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Sample records for winter wheat seeds

  1. Effect of seeding rate on grain quality of winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselinka Zecevic

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Planting density is important factor which influence yield and quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. For this reason, in scientific investigations is constantly investigated optimization of plant number per unit area. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of seeding rate in grain quality of winter wheat cultivars. The experiment was conducted with four winter wheat genotypes ('Ana Morava', 'Vizija', 'L-3027', and 'Perla' at the Small Grains Research Centre of Kragujevac, Serbia, in 3 yr at two seeding rates (SR1 = 500 and SR2 = 650 germinating seeds m-2. The 1000-kernel weight, Zeleny sedimentation, and wet gluten content in divergent wheat genotypes were investigated depending on the seeding rate and ecological factors. Significant differences in quality components were established between investigated seeding rates. The highest values of all investigated quality traits were established in SR2 variant when applied 650 seeds m-2. Genotypes reacted differently to seeding rate. 'Perla' in average had the highest mean sedimentation value (42.2 mL and wet gluten content (33.76% in SR2 variant and this cultivar responded the best to seeding rate. Significant differences for sedimentation value and wet gluten content were found among cultivars, years, seeding rate, and for all their interactions. Also, ANOVA for 1000-kernel weight showed highly significant differences among investigated varieties, seeding rate and growing seasons, but all their interactions were not significant. In all investigated genotypes, better quality was established in SR2 variant when applied 650 seeds m-2.

  2. Effects of imidacloprid and clothianidin seed treatments on wheat aphids and their natural enemies on winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Xuefeng; Zhao, Yunhe; Wei, Yan; Mu, Wei; Liu, Feng

    2016-06-01

    Wheat aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is one of the major pests of winter wheat and has posed a significant threat to winter wheat production in China. Although neonicotinoid insecticidal seed treatments have been suggested to be a control method, the season-long efficacy on pests and the impact on their natural enemies are still uncertain. Experiments were conducted to determine the efficacy of imidacloprid and clothianidin on the control of aphids, the number of their natural enemies and the emergence rate and yield of wheat during 2011-2014. Imidacloprid and clothianidin seed treatments had no effect on the emergence rate of winter wheat and could prevent yield losses and wheat aphid infestations throughout the winter wheat growing season. Furthermore, their active ingredients were detected in winter wheat leaves up to 200 days after sowing. Imidacloprid and clothianidin seed treatments had no adverse effects on ladybirds, hoverflies or parasitoids, and instead increased the spider-aphid ratios. Wheat seeds treated with imidacloprid and clothianidin were effective against wheat aphids throughout the winter wheat growing season and reduced the yield loss under field conditions. Imidacloprid and clothianidin seed treatments may be an important component of the integrated management of wheat aphids on winter wheat. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Effect of Sowing Date on Some Agronomic Characteristics and Seed Yield of Winter Wheat Cultivars

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    A. Ganbari

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of sowing dates on yield, yield components and some agronomic characteristics of four winter wheat cultivars and also their phenological changes, a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was carried out at the Agriculture Research Station of Ardabil (Iran during 2009 growing season. First factor consisted of four wheat cultivars (Azar2, Sabalan, Sardari and Zagros and second factor consisted of four sowing dates (1st, 10th, 20th and 30th of September. The results showed that sowing date had significant effect on the number of spikes, the number of seed per spike, 1000-seed weight, germination percentage, days to spike appearance, days to ripening, growing degree days, biological yield, seed yield and harvest index. The highest and lowest seed yields of wheat were obtained from sowing date of the September the first (4616 kg/ha and sowing date of September 30th (2197 kg/ha respectively. Delaying planting decreased the number of spikes per m2 and 1000-seed weight. Cultivars had significant effect on all of the traits measured, except leaf number, fertile and non-fertilie tillers. The highest and the lowest seed yields were obtained from Sabalan (4750 kg/ha and Zagros (2757 kg/ha cultivars respectively. Interaction of sowing date and cultivar were significant on all of traits measured, except stem height, the leaf number, the number of spikes, 1000-seed weight and seed yield (P

  4. Seed rate and nitrogen fertilizer effects on wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L. and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. competition

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    karim moosavi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate wild mustard competitive effect on winter wheat, an additive series experiment was conducted in 2000-2001 at Agricultural Research Station of Mashhad University.The experiment had 3 factor: wheat seed rate (175 , 215 and 255 kg/ha, nitrogen rate (150 and 225 kg/ha, and a range of wild mustard densities. Hyperbolic functions was used to describe yield-weed density relationship. Increasing wild mustard density had a negative , asymptotic – type effect on wheat biomass and grain yield. By increasing wheat seed rate , in optimum nitrogen rate , maximum wheat biomas loss has reduced about 51 %. Maximum yield loss has increased from 42.1 % to 50.4 %, as nitrogen rate incrased from optimum to upper optimum rate of wheat. By increasing of wheat seed rate from 175 to 255 kg/ha, maximum tiller number reduction due to high densities of wild mustard, has decreased by 54 %. Reduction of fertile tiller number was mostly occurred at presence of high nitrogen level, thus, reduction of fertile tiller number compared to control in N1 was 18% , while in N2 has increased to 30%. Wild mustard competition has reduced wheat seed number per ear 30% in compare to weed free control. Results show that wheat 1000 seed weight was more affected by nitrogen rate than plant densities. Apparently, in competition with wheat, wild mustard was better able to utilize the added nitrogen and thus gained a competitive adventage over the wheat.

  5. Genotype, environment, seeding rate, and top-dressed nitrogen effects on end-use quality of modern Nebraska winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatta, Madhav; Regassa, Teshome; Rose, Devin J; Baenziger, P Stephen; Eskridge, Kent M; Santra, Dipak K; Poudel, Rachana

    2017-12-01

    Fine-tuning production inputs such as seeding rate, nitrogen (N), and genotype may improve end-use quality of hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivium L.) when growing conditions are unpredictable. Studies were conducted at the Agronomy Research Farm (ARF; Lincoln, NE, USA) and the High Plains Agricultural Laboratory (HPAL; Sidney, NE, USA) in 2014 and 2015 in Nebraska, USA, to determine the effects of genotype (6), environment (4), seeding rate (3), and flag leaf top-dressed N (0 and 34 kg N ha -1 ) on the end-use quality of winter wheat. End-use quality traits were influenced by environment, genotype, seeding rate, top-dressed N, and their interactions. Mixograph parameters had a strong correlation with grain volume weight and flour yield. Doubling the recommended seeding rate and N at the flag leaf stage increased grain protein content by 8.1% in 2014 and 1.5% in 2015 at ARF and 4.2% in 2014 and 8.4% in 2015 at HPAL. The key finding of this research is that increasing seeding rates up to double the current recommendations with N at the flag leaf stage improved most of the end-use quality traits. This will have a significant effect on the premium for protein a farmer could receive when marketing wheat. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. The Impact of Sowing Technology on Ponderal Features of Winter Wheat Seeds in Timişoara

    OpenAIRE

    Marcela Dragoş; Paul Pîrşan

    2011-01-01

    Wheat is a grass, originally from the Fertile Crescent region of the Near East, but now cultivated worldwide. The paper presents the results obtained in the last two years of experience, about the influence of sowing technology on the ponderal features of the winter wheat seeds. The experimental parcels were laid down in a randomized complete block design with three replications in the pedo-climatic conditions of Timişoara. The purpose of the research is to determine the influence of some sow...

  7. Influence of forecrop and chemical seed treatment on the occurrence of take-all (Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici on winter wheat

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    Zbigniew Weber

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The work was done in years 1998/1999 - 2000/2001 on plantations and field plot experiments. Aim of the work was evaluation of take-all occurrence on winter wheat in milk-wax growth stage in dependence on forecrop (oilseed rape, wheat or barley as well as seed treatment with Latitude 125 FS when wheat was planted on fields after wheat or barley. Percentage of infected plants when seeds were not treated with Latitude 125 FS varied from 82-100 on fields after wheat or barley, and 54-69 on fields after oilseed rape. In treatments with wheat grown after wheat or barley the percentage of infected plants amounted 20-100 when seeds were not treated with Latitude 125 FS and 13-86 when seeds were treated with Latitude 125 FS. Mean degree of infection was low when percentage of infected plants was low and high when percentage of infected plants was high.

  8. The Impact of Sowing Technology on Ponderal Features of Winter Wheat Seeds in Timişoara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Dragoş

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Wheat is a grass, originally from the Fertile Crescent region of the Near East, but now cultivated worldwide. The paper presents the results obtained in the last two years of experience, about the influence of sowing technology on the ponderal features of the winter wheat seeds. The experimental parcels were laid down in a randomized complete block design with three replications in the pedo-climatic conditions of Timişoara. The purpose of the research is to determine the influence of some sowing links on the thousand grain mass and hectoliter mass. The average data obtained after two years of study indicate an increase of about 2 % of the thousand grain mass and hectoliter mass on the second sowing period (16-31 Octoberand a distinctive decrease of 2-3% on the fourth sowing period(16-30 November. During the two years of experience the row distance and the sowing density had a negative impact on both thousand grain mass and hectoliter mass in both variants compared with the control variant, the difference being statistical significant.

  9. New winter hardy winter bread wheat cultivar (Triticum aestivum L. Voloshkova

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    Л. М. Голик

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Creation of Initial raw for breeding of winter wheat by change of the development type under low temperatures influence was described. Seeds of spring wheat were vernalized in aluminum weighting bottle. By using low temperatures at sawing of M2-6 at the begin ind of optimal terms of sawing of winter wheat, new winter-hardy variety of Voloshkova was bred.

  10. Uptake of and follow-up supply with [benzene ring-U-14C]triademinol via the caryopsis and from dressed zones after seed treatment of winter barley and winter wheat using a dry dressing formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thielert, W.

    1984-11-01

    The paper on hand studies the following issues: 1) What is the course of uptake of the agent and/or its metabolites into the plant following dry seed treatment of winter barley and winter wheat with [benzene ring-U- 14 C] triadimenol and sowing in the top-soil of a loess-based grey-brown podzolic soil. 2) What is the relevance of uptake and follow-up supply from the dressed zones of plants in neighbouring rows. 3) What is the extent of uptake and follow-up supply via the roots from dressed zones of neighbouring plants within the same row. 4) What is the course of dressed-zone formation following dry treatment of winter barley and winter wheat and sowing in the top-soil of a loess-based grey-brown podzolic soil. 5) What is the quantitative distribution of the agent on the pericarp of winter wheat caryopses following dry seed treatment. 6) Will the 14 C-labelled agent be taken up, too, via the caryopsis and be translocated in scion and root. 7) What are the pathways of the agent from the caryopsis into the embryo. 8) How long will follow-up supply via the scutellum continue. The results concerning issues 1 to 4 were taken from tests with field lysimeters. Experiments concerning issues 6-8 were performed without soil in an climatic chamber. (orig./MG) [de

  11. Effects of amount and timing of nitrogen application and weed density on wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis seed production in winter wheat

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    mehdi rastgoo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of amount and timing of nitrogen application and weed density on wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis seed production in winter wheat, an experiment was conducted in 2001 at Research station of college of agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. A Split plot design with three replications were used with factorial combination of weed density (0, 8, 16, and 32 plant/m2 and nitrogen (low=100, optimum= 150, and high= 225 Kg/ha as main plots.The sub plot factor included nitrogen splitting pattern (P1=1/3 at planting time+2/3 at tillering, P2= 1/3 at planting time + 1/3 at tillering + 1/3 at shooting. According to the results, wild mustard seed production increased with increasing wild mustard density and nitrogen rates, due to high wild mustard biomass production. Seed production of wild mustard was 161, 311, and 488 million/ha in low, optimum and high nitrogen rates, respectively. In the other hand, density and nitrogen rates had a significant effect on wild mustard fecundity. However, nitrogen splitting pattern showed no significant effect on wild mustard seed production.

  12. Nitrogen uptake, nitrate leaching and root development in winter-grown wheat and fodder radish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Hansen, Elly Møller; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag

    2017-01-01

    Early seeding of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has been proposed as a means to reduce N leaching as an alternative to growing cover crops like fodder radish (Raphanus sativus L.). The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of winter wheat, seeded early and normally, and of fodder...

  13. Mechanical weed control in organic winter wheat

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    Euro Pannacci

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Three field experiments were carried out in organic winter wheat in three consecutive years (exp. 1, 2005-06; exp. 2, 2006- 07; exp. 3, 2007-08 in central Italy (42°57’ N - 12°22’ E, 165 m a.s.l. in order to evaluate the efficacy against weeds and the effects on winter wheat of two main mechanical weed control strategies: i spring tine harrowing used at three different application times (1 passage at T1, 2 passages at the time T1, 1 passage at T1 followed by 1 passage at T1 + 14 days in the crop sowed at narrow (traditional row spacing (0.15 m; and ii split-hoeing and finger-weeder, alone and combined at T1, in the crop sowed at wider row spacing (0.30 m. At the time T1 winter wheat was at tillering and weeds were at the cotyledons-2 true leaves growth stage. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replicates. Six weeks after mechanical treatments, weed ground cover (% was rated visually using the Braun-Blanquet coverabundance scale; weeds on three squares (0.6×0.5 m each one per plot were collected, counted, weighed, dried in oven at 105°C to determine weed density and weed above-ground dry biomass. At harvest, wheat ears density, grain yield, weight of 1000 seeds and hectolitre weight were recorded. Total weed flora was quite different in the three experiments. The main weed species were: Polygonum aviculare L. (exp. 1 and 2, Fallopia convolvulus (L. Á. Löve (exp. 1 and 3, Stachys annua (L. L. (exp. 1, Anagallis arvensis L. (exp. 2, Papaver rhoeas L. (exp.3, Veronica hederifolia L. (exp. 3. In the winter wheat sowed at narrow rows, 2 passages with spring-tine harrowing at the same time seems to be the best option in order to reconcile a good efficacy with the feasibility of treatment. In wider rows spacing the best weed control was obtained by split hoeing alone or combined with finger-weeder. The grain yield, on average 10% higher in narrow rows, the lower costs and the good selectivity of spring-tine harrowing

  14. Incorporating Yearly Derived Winter Wheat Maps Into Winter Wheat Yield Forecasting Model

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    Skakun, S.; Franch, B.; Roger, J.-C.; Vermote, E.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Justice, C.; Santamaría-Artigas, A.

    2016-01-01

    Wheat is one of the most important cereal crops in the world. Timely and accurate forecast of wheat yield and production at global scale is vital in implementing food security policy. Becker-Reshef et al. (2010) developed a generalized empirical model for forecasting winter wheat production using remote sensing data and official statistics. This model was implemented using static wheat maps. In this paper, we analyze the impact of incorporating yearly wheat masks into the forecasting model. We propose a new approach of producing in season winter wheat maps exploiting satellite data and official statistics on crop area only. Validation on independent data showed that the proposed approach reached 6% to 23% of omission error and 10% to 16% of commission error when mapping winter wheat 2-3 months before harvest. In general, we found a limited impact of using yearly winter wheat masks over a static mask for the study regions.

  15. Exogenous abscisic acid application during grain filling in winter wheat improves cold tolerance of offspring's seedlings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, X.; Cai, J.; Liu, Fulai

    2014-01-01

    Low temperature seriously depresses seed germination and seedling growth in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In this study, wheat plants were sprayed with abscisic acid (ABA) and fluridone (inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis) at 19 days after anthesis (DAA) and repeated at 26 DAA. The seeds of those...

  16. Control of seedling blight in winter wheat by seed treatments - impact on emergence, crop stand, yield and deoxynivalenol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lise N; K. Nielsen, Linda; Nielsen, Bent J

    2012-01-01

    germination by approximately 100%, which led to an improved crop stand and yield increases in the range of 1.2–1.5 tonnes ha−1. Attacks of Fusarium head blight were relatively slight in the two trials and the content of deoxynivalenol was below the EU limits of 1250 ppb in the harvested grain. Even so, seed...

  17. The influence of sowing period and seeding norm on autumn vegetation, winter hardiness and yield of winter cereal crops

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    Potapova G. N.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available the winter wheat and triticale in the middle part of the Ural Mountains haven’t been seeded before. The technology of winter crop cultivation should be improved due to the production of new varieties of winter rye. Winter hardiness and yield of winter rye are higher in comparison with winter triticale and especially with winter wheat. The sowing period and the seeding rate influence the amount of yield and winter hardiness. The winter hardiness of winter cereals and the yield of the rye variety Iset sowed on August 25 and the yield of the triticale variety Bashkir short-stalked and wheat Kazanskaya 560 sowed on August 15 were higher. It is important to sow winter grain in local conditions in the second half of August. The sowing this period allows to provide plants with the necessary amount of positive temperatures (450–500 °C. This helps the plants to form 3–4 shoots of tillering and a mass of 10 dry plants reaching 3–5 grams. The winter grain crops in the middle part of the Ural Mountains should be sown with seeding rates of 6 and 7 million of sprouting grains per 1 ha, and the seeds must be cultivated with fungicidal preparation before seeding.

  18. Mechanical weed control in organic winter wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Euro Pannacci; Francesco Tei; Marcello Guiducci

    2017-01-01

    Three field experiments were carried out in organic winter wheat in three consecutive years (exp. 1, 2005-06; exp. 2, 2006- 07; exp. 3, 2007-08) in central Italy (42°57’ N - 12°22’ E, 165 m a.s.l.) in order to evaluate the efficacy against weeds and the effects on winter wheat of two main mechanical weed control strategies: i) spring tine harrowing used at three different application times (1 passage at T1, 2 passages at the time T1, 1 passage at T1 followed by 1 passage at T1 + 14 days) in t...

  19. Postharvest tillage reduces Downy Brome infestations in winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Pacific Northwest, downy brome continues to infest winter wheat producing regions especially in low-rainfall areas where the winter wheat-summer fallow rotation is the dominate production system. In Washington, a study was conducted for 2 years at each of two locations in the winter wheat -su...

  20. Winter Wheat Root Growth and Nitrogen Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Irene Skovby

    in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L). Field experiments on the effect of sowing date, N fertilization and cultivars were conducted on a sandy loam soil in Taastrup, Denmark. The root studies were conducted by means of the minirhizotron method. Also, a field experiment on the effect of defoliation and N...

  1. Yield and grain quality of winter wheat under Southern Steppe of Ukraine growing conditions

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    М. М. Корхова

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of three years study of the effect of sowing time and seed application rates on yield and grain quality of different varieties of winter wheat under the conditions of South Steppe of Ukraine were presented. It was found that winter wheat provides optimal combination of high yield and grain quality in case of sowing in October 10 with seed application rate of 5,0 million seeds/ha. The highest yield – 4,59 t/ha on average in 2011–2013 was obtained for the variety of Natalka when sowing in October 10 with seed application rate  of 5 million germinable seeds. With increasing seed application rate from 3 to 5 million seeds/ha, protein content in winter wheat was decreased by 0,3%, gluten – by 0,6%. The variety Natalka  formed the highest quality grains when sowing in October 20 with seed application rate of 3 million seeds/ha, in this case protein content was 15,8%, gluten – 32,9%. It is proved that early sowing time  – September 10 leads to yields reduction and grain   quality deterioration for all winter wheat varieties.

  2. Flowering time control in European winter wheat

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    Simon Martin Langer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Flowering time is an important trait in wheat breeding as it affects adaptation and yield potential. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic architecture of flowering time in European winter bread wheat cultivars. To this end a population of 410 winter wheat varieties was evaluated in multi-location field trials and genotyped by a genotyping-by-sequencing approach and candidate gene markers. Our analyses revealed that the photoperiod regulator Ppd-D1 is the major factor affecting flowering time in this germplasm set, explaining 58% of the genotypic variance. Copy number variation at the Ppd-B1 locus was present but explains only 3.2% and thus a comparably small proportion of genotypic variance. By contrast, the plant height loci Rht-B1 and Rht-D1 had no effect on flowering time. The genome-wide scan identified six QTL which each explain only a small proportion of genotypic variance and in addition we identified a number of epistatic QTL, also with small effects. Taken together, our results show that flowering time in European winter bread wheat cultivars is mainly controlled by Ppd-D1 while the fine tuning to local climatic conditions is achieved through Ppd-B1 copy number variation and a larger number of QTL with small effects.

  3. Selection of high hectolitre weight mutants of winter wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley, C.; Jones, P.

    1989-01-01

    Grain quality in wheat includes hectolitre weight (HLW) besides protein content and thousand-grain weight (TGW). The British winter wheat variety ''Guardian'' has a very high yield potential. Although the long grain of ''Guardian'' results in a desirable high TGW the HLW is too low. To select mutants exhibiting increased HLW the character was first analyzed to identify traits that could more easily be screened for using M 2 seeds. In comparison of 6 wheat cultivars, correlation analyses with HLW resulted in coefficients of -0.86 (grain length, L:P 2 seeds for shorter, less prolate grains. Mutagenesis was carried out using EMS sulphonate (1.8 or 3.6%), sodium azide (2 or 20 mM) or X-rays (7.5 or 20 kR). 69 M 2 grains with altered shape were selected. Examination of the M 3 progeny confirmed 6 grain-shape mutants, most of them resulting from EMS treatment (Table). Two of the mutants showed TGW values significantly below the parental variety, but three mutants exhibited HLW and TGW values significantly greater than those of the parental variety. Microplot yield trails on selected M 3 lines are in progress. The influence of physical grain characteristics on HLW offers prospects for mechanical fractionation of large M 2 populations. The application of gravity separators (fractionation on the basis of grain density) and sieves (fractionation on the basis of grain length) in screening mutants possessing improved grain quality is being investigated

  4. NS Pudarka: A new winter wheat cultivar

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    Hristov Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-yielding, medium late winter wheat cultivar NS Pudarka was developed by crossing genetic divergent parents: line NMNH-07 and cv. NS 40S and Simonida. In cultivar NS Pudarka genes responsible for high yield potential, very good technological quality, resistance to lodging, low temperature and diseases, were successfully combined. It was registered by Ministry of agriculture, forestry and water management of Serbia Republic in 2013. This cultivar has wide adaptability and stability of yield that enable growing in different environments with optimal agricultural practice. On the base of technological quality this cultivar belongs to the second quality class, A2 farinograph subgroup and second technological group.

  5. Regularity of mitosis in different varieties of winter bread wheat under the action of herbicides

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    Tatyana Eugenivna KOPYTCHUK

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the most widespread herbicides on winter wheat in Ukraine was studied by anaphase test. Treatment with herbicides reduced the germination of the seeds and disturbed the regularity of mitosis in all varieties of wheat. The range of violations of mitosis was demonstrated by the formation of chromosomal aberrations and dysfunctions of cell cytoskeleton which occurred while processing herbicides. Varietal differences between investigated wheat by sensitivity to herbicides were discovered. The most resistant to herbicides was variety Fantasya Odesskaya, and the most sensitive – Nikoniya, while the most harmful herbicide for wheat was Napalm.

  6. Weed seed germination in winter cereals under contrasting tillage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scherner, Ananda

    2015-01-01

    to accumulate in the top soil layer and timing of herbicide applications sometimes seems to target the emergence pattern of these weeds poorly. In contrast to the management of most diseases and pests, weed management should be considered in a time frame. The abilities to produce above and below ground...... of weeds. An important component in IWM is to understand and ultimately predict weed emergence patterns in relation to the cropping system and the tillage method applied. A better understanding of the cumulative emergence patterns of weed species in winter crops under different tillage regimes will help......Grass weeds and Gallium aparine are major weed problems in North European arable cropping systems with high proportions of winter crops, especially winter wheat (Clarke et al., 2000; Melander et al., 2008). Problems are accentuated where inverting tillage is omitted, as weed seeds tend...

  7. Wheat seed system in Ethiopia: Farmers' varietal perception, seed sources, and seed management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishaw, Z.; Struik, P.C.; Gastel, van A.J.G.

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge and information on farmers' perception and its influence on adoption of modern wheat varieties, awareness and source of new wheat production technology, wheat seed sources, and on-farm seed-management practices remain sporadic in Ethiopia. This study was conducted to understand the

  8. Genetic Architecture of Anther Extrusion in Spring and Winter Wheat

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    Quddoos H. Muqaddasi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid wheat breeding is gaining prominence worldwide because it ensures higher and more static yield than conventionally bred varieties. The cleistogamous floral architecture of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. impedes anthers inside the floret, making it largely an inbreeder. For hybrid seed production, high anther extrusion is needed to promote cross pollination and to ensure a high level of pollen availability for the seed plant. This study, therefore, aimed at the genetic dissection of anther extrusion (AE in panels of spring (SP, and winter wheat (WP accessions by genome wide association studies (GWAS. We performed GWAS to identify the SNP markers potentially linked with AE in each panel separately. Phenotypic data were collected for 3 years for each panel. The average levels of Pearson's correlation (r among all years and their best linear unbiased estimates (BLUEs within both panels were high (r(SP = 0.75, P < 0.0001;r(WP = 0.72, P < 0.0001. Genotypic data (with minimum of 0.05 minor allele frequency applied included 12,066 and 12,191 SNP markers for SP and WP, respectively. Both genotypes and environment influenced the magnitude of AE. In total, 23 significant (|log10(P| > 3.0 marker trait associations (MTAs were detected (SP = 11; WP = 12. Anther extrusion behaved as a complex trait with significant markers having either favorable or unfavorable additive effects and imparting minor to moderate levels of phenotypic variance (R2(SP = 9.75−14.24%; R2 (WP = 9.44−16.98%. All mapped significant markers as well as the markers within their significant linkage disequilibrium (r2 ≥ 0.30 regions were blasted against wheat genome assembly (IWGSC1+popseq to find the corresponding genes and their high confidence descriptions were retrieved. These genes and their orthologs in Hordeum vulgare, Brachypodium distachyon, Oryza sativa, and Sorghum bicolor revealed syntenic genomic regions potentially involved in flowering-related traits. Moreover, the

  9. Soluble carbohydrates in cereal (wheat, rye, triticale seed after storage under accelerated ageing conditions

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    Agnieszka I. Piotrowicz-Cieślak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Germinability and the content of soluble carbohydrates were analysed in cereal seed (winter rye, cv. Warko; spring wheat, cv. Santa; hexaploid winter triticale, cv. Fidelio and cv. Woltario. Seed moisture content (mc was equilibrated over silica gel to 0.08 g H2O/g dry mass and stored in a desiccator at 20oC for up to 205 weeks or were equilibrated to mc 0.06, 0.08 or 0.10 g H2O/g dm and subjected to artificial aging at 35oC in air-tight laminated aluminium foil packages for 205 weeks. It was shown that the rate of seed aging depended on the species and seed moisture content. The fastest decrease of germinability upon storage was observed in seed with the highest moisture level. Complete germinability loss for winter rye, winter triticale cv. Fidelio, winter triticale cv. Woltario and spring wheat seed with mc 0.10 g H2O/g dm3 occurred after 81, 81, 101 and 133 weeks, respectively. Fructose, glucose, galactose, myo-inositol, sucrose, galactinol, raffinose, stachyose and verbascose were the main soluble carbohydrates found in the seed. The obtained data on the contents of specific sugars and the composition of soluble sugars fraction in seed of rye, wheat and triticale did not corroborate any profound effect of reducing sugars, sucrose and oligosaccharides on seed longevity.

  10. The Effect of Seed Size on Seed Vigor Indices of Different Wheat Cultivars

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    H Tavakoli Kakhki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Germination and beneficial seedling establishment is affected by different seed vigor indices. In order to study the effect of seed size on seed vigor indices of wheat, a factorial experiment with two factors was conducted in a completely randomized design with four replications at the Agricultural Natural Resources Research Center Lab of Khorasan Razavi. The first factor was thirteen genotypes of wheat in three types of growth, containing winter, facultative and spring and the second factor was seed size in four levels including 3, 2.5, 2 and 1.5 millimeter. Germination percentage, germination rate, shoots and root length, seedling growth rate and shoot:root length ratio characteristics were investigated. Analysis of variance showed that the effect of wheat cultivars and seed size on traits was significant (p≤ 0.01 but interaction effect of seed size and wheat cultivar was significant (p≤ 0.01 only for shoot and root length, seedling growth rate and shoot:root length ratio. The highest and lowest seedling growth rate was (15.85 and 8.23 mg dry weight/germinal seedling that they were related to 3 and 1.5mm seed size, respectively. According to these observations the most and least percentage and germination rate was related to these seed size treatments. Correlation coefficient of seed size and seedling growth rate was highly significant (r=0.85 p≤ 0.01. Stepwise regression method indicated that the seed size (x1 and shoot length (x2 as independent variables could be described (r2=0.84 seedling growth rate as a dependent variable in y= -5.000955+(5.128078x1+(0.78494x2 equation. Keywords: Seedling growth rate, Germination rate, Correlation, Regression

  11. Wheat and barley seed systems in Ethiopia and Syria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishaw, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Wheat,Triticumspp., Barley,Hordeumvulgare L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality,

  12. Evaluation of 14 winter bread wheat genotypes in normal irrigation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of 14 winter bread wheat genotypes in normal irrigation and stress conditions after anthesis stage. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Using biplot graphic method, comparison of indices amounts and mean rating of indices for ...

  13. Bread-Making Quality of Standard Winter Wheat Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Ćurić, Duška; Novotni, Dubravka; Bauman, Ingrid; Krička, Tajana; Jukić, Željko; Voća, Neven; Kiš, Darko

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to define an impact of the cultivar, year and cultivation area of the standard Croatian winter wheat on the bread-making quality. The bread-making quality of cultivars ‘Divana’, ‘Žitarka’ and ‘Sana’ from the crop years 1998, 2000, 2002, 2004 and 2006, and from Zagreb and Osijek location was analyzed. Wheat from the cultivar tests cultivated under the same agro technological conditions was used for this testing. The tested winter wheat bread-making quality primari...

  14. 100-year history of the development of bread winter wheat breeding programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. А. Литвиненко

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Review of the main achievements of the Wheat Breeding and Seed ProductionDepartment in the Plant Breeding and Genetic Institute – National Centre of Seed and Cultivar Investigation in the developing theoretical principles of breeding and creation of winter wheat varieties of different types during 100-year (1916–2016 period of breeding programs realization. Results. The main theoretical, methodical developments and breeding achievements of Wheat Breeding and Seed Production Department during 100-year (1916–2016 history have been considered. In the course of the Department activity, the research and metho­dology grounds of bread winter wheat breeding and seed production have been laid, 9 stages of breeding programs development have been accomplished. As a result, more than 130 varieties of different types have been created, 87 of them have been released in some periods or registered in the State registers of plants varieties of Ukraine and other countries and grown in the total sowing area about 220 million hectares.

  15. Research on spatial distribution of photosynthetic characteristics of Winter Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Q. Q.; Zhou, Q. Y.; Zhang, B. Z.; Han, X.; Han, N. N.; Li, S. M.

    2018-03-01

    In order to explore the spatial distribution of photosynthetic characteristics of winter wheat leaf, the photosynthetic rate on different parts of leaf (leaf base-leaf middle-leaf apex) and that on each canopy (top layer-middle layer-bottom layer) leaf during the whole growth period of winter wheat were measured. The variation of photosynthetic rate with PAR and the spatial distribution of winter wheat leaf during the whole growth periods were analysed. The results showed that the photosynthetic rate of different parts of winter wheat increased with the increase of PAR, which was showed as leaf base>leaf middle>leaf apex. In the same growth period, photosynthetic rate in different parts of the tablet was showed as leaf middle>leaf base>leaf apex. For the different canopy layer of winter wheat, the photosynthetic rate of the top layer leaf was significantly greater than that of the middle layer and lower layer leaf. The photosynthetic rate of the top layer leaf was the largest in the leaf base position. The photosynthetic rate of leaf of the same canopy layer at different growth stages were showed as tasseling stage >grain filling stage > maturation stage.

  16. Induction of chilling tolerance in wheat during germination by pre-soaking seed with nitric oxide and gibberellin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiangnan; Jiang, Haidong; Liu, Fulai

    2013-01-01

    Chilling depresses seed germination and seedling establishment, and is one major constraint to grain yield formation in late sown winter wheat. Seeds of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were separately pre-soaked with sodium nitroprusside (SNP, as nitric oxide donor) and Gibberellic acid (GA3...... by exogenous NO and GA3 as a result of improved seed germination and maintenance of better reactive oxygen species homeostasis in seedling growing under chilling temperatures. It is indicated that exogenous NO was more effective than GA3 in alleviating chilling stress during seed germination and seedling...

  17. Estimating winter survival of winter wheat by simulations of plant frost tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergjord Olsen, A.K.; Persson, T.; Wit, de A.; Nkurunziza, L.; Sindhøj, E.; Eckersten, H.

    2018-01-01

    Based on soil temperature, snow depth and the grown cultivar's maximum attainable level of frost tolerance (LT50c), the FROSTOL model simulates development of frost tolerance (LT50) and winter damage, thereby enabling risk calculations for winter wheat survival. To explore the accuracy of this

  18. Root development of fodder radish and winter wheat before winter in relation to uptake of nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlström, Ellen Margrethe; Hansen, Elly Møller; Mandel, A.

    2015-01-01

    occurred. Quantitative data is missing on N leaching of a catch crop compared to a winter cereal in a conventional cereal-based cropping system. The aim of the study was to investigate whether fodder radish (Raphanus sativus L.) (FR) would be more efficient than winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (WW...

  19. Seed abnormalities and associated mycoflora of rain- fed wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    seeds with discoloured embryo (germ) (1.2 – 1.5%) and brush (0.25 – 1.25%) ends. Fusarium graminearum and Helminthosporium sativum were associated with all seeds, ... Key words: Fungi, seed health testing, seed discolouration, wheat. INTRODUCTION. Abnormality in seeds is a major constraint in crop production in ...

  20. A model for making field-based nitrogen recommendations for winter wheat in western oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, D.M.; Malghani, M.A.K.; Khan, M.A.; Kakar, E.

    2010-01-01

    A model based on early spring soil and tissue analysis was developed and evaluated for predicting the need for additional nitrogen (N) fertilizer on winter wheat. To develop the model, On-farm trials were' established over three years 1994-95 in grower's fields at three different locations across the Willamette Valley of western Oregon. Two field-scale validation trials were run in 1996-97. Rotations were soft white winter wheat following grass seed, sweet corn or a legume. Four treatments, including a check receiving no nitrogen, were used at each site At the site where wheat followed corn, the predicted optimum N rate was 168 kg N ha/sup -1/ however, the 112 kg N ha/sup -1/ rate was the optimum rate predicted by the developed model. The 84 kgN ha/sup -1/ and 140 kgN ha/sup -1/ rates were selected to bracket the recommended rate (+- 28 kg N ha/sup -1/). Wheat following grass seed had high soil supplied N which depressed the yield even at moderate fertilizer N rates. The model overall accurately assess field-specific optimum fertilizer N status. (author)

  1. Sustainable use of winter Durum wheat landraces under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the two checks cultivars. Bi- plot analysis showed that some promising lines with reasonable grain yields, good quality parameters, winter hardiness and drought tolerances among yellow rust resistance durum wheat landraces can be selected for semiarid conditions of Mediterranean countries for sustainable production.

  2. Investigation of rheological properties of winter wheat varieties during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Móré M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the results of some experimental researches on the rheological characteristics of the dough obtained from the flour of three winter wheat varieties. We used valorigraph test to determine the rheological properties of wheat flour dough, because it determines the quality of the end-products. Winter wheat varieties (Lupus, Mv Toldi and GK Csillag were produced and their samples were collected on Látókép Research Farm of the University of Debrecen in the crop year of 2011/2012. We have carried out a short-term storage experiment (from July to August, 2012. We analysed the changes in water absorption capacity, dough stability time and valorigraph quality number for 3 times (24.07.2012, 31.07.2012, 21.08.2012 during short-term storage. Our results showed that the baking quality of Lupus, Mv Toldi and GK Csillag improved during the storage period.

  3. Summer fallow soil management - impact on rainfed winter wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Fucui; Wang, Zhaohui; Dai, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Summer fallow soil management is an important approach to improve soil and crop management in dryland areas. In the Loess Plateau regions, the annual precipitation is low and varies annually and seasonally, with more than 60% concentrated in the summer months from July to September, which...... is the summer fallow period in the winter wheat-summer fallow cropping system. With bare fallow in summer as a control, a 3-year location-fixed field experiment was conducted in the Loess Plateau to investigate the effects of wheat straw retention (SR), green manure (GM) planting, and their combination on soil...... water retention (WR) during summer fallow, winter wheat yield, and crop water use and nitrogen (N) uptake. The results showed that SR increased soil WR during summer fallow by 20 mm on average compared with the control over 3 experimental years but reduced the grain yield by 8% in the third year...

  4. Chromosomal rearrangements caused by gamma-irradiation in winter wheat cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Nazarenko

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article we report the results of our investigation into several cytogenetic parameters of variability in mutation induction of modern winter wheat varieties and some connections between the means of cytogenetic indices and different doses of gamma-rays. Analysis of chromosomal aberrations following the action of any kind of mutagen by the anaphases method is one of the most widely investigated and most precise methods which can be used to determine the fact of mutagenic action on plants and identify the nature of the mutagen. We combined in our investigation the sensitivity of genotype to mutagen using cytological analysis of mutagen treated wheat populations with the corresponding different varieties by breeding methods to reveal its connections and differences, specific sensitivity to mutagens action on the cell level. Dry seeds of 8 varieties of winter wheat were subjected to 100, 150, 200, 250 Gy gamma irradiation, which are trivial for winter wheat mutation breeding. We investigated rates and spectra of chromosomal aberrations in the cells of winter wheat primary roots tips. The coefficients of correlations amid the rate of chromosomal aberrations and the dose of gamma-rays were on the level 0.8–0.9. The fragments/bridges ratio is a clear and sufficient index for determining the nature of the mutagen agent. We distinguished the following types of chromosomal rearrangements: chromatid and chromosome bridges, single and double fragments, micronuclei, and delayed chromosomes. The ratio of chromosomal aberrations changes with the change in mutagen; note that bridge-types are characteristic of irradiation. Radiomutants are more resistant to gamma rays. This is apparent in the lower rate of chromosomal aberrations. Varieties obtained by chemical mutagenesis (varieties Sonechko, Kalinova are more sensitive to gamma-irradiation than others. We propose these varieties as objects for a mutation breeding programme and radiation of mutants

  5. Wheat seed enhancement by vitamin and hormonal priming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.B.; Gurchani, M.A.; Hussain, M.

    2011-01-01

    Seed priming has proven beneficial in many important agricultural crops. The present study was conducted to explore the role (if any) of hormonal and vitamin seed priming to improve the germination, seedling emergence, early seedling establishment, electrolyte leakage and nutrients uptake in wheat seedlings. The wheat seeds were soaked for 48 hours in aerated solution of salicylic acid, ascorbic acid, kinetin and GA3 with 20 ppm concentration of each solution, whereas untreated seeds were taken as control. Seed priming with ascorbic acid resulted in maximum final germination and emergence percentage (FGP and FEP), radical and plumule length, root and shoot length, number of secondary roots, root shoot ratio, root dry weight, shoot dry weight and seedling dry weight compared to control (untreated seeds). Minimum mean germination and emergence time (MGT and MET) was recorded in seeds primed with kinetin and GA3. While in case of biochemical attributes, seedling potassium contents were decreased by hormonal seed priming while total soluble sugars were increased by salicylic acid and ascorbic acid seed priming. Hormonal seed priming had non-significant effect on phosphorus seedling contents. Untreated (Control) seeds showed maximum electrical conductivity at 0.5, 1, 2, 6, 12 and 24 h after inbibition than primed seeds against the minimum electrical conductivity that was recorded in seeds primed with salicylic acid and ascorbic acid. In conclusion, the wheat seeds primed with 20 ppm solution of ascorbic acid may be used for wheat seed invigoration. (author)

  6. Sources of Nitrogen for Winter Wheat in Organic Cropping Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Schjønning, Per; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2013-01-01

    mineralizable N (PMN), microbial biomass N (MBN)] were monitored during two growth periods; at one site, biomass C/N ratios were also determined. Soil for labile N analysis was shielded from N inputs during spring application to isolate cumulated system effects. Potentially mineralizable N and MBN were...... explained 76 and 82% of the variation in grain N yields in organic cropping systems in 2007 and 2008, showing significant effects of, respectively, topsoil N, depth of A horizon, cumulated inputs of N, and N applied to winter wheat in manure. Thus, soil properties and past and current management all......In organic cropping systems, legumes, cover crops (CC), residue incorporation, and manure application are used to maintain soil fertility, but the contributions of these management practices to soil nitrogen (N) supply remain obscure. We examined potential sources of N for winter wheat (Triticum...

  7. Production and evaluation of dwarf and semi-dwarf winter wheat mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabas, Z.; Kertesz, Z.

    1984-01-01

    A special research programme for evolving and evaluating dwarf wheat forms resistant to lodging was carried out at the Cereal Research Institute, Wheat Division, Szeged, Hungary. Seed lots of the two tall winter wheat varieties Jubilejnaya 50 and Partizanka were exposed to gamma ray of 60 Co. With irradiation of 15000 rad 60 Co all of M 1 plants grown in the field were almost totally destroyed in 1980 and about 50% in 1982. In the greenhouse the number of lost M 1 plants was insignificant. Only a small number of plants died both in the greenhouse and in the field when they were irradiated with 5000 rad. A treatment with this lower dose of irradiation probably may help the breeders in selection for winter hardiness. 97 dwarf wheat lines already established were analysed for height character by a top cross method using the variety Jubilejnaya 50 as a tester. Height data of the simultaneously grown parental as well as the F 1 and F 2 offsprings indicated that the majority of them were recessive, except 3 cases where dominant or semi-dominant dwarfism was observed. Noteworthy is the Mx 158 a new semi-dwarf variety candidate, 60-65 cm in height at normal stand and resistant to all the main diseases here (powdery mildew and rusts). Its grain and protein production per unit area is also very good. Some genetically lesser-known dwarf sources were investigated in a complete crossing diallel test. (author)

  8. Study on physiological characteristics of winter wheat in drought land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Man Huimin; Yu Guohua; Zhan Shumin; Liu Xin; Zhang Guoshu

    1995-01-01

    Physiological characteristics of winter wheat cultivated in drought land was studied. The results showed that with precipitation of 1 m in the growing period of wheat, it was feasible to use drought cultivation techniques, i.e., increasing the application of P, K and Zn, maintaining the present application of N and increasing the density of wheat plants, to increase the ability of photosynthesis in the parts from the top inter-node above, and a 4900 kg/hm 2 or more of grain yield was obtained. 14 C-assimilate transportation from different parts to grain in drought and irrigating cultivation conditions were 83. 73% and 75.31% respectively. The proline content in flag leaf and the chlorophyll content in the parts from the top inter-node above with drought cultivation were significantly higher than those with normal cultivation

  9. Interactions between fungi colonizing the stem base of winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Wachowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In vitro conditions, the interactions betecen the fungi most frequently isolated from the stem base of winter wheat were determined. These were the species from genus Fusarium (F. culmorum, F. avenaceum and F. poae and Rhizoctonia cerealis, Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides, Alternaria alternata and Aureobasidium bolleyi. Some saprotrophes showed stimulating effect on R. cerealis, P. herpotrichoides and F. poae. Certain species in combined cultures showed exceptionally favourable relationships.

  10. Winter wheat stimulation experiment with irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozo, J.

    1979-01-01

    With respect to the conclusions drawn from this research it is necessary to emphasize that the results relate to one year, and even the statistically proved positive results are insufficient to establish tendencies without considering the aggregated results of one year and other effects. Tha analysis of crop yield shows that a dose of 500 rad is insufficient to induce higher yield. A dose of 1500 rad gave a definite response, and it would be desirable to observe the effects of larger doses, too. The reduction in internal fusarium infection of the grain yield was striking when the seed had been exposed to a dose of 1500 rad. The internal fusarium infection of the grain is a very important factor for both human nutrition and animal feeding. The maximum irradiation dose provided reliable immunity against fusarium infection. (author)

  11. Weed infestation of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. under the conditions of application of some retardants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Harasim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A field study was conducted in the period 2004–2007 on grey-brown podzolic soil (sandy. This study analysed the relationship between the use of stem shortening in cereals by means of retardants with the following active substances: chlormequat chloride (Antywylegacz Płynny 675 SL, trinexapac-ethyl (Moddus 250 EC, chlormequat chloride + ethephon (Cecefon 465 SL, and weed infestation. The retardants were applied at the 1st node stage (BBCH 31 – Antywylegacz Płynny 675 SL and the 2nd node stage of winter wheat (BBCH 32 – Moddus 250 EC and Cecefon 465 SL, together with the adjuvant Atpolan 80 EC (75% of SN 200 mineral oil or without the adjuvant. Winter wheat, cv. 'Muza', was grown after vetch grown for seed. The whole experiment was sprayed with the herbicides Apyros 75 WG and Starane 250 EC at the full tillering stage (BBCH 29–30. Plots where no growth regulators were used were the control treatment. Weed density and biomass showed great variation between years. In the winter wheat crop, Veronica persica, Viola arvensis, Veronica arvensis, Capsella bursa-pastoris,and Chenopodium album dominated in the dicotyledonous class, whereas Apera spica-venti, Echinochloa crus-galli,and Elymus repens were predominant among monocotyledonous plants. The level of weed infestation of the winter wheat crop, as measured by the number and air-dry weight of weeds, was significantly differentiated by years and retardants used as well as by interactions of these factors. The adjuvant Atpolan 80 EC did not have a significant effect on the above-mentioned weed infestation parameters. .

