Sample records for wintering hermit thrushes

  1. Hermit Thrush (Catharus guttatus) (United States)

    Wood, Petra; Donovan, Therese M.


    With spotted breast and reddish tail, the Hermit Thrush lives up to its name. Although celebrated for its ethereal song, it is mostly a quiet and unobtrusive bird that spends much of its time in the lower branches of the undergrowth or on the forest floor, often seen flicking its wings while perched and quickly raising and slowly lowering its tail. A highly variable species in color and size, the Hermit Thrush's morphological characteristics and plumage have been well studied, with 12-13 subspecies now recognized (see Systematics).This thrush is one of the most widely distributed forest-nesting migratory birds in North America and the only forest thrush whose population has increased or remained stable over the past 20 years. Its extensive breeding range includes the northern hardwood forest, as well as most of the boreal and mountainous coniferous forest areas north of Mexico, with relatively recent expansions into New England and the southern Appalachians. In migration, the species moves to lower elevations and southward, spreading out to winter over much of the southern United States, through Mexico to Guatemala and east to Bermuda. It is the only species of Catharus that winters in North America, switching from a breeding diet of mainly arthropods to a wintering diet heavily supplemented with fruits.Much has been learned about this widely distributed species since the original Birds of North America account of 1996. New information pertaining to its song, migratory behavior, winter territoriality, survival, and diet has been added, as well as many new insights into the potential effects of forest management and other human disturbances. Still lacking are detailed nesting studies, studies of juvenile dispersal, of daily activities and time budgets, and of migratory routes.

  2. Septicemic salmonellosis caused by Salmonella Hessarek in wintering and migrating Song Thrushes (Turdus philomelos) in Spain. (United States)

    Velarde, Roser; Porrero, M Concepción; Serrano, Emmanuel; Marco, Ignasi; García, María; Téllez, Sonia; Domínguez, Lucas; Aymí, Raül; Lavín, Santiago


    We investigated two mortality events in wintering and migrating Song Thrushes (Turdus philomelos) in Catalonia, northeastern Spain in 2009 and 2010. Both episodes occurred in late February to mid-March during the spring migration. Salmonellosis produced by the serotype Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Hessarek (S. Hessarek) was identified as the cause of death in both episodes. Poor body condition, marked splenomegaly, and microscopic disseminated intravascular coagulation with numerous intravascular and tissular bacteria were the most consistent findings. Macro-restriction profiling by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using XbaI was performed for epidemiologic typing of the S. Hessarek isolates. Two clusters were discernible, that are possibly related, with a similarity of 82.8%. Analysis comparing pectoral muscle and subcutaneous fat scores from the Song Thrushes that died from S. Hessarek with those from healthy Song Thrushes from nearby areas during 2009 and 2010 suggest that poor body condition was associated with the S. Hessarek infection.

  3. Overtone-based pitch selection in hermit thrush song: unexpected convergence with scale construction in human music. (United States)

    Doolittle, Emily L; Gingras, Bruno; Endres, Dominik M; Fitch, W Tecumseh


    Many human musical scales, including the diatonic major scale prevalent in Western music, are built partially or entirely from intervals (ratios between adjacent frequencies) corresponding to small-integer proportions drawn from the harmonic series. Scientists have long debated the extent to which principles of scale generation in human music are biologically or culturally determined. Data from animal "song" may provide new insights into this discussion. Here, by examining pitch relationships using both a simple linear regression model and a Bayesian generative model, we show that most songs of the hermit thrush (Catharus guttatus) favor simple frequency ratios derived from the harmonic (or overtone) series. Furthermore, we show that this frequency selection results not from physical constraints governing peripheral production mechanisms but from active selection at a central level. These data provide the most rigorous empirical evidence to date of a bird song that makes use of the same mathematical principles that underlie Western and many non-Western musical scales, demonstrating surprising convergence between human and animal "song cultures." Although there is no evidence that the songs of most bird species follow the overtone series, our findings add to a small but growing body of research showing that a preference for small-integer frequency ratios is not unique to humans. These findings thus have important implications for current debates about the origins of human musical systems and may call for a reevaluation of existing theories of musical consonance based on specific human vocal characteristics.

  4. A winter distribution model for Bicknell's Thrush (Catharus bicknelli), a conservation tool for a threatened migratory songbird (United States)

    K. P. McFarland; C. C. Rimmer; J. E. Goetz; Y. Aubry; J. M. Wunderle Jr.; A. Hayes-Sutton; J. M. Townsend; A. Llanes Sosa; A. Kirkconnell


    Conservation planning and implementation require identifying pertinent habitats and locations where protection and management may improve viability of targeted species. The winter range of Bicknell’s Thrush (Catharus bicknelli), a threatened Nearctic-Neotropical migratory songbird, is restricted to the Greater Antilles. We analyzed winter records from the mid-1970s to...

  5. A Winter Distribution Model for Bicknell’s Thrush (Catharus bicknelli), a Conservation Tool for a Threatened Migratory Songbird (United States)

    McFarland, Kent P.; Rimmer, Christopher C.; Goetz, James E.; Aubry, Yves; Wunderle, Joseph M.; Sutton, Anne; Townsend, Jason M.; Sosa, Alejandro Llanes; Kirkconnell, Arturo


    Conservation planning and implementation require identifying pertinent habitats and locations where protection and management may improve viability of targeted species. The winter range of Bicknell’s Thrush (Catharus bicknelli), a threatened Nearctic-Neotropical migratory songbird, is restricted to the Greater Antilles. We analyzed winter records from the mid-1970s to 2009 to quantitatively evaluate winter distribution and habitat selection. Additionally, we conducted targeted surveys in Jamaica (n = 433), Cuba (n = 363), Dominican Republic (n = 1,000), Haiti (n = 131) and Puerto Rico (n = 242) yielding 179 sites with thrush presence. We modeled Bicknell’s Thrush winter habitat selection and distribution in the Greater Antilles in Maxent version 3.3.1. using environmental predictors represented in 30 arc second study area rasters. These included nine landform, land cover and climatic variables that were thought a priori to have potentially high predictive power. We used the average training gain from ten model runs to select the best subset of predictors. Total winter precipitation, aspect and land cover, particularly broadleaf forests, emerged as important variables. A five-variable model that contained land cover, winter precipitation, aspect, slope, and elevation was the most parsimonious and not significantly different than the models with more variables. We used the best fitting model to depict potential winter habitat. Using the 10 percentile threshold (>0.25), we estimated winter habitat to cover 33,170 km2, nearly 10% of the study area. The Dominican Republic contained half of all potential habitat (51%), followed by Cuba (15.1%), Jamaica (13.5%), Haiti (10.6%), and Puerto Rico (9.9%). Nearly one-third of the range was found to be in protected areas. By providing the first detailed predictive map of Bicknell’s Thrush winter distribution, our study provides a useful tool to prioritize and direct conservation planning for this and

  6. Oral Thrush (United States)

    ... to cancer or a weakened immune system from HIV/AIDS, the lesions may spread downward into your esophagus — the long, muscular tube ... lowered immunity, such as from cancer treatment or HIV/AIDS, thrush can be ... immune system, thrush may spread to your esophagus or other parts of your ...

  7. Oral Thrush (For Parents) (United States)

    ... Giving Teens a Voice in Health Care Decisions Oral Thrush KidsHealth > For Parents > Oral Thrush Print A ... A en español Muguet (candidiasis oral) What Is Oral Thrush? Oral thrush is a very common yeast ...

  8. Orwell's Thrush Is a Hardy Bird. (United States)

    Gray, W. Russell


    Explores the linkages between Thomas Hardy's poem "The Darkling Thrush" and the thrush scene in George Orwell's novel "1984." Suggests a variety of enrichment projects for students that deal with aspects of these two works. (RBW)

  9. Thrush and Other Candida Infections (United States)

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Thrush and Other Candida Infections Page Content Article Body The fungus Candida is normally found on and in the body ... tract and genital area. Most of the time, Candida does not cause any symptoms. When these organisms ...

  10. Thrush (United States)

    ... your: Brain ( meningitis ) Esophagus (esophagitis) Eyes ( endophthalmitis ) Heart ( endocarditis ) Joints ( arthritis ) When to Contact a Medical Professional ... Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, Updated Edition . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  11. A Fast Hermite Transform. (United States)

    Leibon, Gregory; Rockmore, Daniel N; Park, Wooram; Taintor, Robert; Chirikjian, Gregory S


    We present algorithms for fast and stable approximation of the Hermite transform of a compactly supported function on the real line, attainable via an application of a fast algebraic algorithm for computing sums associated with a three-term relation. Trade-offs between approximation in bandlimit (in the Hermite sense) and size of the support region are addressed. Numerical experiments are presented that show the feasibility and utility of our approach. Generalizations to any family of orthogonal polynomials are outlined. Applications to various problems in tomographic reconstruction, including the determination of protein structure, are discussed.

  12. Fourier-Hermite communications; where Fourier meets Hermite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korevaar, C.W.; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; de Boer, Pieter-Tjerk; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    A new signal set, based on the Fourier and Hermite signal bases, is introduced. It combines properties of the Fourier basis signals with the perfect time-frequency localization of the Hermite functions. The signal set is characterized by both a high spectral efficiency and good time-frequency

  13. The Karoo Thrush ( Turdus smithi Bonaparte 1850), a southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Karoo Thrush (Turdus smithi Bonaparte 1850), a southern African endemic. Rauri CK Bowie, Paulette Bloomer, Phillip A Clancey, Timothy M Crowe. Abstract. The Olive Thrush (Turdus olivaceus) species complex is characterised by striking geographical phenotypic variation. Recent consensus has been to recognise ...

  14. Site fidelity and longevity of the Karoo Thrush Turdus smithi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study investigated site fidelity and longevity of an urban T. smithi population at the University of Pretoria main campus in Gauteng. Thrushes were ringed with unique colour ring combinations and identified by resighting them later. We found that T. smithi individuals have high site fidelity, with some thrushes ...

  15. Hermit Thrush is the First Observed Dispersal Agent for Pondberry (Lindera melissifolia) (United States)

    Carl G. Smith; Paul B. Hamel; Margaret S. Devall; Natan M. Schiff


    We investigated dispersal opportunities for the endangered pondberry, Lindera melissifolia (Lauraceae). In 199 hours of observation at 5 fruiting colonies in the Delta National Forest, Sharkey County, Mississippi, we recorded 82 bird species in the vicinity of a colony. Of these, 12 were observed on pondberry plants, and two consumed ripe pondberry...

  16. On the equisummability of Hermite and Fourier expansions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We prove an equisummability result for the Fourier expansions and. Hermite expansions as well as special Hermite expansions. We also prove the uniform boundedness of the Bochner-Riesz means associated to the Hermite expansions for polyradial functions. Keywords. Hermite functions; special Hermite expansions; ...

  17. On the equisummability of Hermite and Fourier expansions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We prove an equisummability result for the Fourier expansions and Hermite expansions as well as special Hermite expansions. We also prove the uniform boundedness of the Bochner-Riesz means associated to the Hermite expansions for polyradial functions.

  18. Short Communications Fruit selection in the olive thrush: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Mar 5, 1996 ... representing four ripeness categories. The thrushes ate mostly black fruit (ripest), followed by maroon (ripe) and olive- ... pieces, followed by red and black pieces. Green pieces were never eaten. The results ... 1987), and possibly insect larvae exit holes (Sallabanks. 1993). Fmit colour may influence fruit ...

  19. Effects of radio transmitters on migrating wood thrushes (United States)

    Powell, L.A.; Krementz, D.G.; Lang, J.D.; Conroy, M.J.


    We quantified the effects of radio transmitters on Wood Thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina) using 4 yr of banding and telemetry data from Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge, Georgia. Flight performance models suggest that the 1.6-g transmitter shortens the migratory range of Wood Thrushes by only 60 km, and the estimated migratory range is adequate to accomplish migration even with limited fat stores. We used two strengths of line, 5- and 9-kg test-strength braided Dacron, to attach the transmitters using the thigh-harness method. We recaptured 13 returning radio-marked Wood Thrushes, seven of which were still marked. Six of the seven birds marked with the 5-kg test harnesses lost their transmitters within 1 yr while all six of the 9-kg test harnesses were still attached up to 21 mo later. Radio-marking did not reduce the return rates of adults and immatures, and the transmitters did not cause radio-marked birds to lose more mass than banded-only birds. Wood Thrushes can successfully carry a transmitter during migration with no detectable negative effects. We recommend continued use of the thigh-harness method, but we encourage the use of 5-kg cotton line.

  20. Hierarchical temporal structure in music, speech and animal vocalizations: jazz is like a conversation, humpbacks sing like hermit thrushes. (United States)

    Kello, Christopher T; Bella, Simone Dalla; Médé, Butovens; Balasubramaniam, Ramesh


    Humans talk, sing and play music. Some species of birds and whales sing long and complex songs. All these behaviours and sounds exhibit hierarchical structure-syllables and notes are positioned within words and musical phrases, words and motives in sentences and musical phrases, and so on. We developed a new method to measure and compare hierarchical temporal structures in speech, song and music. The method identifies temporal events as peaks in the sound amplitude envelope, and quantifies event clustering across a range of timescales using Allan factor (AF) variance. AF variances were analysed and compared for over 200 different recordings from more than 16 different categories of signals, including recordings of speech in different contexts and languages, musical compositions and performances from different genres. Non-human vocalizations from two bird species and two types of marine mammals were also analysed for comparison. The resulting patterns of AF variance across timescales were distinct to each of four natural categories of complex sound: speech, popular music, classical music and complex animal vocalizations. Comparisons within and across categories indicated that nested clustering in longer timescales was more prominent when prosodic variation was greater, and when sounds came from interactions among individuals, including interactions between speakers, musicians, and even killer whales. Nested clustering also was more prominent for music compared with speech, and reflected beat structure for popular music and self-similarity across timescales for classical music. In summary, hierarchical temporal structures reflect the behavioural and social processes underlying complex vocalizations and musical performances. © 2017 The Author(s).

  1. Molecular characterization of vanA-containing Enterococcus from migratory birds: song thrush (Turdus philomelos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Silva


    Full Text Available Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE were detected in two faecal samples (1.3% of song thrush in Portugal. vanA isolates showed high level vancomycin/teicoplanin resistance, as well as resistance to ciprofloxacin, quinupristin-dalfopristin and cloranfenicol. Thrush can be a reservoir of VRE and transmit these resistant bacteria to other animals including humans.

  2. Taxonomy and distribution of the imperilled Newfoundland Gray-cheeked Thrush, Catharus minimus minimus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa M. FitzGerald


    Full Text Available Gray-cheeked Thrushes breeding on Newfoundland are purported to be a distinct subspecies (Catharus minimus minimus and have declined precipitously since the 1980s. To assess the validity of Gray-cheeked Thrush subspecies we collected blood samples and morphological measurements from 51 individuals captured at 15 sites in Newfoundland and Labrador (2013-2015. Analysis of mitochondrial (ND2 and nuclear intron (ADAM-TS 6, FIB7 sequences from these and additional samples from Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, Labrador, Quebec, Alaska, and Siberia showed low genetic variation at both nuclear loci, and shallow mitochondrial divergence between subspecies; there were no shared haplotypes between thrushes from Newfoundland / Nova Scotia (n = 41 and those from western Labrador and further west (n = 24. Thrushes from Newfoundland also had shorter wing chords, tails, and culmens and less black in the mandible compared to those from western Labrador and Quebec. Samples from the southeast coast of Labrador (n = 13 included ND2 haplotypes both from Newfoundland and western Labrador plus one putative hybrid that was phenotypically a Gray-cheeked Thrush but that had a Bicknell's Thrush (C. bicknelli ND2 haplotype and was heterozygous at a segregating site in FIB7. We detected thrushes during point counts at 7 of 24 sites on Newfoundland, but failed to detect them at 10 historically occupied sites on Newfoundland or in the reported distribution gap between subspecies in Labrador. Sites where thrushes have apparently disappeared had less shrub habitat within 1250 m and more large broadleaf trees within territory-scale areas compared to sites where they persist. Additionally, red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus are an introduced species on Newfoundland and thrush occurrence was > 3x higher at sites where red squirrels were not detected. Our results support previous designations of C. m. minimus from Newfoundland and southeastern Labrador as a subspecies distinct from C

  3. Differential operators on Hermite Sobolev spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 125; Issue 1. Differential operators on Hermite Sobolev spaces. Suprio Bhar B Rajeev. Volume 125 Issue 1 February 2015 pp 113-125 ... Author Affiliations. Suprio Bhar1 B Rajeev1. Stat.-Math. Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, Bangalore 560 059, India ...

  4. Complete mitochondrial genome of Naumann's thrush Turdus naumanni (Passeriformes: Turdidae). (United States)

    Li, Bo; Zhou, Lizhi; Liu, Gang; Gu, Changming


    The mitochondrial DNA of Naumann's thrush Turdus naumanni (Passeriformes: Turdidae) is 16,750 bp long with A + T contents of 52.79%. It has typical circular mitochondrial genomes that encode the complete set of 37 genes which are usually found in birds. All protein-coding genes use the standard mitochondrial initiation codon ATG, except for ND2 and COI start with GTG. TAN is the most frequent stop codon, and AGN and T- - are also occurred very common. All tRNAs possess the classic clover leaf secondary structure except for tRNA(Ser(AGN)) and tRNA(Lys(CUN)), which lack the "DHU" stem, only forming a simple loop.

  5. Hermite scatterers in an ultraviolet sky (United States)

    Parker, Kevin J.


    The scattering from spherical inhomogeneities has been a major historical topic in acoustics, optics, and electromagnetics and the phenomenon shapes our perception of the world including the blue sky. The long wavelength limit of ;Rayleigh scattering; is characterized by intensity proportional to k4 (or λ-4) where k is the wavenumber and λ is the wavelength. With the advance of nanotechnology, it is possible to produce scatterers that are inhomogeneous with material properties that are functions of radius r, such as concentric shells. We demonstrate that with proper choice of material properties linked to the Hermite polynomials in r, scatterers can have long wavelength scattering behavior of higher powers: k8, k16, and higher. These ;Hermite scatterers; could be useful in providing unique signatures (or colors) to regions where they are present. If suspended in air under white light, the back-scattered spectrum would be shifted from blue towards violet and then ultraviolet as the higher order Hermite scatterers were illuminated.

  6. Exploratory analyses ofmigration timing andmorphometrics of the Song Thrush (Turdus philomelos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csörgő Tibor


    Full Text Available Ornithological studies often rely on long-term bird ringing data sets as sources of information. However, basic descriptive statistics of raw data are rarely provided. In order to fill this gap, here we present the third item of a series of exploratory analyses of migration timing and body size measurements of the most frequent Passerine species at a ringing station located in Central Hungary (1984-2016. First, we give a concise description of foreign ring recoveries of the Song Thrush in relation to Hungary. We then shift focus to data of 4137 ringed individuals and 1051 recaptures derived from the ringing station, where birds have been trapped, handled and ringed with standardized methodology since 1984. Timing is described through annual and daily capture and recapture frequencies and their descriptive statistics. We show annual mean arrival dates within the study period and present the cumulative distributions of first captures with stopover durations. We present the distributions of wing, third primary, tail length and body mass, and the annual means of these variables. Furthermore, we show the distributions of individual fat and muscle scores, and the distributions of body mass within each fat score category. We distinguish the spring and autumn migratory periods, breeding and wintering seasons, and age groups (i.e. juveniles and adults. Our aim is to provide a comprehensive overview of the analysed variables. However, we do not aim to interpret the obtained results, merely to draw attention to interesting patterns that may be worth exploring in detail. Data used here are available upon request for further analyses.

  7. A Weak Convergence to Hermite Process by Martingale Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xichao Sun


    Full Text Available We consider the weak convergence to general Hermite process ZH,k of order k with index H. By applying martingale differences we construct a sequence {ZH,kn ,  n=1,2,…} of multiple Wiener-Itô stochastic integrals such that it converges in distribution to the Hermite process ZH,k.

  8. Contrasting latitudinal patterns of life-history divergence in two genera of new world thrushes (Turdinae) (United States)

    Boyce, Andy J.; Martin, Thomas E.


    Several long-standing hypotheses have been proposed to explain latitudinal patterns of life-history strategies. Here, we test predictions of four such hypotheses (seasonality, food limitation, nest predation and adult survival probability) by examining life-history traits and age-specific mortality rates of several species of thrushes (Turdinae) based on field studies at temperate and tropical sites and data gathered from the literature. Thrushes in the genus Catharus showed the typical pattern of slower life-history strategies in the tropics while co-occuring Turdus thrushes differed much less across latitudes. Seasonality is a broadly accepted hypothesis for latitudinal patterns, but the lack of concordance in latitudinal patterns between co-existing genera that experience the same seasonal patterns suggests seasonality cannot fully explain latitudinal trait variation in thrushes. Nest-predation also could not explain patterns based on our field data and literature data for these two genera. Total feeding rates were similar, and per-nestling feeding rates were higher at tropical latitudes in both genera, suggesting food limitation does not explain trait differences in thrushes. Latitudinal patterns of life histories in these two genera were closely associated with adult survival probability. Thus, our data suggest that environmental influences on adult survival probability may play a particularly strong role in shaping latitudinal patterns of life-history traits.

  9. Hermite y la trascendencia de e

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Sánchez Muñoz


    Full Text Available Este artículo es en parte una traducción de los trabajos que llevó a cabo el francés Charles Hermite para determinar la trascendencia del número e, considerado éste como base de los logaritmos neperianos. Se han realizado algunas simplificaciones en dicha demostración para hacerlamás asequible al lector. Se presenta además una introducción del número e a través de quien inventó su notación, Leonhard Euler.

  10. Impacts of cowbird parasitism on wood thrushes and other neotropical migrants in suburban Maryland forests (United States)

    Dowell, B.A.; Fallon, J.E.; Robbins, C.S.; Dawson, D.K.; Fallon, F.W.; Smith, James N.M.; Cook, Terry L.; Rothstein, Stephen I.; Robinson, Scott K.; Sealy, Spencer G.


    During 1988-1993, we monitored nests of neotropical migrant birds in seven suburban Maryland forests to compare parasitism and predation rates in forests of different areas. Of 1,122 nests monitored, 672 were of Wood Thrush, the most commonly found nesting species. Study sites were forests that ranged in size from 21 ha to more than 1,300 ha in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain regions of Maryland within 50 km of Washington, D.C. Parasitism rates of Wood Thrush nests varied greatly among sites, ranging from 0% (29 nests in 1990-1992) in a site in extensive forest to 68% (31 nests 1992-1993) in a 21-ha, selectively logged old-growth forest. A sudden increase in parasitism from 9% (102 nests 1990-1991) to 35% (125 nests 1992-1993) in a 23-ha old-growth forest was noteworthy. The surrounding environment at this site is changing from rural to residential. Wood Thrush parasitism rates dropped as the breeding season progressed, but peaks of parasitism coincided with peaks of nesting activity. Parasitism rates for Hooded Warblers (88% of 17 nests-all sites) were most alarming. High predation rates were a much greater factor in low productivity for Wood Thrushes than parasitism.

  11. Nest site selection and breeding success in three Turdus thrush species coexisting in an urban environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikula, P.; Hromada, M.; Albrecht, Tomáš; Tryjanowski, P.


    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2014), s. 83-92 ISSN 0001-6454 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : breeding success * coexistence * nest-habitat partitioning * nest site selection * predation * synurbization * urban habitat * thrushes Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.745, year: 2014

  12. Swainson's Thrushes do not show strong wind selectivity prior to crossing the Gulf of Mexico. (United States)

    Bolus, Rachel T; Diehl, Robert H; Moore, Frank R; Deppe, Jill L; Ward, Michael P; Smolinsky, Jaclyn; Zenzal, Theodore J


    During long-distance fall migrations, nocturnally migrating Swainson's Thrushes often stop on the northern Gulf of Mexico coast before flying across the Gulf. To minimize energetic costs, trans-Gulf migrants should stop over when they encounter crosswinds or headwinds, and depart with supportive tailwinds. However, time constrained migrants should be less selective, balancing costs of headwinds with benefits of continuing their migrations. To test the hypotheses that birds select supportive winds and that selectivity is mediated by seasonal time constraints, we examined whether local winds affected Swainson's Thrushes' arrival and departure at Ft. Morgan, Alabama, USA at annual, seasonal, and nightly time scales. Additionally, migrants could benefit from forecasting future wind conditions, crossing on nights when winds are consistently supportive across the Gulf, thereby avoiding the potentially lethal consequences of depleting their energetic reserves over water. To test whether birds forecast, we developed a movement model, calculated to what extent departure winds were predictive of future Gulf winds, and tested whether birds responded to predictability. Swainson's Thrushes were only slightly selective and did not appear to forecast. By following the simple rule of avoiding only the strongest headwinds at departure, Swainson's Thrushes could survive the 1500 km flight between Alabama and Veracruz, Mexico.

  13. Nectar robbery by a hermit hummingbird

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maruyama, Pietro K.; Vizentin-Bugoni, Jeferson; Dalsgaard, Bo


    Interactions between flowers and their visitors span the spectrum from mutualism to antagonism. The literature is rich in studies focusing on mutualism, but nectar robbery has mostly been investigated using phytocentric approaches focused on only a few plant species. To fill this gap, we studied...... the interactions between a nectar-robbing hermit hummingbird, Phaethornis ruber, and the array of flowers it visits. First, based on a literature review of the interactions involving P. ruber, we characterized the association of floral larceny to floral phenotype. We then experimentally examined the effects...... of nectar robbing on nectar standing crop and number of visits of the pollinators to the flowers of Canna paniculata. Finally, we asked whether the incorporation of illegitimate interactions into the analysis affects plant–hummingbird network structure. We identified 97 plant species visited by P. ruber...

  14. The Clifford Deformation of the Hermite Semigroup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik De Bie


    Full Text Available This paper is a continuation of the paper [De Bie H., Ørsted B., Somberg P., Souček V., Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. 364 (2012, 3875–3902], investigating a natural radial deformation of the Fourier transform in the setting of Clifford analysis. At the same time, it gives extensions of many results obtained in [Ben Saïd S., Kobayashi T., Ørsted B., Compos. Math. 148 (2012, 1265–1336]. We establish the analogues of Bochner's formula and the Heisenberg uncertainty relation in the framework of the (holomorphic Hermite semigroup, and also give a detailed analytic treatment of the series expansion of the associated integral transform.

  15. Properties of Orthogonal Gaussian-Hermite Moments and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Shen


    Full Text Available Moments are widely used in pattern recognition, image processing, and computer vision and multiresolution analysis. In this paper, we first point out some properties of the orthogonal Gaussian-Hermite moments, and propose a new method to detect the moving objects by using the orthogonal Gaussian-Hermite moments. The experiment results are reported, which show the good performance of our method.

  16. Peroxide alkaline for cleansing the baby bottle nipple to prevent oral thrush relaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maharani Laillyza Apriasari


    Full Text Available Background: Oral candidiasis is the most prevalent opportunistic infection affecting the oral mucosa. A number of predisposing factors have the capacity to convert Candida from the normal commensal flora to a pathogenic organism. Oral candidiasis is divided into primary and secondary infection. The primary infections are restricted to the oral and perioral sites, where as secondary infections are accompanied by sistemic mucocutaneous manifestation. Oral thrush is one of the candidiasis primary infection. Some presdiposing factors of oral thrush are neonatal, old people, or where oral microflora is disturbed by the treatment with broad spectrum antibiotics. Final diagnosis is determined by fungal culture examination, although through clinical examination oral thrush can be determined by swabbing the white pseudomembran. Purpose: This case report presents about the importance of using the antiseptic cleanser for baby bottle nipple to prevent oral thrush relaps and shows about peroxide alkaline as the alternatif of antiseptic cleanser for baby bottle nipple that can substitute chlorhexidine gluconat 0.2%. Case: A baby girl, 15 months old, when she was suffering influenza the pediatry gave amoxycillin 125 mg three times a day for ten days. Then the white plaque appeared on her dorsum of tongue. The therapy was Gentian Violet 1% four times a day for ten days was applied on dorsum of the tongue. The patient was suspected to suffer alergy reaction after using nistatin oral suspension four times a day had applied for 1 day. The instruction was doing sterilization for the baby bottle nipple in boiling water. Three days after the baby was cured, the white plaque was appeared on upper n lower lips mucous. Case management: The diagnosis was Oral thrush. The therapy was Gentian violet 1% four times a day for ten days that applied on upper and lower lips mucous. The instruction was doing the sterilization for baby bottle nipple in denture cleanser contain

  17. Hermite-distributed approximating functional-based formulation of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jul 29, 2016 ... 34 Page 2 of 8. Pramana – J. Phys. (2016) 87: 34. 2. The method. We have employed Hermite-distributed approximating functionals (HDAF) to approximate the Hamiltonian in coordinate representation. The HDAF space discretiza- tion of the kinetic energy operator on a regular grid consists of. −. ¯h2. 2m.

  18. The truncated exponential polynomials, the associated Hermite forms and applications


    Dattoli, G.; Migliorati, M.


    We discuss the properties of the truncated exponential polynomials and develop the theory of new form of Hermite polynomials, which can be constructed using the truncated exponential as a generating function. We derive their explicit forms and comment on their usefulness in applications, with particular reference to the theory of flattened beams, used in optics.

  19. Squeezing of higher order Hermite-Gauss modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Mikael Østergaard


    The present paper gives an overview of the experimental generation of squeezing in higher order Hermite-Gaussian modes with an optical parametric ampli¯er (OPA). This work was awarded with The European Optical Society (EOS) price 2007. The purpose of the prize is to encourage a European dimension...

  20. Hermit Crabs (Decapoda: Anomura: Paguridea) from the Seychelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLaughlin, P.A.; Hogarth, P.J.


    A report on the hermit crabs collected during the Netherlands Seychelles Expedition, 1992-1993, supplemented by materials collected for Enterprise Oil and examined by one of the authors. Twentyseven species, representing three families, are recognized, including one new genus and four new species.

  1. Shell utilization and morphometries of the hermit crab Diogenes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fecundity, shell utilization, and crab and associated shell morphometries were investigated for the hermit crab Diogenes brevirostris collected from three intertidal sites in the eastern Cape. The relationship between crab fresh mass and egg number was linear. D. brevirostris was found to occupy 33 gastropod shell species ...

  2. Aggression and food resource competition between sympatric hermit crab species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark V Tran

    Full Text Available The vertical zonation patterns of intertidal organisms have been topics of interest to marine ecologists for many years, with interspecific food competition being implicated as a contributing factor to intertidal community organization. In this study, we used behavioral bioassays to examine the potential roles that interspecific aggression and food competition have on the structuring of intertidal hermit crab assemblages. We studied two ecologically similar, sympatric hermit crab species, Clibanarius digueti [1] and Paguristes perrieri [2], which occupy adjacent zones within the intertidal region of the Gulf of California. During the search phase of foraging, C. digueti showed higher frequencies of aggressive behaviors than P. perrieri. In competition assays, C. digueti gained increased access to food resources compared to P. perrieri. The results suggest that food competition may play an important role in structuring intertidal hermit crab assemblages, and that the zonation patterns of Gulf of California hermit crab species may be the result of geographical displacement by the dominant food competitor (C. digueti.

  3. Improvements of the Hermite-Hadamard inequality for the simplex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Pavić


    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, the simplex whose vertices are barycenters of the given simplex facets plays an essential role. The article provides an extension of the Hermite-Hadamard inequality from the simplex barycenter to any point of the inscribed simplex except its vertices. A two-sided refinement of the generalized inequality is obtained in completion of this work.

  4. Treatment of oral thrush in HIV/AIDS patients with lemon juice and lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) and gentian violet. (United States)

    Wright, S C; Maree, J E; Sibanyoni, M


    The purpose of the study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of lemon juice and lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) in the treatment of oral thrush in HIV/AIDS patients when compared with the control group using gentian violet aqueous solution 0.5%. Oral thrush is a frequent complication of HIV infection. In the Moretele Hospice, due to financial constraints, the treatment routinely given to patients with oral thrush is either lemon juice directly into the mouth or a lemon grass infusion made from lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) grown and dried at the hospice. These two remedies have been found to be very efficacious therefore are used extensively. Gentian violet, the first line medication for oral thrush in South Africa, is not preferred by the primary health clinic patients due to the visible purple stain which leads them to being stigmatized as HIV-positive. Cymbopogon citratus and Citrus limon have known antifungal properties. The study design was a randomised controlled trial. Ninety patients were randomly assigned to one of three groups: gentian violet, lemon juice or lemon grass. Inclusion criteria included being HIV-positive with a diagnosis of oral thrush. The study period was 11 days and patients were followed up every second day. International ethical principles were adhered to during the study. Of the 90 patients, 83 completed the study. In the intention-to-treat analysis, none of the p-values were significant therefore the null hypothesis could not be rejected. In the analysis of the participants who actually completed the trial, the lemon juice showed better results than the gentian violet aqueous solution 0.5% in the treatment of oral thrush in an HIV-positive population (plemon grass and gentian violet could also be rejected on the basis of the Chi-square test and the likelihood ratio test (plemon juice and lemon grass for the treatment of oral candidiasis in an HIV population was validated by the randomised controlled trial.

  5. Winter MVC


    Castellón Gadea, Pasqual


    Winter MVC és un framework de presentació basat en Spring MVC que simplifica la metodologia de configuracions. Winter MVC es un framework de presentación basado en Spring MVC que simplifica la metodología de configuraciones. Winter MVC is a presentation framework that simplifies Spring MVC configuration methodology.

  6. Self-similar propagation of Hermite-Gauss water-wave pulses. (United States)

    Fu, Shenhe; Tsur, Yuval; Zhou, Jianying; Shemer, Lev; Arie, Ady


    We demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally propagation dynamics of surface gravity water-wave pulses, having Hermite-Gauss envelopes. We show that these waves propagate self-similarly along an 18-m wave tank, preserving their general Hermite-Gauss envelopes in both the linear and the nonlinear regimes. The measured surface elevation wave groups enable observing the envelope phase evolution of both nonchirped and linearly frequency chirped Hermite-Gauss pulses, hence allowing us to measure Gouy phase shifts of high-order Hermite-Gauss pulses for the first time. Finally, when increasing pulse amplitude, nonlinearity becomes essential and the second harmonic of Hermite-Gauss waves was observed. We further show that these generated second harmonic bound waves still exhibit self-similar Hermite-Gauss shapes along the tank.

  7. Eggshell colour does not predict measures of maternal investment in eggs of Turdus thrushes. (United States)

    Cassey, Phillip; Ewen, John G; Blackburn, Tim M; Hauber, Mark E; Vorobyev, Misha; Marshall, N Justin


    The striking diversity of avian eggshell colour has long fascinated biologists. Recently, it has been proposed that the blue-green colour of some eggs may function as a post-mating sexually selected signal of female phenotypic quality to their mates to induce higher allocation of paternal care. It has been suggested that maternally deposited yolk carotenoids may be the specific aspect of reproductive quality that the female is signalling via eggshell colour. We use the known properties of the thrush visual system (Turdus sp.) to calculate photon capture for the four single cone photoreceptors, and the principal member of the double cone class for eggs in clutches of two introduced European thrush species (Turdus merula and Turdus philomelos) in New Zealand. We show that differences in the avian-perceived colours of individual eggs are not consistently correlated with different measures of maternal investment in the egg. Given the growing extent of the knowledge between maternal quality, parental investment and eggshell pigmentation across avian taxa, we encourage the use of avian perceptual modelling for testing alternative non-signalling explanations for the structural and physiological basis of these relationships.

  8. Eggshell colour does not predict measures of maternal investment in eggs of Turdus thrushes (United States)

    Cassey, Phillip; Ewen, John G.; Blackburn, Tim M.; Hauber, Mark E.; Vorobyev, Misha; Marshall, N. Justin


    The striking diversity of avian eggshell colour has long fascinated biologists. Recently, it has been proposed that the blue-green colour of some eggs may function as a post-mating sexually selected signal of female phenotypic quality to their mates to induce higher allocation of paternal care. It has been suggested that maternally deposited yolk carotenoids may be the specific aspect of reproductive quality that the female is signalling via eggshell colour. We use the known properties of the thrush visual system ( Turdus sp.) to calculate photon capture for the four single cone photoreceptors, and the principal member of the double cone class for eggs in clutches of two introduced European thrush species ( Turdus merula and Turdus philomelos) in New Zealand. We show that differences in the avian-perceived colours of individual eggs are not consistently correlated with different measures of maternal investment in the egg. Given the growing extent of the knowledge between maternal quality, parental investment and eggshell pigmentation across avian taxa, we encourage the use of avian perceptual modelling for testing alternative non-signalling explanations for the structural and physiological basis of these relationships.

  9. On some Hermite series identities and their applications to Gabor analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemvig, Jakob


    We prove some infinite series identities for the Hermite functions. From these identities we disprove the Gabor frame set conjecture for Hermite functions of order (Formula presented.) and (Formula presented.) for (Formula presented.). The results hold not only for Hermite functions, but for two ...... large classes of eigenfunctions of the Fourier transform associated with the eigenvalues (Formula presented.) and i, and the results indicate that the Gabor frame set of all such functions must have a rather complicated structure....

  10. The Effect of non-Hermiticity on Adiabatic Elimination


    Sharaf, Rahman; Dehghani, Mojgan; Darbari, Sara; Ramezani, Hamidreza


    We investigate the influence of non-Hermiticity on the adiabatic elimination in coupled waveguides. We show that adiabatic elimination is not affected when the system is in parity-time symmetric phase. However, in the broken phase the eliminated waveguide loses its darkness namely its amplitude starts increasing, which means adiabatic elimination does not hold in the broken phase. Our results can advance the control of the dynamics in coupled laser cavities, and help the design of controllabl...

  11. Rotation invariants from Gaussian-Hermite moments of color images

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yang, B.; Suk, Tomáš; Flusser, Jan; Shi, Z.; Chen, X.


    Roč. 143, č. 1 (2018), s. 282-291 ISSN 0165-1684 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-16928S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Color images * Object recognition * Rotation invariants * Gaussian–Hermite moments * Joint invariants Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 3.110, year: 2016 http:// library

  12. Five Martyr Brothers. First Polish hermits and their worship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Blaschke


    Full Text Available Brothers Benedict and John, students of Romuald, came to Poland at the invitation of Otto III to convert pagans. Soon the Italian hermits were joined by Polish brothers Isaac and Matthew, who helped them in learning the Slavic language. The hermits, as well as Christinus, well killed in 1003 by thugs who wanted to steal money given by Duke Boleslav to an expedition to Rome, which was aimed at obtaining papal consent for conducting missionary work. Although the hermits died as victims of a robbery, killed by fellow Christians, the pope canonized them as martyrs. Their lives are relatively well-documented: the earliest and the most credible story of the five brothers by Bruno of Querfurt was written as early as five years after their death, although remained unknown until 1883. Another early account is the life of St. Romuald by Piotr Damiani of 1041. The martyrs have been also associated with yet another mysterious work – a gravestone unearthed in 1959 at the external wall of the north Roman apse of the Gniezno Cathedral, considered by most researchers the oldest epigraphic item on the Polish soil. However, the identification of the warriors mentioned in the inscription with 11th century martyrs raises many doubts. The article discusses the above matters, as well as the subject of the development of the worship of the martyr brothers.

  13. Fourier–Hermite spectral representation for the Vlasov–Poisson system in the weakly collisional limit

    KAUST Repository

    Parker, Joseph T.


    Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2015. We study Landau damping in the 1+1D Vlasov-Poisson system using a Fourier-Hermite spectral representation. We describe the propagation of free energy in Fourier-Hermite phase space using forwards and backwards propagating Hermite modes recently developed for gyrokinetic theory. We derive a free energy equation that relates the change in the electric field to the net Hermite flux out of the zeroth Hermite mode. In linear Landau damping, decay in the electric field corresponds to forward propagating Hermite modes; in nonlinear damping, the initial decay is followed by a growth phase characterized by the generation of backwards propagating Hermite modes by the nonlinear term. The free energy content of the backwards propagating modes increases exponentially until balancing that of the forward propagating modes. Thereafter there is no systematic net Hermite flux, so the electric field cannot decay and the nonlinearity effectively suppresses Landau damping. These simulations are performed using the fully-spectral 5D gyrokinetics code SpectroGK, modified to solve the 1+1D Vlasov-Poisson system. This captures Landau damping via Hou-Li filtering in velocity space. Therefore the code is applicable even in regimes where phase mixing and filamentation are dominant.

  14. Hyperbolic accelerating beams and their relation with Hermite-Gaussian beams. (United States)

    Huang, Chaohong; Li, Hanqing; Wu, Jianfeng; Yan, Yupeng


    We derive the initial distributions of phase and complex amplitude of accelerating beams with arbitrary predesigned hyperbolic trajectories using the caustic-design method and explore the relation between these beams and Hermite-Gaussian beams. The results show the hyperbolic accelerating beams are a larger class of beams than Hermite-Gaussian beams. When the bending parameter is an integer, the hyperbolic accelerating beams have a similar initial complex amplitude distribution and almost the same propagating characteristics as Hermite-Gaussian beams. Through the analysis of the ray-based method, we also derive an approximate expression for the initial complex amplitude of Hermite-Gaussian beams after introducing an amplitude distribution function. Although the proposed approximate expressions of complex amplitude are more complex than the usually used Hermite-Gaussian function, they explicitly indicate the information on local amplitude, wave vector, and internal ray structure (including caustics) of these beams and thus provide us clearer geometrical insights into these beams.

  15. Symbiosis of sea anemones and hermit crabs: different resource utilization patterns in the Aegean Sea (United States)

    Vafeiadou, Anna-Maria; Antoniadou, Chryssanthi; Chintiroglou, Chariton


    The small-scale distribution and resource utilization patterns of hermit crabs living in symbiosis with sea anemones were investigated in the Aegean Sea. Four hermit crab species, occupying shells of nine gastropod species, were found in symbiosis with the sea anemone Calliactis parasitica. Shell resource utilization patterns varied among hermit crabs, with Dardanus species utilizing a wide variety of shells. The size structure of hermit crab populations also affected shell resource utilization, with small-sized individuals inhabiting a larger variety of shells. Sea anemone utilization patterns varied both among hermit crab species and among residence shells, with larger crabs and shells hosting an increased abundance and biomass of C. parasitica. The examined biometric relationships suggested that small-sized crabs carry, proportionally to their weight, heavier shells and increased anemone biomass than larger ones. Exceptions to the above patterns are related either to local resource availability or to other environmental factors.

  16. Positive abundance and negative distribution effects of a gastropod on an intertidal hermit crab. (United States)

    Raimondi, Peter T; Lively, Curtis M


    Field experiments were used to determine the effect of a common intertidal snail (Nerita funiculata) on the use of space for foraging by the hermit crab Clibanarius digueti. Removals of Nerita resulted in an increased density of foraging Clibanarius, while additions of the gastropod had the opposite effect. The observed negative effect of the gastropod on individual hermit crabs appears to be food-related. Field surveys, however, suggested that the hermit crab population is limited by shell number, rather than food. Because Nerita contributes to the shell resource, its effect on the hermit crab population is positive. Nerita, therefore, has a negative effect on the distribution of foraging hermit crabs, but a positive effect on their abundance. Such decouplings of distribution and abundance effects are rare.

  17. Nonlinear diffraction from high-order Hermite-Gauss beams. (United States)

    Kalinowski, Ksawery; Shapira, Asia; Libster-Hershko, Ana; Arie, Ady


    We investigate experimentally and theoretically the nonlinearly diffracted second harmonic light from the first-order Hermite-Gauss beam. We investigate the cases of loosely and tightly focused beams in a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal in the temperature range near the birefringent phase matching. Unlike the case of fundamental Gaussian beam, the nonlinear diffracted beam is spatially structured. Its shape depends on the focusing conditions and on the crystal temperature. Furthermore, for the case of tight focusing, the diffracted beam structure depends on the beam's position with respect to the domain wall.

  18. Substrate use and selection in sympatric intertidal hermit crab species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. TURRA

    Full Text Available Coexisting hermit crabs may competitively interact for shells and microhabitats, mainly when shell availability is habitat-related. Three species of Clibanarius (C. antillensis, C. sclopetarius, and C. vittatus coexist in the intertidal region of Pernambuco Islet, Araçá Region, São Sebastião Channel, southeastern Brazil. This study evaluated crab preferences for four substrate types used by these species in nature (rocky shore, pebbles, sand, and mud in allopatric (single species and sympatric (three species treatments in simulations of high tide and low tide. The substrate preference of the three hermit crabs did not vary between low and high tide situations. At low tide the crabs either moved into holes in the highly complex rocky substrate or buried themselves in mud. Substrate selection may explain the patterns of substrate use in nature only for C. vittatus. Clibanarius antillensis and C. sclopetarius showed closer similarities in the pattern of substrate selection in the sympatric treatment with the substrate use in nature than in allopatric treatment, indicating a positive influence (dependence of the presence of one species on the presence of another. Use of sub-optimal substrates, mainly by C. antillensis, may be caused by other factors such as its low desiccation tolerances. If competition for space takes place among these species, it would be more intense between C. sclopetarius and C. vittatus given their higher overlap in substrate preference than between them and C. antillensis.

  19. Substrate use and selection in sympatric intertidal hermit crab species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TURRA A.


    Full Text Available Coexisting hermit crabs may competitively interact for shells and microhabitats, mainly when shell availability is habitat-related. Three species of Clibanarius (C. antillensis, C. sclopetarius, and C. vittatus coexist in the intertidal region of Pernambuco Islet, Araçá Region, São Sebastião Channel, southeastern Brazil. This study evaluated crab preferences for four substrate types used by these species in nature (rocky shore, pebbles, sand, and mud in allopatric (single species and sympatric (three species treatments in simulations of high tide and low tide. The substrate preference of the three hermit crabs did not vary between low and high tide situations. At low tide the crabs either moved into holes in the highly complex rocky substrate or buried themselves in mud. Substrate selection may explain the patterns of substrate use in nature only for C. vittatus. Clibanarius antillensis and C. sclopetarius showed closer similarities in the pattern of substrate selection in the sympatric treatment with the substrate use in nature than in allopatric treatment, indicating a positive influence (dependence of the presence of one species on the presence of another. Use of sub-optimal substrates, mainly by C. antillensis, may be caused by other factors such as its low desiccation tolerances. If competition for space takes place among these species, it would be more intense between C. sclopetarius and C. vittatus given their higher overlap in substrate preference than between them and C. antillensis.

  20. The beam propagation factor M2 of truncated Standard and Elegant-Hermite-Gaussian beams (United States)

    Mihoubi, K.; Bencheikh, A.; Manallah, Ai.


    Based on the truncated second-order-moment method, exact analytical expressions of the beam propagation factors M2 of truncated Standard and Elegant-Hermite-Gaussian beam are derived for the first time. According to the derived expressions, the beam propagation factors are illustrated and analyzed with numerical examples, and the influence of the truncation parameter and the order of Hermite polynomials on the beam propagation factors are also discussed in detail. To clarify the main physical results, only M2 of truncated 1D standard and Elegant- Hermite-Gaussian beams have been treated in this paper, but further extension to the 2D space is straightforward.

  1. Time-Frequency Analysis and Hermite Projection Method Applied to Swallowing Accelerometry Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ervin Sejdić


    Full Text Available Fast Hermite projections have been often used in image-processing procedures such as image database retrieval, projection filtering, and texture analysis. In this paper, we propose an innovative approach for the analysis of one-dimensional biomedical signals that combines the Hermite projection method with time-frequency analysis. In particular, we propose a two-step approach to characterize vibrations of various origins in swallowing accelerometry signals. First, by using time-frequency analysis we obtain the energy distribution of signal frequency content in time. Second, by using fast Hermite projections we characterize whether the analyzed time-frequency regions are associated with swallowing or other phenomena (vocalization, noise, bursts, etc.. The numerical analysis of the proposed scheme clearly shows that by using a few Hermite functions, vibrations of various origins are distinguishable. These results will be the basis for further analysis of swallowing accelerometry to detect swallowing difficulties.

  2. Multiresolution analysis over triangles, based on quadratic Hermite interpolation (United States)

    Dæhlen, M.; Lyche, T.; Mørken, K.; Schneider, R.; Seidel, H.-P.


    Given a triangulation T of , a recipe to build a spline space over this triangulation, and a recipe to refine the triangulation T into a triangulation T', the question arises whether , i.e., whether any spline surface over the original triangulation T can also be represented as a spline surface over the refined triangulation T'. In this paper we will discuss how to construct such a nested sequence of spaces based on Powell-Sabin 6-splits for a regular triangulation. The resulting spline space consists of piecewise C1-quadratics, and refinement is obtained by subdividing every triangle into four subtriangles at the edge midpoints. We develop explicit formulas for wavelet transformations based on quadratic Hermite interpolation, and give a stability result with respect to a natural norm.

  3. Shell selection of hermit crabs is influenced by fluid drag (United States)

    Casillas, Barbara; Ledesma, Rene; Alcaraz, Guillermina; Zenit, Roberto


    The flow around gastropod shells used by hermit crabs (Calcinus californiensis) was visualized experimentally. These crabs choose their shells according to many factors; we found that the choice of shell (shape and weight) is directly related to the drag caused over them by the exposure to wave action. Tests were conducted in a wind tunnel to investigate flow differences for shells of various shapes. A particle image velocimetry (PIV) system was used to visualize the flow field. The images above show the flow field around two types of shells (Thais speciosa and Nerita scabircosta) for Reynolds numbers of O(10^5). Using a control volume analysis, the drag coefficient was inferred. Several shell geometries, orientations and mean flow velocities were tested. In this talk, the flow and drag force will be shown for the different arrangements. A discussion of the relation between drag and shape will be presented.

  4. The hermit crab’s nose – antennal transcriptomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin C Groh


    Full Text Available In the course of evolution, crustaceans adapted to a large variety of habitats. Probably the most extreme habitat shift was the transition from water to land, which occurred independently in at least five crustacean lineages. This substantial change in life style required adaptations in sensory organs, as the medium conveying stimuli changed in both chemical and physical properties. One important sensory organ in crustaceans is the first pair of antennae, housing their sense of smell. Previous studies on the crustacean transition from water to land focused on morphological, behavioral and physiological aspects but did not analyze gene expression. Our goal was to scrutinize the molecular makeup of the crustacean antennulae, comparing the terrestrial Coenobita clypeatus and the marine Pagurus bernhardus. We sequenced and analyzed the antennal transcriptomes of two hermit crab species. Comparison to previously published datasets of similar tissues revealed a comparable quality and GO annotation confirmed a highly similar set of expressed genes in both datasets. The chemosensory gene repertoire of both species displayed a similar set of ionotropic receptors (IRs, most of them belonging to the divergent IR subtype. No binding proteins, gustatory receptors (GRs or insect-like olfactory receptors (ORs were present. Additionally to their olfactory function, the antennules were equipped with a variety of pathogen defense mechanisms, producing relevant substances on site. The overall similarity of both transcriptomes is high and does not indicate a general shift in genetic makeup connected to the change in habitat. Ionotropic receptors seem to perform the task of olfactory detection in both hermit crab species studied.

