booster were accumulated. A total of 3×10^{13} protons were stored without beam loss, and were successfully rebunched and accelerated. The longitudinal emittance growth was observed during accumulation by the barrier bucket, the blowup factor of which was about 3. The longitudinal mismatch between the rf bucket and the beam bunch was the main reason for the emittance growth. The potential distortions by beam loading of the ferrite cavity and the overshooting voltage of the MA cavity disturbed the smooth debunching.

  20. Radiometric Calibration for AgCam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Hildum

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The student-built Agricultural Camera (AgCam now onboard the International Space Station observes the Earth surface through two linescan cameras with Charge-Coupled Device (CCD arrays sensitive to visible and near-infrared wavelengths, respectively. The electro-optical components of the AgCam were characterized using precision calibration equipment; a method for modeling and applying these measurements was derived. Correction coefficients to minimize effects of optical vignetting, CCD non-uniform quantum efficiency, and CCD dark current are separately determined using a least squares fit approach. Application of correction coefficients yields significant variability reduction in flat-field images; comparable results are obtained when applied to ground test images.

  1. A Comparison of the Physiological Responses to Underwater Arm Cranking and Breath Holding Between Synchronized Swimmers and Breath Holding Untrained Women

    OpenAIRE

    Alentejano, Teresa C.; Bell, Gordon J.; Marshall, Dru

    2012-01-01

    Exercise and breath holding in the water such as that performed in the sport of synchronized swimming may evoke the physiological consequences of the diving response. The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological responses of breath holding during underwater arm cranking in synchronized swimmers who are trained in breath holding and compare these responses to untrained women. Each participant performed 6 breath holding periods in the water (2 ? 10s, 2 ? 20s and 2 ? 25s) with ...

  2. Beam instrumentation in the AGS Booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witkover, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The AGS Booster was designed to accelerate low intensity (2 x 10 10 ) polarized protons, high intensity (1.5x10 13 ) protons and heavy ions through Au +33 . Coping with this wide range of beams, the 3 x 10 -11 Torr vacuum and the radiation environment presented challenges for the beam monitors. Some of the more interesting instrumentation design and performance during the recent Booster proton commissioning will be described

  3. New beam instrumentation in the AGS Booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witkover, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The AGS Booster was designed to accelerate beams from 2x10 10 polarized protons to 1.5x10 13 protons and heavy ions through Au +33 . The range of beam parameters and the high vacuum, and radiation environment presented challenges for the beam instrumentation. Some interesting beam monitors in the Booster and transport lines, will be described. Where available, results will be presented. 21 refs., 7 figs

  4. Polarimetry at RHIC and the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinka, H.; Bravar, A.; Alekseev, I.

    2004-01-01

    An overview of the AGS and RHIC polarimeters and results from recent polarized proton running is given. These polarimeters are based on p + C elastic scattering in the Coulomb-nuclear interference region. A surprising energy variation is observed in the t-dependence of the analyzing power between 3.8 and 24 GeV/c, while there is evidence that changes are much smaller up to 200 GeV/c. Plans for future polarimetry are also described. (author)

  5. SNS RING STUDY AT THE AGS BOOSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZHANG, S.Y.; AHRENS, L.; BEEBE-WANG, J.; BLASKIEWICZ, M.; FEDOTOV, A.; GARDNER, C.; LEE, Y.Y.; LUCCIO, A.; MALITSKY, N.; ROSER, T.; WENG, W.T.; WEI, J.; ZENO, K.; REECE, K.; WANG, J.G.

    2000-01-01

    During the g-2 run at the BNL AGS in early 2000, a 200 MeV storage-ring-like magnetic cycle has been set-up and tuned at the Booster in preparing for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring study. In this article, we report the progress of the machine set-up, tuning, some preliminary studies, and the future plan

  6. 26 CFR 1.552-1 - Definition of foreign personal holding company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Definition of foreign personal holding company. 1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Foreign Personal Holding Companies § 1.552-1 Definition of foreign personal holding company. (a) A foreign personal holding company is any foreign...

  7. Pressureless Bonding Using Sputtered Ag Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chulmin; Nagao, Shijo; Suganuma, Katsuaki

    2014-12-01

    To improve the performance and reliability of power electronic devices, particularly those built around next-generation wide-bandgap semiconductors such as SiC and GaN, the bonding method used for packaging must change from soldering to solderless technology. Because traditional solders are problematic in the harsh operating conditions expected for emerging high-temperature power devices, we propose a new bonding method in this paper, namely a pressureless, low-temperature bonding process in air, using abnormal grain growth on sputtered Ag thin films to realize extremely high temperature resistance. To investigate the mechanisms of this bonding process, we characterized the microstructural changes in the Ag films over various bonding temperatures and times. We measured the bonding properties of the specimens by a die-shear strength test, as well as by x-ray diffraction measurements of the residual stress in the Ag films to show how the microstructural developments were essential to the bonding technology. Sound bonds with high die strength can be achieved only with abnormal grain growth at optimum bonding temperature and time. Pressureless bonding allows for production of reliable high-temperature power devices for a wide variety of industrial, energy, and environmental applications.

  8. A comparison of the physiological responses to underwater arm cranking and breath holding between synchronized swimmers and breath holding untrained women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alentejano, Teresa C; Bell, Gordon J; Marshall, Dru

    2012-05-01

    Exercise and breath holding in the water such as that performed in the sport of synchronized swimming may evoke the physiological consequences of the diving response. The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological responses of breath holding during underwater arm cranking in synchronized swimmers who are trained in breath holding and compare these responses to untrained women. Each participant performed 6 breath holding periods in the water (2 × 10s, 2 × 20s and 2 × 25s) with 2 minutes of normal breathing in between, in either an ascending or descending order while performing arm crank exercise. The intensity of arm crank exercise was set below the individual ventilatory threshold. Both synchronized swimmers and controls were matched on sitting height and then randomly divided into 2 groups: one group started breath holding with the longest (25s) breath holding periods while the other group began breath holding with the shortest (10s) breath holding periods. The synchronized swimmers experienced a significant decrease in heart rate while breath holding for 20 and 25s but the changes in heart rate for the control group was not consistent between subgroups. Full recovery from breath holding was identified for minute ventilation after 25s of recovery from breath holding for all groups. Results suggest synchronized swimmers exhibited a better adaptation to breath holding while exercising underwater.

  9. Nanojoining of crossed Ag nanowires: a molecular dynamics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Jianlei, E-mail: cjlxjtu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Wang, Xuewen; Barayavuga, Theogene; Mei, Xuesong; Wang, Wenjun [Xi’an Jiaotong University, State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering (China); He, Xiaoqiao, E-mail: bcxqhe@cityu.edu.hk [City University of Hong Kong, Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering (Hong Kong)

    2016-07-15

    Ag nanowires are considered to be the promising candidates for future electronic circuit owing to the excellent electrical and thermal properties, with the miniaturization of electronics devices into nanometer scale. Though interconnect technology between Ag nanowires (Ag NWs) is essential for nanofunctional devices, it lacks sufficient experimental data. Besides, the determination of Ag NW interconnection configuration is experimentally difficult to do for lacking the sufficient investigation of atomic configuration evolution during nanojoining process. So the nanojoining between the crossed Ag NWs with the same diameter of 2 nm and different lengths was performed by molecular dynamics simulation to explain the unclear nanojoining mechanism based on thermal effect. As the simulation results present, when the nanojoining temperature is relatively high, though the Ag NWs are connected with the interpenetration effect of Ag atoms at the crossed nanojunction area, the nanostructures of Ag NWs have been seriously deformed with shorter length and larger diameter, showing relatively more obvious melting characteristics based on the chaotic atomic structures. If the temperature is reduced to 300 K as cold welding, the crossed Ag NWs can be partially contacted with the partial mixture of Ag atoms, and the interstices always exist between the Si surface and the upper Ag nanowire. In addition, the obvious dislocation phenomenon will appear and evolve as time goes on. Consequently, the dominant mechanism was revealed for providing a fundamental understanding of how ‘hot’ and ‘cold’ welding technology affects the atomic contact configuration, respectively.

  10. Ionic transport properties in AgCl under high pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Zhang, Guozhao; Liu, Hao; Wang, Qinglin; Shen, Wenshu; Yan, Yalan; Liu, Cailong; Han, Yonghao; Gao, Chunxiao

    2017-07-01

    Ionic transport behaviors of silver chloride (AgCl) have been revealed with impedance spectra measurement under high pressures up to 20.4 GPa. AgCl always presented ionic conducting under experimental pressures, but electronic conduction can coexist with ionic conduction within the pressure range from 6.7 to 9.3 GPa. The ionic conductivity of AgCl decreases by three orders of magnitude under compression, indicating that Ag+ ion migrations are suppressed by high pressure. A parameter, fW, was defined as the starting frequency at which Ag+ ions begin to show obvious long-distance diffusion in AgCl. fW showed a similar trend with the ionic conductivity under high pressures, indicating that the speed of Ag+ ion diffusion slows down as the pressure increases. Unlike AgI, Ag+ ion diffusion in AgCl is controlled by the indirect-interstitial mechanism. Due to stronger ionic bonds and larger lattice deformation, Ag+ ion diffusion in the rigid Cl- lattice is more difficult than in the I- lattice under high pressures.

  11. Microstructure evolution during 300 °C storage of sintered Ag nanoparticles on Ag and Au substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paknejad, S.A. [King’s College London, Physics Department, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Dumas, G. [Eltek Semiconductors Ltd, Nelson Road Industrial Estate, Dartmouth, Devon TQ6 9LA (United Kingdom); West, G. [Loughborough University, Materials Department, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Lewis, G. [Eltek Semiconductors Ltd, Nelson Road Industrial Estate, Dartmouth, Devon TQ6 9LA (United Kingdom); Mannan, S.H., E-mail: samjid.mannan@kcl.ac.uk [King’s College London, Physics Department, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-25

    Highlights: • Shear strength of pressure-free sintered Ag found to increase during ageing at 300 °C on Ag substrate. • Rapid collapse of void number density after 24 h ageing in the sintered Ag layer. • Higher porosity at edge of joint compared to the middle. • Shear strength of pressure-free sintered Ag decreases during ageing at 300 °C due to high porosity layer growth. • Void free layer and high porosity layer growth explained in terms of atomic diffusion and grain boundary migration. - Abstract: A silver nanoparticle based die attach material was used in a pressure free process to bond 2.5 mm square Ag plated Si die to Ag and Au plated substrates. The assemblies were stored at 300 °C for up to 500 h and the morphology of the sintered Ag and the shear strength were monitored as a function of time. On Ag substrate it was found that die shear strength increased and that the Ag grains grew in size and porosity decreased over time. There was also a clear difference in morphology between sintered Ag at the die edge and centre. On Au substrate, it was observed that the initially high die shear strength decreased with storage time and that voids migrated away from the Ag/Au interface and into the Ag joint. This has led to the formation of a void free layer at the interface followed by a high porosity region, which weakened the joint. The microstructure reveals a high density of grain and twin boundaries which facilitate the Ag and Au atomic diffusion responsible. The grain structure of the plated Au led to diffusion of Au into the Ag via high-angle tilt grain boundaries, and grain boundary migration further dispersed the Au into the Ag layer.

  12. Anomalous photoelectric emission from Ag on zinc-phthalocyanine film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Senku; Otani, Tomohiro; Fukuzawa, Ken; Hiromitsu, Ichiro; Ogawa, Koji; Azuma, Junpei; Yamamoto, Isamu; Takahashi, Kazutoshi; Kamada, Masao

    2014-01-01

    Photoelectric emission from organic and metal thin films is generally observed with irradiation of photon energy larger than 4 eV. In this paper, however, we report photoelectric emission from Ag on a zinc-phthalocyanine (ZnPc) layer at a photon energy of 3.4 eV. The threshold energy for this photoelectric emission is much smaller than the work function of Ag estimated by conventional photoelectron spectroscopy. The photoelectric emission by low-energy photons is significant for Ag thicknesses of less than 1 nm. Photoelectron spectroscopy and morphological study of the Ag/ZnPc suggest that the anomalous photoelectric emission from the Ag surface is caused by a vacuum level shift at the Ag/ZnPc interface and by surface plasmons of the Ag nanoparticles

  13. Control of texture in Ag and Ag-alloy substrates for superconducting tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladstone, T.A.

    2000-01-01

    The use of a biaxially textured silver tape as a substrate for high temperature superconductor (HTS) phases is one possible route towards the fabrication of high-J c superconducting tape. Using a cold-rolling and annealing process we have reproducibly fabricated {110} textured silver which is stable up to 900 deg. C. We have found that there are two critical process requirements for the formation of this texture; a low oxygen content in the material prior to deformation, and a cold-rolling thickness reduction of less than 97%. To overcome the problems associated with the poor mechanical strength of pure silver, texture development in Ag-Mg and Ag-Hf alloys with improved mechanical properties has been studied. Heat treatments in a reducing atmosphere allow the {110} annealing texture to be obtained in Ag-0.1 wt%Mg. The recrystallization behaviour of a Ag-Pd alloy with an increased stacking fault energy was also investigated and a partial cube texture was obtained in this material. Using orientation distribution function (ODF) analysis we have shown that minor variations in the deformation texture of both pure silver and Ag-based alloys can lead to significant differences in the recrystallization textures obtained. (author)

  14. Control of texture in Ag and Ag-alloy substrates for superconducting tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladstone, T. A.; Moore, J. C.; Henry, B. M.; Speller, S.; Salter, C. J.; Wilkinson, A. J.; Grovenor, C. R. M.

    2000-09-01

    The use of a biaxially textured silver tape as a substrate for high temperature superconductor (HTS) phases is one possible route towards the fabrication of high-Jc superconducting tape. Using a cold-rolling and annealing process we have reproducibly fabricated {110} textured silver which is stable up to 900 °C. We have found that there are two critical process requirements for the formation of this texture; a low oxygen content in the material prior to deformation, and a cold-rolling thickness reduction of less than 97%. To overcome the problems associated with the poor mechanical strength of pure silver, texture development in Ag-Mg and Ag-Hf alloys with improved mechanical properties has been studied. Heat treatments in a reducing atmosphere allow the {110} annealing texture to be obtained in Ag-0.1 wt%Mg. The recrystallization behaviour of a Ag-Pd alloy with an increased stacking fault energy was also investigated and a partial cube texture was obtained in this material. Using orientation distribution function (ODF) analysis we have shown that minor variations in the deformation texture of both pure silver and Ag-based alloys can lead to significant differences in the recrystallization textures obtained.

  15. Ab initio Study of Ag-Based Fluoroperovskite AgMF3 (M = Co and Ni) Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarak, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    Ab initio calculations of Ag-based fluoroperovskite AgMF3 (M = Co and Ni) compounds are investigated using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method. Wien2k and BoltzTrap codes are used to calculate the different physical properties. The structural parameters of the present compounds are within reasonable agreement with previous calculations. This study shows that AgCoF3 and AgNiF3 are anisotropic, ductile, mechanically and thermodynamically stable compounds, where AgCoF3 is found to be stiffer and less compressible than AgNiF3. The spin-polarized electronic band structure illustrates that AgCoF3 is metallic, while AgNiF3 is a semiconductor with indirect (M-D) band gap energy of 0.43 eV. The bonding force between atoms is found to be mainly ionic with some covalent nature. The total magnetic moment of AgCoF3 (3.04 μ B) is found to be higher than that calculated for AgNiF3 (2.00 μ B). Using the magnetic susceptibility calculations, AgCoF3 is classified as antiferromagnetic, whereas AgNiF3 is a ferromagnetic compound. The calculated static refractive index of AgCoF3 (3.85) and AgNiF3 (3.60) is inversely proportional with the energy band gap. Suitable applications are predicted for AgCoF3 and AgNiF3 based on their absorption and reflection properties. Furthermore, beneficial thermoelectric applications are expected for the present compounds due to their large Seebeck coefficient ( S_{{{{AgCoF}}_{ 3} }} = 2.92 × 103 μ {V/K} {and} S_{{{{AgNiF}}3 }} = 2.84 × 103 μ {V/K} ) and their thermoelectric power factor with respect to relaxation time ( S2 σ /t_{{AgNiF3 }} = 1.11 × 109 {W/K}^{ 2} {and} S2 σ /t_{{AgNiF3 }} = 1.28 × 10^{11} {W/K}^{ 2} ).

  16. Room temperature synthesis and photocatalytic property of AgO/Ag2Mo2O7 heterojunction nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, Muhammad; Hu, Chenguo; Wang, Xue; Wan, Buyong; Xu, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The AgO nanoparticles are attached on the surface of the Ag 2 Mo 2 O 7 nanowires to form a heterojunction structure. The AgO nanoparticles start embedding into the nanowires with increasing reaction temperature or time. Highlights: ► AgO/Ag 2 Mo 2 O 7 heterojunction NWs were synthesized at room temperature for the first time. ► AgO particles embed into the Ag 2 Mo 2 O 7 NWs with increase in reaction time and temperature. ► The heterojunction NWs display much better photocatalytic activity than the none-heterojunction NWs. ► The catalytic mechanism was proposed. -- Abstract: AgO/Ag 2 Mo 2 O 7 heterojunction nanowires were synthesized at temperatures of 25 °C, 50 °C, 80 °C, and 110 °C, under magnetic stirring in solution reaction. The catalytic activity of AgO/Ag 2 Mo 2 O 7 nanowires was evaluated by the degradation of Rhodmine B dye under the irradiation of the simulated sunlight. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, energy dispersive spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectrometer, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that the AgO nanoparticles are attached on the surface of the Ag 2 Mo 2 O 7 nanowires to form a heterojunction structure. The length of the nanowires is up to 10 μm and the size of the AgO nanoparticles is 10–20 nm. The length of nanowires increases with increasing reaction time and temperature while the AgO particles are gradually embedded into the nanowires. The photocatalytic activity is greatly improved for the AgO/Ag 2 Mo 2 O 7 heterojunction nanowires compared with that of the pure Ag 2 Mo 2 O 7 nanowires, indicating a remarkable role of AgO particles on the Ag 2 Mo 2 O 7 nanowires in the photodegradation.

  17. Emulsifying salt increase stability of cheese emulsions during holding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anni Bygvrå; Sijbrandij, Anna G.; Varming, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    of sodium and phosphate in foods makes production of cheese powder without or with minimal amounts of emulsifying salts desirable. The present work uses a centrifugation method to characterize stability of model cheese feeds. Stability of cheese feed with emulsifying salt increased with holding time at 60°C......In cheese powder production, cheese is mixed and melted with water and emulsifying salt to form an emulsion (cheese feed) which is required to remain stable at 60°C for 1h and during further processing until spray drying. Addition of emulsifying salts ensures this, but recent demands for reduction......, especially when no stirring was applied. No change in stability during holding was observed in cheese feeds without emulsifying salt. This effect is suggested to be due to continued exerted functionality of the emulsifying salt, possibly through reorganizations of the mineral balance....

  18. CASH HOLDING, GOOD CORPORATE GOVERNANCE AND FIRM VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prana Wahyu Nisasmara

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to understand the influence of profitability, capital structure, cash holding, and GCG (Good Corporate Governance on firm value.  The samples of this study were the property sector and real estate companies listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX in the period of 2008-2013. The data used from the annual report company. The methods of data analysis were multiple regression models and analyzed using IBM SPSS software. The results of this study are profitability has no influence on firm value, capital structure has positive influence on firm value, cash holding has no influence on firm value and GCG a has a positive influence on firm value.

  19. A distribution-free newsvendor problem with nonlinear holding cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Brojeswar; Sankar Sana, Shib; Chaudhuri, Kripasindhu

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we analyse a single-period newsvendor model to determine the optimal order quantity where the customers' balking occurs.This scenario occurs when the customers are opposed to buy a product for various reasons, such as decreasing quality of product, product is not as good as fresh when it reaches under a threshold level, etc. The model is investigated by assuming that the holding cost function depends on order quantity and the inventory level at which customer balking occurs depends on holding cost. The model allows partial backlogging and permits part of the backlogged shortages to turn into lost sales. We develop the model without taking any specific distributional form of demand, only assuming the mean and the variance of the distribution of demand. Finally, we illustrate the model by numerical examples and compare our distribution-free model with the specific distributional form of demand.

  20. Temperamental traits of breath holding children: A case control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarayan, A.; Ganesan, B.; Anbumani; Jayanthini

    2008-01-01

    Background: Clinical observation and few anecdotal reports suggest that the children with breath holding spells (BHS) have certain temperamental traits, which predispose them to behave in certain way. They seem to have low frustration tolerance, which leads to adamant behavior. Vigorous crying, through various mechanisms, precipitates BHS. Materials and Methods: We assessed the temperamental traits of 30 children with BHS and compared them with 30 normal children after matching for age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Temperament was measured using ‘Temperament measurement Schedule’. Results: The data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test. The following temperamental traits, threshold of responsiveness (Pbreath holders. Conclusions: Significantly differing temperamental traits in breath holders suggests that these could influence the behavioral pattern exhibited by them. Breath holding spells can act as an easy marker for difficult temperamental traits, which gives an early opportunity to shape their difficult behavior. PMID:19742234

  1. Hair Water Content and Water Holding Capacity Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, P; Bontozoglou, C; Ciortea, LI; Imhof, RE

    2016-01-01

    We present our latest study on human hair water content and water holding capacity measurements by using capacitive contact imaging and condense-TEWL method. Previous studies showed that capacitive contact imaging based fingerprint sensors, originally designed for biometric applications, can be used for skin hydration imaging, skin surface analysis, 3D skin surface profiles, skin micro-relief as well as solvent penetration measurements. Through calibration, we can also measure the absolute di...

  2. Nuclear and BIO-CCS hold energy and environment answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, B.

    2010-01-01

    Australia's degraded soils could hold the key to solving Australia's carbon dioxide (C O2 ) emissions problems, according to John White. Increasing soil carbon is one of the few proven, large-scale possibilities - and arguably the best and most sustainable way - to remove existing atmospheric C O2 in the short-term and, at the same time, make soils more fertile and drought and salinity-resistant, providing enhanced food security and quality.

  3. P Wave Dispersion in Children with Breath-holding Spells

    OpenAIRE

    Tahsin Gider; Bülent Koca; Mustafa Çalık; Ali Yıldırım; Savaş Demirpençe

    2016-01-01

    Objective: A breath-holding spell (BHS) is a clinical feature frequently seen in infancy and early childhood and generally bringing children to pediatric cardiology outpatient clinics with the suspicion of cardiac disease. In this study, P wave dispersion (PWD), which is a marker of regional differences in atrial depolarization in electrocardiography and has been demonstrated to be beneficial in defining the risk of supraventricular tachycardia in various patient groups, was studied in childr...

  4. Clinical and Laboratory Findings of Patients with Breath Holding Spells

    OpenAIRE

    Özlem Özdemir; Serpil Çalışkan Can; Evren Semizel; Mehmet S. Okan

    2009-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics; physical findings, cardiological, hematological and neurological problems; treatment approaches; and the prognosis of children with breath holding spells.Materials and Method: Seventhy patients were included in this study. All patients were evaluated with detailed history and physical examination. Complete blood count, serum iron and iron binding capacity were studied; cardiological (telecardiography, electro...

  5. Sequestration of Ag(I) from aqueous solution as Ag(0) nanostructures by nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yalei, E-mail: zhangyalei2003@163.com [Tongji University, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse (China); Yan, Jing [Tongji University, Modern Agricultural Science and Engineering Institute (China); Dai, Chaomeng, E-mail: daichaomeng@163.com, E-mail: daichaomeng@tongji.edu.cn [Tongji University, College of Civil Engineering (China); Li, Yuting; Zhu, Yan [Tongji University, Modern Agricultural Science and Engineering Institute (China); Zhou, Xuefei [Tongji University, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse (China)

    2015-11-15

    This study investigates the application of nanoparticle zero valent iron (nZVI) to sequester Ag(I) as Ag(0) nanostructures from aqueous solution. Batch experiments were performed with nZVI exposed to aqueous Ag(I) to investigate the effects of environmental parameters, including nZVI dose, temperature and pH. High temperature facilitates Ag(I) sequestration, and the rate constants are determined to be 0.02, 0.12, and 0.31 mg L/m{sup 2} at 30, 50, and 60 °C, respectively. Ag(I) sequestration was adversely affected by adding nitric acid to the solution due to significant acid washing, decreasing the available nZVI active sites. Characterization techniques including TEM, XRD, and HR-XPS revealed that nZVI is oxidized to lepidocrocite and magnetite/maghemite and confirmed the formation of nanocrystalline silver. HR-XPS analysis indicated that Ag{sub 2}O forms rapidly as an intermediate due to Ag(I) adsorption onto the FeOOH layer. The Ag(0) nanostructures that are formed are fractal, spherical, and dendritic or rod-like, respectively, in morphology by FE-TEM images at different Ag/Fe mass ratios. A general reaction model for the interaction Ag(I) with nZVI is proposed. Our results suggest that nZVI is effective for Ag(I) removal.

  6. Fluoride-induced reduction of Ag(I) cation leading to formation of silver mirrors and luminescent Ag-nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Krishnendu; Panda, Dillip K; Lochner, Eric; Saha, Sourav

    2015-03-04

    In aprotic solvents, Lewis basic F(-) anion reduces Lewis acidic Ag(I) cation to Ag(0), forming metallic silver mirrors on the inner surfaces of reaction vessels and luminescent Ag-nanoparticles (AgNPs) in supernatant solutions, which emit blue light upon UV irradiation. The F(-)-induced formation of silver mirrors and AgNPs was confirmed through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), fluorescence spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry, whereas the Ag(I)-induced oxidation of F(-) to Ḟ radical, followed by its conversion to HF2(-) via H-abstraction and H-bonding, was evident from (19)F NMR spectroscopy. This redox reaction is deactivated in water, as the reducing power of hydrated F(-) diminishes drastically. Less Lewis basic Cl(-), Br(-), and I(-) ions do not reduce Ag(I) to Ag(0), instead they can only form Ag(I) halide precipitates irrespective of protic or aprotic solvents. The Ag-coated surfaces, luminescent AgNPs, and Ḟ radicals produced by this unprecedented redox reaction could be exploited as electrodes, light-emitting materials, and radical initiators, respectively.

  7. Evaluation of QT Dispersion in Children with Breath Holding Spells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahedian, Amir Hosein; Heidarzadeh Arani, Marzieh; Motaharizad, Davood; Mousavi, Gholam Abbas; Mosayebi, Ziba

    2016-01-01

    Breath holding spells (BHS) are common involuntary reflexes in infancy and early childhood. Differential diagnosis should embrace Long QT Syndrome (LQTS) and paroxysmal abnormalities of rhythm. The aim of this study was to compare QT dispersion (QTd) in children with breath holding spells and normal controls. QT dispersion and Corrected QT(QTc) dispersion were measured in 12 lead surface electrocardiograms in 56 patients with BHS and compared with healthy children of the same age referred to the clinic for regular checkup visits. The most common type of BHS was cyanotic (83.9%). Seven patients (12.5%) had pallid and two patients (3.5%) had mixed spells. There was a history of breath holding spells in 33.9% of the children. QT dispersion was 61.6± 22.5 and 47.1±18.8 ms in patient and control groups, respectively. QTc dispersion (QTcd) was 104 ± 29.6 and 71.9 ±18.2 ms, respectively. There was a significant difference between patient and control groups in terms of QTd and QTcd (P<0.001). QTd and QTcd were increased in children with BHS. Therefore, the evaluation of EKG for early diagnosis of rhythm abnormalities seems reasonable in these children.

  8. Directional solidification of YBaCuO thick films deposited by screen printing on Ag and Ag-Pd tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñol, S.; Najib, M.; Puig, T.; Obradors, X.; Xuriguera, H.; Segarra, M.

    2002-08-01

    Textured tapes of Ag{1 1 0} and polycrystalline tapes of Ag-Pd(0.5-12.5%) alloys have been prepared by cold rolling as possible substrates for deposition of high critical current density YBCO films. The Ag{1 1 0} texture with some twins was promoted by recrystallization after cold rolling from ingots prepared by melting and solidification of Ag powders. Nevertheless, no textured tapes were obtained by cold rolling from Ag-Pd alloys with Pd>0.5%. YBCO thick films (10-30 μm) were deposited on the metallic tapes by screen printing using organic inks. Biaxially textured superconducting thick films were observed on the Ag{1 1 0} substrates at low solidification rates. Nevertheless, uniaxial texture with some biaxial colonies of YBCO grains were found on Ag-Pd alloys when the superconducting phase was solidified at high rate.

  9. Modification of field emission resonances by Cu and Cu/Ag islands on Ag(100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaum, Christopher; Morgenstern, Karina [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Abteilung ATMOS, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universitaet, Appelstr. 2, D-30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    We deposited Cu islands containing 10 to 500 atoms on a clean Ag(100) surface at room temperature and investigated their electronic structure by STS spectroscopy with a low temperature scanning tunneling microscope. Islands containing less than 50 atoms per islands are pure Cu islands, while islands at sizes above 80 atoms per island are Cu/Ag alloy islands. STS measurements reveal that these two island types have a different impact on the field emission resonances (FERs) of the Ag(100) surface. While the observed modifications for large islands are marginal, noticeable shifts of the FERs occur for small islands. These different results in STS spectroscopy are discussed with respect to the different work functions of pure and alloyed islands. Such STS measurements could therefore be used to determine the composition of surface alloys with high spatial resolution.

  10. Heterojunction double dumb-bell Ag2Te-Te-Ag2Te nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Som, Anirban; Pradeep, T.

    2012-07-01

    Growth of isolated axial heterojunction nanowires by a solution phase growth process is reported. The dumb-bell shaped nanowires contain two silver telluride sections at the extremes joined by a tellurium section. Reaction of silver nitrate with tellurium NWs in aqueous solution at a molar ratio of 1 : 1 leads to the formation of amorphous partially silver reacted Te NWs. Low temperature (75 °C) solution phase annealing of these silver deficient NWs results in phase segregation producing crystalline Ag2Te and Te phases with clear phase boundaries along the wire axis. Structural characterization of these dumb-bell shaped NWs was performed with different microscopic and spectroscopic tools. Solution phase silver concentration over the course of annealing indicated leaching of silver into the solution during the formation of biphasic NWs. Similar Ag : Te ratios were observed in both partially silver reacted Te NWs and phase segregated Ag2Te-Te-Ag2Te NWs and this was attributed to redeposition of leached silver on the amorphous NW tips which eventually resulted in complete phase segregation. Successful integration of different chemical components in single NWs is expected to open up new application possibilities as physical and chemical properties of the heterostructure can be exploited.Growth of isolated axial heterojunction nanowires by a solution phase growth process is reported. The dumb-bell shaped nanowires contain two silver telluride sections at the extremes joined by a tellurium section. Reaction of silver nitrate with tellurium NWs in aqueous solution at a molar ratio of 1 : 1 leads to the formation of amorphous partially silver reacted Te NWs. Low temperature (75 °C) solution phase annealing of these silver deficient NWs results in phase segregation producing crystalline Ag2Te and Te phases with clear phase boundaries along the wire axis. Structural characterization of these dumb-bell shaped NWs was performed with different microscopic and spectroscopic

  11. Ag induced suppression of irradiation response in YBCO/Ag composite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behera, D.; Mohanty, T.; Mohanta, D.; Patnaik, K.; Mishra, N.C.; Senapati, L.; Kanjilal, D.; Mehta, G.K.; Pinto, R.