  12. Predicting Pre-planting Risk of Stagonospora nodorum blotch in Winter Wheat Using Machine Learning Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucky eMehra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pre-planting factors have been associated with the late-season severity of Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB, caused by the fungal pathogen Parastagonospora nodorum, in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum. The relative importance of these factors in the risk of SNB has not been determined and this knowledge can facilitate disease management decisions prior to planting of the wheat crop. In this study, we examined the performance of multiple regression (MR and three machine learning algorithms namely artificial neural networks, categorical and regression trees, and random forests (RF in predicting the pre-planting risk of SNB in wheat. Pre-planting factors tested as potential predictor variables were cultivar resistance, latitude, longitude, previous crop, seeding rate, seed treatment, tillage type, and wheat residue. Disease severity assessed at the end of the growing season was used as the response variable. The models were developed using 431 disease cases (unique combinations of predictors collected from 2012 to 2014 and these cases were randomly divided into training, validation, and test datasets. Models were evaluated based on the regression of observed against predicted severity values of SNB, sensitivity-specificity ROC analysis, and the Kappa statistic. A strong relationship was observed between late-season severity of SNB and specific pre-planting factors in which latitude, longitude, wheat residue, and cultivar resistance were the most important predictors. The MR model explained 33% of variability in the data, while machine learning models explained 47 to 79% of the total variability. Similarly, the MR model correctly classified 74% of the disease cases, while machine learning models correctly classified 81 to 83% of these cases. Results show that the RF algorithm, which explained 79% of the variability within the data, was the most accurate in predicting the risk of SNB, with an accuracy rate of 93%. The RF algorithm could allow early

  13. Predicting Pre-planting Risk of Stagonospora nodorum blotch in Winter Wheat Using Machine Learning Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Lucky K; Cowger, Christina; Gross, Kevin; Ojiambo, Peter S

    2016-01-01

    Pre-planting factors have been associated with the late-season severity of Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB), caused by the fungal pathogen Parastagonospora nodorum, in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum). The relative importance of these factors in the risk of SNB has not been determined and this knowledge can facilitate disease management decisions prior to planting of the wheat crop. In this study, we examined the performance of multiple regression (MR) and three machine learning algorithms namely artificial neural networks, categorical and regression trees, and random forests (RF), in predicting the pre-planting risk of SNB in wheat. Pre-planting factors tested as potential predictor variables were cultivar resistance, latitude, longitude, previous crop, seeding rate, seed treatment, tillage type, and wheat residue. Disease severity assessed at the end of the growing season was used as the response variable. The models were developed using 431 disease cases (unique combinations of predictors) collected from 2012 to 2014 and these cases were randomly divided into training, validation, and test datasets. Models were evaluated based on the regression of observed against predicted severity values of SNB, sensitivity-specificity ROC analysis, and the Kappa statistic. A strong relationship was observed between late-season severity of SNB and specific pre-planting factors in which latitude, longitude, wheat residue, and cultivar resistance were the most important predictors. The MR model explained 33% of variability in the data, while machine learning models explained 47 to 79% of the total variability. Similarly, the MR model correctly classified 74% of the disease cases, while machine learning models correctly classified 81 to 83% of these cases. Results show that the RF algorithm, which explained 79% of the variability within the data, was the most accurate in predicting the risk of SNB, with an accuracy rate of 93%. The RF algorithm could allow early assessment of

  14. Regional greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of winter wheat and winter rapeseed for biofuels in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsgaard, Lars; Olesen, Jørgen E; Hermansen, John Erik

    2013-01-01

    Biofuels from bioenergy crops may substitute a significant part of fossil fuels in the transport sector where, e.g., the European Union has set a target of using 10% renewable energy by 2020. Savings of greenhouse gas emissions by biofuels vary according to cropping systems and are influenced...... by such regional factors as soil conditions, climate and input of agrochemicals. Here we analysed at a regional scale the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with cultivation of winter wheat for bioethanol and winter rapeseed for rapeseed methyl ester (RME) under Danish conditions. Emitted CO2 equivalents...

  15. Evaluation of nitrogen uptake patterns in spring and winter wheat in western Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, D.M.; Malghani, M.A.K.; Khan, M.A.; Kakar, E.

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of the ground nitrogen (N) uptake pattern for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is essential to facilitate nitrogen management. The purpose of this study was to determine the nitrogen uptake pattern of spring and winter wheat grown in western Oregon, USA. Data used in this study were obtained from three different trials. For spring wheat rotation trials five spring wheat cultivars were used. Fertilizer N (16-16-16-4) at the rate of 140 kg ha/sup -1/ was applied at the time of planting. In small plot rotation trials five fertilizer treatments - 0, 50, 100,150 and 200 kg N ha/sup -1/ were used. Rotations include winter wheat following clover and winter wheat following oat. The N uptake and dry matter yield of winter wheat were also determined from unfertilized plots of wheat trial. The maximum N uptake for spring wheat and winter wheat were at 1100 and 2000 accumulated growing degree days (GDD), before Feekes 10, respectively. The maximum N uptake rate for spring wheat, 0.038 kg N GDD/sup -1/, occurred at 750 GDD and the peak N uptake was observed approximately 35 days after Feekes 2. Nitrogen uptake in winter wheat was significantly affected by rotations. (author)

  16. Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae agrocenoses of spring and winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Purchart

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available On two monitoring areas of the Central Institute for Supervising and Testing in Agriculture (ÚKZÚZ loaded with risk elements we carried out investigations of beetles of the family Carabidae (Coleoptera in agricultural stands of winter and spring wheat. The focus of the present study is on synecological characteristics and in some extent on the impact of agricultural practise on the population and seasonal dynamics of the most important representatives of ground beetles. This paper precedes the following article aimed to contents of heavy metals in ground beetles.

  17. Efficiency of wheat brassica mixtures with different seed rates in rainfed areas of potohar-pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.; Khan, M.A.; Akmal, M.; Jabeen, A.

    2014-01-01

    Mixed over sole cropping is advantageous under the rainfed conditions in Pakistan. This avoids risk of complete crop failure and may returns higher income. The study aimed to investigate appropriate seed-rates combination for wheat-Brassica as mixed- or intercropped in rainfed conditions. Experiments were conducted at National Agricultural Research Center (NARC), Islamabad Pakistan during winter 2004-05 and 2005-06 using 10 treatments for wheat and Brassica as sole and mixed- or intercropped with 100 and 5 kg ha/sup -1/ for sole crop and 100 kg ha/sup -1/ for wheat with 40, 50, 60, and 70% lower than the recommended for Brassica. Sowing was done in 3rd week of October each year, in lines spaced 30cm. Fertilizer was applied N 48, P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ 34 and K/sub 2/O 18 (kg ha/sup -1/). Brassica was manually removed for fodder at flowering. Seed rate (SR) significantly (p<0.05) affected wheat grain yield. Cropping system (CS) significantly (p<0.05) affected grain yield of Brassica. Interactions of CS and SR were also significant (p<0.05) for both species. Planned mean comparison for grain yield was found significant (p<0.05) for wheat and brassica. Grain yield for sole wheat was 4.28t ha/sup -1/ but reported higher in mixed than intercropped. Grain yield of wheat decreased with increase in seed rate of Brassica as intercropped. Higher grain yield (4.39 t ha/sup -1/) of wheat was recorded for seed rates combinations 100:50 (%) as wheat: Brassica intercropped. The land equivalent ratio (LER) for mixed or intercropped system was higher than the sole crop and it increased with increase in the seed rate of Brassica as mixed crop but decreased as intercropped. The high LER was associated to treatment 100:50 (%) seed rates combination for wheat:Brassica as intercropped. Intercropped resulted the greater LER (1.78) than the mixed crop (1.66) and was found most effective for sustainable production in the rainfed areas for a higher net return. (author)

  18. Study of Winter Wheat Yield Quality Analysis at ARDS Turda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Adrian Ceclan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to study the potential for yield and quality indicators for winter wheat genotypes in terms of pedological and climate condition and applied technology, at ARDS Turda during 2014 – 2015. Depending on the climatic conditions that are associated with applied technology is a decisive factor in successful wheat crop for all genotypes that were studied at Ards Turda during the 2014 – 2016. That’s wy each genotype responded differently to the conditions of the ARDS Turda also through the two levels of fertilisations applied in the winter with fertilizers 20:20:0, 250 kg/ha assuring 50 kg/ha N and P active substance and second level of fertilisations with 150 kg/ha ammonium nitrate assuring 50 kg/ha N active substance. All genotype that were studied in terms of yield and quality indicators were influenced by the fertilization level. The influence of pedo-climatic conditions, applied technologies and fertilizers level at ARDS Turda showed that all genotypes with small yield had higher protein and gluten content respectively Zeleny index.

  19. Winter wheat response to irrigation, nitrogen fertilization, and cold hazards in the Community Land Model 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Winter wheat is a staple crop for global food security, and is the dominant vegetation cover for a significant fraction of earth's croplands. As such, it plays an important role in soil carbon balance, and land-atmosphere interactions in these key regions. Accurate simulation of winter wheat growth is not only crucial for future yield prediction under changing climate, but also for understanding the energy and water cycles for winter wheat dominated regions. A winter wheat growth model has been developed in the Community Land Model 4.5 (CLM4.5), but its responses to irrigation and nitrogen fertilization have not been validated. In this study, I will validate winter wheat growth response to irrigation and nitrogen fertilization at five winter wheat field sites (TXLU, KSMA, NESA, NDMA, and ABLE) in North America, which were originally designed to understand winter wheat response to nitrogen fertilization and water treatments (4 nitrogen levels and 3 irrigation regimes). I also plan to further update the linkages between winter wheat yield and cold hazards. The previous cold damage function only indirectly affects yield through reduction on leaf area index (LAI) and hence photosynthesis, such approach could sometimes produce an unwanted higher yield when the reduced LAI saved more nutrient in the grain fill stage.

  20. Genetics of leaf rust resistance in the hard red winter wheat cultivars Santa Fe and Duster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina is a common and important disease of hard red winter wheat in the Great Plains of the United States. The hard red winter wheat cultivars 'Santa Fe' and 'Duster' have had effective leaf rust resistance since their release in 2003 and 2006, respectively. Both cul...

  1. The impacts of surface ozone pollution on winter wheat productivity in China--An econometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Fujin; Jiang, Fei; Zhong, Funing; Zhou, Xun; Ding, Aijun

    2016-01-01

    The impact of surface ozone pollution on winter wheat yield is empirically estimated by considering socio-economic and weather determinants. This research is the first to use an economic framework to estimate the ozone impact, and a unique county-level panel is employed to examine the impact of the increasing surface ozone concentration on the productivity of winter wheat in China. In general, the increment of surface ozone concentration during the ozone-sensitive period of winter wheat is determined to be harmful to its yield, and a conservative reduction of ozone pollution could significantly increase China's wheat supply. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Study on Prevalence of Mycoflora in Wheat Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratishtha Adhikari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty seed sample of wheat (Triticum aestivum were collected from four locations viz. Chitwan, Kaski, Banke and Lalitpur and tested by blotter method at laboratory during 2013 for determining fungal pathogens associated with wheat seeds in Nepal. Eighteen species representing thirteen genera of fungi were recovered from the seed. Alternaria alternata and Bipolaris sorokiniana were predominant in all the varieties/genotypes from all the locations, where B. sorokiniana was strongly pathogenic in wheat crop. Percentage frequency and type of fungi detected varied with variety and locations. Bipolaris sorokiniana was highest (64.40% in Banke than remaining three locations. Seeds of Chitwan had lowest percentage (5.50% of seed infection as compared to other locations. Relative abundance of Alternaria alternata (55.10% was highest as it was the most prevalent component of seed borne mycoflora, followed by Bipolaris sorokiniana (34.69% and Cladosporium herbarum (7.19%. Differences in quantity of precipitation and relative humidity might be the possible reason for variation in frequency and type of fungi detected in wheat seeds of four locations.

  3. Contribution of allelopathy and competition to weed suppression by winter wheat, triticale and winter rye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiss, Antje; Fomsgaard, Inge S.; Mathiassen, Solvejg Kopp

    Above-ground competition and allelopathy are two of the most dominant mechanisms of plants to subdue their competitors in their closest surroundings. In an agricultural perspective, the suppression of weeds by the crop is of particular interest, as weeds represent the largest yield loss potential...... of competitive traits, such as early vigour, crop height and leaf area index and presence of phytotoxic compounds of the group of benzoxazinoids to weed suppression. Four cultivars of each of the winter cereals wheat, triticale and rye were grown in field experiments at two locations. Soil samples were taken...

  4. Real-time weed detection, decision making and patch spraying in maize, sugarbeet, winter wheat and winter barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerhards, R; Christensen, Svend

    2003-01-01

    with weed infestation levels higher than the economic weed threshold; a review of such work is provided. This paper presents a system for site-specific weed control in sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.), maize (Zea mays L.), winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), including...

  5. Genetic evolution and utilization of wheat germplasm resources in Huanghuai winter wheat region of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiyong, C.; Haixia, X.U.; Feng, C.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the genetic variation of wheat germplasm resources and improve their use in wheat breeding, 215 wheat cultivars and advanced lines from the Huanghuai Wheat Region of China were used to identify 14 agronomic traits and 7 quality traits, as well as the evolution and utilization of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) and low molecular weight-glutenin subunits (LMW-GS). From land race cultivars to current cultivars there had been significant increases in grain numbers spike/sip -1/, grain weight spike/sup -1/, 1000-kernel weight, grain weight plant/sup -1/, spikelet number spike/sup -1/, sterile spikelet numbers spike/sup -1/, flag leaf width, and flag leaf area. There had been significant decreases in spike number plant/sup -1/, plant height, the first inter node length, flag leaf length, kernel protein content and wet gluten content. Based on Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) results, a novel HMW-GS combination 20/8 was identified in 1B chromosome of Chinese landrace cultivar Heputou. Subunits 22, 20/8, 2.2+12, and GluB3a were only found in cultivars before the 1960s, and subunits 6+8, 13+16, 3+12, and 4+12 were only found in the cultivars after the 1980s. The average diversity index of 21 traits and allele variance of HMW-GS showed a decreasing-increasing-decreasing tendency. HMW-GS and LMW-GS combination-type cultivars showed an increasing-decreasing tendency. Before the 1980s, most parental strains were from foreign cultivars and landrace cultivars, while after the 1980s, most parental strains were from released cultivars and germplasm created by distant hybridization. This study provided useful information for improvement of wheat breeding in Huanghuai winter wheat region. (author)

  6. Viability and vigour of ageing winter wheat grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Grzesiuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The viability and vigour of ageing winter wheat caryopses of the cvs. Grana and Jana were tested. Viability was determined on the basis of germination capacity and rate, and vigour on the basis of the over-all activity of hydrogenases in the sprouts, exudate conductometry, analysis of sprout growth, oxygen uptake and mitochondrial protein content in the sprouts. What is called energy (or rate of germination and over-all dehydrogenase activity in embryos and sprouts and the electroconductivity of exudates were found to be very good measures of the vigour of ageing caryopses. The latter two indices of vigour should be determined at a strictly defined moment of swelling and germination. Good measures of caryopse vigour are also respiration during swelling and at the beginning of germination and mitochondrial protein content in the sprouts or seedlings. There is a high correlation between the vigour of ageing grain and its bioenergetic indices.

  7. Effect of gamma radiation on immature winter wheat embryo culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorova, N.; Morgun, V.; Logvinenko, V.; Karpets, A.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: The aim was to study the effect of mutagenic treatment on callus initiation, shoot differentiation and enhancement of the variation frequency and spectrum. Seven winter wheat genotypes were used as donors for immature embryos. Spikes 14 days after anthesis were treated with 4 Gy gamma rays, then embryos were isolated. According to the effect of gamma rays on the callus induction frequency (CIF) the genotypes were divided into three groups, in the first group we observed GIF stimulation (Kiyanka, Stepnyak, UK-8, Ironovskaya 61) as compared with the control (C); the second group - CIF on the C level (Mironovskaya 806, Kharkovskaya II) and the third group - CIF is lower than in C (Lutescens 7). Regeneration frequency was reduced greatly in all genotypes under mutagenic treatment. Variation has been found for plant height, number of productive tillers, length of vegetation period, spike morphology and size, awn type. (author)

  8. Genetic gains in wheat in Turkey: Winter wheat for dryland conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut Keser

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat breeders in Turkey have been developing new varieties since the 1920s, but few studies have evaluated the rates of genetic improvement. This study determined wheat genetic gains by evaluating 22 winter/facultative varieties released for rainfed conditions between 1931 and 2006. The study was conducted at three locations in Turkey during 2008–2012, with a total of 21 test sites. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four replicates in 2008 and 2009 and three replicates in 2010–2012. Regression analysis was conducted to determine genetic progress over time. Mean yield across all 21 locations was 3.34 t ha−1, but varied from 1.11 t ha−1 to 6.02 t ha−1 and was highly affected by moisture stress. Annual genetic gain was 0.50% compared to Ak-702, or 0.30% compared to the first modern landmark varieties. The genetic gains in drought-affected sites were 0.75% compared to Ak-702 and 0.66% compared to the landmark varieties. Modern varieties had both improved yield potential and tolerance to moisture stress. Rht genes and rye translocations were largely absent in the varieties studied. The number of spikes per unit area decreased by 10% over the study period, but grains spike−1 and 1000-kernel weight increased by 10%. There were no significant increases in harvest index, grain size, or spike fertility, and no significant decrease in quality over time. Future use of Rht genes and rye translocations in breeding programs may increase yield under rainfed conditions. Keywords: Genetic gain, Rainfed wheat production, Winter wheat, Yield

  9. The Tebuconazole-based Protectant of Seeds “Bunker” Induces the Synthesis of Dehydrins During Cold Hardening and Increases the Frost Resistance of Wheat Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Korsukova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Triazole derivatives are widely used in agriculture for seed protectant of cereals against seed and soil infection. Triazole derivatives can have an effect on the biochemical and physiological functions of plants. The tebuconazole-based protectant of seeds «Bunker» (content of tebuconazole 60 grams per liter, g/L is a systemic fungicide of preventive and therapeutic action. The effect of the seed treatment by «Bunker» preparation on the shoot growth and cell viability coleoptile, synthesis of dehydrins in shoots and frost resistance etiolated winter and spring wheat seedlings has been studied. It has been shown that treatment of winter and spring wheat seed by «Bunker» preparation induces similar concentration-dependent inhibition of the coleoptiles length. At the recommended dose (0,5 liter per tonne of seeds, L/t growth inhibition was 28 - 30%, at a concentration of 1 L/t – 33 - 36%, at a concentration of 1,5 L/t – 40 - 42%, at a concentration of 3 L/t – 43 - 47%, at a concentration of 4 L/t – 48 - 51% and at 5 L/t – 53 - 56%. The treatment of wheat seed by «Bunker» preparation had no phytotoxic effect on coleoptile cells in any of the studied concentrations, on the contrary, with increasing concentration of preparation observed the increase in cell viability, as measured by recovery of 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride. We can assume that having retardant properties, tebuconazole not only inhibits the growth of plants, but also delays their aging. The treatment of seed protectant at a concentration of 1.5 L/t induced synthesis of the dehydrins with molecular masses about 19, 21, 22, 25 and 27 kD in winter wheat shoots and 18,6, 27 and 28,5 kD in spring wheat shoots during cold hardening. Among identified dehydrins the dehydrin of 27 kD is most significantly induced both in winter and spring wheat. The treatment of seed protectant «Bunker» in the same concentration increased the frost resistance of winter and spring wheat

  10. Characterization of wheat varieties by seed storageprotein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 6, No 5 (2007) > ... Wheat grains of thirteen varieties were collected from different ecological regions of Pakistan. ... the dendrogram for high molecular weight (HMW) and low molecular weight (LMW) gluten subunit bands.

  11. Enhancement of radiation damage in germinating wheat seeds by hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Fangqing; Gu Ruiqi

    1994-01-01

    Enhancement of X-ray induced radiation damage in germinating wheat seeds by heat treatment (44 degree C or 41 degree C, 20 min) has been investigated. The enhancement effect of heat treatment after irradiation was more significant than that of heat treatment before irradiation at dose range of 4.3-8.6 Gy. It was observed that germinating wheat seeds were very sensitive to heat treatment within 15 min after irradiation, which indicated that the repair of radiation damage was very active and rapid in a short period after irradiation. The repair of radiation damage in interval of fractionated irradiation was severely inhibited by heat treatment. The sensitivity of seeds to heat treatment corresponded with the levels of their repair activities. The more active the repairs of the seeds are, the more sensitive to heat treatment the seeds show. It was assumed that the enhancement of radiation damage by heat treatment in germinating wheat seeds was attributed to the inhibition of radiation damage repair by heat treatment, which is similar to the results of animal experiments

  12. The impacts of surface ozone pollution on winter wheat productivity in China – An econometric approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Fujin; Jiang, Fei; Zhong, Funing; Zhou, Xun; Ding, Aijun

    2016-01-01

    The impact of surface ozone pollution on winter wheat yield is empirically estimated by considering socio-economic and weather determinants. This research is the first to use an economic framework to estimate the ozone impact, and a unique county-level panel is employed to examine the impact of the increasing surface ozone concentration on the productivity of winter wheat in China. In general, the increment of surface ozone concentration during the ozone-sensitive period of winter wheat is determined to be harmful to its yield, and a conservative reduction of ozone pollution could significantly increase China's wheat supply. - Highlights: • We examine the impacts of the surface ozone exposure on winter wheat yield in China. • An econometric method is used to measure the ozone impacts. • The results conclude that surface ozone is harmful to winter wheat yield in China. • We confirm that stress conditions such as drought and air particles can mitigate the adverse effect of ozone. - Surface ozone pollution is harmful to winter wheat yield in China by considering socio-economic determinants, weather, and other stress conditions like drought and air particles.

  13. The Effect of Freezing Temperatures on Microdochium majus and M. nivale Seedling Blight of Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian M. Haigh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to pre-emergent freezing temperatures significantly delayed the rate of seedling emergence (P<0.05 from an infected and a non-infected winter wheat cv. Equinox seed lot, but significant effects for timing of freezing and duration of freezing on final emergence were only seen for the Microdochium-infested seed lot. Freezing temperatures of −5∘C at post-emergence caused most disease on emerged seedlings. Duration of freezing (12 hours or 24 hours had little effect on disease index but exposure to pre-emergent freezing for 24 hours significantly delayed rate of seedling emergence and reduced final emergence from the infected seed lot. In plate experiments, the calculated base temperature for growth of M. nivale and M. majus was −6.3∘C and −2.2∘C, respectively. These are the first set of experiments to demonstrate the effects of pre-emergent and post-emergent freezing on the severity of Microdochium seedling blight.

  14. Seed-borne mycoflora of local and improved wheat ( Triticum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three varieties each of local and improved wheat (Triticum sativum) cultivars were investigated for seed-borne pathogenic mycoflora using the plate technique and laid on completely randomized design. A total 99 fungal isolate grouped into five fungal species namely; Rhizopus nigricans, Mucor spp, Penillium jenseni, ...

  15. Regional greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of winter wheat and winter rapeseed for biofuels in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsgaard, Lars; Olesen, Joergen E.; Hermansen, John E.; Kristensen, Inge T.; Boergesen, Christen D. [Dept. of Agroecology, Aarhus Univ., Tjele (Denmark)], E-mail: lars.elsgaard@agrsci.dk

    2013-04-15

    Biofuels from bioenergy crops may substitute a significant part of fossil fuels in the transport sector where, e.g., the European Union has set a target of using 10% renewable energy by 2020. Savings of greenhouse gas emissions by biofuels vary according to cropping systems and are influenced by such regional factors as soil conditions, climate and input of agrochemicals. Here we analysed at a regional scale the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with cultivation of winter wheat for bioethanol and winter rapeseed for rapeseed methyl ester (RME) under Danish conditions. Emitted CO{sub 2} equivalents (CO{sub 2}eq) were quantified from the footprints of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O associated with cultivation and the emissions were allocated between biofuel energy and co-products. Greenhouse gas emission at the national level (Denmark) was estimated to 22.1 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} ethanol for winter wheat and 26.0 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} RME for winter rapeseed. Results at the regional level (level 2 according to the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics [NUTS]) ranged from 20.0 to 23.9 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} ethanol and from 23.5 to 27.6 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} RME. Thus, at the regional level emission results varied by up to 20%. Differences in area-based emissions were only 4% reflecting the importance of regional variation in yields for the emission result. Fertilizer nitrogen production and direct emissions of soil N{sub 2}O were major contributors to the final emission result and sensitivity analyses showed that the emission result depended to a large extent on the uncertainty ranges assumed for soil N{sub 2}O emissions. Improvement of greenhouse gas balances could be pursued, e.g., by growing dedicated varieties for energy purposes. However, in a wider perspective, land-use change of native ecosystems to bioenergy cropping systems could compromise the CO{sub 2} savings of bioenergy production and challenge the targets set for biofuel

  16. Responses of Winter Wheat Yields to Warming-Mediated Vernalization Variations Across Temperate Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuchen Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rapid climate warming, with much higher warming rates in winter and spring, could affect the vernalization fulfillment, a critical process for induction of crop reproductive growth and consequent grain filling in temperate winter crops. However, regional observational evidence of the effects of historical warming-mediated vernalization variations on temperate winter crop yields is lacking. Here, we statistically quantified the interannual sensitivity of winter wheat yields to vernalization degree days (VDD during 1975–2009 and its spatial relationship with multi-year mean VDD over temperate Europe (TE, using EUROSTAT crop yield statistics, observed and simulated crop phenology data and gridded daily climate data. Our results revealed a pervasively positive interannual sensitivity of winter wheat yields to variations in VDD (γVDD over TE, with a mean γVDD of 2.8 ± 1.5 kg ha−1 VDD−1. We revealed a significant (p < 0.05 negative exponential relationship between γVDD and multi-year mean VDD for winter wheat across TE, with higher γVDD in winter wheat planting areas with lower multi-year mean VDD. Our findings shed light on potential vulnerability of winter wheat yields to warming-mediated vernalization variations over TE, particularly considering a likely future warmer climate.

  17. Logistic Regression Analysis of the Response of Winter Wheat to Components of Artificial Freezing Episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improvement of cold tolerance of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) through breeding methods has been problematic. A better understanding of how individual wheat cultivars respond to components of the freezing process may provide new information that can be used to develop more cold tolerance culti...

  18. Genome-wide Association Analysis of Kernel Weight in Hard Winter Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat kernel weight is an important and heritable component of wheat grain yield and a key predictor of flour extraction. Genome-wide association analysis was conducted to identify genomic regions associated with kernel weight and kernel weight environmental response in 8 trials of 299 hard winter ...

  19. Buckwheat and quinoa seeds as supplements in wheat bread production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demin Mirjana A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the nutritional characteristics of wheat bread with the bread produced of wheat flour supplemented with quinoa and buckwheat seeds. Bread making properties of these blends were analyzed in order to investigate their ability to make moulded bread. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Will. and buckwheat seeds were grown in the vicinity of Belgrade, Serbia. The addition of pseudocereal seeds (at levels of 30% and 40% and a selected technological process, which included hydrothermal preparation of supplements, resulted with a valuable effect on nutritive value of breads. In comparison with the wheat bread that was used as control sample, the protein increase of 2% and the increase of crude fiber content at around 0.5% in 30% supplemented breads were registered. Furthermore, the incorporation of both seeds mixture at the level of 40%, increased the content of protein for 2.5% and fiber content for 0.4%. In regard to the starch, fat, and ash contents there were no major differences. The investigated breads were nutritionally superior to the wheat bread. Chemical composition of the selected seeds was also investigated. The results showed that the blends containing either 30% or 40% of selected seeds expressed high potential for the production of molded breads, as new baking products with enhanced nutritional composition. The applied technological procedure was modified in such way that for all blended combination of supplements it changed rheological properties of dough. Furthermore, it resulted in a good volume of breads with excellent sensory properties of aroma-odor and taste.

  20. Winter wheat optimizes allocation in response to carbon limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianbei; Hammerbacher, Almuth; Trumbore, Susan; Hartmann, Henrik

    2016-04-01

    • Plant photosynthesis is not carbon-saturated at current atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) thus carbon allocation priority is of critical importance in determining plant response to environmental changes, including increasing [CO2]. • We quantified the percentage of daytime net assimilation (A) allocated to whole-plant nighttime respiration (R) and structural growth (SG), nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) and secondary metabolites (SMs) during winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) vegetative growth (over 4 weeks) at glacial, ambient, and elevated [CO2] (170, 390 and 680 ppm). • We found that R/A remained relatively constant (11-14%) across [CO2] treatments, whereas plants allocated less C to growth and more C to export at low [CO2] than elevated [CO2]; low [CO2] grown plants tended to invest overall less C into NSC and SMs than to SG due to reduced NSC availability; while leaf SMs/NSC was greater at 170 ppm than at 680 ppm [CO2] this was the opposite for root SMs/NSC; biomass, especially NSC, were preferentially allocated to leaves instead of stems and roots, likely to relieve C limitation induced by low [CO2]. • We conclude that C limitation may force plants to reduce C allocation to long-term survival in order to secure short-term survival. Furthermore, they optimized allocation of the available resource by concentrating biomass and storage to those tissues responsible for assimilation.

  1. Radiation use efficiency and yield of winter wheat under deficit irrigation in North China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, H.; Li, Z.; Ning, T.; Bai, M.; Zhang, X.; Shan, Y.

    2008-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in North China to investigate the effects of deficit irrigation and winter wheat varieties on the photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) capture ration, PAR utilization and grain yield. Field experiments involved Jimai 20 (J; high yield variety) and Lainong 0153 (L; dryland variety) with non-irrigation and irrigated at the jointing stage. The results showed that whether irrigated at jointing stage or not, there was no significant difference between J and L with respect to the amount of PAR intercepted by the winter wheat canopies. However, significant differences were observed between the varieties with respect to the amount of PAR intercepted by plants that were 60-80 cm above the ground surface. This result was mainly caused by the changes in the vertical distributions of leaf area index. As a result, the effects of the varieties and deficit irrigation on the radiation use efficiency (RUE) and grain yield of winter wheat were due to the vertical distribution of PAR in the winter wheat canopies. During the late growing season of winter wheat, irrespective of the irrigation regime, the RUE and grain yield of J were significantly higher than those of L. These results suggest that a combination of deficit irrigation and a suitable winter wheat variety should be applied in North China

  2. Winter wheat quality monitoring and forecasting system based on remote sensing and environmental factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haiyang, Yu; Yanmei, Liu; Guijun, Yang; Xiaodong, Yang; Chenwei, Nie; Dong, Ren

    2014-01-01

    To achieve dynamic winter wheat quality monitoring and forecasting in larger scale regions, the objective of this study was to design and develop a winter wheat quality monitoring and forecasting system by using a remote sensing index and environmental factors. The winter wheat quality trend was forecasted before the harvest and quality was monitored after the harvest, respectively. The traditional quality-vegetation index from remote sensing monitoring and forecasting models were improved. Combining with latitude information, the vegetation index was used to estimate agronomy parameters which were related with winter wheat quality in the early stages for forecasting the quality trend. A combination of rainfall in May, temperature in May, illumination at later May, the soil available nitrogen content and other environmental factors established the quality monitoring model. Compared with a simple quality-vegetation index, the remote sensing monitoring and forecasting model used in this system get greatly improved accuracy. Winter wheat quality was monitored and forecasted based on the above models, and this system was completed based on WebGIS technology. Finally, in 2010 the operation process of winter wheat quality monitoring system was presented in Beijing, the monitoring and forecasting results was outputted as thematic maps

  3. Biophysical methods for disinfection and stimulation of wheat seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinkovic, S.; Marinkovic, B.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we are shown results of applying electron treatment (disinfection of seed by electrons), and RIES method (electromagnetic seed stimulation). Four cultivars of wheat were used in this trial: Renesansa, Durumko, NS-Rana 5 and Sonata. Seed was treated with fast electrons and just before sowing stimulated by ultra low frequency electromagnetic field (from 0 to 100 Hz). For seed disinfection was used chemical treatment as well, as control variant. Control variant for all treatments was seed without any disinfection. The highest number of spikelets per spike was obtained at variant H+RIES. The highest spike length was obtained at variants e sup(-) + RIES and control. At variant H+RIES was achieved the highest grain number. Treatment H had influence on decreasing of grain mass per spike in relation to control variant, for significant value of 0.15 g. The highest grain mass per spike was obtained at variant e sup(-) + RIES

  4. The Design and Development of Test Platform for Wheat Precision Seeding Based on Image Processing Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Li , Qing; Lin , Haibo; Xiu , Yu-Feng; Wang , Ruixue; Yi , Chuijie

    2009-01-01

    International audience; The test platform of wheat precision seeding based on image processing techniques is designed to develop the wheat precision seed metering device with high efficiency and precision. Using image processing techniques, this platform gathers images of seeds (wheat) on the conveyer belt which are falling from seed metering device. Then these data are processed and analyzed to calculate the qualified rate, reseeding rate and leakage sowing rate, etc. This paper introduces t...

  5. ``From seed-to-seed'' experiment with wheat plants under space-flight conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashinsky, A.; Ivanova, I.; Derendyaeva, T.; Nechitailo, G.; Salisbury, F.

    1994-11-01

    An important goal with plant experiments in microgravity is to achieve a complete life cycle, the ``seed-to-seed experiment''. Some Soviet attempts to reach this goal are described, notably an experiment with the tiny mustard, Arabidopsis thaliana, in the Phyton 3 device on Salyut 7. Normal seeds were produced although yields were reduced and development was delayed. Several other experiments have shown abnormalities in plants grown in space. In recent work, plants of wheat (Triticum aestivum) were studied on the ground and then in a preliminary experiment in space. Biometric indices of vegetative space plants were 2 to 2.5 times lower than those of controls, levels of chlorophyll a and b were reduced (no change in the ratio of the two pigments), carotenoids were reduced, there was a serious imbalance in major minerals, and membrane lipids were reduced (no obvious change in lipid patterns). Following the preliminary studies, an attempt was made with the Svetoblock-M growth unit to grow a super-dwarf wheat cultivar through a life cycle. The experiment lasted 167 d on Mir. Growth halted from about day 40 to day 100, when new shoots appeared. Three heads had appeared in the boot (surrounded by leaves) when plants were returned to earth. One head was sterile, but 28 seeds matured on earth, and most of these have since produced normal plants and seeds. In principle, a seed-to-seed experiment with wheat should be successful in microgravity.

  6. Cereal aphid colony turnover and persistence in winter wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linton Winder

    Full Text Available An understanding of spatial and temporal processes in agricultural ecosystems provides a basis for rational decision-making with regards to the management and husbandry of crops, supporting the implementation of integrated farming strategies. In this study we investigated the spatial and temporal distribution of aphid pests (Sitobion avenae and Metopolophium dirhodum within winter wheat fields. Using an intensive sampling programme we investigated distributions at both the small (single shoot and large (field scales. Within two fields, a grid with 82 locations was established (area 120 m by 168 m. At each location, 25 shoots were individually marked and aphid counts by observation conducted on 21 and 22 occasions as the crop matured, resulting in 43,050 and 45,100 counts being conducted in the two fields respectively. We quantified field scale spatial distributions, demonstrating that spatial pattern generally emerged, with temporal stability being both species- and field- dependent. We then measured turnover of colonies at the small (individual shoot and large (field scales by comparing consecutive pairs of sampling occasions. Four turnover categories were defined: Empty (no aphids recorded on either occasion; Colonised (aphids recorded on the second occasion but not the first; Extinction (aphids recorded on the first occasion but not the second; Stable (aphids recorded on both occasions. At the field scale, population stability soon established, but, at the small scale there was a consistently high proportion of unoccupied shoots with considerable colonisation and extinction and low stability. The redistribution of aphids within the crop at the local scale is a vulnerability which could be used to disrupt population development--by mediating exposure to ground-active natural enemies and by incurring a metabolic cost caused by the physiological demands to re-establish on a nearby host plant.

  7. Comparison of winter wheat yield sensitivity to climate variables under irrigated and rain-fed conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dengpan; Shen, Yanjun; Zhang, He; Moiwo, Juana P.; Qi, Yongqing; Wang, Rende; Pei, Hongwei; Zhang, Yucui; Shen, Huitao

    2016-09-01

    Crop simulation models provide alternative, less time-consuming, and cost-effective means of determining the sensitivity of crop yield to climate change. In this study, two dynamic mechanistic models, CERES (Crop Environment Resource Synthesis) and APSIM (Agricultural Production Systems Simulator), were used to simulate the yield of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) under well irrigated (CFG) and rain-fed (YY) conditions in relation to different climate variables in the North China Plain (NCP). The study tested winter wheat yield sensitivity to different levels of temperature, radiation, precipitation, and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration under CFG and YY conditions at Luancheng Agro-ecosystem Experimental Stations in the NCP. The results from the CERES and APSIM wheat crop models were largely consistent and suggested that changes in climate variables influenced wheat grain yield in the NCP. There was also significant variation in the sensitivity of winter wheat yield to climate variables under different water (CFG and YY) conditions. While a temperature increase of 2°C was the threshold beyond which temperature negatively influenced wheat yield under CFG, a temperature rise exceeding 1°C decreased winter wheat grain yield under YY. A decrease in solar radiation decreased wheat grain yield under both CFG and YY conditions. Although the sensitivity of winter wheat yield to precipitation was small under the CFG, yield decreased significantly with decreasing precipitation under the rainfed YY treatment. The results also suggest that wheat yield under CFG linearly increased by ≈3.5% per 60 ppm (parts per million) increase in CO2 concentration from 380 to 560 ppm, and yield under YY increased linearly by ≈7.0% for the same increase in CO2 concentration.

  8. Effects of gamma radiation on freeze-dried wheat seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajayi, N.O.; Larsson, B.

    1975-07-01

    The effect of radiation on freeze-dried wheat seeds are reported. The response of the various parts of the seedling to radiation was found to differ from one another. There was no significant modification of the effect of radiation on the shoot and root growth, while the growth of the coleoptile was slightly reduced in the frezze-dried seeds. The change in the shoot growth-absorbed dose relationship reported by others to occur at high doses for oven-dried as compared to air-dried barley seeds was not seen for the control and freeze-dried wheat seeds. The freeze-dried seeds are believed to show only the effect of radiation without any modification due to drying as such. The dose-effect relationships may be splited into functions characterised by different radiosensitivity. The high sensitivty effect is mainly taking place within the first 40 krad of energy absorption, and the low sensitivity is dominating at higher doses. (author)

  9. Experimental tests on winter cereal: Sod seeding compared to minimum tillage and traditional plowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoniotto Guidobono Cavalchini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Compared to traditional plowing and minimum tillage, the sod seeding technique has been tested in order to evaluate the differences in energy consumption, labor and machinery requirement and CO2 emission reduction. The experiments were conducted on winter cereal seeding in a Po valley farm in October 2011. The tests were carried out as follows: wheat variety seeding, over corn and alfalfa crops, in large plots with three repetitions for each thesis. They included: sod seeding anticipated by round up weeding in the case of the plots over alfalfa; traditional plowing at 35 cm followed by rotary tillage and combined seeding (seeder plus rotary tiller; minimum tillage based on ripping at the same depth (35 cm and combined seeder ( seeder plus rotary tiller. The following farm operations - fertilizer, and other agrochemical distributionshave been the same in all the considered theses. The results, statistically significant (P<0.001 in terms of yields, highlighted slight differences: the best data in the case of the traditional plowing both in the case of wheat crop over corn and alfalfa (84.43 and 6.75 t/ha; slightly lower yields for the sod seeding (6.23 and 79.9 t/ha for corn and alfalfa respectively; lower in the case of minimum tillage (5.87; 79.77 t/ha in the two situations. Huge differences in energy and oil consumption have been recorded: in the case of succession to corn 61.47; 35.31; 4.27 kg oil/ha respectively for, traditional plowing, minimum tillage and sod seeding; in the case of alfalfa 61.2; 50.96; 5.14 kg oil/ha respectively for traditional plowing, minimum tillage and sod seeding. The innovative technique, highlighted huge energy saving with an oil consumption equal to 92% and 89% (P<0.001 of what happens in traditional plowing and minimum tillage. Large differences concern labor and machine productivity. These parameters together with oil consumption and machine size [power (kW and weight (t] lead to even greater differences in

  10. Evaluation of Wheat (Triticum aestivum, L. Seed Quality of Certified Seed and Farm-Saved Seed in Three Provinces of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khazaei Fardin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to study the seed quality aspects of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and the extent of weed seed contamination present in wheat seeds produced in different regions of Iran. Four districts (cities, each including 12 fields (six certified seed fields and six farm-saved seed fields, were selected in each regions (provinces. One kilogram of the wheat seed sample was collected from each field for analysis in the laboratory. Wheat seeding was commonly done by farm-saved seed sourced from within the farm due to the high costs of certified seeds purchased from outside sources, followed by the low seed quality. The use of a farm-saved seed resulted in a higher germination rate and a lower mean time to germination compared with another system. The more positive temperatures experienced by mother plants could decrease the number of normal seedling and seedling length vigor index. Generally there was virtually no difference about physiological quality between certified seed and farm-saved seed sector that is related to lower quality of certified seed. The certified produced seeds had the lower number of weed seed, species and genus before and after cleaning. The highest seed purity and 1000 seed weight was obtained from the certified seed production system. The need for cleaning the farm-saved seed samples before sowing is one of the important findings of this survey.

  11. Comparison of winter wheat growth with multi-temporal remote sensing imagery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaoyu, Song; Bei, Cui; Guijun, Yang; Haikuan, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is an important index for crop growth monitoring. This paper focused on estimation of winter wheat LAI dynamics in different growth stages based on Landsat TM data. In order to retrieve wheat LAI from remote sensing data, LAI measurements were initiated when Landsat satellite pass over the study region. Three Landsat5 TM images were acquired on April 15, May 17, and June 2, 2009, corresponding to jointing stage, flowering stage and milking stage of wheat. LAI was measured at each stage in thirty wheat fields distributed in Beijing suburb. Based on the TM images, spectral indices including NDVI, MSAVI, SAVI, RDVI, SR, ISR, MSR and NLI were calculated. Univariate correlation analysis was then conducted between LAI data and corresponding TM spectral variables. The analysis results indicated that TM ISR on April 15, TM Band4 on May17, and TM ISR on June 2 were very significantly correlated with LAI, and the coefficient values were 0.736, 0.548 and 0.493, respectively. LAI map of winter wheat for whole study area was produced based on optimal non-linear correlation models. The three LAI maps were used to winter wheat growth analysis and comparison of different growth stages. Study results indicated that from April 15 to May 17, LAI value for 14.88% of winter wheat fields (9131ha) increased less than 1, 64.43 % (39421 ha) increased between 1 to 2, 20.67 % (12685 ha) increased more than 2. LAI decreased from May 17 to June 2. 45.34% of winter wheat fields (27828 ha) decreased less than1, 45.20 % (27738 ha) decreased between 1 to 2, 9.33% (5725.42 ha) decreased more than 2

  12. [Adaptability of APSIM model in Southwestern China: A case study of winter wheat in Chongqing City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Tong; Wang, Jing; He, Di; Zhang, Jian-ping; Wang, Na

    2015-04-01

    Field experimental data of winter wheat and parallel daily meteorological data at four typical stations in Chongqing City were used to calibrate and validate APSIM-wheat model and determine the genetic parameters for 12 varieties of winter wheat. The results showed that there was a good agreement between the simulated and observed growth periods from sowing to emergence, flowering and maturity of wheat. Root mean squared errors (RMSEs) between simulated and observed emergence, flowering and maturity were 0-3, 1-8, and 0-8 d, respectively. Normalized root mean squared errors (NRMSEs) between simulated and observed above-ground biomass for 12 study varieties were less than 30%. NRMSE between simulated and observed yields for 10 varieties out of 12 study varieties were less than 30%. APSIM-wheat model performed well in simulating phenology, aboveground biomass and yield of winter wheat in Chongqing City, which could provide a foundational support for assessing the impact of climate change on wheat production in the study area based on the model.

  13. Management Effects On Quality of Organically Grown Winter Wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Schweinzer, A.; Friedel, J. K.

    2013-01-01

    The potential for improving wheat grain quality by management strategies involving crop rotation, catch crops, and organic manure was tested in organic long-term experiments in Denmark and Austria. Growing grass clover in a four-year rotation resulted in a higher wheat yield increase that could n...

  14. [Effects of water deficit and nitrogen fertilization on winter wheat growth and nitrogen uptake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, You-Ling; Zhang, Fu-Cang; Li, Kai-Feng

    2009-10-01

    Winter wheat plants were cultured in vitro tubes to study their growth and nitrogen uptake under effects of water deficit at different growth stages and nitrogen fertilization. Water deficit at any growth stages could obviously affect the plant height, leaf area, dry matter accumulation, and nitrogen uptake. Jointing stage was the most sensitive stage of winter wheat growth to water deficit, followed by flowering stage, grain-filling stage, and seedling stages. Rewatering after the water deficit at seedling stage had a significant compensation effect on winter wheat growth, and definite compensation effect was observed on the biomass accumulation and nitrogen absorption when rewatering was made after the water deficit at flowering stage. Under the same nitrogen fertilization levels, the nitrogen accumulation in root with water deficit at seedling, jointing, flowering, and grain-filling stages was reduced by 25.82%, 55.68%, 46.14%, and 16.34%, and the nitrogen accumulation in aboveground part was reduced by 33.37%, 51.71%, 27.01%, and 2.60%, respectively, compared with no water deficit. Under the same water deficit stages, the nitrogen content and accumulation of winter wheat decreased with decreasing nitrogen fertilization level, i. e., 0.3 g N x kg(-1) FM > 0.2 g N x kg(-1) FM > 0.1 g N x kg(-1) FM. Nitrogen fertilization had obvious regulation effect on winter wheat plant growth, dry matter accumulation, and nitrogen uptake under water stress.