  5. Distribution and shell selection by two hermit crabs in different habitats on Egyptian Red Sea Coast (United States)

    El-Kareem Ismail, Tarek Gad


    The present work aims to assess the spatial distribution, analyze shell utilization, shell fitness and determine the effect of coexistence of two hermit crabs Calcinus latens and Clibanarius signatus on used shell resources in various habitats on the Red Sea Coast. Also, to determine the choice of shells and investigate the shell species preference of C. latens and C. signatus in the laboratory. The hermit crabs C. latens and C. signatus were found to occupy shells of 39 gastropod species. The most commonly occupied gastropod shells are those belonging to genera Strombus, Nerita, Cerithium and Planaxis. The results showed that crab individuals utilized mainly the shell with elongate aperture. Laboratory experiments showed that two crab species preferred shells of Strombus followed by Cerithium and Nerita when offered shells of nearly similar size (optimal). Crab individuals showed a significant preference for optimal sized shells when given suboptimal shells as an alternative choice. Also, the hermit crabs avoid damaged shells when given a choice of optimal sized damaged shell and optimal sized intact one. In addition, two hermit crab species chose shells of smaller than optimal size when given a choice of damaged optimal sized shells and smaller intact ones. On the other hand, field observations showed that most crab individuals lived in adequate sized shells. The present data conclude that shell selection by hermit crabs C. latens and C. signatus depends mostly on shell internal volume, shell quality and shell aperture size than other factors, because they provide a maximum protection for hermit crabs.

  6. Survival estimates of wild and captive-bred released Puaiohi, an endangered Hawaiian thrush (United States)

    VanderWerf, Eric; Crampton, Lisa H.; Diegmann, Julia; Atkinson, Carter T.; Leonard, David L.


    Estimating and monitoring adult and juvenile survival are vital to understanding population status, informing recovery planning for endangered species, and quantifying the success of management. We used mark–recapture models to estimate apparent annual survival of the Puaiohi (Myadestes palmeri), an endangered thrush endemic to the Hawaiian island of Kauai, from 2005 to 2011. Our sample included 87 wild birds and 123 captive-bred birds that were released at various ages. Survival was higher for wild adult males (0.71 ± 0.09) than for wild adult females (0.46 ± 0.12). Survival of wild juveniles (0.23 ± 0.06) was lower than that of wild adults of both sexes, indicating that recruitment may limit population growth. Captive-bred birds released when survival (0.26 ± 0.21) comparable with that of wild juveniles, but captive-bred birds released at 1–3 yr old had very low survival (0.05 ± 0.06). Only 8 of 123 (7%) captive birds were seen again after release. Two wild birds resighted five years after marking are the oldest known individuals, being at least six years of age. Malarial infection did not affect survival of wild Puaiohi, unlike many Hawaiian forest birds. The difference between adult male and adult female survival is consistent with rat (Rattusspp.) predation of females on the nest as a major source of mortality. As such, attempting to reduce nest predation by controlling rats may be the best available management option. Releasing captive-bred birds has had little effect on the wild population in recent years.

  7. Ongoing movement of the hermit warbler X Townsend's warbler hybrid zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meade Krosby

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Movements of hybrid zones - areas of overlap and interbreeding between species - are difficult to document empirically. This is true because moving hybrid zones are expected to be rare, and because movement may proceed too slowly to be measured directly. Townsend's warblers (Dendroica townsendi hybridize with hermit warblers (D. occidentalis where their ranges overlap in Washington and Oregon. Previous morphological, behavioral, and genetic studies of this hybrid zone suggest that it has been steadily moving into the geographical range of hermit warblers, with the more aggressive Townsend's warblers replacing hermit warblers along ∼2000 km of the Pacific coast of Canada and Alaska. Ongoing movement of the zone, however, has yet to be empirically demonstrated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared recently sampled hybrid zone specimens to those collected 10-20 years earlier, to test directly the long-standing hypothesis of hybrid zone movement between these species. Newly sampled specimens were more Townsend's-like than historical specimens, consistent with ongoing movement of the zone into the geographical range of hermit warblers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While movement of a hybrid zone may be explained by several possible mechanisms, in this case a wealth of existing evidence suggests that movement is being driven by the competitive displacement of hermit warblers by Townsend's warblers. That no ecological differences have been found between these species, and that replacement of hermit warblers by Townsend's warblers is proceeding downward in latitude and elevation - opposite the directions of range shifts predicted by recent climate change - further support that this movement is not being driven by alternative environmental factors. If the mechanism of competitive displacement is correct, whether this process will ultimately lead to the extinction of hermit warblers will depend on the continued maintenance of the

  8. Tandem duplications in the C-terminal domain of the mesotocin receptor exclusively identified among East Eurasian thrushes. (United States)

    Abe, Hideaki; Nishiumi, Isao; Inoue-Murayama, Miho


    Mesotocin is a neurohypophyseal hormone found in some non-mammalian vertebrates, including birds, reptiles, and amphibians. In this study, we identified and characterized 18-amino acid duplications in the C-terminal domain of the mesotocin receptor (MTR), specifically found in Turdus thrushes (Aves: Passeriforms: Turdidae). These duplicated elements are located in the distal part of the C-terminal tails of MTR and consist of amino acids that are highly conserved among major vertebrates. Intraspecific polymorphisms in a variable number of tandem duplications are commonly found in East Eurasian Turdus, but not in any other genus of Turdidae. Moreover, the genus Turdus can be further classified into 2 groups according to the presence or absence of a 3-amino acid deletion just adjacent to the putative palmitoylation site in the cytoplasmic C-terminal tail. The phylogeny presented here strongly supports the conspecific group of 4 East Eurasian thrushes (Turdus pallidus, T. chrysolaus, T. obscurus, and T. celaenops). Our findings, therefore, provide a new synapomorphy that can be used for phylogenetic assumptions and shed a light on the history of diversification within Eurasian Turdus clades.

  9. Wingbeat frequency and the body drag anomaly: Wind-tunnel observations on a thrush nightingale (Luscinia luscinia) and a teal (Anas crecca)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennycuick, C.J.; Klaassen, M.R.J.; Kvist, A.; Lindstrom, A.


    A teal (Anas crecca) and a thrush nightingale (Luscinia luscinia) were trained to fly in the Lund wind tunnel for periods of up to 3 and 16 h respectively. Both birds flew in steady flapping flight, with such regularity that their wingbeat frequencies could be determined by viewing them through a

  10. Gastropod shell species utilized by hermit crabs (Decapoda: Anomura along the Turkish coast of the Levantine Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir Ozcan


    Full Text Available The present study aimed to describe the gastropod shell species utilized by hermit crabs (Decapoda: Anomura collected during investigations of the decapod fauna of the Levantine Sea coast of Turkey. Specimens were collected from July 2005 to October 2005. A total of 715 individuals belonging to 9 hermit crab species occupying 47 gastropod shell species were collected. The hermit crabs, Diogenes pugilator (Roux, 1829 and Cestopagurus timidus (Roux, 1830 had the highest inhabitation frequency (IF, inhabiting 23.92% and 23.78% of all the samples collected respectively. The nine hermit crab species captured utilizing shells fromforty-seven gastropods species. Cerithium scabridum Philippi, 1849 (100% was the most commonly utilized shell by all hermit crabs.

  11. An Alternative Definition of the Hermite Polynomials Related to the Dunkl Laplacian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik De Bie


    Full Text Available We introduce the so-called Clifford-Hermite polynomials in the framework of Dunkl operators, based on the theory of Clifford analysis. Several properties of these polynomials are obtained, such as a Rodrigues formula, a differential equation and an explicit relation connecting them with the generalized Laguerre polynomials. A link is established with the generalized Hermite polynomials related to the Dunkl operators (see [Rösler M., Comm. Math. Phys. 192 (1998, 519-542, q-alg/9703006.] as well as with the basis of the weighted $L^2$ space introduced by Dunkl.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Mihalina


    Full Text Available Accumulated imbalances in the economy and on the markets cause specific financial market dynamics that have formed characteristic patterns kept throughout long financial history. In 2008 Authors presented their expectations of key macroeconomic and selected asset class markets developments for period ahead based on Saeculum theory. Use of term Secular describes a specific valuation environment during prolonged period. If valuations as well as selected macro variables are considered as a tool for understanding business cycles then market cycles become much more obvious and easily understandable. Therefore over the long run, certain asset classes do better in terms of risk reward profile than others. Further on, there is no need for frequent portfolio rebalancing and timing of specific investment positions within a particular asset class market. Current stage in cycle development suggests a need for reassessment of trends and prevailing phenomena due to cyclical nture of long lasting Saeculums. Paper reviews developments in recognizable patterns of selected metrics in current Winter Saeculum dominated with prevailing forces of delivering, deflation and decrease in velocity of money.

  13. Frugivore behavioural details matter for seed dispersal: a multi-species model for cantabrian thrushes and trees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Morales

    Full Text Available Animal movement and behaviour is fundamental for ecosystem functioning. The process of seed dispersal by frugivorous animals is a showcase for this paradigm since their behaviour shapes the spatial patterns of the earliest stage of plant regeneration. However, we still lack a general understanding of how intrinsic (frugivore and plant species traits and extrinsic (landscape features factors interact to determine how seeds of a given species are more likely to be deposited in some places more than in others. We develop a multi-species mechanistic model of seed dispersal based on frugivore behavioural responses to landscape heterogeneity. The model was fitted to data from three-years of spatially-explicit field observations on the behaviour of six frugivorous thrushes and the fruiting patterns of three fleshy-fruited trees in a secondary forest of the Cantabrian range (N Spain. With such model we explore how seed rain patterns arise from the interaction between animal behaviour and landscape heterogeneity. We show that different species of thrushes respond differently to landscape heterogeneity even though they belong to the same genus, and that provide complementary seed dispersal functions. Simulated seed rain patterns are only realistic when at least some landscape heterogeneity (forest cover and fruit abundance is taken into account. The common and simple approach of re-sampling movement data to quantify seed dispersal produces biases in both the distance and the habitat at which seeds arrive. Movement behaviour not only affects dispersal distance and seed rain patterns but also can affect frugivore diet composition even if there is no built-in preference for fruiting species. In summary, the fate of seeds produced by a given plant species is strongly affected by both the composition of the frugivore assemblage and the landscape-scale context of the plant location, including the presence of fruits from other plants (from the same or different

  14. Approximation by some combinations of Poisson integrals for Hermite and Laguerre expansions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Krech


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is the study of a rate of convergence of some combinations of Poisson integrals for Hermite and Laguerre expansions. We are able to achieve faster convergence for our modified operators over the Poisson integrals. We prove also the Voronovskaya type theorem for these new operators.

  15. Jitter-Robust Orthogonal Hermite Pulses for Ultra-Wideband Impulse Radio Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuji Kohno


    Full Text Available The design of a class of jitter-robust, Hermite polynomial-based, orthogonal pulses for ultra-wideband impulse radio (UWB-IR communications systems is presented. A unified and exact closed-form expression of the auto- and cross-correlation functions of Hermite pulses is provided. Under the assumption that jitter values are sufficiently smaller than pulse widths, this formula is used to decompose jitter-shifted pulses over an orthonormal basis of the Hermite space. For any given jitter probability density function (pdf, the decomposition yields an equivalent distribution of N-by-N matrices which simplifies the convolutional jitter channel model onto a multiplicative matrix model. The design of jitter-robust orthogonal pulses is then transformed into a generalized eigendecomposition problem whose solution is obtained with a Jacobi-like simultaneous diagonalization algorithm applied over a subset of samples of the channel matrix distribution. Examples of the waveforms obtained with the proposed design and their improved auto- and cross-correlation functions are given. Simulation results are presented, which demonstrate the superior performance of a pulse-shape modulated (PSM- UWB-IR system using the proposed pulses, over the same system using conventional orthogonal Hermite pulses, in jitter channels with additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN.

  16. A Generalized Hermite-Hadamard Inequality for Coordinated Convex Function and Some Associated Mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atiq Ur Rehman


    Full Text Available We have discussed the generalization of Hermite-Hadamard inequality introduced by Lupaş for convex functions on coordinates defined in a rectangle from the plane. Also we define that mappings are related to it and their properties are discussed.

  17. Use of plastic debris as shelter by an unidentified species of hermit crab from the Maldives


    João P. Barreiros; Luiz Jr., Omar J.


    Copyright © 2009 The Marine Biological Association. An unidentified species of hermit crab from the Maldives was photographed using a plastic box as shelter instead of a natural shell. This could be a result of increased pollution and shell collection disrupting the natural processes in coral reefs.

  18. Generation of Squeezing in Higher Order Hermite-Gaussian Modes with an Optical Parametric Amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Delaubert, Vincent; Harb, Charles C.


    We demonstrate quantum correlations in the transverse plane of continuous wave light beams by producing -4.0 dB, -2.6 dB and -1.5 dB of squeezing in the TEM_{00}, TEM_{10} and TEM_{20} Hermite-Gauss modes with an optical parametric amplifier, respectively. This has potential applications in quantum...

  19. Hermite-Hadamard type inequalities for GA-s-convex functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İmdat İşcan


    Full Text Available In this paper, The author introduces the concepts of the GA-s-convex functions in the first sense and second sense and establishes some integral inequalities of Hermite-Hadamard type related to the GA-s-convex functions. Some applications to special means of real numbers are also given.

  20. Some new inequalities of Hermite-Hadamard type for s-convex functions with applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Muhammad Adil


    Full Text Available In this paper, we present several new and generalized Hermite-Hadamard type inequalities for s-convex as well as s-concave functions via classical and Riemann-Liouville fractional integrals. As applications, we provide new error estimations for the trapezoidal formula.

  1. On g-functions for Laguerre function expansions of Hermite type

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 121; Issue 1. On -Functions for Laguerre Function Expansions of Hermite Type. Błażej Jan Wróbel. Volume 121 Issue 1 February 2011 pp 45-75 ... Keywords. Laguerre function expansions; vector-valued Calderón–Zygmund operators; -functions.

  2. Goos-Hanchen and Imbert-Fedorov shifts for Hermite-Gauss beams. (United States)

    Prajapati, Chandra; Ranganathan, D


    We study the lateral Goos-Hanchen and the transverse Imbert-Fedorov shift produced during the reflection of Hermite-Gauss beams H(m0) or H(0m) at a plane interface. The vector angular spectrum method for a light beam in terms of a two-form angular spectrum consisting of the two orthogonal polarized components was used. We have carried out a detailed numerical calculation of these shifts at different angles of incidence, over the whole range of incidence without making the usual approximations. The shift variation as a function of refractive index and order of the Hermite-Gauss beam is studied. We also compare the shift variations with the orientation of the lobes of the Hermite-Gauss beam. We observed that the shifts are nearly equal for the two cases H(m0) (lobe oriented in the plane of incidence) and H(0m) (lobe oriented perpendicular to plane of incidence). These are the first quantitative estimates of the shifts for Hermite-Gauss beams as per our knowledge and are relevant for all cases of slab geometry.

  3. Basic full-wave generalization of the real-argument Hermite-Gauss beam. (United States)

    Seshadri, S R


    The linearly polarized real-argument Hermite-Gauss beam is investigated by the Fourier transform method. The complex power is obtained and the reactive power of the paraxial beam is found to be zero. The complex space source required for the full-wave generalization of the real-argument Hermite-Gauss beam is deduced. The resulting basic full real-argument Hermite-Gauss wave is determined. The real and the reactive powers of the full wave are evaluated. The reactive power of the basic full real-argument Hermite-Gauss wave is infinite, and the reasons for this singularity are described. The real power depends on kw(0), m, and n, where k is the wavenumber, w(0) is the e-folding distance of the Gaussian part of the input distribution, and m and n are the mode numbers. The variation in the real power with respect to changes in kw(0) for specified m and n as well as with respect to changes in m and n for a specified kw(0) is examined.

  4. Bio-ecological aspects of the hermit crab Paguristes calliopsis (Crustacea, Diogenidae from Anchieta Island, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biagi Renata


    Full Text Available In southern Atlantic studies on hermit crab biology are scanty considering the local biodiversity. In this way, some population features of Paguristes calliopsis Forest and Saint Laurent, 1968 such as size frequency distribution, sex ratio and shell occupation in the natural environment were studied. Specimens were collected by means of scuba methods in the infralittoral area of the Anchieta Island. A total of 116 individuals were analyzed. Size measurements (minimum; maximum; mean shield length ? sd, respectively were 0.8; 4.5; 2.76 ? 0.79 mm for males and 2.28 ? 0.36 mm for females. The sex ratio was 1.47:1 in favor of males which prevailed in the largest size classes. The hermit crabs occupied shells from eleven gastropod species and Cerithium atratum (Born 1778 was significantly the most occupied one (75.86%. Significant correlations were not obtained in all regression analysis, demonstrating sexual differences on fitting of the occupied shells. In the studied area P. calliopsis population is small if compared with the other hermit crab populations. The shell utilization varies as a function of shell availability and hermit crabs interspecific competition, in relation to the other coexistent species.

  5. Shell use by the hermit crab Calcinus californiensis at different levels of the intertidal zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsah Arce


    Full Text Available The gastropod shell use of the hermit crab Calcinus californiensis was studied at Troncones, Guerrero, México. Hermit crabs were captured at two different levels of the intertidal zone, in wave-protected and wave-exposed sites. C. californiensis occupied shells of 18 gastropod species. At both wave-action sites, Cantharus sanguinolentus was the most occupied shell. Columbella sp. was used more by females than by males, and Nerita scabricosta was more used by males. The frequency of use of the shells was different between the different wave sites. N. scabricosta and Columbella sp. were occupied more at the wave-protected than at the exposed sites; C. sanguinolentus and Stramonita biserialis were occupied more at the exposed sites. The hermit crabs at the wave-exposed sites occupied heavier and thicker shells compared with the crabs from the protected sites. The Olmstead-Tukey diagram showed eight shell species as dominant in the wave-protected sites, and seven in the wave-exposed sites. Ten shell species were rare in the wave-protected sites, and six in the wave-exposed sites. The rare shells occupied by the hermit crabs were relatively heavier than the dominant shells in both site types. Our results suggest that the shell weight is important in sites that are greatly affected by the hydrodynamics.

  6. Hermite-Hadamard type fractional integral inequalities for geometric-geometric convex functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenda Liu


    Full Text Available By utilizing two  fractional integral identities and elementaryinequalities via geometric-geometric (GG for short convex functions, we derive new type Hermite-Hadamard inequalities involving Hadamard fractional integrals. Some applications to special means of real numbers are given.

  7. Applying GG-Convex Function to Hermite-Hadamard Inequalities Involving Hadamard Fractional Integrals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Zhang


    Full Text Available By virtue of fractional integral identities, incomplete beta function, useful series, and inequalities, we apply the concept of GG-convex function to derive new type Hermite-Hadamard inequalities involving Hadamard fractional integrals. Finally, some applications to special means of real numbers are demonstrated.

  8. Pollination and breeding system of Canna paniculata(Cannaceae in a montane Atlantic Rainforest: asymmetric dependence on a hermit hummingbird

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Kiyoshi Maruyama


    Full Text Available We studied the pollination biology of Canna paniculata (Cannaceae, a plant species common in the Atlantic Rainforest of southeastern Brazil. The species presents specialized ornithophilous flowers, which in our study area are solely pollinated by the hermit hummingbird Phaethornis eurynome. Although C. paniculata is capable of bearing fruit after self-pollination, it requires pollinators for reproduction. We discuss the importance of hermit hummingbirds for the reproduction of specialized ornithophilous plants such as C. paniculata, including their asymmetric dependence on hermit hummingbirds - core pollinators in Neotropical forest ecosystems.

  9. On Hermite-Hadamard Type Inequalities for Riemann-Liouville Fractional Integrals via Two Kinds of Convexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feixiang Chen


    Full Text Available We obtain some Hermite-Hadamard type inequalities for products of two m-convex functions via Riemann-Liouville integrals. The analogous results for (α,m-convex functions are also established.

  10. A three-dimensional finite element model of human atrial anatomy: new methods for cubic Hermite meshes with extraordinary vertices. (United States)

    Gonzales, Matthew J; Sturgeon, Gregory; Krishnamurthy, Adarsh; Hake, Johan; Jonas, René; Stark, Paul; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Narayan, Sanjiv M; Zhang, Yongjie; Segars, W Paul; McCulloch, Andrew D


    High-order cubic Hermite finite elements have been valuable in modeling cardiac geometry, fiber orientations, biomechanics, and electrophysiology, but their use in solving three-dimensional problems has been limited to ventricular models with simple topologies. Here, we utilized a subdivision surface scheme and derived a generalization of the "local-to-global" derivative mapping scheme of cubic Hermite finite elements to construct bicubic and tricubic Hermite models of the human atria with extraordinary vertices from computed tomography images of a patient with atrial fibrillation. To an accuracy of 0.6 mm, we were able to capture the left atrial geometry with only 142 bicubic Hermite finite elements, and the right atrial geometry with only 90. The left and right atrial bicubic Hermite meshes were G1 continuous everywhere except in the one-neighborhood of extraordinary vertices, where the mean dot products of normals at adjacent elements were 0.928 and 0.925. We also constructed two biatrial tricubic Hermite models and defined fiber orientation fields in agreement with diagrammatic data from the literature using only 42 angle parameters. The meshes all have good quality metrics, uniform element sizes, and elements with aspect ratios near unity, and are shared with the public. These new methods will allow for more compact and efficient patient-specific models of human atrial and whole heart physiology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Shell occupation and microhabitat use by hermit crabs (Decapoda: Anomura on Fortaleza beach, Ubatuba, São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Buzá Jacobucci


    Full Text Available Most species of hermit crabs use the empty shells of gastropods as mobile shelters. The variation of shell availability in different microhabitats can reduce competitive interactions between sympatric species, favoring their coexistence. This work aimed to characterize the occupation of gastropod shells by three species of hermit crabs, and assessing the availability of shells and evaluating the use of microhabitats crabs and gastropods in an infralitoral area on the north coast of São Paulo state. For this purpose, transect lines were established and all hermit crabs, gastropods and empty shells found were collected, recording the type of microhabitat used. In a sub-sample, the hermit crabs were identified and classified into reproductive categories. The shells used by the crabs were identified and evaluated according to physical damage and incrustation. Three species of hermit crabs (Paguristes tortugae, Pagurus brevidactylus and Pagurus criniticornis were recorded, using 15 species of gastropod shells and one of scaphopod (Dentalium sp.. Physical damage and incrustation of shells were significantly different among the hermit crab species. Considering microhabitat use, P. tortugae and P. brevidactylus were mainly found in calcareous algae, while P. criniticornis mainly occurred in sand substrate. Despite the differences in shell and microhabitat use, the high resource overlap, especially by the pagurids, indicates that competitive interactions are important regulatory factors for these populations.

  12. Comparative brain architecture of the European shore crab Carcinus maenas (Brachyura) and the common hermit crab Pagurus bernhardus (Anomura) with notes on other marine hermit crabs. (United States)

    Krieger, Jakob; Sombke, Andy; Seefluth, Florian; Kenning, Matthes; Hansson, Bill S; Harzsch, Steffen


    The European shore crab Carcinus maenas and the common hermit crab Pagurus bernhardus are members of the sister taxa Brachyura and Anomura (together forming the taxon Meiura) respectively. Both species share similar coastal marine habitats and thus are confronted with similar environmental conditions. This study sets out to explore variations of general brain architecture of species that live in seemingly similar habitats but belong to different major malacostracan taxa and to understand possible differences of sensory systems and related brain compartments. We examined the brains of Carcinus maenas, Pagurus bernhardus, and three other hermit crab species with immunohistochemistry against tyrosinated tubulin, f-actin, synaptic proteins, RF-amides and allatostatin. Our comparison showed that their optic neuropils within the eyestalks display strong resemblance in gross morphology as well as in detailed organization, suggesting a rather similar potential of processing visual input. Besides the well-developed visual system, the olfactory neuropils are distinct components in the brain of both C. maenas and P. bernhardus as well as the other hermit crabs, suggesting that close integration of olfactory and visual information may be useful in turbid marine environments with low visibility, as is typical for many habitats such as, e.g., the Baltic and the North Sea. Comparing the shape of the olfactory glomeruli in the anomurans showed some variations, ranging from a wedge shape to an elongate morphology. Furthermore, the tritocerebrum and the organization of the second antennae associated with the tritocerebrum seem to differ markedly in C. maenas and P. bernhardus, indicating better mechanosensory abilities in the latter close to those of other Decapoda with long second antennae, such as Astacida, Homarida, or Achelata. This aspect may also represent an adaptation to the "hermit lifestyle" in which competition for shells is a major aspect of their life history. The shore

  13. On the representation of the diffracted field of Hermite-Gaussian modes in an alien basis and the young diffraction principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, V.N.; Strokovskii, G.A. [St. Petersburg State Univ. (Russian Federation)


    An analytical form of expansion coefficients of a diffracted field for an arbitrary Hermite-Gaussian beam in an alien Hermite-Gaussian basis is obtained. A possible physical interpretation of the well-known Young phenomenological diffraction principle and experiments on diffraction of Hermite-Gaussian beams of the lowest types (n = 0 - 5) from half-plane are discussed. The case of nearly homogenous expansion corresponding to misalignment and mismatch of optical systems is also analyzed. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  14. On Stable Wall Boundary Conditions for the Hermite Discretization of the Linearised Boltzmann Equation (United States)

    Sarna, Neeraj; Torrilhon, Manuel


    We define certain criteria, using the characteristic decomposition of the boundary conditions and energy estimates, which a set of stable boundary conditions for a linear initial boundary value problem, involving a symmetric hyperbolic system, must satisfy. We first use these stability criteria to show the instability of the Maxwell boundary conditions proposed by Grad (Commun Pure Appl Math 2(4):331-407, 1949). We then recognise a special block structure of the moment equations which arises due to the recursion relations and the orthogonality of the Hermite polynomials; the block structure will help us in formulating stable boundary conditions for an arbitrary order Hermite discretization of the Boltzmann equation. The formulation of stable boundary conditions relies upon an Onsager matrix which will be constructed such that the newly proposed boundary conditions stay close to the Maxwell boundary conditions at least in the lower order moments.

  15. A New Report of Two Species of Pagurid Hermit Crabs (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Kim


    Full Text Available Pagurus undosus and Pagurus parvispina, collected from the East Sea by fishery trap, are newly recorded from Korean waters. Pagurus undosus is distinguished from other hermit crab by its right cheliped slightly elevated medially, and with broad ridge formed by deep depressions mesial and lateral to midline. Pagurus parvispina is distinguished from other hermit crab by its right cheliped covered with large spine and long tufts of setae. These species live in cold water areas and their geographical distribution is extended southwardly by the present study. A specimen of the former species, P. undosus, was found living in a shelter formed by a sponge, similar to that observed in Pagurus pectinatus. Descriptions and figures of these two species are provided in this paper. Currently, 27 species of the genus Pagurus are recorded in Korean fauna.

  16. Solution of Stochastic Nonlinear PDEs Using Automated Wiener-Hermite Expansion

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Juhani, Amnah


    The solution of the stochastic differential equations (SDEs) using Wiener-Hermite expansion (WHE) has the advantage of converting the problem to a system of deterministic equations that can be solved efficiently using the standard deterministic numerical methods [1]. The main statistics, such as the mean, covariance, and higher order statistical moments, can be calculated by simple formulae involving only the deterministic Wiener-Hermite coefficients. In WHE approach, there is no randomness directly involved in the computations. One does not have to rely on pseudo random number generators, and there is no need to solve the SDEs repeatedly for many realizations. Instead, the deterministic system is solved only once. For previous research efforts see [2, 4].

  17. Admissible curvature continuous areas for fair curves using G2 Hermite PH quintic polynomial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfiqar Habib


    Full Text Available In this paper we derive admissible curvature continuous areas for monotonically increasing curvature continuous smooth curve by using a single Pythagorean hodograph (PH quintic polynomial of G2 contact matching Hermite end conditions. Curves with monotonically increasing or decreasing curvatures are considered highly smooth (fair and are very useful in geometric design. Making the design by using smooth curves is a fascinating problem of computing with significant physical and esthetic applications especially in high speed transportation and robotics. First we derive sufficient conditions for curvature continuity on a single PH quintic polynomial with given Hermite end conditions then we find the admissible area for the smooth curve with respect to the curvatures at its endpoints.

  18. Shell occupation by the endemic western Atlantic hermit crab Isocheles sawayai (Diogenidae from Caraguatatuba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MZ. Fantucci

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the pattern of shell occupation by the hermit crab Isocheles sawayai Forest and Saint-Laurent, 1968, from the Caraguatatuba region. The percentage of shell types that were occupied and the morphometric relationships between hermit crabs and occupied shells were analyzed from systematized collections that were conducted monthly from July 2001 to June 2003. A total of 373 individuals were captured (297 males, 41 non-ovigerous females, 25 ovigerous females and 10 intersexes, occupying 17 species of gastropod shells. Stramonita haemastoma (Linnaeus, 1767 (49.87% was the significantly most occupied species (χ2 = 89.30; P 0.68 and significant (P < 0.05 correlation values, which is an important indication that in this I. sawayai population the animals occupied adequate shells. The high number of occupied shell species and relative plasticity indicated that, for the studied population, occupation is influenced by the shell availability.

  19. Extra-pair paternity in a Neotropical rainforest songbird, the White-necked Thrush Turdus albicollis (Aves: Turdidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Biagolini-Jr

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Over the last two decades, several studies have shown that the mating systems of various birds are more complex than previously believed, and paternity tests performed with molecular techniques have proved, for instance, that the commonly observed social monogamy often presents important variations, such as extra-pair paternity. However, data are still largely biased towards temperate species. In our study, at an area of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, we found broods containing at least one extra-pair young (EPY in the socially monogamous White-necked Thrush Turdus albicollis (Vieillot, 1818. Paternity tests using six heterologous microsatellite loci revealed that four of 11 broods (36.4% presented at least one extra-pair young (EPY. This rate of EPY is within the range found for other studies in the tropics. This is one of the few studies that present detailed paternity analyses of a Neotropical rainforest passerine. Our findings corroborate the early insights that breeding strategies involving cheating can also be widespread among Neotropical socially monogamous songbirds.

  20. Winter maintenance performance measure. (United States)


    The Winter Performance Index is a method of quantifying winter storm events and the DOTs response to them. : It is a valuable tool for evaluating the States maintenance practices, performing post-storm analysis, training : maintenance personnel...

  1. Concussion in Winter Sports (United States)

    ... this? Submit Button Past Emails Concussion in Winter Sports Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Get prepared ... to enjoy, practice, and compete in various winter sports. There’s no doubt that these sports are a ...

  2. Gaussian filters and filter synthesis using a Hermite/Laguerre neural network. (United States)

    Mackenzie, Mark; Tieu, Kiet


    A neural network for calculating the correlation of a signal with a Gaussian function is described. The network behaves as a Gaussian filter and has two outputs: the first approximates the noisy signal and the second represents the filtered signal. The filtered output provides improvement by a factor of ten in the signal-to-noise ratio. A higher order Gaussian filter was synthesized by combining several Hermite functions together.

  3. Analytical calculation of Hermite-Gauss and Laguerre-Gauss modes on a bullseye photodiode

    CERN Document Server

    Bond, Charlotte; Freise, Andreas


    This note describes the analytical derivation of the response of bullseye detectors to optical beats between higher-order spatial modes of the Laguerre-Gauss form, and subsequently the Hermite-Gauss form. Also included is a comparison with numerically calculated beat coefficients, and a simple example of the use of the resulting beat coefficients in simulating a mode mismatch sensor for a Fabry-Perot cavity.

  4. Shell occupation by the South Atlantic endemic hermit crab Loxopagurus loxochelis (Moreira, 1901 (Anomura: Diogenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Fernandes Frameschi

    Full Text Available The evaluation of population characteristics, particularly those of endemic species, aids in population preservation and management. Hermit crabs present an innate behavior of occupying shells, which tends to individual needs and limits their distribution. This study characterized the pattern of occupation of gastropod shells by the hermit Loxopagurus loxochelis in three bays of the southwestern coast of Brazil. Monthly collections were made from January/1998 to December/1999 in the bays Ubatumirim (UBM, Ubatuba (UBA and Mar Virado (MV with a shrimping boat. Overall, ten species of gastropod shells were occupied by L. loxochelis. The shell of Olivancillaria urceus represented 66.8% of those occupied. Morphometric relationships demonstrated a differential occupation of the more abundant shells among demographic groups, where most of the males occupied O. urceus, non-ovigerous females occupied O. urceus and Buccinanops cochlidium, and ovigerous females occupied B. cochlidium and Stramonita haemastoma. Most of the individuals occupied the more abundant shells, considered adequate for the morphology of this hermit crab species. Thus, the studied bays seem to be stable and propitious environments for population perpetuation and the settlement of new individuals.

  5. Multigene molecular systematics confirm species status of morphologically convergent Pagurus hermit crabs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Matzen da Silva

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In spite of contemporary morphological taxonomy appraisals, apparent high morphological similarity raises uncertainty about the species status of certain Pagurus hermit crabs. This is exemplified between two European species, Pagurus excavatus (Herbst, 1791 and Pagurus alatus (Fabricius 1775, whose species status is still difficult to resolve using morphological criteria alone. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To address such ambiguities, we used combinations of Maximum Likelihood (ML and Bayesian Inference (BI methods to delineate species boundaries of P. alatus and P. excavatus and formulate an intermediate Pagurus phylogenetic hypothesis, based upon single and concatenated mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase I [COI] and nuclear (16S and 28s ribosomal RNA gene partitions. The molecular data supported the species status of P. excavatus and P. alatus and also clearly resolved two divergent clades within hermit crabs from the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite the abundance and prominent ecological role of hermit crabs, Pagurus, in North East Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea ecosystems, many important aspects of their taxonomy, biology, systematics and evolution remain poorly explored. The topologies presented here should be regarded as hypotheses that can be incorporated into the robust and integrated understanding of the systematic relationships within and between species of the genus Pagurus inhabiting the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.

  6. Shell selection and utilization in a terrestrial hermit crab, Coenobita compressus (H. Milne Edwards). (United States)

    Abrams, Peter


    Shell utilization and shell selection studied in the tropical terrestrial hermit crab, Coenobita compressus (H. Milne Edwards). Three major shell related variables are examined; shell size, shell species, and shell condition. Nerita scabricosta (Lamarck) is the most commonly occupied shell, and it is also preferred over other shell species. Coenobita in the field are usually found in smaller than the preferred size of shell, and the difference between utilized and preferred shells is most pronounced in relatively small individuals. Shell size preference differs significantly between similarly sized crabs collected at different sites. There is also a preference for shells which have previously been used by other Coenobita individuals. This preference is due to shell modification by Coenobita, which increases the effective size of the shell. It is argued that the fitness of most sexually mature individuals is probably unaffected by the supply of new shells, since these are too small to be utilized. It is possible that the interaction of adult Coenobita for shells may be better described as mutualism than as competition. This illustrates the fact that a significant difference between utilized and preferred resources need not imply competition for those resources. Results indicate that the nature of intraspecific competition and population regulation in at least this terrestrial hermit crab is significantly different from these processes in marine hermit crabs.

  7. Comparative analysis of shell occupation by two southern populations of the hermit crab Loxopagurus loxochelis (Decapoda, Diogenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Ayres-Peres


    Full Text Available The present study aimed to comparatively verify the relation between the hermit crabs and the shells they use in two populations of Loxopagurus loxochelis. Samples were collected monthly from July 2002 to June 2003, at Caraguatatuba and Ubatuba Bay, São Paulo, Brazil. The animals sampled had their sex identified, were weighed and measured; their shells were identified, measured and weighed, and their internal volume determined. To relate the hermit crab's characteristics and the shells' variables, principal component analysis (PCA and a regression tree were used. According to the PCA analysis, the three gastropod shells most frequently used by L. loxochelis varied in size. The regression tree successfully explained the relationship between the hermit crab's characteristics and the internal volume of the inhabited shell. It can be inferred that the relationship between the morphometry of an individual hermit crab and its shell is not straightforward and it is impossible to explain only on the basis of direct correlations between the body's and the shell's attributes. Several factors (such as the morphometry and the availability of the shell, environmental conditions and inter- and intraspecific competition interact and seem to be taken into consideration by the hermit crabs when they choose a shell, resulting in the diversified pattern of shell occupancy shown here and elsewhere.

  8. Urbanization breaks up host-parasite interactions: a case study on parasite community ecology of rufous-bellied thrushes (Turdus rufiventris along a rural-urban gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Calegaro-Marques

    Full Text Available Urbanization drastically alters natural ecosystems and the structure of their plant and animal communities. Whereas some species cope successfully with these environmental changes, others may go extinct. In the case of parasite communities, the expansion of urban areas has a critical effect by changing the availability of suitable substrates for the eggs or free-larval stages of those species with direct life cycles or for the range of hosts of those species with complex cycles. In this study we investigated the influence of the degree of urbanization and environmental heterogeneity on helminth richness, abundance and community structure of rufous-bellied thrushes (Turdus rufiventris along a rural-urban gradient in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This common native bird species of southern Brazil hosts 15 endoparasite species at the study region. A total of 144 thrushes were collected with mist nets at 11 sites. The degree of urbanization and environmental heterogeneity were estimated by quantifying five landscape elements: buildings, woodlands, fields, bare lands, and water. Landscape analyses were performed at two spatial scales (10 and 100 ha taking into account home range size and the potential dispersal distance of thrushes and their prey (intermediate hosts. Mean parasite richness showed an inverse relationship with the degree of urbanization, but a positive relationship with environmental heterogeneity. Changes in the structure of component communities along the rural-urban gradient resulted from responses to the availability of particular landscape elements that are compatible with the parasites' life cycles. We found that the replacement of natural environments with buildings breaks up host-parasite interactions, whereas a higher environmental (substrate diversity allows the survival of a wider range of intermediate hosts and vectors and their associated parasites.

  9. On the ecology of Coenobita clypeatus in Curaçao with reference to reproduction, water economy and osmoregulation in terrestrial hermit crabs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de P.A.W.J.


    1. This paper deals with various aspects of the life-history, ecology, water management and osmoregulation of the West-Indian land hermit crab Coenobita clypeatus (Herbst) in Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles. 2. Land hermit crabs belonging to the family Coenobitidae may be considered as one of the most

  10. Winters fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The outlook for distillate fuel oil this winter is for increased demand and a return to normal inventory patterns, assuming a resumption of normal, cooler weather than last winter. With industrial production expected to grow slightly from last winter`s pace, overall consumption is projected to increase 3 percent from last winter, to 3.4 million barrels per day during the heating season (October 1, 1995-March 31, 1996). Much of the supply win come from stock drawdowns and refinery production. Estimates for the winter are from the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) 4th Quarter 1995 Short-Tenn Energy Outlook (STEO) Mid-World Oil Price Case forecast. Inventories in place on September 30, 1995, of 132 million barrels were 9 percent below the unusually high year-earlier level. Inventories of high-sulfur distillate fuel oil, the principal type used for heating, were 13 percent lower than a year earlier. Supply problems are not anticipated because refinery production and the ready availability of imports should be adequate to meet demand. Residential heating off prices are expected to be somewhat higher than last winter`s, as the effects of lower crude oil prices are offset by lower distillate inventories. Heating oil is forecast to average $0.92 per gallon, the highest price since the winter of 1992-93. Diesel fuel (including tax) is predicted to be slightly higher than last year at $1.13 per gallon. This article focuses on the winter assessment for distillate fuel oil, how well last year`s STEO winter outlook compared to actual events, and expectations for the coming winter. Additional analyses include regional low-sulfur and high-sulfur distillate supply, demand, and prices, and recent trends in distillate fuel oil inventories.

  11. Expression of ionotropic receptors in terrestrial hermit crab’s olfactory sensory neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Christine Groh-Lunow


    Full Text Available Coenobitidae are one out of at least five crustacean lineages which independently succeeded in the transition from water to land. This change in lifestyle required adaptation of the peripheral olfactory organs, the antennules, in order to sense chemical cues in the new terrestrial habitat. Hermit crab olfactory aesthetascs are arranged in a field on the distal segment of the antennular flagellum. Aesthetascs house approximately 300 dendrites with their cell bodies arranged in spindle-like complexes of ca. 150 cell bodies each. While the aesthetascs of aquatic crustaceans have been shown to be the place of odor uptake and previous studies identified ionotropic receptors (IRs as the putative chemosensory receptors expressed in decapod antennules, the expression of IRs besides the IR co-receptors IR25a and IR93a in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs has not been documented yet. Our goal was to reveal the expression and distribution pattern of non-co-receptor IRs in OSNs of Coenobita clypeatus, a terrestrial hermit crab, with RNA in situ hybridization. We expanded our previously published RNAseq dataset, and revealed 22 novel IR candidates in the Coenobita antennules. We then used RNA probes directed against three different IRs to visualize their expression within the OSN cell body complexes. Furthermore we aimed to characterize ligand spectra of single aesthetascs by recording local field potentials and responses from individual dendrites. This also allowed comparison to functional data from insect OSNs expressing antennal IRs. We show that this orphan receptor subgroup with presumably non-olfactory function in insects is likely the basis of olfaction in terrestrial hermit crabs.

  12. Scaling of olfactory antennae of the terrestrial hermit crabs Coenobita rugosus and Coenobita perlatus during ontogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay D. Waldrop


    Full Text Available Although many lineages of terrestrial crustaceans have poor olfactory capabilities, crabs in the family Coenobitidae, including the terrestrial hermit crabs in the genus Coenobita, are able to locate food and water using olfactory antennae (antennules to capture odors from the surrounding air. Terrestrial hermit crabs begin their lives as small marine larvae and must find a suitable place to undergo metamorphosis into a juvenile form, which initiates their transition to land. Juveniles increase in size by more than an order of magnitude to reach adult size. Since odor capture is a process heavily dependent on the size and speed of the antennules and physical properties of the fluid, both the transition from water to air and the large increase in size during ontogeny could impact odor capture. In this study, we examine two species of terrestrial hermit crabs, Coenobita perlatus H. Milne-Edwards and Coenobita rugosus H. Milne-Edwards, to determine how the antennule morphometrics and kinematics of flicking change in comparison to body size during ontogeny, and how this scaling relationship could impact odor capture by using a simple model of mass transport in flow. Many features of the antennules, including the chemosensory sensilla, scaled allometrically with carapace width and increased slower than expected by isometry, resulting in relatively larger antennules on juvenile animals. Flicking speed scaled as expected with isometry. Our mass-transport model showed that allometric scaling of antennule morphometrics and kinematics leads to thinner boundary layers of attached fluid around the antennule during flicking and higher odorant capture rates as compared to antennules which scaled isometrically. There were no significant differences in morphometric or kinematic measurements between the two species.

  13. Phase-based motion magnification video for monitoring of vital signals using the Hermite transform (United States)

    Brieva, Jorge; Moya-Albor, Ernesto


    In this paper we present a new Eulerian phase-based motion magnification technique using the Hermite Transform (HT) decomposition that is inspired in the Human Vision System (HVS). We test our method in one sequence of the breathing of a newborn baby and on a video sequence that shows the heartbeat on the wrist. We detect and magnify the heart pulse applying our technique. Our motion magnification approach is compared to the Laplacian phase based approach by means of quantitative metrics (based on the RMS error and the Fourier transform) to measure the quality of both reconstruction and magnification. In addition a noise robustness analysis is performed for the two methods.

  14. Hermite interpolant multiscaling functions for numerical solution of the convection diffusion equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmira Ashpazzadeh


    Full Text Available A numerical technique based on the Hermite interpolant multiscaling functions is presented for the solution of Convection-diusion equations. The operational matrices of derivative, integration and product are presented for multiscaling functions and are utilized to reduce the solution of linear Convection-diusion equation to the solution of algebraic equations. Because of sparsity of these matrices, this method is computationally very attractive and reduces the CPU time and computer memory. Illustrative examples are included to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the new technique.

  15. Performance evaluation of the Hermite scheme on many-core accelerators (United States)

    Nakasato, Naohito


    We are developing a software library to calculate gravitational interaction for the Hermite scheme on parallel computing systems supported by OpenCL API. Our library is partly compatible with a standard GRAPE-6A interface and is easily usable in existing N-body codes. Since our library is based on OpenCL standard API, our library is working on many parallel computing systems such as a multi-core CPU, a GPU, and a many-core architecture. We report the performance evaluation of our library on computing platforms from various vendors.

  16. Efficient generation of Hermite-Gauss and Ince-Gauss beams through kinoform phase elements. (United States)

    Aguirre-Olivas, Dilia; Mellado-Villaseñor, Gabriel; Sánchez-de-la-Llave, David; Arrizón, Victor


    We discuss the generation of Hermite-Gauss and Ince-Gauss beams employing phase elements whose transmittances coincide with the phase modulations of such beams. A scaled version of the desired field appears, distorted by marginal optical noise, at the element's Fourier domain. The motivation to perform this study is that, in the context of the proposed approach, the desired beams are generated with the maximum possible efficiency. A disadvantage of the method is the distortion of the desired beams by the influence of several nondesired beam modes generated by the phase elements. We evaluate such distortion employing the root mean square deviation as a figure of merit.

  17. Survival of the hermit crab, Clibanarius vittatus, exposed to selenium and other environmental factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Recent investigations of water quality criteria have frequently examined the effects of a pollutant; however, a more realistic investigation would consider effects of multiple environmental factors and their interactions with the pollutant. Awareness of selenium as a pollutant is increasing. The growing sulfur and petroleum industries are only two of the potential sources of the element on the Texas coast. This study examined the toxicity of selenium to hermit crab Clibanarius vittatus (Bosc) under twelve different combinations of temperature and salinity. Additionally, the impact of the organisms' original environment was considered as an environmental factor.

  18. Optimal sixteenth order convergent method based on quasi-Hermite interpolation for computing roots. (United States)

    Zafar, Fiza; Hussain, Nawab; Fatimah, Zirwah; Kharal, Athar


    We have given a four-step, multipoint iterative method without memory for solving nonlinear equations. The method is constructed by using quasi-Hermite interpolation and has order of convergence sixteen. As this method requires four function evaluations and one derivative evaluation at each step, it is optimal in the sense of the Kung and Traub conjecture. The comparisons are given with some other newly developed sixteenth-order methods. Interval Newton's method is also used for finding the enough accurate initial approximations. Some figures show the enclosure of finitely many zeroes of nonlinear equations in an interval. Basins of attractions show the effectiveness of the method.

  19. Optimal Sixteenth Order Convergent Method Based on Quasi-Hermite Interpolation for Computing Roots (United States)

    Hussain, Nawab; Fatimah, Zirwah


    We have given a four-step, multipoint iterative method without memory for solving nonlinear equations. The method is constructed by using quasi-Hermite interpolation and has order of convergence sixteen. As this method requires four function evaluations and one derivative evaluation at each step, it is optimal in the sense of the Kung and Traub conjecture. The comparisons are given with some other newly developed sixteenth-order methods. Interval Newton's method is also used for finding the enough accurate initial approximations. Some figures show the enclosure of finitely many zeroes of nonlinear equations in an interval. Basins of attractions show the effectiveness of the method. PMID:25197701

  20. Comparing the information capacity of Laguerre-Gaussian and Hermite-Gaussian modal sets in a finite-aperture system. (United States)

    Restuccia, Sara; Giovannini, Daniel; Gibson, Graham; Padgett, Miles


    Using a spontaneous parametric down-conversion process to create entangled spatial states, we compare the information capacity associated with measurements in the Hermite-Gaussian and Laguerre-Gaussian modal basis in an optical system of finite aperture. We show that the cross-talk imposed by the aperture restriction degrades the information capacity. However, the Laguerre-Gaussian mode measurements show greater resilience to cross talk than the Hermite-Gaussian, suggesting that the Laguerre-Gaussian modal set may still offer real-world advantages over other modal sets.

  1. High-order time-splitting Hermite and Fourier spectral methods (United States)

    Thalhammer, Mechthild; Caliari, Marco; Neuhauser, Christof


    In this paper, we are concerned with the numerical solution of the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii Equation (GPE) involving a quasi-harmonic potential. Primarily, we consider discretisations that are based on spectral methods in space and higher-order exponential operator splitting methods in time. The resulting methods are favourable in view of accuracy and efficiency; moreover, geometric properties of the equation such as particle number and energy conservation are well captured. Regarding the spatial discretisation of the GPE, we consider two approaches. In the unbounded domain, we employ a spectral decomposition of the solution into Hermite basis functions; on the other hand, restricting the equation to a sufficiently large bounded domain, Fourier techniques are applicable. For the time integration of the GPE, we study various exponential operator splitting methods of convergence orders two, four, and six. Our main objective is to provide accuracy and efficiency comparisons of exponential operator splitting Fourier and Hermite pseudospectral methods for the time evolution of the GPE. Furthermore, we illustrate the effectiveness of higher-order time-splitting methods compared to standard integrators in a long-term integration.

  2. Individual quality and personality: bolder males are less fecund in the hermit crab Pagurus bernhardus. (United States)

    Bridger, Danielle; Bonner, Simon J; Briffa, Mark


    One explanation for animal personality is that different behavioural types derive from different life-history strategies. Highly productive individuals, with high growth rates and high fecundity, are assumed to live life at a fast pace showing high levels of boldness and risk taking, compared with less productive individuals. Here, we investigate among-individual differences in mean boldness (the inverse of the latency to recover from a startling stimulus) and in the consistency of boldness, in male hermit crabs in relation to two aspects of life-history investment. We assessed aerobic scope by measuring the concentration of the respiratory pigment haemocyanin, and we assessed fecundity by measuring spermatophore size. First, we found that individuals investing in large spermatophores also had high concentrations of haemocyanin. Using doubly hierarchical-generalized linear models to analyse longitudinal data on startle responses, we show that hermit crabs vary both in their mean response durations and in the consistency of their behaviour. Individual consistency was unrelated to haemocyanin concentration or spermatophore size, but mean startle response duration increased with spermatophore size. Thus, counter to expectations, it was the most risk-averse individuals, rather than the boldest and most risk prone, that were the most productive. We suggest that similar patterns should be present in other species, if the most productive individuals avoid risky behaviour. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Pattern of shell utilization by the hermit crab Paguristes tortugae (Diogenidae from Anchieta Island, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. L.M. Mantelatto


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the pattern of shell utilization by Paguristes tortugae, from infralittoral areas of Anchieta Island (Ubatuba, São Paulo State, Brazil using the percentage of the different shell types occupied and the morphometric relationship between hermit crabs and occupied shells. Specimens were collected monthly (January to December 1998 by SCUBA diving. The animals and the shells were measured and weighed. A total of 2,429 hermit crabs were captured occupying 21 species of gastropod shells. The shells more occupied were Pisania auritula (35.49%, Cerithium atratum (27.83%, Morula nodulosa (12.70% and Leucozonia nassa (6.83%, respectively. There was differential shell occupation between sexes: males and ovigerous females occupied in higher percentage P. auritula shells while the non-ovigerous females occupied C. atratum. Regression analysis showed best correlation between the size of the crabs (shield length and shell dry weight. This study showed that shell occupation by P. tortugae involves inter- and intraspecific competition as well as shell type availability in the field.