    1999-01-01

    Practical application of cuprate superconductors in radiation environment demands that these systems remain insensitive to the irradiation induced defects. The cuprate superconductors however are many orders of magnitude more sensitive than the conventional low T c superconductors. To suppress the irradiation sensitivity of cuprates we consider a crystal engineering approach where metal ions as Ag is made to occupy inter and intra-granular sites of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 thin films. We show that superconducting and normal state properties of YBCO/Ag composite thin films prepared by laser ablation remain unchanged under 140 MeV Si ion irradiation up to fluence of 8 x 10 14 ions/cm 2 . The inter- and intra-granular occupancy of Ag is shown to induce microstructural modifications and rigidity to the CuO chains respectively which in turn lead to the radiation insensitivity of the composite films. (author)

  12. Mechanisms of Toxicity of Ag Nanoparticles in Comparison to Bulk and Ionic Ag on Mussel Hemocytes and Gill Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Katsumiti

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs are increasingly used in many products and are expected to end up in the aquatic environment. Mussels have been proposed as marine model species to evaluate NP toxicity in vitro. The objective of this work was to assess the mechanisms of toxicity of Ag NPs on mussel hemocytes and gill cells, in comparison to ionic and bulk Ag. Firstly, cytotoxicity of commercial and maltose stabilized Ag NPs was screened in parallel with the ionic and bulk forms at a wide range of concentrations in isolated mussel cells using cell viability assays. Toxicity of maltose alone was also tested. LC50 values were calculated and the most toxic Ag NPs tested were selected for a second step where sublethal concentrations of each Ag form were tested using a wide array of mechanistic tests in both cell types. Maltose-stabilized Ag NPs showed size-dependent cytotoxicity, smaller (20 nm NPs being more toxic than larger (40 and 100 nm NPs. Maltose alone provoked minor effects on cell viability. Ionic Ag was the most cytotoxic Ag form tested whereas bulk Ag showed similar cytotoxicity to the commercial Ag NPs. Main mechanisms of action of Ag NPs involved oxidative stress and genotoxicity in the two cell types, activation of lysosomal AcP activity, disruption of actin cytoskeleton and stimulation of phagocytosis in hemocytes and increase of MXR transport activity and inhibition of Na-K-ATPase in gill cells. Similar effects were observed after exposure to ionic and bulk Ag in the two cell types, although generally effects were more marked for the ionic form. In conclusion, results suggest that most observed responses were due at least in part to dissolved Ag.

  13. Mechanisms of Toxicity of Ag Nanoparticles in Comparison to Bulk and Ionic Ag on Mussel Hemocytes and Gill Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumiti, Alberto; Gilliland, Douglas; Arostegui, Inmaculada; Cajaraville, Miren P.

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are increasingly used in many products and are expected to end up in the aquatic environment. Mussels have been proposed as marine model species to evaluate NP toxicity in vitro. The objective of this work was to assess the mechanisms of toxicity of Ag NPs on mussel hemocytes and gill cells, in comparison to ionic and bulk Ag. Firstly, cytotoxicity of commercial and maltose stabilized Ag NPs was screened in parallel with the ionic and bulk forms at a wide range of concentrations in isolated mussel cells using cell viability assays. Toxicity of maltose alone was also tested. LC50 values were calculated and the most toxic Ag NPs tested were selected for a second step where sublethal concentrations of each Ag form were tested using a wide array of mechanistic tests in both cell types. Maltose-stabilized Ag NPs showed size-dependent cytotoxicity, smaller (20 nm) NPs being more toxic than larger (40 and 100 nm) NPs. Maltose alone provoked minor effects on cell viability. Ionic Ag was the most cytotoxic Ag form tested whereas bulk Ag showed similar cytotoxicity to the commercial Ag NPs. Main mechanisms of action of Ag NPs involved oxidative stress and genotoxicity in the two cell types, activation of lysosomal AcP activity, disruption of actin cytoskeleton and stimulation of phagocytosis in hemocytes and increase of MXR transport activity and inhibition of Na-K-ATPase in gill cells. Similar effects were observed after exposure to ionic and bulk Ag in the two cell types, although generally effects were more marked for the ionic form. In conclusion, results suggest that most observed responses were due at least in part to dissolved Ag. PMID:26061169

  14. 3D modelling of an aero-gravity and -magnetic survey as an first exploration step in a frontier basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köther, Nils; Eckard, Marcel; Götze, Hans-Jürgen

    2010-05-01

    The West African Taoudeni basin covers a desert area of about 1.8 million km² and is one of the last frontier basins worldwide. Here Wintershall Holding AG holds acreage of about 68000 km². During 2005-2007 geological surveys and an aero-gravity and -magnetic survey were conducted in this area. The potential field modelling should contribute first insight about the subsurface to plan an economic seismic survey. 2D models lead to poor results. 2008 the results of an internship (NK) were 3D subsurface models, which were enhanced during the following diploma thesis (Köther, 2009). Complex igneous rocks and sparsely distributed constraints lead to an ambiguous interpretation. Therefore, several simple 3D models were compiled with the in-house software IGMAS+, which base on geological ideas of the underground and fit well the measured data. These basic models allow a geophysical evaluation of different geological theories about the subsurface. Also, for a thorough interpretation field transformations (Euler, Curvature, and Derivatives) were calculated. These results led to new constraints for further interpretation of the basin structures and therefore they are important contributions for future exploration e.g. the planning of seismic surveys.

  15. Temperature dependence of the electric field gradient in AgPd and AgPt alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolas, K.

    1977-07-01

    The measurements of temperature dependence of the electric field gradient (EFG) on 111 Cd nuclei in AgPd and AgPt alloys were performed using the time dependent perturbed angular correlation method. The EFG caused by impurities distributed in further coordination shells decrease stronaer with increasing temperature than the EFG due to single impurity being the nearest neighbour of the probe atom. These results were explained assuming different modes of thermal vibrations of single impurity atoms and impurity complexes in silver host lattice. (author)

  16. Probe-holding apparatus for holding a probe for checking steam generator tubes particularly in a nuclear reactor installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamowski, A.; Gagny; Gallet, G.; Lhermitte, J.; Monne, M.; Vautherot, G.

    1984-01-01

    Probe-holding apparatus for holding a probe for checking steam generator tubes particularly in a nuclear reactor installation. The apparatus comprises a telescopic arm supported via a ball and socket joint from a support mounted in or near an access aperture in a chamber at one end of the steam generator. A probe guide is carried by a carriage pivotally mounted at the other end of the telescopic arm. The carriage includes an endless belt having a series of spaced projections which engage into the ends of the tubes, the projections being spaced by a distance equal to the tube pitch or a multiple thereof. The belt is driven by a stepping motor in order to move the carriage and place the probe guide opposite different ones of the tubes

  17. Experimental study of the Ag-Sn-In phase diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassilev, Gueorgui P.; Dobrev, Evgueni S.; Tedenac, Jean-Claude

    2005-01-01

    Combined metallographic, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray and scanning electron microscopy studies have been performed using 27 ternary alloys. The microhardness of the α(Ag), ε(Ag 3 Sn) and ζ(Ag 4 Sn,Ag 3 In) phases has been measured. The ternary extension of the phase φ(Ag x In y Sn z , where x ∼ 0.36, y ∼ 0.61, z ∼ 0.03) has been revealed in some specimens, although the binary compound (AgIn 2 ) melts at 166 deg. C. This finding is attributed to the limited cooling rate. The solubility ranges of the solid solution and the intermetallic phases have been determined. The tin and the indium show approximately equal mutual solubility (around 2 at.%) in the ternary extensions of their Ag-Sn or Ag-In phases. The experimental data have been compared with a calculated isothermal section at 280 deg. C and with a vertical section at 2.5 at.% Ag. The thermal analyses have confirmed, in general, the temperatures of the invariant reactions in the Ag-Sn-In system as calculated by literature data

  18. Structure of Ag, Fe and Ge microclusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montano, P.A.; Shenoy, G.K.; Schulze, W.

    1989-01-01

    The structures of Ag, Fe and Ge microclusters were determined using EXAFS. The measurements were performed over a wide range of clusters sizes. The clusters were prepared using the gas aggregation technique and isolated in solid argon at 4.2 K. The measurements were performed at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at beam line X-18B. A strong contraction of the interatomic distances was observed for Ag dimers and multimers. Silver clusters larger than 12 A mean diameter show a small contraction of the nn distance and a structure consistent with an fcc lattice. By contrast clusters smaller than 12 A show the presence of a small expansion and a strong reduction or absence of nnn in the EXAFS signal. This points towards a different crystallographic structure for Ag microclusters with diameter less than 12 A. In iron clusters we observe a gradual reduction of the nn distance as the cluster size decreases. The interatomic distance for iron dimers was determined to be 1.94 A, in good agreement with earlier measurements. The iron microclusters show a bcc structure down to a mean diameter of 9 A. Iron clusters with 9 A mean diameter show a structure inconsistent with a bcc lattice. The new structure is consistent with an fcc or hcp lattice. The measurements on Ge clusters show the presence of only nearest neighbors. There was clear evidence of temporal annealing as determined by variations in the near edge structure of the K-absorption edge. Absorption edge measurements were also performed for free Ge clusters travelling perpendicular to the direction of the synchrotron radiation beam. The measurements performed on the free clusters were consistent with those obtained for matrix isolated clusters. (orig.)

  19. AgPi: Agents on Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Semwal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Raspberry Pi and its variants have brought with them an aura of change in the world of embedded systems. With their impressive computation and communication capabilities and low footprint, these devices have thrown open the possibility of realizing a network of things in a very cost-effective manner. While such networks offer good solutions to prominent issues, they are indeed a long way from being smart or intelligent. Most of the currently available implementations of such a network of devices involve a centralized cloud-based server that contributes to making the necessary intelligent decisions, leaving these devices fairly underutilized. Though this paradigm provides for an easy and rapid solution, they have limited scalability, are less robust and at times prove to be expensive. In this paper, we introduce the concept of Agents on Raspberry Pi (AgPi as a cyber solution to enhance the smartness and flexibility of such embedded networks of physical devices in a decentralized manner. The use of a Multi-Agent System (MAS running on Raspberry Pis aids agents, both static and mobile, to govern the various activities within the network. Agents can act autonomously or on behalf of a human user and can collaborate, learn, adapt and act, thus contributing to embedded intelligence. This paper describes how Tartarus, a multi-agent platform, embedded on Raspberry Pis that constitute a network, can bring the best out of the system. To reveal the versatility of the concept of AgPi, an application for a Location-Aware and Tracking Service (LATS is presented. The results obtained from a comparison of data transfer cost between the conventional cloud-based approach with AgPi have also been included.

  20. Modelling of the AGS using Zgoubi - Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meot F.; Ahrens, L.; Dutheil, Y.; Glenn, J.; Huang, H.; Roser, T.; Schoefer, V.; Tsoupas, N.

    2012-05-20

    This paper summarizes the progress achieved so far, and discusses various outcomes, regarding the development of a model of the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at the RHIC collider. The model, based on stepwise ray-tracing methods, includes beam and polarization dynamics. This is an on-going work, and a follow-on of code developments and particle and spin dynamics simulations that have been subject to earlier publications at IPAC and PAC [1, 2, 3]. A companion paper [4] gives additional informations, regarding the use of the measured magnetic field maps of the AGS main magnets.

  1. Thermodynamic modelling of Ag-Zn alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Acebo, T.; Sundman, B.

    1998-01-01

    A thermodynamic assessment of the Ag-Zn system has been done using a computerized CALPHAD (calculation of phase diagrams) technique. The liquid, α,β,ε and η phases are described by a regular solution model, the ζ phase by a two-sublattices model, and the γ phase by a four-sublattices model both based on considerations of their crystal structure and compatibility with the same phase in other systems. Some calculated phase and property diagrams are presented. (Author) 27 refs

  2. The Ag-Al-Cu system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witusiewicz, V.T. [ACCESS e. V., Intzestr. 5, D-52072 Aachen (Germany)]. E-mail: victor@access.rwth-aachen.de; Hecht, U. [ACCESS e. V., Intzestr. 5, D-52072 Aachen (Germany); Fries, S.G. [ACCESS e. V., Intzestr. 5, D-52072 Aachen (Germany); Rex, S. [ACCESS e. V., Intzestr. 5, D-52072 Aachen (Germany)

    2005-01-25

    The thermodynamic description of the Ag-Al-Cu system is obtained by modelling the Gibbs energy of all individual phases in the system using the CALPHAD approach. The model parameters have been evaluated, by means of a computer optimisation technique, based on the descriptions of the constituent binaries proposed in the first part of the work and relevant experimental information for ternary alloys both from literature and own experimental measurements. Several vertical and isothermal sections, the liquidus surface and some thermodynamic properties are calculated using the evaluated parameters. A good agreement between the calculations and the experimental data is achieved.

  3. The AGS Booster Beam Position Monitor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciardullo, D.J.; Abola, A.; Beadle, E.R.; Smith, G.A.; Thomas, R.; Van Zwienen, W.; Warkentien, R.; Witkover, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    To accelerate both protons and heavy ions, the AGS Booster requires a broadband (multi-octave) beam position monitoring system with a dynamic range spanning several orders of magnitude (2 x 10 10 to 1.5 x 10 13 particles per pulse). System requirements include the ability to acquire single turn trajectory and average orbit information with ± 0.1 mm resolution. The design goal of ± 0.5 mm corrected accuracy requires that the detectors have repeatable linear performance after periodic bakeout at 300 degree C. The system design and capabilities of the Booster Beam Position Monitor will be described, and initial results presented. 7 refs., 5 figs

  4. Upgrade of the AGS H- linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessi, J.G.; Buxton, W.; Kponou, A.; LoDestro, V.; Mapes, M.; McNerney, A.J.; Raparia, D.

    1994-01-01

    The AGS linac presently accelerates 25 mA of H - to 200 MeV at a 5 Hz rep-rate and 500 μs pulse width. The Booster takes 4 pulses every 3.8 seconds, and the remaining pulses are used for isotope production. The authors are in the process of upgrading the linac to increase the average current delivered for isotope production by more than a factor of two, while at the same time expecting to decrease linac downtime. Various aspects of this upgrade are discussed, including the upgrade of the control system, new high power transmission line, transport line vacuum, and rf power supply system upgrades

  5. Hierarchical Ag/AgCl-TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xu Long; Yin, Hao Yong [College of Materials Environment Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Nie, Qiu Lin, E-mail: nieqiulin@hdu.edu.cn [College of Materials Environment Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Wu, Wei Wei [College of Materials Environment Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Zhang, Yang; LiYuan, Qiu [College of Science, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

    2017-01-01

    The hierarchical Ag/AgCl-TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres were synthesized by depositing Ag/AgCl nanoparticles on TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres via a precipitation photoreduction method, and they were further characterized using TGA, SEM, TEM, XRD, XPS, UV–vis DRS and photoelectric chemical analysis. The analysis showed that the hierarchical Ag/AgCl-TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity, which was approximately 13 times higher than that of TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres. The high photocatalytic activity of the composites is due to efficient electron-hole pairs separation at the photocatalyst interfaces, and localized surface plasmon resonance of Ag nanoparticles formed on AgCl particles in the degradation reaction. - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres were prepared by a sacrificial template method. • The hollow spheres were modified with Ag/AgCl to form the heterojunctions. • The modification may produce synergistic effect of LSPR and hollow structure. • Visible light photocatalytic activity was enhanced on this hollow catalyst. • The mechanism of the improved photocatalytic performance was discussed.

  6. Preparation of mesoporous Ag/AgBr/TiO2 nanocomposites with comb-type polymer as template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li XU

    Full Text Available The mesoporous TiO2 nanocomposites were fabricated in a water bath at lower temperatures using the sol-gel method with a comb-type polymer as template and tetrabutyl titanate as Ti source. The Ag/AgBr/TiO2 nanocomposites with higher specific surface areas were obtained by the introduction of Ag/AgBr on the surface of the mesoporous TiO2 using a deposition-precipitation method. The as-prepared nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, N2 sorption analysis, transmission electron microscope (TEM and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS. The results showed that both the as-prepared TiO2 and Ag/AgBr/TiO2 exhibited mesoporous structure. The introduction of Ag/AgBr not only decreased the specific surface area of the mesoporous TiO2 from 346 m2/g to 253 m2/g, but also significantly increased its visible light photocatalytic activity. The degradation rate of methyl orange under visible light irradiation over Ag/AgBr/TiO2 was 145 and 60 times of those over the commercial TiO2 P25 and the mesoporous TiO2, respectively.

  7. Synthesis of biocompatible AuAgS/Ag2S nanoclusters and their applications in photocatalysis and mercury detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Qian; Chen, Shenna; Zhang, Lingyang; Huang, Haowen; Liu, Fengping; Liu, Xuanyong

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a facile approach for preparation of AuAgS/Ag 2 S nanoclusters was developed. The unique AuAgS/Ag 2 S nanoclusters capped with biomolecules exhibit interesting excellent optical and catalytic properties. The fluorescent AuAgS/Ag 2 S nanoclusters show tunable luminescence depending on the nanocluster size. The apoptosis assay demonstrated that the AuAgS/Ag 2 S nanoclusters showed low cytotoxicity and good biocompatibility. Therefore, the nanoclusters can be used not only as a probe for labeling cells but also for their photocatalytic activity for photodegradation of organic dye. Moreover, a highly selective and sensitive assay for detection of mercury including Hg 2+ and undissociated mercury complexes was developed based on the quenching fluorescent AuAgS/Ag 2 S nanoclusters, which provides a promising approach for determining various forms of Hg in the mercury-based compounds in environment. These unique nanoclusters may have potential applications in biological labeling, sensing mercury, and photodegradation of various organic pollutants in waste water.Graphical Abstract

  8. Spreadability of Ag Layer on Oxides and High Performance of AZO/Ag/AZO Sandwiched Transparent Conductive Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchao Niu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Single layers of indium tin oxide (ITO, aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO, and Ag, bilayers of ITO/Ag and AZO/Ag, and sandwiched layers of ITO/Ag/ITO (IAI and AZO/Ag/AZO (ZAZ were fabricated on ordinary glass substrates using magnetron sputtering. The surface morphologies of single layers and bilayers were measured. The sheet resistance and transmittance of the sandwiched layers were investigated. The results showed that the spreadability of the Ag on the AZO was significantly better than that on the ITO or bare glass substrate. The spreadability of Ag on underlayers influences obviously the performance of transparent conductive oxide/Ag/transparent conductive oxides (TCO/Ag/TCO or TAT. The sheet resistance and transmittance of the ZAZ sandwiched layer with the matching of 35 nm AZO (35 nm/Ag (9 nm/AZO (35 nm fabricated in this paper were low to 3.84 Ω/sq and up to 85.55% at 550 nm, respectively. Its maximum Haacke figure of merit was 0.05469 Ω−1, higher than that of IAI multilayer.

  9. Controllable irregular phenomenon induced by Ag atomic segregation on the melting of (AgPd)561 bimetallic clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guojian; Wang, Qiang; Liu, Tie; Wang, Kai; Wu, Chun; He, Jicheng

    2012-08-01

    This paper studies the melting of Ag-Pd bimetallic clusters with different Ag concentrations and atomic distributions by using molecular dynamics simulation with a general embedded-atom method. The melting of a cluster with 45 % Ag atoms distributing in the core was compared with that of 45 %, 15 % Ag on the surface and 15 % Ag in the core. It is found that the energy variation with the increasing temperature is strongly related to the Ag atomic segregation, due to the reason that there is a competition between the decreased energy induced by the atomic segregation and the increased energy as the temperature increases. The melting of the Ag-core clusters with different Ag concentrations from 5 to 55 % Ag was further explored. It is found that the irregular variation of energy occurred that the atomic energy increases, keeps unchanged or decreases with the increase of the temperature. Furthermore, the irregular phenomena of the melting were induced by the Ag concentrations. This gives a new method to tune the melting in bimetallic clusters.

  10. Highly efficient degradation of thidiazuron with Ag/AgCl- activated carbon composites under LED light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yisi [College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory for Processing and Application of Catalytic Materials, Huanggang Normal University, Huanggang 438000 (China); College of Chemical Engineering, Huanggang Normal University, Huanggang 438000 (China); Zhang, Yan [Hubei Key Laboratory for Processing and Application of Catalytic Materials, Huanggang Normal University, Huanggang 438000 (China); College of Chemical Engineering, Huanggang Normal University, Huanggang 438000 (China); Dong, Mingguang; Yan, Ting; Zhang, Maosheng [College of Chemical Engineering, Huanggang Normal University, Huanggang 438000 (China); Zeng, Qingru, E-mail: 40083763@qq.com [College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China)

    2017-08-05

    Highlights: • Photocatalytic degradation of thidiazuron was performed in a neutral water matrix. • This was carried out in the presence of Ag/AgCl-activated carbon composites and LED light. • The pH effect and the dominant active species were explored. • Degradation products and pathways in water were studied for the first time. - Abstract: Thidiazuron (TDZ; 1-phenyl-3-(1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-yl)urea) is one of the most widely used defoliant and easy to dissolve in surface water. Risk associated with the pesticide is not clearly defined, so it is important to remove/degrade TDZ with an efficient and environment friendly technology. Here, we investigated the use of Ag/AgCl-activated carbon (Ag/AgCl–AC) composites in photocatalytic degradation of TDZ under LED light. By the synergic effect of Ag/AgCl and AC, the optimum Ag/carbon weight ratio of 2:1 exhibited superior visible-light photocatalytic activity, the highest removal efficiency was close to 91% in pH 7 matrix. Different types of Ag/AgCl–AC composites were tested, all showed much faster photodegradation kinetics than bare Ag/AgCl in 210 min. The degradation products as identified by HPLC–MS revealed that the hydroxylation by hydroxyl radicals and that of oxidation by superoxide radicals as well as holes were the two main pathways for TDZ degradation. Results revealed that the adsorption concentrated TDZ molecules and the photocatalytically generated radicals rapidly degradated TDZ, the two contributions functioned together for removal of the pollutant from water.

  11. Nano-galvanic coupling for enhanced Ag+ release in ZrCN-Ag films : Antibacterial application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calderon, S.; Ferreri, I.; Henriques, M.; De Hosson, J. T. M.; Cavaleiro, A.; Carvalho, S.

    2016-01-01

    The antibacterial properties of materials developed for medical devices with embedded silver nanoparticles are enhanced by controlling the release of silver ions. In this study, a simple experimental procedure for the augmentation of the silver ion release from ZrCN-Ag coatings is described. The

  12. Fabrication of antimicrobial bacterial cellulose-Ag/AgCl nanocomposite using bacteria as versatile biofactory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuang; Yang, Dong; Wang, Yuangui; Shi, Jiafu; Jiang, Zhongyi

    2012-08-01

    In nature, a number of nanocomposites are formed through biomineralization-relevant processes under mild conditions. In the present study, a total "biologic" route to fabricate nanocomposite is reported. Non-pathogenic bacteria, Gluconacetobacter xylinum, was utilized as a versatile biofactory, which produced biopolymer bacterial cellulose (BC) and induced the formation of Ag/AgCl nanoparticles, yielding BC-Ag/AgCl nanocomposite. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that nanoparticles with average size of 17.4 nm were randomly embedded into the BC network; transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction confirmed that the nanoparticles were mixtures of face-centered cubic silver and silver chloride nanoparticles. Moreover, the content of silver in the BC nanocomposite is around 0.05 wt%, determined by atomic absorption spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The entire process of nanocomposite fabrication was conducted at ambient environment without utilizing toxic agents or producing hazardous products, which is not only environmentally friendly but also with less chances to generate harmful products to human bodies as biomedical materials. The resultant nanocomposite displayed the desirable activity in inhibiting bacterial growth of both Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Escherichia coli microorganisms on agar plate and in liquid culture, indicating the potential of the material as antimicrobial wound dressing materials. This work demonstrated the feasibility of using microorganism to fabricate nanocomposite, especially for biomedical materials.

  13. Fabrication of antimicrobial bacterial cellulose-Ag/AgCl nanocomposite using bacteria as versatile biofactory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Chuang [Tianjin University, Key Laboratory for Green Technology, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology (China); Yang Dong; Wang Yuangui [Tianjin University, Department of Biochemical Engineering and Key Laboratory of Systems Bioengineering of Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology (China); Shi Jiafu; Jiang Zhongyi, E-mail: zhyjiang@tju.edu.cn [Tianjin University, Key Laboratory for Green Technology, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology (China)

    2012-08-15

    In nature, a number of nanocomposites are formed through biomineralization-relevant processes under mild conditions. In the present study, a total 'biologic' route to fabricate nanocomposite is reported. Non-pathogenic bacteria, Gluconacetobacter xylinum, was utilized as a versatile biofactory, which produced biopolymer bacterial cellulose (BC) and induced the formation of Ag/AgCl nanoparticles, yielding BC-Ag/AgCl nanocomposite. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that nanoparticles with average size of 17.4 nm were randomly embedded into the BC network; transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction confirmed that the nanoparticles were mixtures of face-centered cubic silver and silver chloride nanoparticles. Moreover, the content of silver in the BC nanocomposite is around 0.05 wt%, determined by atomic absorption spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The entire process of nanocomposite fabrication was conducted at ambient environment without utilizing toxic agents or producing hazardous products, which is not only environmentally friendly but also with less chances to generate harmful products to human bodies as biomedical materials. The resultant nanocomposite displayed the desirable activity in inhibiting bacterial growth of both Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Escherichia coli microorganisms on agar plate and in liquid culture, indicating the potential of the material as antimicrobial wound dressing materials. This work demonstrated the feasibility of using microorganism to fabricate nanocomposite, especially for biomedical materials.

  14. The Holding Company as an Instrument of Companies’ Tax-Financial Policy Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Gajewski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present the holding institution as an economic and taxation solution. This article describes the holding company, indicates its advantages and disadvantages, and compares it to similar solutions. The main goal of holding companies is to change tax policies. As a result of these institutions, companies can change their tax status and economic situation. The holding institution influences the economic development of its constituent companies. The functioning of a holding company also has great importance for economic development. Establishing holdings is a worldwide trend that may be realised through various models.

  15. Reduced breath holding index in patients with chronic migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgün, Hakan; Taşdemir, Serdar; Ulaş, Ümit Hıdır; Alay, Semih; Çetiz, Ahmet; Yücel, Mehmet; Öz, Oğuzhan; Odabaşı, Zeki; Demirkaya, Şeref

    2015-09-01

    Migraine is a neurovascular disorder characterized by autonomic nervous system dysfunction and severe headache attacks. Studies have shown that changes in the intracranial vessels during migraine have an important role in the pathophysiology. Many studies have been conducted on the increased risk of stroke in patients with migraine, but insufficient data are available on the mechanism underlying the increase. This study aimed to evaluate basal cerebral blood flow velocity and vasomotor reactivity in patients with chronic migraine. We evaluated 38 patients with chronic migraine. Three of them were excluded because they had auras and four of them were excluded because of their use of medication that can affect cerebral blood flow velocity and breath holding index (beta or calcium channel blockers). Our study population consisted of 31 patients with chronic migraine without aura and 29 age- and gender-matched healthy individuals who were not taking any medication. The mean blood flow velocity and breath holding index were measured on both sides from the middle cerebral artery and posterior cerebral artery, with temporal window insonation. The breath holding index for middle cerebral artery and posterior cerebral artery was significantly lower in the migraine group compared to that of the control group (p < 0.05).The vasomotor reactivity indicates the dilatation potential of a vessel, and it is closely related to autoregulation. According to our results, the vasodilator response of cerebral arterioles to hypercapnia was lower in patients with chronic migraine. These findings showed the existence of impairments in the harmonic cerebral hemodynamic mechanisms in patients with chronic migraine. This finding also supports the existing idea of an increased risk of stroke in patients with chronic migraine due to impaired vasomotor reactivity.

  16. Rare and forbidden kaon decays at the AGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettell, S.

    1997-12-09

    An overview of the Rare Kaon Decay program at the AGS is presented, with particular emphasis on the three major experiments currently running and analyzing data. A brief overview of earlier kaon decay experiments and of the AGs performance improvements is also provided. This review concludes with a discussion of proposed and developing experiments planned to run in the year 2000 and beyond (AGS-2000).

  17. Borohydride electro-oxidation by Ag-doped lanthanum chromites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The electrocatalytic activity of Ag-doped lanthanum chromites electrode materials viz., LaCr0.4Ag0.6O3 and LaCr0.7Ag0.3O3 prepared by decomposing the precursor complex is studied. Pure LaCrO3 is synthesized by combustion route using oxalic acid as a fuel. The decomposition behaviour of the assynthesized powder ...

  18. Molecular dynamics study of nanojoining between axially positioned Ag nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Jianlei; Theogene, Barayavuga; Wang, Xuewen; Mei, Xuesong; Wang, Wenjun; Wang, Kedian

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The temperature and distance have a great impact on joining effect without solders. • At high temperature, Ag atoms are disordered and the atomic queues become to distort. • When the distance is large, the Ag nanowires are not connected at any temperature. • When the distance is small and the temperature is low, Ag NWs on the Si substrate can be obtained relatively good nanoconnection. - Abstract: The miniaturization of electronics devices into nanometer scale is indispensable for next-generation semiconductor technology. Ag nanowires (Ag NWs) are considered to be the promising candidates for future electronic circuit owing to the excellent electrical and thermal properties. The nanojoining of axially positioned Ag NWs was performed by molecular dynamics simulation. Through the detailed atomic evolution during the nanojoining, the results indicate that the temperature and the distance between Ag NWs in axial direction have a great impact on nanojoining effect. When the nanojoining temperature is relatively high, the atoms are disordered and the atomic queues become to distort with strong thermodynamic properties and weak effect of metal bonds. At the relatively low temperature, the Ag NWs can be well connected with good junction quality and their own morphology, which is similar to the cold welding without fusion, while the distance between Ag NWs should be controlled for interaction and diffusion of interfacial atoms at nanowires head. When the Ag NWs are placed on Si and SiO 2 substrate, because the atomic species and lattice structure of substrate material can differently affect the motions of Ag atoms through the interactive force between the atoms, the nanojoining quality of Ag NWs on Si substrate is better than that on the SiO 2 substrate. So, for getting effective and reliable nanojoining without nanosolders and other materials, the temperature, distance and substrate surface should be reasonably controlled and selected, providing

  19. Molecular dynamics study of nanojoining between axially positioned Ag nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Jianlei, E-mail: cjlxjtu@xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Theogene, Barayavuga, E-mail: 1400584887@qq.com [State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Wang, Xuewen, E-mail: 358994796@qq.com [State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Mei, Xuesong, E-mail: xsmeixjtu@163.com [State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Wang, Wenjun, E-mail: wangwenjun1981@yeah.net [State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Wang, Kedian, E-mail: kedianwang@yeah.net [State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • The temperature and distance have a great impact on joining effect without solders. • At high temperature, Ag atoms are disordered and the atomic queues become to distort. • When the distance is large, the Ag nanowires are not connected at any temperature. • When the distance is small and the temperature is low, Ag NWs on the Si substrate can be obtained relatively good nanoconnection. - Abstract: The miniaturization of electronics devices into nanometer scale is indispensable for next-generation semiconductor technology. Ag nanowires (Ag NWs) are considered to be the promising candidates for future electronic circuit owing to the excellent electrical and thermal properties. The nanojoining of axially positioned Ag NWs was performed by molecular dynamics simulation. Through the detailed atomic evolution during the nanojoining, the results indicate that the temperature and the distance between Ag NWs in axial direction have a great impact on nanojoining effect. When the nanojoining temperature is relatively high, the atoms are disordered and the atomic queues become to distort with strong thermodynamic properties and weak effect of metal bonds. At the relatively low temperature, the Ag NWs can be well connected with good junction quality and their own morphology, which is similar to the cold welding without fusion, while the distance between Ag NWs should be controlled for interaction and diffusion of interfacial atoms at nanowires head. When the Ag NWs are placed on Si and SiO{sub 2} substrate, because the atomic species and lattice structure of substrate material can differently affect the motions of Ag atoms through the interactive force between the atoms, the nanojoining quality of Ag NWs on Si substrate is better than that on the SiO{sub 2} substrate. So, for getting effective and reliable nanojoining without nanosolders and other materials, the temperature, distance and substrate surface should be reasonably controlled and selected

  20. Magnetic properties of Fe20Ag80 granular films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Mørup, Steen; Jonsson, T.

    1997-01-01

    Fe20Ag80 granular films prepared by ion-beam cosputtering have been investigated by Mossbauer spectrocopy and dc susceptibility measurements. The as-sputtered Fe20Ag80 films consist of small magnetic particles embedded in the Ag matrix. The system is in a superparamagnetic state at temperatures a...... above 30 K. Below 30 K, the films begins to show slow magnetic relaxation and by further lowering the temperature, a super-spin-glass phase is formed around 20 K....