  15. Road verges and winter wheat fields as resources for wild bees in agricultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Casper Christian I; Langer, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    The effects of farming system on plant density and flowering of dicotyledonous herbs of high value for bees were investigated in 14 organic and 14 conventional winter wheat fields and adjacent road verges. The organic and conventional winter wheat fields/road verges were paired based on the perce......The effects of farming system on plant density and flowering of dicotyledonous herbs of high value for bees were investigated in 14 organic and 14 conventional winter wheat fields and adjacent road verges. The organic and conventional winter wheat fields/road verges were paired based...... on the percentage of semi-natural habitats in the surrounding landscape at 1-km scale. Mean density of high value bee plants per Raunkiaer circle was significantly higher in organic winter wheat fields and their adjacent road verges than in their conventionally farmed counterparts. The effect of organic farming...... was even more pronounced on the flowering stage of high value bee plants, with 10-fold higher mean density of flowering plants in organic fields than in conventional fields and 1.9-fold higher in road verges bordering organic fields than in those bordering conventional fields. In summary, organic farming...

  16. Genetics of mycorrhizal symbiosis in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Heike; Serfling, Albrecht; Enders, Matthias; Friedt, Wolfgang; Ordon, Frank

    2017-07-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is a major staple food and therefore of prime importance for feeding the Earth's growing population. Mycorrhiza is known to improve plant growth, but although extensive knowledge concerning the interaction between mycorrhizal fungi and plants is available, genotypic differences concerning the ability of wheat to form mycorrhizal symbiosis and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) involved in mycorrhization are largely unknown. Therefore, a diverse set of 94 bread wheat genotypes was evaluated with regard to root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. In order to identify genomic regions involved in mycorrhization, these genotypes were analyzed using the wheat 90k iSelect chip, resulting in 17 823 polymorphic mapped markers, which were used in a genome-wide association study. Significant genotypic differences (P wheat. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. QTL analysis of falling number and seed longevity in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börner, Andreas; Nagel, Manuela; Agacka-Mołdoch, Monika; Gierke, Peter Ulrich; Oberforster, Michael; Albrecht, Theresa; Mohler, Volker

    2018-02-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) and seed longevity (SL) are complex biological processes of major importance for agricultural production. In the present study, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between the German winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars History and Rubens was used to identify genetic factors controlling these two physiological seed traits. A falling number (FN) test was employed to evaluate PHS, while SL was measured using a germination test (and the speed of germination) after controlled deterioration. FN of the population was assessed in four environments; SL traits were measured in one environment. Four major quantitative trait loci (QTL) for FN were detected on chromosomes 4D, 5A, 5D, and 7B, whereas for SL traits, a major QTL was found on chromosome 1A. The FN QTL on chromosome 4D that coincided with the position of the dwarfing gene Rht-D1b only had effects in environments that were free of PHS. The remaining three QTL for FN were mostly pronounced under conditions conducive to PHS. The QTL on the long arm of chromosome 7B corresponded to the major gene locus controlling late maturity α-amylase (LMA) in wheat. The severity of the LMA phenotype became truly apparent under sprouting conditions. The position on the long arm of chromosome 1A of the QTL for SL points to a new QTL for this important regenerative seed trait.

  18. Effect of Postsowing Compaction on Cold and Frost Tolerance of North China Plain Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiyun Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Improper postsowing compaction negatively affects soil temperature and thereby cold and frost tolerance, particularly in extreme cold weather. In North China Plain, the temperature falls to 5 degrees below zero, even lower in winter, which is period for winter wheat growing. Thus improving temperature to promote wheat growth is important in this area. A field experiment from 2013 to 2016 was conducted to evaluate effects of postsowing compaction on soil temperature and plant population of wheat at different stages during wintering period. The effect of three postsowing compaction methods—(1 compacting wheel (CW, (2 crosskill roller (CR, and (3 V-shaped compacting roller after crosskill roller (VCRCR—on winter soil temperatures and relation to wheat shoot growth parameters were measured. Results showed that the highest soil midwinter temperature was in the CW treatment. In the 20 cm and 40 cm soil layer, soil temperatures were ranked in the following order of CW > VCRCR > CR. Shoot numbers under CW, CR, and VCRCR treatments were statistically 12.40% and 8.18% higher under CW treatment compared to CR or VCRCR treatments at the end of wintering period. The higher soil temperature under CW treatment resulted in higher shoot number at the end of wintering period, apparently due to reduced shoot death by cold and frost damage.

  19. Colour characteristics of winter wheat grits of different grain size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horváth Zs. H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, wheat has spread all over the world due to its extensive usability. The colour of wheat grits is very important for the milling and baking industry because it determines the colour of the products made from it. The instrumental colour measuring is used, first of all, for durum wheat. We investigated the relationship between colour characteristics and grain size in the case of different hard aestivum wheats. We determined the colour using the CIE (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage 1976 L*, a*, b* colour system measured by MINOLTA CR-300 tristimulus colorimeter. After screening the colour of the wheat fractions of different grain size, grits was measured wet and dry. We determined the L*, a*, b* colour co-ordinates and the whiteness index, too. To evaluate the values we had obtained, we used analysis of variance and regression analysis. We pointed out that the colour of wheat grits of different grain size is dependent on the hardness index of wheat. The lightness co-ordinate (L* of grits of the harder wheat is smaller, while a* and b* co-ordinates are higher. We also found that while grain size rises, the L* co-ordinate decreases and a*, b* values increase in the case of every type of wheat. The colour of grits is determined by the colour of fractions of 250-400 μm in size, independently from the average grain size. The whiteness index and the L* colour co-ordinate have a linear relation (R2 = 0.9151; so, the determination of whiteness index is not necessary. The L* value right characterizes the whiteness of grits.

  20. Flour quality and kernel hardness connection in winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabó B. P.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Kernel hardness is controlled by friabilin protein and it depends on the relation between protein matrix and starch granules. Friabilin is present in high concentration in soft grain varieties and in low concentration in hard grain varieties. The high gluten, hard wheat our generally contains about 12.0–13.0% crude protein under Mid-European conditions. The relationship between wheat protein content and kernel texture is usually positive and kernel texture influences the power consumption during milling. Hard-textured wheat grains require more grinding energy than soft-textured grains.

  1. Effect of new lines of winter wheat on microbiological activity in Luvisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezierska-Tys, S.; Rachoń, L.; Rutkowska, A.; Szumiło, G.

    2012-02-01

    The study presented in this paper was conducted under the conditions of a field experiment. Microbiological analyses were made at various stages of winter wheat plants development ie heading, milk ripeness and full ripeness. The objective of the study was to acquire knowledge on the effect of cultivation of various lines of winter wheat on the numbers of bacteria and fungi with proteolytic capabilities, on protease and urease activity, and on the rate of the processes of ammonification and nitrification. The results of conducted study demonstrated that the number of proteolytic bacteria and fungi, as well as the activity of protease and urease, and the intensity of ammonification and nitrification processes in soil depended on both the development stage and cultivated line of winter wheat.

  2. Economical effectiveness of fungal diseases control of winter wheat in 2000-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jaczewska-Kalicka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Winter wheat is a very susceptible species to infection by pathogenic fungi requires the application of plant protection products. Their effectiveness and profitability of application depend on numerous factors. The most important of them are: weather and environmental conditions, managing and organisation of production, the intensity of oc-currence and harmfulness of occurring pathogenes, the amount of obtained yield, costs of protection and grain selling prices. Presented research results are derived from plot ex-periments conducted in the Field Experimental Station IOR-PIB Grodzisk Mazowiecki, on the fields of Agricultural Experimental Station SGGW Chylice, mazowieckie voivode-ship, in 2000-2008 on winter wheat. A high differentiation was stated in profitability of applying particular fungicides, as well as considerable differences between particular vegetative seasons of winter wheat cultivation. In each year, except 2000, protection treatments were profitable, in spite of high costs being on average 10% of the value of protected crop.

  3. Identification of vernalization responsive genes in the winter wheat ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2National Engineering Research Centre for Wheat, 3Collaborative Innovation Center of ... among the specific genes were selected for validation by quantitative reverse transcription ... expression of TaSnRK2.8 enhanced the tolerance to low.

  4. Mapping Winter Wheat with Multi-Temporal SAR and Optical Images in an Urban Agricultural Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tao; Pan, Jianjun; Zhang, Peiyu; Wei, Shanbao; Han, Tao

    2017-05-25

    Winter wheat is the second largest food crop in China. It is important to obtain reliable winter wheat acreage to guarantee the food security for the most populous country in the world. This paper focuses on assessing the feasibility of in-season winter wheat mapping and investigating potential classification improvement by using SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) images, optical images, and the integration of both types of data in urban agricultural regions with complex planting structures in Southern China. Both SAR (Sentinel-1A) and optical (Landsat-8) data were acquired, and classification using different combinations of Sentinel-1A-derived information and optical images was performed using a support vector machine (SVM) and a random forest (RF) method. The interference coherence and texture images were obtained and used to assess the effect of adding them to the backscatter intensity images on the classification accuracy. The results showed that the use of four Sentinel-1A images acquired before the jointing period of winter wheat can provide satisfactory winter wheat classification accuracy, with an F1 measure of 87.89%. The combination of SAR and optical images for winter wheat mapping achieved the best F1 measure-up to 98.06%. The SVM was superior to RF in terms of the overall accuracy and the kappa coefficient, and was faster than RF, while the RF classifier was slightly better than SVM in terms of the F1 measure. In addition, the classification accuracy can be effectively improved by adding the texture and coherence images to the backscatter intensity data.

  5. Esoteric Egyptology, Seed Science and the Myth of Mummy Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Moshenska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available ‘Mummy wheat’ allegedly grown from seeds found in the tombs or wrappings of Egyptian mummies became a scientific sensation in 1840s Britain. At a time of considerable popular interest in Ancient Egypt, mummy wheat was exhibited at the Royal Institution and the British Archaeological Association, cultivated by aristocracy and royalty, and discussed by Darwin, Faraday and others. However, the first controlled experiments on mummy wheat in the 1840s were unsuccessful, as were studies by the British Museum, the Royal Botanic Gardens and other scientific bodies in the 1890s and 1930s. Despite this growing scepticism amongst plant biologists and professional Egyptologists, belief in mummy wheat endured well into the twentieth century. This article traces the myth of mummy wheat in Britain in its intellectual and cultural contexts from its early Victorian emergence through to its mid-twentieth century decline. It focuses in particular efforts by British Museum Egyptologist E.A. Wallis Budge to debunk the myth by a variety of means, including crowd-sourcing experimental data.

  6. Genetic resources as initial material for developing new soft winter wheat varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. М. Кір’ян

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To estimate genetic resources collection of soft winter wheat plants (new collection accessions of Ustymivka Experimental Station for Plant Production and select initial material for breeding of adaptive, productive and qualitative soft winter wheat varieties. Methods. Field experiment, laboratory testing. Results. The authors pre- sented results of study of over 1000 samples of gene pool of soft winter wheat from 25 countries during 2001–2005 in Ustymivka Experimental Station for Plant Production of Plant Production Institute nd. a. V. Ya. Yuriev, NAAS of Ukraine for a complex of economic traits. More than 400 new sources with high adaptive properties were selected that combine traits of high productivity and high quality of grain, early ripening, resistance to biotic and abiotic fac- tors (the assessment of samples for 16 valuable traits is given. The selected material comes from various agro-cli- matic zones, including zones of unsustainable agriculture. Conclusions. Recommended sources of traits that have breeding value will allow to enrich high-quality assortment of wheat and considerably accelerate breeding process du- ring development of new soft winter wheat varieties.

  7. Hybrid breeding in wheat: technologies to improve hybrid wheat seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitford, Ryan; Fleury, Delphine; Reif, Jochen C; Garcia, Melissa; Okada, Takashi; Korzun, Viktor; Langridge, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Global food security demands the development and delivery of new technologies to increase and secure cereal production on finite arable land without increasing water and fertilizer use. There are several options for boosting wheat yields, but most offer only small yield increases. Wheat is an inbred plant, and hybrids hold the potential to deliver a major lift in yield and will open a wide range of new breeding opportunities. A series of technological advances are needed as a base for hybrid wheat programmes. These start with major changes in floral development and architecture to separate the sexes and force outcrossing. Male sterility provides the best method to block self-fertilization, and modifying the flower structure will enhance pollen access. The recent explosion in genomic resources and technologies provides new opportunities to overcome these limitations. This review outlines the problems with existing hybrid wheat breeding systems and explores molecular-based technologies that could improve the hybrid production system to reduce hybrid seed production costs, a prerequisite for a commercial hybrid wheat system.

  8. Evaluation of Photosynthesis Capacity of Some Winter Wheat Genotypes in Transylvanian Plain Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuț RACZ

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Leaf photosynthetic capacity is a key parameter determining crop yield; it is enhanced by moderate soil moisture and reduced in both severe water deficit and excessive water conditions. The aim of this work was to evaluate the wheat variety photosynthetic capacity in two main phenological stages. The evaluation of photosynthesis capacity of studied winter wheat varieties in Transylvanian Plain conditions offer relevant information on Romanian genetic material type and paving the way of new research directed to a new wheat breeding program criteria and for improvement of those.

  9. Effect of the transgenerational exposure to elevated CO2 on the drought response of winter wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yafei; Li, Xiangnan; Yu, Jingjie

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Climate change predicts more frequent drought spells along with an elevation in atmospheric CO2 concentration (e[CO2]). Although the responses of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants to drought or a single generation exposure to e[CO2] have been well documented, the transgenerational...... effect of e[CO2] in combination of drought on stomatal behavior, plant water consumption and water use efficiency (WUE) have not been investigated. Seeds harvested from plants after two generations (2014–2015) continuously grown in ambient CO2 (a[CO2], 400 μmol L−1) and e[CO2] (800 μmol L−1) were sown...... in 4 L pots, and the plants were grown separately in greenhouse cells with either a[CO2] or e[CO2]. At stem elongation stage, in each of the cells half of the plants were subjected to progressive drought stress until all the plant available soil water was depleted, and the other half were well-watered...

  10. Seed priming improves salinity tolerance of wheat varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamal, Y.; Shafi, M.; Arif, M.

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the response of wheat varieties to seed priming and salinity, an experiment was conducted in completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications at Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (IBGE), KPK Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan. The performance of 6 wheat varieties (Tatara-96, Ghaznavi-98, Fakhri Sarhad, Bakhtawar-92, Pirsabaq-2004 and Auqab-2000) at two seed conditions (primed with 30 mM NaCl and un primed) under four salinity levels (0, 40, 80 and 120 mM) was studied. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that salinity, seed priming and varieties had significantly (P= 0.05) affected shoot fresh weight plant/sup -1/ shoot dry weight plant/sup -1/, shoot Na/sup +/ contents (mg g/sup -1/ dry weight), shoot K/sup +/ contents (mg g/sup -1/ dry weight) and shoot K/sup +/Na/sup +/ ratio. Maximum shoot fresh weight plant/sup -1/ (7.71 g), shoot dry weight plant/sup -1/ (1.68 g), shoot K/sup +/ contents (1.39 mg g/sup -1/ dry weight) and shoot K/sup +/ Na/sup +/ratio (1.45) were recorded from Bakhtawar-92 as compared with other varieties. Highest shoot Na/sup +/ contents (1.43 mg g/sup -1/ dry weight) were recorded from Auqab-2000 when compared with other varieties. All parameters were enhanced with seed priming except shoot Na/sup +/ contents, which reduced significantly (p= 0.05) with seed priming. (author)

  11. Plant Density Effect on Grain Number and Weight of Two Winter Wheat Cultivars at Different Spikelet and Grain Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yingli; Zheng, Mengjing; Yang, Dongqing; Jin, Min; Chen, Jin; Wang, Zhenlin; Yin, Yanping

    2016-01-01

    In winter wheat, grain development is asynchronous. The grain number and grain weight vary significantly at different spikelet and grain positions among wheat cultivars grown at different plant densities. In this study, two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, ‘Wennong6’ and ‘Jimai20’, were grown under four different plant densities for two seasons, in order to study the effect of plant density on the grain number and grain weight at different spikelet and grain positions. The results showed that the effects of spikelet and grain positions on grain weight varied with the grain number of spikelets. In both cultivars, the single-grain weight of the basal and middle two-grain spikelets was higher at the 2nd grain position than that at the 1st grain position, while the opposite occurred in the top two-grain spikelets. In the three-grain spikelets, the distribution of the single-grain weight was different between cultivars. In the four-grain spikelets of Wennong6, the single-grain weight was the highest at the 2nd grain position, followed by the 1st, 3rd, and 4th grain positions. Regardless of the spikelet and grain positions, the single-grain weight was the highest at the 1st and 2nd grain positions and the lowest at the 3rd and 4th grain positions. Overall, plant density affected the yield by controlling the seed-setting characteristics of the tiller spike. Therefore, wheat yield can be increased by decreasing the sterile basal and top spikelets and enhancing the grain weight at the 3rd and 4th grain positions, while maintaining it at the 1st and 2nd grain positions on the spikelet. PMID:27171343

  12. Development of groundwater pesticide exposure modeling scenarios for vulnerable spring and winter wheat-growing areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Lauren; Winchell, Michael; Peranginangin, Natalia; Grant, Shanique

    2017-11-01

    Wheat crops and the major wheat-growing regions of the United States are not included in the 6 crop- and region-specific scenarios developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for exposure modeling with the Pesticide Root Zone Model conceptualized for groundwater (PRZM-GW). The present work augments the current scenarios by defining appropriately vulnerable PRZM-GW scenarios for high-producing spring and winter wheat-growing regions that are appropriate for use in refined pesticide exposure assessments. Initial screening-level modeling was conducted for all wheat areas across the conterminous United States as defined by multiple years of the Cropland Data Layer land-use data set. Soil, weather, groundwater temperature, evaporation depth, and crop growth and management practices were characterized for each wheat area from publicly and nationally available data sets and converted to input parameters for PRZM. Approximately 150 000 unique combinations of weather, soil, and input parameters were simulated with PRZM for an herbicide applied for postemergence weed control in wheat. The resulting postbreakthrough average herbicide concentrations in a theoretical shallow aquifer were ranked to identify states with the largest regions of relatively vulnerable wheat areas. For these states, input parameters resulting in near 90 th percentile postbreakthrough average concentrations corresponding to significant wheat areas with shallow depth to groundwater formed the basis for 4 new spring wheat scenarios and 4 new winter wheat scenarios to be used in PRZM-GW simulations. Spring wheat scenarios were identified in North Dakota, Montana, Washington, and Texas. Winter wheat scenarios were identified in Oklahoma, Texas, Kansas, and Colorado. Compared to the USEPA's original 6 scenarios, postbreakthrough average herbicide concentrations in the new scenarios were lower than all but Florida Potato and Georgia Coastal Peanuts of the original scenarios and better

  13. Plant Density Effect on Grain Number and Weight of Two Winter Wheat Cultivars at Different Spikelet and Grain Positions

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yong; Cui, Zhengyong; Ni, Yingli; Zheng, Mengjing; Yang, Dongqing; Jin, Min; Chen, Jin; Wang, Zhenlin; Yin, Yanping

    2016-01-01

    In winter wheat, grain development is asynchronous. The grain number and grain weight vary significantly at different spikelet and grain positions among wheat cultivars grown at different plant densities. In this study, two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, 'Wennong6' and 'Jimai20', were grown under four different plant densities for two seasons, in order to study the effect of plant density on the grain number and grain weight at different spikelet and grain positions. The resul...

  14. Yield Interactions of Wheat Genotypes to Dates of Seeding in Eastern Mid Hills of Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Rudra Bhattarai; Bedanand Chaudhary; Dhruba Bahadur Thapa; Ramesh Raj Puri; Ram Nath Chaudhary; Ram Nath Chaudhary; Bibek Sapkota; Kiran Baral; Shukra Raj Shrestha; Surya Prasad Adhikari

    2015-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the major cereal crops and staple food sources in Nepal. Wheat varieties being popular in mid hill regions are still in the early stages of adoption. Identification of appropriate date of seeding plays important role in enhancing the adoption rate ensuring the sustainable production. Therefore, three dates viz 15th November, 1st and 15th December for seeding and twenty eight wheat genotypes were evaluated in a split plot design with two replications for ...

  15. Projecting the impact of climate change on phenology of winter wheat in northern Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juknys, Romualdas; Velička, Rimantas; Kanapickas, Arvydas; Kriaučiūnienė, Zita; Masilionytė, Laura; Vagusevičienė, Ilona; Pupalienė, Rita; Klepeckas, Martynas; Sujetovienė, Gintarė

    2017-10-01

    Climate warming and a shift in the timing of phenological phases, which lead to changes in the duration of the vegetation period may have an essential impact on the productivity of winter crops. The main purpose of this study is to examine climate change-related long-term (1961-2015) changes in the duration of both initial (pre-winter) and main (post-winter) winter wheat vegetation seasons and to present the projection of future phenological changes until the end of this century. Delay and shortening of pre-winter vegetation period, as well as the advancement and slight extension of the post-winter vegetation period, resulted in the reduction of whole winter wheat vegetation period by more than 1 week over the investigated 55 years. Projected changes in the timing of phenological phases which define limits of a main vegetation period differ essentially from the observed period. According to pessimistic (Representative Concentration Pathways 8.5) scenario, the advancement of winter wheat maturity phase by almost 30 days and the shortening of post-winter vegetation season by 15 days are foreseen for a far (2071-2100) projection. An increase in the available chilling amount is specific not only to the investigated historical period (1960-2015) but also to the projected period according to the climate change scenarios of climate warming for all three projection periods. Consequently, the projected climate warming does not pose a threat of plant vernalization shortage in the investigated geographical latitudes.

  16. Flixweed is more competitive than winter wheat under ozone pollution: evidences from membrane lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes and biomass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai-Hong Li

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of ozone on winter wheat and flixweed under competition, two species were exposed to ambient, elevated and high [O3] for 30 days, planted singly or in mixculture. Eco-physiological responses were examined at different [O3] and fumigating time. Ozone reduced the contents of chlorophyll, increased the accumulation of H2O2 and malondialdehyde in both wheat and flixweed. The effects of competition on chlorophyll content of wheat emerged at elevated and high [O3], while that of flixweed emerged only at high [O3]. The increase of H2O2 and malondialdehyde of flixweed was less than that of wheat under the same condition. Antioxidant enzyme activities of wheat and flixweed were seriously depressed by perennial and serious treatment using O3. However, short-term and moderate fumigation increased the activities of SOD and POD of wheat, and CAT of flixweed. The expression levels of antioxidant enzymes related genes provided explanation for these results. Furthermore, the increase of CAT expression of flixweed was much higher than that of SOD and POD expression of wheat. Ozone and competition resulted in significant reductions in biomass and grain yield in both winter wheat and flixweed. However, the negative effects on flixweed were less than wheat. Our results demonstrated that winter wheat is more sensitive to O3 and competition than flixweed, providing valuable data for further investigation on responses of winter wheat to ozone pollution, in particular combined with species competition.

  17. Improvement of baking quality traits through a diverse soft winter wheat population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeding baking quality improvements into soft winter wheat (SWW) entails crossing lines based on quality traits, assessing new lines, and repeating several times as little is known about the genetics of these traits. Previous research on SWW baking quality focused on quantitative trait locus and ge...

  18. Mass photosynthesis and distribution of photo assimilates of winter wheat varieties with different maturity feature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fahong; Zhao Junshi

    1996-01-01

    The mass photosynthesis rate and distribution of photoassimilates of winter wheat varieties with different maturity feature were studied using GXH-305 portable CO 2 infrared ray analyzer. The mass photosynthesis rate of winter wheat varieties with better maturity feature showed little difference from the varieties with general maturity feature during the early stage of grain filling phase. However, the mass photosynthesis rate of the former was significantly higher than that of the later during the middle and late stage of grain filling. The study with 14 CO 2 -tracing method showed that the relative activity in different organs of varieties with better maturity feature was significantly higher than that of varieties with worse maturity feature during the later growth stage of winter wheat. The rate of photoassimilates distribution in stalk and root system of winter wheat varieties with better maturity was higher than that in the others organs. The physiological mechanism of difference of grain yield and plant decay in varieties with different maturity feature were also discussed

  19. Evapotranspiration in winter wheat under different grazing and tillage practices in the southern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precipitation in the Southern Great Plains (SGP) is highly variable both spatially and temporally with recurring periods of severe drought. Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) – summer fallow system with conventional tillage is the principal dryland cropping system in this region for both grazing an...

  20. Development of frost tolerance in winter wheat as modulated by differential root and shoot temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windt, C.W.; van Hasselt, P.R

    Winter wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Urban), grown in nutrient solution, were exposed to differential shoot/root temperatures (i.e., 4/4, 4/20, 20/4 and 20/20 degrees C) for six weeks. Leaves grown at 4 degrees C showed an increase in frost tolerance from - 4 degrees C down to -11 degrees

  1. Study on the weediness of winter wheat in a long-term fertilization field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehoczky, E; Kismányoky, A; Kismányoky, T

    2006-01-01

    The study was carried out in Keszthely, in the long-term fertilization field experiment in April of 2005. In the experiment we had opportunity to compare the weediness in NPK and NPK + FYM* treatments, and we could study the effect of increasing N dosis on the weeds and winter wheat. The weed survey was made on the 20th of April at the end of tillering. For the weed survey used the Balázs-Ujvárosi method. After that we collected all the weeds from the plots per 1 m2. We counted, measured the fresh and dry matter weight of aerial parts. Winter wheat sampels were taken also from all plots (1 running meter per plot). In the experiment 10 weed species were found, 9 annual: Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Consolida regalis, Galium aparine, Lamiunt amplexicaule, Matricaria inodora, Papaver rhoeas, Stellaria media, Veronica hederifolia, Veronica triphyllos, and 1 perennial: Cirsium arvense. Veronica hederifolia was the dominant species in both fertilized plots, Stellaria media has the second highest weed coverage. The manuring treatments, and the N-dosis has important and significantly effect to the weedeness and the biomass production of winter wheat. On the control plots was the relation of biomass weight of weeds the highest. This relation reduced to the effect of N treatments, wich had an favorable effect on the winter wheat.

  2. Predicting pre-planting risk of Stagonospora nodorum blotch in winter wheat using machine learning models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pre-planting factors have been associated with the late-season severity of Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB), caused by the fungal pathogen Parastagonospora nodorum, in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum). The relative importance of these factors in the risk of SNB has not been determined and this know...

  3. Vernalization requirement of winter bread wheat modern varieties (Tritikum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. В. Булавка

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of vernalization requierement of winter bread wheat 87 modem varieties from Ukraine and Russia showed significant domination - 81.6% - of varieties with short vernalization requierement (30-40 days. Vernalization requierement differences among varieties from different climatic zones were revealed.

  4. Vernalization requirement of winter bread wheat modern varieties (Tritikum aestivum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Н. В. Булавка; Л. М. Голик

    2007-01-01

    The study of vernalization requierement of winter bread wheat 87 modem varieties from Ukraine and Russia showed significant domination - 81.6% - of varieties with short vernalization requierement (30-40 days). Vernalization requierement differences among varieties from different climatic zones were revealed.

  5. Field experiment on spray drift: Deposition and airborne drift during application to a winter wheat crop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, A.; Linnemann, V.; Zande, van de J.C.; Vereecken, H.

    2008-01-01

    A field experiment was performed to evaluate various techniques for measuring spray deposition and airborne drift during spray application to a winter wheat crop. The application of a spraying agent containing the fluorescent dye Brilliant Sulfo Flavine by a conventional boom sprayer was done

  6. Biochemical and Physicochemical Background of Mammalian Androgen Activity in Winter Wheat Exposed to Low Temperature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janeczko, A.; Biesaga-Koscielniak, J.; Dziurka, M.; Filek, M.; Hura, K.; Jurczyk, B.; Kula, M.; Oklešťková, Jana; Novák, Ondřej; Rudolphi-Skórska, E.; Skoczowski, A.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 1 (2018), s. 199-219 ISSN 0721-7595 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Androstenedione * Frost resistance * Langmuir analysis * Phytohormones * Soluble sugars * Winter wheat Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 2.073, year: 2016

  7. Effect of different tillage intensity on yields and yield-forming factors in winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Houšť

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of a study on application of minimum tillage technologies when growing winter wheat. Experiments were performed in the sugar-beet-growing region with loamy chernozem within the period of 2005–2009. Aanalysed and evaluated were effects of different methods of soil processing on yield-forming factors in stands of winter wheat grown after three different preceding crops (i.e. alfalfa, maize for silage and pea. Evaluated were the following four variants of tillage: (1 conventional ploughing to the depth of 0.22 m (Variant 1; (2 ploughing to the depth of 0.15 m (Variant 2; (3 direct sowing into the untilled soil (Variant 3, and (4 shallow tillage to the depth of 0.10 m (Variant 4.The effect of different tillage intensity on winter wheat yields was statistically non-significant after all forecrops. After alfalfa, the highest and the lowest average yields were recorded in Variant 2 (i.e. with ploughing to the depth of 0.15 m and Variant 3 (direct sowing into the untilled soil, respectively. After maize grown for silage, higher yields were obtained in Variant 2 and Variant 1 (conventional ploughing while in Variants 4 and 3 the obtained yields were lower. When growing winter wheat after pea as a preceding crop, the highest and the lowest average yields were recorded after direct sowing (Variant 3 and in Variant 1 (i.e. ploughing to the depth of 0.22 m, respectively. Results of studies on effect of different tillage technologies on yields of winter wheat crops indicate that under the given pedological and climatic conditions it is possible to apply methods of reduced tillage intensity. However, the choice of the corresponding technology must be performed with regard to the type of preceding crop.

  8. Short-term winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cover crop grazing influence on calf growth, grain yield, and soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter cover cropping has many agronomic benefits and can provide forages base for spring livestock grazing. Winter cover crop grazing has shown immediate economic benefits through increased animal production. Winter wheat pasture grazing is common in beef cow-calf production and stocker operations....

  9. Grain Yield and Water Use Efficiency in Extremely-Late Sown Winter Wheat Cultivars under Two Irrigation Regimes in the North China Plain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    Full Text Available Wheat production is threatened by water shortages and groundwater over-draft in the North China Plain (NCP. In recent years, winter wheat has been increasingly sown extremely late in early to mid-November after harvesting cotton or pepper. To improve water use efficiency (WUE and guide the extremely late sowing practices, a 3-year field experiment was conducted under two irrigation regimes (W1, one-irrigation, 75 mm at jointing; W2, two-irrigation, 75 mm at jointing and 75 mm at anthesis in 3 cultivars differing in spike size (HS4399, small spike; JM22, medium spike; WM8, large spike. Wheat was sown in early to mid-November at a high seeding rate of 800-850 seeds m(-2. Average yields of 7.42 t ha(-1 and WUE of 1.84 kg m(-3 were achieved with an average seasonal evapotranspiration (ET of 404 mm. Compared with W2, wheat under W1 did not have yield penalty in 2 of 3 years, and had 7.9% lower seasonal ET and 7.5% higher WUE. The higher WUE and stable yield under W1 was associated with higher 1000-grain weight (TGW and harvest index (HI. Among the 3 cultivars, JM22 had 5.9%-8.9% higher yield and 4.2%-9.3% higher WUE than WM8 and HS4399. The higher yield in JM22 was attributed mainly to higher HI and TGW due to increased post-anthesis biomass and deeper seasonal soil water extraction. In conclusion, one-irrigation with a medium-sized spike cultivar JM22 could be a useful strategy to maintain yield and high WUE in extremely late-sown winter wheat at a high seeding rate in the NCP.

  10. Analysis of grain filling process to the varied meteorological conditions in winter wheat [Triticum aestivum] cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, K.; Nakazono, K.; Wakiyama, Y.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes effects of varied meteorological conditions on the grain filling periods, stabilities of yield and quality of winter wheat cultivars with different maturity characteristics (cv. Ayahikari, Norin61, Bandowase, and Tsurupikari). In the field experiments, the meteorological treatments were made during the first heading time on 17 April 2001 and the middle heading time on 24 April 2000. Air temperature, global solar radiation and soil moisture were controlled using a rain shelter, cheesecloth and irrigation system. The growth speed and growth period of wheat grains varied among four winter wheat cultivars, depending on meteorological conditions. The growth speed increased within 1 8.4 deg C of mean air temperature over the 30 days after the anthesis. On the other hand, it was found that the growth speed of wheat grains and the maximum number of wheat grains (Ymax) decreased greatly with the 44.4% interception of global solar radiation. Logistic functions were fitted to the relationship between the relative thousand-kernel-weight (Y/Ymax) and the total integrated temperature (sigmaTa) after heading for all treatment conditions. The maximum weight of grains (Ymax) achieved at the harvest time varied somewhat clearly among four winter wheat cultivars and meteorological conditions. Multiple regression analysis showed that the grain yield (Ymax) of four wheat cultivars correlated positively with daily mean solar radiation. It was also found that the cultivar Ayahikari had a highly significant negative correlation between its grain weight and soil moisture. Namely, the grain weight of high soil moisture plot with pF=1.5 was lower by about 9% than that of a control plot with pF=3.5. On the other hand, the grain yield of cultivar Norin61 responded inversely to a wet environment, indicating that its grain weight was higher for high soil moisture and high wet-bulb temperature than for a dry environment. The grain yield of early varieties of Bandowase and

  11. Resistance of Select Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Cultivars to Rhopalosiphum padi (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girvin, John; Whitworth, R Jeff; Rojas, Lina Maria Aguirre; Smith, C Michael

    2017-08-01

    The bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) is a global pest of wheat and vectors some of the most damaging strains of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV). In years of heavy R. padi infestation, R. padi and BYDV together reduce wheat yields by 30-40% in Kansas and other states of the U.S. Great Plains wheat production area. Cultivation of wheat cultivars resistant to R. padi can greatly reduce production costs and mitigate R. padi-BYDV yield losses, and increase producer profits. This study identified cultivars of hard red and soft white winter wheat with R. padi resistance that suppress R. padi populations or tolerate the effects of R. padi feeding damage. 'Pioneer (S) 25R40,' 'MFA (S) 2248,' 'Pioneer (S) 25R77,' and 'Limagrain LCS Mint' significantly reduced R. padi populations. MFA (S) 2248, Pioneer (S) 25R40, and 'Limagrain LS Wizard' exhibited tolerance expressed as significantly greater aboveground biomass. These findings are significant in that they have identified wheat cultivars currently available to producers, enabling the immediate improvement of tactics to manage R. padi and BYDV in heavily infested areas. Secondarily, these results identify cultivars that are good candidates for use in breeding and genetic analyses of arthropod resistance genes in wheat. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Development and characterization of mutant winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) accessions resistant to the herbicide quizalofop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostlie, Michael; Haley, Scott D; Anderson, Victoria; Shaner, Dale; Manmathan, Harish; Beil, Craig; Westra, Phillip

    2015-02-01

    New herbicide resistance traits in wheat were produced through the use of induced mutagenesis. While herbicide-resistant crops have become common in many agricultural systems, wheat has seen few introductions of herbicide resistance traits. A population of Hatcher winter wheat treated with ethyl methanesulfonate was screened with quizalofop to identify herbicide-resistant plants. Initial testing identified plants that survived multiple quizalofop applications. A series of experiments were designed to characterize this trait. In greenhouse studies the mutants exhibited high levels of quizalofop resistance compared to non-mutant wheat. Sequencing ACC1 revealed a novel missense mutation causing an alanine to valine change at position 2004 (Alopecurus myosuroides reference sequence). Plants carrying single mutations in wheat's three genomes (A, B, D) were identified. Acetyl co-enzyme A carboxylase in resistant plants was 4- to 10-fold more tolerant to quizalofop. Populations of segregating backcross progenies were developed by crossing each of the three individual mutants with wild-type wheat. Experiments conducted with these populations confirmed largely normal segregation, with each mutant allele conferring an additive level of resistance. Further tests showed that the A genome mutation conferred the greatest resistance and the B genome mutation conferred the least resistance to quizalofop. The non-transgenic herbicide resistance trait identified will enhance weed control strategies in wheat.

  13. Leaf Chlorophyll Content Estimation of Winter Wheat Based on Visible and Near-Infrared Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianfeng; Han, Wenting; Huang, Lvwen; Zhang, Zhiyong; Ma, Yimian; Hu, Yamin

    2016-03-25

    The leaf chlorophyll content is one of the most important factors for the growth of winter wheat. Visual and near-infrared sensors are a quick and non-destructive testing technology for the estimation of crop leaf chlorophyll content. In this paper, a new approach is developed for leaf chlorophyll content estimation of winter wheat based on visible and near-infrared sensors. First, the sliding window smoothing (SWS) was integrated with the multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) or the standard normal variable transformation (SNV) to preprocess the reflectance spectra images of wheat leaves. Then, a model for the relationship between the leaf relative chlorophyll content and the reflectance spectra was developed using the partial least squares (PLS) and the back propagation neural network. A total of 300 samples from areas surrounding Yangling, China, were used for the experimental studies. The samples of visible and near-infrared spectroscopy at the wavelength of 450,900 nm were preprocessed using SWS, MSC and SNV. The experimental results indicate that the preprocessing using SWS and SNV and then modeling using PLS can achieve the most accurate estimation, with the correlation coefficient at 0.8492 and the root mean square error at 1.7216. Thus, the proposed approach can be widely used for winter wheat chlorophyll content analysis.

  14. Stem base diseases of winter wheat grown after forecrops of the family Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Majchrzak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A study into the sanitary state of roots and culm base of winter wheat was carried out in 1999-2002 in the Production and Experimental Station in Bałcyny near Ostróda. Experimental wheat was cultivated after spring cross plants such as spring oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp. oleiferus Metz., white mustard (Sinapis alba L, chinese mustard (Brassica juncea L., oleiferous radish (Raphanus sativus var. oleiferus L., false flax (Camelina sativa L., crambe (Crambe abbysinica Hoechst. and after oats (Avena sativa L. as a control. The other experimental factor was the method of after-harvest residue management, i.e. ploughing in the stubble, ploughing in the stubble and straw, ploughing in the stubble and straw with nitrogen added. The occurrence of root rot and stem base diseases was affected by weather conditions and forecrop species. Winter wheat roots were attacked to the lowest degree when spring rape and radish were used as forecrops, and to the highest degree - when grown after oat. The culm base was most intensely infected with fusarium foot rot (Fusarium spp.. The remaining root-rot diseases occurred every year but with different intensity. The method of utilization of after-harvest residues did not have a clear effect on the intensity of infection of the roots and culm base of winter wheat.

  15. Dryland Winter Wheat Yield, Grain Protein, and Soil Nitrogen Responses to Fertilizer and Biosolids Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard T. Koenig

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Applications of biosolids were compared to inorganic nitrogen (N fertilizer for two years at three locations in eastern Washington State, USA, with diverse rainfall and soft white, hard red, and hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars. High rates of inorganic N tended to reduce yields, while grain protein responses to N rate were positive and linear for all wheat market classes. Biosolids produced 0 to 1400 kg ha−1 (0 to 47% higher grain yields than inorganic N. Wheat may have responded positively to nutrients other than N in the biosolids or to a metered N supply that limited vegetative growth and the potential for moisture stress-induced reductions in grain yield in these dryland production systems. Grain protein content with biosolids was either equal to or below grain protein with inorganic N, likely due to dilution of grain N from the higher yields achieved with biosolids. Results indicate the potential to improve dryland winter wheat yields with biosolids compared to inorganic N alone, but perhaps not to increase grain protein concentration of hard wheat when biosolids are applied immediately before planting.

  16. Effects of salt stress on tillering nodes to the growth of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiong, Y.; Yuan, G.; Zhixia, X.; Xiaojing, L.

    2016-01-01

    In monsoon climate regions, the tillering nodes of winter wheat can be stressed by high salt accumulation on the soil surface in spring, thereby leading to salt-induced damage. To understand whether tillering nodes could be stressed by salinity and to estimate its effects on the growth of winter wheat under salt stress, the tillering nodes of two wheat cultivars, H-4589 (salt-sensitive) and J-32 (salt-tolerant), were treated with salinity to investigate the physiological and biochemical changes in seedling growth. The results indicated that salt stress on tillering nodes significantly reduced plant height and shoot dry weight; increased Na+ accumulation, soluble sugar and proline in both H-4589 and J-32; which demonstrated remarkable effects on the growth of winter wheat when the tillering nodes were under salt stress. Furthermore, equivalent Na+ accumulations were discovered in two cultivars when tillering nodes were under salt stress, while remarkably different Na+ accumulations were discovered in two cultivars when roots were under salt stress. Based on the results from anatomic analyses, we speculated that no anatomic differences in tillering nodes between two cultivars could give reason to the equivalent Na+ accumulations in two cultivars when tillering nodes were under salt stress; and more lignified endodermis in primary roots as well as larger reduction of lateral root number in salt-tolerant cultivars which contributed to preventing Na+ influx could explain the remarkably lower Na+ accumulation in salt-tolerant cultivar when roots were under salt stress. All of these results indicated that the tillering nodes could mediate Na+ influx from the environment leading to salt-induced damage to the growth of winter wheat. (author)

  17. Quality characteristics of northern-style Chinese steamed bread prepared from soft red winter wheat flours with waxy wheat flour substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quality characteristics of Chinese steamed bread (CSB) prepared from two soft red winter (SRW) wheat flours blended with 0-30% waxy wheat flour (WWF) were determined to estimate the influence of starch amylose content. The increased proportion of WWF in blends raised mixograph absorption with insign...

  18. A Reliable Methodology for Determining Seed Viability by Using Hyperspectral Data from Two Sides of Wheat Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingting; Wei, Wensong; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Ranran; Li, Mingliu; Yang, Liming; Wang, Jianhua; Sun, Qun

    2018-03-08

    This study investigated the possibility of using visible and near-infrared (VIS/NIR) hyperspectral imaging techniques to discriminate viable and non-viable wheat seeds. Both sides of individual seeds were subjected to hyperspectral imaging (400-1000 nm) to acquire reflectance spectral data. Four spectral datasets, including the ventral groove side, reverse side, mean (the mean of two sides' spectra of every seed), and mixture datasets (two sides' spectra of every seed), were used to construct the models. Classification models, partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and support vector machines (SVM), coupled with some pre-processing methods and successive projections algorithm (SPA), were built for the identification of viable and non-viable seeds. Our results showed that the standard normal variate (SNV)-SPA-PLS-DA model had high classification accuracy for whole seeds (>85.2%) and for viable seeds (>89.5%), and that the prediction set was based on a mixed spectral dataset by only using 16 wavebands. After screening with this model, the final germination of the seed lot could be higher than 89.5%. Here, we develop a reliable methodology for predicting the viability of wheat seeds, showing that the VIS/NIR hyperspectral imaging is an accurate technique for the classification of viable and non-viable wheat seeds in a non-destructive manner.

  19. Combined Use of Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2A Images for Winter Crop Mapping and Winter Wheat Yield Assessment at Regional Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skakun, Sergii; Vermote, Eric; Roger, Jean-Claude; Franch, Belen

    2017-01-01

    Timely and accurate information on crop yield and production is critical to many applications within agriculture monitoring. Thanks to its coverage and temporal resolution, coarse spatial resolution satellite imagery has always been a source of valuable information for yield forecasting and assessment at national and regional scales. With availability of free images acquired by Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 remote sensing satellites, it becomes possible to provide temporal resolution of an image every 3-5 days, and therefore, to develop next generation agriculture products at higher spatial resolution (10-30 m). This paper explores the combined use of Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2A for winter crop mapping and winter wheat yield assessment at regional scale. For the former, we adapt a previously developed approach for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument at 250 m resolution that allows automatic mapping of winter crops taking into account a priori knowledge on crop calendar. For the latter, we use a generalized winter wheat yield forecasting model that is based on estimation of the peak Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from MODIS image time-series, and further downscaled to be applicable at 30 m resolution. We show that integration of Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2A improves both winter crop mapping and winter wheat yield assessment. In particular, the error of winter wheat yield estimates can be reduced up to 1.8 times compared to using a single satellite.

  20. Combined Use of Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2A Images for Winter Crop Mapping and Winter Wheat Yield Assessment at Regional Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergii Skakun

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Timely and accurate information on crop yield and production is critical to many applications within agriculture monitoring. Thanks to its coverage and temporal resolution, coarse spatial resolution satellite imagery has always been a source of valuable information for yield forecasting and assessment at national and regional scales. With availability of free images acquired by Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 remote sensing satellites, it becomes possible to provide temporal resolution of 3–5 days, and therefore, to develop next generation agriculture products at higher spatial resolution (10–30 m. This paper explores the combined use of Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2A for winter crop mapping and winter wheat yield assessment at regional scale. For the former, we adapt a previously developed approach for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS instrument at 250 m resolution that allows automatic mapping of winter crops taking into account a priori knowledge on crop calendar. For the latter, we use a generalized winter wheat yield forecasting model that is based on estimation of the peak Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI from MODIS image time-series, and further downscaled to be applicable at 30 m resolution. We show that integration of Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2A improves both winter crop mapping and winter wheat yield assessment. In particular, the error of winter wheat yield estimates can be reduced up to 1.8 times compared to using a single satellite.