  4. Mid-winter Waterfowl Survey (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mid-winter Waterfowl Survey is a nationwide effort to survey waterfowl in areas of major concentration on their wintering grounds and provide winter distribution...

  5. A new species of Hemicyclops (Crustacea, Copepoda, Poecilostomatoida, Clausidiidae) associated with hermit crabs in Curaçao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, Jan H.


    STOCK, J. H. 1992. A new species of Hemicyclops (Crustacea, Copepoda, Poecilostomatoida, Clausidiidae) associated with hermit crabs in Curaçao. Stud. Nat. Hist. Caribbean Region 71, Amsterdam 1992: 69-78. Hemicyclops geminatus n. sp. is described from the upper infralittoral zone of Curaçao

  6. Development and Evaluation of Compact Robot Imitating a Hermit Crab for Inspecting the Outer Surface of Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoto Imajo


    Full Text Available Terrestrial hermit crabs which are a type of hermit crabs live on land, whereas typical hermit crabs inhabit the sea. They have an ability of climbing a tree vertically. Their claws allow them to hang on the tree. In this study, an outer-pipe inspection robot was developed. Its locomotion mechanism was developed in imitation of the terrestrial hermit crab’s claws. It is equipped with two rimless wheels. Each of the spokes is tipped with a neodymium magnet, which allows the robot to remain attached to even a vertical steel pipe. Moreover, the robot has a mechanism for adjusting the camber angle of the right and left wheels, allowing it to tightly grip pipes with different diameters. Experiments were conducted to check the performance of the robot using steel pipes with different diameters, placed horizontally, vertically, or obliquely. The robot attempted to move a certain distance along a pipe, and its success rate was measured. It was found that the robot could successfully travel along pipes with vertical orientations, although it sometimes fell from oblique or horizontal pipes. The most likely reason for this is identified and discussed. Certain results were obtained in laboratory. Further experiments in actual environment are required.

  7. Hermit crabs (Pagurus spp. at their northernmost range: distribution, abundance and shell use in the European Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Balazy


    Full Text Available Hermit crabs are important components of Arctic benthic systems, yet baseline data on their densities and distribution patterns in this rapidly changing region are still scarce. Here we compile results of numerous research expeditions to Svalbard, the Barents Sea and northern Norway that were carried out from 1979 to 2011 by the Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences. The diversity of hermit crabs at the northern edge of their occurrence is very low; in Svalbard waters only one species (Pagurus pubescens was detected. Another species (P. bernhardus, found in northern mainland Norway, north of the Arctic Circle, is likely to extend its distribution northward as the climate warms. Where the two species co-occur, competition between them probably accounts for the smaller sizes and poorer quality shells used by P. pubescens. The composition of the mollusc shells inhabited by these crabs differs between northern Norway and Svalbard, reflecting local mollusc species pools. Hermit crab densities were significantly higher than previously reported (max. mean 10 ind. m−2, suggesting their increasing level of dominance in benthic communities in the studied areas. The first to report the distribution of hermit crabs among habitats, this study showed that most individuals occurred at shallow depths (5–150 m, away from glacier termini and on hard bedrock rather than on soft substrata.

  8. Mechanisms causing size differences of the land hermit crab Coenobita rugosus among eco-islands in Southern Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hsuan Hsu

    Full Text Available Numerous environmental factors can influence body size. Comparing populations in different ecological contexts is one potential approach to elucidating the most critical of such factors. In the current study, we found that the body size of the land hermit crab Coenobita rugosus was significantly larger on Dongsha Island in the South China Sea than on other eco-islands around Southern Taiwan. We hypothesized that this could be due to differences in (1 shell resources, (2 parasite impact, (3 competition, (4 predation, and (5 food. We found no supporting evidence for the first three hypotheses; the shells used by the hermit crabs on Dongsha were in poorer condition than were those used elsewhere, extremely few individuals in the region had ectoparasites, and the density of hermit crabs varied considerably among localities within each island. However, significantly higher percentages of C. rugosus reached age 3 years on Dongsha than at Siziwan bay in Taiwan. Two growth rate indices inferred from size structures suggested faster growth on Dongsha than at Siziwan. The condition index (i.e., the body mass/shield length ratio of C. rugosus was also greater on Dongsha than at Siziwan. Therefore, Dongsha hermit crabs seem to have superior diet and growth performance. Seagrass debris accumulation at the shore of Dongsha was considerable, whereas none was observed at Siziwan or on the other islands, where dicot leaves were the dominant food item for the vegetarian hermit crabs. We then experimentally evaluated the possible role of seagrass as food for C. rugosus. The crabs on Dongsha preferred seagrass to dicot leaves, and their growth increment was faster when they fed on seagrass than when they fed on dicot leaves; no such differences were found in the Siziwan hermit crabs. The aforementioned results are compatible with the food hypothesis explaining the size differences among the islands. The predator hypothesis could explain the greater life span but

  9. Mechanisms causing size differences of the land hermit crab Coenobita rugosus among eco-islands in Southern Taiwan. (United States)

    Hsu, Chia-Hsuan; Soong, Keryea


    Numerous environmental factors can influence body size. Comparing populations in different ecological contexts is one potential approach to elucidating the most critical of such factors. In the current study, we found that the body size of the land hermit crab Coenobita rugosus was significantly larger on Dongsha Island in the South China Sea than on other eco-islands around Southern Taiwan. We hypothesized that this could be due to differences in (1) shell resources, (2) parasite impact, (3) competition, (4) predation, and (5) food. We found no supporting evidence for the first three hypotheses; the shells used by the hermit crabs on Dongsha were in poorer condition than were those used elsewhere, extremely few individuals in the region had ectoparasites, and the density of hermit crabs varied considerably among localities within each island. However, significantly higher percentages of C. rugosus reached age 3 years on Dongsha than at Siziwan bay in Taiwan. Two growth rate indices inferred from size structures suggested faster growth on Dongsha than at Siziwan. The condition index (i.e., the body mass/shield length ratio of C. rugosus) was also greater on Dongsha than at Siziwan. Therefore, Dongsha hermit crabs seem to have superior diet and growth performance. Seagrass debris accumulation at the shore of Dongsha was considerable, whereas none was observed at Siziwan or on the other islands, where dicot leaves were the dominant food item for the vegetarian hermit crabs. We then experimentally evaluated the possible role of seagrass as food for C. rugosus. The crabs on Dongsha preferred seagrass to dicot leaves, and their growth increment was faster when they fed on seagrass than when they fed on dicot leaves; no such differences were found in the Siziwan hermit crabs. The aforementioned results are compatible with the food hypothesis explaining the size differences among the islands. The predator hypothesis could explain the greater life span but not the other

  10. Winter Bottom Trawl Survey (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Winter Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1992 and covered offshore areas from the Mid-Atlantic to Georges Bank. Inshore strata were covered...

  11. Deer Wintering Areas (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Deer winter habitat is critical to the long term survival of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Vermont. Being near the northern extreme of the...

  12. Implementation of Associated Hermite FDTD Method in Handling INBCs for Shielding Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Shi


    Full Text Available For modeling of electrically thin conductive shields, the unconditionally stable Associated Hermite (AH FDTD scheme is combined with the impedance network boundary conditions (INBCs in this paper. The two-port network equations of INBCs in frequency domain are transformed into AH domain to represent the relationship of tangential components of the electric and magnetic fields at faces of the shield. The established AH-INBCs shielding boundaries are incorporated into a set of implicit equations to calculate the expansion coefficients vectors of electromagnetic fields in the computational domain. The method is free of CFL condition and no convolution integral operation for solving the conventional INBCs-FDTD is involved. Numerical example shows that, compared with analytical solutions and conventional FDTD method, the proposed algorithm is efficient and accurate.

  13. Research on UWB Beamforming Using Direct Time Delay Compensation Based on Hermite Interpolation Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Qiang


    Full Text Available Beamforming of Ultra Wide Band (UWB signals is a crucial technology in UWB radar. Conventional beamforming methods have limitations in instantaneous bandwidth, scanning range, beam pattern deviation and a mainlobe distortion. Direct Time Delay (DTD compensation is an effective way to avoid above problems. In this paper, a DTD compensation based on Hermite interpolation filters is presented to implement beamforming of UWB signals. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the magnitude responses and group delay of the proposed filters are better than those based on Lagrange and Radial basis methods. The demonstration of the UWB Linear-Frequency modulated (LFM signal also shows excellent performances on the UWB beamforming of the proposed method.

  14. Solution of stochastic nonlinear PDEs using Wiener-Hermite expansion of high orders

    KAUST Repository

    El Beltagy, Mohamed


    In this work, the Wiener-Hermite Expansion (WHE) is used to solve stochastic nonlinear PDEs excited with noise. The generation of the equivalent set of deterministic integro-differential equations is automated and hence allows for high order terms of WHE. The automation difficulties are discussed, solved and implemented to output the final system to be solved. A numerical Pikard-like algorithm is suggested to solve the resulting deterministic system. The automated WHE is applied to the 1D diffusion equation and to the heat equation. The results are compared with previous solutions obtained with WHEP (WHE with perturbation) technique. The solution obtained using the suggested WHE technique is shown to be the limit of the WHEP solutions with infinite number of corrections. The automation is extended easily to account for white-noise of higher dimension and for general nonlinear PDEs.

  15. Finite difference Hermite WENO schemes for the Hamilton-Jacobi equations (United States)

    Zheng, Feng; Shu, Chi-Wang; Qiu, Jianxian


    In this paper, a new type of finite difference Hermite weighted essentially non-oscillatory (HWENO) schemes are constructed for solving Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) equations. Point values of both the solution and its first derivatives are used in the HWENO reconstruction and evolved via time advancing. While the evolution of the solution is still through the classical numerical fluxes to ensure convergence to weak solutions, the evolution of the first derivatives of the solution is through a simple dimension-by-dimension non-conservative procedure to gain efficiency. The main advantages of this new scheme include its compactness in the spatial field and its simplicity in the reconstructions. Extensive numerical experiments in one and two dimensional cases are performed to verify the accuracy, high resolution and efficiency of this new scheme.

  16. An annotated checklist of hermit crabs (Crustacea, Decapoda, Anomura of Indian waters with three new records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jigneshkumar N. Trivedi


    Full Text Available The annotated checklist of hermit crabs occurring in the Indian waters has been compiled based on published literature and specimens collected by us along the Indian coastline from 2010 to 2016. The checklist records 112 species belonging to 26 genera and five families. The east coast of India, with 81 species is more diverse than the west coast of India (73 species. Maximum species diversity was recorded from coastal areas of Tamil Nadu state (50 species whereas the least number of species were reported from coastal areas of Maharashtra state (7 species. Distribution of three species belonging to the family Diogenidae namely Areopaguristes perspicax (Nobili, 1906, Clibanarius virescens (Krauss, 1843, and Diogenes lophochir (Morgan, 1989 is for the first time recorded in Indian waters.

  17. Hermit crab response to a visual threat is sensitive to looming cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talya Shragai


    Full Text Available Prior work in our lab has shown that an expanding image on a computer screen elicits a hiding response in the Caribbean terrestrial hermit crab (Coenobita clypeatus. We conducted two experiments to identify what properties of the expanding stimulus contribute to its effectiveness as a visual threat. First we found that an expanding geometric star evoked a strong hiding response while a contracting or full-sized stationary star did not. A second experiment revealed that the more quickly the stimulus expanded the shorter the latency to hide. These findings suggest that the anti-predator response to looming stimulus relies heavily on visual cues relating to the manner of approach. The simulated visual threat on a computer screen captures key features of a real looming object that elicits hiding behavior in crabs in the wild.

  18. Pythagorean hodograph spline spirals that match G3 Hermite data from circles

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Zhong


    A construction is given for a G3 piecewise rational Pythagorean hodograph convex spiral which interpolates two G3 Hermite data associated with two non-concentric circles, one being inside the other. The spiral solution is of degree 7 and is the involute of a G2 convex curve, referred to as the evolute solution, with prescribed length, and composed of two PH quartic curves. Conditions for G3 continuous contact with circles are then studied and it turns out that an ordinary cusp at each end of the evolute solution is required. Thus, geometric properties of a family of PH polynomial quartics, allowing to generate such an ordinary cusp at one end, are studied. Finally, a constructive algorithm is described with illustrative examples.

  19. From one-dimensional fields to Vlasov equilibria: Theory and application of Hermite polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Allanson, O; Troscheit, S; Wilson, F


    We consider the theory and application of a solution method for the inverse problem in collisionless equilibria, namely that of calculating a Vlasov-Maxwell equilibrium for a given macroscopic (fluid) equilibrium. Using Jeans' Theorem, the equilibrium distribution functions are expressed as functions of the constants of motion, in the form of a Maxwellian multiplied by an unknown function of the canonical momenta. In this case it is possible to reduce the inverse problem to inverting Weierstrass transforms, which we achieve by using expansions over Hermite polynomials. A sufficient condition on the pressure tensor is found which guarantees the convergence and the boundedness of the candidate solution, when satisfied. This condition is obtained by elementary means, and it is clear how to put it into practice. We also argue that for a given pressure tensor for which our method applies, there always exists a positive distribution function solution for a sufficiently magnetised plasma. Illustrative examples of th...

  20. A new species of hermit crab, Diogenes heteropsammicola (Crustacea, Decapoda, Anomura, Diogenidae, replaces a mutualistic sipunculan in a walking coral symbiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momoko Igawa

    Full Text Available Symbiont shift is rare in obligate mutualisms because both the partners are reciprocally dependent on and specialized to each other. In the obligate accommodation-transportation mutualism between walking corals and sipunculans, however, an unusual saltatory symbiont shift was discovered. In shallow waters of southern Japan, an undescribed hermit crab species was found living in corallums of solitary scleractinian corals of the genera Heterocyathus and Heteropsammia, replacing the usual sipunculan symbiont. We described the hermit crab as a new species Diogenes heteropsammicola (Decapoda, Anomura, Diogenidae, and explored its association with the walking corals. This hermit crab species obligately inhabits the coiled cavity of the corals, and was easily distinguished from other congeneric species by the exceedingly slender chelipeds and ambulatory legs, and the symmetrical telson. Observations of behavior in aquaria showed that the new hermit crab, like the sipunculan, carries the host coral and prevents the coral from being buried. This is an interesting case in which an organism phylogenetically distant from Sipuncula takes over the symbiotic role in association with a walking coral. The hermit crab species is unique in that its lodging is a living solitary coral that grows with the hermit crab in an accommodation-transportation mutualism.

  1. Employment and winter construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Larsen, Jacob Norvig


    hemisphere. Can climatic conditions alone explain the sizeable difference in reduction in building activity in the construction sector in European countries in the winter months, or are other factors such as technology, economic cycles and schemes for financial compensation influential as well? What...... of contracts for workers is more likely to explain differences in seasonal activity than climatic or technological factors....

  2. PID controller tuning for the first-order-plus-dead-time process model via Hermite-Biehler theorem. (United States)

    Roy, Anindo; Iqbal, Kamran


    This paper discusses PID stabilization of a first-order-plus-dead-time (FOPDT) process model using the stability framework of the Hermite-Biehler theorem. The FOPDT model approximates many processes in the chemical and petroleum industries. Using a PID controller and first-order Padé approximation for the transport delay, the Hermite-Biehler theorem allows one to analytically study the stability of the closed-loop system. We derive necessary and sufficient conditions for stability and develop an algorithm for selection of stabilizing feedback gains. The results are given in terms of stability bounds that are functions of plant parameters. Sensitivity and disturbance rejection characteristics of the proposed PID controller are studied. The results are compared with established tuning methods such as Ziegler-Nichols, Cohen-Coon, and internal model control.

  3. A high-order full-discretization method using Hermite interpolation for periodic time-delayed differential equations (United States)

    Liu, Yilong; Fischer, Achim; Eberhard, Peter; Wu, Baohai


    A high-order full-discretization method (FDM) using Hermite interpolation (HFDM) is proposed and implemented for periodic systems with time delay. Both Lagrange interpolation and Hermite interpolation are used to approximate state values and delayed state values in each discretization step. The transition matrix over a single period is determined and used for stability analysis. The proposed method increases the approximation order of the semidiscretization method and the FDM without increasing the computational time. The convergence, precision, and efficiency of the proposed method are investigated using several Mathieu equations and a complex turning model as examples. Comparison shows that the proposed HFDM converges faster and uses less computational time than existing methods.

  4. Propagation equation of Hermite-Gauss beams through a complex optical system with apertures and its application to focal shift. (United States)

    Peng, Sun; Jin, Guo; Tingfeng, Wang


    Based on the generalized Huygens-Fresnel diffraction integral (Collins' formula), the propagation equation of Hermite-Gauss beams through a complex optical system with a limiting aperture is derived. The elements of the optical system may be all those characterized by an ABCD ray-transfer matrix, as well as any kind of apertures represented by complex transmittance functions. To obtain the analytical expression, we expand the aperture transmittance function into a finite sum of complex Gaussian functions. Thus the limiting aperture is expressed as a superposition of a series of Gaussian-shaped limiting apertures. The advantage of this treatment is that we can treat almost all kinds of apertures in theory. As application, we define the width of the beam and the focal plane using an encircled-energy criterion and calculate the intensity distribution of Hermite-Gauss beams at the actual focus of an aperture lens.

  5. Adomian-Hermite-Padé approximation approach to thermal criticality for a reactive third grade fluid flow through porous medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adesanya Samuel O.


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of non-Newtonian material effect on the thermal stability of a reactive fluid flow through a channel saturated with porous medium by using Brinkman model. Approximate solution of the dimensionless nonlinear ordinary differential equation governing the fluid flow is obtained by using Adomian decomposition method together with special Hermite-Pad e approximant. Effects of various non-Newtonian fluid parameters on both the velocity and temperature fields are constructed and discussed.

  6. Use of pleopod morphology to determine sexual dimorphism and maturity in hermit crabs: Isocheles sawayai as a model (United States)

    Fantucci, Marina Zilio; Biagi, Renata; Mantelatto, Fernando Luis


    In the Anomura, studies on growth patterns are infrequent, possibly because the heterogeneity of the group, especially in terms of morphology, makes it difficult to construct generalized growth models. Particularly hermit crabs are an interesting group to evaluate aspects of growth, because of their unique body. Isocheles sawayai, a hermit crab found only in the western Atlantic Ocean, poorly known with respect to its sexual dimorphism and maturity, was investigated here based on morphometry. Monthly collections (July 2001 through June 2003) were made from a shrimp fishing boat in the Caraguatatuba region on the northern coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The specimens were measured and weighed, and had their sex checked. Throughout the sampling period, 374 specimens of I. sawayai were collected (11.23% nonovigerous females, 6.69% ovigerous females, 79.41% males and 2.67% intersexes). The size at which morphological sexual maturity was reached by both sexes ranged from 4.0 to 4.3 mm shield length, according to the relative growth and the size of the smallest ovigerous female. Sexual dimorphism was shown by males, which were significantly larger than females, and by differences in growth pattern between the sexes, especially for relationships that involved the pleopods, which is related to their different functions in males and females. The present study is one of the first to use pleopod morphometry to determine sexual maturity and dimorphism in hermit crabs, especially for species with intersexuality such as I. sawayai.

  7. Editorial - The winter Atomiades

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    As we wrote in our previous editorial, the Staff Association gives direct support to sports events, such as the Atomiades, a section of the Association of Sports Communities of European Research Institutes, which brings together sportsmen and women from 38 European research centres in 13 countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, United Kingdom, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Luxemburg, the Netherlands, Russia, and Switzerland). The summer Atomiades take place between the months of June and September every three years. Thirteen such events have taken place since 1973, the last one in June 2009 in Berlin. As far as the winter Atomiades are concerned, also organized every three years, and alternating with the summer Atomiades, there have been eleven since 1981, the last one at the end of January this year in neighbouring France. The following article tells the wonderful adventure of the CERN staff who took part in this event. A positive outcome for CERN skiers at the winter Atomiades The 11t...

  8. Winter in Bavaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Stephens


    Full Text Available "A Winter In Bavaria" was written on location in Regensburg, Germany, and is the first-hand account of a cataclysm, already predicted by Nostradamus, which changed the direction of Bavarian culture forever. Anything vaguely resembling an allusion to any real person or institution is entirely coincidental, has no foundation in fact and is clearly the product of a mind estranged - except that Bavarian beer is, by and large, still to be highly recommended.

  9. Self-Focusing of Hermite-Cosh-Gaussian Laser Beams in Plasma under Density Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzoor Ahmad Wani


    Full Text Available Self-focusing of Hermite-Cosh-Gaussian (HChG laser beam in plasma under density transition has been discussed here. The field distribution in the medium is expressed in terms of beam-width parameters and decentered parameter. The differential equations for the beam-width parameters are established by a parabolic wave equation approach under paraxial approximation. To overcome the defocusing, localized upward plasma density ramp is considered, so that the laser beam is focused on a small spot size. Plasma density ramp plays an important role in reducing the defocusing effect and maintaining the focal spot size up to several Rayleigh lengths. To discuss the nature of self-focusing, the behaviour of beam-width parameters with dimensionless distance of propagation for various values of decentered parameters is examined by numerical estimates. The results are presented graphically and the effect of plasma density ramp and decentered parameter on self-focusing of the beams has been discussed.

  10. Adaptive filtering of ballistocardiogram artifact from EEG signals using the dilated discrete Hermite transform. (United States)

    Mahadevan, Anandi; Mugler, Dale H; Acharya, Soumyadipta


    Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals, when recorded within the strong magnetic field of an MRI scanner are subject to various artifacts, of which the ballistocardiogram (BCG) is one of the prominent ones affecting the quality of the EEG. The BCG artifact varies slightly in shape and amplitude for every cardiac cycle making it difficult to identify and remove. This paper proposes a novel method for the identification and elimination of this artifact using the shape basis functions of the new dilated discrete Hermite transform. In this study, EEG data within and outside the scanner was recorded. On removal of the BCG artifact for the EEG data recorded within the scanner, a significant reduction in amplitude at the frequencies associated with the BCG artifact was observed. In order to quantitatively assess the efficacy of this method, BCG artifact templates were added to segments of EEG signals recorded outside the scanner. These signals, when filtered using the proposed method, had no significant difference (p0.05) from the original signals, indicating that the technique satisfactorily eliminates the BCG artifact and does not introduce any distortions in the original signal. The method is computationally efficient for real-time implementation.

  11. Spatial beam tracking for Hermite-Gaussian-based free-space optical communications (United States)

    Kiasaleh, Kamran


    The problem of spatial tracking for Hermite-Gaussian free-space optical (HG-FSO) links is addressed. Since HG waveforms allow for the simultaneous presence of orthogonal spatial channels, FSO-HG has the potential of offering a considerable increase in system capacity as compared with the standard FSO systems. To harness this capacity gain, the problem of spatial tracking becomes of paramount importance as the presence of spatial error significantly impacts the orthogonality of the HG waveforms. We, then, consider spatial tracking using a standard quad-detector arrangement and assume that the background noise and/or receiver thermal noise are large enough to warrant a Gaussian detection statistics. The performance is assessed in terms of the probability density function of the spatial tracking error for HG order of up to 3. In assessing performance, it is assumed that the impact of the cross-talk among the spatial modes is negligible under the steady-state condition. Numerical results are presented to assess the viability of the tracking loop. Numerical results show that among the HG waveforms with orders ranging from 1 to 3, the second-order HG waveform offers the best tracking performance and, hence, must be selected for the purpose of tracking in HG-FSO systems.

  12. First Report of Two Diogenid Species of Hermit Crabs (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung, Jibom


    Full Text Available Two diogenid hermit crab species, Dardanus lagopodes and Diogenes deflectomanus, are newly reported from Korea. Dardanus lagopodes is distinguished from the other species of genus Dardanus in Korea by having setae with cream-colored tips on the cephalothorax and the following characteristics: ocular peduncles somewhat longer than antennular peduncles, and the pereopod without a longitudinal sulcus and scute-like projections. Diogenes deflectomanus is similar to D. nitidimanus but can be distinguished by having the fixed finger of the left cheliped bent slightly downwardly and the following characteristics: slightly shorter ocular peduncle, elongated left cheliped with small granules on the surface, right cheliped without calcareous teeth on the cutting edge of the dactylus, and the minute spine of post-median margin of the telson is not well developed. The geographical distributions of these two species are extended by the present study. In particular, D. deflectomanus in the current study is the first report outside Chinese waters. Now, 20 species of the family Diogenidae are known in Korean waters.

  13. A new class of generalized polynomials associated with Hermite and Bernoulli polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Pathan


    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a new class of generalized  polynomials associated with  the modified Milne-Thomson's polynomials Φ_{n}^{(α}(x,ν of degree n and order α introduced by  Derre and Simsek.The concepts of Bernoulli numbers B_n, Bernoulli polynomials  B_n(x, generalized Bernoulli numbers B_n(a,b, generalized Bernoulli polynomials  B_n(x;a,b,c of Luo et al, Hermite-Bernoulli polynomials  {_HB}_n(x,y of Dattoli et al and {_HB}_n^{(α} (x,y of Pathan  are generalized to the one   {_HB}_n^{(α}(x,y,a,b,c which is called  the generalized  polynomial depending on three positive real parameters. Numerous properties of these polynomials and some relationships between B_n, B_n(x, B_n(a,b, B_n(x;a,b,c and {}_HB_n^{(α}(x,y;a,b,c  are established. Some implicit summation formulae and general symmetry identities are derived by using different analytical means and applying generating functions. These results extend some known summations and identities of generalized Bernoulli numbers and polynomials

  14. Population biology of the hermit crab Petrochirus diogenes (Linnaeus (Crustacea, Decapoda in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Turra


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to provide information on the biology of a subtropical population ofthe hermit crab Petrochirus diogenes focusing size structure, sex ratio, reproductive period and morphometric relationships. Monthly samples were done between January and December 1995 at Armação of Itapocoroy, Penha, southern Brazil, using two over-trawls in depths from 6.0 to 10.0 m. A total of 126 individuais were collected. Overall sex ratio did not differ from 1:1. When the sex ratio was analyzed for each size class, it was skewed for females in the smallest size classes while males outnumbered females in the largest ones. The mean size (cephalothoracic length of P. diogenes was 30.61 ± 12.52 mm and the size structure of this population was skewed to the right. Males were on average larger and heavier than both ovigerous and non-ovigerous females, which, in turn, showed similar sizes and weights. The ovigerous females represented 61% ofall females and occurred from January to April and in September and December. The relationship of cephalothoracic length and both cephalothoracic width and crab weight were isometric. Both crab size and weight showed a negative allometry with shell weight, indicating that larger/heavier crabs use proportionally lighter shells than small-sized ones.

  15. Viriato: a Fourier-Hermite spectral code for strongly magnetised fluid-kinetic plasma dynamics (United States)

    Loureiro, Nuno; Dorland, William; Fazendeiro, Luis; Kanekar, Anjor; Mallet, Alfred; Zocco, Alessandro


    We report on the algorithms and numerical methods used in Viriato, a novel fluid-kinetic code that solves two distinct sets of equations: (i) the Kinetic Reduced Electron Heating Model equations [Zocco & Schekochihin, 2011] and (ii) the kinetic reduced MHD (KRMHD) equations [Schekochihin et al., 2009]. Two main applications of these equations are magnetised (Alfvnénic) plasma turbulence and magnetic reconnection. Viriato uses operator splitting to separate the dynamics parallel and perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field (assumed strong). Along the magnetic field, Viriato allows for either a second-order accurate MacCormack method or, for higher accuracy, a spectral-like scheme. Perpendicular to the field Viriato is pseudo-spectral, and the time integration is performed by means of an iterative predictor-corrector scheme. In addition, a distinctive feature of Viriato is its spectral representation of the parallel velocity-space dependence, achieved by means of a Hermite representation of the perturbed distribution function. A series of linear and nonlinear benchmarks and tests are presented, with focus on 3D decaying kinetic turbulence. Work partially supported by Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia via Grants UID/FIS/50010/2013 and IF/00530/2013.

  16. Geographic isolation drives divergence of uncorrelated genetic and song variation in the Ruddy-capped Nightingale-Thrush (Catharus frantzii; Aves: Turdidae). (United States)

    Ortiz-Ramírez, Marco F; Andersen, Michael J; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro; Ornelas, Juan Francisco; Navarro-Sigüenza, Adolfo G


    Montane barriers influence the evolutionary history of lineages by promoting isolation of populations. The effects of these historical processes are evident in patterns of differentiation among extant populations, which are often expressed as genetic and behavioral variation between populations. We investigated the effects of geographic barriers on the evolutionary history of a Mesoamerican bird by studying patterns of genetic and vocal variation in the Ruddy-capped Nightingale-Thrush (Turdidae: Catharus frantzii), a non-migratory oscine bird that inhabits montane forests from central Mexico to Panama. We reconstructed the phylogeographic history and estimated divergence times between populations using Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods. We found strong support for the existence of four mitochondrial lineages of C. frantzii corresponding to isolated mountain ranges: Sierra Madre Oriental; Sierra Madre del Sur; the highlands of Chiapas, Guatemala, and El Salvador; and the Talamanca Cordillera. Vocal features in C. frantzii were highly variable among the four observed clades, but vocal variation and genetic variation were uncorrelated. Song variation in C. frantzii suggests that sexual selection and cultural drift could be important factors driving song differentiation in C. frantzii. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Winter School Les Houches

    CERN Document Server

    Lannoo, Michel; Bastard, Gérald; Voos, Michel; Boccara, Nino


    The Winter School held in Les Houches on March 12-21, 1985 was devoted to Semiconductor Heterojunctions and Superlattices, a topic which is recognized as being now one of the most interesting and active fields in semiconductor physics. In fact, following the pioneering work of Esaki and Tsu in 1970, the study of these two-dimensional semiconductor heterostructures has developed rapidly, both from the point of view of basic physics and of applications. For instance, modulation-doped heterojunctions are nowadays currently used to investigate the quantum Hall effect and to make very fast transistors. This book contains the lectures presented at this Winter School, showing in particular that many aspects of semiconductor heterojunctions and super­ lattices were treated, extending from the fabrication of these two-dimensional systems to their basic properties and applications in micro-and opto-electron­ ics. Among the subjects which were covered, one can quote as examples: molecular beam epitaxy and metallorgani...

  18. Surface-sediment and hermit-crab contamination by butyltins in southeastern Atlantic estuaries after ban of TBT-based antifouling paints. (United States)

    Sant'Anna, B S; Santos, D M; Marchi, M R R; Zara, F J; Turra, A


    Butyltin (BT) contamination was evaluated in hermit crabs from 25 estuaries and in sediments from 13 of these estuaries along about 2,000 km of the Brazilian coast. BT contamination in hermit crabs ranged from 2.22 to 1,746 ng Sn g(-1) of DBT and 1.32 to 318 ng Sn g(-1) of TBT. In sediment samples, the concentration also varied widely, from 25 to 1,304 ng Sn g(-1) of MBT, from 7 to 158 ng Sn g(-1) of DBT, and from 8 to 565 ng Sn g(-1) of TBT. BTs are still being found in surface sediments and biota of the estuaries after the international and Brazilian bans, showing heterogeneous distribution among and within estuaries. Although hermit crabs were previously tested as an indicator of recent BT contamination, the results indicate the presence of contamination, probably from resuspension of BTs from deeper water of the estuary.

  19. Measurements for winter road maintenance


    Riehm, Mats


    Winter road maintenance activities are crucial for maintaining the accessibility and traffic safety of the road network at northerly latitudes during winter. Common winter road maintenance activities include snow ploughing and the use of anti-icing agents (e.g. road salt, NaCl). Since the local weather is decisive in creating an increased risk of slippery conditions, understanding the link between local weather and conditions at the road surface is critically important. Sensors are commonly i...

  20. Salmonid behaviour under winter conditions


    Watz, Johan


    Winter conditions are believed to play an important role in the population dynamics of northern temperate stream fish, challenging the ability of fish to physiologically and behaviourally adapt. Climate change is predicted to increase both mean temperature and temperature fluctuations, especially during winter, leading to dynamic environmental conditions in terms of river ice production and flow. Therefore, knowledge about the winter ecology of stream fish is important for predicting and miti...

  1. Nonclassicality Generated by Applying Hermite-Polynomials Photon-Added Operator on the Even/Odd Coherent States (United States)

    Ren, Gang; Du, Jian-ming; Zhang, Wen-hai; Yu, Hai-jun


    We examine nonclassical properties of the quantum state generated by applying Hermite polynomials photon-added operator on the even/odd coherent state (HPECS/HPOCS). Explicit expressions for its nonclassical properties, such as quantum statistical properties and squeezing phenomenon, are obtained. It is interesting to find that the HPECS/HPOCS exhibits sub-Poissonian distribution, anti-bunching effects and negative values of the Wigner function. Thus, we confirm the HPPECS/HPPOCS is a new nonclassical state. Finally, we reveal that the HPPECS/HPPOCS is a novel intelligent state by its squeezing effects in position distribution and quadrature squeezing.

  2. The mobile hermit and the city: considering links between places, objects, and identities in social psychological research on homelessness. (United States)

    Hodgetts, Darrin J; Stolte, Ottilie; Chamberlain, Kerry; Radley, Alan; Groot, Shiloh; Nikora, Linda Waimarie


    This article explores aspects of a homeless man's everyday life and his use of material objects to maintain a sense of place in the city. We are interested in the complex functions of walking, listening and reading as social practices central to how this man forges a life as a mobile hermit across physical and imagined locales. This highlights connections between physical place, use of material objects, imagination, and sense of self. Our analysis illustrates the value of paying attention to geographical locations and objects in social psychological research on homelessness.

  3. Improving the full spectrum fitting method: accurate convolution with Gauss-Hermite functions (United States)

    Cappellari, Michele


    I start by providing an updated summary of the penalized pixel-fitting (PPXF) method that is used to extract the stellar and gas kinematics, as well as the stellar population of galaxies, via full spectrum fitting. I then focus on the problem of extracting the kinematics when the velocity dispersion σ is smaller than the velocity sampling ΔV that is generally, by design, close to the instrumental dispersion σinst. The standard approach consists of convolving templates with a discretized kernel, while fitting for its parameters. This is obviously very inaccurate when σ ≲ ΔV/2, due to undersampling. Oversampling can prevent this, but it has drawbacks. Here I present a more accurate and efficient alternative. It avoids the evaluation of the undersampled kernel and instead directly computes its well-sampled analytic Fourier transform, for use with the convolution theorem. A simple analytic transform exists when the kernel is described by the popular Gauss-Hermite parametrization (which includes the Gaussian as special case) for the line-of-sight velocity distribution. I describe how this idea was implemented in a significant upgrade to the publicly available PPXF software. The key advantage of the new approach is that it provides accurate velocities regardless of σ. This is important e.g. for spectroscopic surveys targeting galaxies with σ ≪ σinst, for galaxy redshift determinations or for measuring line-of-sight velocities of individual stars. The proposed method could also be used to fix Gaussian convolution algorithms used in today's popular software packages.

  4. Cylindrical particle manipulation and negative spinning using a nonparaxial Hermite-Gaussian light-sheet beam (United States)

    Mitri, F. G.


    Based on the angular spectrum decomposition method (ASDM), a nonparaxial solution for the Hermite-Gaussian (HG m ) light-sheet beam of any order m is derived. The beam-shape coefficients (BSCs) are expressed in a compact form and computed using the standard Simpson’s rule for numerical integration. Subsequently, the analysis is extended to evaluate the longitudinal and transverse radiation forces as well as the spin torque on an absorptive dielectric cylindrical particle in 2D without any restriction to a specific range of frequencies. The dynamics of the cylindrical particle are also examined based on Newton’s second law of motion. The numerical results show that a Rayleigh or Mie cylindrical particle can be trapped, pulled or propelled in the optical field depending on its initial position in the cross-sectional plane of the HG m light-sheet. Moreover, negative or positive axial spin torques can arise depending on the choice of the non-dimensional size parameter ka (where k is the wavenumber and a is the radius of the cylinder) and the location of the absorptive cylinder in the beam. This means that the HG m light-sheet beam can induce clockwise or anti-clockwise rotations depending on its shift from the center of the cylinder. In addition, individual vortex behavior can arise in the cross-sectional plane of wave propagation. The present analysis presents an analytical model to predict the optical radiation forces and torque induced by a HG m light-sheet beam on an absorptive cylinder for applications in optical light-sheet tweezers, optical micro-machines, particle manipulation and opto-fluidics to name a few areas of research.

  5. Cryptic satellites rich in inverted repeats comprise 30% of the genome of a hermit crab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, R.F.; Skinner, D.M.


    One major very highly repeated (VHR) DNA (approx. 7 x 10W copies/genome; repeat unit = 156 base pairs (bp)), a family of three minor VHR DNAs (approx. 2.8 x 10W copies/genome; repeat units = 71-74 bp), and a number of trace components account for almost 30% of the genome of a hermit crab. The repeat units of the three minor variants are defined by identical 14-bp G + C-rich inverted repeats that might form cruciforms. Two copies of the repeat unit (CCTA) of one of two patent satellites of this crab occur at the center of one in seven of the G + C-rich inverted repeats; copies of the other patent satellite are found in main component DNA. The sequences of both the major and minor VHR DNAs are characterized by short tracts of A/sub n/ and/or T/sub n/ (n = 4-7) residues whose presence would permit the formation of perfectly matched stems separated by loops of 8-16 bp. The A/sub n/ and/or T/sub n/ tracts are interspersed with segments of G + C-rich DNA and are arranged differently in the major and minor VHR DNAs. Although the repeat units of the major and the three minor VHR DNAs are arranged in tandem, the composition and sequence of their bases are such that they do not form distinct bands in CsCl gradients; they are cryptic satellites. 42 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

  6. Stamena winter wheat variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišić Todor


    Full Text Available Stamena is a winter wheat variety developed at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad, Yugoslavia. It was released by the Federal Commission for varietals Approval in 1999. Stamena was developed by crossing genetically divergent and highly productive parents Lasta and Rodna (Breeders: T. Mišić. N. Mladenov, Z. Jerković and R. Jevtić. Spike is white, smooth, awn less, medium compact with 18-21 spike lets. The grain is vitreous and dark red (Triticum aestivum L. ssp. vulgar e var. lutescens. Stamena is a medium early variety, 1 day earlier than Partizanka and 3 days earlier than Jugoslavija (Table 4. It has excellent resistance to winterkilling, as in very winter hardy Partizanka. The average stem height is 78 cm, with a good resistance to lodging. Stamena has field resistance to leaf rust (Pucce, recondita tritict, horizontal resistance, which is the type of resistance that modern wheat breeding is interested in. The resistance to stem rust (Pucce, graminis tritict is good and to powdery mildew (Erysiphegraminis tritici very good. The 1000 grain mass is about 32 g and volume grain mass 81.3 kg/hi. (Table 2. Stamena is classified in the subgroup A-l. It has excellent milling and baking quality and it belong to the 1st technological group (quality enhancer. The quantity of dry gluten is about 9%. The variety Stamena is a very productive, with the genetic potential for grain above 11 t/ha suitable for growing on fertile and less fertile soils. It has started to be grown commercially in 2000.

  7. A family of vortex wakes generated by a thrush nightingale in free flight in a wind tunnel over its entire natural range of flight speeds. (United States)

    Spedding, G R; Rosén, M; Hedenström, A


    In view of the complexity of the wing-beat kinematics and geometry, an important class of theoretical models for analysis and prediction of bird flight performance entirely, or almost entirely, ignores the action of the wing itself and considers only the resulting motions in the air behind the bird. These motions can also be complicated, but some success has previously been recorded in detecting and measuring relatively simple wake structures that can sometimes account for required quantities used to estimate aerodynamic power consumption. To date, all bird wakes, measured or presumed, seem to fall into one of two classes: the closed-loop, discrete vortex model at low flight speeds, and the constant-circulation, continuous vortex model at moderate to high speeds. Here, novel and accurate quantitative measurements of velocity fields in vertical planes aligned with the freestream are used to investigate the wake structure of a thrush nightingale over its entire range of natural flight speeds. At most flight speeds, the wake cannot be categorised as one of the two standard types, but has an intermediate structure, with approximations to the closed-loop and constant-circulation models at the extremes. A careful accounting for all vortical structures revealed with the high-resolution technique permits resolution of the previously unexplained wake momentum paradox. All the measured wake structures have sufficient momentum to provide weight support over the wingbeat. A simple model is formulated and explained that mimics the correct, measured balance of forces in the downstroke- and upstroke-generated wake over the entire range of flight speeds. Pending further work on different bird species, this might form the basis for a generalisable flight model.

  8. Optimal Cross Hedging Winter Canola


    Kim, Seon-Woong; Brorsen, B. Wade; Yoon, Byung-Sam


    Winter canola in the southern Great Plains has shown large price fluctuations and there have been questions about which futures market could be used to reduce price risk. Our results indicate that the optimal futures contract to cross hedge winter canola is soybean oil futures.

  9. Effects of visual and chemical cues on orientation behavior of the Red Sea hermit crab Clibanarius signatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Gad El-Kareem Ismail


    Full Text Available Directional orientation of Clibanarius signatus toward different targets of gastropod shells was studied in a circular arena upon exposure to background seawater, calcium concentrations and predatory odor. Directional orientation was absent when crabs were presented with the white background alone. Each shell was tested in different positions (e.g., anterior, posterior, upside-down, lateral. Adult crabs were tested without their gastropod shells, and orientation varied with concentration and chemical cue. With calcium, orientation increased as concentration increased up to a maximum attraction percentage and then attraction became stable. In the case of predator cues, some individuals swim away from the target toward the opposite direction representing a predator avoidance response. Whenever, the blind hermit crab C. signatus was exposed to a shell target combined with calcium or predator cues, the majority of them stop moving or move in circles around the arena center. The others exhibited uniform orientation distribution. The responsiveness was higher with calcium cues than predator cues. Thus in the absence of vision, individual hermit crabs were able to detect both calcium and predator cues and have different response regarding them.

  10. Shell architecture and its relation to shell occupation by the hermit crab Clibanarius antillensis under different wave action conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Argüelles


    Full Text Available We studied the intertidal hermit crab Clibanarius antillensis at Montepio Beach, Veracruz, Mexico, to determine whether architecture and weight of occupied shells varied with the degree of exposure to wave action. Data on shell use were obtained from 30-m transects perpendicular to the shoreline. The gastropod shells species used by C. antillensis were classified into four groups according to their morphology: neritiform, conical, turriculate, and turbinate. Neither the size nor the weight of hermit crabs varied along transects. A pattern showing differential use of shell type according to water velocity was detected. Neritiform and turriculate shells were the least occupied, and their abundance decreased with increasing water velocities. Conical and turbinate shells were the most used and their presence increased with increasing water velocities. Turbinate and conical shells are heavier and have a higher weight/exposed-area ratio than neritiform and turriculate shells, so using them at higher energy sites seems to be more advantageous than using turriculate shells. The pattern that emerges is one in which C. antillensis occupy different shells along the intertidal transect, probably due to the advantages that different shells may bring, such as minimising drag and the risk of dislodgement.

  11. Influence of anisotropic turbulence on the orbital angular momentum modes of Hermite-Gaussian vortex beam in the ocean. (United States)

    Li, Ye; Yu, Lin; Zhang, Yixin


    Applying the angular spectrum theory, we derive the expression of a new Hermite-Gaussian (HG) vortex beam. Based on the new Hermite-Gaussian (HG) vortex beam, we establish the model of the received probability density of orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes of this beam propagating through a turbulent ocean of anisotropy. By numerical simulation, we investigate the influence of oceanic turbulence and beam parameters on the received probability density of signal OAM modes and crosstalk OAM modes of the HG vortex beam. The results show that the influence of oceanic turbulence of anisotropy on the received probability of signal OAM modes is smaller than isotropic oceanic turbulence under the same condition, and the effect of salinity fluctuation on the received probability of the signal OAM modes is larger than the effect of temperature fluctuation. In the strong dissipation of kinetic energy per unit mass of fluid and the weak dissipation rate of temperature variance, we can decrease the effects of turbulence on the received probability of signal OAM modes by selecting a long wavelength and a larger transverse size of the HG vortex beam in the source's plane. In long distance propagation, the HG vortex beam is superior to the Laguerre-Gaussian beam for resisting the destruction of oceanic turbulence.

  12. Klaus Winter (1930 - 2015)

    CERN Multimedia


    We learned with great sadness that Klaus Winter passed away on 9 February 2015, after a long illness.   Klaus was born in 1930 in Hamburg, where he obtained his diploma in physics in 1955. From 1955 to 1958 he held a scholarship at the Collège de France, where he received his doctorate in nuclear physics under the guidance of Francis Perrin. Klaus joined CERN in 1958, where he first participated in experiments on π+ and K0 decay properties at the PS, and later became the spokesperson of the CHOV Collaboration at the ISR. Starting in 1976, his work focused on experiments with the SPS neutrino beam. In 1984 he joined Ugo Amaldi to head the CHARM experiment, designed for detailed studies of the neutral current interactions of high-energy neutrinos, which had been discovered in 1973 using the Gargamelle bubble chamber at the PS. The unique feature of the detector was its target calorimeter, which used large Carrara marble plates as an absorber material. From 1984 to 1991, Klau...

  13. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD`s I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s, as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 day, 30-Day, and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city.

  14. Shell occupation by the hermit crab Dardanus insignis (Decapoda, Diogenidae from the north Coast of São Paulo state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. F. Frameschi

    Full Text Available Abstract The pattern of shell occupation by the hermit crab Dardanus insignis (Saussure, 1858 from the subtropical region of southeastern coast of Brazil was investigated in the present study. The percentage of shell types that were occupied and the morphometric relationships between hermit crabs and occupied shells were analyzed from monthly collections conducted during two years (from January 1998 to December 1999. Individuals were categorized according to sex and gonadal maturation, weighed and measured with respect to their cephalothoracic shield length (CSL and wet weight (CWW. Shells were measured regarding their aperture width (SAW, dry weight (SDW and internal volume (SIV. A total of 1086 hermit crabs was collected, occupying shells of 11 gastropod species. Olivancillaria urceus (Roding, 1798 was most commonly used by the hermit crab D. insignis, followed by Buccinanops cochlidium (Dillwyn, 1817, and Stramonita haemastoma (Linnaeus, 1767. The highest determination coefficients (r2 > 0.50, p < 0.01 were recorded particularly in the morphometric relationships between CSL vs. CWW and SAW vs. SIV, which are important indication that in this D. insignis population the great majority the animals occupied adequate shells during the two years analysed. The high number of used shell species and relative plasticity in pattern of shell utilization by smaller individuals of D. insignis indicated that occupation is influenced by the shell availability, while larger individuals demonstrated more specialized occupation in Tonna galea (Linnaeus, 1758 shell.

  15. New records of hermit crabs, Calcinus morgani Rahayu and Forest, 1999 and Diogenes klaasi Rahayu and Forest, 1995 (Crustacea: Anomura: Diogenidae from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Reshmi


    Full Text Available Two species of hermit crabs, Calcinus morgani Rahayu and Forest and Diogenes klaasi Rahayu and Forest of the family Diogenidae, are recorded for the first time from the Indian coast. Calcinus morgani inhabits the intertidal rocky area along Thirumullavaram beach, Kollam, while D. klaasi was collected from the mangrove swamps in Ashtamudi Lake, Kerala.

  16. The anatomy of the king crab Hapalogaster mertensii Brandt, 1850 (Anomura: Paguroidea: Hapalogastridae): new insights into the evolutionary transformation of hermit crabs into king crabs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keiler, J.; Richter, S.; Wirkner, C.S.


    The emergence of king crabs from a hermit crab-like ancestor is one of the most curious events in decapod evolution. King crabs comprise two taxa, Lithodidae and Hapalogastridae, and while lithodids have formed the focus of various anatomical studies, the internal anatomy of hapalogastrids has never

  17. Egg production and shell relationship of the land hermit crab Coenobita scaevola (Anomura: Coenobitidae from Wadi El-Gemal, Red Sea, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafaa S. Sallam


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to characterize the fecundity of the land hermit crab Coenobita scaevola as well as the influence of shell type on fecundity using morphometric relationships. Hermit crabs were collected monthly from January to December 2007 from the protected area of Wadi El-Gemal, at Marsa Alam on the Red Sea, and ovigerous females were selected. Hermit crab wet weight and the gastropod shell weight were recorded. The number of eggs carried by females of several sizes (CL, carapace length, stages of development and egg size were determined. Shells of eight gastropod species were occupied by ovigerous females of C. scaevola. Shells of Nerita undata was the most occupied (65.7%, particularly by individuals falling within the size range 5.0–7.0 mm CL. Only 35 berried females were recorded during May, July and September and the mean fecundity was 679.8 ± 140 eggs. Fecundity was found positively correlated with crab size and shell dimensions. The relationship between fecundity and the internal volume of the occupied shell was ranked as the most correlated. The impact of shell utilization on hermit crab fecundity is discussed.

  18. Biogeography and diversification of hermit spiders on Indian Ocean islands (Nephilidae: Nephilengys). (United States)

    Kuntner, Matjaž; Agnarsson, Ingi


    The origin of the terrestrial biota of Madagascar and, especially, the smaller island chains of the western Indian Ocean is relatively poorly understood. Madagascar represents a mixture of Gondwanan vicariant lineages and more recent colonizers arriving via Cenozoic dispersal, mostly from Africa. Dispersal must explain the biota of the smaller islands such as the Comoros and the chain of Mascarene islands, but relatively few studies have pinpointed the source of colonizers, which may include mainland Africa, Asia, Australasia, and Madagascar. The pantropical hermit spiders (genus Nephilengys) seem to have colonized the Indian Ocean island arc stretching from Comoros through Madagascar and onto Mascarenes, and thus offer one opportunity to reveal biogeographical patterns in the Indian Ocean. We test alternative hypotheses on the colonization route of Nephilengys spiders in the Indian Ocean and simultaneously test the current taxonomical hypothesis using genetic and morphological data. We used mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (ITS2) markers to examine Nephilengys phylogenetic structure with samples from Africa, southeast Asia, and the Indian Ocean islands of Madagascar, Mayotte, Réunion and Mauritius. We used Bayesian and parsimony methods to reconstruct phylogenies and haplotype networks, and calculated genetic distances and fixation indices. Our results suggest an African origin of Madagascar Nephilengys via Cenozoic dispersal, and subsequent colonization of the Mascarene islands from Madagascar. We find strong evidence of gene flow across Madagascar and through the neighboring islands north of it, while phylogenetic trees, haplotype networks, and fixation indices all reveal genetically isolated and divergent lineages on Mauritius and Réunion, consistent with female color morphs. These results, and the discovery of the first males from Réunion and Mauritius, in turn falsify the existing taxonomic hypothesis of a single widespread species, Nephilengys borbonica

  19. Hermit crab (Decapoda, Anomura attraction to dead gastropod baits in an infralittoral algae bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez C. B. Pezzuti


    Full Text Available Hermit crabs use gastropod shells as shelter and are adapted to follow chemical cues released from tissues of dead or injured gastropods as a way to find new and more adequate shells. The species composition, crab size, shell types adequacy and physical condition were compared between attracted individuals and crabs collected in previous samples. The previous sampling was carried out in five areas before each experiment. Then, five baits of crushed gastropods in nylon net bags were installed in these areas. Three samples were taken at 30min intervals, capturing all crabs within a circle of 60cm diameter. Attraction of hermit crabs was tested for four different gastropod baits to verify specificity of the chemical cues. Clibanarius antillensis, Pagurus brevidactylus and Paguristes tortugae were collected in the study area. Pagurus brevidactylus, the smallest species, turned out to be more attracted than the 2 other species. The results showed that attracted crabs utilized more gastropod shell types than that collected in previous samples, however shell utilization pattern did not differ between them. Attracted animals were slightly smaller (shield length than those collected in the previous samples but did not present significant differences in shell adequacy and condition. The four experimental baits attracted the crabs in similar ways not indicating a specific response from the crabs. The fact that attracted animals were smaller suggested that the attraction to dead gastropods might enable the acquisition of a new and larger shell and, consequently, chains of shell exchange between the attracted crabs.Ermitões utilizam conchas de gastrópodes para abrigo. Conchas novas e mais adequadas podem ser encontradas pelos ermitões pois estes são atraídos por substâncias químicas liberadas pelos tecidos de gastrópodes feridos ou mortos. A adequação, condição e tipo das conchas e a composição de espécies e o tamanho dos ermitões foram

  20. The Challenge of Winter Backpacking. (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Michael; Mapes, Alan


    Tips and techniques for safe and enjoyable winter backpacking are offered. Topics covered include cross county skis, snowshoes, clothing, footwear, shelter, sleeping bags, food, hypothermia prevention, as well as general rules and requirements. (CO)

  1. Winter waterfowl survey, southeastern Alaska (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Little is known of the total numbers of wintering waterfowl within the north pacific coastal region. The random stratified plot sampling methods used in 1980, as...