  1. Transport of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagee, Omer; Dror, Ishai; Berkowitz, Brian

    2012-07-01

    The effect of soil properties on the transport of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was studied in a set of laboratory column experiments, using different combinations of size fractions of a Mediterranean sandy clay soil. The AgNPs with average size of ~30nm yielded a stable suspension in water with zeta potential of -39mV. Early breakthrough of AgNPs in soil was observed in column transport experiments. AgNPs were found to have high mobility in soil with outlet relative concentrations ranging from 30% to 70%, depending on experimental conditions. AgNP mobility through the column decreased when the fraction of smaller soil aggregates was larger. The early breakthrough pattern was not observed for AgNPs in pure quartz columns nor for bromide tracer in soil columns, suggesting that early breakthrough is related to the nature of AgNP transport in natural soils. Micro-CT and image analysis used to investigate structural features of the soil, suggest that soil aggregate size strongly affects AgNP transport in natural soil. The retention of AgNPs in the soil column was reduced when humic acid was added to the leaching solution, while a lower flow rate (Darcy velocity of 0.17cm/min versus 0.66cm/min) resulted in higher retention of AgNPs in the soil. When soil residual chloride was exchanged by nitrate prior to column experiments, significantly improved mobility of AgNPs was observed in the soil column. These findings point to the importance of AgNP-soil chemical interactions as a retention mechanism, and demonstrate the need to employ natural soils rather than glass beads or quartz in representative experimental investigations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Progress report on the analytical determination of Ag2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Alsenoy, V.

    1997-01-01

    The strong oxidising properties of Ag 2+ have been used in the chemical and nuclear industry to destroy organic waste. We aim to apply the process on radioactive graphite, organic resins and effluents. The reaction mechanisms have been studied, taking into account the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of the different reactions involved. For the experimental analysis of these reactions, the accurate analytical determination of all species involved, including Ag 2+ , is needed. The results of a systematic study of the volumetric quantification of Ag 2+ using Tl + and BrO 3 - , and of the spectrophotometric and polarographic quantification of Ag + and Ag 2+ are described. The influence of the nitric acid during the quantification of Tl + by titration with KBrO 3 is investigated and the optimal analytical conditions for our purposes were determined. The best analytical results were obtained when the titration was carried out with maximum 3 M HNO 3 and 0.5 M NaCl. When those conditions are used, the determination is accurate and reproducible. The prepared Ag 2+ solutions were analysed for Ag + using polarography with a platinum electrode. The benefits and the limitation of the polarographic measurement of Ag + using a platinum electrode are described. An indirect measurement was performed by the determination of Ce 4+ after reaction with Ce 3+ . The produced Ce 4+ was measured by direct spectrophotometry. In the future, the quantification of Ag 2+ by measuring the Ce 4+ concentration produced by the reaction with Ce 3+ , will also be verified using potentiometric titration with Fe 2+ . Ag 2+ can also be determined by the direct spectrophotometry. There is a region in which the absorbance of Ag 2+ changes linearly with the concentration. Further evaluation of the titrimetric, spectrophotometric and polarographic methods will continue, until two methods give comparable Ag 2+ concentrations, beginning with the potentiometric titration of Ce 4+ with Fe 2+

  3. Ag-bridged Ag2O nanowire network/TiO2 nanotube array p-n heterojunction as a highly efficient and stable visible light photocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengbin; Cao, Chenghao; Luo, Xubiao; Luo, Shenglian

    2015-03-21

    A unique Ag-bridged Ag2O nanowire network/TiO2 nanotube array p-n heterojunction (Ag-Ag2O/TiO2 NT) was fabricated by simple electrochemical method. Ag nanoparticles were firstly electrochemically deposited onto the surface of TiO2 NT and then were partly oxidized to Ag2O nanowires while the rest of Ag mother nanoparticles were located at the junctions of Ag2O nanowire network. The Ag-Ag2O/TiO2 NT heterostructure exhibited strong visible-light response, effective separation of photogenerated carriers, and high adsorption capacity. The integration of Ag-Ag2O self-stability structure and p-n heterojunction permitted high and stable photocatalytic activity of Ag-Ag2O/TiO2 NT heterostructure photocatalyst. Under 140-min visible light irradiation, the photocatalytic removal efficiency of both dye acid orange 7 (AO7) and industrial chemical p-nitrophenol (PNP) over Ag-Ag2O/TiO2 NT reached nearly 100% much higher than 17% for AO7 or 13% for PNP over bare TiO2 NT. After 5 successive cycles under 600-min simulated solar light irradiation, Ag-Ag2O/TiO2 NT remained highly stable photocatalytic activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Quantification of HBsAg to predict low levels and seroclearance in HBeAg-negative patients receiving nucleos(tide analogues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Broquetas

    Full Text Available HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B patients require long-term nucleos(tide analogues(NAs because loss of surface antigen (HBsAg is unusual. Low quantitative HBsAg (qHBsAg levels can identify patients with higher probability of seroclearance. The aim of our study was to evaluate qHBsAg in HBeAg-negative patients receiving NAs to predict a reduction of HBsAg levels and seroclearance.Retrospective analysis of qHBsAg in HBeAg-negative patients before and at years 1, 3, 5, 8 and over of NAs treatment.From 1999 to 2015, HBsAg was quantified in 358 serum samples from 95 HBeAg-negative patients. Low qHBsAg (0.3 log IU/mL showing a positive and negative predictive value of 42% and 100% to identify patients achieving low levels of HBsAg.Reduction of qHBsAg is slow in HBeAg-negative patients receiving NAs, although low levels or faster qHBsAg decline may occur in 14%. A qHBsAg reduction >0.3 log IU/mL at year 3 can identify patients with a higher probability of achieving low levels and HBsAg seroclearance.

  5. Enhanced Visible Light Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Pollutants over Flower-Like Bi2O2CO3 Dotted with Ag@AgBr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shuanglong; Wang, Miao; Liu, Li; Liang, Yinghua; Cui, Wenquan; Zhang, Zisheng; Yun, Nan

    2016-01-01

    A facile and feasible oil-in-water self-assembly approach was developed to synthesize flower-like Ag@AgBr/Bi2O2CO3 micro-composites. The photocatalytic activities of the samples were evaluated through methylene blue degradation under visible light irradiation. Compared to Bi2O2CO3, flower-like Ag@AgBr/Bi2O2CO3 micro-composites show enhanced photocatalytic activities. In addition, results indicate that both the physicochemical properties and associated photocatalytic activities of Ag@AgBr/Bi2O2CO3 composites are shown to be dependent on the loading quantity of Ag@AgBr. The highest photocatalytic performance was achieved at 7 wt % Ag@AgBr, degrading 95.18% methylene blue (MB) after 20 min of irradiation, which is over 1.52 and 3.56 times more efficient than that of pure Ag@AgBr and pure Bi2O2CO3, respectively. Bisphenol A (BPA) was also degraded to further demonstrate the degradation ability of Ag@AgBr/Bi2O2CO3. A photocatalytic mechanism for the degradation of organic compounds over Ag@AgBr/Bi2O2CO3 was proposed. Results from this study illustrate an entirely new approach to fabricate semiconductor composites containing Ag@AgX/bismuth (X = a halogen). PMID:28774002

  6. Enhanced Visible Light Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Pollutants over Flower-Like Bi2O2CO3 Dotted with Ag@AgBr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuanglong Lin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A facile and feasible oil-in-water self-assembly approach was developed to synthesize flower-like Ag@AgBr/Bi2O2CO3 micro-composites. The photocatalytic activities of the samples were evaluated through methylene blue degradation under visible light irradiation. Compared to Bi2O2CO3, flower-like Ag@AgBr/Bi2O2CO3 micro-composites show enhanced photocatalytic activities. In addition, results indicate that both the physicochemical properties and associated photocatalytic activities of Ag@AgBr/Bi2O2CO3 composites are shown to be dependent on the loading quantity of Ag@AgBr. The highest photocatalytic performance was achieved at 7 wt % Ag@AgBr, degrading 95.18% methylene blue (MB after 20 min of irradiation, which is over 1.52 and 3.56 times more efficient than that of pure Ag@AgBr and pure Bi2O2CO3, respectively. Bisphenol A (BPA was also degraded to further demonstrate the degradation ability of Ag@AgBr/Bi2O2CO3. A photocatalytic mechanism for the degradation of organic compounds over Ag@AgBr/Bi2O2CO3 was proposed. Results from this study illustrate an entirely new approach to fabricate semiconductor composites containing Ag@AgX/bismuth (X = a halogen.

  7. Inefficient Job Destructions and Training with Hold-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chéron, Arnaud; Rouland, Benedicte

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops an equilibrium search model with endogenous job destructions and where firms decide at the time of job entry how much to invest in match-specific human capital. We first show that job destruction and training investment decisions are strongly complementary. It is possible...... that there are no firings at equilibrium. Further, training investments are confronted to a hold-up problem making the decentralized equilibrium always inefficient. We show therefore that both training subsidies and firing taxes must be implemented to bring back efficiency....

  8. Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935: 1935--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-15

    This report provides an economic and legislative history and analysis of the Public Utilities Holding Company Act (PUHCA) of 1935. This Act was substantially amended for the first time in 1992 by passage of the Energy Policy Act (EPACT). The report also includes a discussion of the issues which led to the amendment of PUHCA and projections of the impact of these changes on the electric industry. The report should be of use to Federal and State regulators, trade associations, electric utilities, independent power producers, as well as decision-makers in Congress and the Administration.

  9. Beam dump experiments at the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soukas, A.; Bregman, M.; Galik, R.

    1978-01-01

    Searches for the prompt production of weak or semi-strongly interacting particles in a neutrino beam dump and their subsequent interaction or decay were performed at the AGS. The experiment is detailed using the totally active liquid scintillator detector, and mention the results of the spark chamber detector. An exposure of a copper beam dump to two orders of magnitude more protons than in previous searches at 28 GeV has yielded 104 neutrino-like events in the detector. The events from the beam dump are compared directly with those from π and K decay neutrinos produced concurrently in the normal long neutrino decay path following a 15 cm brass target. The characteristics of the events are similar. However, when compared to the rate of events predicted by scaling the 15 cm target yields, the beam dump data show an excess of 45 +- 16 events. The excess events from the beam dump appear to deposit energies greater than or equal to 1 GeV. Their source remains puzzling. Future experiments at the AGS could verify the existence of the effect, decrease the uncertainty in the predicted number of events from 30 to 10% by directly measuring the pion absorption length with a variable density target, search for threshold effects, and measure the sign of the charge of the existing muons. 22 references

  10. Transformation from Ag@Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} to Ag@Ag{sub 2}SO{sub 4} hybrid at room temperature: preparation and its visible light photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Ting; Gao, Shanmin, E-mail: gaosm@ustc.edu; Wang, Qingyao; Xu, Hui [Ludong University, College of Chemistry and Materials Science (China); Wang, Zeyan; Huang, Baibiao, E-mail: bbhuang@sdu.edu.cn; Dai, Ying [Shandong University, State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials (China)

    2017-02-15

    In the present study, Ag/Ag{sub 2}SO{sub 4} hybrid photocatalysts were obtained via a facile redox–precipitation reaction approach by using Ag@Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} nanocomposite as the precursor and KMnO{sub 4} as the oxidant. Multiple techniques, such as X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), photocurrent and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), were applied to investigate the structures, morphologies, optical, and electronic properties of as-prepared samples. The photocatalytic activities were evaluated by photodegradation of organic rhodamine B (RhB) and methyl orange (MO) under visible light irradiation. It was found that pure Ag{sub 2}SO{sub 4} can partially transform into metallic Ag during the photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants, but the Ag/Ag{sub 2}SO{sub 4} hybrids can maintain its structure stability and show enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity because of the surface plasma resonance effect of the metallic Ag.

  11. Facile synthesis of Ag nanocubes and Au nanocages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrabalak, Sara E; Au, Leslie; Li, Xingde; Xia, Younan

    2007-01-01

    This protocol describes a method for the synthesis of Ag nanocubes and their subsequent conversion into Au nanocages via the galvanic replacement reaction. The Ag nanocubes are prepared by a rapid (reaction time nanocubes. With this method, Ag nanocubes can be prepared and isolated for use within approximately 3 h. The Ag nanocubes can then serve as sacrificial templates for the preparation of Au nanocages, with a method for their preparation also described herein. The procedure for Au nanocage preparation and isolation requires approximately 5 h.

  12. Stability of Ag nanoparticles dispersed in amphiphilic organic matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvorova, Elena I.; Klechkovskaya, Vera V.; Kopeikin, Victor V.; Buffat, Philippe A.

    2005-02-01

    Nano- and thin-film technologies based on novel systems associating metals particles to polymer matrix open a broad range of different applications. Such composites were found to be more efficient and safe, for instance, in biomedical needs. The Ag/poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (Ag/PVP) composite investigated in the present work is a new bactericide mean applied in complicated cases of infected burns and purulent wounds. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray energy-dispersive (EDS) microanalysis were used to bring chemical and structural information in a study of the properties and stability of thin-film nanocomposite whih consisted of Ag nanoparticles dispersed in water-soluble organic matrix poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone). The nanostructural investigation of Ag/PVP composite by HRTEM and EDS exposed to SO 2 and H 2S from the atmosphere and some traces of S-containing substances explains the limited stability of this system by a structural modification associated with a phase change and formation of Ag 2S and Ag 2SO 3. However, formation of the hardly water-soluble Ag 2S and Ag 2SO 3 salts may play an important role in the suppression of bacterial growth. On the one hand, silver could block S-H groups in vital proteins and conduced to their destruction, in that way revealing the antibacterial power. On the other hand, antiseptic properties of Ag consist in binding the products of the protein decay.

  13. RHIC FY15 pp Run RHIC and AGS polarization analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Adams, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-02-20

    The polarization information is important for the spin physics program in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). There are discrepancies between AGS and RHIC polarization measurements. First, the face value of AGS polarization is higher than RHIC ones in general. Second, the measured polarization profile (described by the profile ratio R) is stronger in AGS than in RHIC. This note analyzes the polarization data from FY15 pp run period. The results show that the differences between AGS and RHIC polarization measurements are reasonable, but the R value difference is puzzling. The difference between blue and yellow ring is worth of spin simulation to explain.

  14. Synthesis and characterizations of spherical hollow composed of AgI nanoparticle using AgBr as the precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ming; Zhou Kui

    2011-01-01

    Hollow spheres of AgI with an average radius of 100-200 nm have been prepared by a simple reaction between AgBr suspension and KI in the presence of gelatin. Gelatin played a decisive role as an inhibitor of the direct attack of I - ions to AgBr surfaces and coagulation of the growing AgI in producing the spherical AgI particles. The products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectra techniques. The band gaps are estimated to be 2.95 eV according to the results of optical measurements of the hollow spheres of AgI.

  15. Understanding the Composition Dependence of the Fragility of AgI-Ag2O-MxOy Glassy Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aniya, M

    2011-01-01

    It has been reported that the fragility in the AgI-Ag 2 O-M x O y (M = B, Ge, P, Mo) system is determined by Ag 2 O-M x O y and does not depend on the amount of AgI. This is an interesting result and provides a hint to understand the nature of the glassy state of these materials. However, the origin of such behavior has not been sufficiently discussed. In the present report a model for the above behavior is presented. According to the model, the behavior arises from the solid like nature of the network formed by Ag 2 O-M x O y and the liquid like AgI which flow between the networks. The model is consistent with the structural model of superionic glasses proposed previously.

  16. Improvement of photocatalytic activities of Ag/P25 hybrid systems by controlled morphology of Ag nanoprisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ti, E-mail: r01527017@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Chao, Bo-Kai, E-mail: d98527007@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Kuo, Yu-Lin, E-mail: ylkuo@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Hsueh, Chun-Hway, E-mail: hsuehc@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2017-05-01

    Constructing hybrid systems with noble metal nanostructures is one known way to improve the poor photocatalysis efficiency of TiO{sub 2} under visible light. In our study, two different Ag nanostructures were prepared: (1) Ag nanospheres synthesized by chemical reduction method, and (2) Ag nanoprisms transformed from nanospheres with an additional photo-conversion process. Both Ag-TiO{sub 2} hybrid systems were prepared by mixing various concentrations of Ag solutions with commercial TiO{sub 2} powder (P25), and they were then utilized as photocatalysts for the photodecolorization test of methyl blue under various light sources (fluorescent, UV light and red LED lamps) irradiations. Results of the photodecolorization tests showed that Ag nanostructures could evidently enhance the photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} under different light sources, while an optimal composition of 0.432 wt% Ag nanoprisms/TiO{sub 2} displayed superior photocatalytic properties under visible light irradiations (fluorescent and red LED lamps). The enhanced photocatalytic activities could be mainly attributed to the mechanisms of hot electrons injection and resonant energy transfer by the localized surface plasmon resonance of Ag nanostructures and the electronic states favorable of charge separation at the interface between metals and semiconductors. - Highlights: • We used Ag nanostructures to improve photocatalysis efficiency of TiO{sub 2}. • Ag nanoprisms were more efficient than Ag nanospheres under visible light. • Ag nanoprisms/P25 is about 7 times more efficient than P25 under fluorescent lamp. • Mechanisms rely on hot electrons injection and resonant energy transfer by LSPR.

  17. Atomic Ensemble and Electronic Effects in Ag-Rich AgPd Nanoalloy Catalysts for Oxygen Reduction in Alkaline Media

    OpenAIRE

    Slanac, Daniel A.; Hardin, William G.; Johnston, Keith P.; Stevenson, Keith J.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to design and characterize uniform, bimetallic alloy nanoparticles, where the less active metal enhances the activity of the more active metal, would be of broad interest in catalysis. Herein, we demonstrate that simultaneous reduction of Ag and Pd precursors provides uniform, Ag-rich AgPd alloy nanoparticles (~5 nm) with high activities for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline media. The particles are crystalline and uniformly alloyed, as shown by X-ray diffraction and...

  18. Hold-up monitoring system for plutonium process tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Rongbao; Jin Huimin; Tan Yajun

    1994-01-01

    The development of hold-up monitoring system for plutonium process tanks and a calculation method for α activities deposited in containers and inner walls of pipe are described. The hardware of monitoring system consists of a portable HPGe detector, a φ50 mm x 60 mm NaI(Tl) detector, γ-ray tungsten collimators, ORTEC92X Spectrum Master and an AST-286 computer. The software of system includes Maestro Tm for Window3 and a PHOUP1 hold-up application software for user. The Monte-Carlo simulation calculation supported by MCNP software is performed for the probability calculation of all the unscattering γ-rays reaching to the detection positions from the source terms deposited in the complicated tanks. A measurement mean value for different positions is used to minimize the effect of heterogeneous distribution of source term. The sensitivity is better than 3.7 x 10 6 Bq/kg (steel) for a plutonium simulation source on a 3-8 mm thick steel plate surrounded by 0.8 x 10 -10 C/kg·s γ field from long-life fission products

  19. Why does the power law for stock price hold?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaizoji, Taisei; Miyano, Michiko

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explain why the power law for stock price holds. We first show that the complementary cumulative distributions of stock prices follow a power law using a large database assembled from the balance sheets and stock prices of a number of worldwide companies for the period 2004 through 2013. Secondly, we estimate company fundamentals from a simple cross-sectional regression model using three financial indicators-dividends per share, cash flow per share, and book value per share—as explanatory variables for stock price. Thirdly, we demonstrate that the complementary cumulative distributions of fundamentals follow a power law. We find that the power laws for stock prices and for fundamentals hold for the 10-year period of our study, and that the estimated values of the power law exponents are close to unity. Furthermore, we illustrate that the tail distribution of fundamentals closely matches the tail distribution of stock prices. On these grounds, we conclude that the power law for stock price is caused by the power law behavior of the fundamentals.

  20. A Haptic Guided Robotic System for Endoscope Positioning and Holding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabuk, Burak; Ceylan, Savas; Anik, Ihsan; Tugasaygi, Mehtap; Kizir, Selcuk

    2015-01-01

    To determine the feasibility, advantages, and disadvantages of using a robot for holding and maneuvering the endoscope in transnasal transsphenoidal surgery. The system used in this study was a Stewart Platform based robotic system that was developed by Kocaeli University Department of Mechatronics Engineering for positioning and holding of endoscope. After the first use on an artificial head model, the system was used on six fresh postmortem bodies that were provided by the Morgue Specialization Department of the Forensic Medicine Institute (Istanbul, Turkey). The setup required for robotic system was easy, the time for registration procedure and setup of the robot takes 15 minutes. The resistance was felt on haptic arm in case of contact or friction with adjacent tissues. The adaptation process was shorter with the mouse to manipulate the endoscope. The endoscopic transsphenoidal approach was achieved with the robotic system. The endoscope was guided to the sphenoid ostium with the help of the robotic arm. This robotic system can be used in endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery as an endoscope positioner and holder. The robot is able to change the position easily with the help of an assistant and prevents tremor, and provides a better field of vision for work.

  1. Breath holding during the turn in competitive swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, A B

    1986-08-01

    Breath holding times were measured during competition and averaged 5.0 sec in the breaststroke events, 4.3 sec in freestyle, 3.7 sec in butterfly, and 3.3 sec in backstroke. These times represented approximately 30% of the total time of swimming breaststroke and freestyle races but only 20% of the time of backstroke and butterfly events. Pulmonary gas exchanges of O2 and CO2 were studied in eight male swimmers during the first turn after the start of a swim and during the third turn after continuous swimming. It was concluded that biomechanical considerations of optimizing a turn are in most circumstances not limited by the increased PCO2 and the decreased PO2 in the alveoli related to the brief period of breath holding. In turns which last longer than about 5.5 s, the swimmers may experience a strong urge to breathe. This "breaking point" sensation is brief and need not compromise the conclusion of a well-executed turn.

  2. Clinical Efficacy of Piracetam on Breath Holding Spells in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ashrafzadeh

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Breath holding spells (BHS is a type of syncope in children , most commonly encontered in the early years of life. Although these athacks don't damage the brain , if these are frequent or prolonged cause , parents frighten , so physician should intervent. In this study we evaluated clinical efficacy of piracetam on B.H.S of children in Mashhad Ghaem Hospital during 2001-2002.In this double blind placebo control study , piracetam or placebo on a randomized basis was administered to children with 40 mg/kg/day in 2 divided doses for 2 months. From the 41 children that were enrolled , 21 cases received piracetam and 20 cases received placebo. Parents denoted the numbers of spells two months before and two months after taking drug. Control of breath holding spells were observed in 90.5% of patients in the group taking piracetam as compared with 40% in the group taking placebo (P = 0.002. Of the all patients 10 cases had iron deficiency anemia so they had taken elemental Fe too. The side effects were the same in these two groups. The results of this study indicated that piracetam was efficient for the treatment of children with B.H.S without greater incidence adverse effects than placebo.

  3. Noise distribution of a peak track and hold circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seller, Paul; Hardie, Alec L.; Morrissey, Quentin

    2012-12-01

    Noise in linear electronic circuits is well characterised in terms of power spectral density in the frequency domain and the Normal probability density function in the time domain. For instance a charge preamplifier followed by a simple time independent pulse shaping circuit produces an output with a predictable, easily calculated Normal density function. By the Ergodic Principle this is true if the signal is sampled randomly in time or the experiment is run many times and measured at a fixed time after the circuit is released from reset. Apart from well defined cases, the time of the sample after release of reset does not affect the density function. If this signal is then passed through a peak track-and-hold circuit the situation is very different. The probability density function of the sampled signal is no longer Normal and the function changes with the time of the sample after release of reset. This density function can be classified by the Gumbel probability density function which characterises the Extreme Value Distribution of a defined number of Normally distributed values. The number of peaks in the signal is an important factor in the analysis. This issue is analysed theoretically and compared with a time domain noise simulation programme. This is then related to a real electronic circuit used for low-noise X-ray measurements and shows how the low-energy resolution of this system is significantly degraded when using a peak track-and-hold.

  4. How Important Is a Reproducible Breath Hold for Deep Inspiration Breath Hold Breast Radiation Therapy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiant, David; Wentworth, Stacy; Liu, Han; Sintay, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) for left-sided breast cancer has been shown to reduce heart dose. Surface imaging helps to ensure accurate breast positioning, but it does not guarantee a reproducible breath hold (BH) at DIBH treatments. We examine the effects of variable BH positions for DIBH treatments. Methods and Materials: Twenty-five patients who underwent free breathing (FB) and DIBH scans were reviewed. Four plans were created for each patient: FB, DIBH, FB_DIBH (the DIBH plans were copied to the FB images and recalculated, and image registration was based on breast tissue), and P_DIBH (a partial BH with the heart shifted midway between the FB and DIBH positions). The FB_DIBH plans give a “worst-case” scenario for surface imaging DIBH, where the breast is aligned by surface imaging but the patient is not holding their breath. Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests were used to compare the dose metrics. Results: The DIBH plans gave lower heart dose and comparable breast coverage versus FB in all cases. The FB_DIBH plans showed no significant difference versus FB plans for breast coverage, mean heart dose, or maximum heart dose (P≥.10). The mean heart dose differed between FB_DIBH and FB by <2 Gy for all cases, and the maximum heart dose differed by <2 Gy for 21 cases. The P_DIBH plans showed significantly lower mean heart dose than FB (P<.01). The mean heart doses for the P_DIBH plans were

  5. How Important Is a Reproducible Breath Hold for Deep Inspiration Breath Hold Breast Radiation Therapy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiant, David, E-mail: David.wiant@conehealth.com; Wentworth, Stacy; Liu, Han; Sintay, Benjamin

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) for left-sided breast cancer has been shown to reduce heart dose. Surface imaging helps to ensure accurate breast positioning, but it does not guarantee a reproducible breath hold (BH) at DIBH treatments. We examine the effects of variable BH positions for DIBH treatments. Methods and Materials: Twenty-five patients who underwent free breathing (FB) and DIBH scans were reviewed. Four plans were created for each patient: FB, DIBH, FB-DIBH (the DIBH plans were copied to the FB images and recalculated, and image registration was based on breast tissue), and P-DIBH (a partial BH with the heart shifted midway between the FB and DIBH positions). The FB-DIBH plans give a “worst-case” scenario for surface imaging DIBH, where the breast is aligned by surface imaging but the patient is not holding their breath. Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests were used to compare the dose metrics. Results: The DIBH plans gave lower heart dose and comparable breast coverage versus FB in all cases. The FB-DIBH plans showed no significant difference versus FB plans for breast coverage, mean heart dose, or maximum heart dose (P≥.10). The mean heart dose differed between FB-DIBH and FB by <2 Gy for all cases, and the maximum heart dose differed by <2 Gy for 21 cases. The P-DIBH plans showed significantly lower mean heart dose than FB (P<.01). The mean heart doses for the P-DIBH plans were

  6. Monte Carlo study of holding forces for tank cars on grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    This paper describes a numerical procedure to examine the holding forces needed to secure a cut of railroad tank cars staged on a grade during loading and unloading operations. Holding forces are created by applying emergency brake systems and blocki...

  7. Comparison of antibacterial activities of Ag@TiO2 and Ag@SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanalekshmi, K. I.; Meena, K. S.

    2014-07-01

    Core-shell type Ag@TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared by one pot simultaneous reduction of AgNO3 and hydrolysis of Ti (IV) isopropoxide and Ag@SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles were prepared by Stober's method. They were characterized by absorption, XRD, and HR-TEM techniques. XRD patterns show the presence of anatase form of TiO2 and amorphous form of SiO2 and the noble metal (Ag). High resolution transmission electron microscopy measurements revealed that their size is below 50 nm. The antibacterial properties of Ag@TiO2 and Ag@SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were examined by the agar diffusion method. As a result E. coli and S. aureus were shown to be substantially inhibited by Ag@TiO2 and Ag@SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles. These results demonstrated that TiO2 and SiO2 supported on the surface of Ag NPs without aggregation was proved to have enhanced antibacterial activity.

  8. Posintro™-HBsAg, a modified ISCOM including HBsAg, induces strong cellular and humoral responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiött, Asa; Larsson, Kristina; Manniche, Søren

    2011-01-01

    HBsAg vaccine formulation, Posintro™-HBsAg, was compared to two commercial hepatitis B vaccines including aluminium or monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) and the two adjuvant systems MF59 and QS21 in their efficiency to prime both cellular and humoral immune responses. The Posintro™-HBsAg induced...... of delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction and CD4(+) T-cell proliferation. In addition, Posintro™-HBsAg was the only vaccine tested that also induced a strong cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response, with high levels of antigen specific CD8 T-cells secreting IFN-gamma mediating cytolytic activity...

  9. RRR and thermal conductivity of Ag and Ag0.2wt%Mg alloy in Ag/Bi-2212 wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Pei [Fermilab; Ye, L. [North Carolina State U.; Jiang. J., Jiang. J. [Natl. High Mag. Field Lab.; Shen, T. [Fermilab

    2015-08-19

    The residual resistivity ratio (RRR) and thermal conductivity of metal matrix in metal/superconductor composite wires are important parameters for designing superconducting magnets. However, the resistivity of silver in reacted Ag/Bi-2212 wires has yet to be determined over temperature range from 4.2 K to 80 K because Bi-2212 filaments have a critical transition temperature Tc of ~ 80 K, and because it is unknown whether the RRR of Ag/Bi-2212 degrades with Cu diffusing from Bi-2212 filaments into silver sheathes at elevated temperatures and to what degree it varies with heat treatment. We measured the resistivity of stand-alone Ag and AgMg (Ag-0.2wt%Mg) wires as well as the resistivity of Ag and Ag- 0.2wt%Mg in the state-of-the-art Ag/Bi-2212 round wires reacted in 1 bar oxygen at 890 °C for 1, 8, 24 and 48 hours and quickly cooled to room temperature. The heat treatment was designed to reduce the critical current Ic of Bi-2212 wires to nearly zero while allowing Cu loss to fully manifest itself. We determined that pure silver exhibits a RRR of ~ 220 while the oxide-dispersion strengthened AgMg exhibits a RRR of ~ 5 in stand-alone samples. A surprising result is that the RRR of silver in the composite round wires doesn’t degrade with extended time at 890 °C for up to 48 hours. This surprising result may be explained by our observation that the Cu that diffuses into the silver tends to form Cu2O precipitates in oxidizing atmosphere, instead of forming Ag-Cu solution alloy. We also measured the thermal conductivity and the magneto-resistivity of pure Ag and Ag-0.2 wt%Mg from 4.2 K to 300 K in magnetic fields up to 14.8 T and summarized them using a Kohler plot.

  10. Precipitation of (PdxAg1-x)3 In in Ag-25% Pd-In alloys and the partial phase diagram of ternary Ag-Pd-In alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Y C; Lee, Z H; Ohta, M

    2000-05-01

    A study was carried out to determine the partial phase diagram for the system Ag-25 wt % Pd-y wt% In with y Ag1-x)3 In was determined by the parametric method and the temperature dependence of In-solubility in Ag-25 wt % Pd was very strong above 900 degrees C. Copyright 2000 Kluwer Academic Publishers

  11. Controllable Charge Transfer in Ag-TiO₂ Composite Structure for SERS Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaxin; Yan, Chao; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Yongjun; Yang, Jinghai

    2017-06-28

    The nanocaps array of TiO₂/Ag bilayer with different Ag thicknesses and co-sputtering TiO₂-Ag monolayer with different TiO₂ contents were fabricated on a two-dimensional colloidal array substrate for the investigation of Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) properties. For the TiO₂/Ag bilayer, when the Ag thickness increased, SERS intensity decreased. Meanwhile, a significant enhancement was observed when the sublayer Ag was 10 nm compared to the pure Ag monolayer, which was ascribed to the metal-semiconductor synergistic effect that electromagnetic mechanism (EM) provided by roughness surface and charge-transfer (CT) enhancement mechanism from TiO₂-Ag composite components. In comparison to the TiO₂/Ag bilayer, the co-sputtered TiO₂-Ag monolayer decreased the aggregation of Ag particles and led to the formation of small Ag particles, which showed that TiO₂ could effectively inhibit the aggregation and growth of Ag nanoparticles.

  12. Antimicrobial Nanocomposites Prepared from Montmorillonite/Ag+/Quaternary Ammonium Nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposites of Ag with organic montmorillonite (Ag-OMMT, Ag with montmorillonite (Ag-MMT, and organic montmorillonite (OMMT were successfully prepared via a one-step solution-intercalated method. Sodium MMT, silver nitrate, and dimethyl octadecyl hydroxy ethyl ammonium nitrate were used as precursors. X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy analyses confirmed that the MMT layers were intercalated, and Ag+ was partly reduced to silver nanoparticles with diameters within 10–20 nm in Ag-OMMT. The decomposition temperature of the organic cations in OMMT and Ag-OMMT increased to 220°C, as revealed by differential scanning calorimetry-thermogravimetric analysis. The antimicrobial activity of the nanocomposites was tested by measuring the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and killing rate. The MICs of Ag-OMMT against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans were 0.313, 2.5, and 0.625 mg/mL, respectively. Because of the presence of quaternary ammonium nitrate, Ag-OMMT has a better MIC against Gram-positive bacteria compared to Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. OMMT did not show antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. In 2 h, 0.0125 mg/mL Ag-OMMT could kill 100% of S. aureus, E. coli, and C. albicans in solution, and Ag-MMT could kill 99.995% of S. aureus, 90.15% of E. coli, and 93.68% of C. albicans. These antimicrobial functional nanocomposites have the potential for application in the area of surface decoration films.