  1. Factors limiting the grain protein content of organic winter wheat in south-eastern France: a mixed-model approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casagrande, M.; David, C.; Valantin-Morison, M.; Makowski, D.; Jeuffroy, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    Organic agriculture could achieve the objectives of sustainable agriculture by banning the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. However, organic crops generally show lower performances than conventional ones. In France, organic winter wheat production is characterized by low grain protein

  2. Optimizing Winter Wheat Resilience to Climate Change in Rain Fed Crop Systems of Turkey and Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta S. Lopes

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Erratic weather patterns associated with increased temperatures and decreasing rainfall pose unique challenges for wheat breeders playing a key part in the fight to ensure global food security. Within rain fed winter wheat areas of Turkey and Iran, unusual weather patterns may prevent attaining maximum potential increases in winter wheat genetic gains. This is primarily related to the fact that the yield ranking of tested genotypes may change from one year to the next. Changing weather patterns may interfere with the decisions breeders make about the ideotype(s they should aim for during selection. To inform breeding decisions, this study aimed to optimize major traits by modeling different combinations of environments (locations and years and by defining a probabilistic range of trait variations [phenology and plant height (PH] that maximized grain yields (GYs; one wheat line with optimal heading and height is suggested for use as a testing line to aid selection calibration decisions. Research revealed that optimal phenology was highly related to the temperature and to rainfall at which winter wheat genotypes were exposed around heading time (20 days before and after heading. Specifically, later winter wheat genotypes were exposed to higher temperatures both before and after heading, increased rainfall at the vegetative stage, and reduced rainfall during grain filling compared to early genotypes. These variations in exposure to weather conditions resulted in shorter grain filling duration and lower GYs in long-duration genotypes. This research tested if diversity within species may increase resilience to erratic weather patterns. For the study, calculated production of a selection of five high yielding genotypes (if grown in five plots was tested against monoculture (if only a single genotype grown in the same area and revealed that a set of diverse genotypes with different phenologies and PHs was not beneficial. New strategies of progeny

  3. Crop coefficients for winter wheat in a sub-humid climate regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærsgaard, Jeppe Hvelplund; Plauborg, Finn; Mollerup, Mikkel

    2008-01-01

    Estimations of evapotranspiration (ET) from natural surfaces are used in a large number of applications such as agricultural water management and water resources planning. Lack of reliable, cheap and easy-to-use instruments, associated with the chaotic and varying nature of the meteorological...... coefficients for a winter wheat crop growing under standard conditions, i.e. not short of water and growing under optimal agronomic conditions, were estimated for a cold sub-humid climate regime. One of the two methods used to estimate ET from a reference crop required net radiation (Rn) as input. Two sets...... of coefficients were used for calculating Rn. Weather data from a meteorological station was used to estimate Rn and ET from the reference crop. The winter wheat ET was measured using an eddy covariance system during the main parts of the growing seasons 2004 and 2005. The meteorological data and field...

  4. ECOTOXICITY AND PHYTOTOXICITY OF PLANT PROTECTION PRODUCTS TO RHIZOSPHERE FUNGI AND WINTER WHEAT SEEDLINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Daria Stasiulewicz-Paluch

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Registration of plant protection products involves the analysis of their effects on soil microorganisms. The residues of plant protection products penetrate the soil, but their impact on fungi remains scarcely researched. In this study, the influence of selected plant protection products on the abundance of rhizosphere-dwelling fungi and the growth of winter wheat seedlings was evaluated under greenhouse conditions. The analysed plant protection products had an inhibitory effect on the growth of filamentous fungi in the rhizosphere, whereas yeasts were resistant to those products applied to soil. Tebuconazole exerted the strongest suppressive effect on the growth of filamentous fungi, and propiconazole was characterized by the greatest phytotoxic activity against winter wheat seedlings. Azoxystrobin had the weakest ecotoxic and phytotoxic effects, and its application to soil usually led to a rapid increase in the counts of fungi of the genus Acremonium.

  5. The nitrate leached below maize root zone is available for deep-rooted wheat in winter wheat-summer maize rotation in the North China Plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Shunli [Key Laboratory of Crop Cultivation and Farming System, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, China Agricultural University, 2 West Yuanmingyuan Road, Beijing 100094 (China)], E-mail: zhoushl@cau.edu.cn; Wu Yongcheng [Key Laboratory of Crop Cultivation and Farming System, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, China Agricultural University, 2 West Yuanmingyuan Road, Beijing 100094 (China); College of Agronomy, Si Chuan Agricultural University, Yaan 625014 (China); Wang Zhimin [Key Laboratory of Crop Cultivation and Farming System, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, China Agricultural University, 2 West Yuanmingyuan Road, Beijing 100094 (China); Lu Laiqing; Wang Runzheng [Wuqiao Experimental Station, China Agricultural University, Hebei 061802 (China)

    2008-04-15

    In winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-summer maize (Zea mays L.) rotation system in the North China Plain, maize roots do not extend beyond 1.2 m in the vertical soil profile, but wheat roots can reach up to 2.0 m. Increases in soil nitrate content at maize harvest and significant reductions after winter wheat harvest were observed in the 1.4-2.0 m depth under field conditions. The recovery of {sup 15}N isotope (calcium nitrate) from various (1.0, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8 and 2.0 m) soil depths showed that deep-rooting winter wheat could use soil nitrate up to the 2.0 m depth. This accounted partially, for the reduced nitrate in the 1.4-2.0 m depth of the soil after harvest of wheat in the rotation system. - Deep-rooted wheat can recycle nitrate leached from maize root zone in winter wheat-summer maize rotation system.

  6. The nitrate leached below maize root zone is available for deep-rooted wheat in winter wheat-summer maize rotation in the North China Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Shunli; Wu Yongcheng; Wang Zhimin; Lu Laiqing; Wang Runzheng

    2008-01-01

    In winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-summer maize (Zea mays L.) rotation system in the North China Plain, maize roots do not extend beyond 1.2 m in the vertical soil profile, but wheat roots can reach up to 2.0 m. Increases in soil nitrate content at maize harvest and significant reductions after winter wheat harvest were observed in the 1.4-2.0 m depth under field conditions. The recovery of 15 N isotope (calcium nitrate) from various (1.0, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8 and 2.0 m) soil depths showed that deep-rooting winter wheat could use soil nitrate up to the 2.0 m depth. This accounted partially, for the reduced nitrate in the 1.4-2.0 m depth of the soil after harvest of wheat in the rotation system. - Deep-rooted wheat can recycle nitrate leached from maize root zone in winter wheat-summer maize rotation system

  7. Long-term Low Radiation Decreases Leaf Photosynthesis, Photochemical Efficiency and Grain Yield in Winter Wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, H; Jiang, D; Wollenweber, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    the impact of low radiation on crop growth, photosynthesis and yield. Grain yield losses and leaf area index (LAI) reduction were less than the reduction in solar radiation under both shading treatment in both cultivars. Compared with the control (S0), grain yield only reduced 6.4 % and 9.9 % under 22.......0-22.9 % (S1) and 29.5-49.6 % (S2), which was consistent with the reduction in radiation. The reduction in LAI was partially compensated by increases in the fraction of the top and bottom leaf area to the total leaf area, which facilitated to intercept more solar radiation by the canopy. The decrease......Low radiation reduces wheat grain yield in tree-crop intercropping systems in the major wheat planting area of China. Here, two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L) cultivars, Yangmai 158 (shading tolerant) and Yangmai 11 (shading sensitive), were shaded from jointing to maturity to evaluate...

  8. Over-expression of a tobacco nitrate reductase gene in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. increases seed protein content and weight without augmenting nitrogen supplying.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Qiang Zhao

    Full Text Available Heavy nitrogen (N application to gain higher yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. resulted in increased production cost and environment pollution. How to diminish the N supply without losing yield and/or quality remains a challenge. To meet the challenge, we integrated and expressed a tobacco nitrate reductase gene (NR in transgenic wheat. The 35S-NR gene was transferred into two winter cultivars, "Nongda146" and "Jimai6358", by Agrobacterium-mediation. Over-expression of the transgene remarkably enhanced T1 foliar NR activity and significantly augmented T2 seed protein content and 1000-grain weight in 63.8% and 68.1% of T1 offspring (total 67 individuals analyzed, respectively. Our results suggest that constitutive expression of foreign nitrate reductase gene(s in wheat might improve nitrogen use efficiency and thus make it possible to increase seed protein content and weight without augmenting N supplying.

  9. Over-expression of a tobacco nitrate reductase gene in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) increases seed protein content and weight without augmenting nitrogen supplying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-Qiang; Nie, Xuan-Li; Xiao, Xing-Guo

    2013-01-01

    Heavy nitrogen (N) application to gain higher yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) resulted in increased production cost and environment pollution. How to diminish the N supply without losing yield and/or quality remains a challenge. To meet the challenge, we integrated and expressed a tobacco nitrate reductase gene (NR) in transgenic wheat. The 35S-NR gene was transferred into two winter cultivars, "Nongda146" and "Jimai6358", by Agrobacterium-mediation. Over-expression of the transgene remarkably enhanced T1 foliar NR activity and significantly augmented T2 seed protein content and 1000-grain weight in 63.8% and 68.1% of T1 offspring (total 67 individuals analyzed), respectively. Our results suggest that constitutive expression of foreign nitrate reductase gene(s) in wheat might improve nitrogen use efficiency and thus make it possible to increase seed protein content and weight without augmenting N supplying.

  10. Response change in winter-wheat types to the pathogen complex under chronic gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budanov, V.E.; Lysenkov, V.I.; Shcherbakov, V.K.

    1975-01-01

    Disease reactions in plants that have been gamma-irradiated are discussed. Damage to different types of soft winter wheat, due to pathogenic fungi, is evaluated. The Mironovski Jubilee variety showed high resistance to the leaf form of powdery mildew, along with the opposite phenomenon of a high susceptibility to the stem form of this disease. Chronic gamma irradiation of plants of this variety increased the susceptibility to this disease

  11. Relationships between the climate change and the grain filling of winter wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang, Z.; Jiang, D.

    2016-01-01

    The present study is based on the material in a grain filling rate experiment of winter wheat and hourly weather data organised by Xinghua city of Jiangsu Province. The aims are to objectively evaluate the possible influences of the temperature, precipitation, sunshine at the different time of the same day on the grain filling rate of winter wheat. The grain filling rate evaluation model of climate change is firstly developed, and then, the model calculation results are compared with the observed data. The along the changes of the microclimate, changes of the grain filling rate of winter wheat, which is not same in the gradual, rapid and slow increase stages. The changes in grain filling rate of winter wheat, which were caused by variations of temperature, precipitation and sunshine duration, showed periodic fluctuation. Variation in temperature resulted in 1.36 g d/sup -1/(10a)/sup -1/ of grain filling rate change; variation in precipitation resulted in -1.35 g d/sup -1/. (10a)/sup -1/ of grain filling rate change; and variation in sunshine duration resulted in 0.07 g d/sup -1/ (10a)/sup -1/ of grain filling rate change. Three samples showed a grain filling rate change of 0.08 g d/sup -1/(10a)/sup -1/. These findings indicate that the increase in temperature and sunshine duration caused the elevation of grain filling rate, whereas the increase in precipitation decreased the grain filling rate. Therefore, monitoring and predication capability of Meteorological disasters, such as drought caused by high temperature, should be strengthened to ensure the favourable weather condition and improve the grain filling rate through scientific methods such as artificial precipitation. (author)

  12. [Soil respiration characteristics in winter wheat field in North China Plain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuyue; Li, Jun; Lu, Peiling; Wang, Yinghong; Yu, Qiang

    2004-09-01

    Experiments were conducted at the Yucheng Comprehensive Experimental Station of the Chinese Academy of Sciences during 2002-2003 to investigate the respiration of a pulverous sandstone soil under cultivation of winter wheat over a growth season. The effluent CO2 was collected and analyzed by the static-chamber/gas chromatography (GC) method at a frequency of once a week in spring and autumn, once two weeks in winter, twice a week for straw manure treatment, once a week for no straw manure treatment and nitrogen fertilization treatment in summer. The results indicated that diurnal variation of soil respiration rate showed a single peak in typical winter wheat farmlands in the North China Plain, and reached the highest at about 13 o'clock, and the lowest at about 4 o'clock in the early morning. In winter wheat growth season, the soil respiration rate was 31.23-606.85 mg x m(-2) x h(-1) under straw manure, 28.99-549.66 x m(-2) x h(-1) under no straw manure, 10.46-590.86 mg x m(-2) x h(-1) in N0, 16.11-349.88 mg x m(-2) x h(-1) in N100, 12.25-415.00 mg x m(-2) x h(-1) in N200, and 23.01-410.58 mg x m(-2) x h(-1) in N300, showing a similar seasonal variation tendency with soil temperature. Among all treatments, the straw manure had the most distinct soil respiration, though the soil respiration also increased slightly with increasing nitrogen fertilization. Soil respiration increased exponentially with increasing soil temperature, and the correlation of soil temperature at the depth of 5 cm was the best. This relationship was usually described with the Q10 model, which represented the sensitivity of soil respiration to temperature. Q10 was not a fixed value, which varied with the depth at which the temperature was measured and the depth of the active soil layer and soil temperature. At same time, the Q10 value decreased with increasing soil temperature. Soil water content was another important factor affecting soil respiration rate, but in this region, the relationship

  13. 31P NMR study of phosphate metabolites in intact developing seeds of wheat, soybean and mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambhir, P.N.; Pande, P.C.; Ratcliffe, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    The study of 31 P NMR spectra of intact developing seeds of wheat, soybean and mustard and its possible use for assessing the relative degree of hypoxia under in vivo conditions are reported. 7 refs., 2 figs

  14. Effect of seed priming on growth and biochemical traits of wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-28

    Nov 28, 2011 ... completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications. Seeds of different wheat ..... simple and nondestructive measurement to evaluate .... Gorham J, Bridges J, Dubcovsky J, Dvorak J, Hollington PA, Luo MC,. Khan JA ...

  15. [Contribution of soil water at various depths to water consumption of rainfed winter wheat in the Loess tableland, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Li Ping; Liu, Wen Zhao

    2017-07-18

    Soil water and stem water were collected in jointing and heading stages of the rainfed winter wheat in the Changwu Loess tableland, and the stable isotopic compositions of hydrogen and oxygen in water samples were measured to analyze the contribution of soil water at various depths to water consumption of winter wheat. The results showed that the isotopes were enriched in soil and wheat stem water in comparison with that in precipitation. Under the condition of no dry layer in soil profile, the contributions to wheat water consumption in jointing and heading stages were 5.4% and 2.6% from soil water at 0-30 cm depth, 73.4% and 67.3% at 60-90 cm depth (the main water source for winter wheat), and 7.9% and 13.5% below 120 cm depth, respectively. With the wheat growth, the contribution of soil water below the depth of 90 cm increased. It was concluded that soil evaporation mainly consumed soil water in 0-30 cm depth and wheat transpiration mainly consumed soil water below 60 cm depth in the experimental period. In the production practice, it is necessary to increase rainwater storage ratio during the summer fallow period, and apply reasonable combination of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers in order to increase soil moisture before wheat sowing, promote the wheat root developing deep downwards and raise the deep soil water utilization ratio.

  16. Impact of Triticum mosaic virus infection on hard winter wheat milling and bread baking quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Rebecca A; Martin, T Joe; Seifers, Dallas L

    2012-03-15

    Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) is a newly discovered wheat virus. Information regarding the effect of wheat viruses on milling and baking quality is limited. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of TriMV infection on the kernel characteristics, milling yield and bread baking quality of wheat. Commercial hard winter varieties evaluated included RonL, Danby and Jagalene. The TriMV resistance of RonL is low, while that of Danby and Jagalene is unknown. KS96HW10-3, a germplasm with high TriMV resistance, was included as a control. Plots of each variety were inoculated with TriMV at the two- to three-leaf stage. Trials were conducted at two locations in two crop years. TriMV infection had no effect on the kernel characteristics, flour yield or baking properties of KS96HW10-3. The effect of TriMV on the kernel characteristics of RonL, Danby and Jagalene was not consistent between crop years and presumably an environmental effect. The flour milling and bread baking properties of these three varieties were not significantly affected by TriMV infection. TriMV infection of wheat plants did not affect harvested wheat kernel characteristics, flour milling properties or white pan bread baking quality. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Post-heading heat stress and yield impact in winter wheat of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Liu, Leilei; Tian, Liying; Cao, Weixing; Zhu, Yan; Asseng, Senthold

    2014-02-01

    Wheat is sensitive to high temperatures, but the spatial and temporal variability of high temperature and its impact on yield are often not known. An analysis of historical climate and yield data was undertaken to characterize the spatial and temporal variability of heat stress between heading and maturity and its impact on wheat grain yield in China. Several heat stress indices were developed to quantify heat intensity, frequency, and duration between heading and maturity based on measured maximum temperature records of the last 50 years from 166 stations in the main wheat-growing region of China. Surprisingly, heat stress between heading and maturity was more severe in the generally cooler northern wheat-growing regions than the generally warmer southern regions of China, because of the delayed time of heading with low temperatures during the earlier growing season and the exposure of the post-heading phase into the warmer part of the year. Heat stress between heading and maturity has increased in the last decades in most of the main winter wheat production areas of China, but the rate was higher in the south than in the north. The correlation between measured grain yields and post-heading heat stress and average temperature were statistically significant in the entire wheat-producing region, and explained about 29% of the observed spatial and temporal yield variability. A heat stress index considering the duration and intensity of heat between heading and maturity was required to describe the correlation of heat stress and yield variability. Because heat stress is a major cause of yield loss and the number of heat events is projected to increase in the future, quantifying the future impact of heat stress on wheat production and developing appropriate adaptation and mitigation strategies are critical for developing food security policies in China and elsewhere. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Effect of nitrogen fertilizer application timing on nitrogen use efficiency and grain yield of winter wheat in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efretuei A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to determine the effects of initiating application of fertilizer nitrogen (N to winter wheat at different growth stages (GSs on grain yield and N use efficiency (NUE. A factorial experiment was carried out in two growing seasons (2011 and 2012 with five timings of first N application (GS 24/26 [tillering], GS 30, GS 31, GS 32 or GS 37 and an unfertilized control, two sowing densities (100 and 400 seeds/m2 and a cattle slurry treatment (with or without slurry. The latter was included to simulate variation in soil N supply (SNS. Delaying the first application of N from the tillering stage until GS 30 had no significant effect on grain yield in either year. Further delaying the initial N application until GS 31 caused a significant yield reduction in 2011, in comparison to GS 30 application, but not in 2012. Differences in efficiency of recovery and use of fertilizer N by the crop among the first three application timings were small. There was no evidence to support alteration in the timing of the first application of N in response to low plant density. Slurry application did not influence SNS, so the interaction between SNS and fertilizer N application timing could not be determined. It is concluded that in order to maximise yield and NUE, the first N application should be applied to winter wheat between late tillering and GS 30 and that delaying the first N until GS 31 can lead to yield reductions compared to the yield obtained with earlier application.

  19. Crop response of aerobic rice and winter wheat to nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in a double cropping system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dai, X.Q.; Zhang, H.Y.; Spiertz, J.H.J.; Yu, J.; Xie, G.H.; Bouman, B.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    In the aerobic rice system, adapted rice cultivars are grown in non-flooded moist soil. Aerobic rice may be suitable for double cropping with winter wheat in the Huai River Basin, northern China plain. Field experiments in 2005 and 2006 were conducted to study the response of aerobic rice and winter

  20. Spatial Variability Analysis of Within-Field Winter Wheat Nitrogen and Grain Quality Using Canopy Fluorescence Sensor Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Song

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wheat grain protein content (GPC is a key component when evaluating wheat nutrition. It is also important to determine wheat GPC before harvest for agricultural and food process enterprises in order to optimize the wheat grading process. Wheat GPC across a field is spatially variable due to the inherent variability of soil properties and position in the landscape. The objectives of this field study were: (i to assess the spatial and temporal variability of wheat nitrogen (N attributes related to the grain quality of winter wheat production through canopy fluorescence sensor measurements; and (ii to examine the influence of spatial variability of soil N and moisture across different growth stages on the wheat grain quality. A geostatistical approach was used to analyze data collected from 110 georeferenced locations. In particular, Ordinary Kriging Analysis (OKA was used to produce maps of wheat GPC, GPC yield, and wheat canopy fluorescence parameters, including simple florescence ratio and Nitrogen Balance Indices (NBI. Soil Nitrate-Nitrogen (NO3-N content and soil Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR value in the study field were also interpolated through the OKA method. The fluorescence parameter maps, soil NO3-N and soil TDR maps obtained from the OKA output were compared with the wheat GPC and GPC yield maps in order to assess their relationships. The results of this study indicate that the NBI spatial variability map in the late stage of wheat growth can be used to distinguish areas that produce higher GPC.

  1. Characterization of vegetative and grain filling periods of winter wheat by stepwise regression procedure. II. Grain filling period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pržulj Novo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In wheat, rate and duration of dry matter accumulation and remobilization depend on genotype and growing conditions. The objective of this study was to determine the most appropriate polynomial regression of stepwise regression procedure for describing grain filling period in three winter wheat cultivars. The stepwise regression procedure showed that grain filling is a complex biological process and that it is difficult to offer a simple and appropriate polynomial equation that fits the pattern of changes in dry matter accumulation during the grain filling period, i.e., from anthesis to maximum grain weight, in winter wheat. If grain filling is to be represented with a high power polynomial, quartic and quintic equations showed to be most appropriate. In spite of certain disadvantages, a cubic equation of stepwise regression could be used for describing the pattern of winter wheat grain filling.

  2. Surface-exchange of NOx and NH3 above a winter wheat field in the Yangtze Delta, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Shuan-gxi; ZHANG Yi; MU Yu-jing

    2006-01-01

    A four-dynamic-chamber system was constructed to measure NOx and NH3 surface-exchange between a typical wheat field and the fluxes of NO2 and NH3 were negatively correlated with their ambient concentrations during the investigated period. The compensation point of NO2 between the wheat field and the atmosphere was 11.9 μg/m3. The emissions of NO-N and NH3-N from the urea applied to the wheat field were 2.3% and 0.2%, respectively, which indicated that the main pathway of N loss from the investigated winter wheat field was NO. Application of a mixture of urea and lignin increased the emissions of NO, but also greatly increased the yield of the winter wheat.

  3. Mycological composition in the rhizosphere of winter wheat in different crop production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frac, Magdalena; Lipiec, Jerzy; Usowicz, Boguslaw

    2010-05-01

    Fungi play an important role in the soil ecosystem as decomposers of plant residues, releasing nutrients that sustain and stimulate processes of plant growth. Some fungi possess antagonistic properties towards plant pathogens. The structure of plant and soil communities is influenced by the interactions among its component species and also by anthropogenic pressure. In the study of soil fungi, particular attention is given to the rhizosphere. Knowledge of the structure and diversity of the fungal community in the rhizosphere lead to the better understanding of pathogen-antagonist interactions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mycological composition of the winter wheat rhizosphere in two different crop production systems. The study was based on a field experiment established in 1994 year at the Experimental Station in South-East Poland. The experiment was conducted on grey-brown podzolic soil. In this experiment winter wheat were grown in two crop production systems: ecological and conventional - monoculture. The research of fungi composition was conducted in 15th year of experiment. Rhizosphere was collected two times during growing season, in different development stage: shooting phase and full ripeness phase. Martin medium and the dilutions 10-3 and 10-4 were used to calculate the total number cfu (colony forming units) of fungi occurring in the rhizosphere of winter wheat. The fungi were identified using Czapeka-Doxa medium for Penicillium, potato dextrose agar for all fungi and agar Nirenberga (SNA) for Fusarium. High number of antagonistic fungi (Penicillium sp., Trichoderma sp.) was recorded in the rhizosphere of wheat in ecological system. The presence of these fungi can testify to considerable biological activity, which contributes to the improvement of the phytosanitary condition of the soil. However, the decrease of the antagonistic microorganism number in the crop wheat in monoculture can be responsible for appearance higher number of the

  4. Polymorphism of proteins in selected slovak winter wheat genotypes using SDS-PAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Miháliková

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Winter wheat is especially used for bread-making. The specific composition of the grain storage proteins and the representation of individual subunits determines the baking quality of wheat. The aim of this study was to analyze 15 slovak varieties of the winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. based on protein polymorphism and to predict their technological quality. SDS-PAGE method by ISTA was used to separate glutenin protein subunits. Glutenins were separated into HMW-GS (15.13% and LMW-GS (65.89% on the basis of molecular weight in SDS-PAGE. At the locus Glu-A1 was found allele Null (53% of genotypes and allele 1 (47% of genotypes. The locus Glu-B1 was represented by the HMW-GS subunits 6+8 (33% of genotypes, 7+8 (27% of genotypes, 7+9 (40% of genotypes. At the locus Glu-D1 were detected two subunits, 2+12 (33% of genotypes and 5+10 (67% of genotypes which is correlated with good bread-making properties. The Glu – score was ranged from 4 (genotype Viglanka to 10 (genotypes Viola, Vladarka. According to the representation of individual glutenin subunits in samples, the dendrogram of genetic similarity was constructed. By the prediction of quality the results showed that the best technological quality was significant in the varieties Viola and Vladarka which are suitable for use in food processing.

  5. Mineral nutrition as a factor of stability of technological quality in winter wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić Veselinka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Afield trial was carried out with eight cultivars (Libellula, Drina, Sremica NSR-2, Jugoslavija, Somborka, Lasta and Pobeda of winter wheat (Trticum aestivum L representing several different periods in our country's wheat selection and having different potentials for technological grain quality. Six different rates of nitrogen fertilizer were tested: 0, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 kgNha-1. Increasing N fertilizer rates resulted in a linear increase of the direct and indirect indicators of quality. The best results were obtained with the cultivar Sremica and the poorest with Lasta, while Jugoslavija and Pobeda were shown to be of approximately the same quality. The contribution of N fertilizer variance to total variance was the largest for protein content (43.7%. N nutrition had a greater influence on protein content in cultivars from the earlier periods of selection. Its effect on sedimentation value, on the other hand, was greater in the recently released cultivars. The contribution of the genetic factor to total variance was the highest for crumb value number (CVN (58.7% and bread volume yield (44.2% and the lowest for protein content (20.8%. The absence of significant differences in the CVN means at any of the N nutrition levels studied resulted from the variability of the indirect indicators closely linked with the direct indicators of baking quality, showing the importance of N nutrition for maintaining the stability of technological quality in winter wheat cultivars.

  6. The optimal atmospheric CO2 concentration for the growth of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ming

    2015-07-20

    This study examined the optimal atmospheric CO2 concentration of the CO2 fertilization effect on the growth of winter wheat with growth chambers where the CO2 concentration was controlled at 400, 600, 800, 1000, and 1200 ppm respectively. I found that initial increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration dramatically enhanced winter wheat growth through the CO2 fertilization effect. However, this CO2 fertilization effect was substantially compromised with further increase in CO2 concentration, demonstrating an optimal CO2 concentration of 889.6, 909.4, and 894.2 ppm for aboveground, belowground, and total biomass, respectively, and 967.8 ppm for leaf photosynthesis. Also, high CO2 concentrations exceeding the optima not only reduced leaf stomatal density, length and conductance, but also changed the spatial distribution pattern of stomata on leaves. In addition, high CO2 concentration also decreased the maximum carboxylation rate (Vc(max)) and the maximum electron transport rate (J(max)) of leaf photosynthesis. However, the high CO2 concentration had little effect on leaf length and plant height. The optimal CO2 fertilization effect found in this study can be used as an indicator in selecting and breeding new wheat strains in adapting to future high atmospheric CO2 concentrations and climate change. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  7. Influence of fungicides on occurence of Fusarium spp. and other stem base diseases on winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Sklenář

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available From 1999 to 2004 the occurence of fungi: Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides (Fron. and Fusarium spp. was evaluated in small plot field trials on seven varieties of winter wheat. The efficacy of fungicide protection against stem base diseases and influence on yields was monitored in field conditions in Velká Bystřice near Olomouc.For diagnostic of casual fungi two methods were used: 1. Method of coloring mycelium in stems, 2. Method of cultivation of mycelim on agar.Results from detection of casual fungi are following: Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides (Fron., Fusarium culmorum (W. G. Sm. Sacc. and Fusarium graminearum Schwabe.For high efficacy of protection against roots and stem base disease the following fungicide variants should be applied: Sportak Alpha 1.5 l . ha−1 (BBCH 30/Cerelux Plus 0.7 l . ha−1 (BBCH 51, Sportak HF 1 l . ha−1 (BBCH 30/Cerelux Plus 0.7 l . ha−1, Alert S 1.0 l . ha−1 (BBCH 30/Cerelux Plus 0.7 l . ha−1 (BBCH 51. The application of fungicides positively influenced yields. Yield increased at average by10–20 % after the aplication but the rise in yields was not in total correlation with the efficacy. These results can be possibly used in the system of integral control of winter wheat against stem base disease in wheat.

  8. Effects of the Tillage Technology and the Forecrop on Weeds in Stands of Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Winkler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The semipilot-scale field experiment was established in the cadastre of the village Letkovice in the South Moravian Region (Czech Republic. The study area was situated in a warm climatic region T2. Winter wheat was cultivated in two variants of tillage, viz. conventional tillage (CT and minimum tillage (MT and after three different forecrops (fodder beet, late potatoes, and broad (faba bean. Weed infestation of wheat stands was evaluated in spring seasons of 2007 and 2008, always before the application of herbicides. Numbers of weed specimens and their species were defined by means of a calculation method. Recorded data were processed by means of multidimensional analyses of ecological data, viz. Data Correspondence Analysis (DCA and Redundancy Analysis (RDA. Within the study period, altogether 22 weed species were identified in all variants with different tillage technologies and different forecrops. In the MT variant, the degree of winter wheat stand infestation with weeds was lower. As far as the forecrops were concerned, the most and the least intensive degrees of infestation were recorded on plots with faba bean and late potatoes, respectively.

  9. Yield Stability in Winter Wheat Production: A Survey on German Farmers’ and Advisors’ Views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna Macholdt

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Most of the available research studies have focused on the production of high grain yields of wheat and have neglected yield stability. However, yield stability is a relevant factor in agronomic practice and, therefore, is the focus of this comprehensive survey. The aim was to first describe the importance of yield stability as well as currently used practical management strategies that ensure yield stability in wheat production and secondly, to obtain potential research areas supporting yield stability in the complex system of agronomy. The target groups were German farmers with experience in wheat production and advisors with expertise in the field of wheat cultivation or research. A sample size of 615 completed questionnaires formed the data basis of this study. The study itself provides evidence that the yield stability of winter wheat is even more important than the amount of yield for a large proportion of farmers (48% and advisors (47%. Furthermore, in the view of the majority of the surveyed farmers and advisors, yield stability is gaining importance in climate change. Data analysis showed that site adapted cultivar choice, favorable crop rotations and integrated plant protection are ranked as three of the most important agronomic management practices to achieve high yield stability of wheat. Soil tillage and fertilization occupied a middle position, whereas sowing date and sowing density were estimated with lower importance. However, yield stability is affected by many environmental, genetic and agronomic factors, which subsequently makes it a complex matter. Hence, yield stability in farming practice must be analyzed and improved in a systems approach.

  10. The response of winter wheat to water stress and nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, F.; Qi, M.; Wang, H.; Changjiu, Z.

    1995-01-01

    The response of winter wheat to water stress imposed at different crop growth stages by deficit irrigation and fertilizer use under several schemes of irrigation were evaluated on fine sandy soil and sand loam soil. The results showed that according to grain yield response factor K, the order of sensitive growth stages of winter wheat to water stress in decreasing sequence were booting to flowering ( K= 0.90), winter afterward to booting ( K= 0.69), flowering to milking ( K= 0.44) and milking to ripening ( K= 0.25). Field water efficiency would get 16.7 kg/mm.ha when no water stress in growth period, and when water stress has occurred in some growth stages, the value of it decreased by 5 - 20 percent. It was also found that high fertilizer application rate without split application would not significantly influence the yield on fine sandy soil. But schedule of irrigation affected the translocation of nitrogen in the plant. When water stress occurred in later growth stage, the ratio of NUE in gain to straw decreased, and fertilizer was available for crop only about one month after fertilizer application, excessive fertilizer rate would result in decrease of NUE by leaching of nitrogen in sandy soil. Total recovery of fertilizer at harvest was half amount of application. 6 refs; 10 tabs; ( author)

  11. Ecological and Geographical Selection of Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Р. А. Уразалієв

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the lead long-term selection works wint involving a World' s collection and intertype and intertype hybridization with purposeful selection on economic-biological attributes highly productive • grades of a winter wheat, with stability to various kinds of illnesses and high technological qualities of grain have been allocated. The adapted grades of a winter wheat for a various environment of various zones of the countries of the Central Asia that allows to realize potential opportunities of grades in different environments of cultivation and by that to prevent losses of a crop from biotic and abiotic stresses that allows to stabilize productivity and adaptability of culture in a zon winter husbandry are created. The long-term field experiences lead by us and laboratory analyses on a level of productivity, qualities of grain and stability to stresses allows to conclude, that alongside with a genotype, stabilityenvironmental conditions render strong and significant influence on all complex of selection attributes.

  12. Winter Pea: Promising New Crop for Washington's Dryland Wheat-Fallow Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William F. Schillinger

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year tillage-based winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.-summer fallow (WW-SF rotation has been practiced by the vast majority of farmers in the low-precipitation (<300 mm annual rainfed cropping region of east-central Washington and north-central Oregon for 140 years. Until recently, alternative crops (i.e., those other than WW so far tested have not been as economically viable or stable as WW-SF. A 6-year field study was conducted near Ritzville, WA (292 mm avg. annual precipitation to determine the yield and rotation benefits of winter pea (Pisum sativum L. (WP. Two 3-year rotations were evaluated: WP-spring wheat (SW-SF vs. WW-SW-SF. Winter pea yields averaged 2,443 vs. 4,878 kg/ha for WW. No fertilizer was applied to WP whereas 56 kg N and 11 kg S/ha were applied to WW. Winter pea used significantly less soil water than WW. Over the winter months, a lesser percentage of precipitation was stored in the soil following WP compared to WW because: (i very little WP residue remained on the soil surface after harvest compared to WW, and (ii the drier the soil, the more precipitation is stored in the soil over winter. However, soil water content in the spring was still greater following WP vs. WW. Soil residual N in the spring (7 months after the harvest of WP and WW was greater in WP plots despite not applying fertilizer to produce WP. Spring wheat grown after both WP and WW received the identical quantity of N, P, and S fertilizer each year. Average yield of SW was 2,298 and 2,011 kg/ha following WP and WW, respectively (P < 0.01. Adjusted gross economic returns for these two rotation systems were similar. Based partially on the results of this study, numerous farmers in the dry WW-SF region have shown keen interest in WP and acreage planted WP in east-central Washington has grown exponentially since 2013. This paper provides the first report of the potential for WP in the typical WW-SF region of the inland Pacific Northwest (PNW.

  13. VARIABILITY OF AMYLOSE AND AMYLOPECTIN IN WINTER WHEAT AND SELECTION FOR SPECIAL PURPOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolina Weg Krstičević

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the variability of amylose and amylopectin in 24 Croatian and six foreign winter wheat varieties and to detect the potential of these varieties for special purposes. Starch composition analysis was based on the separation of amylose and amylopectin and the determination of their amounts and ratios. Analysis of the amount of amylose and amylopectin determined statistically highly significant differences between the varieties. The tested varieties are mostly bread wheat of different quality which have the usual content of amylose and amylopectin. Some varieties were identified among them with high amylopectin and low amylose content and one variety with high amylose content. They have the potential in future breeding programs and selection for special purposes.

  14. Effect of inoculation and nitrogen top-dressing on yields and fodder value of winter pea cv. Maksimirski ozimi in wheat cv. Sana mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Uher

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Two year field trials (1999 - 2001 were performed to determine theinoculation seed winter pea and nitrogen top-dressing effect on number and active nodules of pea root and also on the green mass and dry matter yield of winter pea cv. Maksimirski ozimi and wheat cv. Sana mixture. Immediately before sowing the inoculation of pea seeds was accomplished by the indigenous variety of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae which belongs to the collection of Department of Microbiology at the Faculty of Agriculture University of Zagreb. The highest total nodule number on pea root (159 was determined on the inoculated variant as well as active nodule 144. Average mixture green mass yield were ranging from 24,65 t ha-1 (control up to 35,50 t ha-1 (inoculation. Total dry matter yields were ranging from 3,93 t ha-1 (control up to 5,66 t ha-1 (inoculation. Yields crude proteins pea in 2001 were ranging from 692 kg ha-1 (control up to 1058 kg ha-1 (inoculation and for wheat, those values ranged from 199 kg ha-1 (control up to 454 kg ha-1 (nitrogen top-dressing. Total crude proteins mixture yields were in range from 891 kg ha-1 (control up to 1360 kg ha-1 (inoculation.

  15. Fumonisin B1 and beauvericin accumulation in wheat kernels after seed-borne infection with Fusarium proliferatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqing Guo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium proliferatum is a fungal pathogen causing ear rot of maize. The fungus infects a range of other plants but the economic impact of these diseases has not been established. Recently, F. proliferatum and its mycotoxin fumonisin were found in wheat grains. Here we report that seed-borne infection of wheat with F. proliferatum resulted in systemic colonization of wheat plants and contamination of wheat grains with fumonisins and beauvericin. F. proliferatum strains originating from different hosts were able to infect wheat via seeds. Colonization of wheat plants with the fungus was highest in the stems, followed by leaves; one third of the strains reached kernels, causing accumulation of fumonisins and beauvericin to 15–55 µg kg-1. The results show that seed-borne infection of wheat with F. proliferatum can lead to contamination of wheat kernels with mycotoxins fumonisins and beauvericin.  

  16. [Winter wheat area estimation with MODIS-NDVI time series based on parcel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Le; Zhang, Jin-shui; Zhu, Wen-quan; Hu, Tan-gao; Hou, Dong

    2011-05-01

    Several attributes of MODIS (moderate resolution imaging spectrometer) data, especially the short temporal intervals and the global coverage, provide an extremely efficient way to map cropland and monitor its seasonal change. However, the reliability of their measurement results is challenged because of the limited spatial resolution. The parcel data has clear geo-location and obvious boundary information of cropland. Also, the spectral differences and the complexity of mixed pixels are weak in parcels. All of these make that area estimation based on parcels presents more advantage than on pixels. In the present study, winter wheat area estimation based on MODIS-NDVI time series has been performed with the support of cultivated land parcel in Tongzhou, Beijing. In order to extract the regional winter wheat acreage, multiple regression methods were used to simulate the stable regression relationship between MODIS-NDVI time series data and TM samples in parcels. Through this way, the consistency of the extraction results from MODIS and TM can stably reach up to 96% when the amount of samples accounts for 15% of the whole area. The results shows that the use of parcel data can effectively improve the error in recognition results in MODIS-NDVI based multi-series data caused by the low spatial resolution. Therefore, with combination of moderate and low resolution data, the winter wheat area estimation became available in large-scale region which lacks completed medium resolution images or has images covered with clouds. Meanwhile, it carried out the preliminary experiments for other crop area estimation.

  17. Estimation of canopy carotenoid content of winter wheat using multi-angle hyperspectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Weiping; Huang, Wenjiang; Liu, Jiangui; Chen, Pengfei; Qin, Qiming; Ye, Huichun; Peng, Dailiang; Dong, Yingying; Mortimer, A. Hugh

    2017-11-01

    Precise estimation of carotenoid (Car) content in crops, using remote sensing data, could be helpful for agricultural resources management. Conventional methods for Car content estimation were mostly based on reflectance data acquired from nadir direction. However, reflectance acquired at this direction is highly influenced by canopy structure and soil background reflectance. Off-nadir observation is less impacted, and multi-angle viewing data are proven to contain additional information rarely exploited for crop Car content estimation. The objective of this study was to explore the potential of multi-angle observation data for winter wheat canopy Car content estimation. Canopy spectral reflectance was measured from nadir as well as from a series of off-nadir directions during different growing stages of winter wheat, with concurrent canopy Car content measurements. Correlation analyses were performed between Car content and the original and continuum removed spectral reflectance. Spectral features and previously published indices were derived from data obtained at different viewing angles and were tested for Car content estimation. Results showed that spectral features and indices obtained from backscattering directions between 20° and 40° view zenith angle had a stronger correlation with Car content than that from the nadir direction, and the strongest correlation was observed from about 30° backscattering direction. Spectral absorption depth at 500 nm derived from spectral data obtained from 30° backscattering direction was found to reduce the difference induced by plant cultivars greatly. It was the most suitable for winter wheat canopy Car estimation, with a coefficient of determination 0.79 and a root mean square error of 19.03 mg/m2. This work indicates the importance of taking viewing geometry effect into account when using spectral features/indices and provides new insight in the application of multi-angle remote sensing for the estimation of crop

  18. Effect of long-term fertilisation on the weed community of a winter wheat field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Min; Liu, Tao; Huang, Niansheng; Shen, Xinping; Shen, Mingxing; Dai, Qigen

    2018-03-05

    Effects of fertilisation and other management techniques on a weed community were evaluated during wheat growth in a rice-wheat cropping system. Fertiliser treatments were C0 (C means chemical, C0 means zero chemical fertiliser.), CN (N fertiliser), CNK (N plus K fertiliser), CNPK (N plus P and K fertiliser), CNP (N plus P fertiliser), and CPK (P plus K fertiliser). Weed density, biomass, and bio-diversity were determined. Redundancy analysis (RDA) was used to investigate the relationship between fertiliser management, weed species, and weed density. The overall weed densities in the C0 and CPK treatments were the greatest during wheat seeding and ripening periods and were significantly greater than densities in the other treatments. N, P and organic matter in soil were highly correlated with weed species and density, whereas K in soil was not significantly correlated with weed species and weed density. N fertiliser significantly reduced weed density. Balanced fertilisation maintained weed species richness and resulting in a high yield of wheat. CNPK application reduced weed damage and improved the productivity and stability of the farmland ecosystem.

  19. The Effect of Zinc Fertilizer Application on Grain Yield of Different Zinc-Efficient Spring and Winter Wheat Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Malian

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available These field trials were carried out to investigate the effect of various zinc (Zn fertilizer application treatments on grain yield of some spring (Isfahan and Neishabour and winter wheat cultivars (Mashhad and Jolge-e-Rokh with different Zn efficiency during 2009-2010 growth seasons. Five Zn fertilizer treatments were applied including: no added Zn (control, soil application of Zn-sulfate, and foliar spray of Zn-sulfate, Omex1, and Omex2. Omex1 and Omex2 contained 4 and 17% Zn, respectively. Foliar spray was performed at the anthesis stage. Both spring and winter wheat genotypes significantly differed in grain yield. The results showed that wheat genotypes largely varied in their grain yield response to different Zn application treatments. Some spring (Sholeh in Isfahan and winter (Sabalan in Jolg-e-Rokh wheat genotypes had greater response to Zn fertilization so that Zn addition increased grain yield of Sholeh by 48% and Sabalan by 17% as compared with no added Zn control. In contrast, Zn addition had no effect on grain yield of some other genotypes. Yield response of wheat genotypes to Zn application treatments significantly varied upon location. According to the results obtained from this study, the efficacy of Zn fertilizer treatments on grain yield of wheat is dependent on the genotype and location. Therefore, this concern should be considered in fertilizer recommendation programs that a specific Zn fertilizer treatment may not be recommended for all wheat cultivars and locations.

  20. Effects of changing climate and cultivar on the phenology and yield of winter wheat in the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kenan; Yang, Xiaoguang; Tian, Hanqin; Pan, Shufen; Liu, Zhijuan; Lu, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how changing climate and cultivars influence crop phenology and potential yield is essential for crop adaptation to future climate change. In this study, crop and daily weather data collected from six sites across the North China Plain were used to drive a crop model to analyze the impacts of climate change and cultivar development on the phenology and production of winter wheat from 1981 to 2005. Results showed that both the growth period (GP) and the vegetative growth period (VGP) decreased during the study period, whereas changes in the reproductive growth period (RGP) either increased slightly or had no significant trend. Although new cultivars could prolong the winter wheat phenology (0.3∼3.8 days per decade for GP), climate warming impacts were more significant and mainly accounted for the changes. The harvest index and kernel number per stem weight have significantly increased. Model simulation indicated that the yield of winter wheat exhibited increases (5.0∼19.4%) if new cultivars were applied. Climate change demonstrated a negative effect on winter wheat yield as suggested by the simulation driven by climate data only (-3.3 to -54.8 kg ha(-1) year(-1), except for Lushi). Results of this study also indicated that winter wheat cultivar development can compensate for the negative effects of future climatic change.

  1. Manipulating field margins to increase predation intensity in fields of winter wheat (Triticum eastivum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansion-Vaquie, Agathe; Ferrante, Marco; Cook, S M

    2017-01-01

    , intraguild predation, hyperparasitism) may complicate the assumption that a higher density of natural enemies would increase the level of biological control. We investigated the natural enemy guild composition and the predation rate along flower vs. grass margins at the edge of winter wheat (Triticum...... to the two margin types: specialists (mostly parasitic wasps) were attracted by the flower margins, while generalists (ground beetles, rove beetles and spiders) were more active in grass margins. The number of artificial caterpillars attacked was significantly greater in grass margins (mean = 48.9%, SD = 24...

  2. The evaluation of winter wheat roots and leaf sheath diseases diagnostic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Solarska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The maltose and mineral media for isolation of Gaeumannomyces graminis from roots were assessed. The differences in numbers of obtained isolates were found depending on the medium used and sampling date. Easier identification of pathogen was possible employing maltose medium. The fungi from genus Fusarium occurring on winter wheat leaf sheaths were identified by mycological analysis and PCR, while the fungus Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides was detected by PCR and ELISA methods. PCR and ELISA methods enabled to detect pathogens also in periods before the disease symptoms on plants occurred.