  2. Winter/Summer Monsoon Experiment (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Winter/Summer Monsoon Experiment (MONEX) was conducted during the First Global GARP (Global Atmospheric Research Program) Experiment (FGGE). An international...

  3. Shining Light on "Dark Winter"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tara O'Toole; Michael Mair; Thomas V. Inglesby


    ... Security, and the Oklahoma National Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism, held a senior-level exercise entitled "Dark Winter" that simulated a covert smallpox attack on the United States...

  4. The use of Gauss-Hermite quadrature in the determination of the molecular weight distribution of linear polymers by rheometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Farias


    Full Text Available The molecular weight distribution (MWD and its parameters are of the fundamental importance in the characterization of polymers. Therefore, the development of techniques for faster MWD determination is a relevant issue. This paper aims at implementing one of the relaxation models from double reptation theory proposed in the literature and analyzing the numeric strategy for the evaluation of the integrals appearing in the relaxation model. The inverse problem, i.e., the determination of the MWD from rheological data using a specified relaxation model and an imposed distribution function was approximated. Concerning the numerical strategy for the evaluation of the integrals appearing in the relaxation models, the use of Gauss-Hermite quadrature using a new change of variables was proposed. In the test of samples of polyethylene with polydispersities less than 10, the application of this methodology led to MWD curves which provided a good fit of the experimental SEC data.

  5. Narrowband interference mitigation in body surface to external communication in UWB body area networks using first-order Hermite pulse (United States)

    Rout, Deepak Kumar; Das, Susmita


    Ultra wideband (UWB) is the most preferred candidate for body area networks (BAN). The higher data rate and lower multipath fading makes it highly suitable for the design of BAN. However, narrowband interference (NBI) may significantly degrade the performance of UWB. The paper presents an effective method of NBI mitigation for UWB BAN. The method uses modified Hermite pulse (MHP) in lieu of Gaussian and other pulse shapes. The spectral characteristics of the MHP make them immune to interference. The performance has been tested in various body postures in the CM4 channel model of the BAN, and further validated by transmitting medical signals like electrocardiography and MRI. The results show that MHP pulse is highly immune to NBI.

  6. A new species of Pagurus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Paguridae, new records and a redescription of hermit crabs from the Mexican Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ayón-Parente


    Full Text Available New records are provided for three species of little-known pagurids. All the material reported was collected by the R/V “El Puma” in the central Gulf of California during the GUAYTEC II cruise. New material is reported for Iridopagurus haigae García-Gómez, 1983, Enallopagurus spinicarpus (Glassell, 1937, and Solenopagurus diomedeae (Faxon, 1893, and these two latter species are redescribed. A new species of hermit crab of the genus Pagurus Fabricius, 1775, is described and illustrated in detail. Among the eastern Pacific species of Pagurus, this new species resembles Pagurus meloi Lemaitre and Cruz Castaño, 2004, P. imarpe Haig, 1974 and P. delsolari Haig, 1974, but differs from these three species in the armature and setation of the chelipeds and second and third pereopods, the shape and armature of the telson, and the number of rows of scales on pereopodal rasp and the presence of a preungual process.

  7. Self-focusing of a Hermite-cosh Gaussian laser beam in a magnetoplasma with ramp density profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanda, Vikas; Kant, Niti; Wani, Manzoor Ahmad [Department of Physics, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara 144411, Punjab (India)


    The early and strong self-focusing of a Hermite-cosh-Gaussian laser beam in magnetoplasma in the presence of density ramp has been observed. Focusing and de-focusing nature of the Hermite-cosh-Gaussian laser beam with decentered parameter and magnetic field has been studied, and strong self-focusing is reported. It is investigated that decentered parameter 'b' plays a significant role for the self-focusing of the laser beam and is very sensitive as in case of extraordinary mode. For mode indices, m = 0, 1, 2, and b = 4.00, 3.14, and 2.05, strong self-focusing is observed. Similarly in case of ordinary mode, for m = 0, 1, 2 and b = 4.00, 3.14, 2.049, respectively, strong self-focusing is reported. Further, it is seen that extraordinary mode is more prominent toward self-focusing rather than ordinary mode of propagation. For mode indices m = 0, 1, and 2, diffraction term becomes more dominant over nonlinear term for decentered parameter b=0. For selective higher values of decentered parameter in case of mode indices m=0, 1, and 2, self-focusing effect becomes strong for extraordinary mode. Also increase in the value of magnetic field enhances the self-focusing ability of the laser beam, which is very useful in the applications like the generation of inertial fusion energy driven by lasers, laser driven accelerators, and x-ray lasers.

  8. Brain architecture in the terrestrial hermit crab Coenobita clypeatus (Anomura, Coenobitidae, a crustacean with a good aerial sense of smell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansson Bill S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the evolutionary radiation of Crustacea, several lineages in this taxon convergently succeeded in meeting the physiological challenges connected to establishing a fully terrestrial life style. These physiological adaptations include the need for sensory organs of terrestrial species to function in air rather than in water. Previous behavioral and neuroethological studies have provided solid evidence that the land hermit crabs (Coenobitidae, Anomura are a group of crustaceans that have evolved a good sense of aerial olfaction during the conquest of land. We wanted to study the central olfactory processing areas in the brains of these organisms and to that end analyzed the brain of Coenobita clypeatus (Herbst, 1791; Anomura, Coenobitidae, a fully terrestrial tropical hermit crab, by immunohistochemistry against synaptic proteins, serotonin, FMRFamide-related peptides, and glutamine synthetase. Results The primary olfactory centers in this species dominate the brain and are composed of many elongate olfactory glomeruli. The secondary olfactory centers that receive an input from olfactory projection neurons are almost equally large as the olfactory lobes and are organized into parallel neuropil lamellae. The architecture of the optic neuropils and those areas associated with antenna two suggest that C. clypeatus has visual and mechanosensory skills that are comparable to those of marine Crustacea. Conclusion In parallel to previous behavioral findings of a good sense of aerial olfaction in C. clypeatus, our results indicate that in fact their central olfactory pathway is most prominent, indicating that olfaction is a major sensory modality that these brains process. Interestingly, the secondary olfactory neuropils of insects, the mushroom bodies, also display a layered structure (vertical and medial lobes, superficially similar to the lamellae in the secondary olfactory centers of C. clypeatus. More detailed analyses with

  9. Morphology and histochemistry of the aesthetasc-associated epidermal glands in terrestrial hermit crabs of the genus Coenobita (Decapoda: Paguroidea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Tuchina

    Full Text Available Crustaceans have successfully adapted to a variety of environments including fresh- and saltwater as well as land. Transition from an aquatic to a terrestrial lifestyle required adaptations of the sensory equipment of an animal, particularly in olfaction, where the stimulus itself changes from hydrophilic to mainly hydrophobic, air-borne molecules. Hermit crabs Coenobita spp. (Anomura, Coenobitidae have adapted to a fully terrestrial lifestyle as adults and have been shown to rely on olfaction in order to detect distant food items. We observed that the specialized olfactory sensilla in Coenobita, named aesthetascs, are immersed in a layer of mucous-like substance. We hypothesized that the mucous is produced by antennal glands and affects functioning of the aesthetascs. Using various microscopic and histochemical techniques we proved that the mucous is produced by aesthetasc-associated epidermal glands, which we consider to be modified rosette-type aesthetasc tegumental glands known from aquatic decapods. These epidermal glands in Coenobita are multicellular exocrine organs of the recto-canal type with tubulo-acinar arrangement of the secretory cells. Two distinct populations of secretory cells were clearly distinguishable with light and electron microscopy. At least part of the secretory cells contains specific enzymes, CUB-serine proteases, which are likely to be secreted on the surface of the aesthetasc pad and take part in antimicrobial defense. Proteomic analysis of the glandular tissue corroborates the idea that the secretions of the aesthetasc-associated epidermal glands are involved in immune responses. We propose that the mucous covering the aesthetascs in Coenobita takes part in antimicrobial defense and at the same time provides the moisture essential for odor perception in terrestrial hermit crabs. We conclude that the morphological modifications of the aesthetasc-associated epidermal glands as well as the functional characteristics

  10. Tooele Army Depot Revised Final Site-Wide Ecological Risk Assessment. Volume I. (United States)


    Astragalus utahensis Lathyrus brachycafyx Lupinus brevicauUs Lupinus caudatus Melilotus alba Melilotus officinalis Family: Geraniaceae Erodium...Catharus guttatus Hermit thrush 1 Myadestes townsendi Townsend’s solitaire 1 Polioptila caerulea Bhie-gray gnatcatcher 1 Regulas calendula Ruby

  11. Oropharyngeal/Esophageal Candidiasis ("Thrush") (United States)

    ... mouth, throat, or esophagus. Risk & Prevention Who gets candidiasis in the mouth, throat, or esophagus? Candidiasis in ... the mouth and throat. How can I prevent candidiasis in the mouth, throat, or esophagus? Ways to ...

  12. Winter Storm Zones on Mars (United States)

    Hollingsworth, J. L.; Haberle, R. M.; Barnes, J. R.; Bridger, A. F. C.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N. (Technical Monitor)


    Preferred regions of weather activity in Mars' winter middle latitudes-so called 'storm zones' are found in a general circulation model of Mars' atmospheric circulation. During northern winter, these storm zones occur in middle latitudes in the major planitia (low-relief regions) of the western and eastern hemisphere. In contrast, the highlands of the eastern hemisphere are mostly quiescent. Compared to Earth's storm zones where diabatic heating associated with land-sea thermal contrasts is crucial, orography on Mars is fundamental to the regionalization of weather activity. Future spacecraft missions aimed at assessing Mars' climate and its variability need to include such regions in observation strategies.

  13. The tropical African hermit crab Pagurus mbizi (Crustacea, Decapoda, Paguridae in the Western Mediterranean Sea: a new alien species or filling gaps in the knowledge of the distribution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available We report the first occurrence in the European Mediterranean Sea of a tropical Atlantic hermit crab, Pagurus mbizi (Forest, 1955, based on the capture of twenty specimens (all sizes and ovigerous females collected along the northern shores of the Alboran Sea, which proof the existence of a well-established population of this species, and the importance of this geographic area as a transitional and settlement zone for Atlantic species, which makes the Alboran Sea one of the richest marine biodiversity areas in the Mediterranean Sea. Some morphological comparative data with the closely related hermit crab Pagurus pubescentulus are given. In addition, data on its habitat and geographical distribution, as well as the probable pathways of introduction, are commented.

  14. An integrative approach-using field and laboratory data to characterize shell utilization and selection pattern by the hermit crab Pagurus criniticornis (Paguridae from Anchieta Island, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando L. Mantelatto

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to characterize the pattern of gastropod shell occupation in the field and selection of shell size and type under laboratory conditions by the hermit crab Pagurus criniticornis (Dana, 1852, inhabiting the infralittoral area of Anchieta Island, São Paulo, Brazil. Hermit crabs were obtained monthly during 1999 by SCUBA diving. For experiments under laboratory conditions, samplings were performed in 2002. The hermit crabs occupied 16 species of gastropods shells. Cerithium atratum (Born, 1778 was the most occupied shell (89.31%, followed by Morula nodulosa (4.73% (Adams, 1845. No difference was observed in the pattern of occupation between males and females. The equations that best demonstrated the relationship between hermit crabs and their shells were those that involved Shell Wet Weight (SWW and Shell Internal Volume (SIV. The laboratory experiments were in accordance to the pattern of occupation observed in the field; the mean value of SAI (Shell Adequacy Index recorded to the population studied was 1.13 with a trend to increase this value in the last size classes. The results obtained corroborate with the hypothesis of the occupation process of shells governed not only by availability of shells, but also by its architecture. In addition, the shell stock in the area is one another important condition related to the exhibited pattern of shell occupation by P. criniticornis, and allows the stable coexistence among the island assemblage. The pattern of occupation observed promotes a high reproductive profile for the population studied, maximizing the populational growth.

  15. Eikenprocessierups doorstaat koude winter goed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, S.


    Eikenprocessierupsen zijn niet gedeerd door de langdurige koude van deze winter. Bij het opensnijden van eipakketjes blijken de rupsjes springlevend naar buiten te komen. Het is nog te vroeg om nu al iets te zeggen over de mogelijke overlast later dit jaar. Dat is afhankelijk van de

  16. Epibiont occurrence on gastropod shells used by the hermit crab Loxopagurus loxochelis (Anomura: Diogenidae on the northern coast of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Ayres-Peres


    Full Text Available Gastropod shells occupied by hermit crabs are an important attachment substrate for epifauna, and these shells are often damaged. The present study aimed to characterize the epibionts and extent of damage for gastropod shells occupied by the hermit crab Loxopagurus loxochelis (Moreira, 1901. Samples were collected monthly over a period of one year (from July 2002 through June 2003, in the Caraguatatuba and Ubatuba regions, on the northern coast of São Paulo, Brazil. The sampling was performed using a fishing boat equipped with double-rig nets. The shells were identified and weighed. Loxopagurus loxochelis occupied 14 gastropod shell species in Caraguatatuba and five in Ubatuba. In the two areas, approximately 55% of these gastropod shells bore epibionts, and a significantly large number (p < 0.05 showed no damage. The presence of epibionts did not significantly change the mean weight of shells. This cover may provide camouflage to the animals when they are associated with the sandy substrate, which possibly affects the occupancy of the shells by the hermit crabs. Undamaged shells may reflect a high availability of shells in good condition in the environment.

  17. Xanthophyll cycle pigment and antioxidant profiles of winter-red (anthocyanic) and winter-green (acyanic) angiosperm evergreen species. (United States)

    Hughes, Nicole M; Burkey, Kent O; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine; Smith, William K


    Leaves of many angiosperm evergreen species change colour from green to red during winter, corresponding with the synthesis of anthocyanin pigments. The ecophysiological function of winter colour change (if any), and why it occurs in some species and not others, are not yet understood. It was hypothesized that anthocyanins play a compensatory photoprotective role in species with limited capacity for energy dissipation. Seasonal xanthophyll pigment content, chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf nitrogen, and low molecular weight antioxidants (LMWA) of five winter-red and five winter-green angiosperm evergreen species were compared. Our results showed no difference in seasonal xanthophyll pigment content (V+A+Z g(-1) leaf dry mass) or LMWA between winter-red and winter-green species, indicating red-leafed species are not deficient in their capacity for non-photochemical energy dissipation via these mechanisms. Winter-red and winter-green species also did not differ in percentage leaf nitrogen, corroborating previous studies showing no difference in seasonal photosynthesis under saturating irradiance. Consistent with a photoprotective function of anthocyanin, winter-red species had significantly lower xanthophyll content per unit chlorophyll and less sustained photoinhibition than winter-green species (i.e. higher pre-dawn F(v)/F(m) and a lower proportion of de-epoxidized xanthophylls retained overnight). Red-leafed species also maintained a higher maximum quantum yield efficiency of PSII at midday (F'(v)/F'(m)) during winter, and showed characteristics of shade acclimation (positive correlation between anthocyanin and chlorophyll content, and negative correlation with chlorophyll a/b). These results suggest that the capacity for photon energy dissipation (photochemical and non-photochemical) is not limited in red-leafed species, and that anthocyanins more likely function as an alternative photoprotective strategy to increased VAZ/Chl during winter.

  18. Mexican Mid-winter Waterfowl Survey (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mexican Mid-winter Waterfowl Survey is a continuation of the annual winter waterfowl survey which is conducted in the United States and Mexico. Since the...

  19. Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter (United States)

    ... Weekend Warriors expand/collapse Vitamin D Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter Winter sports enthusiasts are ... skiing! Be Mindful of Time Spent in the Sun, Regardless of the Season If possible, ski early ...

  20. Leadership in American Indian Communities: Winter Lessons (United States)

    Metoyer, Cheryl A.


    Winter lessons, or stories told in the winter, were one of the ways in which tribal elders instructed and directed young men and women in the proper ways to assume leadership responsibilities. Winter lessons stressed the appropriate relationship between the leader and the community. The intent was to remember the power and purpose of that…

  1. The CFS-PML for 2D Auxiliary Differential Equation FDTD Method Using Associated Hermite Orthogonal Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Jiang


    Full Text Available The complex frequency shifted (CFS perfectly matched layer (PML is proposed for the two-dimensional auxiliary differential equation (ADE finite-difference time-domain (FDTD method combined with Associated Hermite (AH orthogonal functions. According to the property of constitutive parameters of CFS-PML (CPML absorbing boundary conditions (ABCs, the auxiliary differential variables are introduced. And one relationship between field components and auxiliary differential variables is derived. Substituting auxiliary differential variables into CPML ABCs, the other relationship between field components and auxiliary differential variables is derived. Then the matrix equations are obtained, which can be unified with Berenger’s PML (BPML and free space. The electric field expansion coefficients can thus be obtained, respectively. In order to validate the efficiency of the proposed method, one example of wave propagation in two-dimensional free space is calculated using BPML, UPML, and CPML. Moreover, the absorbing effectiveness of the BPML, UPML, and CPML is discussed in a two-dimensional (2D case, and the numerical simulations verify the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method.

  2. Comparing the strength of behavioural plasticity and consistency across situations: animal personalities in the hermit crab Pagurus bernhardus. (United States)

    Briffa, Mark; Rundle, Simon D; Fryer, Adam


    Many phenotypic traits show plasticity but behaviour is often considered the 'most plastic' aspect of phenotype as it is likely to show the quickest response to temporal changes in conditions or 'situation'. However, it has also been noted that constraints on sensory acuity, cognitive structure and physiological capacities place limits on behavioural plasticity. Such limits to plasticity may generate consistent differences in behaviour between individuals from the same population. It has recently been suggested that these consistent differences in individual behaviour may be adaptive and the term 'animal personalities' has been used to describe them. In many cases, however, a degree of both behavioural plasticity and relative consistency is probable. To understand the possible functions of animal personalities, it is necessary to determine the relative strength of each tendency and this may be achieved by comparison of statistical effect sizes for tests of difference and concordance. Here, we describe a new statistical framework for making such comparisons and investigate cross-situational plasticity and consistency in the duration of startle responses in the European hermit crab Pagurus bernhardus, in the field and the laboratory. The effect sizes of tests for behavioural consistency were greater than for tests of behavioural plasticity, indicating for the first time the presence of animal personalities in a crustacean model.

  3. An Extreme Learning Machine Based on the Mixed Kernel Function of Triangular Kernel and Generalized Hermite Dirichlet Kernel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senyue Zhang


    Full Text Available According to the characteristics that the kernel function of extreme learning machine (ELM and its performance have a strong correlation, a novel extreme learning machine based on a generalized triangle Hermitian kernel function was proposed in this paper. First, the generalized triangle Hermitian kernel function was constructed by using the product of triangular kernel and generalized Hermite Dirichlet kernel, and the proposed kernel function was proved as a valid kernel function of extreme learning machine. Then, the learning methodology of the extreme learning machine based on the proposed kernel function was presented. The biggest advantage of the proposed kernel is its kernel parameter values only chosen in the natural numbers, which thus can greatly shorten the computational time of parameter optimization and retain more of its sample data structure information. Experiments were performed on a number of binary classification, multiclassification, and regression datasets from the UCI benchmark repository. The experiment results demonstrated that the robustness and generalization performance of the proposed method are outperformed compared to other extreme learning machines with different kernels. Furthermore, the learning speed of proposed method is faster than support vector machine (SVM methods.

  4. Winter to winter recurrence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia and its impact on winter surface air temperature anomalies. (United States)

    Zhao, Xia; Yang, Guang


    The persistence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia shows a winter to winter recurrence (WTWR) phenomenon. Seasonal variations in sea level pressure anomalies and surface wind anomalies display significantly different characteristics between WTWR and non-WTWR years. The WTWR years are characterized by the recurrence of both a strong (weak) anomalous Siberian High and an East Asian winter monsoon over two successive winters without persistence through the intervening summer. However, anomalies during the non-WTWR years have the opposite sign between the current and ensuing winters. The WTWR of circulation anomalies contributes to that of surface air temperature anomalies (SATAs), which is useful information for improving seasonal and interannual climate predictions over East Asia and China. In the positive (negative) WTWR years, SATAs are cooler (warmer) over East Asia in two successive winters, but the signs of the SATAs are opposite in the preceding and subsequent winters during the non-WTWR years.

  5. 33 CFR 100.109 - Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME. 100.109 Section 100.109 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME. (a) Regulated area. The regulated area includes all waters of Winter...

  6. Mercury in wintering seabirds, an aggravating factor to winter wrecks? (United States)

    Fort, Jérôme; Lacoue-Labarthe, Thomas; Nguyen, Hanh Linh; Boué, Amélie; Spitz, Jérôme; Bustamante, Paco


    Every year, thousands of seabirds are cast ashore and are found dead along the coasts of North America and Western Europe. These massive mortality events called 'winter wrecks' have generally been attributed to harsh climatic conditions and prolonged storms which affect bird energy balance and impact their body condition. Nevertheless, additional stress factors, such as contaminant body burden, could potentially cumulate to energy constraints and actively contribute to winter wrecks. However, the role played by these additional factors in seabird massive winter mortality has received little attention to date. In February/March 2014, an unprecedented seabird wreck occurred along the Atlantic French coasts during which > 43,000 seabirds were found dead. By analyzing mercury (Hg) concentrations in various tissues collected on stranded birds, we tested the hypothesis that Hg played a significant role in this mortality. More specifically, we aimed to (1) describe Hg contamination in wintering seabirds found along the French coasts in 2014, and (2) determine if Hg concentrations measured in some vital organs such as kidney and brain reached toxicity thresholds that could have led to deleterious effects and to an enhanced mortality. We found some of the highest Hg levels ever reported in Atlantic puffins, common guillemots, razorbills and kittiwakes. Measured concentrations ranged from 0.8 to 3.6 μg · g(-1) of dry weight in brain, 1.3 to 7.2 μg · g(-1) in muscle, 2.5 to 13.5 μg · g(-1) in kidney, 2.9 to 18.6 μg · g(-1) in blood and from 3.1 to 19.5 μg · g(-1) in liver. Hg concentrations in liver and brain were generally below the estimated acute toxicity levels. However, kidney concentrations were not different than those measured in the liver, and above levels associated to renal sub-lethal effects, suggesting a potential Hg poisoning. We concluded that although Hg was not directly responsible for the high observed mortality, it has been a major aggravating

  7. Communicating Certainty About Nuclear Winter (United States)

    Robock, A.


    I have been spending much of my time in the past several years trying to warn the world about the continuing danger of nuclear weapons, and that the solution is a rapid reduction in the nuclear arsenal. I feel that a scientist who discovers dangers to society has an ethical duty to issue a warning, even if the danger is so scary that it is hard for people to deal with. The debate about nuclear winter in the 1980s helped to end the nuclear arms race, but the planet still has enough nuclear weapons, even after reductions planned for 2017 under the New START treaty, to produce nuclear winter, with temperatures plunging below freezing in the summer in major agricultural regions, threatening the food supply for most of the planet. New research by myself, Brian Toon, Mike Mills, and colleagues over the past six years has found that a nuclear war between any two countries, such as India and Pakistan, using 50 atom bombs each of the size dropped on Hiroshima could produce climate change unprecedented in recorded human history, and a world food crisis because of the agricultural effects. This is much less than 1% of the current global arsenal. Communicating certainty - what we know for sure - has been much more effective than communicating uncertainty. The limited success I have had has come from persistence and serendipity. The first step was to do the science. We have published peer-reviewed articles in major journals, including Science, Nature, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Journal of Geophysical Research, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Physics Today, and Climatic Change. But policymakers do not read these journals. Through fairly convoluted circumstances, which will be described in this talk, we were able to get papers published in Scientific American and the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists. I have also published several encyclopedia articles on the subject. As a Lead Author of Chapter 8 (Radiative Forcing) of the recently published Fifth Assessment

  8. Small-scale spatial variation in population- and individual-level reproductive parameters of the blue-legged hermit crab Clibanarius tricolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Antonio Baeza


    Full Text Available Management of the few regulated ornamental fisheries relies on inadequate information about the life history of the target species. Herein, we investigated the reproductive biology of the most heavily traded marine invertebrate in the western Atlantic; the blue-legged hermit crab Clibanarius tricolor. We report on density, individual-level, and population-level reproductive parameters in 14 populations spanning the Florida Keys. In C. tricolor, abundance, population-level, and individual-level reproductive parameters exhibited substantial small-scale spatial variation in the Florida Keys. For instance, the proportion of brooding females varied between 10–94% across localities. In females, average (±SD fecundity varied between 184 (±54 and 614 (±301 embryos crab-1 across populations. Fecundity usually increases with female body size in hermit crabs. However, we found no effect of female body size on fecundity in three of the populations. Altogether, our observations suggest that C. tricolor may fit a source-sink metapopulation dynamic in the Florida Keys with low reproductive intensity and absence of a parental body size—fecundity relationship resulting in net reproductive loses at some localities. We argue in favor of additional studies describing population dynamics and other aspects of the natural history of C. tricolor (e.g., development type, larval duration to reveal ‘source’ populations, capable of exporting larvae to nearby populations. Our observations imply that future studies aimed at assessing standing stocks or describing other aspects of the life history of this hermit crab need to focus on multiple localities simultaneously. This and future studies on the reproductive biology of this species will form the baseline for models aimed at assessing the stock condition and sustainability of this heavily harvested crustacean.

  9. Winter therapy for the accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio


    Hundreds of people are hard at work during the year-end technical stop as all the accelerators are undergoing maintenance, renovation and upgrade operations in parallel.   The new beam absorber on its way to Point 2 before being lowered into the LHC tunnel for installation. The accelerator teams didn’t waste any time before starting their annual winter rejuvenation programme over the winter. At the end of November, as the LHC ion run was beginning, work got under way on the PS Booster, where operation had already stopped. On 14 December, once the whole complex had been shut down, the technical teams turned their attention to the other injectors and the LHC. The year-end technical stop (YETS) provides an opportunity to carry out maintenance work on equipment and repair any damage as well as to upgrade the machines for the upcoming runs. Numerous work projects are carried out simultaneously, so good coordination is crucial. Marzia Bernardini's team in the Enginee...

  10. Laguerre-Gaussian, Hermite-Gaussian, Bessel-Gaussian, and Finite-Energy Airy Beams Carrying Orbital Angular Momentum in Strongly Nonlocal Nonlinear Media (United States)

    Wu, Zhenkun; Gu, Yuzong


    The propagation of two-dimensional beams is analytically and numerically investigated in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media (SNNM) based on the ABCD matrix. The two-dimensional beams reported in this paper are described by the product of the superposition of generalized Laguerre-Gaussian (LG), Hermite-Gaussian (HG), Bessel-Gaussian (BG), and circular Airy (CA) beams, carrying an orbital angular momentum (OAM). Owing to OAM and the modulation of SNNM, we find that the propagation of these two-dimensional beams exhibits complete rotation and periodic inversion: the spatial intensity profile first extends and then diminishes, and during the propagation the process repeats to form a breath-like phenomenon.

  11. Central projections of antennular chemosensory and mechanosensory afferents in the brain of the terrestrial hermit crab (Coenobita clypeatus; Coenobitidae, Anomura) (United States)

    Tuchina, Oksana; Koczan, Stefan; Harzsch, Steffen; Rybak, Jürgen; Wolff, Gabriella; Strausfeld, Nicholas J.; Hansson, Bill S.


    The Coenobitidae (Decapoda, Anomura, Paguroidea) is a taxon of hermit crabs that includes two genera with a fully terrestrial life style as adults. Previous studies have shown that Coenobitidae have evolved a sense of spatial odor localization that is behaviorally highly relevant. Here, we examined the central olfactory pathway of these animals by analyzing central projections of the antennular nerve of Coenobita clypeatus, combining backfilling of the nerve with dextran-coupled dye, Golgi impregnations and three-dimensional reconstruction of the primary olfactory center, the antennular lobe. The principal pattern of putative olfactory sensory afferents in C. clypeatus is in many aspects similar to what have been established for aquatic decapod crustaceans, such as the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. However, there are also obvious differences that may, or may not represent adaptations related to a terrestrial lifestyle. In C. clypeatus, the antennular lobe dominates the deutocerebrum, having more than one thousand allantoid-shaped subunits. We observed two distinct patterns of sensory neuron innervation: putative olfactory afferents from the aesthetascs either supply the cap/subcap region of the subunits or they extend through its full depth. Our data also demonstrate that any one sensory axon can supply input to several subunits. Putative chemosensory (non-aesthetasc) and mechanosensory axons represent a different pathway and innervate the lateral and median antennular neuropils. Hence, we suggest that the chemosensory input in C. clypeatus might be represented via a dual pathway: aesthetascs target the antennular lobe, and bimodal sensilla target the lateral antennular neuropil and median antennular neuropil. The present data is compared to related findings in other decapod crustaceans. PMID:26236202

  12. A GIS model predicting potential distributions of a lineage: a test case on hermit spiders (Nephilidae: Nephilengys). (United States)

    Năpăruş, Magdalena; Kuntner, Matjaž


    Although numerous studies model species distributions, these models are almost exclusively on single species, while studies of evolutionary lineages are preferred as they by definition study closely related species with shared history and ecology. Hermit spiders, genus Nephilengys, represent an ecologically important but relatively species-poor lineage with a globally allopatric distribution. Here, we model Nephilengys global habitat suitability based on known localities and four ecological parameters. We geo-referenced 751 localities for the four most studied Nephilengys species: N. cruentata (Africa, New World), N. livida (Madagascar), N. malabarensis (S-SE Asia), and N. papuana (Australasia). For each locality we overlaid four ecological parameters: elevation, annual mean temperature, annual mean precipitation, and land cover. We used linear backward regression within ArcGIS to select two best fit parameters per species model, and ModelBuilder to map areas of high, moderate and low habitat suitability for each species within its directional distribution. For Nephilengys cruentata suitable habitats are mid elevation tropics within Africa (natural range), a large part of Brazil and the Guianas (area of synanthropic spread), and even North Africa, Mediterranean, and Arabia. Nephilengys livida is confined to its known range with suitable habitats being mid-elevation natural and cultivated lands. Nephilengys malabarensis, however, ranges across the Equator throughout Asia where the model predicts many areas of high ecological suitability in the wet tropics. Its directional distribution suggests the species may potentially spread eastwards to New Guinea where the suitable areas of N. malabarensis largely surpass those of the native N. papuana, a species that prefers dry forests of Australian (sub)tropics. Our model is a customizable GIS tool intended to predict current and future potential distributions of globally distributed terrestrial lineages. Its predictive

  13. Central projections of antennular chemosensory and mechanosensory afferents in the brain of the terrestrial hermit crab (Coenobita clypeatus; Coenobitidae, Anomura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana eTuchina


    Full Text Available The Coenobitidae (Decapoda, Anomura, Paguroidea is a taxon of hermit crabs that includes two genera with a fully terrestrial life style as adults. Previous studies have shown that Coenobitidae have evolved a sense of spatial odor localization that is behaviorally highly relevant. Here, we examined the central olfactory pathway of these animals by analyzing central projections of the antennular nerve of Coenobita clypeatus, combining backfilling of the nerve with dextran-coupled dye, Golgi impregnations and three-dimensional reconstruction of the primary olfactory center, the antennular lobe. The principal pattern of putative olfactory sensory afferents in C. clypeatus is in many aspects similar to what have been established for aquatic decapod crustaceans, such as the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. However, there are also obvious differences that may, or may not represent adaptations related to a terrestrial lifestyle. In C. clypeatus, the antennular lobe dominates the deutocerebrum, having more than one thousand allantoid-shaped subunits. We observed two distinct patterns of sensory neuron innervation: putative olfactory afferents from the aesthetascs either supply the cap/subcap region of the subunits or they extend through its full depth. Our data also demonstrate that any one sensory axon can supply input to several subunits. Putative chemosensory (non-aesthetasc and mechanosensory axons represent a different pathway and innervate the lateral and median antennular neuropils. Hence, we suggest that the chemosensory input in C. clypeatus might be represented via a dual pathway: aesthetascs target the antennular lobe, and bimodal sensilla target the lateral antennular neuropil and median antennular neuropil. The present data is compared to related findings in other decapod crustaceans.

  14. Population structure of the deep sea hermit-crab Catapaguroides microps (Paguroidea, Anomura in the Campos Basin, RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana S. F. Lins


    Full Text Available The population of Catapaguroides microps A. Milne-Edwards and Bouvier, 1892 in the Campos Basin was studied with an emphasis on its composition in the Northern and Southern parts of the Basin, the different gender sizes, sex ratio, and size class distribution. Specimens were collected under the "Program for the Environmental Characterization of the deep waters of the Campos Basin" ("Programa de Caracterização Ambiental das Águas Profundas da Bacia de Campos" in February and August 2003. A total of 339 hermit crabs were analyzed. Individual abundance was higher in the North. C. microps shows sexual dimorphism for body size, the males being larger than the females. The sex ratio is skewed in the female's favor (1:0.7, as shown by previous studies on shallow-water populations.A população de Catapaguroides microps A. Milne-Edwards and Bouvier, 1892 da foi analisada com foco na abundância de indivíduos, diferença de tamanho entre machos e fêmeas, razão sexual e distribuição dos indivíduos nas classes de tamanho, ao norte e ao sul da Bacia de Campos. As amostras foram coletadas pelo Programa de Caracterização Ambiental da Bacia de Campos em fevereiro e agosto de 2003. O total de indivíduos analizados foi de 339. A abundância foi maior no norte da Bacia de Campos. Catapaguroides microps mostrou dimorfismo sexual no tamanho do corpo, sendo os machos maiores que as fêmeas. A razão sexual favorece as fêmeas (1:0,7, de forma similar a outros estudos efetuados com populações de águas rasas.

  15. Enhanced relativistic self-focusing of Hermite-cosh-Gaussian laser beam in plasma under density transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanda, Vikas; Kant, Niti, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara 144411, Punjab (India)


    Enhanced and early relativistic self-focusing of Hermite-cosh-Gaussian (HChG) beam in the plasmas under density transition has been investigated theoretically using Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin and paraxial ray approximation for mode indices m=0, 1, and 2. The variation of beam width parameter with normalized propagation distance for m=0, 1, and 2 is reported, and it is observed that strong self-focusing occurs as the HChG beam propagates deeper inside the nonlinear medium as spot size shrinks due to highly dense plasmas and the results are presented graphically. A comparative study between self-focusing of HChG beam in the presence and absence of plasmas density transition is reported. The dependency of beam width parameter on the normalized propagation distance for different values of decentered parameter “b” has also been presented graphically. For m=0 and 1, strong self-focusing is reported for b=1.8, and for m=2 and b=1.8, beam gets diffracted. The results obtained indicate the dependency of the self-focusing of the HChG beam on the selected values of decentered parameter. Moreover, proper selection of decentered parameter results strong self-focusing of HChG beam. Stronger self-focusing of laser beam is observed due to the presence of plasma density transition which might be very useful in the applications like the generation of inertial fusion energy driven by lasers, laser driven accelerators, etc.

  16. Nectar robbery by a hermit hummingbird: association to floral phenotype and its influence on flowers and network structure. (United States)

    Maruyama, Pietro Kiyoshi; Vizentin-Bugoni, Jeferson; Dalsgaard, Bo; Sazima, Ivan; Sazima, Marlies


    Interactions between flowers and their visitors span the spectrum from mutualism to antagonism. The literature is rich in studies focusing on mutualism, but nectar robbery has mostly been investigated using phytocentric approaches focused on only a few plant species. To fill this gap, we studied the interactions between a nectar-robbing hermit hummingbird, Phaethornis ruber, and the array of flowers it visits. First, based on a literature review of the interactions involving P. ruber, we characterized the association of floral larceny to floral phenotype. We then experimentally examined the effects of nectar robbing on nectar standing crop and number of visits of the pollinators to the flowers of Canna paniculata. Finally, we asked whether the incorporation of illegitimate interactions into the analysis affects plant-hummingbird network structure. We identified 97 plant species visited by P. ruber and found that P. ruber engaged in floral larceny in almost 30% of these species. Nectar robbery was especially common in flowers with longer corolla. In terms of the effect on C. paniculata, the depletion of nectar due to robbery by P. ruber was associated with decreased visitation rates of legitimate pollinators. At the community level, the inclusion of the illegitimate visits of P. ruber resulted in modifications of how modules within the network were organized, notably giving rise to a new module consisting of P. ruber and mostly robbed flowers. However, although illegitimate visits constituted approximately 9% of all interactions in the network, changes in nestedness, modularity, and network-level specialization were minor. Our results indicate that although a flower robber may have a strong effect on the pollination of a particular plant species, the inclusion of its illegitimate interactions has limited capacity to change overall network structure.

  17. Connection between quantum systems involving the fourth Painlevé transcendent and k-step rational extensions of the harmonic oscillator related to Hermite exceptional orthogonal polynomial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquette, Ian, E-mail: [School of Mathematics and Physics, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); Quesne, Christiane, E-mail: [Physique Nucléaire Théorique et Physique Mathématique, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Campus de la Plaine CP229, Boulevard du Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)


    The purpose of this communication is to point out the connection between a 1D quantum Hamiltonian involving the fourth Painlevé transcendent P{sub IV}, obtained in the context of second-order supersymmetric quantum mechanics and third-order ladder operators, with a hierarchy of families of quantum systems called k-step rational extensions of the harmonic oscillator and related with multi-indexed X{sub m{sub 1,m{sub 2,…,m{sub k}}}} Hermite exceptional orthogonal polynomials of type III. The connection between these exactly solvable models is established at the level of the equivalence of the Hamiltonians using rational solutions of the fourth Painlevé equation in terms of generalized Hermite and Okamoto polynomials. We also relate the different ladder operators obtained by various combinations of supersymmetric constructions involving Darboux-Crum and Krein-Adler supercharges, their zero modes and the corresponding energies. These results will demonstrate and clarify the relation observed for a particular case in previous papers.

  18. Distribución de cangrejos ermitaños (Anomura: Paguroidea en el mar Caribe colombiano Hermit crabs (Anomura: Paguroidea distribution patterns in the Colombian Caribbean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibian Martínez Campos


    Full Text Available Los cangrejos ermitaños son un grupo representativo de la fauna marina del Caribe colombiano, además, son importantes en el mantenimiento del equilibrio dinámico, en los ecosistemas por sus interacciones ecológicas y también por el impacto en la estabilidad de las redes tróficas. Sus patrones de distribución se identificaron mediante análisis multivariados de clasificación y ordenación espacial, se usaron registros históricos desde 1916 hasta el 2006. Los resultados indican diferencias por profundidad entre la fauna costera y la del talud continental y diferencias en la distribución latitudinal, en donde se encontraron tres grupos: Noreste, Centro y Suroeste, sustentados por diferencias en la composición faunística. Con base en los mapas de ecosistemas marinos de Colombia, se determinó que los principales factores que afectan su distribución son la influencia del talud Caribaná (profundidad, la temperatura de las masas de agua, las praderas de pastos marinos de la Guajira y las condiciones particulares de las ecorregiones Archipiélagos coralinos y Darién. Se identificó la distribución mundial de las especies colombianas y su afinidad geográfica, y se encontró mayor afinidad con el Atlántico norte y las Antillas que con el Atlántico sur y el Golfo de México, asimismo, las subprovincias geográficas que incluyen a Colombia son zonas de transición dentro de la subprovincias septentrionales y australes del Gran CaribeHermit crabs (Anomura: Paguroidea distribution patterns in the Colombian Caribbean Sea. Hermit crabs represent the marine life in the Colombian Caribbean, and are important for the dynamic equilibrium maintenance in ecosystems, the ecological interactions and their impact on food web stability. Generally, in order to come up with some conservation strategies, strong bio-geographical information is needed for policies definition. With this aim, this study analyzed the distribution patterns of hermit crabs in

  19. Characterization of the occupied shells by the hermit crab Clibanarius vittatus (Decapoda, Diogenidae at Baixio Mirim tideflat, Guaratuba Bay, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara R. Sampaio


    Full Text Available A characterization of the occupied shells by the hermit crab Clibanarius vittatus was carried out. Hermit crabs were collected in the intertidal zone, during the low spring tide monthly from April 2005 to March 2006. They were sexed and their cephalothoracic shield length (CL was measured. Shells were identified, dried, weighed and the aperture length (AL and width (AW were measured. 1187 crabs were collected (949 males, 216 females and 22 intersexes, which occupied 12 species of gastropod shells. Stramonita haemastoma, Olivancillaria urceus and Dorsanum moniliferum made up 96.55% of the total shell species. Male hermit crabs attained significantly larger sizes than females; therefore, males occupied a wider spectrum of shells in size and weight. A stronger correlation ratio was obtained between CL and AW of S. haemastoma. Last whorl with a rounded shape and a spacious inner area is a common feature of all shell species most frequently occupied by this hermit crab where it occurs. The successful establishment of C. vittatus at Baixio Mirim is mainly due to the appropriately shaped and wide range of size of S. haemastoma shells that were most often occupied by the hermit crabs of the studied population.A caracterização das conchas ocupadas pelo ermitão Clibanarius vittatus (Bosc, 1802 foi realizada. Os ermitões foram coletados de abril/2005 a março/2006, na zona intertidal, durante a maré baixa de sizígia. Os ermitões tiveram o sexo reconhecido e foram medidos no comprimento do escudo ce-falotorácico. As conchas foram identificadas, pesadas depois de secas e edidas no copriento e na largura da abertura. Foram coletados 1187 ermitões (949 machos, 216 fêmeas e 22 intersexos que ocuparam 12 espécies de conchas de gastrópodes. Stramonita haemastoma, Olivancillaria urceus e Dorsanum moniliferum perfizeram 96,55% do total das conchas ocupadas. Ermitões machos atingiram tamanhos significativamente maiores do que as fêmeas; entretanto

  20. Photosynthetic capacity of red spruce during winter (United States)

    P.G. Schaberg; J.B. Shane; P.F. Cali; J.R. Donnelly; G.R. Strimbeck


    We measured the photosynthetic capacity (Pmax) of plantation-grown red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) during two winter seasons (1993-94 and 1994-95) and monitored field photosynthesis of these trees during one winter (1993-94). We also measured Pmax for mature montane trees from January through May 1995....

  1. 43 CFR 423.37 - Winter activities. (United States)


    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Winter activities. 423.37 Section 423.37 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE....37 Winter activities. (a) You must not tow persons on skis, sleds, or other sliding devices with a...

  2. 36 CFR 1002.19 - Winter activities. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Winter activities. 1002.19... RECREATION § 1002.19 Winter activities. (a) Skiing, snowshoeing, ice skating, sledding, innertubing.... (c) Failure to abide by area designations or activity restrictions established under this section is...

  3. 36 CFR 2.19 - Winter activities. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Winter activities. 2.19... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.19 Winter activities. (a) Skiing, snowshoeing, ice... designations or activity restrictions established under this section is prohibited. ...

  4. How to Have a Healthy Winter | Poster (United States)

    Without a doubt, winter is here. Between the icy weather and the recent hustle and bustle of the holidays, everyone is at an increased risk of getting sick. With that in mind, Occupational Health Services has a few simple tips for staying healthy this winter.

  5. Chapter 7: Migration and winter ecology (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Jeffrey F. Kelly; Jean-Luc E. Cartron


    The willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii) is a Neotropical migrant that breeds in North America, but winters in Central and northern South America. Little specific information is known about migration and wintering ecology of the southwestern willow flycatcher (E. t. extimus) (Yong and Finch 1997). Our report applies principally...

  6. Aluminium toxicity in winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabó A.


    Full Text Available Aluminium is the most frequent metal of the earth crust; it occurs mainly as biologically inactive, insoluble deposit. Environmental problems, industrial contaminations and acid rains increase the soil acidity, leading to the mobilization of Al. Half of the world’s potential arable lands are acidic; therefore, Al-toxicity decreases crop productivity. Wheat is a staple food for 35% of the world population. The effects of Al-stress (0.1 mM were studied on winter wheat; seedlings were grown hydroponically, at acidic pH. After two weeks, the root weight was decreased; a significant difference was found in the P- and Ca-content. The shoot weight and element content changed slightly; Al-content in the root was one magnitude higher than in the shoot, while Al-translocation was limited. The root plasma membrane H+-ATPase has central role in the uptake processes; Al-stress increased the Mg2+-ATPase activity of the microsomal fraction.

  7. Jasna: A new winter rapeseed cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović-Jeromela Ana


    Full Text Available The program of winter rapeseed breeding at Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops covers the development of winter and spring rapeseed cultivars and hybrids. Winter rapeseed cultivars are selected for high and stabile grain and oil yield, good oil quality, low erucic acid and glucosinolate content (type 00 and tolerance to stresses caused by abiotic and biotic factors. This paper reviews agronomic characteristics and grain and oil quality of a new cultivar of winter rapeseed Jasna. In the trials of the Serbian Commission for new cultivars registration, cultivar Jasna had higher grain yield then standard, in the three locations and two years. In average the yield was 4566 kg/ha. Oil content is at the level of the standard. The erucic acid content and glucosinolate content are lower then that in the standard and that are positive characteristics. .

  8. VT Mean Winter Precipitation - 1971-2000 (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) ClimatePrecip_PRECIPW7100 includes mean winter precipitation data (October through March) for Vermont (1971-2000). It's a raster dataset derived...

  9. Esteemed Alumnus, Former POW Honors Winter Graduates


    Stewart, Kenneth A.


    The Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) honored some 334 graduates from 17 countries earning 335 advanced degrees during its Winter Quarter Commencement Ceremony in King Auditorium, March 27. NPS President retired Vice Adm. Ronald A. Route presided over the ceremony.

  10. Winter swimming improves general well-being. (United States)

    Huttunen, Pirkko; Kokko, Leena; Ylijukuri, Virpi


    This study deals with the effects of regular winter swimming on the mood of the swimmers. Profile of Mood State (POMS) and OIRE questionnaires were completed before (October) and after (January) the four-month winter swimming period. In the beginning, there were no significant differences in the mood states and subjective feelings between the swimmers and the controls. The swimmers had more diseases (about 50%) diagnosed by a physician. Tension, fatigue, memory and mood negative state points in the swimmers significantly decreased with the duration of the swimming period. After four months, the swimmers felt themselves to be more energetic, active and brisk than the controls. Vigour-activity scores were significantly greater (p winter swimming had relieved pains. Improvement of general well-being is thus a benefit induced by regular winter swimming.

  11. Drought and Winter Drying (Pest Alert) (United States)

    USDA Forest Service

    Drought and winter drying have periodically caused major damage to trees. Drought reduces the amount of water available in the soil. In the case of winter drying, the water may be in the soil, but freezing of the soil makes the water unavailable to the tree. In both cases, more water is lost through transpiration than is available to the plant. Symptoms of drought and...

  12. Winter swimming improves general well-being


    Huttunen, Pirkko; Kokko, Leena; Ylijukuri, Virpi


    Objectives. This study deals with the effects of regular winter swimming on the mood of the swimmers. Methods. Profile of Mood State (POMS) and OIRE questionnaires were completed before (October) and after (January) the fourmonth winter swimming period. Results. In the beginning, there were no significant differences in the mood states and subjective feelings between the swimmers and the controls. The swimmers had more diseases (about 50%) diagnosed by a physician. Tension, fatigue, memory an...

  13. A new peltogastrid rhizocephalan parasitising a hermit crab from the Japanese coast: a second species of Dipterosaccus Van Kampen & Boschma, 1925 (Crustacea: Cirripedia). (United States)

    Yoshida, R; Hirose, M; Hirose, E


    A new rhizocephalan species of the genus Dipterosaccus Van Kampen & Boschma, 1925, is described from the host hermit crab Calcinus vachoni Forest on the coasts of mainland Japan and the Ryukyu Archipelago. Dipterosaccus shiinoi n. sp. differs from the previously described species, D. indicus Van Kampen & Boschma, 1925, which is redescribed, principally in the morphology of the mantle aperture and the disposition of the receptacle ducts. The distribution ranges of the two species partly overlap and they are sympatric at the same reef site near Okinawa Island. Their differentiation as two distinct species was confirmed by partial sequences of the COI gene. The monophyly of Dipterosaccus is supported by high Bayes posterior possibility and bootstrap values.

  14. Winter Dew Harvest in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arias-Torres Jorge Ernesto


    Full Text Available This study presents experimental and theoretical results of winter dew harvest in México City in terms of condensation rate. A simplified theoretical model based on a steady-state energy balance on a radiator-condenser was fitted, as a function of the ambient temperature, the relative humidity and the wind velocity. A glass sheet and aluminum sheet white-painted were used as samples over the outdoor experiments. A good correlation was obtained between the theoretical and experimental data. The experimental results show that there was condensation in 68% of the winter nights on both condensers. The total winter condensed mass was 2977 g/m2 and 2888 g/m2 on the glass sheet and aluminum sheet white-painted, respectively. Thus, the condensed mass on the glass was only 3% higher than that on the painted surface. The maximum nightly dew harvests occurred during December, which linearly reduced from 50 g/m2 night to 22 g/m2 night as the winter months went by. The condensation occurred from 1:00 a.m. to 9:00 a.m., with maximum condensation rates between 6:00 a.m. and 7:00 a.m. The dew harvest can provide a partial alternative to the winter water shortage in certain locations with similar climates to the winter in Mexico City, as long as pollution is not significant.