  13. Ag nanoparticle-coated zirconia for antibacterial prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Risa; Nozaki, Kosuke; Horiuchi, Naohiro; Yamashita, Kimihiro; Nemoto, Reina; Miura, Hiroyuki; Nagai, Akiko

    2017-09-01

    Bacterial adhesion to dental materials is a major cause of caries and periodontitis, necessitating the development of compounds such as yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), which are widely employed in medicine due to their high antimicrobial activity and low cytotoxicity. The main goal of this study is the synthesis of the broad antimicrobial activity of AgNP-coated YSZ with facile methods. The bactericidal AgNPs were immobilized on the surface of YSZ and tested for bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Escherichia coli, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans based on ISO 22196:2007. The loading of AgNPs was optimized by culturing mouse fibroblast cells on AgNP-coated YSZ with cell viability test based on ISO 10993-5. In addition, the silver release profile of AgNP-coated YSZ in artificial saliva was determined using an accelerated aging test. Antibacterial activity, and cell viability test revealed optimum performance with no cytotoxicity at a level of 32 μg/cm 2 . Accelerated aging test showed that the AgNP-coated surface was extremely stable, exhibiting a total silver leaching level of only 1% and confirming the effectiveness of this coating method for retaining AgNPs while exerting an antibacterial effect against oral pathogens. This finding also implies that the bactericidal action of AgNP-coated YSZ is not mediated by the released Ag ions, but rather corresponds to contact killing. Yttria-stabilized zirconia, YSZ; silver nanoparticles, AgNPs; field emission scanning electron microscopy, FE-SEM; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, XPS; grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, GIXRD; ultraviolet-visible, UV-vis; inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, ICP-AES. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. 76 FR 56099 - Implementation of a Decision Adopted Under the Australia Group (AG) Intersessional Silent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    .... 110222155-1110-01] RIN 0694-AF14 Implementation of a Decision Adopted Under the Australia Group (AG... proposal that was discussed at the 2010 Australia Group (AG) Plenary and adopted under the AG... under the Australia Group (AG) intersessional silent approval procedures in November 2010. The AG is a...

  15. 12 CFR 225.101 - Bank holding company's subsidiary banks owning shares of nonbanking companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.101 Bank holding... company and do not have a value greater than 5 percent of the value of the bank holding company's total... prohibition of the Act against retention of nonbanking interests applies to indirect as well as direct...

  16. 26 CFR 1.556-3 - Illustration of computation of undistributed foreign personal holding company income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Illustration of computation of undistributed foreign personal holding company income. 1.556-3 Section 1.556-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Holding Companies § 1.556-3 Illustration of computation of undistributed foreign personal holding company...

  17. 26 CFR 301.6501(f)-1 - Personal holding company tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Personal holding company tax. 301.6501(f)-1... Collection § 301.6501(f)-1 Personal holding company tax. If a corporation which is a personal holding company... time during the last half of such taxable year, more than 50 percent in value of the outstanding...

  18. Ten years of Dutch loss compensation regime for holding and financing companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobeldijk, A.C.P.; Braeken, B.

    2014-01-01

    Dutch holding and financing companies are subject to a specific tax loss compensation regime, the so-called holding company loss rule. In short, the purpose of this rule is the prevention of the compensation of losses resulting from holding and financing activities with profits from operational

  19. Automated daily breath hold stability measurements by real-time imaging in radiotherapy of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Boer, Hans C J; Van Den Bongard, Desirée J G; van Asselen, B

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Breath hold is increasingly used for cardiac sparing in left-sided breast cancer irradiation. We have developed a fast automated method to verify breath hold stability in each treatment fraction. Material and methods We evaluated 504 patients treated with breath hold. Moderate

  20. Oscillatory relaxation of the Ag(110) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuk, Y.; Feldman, L.C.

    1984-01-01

    The relaxation of the Ag(110) surface was studied by high-energy ion scattering. We find the first-layer spacing contracted by (7.8 +- 2.5)% and the second-layer spacing increased by (4.3 +- 2.5)%. The sensitivity of these results to assumptions of surface vibrations is explored. It is shown that the nearest-neighbor spacing at the surface (i.e., the spacing between the first and third layers) is contracted by (3.5 +- 0.5)%, and this result is almost independent of the surface Debye temperature. The results are consistent with the body of data indicating large, multilayer relaxation in (110)fcc surfaces

  1. Electron capture probabilities in sup 105 Ag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandrasekhar Rao, M.V.S.; Sree Krishna Murty, G.; Radha Krishna, K.; Bhuloka Reddy, S.; Satyanarayana, G.; Raghavaiah, C.V.; Sastry, D.L. (Andhra Univ., Visakhapatnam (India). Labs. for Nuclear Research); Chintalapudi, S.N. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Calcutta (India). Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre)

    1990-01-01

    The K-electron capture probabilities for the 1/2{sup -}yields3/2{sup -} and 1/2{sup -}yields1/2{sup +} transitions in the decay of {sup 105}Ag were measured for the first time using the sum coincidence method. The experimental P{sub K} values were estimated to be 0.824{plus minus}0.042 and 0.851{plus minus}0.046 for the allowed and first-forbidden beta transitions, respectively in agreement with the theory. The P{sub L} experimental values to these two levels were also computed using the experimental P{sub L}/P{sub K} values reported by earlier authors. These results are also found to be consistent with the theoretical P{sub L} values. (orig.).

  2. The AGS Booster beam loss monitor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beadle, E.R.; Bennett, G.W.; Witkover, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    A beam loss monitor system has been developed for the Brookhaven National Laboratory Booster accelerator, and is designed for use with intensities of up to 1.5 x 10 13 protons and carbon to gold ions at 50-3 x 10 9 ions per pulse. This system is a significant advance over the present AGS system by improving the sensitivity, dynamic range, and data acquisition. In addition to the large dynamic range achievable, it is adaptively shifted when high losses are detected. The system uses up to 80 argon filled ion chambers as detectors, as well as newly designed electronics for processing and digitizing detector outputs. The hardware simultaneously integrates each detector output, interfaces to the beam interrupt systems, and digitizes all 80 channels to 21 bits at 170 KHz. This paper discuses the design, construction, and operation of the system. 4 refs., 2 figs

  3. Tha AGS Booster high frequency rf system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, R.; Cameron, P.; Damn, R.

    1988-01-01

    A high level rf system, including a power amplifier and cavity has been designed for the AGS Booster. It covers a frequency range of 2.4 to 4.2 Mhz and will be used to accelerate high intensity proton, and low intensity polarized proton beams to 1.5 GeV and heavy ions to 0.35 GeV per nucleon. A total accelerating voltage of up to 90kV will be provided by two cavities, each having two gaps. The internally cross-coupled, pushpull cavities are driven by an adjacently located power amplifier. In order to accommodate the high beam intensity, up to 0.75 /times/ 10 13 protons per bunch, a low plate resistance power tetrode is used. The tube anode is magnetically coupled to one of the cavity's two paralleled cells. The amplifier is a grounded cathode configuration driven by a remotely located solid state amplifier

  4. The AGS booster high frequency rf system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, R.; Cameron, P.; Kamn, R.; Goldman, M.; Jablonski, E.; Keane, J.; McNerney, A.; Meth, M.; Plotkin, M.; Puglisi, M.; Ratti, A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on a high level RF system, which includes a power amplifier and cavity designed for the AGS Booster. It covers a frequency range of 2.4 to 4.2 MHz and will be used to accelerate high intensity proton, and low intensity polarized proton beams to 1.5 GeV and heavy ions to 0.35 GeV per nucleon. A total accelerating voltage of up to 90kV will be provided by two cavities, each having two gaps. The internally cross-coupled, pushpull cavities are driven by an adjacently located power amplifier. In order to accommodate the high beam intensity, up to 0.75 x 10 13 protons per bunch, a low plate resistance power tetrode is used. The tube anode is magnetically coupled to one of the cavity's two paralleled cells. The amplifier is a grounded cathode configuration driven by a remotely located solid state amplifier

  5. Rf beam control for the AGS Booster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, J.M.

    1994-09-26

    RF beam control systems for hadron synchrotrons have evolved over the past three decades into an essentially standard design. The key difference between hadron and lepton machines is the absence of radiation damping and existence of significant frequency variation in the case of hadrons. Although the motion of the hadron in the potential well of the rf wave is inherently stable it is not strongly damped. Damping must be provided by electronic feedback through the accelerating system. This feedback is typically called the phase loop. The technology of the rf beam control system for the AGS Booster synchrotron is described. First, the overall philosophy of the design is explained in terms of a conventional servo system that regulates the beam horizontal position in the vacuum chamber. The concept of beam transfer functions is fundamental to the mathematics of the design process and is reviewed. The beam transfer functions required for this design are derived from first principles. An overview of the beam signal pick-ups and high level rf equipment is given. The major subsystems, the frequency program, the heterodyne system, and beam feedback loops, are described in detail. Beyond accelerating the beam, the rf system must also synchronize the bunches in the Booster to the buckets in the AGS before transfer. The technical challenge in this process is heightened by the need to accomplish synchronization while the frequency is still changing. Details of the synchronization system are given. This report is intended to serve two purposes. One is to document the hardware and performance of the systems that have been built. The other is to serve as a tutorial vehicle from which the non-expert can not only learn the details of this system but also learn the principles of beam control that have led to the particular design choices made.

  6. Rf beam control for the AGS Booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    RF beam control systems for hadron synchrotrons have evolved over the past three decades into an essentially standard design. The key difference between hadron and lepton machines is the absence of radiation damping and existence of significant frequency variation in the case of hadrons. Although the motion of the hadron in the potential well of the rf wave is inherently stable it is not strongly damped. Damping must be provided by electronic feedback through the accelerating system. This feedback is typically called the phase loop. The technology of the rf beam control system for the AGS Booster synchrotron is described. First, the overall philosophy of the design is explained in terms of a conventional servo system that regulates the beam horizontal position in the vacuum chamber. The concept of beam transfer functions is fundamental to the mathematics of the design process and is reviewed. The beam transfer functions required for this design are derived from first principles. An overview of the beam signal pick-ups and high level rf equipment is given. The major subsystems, the frequency program, the heterodyne system, and beam feedback loops, are described in detail. Beyond accelerating the beam, the rf system must also synchronize the bunches in the Booster to the buckets in the AGS before transfer. The technical challenge in this process is heightened by the need to accomplish synchronization while the frequency is still changing. Details of the synchronization system are given. This report is intended to serve two purposes. One is to document the hardware and performance of the systems that have been built. The other is to serve as a tutorial vehicle from which the non-expert can not only learn the details of this system but also learn the principles of beam control that have led to the particular design choices made

  7. Bicomponent AgCl/PVP nanofibre fabricated by electrospinning with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    AgCl nanoparticles in the PVP solution, and then the solutions were electrospun to obtain AgCl/PVP composite nanofibres. The final products were thoroughly characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), which showed ...

  8. Correlation of beam loss to residual activation in the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    Studies of beam loss and activation at the AGS have provided a better understanding of measurements of beam loss and how they may be used to predict activation. Studies have been done in which first order correlations have been made between measured beam losses on the distributed ionization chamber system in the AGS and the health physics recorded residual activation. These studies have provided important insight into the ionization chamber system, its limitations, and its usefulness in the prediction of activation based on monitored beam loss. In recent years the AGS has run high intensity protons primarily for rare kaon decay experiments. In this mode of running the AGS typically accelerates beam from an injection momentum of 0.644 GeV/c up to a slow extracted beam (SEB) momentum of 24.2 GeV/c. The beam intensities are on the order of 4.5 x 10 13 protons per AGS cycle at injection to as high as 1.9 x 10 13 protons per AGS cycle at extraction. Residual activation varies around the AGS ring from the order of 5 mR/hour to levels of the order at 5 R/hour. The highest levels occur around the AGS beam catcher and the extraction equipment

  9. Thermodynamic properties of liquid solutions Ag-Tl-Te

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaleska, E.; Sztuba, Z.; Sroka, A.; Gawel, W. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Medicine, Wroclaw (Poland)

    1998-12-31

    Excess partial molar thermodynamic functions for the Ag-Tl-Te liquid solutions have been determined along the sections: X{sub Ag}:X{sub Te} = 1:4, 2:3, 1:1 and 3:2. The thermodynamic properties have been discussed in dependence on the number of associates existing in the liquid. (author) 34 refs,5 figs, 1 tab

  10. Correlation of beam loss to residual activation in the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    Studies of beam loss and activation at the AGS have provided a better understanding of measurements of beam loss and how they may be used to predict activation. Studies have been done in which first order correlations have been made between measured beam losses on the distributed ionization chamber system in the AGS and the health physics recorded residual activation. These studies have provided important insight into the ionization chamber system, its limitations, and its usefulness in the prediction of activation based on monitored beam loss. In recent years the AGS has run high intensity protons primarily for rare known decay experiments. In this mode of running the AGS typically accelerates beam from an injection momentum of 0.644 GeV/c up to a slow extracted beam (SEB) momentum of 24.2 GeV/c. The beam intensities are on the order of 4.5 x 10 13 protons per AGS cycle at injection to as high as 1.9 x 10 13 protons per AGS cycle at extraction. Residual activation varies around the AGS ring from the order of 5 mR/hour to levels of the order at 5 R/hour. The highest levels occur around the AGS beam catcher and the extraction equipment. 7 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Atomic structure of As2S3-Ag chalcogenide glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaban, I.; Jóvári, P.; Wagner, T.; Frumar, M.; Stehlik, S.; Bartos, M.; Hoyer, W.; Beuneu, B.; Webb, M. A.

    2009-09-01

    (As0.4S0.6)100-xAgx glasses (x = 0, 4, 8, 12 at.%) have been studied with high-energy x-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction and extended x-ray absorption spectroscopy at As and Ag K-edges. The experimental data were modelled simultaneously with the reverse Monte Carlo simulation method. Analysis of the partial pair correlation functions and coordination numbers extracted from the model atomic configurations revealed that silver preferentially bonds to sulfur in the As2S3-Ag ternary glasses, which results in the formation of homoatomic As-As bonds. Upon the addition of Ag, a small proportion of Ag-As bonds (NAgAs≈0.3) are formed in all three ternary compositions, while the direct Ag-Ag bonds (NAgAg≈ 0.4) appear only in the glass with the highest Ag content (12 at.%). Similar to the g- As2S3 binary, the mean coordination number of arsenic is close to three, and that of sulfur is close to two, in the As2S3-Ag ternary glasses. The first sharp diffraction peak on the total structure factors of As2S3 binary and (As0.4S0.6)100-xAgx ternary glasses is related to the As-As and As-S correlations.

  12. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activities of Ag-N ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ag-N-codoped zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by a one-step impregnation of Ag in N-doped ZnO nanoparticles. The morphologies and structures of the as-synthesized nanomaterials were investigated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and UV-Vis spectrophotometric ...

  13. Dendrimer-templated Ag-Pd bimetallic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Young-Min; Rhee, Hyun-Ku

    2004-03-01

    Ultrafine dendrimer-templated Ag-Pd bimetallic nanoparticles with various metal compositions have been prepared successfully using silver(I)-bis(oxalato)palladate(II) complex. The use of an oxalate complex, in which two metal ions exist in one complex, is found to be effective in preventing unfavorable silver halide formation and thus suitable for the formation of Ag-Pd bimetallic nanoparticles.

  14. AGS vertical beta function measurements for Run 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ahrens, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Huang, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Schoefer, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-10-07

    One key parameter for running the AGS efficiently is by maintaining a low emittance. To measure emittance, one needs to measure the beta function throughout the cycle. This can be done by measuring the beta function at the ionization profile monitors (IPM) in the AGS. This tech note delves into the motivation, the measurement, and some strides that were made throughout Run15.

  15. Parity violation in neutron resonances in 107,109Ag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowie, L.Y.; Mitchell, G.E.; Stephenson, S.L.; Bowman, J.D.; Frankle, C.M.; Knudson, J.N.; Penttilae, S.I.; Seestrom, S.J.; Yen, Y.; Yuan, V.W.; Corvi, F.; Zanini, L.; Crawford, B.E.; Roberson, N.R.; Delheij, P.P.; Iinuma, M.; Masaike, A.; Matsuda, Y.; Shimizu, H.M.; Masuda, Y.; Postma, H.; Sharapov, E.I.

    1999-01-01

    Parity nonconservation (PNC) was studied in p-wave resonances in Ag by measuring the helicity dependence of the neutron total cross section. Transmission measurements on natural Ag were performed in the energy range 32 to 422 eV with the time-of-flight method at the Manuel Lujan Neutron Scattering Center at Los Alamos National Laboratory. A total of 15 p-wave neutron resonances were studied in 107 Ag and nine p-wave resonances in 109 Ag. Statistically significant asymmetries were observed for eight resonances in 107 Ag and for four resonances in 109 Ag. An analysis treating the PNC matrix elements as random variables yields a weak spreading width of Γ w =(2.67 -1.21 +2.65 )x10 -7 eV for 107 Ag and Γ w =(1.30 -0.74 +2.49 )x10 -7 eV for 109 Ag. thinsp copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  16. Quadratite, AgCdAsS3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindi, Luca; Spry, Paul G.; Bonazzi, Paola

    2013-01-01

    , AgMnAsS3. Like manganoquadratite, quadratite adopts a galena-derivative framework, with metal atoms occupying all the available octahedral interstices, although only M1 and M2 cations, occupied mainly by Cd, adopt a fairly regular octahedral coordination; the M3 cation, occupied by Ag, is located...

  17. Transport of stabilized engineered silver (Ag) nanoparticles through porous sandstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neukum, Christoph; Braun, Anika; Azzam, Rafig

    2014-03-01

    Engineered nanoparticles are increasingly applied in consumer products and concerns are rising regarding their risk as potential contaminants or carriers for colloid-facilitated contaminant transport. Engineered silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are among the most widely used nanomaterials in consumer products. However, their mobility in groundwater has been scarcely investigated. In this study, transport of stabilized AgNP through porous sandstones with variations in mineralogy, pore size distribution and permeability is investigated in laboratory experiments with well-defined boundary conditions. The AgNP samples were mainly characterized by asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation coupled to a multi-angle static laser light detector and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy for determination of particle size and concentration. The rock samples are characterized by mercury porosimetry, flow experiments and solute tracer tests. Solute and AgNP breakthrough was quantified by applying numerical models considering one kinetic site model for particle transport. The transport of AgNP strongly depends on pore size distribution, mineralogy and the solution ionic strength. Blocking of attachment sites results in less reactive transport with increasing application of AgNP mass. AgNPs were retained due to physicochemical filtration and probably due to straining. The results demonstrate the restricted applicability of AgNP transport parameters determined from simplified experimental model systems to realistic environmental matrices.

  18. Transport of engineered silver (Ag) nanoparticles through partially fractured sandstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neukum, Christoph; Braun, Anika; Azzam, Rafig

    2014-08-01

    Transport behavior and fate of engineered silver nanoparticles (AgNP) in the subsurface is of major interest concerning soil and groundwater protection in order to avoid groundwater contamination of vital resources. Sandstone aquifers are important groundwater resources which are frequently used for public water supply in many regions of the world. The objective of this study is to get a better understanding of AgNP transport behavior in partially fractured sandstones. We executed AgNP transport studies on partially fissured sandstone drilling cores in laboratory experiments. The AgNP concentration and AgNP size in the effluent were analyzed using flow field-flow fractionation mainly. We employed inverse mathematical models on the measured AgNP breakthrough curves to identify and quantify relevant transport processes. Physicochemical filtration, time-dependent blocking due to filling of favorable attachment sites and colloid-facilitated transport were identified as the major processes for AgNP mobility. Physicochemical filtration was found to depend on solute chemistry, mineralogy, pore size distribution and probably on physical and chemical heterogeneity. Compared to AgNP transport in undisturbed sandstone matrix reported in the literature, their mobility in partially fissured sandstone is enhanced probably due to larger void spaces and higher hydraulic conductivity.

  19. Thermal Diffusion Dynamic Behavior of Two-Dimensional Ag-SMALL Clusters on Ag(1 1 1) Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakirur-Rehman; Hayat, Sardar Sikandar

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, the thermal diffusion behavior of small two-dimensional Ag-islands on Ag(1 1 1) surface has been explored using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The approach is based on semi-empirical potentials. The key microscopic processes responsible for the diffusion of Ag1-5 adislands on Ag(1 1 1) surface are identified. The hopping and zigzag concerted motion along with rotation are observed for Ag one-atom to three-atom islands while single-atom and multi-atom processes are revealed for Ag four-atom and five-atom islands, during the diffusion on Ag(1 1 1) surface. The same increasing/decreasing trend in the diffusion coefficient and effective energy barrier is observed in both the self learning kinetic Monte Carlo (SLKMC) and MD calculations, for the temperature range of 300-700 K. An increase in the value of effective energy barrier is noticed with corresponding increase in the number of atoms in Ag-adislands. A reasonable linear fit is observed for the diffusion coefficient for studied temperatures (300, 500 and 700 K). For the observed diffusion mechanisms, our findings are in good agreement with ab initio density-functional theory (DFT) calculations for Al/Al(1 1 1) while the energy barrier values are in same range as the experimental values for Cu/Ag(1 1 1) and the theoretical values using ab initio DFT supplemented with embedded-atom method for Ag/Ag(1 1 1).

  20. Thermal characterization of Ag and Ag + N ion implanted ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokullu Urkac, E.; Oztarhan, A.; Tihminlioglu, F.; Kaya, N.; Ila, D.; Muntele, C.; Budak, S.; Oks, E.; Nikolaev, A.; Ezdesir, A.; Tek, Z.

    2007-08-01

    Most of total hip joints are composed of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). However, as ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene is too stable in a body, wear debris may accumulate and cause biological response such as bone absorption and loosening of prosthesis. In this study, ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene samples were Ag and Ag + N hybrid ion implanted by using MEVVA ion implantation technique to improve its surface properties. Samples were implanted with a fluence of 1017 ion/cm2 and extraction voltage of 30 kV. Implanted and unimplanted samples were investigated by thermo-gravimetry analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical microscopy (OM) and contact Angle measurement. Thermal characterization results showed that the ion bombardment induced an increase in the % crystallinity, onset and termination degradation temperatures of UHMWPE.

  1. Thermal characterization of Ag and Ag + N ion implanted ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokullu Urkac, E. [Department of Materials Science, Izmir High Technology Institute, Gulbahcekoyu Urla, Izmir (Turkey)]. E-mail: emelsu@gmail.com; Oztarhan, A. [Bioengineering Department, Ege University, Bornova, Izmir 35100 (Turkey); Tihminlioglu, F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Izmir High Technology Institute, Gulbahcekoyu Urla, Izmir (Turkey); Kaya, N. [Bioengineering Department, Ege University, Bornova, Izmir 35100 (Turkey); Ila, D. [Center for Irradiation of Materials, Alabama A and M University, Normal AL 35762 (United States); Muntele, C. [Center for Irradiation of Materials, Alabama A and M University, Normal AL 35762 (United States); Budak, S. [Center for Irradiation of Materials, Alabama A and M University, Normal AL 35762 (United States); Oks, E. [H C Electronics Institute, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Nikolaev, A. [H C Electronics Institute, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Ezdesir, A. [R and D Department, PETKIM Holding A.S., Aliaga, Izmir 35801 (Turkey); Tek, Z. [Department of Physics, Celal Bayar University, Manisa (Turkey)

    2007-08-15

    Most of total hip joints are composed of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE ). However, as ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene is too stable in a body, wear debris may accumulate and cause biological response such as bone absorption and loosening of prosthesis. In this study, ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene samples were Ag and Ag + N hybrid ion implanted by using MEVVA ion implantation technique to improve its surface properties. Samples were implanted with a fluence of 10{sup 17} ion/cm{sup 2} and extraction voltage of 30 kV. Implanted and unimplanted samples were investigated by thermo-gravimetry analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical microscopy (OM) and contact Angle measurement. Thermal characterization results showed that the ion bombardment induced an increase in the % crystallinity, onset and termination degradation temperatures of UHMWPE.

  2. Influence of fabrication procedure on the electrochemical performance of Ag/AgCl reference electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoica, Daniela [Department of Biomedical and Inorganic Chemistry, Laboratoire National de Metrologie et d' Essais, 1 Rue Gaston Boissier, 75015 Paris (France); Brewer, Paul J., E-mail: paul.brewer@npl.co.uk [Analytical Science Division, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Brown, Richard J.C. [Analytical Science Division, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Fisicaro, Paola [Department of Biomedical and Inorganic Chemistry, Laboratoire National de Metrologie et d' Essais, 1 Rue Gaston Boissier, 75015 Paris (France)

    2011-11-30

    The influence of several parameters in the preparation procedure of thermal-electrolytic Ag/AgCl electrodes on the resulting electrode performance has been studied. In particular, we report the effect on electrode performance of subtle variations in the preparation of silver oxide paste used for electrode manufacture, in thermal annealing conditions employed and in the procedure for electrochemically converting a fraction of the electrode from silver to silver chloride. Scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy have been used to study the characteristics of the electrodes produced. This work reveals a correlation between the electrochemical behaviour and surface physical characteristics - in particular electrode porosity. The outputs of this study have positive implications for improving the accuracy and comparability of primary pH measurement.

  3. Nanoregions of rocksalt AgI in AgBr microcrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, A. P.; Hansen, J. C.; Chen, S.; Irving, M.; Baetzold, R.; Sever, B. R.

    2004-03-01

    Rapid addition of iodide causes the optically excited low-temperature donor acceptor luminescence from AgBr1-xIx (xelectron microscopy (TEM) and computational methods have been applied to determine the structure responsible for this behavior. The data generated indicated that nanoregions of fcc rocksalt AgBr1-xIx (x>0.9) are integrated into these microcrystals. These nanoregions of high iodide are strained and can engender the characteristic dislocations observed in the TEMs. Some dislocation features are removed by annealing (200 °C). Heating also causes the luminescence and band-gap energy to return to the values characteristic of the crystals with a homogeneous distribution of iodide.

  4. Holding the Project Accountable: Research Governance, Ethics, and Democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leese, Matthias

    2017-12-01

    This paper seeks to address research governance by highlighting the notion of public accountability as a complementary tool for the establishment of an ethical resonance space for emerging technologies. Public accountability can render development and design process of emerging technologies transparent through practices of holding those in charge of research accountable for their actions, thereby fostering ethical engagement with their potential negative consequences or side-effects. Through practices such as parliamentary questions, audits, and open letters emerging technologies could be effectively rendered transparent and opened up to broader levels of scrutiny and debate, thereby contributing to a greater adherence of emerging technologies to ethics and moral consensus. Fundamental democratic practices could thus not only lead to better informed choices in design and development processes, but also contribute to more morally substantive outcomes.

  5. Site-Selective Carving and Co-Deposition: Transformation of Ag Nanocubes into Concave Nanocrystals Encased by Au-Ag Alloy Frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jaewan; Wang, Daniel; Ding, Yong; Zhang, Jiawei; Qin, Dong

    2018-01-23

    We report a facile synthesis of Ag nanocubes with concave side faces and Au-Ag alloy frames, namely Ag@Au-Ag concave nanocrystals, by titrating HAuCl 4 solution into an aqueous mixture of Ag nanocubes, ascorbic acid (H 2 Asc), NaOH, and cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) at an initial pH of 11.6 under ambient conditions. Different from all previous studies involving poly(vinylpyrrolidine), the use of CTAC at a sufficiently high concentration plays an essential role in carving away Ag atoms from the side faces through galvanic replacement. Concurrent co-deposition of Au and Ag atoms via chemical reduction at orthogonal sites on the surface of Ag nanocubes leads to the generation of Ag@Au-Ag concave nanocrystals with well-defined and controllable structures. Specifically, in the presence of CTAC-derived Cl - ions, the titrated HAuCl 4 is maintained in the AuCl 4 - species, enabling its galvanic replacement with the Ag atoms located on the side faces of nanocubes. The released Ag + ions can be retained in the soluble form of AgCl 2 - by complexing with the Cl - ions. Both the AuCl 4 - and AgCl 2 - in the solution are then reduced by ascorbate monoanion, a product of the neutralization reaction between H 2 Asc and NaOH, to Au and Ag atoms for their preferential co-deposition onto the edges and corners of the Ag nanocubes. Compared with Ag nanocubes, the Ag@Au-Ag concave nanocrystals exhibit much stronger SERS activity at an excitation of 785 nm, making it feasible to monitor the Au-catalyzed reduction of 4-nitrothiophenol by NaBH 4 in situ. When the Ag cores are removed, the concave nanocrystals evolve into Au-Ag nanoframes with controllable ridge thicknesses.

  6. No response to hepatitis B vaccine in infants born to HBsAg(+) mothers is associated to the transplacental transfer of HBsAg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; He, Yingli; Jin, Dongfang; Liu, Jinfeng; Zheng, Jie; Yuan, Ningxia; Bai, Yun; Yan, Taotao; Yang, Yuan; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Shulin; Zhao, Yingren; Chen, Tianyan

    2017-08-01

    No or low hepatitis B (HB) vaccine response is more frequent in infants from HBsAg(+) mothers than those from HBsAg(-). Our previous study found temporary positivity of HBsAg in infants from HBsAg(+) mothers. In this study, we hypothesized that HBsAg in infant blunt immune response to standard hepatitis B vaccination. A total of 328 consecutive HBsAg(+) mothers and their offspring were enrolled. Blood samples were taken from mothers and their infants and quantified for HBsAg, anti-HBs titer and HBV DNA load concentration; Placenta samples were collected to stain for HBsAg. First, 6.7% infants (22/328) showed anti-HBs titer lower than 10 mIU/mL after HB vaccination (non-response to HB vaccine). HBsAg(+) newborns showed higher risk of non-response than HBsAg(-) infants (13.0% versus 5.0%, p = 0.016). Infants from high HBsAg titer mothers displayed higher risk of HBsAg positivity at birth than those from low titer mothers (45.3% versus 2.8%, p < 0.001). HBsAg titer in mothers of HBsAg(+) newborns was much higher than mothers of HBsAg(-) newborns (p < 0.001). All those data supported HBsAg can be transferred through placenta. Our hypothesis was further reinforced by immunostaining with specific antibody against HBsAg, a substantial higher prevalence (87.5% versus 30.8%, p = 0.024) and stronger immunostaining (p = 0.008) was demonstrated in HBsAg(+) group comparing with placenta of the HBsAg(-) group. No response to HB vaccine in infants of HBsAg(+) mothers was associated to the transplacental transfer of HBsAg.

  7. Preparation and characterization of SrTiO3-Ag/AgCl hybrid composite with promoted plasmonic visible light excited photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hongfang; Wei, Hongyu; Pan, Zhidong; Lu, Youjun; Wang, Yanmin

    2017-11-01

    An efficient visible light responsive photocatalyst hybrid composite SrTiO3-Ag/AgCl was prepared via hydrothermal method and subsequent chemical precipitation/in-situ photoreduction at room temperature. The phase structure, morphology, element mapping distribution, surface chemical composition, specific surface area, and light absorption ability of the samples were characterized. The transient photocurrent response and electrochemical impedance under visible light illumination indicate that SrTiO3-Ag/AgCl composite possesses a more intense photocurrent response and a smaller surface resistance than SrTiO3 and Ag/AgCl due to the lower electrons-holes recombination. SrTiO3-Ag/AgCl composite exhibits an obvious promoted visible light excited photovcatalytic activity in photodecomposition of methyl orange, rhodamine B and phenol, compared to SrTiO3 and Ag/AgCl. A possible photocatalytic mechanism was proposed, indicating that the synergistic effect of surface plasmonic resonance of Ag0 photoreduced from AgCl and decreased the recombination rate of photogenerated carriers through transferring electrons from the surface of Ag0 to SrTiO3 promote the excellent photocatalytic activity of SrTiO3-Ag/AgCl. Moreover, the photodegradation reaction process of methyl orange, rhodamine B and phenol on SrTiO3-Ag/AgCl follows the pseudo-first-order kinetic model, and the reaction rate constants are approximately 10 times greater than those on Ag/AgCl. Four-recycling photocatalytic process of methyl orange on SrTiO3-Ag/AgCl also indicates a superior stability and durability.