  3. The Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer Application on Wild Oat (Avena ludoviciana L. Competition Ability with Winter Wheat (Triticum asetivum L. in Kermanshah Climate Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Jalilian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cereals are the main agricultural production. Wheat is an annual crop, which plays an important role in human’s source of food. Wheat grains have various nutrients such as carbohydrates, proteins and various amino acids. The annual per capita consumption of wheat is about 232 in Iran, which is about double time of the world capita consumption. Weed interference decrease the quality and quantity of wheat production. Weed management in wheat farms is one of the main cost and time-consuming practices. Wheat yield decrease significantly by weed competition. Therefore, effective weed management dependents on knowledge about the effect of competition on yield and yield components. Response of the yield and yield components to weeds competition is different in crop species during the growth period. Yield components in development stages show the maximum sensitivity to weed competition. Wild Oat is the most important weed in wheat fields. Synchrony in development stages of wild oat with development stages of wheat is much more important reason in reducing of wheat yield and yield component. On the other hand, wild oat damage on wheat yield and yield components depends on several factors including species, plant density, wheat cultivars, nutrients consumption, sowing date, row spacing, and other ecological conditions. Moreover, leaf area index, plant height, leaf area density in canopy determine competitiveness of wild oat among wheat. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of wild oat competition in different plant densities and levels of Nitrogen fertilizer consumption on yield and yield components of wheat under Kermanshah climate. Materials and Methods This study was conducted to evaluate the competition of wild oat and winter wheat at the Research Farm of Campus of Agricultural and Natural Resources of Razi University during 2014-2015. The experiment was arranged in a split plots based on randomized

  4. Novi Sad wheat cultivars and their seed production in the period 1970-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denčić Srbislav

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad started a large-scale seed production of its wheat cultivars in1971. This activity was done in cooperation with a large number of seed companies from the former Yugoslavia and later on from Serbia. A total volume of production of all seed categories for the period from 1971 to 2010 was 3,790,712 tons. On average for this period, the annual production of certified seed was 94,768 t. The largest amount of seed of Novi Sad wheat cultivars was placed on the market in 1982 - 168,248 t (excluding exports. In the former Yugoslavia, Novi Sad wheat cultivars took from 30 to 65% of the total wheat market share. In the new Yugoslavia, Serbia and Montenegro, and finally in Serbia, the market share of Novi Sad cultivars ranged from 80 to 97%. The most popular and bestselling Novi Sad wheat cultivars were: Sava, Partizanka, Novi Sad Early 2 and 1, Balkan, Jugoslavija, Lasta, Evropa, Evropa 90, Pobeda, Novi Sad Early 5 and Renesansa.

  5. Detection of Ustilago nuda (Jensen Rostrup in winter barley seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatov Maja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Barley is one of the most important cereals grown in our agroecological conditions. The causal agent of loose smut on barley Ustilago nuda (Jensen Rostrup occurs frequently as varieties susceptible to this pathogen are present in the production. Disease symptoms are manifested on barley head (spike. Parasite is transmitted by seed (seedborne and stays in the embryo tissue of the infected kernel as dormant mycelium. Recommended method for detection of U. nuda is given by ISTA Rules (method 7-013. In tests, nine samples (weighing 120 g each of naturally infected barley seed (about 1000 seeds, depending on the absolute mass of seed were examined, observed and described using a Zeiss microscope with sub stage illumination with magnification range x 40 or higher. Mycelium of the fungus approximately 3 μ thick, golden brown in colour was detected and visible without a stain. The percentage of infected embryos in the examined samples of barley seeds ranged from 0.8% to 5.2%.

  6. Indicators of winter vetch (Vicia spp seed vigor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujaković Milka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Common vetch (Vicia sativa L, hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth, and Pannonian vetch (Vicia pannonica Crantz are the most often grown varieties in the production area of Serbia. The most important problem in the production of vetch seed is lodging. Yield and seed quality in lodged crops can be significantly reduced. Therefore, it is very important to accurately estimate the quality, and viability of produced seed. Common vetch, hairy vetch and Pannonian vetch were submitted to vigor testing using standard laboratory test, cold test, Hiltner test, and three variants of accelerated aging tests (39°C,72 h; 39°C, 96 h; 45°C, 48 h. When the standard laboratory test was applied, the common vetch achieved the highest seed germination value of 90%, while decreased rate of seed germination was due to unfavorable conditions applied in vigor tests. Above ground seedling growth parameters were the lowest when Hiltner test was applied. Length and mass of the root system were the lowest when accelerated aging test was applied. Hairy vetch obtained the lowest values for all tested parameters when Hiltner test was applied. Application of different variants of accelerated aging tests indicated that tested parameters were not dependent on the applied temperature, while reduction in legumes vigor was under the influence of temperature duration.

  7. Estimation of winter wheat canopy nitrogen density at different growth stages based on Multi-LUT approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenhai; Li, Na; Li, Zhenhong; Wang, Jianwen; Liu, Chang

    2017-10-01

    Rapid real-time monitoring of wheat nitrogen (N) status is crucial for precision N management during wheat growth. In this study, Multi Lookup Table (Multi-LUT) approach based on the N-PROSAIL model parameters setting at different growth stages was constructed to estimating canopy N density (CND) in winter wheat. The results showed that the estimated CND was in line with with measured CND, with the determination coefficient (R2) and the corresponding root mean square error (RMSE) values of 0.80 and 1.16 g m-2, respectively. Time-consuming of one sample estimation was only 6 ms under the test machine with CPU configuration of Intel(R) Core(TM) i5-2430 @2.40GHz quad-core. These results confirmed the potential of using Multi-LUT approach for CND retrieval in winter wheat at different growth stages and under variables climatic conditions.

  8. Effects of elevated O3 concentration on winter wheat and rice yields in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoke; Zhang Qianqian; Zheng Feixiang; Zheng Qiwei; Yao Fangfang; Chen Zhan; Zhang Weiwei; Hou Peiqiang; Feng Zhaozhong; Song Wenzhi; Feng Zongwei; Lu Fei

    2012-01-01

    The effects of a continuing rise of ambient ozone on crop yield will seriously threaten food security in China. In the Yangtze River Delta, a rapidly developing and seriously air polluted region in China, innovative open-top chambers have been established to fumigate winter wheat and rice in situ with elevated O 3 . Five years of study have shown that the yields of wheat and rice decreased with increasing O 3 concentration. There were significant relationships between the relative yield and AOT40 (accumulated hourly O 3 concentration over 40 ppb) for both winter wheat and rice. Winter wheat was more sensitive to O 3 than rice. O 3 -induced yield declines were attributed primarily to 1000-grain weight and harvest index for winter wheat, and attributed primarily to grain number per panicle and harvest index for rice. Control of ambient O 3 pollution and breeding of O 3 tolerant crops are urgent to guarantee food security in China. - Highlights: ► The wheat and rice response to ozone had been investigated for five years in China. ► There were significant relationships between relative crop yields and AOT40 dose. ► O 3 -induced wheat yield loss was primarily due to 1000-grain weight and harvest index. ► O 3 -induced rice yield loss was primarily due to grains per panicle and harvest index. ► Wheat and rice in this study are more sensitive to O 3 than previous investigations. - The dose–response relationships derived from field fumigation experiments over 5 years can be used to accurately estimate crop losses in China.

  9. Sowing terms of winter bread wheat variety-innovations (Triticum aestivum L. in the conditions of change of climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Л. Дергачов

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Results of studying of influence of sowing terms on productivity and indices of quality of grain of winter bread wheat variety-innovations of V.M. Remeslo Myronivka Institute of Wheat of NAAS of Ukraine in the conditions of Right-bank Forest-steppe are shown. Negative correlation of productivity of varieties on average temperature of air during the sowing period is shown.

  10. Testing Optimum Seeding Rates for five Bread Wheat Cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wekesa, S.J.; Kiriswa, F.; Owuoche, J.

    1999-01-01

    A cultivar by seed rate trial was conducted in 1994-1995 crop seasons at Njoro, Kenya. Yield results were found to be significant (P > 0.01) for year, variety, seed rate and year by seed rate interaction. Test weight was highly significant (P -1 were grouped together for significantly higher yields (A) whereas seed rates 85 and 50 kg ha -1 had lower significant yields (B and C respectively). The same grouping was repeated for test weight. There was no significant cultivar by seed rate interaction and no cultivar, specific seed rate. However, since seed rates 245, 205, 165 and 125 kg ha -1 were grouped together, the lowest seed rate, 125 kg ha -1 can be recommended as the optimum seed rate for the above cultivars, as higher seed rates do not give significantly higher yields or higher test weights

  11. Impact of Early Sowing on Winter Wheat Receiving Manure or Mineral Fertilizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Tolstrup; Jensen, Johannes Lund; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag

    2017-01-01

    (late September) wheat were tested over two cropping seasons (2011–2012 and 2013–2014) using two contemporary cultivars (Hereford and Mariboss) and increasing rates of N (0–300 kg total N ha–1) with animal manure (AM; cattle slurry) or mineral fertilizers (NPK), surface applied in late March. We....... Early sowing increased grain yields by 0.5 and 1.0 Mg ha–1 for NPK and AM, respectively, regardless of N rate. Grain and straw N concentrations were higher with NPK than with AM, and NPK showed higher N use efficiency (0.48–0.53) than AM (0.15–0.22). Moving sowing of winter wheat from late September...... to late August provided higher grain and straw yields; the increased over-winter N uptake suggests that the beneficial effect of earlier sowing may surpass that of a catch crop. Cattle slurry surface applied in late March gave poor N use efficiency and low grain protein content....

  12. Modelling soil water content variations under drought stress on soil column cropped with winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csorba Szilveszter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical models are effective tools for evaluating the impact of predicted climate change on agricultural production, but it is difficult to test their applicability to future weather conditions. We applied the SWAP model to assess its applicability to climate conditions, differing from those, for which the model was developed. We used a database obtained from a winter wheat drought stress experiment. Winter wheat was grown in six soil columns, three having optimal water supply (NS, while three were kept under drought-stressed conditions (S. The SWAP model was successfully calibrated against measured values of potential evapotranspiration (PET, potential evaporation (PE and total amount of water (TSW in the soil columns. The Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient (N-S for TWS for the stressed columns was 0.92. For the NS treatment, we applied temporally variable soil hydraulic properties because of soil consolidation caused by regular irrigation. This approach improved the N-S values for the wetting-drying cycle from -1.77 to 0.54. We concluded that the model could be used for assessing the effects of climate change on soil water regime. Our results indicate that soil water balance studies should put more focus on the time variability of structuredependent soil properties.

  13. Use of no-till winter wheat by nesting ducks in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duebbert, H.F.; Kantrud, H.A.

    1987-01-01

    Nesting of dabbling ducks (Anatinae) was studied in fields of no-till winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) in the prairie pothole region of North Dakota during 1984 and 1985. Total area of 59 fields searched in 1984 was 1,135 ha and total area of 70 fields searched in 1985 was 1,175 ha. Field sizes ranged from 3 ha to 110 ha. Nests of five duck species were found: blue-winged teal (Anas discors), 55 nests; northern pintail (A. acuta), 44; mallard (A. platyrhynchos), 29; gadwall (A. strepera), 15; and northern shoveler (A. clypeata), 8. The average number of nests found was 8/100 ha in 1984 and 6/100 ha in 1985. Nest success for all species averaged 26% in 1984 and 29% in 1985. Predation by mammals was the principal cause of nest destruction. No egg or hen mortality could be attributed to pesticide use. Only 6 of 151 nests (4%) were abandoned during the two years. We also found 29 nests of seven other ground-nesting bird species. The trend toward increased planting of no-till winter wheat in the prairie pothole region should benefit production of ducks and other ground-nesting birds.

  14. Sensory, yield and quality differences between organically and conventionally grown winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arncken, Christine M; Mäder, Paul; Mayer, Jochen; Weibel, Franco P

    2012-11-01

    Consumers expect organic produce to have higher environmental, health and sensory related qualities than conventional produce. In order to test sensory differences between bio-dynamically, bio-organically and conventionally grown winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Runal), we performed double-blinded triangle tests with two panels on dry wholemeal flour from the harvest years 2006, 2007 and 2009 and from two field replicates of the 'DOK' long-term farming system comparison field trial near Basel, Switzerland. Yield and quality parameters were also assessed. Significant farming system effects were found for yield (up to 42% reduction in the organic system), thousand kernel weight, hectolitre weight and crude protein content across the three years. In the triangle tests one out of 12 pair-wise farming system comparisons (PFSCs) on wholemeal flour made from the different wheat samples showed significant sensory differentiation (between bio-dynamically and conventionally grown wheat). When all data from the three harvest years and two panels were aggregated, a statistically significant effect (P = 0.045) of PFSCs on the number of correct answers became evident. Although testing of dry wholemeal flour was very challenging for panellists, we were able to show that sensory differences between farming systems can occur. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Effects of biochar addition to soil on nitrogen fluxes in a winter wheat lysimeter experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüppi, Roman; Leifeld, Jens; Neftel, Albrecht; Conen, Franz; Six, Johan

    2014-05-01

    Biochar is a carbon-rich, porous residue from pyrolysis of biomass that potentially increases crop yields by reducing losses of nitrogen from soils and/or enhancing the uptake of applied fertiliser by the crops. Previous research is scarce about biochar's ability to increase wheat yields in temperate soils or how it changes nitrogen dynamics in the field. In a lysimeter system with two different soils (sandy/silt loam) nitrogen fluxes were traced by isotopic 15N enriched fertiliser to identify changes in nitrous oxide emissions, leaching and plant uptake after biochar addition. 20t/ha woodchip-waste biochar (pH=13) was applied to these soils in four lysimeters per soil type; the same number of lysimeters served as a control. The soils were cropped with winter wheat during the season 2012/2013. 170 kg-N/ha ammonium nitrate fertiliser with 10% 15N was applied in 3 events during the growing season and 15N concentrations where measured at different points in time in plant, soil, leachate and emitted nitrous oxide. After one year the lysimeter system showed no difference between biochar and control treatment in grain- and straw yield or nitrogen uptake. However biochar did reduce nitrous oxide emissions in the silt loam and losses of nitrate leaching in sandy loam. This study indicates potential reduction of nitrogen loss from cropland soil by biochar application but could not confirm increased yields in an intensive wheat production system.

  16. Effect of foliar fertilizer and fungicidal protection against leaf spot diseases on winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Mączyńska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were carried out in the seasons 2000/2001 and 2001/2002 in Plant Protection Institute, Sooenicowice Branch to assess the influence of foliar fertilizers such as Ekolist PK 1, Ekolist Mg, Mikrosol Z and Urea on healthiness of winter wheat. Foliar fertilizers were mixed with fungicides. The fungicides were applied at full or half recommended doses. The effect of the disease on wheat leaves was evaluated three times in each vegetation season. Remaining green leaf area (GLA of leaves was also determined. GLA of the leaves F-1 was not significantly different for each combination with different fertilization and different levels of chemical treatment. The application of foliar fertilizer only had no effect on green leaf area (GLA. The results indicate that foliar fertilization of all experimental plots improved leaf condition and therefore halted the development of wheat leaf diseases. The increases of 1000 grain mass and yield was high for each plot where a fertilizer and a full or half dose of a fungicide was applied. Foliar fertilizing with no chemical control had no proven effect on studied parameters.

  17. Bread winter wheat breeding (Triticum aestivum L. using spring varieties genepool in forest-steppe Environments of Ukraine

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    В. С. Кочмарський

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available It is concluded by investigations that wheat crossing of various development types between themselves cause increase of formbuilding process in hybrid progeny, promoting the selection of practically valuable recombinats. The genotypes which present the practical valuable by complex of adaptive traits and properties have been selected by phenotype stability in the breeding process. The new bread winter wheat variety Pamyati Remesla developed with participation of spring wheat variety Hja 22139 (Finland has been proposed for including it into the Register of Plant varieties of Ukraine adapted for use in Steppe, Forest- Steppe and Woodland of Ukraine since 2010.

  18. Reprogramming of Seed Metabolism Facilitates Pre-harvest Sprouting Resistance of Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Caixiang; Ding, Feng; Hao, Fuhua; Yu, Men; Lei, Hehua; Wu, Xiangyu; Zhao, Zhengxi; Guo, Hongxiang; Yin, Jun; Wang, Yulan; Tang, Huiru

    2016-02-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) is a worldwide problem for wheat production and transgene antisense-thioredoxin-s (anti-trx-s) facilitates outstanding resistance. To understand the molecular details of PHS resistance, we analyzed the metabonomes of the transgenic and wild-type (control) wheat seeds at various stages using NMR and GC-FID/MS. 60 metabolites were dominant in these seeds including sugars, organic acids, amino acids, choline metabolites and fatty acids. At day-20 post-anthesis, only malate level in transgenic wheat differed significantly from that in controls whereas at day-30 post-anthesis, levels of amino acids and sucrose were significantly different between these two groups. For mature seeds, most metabolites in glycolysis, TCA cycle, choline metabolism, biosynthesis of proteins, nucleotides and fatty acids had significantly lower levels in transgenic seeds than in controls. After 30-days post-harvest ripening, most metabolites in transgenic seeds had higher levels than in controls including amino acids, sugars, organic acids, fatty acids, choline metabolites and NAD+. These indicated that anti-trx-s lowered overall metabolic activities of mature seeds eliminating pre-harvest sprouting potential. Post-harvest ripening reactivated the metabolic activities of transgenic seeds to restore their germination vigor. These findings provided essential molecular phenomic information for PHS resistance of anti-trx-s and a credible strategy for future developing PHS resistant crops.

  19. Aluminium silicate fertilization in the quality of wheat seeds under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Iván Suárez Castellanos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Wheat is used as raw material in the production of several foods and it is the first cereal as in the world production of grains. However, the agricultural production is limited for the salinity effect in about 50% of irrigated areas in the world. An alternative to reduce the salt stresses caused in the plants is the silicon use. The objective of this study was to evaluate the fertilizing effect with aluminum silicate using kaolin as a source, on seed quality of wheat produced under salt stress. The experiment was accomplished in greenhouse using wheat seeds of Quartzo cultivar sowed in pots of 10 L containing soil and maintained until harvest. The kaolin (77.9% SiO2 was applied in doses of 0 (control; 1,000; 2,000 and 3,000 kg ha-1. Salt stress was simulated through irrigation with NaCl solutions in the concentrations of 0 (control, 8 and 16 mM. Agronomic characteristics and the physiologic seed quality were evaluated. The results showed that the salt irrigation caused decrease in the number of ears per plant, number of ears with seeds, in the weight of the ears without threshing and in the weight of the produced seeds. The aluminum silicate use increased the weight of a thousand seeds independent of the presence of salt stress. Silicon application contributed to increase the percentage of germination of the produced seeds when the plants were not exposed to the salt stress.

  20. Climatic warming increases winter wheat yield but reduces grain nitrogen concentration in east China.

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    Yunlu Tian

    Full Text Available Climatic warming is often predicted to reduce wheat yield and grain quality in China. However, direct evidence is still lacking. We conducted a three-year experiment with a Free Air Temperature Increase (FATI facility to examine the responses of winter wheat growth and plant N accumulation to a moderate temperature increase of 1.5°C predicted to prevail by 2050 in East China. Three warming treatments (AW: all-day warming; DW: daytime warming; NW: nighttime warming were applied for an entire growth period. Consistent warming effects on wheat plant were recorded across the experimental years. An increase of ca. 1.5°C in daily, daytime and nighttime mean temperatures shortened the length of pre-anthesis period averagely by 12.7, 8.3 and 10.7 d (P<0.05, respectively, but had no significant impact on the length of the post-anthesis period. Warming did not significantly alter the aboveground biomass production, but the grain yield was 16.3, 18.1 and 19.6% (P<0.05 higher in the AW, DW and NW plots than the non-warmed plot, respectively. Warming also significantly increased plant N uptake and total biomass N accumulation. However, warming significantly reduced grain N concentrations while increased N concentrations in the leaves and stems. Together, our results demonstrate differential impacts of warming on the depositions of grain starch and protein, highlighting the needs to further understand the mechanisms that underlie warming impacts on plant C and N metabolism in wheat.

  1. Higher Fusarium Toxin Accumulation in Grain of Winter Triticale Lines Inoculated with Fusarium culmorum as Compared with Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góral, Tomasz; Wiśniewska, Halina; Ochodzki, Piotr; Walentyn-Góral, Dorota

    2016-10-18

    Resistance to Fusarium head blight in 32 winter triticale and 34 winter wheat accessions was evaluated. Triticale and wheat were sown in field experiments in two locations. At the time of flowering, heads were inoculated with three Fusarium culmorum isolates. Fusarium head blight index was scored and after the harvest percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels was assessed. Grain was analysed for type B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol and derivatives, nivalenol) and zearalenone (ZEN) content. The average Fusarium head blight indexes were 28.0% for wheat and 19.2% for triticale accessions. The percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels was also higher for wheat and came to 55.6%, while for triticale this figure was 40.2%. The average content of deoxynivalenol (DON) for wheat amounted to 11.65 mg/kg and was lower than the result for triticale which was 14.12 mg/kg. The average contents of nivalenol were similar in both cereals: 4.13 mg/kg and 5.19 mg/kg for wheat and triticale respectively. Considerable amounts of DON derivatives in the cereals were also detected. The ZEN content in the grain was 0.60 mg/kg for wheat and 0.66 mg/kg for triticale. Relationships between Fusarium head blight index, Fusarium damaged kernels and mycotoxin contents were statistically significant for wheat and mostly insignificant for triticale. Triticale proved to have less infected heads and kernels than wheat. However, the content of type B trichothecenes was higher in triticale grain than in wheat grain.

  2. Higher Fusarium Toxin Accumulation in Grain of Winter Triticale Lines Inoculated with Fusarium culmorum as Compared with Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góral, Tomasz; Wiśniewska, Halina; Ochodzki, Piotr; Walentyn-Góral, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Resistance to Fusarium head blight in 32 winter triticale and 34 winter wheat accessions was evaluated. Triticale and wheat were sown in field experiments in two locations. At the time of flowering, heads were inoculated with three Fusarium culmorum isolates. Fusarium head blight index was scored and after the harvest percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels was assessed. Grain was analysed for type B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol and derivatives, nivalenol) and zearalenone (ZEN) content. The average Fusarium head blight indexes were 28.0% for wheat and 19.2% for triticale accessions. The percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels was also higher for wheat and came to 55.6%, while for triticale this figure was 40.2%. The average content of deoxynivalenol (DON) for wheat amounted to 11.65 mg/kg and was lower than the result for triticale which was 14.12 mg/kg. The average contents of nivalenol were similar in both cereals: 4.13 mg/kg and 5.19 mg/kg for wheat and triticale respectively. Considerable amounts of DON derivatives in the cereals were also detected. The ZEN content in the grain was 0.60 mg/kg for wheat and 0.66 mg/kg for triticale. Relationships between Fusarium head blight index, Fusarium damaged kernels and mycotoxin contents were statistically significant for wheat and mostly insignificant for triticale. Triticale proved to have less infected heads and kernels than wheat. However, the content of type B trichothecenes was higher in triticale grain than in wheat grain. PMID:27763547

  3. Whole genome association mapping of plant height in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine D Zanke

    Full Text Available The genetic architecture of plant height was investigated in a set of 358 recent European winter wheat varieties plus 14 spring wheat varieties based on field data in eight environments. Genotyping of diagnostic markers revealed the Rht-D1b mutant allele in 58% of the investigated varieties, while the Rht-B1b mutant was only present in 7% of the varieties. Rht-D1 was significantly associated with plant height by using a mixed linear model and employing a kinship matrix to correct for population stratification. Further genotyping data included 732 microsatellite markers, resulting in 770 loci, of which 635 markers were placed on the ITMI map plus a set of 7769 mapped SNP markers genotyped with the 90 k iSELECT chip. When Bonferroni correction was applied, a total of 153 significant marker-trait associations (MTAs were observed for plant height and the SSR markers (-log10 (P-value ≥ 4.82 and 280 (-log10 (P-value ≥ 5.89 for the SNPs. Linear regression between the most effective markers and the BLUEs for plant height indicated additive effects for the MTAs of different chromosomal regions. Analysis of syntenic regions in the rice genome revealed closely linked rice genes related to gibberellin acid (GA metabolism and perception, i.e. GA20 and GA2 oxidases orthologous to wheat chromosomes 1A, 2A, 3A, 3B, 5B, 5D and 7B, ent-kaurenoic acid oxidase orthologous to wheat chromosome 7A, ent-kaurene synthase on wheat chromosome 2B, as well as GA-receptors like DELLA genes orthologous to wheat chromosomes 4B, 4D and 7A and genes of the GID family orthologous to chromosomes 2B and 5B. The data indicated that besides the widely used GA-insensitive dwarfing genes Rht-B1 and Rht-D1 there is a wide spectrum of loci available that could be used for modulating plant height in variety development.

  4. Detection of Ustilago nuda (Jensen) Rostrup in winter barley seed

    OpenAIRE

    Ignjatov Maja; Petrović Dragana; Vujaković Milka; Taški-Ajduković Ksenija; Nikolić Zorica; Jovičić Dušica

    2011-01-01

    Barley is one of the most important cereals grown in our agroecological conditions. The causal agent of loose smut on barley Ustilago nuda (Jensen) Rostrup occurs frequently as varieties susceptible to this pathogen are present in the production. Disease symptoms are manifested on barley head (spike). Parasite is transmitted by seed (seedborne) and stays in the embryo tissue of the infected kernel as dormant mycelium. Recommended method for detection of U. nuda is given by ISTA Rules (method ...

  5. Estimating inter-annual variability in winter wheat sowing dates from satellite time series in Camargue, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfron, Giacinto; Delmotte, Sylvestre; Busetto, Lorenzo; Hossard, Laure; Ranghetti, Luigi; Brivio, Pietro Alessandro; Boschetti, Mirco

    2017-05-01

    Crop simulation models are commonly used to forecast the performance of cropping systems under different hypotheses of change. Their use on a regional scale is generally constrained, however, by a lack of information on the spatial and temporal variability of environment-related input variables (e.g., soil) and agricultural practices (e.g., sowing dates) that influence crop yields. Satellite remote sensing data can shed light on such variability by providing timely information on crop dynamics and conditions over large areas. This paper proposes a method for analyzing time series of MODIS satellite data in order to estimate the inter-annual variability of winter wheat sowing dates. A rule-based method was developed to automatically identify a reliable sample of winter wheat field time series, and to infer the corresponding sowing dates. The method was designed for a case study in the Camargue region (France), where winter wheat is characterized by vernalization, as in other temperate regions. The detection criteria were chosen on the grounds of agronomic expertise and by analyzing high-confidence time-series vegetation index profiles for winter wheat. This automatic method identified the target crop on more than 56% (four-year average) of the cultivated areas, with low commission errors (11%). It also captured the seasonal variability in sowing dates with errors of ±8 and ±16 days in 46% and 66% of cases, respectively. Extending the analysis to the years 2002-2012 showed that sowing in the Camargue was usually done on or around November 1st (±4 days). Comparing inter-annual sowing date variability with the main local agro-climatic drivers showed that the type of preceding crop and the weather conditions during the summer season before the wheat sowing had a prominent role in influencing winter wheat sowing dates.

  6. Impact of Solid and Hollow Varieties of Winter and Spring Wheat on Severity of Wheat Stem Sawfly (Hymenoptera: Cephidae) Infestations and Yield and Quality of Grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepaniec, Adrianna; Glover, Karl D; Berzonsky, William

    2015-10-01

    Wheat stem sawfly (WSS), Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae), has recently emerged as a key pest of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Great Plains and Canadian provinces. The expanding impact of WSS has caused considerable economic losses to wheat production. Solid-stem varieties of wheat remain the only effective measure of suppression of WSS, and the goal of this research was to test whether five solid- and hollow-stem varieties of winter and spring wheat reduce survival of WSS in South Dakota. We reported that solid-stem varieties had significantly lower numbers of WSS larvae, and this effect was especially evident when WSS infestation rates exceeded 15%. We also observed that the yield of solid-stem varieties was significantly lower than hollow-stem varieties when the abundance of WSS was low, but not when populations of WSS were relatively high. We did not observe consistent differences in grain quality between solid- and hollow-stem varieties, however, and in case of protein levels of grain, solid-stem wheat varieties performed better than hollow-stem wheat. We conclude that solid-stem varieties of wheat appear to effectively suppress WSS survival, and reduced yield of these varieties is less apparent when populations of C. cinctus are high enough to affect the yield of hollow-stem wheat. This is the first report to describe the effectiveness of solid-stem varieties of wheat on WSS in South Dakota. More research in the state is necessary before more robust conclusions can be drawn. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Simulation of Wild oat (Avena ludoviciana L. Competition on Winter Wheat (Triticum astivum Growth and Yield. I: Model Description and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Mondani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Crop growth models could stimulate growth and development based on science principles and mathematical equations. They also able to evaluate effects of climate, soil, water and agronomic management practices on crop yield. In the present study, an eco-physiological simulation model developed to assess wild oat damage to winter wheat growth and yield. The general structure of this model is derived from LINTUL1 model which modified to wild oat competition against winter wheat. LINTUL1 model was developed for simulation of spring wheat potential production level. In this study, first, we added development stage (DVS and vernalization to LINTUL1 for simulation of winter wheat growth and development and then the model calibrated for potential production level. Finally, we incorporate harmful effects of wild oat to winter wheat growth and yield. Weather data used as input were average daily minimum and maximum temperature (°C and daily global radiation (MJ m-2 in Mashhad, Iran. Parameter values were derived from the literature. The model is written in Fortran Simulation Translator (FST programming language and then validated based on an experiment data. For these purposes different wild oat plant densities were arranged. The data of this experiment does not use for calibration. The results showed that this model was in general able to simulate the temporal changes in DVS of winter wheat and wild oat, total dry matter (TDM of winter wheat and wild oat and yield loss of wheat due to wild oat competition in all treatments, satisfactorily. Root mean square error (RMSE for winter wheat DVS, wild oat DVS, average winter wheat TDM, average wild oat TDM, and yield loss of winter wheat was 10.4, 14.5, 5.8, 7.6 and 7.5, respectively.

  8. Effect of Cu2+ and pH on intracellular calcium content and lipid peroxidation in winter wheat roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Riazanova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the effect of copper ions and pH of external solution on intracellular calcium homeostasis and lipid peroxidation in winter wheat roots. Experiment was carried out with winter wheat. Sterile seeds were germinated in Petri dishes on the filter paper soaked with acetic buffer (pH 4.7 and 6.2 at 20 °Cin the dark for 48 hours. Copper was added as CuSO4. It’s concentrations varied from 0 to 50 µM. The Ca2+-fluorescent dye Fluo-3/AM ester was loaded on 60 hour. Root fluorescence with Fluo-3 loading was detected using X-Cite Series 120 Q unit attached to microscope Olympus BX53 with camera Olympus DP72. Imaging of root cells was achieved after exciting with 488 nm laser and collection of emission signals above 512 nm. Preliminary analysis of the images was performed using software LabSens; brightness (fluorescence intensity analysis was carried out by means of ImageJ. Peroxidation of lipids was determined according to Kumar and Knowles method. It was found that pH of solution had effect on release of calcium from intracellular stores. Low pH provokes an increase of [Ca2+]cyt which may be reaction of roots to acidic medium. Copper induces increase in non-selective permeability of plasma membrane and leads to its faster depolarization. This probably initiates Ca-dependent depolarization channels which are responsible for the influx of calcium from apoplast into the cell. Changing of the membrane permeability may occur due to interaction between Cu2+ ions and Ca-binding sites on plasma membrane or may be due to binding of copper with sulfhydryl groups and increasing of POL. Copper may also damage lipid bilayer and change the activity of some non-selective channels and transporters. Reactive oxygen species which are formed under some types of stress factors, especially the effect of heavy metals, can be activators of Ca-channels. Cu2+ ions rise MDA content and promote the oxidative stress. Low medium pH also induces its

  9. Split-gene system for hybrid wheat seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempe, Katja; Rubtsova, Myroslava; Gils, Mario

    2014-06-24

    Hybrid wheat plants are superior in yield and growth characteristics compared with their homozygous parents. The commercial production of wheat hybrids is difficult because of the inbreeding nature of wheat and the lack of a practical fertility control that enforces outcrossing. We describe a hybrid wheat system that relies on the expression of a phytotoxic barnase and provides for male sterility. The barnase coding information is divided and distributed at two loci that are located on allelic positions of the host chromosome and are therefore "linked in repulsion." Functional complementation of the loci is achieved through coexpression of the barnase fragments and intein-mediated ligation of the barnase protein fragments. This system allows for growth and maintenance of male-sterile female crossing partners, whereas the hybrids are fertile. The technology does not require fertility restorers and is based solely on the genetic modification of the female crossing partner.

  10. Identification of Changes in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Seeds Proteome in Response to Anti–trx s Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongxiang; Zhang, Huizhen; Li, Yongchun; Ren, Jiangping; Wang, Xiang; Niu, Hongbin; Yin, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Background Thioredoxin h (trx h) is closely related to germination of cereal seeds. The cDNA sequences of the thioredoxin s (trx s) gene from Phalaris coerulescens and the thioredoxin h (trx h) gene from wheat are highly homologous, and their expression products have similar biological functions. Transgenic wheat had been formed after the antisense trx s was transferred into wheat, and it had been certified that the expression of trx h decreased in transgenic wheat, and transgenic wheat has high resistance to pre-harvest sprouting. Methodology/Principal Findings Through analyzing the differential proteome of wheat seeds between transgenic wheat and wild type wheat, the mechanism of transgenic wheat seeds having high resistance to pre-harvest sprouting was studied in the present work. There were 36 differential proteins which had been identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). All these differential proteins are involved in regulation of carbohydrates, esters, nucleic acid, proteins and energy metabolism, and biological stress. The quantitative real time PCR results of some differential proteins, such as trx h, heat shock protein 70, α-amylase, β-amylase, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, 14-3-3 protein, S3-RNase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and WRKY transcription factor 6, represented good correlation between transcripts and proteins. The biological functions of many differential proteins are consistent with the proposed role of trx h in wheat seeds. Conclusions/Significance A possible model for the role of trx h in wheat seeds germination was proposed in this paper. These results will not only play an important role in clarifying the mechanism that transgenic wheat has high resistance to pre-harvest sprouting, but also provide further evidence for the role of trx h in germination of wheat seeds. PMID:21811579

  11. Identification of changes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seeds proteome in response to anti-trx s gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongxiang; Zhang, Huizhen; Li, Yongchun; Ren, Jiangping; Wang, Xiang; Niu, Hongbin; Yin, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Thioredoxin h (trx h) is closely related to germination of cereal seeds. The cDNA sequences of the thioredoxin s (trx s) gene from Phalaris coerulescens and the thioredoxin h (trx h) gene from wheat are highly homologous, and their expression products have similar biological functions. Transgenic wheat had been formed after the antisense trx s was transferred into wheat, and it had been certified that the expression of trx h decreased in transgenic wheat, and transgenic wheat has high resistance to pre-harvest sprouting. Through analyzing the differential proteome of wheat seeds between transgenic wheat and wild type wheat, the mechanism of transgenic wheat seeds having high resistance to pre-harvest sprouting was studied in the present work. There were 36 differential proteins which had been identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). All these differential proteins are involved in regulation of carbohydrates, esters, nucleic acid, proteins and energy metabolism, and biological stress. The quantitative real time PCR results of some differential proteins, such as trx h, heat shock protein 70, α-amylase, β-amylase, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, 14-3-3 protein, S3-RNase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and WRKY transcription factor 6, represented good correlation between transcripts and proteins. The biological functions of many differential proteins are consistent with the proposed role of trx h in wheat seeds. A possible model for the role of trx h in wheat seeds germination was proposed in this paper. These results will not only play an important role in clarifying the mechanism that transgenic wheat has high resistance to pre-harvest sprouting, but also provide further evidence for the role of trx h in germination of wheat seeds.

  12. Identification of changes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. seeds proteome in response to anti-trx s gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxiang Guo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thioredoxin h (trx h is closely related to germination of cereal seeds. The cDNA sequences of the thioredoxin s (trx s gene from Phalaris coerulescens and the thioredoxin h (trx h gene from wheat are highly homologous, and their expression products have similar biological functions. Transgenic wheat had been formed after the antisense trx s was transferred into wheat, and it had been certified that the expression of trx h decreased in transgenic wheat, and transgenic wheat has high resistance to pre-harvest sprouting. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Through analyzing the differential proteome of wheat seeds between transgenic wheat and wild type wheat, the mechanism of transgenic wheat seeds having high resistance to pre-harvest sprouting was studied in the present work. There were 36 differential proteins which had been identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS. All these differential proteins are involved in regulation of carbohydrates, esters, nucleic acid, proteins and energy metabolism, and biological stress. The quantitative real time PCR results of some differential proteins, such as trx h, heat shock protein 70, α-amylase, β-amylase, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, 14-3-3 protein, S3-RNase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and WRKY transcription factor 6, represented good correlation between transcripts and proteins. The biological functions of many differential proteins are consistent with the proposed role of trx h in wheat seeds. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A possible model for the role of trx h in wheat seeds germination was proposed in this paper. These results will not only play an important role in clarifying the mechanism that transgenic wheat has high resistance to pre-harvest sprouting, but also provide further evidence for the role of trx h in germination of wheat seeds.

  13. Seed priming and transgenerational drought memory improves tolerance against salt stress in bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Tahira; Farooq, Muhammad; Ahmad, Riaz; Zohaib, Ali; Wahid, Abdul

    2017-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of seed priming following terminal drought on tolerance against salt stress in bread wheat. Drought was imposed in field sown wheat at reproductive stage (BBCH growth stage 49) and was maintained till physiological maturity (BBCH growth stage 83). Seeds of bread wheat, collected from crop raised under terminal drought and/or well-watered conditions, were subjected to hydropriming and osmopriming (with 1.5% CaCl 2 ) and were sown in soil-filled pots. After stand establishment, salt stress treatments viz. 10 mM NaCl (control) and 100 mM NaCl were imposed. Seed from terminal drought stressed source had less fat (5%), and more fibers (11%), proteins (22%) and total soluble phenolics (514%) than well-watered seed source. Salt stress reduced the plant growth, perturbed water relations and decreased yield. However, an increase in osmolytes accumulation (4-18%), malondialdehyde (MDA) (27-35%) and tissue Na + contents (149-332%) was observed under salt stress. The seeds collected from drought stressed crop had better tolerance against salt stress as indicated by better yield (28%), improved water relations (3-18%), osmolytes accumulation (21-33%), and less MDA (8%) and Na contents (35%) than progeny of well-watered crop. Seed priming, osmopriming in particular, further improved the tolerance against salt stress through improvement in leaf area, water relations, leaf proline, glycine betaine and grain yield while lowering MDA and Na + contents. In conclusion, changed seed composition during terminal drought and seed priming improved the salt tolerance in wheat by modulating the water relations, osmolytes accumulation and lipid peroxidation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Partial replacement of wheat flour by pumpkin seed flour in the production of cupcakes filled with carob

    OpenAIRE

    BATISTA, Jaqueline Eduarda Rodrigues; BRAGA, Lucas Pereira; OLIVEIRA, Renata Corrêa de; SILVA, Edson Pablo; DAMIANI, Clarissa

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Pumpkin seeds are considered waste and its composition has high protein content, being feasible for human consumption, also reducing costs in waste treatment. In this work we provided an alternative to reuse the wastes of pumpkin seed applied in cupcakes formulation as a complementary source to wheat flour. Four formulations with different proportions of pumpkin seed flour were investigated. The effects of partial wheat flour substitution were evaluated using the parameters texture, ...

  15. [The high-molecular glutenins of the soft winter wheats from European countries and their relationship to the glutenin composition of the ancient and modern wheat varieties of Ukraine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, S V; Fedak, G; Lukov, O

    2000-01-01

    The sources of high-quality components of HMW glutenines determining grain quality, as initial material for breeding in the conditions of Ukraine were revealed on the base of analysis of 75 literature sources data about composition of high-molecular weight (HMW) glutenin and pedigrees of 598 European wheats from 12 countries, bred in 1923-1997, including, 449 cultivars from West and 149 East Europe. Origin of these components was observed in varieties of Great Britain, France and Germany from ancient Ukrainian wheat Red Fife and it derivative spring wheats of Canada--Marquis, Garnet, Regent, Saunders, Selkirk and of USA--spring wheat Thatcher and winter wheats--Kanred and Oro--as directly as via cultivars of European countries and Australia; in wheats of East European countries from winter wheats Myronivs'ka 808 and Bezostaya 1 (derivative of Ukrainian cultivars Ukrainka and Krymka) and their descendants; in wheats of Austria and Italy--from the both genetical sources.

  16. Optimizing of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Cattle Manure Fertilizers Application in Winter Wheat Production Using Response-Surface Methodology (RSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. jahan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction It is estimated that up to 50 percent of applied nitrogen would drift from agricultural systems as gaseous compounds and other types of activated nitrogen (27 and 46. When applied in high amounts, up to 90% of phosphorous fertilizers could be fixed in soil together with metallic elements as insoluble forms leading to further phosphorus pollution (1. In many crops, low absorption efficiency of fertilizers is the main reason of losses through leaching, volatilization and diffusion of soluble chemical fertilizers which easily released to soil and air. It has been reported that between 18-41 percent of applied nitrogen retain in soil after crop harvesting (Fageria, 2014. Nitrogen losses happens in different ways as ammonium volatilization in lime soils (10-70%, denitrification (9-22% and leaching (14-40% (13. Chemical fertilizers are widely used by farmers due to low costs, easy availability and easy applicability. Chemical fertilizers increase the rate of organic matter decomposition in soil, thus increase the amount of greenhouse gasses such as N, CO2 released in air which aggravate global warning and climate change (2 This research was aimed to emphasize on optimizing of chemical and organic fertilizer use in winter wheat production in Iran, study the trend of change in different N, P and cattle manure levels and their effects on wheat characteristics and its changes trend also, comparison of the effectiveness of manure by chemical fertilizer related to NUE and yield increase of wheat. Materials and Methods By conducting Box-Behnken design, it is possible to obtain the most information from the least operational practices due to distribution of experimental points through treatments confined. The design points were defined based on low and high levels of N (0, 300 kg ha-1, P (0, 200 kg ha-1 and manure (0, 30 tones ha-1 as shown in Table 2. Manure was analyzed for N, P and K content (1.18% of N, 0.29% of P and 1.04% of K. The high and

  17. Origin of Analytical Breeding of Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. in the Tsar’s Russia, and in Ukraine in particular (End of XIX– Beginning of XX centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Х. М. Піпан

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the main factors of origin and development of analytical selection of winter wheat in Ukraine in late XIX - early XX century .. In particular highlight the role of scientific works of Charles Darwin, W. Rimpau, AL Sempolovskуу, IS Korzhinskуу and research institutions to increase attention to the study of local varieties of winter wheat and their improvement. Especially analyze values of Russia's first benefit from the breeding "Guide to Seed for the Advancement of cultivated plants", in which the author proposes methods for improving and creating new varieties. Since the end of XIX century selection were mainly involved in private owners on their own initiative, already in the beginning of XX century this trend more interested in the agricultural society, local and state authorities. Thanks to their support in the country organized congresses, meetings and conferences, set up research and field stations. It was during this period of transition took place in the national selection analysis.

  18. Compounds of natural origin inducing resistance in winter wheat to powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Věchet, L.; Martínková, J.; Šindelářová, Milada; Burketová, Lenka

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 10 (2005), s. 469-475 ISSN 1214-1178 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/03/0353 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : winter wheat * inducer of resistence * powdery mildew Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 0.170, year: 2004

  19. SHORT-TERM EXPOSURE TO ATMOSPHERIC AMMONIA DOES NOT AFFECT LOW-TEMPERATURE HARDENING OF WINTER-WHEAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CLEMENT, JMAM; VENEMA, JH; VANHASSELT, PR

    The effect of atmospheric NH3 on low-temperature hardening of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Urban) was investigated. Growth and photosynthesis were stimulated by ammonia exposure. After a 14 d exposure at moderate temperatures (day/night 18.5/16 degrees C) total nitrogen content was

  20. Sensitivities of crop models to extreme weather conditions during flowering period demonstrated for maize and winter wheat in Austria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eitzinger, Josef; Thaler, S.; Schmid, E.; Strauss, F.; Ferrise, R.; Moriondo, M.; Bindi, M.; Palosuo, T.; Rötter, R.; Kersebaum, K. C.; Olesen, J. E.; Patil, R. H.; Saylan, L.; Çaldag, B.; Caylak, O.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 151, č. 6 (2013), s. 813-835 ISSN 0021-8596 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : crop models * weather conditions * winter wheat * Austria Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.891, year: 2013

  1. Root and soil carbon distribution at shoulderslope and footslope positions of temperate toposequences cropped to winter wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chirinda, Ngoni; Roncossek, Svenja Doreen; Heckrath, Goswin Johann

    2014-01-01

    Crop root residues are an important source of soil organic carbon (SOC) in arable systems. However, the spatial distribution of root biomass in arable systems remains largely unknown. In this study, we determined the spatial distribution of macro-root and shoot biomass of winter wheat at shoulder...

  2. Variability in carbon dioxide fluxes among six winter wheat paddocks managed under different tillage and grazing practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes from six winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) paddocks (grain only, graze-grain, and graze-out) managed under conventional till (CT) and no-till (NT) systems were synthesized for the 2016-2017 growing season to compare the magnitudes and seasonal dynamics of CO2 fluxes and...