  15. New winter hardy winter bread wheat cultivar (Triticum aestivum L. Voloshkova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Л. М. Голик


    Full Text Available Creation of Initial raw for breeding of winter wheat by change of the development type under low temperatures influence was described. Seeds of spring wheat were vernalized in aluminum weighting bottle. By using low temperatures at sawing of M2-6 at the begin ind of optimal terms of sawing of winter wheat, new winter-hardy variety of Voloshkova was bred.

  16. Examining winter visitor use in Yellowstone National Park (United States)

    Mae A. Davenport; Wayne A. Freimund; William T. Borrie; Robert E. Manning; William A. Valliere; Benjamin Wang


    This research was designed to assist the managers of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) in their decision making about winter visitation. The focus of this report is on winter use patterns and winter visitor preferences. It is the author’s hope that this information will benefit both the quality of winter experiences and the stewardship of the park resources. This report...

  17. Root development of fodder radish and winter wheat before winter in relation to uptake of nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlström, Ellen Margrethe; Hansen, Elly Møller; Mandel, A.


    occurred. Quantitative data is missing on N leaching of a catch crop compared to a winter cereal in a conventional cereal-based cropping system. The aim of the study was to investigate whether fodder radish (Raphanus sativus L.) (FR) would be more efficient than winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (WW...

  18. Payment mechanisms for winter road maintenance services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Abdi


    Full Text Available In countries with severe winters a major part of the annual budget for road maintenance is allocated on performance of winter road maintenance tasks. Finding appropriate remuneration forms to compensate entrepreneurs for performed road measures during winter is not an easy task in order to minimise or eliminate disputes and satisfy both client organisations and contractors. On the other hand improper reimbursement models lead either to the client’s annual budget imbalance due to unnecessary cost overruns or affect contractor’s cash-flow. Such cases in turn affect just-in-time winter road maintenance and then traffic safety. To solve such problems, a number of countries in cold regions like Sweden have developed different remuneration models based more on weather data called Weather Index. Therefore the objective of this paper is to investigate and evaluate the payment models applied in Sweden. The study uses a number of approaches namely; domestic questionnaire survey, analysis of a number of contract documents, a series of meetings with the project managers and an international benchmarking. The study recognised four remuneration models for winter maintenance service of which one based on weather data statistics. The study reveals the payment model based on weather data statistics is only applied for the roads with higher traffic flow and the model generates most uncertainty.

  19. The engineering approach to winter sports

    CERN Document Server

    Cheli, Federico; Maldifassi, Stefano; Melzi, Stefano; Sabbioni, Edoardo


    The Engineering Approach to Winter Sports presents the state-of-the-art research in the field of winter sports in a harmonized and comprehensive way for a diverse audience of engineers, equipment and facilities designers, and materials scientists. The book examines the physics and chemistry of snow and ice with particular focus on the interaction (friction) between sports equipment and snow/ice, how it is influenced by environmental factors, such as temperature and pressure, as well as by contaminants and how it can be modified through the use of ski waxes or the microtextures of blades or ski soles. The authors also cover, in turn, the different disciplines in winter sports:  skiing (both alpine and cross country), skating and jumping, bob sledding and skeleton, hockey and curling, with attention given to both equipment design and on the simulation of gesture and  track optimization.

  20. Risk management model of winter navigation operations. (United States)

    Valdez Banda, Osiris A; Goerlandt, Floris; Kuzmin, Vladimir; Kujala, Pentti; Montewka, Jakub


    The wintertime maritime traffic operations in the Gulf of Finland are managed through the Finnish-Swedish Winter Navigation System. This establishes the requirements and limitations for the vessels navigating when ice covers this area. During winter navigation in the Gulf of Finland, the largest risk stems from accidental ship collisions which may also trigger oil spills. In this article, a model for managing the risk of winter navigation operations is presented. The model analyses the probability of oil spills derived from collisions involving oil tanker vessels and other vessel types. The model structure is based on the steps provided in the Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and adapted into a Bayesian Network model. The results indicate that ship independent navigation and convoys are the operations with higher probability of oil spills. Minor spills are most probable, while major oil spills found very unlikely but possible. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Winter camp for pre-school children


    Golc, Mateja


    This thesis details the importance of physical activity for a healthy development of pre-school children in all areas of their development. The focus is placed mainly on outdoor physical activity, in all seasons of the year and in all types of weather. Also highlighted is the importance of outdoor physical activity, stretching over several days, in the form of a winter camp for pre-school children. Pre-school teachers, who take over the organisation of a winter camp, face a challenging task, ...

  2. Nuclear winter: The evidence and the risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, O.


    Global concern over nuclear extinction, centered on the holocaust itself, now has turned to the more terrifying consequences of a post-war nuclear winter: ''the long-term effects - destruction of the environment, spread of epidemic diseases, contamination by radioactivity, and ... collapse of agriculture-(that) would spread famine and death to every country.'' Nuclear Winter, the latest in a series of studies by a number of different groups is clinical, analytical, systematic, and detailed. Two physicists and biologist analyze the effects on the climate, plants, animals, and living systems; the human costs; the policy implications.

  3. Does stratosphereic sudden warming occur more frequently during ENSO winters than during normal winters? (United States)

    Son, Seok-Woo; Song, Kanghyun


    Stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) events exhibit pronounced interannual variability. Based on WMO definition of SSW, it has been suggested that SSW events occur more preferably during El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) winters (both El Niño and La Niña winters) than during normal winters. This nonlinear relationship is re-examined here by considering six different definitions of SSW. For all definitions, SSW events are detected more frequently during El Niño winters than during normal winters, in consistent with an enhanced planetary-scale wave activity. However, a systematic relationship is not found during La Niña winters. While two SSW definitions, including WMO definition, show an increased SSW frequency during La Niña winters, other definitions show no change or even a reduced SSW frequency. This result is insensitive to the choice of reanalysis datasets and ENSO index, indicating that the reported ENSO-SSW relationship is not robust but dependent on the details of SSW definition.

  4. Reproductive behavior of intertidal hermit crabs (Decapoda, Anomura in southeastern Brazil Comportamento reprodutivo de ermitões (Decapoda, Anomura entremarés no sudeste brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Turra


    Full Text Available The reproductive behavior of four intertidal hermit crab species [Clibanarius antillensis Stimpson, 1859, C. sclopetarius (Herbst, 1796, C. vittatus (Bosc, 1802, and Pagurus criniticornis (Dana, 1852] was studied in São Sebastião Channel, southeastern Brazil. The overall behavior followed previous descriptions for Diogenid and Pagurid hermit crabs but some particular differences were recorded. Male to male agonistic encounters over females and guarding behavior were more common to C. sclopetarius, C. vittatus, and Pagurus criniticornis. During guarding, males clearly grasped females' chelipeds, eyestalks, and the margins of their shell apertures. This oblique guarding and, simultaneously, accessing behavior (OGAP has never been described for hermit crabs and was more common to C. sclopetarius and C. vittatus. Pagurus criniticornis did not present the typical jerking behavior of pagurids. Multiple copulations between a single pair were recorded in all species while in only one occasion a female of C. vittatus was observed copulating with two males. In the post-copulatory behavior males held females for some time and, after that, they were left inactive and sometimes totally to partially buried in the substrate. In mating pairs of all species males were larger than females and two individuals (out of 23 of C. antillensis, one (out of 5 of C. sclopetarius and one (out of 3 of C. vittatus, which courted successfully as males fertilizing females' eggs, were demonstrated to be intersex, with both male and female gonopores.O comportamento reprodutivo de quatro espécies de caranguejos ermitões entremarés [Clibanarius antillensis Stimpson, 1859, C. sclopetarius (Herbst, 1796, C. vittatus (Bosc, 1802 e Pagurus criniticornis (Dana, 1852] foi estudado no Canal de São Sebastião, sudeste brasileiro. O comportamento geral destas espécies seguiu descrições prévias para ermitões das famílias Diogenidae e Paguridae mas algumas diferenças foram

  5. Winter cooling in the northern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Prasad, T.G.

    forcing that leads to the observed high productivity during winter in the northern Arabian Sea. The weak northerly winds and increased solar insolation during the inter-monsoon period, led to the development of a highly stratified upper layer with warm sea...

  6. Highway user expectations for ITD winter maintenance. (United States)


    Providing a high Level of Service (LOS) to ensure the safety and mobility for the traveling public is a key objective for winter : maintenance operations. The goal of this research was to obtain a better understanding of Idaho highway users expect...

  7. Music Activities for Lemonade in Winter (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger


    "Lemonade in Winter: A Book About Two Kids Counting Money" is a children's book about math; however, when sharing it in the music classroom, street cries and clapping games emerge. Jenkins' and Karas' book provides a springboard to lessons addressing several music elements, including form, tempo, and rhythm, as well as…

  8. Registration of ‘Secretariat’ winter barley (United States)

    Secretariat’ (PI 673931) is a six-row hulled winter feed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivar developed by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station and released in May 2014. Secretariat, formerly designated VA08B-85, was derived from the cross VA00B-199 / VA00B-259 and was developed using a mod...

  9. Registration of 'Sunshine' Hard White Winter Wheat (United States)

    ’Sunshine’ (Reg. No. CV-XXXX, PI 674741) hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released in August 2014 through a marketing agreement with the Colorado Wheat Research Foundation. In addition to researchers at Colorado State Un...

  10. Stay Safe and Healthy This Winter!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics offer some simple ways to stay safe and healthy during the winter holiday season.  Created: 11/23/2010 by CDC Office of Women’s Health.   Date Released: 11/23/2010.

  11. How marketers handled deliveries last winter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    A special study on how fuel oil marketers handled deliveries last winter is presented. A questionnaire was sent to the marketers asking how many fuel oil trucks they had, how penalties for small deliveries are assessed, and if many customers are calling for a summer fill. The results of the questionnaire are presented.

  12. Winter Video Series Coming in January | Poster (United States)

    The Scientific Library’s annual Summer Video Series was so successful that it will be offering a new Winter Video Series beginning in January. For this inaugural event, the staff is showing the eight-part series from National Geographic titled “American Genius.” 

  13. Nuclear winter - Physics and physical mechanisms (United States)

    Turco, R. P.; Toon, O. B.; Pollack, J. B.; Ackerman, T. P.; Sagan, C.


    The basic physics of the environmental perturbations caused by multiple nuclear detonations is explored, summarizing current knowledge of the possible physical, chemical, and biological impacts of nuclear war. Emphasis is given to the impact of the bomb-generated smoke (soot) particles. General classes of models that have been used to simulate nuclear winter are examined, using specific models as examples.

  14. Nuclear Winter: Implications for civil defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chester, C.V.; Perry, A.M.; Hobbs, B.F.


    ''Nuclear Winter'' is the term given to the cooling hypothesized to occur in the Northern Hemisphere following a nuclear war as the result of the injection of smoke from burning cities into the atmosphere. The voluminous literature on this subject produced since the paper was published in 1983 by Turco, Toon, Ackerman, Pollack, and Sagen (TTAPS) has been reviewed. Three-dimensional global circulation models have resulted in reduced estimates of cooling---15 to 25/degree/C for a summer war and a few degrees for a winter war. More serious may be the possibility of suppression of convective precipitation by the altered temperature profiles in the atmosphere. However, very large uncertainties remain in input parameters, the models, and the results of calculations. We believe the state of knowledge about nuclear winter is sufficiently developed to conclude: Neither cold nor drought is likely to be a direct threat to human survival for populations with the wherewithal to survive normal January temperatures. The principal threat from nuclear winter is to food production, and this could present problems to third parties who are without food reserves. Loss of a crop year is neither a new nor an unexpected threat from nuclear war to the United States and the Soviet Union. Both have at least a year's food reserve at all times. Both face formidable organizational problems in distributing their reserves in a war-damaged environment. The consequences of nuclear winter could be expected to fall more heavily on the Soviet Union than the United States due to its higher latitude and less productive agriculture. This may be especially true if disturbances of rainfall amounts and distribution persist for more than a year.

  15. The population structure of two sympatric hermit-crab species on a subtidal rocky shore of an island in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The main goal of this investigation was to characterize the population structure and shell occupancy of two sympatric hermit-crab species, Pagurus brevidactylus and Paguristes tortugae. The study was undertaken at Couves Island on the southeastern coast of Brazil, from March 2010 through February 2011, on subtidal rocky bottoms. Specimens were collected by SCUBA diving sessions. A total of 195 individuals of P. brevidactylus and 132 of P. tortugae were examined. Both populations showed unimodal size-frequency distributions, which were non-normal for P. brevidactylus and normal for P. tortugae. The median size of P. brevidactylus was significantly smaller than P. tortugae; in both species, males were significantly larger than females. For both, juveniles and ovigerous females were recorded in all size classes and in almost the entire sampling period. No significant departures from the 1:1 sex ratio were detected, although some size classes were skewed. Overlaps in shell occupation were recorded. Pagurus brevidactylus and P. tortugae showed similar population features; they reached sexual maturity at small sizes, and the nearly year-round presence of young and ovigerous females suggests continuous reproduction. These inter-specific interactions involving resource partitioning suggest a regulatory process that is probably part of the equilibrium strategy of these populations.

  16. Multilevel mixed effects parametric survival models using adaptive Gauss-Hermite quadrature with application to recurrent events and individual participant data meta-analysis. (United States)

    Crowther, Michael J; Look, Maxime P; Riley, Richard D


    Multilevel mixed effects survival models are used in the analysis of clustered survival data, such as repeated events, multicenter clinical trials, and individual participant data (IPD) meta-analyses, to investigate heterogeneity in baseline risk and covariate effects. In this paper, we extend parametric frailty models including the exponential, Weibull and Gompertz proportional hazards (PH) models and the log logistic, log normal, and generalized gamma accelerated failure time models to allow any number of normally distributed random effects. Furthermore, we extend the flexible parametric survival model of Royston and Parmar, modeled on the log-cumulative hazard scale using restricted cubic splines, to include random effects while also allowing for non-PH (time-dependent effects). Maximum likelihood is used to estimate the models utilizing adaptive or nonadaptive Gauss-Hermite quadrature. The methods are evaluated through simulation studies representing clinically plausible scenarios of a multicenter trial and IPD meta-analysis, showing good performance of the estimation method. The flexible parametric mixed effects model is illustrated using a dataset of patients with kidney disease and repeated times to infection and an IPD meta-analysis of prognostic factor studies in patients with breast cancer. User-friendly Stata software is provided to implement the methods. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Comparing mode-crosstalk and mode-dependent loss of laterally displaced orbital angular momentum and Hermite-Gaussian modes for free-space optical communication. (United States)

    Ndagano, Bienvenu; Mphuthi, Nokwazi; Milione, Giovanni; Forbes, Andrew


    There is interest in using orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes to increase the data speed of free-space optical communication. A prevalent challenge is the mitigation of mode-crosstalk and mode-dependent loss that is caused by the modes' lateral displacement at the data receiver. Here, the mode-crosstalk and mode-dependent loss of laterally displaced OAM modes (LG 0,+1 , LG 0,-1 ) are experimentally compared to that of a Hermite-Gaussian (HG) mode subset (HG 0,1 , HG 1,0 ). It is shown, for an aperture larger than the modes' waist sizes, some of the HG modes can experience less mode-crosstalk and mode-dependent loss when laterally displaced along a symmetry axis. It is also shown, over a normal distribution of lateral displacements whose standard deviation is 2× the modes' waist sizes, on average, the HG modes experience 66% less mode-crosstalk and 17% less mode-dependent loss.

  18. School of Culinary Arts & Food Technology Winter Newsletter 2016


    Murphy, James Peter


    The School of Culinary Arts & Food Technology - Winter Newsletter captured the many events, research, awards, significant contributions and special activities which the students and staff members of the school have successfully completed leading up to the Winter period of 2016.

  19. Safety and mobility impacts of winter weather - phase 3. (United States)


    Highway agencies spend millions of dollars to ensure safe and efficient winter travel. However, the effectiveness of winter-weather : maintenance practices on safety and mobility are somewhat difficult to quantify. Safety and Mobility Impacts of Wint...

  20. Safety and mobility impacts of winter weather : phase I. (United States)


    Highway agencies spend millions of dollars to ensure safe and efficient winter travel. However, the effectiveness of winter weather maintenance practices on safety and mobility are somewhat difficult to quantify. : Phase I of this project investigate...

  1. Seasonal affective disorder, winter type: current insights and treatment options

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meesters Y; Gordijn MCM


    ...., Groningen, the Netherlands Abstract: Seasonal affective disorder (SAD), winter type, is a seasonal pattern of recurrent major depressive episodes most commonly occurring in autumn or winter and remitting in spring/summer...

  2. Seed wintering and deterioration characteristics between weedy and cultivated rice


    Baek, Jung-Sun; Chung, Nam-Jin


    Background Incidences of weedy rice continuously occurred in paddy fields because its shattering seeds were able to over-winter. In this research, the seed deterioration of weedy rice was investigated compared with cultivated rice, and the wintering characteristics of these two types of rice were investigated with the field wintering test, freezing resistance test, and accelerated aging test. Results For the wintering test, the seeds of weedy rice were placed on the soil surface of a paddy wi...

  3. Postharvest tillage reduces Downy Brome infestations in winter wheat (United States)

    In the Pacific Northwest, downy brome continues to infest winter wheat producing regions especially in low-rainfall areas where the winter wheat-summer fallow rotation is the dominate production system. In Washington, a study was conducted for 2 years at each of two locations in the winter wheat -su...

  4. Probabilistic Weather Forecasting for Winter Road Maintenance (United States)


    2002–2003. . . 5 3 Bayesian estimates of α0, α1, α2, α3, α4 and σ 2 versus time. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4 Empirical variogram of the residuals...equations, and forecast future weather by integrating them forward in time. Both kinds of forecast are deterministic and do not assess uncertainty ...the 2002–2003 winter season. We constructed the empirical variogram of the residuals of the linear regression of the observed temperature on the

  5. Measuring Transpiration to Regulate Winter Irrigation Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelson, Lisa [Auburn University


    Periodic transpiration (monthly sums) in a young loblolly pine plantation between ages 3 and 6 was measured using thermal dissipation probes. Fertilization and fertilization with irrigation were better than irrigation alone in increasing transpiration of young loblolly pines during winter months, apparently because of increased leaf area in fertilized trees. Irrigation alone did not significantly increase transpiration compared with the non-fertilized and non-irrigated control plots.

  6. 31st Winter Workshop in Nuclear Dynamics

    CERN Document Server


    The 31st edition of the Winter Workshop will be held January 25-31st, 2015 in the Keystone Resort, Colorado, USA. As with previous years, the workshop will bring together scientists from all fields of nuclear physics for engaging and friendly exchanges of ideas. Much emphasis will be on the recent LHC and RHIC heavy ion results, but advances in the ongoing and future programs at FAIR, FRIB, NICA and JLab will also be featured.

  7. Holt-Winters Method with Missing Observations


    Tomá\\v{s} Cipra; José Trujillo; Asunción Robio


    The paper presents a simple procedure for interpolating, smoothing, and predicting in seasonal time series with missing observations. The approach suggested by Wright (Wright, D. J. 1986. Forecasting data published at irregular time intervals using extension of Holt's method. Management Sci. 32 499--510.) for the Holt's method with nonseasonal data published at irregular time intervals is extended to the Holt-Winters method in the seasonal case. Numerical examples demonstrate the procedure.

  8. Disturbance to wintering western snowy plovers (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.


    In order to better understand the nature of disturbances to wintering snowy plovers, I observed snowy plovers and activities that might disturb them at a beach near Devereux Slough in Santa Barbara, California, USA. Disturbance (activity that caused plovers to move or fly) to wintering populations of threatened western snowy plovers was 16 times higher at a public beach than at protected beaches. Wintering plovers reacted to disturbance at half the distance (∼40 m) as has been reported for breeding snowy plovers (∼80 m). Humans, dogs, crows and other birds were the main sources of disturbance on the public beach, and each snowy plover was disturbed, on average, once every 27 weekend min and once every 43 weekday min. Dogs off leash were a disproportionate source of disturbance. Plovers were more likely to fly from dogs, horses and crows than from humans and other shorebirds. Plovers were less abundant near trail heads. Over short time scales, plovers did not acclimate to or successfully find refuge from disturbance. Feeding rates declined with increased human activity. I used data from these observations to parameterize a model that predicted rates of disturbance given various management actions. The model found that prohibiting dogs and a 30 m buffer zone surrounding a 400 m stretch of beach provided the most protection for plovers for the least amount of impact to beach recreation.

  9. Have winter fuel payments reduced excess winter mortality in England and Wales? (United States)

    Iparraguirre, J


    The historical series of excess winter mortality (EWM) in England and Wales presents a negative trend. Winter fuel payments (WFPs) are the most important benefits for people aged 65 or over directly related to Winter Mortality in the UK. This study presents a time series analysis of the direct effect of WFPs on EWM in England and Wales. We find a significant structural break in trend and volatility in the EWM series in England and Wales in 1999-2000. After controlling for a number of covariates, an ARIMA-X model finds that WFPs can account for almost half of the reduction in EWM in England and Wales since 1999/2000. Almost half of the reduction in EWM since 1999/2000 is attributable to WFPs. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  10. Statistical measures approximations for the Gaussian part of the stochastic nonlinear damped Duffing oscillator solution process under the application of Wiener Hermite expansion linked by the multi-step differential transformed method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Zait


    Full Text Available In this paper, the stochastic Wiener Hermite expansion (WHE is used to find the statistical measures (mean and variance of the first order stochastic approximation (Gaussian part of the stochastic solution processes related to the nonlinear damped Duffing oscillator model which is excited randomly by white noise process. Under the application of WHE, a deterministic model is generated to simulate the statistical measures. In next stages, smi-analytical treatments are performed under applying multi-step differential transformed method (Ms-DTM and some cases study are illustrated related to the statistical properties using Mathematica10 software.

  11. Does Zoning Winter Recreationists Reduce Recreation Conflict? (United States)

    Miller, Aubrey D.; Vaske, Jerry J.; Squires, John R.; Olson, Lucretia E.; Roberts, Elizabeth K.


    Parks and protected area managers use zoning to decrease interpersonal conflict between recreationists. Zoning, or segregation, of recreation—often by non-motorized and motorized activity—is designed to limit physical interaction while providing recreation opportunities to both groups. This article investigated the effectiveness of zoning to reduce recreation conflict in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area in Colorado, USA. Despite a zoning management system, established groomed travel routes were used by both non-motorized recreationists (backcountry skiers, snowboarders, snowshoers) and motorized recreationists (snowmobilers). We hypothesized that persistent recreation conflict reported by non-motorized recreationists was the result of recreation occurring in areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use, mostly along groomed routes. We performed a geospatial analysis of recreation [from Global Positioning System (GPS) points, n = 1,233,449] in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area to identify areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use. We then surveyed non-motorized recreationists ( n = 199) to test whether reported conflict is higher for respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with respondents traveling outside areas of mixed-use. Results from the geospatial analysis showed that only 0.7 % of the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area contained recreation from both groups, however that area contained 14.8 % of all non-motorized recreation and 49.1 % of all motorized recreation. Survey analysis results showed higher interpersonal conflict for all five standard conflict variables among non-motorized respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with those traveling outside mixed-use areas. Management implications and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of zoning are provided.

  12. Spectrum of winter dermatoses in rural Yemen. (United States)

    Al-Kamel, Mohamed A


    Surveys that have been carried out to determine the prevalence of skin diseases in rural Yemen are scarce or not available. To investigate the spectrum of winter dermatoses in a rural Yemeni community. A retrospective study was conducted at the dermatology outpatient clinic of the Al-Helal Specialized Hospital (Radaa' district of Al Bayda' Governorate) using data analysis of 700 selected records of patients managed during four months of the 2013-14 winter season. Seven hundred patients with 730 diseases were reported in this study; the major bulk of patients (46.57%) were in the >18-40-year age group, and females outnumbered males. By far, dermatitis, eczematous, and allergic disorders (38.49%) topped the list of the most frequent skin disorders groups, followed by skin infections and infestations (20%) and the pigmentary disorders (13.70%) group. Contact dermatitis (10.68%) was the most prevalent skin disorder, followed by hyperpigmentations (8.77%), acne (8.08%), viral infections (5.75%), atopic dermatitis (5.62%), and parasitic infestations (5.34%). This survey has documented the spectrum of winter dermatoses in a rural Yemeni community but also reflects the pattern of common dermatoses in the whole country. Dermatitis, eczematous, and allergic disorders, skin infections, and pigmentary disorders are the commonest groups. Contact dermatitis is the most prevalent disorder, and leishmaniasis is the most prevalent skin infectious disease. Climate, occupational, social, and environmental factors are the main contributors. Such statistics can form an important basis for community-based health policies. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  13. Does Zoning Winter Recreationists Reduce Recreation Conflict? (United States)

    Miller, Aubrey D; Vaske, Jerry J; Squires, John R; Olson, Lucretia E; Roberts, Elizabeth K


    Parks and protected area managers use zoning to decrease interpersonal conflict between recreationists. Zoning, or segregation, of recreation-often by non-motorized and motorized activity-is designed to limit physical interaction while providing recreation opportunities to both groups. This article investigated the effectiveness of zoning to reduce recreation conflict in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area in Colorado, USA. Despite a zoning management system, established groomed travel routes were used by both non-motorized recreationists (backcountry skiers, snowboarders, snowshoers) and motorized recreationists (snowmobilers). We hypothesized that persistent recreation conflict reported by non-motorized recreationists was the result of recreation occurring in areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use, mostly along groomed routes. We performed a geospatial analysis of recreation [from Global Positioning System (GPS) points, n = 1,233,449] in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area to identify areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use. We then surveyed non-motorized recreationists (n = 199) to test whether reported conflict is higher for respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with respondents traveling outside areas of mixed-use. Results from the geospatial analysis showed that only 0.7 % of the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area contained recreation from both groups, however that area contained 14.8 % of all non-motorized recreation and 49.1 % of all motorized recreation. Survey analysis results showed higher interpersonal conflict for all five standard conflict variables among non-motorized respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with those traveling outside mixed-use areas. Management implications and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of zoning are provided.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Zvedenuk


    Full Text Available The results of research work on carrot seed growing through wintering seedlings carried out at laboratory of seed studies and seed production of Transnistrian Research Institute of Agriculture, on the soil of the first terrace at the rive Dniester were presented in the article. Seed bearing plants of garden carrot ‘Krasavka’ were the object of the study. The seeds were sown to produce the seedlings on 15-16 August. In the first decade of December the plants were covered with white agrotextile with density 23g/m2 that was removed at the beginning of April. The proportion of plant that passed the winter depending on a year of cultivation was 95-100% under argotextile, and 50-80% in open plot. The plants under agrotextile reached 28 cm a high and had 5-7 well-developed leaves, while those on the open plot were at phase of active foliage growing about 10-13 cm. long. Thus, for early mechanized planting in optimal terms the wintering seedlings grown under agrotextile had the best biometrical characteristics. Moreover the outcome of carrot seedlings was 1.2-1.25 million per hectare. Such quantity of seedlings was sufficient to plant 9-10 ha of carrot plants, where the coefficient of multiplication reached 9-10, and only 3 when growing seeds through mother plant as biennial culture. Viability of seed plants grown through seedlings was 100%. Losses of plant with weight 120-150 grams from damage caused by diseases was 23%. The seed yield, when growing seedlings was 639 kg/ha, but growing through plants was 332 kg/ha. The seed outcome suitable for precise mechanized sowing through seedling growing was 77%, where seed germination was 90%, with seed fraction 1.51 and >2.0 mm. It was essentially improved their yielding characteristics. Seed outcome from this fraction obtained through planting method was 32%. The proportion of seeds in fraction 1-1.5 mm was 68%. For mechanized single-seed sowing, the seeds can be used only after mini-coating. The seed

  15. NS Pudarka: A new winter wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Nikola


    Full Text Available The high-yielding, medium late winter wheat cultivar NS Pudarka was developed by crossing genetic divergent parents: line NMNH-07 and cv. NS 40S and Simonida. In cultivar NS Pudarka genes responsible for high yield potential, very good technological quality, resistance to lodging, low temperature and diseases, were successfully combined. It was registered by Ministry of agriculture, forestry and water management of Serbia Republic in 2013. This cultivar has wide adaptability and stability of yield that enable growing in different environments with optimal agricultural practice. On the base of technological quality this cultivar belongs to the second quality class, A2 farinograph subgroup and second technological group.

  16. Effect of winter swimming on haematological parameters. (United States)

    Lombardi, Giovanni; Ricci, Cristian; Banfi, Giuseppe


    Winter swimming represents an intensive short-term exposure to cold, and thus it is considered a strong physical stress. Cold-based treatments, i.e. immersions in cold water, are spreading in sport medicine for improving recovery following muscle traumas, although a universal acceptance of that method is not still achieved. Fifteen healthy subjects (13 males and 2 females) were recruited among the participants to a 150 meters long swimming race in cold water (6 degrees C). Blood samples were collected the day before and immediately after the race and a panel of haematological parameters was evaluated. Swimming in cold water induced a significant variation in the blood cell fraction composition compared to the rest condition, as measured the day before the competition. Red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets count increased significantly (4.7%, P = 0.005; 40.6%, P mere haemoconcentration. When represented by brief exposure to cold water, winter swimming induces strong non-pathological modifications of haematological homeostasis.

  17. Aspen Winter Conferences on High Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None


    The 2011 Aspen Winter Conference on Particle Physics was held at the Aspen Center for Physics from February 12 to February 18, 2011. Ninety-four participants from ten countries, and several universities and national labs attended the workshop titled, "New Data From the Energy Frontier." There were 54 formal talks, and a considerable number of informal discussions held during the week. The week's events included a public lecture ("The Hunt for the Elusive Higgs Boson" given by Ben Kilminster from Ohio State University) and attended by 119 members of the public, and a physics cafe geared for high schoolers that is a discussion with physicists. The 2011 Aspen Winter Conference on Astroparticle physics held at the Aspen Center for Physics was "Indirect and Direct Detection of Dark Matter." It was held from February 6 to February 12, 2011. The 70 participants came from 7 countries and attended 53 talks over five days. Late mornings through the afternoon are reserved for informal discussions. In feedback received from participants, it is often these unplanned chats that produce the most excitement due to working through problems with fellow physicists from other institutions and countries or due to incipient collaborations. In addition, Blas Cabrera of Stanford University gave a public lecture titled "What Makes Up Dark Matter." There were 183 members of the general public in attendance. Before the lecture, 45 people attended the physics cafe to discuss dark matter. This report provides the attendee lists, programs, and announcement posters for each event.

  18. Forage radish winter cover crop suppresses winter annual weeds in fall and before corn planting (United States)

    Forage radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. longipinnatus) is a new winter cover crop in the Mid-Atlantic region. The objective of this project was to characterize the repeatability, amount, and duration of weed suppression during and after a fall-planted forage radish cover crop and to quantify the sub...

  19. Wintering bald eagle trends in northern Arizona, 1975-2000 (United States)

    Teryl G. Grubb


    Between 1975 and 2000, 4,525 sightings of wintering bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) were recorded at Mormon Lake in northern Arizona. Numbers of wintering eagles fluctuated little in the 20 years from 1975 through 1994 (5.5 ± 3.0 mean sightings per day). However, during the winters of 1995 through 1997 local record highs of 59 to 118 eagles...

  20. Habitat heterogeneity in the assemblages and shell use by the most abundant hermit crabs (Anomura: Diogenidae and Paguridae: does the occupied shell species differ according to gender and species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Stanski

    Full Text Available Abstract The goal of this study was to identify patterns of shell occupation by different species of hermit crabs from the southern Brazilian coast. In total, 644 individuals were collected, represented by six hermit species. Isocheles sawayai Forest & Saint Laurent, 1968 showed the highest abundance, with 575 individuals, followed by Loxopagurus loxochelis (Moreira, 1901 (n = 56. The other species were Petrochirus diogenes (Linnaeus, 1758, Dardanus insignis (Saussure, 1858, Pagurus exilis (Benedict, 1892 and Pagurus leptonyx Forest & Saint Laurent, 1968. Loxopagurus loxochelis was found associated with shells of 12 gastropod species, with 75% of males occupying shells of Olivancilaria urceus (Roding, 1798 and 78% of females inhabiting shells of Semicassis granulata (Born, 1778. Shells of Semicassis granulata were the lightest of all gastropod shells, demonstrating differential resource utilization. Additionally, I. sawayai occupied shells of 10 species, highlighting Stramonita haemastoma (Linnaeus, 1767 with the highest occupation percentage in all demographic classes, confirming a pattern of occupation with a strong relationship to the availability of the resource. The comparison of our results with those of other studies corroborated the influence of region and gastropod diversity on gastropod shell occupation.

  1. Discovery of a new species of hermit crab of the genus Pylopaguropsis Alcock, 1905 from the Caribbean: “den commensal” or “cleaner”? (Crustacea, Anomura, Paguridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Lemaitre


    Full Text Available A new secretive, yet brightly colored hermit crab species of the family Paguridae, Pylopaguropsis mollymullerae sp. n., is fully described based on specimens from the reefs of Bonaire, Lesser Antilles, southern Caribbean Sea. Populations of this new species were discovered and photographed in the Bonaire National Marine Park under a large coral ledge, at a depth of 13.7 m, living in crevices known by scuba divers to serve as den to a pair of “flaming reef lobsters” Enoplometopus antillensis, or a “broad banded moray” Channomuraena vittata. This new species is only the second species of Pylopaguropsis Alcock, 1905 known from the western Atlantic, the 20th named worldwide, and belongs in the teevana group of species of the genus. It is remarkably similar, and herein considered geminate, to the tropical eastern Pacific congener, P. teevana (Boone, 1932, the two being characterized and uniquely different from all other species of the genus, by the striking and deeply excavated, scoop-like ventral surface of the chela of the right cheliped. Minor differences separate this new species from P. teevana in the relative length of the antennal acicles (exceeding the corneas versus not exceeding the corneas in P. teevana; dorsal armature of the right chela (smooth or with scattered minute tubercles versus with numerous small tubercles in P. teevana; surface shape of the lateral face of the dactyl of right pereopod 3 (evenly convex versus flattened in P. teevana; and coloration (red bright red stripes versus brown stripes in P. teevana. The highly visible color pattern of bright red stripes on white background typical of decapods known to have cleaning symbioses with fish, dense setation on the flagella of the antennae, and preference for a crevicular habitat, combined with brief in situ nocturnal observations, suggests the possibility that P. mollymullerae sp. n. engages in “cleaner” activities or functions as a “den commensal” with moray

  2. Growth of the hermit crab Clibanarius vittatus (Bosc, 1802 (Crustacea, Anomura, Diogenidae at São Vicente, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Sampaio Sant’Anna


    Full Text Available The present study analyzed the growth of males and females of the hermit crab Clibanarius vittatus (Bosc, 1802, at São Vicente, São Paulo, Brazil. Monthly collections were made from May/2001 through April/2003, at the Pescadores Beach in São Vicente. The 2,501 crabs caught were identified and sexed and the carapace shield length (CSL was measured. For the seasonal growth study, the population was divided into 5mm size classes (CSL and analyzed by the Bertalanffy method, with the aid of the program Fisat II. The mean sizes of the 703 males and 1,798 females were 8.94±1.80 and 6.61±1.13 mm, respectively. A seasonal growth pattern was observed, with males reaching an asymptotic size (14.92 mm larger than that of females (13.85 mm. Males began the growth process approximately five months before the females. This growth pattern probably helped to reduce intraspecific competition for the shells, because the males reached larger size and made the smaller shells available to the females.O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar o crescimento de machos e fêmeas do ermitão Clibanarius vittatus (Bosc, 1802, da região de São Vicente, São Paulo, Brasil. Foram realizadas coletas mensais de maio/2001 a abril/2003, na Praia dos Pescadores em São Vicente. Os 2.501 animais capturados foram identificados, determinados quanto ao sexo e mensurados quanto ao seu comprimento de escudo cefalotorácico (CEC. Para o estudo sazonal do crescimento, a população foi dividida em classes de tamanho de 5mm de (CEC, e analisada pelo método de Bertalanffy, com o auxílio do software Fisat II. Foram obtidos 703 indivíduos machos e 1.798 fêmeas, com média de tamanho de 8.94±1.80 e 6.61±1.13mm, respectivamente. Constatou-se um padrão de crescimento sazonal, com machos atingindo um tamanho assintótico (14.92mm superior ao das fêmeas (13.85mm, além de iniciarem o processo de crescimento aproximadamente cinco meses antes destas. Desta forma, é provável que

  3. Winter precipitation change in South China in recent decades (United States)

    Cai, Jingning


    Precipitation change is one of important climate researches in China, but winter precipitation variation in South China has not been studied so frequently. In China, it is rainy when hot; so summer precipitation is usually one focus in research, esp. in South China. However, winter precipitation and its change influence people profoundly in South China, also. The most recent example is what happened over South China in winter 2008. In this winter, millions of people suffered from the unusual cold and snowy winter. It led to huge loss in economy and traffic as well. Roads closed and railway stations were jammed and crowded with people; many planes were grounded for heavy snow and bad weather. Transmission lines faulted in the mountains. The ommunication signals were affected. Everyday food supply including vegetables and meats had to be delayed or interrupted. In some city even water supply was interrupted. And garbage in the city was piled up. Just in this winter the snow depth and coverage area in many places in South China broke or equaled the historical records. In fact, it isn't the only one unusual winter precipitation event in South China. Since 1950s, several freezing and snowy winters struck the South in China. In this research, winter precipitation change in recent years in South China has been discussed based on the precipitation observations. The associated large scale atmospheric circulation change is also analyzed. It is found that snowy winter in South China hardly comes in most periods of 2000s, but in recent decades this heavy snow in winter has appeared several times as observations shows. This phenomenon could be related to the large scale atmospheric circulation change.

  4. Winter Climate Limits Subantarctic Low Forest Growth and Establishment (United States)

    Harsch, Melanie A.; McGlone, Matt S.; Wilmshurst, Janet M.


    Campbell Island, an isolated island 600 km south of New Zealand mainland (52°S, 169°E) is oceanic (Conrad Index of Continentality  = −5) with small differences between mean summer and winter temperatures. Previous work established the unexpected result that a mean annual climate warming of c. 0.6°C since the 1940's has not led to upward movement of the forest limit. Here we explore the relative importance of summer and winter climatic conditions on growth and age-class structure of the treeline forming species, Dracophyllum longifolium and Dracophyllum scoparium over the second half of the 20th century. The relationship between climate and growth and establishment were evaluated using standard dendroecological methods and local climate data from a meteorological station on the island. Growth and establishment were correlated against climate variables and further evaluated within hierarchical regression models to take into account the effect of plot level variables. Winter climatic conditions exerted a greater effect on growth and establishment than summer climatic conditions. Establishment is maximized under warm (mean winter temperatures >7 °C), dry winters (total winter precipitation <400 mm). Growth, on the other hand, is adversely affected by wide winter temperature ranges and increased rainfall. The contrasting effect of winter warmth on growth and establishment suggests that winter temperature affects growth and establishment through differing mechanisms. We propose that milder winters enhance survival of seedlings and, therefore, recruitment, but increases metabolic stress on established plants, resulting in lower growth rates. Future winter warming may therefore have complex effects on plant growth and establishment globally. PMID:24691026

  5. Regional greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of winter wheat and winter rapeseed for biofuels in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsgaard, Lars; Olesen, Jørgen E; Hermansen, John Erik


    (CO2eq) were quantified from the footprints of CO2, CH4 and N2O associated with cultivation and the emissions were allocated between biofuel energy and co-products. Greenhouse gas emission at the national level (Denmark) was estimated to 22.1 g CO2eq MJ−1 ethanol for winter wheat and 26.0 g CO2eq MJ−1...... by such regional factors as soil conditions, climate and input of agrochemicals. Here we analysed at a regional scale the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with cultivation of winter wheat for bioethanol and winter rapeseed for rapeseed methyl ester (RME) under Danish conditions. Emitted CO2 equivalents...... to a large extent on the uncertainty ranges assumed for soil N2O emissions. Improvement of greenhouse gas balances could be pursued, e.g., by growing dedicated varieties for energy purposes. However, in a wider perspective, land-use change of native ecosystems to bioenergy cropping systems could compromise...

  6. The phenotypic diversity and fruit characterization of winter squash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jan 11, 2010 ... Winter squash populations show great diversity in morphological characteristics, particularly fruit length, fruit diameter, fruit ... fruit weight, fruit diameter, fruit length, length of seed cavity and flesh thickness. This evaluation .... Winter squash seeds from four provinces (Samsun, Amasya, Sinop and Bolu) of the ...

  7. Controls on winter ecosystem respiration in temperate and boreal ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciais, P.; Wang, T.; Piao, S.L.; Ottlé, C.; Brender, P.; Moors, E.J.


    Winter CO2 fluxes represent an important component of the annual carbon budget in northern ecosystems. Understanding winter respiration processes and their responses to climate change is also central to our ability to assess terrestrial carbon cycle and climate feedbacks in the future. However, the

  8. Changes occurring in plain, straining and winter yoghurt during the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes occurring in plain, straining and winter yoghurt during the storage periods. S Köse, E Ocak. Abstract. In this study, winter yoghurt, straining yoghurt and yoghurt samples produced from homogenized and non-homogenized sheep and a mixture of sheep and cows milks were evaluated during the storage periods.

  9. Baraitser–Winter syndrome: An additional Arab patient | Henedy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Baraitser–Winter syndrome: An additional Arab patient. MMA Henedy, MJ Marafie, SJ Abulhasan. Abstract. An Arab child is presented herein with a phenotype that fits the rare Baraitser–Winter syndrome. Her clinical features included a unilateral iris coloboma, ptosis, hypertelorism, epicanthic folds, broad nasal bridge, full ...

  10. Winter cereal canopy effect on cereal and interseeded legume productivity (United States)

    Interseeding red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) or alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) into winter cereals in the North Central USA can provide forage and a green manure crop. We hypothesize that winter cereal canopy traits such as leaf area index (LAI) and whole plant dry matter (DM) influence interseeded...

  11. Seasonal affective disorder, winter type : current insights and treatment options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, Ybe; Gordijn, Margaretha


    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD), winter type, is a seasonal pattern of recurrent major depressive episodes most commonly occurring in autumn or winter and remitting in spring/summer. The syndrome has been well-known for more than three decades, with light treatment being the treatment of first

  12. Overhead irrigation increased winter chilling and floral bud ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus nitens requires a sufficiently cold winter to produce flower buds. In areas in South Africa where E. nitens commercial plantations as well as breeding and production seed orchards are located, winter chilling is often insufficient for floral bud initiation. Hence, under such conditions, E. nitens floral bud and seed ...

  13. Prevalence of hematozoa infections among breeding and wintering Rusty Blackbirds (United States)

    William H. Barnard; Claudia Mettke-Hofmann; Steven M. Matsuoka


    The Rusty Blackbird (Euphagus carolinus) has declined precipitously over the past several decades,and stressors on both the breeding and wintering grounds are suspected causes. Over 3 years, we collected blood samples from breeding birds in Alaska and Maine and from wintering birds in Mississippi and Arkansas to determine the prevalence of hematozoan infections at...

  14. 33 CFR 401.92 - Wintering and lying-up. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wintering and lying-up. 401.92 Section 401.92 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations General § 401.92 Wintering and lying-up...

  15. Controls on winter ecosystem respiration in temperate and boreal ecosystems (United States)

    T. Wang; P. Ciais; S.L. Piao; C. Ottle; P. Brender; F. Maignan; A. Arain; A. Cescatti; D. Gianelle; C. Gough; L Gu; P. Lafleur; T. Laurila; B. Marcolla; H. Margolis; L. Montagnani; E. Moors; N. Saigusa; T. Vesala; G. Wohlfahrt; C. Koven; A. Black; E. Dellwik; A. Don; D. Hollinger; A. Knohl; R. Monson; J. Munger; A. Suyker; A. Varlagin; S. Verma


    Winter CO2 fluxes represent an important component of the annual carbon budget in northern ecosystems. Understanding winter respiration processes and their responses to climate change is also central to our ability to assess terrestrial carbon cycle and climate feedbacks in the future. However, the factors influencing the spatial and temporal...

  16. Management of Fresh Wheat Residue for Irrigated Winter Canola Production (United States)

    Winter canola is popular with many irrigated growers as it provides excellent disease control benefits for potatoes grown in rotation. There is a belief among irrigated canola growers that fresh wheat residue must be burned and the soil then heavily tilled before winter canola is planted. These grow...

  17. Parasites as secret files of the trophic interactions of hosts: the case of the rufous-bellied thrush Los parásitos como archivos secretos en las interacciones tróficas con sus hospederos: el caso del Zorzal Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Calegaro-Marques


    Full Text Available Helminths with heteroxenous cycles provide clues for the trophic relationships of definitive hosts, representing important sources of information for assessing niche overlap between males and females of non-dimorphic species. We necropsied 151 rufous-bellied thrushes (Turdus rufiventris captured in a metropolitan region in southern Brazil to analyze whether the structure of parasite communities is influenced by host sex or age. Most thrushes (93% were parasitized by at least 1 species. The helminth community of Turdus rufiventris was composed of 15 species with prevalences from Los helmintos que presentan ciclos heterogéneos proveen pistas importantes sobre las relaciones tróficas que mantienen con sus hospederos definitivos. Estas pistas son además importantes fuentes de información que permiten evaluar el sobrelapamiento de sus nichos cuando comparamos machos y hembras en especies no dimórficas. Así, se practicaron necropsias en 151 zorzales colorados (Turdus rufiventris que fueron capturados en una región metropolitana al sureste de Brasil, a fin de analizar de qué manera la estructura de la comunidad de parásitos podría estar influenciada por la edad o sexo del hospedero. La mayoría de los zorzales (93% fueron parasitados por al menos 1 especie. La comunidad de helmintos de Turdus rufiventris estuvo compuesta por 15 especies, con prevalencias entre 1% a 60%. Aunque la prevalencia de Conspicuum conspicuum, Microtetrameres pusilla y Aproctella stoddardi fue más alta en adultos, Syngamus trachea tuvo una mayor prevalencia en juveniles. Los adultos mostraron una mayor riqueza de parásitos que los juveniles. Probablemente, ésto sea consecuencia de una mayor posibilidad de infectarse conforme avanza la edad de los individuos; sin embargo, machos y hembras adultos presentaron una riqueza similar en la concentración de helmintos en comunidades semejantes. Esto podría apoyar a concluir que podrían estar alimentándose del mismo tipo

  18. Increasing frequency and duration of Arctic winter warming events (United States)

    Graham, Robert M.; Cohen, Lana; Petty, Alek A.; Boisvert, Linette N.; Rinke, Annette; Hudson, Stephen R.; Nicolaus, Marcel; Granskog, Mats A.


    Near-surface air temperatures close to 0°C were observed in situ over sea ice in the central Arctic during the last three winter seasons. Here we use in situ winter (December-March) temperature observations, such as those from Soviet North Pole drifting stations and ocean buoys, to determine how common Arctic winter warming events are. Observations of winter warming events exist over most of the Arctic Basin. Temperatures exceeding -5°C were observed during >30% of winters from 1954 to 2010 by North Pole drifting stations or ocean buoys. Using the ERA-Interim record (1979-2016), we show that the North Pole (NP) region typically experiences 10 warming events (T2m > -10°C) per winter, compared with only five in the Pacific Central Arctic (PCA). There is a positive trend in the overall duration of winter warming events for both the NP region (4.25 days/decade) and PCA (1.16 days/decade), due to an increased number of events of longer duration.type="synopsis">type="main">Plain Language SummaryDuring the last three winter seasons, extreme warming events were observed over sea ice in the central Arctic Ocean. Each of these warming events were associated with temperatures close to or above 0°C, which lasted for between 1 and 3 days. Typically temperatures in the Arctic at this time of year are below -30°C. Here we study past temperature observations in the Arctic to investigate how common winter warming events are. We use time temperature observations from expeditions such as Fram (1893-1896) and manned Soviet North Pole drifting ice stations from 1937 to 1991. These historic temperature records show that winter warming events have been observed over most of the Arctic Ocean. Despite a thin network of observation sites, winter time temperatures above -5°C were directly observed approximately once every 3 years in the central Arctic Ocean between 1954 and 2010. Winter warming events are associated with storm systems originating in either the Atlantic or Pacific

  19. Organizing and running winter triathlon competitions in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Vodlozerov


    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze the system of organizing and running competitions according to the type of the triathlon-winter program in Ukraine for compliance with the rules of the International Triathlon Federation. Material & Methods: on the basis of the study of the specialized literature and the regulatory framework of a number of triathlon federations, a comparative analysis of the winter triathlon emulation at competition distances abroad and in Ukraine. Result: correspondence of two winters combined distances in Ukraine to the official formats of the international winter triathlon competitions in Europe and the world are found out. Conclusion: in basis for organizing and conducting competitions for a new variety of continuous triathlon in our country are the rules of the International Triathlon Federation, and the competitive distances in the form of the triathlon-winter program in Ukraine correspond to international standards.

  20. Real-time weed detection, decision making and patch spraying in maize, sugarbeet, winter wheat and winter barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerhards, R; Christensen, Svend


    with weed infestation levels higher than the economic weed threshold; a review of such work is provided. This paper presents a system for site-specific weed control in sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.), maize (Zea mays L.), winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), including...

  1. Winter Snowfall Turns an Emerald White (United States)


    Ireland's climate is normally mild due to the nearby Gulf Stream, but the waning days of 2000 saw the Emerald Isle's green fields swathed in an uncommon blanket of white. The contrast between summer and winter is apparent in this pair of images of southwestern Ireland acquired by MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on August 23, 2000 (left) and December 29, 2000 (right). The corresponding Terra orbit numbers are 3628 and 5492, respectively.The year 2000 brought record-breaking weather to the British Isles. England and Wales experienced the wettest spring and autumn months since 1766. Despite being one of the warmest years in recent history, a cold snap arrived between Christmas and New Year's Day. According to the UK Meteorological Office, the 18 centimeters (7 inches) of snow recorded at Aldergrove, Northern Ireland, on December 27-28 was the deepest daily fall since 1930.Prominent geographical features visible in the MISR images include Galway Bay near the top left. Further south, the mouth of the River Shannon, the largest river in the British Isles, meets the Atlantic Ocean. In the lower portions of the images are the counties of Limerick, Kerry and Cork.MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology

  2. 32th Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics

    CERN Document Server


    The 32nd edition of the Winter Workshop will be held 28 February - 5 March 2016, Hotel Resort Fort Royal Guadeloupe in Guadeloupe a French overseas territory, is an island group in the southern Caribbean Sea. As with previous years, the workshop will bring together scientists from all fields of nuclear physics for engaging and friendly exchanges of ideas. Much emphasis will be on the recent LHC, RHIC and SPS heavy ion results, but advances in the ongoing and future programs at FAIR, FRIB, EIC, JLab and NICA and will also be featured. The meeting will start with a welcome reception on the evening of Sunday, February 28. The workshop program will commence on Monday morning and run until Saturday. We recommend to arrive on Sunday and leave on Sunday. Talks will be as usual 25+5 minutes, there will be no parallel sessions. If you are interested in presenting your work, please fill out the registration form prior to the registration deadline. After the program committee has met we will confirm your talk via indivi...