  8. Ion beam mixing in Ag-Pd alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klatt, J.L.; Averback, R.S.; Peak, D.

    1989-01-01

    Ion beam mixing during 750 keV Kr + irradiation at 80 K was measured on a series of Ag-Pd alloys using Au marker atoms. The mixing in pure Ag was the greatest and it decreased monotonically with increasing Pd content, being a factor of 10 higher in pure Ag than in pure Pd. This large difference in mixing cannot be explained by the difference in cohesion energy between Ag and Pd in the thermodynamic model of ion beam mixing proposed by Johnson et al. [W. L. Johnson, Y. T. Cheng, M. Van Rossum, and M-A. Nicolet, Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 7/8, 657 (1985)]. An alternative model based on local melting in the cascade is shown to account for the ion beam mixing results in Ag and Pd

  9. Transfer of radiosilver (Ag-110m) in the food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handl, J.

    1993-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident, Ag-110m (Half-life: 250 days) has been reported in some important components of the terrestrial environment such as pasture vegetation and pasture animals. A review of the available literature showed that the behaviour of silver in the terrestrial environment is relatively poorly understood. A research programme to study the behaviour of Ag-110m along the soil - vegetation - animal - man pathway was therefore initiated. In an in-vivo study in cooperation with the Institute of Animal Husbandry and Animal Behaviour, Mariensee with pigs the transfer of Ag-110m from feed to animal tissues was followed for 30 days using Ag-110m labelled meat as feed. The observation has not yet been finished. After the evaluation of all measurements, transfer factors animal tissue/feed as well as the biological half-life for Ag-110m in animal organs will be determined. (orig./BBR)

  10. Antifungal Applications of Ag-Decorated Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Zamperini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pure hydroxyapatite (HA and hydroxyapatite decorated with silver (HA@Ag nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized. The antifungal effect of HA@Ag nanoparticles in a distilled water solution was evaluated against Candida albicans. The origin of the antifungal activity of the HA@Ag is also discussed. The results obtained showed that the HA nanorod morphology remained the same with Ag ions decorations on the HA structure which were deposited in the form of nanospheres. Interaction where occurred between the structure and its defect density variation in the interfacial HA@Ag and intrafacial HA region with the fungal medium resulted in antifungal activity. The reaction mechanisms involved oxygen and water adsorption which formed an active complex cluster. The decomposition and desorption of the final products as well as the electron/hole recombination process have an important role in fungicidal effects.

  11. Plasmonic properties of Ag nanoclusters in various polymer matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takele, H; Greve, H; Pochstein, C; Zaporojtchenko, V; Faupel, F

    2006-01-01

    Nanocomposite films containing Ag nanoparticles embedded in a polymer matrix of Teflon AF, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and Nylon 6 were prepared by vapour phase co-deposition in high vacuum. A large variation of the particle plasmon resonance frequency in the visible region was obtained by increasing the Ag volume fraction from 4-80%. The metal volume fraction was measured by energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDX) and the film thickness was measured by surface profilometry. The position, width and strength of the plasmon resonance depend strongly on the metal filling factor, cluster size and interparticle distance. The microstructure of the nanocomposites (shape, size, size distribution and interparticle separation of metal clusters) was determined by transmission electron microscopy. The effect of the surrounding dielectric medium on the optical properties of nanocomposites was investigated by comparing the Teflon AF/Ag, PMMA/Ag and Nylon/Ag composites

  12. Synthesis, characterization and SERS activity of Au-Ag nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Daizy; Gopchandran, K. G.; Unni, C.; Nissamudeen, K. M.

    2008-09-01

    The formation mechanism and morphology of Au-Ag bimetallic colloidal nanoparticles depend on the composition. Ag coated Au colloidal nanoparticles have been prepared by deposition of Ag through chemical reduction on performed Au colloid. The composition of the Au 100- x-Ag x particles was varied from x = 0 to 50. The obtained colloids were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The Au 80-Ag 20 colloid consists of alloy nanorods with dimension of 25 nm × 100 nm. The activity of these nanorods in surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was checked by using sodium salicylate as an adsorbate probe. Intense SERS bands are observed indicating its usefulness as a SERS substrate in near infrared (NIR) laser excitation.

  13. Glass formation in AgI:Ag2O:V2O5 and AgI:Ag2O:(V2O5+B2O3) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, R.; Hariharan, K.

    1988-01-01

    Transport properties of glasses in the system AgI:Ag 2 O: V 2 O 5 and AgI:Ag 2 O: (V 2 O 5 +B 2 O 3 ) have ben investigated. It was found that, at high AgI concentrations, the addition of another glass former (B 2 O 3 ) did not improve the conduction characteristics of the pure vanadate glasses, the best conducting composition of which had ambient temperature, ionic conductivity comparable to that of conventional liquid electrolytes. The highest conducting composition was used as an electrolyte in the study of silver solid state cells. The discharge characteristics of different cells fabricated with the glassy electrolyte, have been compared with those having the best conducting polycrystalline ompositions as electrolytes. 11 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 table

  14. Positron annihilation studies of vacancies in Ag-Zn alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabik, S.

    1982-01-01

    The temperature dependence of annihilation rate, F(T), at the peak of angular correlation curve has been measured for Ag-29.2%at Zn and Ag-50%at Zn alloys. By applying the trapping model the vacancy formation energy for Ag-29.2%at Zn alloy has been found to be equal to 0.94+-0.06 eV. It has been found that the course of the F(T) curve for Ag-50%at Zn depends on the phase composition and thermal history of the investigated sample. For alloys containing not more than 50%at Zn, the concentration dependence of the vacancy formation energy for Ag-Zn alloys is very similar to that for Cu-Zn alloys. (Auth.)

  15. Chemical ordering in magic-size Ag-Pd nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochicchio, Davide; Ferrando, Riccardo; Novakovic, Rada; Panizon, Emanuele; Rossi, Giulia

    2014-12-28

    Chemical ordering in magic-size Ag-Pd nanoalloys is studied by means of global optimization searches within an atomistic potential developed on the basis of density functional theory calculations. Ag-rich, intermediate and Pd-rich compositions are considered for fcc truncated octahedral, icosahedral and decahedral geometric structures. Besides a surface enrichment in Ag, we find a significant subsurface enrichment in Pd, which persists to quite high temperatures as verified by Monte Carlo simulations. This subsurface Pd enrichment is stronger in nanoparticles than in bulk systems and is rationalized in terms of the energetics of the inclusion of a single Pd impurity in an Ag host nanoparticle. Our results can be relevant to the understanding of the catalytic activity of Ag-Pd nanoparticles in those reactions in which subsurface sites play a role.

  16. A Hold-down Margin Assessment using Statistical Method for the PWR Fuel Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, S. Y.; Park, N. K.; Lee, K. S.; Kim, H. K.

    2007-01-01

    The hold-down springs provide an acceptable hold down force against hydraulic uplift force absorbing the length change of the fuel assembly relative to the space between the upper and lower core plates in PWR. These length changes are mainly due to the thermal expansion, irradiation growth and creep down of the fuel assemblies. There are two kinds of hold-down springs depending on the different design concept of the reactor internals of the PWR in Korea, one is a leaf-type hold down spring for Westinghouse type plants and the other is a coil-type hold-down spring for OPR1000 (Optimized Power Reactor 1000). There are four sets of hold-down springs in each fuel assembly for leaf type hold-down spring and each set of the hold-down springs consists of multiple tapered leaves to form a cantilever leaf spring set. The length, width and thickness of the spring leaves are selected to provide the desired spring constant, deflection range, and hold down force. There are four coil springs in each fuel assembly for coil-type hold-down spring. In this study, the hold-down forces and margins were calculated for the leaf-type and coil-type hold-down springs considering geometrical data of the fuel assembly and its components, length changes of the fuel assembly due to thermal expansion, irradiation growth, creep, and irradiation relaxation. The hold-down spring forces were calculated deterministically and statistically to investigate the benefit of the statistical calculation method in view of hold-down margin. The Monte-Carlo simulation method was used for the statistical hold down force calculation

  17. Excitation functions and isomeric ratios for the isomeric pair sup(106m)Ag and sup(106g)Ag in the 107Ag (d,t) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalli, M.E.; Wasilevsky de Lammirato, C.; Herreros, O.R.; Nassiff, S.J.

    1976-09-01

    Excitation functions and isomeric cross section ratios have been measured for the 107 Ag (d,t), reaction in which the isomeric pair sup(106m/106g)Ag is produced. Thick-target yields have been determined for different irradiation times and as a function of deuteron energy. Stacked silver foils with aluminium foils as monitors were bombarded with deuterons up to 27 MeV and the activities of products measured with a calibrated Ge(Li) counter. (author) [es

  18. Thermodynamic Properties of AgIn2Te3I and AgIn2Te3Br, Determined by EMF Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, M. V.; Prokhorenko, M. V.; Prokhorenko, S. V.; Yatskov, M. V.; Reshetnyak, O. V.

    2018-01-01

    Differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and electromotive force (EMF) are used to triangulate Ag-In-Te-I(Br) systems in the vicinity of compounds AgIn2Te3I and AgIn2Te3Br. The three-dimensional position of the AgIn2Te3I-InTe-Ag2Te-AgI and AgIn2Te3Br-InTe-Ag3TeBr phase areas with respect to the figurative points of silver is used to create equations of potential-determining chemical reactions. The potential-determining reactions are conducted in (-)C|Ag|Ag3GeS3I(Br) glass|D|C(+) electrochemical cells (ECCs), where C stands for inert (graphite) electrodes, Ag and D are ECC electrodes (D denotes alloys of one-, three-, and four-phase areas), and Ag3GeS3I and Ag3GeS3Br glasses are membranes with purely ionic Ag+ conductivity. Linear parts of the temperature dependences of the cell EMFs are used to calculate the standard integral thermodynamic functions of saturated solid solutions based on AgIn2Te3I and AgIn2Te3Br, and the relative partial thermodynamic functions of silver in the stoichiometric quaternary compounds.

  19. Considerable pancreatic tumor motion during breath-holding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lens, Eelco; van der Horst, Astrid; Versteijne, Eva; Bel, Arjan; van Tienhoven, Geertjan

    2016-11-01

    Breath-holding (BH) is often used to reduce abdominal organ motion during radiotherapy. However, for inhale BH, abdominal tumor motion during BH has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to quantify tumor motion during inhale BH and tumor position variations between consecutive inhale BHs in pancreatic cancer patients. Twelve patients with intratumoral fiducials were included and asked to perform three consecutive 30-second inhale BHs on each of three measurement days. During BH, lateral fluoroscopic movies were obtained and a two-dimensional (2D) image correlation algorithm was used to track the fiducials and the diaphragm, yielding the tumor and diaphragm motion during each BH. The tumor position variation between consecutive BHs was obtained from the difference in initial tumor position between consecutive BHs on a single measurement day. We observed tumor motion during BH with a mean absolute maximum displacement over all BHs of 4.2 mm (range 1.0-11.0 mm) in inferior-superior (IS) direction and 2.7 mm (range 0.5-8.0 mm) in anterior-posterior (AP) direction. We found only a moderate correlation between tumor and diaphragm motion in the IS direction (Pearson's correlation coefficient |r|>0.6 in 45 of 76 BHs). The mean tumor position variation between consecutive BHs was 0.2 [standard deviation (SD) 1.7] mm in the inferior direction and 0.5 (SD 0.8) mm in the anterior direction. We observed substantial pancreatic tumor motion during BH as well as considerable position variation between consecutive BHs on a single day. We recommend further quantifying these uncertainties before introducing breath-hold during radiation treatment of pancreatic cancer patients. Also, the diaphragm cannot be used as a surrogate for pancreatic tumor motion.

  20. Dynamical and passive characteristics of the Ag/TlGaSeS/Ag RF resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qasrawi, A.F. [Group of Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Atilim University, 06836 Ankara (Turkey); Department of Physics, Arab-American University, Jenin, West Bank, Palestine; Elayyat, Shadia M.S. (Department of Physics, Arab-American University, Jenin, West Bank, Palestine); Gasanly, N.M. [Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2012-06-15

    Ag contacts on the surface of the TlGaSeS single crystals are observed to exhibit Schottky characteristics. The ideality factor of the Ag/ TlGaSeS/Ag device decreased from 5.2 to 1.3 by the reduction of series resistance effect on the I-V characteristics. Cheung's model analysis revealed a series resistance and barrier height of 40.6 K{omega} and 0.32 V, respectively. The device was run on the passive mode by injection with an alternating ac signal of variable frequency in the frequency range of 0-120 MHz and recoding the device capacitance. Several resonance-antiresonance positions in the range of 27-350 KHz were observed. The tangent loss factor of the passive device was observed to decrease with increasing frequency. It exhibited a very low loss value of the order of 10{sup -5} at 120 MHz. Such property is a characteristic of high performance tunable device being suitable as processor clock controller. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Phase-Type Models of Channel-Holding Times in Cellular Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Kaare; Nielsen, Bo Friis; Iversen, Villy Bæk

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we derive the distribution of the channel-holding time when both cell-residence and call-holding times are phase-type distributed. Furthermore, the distribution of the number of handovers, the conditional channel-holding time distributions, and the channel-holding time when cell re...... residence times are correlated are derived. All distributions are of phase type, making them very general and flexible. The channel-holding times are of importance in performance evaluation and simulation of cellular mobile communication systems....

  2. Anti-corrosive and anti-microbial properties of nanocrystalline Ni-Ag coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghupathy, Y.; Natarajan, K.A.; Srivastava, Chandan, E-mail: csrivastava@materials.iisc.ernet.in

    2016-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Electrodeposition yielded phase-segregated, nanocrystalline Ni-Ag coatings. • Ni-Ag alloys exhibited smaller Ni crystals compared to pure Ni. • Ultra fine Ni grains of size 12–14 nm favoured Ni-Ag solid solution. • Nanocrystalline Ag resisted bio-fouling by Sulphate Reducing bacteria. • Ni-Ag outperformed pure Ni in corrosion and bio-corrosion tests. - Abstract: Anti-corrosive and anti-bacterial properties of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni-Ag coatings are illustrated. Pure Ni, Ni-7 at.% Ag, & Ni-14 at.% Ag coatings were electrodeposited on Cu substrate. Coating consisted of Ni-rich and Ag-rich solid solution phases. With increase in the Ag content, the corrosion resistance of the Ni-Ag coating initially increased and then decreased. The initial increase was due to the Ni-Ag solid solution. The subsequent decrease was due to the increased galvanic coupling between the Ag-rich and Ni-rich phases. For all Ag contents, the corrosion resistance of the Ni-Ag coating was higher than the pure Ni coating. Exposure to Sulphate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) revealed that the extent of bio-fouling decreased with increase in the Ag content. After 2 month exposure to SRB, the Ni-Ag coatings demonstrated less loss in corrosion resistance (58% for Ni-7 at.% Ag and 20% for Ni-14 at.% Ag) when compared pure Ni coating (115%).

  3. Anti-corrosive and anti-microbial properties of nanocrystalline Ni-Ag coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghupathy, Y.; Natarajan, K.A.; Srivastava, Chandan

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Electrodeposition yielded phase-segregated, nanocrystalline Ni-Ag coatings. • Ni-Ag alloys exhibited smaller Ni crystals compared to pure Ni. • Ultra fine Ni grains of size 12–14 nm favoured Ni-Ag solid solution. • Nanocrystalline Ag resisted bio-fouling by Sulphate Reducing bacteria. • Ni-Ag outperformed pure Ni in corrosion and bio-corrosion tests. - Abstract: Anti-corrosive and anti-bacterial properties of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni-Ag coatings are illustrated. Pure Ni, Ni-7 at.% Ag, & Ni-14 at.% Ag coatings were electrodeposited on Cu substrate. Coating consisted of Ni-rich and Ag-rich solid solution phases. With increase in the Ag content, the corrosion resistance of the Ni-Ag coating initially increased and then decreased. The initial increase was due to the Ni-Ag solid solution. The subsequent decrease was due to the increased galvanic coupling between the Ag-rich and Ni-rich phases. For all Ag contents, the corrosion resistance of the Ni-Ag coating was higher than the pure Ni coating. Exposure to Sulphate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) revealed that the extent of bio-fouling decreased with increase in the Ag content. After 2 month exposure to SRB, the Ni-Ag coatings demonstrated less loss in corrosion resistance (58% for Ni-7 at.% Ag and 20% for Ni-14 at.% Ag) when compared pure Ni coating (115%).

  4. The Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP): Protocols and Pilot Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, C.; Jones, J. W.; Hatfield, J. L.; Ruane, A. C.; Boote, K. J.; Thorburn, P.; Antle, J. M.; Nelson, G. C.; Porter, C.; Janssen, S.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) is a major international effort linking the climate, crop, and economic modeling communities with cutting-edge information technology to produce improved crop and economic models and the next generation of climate impact projections for the agricultural sector. The goals of AgMIP are to improve substantially the characterization of world food security due to climate change and to enhance adaptation capacity in both developing and developed countries. Analyses of the agricultural impacts of climate variability and change require a transdisciplinary effort to consistently link state-of-the-art climate scenarios to crop and economic models. Crop model outputs are aggregated as inputs to regional and global economic models to determine regional vulnerabilities, changes in comparative advantage, price effects, and potential adaptation strategies in the agricultural sector. Climate, Crop Modeling, Economics, and Information Technology Team Protocols are presented to guide coordinated climate, crop modeling, economics, and information technology research activities around the world, along with AgMIP Cross-Cutting Themes that address uncertainty, aggregation and scaling, and the development of Representative Agricultural Pathways (RAPs) to enable testing of climate change adaptations in the context of other regional and global trends. The organization of research activities by geographic region and specific crops is described, along with project milestones. Pilot results demonstrate AgMIP's role in assessing climate impacts with explicit representation of uncertainties in climate scenarios and simulations using crop and economic models. An intercomparison of wheat model simulations near Obregón, Mexico reveals inter-model differences in yield sensitivity to [CO2] with model uncertainty holding approximately steady as concentrations rise, while uncertainty related to choice of crop model increases with

  5. Determination of Chloride Content in Cementitious Materials : From Fundamental Aspects to Application of Ag/AgCl Chloride Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pargar, F.; Koleva, D.A.; van Breugel, K.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the advantages and drawbacks of available test methods for the determination of chloride content in cementitious materials in general, and the application of Ag/AgCl chloride sensors in particular. The main factors that affect the reliability of a chloride sensor are presented.

  6. Evaluation of Ag/AgCI sensors for in-situ monitoring of freee chloride concentration in reinforced concrete structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pargar, F.; Koleva, D.A.; Copuroglu, O.; Koenders, E.A.B.; van Breugel, K.

    2014-01-01

    The level of free chloride concentration in reinforced concrete structures essentially determines the onset of steel corrosion initiation and further propagation. One of the well-known methods for monitoring free chloride concentration is using silver/silver chloride electrodes (Ag/AgCl). These

  7. Durable antibacterial Ag/polyacrylonitrile (Ag/PAN) hybrid nanofibers prepared by atmospheric plasma treatment and electrospinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durable antibacterial Ag/polyacrylonitrile (Ag/PAN) hybrid nanofibers were prepared by atmospheric plasma treatment and electrospinning. Atmospheric helium plasma treatment was first used to reduce the silver nitrate precursor in pre-electrospinning solutions into metallic silver nanoparticles, foll...

  8. Enhanced adsorption and catalytic oxidation of ciprofloxacin by an Ag/AgCl@N-doped activated carbon composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekouei, Farzin; Nekouei, Shahram; Noorizadeh, Hossein

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we synthesized a new nanocomposite catalyst comprising Ag/AgCl@N-doped activated carbon (Ag/AgCl@N-AC) and demonstrated its high efficiency during the enhanced adsorptive removal and catalytic oxidation of ciprofloxacin (CIP) with peroxymonosulfate (PMS) and persulfate (PS) as oxidants in aqueous solution. The efficiency of the new nanocomposite was compared with those of both pristine AC and N-AC under the same conditions. Furthermore, the effects of oxidants on the catalytic oxidation of CIP were assessed using PMS and PS. We found that the degradation efficiency of CIP with Ag/AgCl@N-AC was higher when using PS as an oxidant, whereas the use of PMS obtained relatively better results with both AC and N-AC. The adsorption processes for AC, N-AC, and Ag/AgCl@N-AC were dominated not only by electrostatic attraction but also by π-π interactions, which had higher impacts on the adsorption processes than the specific surface area.

  9. Screening different Brassica spp. germplasm for resistance to Rhizoctonia solani AG-2-1 and AG-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poor stands of canola seedlings in Pacific Northwest (PNW) have been associated with Rhizoctonia solani AG-2-1 and AG-8. A total of eighty five genotypes of Brassica napus, B. rapa, B. carinata, B. juncea and Sinapsis alba were evaluated in the growth chamber for their resistance to both R. solani A...

  10. Structure and properties of rapidly quenched ionic conductors belonging to AgI-Ag2MoO4 family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisniewski, Z; Wisniewski, R; Wilczynska, T; Zasada, D; Dziduszko, R

    2009-01-01

    AgI-AgMoO 4 materials were obtained by rapid quenching method. Their structures were investigated by X-ray spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Additionally the compressibility of the amorphous samples was investigated. A relation between electrical and mechanical properties was suggested. It was also found that short range order of amorphous samples changes with composition.

  11. Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Physical Properties of New Layered Oxychalcogenide La2O2Bi3AgS6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijikata, Yudai; Abe, Tomohiro; Moriyoshi, Chikako; Kuroiwa, Yoshihiro; Goto, Yosuke; Miura, Akira; Tadanaga, Kiyoharu; Wang, Yongming; Miura, Osuke; Mizuguchi, Yoshikazu

    2017-12-01

    We have synthesized a new layered oxychalcogenide La2O2Bi3AgS6. From synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Rietveld refinement, the crystal structure of La2O2Bi3AgS6 was refined using a model of the P4/nmm space group with a = 4.0644(1) Å and c = 19.412(1) Å, which is similar to the related compound LaOBiPbS3, while the interlayer bonds (M2-S1 bonds) are apparently shorter in La2O2Bi3AgS6. The tunneling electron microscopy (TEM) image confirmed the lattice constant derived from Rietveld refinement (c ˜ 20 Å). The electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient suggested that the electronic states of La2O2Bi3AgS6 are more metallic than those of LaOBiS2 and LaOBiPbS3. The insertion of a rock-salt-type chalcogenide into the van der Waals gap of BiS2-based layered compounds, such as LaOBiS2, will be a useful strategy for designing new layered functional materials in the layered chalcogenide family.

  12. Precipitation of Ag{sub 2}Te in the thermoelectric material AgSbTe{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugar, Joshua D. [Materials Physics Department, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)], E-mail: jdsugar@sandia.gov; Medlin, Douglas L. [Materials Physics Department, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2009-06-10

    The microstructure of AgSbTe{sub 2}, prepared by solidification, is investigated using electron microscopy. During solidification and thermal treatment, the material separates into a two-phase mixture of a rocksalt phase, which is Ag{sub 22}Sb{sub 28}Te{sub 50}, and silver telluride, Ag{sub 2}Te. Ag{sub 2}Te formation results either from eutectic solidification (large lamellar structures), or by solid-state precipitation (fine-scale particles). The crystal structure of the AgSbTe{sub 2} phase determined by electron diffraction is consistent with a rocksalt structure that has a disordered cation sublattice. A preferred crystallographic orientation relationship at the interface between the matrix and the low-temperature monoclinic Ag{sub 2}Te phase is defined and discussed. This orientation relationship is observed for both second-phase morphologies. In both cases, the orientation relationship originates from a topotactic (cube-on-cube) alignment of the Te sublattices in the initially cubic Ag{sub 2}Te and the matrix at elevated temperature. This Te sublattice alignment is retained as the Ag{sub 2}Te undergoes a cubic-to-monoclinic transformation during cooling. This orientation relationship is observed for both second-phase morphologies.

  13. One-step synthesis of Ag2S/Ag@MoS2 nanocomposites for SERS and photocatalytic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Zhou, Yifeng; Nie, Wangyan; Chen, Pengpeng

    2018-01-01

    This paper reported a one-step synthesis of Ag2S/Ag@MoS2 nanocomposites and its applications in the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection and photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants. The nanocomposites were well characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), cyclic voltammograms (CV), the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), and Fourier transforms infrared spectra (FTIR). The AgNPs were uniformly dispersed on the MoS2 nanosheets and the particle size of the AgNPs was about 10-30 nm. These Ag2S/Ag@MoS2 nanocomposites offered sensitive SERS signals for the detection of R6G with the limit of detections as low as 10-10 M. The photocatalytic activity of the composite catalyst was studied by the degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye under light illumination. The apparent rate constant of MB degradation for the obtained catalyst could reach 6.6 × 10-2 min-1, indicating that the novel Ag2S/Ag@MoS2 nanocomposites can be explored for organic pollutant's detection and degradation.

  14. 78 FR 13931 - Designation of Iyad ag Ghali, Also Known as Iyad ag Ghaly, as a Specially Designated Global...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... determined to be subject to the Order who might have a constitutional presence in the United States would... subject to this determination who might have a constitutional presence in the United States, because to do... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8211] Designation of Iyad ag Ghali, Also Known as Iyad ag Ghaly...

  15. Mg-controlled formation of Mg–Ag co-clusters in initial aged Al–Cu–Mg–Ag alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Song; Liu, Zhiyi; Zhou, Xuanwei; Xia, Peng; Zeng, Sumin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The strongest age-hardening response was found in 0.81Mg alloy. • Quantitative APT study showed strong dependence of Mg–Ag co-clustering on Mg content. • A critical Mg content related to the greatest Mg–Ag co-clustering was revealed. • The evolution from Mg–Ag co-clusters to Ω phase was accelerated in 1.18Mg alloy. - Abstract: The effect of Mg variations on the number density, solute concentrations and sizes of Mg–Ag co-clusters at the early aging stage, as well as the age-hardening response of different Al–Cu–Mg–Ag alloys, was well investigated by a combination of Vickers hardness measurement, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atom probe tomography (APT). The strongest age-hardening response at 165 °C was found in 0.81Mg alloy, accompanied by the highest nucleation rate of Mg–Ag co-clusters after aging for 0.5 h. However, the least response was revealed in 0.39Mg alloy. By quantitative APT analysis, the observed trend in the total number density of Mg–Ag co-clusters suggested the following order: 0.81Mg alloy > 0.39Mg alloy > 1.18Mg alloy. This parabolic change in the total number density of Mg–Ag co-clusters with increasing Mg highlighted the existence of a critical Mg content, which contributed to the greatest nucleation kinetics of Mg–Ag co-clusters. As Mg increased from 0.39 to 0.81, the formation of small Mg–Ag co-clusters was significantly promoted, whereas the number density of large Mg–Ag co-clusters almost remained constant. Moreover, the remarkable enrichment of Cu within Mg–Ag co-clusters indicated that the accelerated evolution from Mg–Ag co-clusters to Ω phase was responsible for the lowest number density of Mg–Ag co-clusters in 1.18Mg alloy after aging at 165 °C for 0.5 h

  16. Microwave-assisted solvothermal synthesis of flower-like Ag/AgBr/BiOBr microspheres and their high efficient photocatalytic degradation for p-nitrophenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Tingting; Luo, Shenglian; Yang, Lixia

    2013-01-01

    Flower-like Ag/AgBr/BiOBr microspheres were successfully fabricated by the approach of microwave-assisted solvothermal and in situ photo-assisted reduction. A reactive ionic liquid 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C 16 mim]Br) was employed as Br source in the presence of surfactant polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The photocatalytic activity of Ag/AgBr/BiOBr towards the decomposition of p-nitrophenol under visible light irradiation was evaluated. The results indicated that Ag/AgBr/BiOBr showed enhanced photocatalytic activity towards p-nitrophenol, comparing with P25, BiOBr and Ag/AgBr. More than 96% of p-nitrophenol was decomposed in 3.5 h under visible-light irradation. The excellent photocatalytic activity of flower-like Ag/AgBr/BiOBr microspheres can be attributed to the large specific surface area, strong visible-light absorption, suitable energy band structure and surface plasmon resonance effect of Ag nanoparticles. The possible photocatalytic mechanism was proposed based on the active species test and band gap structure analysis. - Graphical abstract: The photocatalytic reaction mechanisms of the as-prepared Ag/AgBr/BiOBr. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Successful synthesis of flower-like Ag/AgBr/BiOBr microspheres. • The Ag/AgBr/BiOBr showed much higher photocatalytic activity towards p-nitrophenol as compared to BiOBr and Ag/AgBr. • The reasons for the excellent photocatalytic activity are the large specific surface area, strong visible-light absorption and surface plasmon resonance effect of Ag nanoparticles. • The O 2 · − , Br 0 and photogenerated h + play key roles in the photocatalytic degradation process

  17. Differential Phytotoxic Impact of Plant Mediated Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs and Silver Nitrate (AgNO3 on Brassica sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchan Vishwakarma

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Continuous formation and utilization of nanoparticles (NPs have resulted into significant discharge of nanosized particles into the environment. NPs find applications in numerous products and agriculture sector, and gaining importance in recent years. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs were biosynthesized from silver nitrate (AgNO3 by green synthesis approach using Aloe vera extract. Mustard (Brassica sp. seedlings were grown hydroponically and toxicity of both AgNP and AgNO3 (as ionic Ag+ was assessed at various concentrations (1 and 3 mM by analyzing shoot and root length, fresh mass, protein content, photosynthetic pigments and performance, cell viability, oxidative damage, DNA degradation and enzyme activities. The results revealed that both AgNPs and AgNO3 declined growth of Brassica seedlings due to enhanced accumulation of AgNPs and AgNO3 that subsequently caused severe inhibition in photosynthesis. Further, the results showed that both AgNPs and AgNO3 induced oxidative stress as indicated by histochemical staining of superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide that was manifested in terms of DNA degradation and cell death. Activities of antioxidants, i.e., ascorbate peroxidase (APX and catalase (CAT were inhibited by AgNPs and AgNO3. Interestingly, damaging impact of AgNPs was lesser than AgNO3 on Brassica seedlings which was due to lesser accumulation of AgNPs and better activities of APX and CAT, which resulted in lesser oxidative stress, DNA degradation and cell death. The results of the present study showed differential impact of AgNPs and AgNO3 on Brassica seedlings, their mode of action, and reasons for their differential impact. The results of the present study could be implied in toxicological research for designing strategies to reduce adverse impact of AgNPs and AgNO3 on crop plants.

  18. Differential Phytotoxic Impact of Plant Mediated Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs) and Silver Nitrate (AgNO3) on Brassica sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwakarma, Kanchan; Shweta; Upadhyay, Neha; Singh, Jaspreet; Liu, Shiliang; Singh, Vijay P; Prasad, Sheo M; Chauhan, Devendra K; Tripathi, Durgesh K; Sharma, Shivesh

    2017-01-01

    Continuous formation and utilization of nanoparticles (NPs) have resulted into significant discharge of nanosized particles into the environment. NPs find applications in numerous products and agriculture sector, and gaining importance in recent years. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were biosynthesized from silver nitrate (AgNO 3 ) by green synthesis approach using Aloe vera extract. Mustard ( Brassica sp.) seedlings were grown hydroponically and toxicity of both AgNP and AgNO 3 (as ionic Ag + ) was assessed at various concentrations (1 and 3 mM) by analyzing shoot and root length, fresh mass, protein content, photosynthetic pigments and performance, cell viability, oxidative damage, DNA degradation and enzyme activities. The results revealed that both AgNPs and AgNO 3 declined growth of Brassica seedlings due to enhanced accumulation of AgNPs and AgNO 3 that subsequently caused severe inhibition in photosynthesis. Further, the results showed that both AgNPs and AgNO 3 induced oxidative stress as indicated by histochemical staining of superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide that was manifested in terms of DNA degradation and cell death. Activities of antioxidants, i.e., ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT) were inhibited by AgNPs and AgNO 3. Interestingly, damaging impact of AgNPs was lesser than AgNO 3 on Brassica seedlings which was due to lesser accumulation of AgNPs and better activities of APX and CAT, which resulted in lesser oxidative stress, DNA degradation and cell death. The results of the present study showed differential impact of AgNPs and AgNO 3 on Brassica seedlings, their mode of action, and reasons for their differential impact. The results of the present study could be implied in toxicological research for designing strategies to reduce adverse impact of AgNPs and AgNO 3 on crop plants.