  3. Forming of productivity of new soft winter wheat varieties (Triticum aestivum L. subject to phyto-virus pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. П. Петренкова

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The infection by phytoviruses and the productivity formation in the new varieties of winter bread wheat in the different years with virus damage were investigated. There were identified the varieties being more tolerant to the observed diseases, among these - the samples with different constituents of tolerance, which could be used in the breeding programs.

  4. Regulation of the membrane structure by brassinosteroids and progesterone in winter wheat seedlings exposed to low temperature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filek, M.; Rudolphi-Skórska, E.; Sieprawska, A.; Kvasnica, Miroslav; Janeczko, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 128, DEC (2017), s. 37-45 ISSN 0039-128X R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ15-08202Y Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : 24-Epibrassinolide * 24-Epicastasterone * Galactolipids * Phospholipids * Progesterone * Seedlings * Winter wheat Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry Impact factor: 2.282, year: 2016

  5. Adult plant leaf rust resistance derived from the soft red winter wheat cultivar Caldwell maps to chromosome 3BS

    Science.gov (United States)

    'Caldwell' is a U.S. soft red winter wheat that has partial, adult plant resistance to the leaf rust pathogen Puccinia triticina. A line of 'Thatcher*2/Caldwell' with adult plant resistance derived from Caldwell was crossed with 'Thatcher' to develop a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs). ...

  6. Chlorophyll fluorescence as a parameter for frost hardiness in winter wheat. A comparison with other hardiness parameters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clement, JMAM; vanHasselt, PR

    1996-01-01

    Frost hardiness of winter wheat leaves (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Urban) was measured during an eight weeks hardening period using chlorophyll fluorescence. Determination of frost induced damage after freezing, measured as the decrease of photochemical capacity of photosystem II (F-V/F-M =

  7. Environmental life cycle assessments of producing maize, grass-clover, ryegrass and winter wheat straw for biorefinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Kristensen, Ib Sillebak; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the potential environmental impacts of producing maize, grass-clover, ryegrass, and straw from winter wheat as biomass feedstocks for biorefinery. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method included the following impact categories: Global Warming Potential (GWP100),...

  8. Genetic Architecture of Main Effect QTL for Heading Date in European Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine eZanke

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A genome-wide association study (GWAS for heading date (HD was performed with a panel of 358 European winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. varieties and 14 spring wheat varieties through the phenotypic evaluation of HD in field tests in eight environments. Genotyping data consisted of 770 mapped microsatellite loci and 7934 mapped SNP markers derived from the 90K iSelect wheat chip. Best linear unbiased estimations (BLUEs were calculated across all trials and ranged from 142.5 to 159.6 days after the 1st of January with an average value of 151.4 days. Considering only associations with a –log10 (P-value ≥3.0, a total of 340 SSR and 2983 SNP marker-trait associations (MTAs were detected. After Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, a total of 72 SSR and 438 SNP marker-trait associations remained significant. Highly significant MTAs were detected for the photoperiodism gene Ppd-D1, which was genotyped in all varieties. Consistent associations were found on all chromosomes with the highest number of MTAs on chromosome 5B. Linear regression showed a clear dependence of the HD score BLUEs on the number of favourable alleles (decreasing HD and unfavourable alleles (increasing HD per variety meaning that genotypes with a higher number of favourable or a low number of unfavourable alleles showed lower HD and therefore flowered earlier. For the vernalization gene Vrn-A2 co-locating MTAs on chromosome 5A, as well as for the photoperiodism genes Ppd-A1 and Ppd-B1 on chromosomes 2A and 2B were detected. After the construction of an integrated map of the SSR and SNP markers and by exploiting the synteny to sequenced species, such as rice and Brachypodium distachyon, we were able to demonstrate that a marker locus on wheat chromosome 5BL with homology to the rice photoperiodism gene Hd6 played a significant role in the determination of the heading date in wheat.

  9. Predicting the yield and quality of winter wheat grown on calcareous chernozem in the lower Don Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Biryukova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Long-term studies have revealed a system of indicators for predicting the yield of winter wheat grown on a calcareous chernozem. It has been established that the prediction and integrated assessment of the yield and quality of grain should be performed with consideration for the balance of macro- and micronutrients in the grain and the above-ground biomass of plants. It has been shown that the contents of protein and gluten in winter wheat grain are mainly determined by the supply of plants with nitrogen and its balance with Mn, Р, Fe, Zn, and K. Possibility of predicting the contents of macro- and micronutrients in wheat grain from the chemical composition of plants at the shooting stage has been revealed.

  10. GmDREB1 overexpression affects the expression of microRNAs in GM wheat seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiyan Jiang

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small regulators of gene expression that act on many different molecular and biochemical processes in eukaryotes. To date, miRNAs have not been considered in the current evaluation system for GM crops. In this study, small RNAs from the dry seeds of a GM wheat line overexpressing GmDREB1 and non-GM wheat cultivars were investigated using deep sequencing technology and bioinformatic approaches. As a result, 23 differentially expressed miRNAs in dry seeds were identified and confirmed between GM wheat and a non-GM acceptor. Notably, more differentially expressed tae-miRNAs between non-GM wheat varieties were found, indicating that the degree of variance between non-GM cultivars was considerably higher than that induced by the transgenic event. Most of the target genes of these differentially expressed miRNAs between GM wheat and a non-GM acceptor were associated with abiotic stress, in accordance with the product concept of GM wheat in improving drought and salt tolerance. Our data provided useful information and insights into the evaluation of miRNA expression in edible GM crops.

  11. Effects of shading on morphology, physiology and grain yield of winter wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Huawei; Jiang, Dong; Wollenweber, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    In a field experiment, winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars Yangmai 158 (YM 158, shading tolerant) and Yangmai 11 (YM 11, shading-sensitive) were subjected to shading between jointing and maturity. Three shading treatments were applied, i.e. 92% (S1), 85% (S2) and 77% (S3) of full...... the shading treatments applied, leaf area index, length of the peduncle internode, area of the upper leaves and content of pigments increased, which favoured efficient light capture. Shading modified light quality in the canopy as indicated by increases of diffuse- and blue light fractions and a reduction...... the flag leaf, as in most cases Pn of the third and the penultimate leaves were found to increase under shading treatments. Shading increased the redistribution of dry matter from vegetative organs into grains. The responses of the morphological and physiological traits to shading are discussed in relation...

  12. Synthesis of stress proteins in winter wheat seedlings under gamma-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudkova, N.V.; Kosakovskaya, I.V.; Major, P.S.

    2001-01-01

    A universal cellular response to a number of diverse stresses is the synthesis of a set of stress proteins. Most of them are heat shock proteins (HSP). We show that both heat shock and gamma-radiation enhance the synthesis of HSP70 in the total protein fractions of winter wheat seedlings. It is found that a dose of 15 Gy induced the synthesis of 35 and 45 kD proteins after 5 h of irradiation in both total and mitochondrial protein fractions. On the second day after exposure, both 35 and 45 kD proteins were not observed, but new total proteins with a molecular weight of 90 and 92 kD appeared. The synthesis of 35 and 45 kD proteins after gamma-irradiation is revealed for the first time, their function being now unknown

  13. Wind erosion potential of a winter wheat-summer fallow rotation after land application of biosolids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Huawei; Sharratt, Brenton; Schillinger, William F.; Bary, Andrew I.; Cogger, Craig G.

    2018-06-01

    Conservation tillage is a viable management strategy to control soil wind erosion, but other strategies such as land application of biosolids that enhance soil quality may also reduce wind erosion. No studies have determined the effects of biosolids on wind erosion. Wind erosion potential of a silt loam was assessed using a portable wind tunnel after applying synthetic and biosolids fertilizer to traditional (disk) and conservation (undercutter) tillage practices during the summer fallow phase of a winter wheat-summer fallow (WW-SF) rotation in 2015 and 2016 in east-central Washington. Soil loss ranged from 12 to 61% lower for undercutter than disk tillage, possibly due to retention of more biomass on the soil surface of the undercutter versus disk tillage treatment. In contrast, soil loss was similar to or lower for biosolids as compared with synthetic fertilizer treatment. Our results suggest that biosolids applications to agricultural lands will have minimal impact on wind erosion.

  14. The effect of tillage intensity on soil structure and winter wheat root/shoot growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Hansen, Elly Møller; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2008-01-01

    was followed during the growing seasons using spectral reflectance and mini-rhizotron measurements, respectively. A range of soil physical properties were measured. We found decreased early season shoot and root growth with decreasing tillage intensity. Differences diminished later in the growing season...... of this study was to investigate the effect of tillage intensity on crop growth dynamics and soil structure. A tillage experiment was established in autumn 2002 on two Danish sandy loams (Foulum and Flakkebjerg) in a cereal-based crop rotation. The tillage systems included in this study were direct drilling (D...... with decreasing tillage intensity for the first year winter wheat at Foulum. In general ploughing resulted in the highest grain yields. This study highlights the important interaction between soil structure and crop growth dynamics....

  15. Microbial correlates of Fusarium biomass and deoxynivalenol content in individual wheat seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manipulating the microbiome of wheat seeds and heads may contribute to control of Fusarium head blight and mycotoxin accumulation in grain, which creates a food safety hazard. With the aim of identifying novel management targets, we looked for correlations between Fusarium biomass or deoxynivalenol ...

  16. Photosystem II excitation pressure and development of resistance to photoinhibition. II. Adjustment of photosynthetic capacity in winter wheat and winter rye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, G.R.; Savitch, L.V.; Ivanov, A.G.; Huner, N.P.A.

    1996-01-01

    Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Monopol), spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Katepwa), and winter rye (Secale cereale L. cv Musketeer) grown at 5 degrees C and moderate irradiance (250 micromoles m -2 s -1 ) (5/250) exhibit an increased tolerance to photoinhibition at low temperature in comparison to plants grown at 20 degrees C and 250 micromoles m -2 s -1 (20/250). However, 5/250 plants exhibited a higher photosystem II (PSII) excitation pressure (0.32-0.63) than 20/250 plants (0.18-0.21), measured as 1 - q p , the coefficient of photochemical quenching. Plants grown at 20 degrees C and a high irradiance (800 micromoles m -2 s -1 ) (20/800) also exhibited a high PSII excitation pressure (0.32-0.48). Similarly, plants grown at 20/800 exhibited a comparable tolerance to photoinhibition relative to plants grown at 5/250. In contrast to a recent report for Chlorella vulgaris (D.P. Maxwell, S. Falk, N.P.A. Huner [1995] Plant Physiol 107: 687-694), this tolerance to photoinhibition occurs in winter rye with minimal adjustment to polypeptides of the PSII light-harvesting complex, chlorophyll a/b ratios, or xanthophyll cycle carotenoids. However, Monopol winter wheat exhibited a 2.5-fold stimulation of sucrose-phosphate synthase activity upon growth at 5/250, in comparison to Katepwa spring wheat. We demonstrate that low-temperature-induced tolerance to photoinhibition is not a low-temperature-growth effect per se but, instead, reflects increased photosynthetic capacity in response to elevated PSII excitation pressure, which may be modulated by either temperature or irradiance

  17. Colonisation of winter wheat grain by Fusarium spp. and mycotoxin content as dependent on a wheat variety, crop rotation, a crop management system and weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaban, Janusz; Wróblewska, Barbara; Sułek, Alicja; Mikos, Marzena; Boguszewska, Edyta; Podolska, Grażyna; Nieróbca, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted during three consecutive growing seasons (2007/08, 2008/09 and 2009/10) with four winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars - 'Bogatka', 'Kris', 'Satyna' and 'Tonacja' - grown on fields with a three-field crop rotation (winter triticale, spring barley, winter wheat) and in a four-field crop rotation experiment (spring wheat, spring cereals, winter rapeseed, winter wheat). After the harvest, kernels were surface disinfected with 2% NaOCl and then analysed for the internal infection by different species of Fusarium. Fusaria were isolated on Czapek-Dox iprodione dichloran agar medium and identified on the basis of macro- and micro-morphology on potato dextrose agar and synthetic nutrient agar media. The total wheat grain infection by Fusarium depended mainly on relative humidity (RH) and a rainfall during the flowering stage. Intensive rainfall and high RH in 2009 and 2010 in the period meant the proportions of infected kernels by the fungi were much higher than those in 2008 (lack of precipitation during anthesis). Weather conditions during the post-anthesis period changed the species composition of Fusarium communities internally colonising winter wheat grain. The cultivars significantly varied in the proportion of infected kernels by Fusarium spp. The growing season and type of crop rotation had a distinct effect on species composition of Fusarium communities colonising the grain inside. A trend of a higher percentage of the colonised kernels by the fungi in the grain from the systems using more fertilisers and pesticides as well as the buried straw could be perceived. The most frequent species in the grain were F. avenaceum, F. tricinctum and F. poae in 2008, and F. avenaceum, F. graminearum, F. tricinctum and F. poae in 2009 and 2010. The contents of deoxynivalenol and zearalenon in the grain were correlated with the percentage of kernels colonised by F. graminearum and were the highest in 2009 in the grain from the four

  18. [Effects of reduced solar radiation on winter wheat flag leaf net photosynthetic rate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, You-Fei; Ni, Yan-Li; Mai, Bo-Ru; Wu, Rong-Jun; Feng, Yan; Sun, Jian; Li, Jian; Xu, Jing-Xin

    2011-06-01

    Taking winter wheat Triticum aestivum L. (cv. Yangmai 13) as test material, a field experiment was conducted in Nanjing City to study the effects of simulated reduced solar radiation on the diurnal variation of winter wheat flag leaf photosynthetic rate and the main affecting factors. Five treatments were installed, i. e., 15% (T15), 20% (T20) , 40% (T40), 60% (T60), and 100% (CK) of total incident solar radiation. Reduced solar irradiance increased the chlorophyll and lutein contents significantly, but decreased the net photosynthetic rate (Pn). Under different solar irradiance, the diurnal variation of Pn had greater difference, and the daily maximum Pn was in the order of CK > T60 > T40 > T 20 > T15. In CK, the Pn exhibited a double peak diurnal curve; while in the other four treatments, the Pn showed a single peak curve, and the peak was lagged behind that of CK. Correlation analysis showed that reduced solar irradiance was the main factor affecting the diurnal variation of Pn, but the physiological parameters also played important roles in determining the diurnal variation of Pn. In treatments T60 and T40, the photosynthesis active radiation (PAR), leaf temperature (T1) , stomatal conductance (Gs) , and transpiration rate (Tr) were significantly positively correlated with Pn, suggesting their positive effects on Pn. The intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and stomatal limitation (Ls) had significant negative correlations with Pn in treatments T60 and T40 but significant positive correlations with Pn in treatments T20 and T15, implying that the Ci and Ls had negative (or positive) effects on Pn when the solar irradiance was higher (or lower) than 40% of incident solar irradiance.

  19. Monitoring Powdery Mildew of Winter Wheat by Using Moderate Resolution Multi-Temporal Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingcheng; Pu, Ruiliang; Yuan, Lin; Wang, Jihua; Huang, Wenjiang; Yang, Guijun

    2014-01-01

    Powdery mildew is one of the most serious diseases that have a significant impact on the production of winter wheat. As an effective alternative to traditional sampling methods, remote sensing can be a useful tool in disease detection. This study attempted to use multi-temporal moderate resolution satellite-based data of surface reflectances in blue (B), green (G), red (R) and near infrared (NIR) bands from HJ-CCD (CCD sensor on Huanjing satellite) to monitor disease at a regional scale. In a suburban area in Beijing, China, an extensive field campaign for disease intensity survey was conducted at key growth stages of winter wheat in 2010. Meanwhile, corresponding time series of HJ-CCD images were acquired over the study area. In this study, a number of single-stage and multi-stage spectral features, which were sensitive to powdery mildew, were selected by using an independent t-test. With the selected spectral features, four advanced methods: mahalanobis distance, maximum likelihood classifier, partial least square regression and mixture tuned matched filtering were tested and evaluated for their performances in disease mapping. The experimental results showed that all four algorithms could generate disease maps with a generally correct distribution pattern of powdery mildew at the grain filling stage (Zadoks 72). However, by comparing these disease maps with ground survey data (validation samples), all of the four algorithms also produced a variable degree of error in estimating the disease occurrence and severity. Further, we found that the integration of MTMF and PLSR algorithms could result in a significant accuracy improvement of identifying and determining the disease intensity (overall accuracy of 72% increased to 78% and kappa coefficient of 0.49 increased to 0.59). The experimental results also demonstrated that the multi-temporal satellite images have a great potential in crop diseases mapping at a regional scale. PMID:24691435

  20. [Comparison of red edge parameters of winter wheat canopy under late frost stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yong-feng; Hu, Xin; Lü, Guo-hua; Ren, De-chao; Jiang, Wei-guo; Song, Ji-qing

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, late frost experiments were implemented under a range of subfreezing temperatures (-1 - -9 degrees C) by using a field movable climate chamber (FMCC) and a cold climate chamber, respectively. Based on the spectra of winter wheat canopy measured at noon on the first day after the frost experiments, red edge parameters REP, Dr, SDr, Dr(min), Dr/Dr(min) and Dr/SDr were extracted using maximum first derivative spectrum method (FD), linear four-point interpolation method (FPI), polynomial fitting method (POLY), inverted Gaussian fitting method (IG) and linear extrapolation technique (LE), respectively. The capacity of the red edge parameters to detect late frost stress was explicated from the aspects of the early, sensitivity and stability through correlation analysis, linear regression modeling and fluctuation analysis. The result indicates that except for REP calculated from FPI and IG method in Experiment 1, REP from the other methods was correlated with frost temperatures (P frost temperatures (P frost temperatures which indicated that LE method is the best for REP extraction. In Experiment 1 and 2, only Dr(min) and Dr/Dr(min), calculated by FD method simultaneously achieved the requirements for the early (their correlations with frost temperatures showed a significant level P frost temperatures al- ways keep a consistent direction). Dr/SDr calculated from FD and IG methods always had a low sensitivity in Experiment 2. In Experiment 1, the sensitivity of Dr/SDr from FD was moderate and IG was high. REP calculated from LE method had a lowest sensitivity in the two experiments. Totally, Dr(min) and Dr/Dr(min) calculated by FD method have the strongest detection capacity for frost temperature, which will be helpful to conducting the research on early diagnosis of late frost injury to winter wheat.

  1. Assessment of winter wheat loss risk impacted by climate change from 1982 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xin

    2017-04-01

    The world's farmers will face increasing pressure to grow more food on less land in succeeding few decades, because it seems that the continuous population growth and agricultural products turning to biofuels would extend several decades into the future. Therefore, the increased demand for food supply worldwide calls for improved accuracy of crop productivity estimation and assessment of grain production loss risk. Extensive studies have been launched to evaluate the impacts of climate change on crop production based on various crop models drove with global or regional climate model (GCM/RCM) output. However, assessment of climate change impacts on agriculture productivity is plagued with uncertainties of the future climate change scenarios and complexity of crop model. Therefore, given uncertain climate conditions and a lack of model parameters, these methods are strictly limited in application. In this study, an empirical assessment approach for crop loss risk impacted by water stress has been established and used to evaluate the risk of winter wheat loss in China, United States, Germany, France and United Kingdom. The average value of winter wheat loss risk impacted by water stress for the three countries of Europe is about -931kg/ha, which is obviously higher in contrast with that in China (-570kg/ha) and in United States (-367kg/ha). Our study has important implications for further application of operational assessment of crop loss risk at a country or region scale. Future studies should focus on using higher spatial resolution remote sensing data, combining actual evapo-transpiration to estimate water stress, improving the method for downscaling of statistic crop yield data, and establishing much more rational and elaborate zoning method.

  2. Imbibition of wheat seeds: Application of image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Jakub; Blahovec, Jiří

    2017-10-01

    Image analysis is widely used for monitoring seeds during germination, and it is often the final phase of germination that is subjected to the greatest attention. However, the initial phase of germination (the so-called imbibition) also exhibits interesting behaviour. This work shows that image analysis has significant potential in the imbibition. Herein, a total of 120 seeds were analysed during germination tests, and information about seed size and shape was stored and analysed. It was found that the imbibition can be divided into two newly defined parts. The first one (`abrupt imbibition') consists mainly of the swelling of the seed embryo part and lasts approximately one hour. The second one, referred to as `main imbibition', consists mainly of spatial expansion caused by imbibition in the other parts of the seed. The results presented are supported by the development of seed cross area and shape parameters, and by direct observation.

  3. THE TYPE OF PACKAGING MATERIAL AND STORAGE CONDITIONS AS FACTORS FOR WHEAT SEED QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Šimenić

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed of cereal is normally grown on 5-8% of the overall plots under cereals in the Republic of Croatia. The produced seed meets the needs for high quality seed of wheat, barley, oat and other cereals. Certain quantities of seed remain unsold every year and are kept at various storage conditions and in various packaging material. The objective of this paper was to find out which storage conditions and what sort of packaging material would provide for the best viability of wheat seed. The investigation was carried out at storage simulation and by using various packaging material. In addition to well-known packaging material, such as paper 2 and 4-layer bags, jute bags, and PPR bags, the seed was also packed in the PVC transparent and PVC black bags, as well as in bags made of Aluminium foil. The investigation lasted for two years and was carried out in three various storage conditions, such as in the "New Warehouse" - a warehouse of a new type with thermal isolation in the roof and with uncontrolled conditions, ii the "Old Warehouse" made of filled-in brick and with a roof made of asbestos board, and iii under the "Eaves". The results have shown that the best seed was obtained when packed in 2 and 4-layer paper bags, PVC transparent bags and those made of Aluminium foil. Poorer results were obtained with bags of jute, polypropeline bags and PVC black bags. The storage of seed at "Eaves" has attained the best results in both years of the investigation, as compared to all three types of storage and it can in our circumstances meet the needs for wheat seed storage during one year

  4. [Prediction model of meteorological grade of wheat stripe rust in winter-reproductive area, Sichuan Basin, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiang; Wang, Ming Tian; Zhang, Guo Zhi

    2017-12-01

    The winter reproductive areas of Puccinia striiformis var. striiformis in Sichuan Basin are often the places mostly affected by wheat stripe rust. With data on the meteorological condition and stripe rust situation at typical stations in the winter reproductive area in Sichuan Basin from 1999 to 2016, this paper classified the meteorological conditions inducing wheat stripe rust into 5 grades, based on the incidence area ratio of the disease. The meteorological factors which were biologically related to wheat stripe rust were determined through multiple analytical methods, and a meteorological grade model for forecasting wheat stripe rust was created. The result showed that wheat stripe rust in Sichuan Basin was significantly correlated with many meteorological factors, such as the ave-rage (maximum and minimum) temperature, precipitation and its anomaly percentage, relative humidity and its anomaly percentage, average wind speed and sunshine duration. Among these, the average temperature and the anomaly percentage of relative humidity were the determining factors. According to a historical retrospective test, the accuracy of the forecast based on the model was 64% for samples in the county-level test, and 89% for samples in the municipal-level test. In a meteorological grade forecast of wheat stripe rust in the winter reproductive areas in Sichuan Basin in 2017, the prediction was accurate for 62.8% of the samples, with 27.9% error by one grade and only 9.3% error by two or more grades. As a result, the model could deliver satisfactory forecast results, and predicate future wheat stripe rust from a meteorological point of view.

  5. Effects of external potassium (k supply on drought tolerances of two contrasting winter wheat cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiguang Wei

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Drought is a common stress limiting crops growth and productivities worldwide. Water deficit may increase cellular membrane permeability, resulting in K outflow. Internal K starvation may disorder plant metabolism and limit plant growth. However, it is seldom reported about the effects of external K on drought tolerance of contrasting wheat cultivars. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A hydroponics experiment was carried out in a non-controlled greenhouse. Seedlings of drought-tolerant SN16 and intolerant JM22 were simultaneously treated by five levels of K2CO3 (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 mM and two levels of PEG6000 (0, 20% for 7 days. External K2CO3 significantly increased shoot K(+ content, water potential, chlorophyll content as well as gas exchange, but decreased electrolyte leakage (EL and MDA content in both cultivars under PEG6000 stress. Antioxidant enzymes activities were up-regulated by PEG6000 while external K2CO3 reduced those changes. Molecular basis was explained by measuring the expression levels of antioxidant enzymes related genes. Shoot and root biomass were also increased by K2CO3 supply under drought stress. Although adequate K2CO3 application enhanced plant growth for both cultivars under drought stress, SN16 was better than JM22 due to its high drought tolerance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Adequate external K may effectively protect winter wheat from drought injuries. We conclude that drought-tolerant wheat combined with adequate external K supply may be a promising strategy for better growth in arid and semi-arid regions.

  6. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF WINTER BREAD WHEAT (Triticum aestivum L. ssp. vulgare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Petrović

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Diversity was analyzed based on agronomic and morphologic traits and molecular data. The main objectives of this study were: 1. to estimate genetic diversity of wheat germplasm using agronomic and morphologic traits and molecular markers, 2. to investigate the existence of genetic erosion within tested wheat germplasm, 3. to explore potential utilization of combination of agronomic, morphologic and molecular markers in plant breeding. Forty winter bread wheat varieties were used originating from Croatia, Austria, France, Italy and Russia. Field trial was conducted during two vegetation years (2007/2008, 2008/2009 in three replications according to randomized block design. Ten traits were included in agronomic and morphologic analysis. Composition of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW GS was evaluated for 16 varieties, whereas literature data are used for the rest. Starch composition analysis was based on amylose and amylopectin isolation, their quantity and ratio. For the SSR analysis 26 microsatellite primers were used, and for the AFLP analysis four primer combinations. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS Software 9.1.3, NTSYS ver.2.2., Arlequin ver2.0. and Powermarker ver.3.25. Analyzed varieties displayed highly significant differences (p<0,001 for all agronomic traits and for amylose/amylopectin ratio. High variability of HMW GS was found among varieties. Estimation of genetic diversity based on morphologic and molecular data were used to construct dendograms. AMOVA was used to evaluate variability based on molecular data. Genetic diversity was estimated among and within morphologic and molecular data. SSR and AFLP markers showed efficient discrimination power between highly related genotypes. Significant correlation was found out between two molecular methods which showed more accurate estimate of genetic diversity than by agronomic and morphologic data.

  7. Effects of external potassium (k) supply on drought tolerances of two contrasting winter wheat cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiguang; Li, Caihong; Li, Yong; Jiang, Gaoming; Cheng, Guanglei; Zheng, Yanhai

    2013-01-01

    Drought is a common stress limiting crops growth and productivities worldwide. Water deficit may increase cellular membrane permeability, resulting in K outflow. Internal K starvation may disorder plant metabolism and limit plant growth. However, it is seldom reported about the effects of external K on drought tolerance of contrasting wheat cultivars. A hydroponics experiment was carried out in a non-controlled greenhouse. Seedlings of drought-tolerant SN16 and intolerant JM22 were simultaneously treated by five levels of K2CO3 (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 mM) and two levels of PEG6000 (0, 20%) for 7 days. External K2CO3 significantly increased shoot K(+) content, water potential, chlorophyll content as well as gas exchange, but decreased electrolyte leakage (EL) and MDA content in both cultivars under PEG6000 stress. Antioxidant enzymes activities were up-regulated by PEG6000 while external K2CO3 reduced those changes. Molecular basis was explained by measuring the expression levels of antioxidant enzymes related genes. Shoot and root biomass were also increased by K2CO3 supply under drought stress. Although adequate K2CO3 application enhanced plant growth for both cultivars under drought stress, SN16 was better than JM22 due to its high drought tolerance. Adequate external K may effectively protect winter wheat from drought injuries. We conclude that drought-tolerant wheat combined with adequate external K supply may be a promising strategy for better growth in arid and semi-arid regions.

  8. Some problems of using irradiated pollen in genetics and selection of winter soft wheat (Triticum acstivum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovkis, E.N.

    1978-01-01

    For the first time the mutagenous efficiency of gamma-irradiation of male gametes(pollen) for genetic and selection purposes has been studied using three sorts of winter wheat. It is shown, that a critical irradiation dose for soft wheat in respect of degree of reducing the mass of 1000 grains and survive is 2.0 krad. Application of irradiated pollen results in a wide spectrum of mutagenous changeability, at that, one part of forms remains constant and the other is splitted according to the type of intraspecific hybrids. Pollen irradiation doses are grounded to produce mutants having some important selection features. Irradiation doses from 0.25 to 0.5 krad are most effective to produce mutants with productive ears and from 1.0 to 1.5 krad to produce short-stem ones. More than 80 mutants are studied in respect of productivity and other indications in a control nursery. Combination productivity value of some short-stem mutants has been studied; it is shown, that as a rule it is preserved at the level of initial sorts. The use of historical method for understanding the regularities of mutant appearance is of great theoretical interest during the investigations. It has been established, that mutants relating to different varieties appear with unequal frequency, which, possibly, is due to the species genotype

  9. Effect of Plant Diversity on Diversity and Abundance of Arthropods in Winter Wheat Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Khodashenas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Plant biomass and diversity play an important role in enhancing of biodiversity of other trophic levels, specially arthropods in terrestrial ecosystems. In order to determine the effects of plants on diversity and abundance of arthropods, a study was carried out in three regions of Razavi and northern Khorasan provinces, Shirvan, Mashhad and Gonabad. In each region, high and low input fields of winter wheat and a natural system for comparison were selected. In ripening stage of wheat growth (90 stage of Zadoks, sampling was done by use of quadrate in each system with five replications. Plants in each quadrate were counted and species richness of plants was determined. Insect sampling was done by sweep net from surface of plants, then species richness and abundance of collected insects were determined. As a result, agricultural practices decreased plant species richness but diversity and abundance of insects and spiders increased in agricultural systems. Our finding revealed that abundance of insects and spiders were not affected by plant species richness and plant biomass was the main factor affecting on species richness and abundance of insects, spiders and beneficial insects. Therefore, decreasing plant species richness that arose from agricultural practices doesn’t effect on arthropods diversity and abundance and doesn’t decrease sustainability of agricultural systems. Irregular use of chemical inputs, specially pesticides, is the main factor to decreasing of plants and arthropods species richness in agricultural systems. Keywords: Plant diversity, Arthropod diversity, Arthropod abundance, Plant-insect interactions, Agricultural systems

  10. Changes in the elemental composition of winter wheat plants caused by the action of Megafol and retardants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Miroshnichenko

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the course of field experiments conducted during the 2015–2016 vegetation seasons, retardants Medax Top, 1.0 l/ha (prohexadione-Са and mepiquat-chloride, appeared more effective than Terpal, 1.5 l/ha (mepiquat-chloride and ethephon, on field plots with high-yield varieties. Foliar application of Megafol promoted the productivity of winter wheat varieties Smuglyanka and Podolyanka and reduced the negative influence of retardants on the wheat plants in the vegetation seasons which were characterized by moisture deficit. The influence of modern retardants – prohexadione-Ca + mepiquat-chloride (Medax Top and mepiquat-chloride + etefone (Terpal, both BASF, Germany on the accumulation of some macro- and micronutrients in winter wheat plants was determined. The assays were performed on an ICP-MS Agilent 7700x mass spectrometer (Agilent Technologies, USA with ICP-MS Mass Hunter WorkStation. Samples of winter wheat plants were taken in the phase of flowering and grain ripening. The samples were dried, homogenized, 0.400 gof weight was dissolved in ICP-grade nitric acid in the Milestone Start D (Milestone Inc., USA. All solutions were prepared on 1st class water (18 MΩ cm–1 obtained on the Scholar-UV Nex Up 1000 (Human Corporation, Korea water purification system. The ICP-MS Complete Standard IV-ICPMS-71A was used as the external standard, and the internal standard was Sc, both of Inorganic Ventures, USA. According to the ICP-MS results of plant samples of winter wheat of Smuglylanka and Podolanka, it has been shown that, in conditions of wheat growing on light soils of Polissya, modern compositional retardants affect the ionome of plants during the vegetation season, as well as change the content of inorganic elements in the grain. It was found that winter wheat of the middle-stem intensive Podolyanka type reacted more responsively to retardant treatment than the short-stem highly intensive Smuglyanka type. At the same time, there was an

  11. Opportunities in Tajikistan to breed wheat varieties resistant to seed-borne diseases and improved baking quality

    OpenAIRE

    Husenov, Bahromiddin

    2013-01-01

    Wheat seed-borne diseases and options for improving baking quality of wheat, as well as the role of genotypes for breeding to achieve high yield and quality are the key issues discussed in this introductory paper. The importance of wheat for Tajikistan and how to achieve food security goals in the country is also elucidated. Wheat seed-borne diseases are caused mostly by fungi. Loose Smut (Ustilago tritici), Common Bunt (Tilletia laevis and T.caries), Karnal Bunt (T.indica), Dwarf Bunt (T....

  12. Cypripedium calceolus germination in situ: seed longevity, and dormancy breakage by long incubation and cold winters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne N. Rasmussen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A successful in situ germination experiment with Cypripedium calceolus, the European Lady’s slipper, is reported here for the first time. The seeds originated from controlled pollinations within and between two closely related Danish populations. The seeds were sown ripe in seed packets in proximity of mother plants. Germination was first observed after 4.5 y in the ground, following two successive cold and snowy winters, and only in one population. Seedlings expanded through the sides of the broken testa and were hair-less. A corresponding set of seeds, germinated in vitro as asymbiotic controls, responded positively to repeated cold stratifications after long incubation, suggesting that time (leaching? and chilling are dormancy breakage factors.

  13. Impact of Graze-­‐Out in Hard Red Winter Wheat Production

    OpenAIRE

    Neupane, Diwash; Moss, Charles B.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between wheat graze-­‐out and cattle-­‐wheat price ratio and moisture level and examine the impact of graze-­‐out on wheat yield in major wheat-­‐producing states in US. Results indicate that cattle-­‐wheat price ratio and moisture level affect farmers’ graze out decision and graze-­‐out have significant impact on wheat yield.

  14. Interactions between crop biomass and development of foliar diseases in winter wheat and the potential to graduate the fungicide dose according to crop biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Kryger; Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup

    2016-01-01

    dose. The study was carried out investigating fungicide dose response controlling foliar diseases in winter wheat at three biomass densities obtained growing the crop at three nitrogen levels and using variable seed rates. Further the field experiments included three fungicide dose rates at each...... biomass level, an untreated control, and 75%, 50% and 33% of the recommended fungicide dose rate and the experiments were replicated for three years. Crop biomass had a significant influence on occurrence of septoria and yellow rust with greater disease severity at increasing crop biomass. In two of three...... years, the interaction of crop biomass and fungicide dose rate had a significant influence on disease severity indicating a biomassdependent dose response. The interaction occurred in the two years with high yield potential in combination with severe disease attack. If the variation in crop density...

  15. Effects of elevated O3 exposure on nutrient elements and quality of winter wheat and rice grain in Yangtze River Delta, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Feixiang; Wang, Xiaoke; Zhang, Weiwei; Hou, Peiqiang; Lu, Fei; Du, Keming; Sun, Zhongfu

    2013-01-01

    With the open-top chambers (OTCs) in situ in Yangtze River Delta, China in 2007 and 2008, the effects of elevated O 3 exposure on nutrient elements and quality of winter wheat and rice grain were investigated. Grain yield per plant of winter wheat and rice declined in both years. The N and S concentrations increased under elevated O 3 exposure in both years and C–N ratios decreased significantly. The concentrations of K, Ca, Mg, P, Mn, Cu and Zn in winter wheat and the concentrations of Mg, K, Mn and Cu in rice increased. The concentrations of protein, amino acid and lysine in winter wheat and rice increased and the concentration of amylose decreased. The increase in the nutrient concentration was less than the reduction of grain yield in both winter wheat and rice, and, hence, the absolute amount of the nutrients was reduced by elevated O 3 . -- Highlights: •The nutrient elements and quality of winter wheat and rice grain response to ozone had been investigated for two years in China. •Grain yield per plant of winter wheat and rice were reduced in both years. •The extent of ozone impact on the nutrient elements concentrations of winter wheat and rice were different. •The concentrations of protein, amino acid and lysine increased but the concentrations of amylose decreased. •The absolute amount of the nutrients was reduced by elevated O 3 . -- The nutrient elements and quality of winter wheat and rice grain were seriously affected under the elevated O 3 exposure

  16. The role of thioredoxin h in protein metabolism during wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongxiang; Wang, Shaoxin; Xu, Fangfang; Li, Yongchun; Ren, Jiangping; Wang, Xiang; Niu, Hongbin; Yin, Jun

    2013-06-01

    Thioredoxin h can regulate the redox environment in the cell and play an important role in the germination of cereals. In the present study, the thioredoxin s antisense transgenic wheat with down-regulation of thioredoxin h was used to study the role of thioredoxin h in protein metabolism during germination of wheat seeds, and to explore the mechanism of the thioredoxin s antisense transgenic wheat seeds having high resistance to pre-harvest sprouting. The qRT-PCR results showed that the expression of protein disulfide isomerase in the thioredoxin s antisense transgenic wheat was up-regulated, which induced easily forming glutenin macropolymers and the resistance of storage proteins to degradation. The expression of serine protease inhibitor was also up-regulated in transgenic wheat, which might be responsible for the decreased activity of thiocalsin during the germination. The expression of WRKY6 in transgenic wheat was down-regulated, which was consistent with the decreased activity of glutamine oxoglutarate aminotransferase. In transgenic wheat, the activities of glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase were down-regulated, indicating that the metabolism of amino acid was lower than that in wild-type wheat during seed germination. A putative model for the role of thioredoxin h in protein metabolism during wheat seed germination was proposed and discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Substantial N2O emission during the initial period of the wheat season due to the conversion of winter-flooded paddy to rice-wheat rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Lin, Shan; Wu, Lei; Zhao, Jingsong; Wang, Milan; Zhu, Bo; Mo, Yongliang; Hu, Ronggui; Chadwick, Dave; Shaaban, Muhammad

    2017-12-01

    Winter-flooded paddy is a typical rice-based cropping system to conserve water for the next rice growing season. Conversion of winter-flooded paddy to rice-wheat rotation has been widely adopted with the development of the water conservation infrastructure and the government's encouragement of winter agriculture in China in recent decades. However, the effects of this conversion on N2O emission are still not clear. Three winter-flooded paddy fields were studied in a split-plot design. One-half of each field was converted to rice-wheat rotation (RW), and the other half remained winter-flooded as rice-fallow (RF). Each plot of RW and RF was further divided into four subplots: three subplots for conventional N fertilizer application (RW-NC and RF-NC) and one for unfertilized treatment (RW-N0 and RF-N0). Conversion of RF-NC to RW-NC increased the N2O emission up to 6.6-fold in the first year and 4.4-fold in the second year. Moreover, N2O emissions for the entire wheat season were 1.74-3.74 kg N ha-1 and 0.24-0.31 kg N ha-1 from RW-NC and RW-N0, respectively, and accounted for 78%-94% and 78%-97% of the total annual amount. N2O emitted during the first 11-21 days of the wheat season from RW-NC was 1.48-3.28 kg N ha-1 and that from RW-N0 was 0.14-0.17 kg N ha-1, which contributed to 66%-82% and 45%-71% of the total annual amount, respectively. High N2O fluxes occurred when the soil water-filled pore space (WFPS) was in the range of 68%-72% and the ratio of available carbon to nitrogen in the soil was organic carbon (DOC) explained most of the variation of the N2O fluxes compared with the other measured environmental and soil factors. These findings suggest that the conversion of winter-flooded paddy to rice-wheat rotation increased N2O emissions that could be mitigated by controlling the soil moisture and ratio of available soil carbon to nitrogen.

  18. Dry land Winter Wheat Yield, Grain Protein, and Soil Nitrogen Responses to Fertilizer and Bio solids Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, R.T.; Cogger, C.G.; Bary, A.I.

    2011-01-01

    Applications of bio solids were compared to inorganic nitrogen (N) fertilizer for two years at three locations in eastern Washington State, USA, with diverse rainfall and soft white, hard red, and hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars. High rates of inorganic N tended to reduce yields, while grain protein responses to N rate were positive and linear for all wheat market classes. Bio solids produced 0 to 1400 kg ha -1 (0 to 47%) higher grain yields than inorganic N. Wheat may have responded positively to nutrients other than N in the bio solids or to a metered N supply that limited vegetative growth and the potential for moisture stress-induced reductions in grain yield in these dry land production systems. Grain protein content with bio solids was either equal to or below grain protein with inorganic N, likely due to dilution of grain N from the higher yields achieved with bio solids. Results indicate the potential to improve dry land winter wheat yields with bio solids compared to inorganic N alone, but perhaps not to increase grain protein concentration of hard wheat when bio solids are applied immediately before planting.

  19. Initial studies of the populations of fungi and bacteria in the soil under the influence of the cuItivation of spring wheat and winter wheat in a growth chamber

    OpenAIRE

    Danuta Pięta

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the studies was to determine the populations of fungi and bacteria after the cultivation of spring wheat and winter wheat. As a result of the studies it was found out that winter wheat had a stimulating effect on the total number of bacteria, especially Pseudomonas spp. On the other hand, spring wheat had a smaller influence on the growth of bacteria, while stimulating the growth of the number of fungi. Among the bacteria and saprophytic fungi isolated from the soil after the c...

  20. Seed coating with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi as an ecotechnologicalapproach for sustainable agricultural production of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Rui S; Rocha, Inês; Ma, Ying; Vosátka, Miroslav; Freitas, Helena

    2016-01-01

    The exploitation of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi has become of great interest in agriculture due to their potential roles in reducing the need for agrochemicals, while improving plant growth and nutrition. Nevertheless, the application of AM fungi by dispersing inocula in granular form to open agricultural fields is not feasible because nontargeted spreading of inocula over large surface areas results in high cost per plant. Seed coating has the potential to significantly reduce the amount of inoculum needed, resulting in cost reduction and increased efficiency. The aim of this study was to assess whether seed coating with AM fungal inoculum is a feasible delivery system for production of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Wheat seeds were coated with inoculum of Rhizophagus irregularis BEG140 and grown under different fertilization conditions: (1) none, (2) partial, or (3) complete. Data indicated that mycorrhizal inoculation via seed coating significantly increased the dry weight of shoot and seed spikes of wheat associated with reduced fertilization. Assessment of nutritional status of wheat showed that plants inoculated with R. irregularis via seed coating displayed enhanced stem concentrations of potassium (K), sulfur (S), and zinc (Zn). There were no significant differences in root colonization between plants conventionally inoculated with R. irregularis in soil and those inoculated via seed coating. Seed coating with AM fungi may be as effective as conventional soil inoculation and may contribute to reduce the utilization of chemical fertilizers. The application of AM via seed coating is proposed as an ecotechnological approach for sustainable agricultural wheat production.

  1. Transfer factor of (90)Sr and (137)Cs to lettuce and winter wheat at different growth stage applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Attar, Lina; Al-Oudat, Mohammad; Safia, Bassam; Ghani, Basem Abdul

    2015-12-01

    The effect of clay soil contamination time on the transfer factors (Fvs) of (137)Cs and (90)Sr was investigated in four different growth stages of winter wheat and lettuce crops. The experiment was performed in an open field using lysimeters. The Fvs were the ratio of the activity concentrations of the radionuclides in crops to those in soil, both as dry weight (Bq kg(-1)). Significant difference of log-Fvs was evaluated using one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Basically, Fvs of (90)Sr were higher than those of (137)Cs, despite of the application stage or crop' variety. Higher Fvs for both radionuclides were observed for lettuce in comparison to winter wheat. Fvs of (90)Sr showed comparable trends for both crops with enhanced Fvs obtained when contamination occurred in early stages, i.e. 1.20 for lettuce and 0.88 and 0.02 for winter wheat, straw and grains, respectively. Despite the fluctuation noted in the pattern of Fvs for (137)Cs, soil contaminated at the second stage gave the highest Fvs for lettuce and grains, with geometric means of 0.21 and 0.01, respectively. However, wheat-straw showed remarkable increase in Fv for the latest contamination (ripening stage), about 0.06. It could be concluded that soil contamination at early growth stages would represent high radiological risk for the scenarios studied with an exception to (137)Cs in winter wheat-straw which reflected greater hazard at the latest application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Studies on carotenoids and oxidative stability of winter squash seed and soybean oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmy, H. E.

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Winter squash seed and soybean oils were extracted with commercial hexane. Carotenoids and other pigments m the oils were studied using spectrophotometric and thin layer chromatographic analysis. Three types of pigments were identified: carotenoids. mainly lutein and β-carotene, chlorophyll and some unidentified pigments. Carotenoids content were 70, 60, 0 ppm in crude, refined and bleached winter squash seed oil, and 80, 65, 0 ppm in crude, refined and bleached soybean oil respectively. Stability was evaluated for crude, refined and bleached winter squash seed and soybean oils and an 1:1 admixture. Mixing winter squash seed oil with soybean oil increased the stability of soybean oil. Crude oil showed greater stability than refined and bleached oils.

    Se han extraído con hexano comercial aceites de semilla de calabaza y de soja. Usando análisis espectrofotométrico y cromatografía en capa fina se han estudiado en estos aceites tres tipos de pigmentos: carotenoides, principalmente luteína y β-caroteno, clorofilas y otros no identificados. Los contenidos en carotenoides fueron 70, 60, 0 ppm en aceite de semilla de calabaza de invierno crudo, refinado y decolorado, y 80, 65, 0 ppm en aceite de soja crudo, refinado y decolorado respectivamente. Se ha evaluado la estabilidad de aceites de semilla de calabaza de invierno, soja y una mezcla 1:1 de ambos, en sus estados crudo, refinado y decolorado. La mezcla de semilla de calabaza de invierno con aceite de soja aumentó la estabilidad de este último. El aceite crudo mostró una mayor estabilidad que los aceites refinados y decolorados.