  3. Comparison of East Asian winter monsoon indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Hui


    Full Text Available Four East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM indices are compared in this paper. In the research periods, all the indices show similar interannual and decadal-interdecadal variations, with predominant periods centering in 3–4 years, 6.5 years and 9–15 years, respectively. Besides, all the indices show remarkable weakening trends since the 1980s. The correlation coefficient of each two indices is positive with a significance level of 99%. Both the correlation analyses and the composites indicate that in stronger EAWM years, the Siberian high and the higher-level subtropical westerly jet are stronger, and the Aleutian low and the East Asia trough are deeper. This circulation pattern is favorable for much stronger northwesterly wind and lower air temperature in the subtropical regions of East Asia, while it is on the opposite in weaker EAWM years. Besides, EAWM can also exert a remarkable leading effect on the summer monsoon. After stronger (weaker EAWM, less (more summer precipitation is seen over the regions from the Yangtze River valley of China to southern Japan, while more (less from South China Sea to the tropical western Pacific.

  4. Autumn Weather and Winter Increase in Cerebrovascular Disease Mortality

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonagh, R


    Mortality from cerebrovascular disease increases in winter but the cause is unclear. Ireland’s oceanic climate means that it infrequently experiences extremes of weather. We examined how weather patterns relate to stroke mortality in Ireland. Seasonal data for Sunshine (% of average), Rainfall (% of average) and Temperature (degrees Celsius above average) were collected for autumn (September-November) and winter (December-February) using official Irish Meteorological Office data. National cerebrovascular mortality data was obtained from Quarterly Vital Statistics. Excess winter deaths were calculated by subtracting (nadir) 3rd quarter mortality data from subsequent 1st quarter data. Data for 12 years were analysed, 2002-2014. Mean winter mortality excess was 24.7%. Winter mortality correlated with temperature (r=.60, p=0.04). Rise in winter mortality correlated strongly with the weather in the preceding autumn (Rainfall: r=-0.19 p=0.53, Temperature: r=-0.60, p=0.03, Sunshine, r=0.58, p=0.04). Winter cerebrovascular disease mortality appears higher following cool, sunny autum

  5. Sage-grouse habitat selection during winter in Alberta (United States)

    Carpenter, Jennifer L.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Boyce, Mark S.


    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) are dependent on sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) for food and shelter during winter, yet few studies have assessed winter habitat selection, particularly at scales applicable to conservation planning. Small changes to availability of winter habitats have caused drastic reductions in some sage-grouse populations. We modeled winter habitat selection by sage-grouse in Alberta, Canada, by using a resource selection function. Our purpose was to 1) generate a robust winter habitat-selection model for Alberta sage-grouse; 2) spatially depict habitat suitability in a Geographic Information System to identify areas with a high probability of selection and thus, conservation importance; and 3) assess the relative influence of human development, including oil and gas wells, in landscape models of winter habitat selection. Terrain and vegetation characteristics, sagebrush cover, anthropogenic landscape features, and energy development were important in top Akaike's Information Criterionselected models. During winter, sage-grouse selected dense sagebrush cover and homogenous less rugged areas, and avoided energy development and 2-track truck trails. Sage-grouse avoidance of energy development highlights the need for comprehensive management strategies that maintain suitable habitats across all seasons. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  6. Impact of declining Arctic sea ice on winter snowfall. (United States)

    Liu, Jiping; Curry, Judith A; Wang, Huijun; Song, Mirong; Horton, Radley M


    While the Arctic region has been warming strongly in recent decades, anomalously large snowfall in recent winters has affected large parts of North America, Europe, and east Asia. Here we demonstrate that the decrease in autumn Arctic sea ice area is linked to changes in the winter Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation that have some resemblance to the negative phase of the winter Arctic oscillation. However, the atmospheric circulation change linked to the reduction of sea ice shows much broader meridional meanders in midlatitudes and clearly different interannual variability than the classical Arctic oscillation. This circulation change results in more frequent episodes of blocking patterns that lead to increased cold surges over large parts of northern continents. Moreover, the increase in atmospheric water vapor content in the Arctic region during late autumn and winter driven locally by the reduction of sea ice provides enhanced moisture sources, supporting increased heavy snowfall in Europe during early winter and the northeastern and midwestern United States during winter. We conclude that the recent decline of Arctic sea ice has played a critical role in recent cold and snowy winters.

  7. Wintering Golden Eagles on the coastal plain of South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukovich, Mark [USDA Forest Service-Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Turner, Kelsey L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab. (SREL); Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States); Grazia, Tracy E. [USDA Forest Service, New Ellenton, SC (United States). Savannah River; Mims, Thiomas [USDA Forest Service, New Ellenton, SC (United States). Savannah River; Beasley, James C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab. (SREL); Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States); Kilgo, John C. [USDA Forest Service-Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States)


    Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) are rare winter residents in eastern North America, with most found along the Appalachian Mountains and few reported on the coastal plain of the Carolinas. We used remote cameras baited with wild pig (Sus scrofa) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) carcasses to detect, age, and individually identify Golden Eagles on the U.S. Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site on the coastal plain of South Carolina. We identified eight individual Golden Eagles during the winters of 2013–2014 and 2014–2015, with one detected during both winters. We detected eagles for 19 and 66 calendar days during the winters of 2013–2014 and 2014–2015, respectively, with two adult eagles detected for 30 and 31 calendar days in 2014–2015. Eagles typically scavenged on carcasses for a few days, left, and then returned when cameras were baited with another carcass, suggesting they had remained in the area. These observations suggest that large tracts of forests on the coastal plain may be important wintering areas for some Golden Eagles and, further, that other areas in the coastal plain of the southeastern United States may also harbor wintering eagles. Identification of wintering areas of Golden Eagles in the east will be an important step in the conservation of this protected species, and camera traps baited with carcasses can be an effective tool for such work.

  8. Lemming winter habitat choice: a snow-fencing experiment. (United States)

    Reid, Donald G; Bilodeau, Frédéric; Krebs, Charles J; Gauthier, Gilles; Kenney, Alice J; Gilbert, B Scott; Leung, Maria C-Y; Duchesne, David; Hofer, Elizabeth


    The insulative value of early and deep winter snow is thought to enhance winter reproduction and survival by arctic lemmings (Lemmus and Dicrostonyx spp). This leads to the general hypothesis that landscapes with persistently low lemming population densities, or low amplitude population fluctuations, have a low proportion of the land base with deep snow. We experimentally tested a component of this hypothesis, that snow depth influences habitat choice, at three Canadian Arctic sites: Bylot Island, Nunavut; Herschel Island, Yukon; Komakuk Beach, Yukon. We used snow fencing to enhance snow depth on 9-ha tundra habitats, and measured the intensity of winter use of these and control areas by counting rodent winter nests in spring. At all three sites, the density of winter nests increased in treated areas compared to control areas after the treatment, and remained higher on treated areas during the treatment. The treatment was relaxed at one site, and winter nest density returned to pre-treatment levels. The rodents' proportional use of treated areas compared to adjacent control areas increased and remained higher during the treatment. At two of three sites, lemmings and voles showed significant attraction to the areas of deepest snow accumulation closest to the fences. The strength of the treatment effect appeared to depend on how quickly the ground level temperature regime became stable in autumn, coincident with snow depths near the hiemal threshold. Our results provide strong support for the hypothesis that snow depth is a primary determinant of winter habitat choice by tundra lemmings and voles.

  9. Unexpected winter phytoplankton blooms in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre (United States)

    Lacour, L.; Ardyna, M.; Stec, K. F.; Claustre, H.; Prieur, L.; Poteau, A.; D'Alcala, M. Ribera; Iudicone, D.


    In mid- and high-latitude oceans, winter surface cooling and strong winds drive turbulent mixing that carries phytoplankton to depths of several hundred metres, well below the sunlit layer. This downward mixing, in combination with low solar radiation, drastically limits phytoplankton growth during the winter, especially that of the diatoms and other species that are involved in seeding the spring bloom. Here we present observational evidence for widespread winter phytoplankton blooms in a large part of the North Atlantic subpolar gyre from autonomous profiling floats equipped with biogeochemical sensors. These blooms were triggered by intermittent restratification of the mixed layer when mixed-layer eddies led to a horizontal transport of lighter water over denser layers. Combining a bio-optical index with complementary chemotaxonomic and modelling approaches, we show that these restratification events increase phytoplankton residence time in the sunlight zone, resulting in greater light interception and the emergence of winter blooms. Restratification also caused a phytoplankton community shift from pico- and nanophytoplankton to phototrophic diatoms. We conclude that transient winter blooms can maintain active diatom populations throughout the winter months, directly seeding the spring bloom and potentially making a significant contribution to over-winter carbon export.

  10. Regional greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of winter wheat and winter rapeseed for biofuels in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsgaard, Lars; Olesen, Joergen E.; Hermansen, John E.; Kristensen, Inge T.; Boergesen, Christen D. [Dept. of Agroecology, Aarhus Univ., Tjele (Denmark)], E-mail:


    Biofuels from bioenergy crops may substitute a significant part of fossil fuels in the transport sector where, e.g., the European Union has set a target of using 10% renewable energy by 2020. Savings of greenhouse gas emissions by biofuels vary according to cropping systems and are influenced by such regional factors as soil conditions, climate and input of agrochemicals. Here we analysed at a regional scale the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with cultivation of winter wheat for bioethanol and winter rapeseed for rapeseed methyl ester (RME) under Danish conditions. Emitted CO{sub 2} equivalents (CO{sub 2}eq) were quantified from the footprints of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O associated with cultivation and the emissions were allocated between biofuel energy and co-products. Greenhouse gas emission at the national level (Denmark) was estimated to 22.1 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} ethanol for winter wheat and 26.0 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} RME for winter rapeseed. Results at the regional level (level 2 according to the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics [NUTS]) ranged from 20.0 to 23.9 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} ethanol and from 23.5 to 27.6 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} RME. Thus, at the regional level emission results varied by up to 20%. Differences in area-based emissions were only 4% reflecting the importance of regional variation in yields for the emission result. Fertilizer nitrogen production and direct emissions of soil N{sub 2}O were major contributors to the final emission result and sensitivity analyses showed that the emission result depended to a large extent on the uncertainty ranges assumed for soil N{sub 2}O emissions. Improvement of greenhouse gas balances could be pursued, e.g., by growing dedicated varieties for energy purposes. However, in a wider perspective, land-use change of native ecosystems to bioenergy cropping systems could compromise the CO{sub 2} savings of bioenergy production and challenge the targets set for biofuel

  11. Winter chilling speeds spring development of temperate butterflies. (United States)

    Stålhandske, Sandra; Gotthard, Karl; Leimar, Olof


    Understanding and predicting phenology has become more important with ongoing climate change and has brought about great research efforts in the recent decades. The majority of studies examining spring phenology of insects have focussed on the effects of spring temperatures alone. Here we use citizen-collected observation data to show that winter cold duration, in addition to spring temperature, can affect the spring emergence of butterflies. Using spatial mixed models, we disentangle the effects of climate variables and reveal impacts of both spring and winter conditions for five butterfly species that overwinter as pupae across the UK, with data from 1976 to 2013 and one butterfly species in Sweden, with data from 2001 to 2013. Warmer springs lead to earlier emergence in all species and milder winters lead to statistically significant delays in three of the five investigated species. We also find that the delaying effect of winter warmth has become more pronounced in the last decade, during which time winter durations have become shorter. For one of the studied species, Anthocharis cardamines (orange tip butterfly), we also make use of parameters determined from previous experiments on pupal development to model the spring phenology. Using daily temperatures in the UK and Sweden, we show that recent variation in spring temperature corresponds to 10-15 day changes in emergence time over UK and Sweden, whereas variation in winter duration corresponds to 20 days variation in the south of the UK versus only 3 days in the south of Sweden. In summary, we show that short winters delay phenology. The effect is most prominent in areas with particularly mild winters, emphasising the importance of winter for the response of ectothermic animals to climate change. With climate change, these effects may become even stronger and apply also at higher latitudes. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.

  12. Winter swimming: healthy or hazardous?. Evidence and hypotheses. (United States)

    Kolettis, T M; Kolettis, M T


    Swimming in cold water during the winter season is an extreme sport, with fans all over the world. However, its effects on health have been debated. This article examines the hypothesis that the effects of winter swimming may depend on previous exposure to cold stimuli. Immersion in cold water in unaccustomed persons may lead to detrimental consequences, while, in regular winter swimmers, adaptive physiologic mechanisms increase tolerance to cold. Furthermore, these mechanisms may prevent the occurrence of a wide variety of diseases. Prospective studies and epidemiological data are needed to test this hypothesis.

  13. Urban emissions of water vapor in winter (United States)

    Salmon, Olivia E.; Shepson, Paul B.; Ren, Xinrong; Marquardt Collow, Allison B.; Miller, Mark A.; Carlton, Annmarie G.; Cambaliza, Maria O. L.; Heimburger, Alexie; Morgan, Kristan L.; Fuentes, Jose D.; Stirm, Brian H.; Grundman, Robert; Dickerson, Russell R.


    Elevated water vapor (H2Ov) mole fractions were occasionally observed downwind of Indianapolis, IN, and the Washington, D.C.-Baltimore, MD, area during airborne mass balance experiments conducted during winter months between 2012 and 2015. On days when an urban H2Ov excess signal was observed, H2Ov emission estimates range between 1.6 × 104 and 1.7 × 105 kg s-1 and account for up to 8.4% of the total (background + urban excess) advected flow of atmospheric boundary layer H2Ov from the urban study sites. Estimates of H2Ov emissions from combustion sources and electricity generation facility cooling towers are 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller than the urban H2Ov emission rates estimated from observations. Instances of urban H2Ov enhancement could be a result of differences in snowmelt and evaporation rates within the urban area, due in part to larger wintertime anthropogenic heat flux and land cover differences, relative to surrounding rural areas. More study is needed to understand why the urban H2Ov excess signal is observed on some days, and not others. Radiative transfer modeling indicates that the observed urban enhancements in H2Ov and other greenhouse gas mole fractions contribute only 0.1°C d-1 to the urban heat island at the surface. This integrated warming through the boundary layer is offset by longwave cooling by H2Ov at the top of the boundary layer. While the radiative impacts of urban H2Ov emissions do not meaningfully influence urban heat island intensity, urban H2Ov emissions may have the potential to alter downwind aerosol and cloud properties.

  14. L’ermite et le virtuose The hermit and the virtuosoGlenn Gould and Georges Cziffra figures of pianistic asceticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Laborde


    figures: one, for whom music practice was "not a demonstration of the soloist’s virtues (virtuosity nor a complacent exhibition of self practice" (Schneider, 1988: 40, embodied the figure of the hermit artist in tune with "music", the other, "the guy who can play the piano faster than all others" (Böhm, 1995: 88, embodied the worldly face of the virtuoso. Neither was unanimously beloved nor did they leave anyone indifferent. Thus at the two extreme of this rhetoric of virtuosity, two conflicting faces of pianistic asceticism were constructed: Gould, absorbed by technology; Cziffra, by technique.

  15. Hermit Points on a Box (United States)

    Hess, Richard; Grinstead, Charles; Grindstead, Marshall; Bergstrand, Deborah


    Suppose that we are given a rectangular box in 3-space. Given any two points on the surface of this box, we can define the surface distance between them to be the length of the shortest path between them on the surface of the box. This paper determines the pairs of points of maximum surface distance for all boxes. It is often the case that these…

  16. On Hermit Crabs and Humans (United States)

    Thomas, Michael S. C.


    Flynn, Laland, Kendal and Kendal's article (this issue) plays a valuable role in two ways. First, it demonstrates how developmental psychology can learn lessons from the latest research on developmental niche construction within evolutionary biology. Secondly, for those psychologists whose main focus is the cognitive mechanisms by which humans…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    nicolae eremia


    Full Text Available Honey bees use as food nectar, honey, pollen and bee bread. They collect nectar and pollen on flowers, that process in food - honey and bee bread. Food provides the bees body with energy due to carbohydrates, proteins, enzymes, lipids, vitamins, minerals. The goal of the studies was to stimulate the bees’ resistance during wintering against nesemosa disease in bee families’ survival after winter time and productivity increasing. There was established that the optimal dose of feed additive Pramix Bionorm P (symbiotic complex, in reserves supplementing of food of bee families during autumn is 150 mg of sugar syrup. There was revealed that using of the feed additive Pramix Bionorm P (symbiotic complex, in bees feeding for reserves supplementing of bees food ensures a stimulating of resistance at wintering of bees, decreases the quantity of used honey during wintering at one space between honey combs populated with bees, as well increases the productivity.

  18. Winter Steelhead Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006) (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for WINTER STEELHEAD contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  19. Winter banding of passerines on the Alaska Peninsula (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Between February 1969 and May 1973, bait traps were operated during winter at Cold Bay (55° 12' N, 162° 43' W), Alaska, headquarters of the Izembek National Wildlife...

  20. National FCEV Learning Demonstration: Winter 2011 Composite Data Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.


    This presentation from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory includes the composite data products produced in Winter 2011 as part of the National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) Learning Demonstration.

  1. Evaluating spectral indices for winter wheat health status monitoring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vegetation index relationships for winter wheat in order to determine indices that are sensitive to changes in the wheat health status. The indices were derived from Landsat 8 scenes over the wheat growing area across Bloemfontein, South Africa.

  2. Surface layer temperature inversion in the Arabian Sea during winter

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Ghosh, A

    Surface layer temperature inversion in the south eastern Arabian Sea, during winter has been studied using Bathythermograph data collected from 1132 stations. It is found that the inversion in this area is a stable seasonal feature...

  3. NEFSC 2001 Winter Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0102, EK500) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objectives of the cruise are to: (1) determine the winter distribution and relative abundance of fish and selected invertebrate species; (2) collect biological...

  4. NEFSC 1999 Winter Bottom Trawl Survey (AL9902, EK500) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objectives of the cruise are to: (1) determine the winter distribution and relative abundance of fish and selected invertebrate species; (2) collect biological...

  5. Nearshore hydrography off Visakhapatnam, East coast of India, during winter

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, B.P.; RameshBabu, V.

    Based on hydrographic data and time series data of currents and temperature, the nearshore hydrographic structure during winter (November, 1981) has been studied to examine the possibility of discharging industrial effluents into the nearby sea...

  6. NEFSC 2000 Winter Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0001, EK500) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objectives of the cruise are to: (1) determine the winter distribution and relative abundance of fish and selected invertebrate species; (2) collect biological...

  7. Inferring the links between breeding and wintering grounds in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inferring the links between breeding and wintering grounds in a Palearctic– African migratory bird, the Great Reed Warbler, using mitochondrial DNA data. ... of Palearctic African migratory passerines. Keywords: bird, connectivity, distribution range, genetic similarity, migration, mitochondria, population differentiation ...

  8. Kleptoparasitism by bald eagles wintering in south-central Nebraska (United States)

    Jorde, Dennis G.; Lingle, G.R.


    Kleptoparasitism on other raptors was one means by which Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) secured food along the North Platte and Platte rivers during the winters of 1978-1980. Species kelptoparasitized were Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis), Red-tailed Hawk (B. jamaicensis), Rough-legged Hawk (B. lagopus), Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), and Bald Eagle. Stealing of prey occurred more often during the severe winter of 1978-1979 when ice cover restricted eagles from feeding on fish than during the milder winter of 1979-1980. Kleptoparasitism occurred principally in agricultural habitats where large numbers of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were foraging. Subadults watched adults steal food and participated in food-stealing with adults, which indicated interspecific kleptoparasitism may be a learned behavior. We suggest factors that may favor interspecific kleptoparasitism as a foraging strategy of Bald Eagles in obtaining waterfowl during severe winters.

  9. JTEL Winter School for Advanced Technologically Enhanced Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glahn, Christian; Gruber, Marion


    Glahn, C., & Gruber, M. (2010). JTEL Winter School for Advanced Technologically Enhanced Learning. In ~mail. Das Magazin des Tiroler Bildungsinstituts, 01/10, März (p. 3-4). Innsbruck: Grillhof, Medienzentrum.

  10. Whooping Crane Winter Abundance Survey Protocol Aransas National Wildlife Refuge (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This protocol is primarily designed to provide a mechanism for monitoring trends in whooping crane abundance on their wintering grounds along the Texas gulf coast....

  11. Winter population numbers [Fort Niobrara NWR fenced animal program (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This data set is for winter population numbers for bison, elk and longhorn from January 1st of the calendar year and is part of the Fort Niobrara Fenced Animal...

  12. Are solar minima associated with severe winters in Europe? (United States)

    van Oldenborgh, Geert Jan; de Laat, Jos; Luterbacher, Juerg; Ingram, William; Osborn, Tim


    There have been claims recently that severe winters in Europe are associated with solar minima. We revisit this based on three sets of data sources: historical instrumental observations available over the last three centuries (NAO, CET, De Bilt temperature, Frankfurt temperature) reconstructions based on documentary evidence (in winter partly based on freezing of canals, rivers and lakes) and the long 20C reanalysis that is now available. None of these data sources shows a significant correlation (linear, non-linear or lagged) between near-surface winter temperatures or atmospheric circulation over Europe and various measure of solar activity beyond common trends. We also show the origin of the differences between our analyses and other published investigations into the connection between solar activity and European winter severity.

  13. Winter cover crops decrease weediness in organic cropping systems


    Madsen, Helena; Talgre, Liina; Eremeev, Vyacheslav; Alaru, Maarika; Maeorg, Erkki; Luik, Anne


    By inserting cover crops into organic cropping systems, the number and biomass of weeds decreased. Winter cover crops clearly have a suppressive effect on weeds by providing competition for light, water and space.

  14. Washington Maritime NWRC: Initial Survey Instructions for Winter Wildlife Survey (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Due to the logistical challenges of accessing this refuge during the winter months, information on nonbreeding species use of refuge islands is very limited. This...

  15. Whooping Cranes During the 1985-1986 Winter (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report attempts to summarize whooping crane data collected by the Aransas biologist during the 1985-86 winter. It focuses on the distribution of the Wood...

  16. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus and climate change: Importance of winter forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thrine Moen Heggberget


    Full Text Available As a consequence of increasing greenhouse gas concentrations, climate change is predicted to be particularly pronounced, although regionally variable, in the vast arctic, sub-arctic and alpine tundra areas of the northern hemisphere. Here, we review winter foraging conditions for reindeer and caribou (Rangifer tarandus living in these areas, and consider diet, forage quality and distribution, accessibility due to snow variation, and effects of snow condition on reindeer and caribou populations. Finally, we hypothesise how global warming may affect wild mountain reindeer herds in South Norway. Energy-rich lichens often dominate reindeer and caribou diets. The animals also prefer lichens, and their productivity has been shown to be higher on lichen-rich than on lichen-poor ranges. Nevertheless, this energy source appears to be neither sufficient as winter diet for reindeer or caribou (at least for pregnant females nor necessary. Some reindeer and caribou populations seem to be better adapted to a non-lichen winter diet, e.g. by a larger alimentary tract. Shrubs appear to be the most common alternative winter forage, while some grasses appear to represent a good, nutritionally-balanced winter diet. Reindeer/caribou make good use of a wide variety of plants in winter, including dead and dry parts that are digested more than expected based on their fibre content. The diversity of winter forage is probably important for the mineral content of the diet. A lichen-dominated winter diet may be deficient in essential dietary elements, e.g. minerals. Sodium in particular may be marginal in inland winter ranges. Our review indicates that most Rangifer populations with lichen-dominated winter diets are either periodically or continuously heavily harvested by humans or predators. However, when population size is mainly limited by food, accessible lichen resources are often depleted. Plant studies simulating climatic change indicate that a warmer, wetter

  17. Prediction of thermal behavior of pervious concrete pavements in winter. (United States)


    Because application of pervious concrete pavement (PCPs) has extended to cold-climate regions of the United States, the safety and : mobility of PCP installations during the winter season need to be maintained. Timely application of salt, anti-icing,...

  18. School of Culinary Arts & Food Technology - Winter Newsletter 2017


    Murphy, James Peter


    The School of Culinary Arts and Food Technology, Winter Newsletter captured the many events, research, awards, significant contributions and special civic and community activities which the students and staff members of the school have successfully completed leading up to the Winter period of 2017. The successful completion of these activities would not be possible without the active and on-going support of the 'INSPIRED' Friends of Culinary Arts (sponsors).

  19. Robust forecasting with exponential and Holt-Winters smoothing.


    Gelper, SEC Sarah; Fried, R; Croux, C.


    Robust versions of the exponential and Holt-Winters smoothing method for forecasting are presented. They are suitable for forecasting univariate time series in presence of outliers. The robust exponential and Holt-Winters smoothing methods are presented as a recursive updating scheme. Both the update equation and the selection of the smoothing parameters are robustied. This robust method is equivalent to a particular form of the robust Kalman lter in a local linear trend model. A simulation s...

  20. Polar vortex evolution during Northern Hemispheric winter 2004/05

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Chshyolkova


    Full Text Available As a part of the project "Atmospheric Wave Influences upon the Winter Polar Vortices (0–100 km" of the CAWSES program, data from meteor and Medium Frequency radars at 12 locations and MetO (UK Meteorological Office global assimilated fields have been analyzed for the first campaign during the Northern Hemispheric winter of 2004/05. The stratospheric state has been described using the conventional zonal mean parameters as well as Q-diagnostic, which allows consideration of the longitudinal variability. The stratosphere was cold during winter of 2004/05, and the polar vortex was relatively strong during most of the winter with relatively weak disturbances occurring at the end of December and the end of January. For this winter the strongest deformation with the splitting of the polar vortex in the lower stratosphere was observed at the end of February. Here the results show strong latitudinal and longitudinal differences that are evident in the stratospheric and mesospheric data sets at different stations. Eastward winds are weaker and oscillations with planetary wave periods have smaller amplitudes at more poleward stations. Accordingly, the occurrence, time and magnitude of the observed reversal of the zonal mesospheric winds associated with stratospheric disturbances depend on the local stratospheric conditions. In general, compared to previous years, the winter of 2004/05 could be characterized by weak planetary wave activity at stratospheric and mesospheric heights.

  1. Confounded winter and spring phenoclimatology on large herbivore ranges (United States)

    Christianson, David; Klaver, Robert W.; Middleton, Arthur; Kauffman, Matthew


    Annual variation in winter severity and growing season vegetation dynamics appear to influence the demography of temperate herbivores but parsing winter from spring effects requires independent metrics of environmental conditions specific to each season. We tested for independence in annual variation amongst four common metrics used to describe winter severity and early growing season vegetation dynamics across the entire spatial distribution of elk (Cervus elaphus) in Wyoming from 1989 to 2006. Winter conditions and early growing season dynamics were correlated in a specific way. Winters with snow cover that ended early tended to be followed by early, but slow, rises in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), while long winters with extended periods of snow cover were often followed by late and rapid rises in NDVI. Across the 35 elk ranges, 0.4–86.8 % of the variation in the rate of increase in NDVI’s in spring was explained by the date snow cover disappeared from SNOTEL stations. Because phenoclimatological metrics are correlated across seasons and shifting due to climate change, identifying environmental constraints on herbivore fitness, particularly migratory species, is more difficult than previously recognized.

  2. SERSO: Summer sun against winter ice; SERSO: Mit Sommer-Sonne gegen Winter-Glatteis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eugster, W.J. [Polydynamics Engineering, Zuerich (Switzerland); Hess, K. [Polydynamics Engineering, Bremgarten-Bern (Switzerland); Hopkirk, R.J. [Polydynamics Engineering, Maennedorf (Switzerland)


    Road surfaces absorb energy from the incoming solar radiation in the summer months. The SERSO project was conceived to collect this energy, store it and reuse it during the following winter period to eliminate ice formation on those same road surfaces. The acronym SERSO (Sonnenenergierueckgewinnung aus Strassenoberflaechen) means `solar energy recuperation from road surfaces`. This pilot unit having been conceived, researched an applied to a bridge on the Swiss national expressway A8 near Daerligen on the south side of the lake of Thun was officially opened on 22nd August 1994. Heat exchanger tubes carrying a water/glycol heat transfer fluid were built into the roadbed on the bridge, covering a total area of some 1`300 m{sup 2}. In summer these collect heat from the exposed carriageways, which is then transported in a closed hydraulic circuit to the neighbouring cylindrical underground rock heat storage volume. Within a diameter of 31.5 m and a depth of 65 m heat is exchanged between the heat transfer fluid and the rock via an array of 91 borehole heat exchangers. The operation of the pilot plant has been accompanied by detailed measurement campaign, whereby a total of 132 sensors are interrogated by remote datalogger. The data consist of temperature measurements at several depths and positions both in the roadbed and in the rock storage volume, of energy fluxes in the hydraulic system and of relevant meteorological data. The experiences gianed during the first two years of operation have shown that sufficient heat can indeed be collected in summer to maintain the bridge free of ice during the following winter. Moreover the energy balances derived from the measurements in the low temperature rock heat store have confirmed the predicted storage efficiency. (orig./AKF) [Deutsch] cVerkehrsflaechen heizen sich im Sommer durch Sonneneinstrahlung stark auf. Diese Sommerwaerme zu sammeln, zwischenzuspeichern und im Winter zur Verhinderung von Glatteisbildung wieder zu

  3. Dedication to Professor Hannspeter Winter (1941 2006): Dedication to Professor Hannspeter Winter (1941 2006) (United States)

    McCullough, Bob


    Professor H Winter. It was with great sadness that we learnt of the death of colleague and friend Professor Hannspeter Winter in Vienna on the 8 November 2006. In memory of him and the contribution he made both to our conference and to the field of the physics of highly charged ions we dedicate these proceedings. Hannspeter was one of our distinguished invited speakers at HCI2006 and gave a talk on the status of the ITER programme. His invited paper on the subject is included in these proceedings. Hannspeter will be particularly remembered for his pioneering work on ion-surface interactions that, together with his colleagues at the Vienna University of Technology (TUW), has stimulated a worldwide experimental and theoretical interest in this field. He was appointed Director of the Institut fuer Allgemeine Physik at TUW in 1987 and using both his scientific and management skills has made it one of the leading university physics laboratories in the world. His research publications, of which there are 270, have inspired many others to work in the field of atomic and plasma physics. He was also a great European playing a major role in the EURATOM fusion programme, the European Physical Society and the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics and was an evaluator and advisory board member for many national and international institutions. Hannspeter was also an interesting and friendly social companion with interests in current affairs, music and fine wines and will be greatly missed both on a scientific and social level. Our condolences go to his wife Renate, son Dorian and his relatives. R W McCullough Co-chair HCI2006

  4. Strong Costs and Benefits of Winter Acclimatization in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mads Fristrup Schou

    Full Text Available Studies on thermal acclimation in insects are often performed on animals acclimated in the laboratory under conditions that are not ecologically relevant. Costs and benefits of acclimation responses under such conditions may not reflect costs and benefits in natural populations subjected to daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations. Here we estimated costs and benefits in thermal tolerance limits in relation to winter acclimatization of Drosophila melanogaster. We sampled flies from a natural habitat during winter in Denmark (field flies and compared heat and cold tolerance of these to that of flies collected from the same natural population, but acclimated to 25 °C or 13 °C in the laboratory (laboratory flies. We further obtained thermal performance curves for egg-to-adult viability of field and laboratory (25 °C flies, to estimate possible cross-generational effects of acclimation. We found much higher cold tolerance and a lowered heat tolerance in field flies compared to laboratory flies reared at 25 °C. Flies reared in the laboratory at 13 °C exhibited the same thermal cost-benefit relations as the winter acclimatized flies. We also found a cost of winter acclimatization in terms of decreased egg-to-adult viability at high temperatures of eggs laid by winter acclimatized flies. Based on our findings we suggest that winter acclimatization in nature can induce strong benefits in terms of increased cold tolerance. These benefits can be reproduced in the laboratory under ecologically relevant rearing and testing conditions, and should be incorporated in species distribution modelling. Winter acclimatization also leads to decreased heat tolerance. This may create a mismatch between acclimation responses and the thermal environment, e.g. if temperatures suddenly increase during spring, under current and expected more variable future climatic conditions.

  5. Strong Costs and Benefits of Winter Acclimatization in Drosophila melanogaster. (United States)

    Schou, Mads Fristrup; Loeschcke, Volker; Kristensen, Torsten Nygaard


    Studies on thermal acclimation in insects are often performed on animals acclimated in the laboratory under conditions that are not ecologically relevant. Costs and benefits of acclimation responses under such conditions may not reflect costs and benefits in natural populations subjected to daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations. Here we estimated costs and benefits in thermal tolerance limits in relation to winter acclimatization of Drosophila melanogaster. We sampled flies from a natural habitat during winter in Denmark (field flies) and compared heat and cold tolerance of these to that of flies collected from the same natural population, but acclimated to 25 °C or 13 °C in the laboratory (laboratory flies). We further obtained thermal performance curves for egg-to-adult viability of field and laboratory (25 °C) flies, to estimate possible cross-generational effects of acclimation. We found much higher cold tolerance and a lowered heat tolerance in field flies compared to laboratory flies reared at 25 °C. Flies reared in the laboratory at 13 °C exhibited the same thermal cost-benefit relations as the winter acclimatized flies. We also found a cost of winter acclimatization in terms of decreased egg-to-adult viability at high temperatures of eggs laid by winter acclimatized flies. Based on our findings we suggest that winter acclimatization in nature can induce strong benefits in terms of increased cold tolerance. These benefits can be reproduced in the laboratory under ecologically relevant rearing and testing conditions, and should be incorporated in species distribution modelling. Winter acclimatization also leads to decreased heat tolerance. This may create a mismatch between acclimation responses and the thermal environment, e.g. if temperatures suddenly increase during spring, under current and expected more variable future climatic conditions.

  6. Winter survival of Scots pine seedlings under different snow conditions. (United States)

    Domisch, Timo; Martz, Françoise; Repo, Tapani; Rautio, Pasi


    Future climate scenarios predict increased air temperatures and precipitation, particularly at high latitudes, and especially so during winter. Soil temperatures, however, are more difficult to predict, since they depend strongly on the fate of the insulating snow cover. 'Rain-on-snow' events and warm spells during winter can lead to thaw-freeze cycles, compacted snow and ice encasement, as well as local flooding. These adverse conditions could counteract the otherwise positive effects of climatic changes on forest seedling growth. In order to study the effects of different winter and snow conditions on young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings, we conducted a laboratory experiment in which 80 1-year-old Scots pine seedlings were distributed between four winter treatments in dasotrons: ambient snow cover (SNOW), compressed snow and ice encasement (ICE), flooded and frozen soil (FLOOD) and no snow (NO SNOW). During the winter treatment period and a 1.5-month simulated spring/early summer phase, we monitored the needle, stem and root biomass of the seedlings, and determined their starch and soluble sugar concentrations. In addition, we assessed the stress experienced by the seedlings by measuring chlorophyll fluorescence, electric impedance and photosynthesis of the previous-year needles. Compared with the SNOW treatment, carbohydrate concentrations were lower in the FLOOD and NO SNOW treatments where the seedlings had almost died before the end of the experiment, presumably due to frost desiccation of aboveground parts during the winter treatments. The seedlings of the ICE treatment showed dead needles and stems only above the snow and ice cover. The results emphasize the importance of an insulating and protecting snow cover for small forest tree seedlings, and that future winters with changed snow patterns might affect the survival of tree seedlings and thus forest productivity. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved

  7. Ice duration drives winter nitrate accumulation in north temperate lakes (United States)

    Powers, Steven M; Labou, Stephanie G.; Baulch, Helen M.; Hunt, Randall J.; Lottig, Noah R.; Hampton, Stephanie E.; Stanley, Emily H.


    The duration of winter ice cover on lakes varies substantially with climate variability, and has decreased over the last several decades in many temperate lakes. However, little is known of how changes in seasonal ice cover may affect biogeochemical processes under ice. We examined winter nitrogen (N) dynamics under ice using a 30+ yr dataset from five oligotrophic/mesotrophic north temperate lakes to determine how changes in inorganic N species varied with ice duration. Nitrate accumulated during winter and was strongly related to the number of days since ice-on. Exogenous inputs accounted for less than 3% of nitrate accumulation in four of the five lakes, suggesting a paramount role of nitrification in regulating N transformation and the timing of chemical conditions under ice. Winter nitrate accumulation rates ranged from 0.15 μg N L−1 d−1 to 2.7 μg N L−1 d−1 (0.011–0.19 μM d−1), and the mean for intermediate depths was 0.94 μg N L−1 d−1(0.067 μM d−1). Given that winters with shorter ice duration (< 120 d) have become more frequent in these lakes since the late 1990s, peak winter nitrate concentrations and cumulative nitrate production under ice may be declining. As ice extent and duration change, the physical and chemical conditions supporting life will shift. This research suggests we may expect changes in the form and amount of inorganic N, and altered dissolved nitrogen : phosphorus ratios, in lakes during winters with shorter ice duration.

  8. Mapping of QTLs for leaf area and the association with winter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variations in plant architecture are often associated with the ability of plants to survive cold stress during winter. In studies of winter hardiness in lentil, it appeared that small leaf area was associated with improved winter survival. Based on this observation, the inheritance of leaf area and the relationship with winter ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanis Vasilios


    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this research was to record and the evolution of the winter paralympic games and sports since 1976 until 2010. The history of the Winter Paralympic Games is relatively recent compared to that one of the Olympic Games. The first Games were held in 1976 in Ornskoldsvik, Sweden and the most recent, 38 years later in 2014, in Sochi, Russia. This article will examine the Winter Paralympic Games up until the ones in 2010 in Vancouver, Canada. During these years, there have been many changes in relation to the Games itself, the governing body of the Paralympic Movement, the sports’ facilities, the sports involved and sports’ categories. The motivation for writing this paper was the need to record and gather all of these items in one paper. Gathering information for the Winter Paralympic Games will be an important theoretical background. This information will create a database for the structure of the governing body of the Paralympic Games, for the organization of the Games [Local Organizing Committee (LOC, venues and equipment], for the evolution of the Winter Paralympic Sports and the categories of the athletes, as well as the evolution of the athletes’ and sports’ participation. Material : The research material that was used was mainly from the bibliography and records of the International Paralympic Committee (IPC, from the Official Post Games Reports and the Internet, while the research method that was used was descriptive. Moreover, the use of diagrams will depict the distribution of the participation of athletes and countries in each Games. Results : The participation of countries grew continuously and steadily from 16 to 44, during the years of 1976 to 2010 respectively. Regarding the athletes’ participation, starting in the first Games with 198 athletes, they reached the number of 502 in the 2010 Vancouver Winter Paralympic Games. The participation percentages of the athletes coming from Europe constituted the bulk

  10. Weed seed germination in winter cereals under contrasting tillage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scherner, Ananda


    Grass weeds and Gallium aparine are major weed problems in North European arable cropping systems with high proportions of winter crops, especially winter wheat (Clarke et al., 2000; Melander et al., 2008). Problems are accentuated where inverting tillage is omitted, as weed seeds tend to accumul......Grass weeds and Gallium aparine are major weed problems in North European arable cropping systems with high proportions of winter crops, especially winter wheat (Clarke et al., 2000; Melander et al., 2008). Problems are accentuated where inverting tillage is omitted, as weed seeds tend...... to reduce weed numbers and soil seedbank. However, in recent years Integrated Weed Management (IWM) principles have acquired a stronger place in agriculture (Ghersa et al., 2000; Bastiaans et al., 2008). IWM systems aim at manipulating soil tillage, crop rotation and cover cropping to minimize the impact...... of weeds. An important component in IWM is to understand and ultimately predict weed emergence patterns in relation to the cropping system and the tillage method applied. A better understanding of the cumulative emergence patterns of weed species in winter crops under different tillage regimes will help...

  11. Suitability of Starch Syrups for Winter Feeding of Honeybee Colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semkiw Piotr


    Full Text Available Three different starch syrups available on the Polish market for winter feeding of bees were evaluated for two consecutive beekeeping seasons (2012/2013 and 2013/2014. Sugar syrup and inverted sucrose syrup were used as the control. Winter feeding was conducted at two times: earlier and later in the season. After supplementation of winter feeding was stopped, we measured colony strength (number of combs covered by bees and brood area. After overwintering (spring 2013 and 2014, we estimated the influence of these foods on: bee mortality during overwintering (number of dead bees in winter debris, food consumption, colony strength and brood area in spring (two measurements in three-week intervals, development dynamics and honey yield from spring flow. An analysis of the results for the parameters assessed before overwintering, after its end and during spring development did not show significant differences between bee colonies fed with different types of food. No relevant difficulties concerning food crystallisation were encountered. The analysed syrups turned out to be as suitable for winter feeding of bees as sugar and inverted sucrose syrups.

  12. Learning at old age: a study on winter bees. (United States)

    Behrends, Andreas; Scheiner, Ricarda


    Ageing is often accompanied by a decline in learning and memory abilities across the animal kingdom. Understanding age-related changes in cognitive abilities is therefore a major goal of current research. The honey bee is emerging as a novel model organism for age-related changes in brain function, because learning and memory can easily be studied in bees under controlled laboratory conditions. In addition, genetically similar workers naturally display life expectancies from 6 weeks (summer bees) to 6 months (winter bees). We studied whether in honey bees, extreme longevity leads to a decline in cognitive functions. Six-month-old winter bees were conditioned either to odours or to tactile stimuli. Afterwards, long-term memory and discrimination abilities were analysed. Winter bees were kept under different conditions (flight/no flight opportunity) to test for effects of foraging activity on learning performance. Despite their extreme age, winter bees did not display an age-related decline in learning or discrimination abilities, but had a slightly impaired olfactory long-term memory. The opportunity to forage indoors led to a slight decrease in learning performance. This suggests that in honey bees, unlike in most other animals, age per se does not impair associative learning. Future research will show which mechanisms protect winter bees from age-related deficits in learning.

  13. Winter climate change: a critical factor for temperate vegetation performance. (United States)

    Kreyling, Juergen


    Winter ecological processes are important drivers of vegetation and ecosystem functioning in temperate ecosystems. There, winter conditions are subject to rapid climate change. The potential loss of a longer-lasting snow cover with implications to other plant-related climate parameters and overwintering strategies make the temperate zone particularly vulnerable to winter climate change. A formalized literature search in the ISI Web of Science shows that plant related research on the effects of winter climate change is generally underrepresented. Temperate regions in particular are rarely studied in this respect, although the few existing studies imply strong effects of winter climate change on species ranges, species compositions, phenology, or frost injury. The generally positive effect of warming on plant survival and production may be counteracted by effects such as an increased frost injury of roots and shoots, an increased insect pest risk, or a disrupted synchrony between plants and pollinators. Based on the literature study, gaps in current knowledge are discussed. Understanding the relative effects of interacting climate parameters, as well as a stronger consideration of shortterm events and variability of climatic conditions is urgent. With respect to plant response, it would be particularly worthwhile to account for hidden players such as pathogens, pollinators, herbivores, or fungal partners in mycorrhization.

  14. Migration and winter distribution of the Chestnutcollared Longspur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellison Kevin


    Full Text Available The Chestnut-collared Longspur (Calcarius ornatus is one of five grassland songbirds, endemic within North America, with populations that have declined >65% since the 1960s. These species breed and winter in the northern and southern Great Plains, respectively. Identifying migration routes, wintering sites, and the timing of their habitat use is key for understanding the relative magnitude of threats across the annual cycle and effectively targeting habitats for conservation. We tracked migratory movements of seven Chestnut-collared Longspurs with light-level geolocators deployed in Canada. Individuals wintered up to 112-1,200km apart. All followed the Central Flyway, circumvented high-elevation terrain, and traveled east of the breeding location. Unlike most songbirds, the durations of spring and fall migrations were similar; on average 42 ± 7d and 41 ± 5d during fall and spring migrations, respectively, for an approximately 2,000km migration; this highlights the need to better understand habitat requirements during migration for grassland songbirds. Using geospatial habitat data, we assessed winter distribution overlap with four other endemic grassland songbirds; wintering range overlapped 63-99%. Future studies should use more precise devices (e.g., archival GPS units, programmed for data collection dates from this study, to identify specific migratory sites for better conserving this and associated grassland species.

  15. Learning at old age: a study on winter bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Behrends


    Full Text Available Ageing is often accompanied by a decline in learning and memory abilities across the animal kingdom. Understanding age-related changes in cognitive abilities is therefore a major goal of current research. The honey bee is emerging as a novel model organism for age-related changes in brain function, because learning and memory can easily be studied in bees under controlled laboratory conditions. In addition, genetically similar workers naturally display life expectancies from six weeks (summer bees to six months (winter bees. We studied whether in honey bees, extreme longevity leads to a decline in cognitive functions. Six-month-old winter bees were conditioned either to odours or to tactile stimuli. Afterwards, long-term memory and discrimination abilities were analysed. Winter bees were kept under different conditions (flight /no flight opportunity to test for effects of foraging activity on learning performance. Despite their extreme age, winter bees did not display an age-related decline in learning or discrimination abilities, but had a slightly impaired olfactory long-term memory. The opportunity to forage indoors led to a slight decrease in learning performance. This suggests that in honey bees, unlike in most other animals, age per se does not impair associative learning. Future research will show which mechanisms protect winter bees from age-related deficits in learning.

  16. Learning at Old Age: A Study on Winter Bees (United States)

    Behrends, Andreas; Scheiner, Ricarda


    Ageing is often accompanied by a decline in learning and memory abilities across the animal kingdom. Understanding age-related changes in cognitive abilities is therefore a major goal of current research. The honey bee is emerging as a novel model organism for age-related changes in brain function, because learning and memory can easily be studied in bees under controlled laboratory conditions. In addition, genetically similar workers naturally display life expectancies from 6 weeks (summer bees) to 6 months (winter bees). We studied whether in honey bees, extreme longevity leads to a decline in cognitive functions. Six-month-old winter bees were conditioned either to odours or to tactile stimuli. Afterwards, long-term memory and discrimination abilities were analysed. Winter bees were kept under different conditions (flight/no flight opportunity) to test for effects of foraging activity on learning performance. Despite their extreme age, winter bees did not display an age-related decline in learning or discrimination abilities, but had a slightly impaired olfactory long-term memory. The opportunity to forage indoors led to a slight decrease in learning performance. This suggests that in honey bees, unlike in most other animals, age per se does not impair associative learning. Future research will show which mechanisms protect winter bees from age-related deficits in learning. PMID:20428511

  17. Weather Support for the 2002 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games. (United States)

    Horel, J.; Potter, T.; Dunn, L.; Steenburgh, W. J.; Eubank, M.; Splitt, M.; Onton, D. J.


    The 2002 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games will be hosted by Salt Lake City, Utah, during February-March 2002. Adverse weather during this period may delay sporting events, while snow and ice-covered streets and highways may impede access by the athletes and spectators to the venues. While winter snowstorms and other large-scale weather systems typically have widespread impacts throughout northern Utah, hazardous winter weather is often related to local terrain features (the Wasatch Mountains and Great Salt Lake are the most prominent ones). Examples of such hazardous weather include lake-effect snowstorms, ice fog, gap winds, downslope windstorms, and low visibility over mountain passes.A weather support system has been developed to provide weather information to the athletes, games officials, spectators, and the interested public around the world. This system is managed by the Salt Lake Olympic Committee and relies upon meteorologists from the public, private, and academic sectors of the atmospheric science community. Weather forecasting duties will be led by National Weather Service forecasters and a team of private, weather forecasters organized by KSL, the Salt Lake City NBC television affiliate. Other government agencies, commercial firms, and the University of Utah are providing specialized forecasts and support services for the Olympics. The weather support system developed for the 2002 Winter Olympics is expected to provide long-term benefits to the public through improved understanding,monitoring, and prediction of winter weather in the Intermountain West.

  18. Marine assemblages respond rapidly to winter climate variability. (United States)

    Morley, James W; Batt, Ryan D; Pinsky, Malin L


    Even species within the same assemblage have varied responses to climate change, and there is a poor understanding for why some taxa are more sensitive to climate than others. In addition, multiple mechanisms can drive species' responses, and responses may be specific to certain life stages or times of year. To test how marine species respond to climate variability, we analyzed 73 diverse taxa off the southeast US coast in 26 years of scientific trawl survey data and determined how changes in distribution and biomass relate to temperature. We found that winter temperatures were particularly useful for explaining interannual variation in species' distribution and biomass, although the direction and magnitude of the response varied among species from strongly negative, to little response, to strongly positive. Across species, the response to winter temperature varied greatly, with much of this variation being explained by thermal preference. A separate analysis of annual commercial fishery landings revealed that winter temperatures may also impact several important fisheries in the southeast United States. Based on the life stages of the species surveyed, winter temperature appears to act through overwinter mortality of juveniles or as a cue for migration timing. We predict that this assemblage will be responsive to projected increases in temperature and that winter temperature may be broadly important for species relationships with climate on a global scale. © The Authors Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Potential Seasonal Predictability for Winter Storms over Europe (United States)

    Wild, Simon; Befort, Daniel J.; Leckebusch, Gregor C.


    Reliable seasonal forecasts of strong extra-tropical cyclones and windstorms would have great social and economical benefits, as these events are the most costly natural hazards over Europe. In a previous study we have shown good agreement of spatial climatological distributions of extra-tropical cyclones and wind storms in state-of-the-art multi-member seasonal prediction systems with reanalysis. We also found significant seasonal prediction skill of extra-tropical cyclones and windstorms affecting numerous European countries. We continue this research by investigating the mechanisms and precursor conditions (primarily over the North Atlantic) on a seasonal time scale leading to enhanced extra-tropical cyclone activity and winter storm frequency over Europe. Our results regarding mechanisms show that an increased surface temperature gradient at the western edge of the North Atlantic can be related to enhanced winter storm frequency further downstream causing for example a greater number of storms over the British Isles, as observed in winter 2013-14.The so-called "Horseshoe Index", a SST tripole anomaly pattern over the North Atlantic in the summer months can also cause a higher number of winter storms over Europe in the subsequent winter. We will show results of AMIP-type sensitivity experiments using an AGCM (ECHAM5), supporting this hypothesis. Finally we will analyse whether existing seasonal forecast systems are able to capture these identified mechanisms and precursor conditions affecting the models' seasonal prediction skill.

  20. Genetic architecture of winter hardiness and frost tolerance in triticale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxin Liu

    Full Text Available Abiotic stress experienced by autumn-sown crops during winter is of great economic importance as it can have a severe negative impact on yield. In this study, we investigated the genetic architecture of winter hardiness and frost tolerance in triticale. To this end, we used a large mapping population of 647 DH lines phenotyped for both traits in combination with genome-wide marker data. Employing multiple-line cross QTL mapping, we identified nine main effect QTL for winter hardiness and frost tolerance of which six were overlapping between both traits. Three major QTL were identified on chromosomes 5A, 1B and 5R. In addition, an epistasis scan revealed the contribution of epistasis to the genetic architecture of winter hardiness and frost tolerance in triticale. Taken together, our results show that winter hardiness and frost tolerance are complex traits that can be improved by phenotypic selection, but also that genomic approaches hold potential for a knowledge-based improvement of these important traits in elite triticale germplasm.