  19. SU-E-J-62: Breath Hold for Left-Sided Breast Cancer: Visually Monitored Deep Inspiration Breath Hold Amplitude Evaluated Using Real-Time Position Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conroy, L; Quirk, S; Smith, WL; Yeung, R; Phan, T; Hudson, A

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We used Real-Time Position Management (RPM) to evaluate breath hold amplitude and variability when gating with a visually monitored deep inspiration breath hold technique (VM-DIBH) with retrospective cine image chest wall position verification. Methods: Ten patients with left-sided breast cancer were treated using VM-DIBH. Respiratory motion was passively collected once weekly using RPM with the marker block positioned at the xiphoid process. Cine images on the tangent medial field were acquired on fractions with RPM monitoring for retrospective verification of chest wall position during breath hold. The amplitude and duration of all breath holds on which treatment beams were delivered were extracted from the RPM traces. Breath hold position coverage was evaluated for symmetric RPM gating windows from ± 1 to 5 mm centered on the average breath hold amplitude of the first measured fraction as a baseline. Results: The average (range) breath hold amplitude and duration was 18 mm (3–36 mm) and 19 s (7–34 s). The average (range) of amplitude standard deviation per patient over all breath holds was 2.7 mm (1.2–5.7 mm). With the largest allowable RPM gating window (± 5 mm), 4 of 10 VM-DIBH patients would have had ≥ 10% of their breath hold positions excluded by RPM. Cine verification of the chest wall position during the medial tangent field showed that the chest wall was greater than 5 mm from the baseline in only 1 out of 4 excluded patients. Cine images verify the chest wall/breast position only, whether this variation is acceptable in terms of heart sparing is a subject of future investigation. Conclusion: VM-DIBH allows for greater breath hold amplitude variability than using a 5 mm gating window with RPM, while maintaining chest wall positioning accuracy within 5 mm for the majority of patients

  20. AgSbSe2 and AgSb(S,Se)2 thin films for photovoltaic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garza, J.G.; Shaji, S.; Rodriguez, A.C.; Das Roy, T.K.; Krishnan, B.

    2011-01-01

    Silver antimony selenide (AgSbSe 2 ) thin films were prepared by heating sequentially deposited multilayers of antimony sulphide (Sb 2 S 3 ), silver selenide (Ag 2 Se), selenium (Se) and silver (Ag). Sb 2 S 3 thin film was prepared from a chemical bath containing SbCl 3 and Na 2 S 2 O 3 , Ag 2 Se from a solution containing AgNO 3 and Na 2 SeSO 3 and Se thin films from an acidified solution of Na 2 SeSO 3 , at room temperature on glass substrates. Ag thin film was deposited by thermal evaporation. The annealing temperature was 350 deg. C in vacuum (10 -3 Torr) for 1 h. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the thin films formed were polycrystalline AgSbSe 2 or AgSb(S,Se) 2 depending on selenium content in the precursor films. Morphology and elemental analysis of these films were done using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Optical band gap was evaluated from the UV-visible absorption spectra of these films. Electrical characterizations were done using Hall effect and photocurrent measurements. A photovoltaic structure: glass/ITO/CdS/AgSbSe 2 /Al was formed, in which CdS was deposited by chemical bath deposition. J-V characteristics of this structure showed V oc = 435 mV and J sc = 0.08 mA/cm 2 under illumination using a tungsten halogen lamp. Preparation of a photovoltaic structure using AgSbSe 2 as an absorber material by a non-toxic selenization process is achieved.

  1. Performance evaluation of five types of Ag/AgCl bio-electrodes for cerebral electrical impedance tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shiwei; Dai, Meng; Xu, Canhua; Chen, Chaoshuang; Tang, Mengxing; Shi, Xuetao; Dong, Xiuzhen

    2011-07-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is an emerging medical imaging technique, which has already been investigated in several clinical applications due to its low-cost, non-invasiveness, non-radioactivity, high temporal resolution, and great sensitivity to impedance changes. One potential use of EIT is to perform long-term continuous imaging monitoring of brain for patients who suffer from severe cerebral diseases. However, this application requires a demanding performance of electrodes because of the characteristics of cerebral EIT measurements. Although Ag/AgCl bio-electrodes are widely used for clinical practices or EIT research at the moment, influences of different types of Ag/AgCl electrodes on cerebral EIT measurements have not been investigated. In this study, five common types of Ag/AgCl bio-electrodes were put into comparison by measuring the forearm and the brain of 10 healthy adult volunteers and evaluating those data in frequency or time domain in terms of contact impedance, uniformity, signal-to-noise ratio, and stability. Results show that Ag/AgCl powder electrode has an overall best performance with as low contact impedance as commercial ECG electrodes (p > 0.05), high SNR (60.3 ± 4.5 dB), better uniformity (coefficient of correlation 0.95 ± 0.03), and greater stability (slope 0.68 ± 0.03). After further improvement in design and instrumentation, Ag/AgCl powder electrode is likely to become the optimal choice for cerebral EIT measurements and provide feasible technical support for further research or application in cerebral EIT.

  2. Immune responses to HBsAg conjugated to protein D of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiudong Su

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B vaccine that contains an aluminum hydroxide adjuvant induces apoptotic death of Hepa 1-6 cells. Difficult-to-degrade chemical additives in vaccines effectively enhance vaccine immunogenicity, but also affect the host tissue. Identification of bio-molecules that are readily degraded and compatible in vivo as an adjuvant is important for vaccine research. The hapten-carrier effect suggests that stimulation of helper T (Th cells by carrier adjuvants is feasible. Protein D (PD of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae covalently conjugated to some polysaccharide vaccines has been confirmed to convert T-cell independent (TI antigens into T-cell dependent (TD antigens, and elicit strong T-cell responses ultimately. Herein, we would substitube PD for aluminum hydroxide adjuvant in Hepatitis B vaccine.Truncated PD (amino acids 20-364 was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by (NH42SO4 precipitation and DEAE chromatography. After evaluation of antigenicity by western blotting, PD was covalently conjugated to yeast-derived recombinant HBsAg by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde. Intramuscular immunization with the conjugate induced higher level of HBsAg-specific antibody than did HBsAg alone (p < 0.05, and was comparable to commercial Hepatitis B vaccine. During the surveillance period (days 35-105, anti-HBs titers were hold high. Moreover, the conjugated vaccine enhanced Th1 immune responses, while Th2 responses were also activated and induced an antibody response, as determined by IFN-γ ELISPOT and IgG1/IgG2a ratio assays.Recombinant truncated PD covalently conjugated to HBsAg antigen enhanced the immunogenicity of the antigen in mice simultaneously by humoral and cellular immune response, which would facilitate therapeutic hepatitis B vaccines.

  3. A Simple Method for the Preparation of TiO2 /Ag-AgCl@Polypyrrole Composite and Its Enhanced Visible-Light Photocatalytic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Tongjie; Shi, Lei; Wang, Hao; Wang, Fangxiao; Wu, Jie; Zhang, Xiao; Sun, Jianmin; Cui, Tieyu

    2016-01-01

    A novel and facile method was developed to prepare a visible-light driven TiO2 /Ag-AgCl@polypyrrole (PPy) photocatalyst with Ag-AgCl nanoparticles supported on TiO2 nanofibers and covered by a thin PPy shell. During the synthesis, the PPy shell and Ag-AgCl nanoparticles were prepared simultaneously onto TiO2 nanofibers, which simplified the preparation procedure. In addition, because Ag-AgCl aggregates were fabricated via partly etching the Ag nanoparticles, their size was well controlled at the nanoscale, which was beneficial for improvement of the contact surface area. Compared with reference photocatalysts, the TiO2 /Ag-AgCl@PPy composite exhibited an enhanced photodegradation activity towards rhodamine B under visible-light irradiation. The superior photocatalytic property originated from synergistic effects between TiO2 nanofibers, Ag-AgCl nanoparticles and the PPy shell. Furthermore, the TiO2 /Ag-AgCl@PPy composite could be easily separated and recycled without obvious reduction in activity. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. A study of phase transfer processes of Ag nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, De-Gang; Chen, Shen-Hao; Zhao, Shi-Yong; Hou, Xian-Ming; Ma, Hou-Yi; Yang, Xue-Geng

    2002-11-01

    With the protection of sodium oleate, Ag nanoparticles are produced through the reduction of AgNO 3 with NaBH 4 in an aqueous solution. The possible mechanism of phase transfer of the Ag nanoparticles was discussed. At a suitable concentration of sodium oleate, after adding NaH 2PO 4, the oleic acid molecule can change its position on the surface of Ag nanoparticles under the effects of water and toluene and become amphipathic. So most of the nanoparticles form a film between water/toluene. For the case of a higher concentration of sodium oleate, excess sodium oleate will form a closed monolayer film on the surface of the Ag nanoparticles. After adding NaH 2PO 4, the oleic acid molecule cannot move on the Ag nanoparticles surface, thus the colloid particles are hydrophobic but not amphipathic. So most of the particles transfer to the organic phase. UV-Vis spectra, TEM and conventional metallographic microscopy are used to characterize the Ag nanoparticles and nanoparticles films.

  5. [Clinical evaluation of a novel HBsAg quantitative assay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Kazumi; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Naganuma, Hatsue; Hiramatsu, Kumiko; Iida, Takayasu; Takasaka, Yoshimitsu; Mizokami, Masashi

    2007-07-01

    The clinical implication of the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) concentrations in HBV-infected individuals remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel fully automated Chemiluminescence Enzyme Immunoassay (Sysmex HBsAg quantitative assay) by comparative measurements of the reference serum samples versus two independent commercial assays (Lumipulse f or Architect HBsAg QT). Furthermore, clinical usefulness was assessed for monitoring of the serum HBsAg levels during antiviral therapy. A dilution test using 5 reference-serum samples showed linear correlation curve in range from 0.03 to 2,360 IU/ml. The HBsAg was measured in total of 400 serum samples and 99.8% had consistent results between Sysmex and Lumipulse f. Additionally, a positive linear correlation was observed between Sysmex and Architect. To compare the Architect and Sysmex, both methods were applied to quantify the HBsAg in serum samples with different HBV genotypes/subgenotypes, as well as in serum contained HBV vaccine escape mutants (126S, 145R). Correlation between the methods was observed in results for escape mutants and common genotypes (A, B, C) in Japan. Observed during lamivudine therapy, an increase in HBsAg and HBV DNA concentrations preceded the aminotransferase (ALT) elevation associated with drug-resistant HBV variant emergence (breakthrough hepatitis). In conclusion, reliability of the Sysmex HBsAg quantitative assay was confirmed for all HBV genetic variants common in Japan. Monitoring of serum HBsAg concentrations in addition to HBV DNA quantification, is helpful in evaluation of the response to lamivudine treatment and diagnosis of the breakthrough hepatitis.

  6. Direct writing and electro-mechanical characterization of Ag micro-patterns on polymer substrates for flexible electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Arango, Maria A.; Cokeley, Anna M.; Beard, Jared J.; Sierros, Konstantinos A., E-mail: kostas.sierros@mail.wvu.edu

    2015-12-01

    on compliant substrates may hold the key in developing the next generation of truly flexible devices. - Highlights: • Ag nanoparticle synthesis method with high yield and controlled particle size • Low temperature direct writing of conductive Ag patterns on large-area PEN • Ag printed patterns on flex exhibit reliable cyclic mechanical behavior.

  7. Numerical modelling of CO2 migration in saline reservoirs using geoelectric and seismic techniques - first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagrey, S. A. Al; Strahser, M. H. P.; Rabbel, W.

    2009-04-01

    The research project "CO2 MoPa" (modelling and parameterisation of CO2 storage in deep saline formations for dimensions and risk analysis) has been initiated in 2008 by partners from different disciplines (e.g. geology, hydrogeology, geochemistry, geophysics, geomechanics, hydraulic engineering and law). It deals with the parameterisation of virtual subsurface storage sites to characterise rock properties, with high pressure-temperature experiments to determine in situ hydro-petrophysical and mechanical parameters, and with modelling of processes related to CCS in deep saline reservoirs. One objective is the estimation of the sensitivity and the resolution of reflection seismic and geoelectrical time-lapse measurements in order to determine the underground distribution of CO2. Compared with seismic, electric resistivity tomography (ERT) has lower resolution, but its permanent installation and continuous monitoring can make it an economical alternative or complement. Seismic and ERT (in boreholes) applications to quantify changes of intrinsic aquifers properties with time are justified by the velocity and resistivity decrease related to CO2 injection. Our numerical 2D/3D modelling reveals the capability of the techniques to map CO2 plumes and changes as a function of thickness, concentration, receiver/electrode configuration, aspect ratio and modelling and inversion constraint parameters. Depending on these factors, some configurations are favoured due to their better spatial resolution and lower artefacts. Acknowledgements This work has been carried out in the framework of "CO2 MoPa" research project funded by the Federal German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and a consortium of energy companies (E.ON Energy, EnBW AG, RWE Dea AG, Stadtwerke Kiel AG, Vattenfall Europe Technology Research GmbH and Wintershall Holding AG).

  8. The AGS Booster high frequency rf system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, R.T.; Cameron, P.; Eng, W.; Goldman, M.A.; Jablonski, E.; Kasha, D.; Keane, J.; McNerney, A.; Meth, M.; Plotkin, M.; Puglisi, M.; Ratti, A.; Spitz, R.

    1991-01-01

    A high level rf system, including a power amplifier and cavity, has been designed and built for the AGS Booster. It covers a frequency range of 2.4 to 4.2 MHz and will be used to accelerate high intensity protons. Low intensity polarized protons and heavy ions, to the 1.5 GeV level. A total accelerating voltage of up to 90 kV will be provided by two cavities, each having two gaps. The internally cross coupled, pushpull cavities are driven by an adjacently located power amplifier. In order to accommodate beam intensities up to 0.75 x 10 13 protons per bunch, a low plate resistance power tetrode is used. The tube anode is magnetically coupled to one of the cavity's two parallel cells. The amplifier is a grounded cathode configuration driven by a remotely located solid-state amplifier. It has been tested in the laboratory at full gap voltage with satisfactory results. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  9. Commissioning of the new AGS MMPS transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajon, E.; Badea, V. S.; Bannon, M.; Bonati, R.; Marneris, I. M.; Porqueddu, R.; Roser, T.; Sandberg, J.; Savatteri, S.

    2009-01-01

    The Brookhaven AGS Main Magnet Power Supply (MMPS) is a thyristor control supply rated at 5500 Amps. +/-9000 Volts. The peak magnet power is 50 MWatts. The power supply is fed from a motor/generator manufactured by Siemens. During rectify and invert operation the P Bank power supplies are used. During the flattops the F Bank power supplies are used. The P Bank power supplies are fed from two 23 MVA transformers and the F Bank power supplies are fed from two 5.3 MYA transformers. The fundamental frequency of the F Bank power supplies is 1440 Hz, however the fundamental frequency of the P banks was 720 Hz. It was very important to reduce the ripple during rectify to improve polarized proton operations. For this reason and also because the original transformers were 45 years old we replaced these transformers with new ones and we made the fundamental frequency of both P and F banks 1440 Hz. This paper will highlight the major hurdles that were involved during the installation of the new transformers. It will present waveforms while running at different power levels up to 6MW full load. It will show the transition from the F-Bank power supplies to the P-Banks and also show the improvements in ripple made on the P-Bank power supplies

  10. Superconducting Helical Snake Magnet for the AGS

    CERN Document Server

    Willen, Erich; Escallier, John; Ganetis, George; Ghosh, Arup; Gupta, Ramesh C; Harrison, Michael; Jain, Animesh K; Luccio, Alfredo U; MacKay, William W; Marone, Andrew; Muratore, Joseph F; Okamura, Masahiro; Plate, Stephen R; Roser, Thomas; Tsoupas, Nicholaos; Wanderer, Peter

    2005-01-01

    A superconducting helical magnet has been built for polarized proton acceleration in the Brookhaven AGS. This "partial Snake" magnet will help to reduce the loss of polarization of the beam due to machine resonances. It is a 3 T magnet some 1940 mm in magnetic length in which the dipole field rotates with a pitch of 0.2053 degrees/mm for 1154 mm in the center and a pitch of 0.3920 degrees/mm for 393 mm in each end. The coil cross-section is made of two slotted cylinders containing superconductor. In order to minimize residual offsets and deflections of the beam on its orbit through the Snake, a careful balancing of the coil parameters was necessary. In addition to the main helical coils, a solenoid winding was built on the cold bore tube inside the main coils to compensate for the axial component of the field that is experienced by the beam when it is off-axis in this helical magnet. Also, two dipole corrector magnets were placed on the same tube with the solenoid. A low heat leak cryostat was built so that t...

  11. Electrodeposition of thin Pd-Ag films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasler, P.; Allmendinger, T.

    1993-01-01

    Thin Pd-Ag layers were electroplated preferably on brass and on nickel substrates using a two-compartment cell separated by an anion exchange membrane. The weakly alkaline electrolyte contained glycine-glycinate as the major complexing agents. The plating experiments were usually carried out without stirring, at different potentials and temperatures and in the absence or in the presence of sodium benzaldehyde-2,4-disulphonate (BDS). The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. Their compositions were determined analytically by the inductively coupled plasma technique. In addition, the film porosity was tested. Electrodeposition in almost limiting current conditions for both components and without simultaneous hydrogen evolution led to deposits with compositions being in good agreement with the molar metal ratio in the electrolyte (77:23). The best results were achieved between 0 and -50 mV with respect to a reversible hydrogen electrode at 0 C in the presence of BDS. These deposits were bright, had good adherence and exhibited no pores at a film thickness of 1.2 μm. At too negative potentials, the deposits became black and powdery. (orig.)

  12. Commissioning of the new AGS MMPS transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajon,E.; Badea, V. S.; Bannon, M.; Bonati, R.; Marneris, I. M.; Porqueddu, r.; Roser, T.; Sandberg, J.; Savatteri, S.

    2009-05-04

    The Brookhaven AGS Main Magnet Power Supply (MMPS) is a thyristor control supply rated at 5500 Amps. +/-9000 Volts. The peak magnet power is 50 MWatts. The power supply is fed from a motor/generator manufactured by Siemens. During rectify and invert operation the P Bank power supplies are used. During the flattops the F Bank power supplies are used. The P Bank power supplies are fed from two 23 MVA transformers and the F Bank power supplies are fed from two 5.3 MYA transformers. The fundamental frequency of the F Bank power supplies is 1440 Hz, however the fundamental frequency of the P banks was 720 Hz. It was very important to reduce the ripple during rectify to improve polarized proton operations. For this reason and also because the original transformers were 45 years old we replaced these transformers with new ones and we made the fundamental frequency of both P and F banks 1440 Hz. This paper will highlight the major hurdles that were involved during the installation of the new transformers. It will present waveforms while running at different power levels up to 6MW full load. It will show the transition from the F-Bank power supplies to the P-Banks and also show the improvements in ripple made on the P-Bank power supplies.

  13. The AGS Booster high frequency RF system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, R.T.; Cameron, P.; Eng, W.; Goldman, M.A.; Jablonski, E.; Kasha, D.; Keane, J.; McNerney, A.; Meth, M.; Plotkin, M.; Puglisi, M.; Ratti, A.; Spitz, R.

    1991-01-01

    A high level RF system, including a power amplifier and cavity, has been designed and built for the AGS Booster. It covers a frequency range of 2.4 to 4.2 MHz and will be used to accelerate high intensity protons, low intensity polarized protons and heavy ions, to the 1.5 GeV level. A total accelerating voltage of up to 90 kV will be provided by two cavities, each having two gaps. The internally cross-coupled, pushpull cavities are driven by an adjacently located power amplifier. In order to accommodate beam intensities up to 0.75 x 10 13 protons per bunch, a low plate resistance power tetrode is used. The tube anode is magnetically coupled to one of the cavity's two parallel cells. The amplifier is a grounded cathode configuration driven by a remotely located solid-state amplifier. It has been tested in the laboratory at full gap voltage with satisfactory results

  14. Structural and optical properties of Si-doped Ag clusters

    KAUST Repository

    Mokkath, Junais Habeeb

    2014-03-06

    The structural and optical properties of AgN and Ag N-1Si1 (neutral, cationic, and anionic) clusters (N = 5 to 12) are systematically investigated using the density functional based tight binding method and time-dependent density functional theory, providing insight into recent experiments. The gap between the highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals and therefore the optical spectrum vary significantly under Si doping, which enables flexible tuning of the chemical and optical properties of Ag clusters. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  15. Comparison of a multi-breath-hold and a single breath-hold cine imaging approach for 4D guide-point modeling of the left ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilmaier, C.; Schlosser, T.; Nassenstein, K.; Bruder, O.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Guide-point modeling (GPM) enables reliable and time-efficient assessment of left ventricular (LV) volumes when using sequences that allow acquisition of short- and long-axis scans within a single breath-hold. Slice misalignment may influence GPM analysis of standard multi-breath-hold images due to image acquisition in different breath-holds. Thus, our study aimed to assess if such an approach allows for reliable volumetric calculations in the clinical routine. Materials and Methods: 52 patients were examined on a 1.5 T scanner with multi-breath-hold acquisitions on the standard short- and long-axis using an SSFP (TR 3 ms, TE 1.5 ms, FA 60 ) sequence and a TPAT accelerated SSFP (TR 4.6 msec, TE 1.1msec, FA 60 , acceleration factor 3) sequence that covered the LV in 3 short- and 2 long-axis slices within a single breath-hold. For both datasets GPM was used to assess LV volumes. In addition, LV parameters were calculated by applying the summation of slices (SoS) approach (standard of reference) with the short-axis views of the multi-breath-hold dataset. Results: The post-processing times were shorter with both GPM approaches (both, p 0.97). Conclusion: Cine short- and long-axis images that had been acquired in different breath-holds can be reliably evaluated by the GPM approach. (orig.)

  16. Studies of radiation blistering effects on voltage holding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, G.H.

    1975-01-01

    The surfaces of niobium and tungsten wires were blistered by 300-keV helium-ion irradiation and then tested for voltage holding. A cylindrical projection-tube technique was employed so that regions of strong electron emission could be observed and later examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Blistering was found to cause significant increases in pre-breakdown currents. However, these currents tend to saturate over a region corresponding to around 200-400 kV/cm surface field such that the ultimate voltage breakdown limit is not seriously reduced. Emission image observations and SEM photographs suggest that, in many cases, parts of the blistered surface are gradually erected by the strong surface fields, but this may not occur until after several arc breakdowns. SEM photographs also indicate that vapor from the anode may play an important part in the breakdown mechanism. Implications of these results to the design of devices important to fusion development, such as direct collectors and ion sources, are briefly discussed. The importance of future in situ irradiation-voltage experiments is also stressed. (U.S.)

  17. Role of cerebral blood flow in extreme breath holding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bain Anthony R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of cerebral blood flow (CBF on a maximal breath-hold (BH in ultra-elite divers was examined. Divers (n = 7 performed one control BH, and one BH following oral administration of the non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (1.2 mg/kg. Arterial blood gases and CBF were measured prior to (baseline, and at BH termination. Compared to control, indomethacin reduced baseline CBF and cerebral delivery of oxygen (CDO2 by about 26% (p < 0.01. Indomethacin reduced maximal BH time from 339 ± 51 to 319 ± 57 seconds (p = 0.04. In both conditions, the CDO2 remained unchanged from baseline to the termination of apnea. At BH termination, arterial oxygen tension was higher following oral administration of indomethacin compared to control (4.05 ± 0.45 vs. 3.44 ± 0.32 kPa. The absolute increase in CBF from baseline to the termination of apnea was lower with indomethacin (p = 0.01. These findings indicate that the impact of CBF on maximal BH time is likely attributable to its influence on cerebral H+ washout, and therefore central chemoreceptive drive to breathe, rather than to CDO2.

  18. The development of a Space Shuttle Research Animal Holding Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagow, R. B.

    1980-01-01

    The ability to maintain the well being of experiment animals is of primary importance to the successful attainment of life sciences flight experiment goals. To assist scientists in the conduct of life sciences flight experiments, a highly versatile Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF) is being developed for use on Space Shuttle/Spacelab missions. This paper describes the design of the RAHF system, which in addition to providing general housing for various animal species, approximating the environment found in ground based facilities, is designed to minimize disturbances of the specimens by vehicle and mission operations. Life-sustaining capabilities such as metabolic support and environmental control are provided. RAHF is reusable and is a modular concept to accommodate animals of different sizes. The basic RAHF system will accommodate a combination of 24 500-g rats or 144 mice or a mixed number of rats and mice. An alternative design accommodates four squirrel monkeys. The entire RAHF system is housed in a single ESA rack. The animal cages are in drawers which are removable for easy access to the animals. Each cage contains a waste management system, a feeding system and a watering system all of which will operate in zero or one gravity.

  19. Antigen Loss Variants: Catching Hold of Escaping Foes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Maulik; Müller, Rolf; Pogge von Strandmann, Elke

    2017-01-01

    Since mid-1990s, the field of cancer immunotherapy has seen steady growth and selected immunotherapies are now a routine and preferred therapeutic option of certain malignancies. Both active and passive cancer immunotherapies exploit the fact that tumor cells express specific antigens on the cell surface, thereby mounting an immune response specifically against malignant cells. It is well established that cancer cells typically lose surface antigens following natural or therapy-induced selective pressure and these antigen-loss variants are often the population that causes therapy-resistant relapse. CD19 and CD20 antigen loss in acute lymphocytic leukemia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia, respectively, and lineage switching in leukemia associated with mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) gene rearrangements are well-documented evidences in this regard. Although increasing number of novel immunotherapies are being developed, majority of these do not address the control of antigen loss variants. Here, we review the occurrence of antigen loss variants in leukemia and discuss the therapeutic strategies to tackle the same. We also present an approach of dual-targeting immunoligand effectively retargeting NK cells against antigen loss variants in MLL-associated leukemia. Novel immunotherapies simultaneously targeting more than one tumor antigen certainly hold promise to completely eradicate tumor and prevent therapy-resistant relapses.

  20. Biosynthesis of Au, Ag and Au-Ag nanoparticles using edible mushroom extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Daizy

    2009-07-01

    Integration of green chemistry principles to nanotechnology is one of the key issues in nanoscience research. There is growing need to develop environmentally benign metal nanoparticle synthesis process that do not use toxic chemicals in the synthesis protocols to avoid adverse effects in medical applications. Here, it is a report on extracellular synthesis method for the preparation of Au, Ag and Au-Ag nanoparticles in water, using the extract of Volvariella volvacea, a naturally occurring edible mushroom, as reducing and protecting agents. Gold nanoparticles of different sizes (20-150 nm) and shapes from triangular nanoprisms to nearly spherical and hexagonal are obtained by this novel method. The size and shape of gold nanoparticles are also found to depend on temperature of the extract. The silver nanoparticles are spherical with size ˜15 nm. There is increased productivity of nanoparticles as shown by sharp and intense surface plasmon resonance bands for the nanoparticles prepared using an excess of the extract. The Au-Ag nanoparticles prepared by co-reduction has only one plasmon band due to alloying of the constituents. All the synthesized nanoparticles are found to be photoluminescent and are highly crystalline as shown by SAED and XRD patterns with fcc phase oriented along the (1 1 1) plane. FTIR measurements were carried out to identify the possible biomolecules responsible for capping and efficient stabilization of the nanoparticles. It is found that Au nanoparticles are bound to proteins through free amino groups and silver nanoparticles through the carboxylate group of the amino acid residues. The position and intensity of the emission band is found to depend on composition of the nanoparticles indicating the possible use in therapeutic applications.

  1. Preparation of AgBr Nanoparticles in Microemulsions Via Reaction of AgNO3 with CTAB Counterion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husein, Maen M.; Rodil, Eva; Vera, Juan H.

    2007-01-01

    Nanoparticles of AgBr were prepared by precipitating AgBr in the water pools of microemulsions consisting of CTAB, n-butanol, isooctane and water. An aqueous solution of AgNO 3 added to the microemulsion was the source of Ag + ions. The formation of AgBr nanoparticles in microemulsions through direct reaction with the surfactant counterion is a novel approach aimed at decreasing the role of intermicellar nucleation on nanoparticle formation for rapid reactions. The availability of the surfactant counterion in every reverse micelle and the rapidity of the reaction with the counterion trigger nucleation within individual reverse micelles. The effect of the following variables on the particle size and size distribution was investigated: the surfactant and cosurfactant concentrations, moles of AgNO 3 added, and water to surfactant mole ratio, R. High concentration of the surfactant or cosurfactant, or high water content of the microemulsion favored intermicellar nucleation and resulted in the formation of large particles with broad size distribution, while high amounts of AgNO 3 favored nucleation within individual micelles and resulted in small nanoparticles with narrow size distribution. A blue shift in the UV absorption threshold corresponding to a decrease in the particle size was generally observed. Notably, the variation of the absorption peak size with the nanoparticle size was opposite to those reported by us in previous studies using different surfactants

  2. Pt@Ag and Pd@Ag core/shell nanoparticles for catalytic degradation of Congo red in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Mohamed A; Bakr, Eman A; El-Attar, Heba G

    2018-01-05

    Platinum/silver (Pt@Ag) and palladium/silver (Pd@Ag) core/shell NPs have been synthesized in two steps reaction using the citrate method. The progress of nanoparticle formation was followed by the UV/Vis spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscopy revealed spherical shaped core/shell nanoparticles with average particle diameter 32.17nm for Pt@Ag and 8.8nm for Pd@Ag. The core/shell NPs were further characterized by FT-IR and XRD. Reductive degradation of the Congo red dye was chosen to demonstrate the excellent catalytic activity of these core/shell nanostructures. The nanocatalysts act as electron mediators for the transfer of electrons from the reducing agent (NaBH 4 ) to the dye molecules. Effect of reaction parameters such as nanocatalyst dose, dye and NaBH 4 concentrations on the dye degradation was investigated. A comparison between the catalytic activities of both nanocatalysts was made to realize which of them the best in catalytic performance. Pd@Ag was the higher in catalytic activity over Pt@Ag. Such greater activity is originated from the smaller particle size and larger surface area. Pd@Ag nanocatalyst was catalytically stable through four subsequent reaction runs under the utilized reaction conditions. These findings can thus be considered as possible economical alternative for environmental safety against water pollution by dyes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Soldering of Bi-2223/Ag high temperature superconducting tapes with Sn-Pb-Bi-Ag alloy paste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Wei, E-mail: gwei@tsinghua.edu.c [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Key Laboratory for Advanced Manufacturing by Materials Processing Technology, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education of PR China, Beijing 100084 (China); School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); Zou Guisheng; Wu Aiping; Bai Hailin; Ren Jialie [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Key Laboratory for Advanced Manufacturing by Materials Processing Technology, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education of PR China, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-01-15

    Soldered joints of Bi-2223/Ag-sheathed high temperature superconducting multifilamentary tapes were fabricated using 63 wt.%Sn-34 wt.%Pb-1 wt.%Bi-2 wt.%Ag paste. The soldered joints were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Moreover, the electrical properties of joints were evaluated by current-voltage curves, and the tensile strengths of the joints were also tested. The results show that the soldered joint consists of Ag sheath - Ag{sub 3}Sn compound layer - PbSn{sub 2} and Ag{sub 3}Sn solder layer - Ag{sub 3}Sn compound layer - Ag sheath. The joints are obeyed with Ohms Law and the magnitude of the joint resistance, which deceases with the increase of the overlap length, can reach the order of 10{sup -8} OMEGA. The tensile strength of the joints with a brittle fracture mode is a little lower than that of the original tapes.