  3. CO2 Dynamics in winter wheat and canola under different management practices in the Southern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagle, P.; Manjunatha, P.; Gowda, P. H.; Northup, B. K.; Neel, J. P. S.; Turner, K.; Steiner, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration and increased air temperature and climatic variability concerns have prompted considerable interest regarding CO2 dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems in response to major climatic and biophysical factors. However, detailed information on CO2 dynamics in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and canola (Brassica napus L.) under different agricultural management practices is lacking. As a part of the GRL-FLUXNET, a cluster of eight eddy covariance (EC) systems was deployed on the 420-ha Grazinglands Research on agroEcosystems and the ENvironment (GREEN) Farm at the United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS), Grazinglands Research Laboratory (GRL), El Reno, OK. The GRL is also one of 18 USDA-ARS Long-Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) network sites in the United States. A 4-year crop rotation plan at the farm includes winter wheat for grain only, graze-grain, and graze-out, and canola under conventional till and no-till management conditions. Biometric measurements such as biomass, leaf area index (LAI), canopy cover %, canopy height, and chlorophyll content were collected approximately every 16 days to coincide with Landsat satellite overpass dates. As expected, biomass and LAI were highest in the grain only wheat fields followed by graze-grain and graze-out wheat fields, but they were similar for till and no-till wheat fields within the same grazing practice. Biomass and LAI were similar in till and no-till canola in fall 2016, but both were substantially lower in no-till compared to tilled canola during spring 2017 due to more severe winter damage. Because net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) is strongly regulated by vegetation cover, the magnitudes of NEE were highest in the grain only wheat fields due to more biomass and LAI, followed by graze-grain and graze-out wheat fields. Similarly, the magnitudes of NEE were also higher in tilled canola (i.e., higher biomass and LAI) than

  4. Enantioselectivity of the bioconversion of chiral citronellal during the inhibition of wheat seeds germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalieri, Andrea; Fischer, Ravit; Larkov, Olga; Dudai, Nativ

    2014-03-01

    Citronellal is one of the most prominent monoterpenes present in many essential oils. Low persistence of essential oils as bioherbicides has often been addressed because of the high volatility of these compounds. Bioconversion of citronellal by wheat seeds releases less aggressive and injurious compounds as demonstrated by their diminished germination. We demonstrated that optically pure citronellal enantiomers were reduced to optically pure citronellol enantiomers with retention of the configuration both in isolated wheat embryos and endosperms. Our findings reveal the potential of essential oils as allelopathic agents providing an insight into their mechanism of action and persistence. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  5. Estimating the responses of winter wheat yields to moisture variations in the past 35 years in Jiangsu Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiangying; Gao, Ping; Zhu, Xinkai; Guo, Wenshan; Ding, Jinfeng; Li, Chunyan

    2018-01-01

    Jiangsu is an important agricultural province in China. Winter wheat, as the second major grain crop in the province, is greatly affected by moisture variations. The objective of this study was to investigate whether there were significant trends in changes in the moisture conditions during wheat growing seasons over the past decades and how the wheat yields responded to different moisture levels by means of a popular drought index, the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). The study started with a trend analysis and quantification of the moisture conditions with the Mann-Kendall test and Sen's Slope method, respectively. Then, correlation analysis was carried out to determine the relationship between de-trended wheat yields and multi-scalar SPEI. Finally, a multivariate panel regression model was established to reveal the quantitative yield responses to moisture variations. The results showed that the moisture conditions in Jiangsu were generally at a normal level, but this century appeared slightly drier in because of the relatively high temperatures. There was a significant correlation between short time scale SPEI values and wheat yields. Among the three critical stages of wheat development, the SPEI values in the late growth stage (April-June) had a closer linkage to the yields than in the seedling stage (October-November) and the over-wintering stage (December-February). Moreover, the yield responses displayed an asymmetric characteristic, namely, moisture excess led to higher yield losses compared to moisture deficit in this region. The maximum yield increment could be obtained under the moisture level of slight drought according to the 3-month SPEI at the late growth stage, while extreme wetting resulted in the most severe yield losses. The moisture conditions in the first 15 years of the 21st century were more favorable than in the last 20 years of the 20th century for wheat production in Jiangsu.

  6. Estimating the responses of winter wheat yields to moisture variations in the past 35 years in Jiangsu Province of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangying Xu

    Full Text Available Jiangsu is an important agricultural province in China. Winter wheat, as the second major grain crop in the province, is greatly affected by moisture variations. The objective of this study was to investigate whether there were significant trends in changes in the moisture conditions during wheat growing seasons over the past decades and how the wheat yields responded to different moisture levels by means of a popular drought index, the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI. The study started with a trend analysis and quantification of the moisture conditions with the Mann-Kendall test and Sen's Slope method, respectively. Then, correlation analysis was carried out to determine the relationship between de-trended wheat yields and multi-scalar SPEI. Finally, a multivariate panel regression model was established to reveal the quantitative yield responses to moisture variations. The results showed that the moisture conditions in Jiangsu were generally at a normal level, but this century appeared slightly drier in because of the relatively high temperatures. There was a significant correlation between short time scale SPEI values and wheat yields. Among the three critical stages of wheat development, the SPEI values in the late growth stage (April-June had a closer linkage to the yields than in the seedling stage (October-November and the over-wintering stage (December-February. Moreover, the yield responses displayed an asymmetric characteristic, namely, moisture excess led to higher yield losses compared to moisture deficit in this region. The maximum yield increment could be obtained under the moisture level of slight drought according to the 3-month SPEI at the late growth stage, while extreme wetting resulted in the most severe yield losses. The moisture conditions in the first 15 years of the 21st century were more favorable than in the last 20 years of the 20th century for wheat production in Jiangsu.

  7. Nitrous oxide emission from highland winter wheat field after long-term fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. R. Wei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Nitrous oxide (N2O is an important greenhouse gas. N2O emissions from soils vary with fertilization and cropping practices. The response of N2O emission to fertilization of agricultural soils plays an important role in global N2O emission. The objective of this study was to assess the seasonal pattern of N2O fluxes and the annual N2O emissions from a rain-fed winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. field in the Loess Plateau of China. A static flux chamber method was used to measure soil N2O fluxes from 2006 to 2008. The study included 5 treatments with 3 replications in a randomized complete block design. Prior to initiating N2O measurements the treatments had received the same fertilization for 22 years. The fertilizer treatments were unfertilized control (CK, manure (M, nitrogen (N, nitrogen + phosphorus (NP, and nitrogen + phosphorus + manure (NPM. Soil N2O fluxes in the highland winter wheat field were highly variable temporally and thus were fertilization dependent. The highest fluxes occurred in the warmer and wetter seasons. Relative to CK, m slightly increased N2O flux while N, NP and NPM treatments significantly increased N2O fluxes. The fertilizer induced increase in N2O flux occurred mainly in the first 30 days after fertilization. The increases were smaller in the relatively warm and dry year than in the cold and wet year. Combining phosphorous and/or manure with mineral N fertilizer partly offset the nitrogen fertilizer induced increase in N2O flux. N2O fluxes at the seedling stage were mainly controlled by nitrogen fertilization, while fluxes at other plant growth stages were influenced by plant and environmental conditions. The cumulative N2O emissions were always higher in the fertilized treatments than in the non-fertilized treatment (CK. Mineral and manure

  8. Disinfection of Penicillium-infected Wheat Seed by Gaseous Chlorine Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-ah Jeon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Olgeurumil were infected with Penicillium sp. at mean infection rate of 83%. Penicillium sp. was detected in endosperm with bran but not in embryo. Gaseous chlorine dioxide (ClO2 effectively inhibited growth of Penicillium sp. at concentration of 5 to 20 mg/ml. As treatment duration was extended from 1 to 3 h, growth of Penicillium sp. was completely suppressed even at 10 mg/ml. There was no significant reduction in the incidence of Penicillium sp. at 30% relative humidity (RH. However, the incidence of Penicillium sp. was 27.7% at 50% RH, further those were 3.5% and 0.2% at 70% and 80% RH, respectively. Seed germination was not affected by ClO2 treatment at all the RH conditions. Water-soaked seeds (30% seed moisture content showed a drastic reduction in the incidence of Penicillium sp. when treated at more than 10 mg/ml of ClO2. The incidences of Penicillium sp. were 3.3, 1.8 and 1.2% at 10, 15 and 20 mg/ml, respectively. The incidence of Penicillium sp. in dry seeds with 9.7% seed moisture content did not reduce when treated with 5 and 10 mg/ml at 50% RH although it tended to decrease as ClO2 concentration increased to 20 mg/ml. Seed germination was not affected by ClO2 treatment at the tested concentrations. These results indicated that gaseous ClO2 was effective disinfectant to wheat seeds infected with Penicillium sp. and that the effectiveness of ClO2 strongly increased when moisture content around or inside of the seed was increased.

  9. Biostimulation effects on wheat seeds (Triticum Aestivum L) caused by low level red laser radiation with λ = 660 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, M.; Michtchenko, A.

    2009-01-01

    The principal objective is to study the biostimulation effects caused by a semiconductor low level laser radiation with ? = 660 nm on wheat seeds (Triticum Aestivum L). Seeds were treated before sowing with this laser light source. An increase in the growth of the stem of 12% with respect to control seeds was registered for seeds radiated by an intensity of 15mW/cm 2 and an irradiation time of 60 seconds. (Author)

  10. Root growth, soil water variation, and grain yield response of winter wheat to supplemental irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo Man

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage threatens agricultural sustainability in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China. Thus, we investigated the effect of supplemental irrigation (SI on the root growth, soil water variation, and grain yield of winter wheat in this region by measuring the moisture content in different soil layers. Prior to SI, the soil water content (SWC at given soil depths was monitored to calculate amount of irritation water that can rehydrate the soil to target SWC. The SWC before SI was monitored to depths of 20, 40, and 60 cm in treatments of W20, W40, and W60, respectively. Rainfed treatment with no irrigation as the control (W0. The mean root weight density (RWD, triphenyl tetrazolium chloride reduction activity (TTC reduction activity, soluble protein (SP concentrations as well as catalase (CAT, and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities in W40 and W60 treatments were significantly higher than those in W20. The RWD in 60–100 cm soil layers and the root activity, SP concentrations, CAT and SOD activities in 40–60 cm soil layers in W40 treatment were significantly higher than those in W20 and W60. W40 treatment is characterized by higher SWC in the upper soil layers but lower SWC in the 60–100-cm soil layers during grain filling. The soil water consumption (SWU in the 60–100 cm soil layers from anthesis after SI to maturity was the highest in W40. The grain yield, water use efficiency (WUE, and irrigation water productivity were the highest in W40, with corresponding mean values of 9169 kg ha−1, 20.8 kg ha−1 mm−1, and 35.5 kg ha−1 mm−1. The RWD, root activities, SP concentrations, CAT and SOD activities, and SWU were strongly positively correlated with grain yield and WUE. Therefore, the optimum soil layer for SI of winter wheat after jointing is 0–40 cm.

  11. Profitability of Integrated Management of Fusarium Head Blight in North Carolina Winter Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowger, Christina; Weisz, Randy; Arellano, Consuelo; Murphy, Paul

    2016-08-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is one of the most difficult small-grain diseases to manage, due to the partial effectiveness of management techniques and the narrow window of time in which to apply fungicides profitably. The most effective management approach is to integrate cultivar resistance with FHB-specific fungicide applications; yet, when forecasted risk is intermediate, it is often unclear whether such an application will be profitable. To model the profitability of FHB management under varying conditions, we conducted a 2-year split-plot field experiment having as main plots high-yielding soft red winter wheat cultivars, four moderately resistant (MR) and three susceptible (S) to FHB. Subplots were sprayed at flowering with Prosaro or Caramba, or left untreated. The experiment was planted in seven North Carolina environments (location-year combinations); three were irrigated to promote FHB development and four were not irrigated. Response variables were yield, test weight, disease incidence, disease severity, deoxynivalenol (DON), Fusarium-damaged kernels, and percent infected kernels. Partial profits were compared in two ways: first, across low-, medium-, or high-DON environments; and second, across environment-cultivar combinations divided by risk forecast into "do spray" and "do not spray" categories. After surveying DON and test weight dockage among 21 North Carolina wheat purchasers, three typical market scenarios were used for modeling profitability: feed-wheat, flexible (feed or flour), and the flour market. A major finding was that, on average, MR cultivars were at least as profitable as S cultivars, regardless of epidemic severity or market. Fungicides were profitable in the feed-grain and flexible markets when DON was high, with MR cultivars in the flexible or flour markets when DON was intermediate, and on S cultivars aimed at the flexible market. The flour market was only profitable when FHB was present if DON levels were intermediate and cultivar

  12. The relationship between growth and development of above ground organs with roots of winter wheat using 32P tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhifen; Chen Xueliu; Yu Meiyan

    1997-01-01

    The relationship of growth and development between above ground organs and roots of winter wheat, Lumai-14, was studied using 32 P tracer. The results showed that before the spike formation, dry matter accumulation in roots, stems and leaves were synchronous, and after that they were asynchronous. The dry matter accumulation in stems and leaves were significantly related to that of roots throughout the whole growing period of winter wheat. After the spike formation, the dry matter accumulation in spikes was not related to that of roots. The 32 P distribution in stems and leaves were related to that of roots significantly, however, the relationship between spikes and roots was not obviously related, which was consistent with the dry matter accumulations in various organs. The metabolic activities of stems, leaves and spike were significantly related to that of roots respectively

  13. Peculiarities of the radioprotective effect of antioxidants during gamma irradiation of wheat seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babaev, U.Sh.

    1988-01-01

    Bioantioxidant radioprotective action mechanism was studied using wheat seeds. Cobalt-60 was used as radiation source, phenosane potassium salt in aqueous solution in 0.1 and 0.25% concentrations possessing the maximum radioprotective effect - as an antioxidant. Dry seeds irradiated with 100 Gy dose were treated with fresh antioxidant solutions during 20 hours with 0.2, 4.6 an 8 hour interval at room temperature. The number of cells with aberrations at the anaphase stage in the main root apical meristem were counted in germinated seeds. A high radioprotective effect of phenosane antioxidant which represents space-complicated phenols is ascertained. Radioprotective effect is dependent on time interval between seed irradaition and germination and is maximal when this time makes up 4-8 hours

  14. Genes controlling seed dormancy and pre-harvest sprouting in a rice-wheat-barley comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chengdao; Ni, Peixiang; Francki, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting results in significant economic loss for the grain industry around the world. Lack of adequate seed dormancy is the major reason for pre-harvest sprouting in the field under wet weather conditions. Although this trait is governed by multiple genes it is also highly heritable....... A major QTL controlling both pre-harvest sprouting and seed dormancy has been identified on the long arm of barley chromosome 5H, and it explains over 70% of the phenotypic variation. Comparative genomics approaches among barley, wheat and rice were used to identify candidate gene(s) controlling seed...... dormancy and hence one aspect of pre-harvest sprouting. The barley seed dormancy/pre-harvest sprouting QTL was located in a region that showed good synteny with the terminal end of the long arm of rice chromosome 3. The rice DNA sequences were annotated and a gene encoding GA20-oxidase was identified...

  15. The Impact of Phosphorus Supply on Selenium Uptake During Hydroponics Experiment of Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongen; Shi, Zhiwei; Li, Jinfeng; Zhao, Peng; Qin, Shiyu; Nie, Zhaojun

    2018-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is a necessary trace element for humans and animals, and Se fertilization is an efficient way to increase Se concentration in the edible parts of crops, thus enhance the beneficiary effects of Se in human and animal health. Due to the similarity of physical and chemical properties between phosphate () and selenite (), phosphorus (P) supply often significantly impacts the absorption of Se in plants, but little is known about how P supply influences the subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Se. In this study, the effects of P supply on subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Se in winter wheat were investigated in a hydroponic trial with medium Se level (0.1 mg Se L -1 ). P was applied with three concentrations (0.31, 3.1, and 31 mg P L -1 ) in the experiment. The results showed that increasing P supply significantly decreased the concentration and accumulation of Se in the roots, stems, and leaves of winter wheat. An increase in P supply significantly inhibited Se accumulation in the root cell wall, but enhanced Se distribution in the organelles and soluble fraction of root cells. These findings suggest that increased P supply inhibited the root-to-shoot transport of Se. An increase in P supply enhanced Se accumulation in the cell wall of plant stems (both apical and axillary stem) and cell organelles of plants leaves, but inhibited Se distribution in the soluble fraction of stems and leaves. This suggests that P supply enhances Se transportation across the cell membrane in shoots of winter wheat. In addition, increased P supply also altered the chemical forms of Se in tissues of winter wheat. These findings will help in understanding of the regulation grain Se accumulation and provide a practical way to enhance Se intake for humans inform Se-enriched grains.

  16. Seasonal Patterns of Soil Respiration and Related Soil Biochemical Properties under Nitrogen Addition in Winter Wheat Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Guopeng; Houssou, Albert A.; Wu, Huijun; Cai, Dianxiong; Wu, Xueping; Gao, Lili; Li, Jing; Wang, Bisheng; Li, Shengping

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the changes of soil respiration under increasing N fertilizer in cropland ecosystems is crucial to accurately predicting global warming. This study explored seasonal variations of soil respiration and its controlling biochemical properties under a gradient of Nitrogen addition during two consecutive winter wheat growing seasons (2013–2015). N was applied at four different levels: 0, 120, 180 and 240 kg N ha-1 year-1 (denoted as N0, N12, N18 and N24, respectively). Soil respiration exhibited significant seasonal variation and was significantly affected by soil temperature with Q10 ranging from 2.04 to 2.46 and from 1.49 to 1.53 during 2013–2014 and 2014–2015 winter wheat growing season, respectively. Soil moisture had no significant effect on soil respiration during 2013–2014 winter wheat growing season but showed a significant and negative correlation with soil respiration during 2014–2015 winter wheat growing season. Soil respiration under N24 treatment was significantly higher than N0 treatment. Averaged over the two growing seasons, N12, N18 and N24 significantly increased soil respiration by 13.4, 16.4 and 25.4% compared with N0, respectively. N addition also significantly increased easily extractable glomalin-related soil protein (EEG), soil organic carbon (SOC), total N, ammonium N and nitrate N contents. In addition, soil respiration was significantly and positively correlated with β-glucosidase activity, EEG, SOC, total N, ammonium N and nitrate N contents. The results indicated that high N fertilization improved soil chemical properties, but significantly increased soil respiration. PMID:26629695

  17. Effect of climate change on the irrigation and discharge scheme for winter wheat in Huaibei Plain, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y.; Ren, L.; Lü, H.

    2017-12-01

    On the Huaibei Plain of Anhui Province, China, winter wheat (WW) is the most prominent crop. The study area belongs to transitional climate, with shallow water table. The original climate change is complex, in addition, global warming make the climate change more complex. The winter wheat growth period is from October to June, just during the rainless season, the WW growth always depends on part of irrigation water. Under such complex climate change, the rainfall varies during the growing seasons, and water table elevations also vary. Thus, water tables supply variable moisture change between soil water and groundwater, which impact the irrigation and discharge scheme for plant growth and yield. In Huaibei plain, the environmental pollution is very serious because of agricultural use of chemical fertilizer, pesticide, herbicide and etc. In order to protect river water and groundwater from pollution, the irrigation and discharge scheme should be estimated accurately. Therefore, determining the irrigation and discharge scheme for winter wheat under climate change is important for the plant growth management decision-making. Based on field observations and local weather data of 2004-2005 and 2005-2006, the numerical model HYDRUS-1D was validated and calibrated by comparing simulated and measured root-zone soil water contents. The validated model was used to estimate the irrigation and discharge scheme in 2010-2090 under the scenarios described by HadCM3 (1970 to 2000 climate states are taken as baselines) with winter wheat growth in an optimum state indicated by growth height and LAI.

  18. Seasonal Patterns of Soil Respiration and Related Soil Biochemical Properties under Nitrogen Addition in Winter Wheat Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Guopeng; Houssou, Albert A; Wu, Huijun; Cai, Dianxiong; Wu, Xueping; Gao, Lili; Li, Jing; Wang, Bisheng; Li, Shengping

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the changes of soil respiration under increasing N fertilizer in cropland ecosystems is crucial to accurately predicting global warming. This study explored seasonal variations of soil respiration and its controlling biochemical properties under a gradient of Nitrogen addition during two consecutive winter wheat growing seasons (2013-2015). N was applied at four different levels: 0, 120, 180 and 240 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) (denoted as N0, N12, N18 and N24, respectively). Soil respiration exhibited significant seasonal variation and was significantly affected by soil temperature with Q10 ranging from 2.04 to 2.46 and from 1.49 to 1.53 during 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 winter wheat growing season, respectively. Soil moisture had no significant effect on soil respiration during 2013-2014 winter wheat growing season but showed a significant and negative correlation with soil respiration during 2014-2015 winter wheat growing season. Soil respiration under N24 treatment was significantly higher than N0 treatment. Averaged over the two growing seasons, N12, N18 and N24 significantly increased soil respiration by 13.4, 16.4 and 25.4% compared with N0, respectively. N addition also significantly increased easily extractable glomalin-related soil protein (EEG), soil organic carbon (SOC), total N, ammonium N and nitrate N contents. In addition, soil respiration was significantly and positively correlated with β-glucosidase activity, EEG, SOC, total N, ammonium N and nitrate N contents. The results indicated that high N fertilization improved soil chemical properties, but significantly increased soil respiration.

  19. Nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide emissions from monoculture and rotational cropping of corn, soybean and winter wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, C.F.; Yang, X.M.; Reynolds, W.D.; McLaughlin, N.B.

    2008-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from agricultural soils are influenced by different types of crops, the amounts and types of nitrogen fertilizers used, and the soil and climatic conditions under which the crops are grown. Crop rotation also has an impact on N 2 O emissions, as the crop residues used to supply soluble carbon to soil biota often differ from the crops being grown. This study compared the influence of crops and residues from preceding crops on N 2 O and CO 2 emissions from monoculture crops of soybeans, corn, and winter wheat at a site in Ontario. The phases of different rotations were compared with 2- and 3-year crop rotations. Results of the study showed that N 2 O emissions were approximately 3.1 to 5.1 times higher in monoculture corn than levels observed in winter wheat or soybean crops. When corn followed corn, average N 2 O emissions twice as high as when corn followed soybeans, and 65 per cent higher than when corn followed winter wheat. The higher levels of both N 2 O and CO 2 were attributed to higher inorganic nitrogen (N) application rates in corn crops. In the corn phase, CO 2 levels were higher when the preceding crop was winter wheat. It was concluded that N 2 O and CO 2 emissions from agricultural fields are influenced by both current and preceding crops, a fact which should be considered and accounted for in estimates and forecasts of agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. 21 refs., 3 tabs., 10 figs

  20. Nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide emissions from monoculture and rotational cropping of corn, soybean and winter wheat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, C.F.; Yang, X.M.; Reynolds, W.D. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Harrow, ON (Canada); McLaughlin, N.B. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Centre

    2008-04-15

    Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions from agricultural soils are influenced by different types of crops, the amounts and types of nitrogen fertilizers used, and the soil and climatic conditions under which the crops are grown. Crop rotation also has an impact on N{sub 2}O emissions, as the crop residues used to supply soluble carbon to soil biota often differ from the crops being grown. This study compared the influence of crops and residues from preceding crops on N{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} emissions from monoculture crops of soybeans, corn, and winter wheat at a site in Ontario. The phases of different rotations were compared with 2- and 3-year crop rotations. Results of the study showed that N{sub 2}O emissions were approximately 3.1 to 5.1 times higher in monoculture corn than levels observed in winter wheat or soybean crops. When corn followed corn, average N{sub 2}O emissions twice as high as when corn followed soybeans, and 65 per cent higher than when corn followed winter wheat. The higher levels of both N{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} were attributed to higher inorganic nitrogen (N) application rates in corn crops. In the corn phase, CO{sub 2} levels were higher when the preceding crop was winter wheat. It was concluded that N{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} emissions from agricultural fields are influenced by both current and preceding crops, a fact which should be considered and accounted for in estimates and forecasts of agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. 21 refs., 3 tabs., 10 figs.

  1. The effect of sowing strategy, row distance and mechanical weed control on weeds and yield in organic winter wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Ilse A.

    2002-01-01

    A series of field experiments were carried out in winter wheat grown under organic conditions in Denmark on fields with different weed pressure. The treatments were sowing strategy (normal sowing time, late sowing and false seedbed), row distance (12 cm and 24 cm row distance) and weed control method (untreated, mechanical weed control (weed harrowing at 12 cm supplemented with row hoeing at 24 cm), and herbicide weed control). Weed biomass was largest at the normal sowing time and was reduce...

  2. [Estimating the impacts of future climate change on water requirement and water deficit of winter wheat in Henan Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xing-jie; Cheng, Lin; Fang, Wen-song

    2015-09-01

    Based on the analysis of water requirement and water deficit during development stage of winter wheat in recent 30 years (1981-2010) in Henan Province, the effective precipitation was calculated using the U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Conservation method, the water requirement (ETC) was estimated by using FAO Penman-Monteith equation and crop coefficient method recommended by FAO, combined with the climate change scenario A2 (concentration on the economic envelopment) and B2 ( concentration on the sustainable development) of Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) , the spatial and temporal characteristics of impacts of future climate change on effective precipitation, water requirement and water deficit of winter wheat were estimated. The climatic impact factors of ETc and WD also were analyzed. The results showed that under A2 and B2 scenarios, there would be a significant increase in anomaly percentage of effective precipitation, water requirement and water deficit of winter wheat during the whole growing period compared with the average value from 1981 to 2010. Effective precipitation increased the most in 2030s under A2 and B2 scenarios by 33.5% and 39.2%, respectively. Water requirement increased the most in 2010s under A2 and B2 scenarios by 22.5% and 17.5%, respectively, and showed a significant downward trend with time. Water deficit increased the most under A2 scenario in 2010s by 23.6% and under B2 scenario in 2020s by 13.0%. Partial correlation analysis indicated that solar radiation was the main cause for the variation of ETc and WD in future under A2 and B2 scenarios. The spatial distributions of effective precipitation, water requirement and water deficit of winter wheat during the whole growing period were spatially heterogeneous because of the difference in geographical and climatic environments. A possible tendency of water resource deficiency may exist in Henan Province in the future.

  3. Reduced irrigation increases the water use efficiency and productivity of winter wheat-summer maize rotation on the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunqi; Zhang, Yinghua; Zhang, Rui; Li, Jinpeng; Zhang, Meng; Zhou, Shunli; Wang, Zhimin

    2018-03-15

    The groundwater table has fallen sharply over the last 30years on the North China Plain, resulting in a shortage of water for winter wheat irrigation. Reducing irrigation may be an important strategy to maintain agricultural sustainability in the region; however, few studies have evaluated the transition from conventional irrigation management practices to reduced irrigation management practices in the winter wheat-summer maize rotation system. Here, we compare the yield, water consumption, and water use efficiency of winter wheat-summer maize rotation under conventional irrigation and reduced irrigation on the North China Plain from 2012 to 2015. Reducing irrigation decreased the yield but increased the water use efficiency and significantly advanced the harvest date of winter wheat. As a result, the summer maize sowing date advanced significantly, and the flowering date subsequently advanced 2-8days, thus extending the summer maize grain-filling stage. Therefore, the yield and water use efficiency of summer maize were higher under reduced irrigation than conventional irrigation, which compensated for the winter wheat yield loss under reduced irrigation. In addition, under reduced irrigation from 2012 to 2015, the yield and water use efficiency advantage of the winter wheat-summer maize rotation ranged from 0.0 to 9.7% and from 4.1 to 14.7%, respectively, and water consumption and irrigated water decreased by 20-61mm and 150mm, respectively, compared to conventional irrigation. Overall, the reduced irrigation management practice involving no irrigation after sowing winter wheat, and sowing summer maize on June 7 produced the most favorable grain yield with superb water use efficiency in the winter wheat-summer maize rotation. This study indicates that reducing irrigation could be an efficient means to cope with water resource shortages while maintaining crop production sustainability on the North China Plain. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Straw export in continuous winter wheat and the ability of oil radish catch crops and early sowing of wheat to offset soil C and N losses: A simulation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peltre, Clément; Nielsen, M; Christensen, Bent Tolstrup

    2016-01-01

    The export of winter wheat straw for bioenergy may reduce soil C stocks and affect N losses. Establishing fast-growing catch crops between successive wheat crops could potentially offset some of the C and N losses. Another option is to sow wheat earlier, increasing biomass production during...... the autumn. The effects of straw export, oil radish catch crop and early sowing of wheat on soil C storage, N leaching losses and N2O emissions were simulated by applying the Daisy model to winter wheat grown continuously for a period of 100 years on a sandy loam soil in a Danish climate. The simulations....... Inclusion of the oil radish catch crop could offset this loss by 2–3 percentage points. Earlier sowing of wheat increased straw production by 18% and reduced loss of soil C by 3–5 percentage points compared to normal sowing time with full straw export. Catch crops and early sowing also reduced N...

  5. Mapping of powdery mildew resistance gene Pm53 introgressed from Aegilops speltoides into soft red winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Stine; Lyerly, Jeanette H; Worthington, Margaret L; Parks, Wesley R; Cowger, Christina; Marshall, David S; Brown-Guedira, Gina; Murphy, J Paul

    2015-02-01

    A powdery mildew resistance gene was introgressed from Aegilops speltoides into winter wheat and mapped to chromosome 5BL. Closely linked markers will permit marker-assisted selection for the resistance gene. Powdery mildew of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a major fungal disease in many areas of the world, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt). Host plant resistance is the preferred form of disease prevention because it is both economical and environmentally sound. Identification of new resistance sources and closely linked markers enable breeders to utilize these new sources in marker-assisted selection as well as in gene pyramiding. Aegilops speltoides (2n = 2x = 14, genome SS), has been a valuable disease resistance donor. The powdery mildew resistant wheat germplasm line NC09BGTS16 (NC-S16) was developed by backcrossing an Ae. speltoides accession, TAU829, to the susceptible soft red winter wheat cultivar 'Saluda'. NC-S16 was crossed to the susceptible cultivar 'Coker 68-15' to develop F2:3 families for gene mapping. Greenhouse and field evaluations of these F2:3 families indicated that a single gene, designated Pm53, conferred resistance to powdery mildew. Bulked segregant analysis showed that multiple simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers specific to chromosome 5BL segregated with the resistance gene. The gene was flanked by markers Xgwm499, Xwmc759, IWA6024 (0.7 cM proximal) and IWA2454 (1.8 cM distal). Pm36, derived from a different wild wheat relative (T. turgidum var. dicoccoides), had previously been mapped to chromosome 5BL in a durum wheat line. Detached leaf tests revealed that NC-S16 and a genotype carrying Pm36 differed in their responses to each of three Bgt isolates. Pm53 therefore appears to be a new source of powdery mildew resistance.

  6. Prediction of winter wheat high yield from remote sensing based model: application in United States and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franch, B.; Vermote, E.; Roger, J. C.; Skakun, S.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Justice, C. O.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate and timely crop yield forecasts are critical for making informed agricultural policies and investments, as well as increasing market efficiency and stability. In Becker-Reshef et al. (2010) and Franch et al. (2015) we developed an empirical generalized model for forecasting winter wheat yield. It is based on the relationship between the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) at the peak of the growing season and the Growing Degree Day (GDD) information extracted from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data. These methods were applied to MODIS CMG data in Ukraine, the US and China with errors around 10%. However, the NDVI is saturated for yield values higher than 4 MT/ha. As a consequence, the model had to be re-calibrated in each country and the validation of the national yields showed low correlation coefficients. In this study we present a new model based on the extrapolation of the pure wheat signal (100% of wheat within the pixel) from MODIS data at 1km resolution and using the Difference Vegetation Index (DVI). The model has been applied to monitor the national yield of winter wheat in the United States and Ukraine from 2001 to 2016.

  7. The impact of tropospheric ozone pollution on trial plot winter wheat yields in Great Britain - An econometric approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaliakatsou, Evridiki; Bell, J. Nigel B.; Thirtle, Colin; Rose, Daniel; Power, Sally A.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous experiments have demonstrated reductions in the yields of cereal crops due to tropospheric O 3 , with losses of up to 25%. However, the only British econometric study on O 3 impacts on winter wheat yields, found that a 10% increase in AOT40 would decrease yields by only 0.23%. An attempt is made here to reconcile these observations by developing AOT40 maps for Great Britain and matching levels with a large number of standardised trial plot wheat yields from many sites over a 13-year period. Panel estimates (repeated measures on the same plots with time) show a 0.54% decrease in yields and it is hypothesised that plant breeders may have inadvertently selected for O 3 tolerance in wheat. Some support for this is provided by fumigations of cultivars of differing introduction dates. A case is made for the use of econometric as well as experimental studies in prediction of air pollution induced crop loss. - Econometric study of British winter wheat trial plot data suggests lower economic loss than predicted from experiments.

  8. Yield Interactions of Wheat Genotypes to Dates of Seeding in Eastern Mid Hills of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudra Bhattarai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is one of the major cereal crops and staple food sources in Nepal. Wheat varieties being popular in mid hill regions are still in the early stages of adoption. Identification of appropriate date of seeding plays important role in enhancing the adoption rate ensuring the sustainable production. Therefore, three dates viz 15th November, 1st and 15th December for seeding and twenty eight wheat genotypes were evaluated in a split plot design with two replications for two consecutive seasons in 2011/12 and 2012/13 at an altitude of 2200 masl of eastern Nepal. The results showed genetic differences and interaction effect of genotypes with the dates of sowing on grain yield, panicle length and effective tillers per square meter. The wheat sown on 1st December showed the highest yield as compared to other sown dates. Similarly, WK1907, WK1911, WK1803, WK1915, WK1909, WK1714 and WK1803 produced highest yield among the tested genotypes with retaining maximum number of effective tillers and posed suitable maturity across all sowing date.

  9. Seed priming with iron and zinc in bread wheat: effects in germination, mitosis and grain yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Sara; Pavia, Ivo; Carvalho, Ana; Moutinho-Pereira, José; Correia, Carlos; Lima-Brito, José

    2018-07-01

    Currently, the biofortification of crops like wheat with micronutrients such as iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) is extremely important due to the deficiencies of these micronutrients in the human diet and in soils. Agronomic biofortification with Fe and Zn can be done through different exogenous strategies such as soil application, foliar spraying, and seed priming. However, the excess of these micronutrients can be detrimental to the plants. Therefore, in the last decade, a high number of studies focused on the evaluation of their phytotoxic effects to define the best strategies for biofortification of bread wheat. In this study, we investigated the effects of seed priming with different dosages (1 mg L -1 to 8 mg L -1 ) of Fe and/or Zn in germination, mitosis and yield of bread wheat cv. 'Jordão' when compared with control. Overall, our results showed that: micronutrient dosages higher than 4 mg L -1 negatively affect the germination; Fe and/or Zn concentrations higher than 2 mg L -1 significantly decrease the mitotic index and increase the percentage of dividing cells with anomalies; treatments performed with 8 mg L -1 of Fe and/or 8 mg L -1 Zn caused negative effects in germination, mitosis and grain yield. Moreover, seed priming with 2 mg L -1 Fe + 2 mg L -1 Zn has been shown to be non-cytotoxic, ensuring a high rate of germination (80%) and normal dividing cells (90%) as well as improving tillering and grain yield. This work revealed that seed priming with Fe and Zn micronutrients constitutes a useful and alternative approach for the agronomic biofortification of bread wheat.

  10. [Effects of conservation tillage on soil CO2 and N2O emission during the following winter-wheat season].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ying; Hu, Zheng-Hu; Wu, Yang-Zhou; Sun, Yin-Yin; Sheng, Lu; Chen, Shu-Tao; Xiao, Qi-Tao

    2014-07-01

    In order to study the effect of conservation tillage on soil CO2 and N2O emissions in the following crop-growing season, field experiments were conducted in the winter wheat-growing season. Four treatments were conventional tillage (T), no-tillage with no straw cover (NT), no-tillage with straw cover (NTS), and conventional tillage with straw incorporation (TS), respectively. The CO2 and N2O fluxes were measured using a static chamber-gas chromatograph technique. The results showed that in the following winter wheat-growing season, conservation tillage did not change the seasonal pattern of CO2 and N2O emission fluxes from soil, and had no significant effect on crop biomass. Conservation tillage significantly reduced the accumulative amount of CO2 and N2O. Compared with the T treatment, the accumulative amount of CO2 under TS, NT, and NTS treatments were reduced by 5.95% (P = 0.132), 12.94% (P = 0.007), and 13.91% (P = 0.004), respectively, and the accumulative amount of N2O were significantly reduced by 31.23% (P = 0.000), 61.29% (P = 0.000), and 33.08% (P = 0.000), respectively. Our findings suggest that conservation tillage significantly reduced CO2 and N2O emission from soil in the following winter wheat-growing season.

  11. Simulation model for longterm management of Avena fatua L. in winter wheat

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    Jäck, Ortrud

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Decision support systems (DSS are used for weed control decisions worldwide. Several DSS for weed management have been published. However they mostly rely on full herbicide dosages and do not take weed population dynamics into account. We developed a modular DSS for long-term Avena fatua L. control in winter wheat. The DSS was parameterized with three year field experiment datasets covering yield loss data, densitydependent population dynamics data as well as data on dose dependent herbicide efficacy and dosedependent population dynamics. The DSS aims to control the A. fatua in the long run. Our hypothesis is that the optimized DSS reduces herbicide input while keeping the population density at low level, maintaining high grain yields and net return. The DSS comprises four sub-models calculating crop yield loss, A. fatua population dynamics as well as dose dependent herbicide efficacy and economics of the weed control decision. The economic sub-model calculates net return in dependency of the herbicide dosage and thus the resulting crop yield. First results of a 10-year simulation showed that herbicide input could be reduced by 40% compared to the economic threshold strategy, while the population density of A. fatua is controlled. Up to now the DSS has been parameterized for the herbicides Ralon Super, Axial 50 and Broadway. The results show the great potential of reducing herbicide input and point out the importance of including population dynamics models into DSS.

  12. The transfer of radionuclides from contaminated groundwater into perennial ryegrass and winter wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadey, P.; Shaw, G.; Butler, A. P.; Tompkins, J. A.; Wheater, H. S.

    1996-01-01

    Lysimeter studies of the migration of radionuclides from a contaminated water table and their subsequent uptake by plant roots have been undertaken using two distinct soil types and varying crop regimes. An eight year multi-disciplinary research project (funded by Nirex) has concentrated on the upward migration of contaminants from near-surface water tables, and their uptake by winter wheat and perennial ryegrass crops. Experimental data are presented for the movement and uptake of radiocaesium 137 Cs. These data show significant movement in the unsaturated zone during the first year of dosing, followed by progressively reduced availability in subsequent years. A suite of physically based hydrological and solute transport models has been developed to model radionuclide transport in the unsaturated zone. Model simulations, based on a conventional advection-dispersion representation incorporating linear sorption processes, were unable to describe adequately the distribution of radiocaesium within the soil profile. However, the introduction of root storage and translocation processes provided significantly improved results. (author)

  13. Increasing carbon availability stimulates growth and secondary metabolites via modulation of phytohormones in winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichelt, Michael; Chowdhury, Somak; Hammerbacher, Almuth; Hartmann, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Phytohormones play important roles in plant acclimation to changes in environmental conditions. However, their role in whole-plant regulation of growth and secondary metabolite production under increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) is uncertain but crucially important for understanding plant responses to abiotic stresses. We grew winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) under three [CO2] (170, 390, and 680 ppm) over 10 weeks, and measured gas exchange, relative growth rate (RGR), soluble sugars, secondary metabolites, and phytohormones including abscisic acid (ABA), auxin (IAA), jasmonic acid (JA), and salicylic acid (SA) at the whole-plant level. Our results show that, at the whole-plant level, RGR positively correlated with IAA but not ABA, and secondary metabolites positively correlated with JA and JA-Ile but not SA. Moreover, soluble sugars positively correlated with IAA and JA but not ABA and SA. We conclude that increasing carbon availability stimulates growth and production of secondary metabolites via up-regulation of auxin and jasmonate levels, probably in response to sugar-mediated signalling. Future low [CO2] studies should address the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in leaf ABA and SA biosynthesis, and at the transcriptional level should focus on biosynthetic and, in particular, on responsive genes involved in [CO2]-induced hormonal signalling pathways. PMID:28159987

  14. [Differences in root developmenly of winter wheat cultivars in Huang-Huai Plain, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xin-Qiang; Gao, Yang; Li, Xin-Qiang; Huang, Ling; Duan, Ai-Wang

    2012-07-01

    Selecting one presently popularized winter wheat cultivar (Zhengmai 9023) and two cultivars (Abo and Fengchan 3) introduced in the 1950s and 1960s in Huang-Huai Plain as test materials, and by using minirhizotron technique, this paper studied the live root length, root diameter distribution, and net root growth rate of the cultivars. Fine roots with a diameter from 0.05 mm to 0.25 mm occupied the majority of the whole root system, and the fine roots with a diameter less than 0.5 mm accounted for 98% of the live root length. The average root diameter varied with plant growth, the variation range being 0.15 - 0.22 mm, and no significant difference was observe among the cultivars. The live root length was significantly positively correlated root number, suggesting that root number was the main factor for the increase of live root length. The most vigorous growth period of the roots was from reviving to jointing stage, and Abo and Fengchan 3 had a longer period increased root vitality, as compared with Zhengmai 9023. For Zhengmai 9023, its fine roots with a diameter more than 0.1 mm had an increasing proportion after jointing stage, which was helpful for improving plant resistance, root activity, and grain-filling at late growth stages.

  15. Contribution of multitemporal polarimetric synthetic aperture radar data for monitoring winter wheat and rapeseed crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betbeder, Julie; Fieuzal, Remy; Philippets, Yannick; Ferro-Famil, Laurent; Baup, Frederic

    2016-04-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the contribution of multitemporal polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data for winter wheat and rapeseed crops parameters [height, leaf area index, and dry biomass (DB)] estimation, during their whole vegetation cycles in comparison to backscattering coefficients and optical data. Angular sensitivities and dynamics of polarimetric indicators were also analyzed following the growth stages of these two common crop types using, in total, 14 radar images (Radarsat-2), 16 optical images (Formosat-2, Spot-4/5), and numerous ground data. The results of this study show the importance of correcting the angular effect on SAR signals especially for copolarized signals and polarimetric indicators associated to single-bounce scattering mechanisms. The analysis of the temporal dynamic of polarimetric indicators has shown their high potential to detect crop growth changes. Moreover, this study shows the high interest of using SAR parameters (backscattering coefficients and polarimetric indicators) for crop parameters estimation during the whole vegetation cycle instead of optical vegetation index. They particularly revealed their high potential for rapeseed height and DB monitoring [i.e., Shannon entropy polarimetry (r2=0.70) and radar vegetation index (r2=0.80), respectively].

  16. Cultivar Mixture Cropping Increased Water Use Efficiency in Winter Wheat under Limited Irrigation Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunqi Wang

    Full Text Available The effects of cultivar mixture cropping on yield, biomass, and water use efficiency (WUE in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. were investigated under non-irrigation (W0, no irrigation during growth stage, one time irrigation (W1, irrigation applied at stem elongation and two times irrigation (W2, irrigation applied at stem elongation and anthesis conditions. Nearly 90% of cultivar mixture cropping treatments experienced an increase in grain yield as compared with the mean of the pure stands under W0, those for W1 and W2 were 80% and 85%, respectively. Over 75% of cultivar mixture cropping treatments got greater biomass than the mean of the pure stands under the three irrigation conditions. Cultivar mixture cropping cost more water than pure stands under W0 and W1, whereas the water consumption under W2 decreased by 5.9%-6.8% as compared with pure stands. Approximately 90% of cultivar mixtures showed an increase of 5.4%-34.5% in WUE as compared with the mean of the pure stands, and about 75% of cultivar mixtures had 0.8%-28.5% higher WUE than the better pure stands under W0. Similarly, there were a majority of mixture cropping treatments with higher WUE than the mean and the better one of the pure stands under W1 and W2. On the whole, proper cultivar mixture cropping could increase yield and WUE, and a higher increase in WUE occurred under limited irrigation condition.

  17. Effect of Zinc Deficiency and Excess on the Growth and Photosynthesis of Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Kaznina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Zinc is one of the necessary micronutrients for plants, which performs a number of various functions in their cells. Therefore, the deficiency of this element negatively affects on plants and leads to a significant decrease of their productivity. On the other hand, zinc in high concentrations is toxic to plants, and its accumulation in aerial organs, especially in cereals, represent a real danger to human and animal health. In this investigation the effect of the deficiency (Zn 0 μM and the excess of zinc (Zn 1000 μM on the growth and photosynthesis of the winter wheat (cv. Mironovskaya 39 was studied. As a result, similarities and differences in the response of plants to these two types of stress were revealed. In particular, both with a lack and with an excess of metal in the nutrient solution, shoot growth and photosynthesis rate are inhibited which leads to a decrease in the accumulation of dry biomass. Excess of metal, in contrast to its deficiency, leads to inhibition of root growth, and also a negative impact on pigment content, including light-harvesting complexes, and on maximum quantum yield of PS II. It is assumed that these changes in the photosynthetic apparatus are the main causes of a decrease of photosynthesis rate in plants under these conditions, whereas in the case of zinc deficiency, an inhibition of the process intensity is most likely due to a change in the activity of zinc-containing enzymes involved in the dark reactions of photosynthesis.