  1. Echo Meadows Project Winter Artificial Recharge.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziari, Fred


    This report discusses the findings of the Echo Meadows Project (BPA Project 2001-015-00). The main purpose of this project is to artificially recharge an alluvial aquifer, WITH water from Umatilla River during the winter high flow period. In turn, this recharged aquifer will discharge an increased flow of cool groundwater back to the river, thereby improving Umatilla River water quality and temperature. A considerable side benefit is that the Umatilla River should improve as a habitat for migration, spanning, and rearing of anadromous and resident fish. The scope of this project is to provide critical baseline information about the Echo Meadows and the associated reach of the Umatilla River. Key elements of information that has been gathered include: (1) Annual and seasonal groundwater levels in the aquifer with an emphasis on the irrigation season, (2) Groundwater hydraulic properties, particularly hydraulic conductivity and specific yield, and (3) Groundwater and Umatilla River water quality including temperature, nutrients and other indicator parameters. One of the major purposes of this data gathering was to develop input to a groundwater model of the area. The purpose of the model is to estimate our ability to recharge this aquifer using water that is only available outside of the irrigation season (December through the end of February) and to estimate the timing of groundwater return flow back to the river. We have found through the data collection and modeling efforts that this reach of the river had historically returned as much as 45 cubic feet per second (cfs) of water to the Umatilla River during the summer and early fall. However, this return flow was reduced to as low as 10 cfs primarily due to reduced quantities of irrigation application, gain in irrigation efficiencies and increased groundwater pumping. Our modeling indicated that it is possible to restore these critical return flows using applied water outside of the irrigation season. We further

  2. The formation and evolution of Titan's winter polar vortex. (United States)

    Teanby, Nicholas A; Bézard, Bruno; Vinatier, Sandrine; Sylvestre, Melody; Nixon, Conor A; Irwin, Patrick G J; de Kok, Remco J; Calcutt, Simon B; Flasar, F Michael


    Saturn's largest moon Titan has a substantial nitrogen-methane atmosphere, with strong seasonal effects, including formation of winter polar vortices. Following Titan's 2009 northern spring equinox, peak solar heating moved to the northern hemisphere, initiating south-polar subsidence and winter polar vortex formation. Throughout 2010-2011, strengthening subsidence produced a mesospheric hot-spot and caused extreme enrichment of photochemically produced trace gases. However, in 2012 unexpected and rapid mesospheric cooling was observed. Here we show extreme trace gas enrichment within the polar vortex dramatically increases mesospheric long-wave radiative cooling efficiency, causing unusually cold temperatures 2-6 years post-equinox. The long time-frame to reach a stable vortex configuration results from the high infrared opacity of Titan's trace gases and the relatively long atmospheric radiative time constant. Winter polar hot-spots have been observed on other planets, but detection of post-equinox cooling is so far unique to Titan.

  3. Controls on winter ecosystem respiration in temperate and boreal ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wang


    Full Text Available Winter CO2 fluxes represent an important component of the annual carbon budget in northern ecosystems. Understanding winter respiration processes and their responses to climate change is also central to our ability to assess terrestrial carbon cycle and climate feedbacks in the future. However, the factors influencing the spatial and temporal patterns of winter ecosystem respiration (Reco of northern ecosystems are poorly understood. For this reason, we analyzed eddy covariance flux data from 57 ecosystem sites ranging from ~35° N to ~70° N. Deciduous forests were characterized by the highest winter Reco rates (0.90 ± 0.39 g C m−2 d−1, when winter is defined as the period during which daily air temperature remains below 0 °C. By contrast, arctic wetlands had the lowest winter Reco rates (0.02 ± 0.02 g C m−2 d−1. Mixed forests, evergreen needle-leaved forests, grasslands, croplands and boreal wetlands were characterized by intermediate winter Reco rates (g C m−2 d−1 of 0.70(±0.33, 0.60(±0.38, 0.62(±0.43, 0.49(±0.22 and 0.27(±0.08, respectively. Our cross site analysis showed that winter air (Tair and soil (Tsoil temperature played a dominating role in determining the spatial patterns of winter Reco in both forest and managed ecosystems (grasslands and croplands. Besides temperature, the seasonal amplitude of the leaf area index (LAI, inferred from satellite observation, or growing season gross primary productivity, which we use here as a proxy for the amount of recent carbon available for Reco in the subsequent winter, played a marginal role in winter CO2 emissions from forest ecosystems. We found that winter Reco sensitivity to temperature variation across space (

  4. Winter rain and summer ozone: a predictive relationship. (United States)

    Sandberg, J S; Basso, M J; Okin, B A


    Insights from dendrochronology have provided a new seasonal predictor for air pollution meteorology. In the San Francisco Bay Area summer ozone excesses over the federal ozone standard are correlated (correlation coefficient r = .87) with precipitation for the two preceding winters, a factor related to tree-ring width in a precipitation-stressed climate. The hypothesis that reactive hydrocarbon emissions from vegetative biomass affects these ozone excesses was supported by a similar correlation between summer hydrocarbon average maximums and the two-winter precipitation factor, reaching r = .88 at suburban stations. A weak tendency for hot summers to follow wet winters (in 16 years of California data) explains only a minor part of the ozone-rain relationship in multiple correlations.

  5. The Impact of Winter Heating on Air Pollution in China (United States)

    Xiao, Qingyang; Ma, Zongwei; Li, Shenshen; Liu, Yang


    Fossil-fuel combustion related winter heating has become a major air quality and public health concern in northern China recently. We analyzed the impact of winter heating on aerosol loadings over China using the MODIS-Aqua Collection 6 aerosol product from 2004–2012. Absolute humidity (AH) and planetary boundary layer height (PBL) -adjusted aerosol optical depth (AOD*) was constructed to reflect ground-level PM2.5 concentrations. GIS analysis, standard statistical tests, and statistical modeling indicate that winter heating is an important factor causing increased PM2.5 levels in more than three-quarters of central and eastern China. The heating season AOD* was more than five times higher as the non-heating season AOD*, and the increase in AOD* in the heating areas was greater than in the non-heating areas. Finally, central heating tend to contribute less to air pollution relative to other means of household heating. PMID:25629878

  6. Human health and social factors in winter climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pressman, N. (Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). School of Urban and Regional Planning)


    This presentation examines the broad theme of human needs with specific reference to a range of winter-induced problems. Both physiological and psychological aspects are analyzed vis-a-vis thermal comfort and human behavioural response. The use of public space suggets that social activity is very different in winter when compared with summer. However, such activity can be increased through employing planning and design strategies. For example, the outdoor season can be extended by up to six weeks by applying microclimate principles. If more intense levels of social interaction are desired - when people tend to be confined indoors - proximity and density will be important factors influencing such contact, thereby contributing to a reduction of stress and isolation. Since winter conditions spawn unique problems, special solutions will be required to combat them. It is essential to create a better 'fit' between human requirements and the corresponding built environment. (orig.).

  7. Ice and mineral licks used by caribou in winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas C. Heard


    Full Text Available In winter, barren-ground caribou obtain minerals from ice and soil licks. Between December and April we have seen caribou cratering on the surface of frozen lakes and licking the ice. Ice samples from eight licks on four lakes contained concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, chloride and sulphate many times higher than in the surrounding unlicked ice or than would be expected in lake water. Soil licks being used in March and June had high concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium phosphorus and potassium. In winter caribou may be seeking supplements of all of the major mineral elements (calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium at ice and soil licks because lichens, their staple winter diet, are low in minerals and may also reduce the absorption of some minerals.

  8. Winter temperatures limit population growth rate of a migratory songbird. (United States)

    Woodworth, Bradley K; Wheelwright, Nathaniel T; Newman, Amy E; Schaub, Michael; Norris, D Ryan


    Understanding the factors that limit and regulate wildlife populations requires insight into demographic and environmental processes acting throughout the annual cycle. Here, we combine multi-year tracking data of individual birds with a 26-year demographic study of a migratory songbird to evaluate the relative effects of density and weather at the breeding and wintering grounds on population growth rate. Our results reveal clear support for opposing forces of winter temperature and breeding density driving population dynamics. Above-average temperatures at the wintering grounds lead to higher population growth, primarily through their strong positive effects on survival. However, population growth is regulated over the long term by strong negative effects of breeding density on both fecundity and adult male survival. Such knowledge of how year-round factors influence population growth, and the demographic mechanisms through which they act, will vastly improve our ability to predict species responses to environmental change and develop effective conservation strategies for migratory animals.

  9. Distribuição temporal do ermitão Clibanarius vittatus (Anomura, Diogenidae no litoral do Paraná Temporal distribution of the hermit crab Clibanarius vittatus (Anomura, Diogenidae from Paraná State coast, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara R. Sampaio


    Full Text Available Um estudo sobre a flutuação temporal da estrutura populacional do ermitão Clibanarius vittatus (Bosc, 1802 foi realizado no Baixio Mirim, Baía de Guaratuba, Estado do Paraná, Brasil (25°52'S, 48°36'W. Clibanarius vittatus é uma espécie largamente estudada, entretanto estudos da biologia populacional desta em diferentes regiões são escassos. Coletas mensais foram realizadas na zona entremarés, de abril/2005 a março/2006. Foram obtidos 1187 ermitões, dos quais, 949 machos, 22 indivíduos intersexo, 204 fêmeas não ovígeras e 12 fêmeas ovígeras. O comprimento do escudo cefalotorácico (CEC foi medido e agrupado em 10 classes de tamanho. Machos ocorreram em 10 classes de CEC, enquanto fêmeas e intersexos em apenas seis. A razão de sexos total e mensal foi a favor dos machos. Todas as categorias demográficas estiveram presentes o ano inteiro, com exceção dos intersexos e das fêmeas ovígeras. Estas foram pouco frequentes e ocorreram do final da primavera até o outono, e em agosto de 2005. O período reprodutivo foi considerado contínuo-sazonal, com maior intensidade nos meses mais quentes. A razão de sexos nesta população, que é diferente das demais estudadas, corrobora a teoria de migração proposta para esta espécie. O presente estudo constitui o primeiro registro do período reprodutivo desta espécie em águas rasas de clima subtropical quente.A study on the temporal fluctuation of the population structure of the hermit crab Clibanarius vittatus (Bosc, 1802 was carried out at Baixio Mirim tideflat, Guaratuba Bay, Paraná State, southern Brazil (25°52'S, 48°36'W. Clibanarius vittatus is a species widely studied, but studies of population biology of these hermit crabs in different regions are scarce. Samplings were done in the intertidal zone, monthly, from April/2005 to March/2006. A total of 1187 hermit crabs were obtained, among which, 949 males, 22 intersexes, 204 non-ovigerous females and 12 ovigerous females

  10. Effects of sowing time on pink snow mould, leaf rust and winter damage in winter rye varieties in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Disease infection in relation to sowing time of winter rye (Secale cereale was studied in southern Finland in order to compare overwintering capacity of modern rye varieties and to give recommendations for rye cultivation. This was done by using three sowing times and four rye varieties in field trials conducted at three locations in 1999–2001. The early sown rye (beginning of August was severely affected by diseases caused by Puccinia recondita and Microdochium nivale, whereas postponing sowing for two weeks after the recommended sowing time resulted in considerably less infection. The infection levels of diseases differed among rye varieties. Finnish rye varieties Anna and Bor 7068 were more resistant to snow mould and more winter hardy than the Polish variety Amilo, or the German hybrid varieties Picasso and Esprit. However, Amilo was the most resistant to leaf rust. In the first year snow mould appeared to be the primary cause of winter damage, but in the second year the winter damage was positively correlated with leaf rust. No significant correlation between frit fly infestation and winter damage or disease incidence of snow mould or leaf rust was established. The late sowing of rye (in the beginning of September is recommended in Finland, particularly with hybrid varieties, to minimize the need for chemical plant protection in autumn.;

  11. The importance of agricultural lands for Himalayan birds in winter. (United States)

    Elsen, Paul R; Kalyanaraman, Ramnarayan; Ramesh, Krishnamurthy; Wilcove, David S


    The impacts of land-use change on biodiversity in the Himalayas are poorly known, notwithstanding widespread deforestation and agricultural intensification in this highly biodiverse region. Although intact primary forests harbor many Himalayan birds during breeding, a large number of bird species use agricultural lands during winter. We assessed how Himalayan bird species richness, abundance, and composition during winter are affected by forest loss stemming from agriculture and grazing. Bird surveys along 12 elevational transects within primary forest, low-intensity agriculture, mixed subsistence agriculture, and intensively grazed pastures in winter revealed that bird species richness and abundance were greatest in low-intensity and mixed agriculture, intermediate in grazed pastures, and lowest in primary forest at both local and landscape scales; over twice as many species and individuals were recorded in low-intensity agriculture than in primary forest. Bird communities in primary forests were distinct from those in all other land-use classes, but only 4 species were unique to primary forests. Low-, medium-, and high-intensity agriculture harbored 32 unique species. Of the species observed in primary forest, 80% had equal or greater abundance in low-intensity agricultural lands, underscoring the value of these lands in retaining diverse community assemblages at high densities in winter. Among disturbed landscapes, bird species richness and abundance declined as land-use intensity increased, especially in high-intensity pastures. Our results suggest that agricultural landscapes are important for most Himalayan bird species in winter. But agricultural intensification-especially increased grazing-will likely result in biodiversity losses. Given that forest reserves alone may inadequately conserve Himalayan birds in winter, comprehensive conservation strategies in the region must go beyond protecting intact primary forests and ensure that low-intensity agricultural

  12. Seasonal affective disorder, winter type: current insights and treatment options. (United States)

    Meesters, Ybe; Gordijn, Marijke Cm


    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD), winter type, is a seasonal pattern of recurrent major depressive episodes most commonly occurring in autumn or winter and remitting in spring/summer. The syndrome has been well-known for more than three decades, with light treatment being the treatment of first choice. In this paper, an overview is presented of the present insights in SAD. Description of the syndrome, etiology, and treatment options are mentioned. Apart from light treatment, medication and psychotherapy are other treatment options. The predictable, repetitive nature of the syndrome makes it possible to discuss preventive treatment options. Furthermore, critical views on the concept of SAD as a distinct diagnosis are discussed.

  13. Tebuconazole Regulates Fatty Acid Composition of Etiolated Winter Wheat Seedlings


    A.V. Korsukova; T.G. Gornostai; O.I. Grabelnych; N.V. Dorofeev; T.P. Pobezhimova; N.A. Sokolova; L.V. Dudareva; V.K. Voinikov


    The fatty acid composition of shoots of unhardened and hardened to cold etiolated winter wheat seedlings grown from seeds treated with tebuconazole-based protectant «Bunker» (content of tebuconazole 60 grams per liter, g/L), and the seedlings frost resistance has been studied. It is shown that treatment of winter wheat seeds by «Bunker» preparation (1,5 microliter per gram of seeds, µl/g) is accompanied by an increase of the fatty acids unsaturation in the shoots and increase of the seedlings...

  14. Differentiation of three common deep-water hermit crabs (Crustacea, Decapoda, Anomura, Parapaguridae from the South African demersal abundance surveys, including the description of a new species of Paragiopagurus Lemaitre, 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannes Landschoff


    Full Text Available Deep-water hermit crabs of the family Parapaguridae can be abundant (up to 20 kg or 1000 hermit crab individuals per haul in the trawl bycatch collected during South African demersal abundance research surveys. Until recently, only two parapagurid species had been recognized in the bycatch; Parapagurus bouvieri Stebbing, 1910, and Sympagurus dimorphus (Studer, 1883. Detailed examination of numerous samples of parapagurid specimens from research surveys revealed the existence of a third, undescribed species previously confounded with S. dimorphus, but in fact belonging to a different genus. This new species, Paragiopagurus atkinsonae sp. n. is the 25th in the genus Paragiopagurus Lemaitre, 1996, and has been found only in a small region on the West Coast shelf of South Africa, at depths of 199–277 m. The species is herein fully described and illustrated, including colour images, µCT scans of selected body parts, and CO1 barcode data. The new species is morphologically most similar to P. ventilatus Lemaitre, 2004, a species associated with hydrothermal vents, but differs in armature of the fourth antennal segment (armed with a spine on the dorsolateral distal angle vs. unarmed in P. ventilatus; setation of the antennal flagella (nearly naked vs. with dense setae in P. ventilatus; plumose setation on the third maxillipeds and basal segments of chelipeds (absent vs. present in P. ventilatus; number of rows of scales on the propodal rasp of pereopod 4 (two or three rows vs. one row in P. ventilatus; and degree of telson asymmetry (weakly asymmetrical vs. strongly asymmetrical in P. ventilatus. Paragiopagurus atkinsonae sp. n. is superficially similar to S. dimorphus, with males of the two species showing the same extreme degree of sexual dimorphism on the right cheliped, general light orange colouration, and frequent use of colonial zoanthid carcinoecia for pleonal protection. To aid in future identifications and to facilitate data gathering



    タカオ, トシノリ; Toshinori, TAKAO


    Global network of total ozone measurements by Dobson spectrophotometer shows ozone decrease in recent years. At midlatitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, ozone loss was significant during the winter months of 1983 and 1985. In some regions, there is a positive correlation between the annual mean of total ozone amounts and the solar cycle.

  16. Summer fallow soil management - impact on rainfed winter wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Fucui; Wang, Zhaohui; Dai, Jian


    is the summer fallow period in the winter wheat-summer fallow cropping system. With bare fallow in summer as a control, a 3-year location-fixed field experiment was conducted in the Loess Plateau to investigate the effects of wheat straw retention (SR), green manure (GM) planting, and their combination on soil...

  17. Feasibility of winter cover crop production under rainfed conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low winter rainfall poses a challenge to production of high biomass from cover crops, which is necessary for the success of conservation agriculture systems in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the adaptability of white oats (Avena sativa), grazing vetch (Vicia dasycarpa), ...

  18. Food habits of bald eagles wintering in northern Arizona (United States)

    Teryl G. Grubb; Roy G. Lopez


    We used pellets collected from roosts to supplement incidental foraging observations to identify prey species of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucoughalus) and to evaluate spatial and temporal trends in their food habits while wintering in northern Arizona between 1994-96. We analyzed 1057 pellets collected from 14 roosts, and identified five mammal and...

  19. Winter and spring variation in daily milk yield and mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of genotype and season on daily milk yield (DMY) and mineral composition of pasture-based dairy cows. This was done by collecting data from 20 Friesian, 20 Jersey and 20 Friesian × Jersey crossbred cows in the early stage of their 4th parity in winter and spring, ...

  20. Ecology of geese wintering at the Lower Rhine area (Germany)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, J.H.


    "Die wilde Ganß hat viel und mancherley Nahmen 1 wird aber auch von etlichen Schnee=Ganß genennet / deweil sie zu Anfang deß Winters 1 wann der Schnee verhanden / sich bey uns aufhält" zo begon Conrad Gesner in de 17e eeuw zijn beschrijving van de ganzen. Ook tegenwoordig hebben ganzen

  1. Stay Warm in Winter (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Hypothermia occurs when the core body temperature is less than 95 degrees. This podcast discusses strategies to prevent hypothermia due to frigid winters temperatures.  Created: 2/26/2015 by MMWR.   Date Released: 2/26/2015.

  2. Acute effects of winter air pollution on respiratory health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der S.


    In this thesis, acute respiratory health effects of exposure to winter air pollution are investigated in panels of children (7-11 yr) and adults (50-70 yr) with and without chronic respiratory symptoms, living in urban and non-urban areas in the Netherlands. The study was performed during

  3. Effect of winter nutritional levels on subsequent growth of beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of winter nutritional levels on subsequent growth of beef heifers in the Highland Sourveld of Natal. ... Teen 'n lae veebelading van 0,75 GVE/ha (vir die weiperiode) op somerveld, het verse betekenisvol (P < 0,01) meer in massa toegeneem vergeleke met 'n hoë veebelading (1,25 GVE/ha). Binne elk van die ...

  4. Performance of Chlorella sorokiniana under simulated extreme winter conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuaresma, M.; Buffing, M.F.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Lobato, C.V.; Wijffels, R.H.


    High annual microalgae productivities can only be achieved if solar light is efficiently used through the different seasons. During winter the productivity is low because of the light and temperature conditions. The productivity and photosynthetic efficiency of Chlorella sorokiniana were assessed

  5. Hydrographic features of the Lakshadweep (Laccadives) sea during winter

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Das, V.K.

    Hydrographic features of the Lakshadweep Sea during winter have been studied using the data collected in December during the 13th cruise of R.V. Gaveshani. The mixed layer depth in this region varies between 30 and 70 m. The thickness...

  6. Classroom Ideas Using Technology: A Snowflake in Winter (United States)

    Thomson, Ian


    Snowflakes falling in Brisbane, Australia would likely make news headlines during any season of a given year, even during winter. Year 8 students at Ormiston College which is located in Brisbane, have made their own snowflakes--of a kind. Using the programming language Scratch, all Year 8 Mathematics students wrote code to construct Swedish…

  7. Travels in Tartary : Decoding Ten Export Winter Landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, van der R.H.M.


    The Chinese export paintings collection of the National Museum of Ethnology in Leiden includes ten winter views in Tartary painted on canvas. That these ten paintings have never before been studied as a group has inspired the present author to conduct research into their origins, the findings of

  8. Characteristic features of winter precipitation and its variability over ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Northwestern parts of India receive considerable amount of precipitation during the winter months of December–March. Although, it is only about 15% of the annual precipitation, the precipitation is very important for rabi crops and to maintain the glaciers extend in the Himalaya, which melt and supply water to the rivers ...

  9. Periphyton biomass on artificial substrates during the summer and winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altevir Signor


    Full Text Available This study evaluated the periphyton production on artificial substrates considering it as a source of low cost live food for fish. Blades of artificial substrates such as wood, black plastic, acrylic, fiberglass, ceramics and glass (all with 144cm2 blades, 24 for each substrate were submerged 20.0cm below the water column for 35 days in the winter and 42 days in the summer. The blades were randomly installed in 200m3 pond and evaluated for the biomass production at different phases during the summer and winter. Four blades of each substrate were collected weekly, and the periphytic community was carefully scraped with a spatula and fixed in 4% formaldehyde. The periphytic biomass productivity was evaluated by artificial substrate area and per day. The results evidenced the characteristic periodicity in periphyton biomass production and a significant variability in the collect period and season in the different artificial substrates used. Ceramic and wood showed the best results in the summer while wood showed the best results in the winter. The priphyton biomass productions differ among periods, substrates and seasons. Wood and ceramics could be indicated for periphyton biomass production in either winter or summer.

  10. Comparing effects of Winter Universiade (2011) and European ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to compare the views of the local spectators concerning the effects of the Winter Universiade and the European Youth Olympic Festival, two mega sport events held in Turkey in 2011. The participating group was composed of 878 local spectators who watched the games. The Mega Event ...

  11. Registration of “Pritchett” soft white winter club wheat (United States)

    Soft white club winter wheat (Triticium aestivum L. ssp. compactum) is a unique component of the wheat production in the PNW, comprising 6-10% of the wheat crop. It is valued for milling and baking functionality and marketed for export in a 20-30% blend with soft white wheat as Western White. Our g...

  12. Registration of ‘Joe’ hard white winter wheat (United States)

    ‘Joe’, a hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed at the Agricultural Research Center-Hays, Kansas State University and released by the Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station in 2015. Joe was selected from a two-way cross of KS04HW101-3/KS04HW119-3 made in 2005 at Hays, KS. The ...

  13. Registration of USDA-UTWH-102 winter hardy orchardgrass germplasm (United States)

    The USDA-ARS announces the release of USDA-UTWG-102 orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) (Reg. No., PI) germplasm. USDA-UTWH-102 possesses increased winter hardiness and provides utility to applied orchardgrass breeding and genetic programs. USDA-UTWH-102 is a 24 clone synthetic derived from orchard...

  14. Registration of ‘Tatanka’ Hard Red Winter Wheat (United States)

    ‘Tatanka’ hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed at the Agricultural Research Center-Hays, Kansas State University and released by the Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station in 2016. Tatanka was selected from a single cross of KS07HW81/T151 made in 2006 at Hays, KS. The objectiv...

  15. Registration of ‘Snowglenn’ Winter Durum Wheat (United States)

    Snowglenn’ (Reg. No. CV-#####, PI ######) winter durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) developed and tested as VA05WD-40 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station was released in March 2008. Snowglenn was derived from the three-way cross N1291-86 / N1439-83 // ‘Alidur’. Snowglenn is a f...

  16. Winter bait stations as a multispecies survey tool (United States)

    Lacy Robinson; Samuel A. Cushman; Michael K. Lucid


    Winter bait stations are becoming a commonly used technique for multispecies inventory and monitoring but a technical evaluation of their effectiveness is lacking. Bait stations have three components: carcass attractant, remote camera, and hair snare. Our 22,975 km2 mountainous study area was stratified with a 5 × 5 km sampling grid centered on northern Idaho and...

  17. Forest management strategy, spatial heterogeneity, and winter birds in Washington. (United States)

    B. Haveri; A.B. Carey


    Ecological management of second-growth forest holds great promise for conservation of biodiversity, yet little experimental evidence exists to compare alternative management approaches. Wintering birds are one of several groups of species most likely to be influenced by forest management activities. We compared species richness and proportion of stand area used over...

  18. Nutrition Frontiers - Winter 2017 | Division of Cancer Prevention (United States)

    Volume 8, Issue 1 Dear Colleague, The winter issue of Nutrition Frontiers showcases gut permeability and calcium supplementation, potential chemopreventive effects of dietary DHM for lung tumorigenesis, and the role of the MCP-1 chemokine on adiposity and inflammation. Learn about our spotlight investigator, Dr. Gregory Lesinski, and his research on dietary interventions to inhibit carcinogenesis, upcoming announcements and more. |

  19. Nutrition Frontiers - Winter 2018 | Division of Cancer Prevention (United States)

    Dear Colleague, The winter issue of Nutrition Frontiers showcases the chemopreventive activity of sulforaphane, how a high fat, high cholesterol diet may impact hepatocellular carcinoma, and p53 activation from benzyl isothiocyanate. Meet our spotlight investigator, Dr. John Groopman, and his research on detoxication of air pollutants with a broccoli supplement. Learn about miso, the buttery probiotic, upcoming announcements and more. |

  20. Pathosystem management of powdery mildew in winter wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daamen, R.A.


    Winter wheat cropping has changed considerably over the years 1974-1986 in The Netherlands. Yield has been increased from 5 to 8 ton/ha, due to short strawed cultivars and higher levels of agrochemical inputs. The changes were described. Epidemics and damage relations of powdery mildew

  1. Winter survival of Harmonia axyridis in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raak-van den Berg, C.L.; Stam, J.M.; Jong, de P.W.; Hemerik, L.; Lenteren, van J.C.


    Since the establishment of Harmonia axyridis in Europe, populations of native ladybirds have decreased. Overwintering survival is one of the aspects of the biology of H. axyridis that may contribute to its firm establishment in and invasion of a new area. In this study winter survival of five wild

  2. Feasibility of winter cover crop production under rainfed conditions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    release and uptake by the follow-on crop. Improved synchrony, as observed by Murungu et al. (2010), with ... particularly timely planting and weed control. Relaying cover crops, particularly after late vegetative stage ..... appropriate fertilizer management on winter cover crops in a conservation agriculture system. PhD Thesis ...

  3. Wintering seabirds in West Africa: foraging hotspots off Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes the distribution of wintering seabirds in the context of fisheries and hydrography. The avifauna was dominated by surface-feeding and shallow plunge-diving, often planktivorous, seabirds, originating from West Palaearctic breeding grounds (Arctic, subarctic and temperate zones). Many seabirds were ...

  4. Soil water potential requirement for germination of winter wheat (United States)

    In semi-arid climates seed is often sown into soil with inadequate water for rapid germination. This study was designed to measure the soil water potential limits for rapid, adequate, and marginal germination of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). We also tested for differences between cultivars an...

  5. Winter syndrome: An additional Egyptian patient with skeletal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabah M. Shawky


    May 8, 2015 ... Abstract We report a 3.5 year old male child, second in order of birth of non consanguineous. Egyptian parents with Baraitser–Winter syndrome (BRWS). The patient had bilateral colobomas of the iris and choroid. Our patient had also retinal hypoplasia, which was not reported previously in this syndrome ...

  6. Geographic variation in winter adaptations of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) (United States)

    Gigliotti, Laura C.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Sheriff, M.J.


    Understanding adaptations of nonhibernating northern endotherms to cope with extreme cold is important because climate-induced changes in winter temperatures and snow cover are predicted to impact these species the most. We compared winter pelage characteristics and heat production of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus Erxleben, 1777) on the southern edge of their range, in Pennsylvania (USA), to a northern population, in the Yukon (Canada), to investigate how hares might respond to changing environmental conditions. We also investigated how hares in Pennsylvania altered movement rates and resting spot selection to cope with variable winter temperatures. Hares from Pennsylvania had shorter, less dense, and less white winter coats than their northern counterparts, suggesting lower coat insulation. Hares in the southern population had lower pelage temperatures, indicating that they produced less heat than those in the northern population. In addition, hares in Pennsylvania did not select for resting spots that offered thermal advantages, but selected locations offering visual obstruction from predators. Movement rates were associated with ambient temperature, with the smallest movements occurring at the lower and upper range of observed ambient temperatures. Our results indicate that snowshoe hares may be able to adapt to future climate conditions via changes in pelage characteristics, metabolism, and behavior.

  7. Chemical ozone loss in the Arctic winter 1991─1992

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Camy-Peyret


    Full Text Available Chemical ozone loss in winter 1991–1992 is recalculated based on observations of the HALOE satellite instrument, Version 19, ER-2 aircraft measurements and balloon data. HALOE satellite observations are shown to be reliable in the lower stratosphere below 400 K, at altitudes where the measurements are most likely disturbed by the enhanced sulfate aerosol loading, as a result of the Mt.~Pinatubo eruption in June 1991. Significant chemical ozone loss (13–17 DU is observed below 380 K from Kiruna balloon observations and HALOE satellite data between December 1991 and March 1992. For the two winters after the Mt. Pinatubo eruption, HALOE satellite observations show a stronger extent of chemical ozone loss towards lower altitudes compared to other Arctic winters between 1991 and 2003. In spite of already occurring deactivation of chlorine in March 1992, MIPAS-B and LPMA balloon observations indicate that chlorine was still activated at lower altitudes, consistent with observed chemical ozone loss occurring between February and March and April. Large chemical ozone loss of more than 70 DU in the Arctic winter 1991–1992 as calculated in earlier studies is corroborated here.

  8. Winter habitat associations of diurnal raptors in Californias Central Valley (United States)

    Pandolrno, E.R.; Herzog, M.P.; Hooper, S.L.; Smith, Z.


    The wintering raptors of California's Central Valley are abundant and diverse. Despite this, little information exists on the habitats used by these birds in winter. We recorded diurnal raptors along 19 roadside survey routes throughout the Central Valley for three consecutive winters between 2007 and 2010. We obtained data sufficient to determine significant positive and negative habitat associations for the White-tailed Kite (Elanus leucurus), Bald Eagle {Haliaeetus leucocephalus), Northern Harrier (Circus cyaneus), Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis), Rough-legged Hawk (Buteo lagopus), American Kestrel (Falco sparverius), and Prairie Falcon (Falco mexicanus). The Prairie Falcon and Ferruginous and Rough-legged hawks showed expected strong positive associations with grasslands. The Bald Eagle and Northern Harrier were positively associated not only with wetlands but also with rice. The strongest positive association for the White-tailed Kite was with wetlands. The Red-tailed Hawk was positively associated with a variety of habitat types but most strongly with wetlands and rice. The American Kestrel, Northern Harrier, and White-tailed Kite were positively associated with alfalfa. Nearly all species were negatively associated with urbanized landscapes, orchards, and other intensive forms of agriculture. The White-tailed Kite, Northern Harrier, Redtailed Hawk, Ferruginous Hawk, and American Kestrel showed significant negative associations with oak savanna. Given the rapid conversion of the Central Valley to urban and intensive agricultural uses over the past few decades, these results have important implications for conservation of these wintering raptors in this region.

  9. Feeding habits of songbirds in East Texas clearcuts during winter (United States)

    Donald W. Worthington; R. Montague Jr. Whiting; James G. Dickson


    This east Texas study was undertaken to determine the importance of seeds of forbs, grasses, and woody shrubs to songbirds wintering in young pine plantations which had been established utilizing the clearcut regeneration system. The feeding habits and preferences of four species of songbirds, northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis), song sparrows...

  10. How Do Plants and Animals Prepare for Winter? (United States)

    Larm, Brooke


    This article describes how a farm-based class in the Great Lakes region investigated how plants and animals prepare for winter. Two groups of children, ranging in ages from three to five years old, had a farm, pasture, gardens, forest, and a pond available for exploration. A low teacher-to-child ratio was maintained, with one teacher to…

  11. Variation in winter metabolic reduction between sympatric amphibians

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Podhajský, Luděk; Gvoždík, Lumír


    Roč. 201, November (2016), s. 110-114 ISSN 1095-6433 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-07140S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Caloric reserves * Ichthyosaura * Lissotriton * Metabolic rate * Newt * Oxygen consumption * Respirometry * Salamander * Thermal sensitivity * Wintering Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.812, year: 2016

  12. Stay Warm in Winter (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    When frigid winter temperatures hit the U.S., the risk for unhealthy exposure to cold increases substantially. In this podcast, Dr. Jonathan Meiman discusses the dangers of exposure to extremely cold temperatures.  Created: 2/26/2015 by MMWR.   Date Released: 2/26/2015.

  13. Tebuconazole Regulates Fatty Acid Composition of Etiolated Winter Wheat Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Korsukova


    Full Text Available The fatty acid composition of shoots of unhardened and hardened to cold etiolated winter wheat seedlings grown from seeds treated with tebuconazole-based protectant «Bunker» (content of tebuconazole 60 grams per liter, g/L, and the seedlings frost resistance has been studied. It is shown that treatment of winter wheat seeds by «Bunker» preparation (1,5 microliter per gram of seeds, µl/g is accompanied by an increase of the fatty acids unsaturation in the shoots and increase of the seedlings frost resistance (–8°C, 24 h. The most pronounced decrease in the content of saturated palmitic acid and increase in the content of unsaturated α-linolenic acid were observed during cold hardening of winter wheat seedlings grown from seeds treated by tebuconazole-based protectant. It is concluded that the seeds treatment with tebuconazole-based protectant causes changes of fatty acid composition of winter wheat seedlings to increase their frost resistance.

  14. Experimental log hauling through a traditional caribou wintering area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold G. Cumming


    Full Text Available A 3-year field experiment (fall 1990-spring 1993 showed that woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou altered their dispersion when logs were hauled through their traditional wintering area. Unlike observations in control years 1 and 3, radio-collared caribou that had returned to the study area before the road was plowed on January 6 of the experimental year 2, moved away 8-60 km after logging activities began. Seasonal migration to Lake Nipigon islands usually peaked in April, but by February 22 of year 2, 4 of the 6 had returned. The islands provide summer refuge from predation, but not when the lake is frozen. Tracks in snow showed that some caribou remained but changed locations. They used areas near the road preferentially in year 1, early year 2, and year 3, but moved away 2-5 km after the road was plowed in year 2. In a nearby undisturbed control area, no such changes occurred. Caribou and moose partitioned habitat on a small scale; tracks showed gray wolf (Canis lupus remote from caribou but close to moose tracks. No predation on caribou was observed within the wintering area; 2 kills were found outside it. Due to the possibility of displacing caribou from winter refugia to places with higher predation risk, log hauling through important caribou winter habitat should be minimized.

  15. Genetic Potential of Winter Wheat Grain Quality in Central Asia (United States)

    Abugaliyeva, Aigul I.; Morgounov, Alexey I.


    The grain quality of winter wheat varies significantly by cultivars and growing region, not previously differentiated by end-use (baking, confectionery, etc.) in the national breeding programs. In these conditions it is advisable to determine the genetic potential and analyze the actual grain quality. Determining the genetic potential requires the…

  16. Fertilizer effects on a winter cereal cover crop (United States)

    Benefits associated with conservation tillage in the Southeast are improved by using a winter cereal cover crop. In general, cover crop benefits increase as biomass production is increased, but the infertile soils typically require additional N (inorganic or organic). Currently, limited informatio...

  17. Use of seeded exotic grasslands by wintering birds (United States)

    George, Andrew D.; O'Connell, Timothy J.; Hickman, Karen R.; Leslie,, David M.


    Despite widespread population declines of North American grassland birds, effects of anthropogenic disturbance of wintering habitat of this guild remain poorly understood. We compared avian abundance and habitat structure in fields planted by the exotic grass Old World bluestem (Bothriochloa ischaemum; OWB) to that in native mixed-grass prairie. During winters of 2007-2008 and 2008-2009, we conducted bird and vegetation surveys in six native grass and six OWB fields in Garfield, Grant, and Alfalfa counties, Oklahoma. We recorded 24 species of wintering birds in native fields and 14 species in OWB monocultures. While vegetation structure was similar between field types, abundance of short-eared owls (Asio flammeus), northern harriers (Circus cyaneus) and Smith's longspurs (Calcarius pictus) was higher in OWB fields during at least one year. The use of OWB fields by multiple species occupying different trophic positions suggested that vegetation structure of OWB can meet habitat requirements of some wintering birds, but there is insufficient evidence to determine if it provides superior conditions to native grasses.

  18. OIT Times--Winter 2001, Vol. 4, No. 1 (Newsletter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Winter 2001 edition of the OIT Times newsletter, a 12-page quarterly publication produced by the Office of Industrial Technologies. This issue focuses on OIT's upcoming Expo, the 4th Biennial Industrial Energy Efficiency Symposium and Expo, coming up February 19 - 22, 2001, in Washington, DC. Mailing will include the OIT Clearinghouse Tri-fold.

  19. Evaluation of drought tolerance indices among some winter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of drought stress on seed yield of some winter rapeseed cultivars and to study relevant drought tolerance indices, along with identifying resistant cultivars to drought stress. Plant materials were sown in split plot arrangement based on a randomized complete blocks ...

  20. Identification of vernalization responsive genes in the winter wheat ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, People's Republic of China. 7China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, People's Republic of China. Abstract. This study aimed to identify vernalization responsive genes in the winter wheat cultivar Jing841 by comparing the transcrip- tome data with that of a spring wheat cultivar ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Моskalets Т. Z.


    Full Text Available We studied the introductions of cultivars and lines of wheat soft winter wheat that are adaptive to specific physical and climatic conditions ecotopes regards forest-steppe and Polissia ecotypes by ecological and biological characteristics. We also determined their influence on formation of the diversity and productivity of agricultural ecosystems. It was established that mosaic planting pattern of winter wheat allows to get a high yield (up to 9 t/ha and of strong and superstrong wheat (Ariivka, L 4696/96, KC-5, KC-7, KC-14, KC-22, Yuvivata 60, etc. in comparison to monocultivar technology. Some genotypes, namely Yuvivata 60, Ariiivka KC-22, KC-7 have moderate and high resistance towards complex diseases. The mosaic planting pattern of cultivars is the important factor of increasing the diversity and strengthening the links in agricultural ecosystems. Based on the long-term ecological research of genetic forms of winter soft wheat in different ecotopes and comparing them by major agronomic features with cultivar-standards we selected some promising cultivars and lines. We suggested the semi dwarf, medium-grown productive, and high adaptive genotypes of wheat soft winter, like Prydesnianska, Ariiivka, Nosshpa 100, КС-5, КС-7, КС-14, КС-21, КС-22, Yuvivata 60, Zoriana Nosivska, КС-16, КС-17, Л9646/96.

  2. Development of an artificial diet for winter moth, Operophtera brumata (United States)

    Emily Hibbard; Joseph Elkinton; George. Boettner


    The winter moth, Operophtera brumata, is an invasive pest that was introduced to North America in the 1930s. First identified in Nova Scotia, this small geometrid native to Europe has spread to New England. It has caused extensive defoliation of deciduous trees and shrubs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema AY


    Full Text Available Tourism that is a regional means of development is closely related with the local economic development. Winter tourism is a set of activities and relationships composed of trips made to the regions which are located in the heart of ski sports and accordingly with slopes and snow, accommodations and other services. Since winter tourism mainly consists of a number of activities depending on snowy environments, it requires locations with certain height and slope which will also allow the execution of other nature sports such as walking, climbing etc. besides skiing and snowboarding. Uludağ, the most popular winter sports center that is 30 km away from the Bursa city center has significant natural advantages in terms of winter tourism. However, with the recently changing tourism demands in winter tourism, developments have been taking place in the types of tourism. Uludağ having natural advantages have not been able to sufficiently benefit from these advantages and cannot make use of its existing potential. Besides the countries having sucessful snow resorts of Europe such as Austria, France, Switzerland, Italy and Andorra, Romania and Bulgaria are also increasing their competitiveness in the international markets in recent years with ambitious investments. When Uludağ that is in the location of the largest snow resort in Turkey is compared with these resorts, it is thought that there is a way to go in the field of winter tourism. Starting from this idea, in the research, it is aimed to identify the contribution of Uludağ to the local economic development and the potentials for increasing this contribution. Towards the mentioned aim, the study will be carried out based on field research. In the conclusion of the study, it is planned to submit the proposals focused on policy and strategy to be followed in terms of having Uludağ use its potential in the most efficient way and provide more contribution to the local economy. In addition, its

  4. Mangrove species' responses to winter air temperature extremes in China (United States)

    Chen, Luzhen; Wang, Wenqing; Li, Qingshun Q.; Zhang, Yihui; Yang, Shengchang; Osland, Michael J.; Huang, Jinliang; Peng, Congjiao


    The global distribution and diversity of mangrove forests is greatly influenced by the frequency and intensity of winter air temperature extremes. However, our understanding of how different mangrove species respond to winter temperature extremes has been lacking because extreme freezing and chilling events are, by definition, relatively uncommon and also difficult to replicate experimentally. In this study, we investigated species-specific variation in mangrove responses to winter temperature extremes in China. In 10 sites that span a latitudinal gradient, we quantified species-specific damage and recovery following a chilling event, for mangrove species within and outside of their natural range (i.e., native and non-native species, respectively). To characterize plant stress, we measured tree defoliation and chlorophyll fluorescence approximately one month following the chilling event. To quantify recovery, we measured chlorophyll fluorescence approximately nine months after the chilling event. Our results show high variation in the geographic- and species-specific responses of mangroves to winter temperature extremes. While many species were sensitive to the chilling temperatures (e.g., Bruguiera sexangula and species in the Sonneratia and Rhizophora genera), the temperatures during this event were not cold enough to affect certain species (e.g., Kandelia obovata, Aegiceras corniculatum, Avicennia marina, and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza). As expected, non-native species were less tolerant of winter temperature extremes than native species. Interestingly, tidal inundation modulated the effects of chilling. In comparison with other temperature-controlled mangrove range limits across the world, the mangrove range limit in China is unique due to the combination of the following three factors: (1) Mangrove species diversity is comparatively high; (2) winter air temperature extremes, rather than means, are particularly intense and play an important ecological

  5. Changes in winter warming events in the Nordic Arctic Region (United States)

    Vikhamar-Schuler, Dagrun; Isaksen, Ketil; Haugen, Jan Erik; Bjerke, Jarle Werner; Tømmervik, Hans


    In recent years winter warming events are frequently reported from Arctic areas. Extraordinarily warm weather episodes, occasionally combined with intense rainfall, cause severe ecological disturbance and great challenges for Arctic infrastructure. For example, the formation of ground ice due to winter rain or melting prevents reindeer from grazing, leads to vegetation browning, and impacts soil temperatures. The infrastructure may be affected by avalanches and floods resulting from intense snowmelt. The aim of our analysis is to study changes in warm spells during winter in the Nordic Arctic Region, here defined as the regions in Norway, Sweden and Finland north of the Arctic circle (66.5°N), including the Arctic islands Svalbard and Jan Mayen. Within this study area we have selected the longest available high quality observation series with daily temperature and precipitation. For studying future climate we use available regionally downscaled scenarios. We analyse three time periods: 1) the past 50-100 years, 2) the present (last 15 years, 2000-2014) and 3) the future (next 50-100 years). We define an extended winter season (October-April) and further divide it into three subseasons: 1) Early winter (October and November), 2) Mid-winter (December, January and February) and 3) Late-winter (March and April). We identify warm spells using two different classification criteria: a) days with temperature above 0°C (the melting temperature); and b) days with temperature in excess of the 90th percentile of the 1985-2014 temperature for each subseason. Both wet and dry warm spells are analysed. We compare the results for the mainland stations (maritime and inland stations) with the Arctic islands. All stations have very high frequency of warm weather events in the period 1930-1940s and for the last 15 years (2000-2014). For the most recent period the largest increase in number of warm spells are observed at the northernmost stations. We also find a continuation of this

  6. Does outdoor work during the winter season protect against depression and mood difficulties?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Ina H; Grynderup, Matias; Dalsgaard, Sofie B


    At temperate latitudes, 1-5% of the population suffer from winter depression; during winter, mood difficulties tend to increase but may be alleviated by bright light therapy. Unlike indoor workers, outdoor workers are exposed to therapeutic levels of sunlight during winter. We hypothesized that o...... that outdoor work may protect against mood difficulties and depression.......At temperate latitudes, 1-5% of the population suffer from winter depression; during winter, mood difficulties tend to increase but may be alleviated by bright light therapy. Unlike indoor workers, outdoor workers are exposed to therapeutic levels of sunlight during winter. We hypothesized...

  7. Hibernation in an antarctic fish: on ice for winter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamish A Campbell

    Full Text Available Active metabolic suppression in anticipation of winter conditions has been demonstrated in species of mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians, but not fish. This is because the reduction in metabolic rate in fish is directly proportional to the decrease in water temperature and they appear to be incapable of further suppressing their metabolic rate independently of temperature. However, the Antarctic fish (Notothenia coriiceps is unusual because it undergoes winter metabolic suppression irrespective of water temperature. We assessed the seasonal ecological strategy by monitoring swimming activity, growth, feeding and heart rate (f(H in N. coriiceps as they free-ranged within sub-zero waters. The metabolic rate of wild fish was extrapolated from f(H recordings, from oxygen consumption calibrations established in the laboratory prior to fish release. Throughout the summer months N. coriiceps spent a considerable proportion of its time foraging, resulting in a growth rate (G(w of 0.18 +/- 0.2% day(-1. In contrast, during winter much of the time was spent sedentary within a refuge and fish showed a net loss in G(w (-0.05 +/- 0.05% day(-1. Whilst inactive during winter, N. coriiceps displayed a very low f(H, reduced sensory and motor capabilities, and standard metabolic rate was one third lower than in summer. In a similar manner to other hibernating species, dormancy was interrupted with periodic arousals. These arousals, which lasted a few hours, occurred every 4-12 days. During arousal activity, f(H and metabolism increased to summer levels. This endogenous suppression and activation of metabolic processes, independent of body temperature, demonstrates that N. coriiceps were effectively 'putting themselves on ice' during winter months until food resources improved. This study demonstrates that at least some fish species can enter a dormant state similar to hibernation that is not temperature driven and presumably provides seasonal energetic

  8. Cold truths: how winter drives responses of terrestrial organisms to climate change. (United States)

    Williams, Caroline M; Henry, Hugh A L; Sinclair, Brent J


    Winter is a key driver of individual performance, community composition, and ecological interactions in terrestrial habitats. Although climate change research tends to focus on performance in the growing season, climate change is also modifying winter conditions rapidly. Changes to winter temperatures, the variability of winter conditions, and winter snow cover can interact to induce cold injury, alter energy and water balance, advance or retard phenology, and modify community interactions. Species vary in their susceptibility to these winter drivers, hampering efforts to predict biological responses to climate change. Existing frameworks for predicting the impacts of climate change do not incorporate the complexity of organismal responses to winter. Here, we synthesise organismal responses to winter climate change, and use this synthesis to build a framework to predict exposure and sensitivity to negative impacts. This framework can be used to estimate the vulnerability of species to winter climate change. We describe the importance of relationships between winter conditions and performance during the growing season in determining fitness, and demonstrate how summer and winter processes are linked. Incorporating winter into current models will require concerted effort from theoreticians and empiricists, and the expansion of current growing-season studies to incorporate winter. © 2014 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  9. Divergence of the diapause transcriptome in apple maggot flies: winter regulation and post-winter transcriptional repression. (United States)

    Meyers, Peter J; Powell, Thomas H Q; Walden, Kimberly K O; Schieferecke, Adam J; Feder, Jeffrey L; Hahn, Daniel A; Robertson, Hugh M; Berlocher, Stewart H; Ragland, Gregory J


    The duration of dormancy regulates seasonal timing in many organisms and may be modulated by day length and temperature. Though photoperiodic modulation has been well studied, temperature modulation of dormancy has received less attention. Here, we leverage genetic variation in diapause in the apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella, to test whether gene expression during winter or following spring warming regulates diapause duration. We used RNAseq to compare transcript abundance during and after simulated winter between an apple-infesting population and a hawthorn-infesting population where the apple population ends pupal diapause earlier than the hawthorn-infesting population. Marked differences in transcription between the two populations during winter suggests that the 'early' apple population is developmentally advanced compared with the 'late' hawthorn population prior to spring warming, with transcripts participating in growth and developmental processes relatively up-regulated in apple pupae during the winter cold period. Thus, regulatory differences during winter ultimately drive phenological differences that manifest themselves in the following summer. Expression and polymorphism analysis identify candidate genes in the Wnt and insulin signaling pathways that contribute to population differences in seasonality. Both populations remained in diapause and displayed a pattern of up- and then down-regulation (or vice versa) of growth-related transcripts following warming, consistent with transcriptional repression. The ability to repress growth stimulated by permissive temperatures is likely critical to avoid mismatched phenology and excessive metabolic demand. Compared with diapause studies in other insects, our results suggest some overlap in candidate genes/pathways, though the timing and direction of changes in transcription are likely species specific. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Planning of traumatological hospital resources for a major winter sporting event as illustrated by the 2005 Winter Universiad. (United States)

    Oberladstaetter, J; Kamelger, F S; Rosenberger, R; Dallapozza, Ch; Struve, P; Luger, T; Fink, Ch; Attal, R


    The 22nd Student World Winter Games took place in January 2005 in Innsbruck and Seefeld, Austria. Exactly 1,500 athletes of 50 nationalities competed in 69 events in ten winter sports. A total number of 750 functionaries, 800 volunteers and 85,000 spectators participated in the second largest winter sports event behind the Olympic winter games. The aim of this study was to evaluate the needed resources to ensure traumatological care for an event of that size. At the medical "call-center" all consultations, as well as patient data, diagnosis, and medical treatment were recorded using a preset protocol. Further, all patients treated in the University Hospital Innsbruck were registered with an emphasis on trauma patients. Forty-eight of 65 patients transported to the hospital as a result of the Universiade were trauma patients, 37 of whom were athletes. The gender distribution was 34:14 (m:f). Ice hockey players had the highest rate of injury (25% of all injured athletes), followed by alpine skiers (20.8% of injured athletes). The highest ISS was nine. Forty-three patients got ambulatory treatment, five were admitted to the hospital and surgical treatment was conducted in three cases. Mean patient number was 4.8 per day. No additional personnel, structural, or technical hospital resources were needed to accommodate a large winter sports event like the Universiad. Thus, a level-B trauma center with an emergency room and independent traumatological department with around the clock surgical capability seems to be sufficient to provide traumatological care for an event of this size if the possibility of patient transport to a larger facility exists in the case of catastrophic events.