  4. Development of heat resistant Pb-free joints by TLPS process of Ag and Sn-Bi-Ag alloy powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohnuma I.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available TLPS (Transient Liquid Phase Sintering process is a candidate method of heat-resistant bonding, which makes use of the reaction between low-melting temperature powder of Sn-Bi base alloys and reactive powder of Ag. During heat treatment above the melting temperature of a Sn-Bi base alloy, the molten Sn-Bi reacts rapidly with solid Ag particles, which results in the formation of heat-resistant intermetallic compound (IMC. In this study, the TLPS properties between Sn-17Bi-1Ag (at.% powder with its liquidus temperature of 200°C and pure Ag powder were investigated. During differential scanning calorimetry (DSC measurement, an exothermic reaction and an endothermic reaction occurred, which correspond to the formation of the e-Ag3Sn IMC phase and the melting of the Sn-17Bi-1Ag alloy, respectively. After the overall measurement, the obtained reactant consists of the Ag3Sn-IMC and Bi-rich phases, both of which start melting above 250°C, with a small amount of the residual Sn-Bi eutectic phase. These results suggest that the TLPS process can be applied for Pb-free heatresistant bonding.

  5. Pt@Ag and Pd@Ag core/shell nanoparticles for catalytic degradation of Congo red in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Mohamed A.; Bakr, Eman A.; El-Attar, Heba G.

    2018-01-01

    Platinum/silver (Pt@Ag) and palladium/silver (Pd@Ag) core/shell NPs have been synthesized in two steps reaction using the citrate method. The progress of nanoparticle formation was followed by the UV/Vis spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscopy revealed spherical shaped core/shell nanoparticles with average particle diameter 32.17 nm for Pt@Ag and 8.8 nm for Pd@Ag. The core/shell NPs were further characterized by FT-IR and XRD. Reductive degradation of the Congo red dye was chosen to demonstrate the excellent catalytic activity of these core/shell nanostructures. The nanocatalysts act as electron mediators for the transfer of electrons from the reducing agent (NaBH4) to the dye molecules. Effect of reaction parameters such as nanocatalyst dose, dye and NaBH4 concentrations on the dye degradation was investigated. A comparison between the catalytic activities of both nanocatalysts was made to realize which of them the best in catalytic performance. Pd@Ag was the higher in catalytic activity over Pt@Ag. Such greater activity is originated from the smaller particle size and larger surface area. Pd@Ag nanocatalyst was catalytically stable through four subsequent reaction runs under the utilized reaction conditions. These findings can thus be considered as possible economical alternative for environmental safety against water pollution by dyes.

  6. Ag-loaded mesoporous bioactive glasses against Enterococcus faecalis biofilm in root canal of human teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wei; Wu, Daming; Ma, Tengjiao; Fan, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Ag-loaded mesoporous bioactive glass (Ag-MBG) powders were synthesized and characterized. The ions release of Ag-MBGs in Tris-HCl and the pH stability of simulated body fluids after immersing Ag-MBGs were tested. Root canals were inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis for 4 weeks, and the antibacterial activity of MBGs, Ag-MBGs and calcium hydroxide against E. faecalis biofilm were evaluated. Results showed that Ag-MBGs possessed highly ordered mesoporous structure with silver nanoparticles deposited in the mesopores, which enabled a sustained Ag ions released. The biofilms treated with Ag-MBGs showed a significant structural disruption compared with MBGs. These results indicated that Ag-MBGs possess a potent antibacterial effect against E.faecalis biofilm in root canal, and the antibacterial activity was induced by the release of Ag ions from Ag-MBGs.

  7. Study of Ag and Au Nanoparticles Synthesized by Arc Discharge in Deionized Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Der-Chi Tien

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study of Ag and Au nanofluids synthesized by the arc discharge method (ADM in deionized water. The metallic Ag nanoparticle (Ag0 and ionic Ag (Ag+ have played an important role in the battle against germs which are becoming more drug-resistant every year. Our study indicates that Ag nanoparticle suspension (SNPS fabricated by using ADM without added surfactants exclusively contains the metallic Ag nanoparticle and ionic Ag. Besides that, the ADM in deionized water has also been employed for the fabrication process of Au nanoparticles. The experimental results indicate that the prepared Ag nanoparticles can react with the dissolved H2CO3 in deionized water, leading to the formation of Ag2CO3. Significantly different to Ag, the prepared Au nanoparticles with their surfaces bonded by oxygen are suspended in deionized water by the formation of hydrogen bonded with the neighboring water molecules.

  8. Synthesis of AG@AgCl Core-Shell Structure Nanowires and Its Photocatalytic Oxidation of Arsenic (III) Under Visible Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yanyan; Cui, Yanping; Tian, Zhen; Wu, Yangling; Li, Yilian

    2017-12-01

    Ag@AgCl core-shell nanowires were synthesized by oxidation of Ag nanowires with moderate FeCl 3 , which exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity for As(III) oxidation under visible light. It was proved that the photocatalytic oxidation efficiency was significantly dependent on the mole ratio of Ag:AgCl. The oxidation rate of As(III) over Ag@AgCl core-shell nanowires first increased with the decrease of Ag 0 percentage, up until the optimized synthesis mole ratio of Ag nanowires:FeCl 3 was 2.32:2.20, with 0.023 mg L -1  min -1 As(III) oxidation rate; subsequently, the oxidation rate dropped with the further decrease of Ag 0 percentage. Effects of the pH, ionic strength, and concentration of humic acid on Ag@AgCl photocatalytic ability were also studied. Trapping experiments using radical scavengers confirmed that h + and ·O 2 - acted as the main active species during the visible-light-driven photocatalytic process for As(III) oxidation. The recycling experiments validated that Ag@AgCl core-shell nanowires were a kind of efficient and stable photocatalyst for As(III) oxidation under visible-light irradiation.

  9. Assessing and ensuring patient safety during breath-holding for radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, M J; Green, S; Stevens, A M; Clutton-Brock, T H

    2014-11-01

    While there is recent interest in using repeated deep inspiratory breath-holds, or prolonged single breath-holds, to improve radiotherapy delivery, breath-holding has risks. There are no published guidelines for monitoring patient safety, and there is little clinical awareness of the pronounced blood pressure rise and the potential for gradual asphyxia that occur during breath-holding. We describe the blood pressure rise during deep inspiratory breath-holding with air and test whether it can be abolished simply by pre-oxygenation and hypocapnia. We measured blood pressure, oxygen saturation (SpO2) and heart rate in 12 healthy, untrained subjects performing breath-holds. Even for deep inspiratory breath-holds with air, the blood pressure rose progressively (e.g. mean systolic pressure rose from 133 ± 5 to 175 ± 8 mmHg at breakpoint, p breath-hold duration and prevented the development of asphyxia but failed to abolish the pressure rise. The pressure rise was not a function of breath-hold duration and was not signalled by any fall in heart rate (remaining at resting levels of 72 ± 2 beats per minute). Colleagues should be aware of the progressive blood pressure rise during deep inspiratory breath-holding that so far is not easily prevented. In breast cancer patients scheduled for breath-holds, we recommend routine screening for heart, cardiovascular, renal and cerebrovascular disease, routine monitoring of patient blood pressure and SpO2 during breath-holding and requesting patients to stop if systolic pressure rises consistently >180 mmHg and or SpO2 falls breath-holds, or prolonged single breath-holding techniques, to improve radiotherapy delivery. But there appears to be no clinical awareness of the risks to patients from breath-holding. We demonstrate the progressive blood pressure rise during deep inspiratory breath-holds with air, which we show cannot be prevented by the simple expedient of pre-oxygenation and hypocapnia. We propose patient

  10. Liquidus Projection and Thermodynamic Modeling of a Sn-Ag-Zn System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sinn-wen; Chiu, Wan-ting; Gierlotka, Wojciech; Chang, Jui-shen; Wang, Chao-hong

    2017-12-01

    Sn-Ag-Zn alloys are promising Pb-free solders. In this study, the Sn-Ag-Zn liquidus projection was determined, and the Sn-Ag-Zn thermodynamic modeling was developed. Various Sn-Ag-Zn alloys were prepared. Their as-cast microstructures and primary solidification phases were examined. The invariant reaction temperatures of the ternary Sn-Ag-Zn system were determined. The liquidus projection of the Sn-Ag-Zn ternary system was constructed. It was found that the Sn-Ag-Zn ternary system has eight primary solidification phases: ɛ2-AgZn3, γ-Ag5Zn8, β-AgZn, ζ-Ag4Sn, (Ag), ɛ1-Ag3Sn, β-(Sn) and (Zn) phases. There are eight ternary invariant reactions, and the liquid + (Ag) = β-AgZn + ζ-Ag4Sn reaction is of the highest temperature at 935.5 K. Thermodynamic modeling of the ternary Sn-Ag-Zn system was also carried out in this study based on the thermodynamic models of the three constituent binary systems and the experimentally determined liquidus projection. The liquidus projection and the isothermal sections are calculated. The calculated and experimentally determined liquidus projections are in good agreement.

  11. The Antimicrobial Properties of Silver Nanoparticles in Bacillus subtilis Are Mediated by Released Ag+ Ions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Huang Hsueh

    Full Text Available The superior antimicrobial properties of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs are well-documented, but the exact mechanisms underlying Ag-NP microbial toxicity remain the subject of intense debate. Here, we show that Ag-NP concentrations as low as 10 ppm exert significant toxicity against Bacillus subtilis, a beneficial bacterium ubiquitous in the soil. Growth arrest and chromosomal DNA degradation were observed, and flow cytometric quantification of propidium iodide (PI staining also revealed that Ag-NP concentrations of 25 ppm and above increased membrane permeability. RedoxSensor content analysis and Phag-GFP expression analysis further indicated that reductase activity and cytosolic protein expression decreased in B. subtilis cells treated with 10-50 ppm of Ag NPs. We conducted X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS analyses to directly clarify the valence and fine structure of Ag atoms in B. subtilis cells placed in contact with Ag NPs. The results confirmed the Ag species in Ag NP-treated B. subtilis cells as Ag2O, indicating that Ag-NP toxicity is likely mediated by released Ag+ ions from Ag NPs, which penetrate bacterial cells and are subsequently oxidized intracellularly to Ag2O. These findings provide conclusive evidence for the role of Ag+ ions in Ag-NP microbial toxicity, and suggest that the impact of inappropriately disposed Ag NPs to soil and water ecosystems may warrant further investigation.

  12. AgFNS overexpression increase apigenin and decrease anthocyanins in petioles of transgenic celery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Guo-Fei; Ma, Jing; Zhang, Xin-Yue; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2017-10-01

    Apigenin and anthocyanin biosyntheses share common precursors in plants. Flavone synthase (FNS) converts naringenin into apigenin in higher plants. Celery is an important edible and medical vegetable crop that contains apigenin in its tissues. However, the effect of high AgFNS gene expression on the apigenin and anthocyanins contents of purple celery remains to be elucidated. In this study, the AgFNS gene was cloned from purple celery ('Nanxuan liuhe purple celery') and overexpressed in this purple celery to determine its influence on anthocyanins and apigenin contents. Results showed that the AgFNS gene was 1068bp, which encodes 355 amino acid residues. Evolution analysis showed that the AgFNS protein belongs to the FSN I type. In AgFNS transgenic celery, the anthocyanins content in petioles was lower than that wild-type celery plants. Apigenin content increased in the petioles of AgFNS transgenic celery. The transcript levels of the AgPAL, AgC4H, AgCHS, and AgCHI genes were up-regulated, whereas those of the AgF3H, AgF3'H, AgDFR, AgANS, and Ag3GT genes were down-regulated in the petioles of AgFNS transgenic plants compared with wild-type celery plants. This work provides basic knowledge about the function of the AgFNS gene in the anthocyanin and apigenin biosyntheses of celery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Low thermal emissivity surfaces using AgNW thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja, Elisa; Bhatt, Rajendra; Liu, Anping; Gupta, Mool C.

    2017-12-01

    The properties of silver nanowire (AgNW) films in the optical and infrared spectral regime offer an interesting opportunity for a broad range of applications that require low-emissivity coatings. This work reports a method to reduce the thermal emissivity of substrates by the formation of low-emissivity AgNW coating films from solution. The spectral emissivity was characterized by thermal imaging with an FLIR camera, followed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In a combined experimental and simulation study, we provide fundamental data of the transmittance, reflectance, haze, and emissivity of AgNW thin films. Emissivity values were finely tuned by modifying the concentration of the metal nanowires in the films. The simulation models based on the transfer matrix method developed for the AgNW thin films provided optical values that show a good agreement with the measurements.

  14. Heparin Increases Food Intake through AgRP Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canjun Zhu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the widely used anticoagulant drug heparin has been shown to have many other biological functions independent of its anticoagulant role, its effects on energy homeostasis are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that heparin level is negatively associated with nutritional states and that heparin treatment increases food intake and body weight gain. By using electrophysiological, pharmacological, molecular biological, and chemogenetic approaches, we provide evidence that heparin increases food intake by stimulating AgRP neurons and increasing AgRP release. Our results support a model whereby heparin competes with insulin for insulin receptor binding on AgRP neurons, and by doing so it inhibits FoxO1 activity to promote AgRP release and feeding. Heparin may be a potential drug target for food intake regulation and body weight control.

  15. Antimicrobial activity of tantalum oxide coatings decorated with Ag nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Huiliang, E-mail: hlc@mail.sic.ac.cn; Meng, Fanhao; Liu, Xuanyong, E-mail: xyliu@mail.sic.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Silver plasma immersion ion implantation was used to decorate silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) on tantalum oxide (TO) coatings. The coatings acted against bacterial cells (Staphylococcus epidermidis) in the dark by disrupting their integrity. The action was independent of silver release and likely driven by the electron storage capability of the Schottky barriers established at the interfaces between Ag NPs and the TO support. Moreover, no apparent side effect on the adhesion and differentiation of rat bone mesenchymal stem cells was detected when using Ag NPs-modified TO coatings. These results demonstrate that decoration of tantalum oxide using Ag NPs could be a promising procedure for improving the antibacterial properties for orthopedic and dental implants.

  16. Metallurgical characterization of experimental Ag-based soldering alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argyro Ntasi

    2014-10-01

    Conclusion: The experimental alloys tested demonstrated similar microstructures and melting ranges. Ga and Sn might be used as alternative to Cu and Zn to modify the selected properties of Ag based soldering alloys.

  17. An oil-in-water self-assembly synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic properties of nano Ag@AgCl surface-sensitized K2Ti4O9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Yinghua; Lin, Shuanglong; Liu, Li; Hu, Jinshan; Cui, Wenquan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The plasmatic Ag@AgCl surface-sensitized K 2 Ti 4 O 9 composite photocatalysts. • Ag@AgCl greatly increased visible light absorption for K 2 Ti 4 O 9 . • The photocatalysts exhibited enhanced photocatalytic dye degradation. - Abstract: Nano-sized plasmonic Ag@AgCl surface-sensitized K 2 Ti 4 O 9 composite photocatalysts (hereafter designated as Ag@AgCl/K 2 Ti 4 O 9 ) was synthesized via a facile oil-in-water self-assembly method. The photocatalytic activity of the prepared materials for RhB (Rhodamine B) degradation was examined under visible light irradiation. The results reveal that the size of Ag@AgCl, which evenly dispersed on the surface of K 2 Ti 4 O 9 , distributes about 20–50 nm. The UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra indicate that Ag@AgCl/K 2 Ti 4 O 9 samples have a significantly enhanced optical absorption in 380–700 nm. The photocatalytic activities of the Ag@AgCl/K 2 Ti 4 O 9 samples increase first and then decrease with increasing amount of loading Ag@AgCl and the Ag@AgCl(20 wt.%)/K 2 Ti 4 O 9 sample exhibits the best photocatalytic activity and 94.47% RhB was degraded after irradiation for 2 h. Additionally, studies performed using radical scavengers indicated that O 2 · − and Cl 0 acted as the main reactive species. The electronic interaction was systematically studied and confirmed by the photo-electrochemical measurements

  18. Holding parents so they can hold their children: grief work with surviving spouses to support parentally bereaved children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner-Lin, Allison; Biank, Nancee M

    A child's adjustment to the death of a parent is greatly influenced by the surviving parent's ability to attend to his or her own grief-related needs, to create and sustain a consistent and nurturing environment, and to encourage the child to express distressing or conflicting thoughts, feelings, and fantasies about the loss. Yet, the surviving parent's grief often compromises their ability to parent consistently and empathically. This article will illustrate how, by providing a holding environment for whole families, clinicians can help parents to facilitate children's grief reactions and, thus, mitigate long-term adverse mental health outcomes. Family Matters programs, designed and implemented in a community agency, use a holistic approach to family support and treatment in a milieu setting. Combining therapeutic work with surviving spouses and bereaved children supports children's grief while facilitating newly single parents as they adapt the structure of family life. When clinical work with families begins before the ill parent dies, the clinicians may build a relationship with the dying parent, prepare the child and surviving spouse for life after loss, and support continuity in family culture. We introduce a curriculum for simultaneously supporting bereaved children and parents, present a series of common challenges faced by surviving parents, and suggest avenues for intervention research.

  19. The AGS main magnet power supply upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandberg, J.N.; Casella, R.; Geller, J.; Marneris, I.; Soukas, A.; Schumburg, N.

    1995-01-01

    The AGS Main Magnet Power Supply consists of a group of thyristor controlled power converters that operate from full rectify to full invert. In order to minimize ripple during the critical periods of injection and extraction 24 pulse converters are used for these portions of the cycle. The maximum voltage available in this mode is nominally 2,000 volts. The converters that are functional during this portion of the cycle are called the flat-top bank or ''F'' bank modules. During acceleration and invert where voltages of up to 12,000 volts are needed and where the ripple requirements are less stringent, groups of twelve pulse converters are operational. These converters are called the Pulsed bank or ''P'' bank modules. The original controlled rectifier system consisted of 96 large mercury filled excitron tubes divided equally between the P bank and F bank converters. These devices were extremely durable and ran successfully for over twenty years. It was, decided to replace the excitron farm with multiple arrangements of three-phase, full-wave, bridge modules that utilize silicon controlled rectifiers (SCR's or thyristors) as the switching element. In order to match the existing transformer connections and buswork, eight identical modules were required; four for the P bank system and four for the F bank system. In order to reduce noise pickup and provide electrical isolation the high level SCR gate triggers are provided via fiberoptic cable. The status of various parameters such as water flow, auxiliary power supply performance, trigger circuitry failure, over voltage, overcurrent, and loss of phase reference are monitored via a programmable logic controller (PLCs). The PLCs use isolated input and output modules for various voltage levels from TTL to 150 Vdc to 125 Vac. These devices are extremely flexible and have allowed modifications and improvements that have enhanced the performance over any equivalent hard wired system

  20. Performance of the new AGS RFQ preinjector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessi, J.G.; Brennan, J.M.; Brodowski, J.

    1989-01-01

    In the fall of 1988, the 750 keV Cockcroft-Walton (C-W) preinjector for the AGS 200 MeV H/sup /minus// linac was replaced by an RFQ, in what has proved to be a very successful upgrade. The motivations for the upgrade included improved reliability, simpler maintenance, and the added convenience of having the ion source located at nearly ground potential. At the same time, the controls and instrumentation in the preinjector area were modernized. The linac has been operating full time with this RFQ preinjector since January 1, 1989, and the reliability has been excellent. The source, RFQ, and linac operate at a 5 Hz repetition rate, and the beam pulse width is approximately 450 μs. At this time, the H/sup /minus// current at 200 MeV is typically 23-25 mA, the same as previous operation with the C-W, although the capability is there to reach higher currents in the future. The layout of the new preinjector is shown in Figure 1. An important consideration in the layout of this line was the decision to leave the final 2.4 m section before the linac intact, so the optics of a second C-W injector line and polarized H/sup /minus// injection from another RFQ remained the same. The resulting line has a distance of almost 6 m from the RFQ to the linac, and there are three ''rebuncher'' cavities to maintain the bunching of the beam from the RFQ. The following sections will describe some details of the preinjector line, and then discuss the installation and performance

  1. New tariffs of BKW Energie AG (Switzerland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillelmon, B.

    1995-01-01

    The tariff increase of BKW Energie AG in October 1994 was, seen as a chance to review the tariff structure. First of all, the different products delivered to the customers were clearly defined, according to the following criteria: quantity of electricity intake at high tariff, degree of freedom at intake as well as supply and measurement point of the intake. In a second step the objectives to be fulfilled with the new structure were set: the tariffs should be customer-friendly easy to understand and to apply, foreseeable, cost-related as well as take into account the new findings in energy economics and finally give the right signals for a sparing use of natural resources. Some more considerations, especially on the allocation of the demand costs on demand and consumption rates were made. The new tariffs of BKW offer more flexibility and choices for the customers: retail customers can choose between single and two-rate tariffs. Moreover, they can choose a tariff for interruptable intake as a supplementary subscription. Big customers can choose among different options according to the utilisation time. The setting up of clear names and good information as well as specific offer of energy advice to the customers at the moment of the tariff increase were considered as highly valuable. The new tariff structure is one step in the right direction. The structure must still be ameliorated in the future. The trend will possibly be in a higher differentiation of tariffs for big customers and a high valuation of simplicity for the tariffs for retail customers. (author)

  2. Accelerating polarized beams at the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1995-01-01

    The acceleration of polarized beams in circular accelerators is complicated by the presence of numerous depolarizing resonances. During acceleration, a depolarizing resonance is crossed whenever the spin precession frequency equals the frequency with which spin-perturbing magnetic fields are encountered. There are two main types of depolarizing resonances corresponding to the possible sources of such fields: imperfection resonances, which are driven by magnet errors and misalignments, and intrinsic resonances, driven by the focusing fields. The resonance conditions are usually expressed in terms of the spin tune ν s , which is defined as the number of spin precessions per revolution. For an ideal planar accelerator, where orbiting particles experience only the vertical guide field, the spin tune is equal to Gγ, where G = 1.7928 is the anomalous magnetic moment of the proton and γ is the relativistic Lorentz factor. The resonance condition for imperfection depolarizing resonances arise when ν s = Gγ = n, where n is an integer. Imperfection resonances are therefore separated by only 523 MeV energy steps. The condition for intrinsic resonances is ν s = Gγ = kP ± ν y , where k is an integer, ν y is the vertical betatron tune and P is the superperiodicity. For the AGS, P = 12 and ν y ∼ 8.8. For most of the time during the acceleration cycle, the precession direction, or stable spin direction, coincides with the main vertical magnetic field. Close to a resonance, the stable spin direction is perturbed away from the vertical direction by the resonance driving fields. When a polarized beam is accelerated through an isolated resonance, the final polarization can be calculated analytically

  3. Spin coupling resonance and suppression in the AGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. H. Ranjbar

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available A spin matching method to cure intrinsic coupled spin resonances in the AGS is proposed and explored using an extension of the existing DEPOL program algorithm. The extension of DEPOL to handle linear coupling in the polarized beam acceleration is documented. Data collected from recent polarized proton experiments in the AGS are compared with the predictions derived from the extended DEPOL program.

  4. Datenqualitäts-Modell der Volkswagen Financial Services AG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Helena

    Im Rahmen der Vertriebsaktivitäten und der umfangreichen rechtlichen und regulatorischen Anforderungen u. a. Basel II hat die Volkswagen Financial Services AG (nachfolgend VW FS AG) beschlossen, dem Thema Datenqualität und Datenqualitätsmanagement, insbesondere unter dem Blickwinkel der Konzern Leitlinien Kundennähe, Schaffung von Werten und Höchstleistung, eine hohe Priorität einzuräumen.

  5. Ag-based semiconductor photocatalysts in environmental purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jiade; Fang, Wen [School of Metallurgy and Chemical Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou 341000, Jiangxi Province (China); Yu, Changlin, E-mail: yuchanglinjx@163.com [School of Metallurgy and Chemical Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou 341000, Jiangxi Province (China); School of Environment Engineering and biology Engineering, Guangdong University of Petrochemical Technology, Maoming, 525000 Guangdong Province (China); Zhou, Wanqin [School of Metallurgy and Chemical Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou 341000, Jiangxi Province (China); State Key Laboratory of Photocatalysis on Energy and Environment, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, 350002 (China); Zhu, Lihua [School of Metallurgy and Chemical Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou 341000, Jiangxi Province (China); Xie, Yu, E-mail: xieyu_121@163.com [College of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063, Jiangxi (China)

    2015-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Ag-based semiconductors as promising visible light-driven photocatalysts have aroused much interesting due to their strong visible light responsibility. Formation of heterojunction could largely promote the electron/hole pair separation, resulting in highly photocatalytic activity and stability. - Highlights: • Recent research progress in the fabrication and application of Ag-based semiconductor photocatalyts. • The advantages and disadvantages of Ag-based semiconductor as photocatalysts. • Strategies in design Ag-based semiconductor photocatalysts with high performance. - Abstract: Over the past decades, with the fast development of global industrial development, various organic pollutants discharged in water have become a major source of environmental pollution in waste fields. Photocatalysis, as green and environmentally friendly technology, has attracted much attention in pollutants degradation due to its efficient degradation rate. However, the practical application of traditional semiconductor photocatalysts, e.g. TiO{sub 2}, ZnO, is limited by their weak visible light adsorption due to their wide band gaps. Nowadays, the study in photocatalysts focuses on new and narrow band gap semiconductors. Among them, Ag-based semiconductors as promising visible light-driven photocatalysts have aroused much interesting due to their strong visible light responsibility. Most of Ag-based semiconductors could exhibit high initial photocatalytic activity. But they easy suffer from poor stability because of photochemical corrosion. Design heterojunction, increasing specific surface area, enriching pore structure, regulating morphology, controlling crystal facets, and producing plasmonic effects were considered as the effective strategies to improve the photocatalytic performance of Ag-based photocatalyts. Moreover, combining the superior properties of carbon materials (e.g. carbon quantum dots, carbon nano-tube, carbon nanofibers, graphene) with Ag

  6. Performance testing of a prototype Pd-Ag diffuser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, G. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hodge, B. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-21

    The fusion fuel cycle has gained significant attention over the last decade as interest in fusion programs has increased. One of the critical components of the fusion process is the tritium fuel cycle. The tritium fuel cycle is designed to supply and recycle process tritium at a specific throughput rate. One of the most important processes within the tritium fuel cycle is the clean-up of the of the process tritium. This step will initially separate the hydrogen isotopes (H2, D2, and T2) from the rest of the process gas using Pd-Ag diffusers or permeators. The Pd-Ag diffuser is an integral component for any tritium purification system; whether part of the United States’ defense mission or fusion programs. Domestic manufacturers of Pd-Ag diffusers are extremely limited and only a few manufacturers exist. Johnson-Matthey (JM) Pd-Ag diffusers (permeators) have previously been evaluated for the separation of hydrogen isotopes from non-hydrogen gas species in the process. JM is no longer manufacturing Pd-Ag diffusers and a replacement vendor needs to be identified to support future needs. A prototype Pd-Ag diffuser has been manufactured by Power and Energy, and is considered a potential replacement for the JM diffuser for tritium service. New diffuser designs for a tritium facility for any fusion energy applications must be characterized by evaluating their operating envelope prior to installation in a tritium processing facility. The prototype Pd-Ag diffuser was characterized to determine the overall performance as a function of the permeation of hydrogen through the membrane. The tests described in this report consider the effects of feed gas compositions, feed flow rates, pump configuration and internal tube pressure on the permeation of H2 through the Pd-Ag tubes.

  7. Study of diffusion of Ag in Cu single crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, R

    2002-01-01

    4.0 MeV sup 7 Li sup + sup + RBS and AES were used for investigations of thermal diffusion of Ag in Cu single crystals. The annealing of samples was carried out in vacuum in the temperature range from 498 to 613 K. The element depth concentration profiles transformed from RBS spectra indicate that the diffusion of Ag into Cu is a typical volume diffusion. The Arrhenius parameters corresponding to the diffusion were obtained.

  8. Spectroscopic and lasing properties of Ho:Tm:LuAG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Norman P.; Filer, Elizabeth D.; Naranjo, Felipe L.; Rodriguez, Waldo J.; Kokta, Milan R.

    1993-01-01

    Ho:Tm:LuAG has been grown, examined spectroscopically, and lased at 2.1 microns. Ho:Tm:LuAG was selected for this experimental investigation when quantum-mechanical modeling predicted that it would be a good laser material for Ho laser operation on one of the 5I7 to 5I8 transitions. Lasing was achieved at 2.100 microns, one of the three wavelengths predicted to be most probable for laser action.

  9. Polarized proton acceleration program at the AGS and RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.Y.

    1995-01-01

    Presented is an overview of the program for acceleration of polarized protons in the AGS and their injection into the RHIC collider. The problem of depolarizing resonances in strong focusing circulator accelerators is discussed. The intrinsic resonances are jumped over by the fast tune jump, and a partial Siberian Snake is used to compensate for over forty imperfection resonances in the AGS. Two sets of full Siberian Snake and spin rotators will be employed in RHIC

  10. Photochemical generation of antimicrobial Ag-nanoparticles in intraocular lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badur, Thorben; Kim, Hee-Cheol; Hampp, Norbert

    2017-02-01

    The antimicrobial properties of silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NP) have been investigated in depth during the last decades.[1] For cataract treatment minimal invasive surgery has become state-of-the-art. The physicians are still fighting against postoperative inflammations, such as endophthalmitis.[2] We present a novel approach to reduce these postoperative complications by equipping the hydrophilic intraocular lenses (IOL) with a Ag NP depot. As the Ag NP are completely entrapped inside the polymeric IOL no direct contact of the nanoparticles with epithelial cells may occur. Using 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HOBt) or 7-hydroxycumarine (7HOCum) as photo reduction mediators (PRM) the formation of the Ag NP is accomplished in situ. PRM and Ag nitrate are diffused into the ready made IOL. By means of two-photon-absorption (TPA) photochemistry at λTPA = 532 nm the Ag NP generation is precisely controlled to occur inside the IOL only. At no point NP are directly exposed to the surface.[3] Interesting dependencies between the used PRM and the resulting particle size distribution or the effectiveness of the silver ion reduction inside the polymer matrix are reported. The Ag NP were prepared in the outer area of the IOL not to affect the optical properties of the ophthalmic implant. The amount of Ag ions released was determined and found to be sufficient to effectively reduce the counts of airborne germs. Besides HOBt and 7HOCum we also investigated the photo reductive properties of several other organic reagents, such as benzophenone (BP) and 4-hydroxybenzophenone (4HOBP) for the ability to produce even three-dimensional nanoparticle structures inside a polymer matrix.

  11. Apparatus and method for generating a magnetic field by rotation of a charge holding object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Vukovic, Lela [Westchester, IL; Rathke, Jerome W [Homer Glenn, IL

    2009-10-13

    A device and a method for the production of a magnetic field using a Charge Holding Object that is mechanically rotated. In a preferred embodiment, a Charge Holding Object surrounding a sample rotates and subjects the sample to one or more magnetic fields. The one or more magnetic fields are used by NMR Electronics connected to an NMR Conductor positioned within the Charge Holding Object to perform NMR analysis of the sample.

  12. 体力と息こらえ(breath holding)の相関関係

    OpenAIRE

    "川上, 雅之"; "カワカミ, マサユキ"; Masayuki", "Kawakami

    1980-01-01

    "This research is an analysis of the correlation of the length of the breath holding with physical fitness. These tests of physical fitness were measured by side step test, vertical jump, back strenrgth, grip strength, trunk extension, standing trunk flexion and step test. Following results were obtained : 1) The length of breath holding is correlated with physical characteristics such as height, circumference chest and body surface area. 2) The length of breath holding is correlated with phy...

  13. The koala hold from down under: another choice in breastfeeding position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Shannon C

    2013-05-01

    While there are no set rules about breastfeeding positions, Australian lactation practice has traditionally recommended some established ones. One position that can provide an alternative is the "Koala Hold." This hold mimics that of the koala such that the baby is straddled on the mother's knee, skin to skin, in the upright position. This article describes the techniques of the Koala Hold and identifies the advantages and considerations for the use of this position.

  14. Liquid holding recovery and photoreactivation of the ultraviolet-inactivated vibrios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, S.K.; Chatterjee, S.N.

    1981-01-01

    The kinetics of liquid holding recovery and photoreactivation of the ultra-violet-inactivated vibrios have been investigated. Photoreactivation was highest (about 80%) for Vibrio cholerae (classical) strains but the liquid holding recovery was highest (about 29%) for Vibrio parahemolyticus ones. Significance of the differences between any two of the four vibrio biotypes in respect of their liquid holding recovery and also photoreactivation was analysed statistically. (auth.)

  15. Adults' preferences for side-of-hold as portrayed in paintings of the Madonna and Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Lauren Julius; Cardénas, Rodrigo Andrés; Spradlin, Michael P; Almerigi, Jason B

    2009-11-01

    Most women hold infants on their left side. They do the same when depicted in works of art. Does the latter accurately reflect the real-life bias, the artist's own aesthetic preference, or something else, such as the artist's handedness, sex, direction of attentional bias, or even the artist's own side-preference for holding infants? As a first step to finding out, we showed 272 young adults (85 men, 187 women) 20 pairs of paintings of the Madonna and Child, the original on one side, its mirror-reversal on the other, and asked which one they preferred. Along with assessing the effects of the variables already mentioned, we used equal numbers of paintings originally depicting left-holds and right-holds to control for the possible effects of differences between the paintings other than side-of-hold itself, such as in their colour scheme, background details, and the type of hold shown (e.g., cradle vs seated on lap). Each pair was presented twice, once with the original on the left, once on the right, for a total of 40 trials. Women and men alike more often preferred left-hold images, but the difference was significant only for women. Preferences were also stronger for original left-hold paintings than for the mirror-reversals of original right-hold paintings, suggesting that the originals differed in ways affecting preference beyond those we tried to control. Overall preference for left-hold images was enhanced when the images were on the viewer's left. As for the other variables, they were for the most part unrelated to preferences. The reasons for the preference thus remain unclear but it is evidently affected by multiple variables, with at least some clearly different from those affecting side-of-hold preferences of real mothers holding real infants.

  16. EFFECTS OF ORAL IRON SUPPLEMENT ON BREATH-HOLDING SPELLS IN CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    S.H. TONEKABONI; S. ALAVI; F. MAHVELATI; Z. TABASI

    2006-01-01

    Objectives:Breath holding spells are one of the most frequent and important diagnostic challenges in pediatrics. The aim of this study, conducted on pediatric patients referring to the pediatric neurology clinic in Hormozgan province, was to evaluate therapeutic effects of iron on breath holding spellsMaterials and Methods:35 children (19 males and 16 females), aged between 3 to 60 months, with a history of breath-holding spells, were included in the trial. To obtain all relevant data a speci...

  17. Textile electrodes in Electrical Bioimpedance measurements - a comparison with conventional Ag/AgCl electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, J C; Seoane, F; Välimäki, E; Lindecrantz, K

    2009-01-01

    Work has been intensified around the integration of textile and measurement technology for physiological measurements in the last years. As a result nowadays it is possible to find available commercial products for cardiovascular personal healthcare monitoring. Most of the efforts have been focused in the acquisition of EKG for cardiovascular monitoring where textile electrodes have shown satisfactory performance. Electrical Bioimpedance is another type of physiological measurement that can be used for personal healthcare monitoring where the integration and the performance of the textile electrodes has not been investigated that thoroughly. In this work, the influence of the textile electrodes on the measurements and on the estimation of the Cole (R(0), R(infinity), f(C) and alpha) and body composition (TBW, ICW, ECW and FFM) parameters has been especially addressed. Complex Spectroscopy 4-electrode wrist-to-ankle electrical bioimpedance measurements taken with conventional Ag/AgCl and textile-electrodes on customized bracelets have been compared and analyzed in the frequency range 3 to 500 kHz. The obtained results suggest that the use of textile electrodes do not influence remarkably on the complex spectral measurements neither in the estimation of Cole nor body composition parameter. In any case any possible effect introduced by the use of textile is smaller than the effect of preparing the skin by the using abrasive conductive paste.

  18. Electrical and mechanical properties of Bi-2223/Ag/barrier/Ag composite tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovac, P.; Husek, I.; Goemoery, F.; Oduleye, O.O.; Alford, N.McN.; Pachla, W.; Diduszko, R.

    2000-01-01

    Bi-2223/Ag/barrier/Ag single-core tapes with various oxide barrier materials (BaZrO 3 , SrCO 3 , ZrO 2 and Al 2 O 3 ) have been prepared by PIT. The I-V curves and ac susceptibility measurements have been performed for tapes with identical heat treatment history. Young's moduli of these tape samples have been evaluated by three-point bending and the structure of barrier powders and BSCCO cores was analysed by SEM and XRD, respectively. It was found that the shape of I-V curves, the current transfer lengths and the mechanical properties of tapes are all affected by the oxide barrier type and the barrier thickness, as well as by its porosity and uniformity. This is because the oxide barrier controls the oxygen diffusion during the tape heat treatment and simultaneously the HTS phase formation kinetics, its purity and content within the superconducting core. On the base of the results obtained for single-core tapes, two kinds of multifilamentary composite were made and tested. (author)

  19. Breath Holding Spells in Children with Long QT Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jeffrey A; Bos, J Martijn; Etheridge, Susan P; Ackerman, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a genetic heart rhythm disorder that may present with syncope, seizures, or sudden cardiac death. Breath holding spells (BHS) occur in 5% of all children and have been noted in children with LQTS anecdotally. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of BHS in children diagnosed with LQTS at ≤5 years of age. A retrospective review was performed to identify children diagnosed with LQTS who were ≤5 years old at initial presentation to our LQTS clinic from August 1999 to November 2013. The mean length of follow-up was 6.4 ± 2.8 years. The electronic medical records were reviewed for clinical presentation of BHS, as well as LQTS-associated symptoms, diagnostic tests, and treatment. The study cohort consisted of 115 children with LQTS (58% male; median age at diagnosis, 11 months [range, birth to 5 years]; mean corrected QT interval (QTc), 478 ± 60 milliseconds). At presentation, 80% of patients were asymptomatic. Genetic testing revealed type 1 LQTS (LQT1) in 48%. Overall, 5 of 115 patients (4.3%) had BHS (2 of 5 [40%] male, mean QTc: 492 ± 14 milliseconds, 4 [80%] with family history of LQTS). BHS were the presenting symptom in 1 of 23 symptomatic patients (4.3%). All BHS occurred in patients with LQT1 (P = .02). Although BHS among children with LQTS are relatively rare and occur at similar frequency as the general population, they can be the presenting symptom for a heart rhythm disorder. Careful attention to BHS is important to distinguish an innocent BHS from a potential LQTS-triggered cardiac event so that proper treatment is initiated. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Self-face Captures, Holds, and Biases Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał J. Wójcik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The implicit self-recognition process may take place already in the pre-attentive stages of perception. After a silent stimulus has captured attention, it is passed on to the attentive stage where it can affect decision making and responding. Numerous studies show that the presence of self-referential information affects almost every cognitive level. These effects may share a common and fundamental basis in an attentional mechanism, conceptualized as attentional bias: the exaggerated deployment of attentional resources to a salient stimulus. A gold standard in attentional bias research is the dot-probe paradigm. In this task, a prominent stimulus (cue and a neutral stimulus are presented in different spatial locations, followed by the presentation of a target. In the current study we aimed at investigating whether the self-face captures, holds and biases attention when presented as a task-irrelevant stimulus. In two dot-probe experiments coupled with the event-related potential (ERP technique we analyzed the following relevant ERPs components: N2pc and SPCN which reflect attentional shifts and the maintenance of attention, respectively. An inter-stimulus interval separating face-cues and probes (800 ms was introduced only in the first experiment. In line with our predictions, in Experiment 1 the self-face elicited the N2pc and the SPCN component. In Experiment 2 in addition to N2pc, an attentional bias was observed. Our results indicate that unintentional self-face processing disables the top-down control setting to filter out distractors, thus leading to the engagement of attentional resources and visual short-term memory.

  1. Characterization plan for the waste holding basin (3513 impoundment)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stansfield, R.G.; Francis, C.W.

    1986-09-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities are required to comply fully with all federal and state regulations. In response to this requirement, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has established the remedial action program, to provide comprehensive management of areas where past research, development, and waste management activities have been conducted and have resulted in residual contamination of facilities or the environment. One of the objectives of this program is to define the extent of contamination at these sites. The intent is to document the known environmental characteristics of the sites and identify the additional actions, such as sampling, analytical measurements, and modeling, necessary to confirm contamination and the possible migration of contaminants from the sites. One of these sites is the waste holding basin (3513 impoundment). The 3513 impoundment is an unlined waste settling basin constructed in 1944 for collection of ORNL wastewater before its discharge into White Oak Creek. Operation of the facility ceased in 1976 when a new process waste treatment plant came into operation. Considerable site-specific environmental information has been developed over the years relative to the type and quantities of radionuclides and hazardous substances contained in the pond water and sediment. The concentrations and patterns of distribution for many of the radionuclides in the aquatic biota as well as for the terrestrial plants growing on the berm of the impoundment have been determined by DOE ecological studies. Recently, some data were collected that evaluate the extent of contaminant movement to the groundwater. Results from these studies are summarized in this report. Also included in this report is an outline of additional tasks needed to obtain the necessary information to model the transport and dose pathways of hazardous substances from the site

  2. Wireless cellular networks with Pareto-distributed call holding times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Dagnino, Ramon M.; Takagi, Hideaki

    2001-07-01

    Nowadays, there is a growing interest in providing internet to mobile users. For instance, NTT DoCoMo in Japan deploys an important mobile phone network with that offers the Internet service, named 'i-mode', to more than 17 million subscribers. Internet traffic measurements show that the session duration of Call Holding Time (CHT) has probability distributions with heavy-tails, which tells us that they depart significantly from the traffic statistics of traditional voice services. In this environment, it is particularly important to know the number of handovers during a call for a network designer to make an appropriate dimensioning of virtual circuits for a wireless cell. The handover traffic has a direct impact on the Quality of Service (QoS); e.g. the service disruption due to the handover failure may significantly degrade the specified QoS of time-constrained services. In this paper, we first study the random behavior of the number of handovers during a call, where we assume that the CHT are Pareto distributed (heavy-tail distribution), and the Cell Residence Times (CRT) are exponentially distributed. Our approach is based on renewal theory arguments. We present closed-form formulae for the probability mass function (pmf) of the number of handovers during a Pareto distributed CHT, and obtain the probability of call completion as well as handover rates. Most of the formulae are expressed in terms of the Whittaker's function. We compare the Pareto case with cases of $k(subscript Erlang and hyperexponential distributions for the CHT.

  3. Characterization plan for the waste holding basin (3513 impoundment)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stansfield, R.G.; Francis, C.W.

    1986-09-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities are required to comply fully with all federal and state regulations. In response to this requirement, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has established the remedial action program, to provide comprehensive management of areas where past research, development, and waste management activities have been conducted and have resulted in residual contamination of facilities or the environment. One of the objectives of this program is to define the extent of contamination at these sites. The intent is to document the known environmental characteristics of the sites and identify the additional actions, such as sampling, analytical measurements, and modeling, necessary to confirm contamination and the possible migration of contaminants from the sites. One of these sites is the waste holding basin (3513 impoundment). The 3513 impoundment is an unlined waste settling basin constructed in 1944 for collection of ORNL wastewater before its discharge into White Oak Creek. Operation of the facility ceased in 1976 when a new process waste treatment plant came into operation. Considerable site-specific environmental information has been developed over the years relative to the type and quantities of radionuclides and hazardous substances contained in the pond water and sediment. The concentrations and patterns of distribution for many of the radionuclides in the aquatic biota as well as for the terrestrial plants growing on the berm of the impoundment have been determined by DOE ecological studies. Recently, some data were collected that evaluate the extent of contaminant movement to the groundwater. Results from these studies are summarized in this report. Also included in this report is an outline of additional tasks needed to obtain the necessary information to model the transport and dose pathways of hazardous substances from the site.

  4. Evaluation of SD BIOLINEH. pyloriAg rapid test against double ELISA with SDH. pyloriAg ELISA and EZ-STEPH. pyloriAg ELISA tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negash, Markos; Kassu, Afework; Amare, Bemnet; Yismaw, Gizachew; Moges, Beyene

    2018-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori antibody titters fall very slowly even after successful treatment. Therefore, tests detecting H. pylori antibody lack specificity and sensitivity. On the other hand, H. pylori stool antigen tests are reported as an alternative assay because of their reliability and simplicity. However, the comparative performance of H. pylori stool antigen tests for detecting the presence of the bacterium in clinical specimens in the study area is not assessed. Therefore, in this study we evaluated the performance of SD BIOLINE H. pylori Ag rapid test with reference to the commercially available EZ- STEP ELISA and SD BIOLINE H. pylori Ag ELISA tests. Stool samples were collected to analyse the diagnostic performance of SD BIOLINE H. pylori Ag rapid test kit using SD H. pylori Ag ELISA kit and EZ- STEP ELISA tests as a gold standard. Serum samples were also collected from each patient to test for the presence of H. pylori antibodies using dBest H. pylori Test Disk. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and kappa value are assessed. P values rapid test were: 95.6% (95% CI, 88.8-98.8), 92.5% (95%CI, 89-94.1%), 86.7% (95% CI, 80.5-89.6), and 97.6% (95% CI, 993.9-99.3) respectively. The performance of SD BIOLINE H. pylori Ag rapid test was better than the currently available antibody test in study area. Therefore, the SD BIOLINE Ag rapid stool test could replace and be used to diagnose active H. pylori infection before the commencement of therapy among dyspeptic patients.

  5. Synthesis and Property of Ag(NP)/catechin/Gelatin Nanofiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Muhamad; Apriani, Dita

    2017-12-01

    Nanomaterial play important role future industry such as for the medical, food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry. Ag (NP) and catechin exhibit antibacterial property. Ag(NP) with diameter around 15 nm was synthesis by microwaved method. We have successfully produce Ag(NP)/catechin/gelatin nanofiber composite by electrospinning process. Ag(NP)/catechin/gelatin nanofiber was synthesized by using gelatin from tuna fish, polyethylene oxide (PEO), acetic acid as solvent and silver nanoparticle(NP)/catechin as bioactive component, respectively. Morphology and structure of bioactive catechin-gelatin nanofiber were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), respectively. SEM analysis showed that morphology of nanofiber composite was smooth and had average diameter 398.97 nm. FTIR analysis results were used to confirm structure of catechin-gelatin nanofiber. It was confirmed by FTIR that specific vibration band peak amide A (N-H) at 3286,209 cm-1, amide B (N-H) 3069,396 cm-1, amide I (C=O) at 1643,813 cm-1, amide II (N-H and CN) at 1538,949 cm-1, amide III (C-N) at 1276,789 cm-1, C-O-C from polyethylene oxide at 1146,418 cm-1, respectively. When examined to S. Aureus bacteria, Ag/catechin/gelatin nanofiber show inhabitation performance around 40.44%. Ag(NP)/catechin/gelatin nanofiber has potential application antibacterial medical application.

  6. Spectroscopic laser parameters of Ag/CdTe nanostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giba, A.E., E-mail: alaadin85@niles.edu.eg [Department of Laser Science and Interaction, National Institute of Laser Enhanced Science, Cairo University, 12613 Giza (Egypt); Gadallah, A.-S. [Department of Laser Science and Interaction, National Institute of Laser Enhanced Science, Cairo University, 12613 Giza (Egypt); Mohamed, M.B. [Department of Laser Applications in Metrology, Photochemistry & Agriculture, National Institute of Laser Enhanced Science, Cairo University, 12613 Giza (Egypt); Azzouz, I.M. [Department of Laser Science and Interaction, National Institute of Laser Enhanced Science, Cairo University, 12613 Giza (Egypt)

    2015-11-15

    We report spectroscopic laser parameters analysis for CdTe quantum dots (QDs) in the presence of Ag nanoparticles (NPs). Absorption and emission cross-sections of about 2 nm-particle size of aqueous CdTe QDs were estimated, when different contents of about 40 nm Ag nanoparticles were added. The fluorescence, radiative lifetimes and the energy transfer between Ag NPs and CdTe QDs have been investigated. Lasing parameters that evaluate the possibility of getting laser action for these nanomaterials were calculated. The energy transfer mechanism between Ag NPs and CdTe QDs was occurred by Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) as the average distance between them is about 50 nm. - Highlights: • Absorption and emission cross sections of Ag/CdTe have been calculated. • Lasing parameters of these nanomaterials have been also estimated. • The energy transfer mechanism between Ag NPs and CdTe QDs was determined. • Our findings are promising candidate for photonic devices.

  7. Quantifying the origin of released Ag+ ions from nanosilver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiriou, Georgios A; Meyer, Andreas; Knijnenburg, Jesper T N; Panke, Sven; Pratsinis, Sotiris E

    2012-11-13

    Nanosilver is most attractive for its bactericidal properties in modern textiles, food packaging, and biomedical applications. Concerns, however, about released Ag(+) ions during dispersion of nanosilver in liquids have limited its broad use. Here, nanosilver supported on nanostructured silica is made with closely controlled Ag size both by dry (flame aerosol) and by wet chemistry (impregnation) processes without any surface functionalization that could interfere with its ion release. It is characterized by electron microscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction, and its Ag(+) ion release in deionized water is monitored electrochemically. The dispersion method of nanosilver in solutions affects its dissolution rate but not the final Ag(+) ion concentration. By systematically comparing nanosilver size distributions to their equilibrium Ag(+) ion concentrations, it is revealed that the latter correspond precisely to dissolution of one to two surface silver oxide monolayers, depending on particle diameter. When, however, the nanosilver is selectively conditioned by either washing or H(2) reduction, the oxide layers are removed, drastically minimizing Ag(+) ion leaching and its antibacterial activity against E. coli . That way the bactericidal activity of nanosilver is confined to contact with its surface rather than to rampant ions. This leads to silver nanoparticles with antibacterial properties that are essential for medical tools and hospital applications.

  8. A clinical evaluation of visual feedback-guided breath-hold reproducibility of tumor location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshitake, Tadamasa; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Ohga, Saiji; Nonoshita, Takeshi; Ohnishi, Kayoko; Terashima, Kotaro; Honda, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Arimura, Hidetaka; Hirata, Hideki

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility of visual feedback-guided breath-hold using a machine vision system with a charge-coupled device camera and a monocular head-mounted display. Sixteen patients with lung tumors who were treated with stereotactic radiotherapy were enrolled. A machine vision system with a charge-coupled device camera was used for monitoring respiration. A monocular head-mounted display was used to provide the patient with visual feedback about the breathing trace. The patients could control their breathing so that the breathing waveform would fall between the upper and lower threshold lines. Planning and treatment were performed under visual feedback-guided expiratory breath-hold. Electronic portal images were obtained during treatment. The range of cranial-caudal motion of the tumor location during each single breath-hold was calculated as the intra-breath-hold (intra-BH) variability. The maximum displacement between the two to five averaged tumor locations of each single breath-hold was calculated as the inter-breath-hold (inter-BH) variability. All 16 patients tolerated the visual feedback-guided breath-hold maneuvers well. The intra- and inter-BH variability of all patients was 1.5 ± 0.6 mm and 1.2 ± 0.5 mm, respectively. A visual feedback-guided breath-hold technique using the machine vision system is feasible with good breath-hold reproducibility.

  9. Voluntary Breath-hold Technique for Reducing Heart Dose in Left Breast Radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Frederick R.; Colgan, Ruth M.; Donovan, Ellen M.; Carr, Karen; Landeg, Steven; Clements, Nicola; McNair, Helen A.; Locke, Imogen; Evans, Philip M.; Haviland, Joanne S.; Yarnold, John R.; Kirby, Anna M.

    2014-01-01

    Breath-holding techniques reduce the amount of radiation received by cardiac structures during tangential-field left breast radiotherapy. With these techniques, patients hold their breath while radiotherapy is delivered, pushing the heart down and away from the radiotherapy field. Despite clear dosimetric benefits, these techniques are not yet in widespread use. One reason for this is that commercially available solutions require specialist equipment, necessitating not only significant capital investment, but often also incurring ongoing costs such as a need for daily disposable mouthpieces. The voluntary breath-hold technique described here does not require any additional specialist equipment. All breath-holding techniques require a surrogate to monitor breath-hold consistency and whether breath-hold is maintained. Voluntary breath-hold uses the distance moved by the anterior and lateral reference marks (tattoos) away from the treatment room lasers in breath-hold to monitor consistency at CT-planning and treatment setup. Light fields are then used to monitor breath-hold consistency prior to and during radiotherapy delivery. PMID:25046661

  10. An investigation on inter-individual variation in perceived discomfort of static posture holding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogutu, Jack; Park, Woojin; Son, Minseok

    2015-01-01

    Realizing population-level discomfort evaluation and control of common static posture holding tasks requires an understanding of the inter-individual variation in discomfort perception. However, little research is available. This study aimed to determine the types of mathematical probability distribution suitable for modeling population discomfort distributions of various static posture holding tasks and characterize how the magnitude of inter-individual variation in perceived discomfort varies across static posture holding tasks. Ten male and ten female subjects participated. The participants conducted static posture holding for a set of 180 short-duration (20-second-long) static posture holding tasks and subjectively rated the overall perceived discomfort for each task using the Borg CR-10 discomfort scale. Statistical analyses were conducted according to the study objectives. The static posture holding tasks exhibited multifarious discomfort distribution patterns. Probability distribution identification analyses indicated that no single distribution type could represent population discomfort distributions universally across different static posture holding tasks. Sample standard deviation of discomfort ratings data quantifying the magnitude of inter-individual variation in discomfort perception varied considerably across static posture holding tasks. It seemed to have a positive relationship with sample mean within the range of the experimental conditions. Population-level evaluation of discomforts associated with static posture holding tasks must be based on careful examinations of empirical discomfort distributions.

  11. Pengaruh krisis keuangan global dan karakteristik perusahaan terhadap cash holding perusahaan di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Sutrisno

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the effect of the global financial crisis and firm characteristics on corporate cash holdings in Indonesia. A total of 101 manufacturing firms listed in the Indonesia Stock Exchange from 2005 to 2014 are examined. This study employs panel regression with fixed effect model. The results show that Indonesia firms hold more cash during the global financial crisis than in the normal times. Investment opportunities set and divident payment have positive effect on cash holding, meanwhile firm size, capital expenditure, liquid assets substitutes, and leverage have negative effect on cash holding

  12. Optical Properties of Plasmon Resonances with Ag/SiO2/Ag Multi-Layer Composite Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye-Wan, Ma; Li-Hua, Zhang; Zhao-Wang, Wu; Jie, Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Optical properties of plasmon resonance with Ag/SiO 2 /Ag multi-layer nanoparticles are studied by numerical simulation based on Green's function theory. The results show that compared with single-layer Ag nanoparticles, the multi-layer nanoparticles exhibit several distinctive optical properties, e.g. with increasing the numbers of the multi-layer nanoparticles, the scattering efficiency red shifts, and the intensity of scattering enhances accordingly. It is interesting to find out that slicing an Ag-layer into multi-layers leads to stronger scattering intensity and more 'hot spots' or regions of stronger field enhancement. This property of plasmon resonance of surface Raman scattering has greatly broadened the application scope of Raman spectroscopy. The study of metal surface plasmon resonance characteristics is critical to the further understanding of surface enhanced Raman scattering as well as its applications. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  13. Synthesis of Ag or Pt Nanoparticles by Hydrolysis of Either Ag2Na or PtNa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huabin Wang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ag and Pt nanoparticles have successfully been synthesized by hydrolysis of either Ag2Na or PtNa at room temperature. The oxidation of sodium in the Pt-Na pellets was much faster than that in the Ag-Na pellets since Pt is a catalyst for H2O formation reaction from hydrogen and oxygen at room temperature. The hydrolysis byproduct, NaOH, has a high solubility and easily is removed. This method offers a simple method of preparing transition metal nanoparticles. The Ag and Pt nanoparticles prepared by this method were crystalline in nature, and spherical in shape with a mean size of around 10 nm.

  14. Transparent Conducting Film Fabricated by Metal Mesh Method with Ag and Cu@Ag Mixture Nanoparticle Pastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Min Nam

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Transparent conducting electrode film is highly desirable for application in touch screen panels (TSPs, flexible and wearable displays, sensors, and actuators. A sputtered film of indium tin oxide (ITO shows high transmittance (90% at low sheet resistance (50 Ω/cm2. However, ITO films lack mechanical flexibility, especially under bending stress, and have limitation in application to large-area TSPs (over 15 inches due to the trade-off in high transmittance and low sheet resistance properties. One promising solution is to use metal mesh-type transparent conducting film, especially for touch panel application. In this work, we investigated such inter-related issues as UV imprinting process to make a trench layer pattern, the synthesis of core-shell-type Ag and Cu@Ag composite nanoparticles and their paste formulation, the filling of Ag and Cu@Ag mixture nanoparticle paste to the trench layer, and touch panel fabrication processes.

  15. Temperature and composition dependent structural evolution of AgPd bimetallic nanoparticle: phase diagram of (AgPd)151 nanoparticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun You; Kim, Da Hye; Lee, Hyuck Mo

    2011-03-01

    We study the structural evolution of a 151 atom Ag-Pd bimetallic nanoparticle with composition and temperature. The solid-to-liquid transition region was investigated using molecular dynamics simulations with an improved collision method, and the solid-state structure of the nanoparticle was explored with a combination of molecular dynamics and density functional theory. Results show that an fcc-to-icosahedron transformation occurs at high temperature in all composition range and that a composition of nanoparticles concerns the atomic distribution of the (AgPd)151 nanoparticle. As a result, we constructed a phase diagram of the (AgPd)151 nanoparticle. Our phase diagram offers guidance on the application of Ag-Pd nanoparticles.

  16. Qualitative assessment of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography using breath-hold and non-breath-hold techniques in the portal venous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, Eun-Hoe; Kim, Sun-Ju; Dong, Kyung-Rae; Kim, Kwang-Choul; Chung, Woon-Kwan

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the image quality in delineation of the portal venous systems with two different methods, breath-hold and non-breath-hold by using the 3D FLASH sequence. We used a 1.5 T system to obtain magnetic resonance(MR)images. Arterial and portal phase 3D FLASH images were obtained with breath-hold after a bolus injection of GD-DOTA. The detection of PVS on the MR angiograms was classified into three grades. First, the angiograms of the breath-hold method showed well the portal vein, the splenic vein and the superior mesenteric vein systems in 13 of 15 patients (86%) and the inferior mesenteric vein system in 6 of 15 patients (40%), Second, MR angiograms of the non-breath-hold method demonstrated the PVS and the SMV in 12 of 15 patients (80%) and the IMV in 5 of 15 patients (33%). Our study showed contrast-enhanced 3D FLASH MR angiography, together with the breath-hold technique, may provide reliable and accurate information on the portal venous system.

  17. Microstructure, mechanical properties, bio-corrosion properties and antibacterial properties of Ti-Ag sintered alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mian; Zhang, Erlin; Zhang, Lan

    2016-05-01

    In this research, Ag element was selected as an antibacterial agent to develop an antibacterial Ti-Ag alloy by a powder metallurgy. The microstructure, phase constitution, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and antibacterial properties of the Ti-Ag sintered alloys have been systematically studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), compressive test, electrochemical measurements and antibacterial test. The effects of the Ag powder size and the Ag content on the antibacterial property and mechanical property as well as the anticorrosion property have been investigated. The microstructure results have shown that Ti-Ag phase, residual pure Ag and Ti were the mainly phases in Ti-Ag(S75) sintered alloy while Ti2Ag was synthesized in Ti-Ag(S10) sintered alloy. The mechanical test indicated that Ti-Ag sintered alloy showed a much higher hardness and the compressive yield strength than cp-Ti but the mechanical properties were slightly reduced with the increase of Ag content. Electrochemical results showed that Ag powder size had a significant effect on the corrosion resistance of Ti-Ag sintered alloy. Ag content increased the corrosion resistance in a dose dependent way under a homogeneous microstructure. Antibacterial tests have demonstrated that antibacterial Ti-Ag alloy was successfully prepared. It was also shown that the Ag powder particle size and the Ag content influenced the antibacterial activity seriously. The reduction in the Ag powder size was benefit to the improvement in the antibacterial property and the Ag content has to be at least 3wt.% in order to obtain a strong and stable antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. The bacterial mechanism was thought to be related to the Ti2Ag and its distribution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of reducing agents on the synthesis of Ag/rGO nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaya; Song, Qiong; Fan, Bingbing; Zhang, Rui

    2017-01-01

    A facile and rapid microwave-assisted green route has been used for the formation of Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) and the reduction of graphene oxide (GO) simultaneously with five different reducing agents, sodium hydroxide (NaOH), potassium hydroxide (KOH), sodium citrate, urea and ascorbic acid. The experimental results show that the structural properties and phase of Ag/reduced graphene oxide (Ag/rGO) nanocomposites are connected with reducing agent. AgNPs can be uniformly and compactly anchored on reduced GO (rGO) surface in the microwave field for 2 min by the assist of NaOH or KOH as reducing agent. The OH- can not only accelerate the ionization of acidic functional groups but also act as the nucleophile for Ag+. By addition of sodium citrate and urea, the GO sample remains its original structure, and Ag+ tends to form Ag2CO3, which then decomposes into Ag2O. While in the urea solution, Ag2O turns into [Ag(NH3)2]+ ions with abundant urea, then [Ag(NH3)2]+ ions are reduced to Ag0 by electrons, which leads to both Ag and Ag2O phase coexisting in the urea treated samples. In addition, it can be found that NaOH shows the best results in terms of the crystallinity and purity of Ag grains anchored on rGO surface.

  19. Study on antibacterial activity of chemically synthesized PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boomi, Pandi [Department of Industrial Chemistry, School of Chemical Sciences, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 003, Tamil Nadu (India); Prabu, Halliah Gurumallesh, E-mail: hgprabu2010@gmail.com [Department of Industrial Chemistry, School of Chemical Sciences, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 003, Tamil Nadu (India); Manisankar, Paramasivam [Department of Industrial Chemistry, School of Chemical Sciences, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 003, Tamil Nadu (India); Ravikumar, Sundaram [Department of Oceanography and Coastal Area Studies, School of Marine Sciences, Alagappa University, Thondi Campus 623 409, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • New method of synthesizing PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposite. • Surface Plasmon resonance and formation of composite at nano level were analyzed. • HR-TEM study revealed uniform distribution of nanoparticles. • PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposite exhibited good antibacterial activity. - Abstract: Pristine polyaniline (PANI), PANI-Ag, PANI-Au and PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposites have been successfully synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization method using aniline as monomer, ammonium persulphate as oxidant and metal (Ag, Au and Ag-Au) colloids. UV-Vis analysis exhibited surface Plasmon resonances of Ag, Au, Ag-Au nanoparticles. FT-IR spectra revealed the shift in peak position of N-H stretching. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirm the presence of Ag, Au and Au-Ag nanoparticles. HR-TEM images show nanosizes of Ag, Au, Ag-Au and the incorporation of such nanoparticles into the PANI matrix. Pristine PANI, PANI-Ag, PANI-Au and PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposites were tested for antibacterial activity by agar well diffusion method. PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposite exhibited higher antibacterial activity against both gram-positive [Streptococcus sp. (MTCC 890), Staphylococcus sp. (MTCC 96)] and gram-negative bacteria [Escherichia coli (MTCC 1671) and Klebsiella sp. (MTCC 7407)] when compared with PANI-Ag nanocomposite, PANI-Au nanocomposite and pristine PANI. The novelty of this study is the polymer-bimetal synthesis and its antibacterial potential.

  20. Synthesis of Ag-coated polystyrene colloids by an improved surface seeding and shell growth technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Chungui; Wang Enbo; Kang Zhenhui; Mao Baodong; Zhang Chao; Lan Yang; Wang Chunlei; Song Yanli

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, an improved surface seeding and shell growth technique was developed to prepare Ag-polystyrene core shell composite. Polyethyleneimine (PEI) could act as the linker between Ag ions (Ag nanoparticles) and polystyrene (PS) colloids and the reducing agent in the formation of Ag nanoparticles. Due to the multi-functional characteristic of PEI, Ag seeds formed in-situ and were immobilized on the surface of PEI-modified PS colloids and no free Ag clusters coexist with the Ag 'seeding' PS colloids in the system. Then, the additional agents could be added into the resulting dispersions straightly to produce a thick Ag nanoshell. The Ag nanoshell with controllable thickness was formed on the surface of PS by the 'one-pot' surface seeding and shell growth method. The Ag-coverage increased gradually with the increasing of mass ratio of AgNO 3 /PS. The optical properties of the Ag-PS colloids could be tailored by changing the coverage of Ag. - Graphical abstract: An improved surface seeding and shell growth technique was developed to prepare Ag-polystyrene core shell composite. The optical properties of the Ag-PS colloids could be tailored by changing the coverage of Ag. Display Omitted