  11. Influence of Honey Bee Genotype and Wintering Method on Wintering Performance of Varroa destructor (Parasitiformes: Varroidae)-Infected Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies in a Northern Climate. (United States)

    Bahreini, Rassol; Currie, Robert W


    The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a cooperative breeding program designed to enhance winter survival of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) when exposed to high levels of varroa (Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman) in outdoor-wintered and indoor-wintered colonies. Half of the colonies from selected and unselected stocks were randomly assigned to be treated with late autumn oxalic acid treatment or to be left untreated. Colonies were then randomly assigned to be wintered either indoors (n = 37) or outdoors (n = 40). Late autumn treatment with oxalic acid did not improve wintering performance. However, genotype of bees affected colony survival and the proportion of commercially viable colonies in spring, as indicated by greater rates of colony survival and commercially viable colonies for selected stock (43% survived and 33% were viable) in comparison to unselected stock (19% survived and 9% were viable) across all treatment groups. Indoor wintering improved spring bee population score, proportion of colonies surviving, and proportion of commercially viable colonies relative to outdoor wintering (73% of selected stock and 41% of unselected stock survived during indoor wintering). Selected stock showed better "tolerance" to varroa as the selected stock also maintained higher bee populations relative to unselected stock. However, there was no evidence of "resistance" in selected colonies (reduced mite densities). Collectively, this experiment showed that breeding can improve tolerance to varroa and this can help minimize colony loss through winter and improve colony wintering performance. Overall, colony wintering success of both genotypes of bees was better when colonies were wintered indoors than when colonies were wintered outdoors. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  12. Effects of breeding versus winter habitat loss and fragmentation on the population dynamics of a migratory songbird. (United States)

    Taylor, Caz M; Stutchbury, Bridget J M


    Many migratory species are in decline and understanding these declines is challenging because individuals occupy widely divergent and geographically distant habitats during a single year and therefore populations across the range are interconnected in complex ways. Network modeling has been used to show, theoretically, that shifts in migratory connectivity patterns can occur in response to habitat or climate changes and that habitat loss in one region can affect sub-populations in regions that are not directly connected. Here, we use a network model, parameterized by integrating long-term monitoring data with direct tracking of -100 individuals, to explain population trends in the rapidly declining Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) and to predict future trends. Our model suggests that species-level declines in Wood Thrush are driven primarily by tropical deforestation in Central America but that protection of breeding habitat in some regions is necessary to prevent shifts in migratory connectivity and to sustain populations in all breeding regions. The model illustrates how shifts in migratory connectivity may lead to unexpected population declines in key regions. We highlight current knowledge gaps that make modeling full life-cycle population demographics in migratory species challenging but also demonstrate that modeling can inform conservation while these gaps are being filled.

  13. Experimental winter warming modifies thermal performance and primes acorn ants for warm weather

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacLean, Heidi J.; Penick, Clint A.; Dunn, Robert R.


    temperatures for ants that experienced warmer winters compared with those that experienced cooler winters. Our results provide evidence that overwintering temperatures can substantially influence organismal performance, and suggest that we cannot ignore overwintering effects when forecasting organismal...

  14. Winter Community Structure Changes in Frazil Ice and Open Water in Riverine Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    White, K


    ...) that examined dissolved oxygen (DO) levels and changes in river microbiology during winter, periods of low water temperature, and periods of ice-cover, with the objective of providing guidance for winter water-quality modeling...

  15. Identifying the African Wintering Grounds of Hybrid Flycatchers Using a Multi-Isotope (d

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, T.; Hjernquist, M.B.; Van Wilgenburg, S.L.; Hobson, K.A.; Folmer, E.; Font, L.; Klaassen, M.


    Migratory routes and wintering grounds can have important fitness consequences, which can lead to divergent selection on populations or taxa differing in their migratory itinerary. Collared (Ficedula albicollis) and pied (F. hypoleuca) flycatchers breeding in Europe and wintering in different

  16. Importance of new winter pea genotyp in production of the milk on family farms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gordana Županac; Kristina Gršić; Ana Pisačić; Mihaela Blažinkov; Darko Uher


    .... Three year field trials (2003-2005) were carried out to determine the effect of seed winter pea inoculation and nitrogen top-dressing on productivity of new winter pea genotype G3 in production of milk on family farms...

  17. Mechanism of the biological response to winter cooling in the northeastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhupratap, M.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Bhattathiri, P.M.A.; DileepKumar, M.; Raghukumar, S.; Nair, K.K.C.; Ramaiah, N.

    the upwelling season and during much of the winter (northeast) monsoon. The processes that enable this high winter productivity have hitherto been poorly understood, being variously attributed to surface cooling effects or wind-driven changes in ocean...

  18. Small nation, big ships winter navigation and technological nationalism in a peripheral country, 1878-1978


    Matala, Saara; Sahari, Aaro


    Finland is the only country in the world where all ports freeze over during a typical winter. Over the century 1878-1978, Finland developed a winter-seafaring system that broke the winter isolation and eliminated seasonal variation in shipping. By using diverse archival sources, we deconstruct the dominant narrative of Finnish winter seafaring through which national as well as technological development is often presented as natural, inevitable and straightforward. We reinterpret the Finnish w...

  19. Projections of thermal conditions for Poland for winters 2021?2050 in relation to atmospheric circulation


    Piotr Piotrowski; Joanna Jędruszkiewicz


    Winter thermal conditions in Poland are largely determined by atmospheric circulation. Therefore, the projection of future temperature change should be considered in relation to changes in circulation patterns. This paper assesses the spatial variability in winter temperature in Poland in the 2021?2050 period based on the CLM, HIRHAM5 and RACMO2 models. Thermal conditions in winter have been studied in relation to the atmospheric circulation as a main factor of winter temperature change i...

  20. An analysis of US propane markets, winter 1996-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In late summer 1996, in response to relatively low inventory levels and tight world oil markets, prices for crude oil, natural gas, and products derived from both began to increase rapidly ahead of the winter heating season. Various government and private sector forecasts indicated the potential for supply shortfalls and sharp price increases, especially in the event of unusually severe winter weather. Following a rapid runup in gasoline prices in the spring of 1996, public concerns were mounting about a possibly similar situation in heating fuels, with potentially more serious consequences. In response to these concerns, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) participated in numerous briefings and meetings with Executive Branch officials, Congressional committee members and staff, State Energy Offices, and consumers. EIA instituted a coordinated series of actions to closely monitor the situation and inform the public. This study constitutes one of those actions: an examination of propane supply, demand, and price developments and trends.

  1. Does organic farming benefit farmland birds in winter? (United States)

    Chamberlain, D E; Joys, A; Johnson, P J; Norton, L; Feber, R E; Fuller, R J


    The generally higher biodiversity on organic farms may be influenced by management features such as no synthetic pesticide and fertilizer inputs and/or by differences in uncropped habitat at the site and landscape scale. We analysed bird and habitat data collected on 48 paired organic and conventional farms over two winters to determine the extent to which broad-scale habitat differences between systems could explain overall differences in farmland bird abundance. Density was significantly higher on organic farms for six out of 16 species, and none on conventional. Total abundance of all species combined was higher on organic farms in both years. Analyses using an information-theoretic approach suggested that both habitat extent and farm type were important predictors only for starling and greenfinch. Organic farming as currently practised may not provide significant benefits to those bird species that are limited by winter food resources, in particular, several declining granivores.

  2. Investigation of Pedestrian Comfort with Wind Chill during Winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungkeun Kim


    Full Text Available Two types of methods are used to evaluate pedestrian comfort: pedestrian wind comfort and outdoor thermal comfort. To accurately ascertain the outdoor wind environment, wind speed is the only parameter considered. However, pedestrians may still feel discomfort when the perceived temperature is low, even though the wind comfort criterion has been satisfactorily fulfilled. The purpose of this study is, therefore, to investigate pedestrian comfort when the perceived temperature is low, especially in winter conditions. To achieve this, a pedestrian survey was conducted, and 588 respondents completed a questionnaire. The results show that pedestrians feel discomfort when the WCET (Wind Chill Equivalent Temperature is low, with almost 40 percent of respondents answering that they feel discomfort in these conditions. In conclusion, the threshold wind speed of the winter season could be determined to be lower than that of the existing comfort criteria by applying the WCET.

  3. The chronobiology and neurobiology of winter seasonal affective disorder (United States)

    Levitan, Robert D.


    This review summarizes research on the chronobiology and neurobiology of winter seasonal affective disorder (SAD), a recurrent subtype of depression characterized by a predictable onset in the fall/winter months and spontaneous remission in the spring/summer period. Chronobiological mechanisms related to circadian rhythms, melatonin, and photoperiodism play a significant role in many cases of SAD, and treatment of SAD can be optimized by considering individual differences in key chronobiological markers. Converging evidence also points to a role for the major monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine in one or more aspects of SAD. Ultimately, as with other psychiatric illnesses, SAD is best considered as a complex disorder resulting from the interaction of several vulnerability factors acting at different levels, the various genetic mechanisms that underlie them, and the physical environment. Models of SAD that emphasize its potential role in human evolution will also be discussed. PMID:17969868

  4. Energy emergency planning guide: Winter 1977-78

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This Energy Emergency Planning Guide for Winter, 1977-78 has been prepared in order to: identify and evaluate actions available to deal with energy emergencies this winter; provide an advance indication to the public of those actions considered most likely to be taken by the government, and provide industry, state, and local governments with suggestions about actions which they can take to deal with energy emergencies. The Guide contains specifications for over 50 standby programs and procedures, recommended implementation guidelines for using these programs keyed to a pre-emergency phase and three phases of shortfalls, and a design for an Energy Emergency Center. Flexible implementation guidelines are proposed for natural gas, petroleum, electricity/coal, and propane shortages. (MCW)

  5. Pattern recognition analysis of polar clouds during summer and winter (United States)

    Ebert, Elizabeth E.


    A pattern recognition algorithm is demonstrated which classifies eighteen surface and cloud types in high-latitude AVHRR imagery based on several spectral and textural features, then estimates the cloud properties (fractional coverage, albedo, and brightness temperature) using a hybrid histogram and spatial coherence technique. The summertime version of the algorithm uses both visible and infrared data (AVHRR channels 1-4), while the wintertime version uses only infrared data (AVHRR channels 3-5). Three days of low-resolution AVHRR imagery from the Arctic and Antarctic during January and July 1984 were analyzed for cloud type and fractional coverage. The analysis showed significant amounts of high cloudiness in the Arctic during one day in winter. The Antarctic summer scene was characterized by heavy cloud cover in the southern ocean and relatively clear conditions in the continental interior. A large region of extremely low brightness temperatures in East Antarctica during winter suggests the presence of polar stratospheric cloud.

  6. The majority of sick children receive paracetamol during the winter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ertmann, Ruth Kirk; Møller, Janne Julie; Waldorff, Frans Boch


    -administered paracetamol in toddlers during a winter-period in relation to symptoms, doctor contacts and severity-rated illness. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted as a prospective diary study covering a three-month winter-period. It comprised a cohort of 183 infants born in February 2001 in a district...... of the capital area in Denmark. RESULTS: According to the parents, a total of 119 toddlers (65%) received paracetamol at least once during the study period; 9.3% of the toddlers received paracetamol for more than ten days. The administration of paracetamol rose as the number of symptoms increased. Paracetamol....... CONCLUSION: The majority of ill toddlers received paracetamol if they had several symptoms. However, paracetamol was administrated in 37% of days with fever. This use of paracetamol seems reasonable as the parents differentiate between degrees of illness and withhold paracetamol until the second day...

  7. Recrystallization and damage of ice in winter sports (United States)

    Seymour-Pierce, Alexandra; Lishman, Ben; Sammonds, Peter


    Ice samples, after sliding against a steel runner, show evidence of recrystallization and microcracking under the runner, as well as macroscopic cracking throughout the ice. The experiments that produced these ice samples are designed to be analogous to sliding in the winter sport of skeleton. Changes in the ice fabric are shown using thick and thin sections under both diffuse and polarized light. Ice drag is estimated as 40-50% of total energy dissipation in a skeleton run. The experimental results are compared with visual inspections of skeleton tracks, and to similar behaviour in rocks during sliding on earthquake faults. The results presented may be useful to athletes and designers of winter sports equipment. This article is part of the themed issue 'Microdynamics of ice'.

  8. Polarization Lidar Liquid Cloud Detection Algorithm for Winter Mountain Storms (United States)

    Sassen, Kenneth; Zhao, Hongjie


    We have collected an extensive polarization lidar dataset from elevated sites in the Tushar Mountains of Utah in support of winter storm cloud seeding research and experiments. Our truck-mounted ruby lidar collected zenith, dual-polarization lidar data through a roof window equipped with a wiper system to prevent snowfall accumulation. Lidar returns were collected at a rate of one shot every 1 to 5 min during declared storm periods over the 1985 and 1987 mid-Jan. to mid-Mar. Field seasons. The mid-barrier remote sensor field site was located at 2.57 km MSL. Of chief interest to weather modification efforts are the heights of supercooled liquid water (SLW) clouds, which must be known to assess their 'seedability' (i.e., temperature and height suitability for artificially increasing snowfall). We are currently re-examining out entire dataset to determine the climatological properties of SLW clouds in winter storms using an autonomous computer algorithm.

  9. Epidemic carbon monoxide poisoning following a winter storm. (United States)

    Houck, P M; Hampson, N B


    Hospital emergency departments were surveyed to estimate the number of patients treated for carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning after a severe winter storm disrupted electrical service in western Washington State. At least 81 persons were treated. The two main sources of CO were charcoal briquettes (54% of cases) and gasoline-powered electrical generators (40% of cases). Of the 44 persons affected by CO from burning charcoal, 40 (91%) were members of ethnic minority groups; 27 did not speak English. All persons affected by CO from generators were non-Hispanic Whites. This was the largest epidemic of storm-related CO poisoning reported in the United States. This epidemic demonstrated the need to anticipate CO poisoning as a possible consequence of winter storms in cold climates and to make preventive messages understandable to the entire population at risk, including those persons who do not understand written or spoken English.

  10. Winter distribution of Calanus finmarchicus in the Northeast Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heath, M.R.; Fraser, J.G.; Gislason, A.


    Data from plankton sampling and Optical Plankton Counter deployments during six cruises between December of 1994 and 1999 have been used to derive a composite three-dimensional distribution of the abundance of Calanus finmarchicus during winter (December-January) in the Norwegian Sea and Northeast...... Atlantic. There are two centres of abundance, one in the eastern Norwegian Sea and Faroe-Shetland Channel, associated with the interface between Norwegian Sea Deep Water and Intermediate Water layers, and another in the Irminger Sea southwest of Iceland in association with Labrador Sea Water. In the open...... Northeast Atlantic, the concentration of wintering animals is around 30% of that in the Norwegian Sea and the vertical distribution is more diffuse and on average deeper. Modelling studies have shown that the overwinter distribution and transport are key factors determining the spatial persistence of C...

  11. Evaluation of the operation efficiency of solar panels in winter (United States)

    Burakova, A. D.; Burakova, L. N.; Anisimov, I. A.; Burakova, O. D.


    The article deals with the issue of increasing the comfort and safety of life in cities by applying an alternative energy source for power supply of transport infrastructure facilities. Due to the peculiarity of the Russian Federation territory location, most cities are characterized by a long winter period, which makes it necessary to consider the features of using solar panels under these conditions. It has been established that the efficiency of solar panels depends on their type and location, the presence of snow cover on their surface, and the ambient air temperature. It has been revealed that flexible solar panels have some advantages that determine their ability to be used for power supply of transport infrastructure facilities. In the paper, the optimum angle of inclination of rigid solar panels in the winter period of the year is determined.

  12. Wintering Map for Honey Bee Colonies in El-Behera Governorate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The good wintering of honey bee colonies depends mainly on the wintering regions and beekeeping practices. To identify the suitable regions for colonies wintering at El-Behera governorate, different datasets were prepared and spatially analyzed by using ArcGIS. The input datasets were temperature, distance from roads, ...

  13. Opmerkelijke Ruigpootbuizerdinvasie in de winter 2010-2011: oorzaken in een historische en Europese context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vansteelant, W.; Faveyts, W.; Buckens, J.


    Notable invasion of Rough Legged-buzzards in winter 2010-2011: circumstances in an historical and European context In the winter 2010 - 2011, never before seen numbers of Rough-legged Buzzards Buteo lagopus were observed in Flanders. A strong invasion of this normally scarce over-wintering species

  14. Development of restriction enzyme analyses to distinguish winter moth from bruce spanworm and hybrids between them (United States)

    Marinko Sremac; Joseph Elkinton; Adam. Porter


    Elkinton et. al. recently completed a survey of northeastern North America for the newly invasive winter moth, Operophtera brumata L. The survey used traps baited with the winter moth pheromone, which consists of a single compound also used by Bruce spanworm, O. bruceata (Hulst), the North American congener of winter moth. Our...

  15. The arctic winter stratosphere: simulated with a 3-D chemistry transport model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, Martina Maria Petronella van den


    During the past two decades, the ozone layer has developed a “hole” each winter and spring above the Antarctic continent. Also in cold Arctic winters substantial stratospheric ozone depletion has been measured, although less than in the Antarctic stratosphere. In the Arctic winter stratosphere,

  16. Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus winter mortality in The Netherlands : The effect of severe weather and food supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camphuysen, CJ; Ens, B.J.; Heg, Dierik; Hulscher, JB; VanderMeer, J; Smit, CJ


    Wintering Oystercatchers in The Netherlands are concentrated in the Wadden Sea (c. 200 000), with substantial numbers in the Delta area (c. 90 000). Only 1% of the total wintering population is normally found along the North Sea coast. Cold-rushes under severe winter conditions lead to a reduction

  17. Does outdoor work during the winter season protect against depression and mood difficulties?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Ina H; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Dalsgaard, Sofie B


    At temperate latitudes, 1-5% of the population suffer from winter depression; during winter, mood difficulties tend to increase but may be alleviated by bright light therapy. Unlike indoor workers, outdoor workers are exposed to therapeutic levels of sunlight during winter. We hypothesized...... that outdoor work may protect against mood difficulties and depression....

  18. 77 FR 53908 - Winter Use Plan, Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National Park (United States)


    ... National Park Service Winter Use Plan, Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone... (Draft SEIS) for a Winter Use Plan for Yellowstone National Park, located in Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming... 2012 Supplemental Winter Use Plan EIS), and at Yellowstone National Park headquarters, Mammoth Hot...

  19. 77 FR 38824 - Winter Use Plan, Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National Park (United States)


    ... National Park Service Winter Use Plan, Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone... Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Winter Use Plan, Yellowstone National Park. SUMMARY...) for a Winter Use Plan for Yellowstone National Park, located in Idaho, Montana and Wyoming. DATES: The...

  20. 75 FR 4842 - Winter Use Plan, Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National Park (United States)


    ... National Park Service Winter Use Plan, Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National Park AGENCY... Impact Statement for a Winter Use Plan, Yellowstone National Park. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for a Winter Use Plan for Yellowstone ] National Park, located in Idaho...

  1. Late winter home range and habitat use of the Virginia northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus) (United States)

    W. Mark Ford; Kely N. Mertz; Jennifer M. Menzel; Kenneth K. Sturm


    We radio-tracked two male and one female Virginia northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus) in the Allegheny Mountains of West Virginia at Snowshoe Mountain Resort, in winter 2003 and Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge in winter 2004, respectively, to document winter home range and habitat use in or near ski areas. Male home range...

  2. Swimming through winter necessary for children’s health and development


    Lynch, TJ


    If your child is swimming this winter they will be fitter and develop a stronger immune system, making them less susceptible to common winter illnesses. Senior lecturer at Monash University’s Faculty of Education, Dr. Tim Lynch, agrees and said that swimming is possible during winter thanks to the comforts offered by modern indoor swimming facilities.

  3. Impacts of +2 °C global warming on winter tourism demand in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, Andrea; Greuell, Wouter; Landgren, Oskar; Prettenthaler, Franz


    Increasing temperatures and snow scarce winter seasons challenge the winter tourism industry. In this study the impacts of +2 °C global warming on winter tourism demand in Europe's ski tourism related NUTS-3 regions are quantified. Using time series regression models, the relationship between

  4. Nutritional condition of Pacific Black Brant wintering at the extremes of their range (United States)

    Mason, D.D.; Barboza, P.S.; Ward, D.H.


    Endogenous stores of energy allow birds to survive periods of severe weather and food shortage during winter. We documented changes in lipid, protein, moisture, and ash in body tissues of adult female Pacific Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) and modeled the energetic costs of wintering. Birds were collected at the extremes of their winter range, in Alaska and Baja California, Mexico. Body lipids decreased over winter for birds in Alaska but increased for those in Baja California. Conversely, body protein increased over winter for Brant in Alaska and remained stable for birds in Baja California. Lipid stores likely fuel migration for Brant wintering in Baja California and ensure winter survival for those in Alaska. Increases in body protein may support earlier reproduction for Brant in Alaska. Predicted energy demands were similar between sites during late winter but avenues of expenditure were different. Birds in Baja California spent more energy on lipid synthesis while those in Alaska incurred higher thermoregulatory costs. Estimated daily intake rates of eelgrass were similar between sites in early winter; however, feeding time was more constrained in Alaska because of high tides and short photoperiods. Despite differences in energetic costs and foraging time, Brant wintering at both sites appeared to be in good condition. We suggest that wintering in Alaska may be more advantageous than long-distance migration if winter survival is similar between sites and constraints on foraging time do not impair body condition. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2006.

  5. Perspectives in Winter Limnology: Closing the annual cycle of freezing lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salonen, K.; Leppäranta, M.; Viljanen, M.; Gulati, R.D.


    Winter has traditionally been considered as an ecologically insignificant season and, together with technical difficulties, this has led winter limnology to lag behind summer limnology. Recently, rapidly expanding interest in climate warming has increased water research in winter. It has also become

  6. Feral rye (Secale cereal) control in winter canola in the Pacific Northwest (United States)

    In the Pacific Northwest (PNW) feral rye is a predominant winter annual grass weed in the low-rainfall region where a winter wheat-tillage fallow rotation has been practiced for more than 130 yrs and winter canola has been introduced recently. A 3-yr study was conducted in Washington to determine th...

  7. Wintering the common viper (Vipera berus with embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korosov Andrey Victorovich


    Full Text Available For the Vipers from Karelia phenomenon wintering females with embryos and the annual breeding were found. They were very large and heavy females (L.t. > 62 cm, W > 160 g, for which the mass loss due to pregnancy are not significant. Analysis of the size of 1450 individuals in a Kizhi population of viper showed that the proportion of females that can hibernate from embryos amounts to less than 3%.

  8. Enhanced Warming with Atmospheric Blocking over European Region during Winter (United States)

    Ji, M.; Huang, J.; He, Y.


    A 62-yr (1948-2009) atmospheric blocking climatology over European region during winter is presented. The blocking activity in the European region shows a downward long-term trend. The relationship between blocking index and teleconnection patterns (TCPs) are examined. The statistical result shows the SCAND and the EA patterns can significant effect the blocking, approximately 40% of the blocking frequency variation can be explained by these two patterns. The frequency of European blocking is sensitive to the phase of the SCAND and EA. The average number of blocking days is 46 days during the positive phase of the SCAND which is twice higher than during the negative phase (18). During the negative phase of the EA, the average number of blocking days is 32, which is 54% greater during the negative phase of the EA than during the positive phase (21). The duration of the European blocking is also sensitive to the phase of the SCAND, but isn't sensitive for the EA. The 500 hPa geopotential height composite analysis also shows an evidence of a statistical relationship between the TCPs and blocking, showing that the positive (negative) phase of the SCAND (EA) provides the right conditions for the formation and sustenance of blocking activity over the European region. However, the blocking centers are located at Scandinavia and the Urals with positive of the SCAND and Siberia with negative of the EA. Finally, the downstream surface air temperature (SAT) impact associated with European winter blocking is discussed. The result shows that the SAT of Eurasian continent is significant different between high blocking index winters and low blocking index winters.

  9. Report on the Workshops "VLTI Community Days" "VLTI Winter School" (United States)

    Merand, A.


    The infrastructure of the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) is in the process of being upgraded and second-generation interferometric instruments are entering service (GRAVITY) or under construction (MATISSE). The VLTI Community Days presented these developments and began a discussion with the community on the future of the VLTI. Prior to the VLTI Community Days, a short Winter School was held to introduce early stage researchers to VLTI observation and data reduction.

  10. Ice fishing by wintering Bald Eagles in Arizona (United States)

    Teryl G. Grubb; Roy G. Lopez


    Northern Arizona winters vary within and between years with occasional heavy snows (up to 0.6 m) and extreme cold (overnight lows -18 to -29°C) interspersed with dry periods, mild temperatures (daytime highs reaching 10°C), and general loss of snow cover at all but highest elevations. Lakes in the area may freeze and thaw partially or totally several times during a...

  11. Evaluation of winter temperatures on apple budbreak using grafted twigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando José Hawerroth


    Full Text Available Temperature is the main climate factor related to induction, maintenance and dormancy release in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.. The inadequate chilling exposure in apples causes budbreak problems, resulting in decrease in yield potential. Thus, the knowledge of physiological principles and environmental factors determining the dormancy phenomenon, especially winter temperature effects, it is necessary for the efficient selection of cultivars in a productive region. In addition, it is indispensable to adapt the orchard management aiming to decrease the problems caused by lack chilling during winter. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different thermal conditions during the dormancy period on budbreak of apple cultivars. One-year-old twigs of 'Castel Gala' and 'Royal Gala' cultivars, grafted on M7 rootstock, were submitted to temperatures of 5, 10 and 15ºC for different exposure periods (168; 336; 672; 1,008 and 1,344 hours. After treatments execution, the plants were kept in a greenhouse at 25ºC. Budbreak was quantified when accumulated 3,444; 6,888; 10,332; 13,776; 17,220 and 20,664 GDHºC after temperature treatments. The cultivars responded differently to temperature effect during the winter period. The temperature of 15ºC during winter shows a greater effectiveness on 'Castel Gala' apple budbreak while in the 'Royal Gala' apples the temperatures of 5 and 10ºC show better performance. 'Castel Gala' cultivar (low chilling requirement may supply its physiological necessities, may be capable to budburst, even when subjected to higher temperatures in relation to 'Royal Gala' apples (high chilling requirement.

  12. Effect of winter nutritional levels on subsequent growth of beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The feed cost to achieve a growth rate of 0,5 kg/ d during the first winter following weaning was 93% higher than the cost to achieve a growth rate of 0,25 kg!d. ... selecting the correct rearing strategy for heifers in the sourveld. Die invloed van verskillende ... function of pre- and post-weaning nutrition. However, because of the ...

  13. OIT Times Newsletter: Volume 3, Number 1, Winter 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, L.


    The Winter 2000 edition of the OIT Times newsletter, a quarterly publication produced by the Office of Industrial Technologies, highlights the 1999 start-up projects, announces the OIT solicitation schedule for FY2000, and features the success of the Ohio diecasting showcase. One of the quarterly highlights was Secretary Richardson's presentation of a Certificate of Partnership to Malden Mills CEO Aaron Feuerstein at the dedication of the plant's new, advanced cogeneration system.

  14. Hellsgate Winter Range : Wildlife Mitigation Project. Preliminary Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.


    The Bonneville Power Administration proposes funding the Hellsgate Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project in cooperation with the Colville Convederated Tribes and Bureau of Indian Affairs. This Preliminary Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and managing property for wildlife and wildlife habitat within a large project area. The Propose action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wild life habitat that was adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams and their reservoirs.

  15. Farmers’ Market Expands to Offer Products in Winter | Poster (United States)

    By Carolynne Keenan, Contributing Writer The 2013 National Cancer Institute (NCI) at Frederick Farmers’ Market regular season may have closed, but that doesn’t mean customers who want fresh produce, handmade crafts, and other homemade goodies from local vendors are out of luck. Winter Markets, which began Jan. 7, will be held every other Tuesday, from 11 a.m. to 1 p.m., in front of Building 549 or in the Café Room, depending on the weather.

  16. The Promotion of HAMK Winter and Summer Camps: Case China


    Lin, Yulu


    The main purpose of this thesis is to promote HAMK winter and summer camps in China and maintain its competitive advantages by figuring out more effective marketing activities to attract students. The theories used to support and give references to this thesis were based on the research and studies from Philip Kotler, Kevin Keller and Armstrong. Some marketing related books such as Principles of Marketing or Marketing Management proved to be professional sources and explanations for conce...

  17. Army Communicator. Volume 36, Number 4, Winter 2011 (United States)


    knowledge and accelerate learning as units and personnel rotate in and out of theaters or organizations.” Army leaders realized that “without...QuickScan 20 Winter - 2011 The Future Signal Corps Leaders are the critical element in the network By MAJ Jay H. Anson This article uses the Kotter ...Spoth, 2010). Had the two Services collaborated on their unmanned aerial system programs, the DOD would Applying the Kotter Change Model in shaping

  18. Error analysis for Winters' Additive Seasonal Forecasting System


    McKenzie, Edward


    A procedure for deriving the variance of the forecast error for Winters' Additive Seasonal Forecasting system is given. Both point and cumulative T-step ahead forecasts are dealt with. Closed form expressions are given in the cases when the model is (i) trend-free and (ii) non-seasonal. The effects of renormal ization of the seasonal factors is also discussed. The fact that the error variance for this system can be infinite is discussed and the relationship of this property ...

  19. Government must act now to prevent looming winter crisis. (United States)


    It may seem odd to be talking about winter pressures now, but there are signs that the next 6-8 months are going to be challenging in the extreme. A report from the RCN and the Royal College of Emergency Medicine suggests that emergency department staff are locked in a cycle of permanent crisis. Add a spell of icy weather into the mix and the NHS could collapse under the strain.

  20. Twentieth Century Winter Changes in Southern Hemisphere Synoptic Weather Modes


    Frederiksen, Jorgen S.; Frederiksen, Carsten S.


    During the last sixty years, there have been large changes in the southern hemisphere winter circulation and reductions in rainfall particularly in the southern Australian region. Here we examine the corresponding changes in dynamical modes of variability ranging from storm tracks, onset-of-blocking modes, northwest cloud-band disturbances, Antarctic low-frequency modes, intraseasonal oscillations, and African easterly waves. Our study is performed using a global two-level primitive equation ...

  1. Mapping wintering waterfowl distributions using weather surveillance radar. (United States)

    Buler, Jeffrey J; Randall, Lori A; Fleskes, Joseph P; Barrow, Wylie C; Bogart, Tianna; Kluver, Daria


    The current network of weather surveillance radars within the United States readily detects flying birds and has proven to be a useful remote-sensing tool for ornithological study. Radar reflectivity measures serve as an index to bird density and have been used to quantitatively map landbird distributions during migratory stopover by sampling birds aloft at the onset of nocturnal migratory flights. Our objective was to further develop and validate a similar approach for mapping wintering waterfowl distributions using weather surveillance radar observations at the onset of evening flights. We evaluated data from the Sacramento, CA radar (KDAX) during winters 1998-1999 and 1999-2000. We determined an optimal sampling time by evaluating the accuracy and precision of radar observations at different times during the onset of evening flight relative to observed diurnal distributions of radio-marked birds on the ground. The mean time of evening flight initiation occurred 23 min after sunset with the strongest correlations between reflectivity and waterfowl density on the ground occurring almost immediately after flight initiation. Radar measures became more spatially homogeneous as evening flight progressed because birds dispersed from their departure locations. Radars effectively detected birds to a mean maximum range of 83 km during the first 20 min of evening flight. Using a sun elevation angle of -5° (28 min after sunset) as our optimal sampling time, we validated our approach using KDAX data and additional data from the Beale Air Force Base, CA (KBBX) radar during winter 1998-1999. Bias-adjusted radar reflectivity of waterfowl aloft was positively related to the observed diurnal density of radio-marked waterfowl locations on the ground. Thus, weather radars provide accurate measures of relative wintering waterfowl density that can be used to comprehensively map their distributions over large spatial extents.

  2. Winter: Public Enemy #1 for Accessibility EXPLORING NEW SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Morales


    Full Text Available Abstract: Winter is expensive. For countries situated in the northern hemisphere, closer to the north pole, such as Canada, Russia and Scandinavia, winter requires the acquisition of special clothing, car tires, and sports equipment, snow removal or plowing from the streets, and is associated with the presence of ice patches, along with accidents and illnesses associated with cold weather. Fall-related injuries due to winter conditions have been estimated to cost the Canadian health care system $ 2.8 billion a year. However, the greatest cost snow entails every year is the social isolation of seniors as well as wheelchair and walker users. This results from the lack of accessibility, as it is difficult to circulate on snow-covered streets even for the able-bodied. Social isolation has been associated with other negative consequences such as depression and even suicide. This exploratory pilot study aimed at finding possible and feasible design solutions for improving the accessibility of sidewalks during winter conditions. For this project we used a Co-Design methodology. Stakeholders (City of Quebec representatives, designers, urban planners, occupational therapists, and adults with motor, visual and aural disabilities were invited to participate in the design process. In order to meet the objectives, two main steps were carried out: 1. Conception of the design solutions (through Co-design sessions in a Focus-group format with seniors, designers and researchers; and 2. Validation of the design solutions (consultation with experts and stakeholders. The results are a wide variety of possible and feasible solutions, including the reorganisation of the snow-removal procedure and the development of heated curb cuts. This project was funded by the City of Quebec in partnership with the Centre interdisciplinaire de recherche en réadaptation et intégration sociale (CIRRIS. Ultimately, the project sought to explore possible solutions to be implemented

  3. Averages of b-hadron Properties as of Winter 2005

    CERN Document Server

    Anikeev, K.; CERN. Geneva; Chang, P.; Gershon, T.; Harr, R.; Hocker, Andreas; Iijima, T.; Kirkby, David P.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Lehner, F.; Limosani, A.; Luth, V.; Sakai, Y.; Schneider, O.; Schwanda, C.; Smith, J.; Stocchi, A.; Trabelsi, K.; Van Kooten, Rick J.; Weiser, C.


    This article reports world averages for measurements on b-hadron properties obtained by the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) using the available results as of winter 2005 conferences. In the averaging, the input parameters used in the various analyses are adjusted (rescaled) to common values, and all known correlations are taken into account. The averages include lifetimes, neutral meson mixing parameters, semileptonic decay parameters, rare decay branching fractions, and CP violation measurements.

  4. Winter School on Mirror Symmetry, Vector Bundles and Lagrangian Submanifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Yau, S-T


    The collection of articles in this volume are based on lectures presented during the Winter School on Mirror Symmetry held at Harvard University. There are many new directions suggested by mirror symmetry which could potentially have very rich connections in physics and mathematics. This book brings together the latest research in a major area of mathematical physics, including the recent progress in mirror manifolds and Lagrangian submanifolds. In particular, several articles describing homological approach and related topics are included.

  5. Foraging flight distances of wintering ducks and geese: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P. Johnson


    Full Text Available The distance covered by foraging animals, especially those that radiate from a central area when foraging, may affect ecosystem, community, and population dynamics, and has conservation and landscape planning implications for multiple taxa, including migratory waterfowl. Migrating and wintering waterfowl make regular foraging flights between roosting and feeding areas that can greatly impact energetic resources within the foraging zone near roost sites. We reviewed published studies and gray literature for one-way foraging flight distances (FFDs of migrating and wintering dabbling ducks and geese. Thirty reviewed studies reported FFDs and several reported values for multiple species or locations. We obtained FFD values for migration (n = 7 and winter (n = 70. We evaluated the effects of body mass, guild, i.e., dabbling duck or goose, and location, i.e., Nearctic or Palearctic, on FFDs. We used the second-order Akaike's Information Criterion for model selection. We found support for effects of location and guild on FFDs. FFDs of waterfowl wintering in the Nearctic (7.4 ± 6.7 km, mean ± SD; n = 39 values were longer than in the Palearctic (4.2 ± 3.2 km; n = 31 values. The FFDs of geese (7.8 ± 7.2 km, mean ± SD; n = 24 values were longer than FFDs of dabbling ducks (5.1 ± 4.4 km, mean ± SD; n = 46 values. We found mixed evidence that distance flown from the roost changed, i.e., increased or decreased, seasonally. Our results can be used to refine estimates of energetic carrying capacity around roosts and in biological and landscape planning efforts.

  6. Short Communication A vetch winter cover crop can improve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... after a fallow (no winter cover crop) for most of the cases when the N fertiliser application rate was below 180 kg ha−1. Where no N fertiliser was applied, maize yields after vetch were 4.71 and 7.26 tons ha−1 for the first and second seasons, translating into an N fertiliser replacement value of approximately 90 kg N ha−1.

  7. Naval War College Review. Volume 68, Number 1, Winter 2015 (United States)


    international security, we should neverthe- less be mindful of the very significant challenges facing many submarine forces around the world� The...Naval Institute Press, 2014); James P� Delgado, Silent Killers : Submarines and Underwater Warfare (Oxford, U�K�: Osprey, 2011); Nicholas Whitestone...Winter 2015, Vol. 68, No. 1 United States Pacific Fleet USS Pennsylvania, flagship Flagship of the Commander-in-Chief Serial 0114W May 28, 1942 SECRET

  8. Relay cropping of spring barley and winter wheat


    Roslon, Ewa


    The general objective of this thesis was to investigate various management practices in order to design a relay cropping system of spring barley and winter wheat with high yielding capacity and good weed suppressive capability under Swedish conditions. The work consisted of two greenhouse experiments, one small-scale field experiment and two field experiments. The factors investigated were seed rate of barley and wheat, undersowing time of wheat and timing of nitrogen fertilisation. Wheat see...

  9. The majority of sick children receive paracetamol during the winter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ertmann, Ruth; Møller, Janne Julie; Waldorff, Frans Boch


    Even though fever is a common symptom in childhood, it often worries parents and they may try to reduce discomfort by giving the child paracetamol, which is currently the most commonly sold over-the-counter medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate parent-administered paracetamol i...... in toddlers during a winter-period in relation to symptoms, doctor contacts and severity-rated illness....

  10. ?Intrinsic? correlations and their temporal evolutions between winter-time PNA/EPW and winter drought in the west United States


    Lin Piao; Zuntao Fu; Naiming Yuan


    In this study, relations between winter-time Pacific-Northern America pattern (PNA)/East Pacific wave-train (EPW) and winter-time drought in the west United States over the period of 1951?2010 are analyzed. Considering traditional Pearson?s Correlation Coefficient can be influenced by non-stationarity and nonlinearity, a recently proposed method, Detrended Partial-Cross-Correlation Analysis (DPCCA) is applied. With DPCCA, we analyzed the ?intrinsic? correlations between PNA/EPW and the winter...

  11. NS Ibar and NS Ulog: New winter feed barley varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pržulj Novo


    Full Text Available At Institute of Field and Vegetable crops for decades, new varieties of winter six-row feed barley having high yield, good adaptability, stability and quality are produced. As a result of long process of breeding, two new varieties of winter six-row barley - NS Ibar and NS Ulog have been selected. The primary aim during creation of these varieties was selection for yield, and maintaining quality and other agronomic traits at least to the standard variety level. The two-year multilocation trial of Commission for the registration of varieties, showed that the NS Ibar and NS Ulog are distinct, uniform and stable varieties, and that on the base of average for all the test sites and years they achieved a significantly higher yield than the standard variety. New varieties of winter six-row feed barley are characterized by high genetic potential for yield, which is more than 10 t ha-1. NS Ibar i NS Ulog had a shorter plant, while the resistance to lodging was at the level of the standard variety.

  12. Winter Atomiades 2014: CERN skiers win 31 medals!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin


    The 12th Winter Atomiades took place at Flachau, Austria, from 8 to 15 March 2014. The event, organised by the Association of the Sports Communities of the European Research Institutes (see here), brought together 18 research centres, including CERN, AIT, ESRF, PSI and many others, with a total of about 280 participants.   Lots of fun and a great result for the 13 CERN skiers at the 2014 Winter Atomiades in Flachau, Austria. From left to right and from bottom to top: Lennart Jirden (PH), Anna Lipniacka (PH), Guillaume Michet (DGS), Vera Chetvertkova (TE), Thierry Boileau (external), Jean-Louis Grenard (EN), Clement Bovet (EN), Marc Tavlet (BE), Rob Knoops (PH), Giuseppe Lo Presti (IT), Simone Campana (IT), Sylviane Gander (external) and Javier Pablos (TE).   The team of 13 athletes from six different CERN departments won 31 medals across all disciplines, in a spirit of fun and fair play. CERN came second in the general ranking of all participating institutes! The next Winter Atomiades...

  13. Winter survival of Eurasian woodcock Scolopax rusticola in central Italy (United States)

    Aradis, A.; Miller, M.W.; Landucci, G.; Ruda, P.; Taddei, S.; Spina, F.


    The Eurasian woodcock Scolopax rusticola is a popular game bird in much of Europe. However, little is known about its population dynamics. We estimated winter survival of woodcock in a protected area with no hunting in central Italy. We radio-tagged 68 woodcocks with battery-powered radio-transmitters during 2001-2005. Woodcocks were captured in fields at night from November through February and fitted with radios. Birds were classified on capture as juveniles or adults using plumage characteristics. Woodcocks were relocated daily through March of each year or until they died, disappeared from the study area, or until their radio failed. We constructed a set of eight competing models of daily survival for the period 1 December - 28 February. Estimates of survival were obtained using the program SURVIV and Akaike's Information Criteria. The best model suggested daily survival was a constant 0.9985 (95% CI = 0.9972-0.9998), corresponding to a survival rate of 0.88 (SE = 0.05) for the 90-day winter study period. Our estimate of juvenile survival is higher than previously reported, and may reflect the protected status of the study area. Our estimates of winter survival may be helpful in managing harvested woodcock populations as well as in conserving populations in an increasingly urbanised environment. ?? Wildlife Biology (2008).

  14. Modeling temperature inversion in southeastern Yellow Sea during winter 2016 (United States)

    Pang, Ig-Chan; Moon, Jae-Hong; Lee, Joon-Ho; Hong, Ji-Seok; Pang, Sung-Jun


    A significant temperature inversion with temperature differences larger than 3°C was observed in the southeastern Yellow Sea (YS) during February 2016. By analyzing in situ hydrographic profiles and results from a regional ocean model for the YS, this study examines the spatiotemporal evolution of the temperature inversion and its connection with wind-induced currents in winter. Observations reveal that in winter, when the northwesterly wind prevails over the YS, the temperature inversion occurs largely at the frontal zone southwest of Korea where warm/saline water of a Kuroshio origin meets cold/fresh coastal water. Our model successfully captures the temperature inversion observed in the winter of 2016 and suggests a close relation between northwesterly wind bursts and the occurrence of the large inversion. In this respect, the strong northwesterly wind drove cold coastal water southward in the upper layer via Ekman transport, which pushed the water mass southward and increased the sea level slope in the frontal zone in southeastern YS. The intensified sea level slope propagated northward away from the frontal zone as a shelf wave, causing a northward upwind flow response along the YS trough in the lower layer, thereby resulting in the large temperature inversion. Diagnostic analysis of the momentum balance shows that the westward pressure gradient, which developed with shelf wave propagation along the YS trough, was balanced with the Coriolis force in accordance with the northward upwind current in and around the inversion area.

  15. Twentieth Century Winter Changes in Southern Hemisphere Synoptic Weather Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgen S. Frederiksen


    Full Text Available During the last sixty years, there have been large changes in the southern hemisphere winter circulation and reductions in rainfall particularly in the southern Australian region. Here we examine the corresponding changes in dynamical modes of variability ranging from storm tracks, onset-of-blocking modes, northwest cloud-band disturbances, Antarctic low-frequency modes, intraseasonal oscillations, and African easterly waves. Our study is performed using a global two-level primitive equation instability-model with reanalyzed observed July three-dimensional basic states for the periods 1949–1968, 1975–1994, and 1997–2006. We relate the reduction in the winter rainfall in the southwest of Western Australia since the mid-1970s and in south-eastern Australia since the mid-1990s to changes in growth rate and structures of leading storm track and blocking modes. We find that cyclogenesis and onset-of-blocking modes growing on the subtropical jet have significantly reduced growth rates in the latter periods. On the other hand there is a significant increase in the growth rate of northwest cloud-band modes and intraseasonal oscillation disturbances that cross Australia and are shown to be related to recent positive trends in winter rainfall over northwest Western Australia and central Australia, in general. The implications of our findings are discussed.

  16. [Spatial distribution characteristics of NMHCs during winter haze in Beijing]. (United States)

    Duan, Jing-Chun; Peng, Yan-Chun; Tan, Ji-Hua; Hao, Ji-Ming; Chai, Fa-He


    NMHCs and NOx samples were simultaneously collected and analyzed in six urban and suburban representative sampling sites (Sihuan, Tian'anmen, Pinguoyuan, Fatou, Beijing Airport and Miyun) during a typical haze period in winter 2005, Beijing. The concentrations of NMHCs during the sampling period in descending order were: Sihuan (1101.29 microg x m(-3)) > Fatou (692.40 microg x m(-3)) >Tian'anmen (653.28 microg x m(-3)) >Pinguoyuan (370.27 microg x m(-3)) > Beijing Airport (350.36 microg x m(-3)) > Miyun (199.97 microg x m(-3)). Atmospheric benzene pollution in Beijing was rather serious. The ratio of NMHCs/NOx ranged from 2.1 to 6.3, indicating that the peak ozone concentrations in urban Beijing were controlled by VOCs during the sampling period. Analysis of propylene equivalent concentration and ozone formation potential showed that the NMHCs reactivity descended in the order of Sihuan > Fatou > Tian'anmen > Pinguoyuan > Beijing Airport > Miyun. B/T values (0.52 to 0.76) indicated that besides motor vehicle emission, coal combustion and other emission sources were also the sources of NHMCs in Beijing in winter. The spatial variations of isoprene in Beijing indicated that the contribution of anthropogenic sources to isoprene increased and the emissions by biogenic sources decreased in winter. The spatial variations of propane and butane indicated that LPG emissions existed in the urban region of Beijing.

  17. Surface wind energy trends near Taiwan in winter since 1871

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang


    Full Text Available The tropical surface wind speed in boreal winter reaches a maximum near Taiwan. This stable wind resource may be used for future clean energy development. How this surface wind energy source has changed in past 141 years is investigated using the 20th century reanalysis dataset and CMIP5 models. Our observational analysis shows that the surface wind speed experienced a weakening trend in the past 141 years (1871 - 2010. The average decreasing rate is around -1.4 m s-1 per century. The decrease is primarily attributed to the relative sea surface temperature (SST cooling in the subtropical North Pacific, which forces a large-scale low-level anti-cyclonic circulation anomaly in situ and is thus responsible for the southerly trend near Taiwan. The relative SST trend pattern is attributed mainly to the greenhouse gas effect associated with anthropogenic activities. The southerly trend near Taiwan is more pronounced in the boreal winter than in summer. Such seasonal difference is attributed to the reversed seasonal mean wind, which promotes more efficient positive feedback in the boreal winter. The CMIP5 historical run analysis reveals that climate models capture less SST warming and large-scale anti-cyclonic circulation in the subtropical North Pacific, but the simulated weakening trend of the surface wind speed near Taiwan is too small.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Z.


    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to conduct basic screening of new lines and cultivars of winter hexaploid triticale by the technological and molecular genetics indicators. Molecular and genetic research conducted by polymerase chain reaction allelic variants of gene loci Wx-A1, Wx-B1, and quality parameters of grain, flour and bread – on technological markers. The new cultivars and lines of winter hexaploid triticale of Nosivka Breeding and Research Station of Remeslo Myronivka Institute of Wheat by technological indicators of grain, flour and bread quality were studied. According to representative criteria’s the most promising genotypes, which are the main products in terms Forest-Steppe ecotypes’ and a high-quality raw materials for bakeries and bioethanol were identified. Molecular and genetic identifications of allelic variants of genes loci Wx-A1, Wx-B1 triticale, which in the early stages of ontogenesis to predict targeted uses genotypes were conducted. The first among a series of triticale cultivars and lines Forest-Steppe ecotypes and biotypes with nonfunctional b gene allele WxA1, which defines a high content of amylopectin of starch, an important release for more ethanol was identified. It was found that technological characteristics of grain, flour and bread of new cultivars and lines of winter triticale meet the modern requirements production dietetic food and bioenergy products is important and relevant in the context of food security of Ukraine.

  19. Sleep and Mood During A Winter in Antarctica (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Houseal, Matt; Miller, Christopher


    Seasonal variations in sleep characteristics and their association with changes in mood were examined in 91 American men and women also who spent the 1991 austral winter at three different research stations in Antarctica. Measures of total hours of sleep over a 24-hr period, duration of longest (i.e.,"nighttime") sleep event, number of sleep events, time of sleep onset, and quality of sleep remained unchanged over the course of the austral winter (March through October). However, exposure to total darkness based on station latitude was significantly associated with total hours of sleep, duration of are longest sleep event, time of sleep onset, and quality of sleep. Reported vigor the previous month was a significant independent predictor of changes in all five sleep measures; previous month's measures of all six POMS subscales were significant independent predictors of sleep quality. Sleep characteristics were significant independent predictors of vigor and confusion the following month; total sleep, longest sleep event, sleep onset and sleep quality were significant independent predictors of tension-anxiety and depression. Changes in mood during the austral winter are preceded by changes in sleep characteristics, but prolonged exposure to the photoperiodicity characteristic of the high latitudes appears to be associated with improved sleep. In turn, mood changes appear to affect certain sleep characteristics, especially sleep quality.

  20. Decadal predictability of winter windstorm frequency in Eastern Europe (United States)

    Höschel, Ines; Grieger, Jens; Ulbrich, Uwe


    Winter windstorms are one of the most impact relevant extreme-weather events in Europe. This study is focussed on windstorm frequency in Eastern Europe at multi-year time scale. Individual storms are identified by using 6-hourly 10m-wind-fields. The impact-oriented tracking algorithm is based on the exceedance of the local 98 percentile of wind speed and a minimum duration of 18 hours. Here, storm frequency is the number of 1000km-footprints of identified windstorms touching the location during extended boreal winter from October to March. The temporal development of annual storm frequencies in Eastern Europe shows variations on a six to fifteen years period. Higher than normal windstorm frequency occurred end of the 1950s and in beginning of the seventies, while lower than normal frequency were around 1960 and in the forties, for example. The correlation between bandpass filtered storm frequency and North Atlantic sea surface temperature shows a significant pattern with a positive correlation in the subtropical East Atlantic and significant negative correlations in the Gulfstream region. The relationship between these multi-year variations and predictability on decadal time scales is discussed. The resulting skill of winter wind storms in the German decadal prediction system MiKlip, based on the numerical earth system model MPI-ESM, will be presented.