  18. Effects Of Spring Herbicide Treatments On Winter Wheat Growth And Grain Yield*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamouz P.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Herbicides provide a low-cost solution for protecting crops from significant yield losses. If weed infestations are below damage thresholds, however, then herbicide application is unnecessary and can even lead to yield loss. A small-plot field trial was conducted to examine the effect of herbicides on winter wheat yields. Weeds were removed manually from the trial area before herbicide application. Twenty-four treatments were tested in four replications. Treatment 1 consisted of an untreated weed-free control, whereas the other treatments comprised applications of the following herbicides and their combinations: metsulfuron-methyl + tribenuron-methyl (4.95 + 9.99 g ha−1, pinoxaden (30 g ha−1, fluroxypyr (175 g ha−1, and clopyralid (120 g ha−1. Water (250 l ha−1 or a urea-ammonium nitrate fertilizer solution (UAN, 120.5 l ha−1 was used as the herbicide carrier. Crop injury 30 days after treatment and yield loss were recorded. Results showed minor crop injury by herbicides and their combinations when applied without UAN and moderate injury caused by UAN in combination with herbicides. Yield losses reached 5.3% and 4.3% in those treatments where all of the tested herbicides were applied with and without UAN, respectively. The effect of all treatments on crop yield was, however, statistically insignificant (P = 0.934.

  19. Ice recrystallization inhibition in ice cream as affected by ice structuring proteins from winter wheat grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regand, A; Goff, H D

    2006-01-01

    Ice recrystallization in quiescently frozen sucrose solutions that contained some of the ingredients commonly found in ice cream and in ice cream manufactured under commercial conditions, with or without ice structuring proteins (ISP) from cold-acclimated winter wheat grass extract (AWWE), was assessed by bright field microscopy. In sucrose solutions, critical differences in moisture content, viscosity, ionic strength, and other properties derived from the presence of other ingredients (skim milk powder, corn syrup solids, locust bean gum) caused a reduction in ice crystal growth. Significant ISP activity in retarding ice crystal growth was observed in all solutions (44% for the most complex mix) containing 0.13% total protein from AWWE. In heat-shocked ice cream, ice recrystallization rates were significantly reduced 40 and 46% with the addition of 0.0025 and 0.0037% total protein from AWWE. The ISP activity in ice cream was not hindered by its inclusion in mix prior to pasteurization. A synergistic effect between ISP and stabilizer was observed, as ISP activity was reduced in the absence of stabilizer in ice cream formulations. A remarkably smoother texture for ice creams containing ISP after heat-shock storage was evident by sensory evaluation. The efficiency of ISP from AWWE in controlling ice crystal growth in ice cream has been demonstrated.

  20. Effects on Glomus mosseae Root Colonization by Paenibacillus polymyxa and Paenibacillus brasilensis Strains as Related to Soil P-Availability in Winter Wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthurson, V; Granhall, U; Derlund, L; Hjort, K; Muleta, D

    2011-01-01

    Greenhouse experiments were conducted to assess the effects of inoculating winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) of the genus Paenibacillus under phosphate P-limited soil conditions in the presence or absence of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus mosseae. Four P. polymyxa strains and one P. brasilensis strain were compared at two cell concentrations (10 6 and 10 8 cells g -1 seeds) of inoculation, and surface sterilized AMF spores were added to pots. Mycorrhizal root colonization, plant growth, and plant uptake of phosphorus were analyzed. Bacterial phosphate solubilization was examined separately in vitro. Most P. polymyxa strains, isolated from wheat, had dramatic effects per se on root growth and root P-content. No treatment gave significant effect on shoot growth. AMF root colonization levels and total plant uptake of P were much stimulated by the addition of most P. polymyxa strains. The AM fungus alone and the P. brasilensis, alone or in combination with the fungus, did not affect total plant P-levels. Our results indicate that practical application of inoculation with plant host-specific rhizobacteria (i.e., P. polymyxa) could positively influence uptake of phosphorus in P-

  1. Combined effects of elevated temperature and CO2 enhance threat from low temperature hazard to winter wheat growth in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kaiyan; Zhou, Guangsheng; Lv, Xiaomin; Guo, Jianping; Ren, Sanxue

    2018-03-12

    We examined the growth and yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) in response to the predicted elevated CO 2 concentration and temperature to determine the mechanism of the combined impacts in North China Plain. An elevated treatment (CO 2 : 600 μmol mol -1 , temperature: +2.5~3.0 °C, ECTI) and a control treatment (ambient CO 2 and temperature, CK) were conducted in open-top chambers from October 2013 to June 2016. Post-winter growth stages of winter wheat largely advanced and shifted to a cooler period of nature season under combined impact of elevated CO 2 and temperature during the entire growing season. The mean temperature and accumulated photosynthetic active radiations (PAR) over the post-winter growing period in ECTI decreased by 0.8-1.5 °C and 10-13%, respectively compared with that in CK, negatively impacted winter wheat growth. As a result, winter wheat in ECTI suffered from low temperature hazards during critical period of floret development and anthesis and grain number per ear was reduced by 10-31% in the three years. Although 1000-kernel weight in ECTI increased by 8-9% mainly due to elevated CO 2 , increasing CO 2 concentration from 400 to 600 μmol mol -1 throughout the growth stage was not able to offset the adverse effect of warming on winter wheat growth and yield.

  2. Seed protein improvement in wheat by mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammed, A.; Shakoor, A.; Tahir Nadeem, M.; Ali, A.; Ifzal, S.M.; Sadiq, M.

    1976-01-01

    Several nutritional surveys conducted in different areas in Pakistan have shown the prevalence of protein-calorie malnutrition, especially among young children. However, there is no evidence of overall deficiency of protein resources in the country on a national basis. The available data are entirely inadequate to draw a definite conclusion about the extent of malnutrition in the country, and to plan a strategy for improving the diet of vulnerable groups. The common meal of the low income groups consists of Dal-Roti, which is a spiced pulse soup and pan bread. It is therefore essential to improve the protein content of the pulses and wheat in order to overcome malnutrition. The average yield per acre of pulses in Pakistan is very low, and it is particularly important to evolve high yielding, improved grain quality varieties of the popular pulses which have been hitherto largely neglected. Studies on the improvement of various local and exotic varieties of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and mung (Phaseolus aureus), through induced mutation, have yielded several high yielding and high protein mutants. These mutant lines are being further investigated for the confirmation of their variant traits. Single plant selections of mung bean made from the M 2 generation on the basis of their plant type, habit of growth, maturity time, grain yield and disease resistance are under critical observation. Other pulses, e.g. Cicer arietinum, Lens esculenta and Phaseolus mungo have also been included in the programme; however the breeding work on these crops is still in the preliminary stages. (author)

  3. Leaf Gas Exchange and Fluorescence of Two Winter Wheat Varieties in Response to Drought Stress and Nitrogen Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiubo; Wang, Lifang; Shangguan, Zhouping

    2016-01-01

    Water and nitrogen supply are the two primary factors limiting productivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In our study, two winter wheat varieties, Xinong 979 and large-spike wheat, were evaluated for their physiological responses to different levels of nitrogen and water status during their seedling stage grown in a phytotron. Our results indicated that drought stress greatly reduced the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (E), and stomatal conductance (Gs), but with a greater increase in instantaneous water use efficiency (WUE). At the meantime, the nitrogen (N) supply improved photosynthetic efficiency under water deficit. Parameters inferred from chlorophyll a measurements, i.e., photochemical quenching coefficient (qP), the maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), the quantum yield of photosystemII(ΦPSII), and the apparent photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR) decreased under water stress at all nitrogen levels and declined in N-deficient plants. The root-shoot ratio (R/S) increased slightly with water stress at a low N level; the smallest root-shoot ratio was found at a high N level and moderate drought stress treatment. These results suggest that an appropriate nitrogen supply may be necessary to enhance drought resistance in wheat by improving photosynthetic efficiency and relieving photoinhibition under drought stress. However, an excessive N supply had no effect on drought resistance, which even showed an adverse effect on plant growth. Comparing the two cultivars, Xinong 979 has a stronger drought resistance compared with large-spike wheat under N deficiency.

  4. Leaf Gas Exchange and Fluorescence of Two Winter Wheat Varieties in Response to Drought Stress and Nitrogen Supply.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiubo Wang

    Full Text Available Water and nitrogen supply are the two primary factors limiting productivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. In our study, two winter wheat varieties, Xinong 979 and large-spike wheat, were evaluated for their physiological responses to different levels of nitrogen and water status during their seedling stage grown in a phytotron. Our results indicated that drought stress greatly reduced the net photosynthetic rate (Pn, transpiration rate (E, and stomatal conductance (Gs, but with a greater increase in instantaneous water use efficiency (WUE. At the meantime, the nitrogen (N supply improved photosynthetic efficiency under water deficit. Parameters inferred from chlorophyll a measurements, i.e., photochemical quenching coefficient (qP, the maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm, the quantum yield of photosystemII(ΦPSII, and the apparent photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR decreased under water stress at all nitrogen levels and declined in N-deficient plants. The root-shoot ratio (R/S increased slightly with water stress at a low N level; the smallest root-shoot ratio was found at a high N level and moderate drought stress treatment. These results suggest that an appropriate nitrogen supply may be necessary to enhance drought resistance in wheat by improving photosynthetic efficiency and relieving photoinhibition under drought stress. However, an excessive N supply had no effect on drought resistance, which even showed an adverse effect on plant growth. Comparing the two cultivars, Xinong 979 has a stronger drought resistance compared with large-spike wheat under N deficiency.

  5. The effects of irradiation on grain coat color and grain texture in winter wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Bingliang; Liu Xueyu

    1989-01-01

    Dry seeds of the variety ''Yangmai 5'' with red grain coat, semihard grain texture, and the variety ''Ningmai 3'' with red grain coat, soft grain texture were irradiated with Y-rays at various doses.The effect on M1 grain coat color was different between two varieties, the higher doses made grain coat color of ''Yangmai 5'' redder, but had hardly effect on ''Ningmai 3''.The effect on M1 grain texture showed that the grain texture became softer with doses increased.It was found that there were 0.6% of positive ( red to white ) grain coat color mutants and 2.0% of negative(hard to soft) grain texture mutants in M2 of ''Yangmai 5'', and there were 0.7% of negative ( white to red ) grain coat color mutants and 3.6% of positive ( soft to hard ) grain texture mutants in M2 of ''Ningmai 3''. It seemed that the positive mutants selected in M3 were stable in M4. The results showed that γ-rays can be used to improve the grain coat color andgrain texture of wheat varieties

  6. EFFECT OF SEEDING RATE, SOWING TIME AND MINERAL NUTRITION REGIME ON SPRING WHEAT PRODUCTIVITY IN THE NORTHERN STEPPE OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Gyrka

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of seeding rate and nutrition regime on the growth and development of spring wheat plants on different seeding dates. By monitoring the growth and development of spring wheat we determined that increasing of stand density of crops up to 6 million/ha contributed to better growth, but the worst development of plants. Due to higher moisturizing, the effect of fertilizers on biometric indicators of spring wheat was stronger, than the seeding of culture in the first period. The root system and aboveground part of plants on the background of N40P20K20 was more developed than in control variants. It is established that the seeding rate of 5.0 million/ha is optimal for sowing in the first period with fertilizing by N40P20K20 the seeding rate up to 6 million/ha was optimal for the second period – with increasing seeding rate to 6 million pcs./ha. These options provide the yield of spring wheat in the Northern Steppe at 2.04 and 1.97 t/ha, respectively. The use of fertilizers has ensured the increase in all seeding rate at 0,41-0,45 t/ha at the first period and 0,44-0,52 t/ha at the second seeding time compared with the control yields

  7. [Influence of water deficit and supplemental irrigation on nitrogen uptake by winter wheat and nitrogen residual in soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaohui; Wang, Bing; Li, Shengxiu

    2004-08-01

    Pot experiment in greenhouse showed that water deficit at all growth stages and supplemental irrigation at tillering stage significantly decreased the nitrogen uptake by winter wheat and increased the mineral N residual (79.8-113.7 mg x kg(-1)) in soil. Supplemental irrigation at over-wintering, jointing or filling stage significantly increased the nitrogen uptake by plant and decreased the nitrogen residual (47.2-60.3 mg x kg(-1)) in soil. But, the increase of nitrogen uptake caused by supplemental irrigation did not always mean a high magnitude of efficient use of nitrogen by plants. Supplemental irrigation at over-wintering stage didn't induce any significant change in nitrogen content of grain, irrigation at filling stage increased the nitrogen content by 20.9%, and doing this at jointing stage decreased the nitrogen content by 19.6%, as compared to the control.

  8. Impact of grazing dairy steers on winter rye (Secale cereale versus winter wheat (Triticum aestivum and effects on meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and consumer acceptability of organic beef.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah N Phillips

    Full Text Available Meat from Holstein and crossbred organic dairy steers finished on winter rye and winter wheat pastures was evaluated and compared for meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and consumer acceptability. Two adjacent 4-ha plots were established with winter rye or winter wheat cover crops in September 2015 at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center (Morris, MN. During spring of 2015, 30 steers were assigned to one of three replicate breed groups at birth. Breed groups were comprised of: Holstein (HOL; n = 10, crossbreds comprised of Montbéliarde, Viking Red, and HOL (MVH; n = 10, and crossbreds comprised of Normande, Jersey, and Viking Red (NJV; n = 10. Dairy steers were maintained in their respective replicate breed group from three days of age until harvest. After weaning, steers were fed an organic total mixed ration of organic corn silage, alfalfa silage, corn, soybean meal, and minerals until spring 2016. Breed groups were randomly assigned to winter rye or winter wheat and rotationally grazed from spring until early summer of 2016. For statistical analysis, independent variables were fixed effects of breed, forage, and the interaction of breed and forage, with replicated group as a random effect. Specific contrast statements were used to compare HOL versus crossbred steers. Fat from crossbreds had 13% greater omega-3 fatty acids than HOL steers. Furthermore, the omega-6/3 ratio was 14% lower in fat from crossbreds than HOL steers. For consumer acceptability, steaks from steers grazed on winter wheat had greater overall liking than steers grazed on winter rye. Steak from crossbreeds had greater overall liking than HOL steers. The results suggest improvement in fatty acids and sensory attributes of beef from crossbred dairy steers compared to HOL steers, as well as those finished on winter wheat compared to winter rye.

  9. Impact of grazing dairy steers on winter rye (Secale cereale) versus winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) and effects on meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and consumer acceptability of organic beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Hannah N; Heins, Bradley J; Delate, Kathleen; Turnbull, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Meat from Holstein and crossbred organic dairy steers finished on winter rye and winter wheat pastures was evaluated and compared for meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and consumer acceptability. Two adjacent 4-ha plots were established with winter rye or winter wheat cover crops in September 2015 at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center (Morris, MN). During spring of 2015, 30 steers were assigned to one of three replicate breed groups at birth. Breed groups were comprised of: Holstein (HOL; n = 10), crossbreds comprised of Montbéliarde, Viking Red, and HOL (MVH; n = 10), and crossbreds comprised of Normande, Jersey, and Viking Red (NJV; n = 10). Dairy steers were maintained in their respective replicate breed group from three days of age until harvest. After weaning, steers were fed an organic total mixed ration of organic corn silage, alfalfa silage, corn, soybean meal, and minerals until spring 2016. Breed groups were randomly assigned to winter rye or winter wheat and rotationally grazed from spring until early summer of 2016. For statistical analysis, independent variables were fixed effects of breed, forage, and the interaction of breed and forage, with replicated group as a random effect. Specific contrast statements were used to compare HOL versus crossbred steers. Fat from crossbreds had 13% greater omega-3 fatty acids than HOL steers. Furthermore, the omega-6/3 ratio was 14% lower in fat from crossbreds than HOL steers. For consumer acceptability, steaks from steers grazed on winter wheat had greater overall liking than steers grazed on winter rye. Steak from crossbreeds had greater overall liking than HOL steers. The results suggest improvement in fatty acids and sensory attributes of beef from crossbred dairy steers compared to HOL steers, as well as those finished on winter wheat compared to winter rye.

  10. A temperature-sensitive winter wheat chlorophyll mutant derived from space mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Hongbin; Guo Huijun; Zhao Linshu; Gu Jiayu; Zhao Shirong; Li Junhui; Liu Luxiang

    2010-01-01

    A temperature-sensitive winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) chlorophyll mutant Mt18, induced by spaceflight mutagenesis, was studied on agronomic traits, ultrastructure of chloroplast and photosynthesis characteristics. The leaf color of the mutant Mt18 showed changes from green to albino and back to green during the whole growth period. Plant height, productive tillers, spike length, grains and grain weight per plant, and 1000-grain weight of the mutant were lower than those of the wild type. The ultrastructural observation showed that no significant difference was found between the mutant and the wild type during prior albino stage, however, at the albino stage the number of granum-thylakoids and grana lamellae became fewer or completely disappeared, but the strom-thylakoid was obviously visible. After turning green,the structure of most chloroplasts recovered to normal, but number of chloroplast was still lower than that of the wild type. When exposed to photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) of 110 μmol·m -2 ·s -1 , the non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of mutant was significantly lower than that of the wild type, and the non-regulated energy dissipation (Y NO ) was significantly higher than that of the wild type, while the change of the maximum photosystem II quantum yield (F v /F m ), potential activity of photosystem II (F v /F o ), photochemical quenching (q P ), effective quantum yield (Y PSI I) and regulated non-photochemical energy dissipation (Y NPQ ) were different at various stages. In addition, the differences of the electron transport rate (ETR), photochemical quenching (q P ), and effective quantum yield (Y PSI I) between mutant and wild type varied under different PAR conditions. It was concluded that with the change of chloroplast ultrastructure, the leaf color and photosynthesis of the wheat mutant Mt18 change correspondingly. The chloroplast ultrastructure was obviously different from that of wild type, and the photosynthetic efficiency

  11. Canopy Vegetation Indices from In situ Hyperspectral Data to Assess Plant Water Status of Winter Wheat under Powdery Mildew Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wei; Qi, Shuangli; Heng, Yarong; Zhou, Yi; Wu, Yapeng; Liu, Wandai; He, Li; Li, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Plant disease and pests influence the physiological state and restricts the healthy growth of crops. Physiological measurements are considered the most accurate way of assessing plant health status. In this paper, we researched the use of an in situ hyperspectral remote sensor to detect plant water status in winter wheat infected with powdery mildew. Using a diseased nursery field and artificially inoculated open field experiments, we detected the canopy spectra of wheat at different developmental stages and under different degrees of disease severity. At the same time, destructive sampling was carried out for physical tests to investigate the change of physiological parameters under the condition of disease. Selected vegetation indices (VIs) were mostly comprised of green bands, and correlation coefficients between these common VIs and plant water content (PWC) were generally 0.784-0.902 ( p powdery mildew stress. The Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) was sensitive to physiological response influenced by powdery mildew, and the relationships of PRI with chlorophyll content, the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm), and the potential activity of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fo) were good with R 2 = 0.639, 0.833, 0.808, respectively. Linear regressions showed PRI demonstrated a steady relationship with PWC across different growth conditions, with R 2 = 0.817 and RMSE = 2.17. The acquired PRI model of wheat under the powdery mildew stress has a good compatibility to different experimental fields from booting stage to filling stage compared with the traditional water signal vegetation indices, WBI, FWBI 1 , and FWBI 2 . The verification results with independent data showed that PRI still performed better with R 2 = 0.819 between measured and predicted, and corresponding RE = 8.26%. Thus, PRI is recommended as a potentially reliable indicator of PWC in winter wheat with powdery mildew stress. The results will help to understand the physical state of

  12. Seed maturation associated transcriptional programs and regulatory networks underlying genotypic difference in seed dormancy and size/weight in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Yuji; Gao, Feng; Jordan, Mark C; Ayele, Belay T

    2017-09-16

    Maturation forms one of the critical seed developmental phases and it is characterized mainly by programmed cell death, dormancy and desiccation, however, the transcriptional programs and regulatory networks underlying acquisition of dormancy and deposition of storage reserves during the maturation phase of seed development are poorly understood in wheat. The present study performed comparative spatiotemporal transcriptomic analysis of seed maturation in two wheat genotypes with contrasting seed weight/size and dormancy phenotype. The embryo and endosperm tissues of maturing seeds appeared to exhibit genotype-specific temporal shifts in gene expression profile that might contribute to the seed phenotypic variations. Functional annotations of gene clusters suggest that the two tissues exhibit distinct but genotypically overlapping molecular functions. Motif enrichment predicts genotypically distinct abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA) regulated transcriptional networks contribute to the contrasting seed weight/size and dormancy phenotypes between the two genotypes. While other ABA responsive element (ABRE) motifs are enriched in both genotypes, the prevalence of G-box-like motif specifically in tissues of the dormant genotype suggests distinct ABA mediated transcriptional mechanisms control the establishment of dormancy during seed maturation. In agreement with this, the bZIP transcription factors that co-express with ABRE enriched embryonic genes differ with genotype. The enrichment of SITEIIATCYTC motif specifically in embryo clusters of maturing seeds irrespective of genotype predicts a tissue specific role for the respective TCP transcription factors with no or minimal contribution to the variations in seed dormancy. The results of this study advance our understanding of the seed maturation associated molecular mechanisms underlying variation in dormancy and weight/size in wheat seeds, which is a critical step towards the designing of molecular strategies

  13. Evaluation of Technical and Yield Parameters of Wheat Seeding Methods with Different Seeding Rates in south Khuzestan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Habibi Asl

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted during two years (2007-2009 in Shawoor Agricultural Research Station on a silty-clay soil. Experiment conducted in split plots in a Randomized Complete Blocks Design in three replications. Main plots were planting methods including centrifugal broadcaster (P1, centrifugal broadcaster + furrower (P2, seed drill (P3, seed drill + furrower (P4, three lines bed drilling (P5 and four lines bed drilling (P6. Subplots were included seed rates of 120, 160, 200 and 240 kg.ha-1. The results showed that P2 method with 14.91 litter.ha-1 and P3 method with 5.02 litter.ha-1 had the highest and lowest fuel consumption respectively. P3 method with 1.462 h.ha-1 and P5 method with 0.620 h.ha-1 required maximum and minimum total operation time respectively. P2 method with 0.684 ha.h-1 had minimum field capacity. Field capacity of P5 and P6 with averagely 1.67 ha.h-1 was maximum. Field capacity of all drilling methods (P3, P4, P5 and P6 was significantly more than that of broadcasting methods (P1 and P2. The highest seed spacing uniformity (87.2% was belonged to P6 method and the lowest value (54.7% was for P1 method. By using drilling methods of P3 and P5 (or P6 instead of P1 method total cost was reduced 41% and 29% respectively. The results of variance analysis of data showed that the difference between planting methods in case of wheat grain yield and yield components was not significant. However, the seed rate had significant effect on some yield components. Suggestion for cropping of wheat Chamran variety in silty-clay soil in Khuzestan province, used P5, P6 and P3 methods are recommended respectively with seed rate of 120 - 160 kg.ha-1.

  14. Regulation of wheat seed dormancy by after-ripening is mediated by specific transcriptional switches that induce changes in seed hormone metabolism and signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aihua Liu

    Full Text Available Treatments that promote dormancy release are often correlated with changes in seed hormone content and/or sensitivity. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of after-ripening (seed dry storage in triggering hormone related changes and dormancy decay in wheat (Triticum aestivum, temporal expression patterns of genes related to abscisic acid (ABA, gibberellin (GA, jasmonate and indole acetic acid (IAA metabolism and signaling, and levels of the respective hormones were examined in dormant and after-ripened seeds in both dry and imbibed states. After-ripening mediated developmental switch from dormancy to germination appears to be associated with declines in seed sensitivity to ABA and IAA, which are mediated by transcriptional repressions of PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2C, SNF1-RELATED PROTEIN KINASE2, ABA INSENSITIVE5 and LIPID PHOSPHATE PHOSPHTASE2, and AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR and RELATED TO UBIQUITIN1 genes. Transcriptomic analysis of wheat seed responsiveness to ABA suggests that ABA inhibits the germination of wheat seeds partly by repressing the transcription of genes related to chromatin assembly and cell wall modification, and activating that of GA catabolic genes. After-ripening induced seed dormancy decay in wheat is also associated with the modulation of seed IAA and jasmonate contents. Transcriptional control of members of the ALLENE OXIDE SYNTHASE, 3-KETOACYL COENZYME A THIOLASE, LIPOXYGENASE and 12-OXOPHYTODIENOATE REDUCTASE gene families appears to regulate seed jasmonate levels. Changes in the expression of GA biosynthesis genes, GA 20-OXIDASE and GA 3-OXIDASE, in response to after-ripening implicate this hormone in enhancing dormancy release and germination. These findings have important implications in the dissection of molecular mechanisms underlying regulation of seed dormancy in cereals.

  15. Assesment of winter wheat advanced lines by use of multivariate statistical analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boshev Dane

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate 49 advanced lines of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. for their morphoagronomic traits and to determine best criteria for selection of lines to be included in future breeding program. The material was assessed in two years experiment at two locations, using RCBD design with three replications. Ten quantitative traits: plant height, number of fertile tillers, spike length, number of spikelets per spike, number of grains per spike, weight of grain per spike and per plant, fertility, biological yield and harvest index were evaluated by PCA and two-way cluster analysis. Three main principal components were determined explaining 71.391% of the total variation among the genotypes. One third of the variation is explained by PC1 which reflects the genotype yield potential. PC2 and PC3 explained 25.22% and 15.49% of the total variance, mostly in relation to the plant height and spike components, respectively. Biplot graph revealed strongest positive association between spike length, number of spikelets and biological yield and between number of tillers, weight of grains per spike and per plant. Two-way cluster analysis resulted with a dendrogram with one solely separated genotype, superior for all traits and two main clusters of genotypes defined with wide genetic diversity especially between the groups within the second cluster. Genotypes with high values for specific traits will be included in the future breeding programmes. Classification of genotypes and the extend of variation among them illustrated on the heatmap has proved to be practical tool for selecting genotypes with desired traits in the early stages of the breeding process.

  16. Optimizing Training Population Data and Validation of Genomic Selection for Economic Traits in Soft Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Hoffstetter

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Genomic selection (GS is a breeding tool that estimates breeding values (GEBVs of individuals based solely on marker data by using a model built using phenotypic and marker data from a training population (TP. The effectiveness of GS increases as the correlation of GEBVs and phenotypes (accuracy increases. Using phenotypic and genotypic data from a TP of 470 soft winter wheat lines, we assessed the accuracy of GS for grain yield, Fusarium Head Blight (FHB resistance, softness equivalence (SE, and flour yield (FY. Four TP data sampling schemes were tested: (1 use all TP data, (2 use subsets of TP lines with low genotype-by-environment interaction, (3 use subsets of markers significantly associated with quantitative trait loci (QTL, and (4 a combination of 2 and 3. We also correlated the phenotypes of relatives of the TP to their GEBVs calculated from TP data. The GS accuracy within the TP using all TP data ranged from 0.35 (FHB to 0.62 (FY. On average, the accuracy of GS from using subsets of data increased by 54% relative to using all TP data. Using subsets of markers selected for significant association with the target trait had the greatest impact on GS accuracy. Between-environment prediction accuracy was also increased by using data subsets. The accuracy of GS when predicting the phenotypes of TP relatives ranged from 0.00 to 0.85. These results suggest that GS could be useful for these traits and GS accuracy can be greatly improved by using subsets of TP data.

  17. Field experiment on spray drift: deposition and airborne drift during application to a winter wheat crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, André; Linnemann, Volker; van de Zande, Jan C; Vereecken, Harry

    2008-11-01

    A field experiment was performed to evaluate various techniques for measuring spray deposition and airborne drift during spray application to a winter wheat crop. The application of a spraying agent containing the fluorescent dye Brilliant Sulfo Flavine by a conventional boom sprayer was done according to good agricultural practice. Deposition was measured by horizontal collectors in various arrangements in and outside the treated area. Airborne spray drift was measured both with a passive and an active air collecting system. Spray deposits on top of the treated canopy ranged between 68 and 71% of the applied dose and showed only small differences for various arrangements of the collectors. Furthermore, only small variations were measured within the various groups of collectors used for these arrangements. Generally, the highest spray deposition outside the treated area was measured close to the sprayed plot and was accompanied by a high variability of values, while a rapid decline of deposits was detected in more remote areas. Estimations of spray deposits with the IMAG Drift Calculator were in accordance with experimental findings only for areas located at a distance of 0.5-4.5 m from the last nozzle, while there was an overestimation of a factor of 4 at a distance of 2.0-3.0 m, thus revealing a high level of uncertainty of the estimation of deposition for short distances. Airborne spray drift measured by passive and active air collecting systems was approximately at the same level, when taking into consideration the collector efficiency of the woven nylon wire used as sampling material for the passive collecting system. The maximum value of total airborne spray drift for both spray applications (0.79% of the applied dose) was determined by the active collecting system. However, the comparatively high variability of measurements at various heights above the soil by active and passive collecting systems revealed need for further studies to elucidate the spatial

  18. Early sowing increases nitrogen uptake and yields of winter wheat grown with cattle slurry or mineral fertilizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suarez, Alfonso; Rasmussen, Jim; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag

    2018-01-01

    of the two cultivars did not differ consistently with respect to the effect of early sowing on crop yield, N concentration and offtake, or ANR. Within the north-west European climatic region, moving the sowing time of winter wheat from mid-September to mid-August provides a significant yield and N offtake......The current study evaluated the effect of sowing date (early, mid-August or timely, mid-September) on two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars (Hereford, Mariboss) with different rates of nitrogen (N) (0–225 kg total N/ha) applied as animal manure (AM; cattle slurry) or mineral fertilizers...... (N: phosphorus: potassium; NPK). Overwinter plant N uptake and soil mineral N content were determined during 2014/15, while harvest yields (grain, straw, N content) were determined during 2014/15 and 2015/16. Overwinter uptake of N was 14 kg N/ha higher in early than in timely-sown wheat. Despite...

  19. The Effect of Crop Seed Rate and Post Emergence Herbicide Application on Weed control and grain yield of Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Babaei

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Interference weed with crop is a major concern for production in croplands particularly where modern agricultural practices such as mechanical weeding and the application of herbicides are limited. At present, the aim of weed management is to keep weed population at an acceptable level rather than to keep crop totally free of weeds. Among the weed control methods, the chemical control is the easiest one of the recent origins, as well the most successful alternative method. Materials and methods Field experiments were conducted at Shoushtar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran (32 0 3´ N, 480 50´ E during winters of 2012-2013 in order to evaluate the effect of sulfosulfuron and sulfosulfuron plus metsulfuron-methyl at 30 and 45 g a.i. ha-1, respectively, and wheat seed rate at 180, 200 and 220 kg ha-1 on weed control. Experiments were carry out in a randomized complete block design with a factorial arrangement and four replicates. The plot size was 6 m × 2 m. The soil was a clay loam texture, pH 7.4 and 0.6 % organic matter content. In the experimental site, the 30-year average annual rainfall is 321.4 mm, daily average annual air temperature is minimum and maximum 9.5 °C and 46.3 °C, respectively. Wheat cv. Chamran was planted in the first fortnight of November. Seedbed preparation consisted of moldboard plowing, disking and leveling. A basal fertilizer rate of 125 kg ha-1 N (form of urea (46% N, 75 kg ha-1 P2O5 (diammonium phosphate (18% N; 46% P2O5, and 60 kg K2O ha-1 (sulfate of potash (50% K2O was applied. The whole P and K and half of N were applied at sowing. The remaining half of N was top dressed with the irrigation at the booting stage. Results and Discussion As the crop population brings competition for limited resources with the weeds, we tested different seeding rates to increase crop plant density as a measure to control weeds. The weed population was significantly affected by seed rate. In general, there was an

  20. Seed Biochemical Analysis Based Profiling of Diverse Wheat Genetic Resource from Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Anam; Hameed, Amjad

    2017-01-01

    Wheat is the major nutrient source worldwide. In Pakistan, it has a crucial place in agriculture as well as in national economy. For seed biochemical compositional analysis, wheat germplasm (77 genotypes) was collected from different agro-climatic zones of Pakistan. Significant variation (p sugar was found in Saleem-2000 (29.86 mg/g s. wt.), reducing sugars in Punjab-96 (12.68 mg/g s. wt.), non-reducing sugars in Saleem-2000 (27.33 mg/g s. wt.). However, highest albumins was identified in TC-4928 (352.89 mg/g s. wt.) and globulins in MEXI PAK (252.67 mg/g s. wt.), salt soluble proteins in Faisalabad-2008 (162.44 mg/g s. wt.), and total soluble proteins in Punjab-96 (487.33 mg/g s. wt.) indicating good quality of wheat genotypes as well as good nutritional status. Genotypes which have been ranked high in respective parameter can be employed in breeding to enhance the nutritional quality of wheat. PMID:28775731

  1. Differentiation of organic and non-organic winter wheat cultivars from a controlled field trial by crystallization patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Johannes; Busscher, Nicolaas; Mergardt, Gaby; Mäder, Paul; Torp, Torfinn; Ploeger, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for authentication tools in order to verify the existing certification system. Recently, markers for analytical authentication of organic products were evaluated. Herein, crystallization with additives was described as an interesting fingerprint approach which needs further evidence, based on a standardized method and well-documented sample origin. The fingerprint of wheat cultivars from a controlled field trial is generated from structure analysis variables of crystal patterns. Method performance was tested on factors such as crystallization chamber, day of experiment and region of interest of the patterns. Two different organic treatments and two different treatments of the non-organic regime can be grouped together in each of three consecutive seasons. When the k-nearest-neighbor classification method was applied, approximately 84% of Runal samples and 95% of Titlis samples were classified correctly into organic and non-organic origin using cross-validation. Crystallization with additive offers an interesting complementary fingerprint method for organic wheat samples. When the method is applied to winter wheat from the DOK trial, organic and non-organic treated samples can be differentiated significantly based on pattern recognition. Therefore crystallization with additives seems to be a promising tool in organic wheat authentication. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Dilute solution properties of canary seed (Phalaris canariensis) starch in comparison to wheat starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irani, Mahdi; Razavi, Seyed M A; Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M; Hucl, Pierre; Patterson, Carol Ann

    2016-06-01

    Dilute solution properties of an unknown starch are important to understand its performance and applications in food and non-food industries. In this paper, rheological and molecular properties (intrinsic viscosity, molecular weight, shape factor, voluminosity, conformation and coil overlap parameters) of the starches from two hairless canary seed varieties (CO5041 & CDC Maria) developed for food use were evaluated in the dilute regime (Starch dispersions in DMSO (0.5g/dl)) and compared with wheat starch (WS). The results showed that Higiro model is the best among five applied models for intrinsic viscosity determination of canary seed starch (CSS) and WS on the basis of coefficient of determination (R(2)) and root mean square error (RMSE). WS sample showed higher intrinsic viscosity value (1.670dl/g) in comparison to CSS samples (1.325-1.397dl/g). Berry number and the slope of master curve demonstrated that CSS and WS samples were in dilute domain without entanglement occurrence. The shape factor suggested spherical and ellipsoidal structure for CO5041 starch and ellipsoidal for CDC Maria starch and WS. The molecular weight, coil radius and coil volume of CSSs were smaller than WS. The behavior and molecular characterization of canary seed starch showed its unique properties compared with wheat starch. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Factors influencing ammonia volatilization in a winter wheat field with plastic film mulched ridges and unmulched furrows].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Yu-Xian; Shi, Ri-Peng; Li, Na; Han, Kun; Li, Hui-Ke; Wang, Lin-Quan

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this experiment was to quantify ammonia volatilization from a winter wheat field with plastic film mulched-ridges and unmulched-furrows (PMRF). The trial was conducted during the 2010-2011 winter wheat growing season at Yangling, Shaanxi Province. Ammonia volatilization from the soil was measured using the closed-chamber method. The results indicated that NH3 emission losses ranged between (1.66 +/- 0.3) and (3.28 +/- 0.51) kg x hm(-2) in the PMRF treatment. In comparison, the NH3 emission loss was (4.68 +/- 0.35) kg x ha(-1) in the conventional tillage treatment (i. e., smooth soil surface). The PMRF treatment reduced NH3 emissions by 29.8 to 63.8% compared with the conventional treatment. The NH3 emission losses were equivalent to 1.9% of the applied N in the conventional practice treatment. In contrast, the losses were equivalent to only 0.3% to 0.8% of the applied N in the PMRF treatment. Ammonia emissions were greatest during the first two weeks after sowing. Emissions before winter accounted for 82% of total NH3 emission in the conventional practice treatment, but only 49% to 61% of the total NH3 emission in the PMRF treatment. The soil NH4+ -N content and the soil moisture content had direct effects on NH3 emission before winter in the conventional treatment. In thePMRF treatment, the soil NH4+ -N content had a direct effect on NH3 emission before winter, whereas soil surface temperature and soil moisture had indirect effects. Ammonia emissions after the greening stage were mainly influenced by the soil NH4+ -N content. Simulation results indicated that logarithmic functions best described cumulative NH3 emission in the PMRF + high N rate treatment and the conventional treatment. A linear function best described cumulative NH3 emission in the PMRF + low N rate treatment and the unfertilized treatment. In conclusion, the PMRF treatment can significantly reduce N losses from winter wheat fields by changing the spatial-temporal dynamics of soil

  4. Nutritional value of yellow-seeded winter rapeseed cakes for growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Święch

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective of the study was to compare the composition and nutritional value of a winter brown- (BRC and three yellow-seeded (YRC cold-pressed rapeseed cakes as the components of pigs’ diets, and to assess their effects on colonic bacterial fermentation and the relative weight of organs. In experiment 1, the standardised ileal digestibility (SID of protein and amino acids (AA of cakes was determined in 12 male cannulated pigs. Each diet was fed to six pigs during three seven-day periods. Ileal digesta was collected during the last three days of the period. In experiment 2, five groups each containing six female pigs with initial body weights (BW of 20 kg were fed on diets containing BRC, YRC, or soyabean oil meal (SBM as the main protein source. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD of nutrients and growth performance were measured untill 60 kg BW was reached, and short chain fatty acids (SCFA concentrations in the colon, as well as the weight of the liver, kidney, heart, and thyroid, were recorded. The main differences between BRC and YRC were found in higher content of fat and protein, lower amounts of fibre and glucosinolates (Gls, and higher ATTD of fibre in YRC. Protein and AA SID, ATTD of nutrients, total SCFA colonic concentration, and growth performance did not significantly differ. The chemical composition of the three YRC was not uniform, the greatest differences were found among the amounts of Gls. The relative weights of the thyroid and heart were greater in pigs fed BRC than in YRC and SBM diets. Thyroid weight was positively correlated with dietary progoitrin, alkenyl Gls, and total Gls, whereas heart weight was positively correlated with progoitrin and alkenyl Gls. It was concluded that winter yellow-seeded rapeseed is a better raw material for cold-pressing than brown-seeded due to having lower Gls and fibre content. 

  5. Unraveling Key Metabolomic Alterations in Wheat Embryos Derived from Freshly Harvested and Water-Imbibed Seeds of Two Wheat Cultivars with Contrasting Dormancy Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aayudh Das

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Untimely rains in wheat fields during harvest season can cause pre-harvest sprouting (PHS, which deteriorates the yield and quality of wheat crop. Metabolic homeostasis of the embryo plays a role in seed dormancy, determining the status of the maturing grains either as dormant (PHS-tolerant or non-dormant (PHS-susceptible. Very little is known for direct measurements of global metabolites in embryonic tissues of dormant and non-dormant wheat seeds. In this study, physiologically matured and freshly harvested wheat seeds of PHS-tolerant (cv. Sukang, dormant and PHS-susceptible (cv. Baegjoong, non-dormant cultivars were water-imbibed, and the isolated embryos were subjected to high-throughput, global non-targeted metabolomic profiling. A careful comparison of identified metabolites between Sukang and Baegjoong embryos at 0 and 48 h after imbibition revealed that several key metabolic pathways [such as: lipids, fatty acids, oxalate, hormones, the raffinose family of oligosaccharides (RFOs, and amino acids] and phytochemicals were differentially regulated between dormant and non-dormant varieties. Most of the membrane lipids were highly reduced in Baegjoong compared to Sukang, which indicates that the cell membrane instability in response to imbibition could also be a key factor in non-dormant wheat varieties for their untimely germination. This study revealed that several key marker metabolites (e.g., RFOs: glucose, fructose, maltose, and verbascose, were highly expressed in Baegjoong after imbibition. Furthermore, the data showed that the key secondary metabolites and phytochemicals (vitexin, chrysoeriol, ferulate, salidroside and gentisic acid, with known antioxidant properties, were comparatively low at basal levels in PHS-susceptible, non-dormant cultivar, Baegjoong. In conclusion, the results of this investigation revealed that after imbibition the metabolic homeostasis of dormant wheat is significantly less affected compared to non

  6. Assessing the ratio of leaf carbon to nitrogen in winter wheat and spring barley based on hyperspectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin-gang; Gu, Xiao-he; Song, Xiao-yu; Xu, Bo; Yu, Hai-yang; Yang, Gui-jun; Feng, Hai-kuan

    2016-10-01

    The metabolic status of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) as two essential elements of crop plants has significant influence on the ultimate formation of yield and quality in crop production. The ratio of carbon to nitrogen (C/N) from crop leaves, defined as ratio of LCC (leaf carbon concentration) to LNC (leaf nitrogen concentration), is an important index that can be used to diagnose the balance between carbon and nitrogen, nutrient status, growth vigor and disease resistance in crop plants. Thus, it is very significant for effectively evaluating crop growth in field to monitor changes of leaf C/N quickly and accurately. In this study, some typical indices aimed at N estimation and chlorophyll evaluation were tested to assess leaf C/N in winter wheat and spring barley. The multi-temporal hyperspectral measurements from the flag-leaf, anthesis, filling, and milk-ripe stages were used to extract these selected spectral indices to estimate leaf C/N in wheat and barley. The analyses showed that some tested indices such as MTCI, MCARI/OSAVI2, and R-M had the better performance of assessing C/N for both of crops. Besides, a mathematic algorithm, Branch-and-Bound (BB) method was coupled with the spectral indices to assess leaf C/N in wheat and barley, and yielded the R2 values of 0.795 for winter wheat, R2 of 0.727 for spring barley, 0.788 for both crops combined. It demonstrates that using hyperspectral data has a good potential for remote assessment of leaf C/N in crops.

  7. Assessing the Impact of Air Pollution on Grain Yield of Winter Wheat - A Case Study in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiying; Shao, Liwei; Chen, Suying

    2016-01-01

    The major wheat production region of China the North China Plain (NCP) is seriously affected by air pollution. In this study, yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was analyzed with respect to the potential impact of air pollution index under conditions of optimal crop management in the NCP from 2001 to 2012. Results showed that air pollution was especially serious at the early phase of winter wheat growth significantly influencing various weather factors. However, no significant correlations were found between final grain yield and the weather factors during the early growth phase. In contrast, significant correlations were found between grain yield and total solar radiation gap, sunshine hour gap, diurnal temperature range and relative humidity during the late growing phase. To disentangle the confounding effects of various weather factors, and test the isolated effect of air pollution induced changes in incoming global solar radiation on yield under ceteris paribus conditions, crop model based scenario-analysis was conducted. The simulation results of the calibrated Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) model indicated that a reduction in radiation by 10% might cause a yield reduction by more than 10%. Increasing incident radiation by 10% would lead to yield increases of (only) 7%, with the effects being much stronger during the late growing phase compared to the early growing phase. However, there is evidence that APSIM overestimates the effect of air pollution induced changes on radiation, as it does not consider the changes in radiative properties of solar insulation, i.e. the relative increase of diffuse over direct radiation, which may partly alleviate the negative effects of reduced total radiation by air pollution. Concluding, the present study could not detect a significantly negative effect of air pollution on wheat yields in the NCP. PMID:27612146

  8. Assessing the Impact of Air Pollution on Grain Yield of Winter Wheat - A Case Study in the North China Plain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuwei Liu

    Full Text Available The major wheat production region of China the North China Plain (NCP is seriously affected by air pollution. In this study, yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. was analyzed with respect to the potential impact of air pollution index under conditions of optimal crop management in the NCP from 2001 to 2012. Results showed that air pollution was especially serious at the early phase of winter wheat growth significantly influencing various weather factors. However, no significant correlations were found between final grain yield and the weather factors during the early growth phase. In contrast, significant correlations were found between grain yield and total solar radiation gap, sunshine hour gap, diurnal temperature range and relative humidity during the late growing phase. To disentangle the confounding effects of various weather factors, and test the isolated effect of air pollution induced changes in incoming global solar radiation on yield under ceteris paribus conditions, crop model based scenario-analysis was conducted. The simulation results of the calibrated Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM model indicated that a reduction in radiation by 10% might cause a yield reduction by more than 10%. Increasing incident radiation by 10% would lead to yield increases of (only 7%, with the effects being much stronger during the late growing phase compared to the early growing phase. However, there is evidence that APSIM overestimates the effect of air pollution induced changes on radiation, as it does not consider the changes in radiative properties of solar insulation, i.e. the relative increase of diffuse over direct radiation, which may partly alleviate the negative effects of reduced total radiation by air pollution. Concluding, the present study could not detect a significantly negative effect of air pollution on wheat yields in the NCP.

  9. Assessing the Impact of Air Pollution on Grain Yield of Winter Wheat - A Case Study in the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiuwei; Sun, Hongyong; Feike, Til; Zhang, Xiying; Shao, Liwei; Chen, Suying

    2016-01-01

    The major wheat production region of China the North China Plain (NCP) is seriously affected by air pollution. In this study, yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was analyzed with respect to the potential impact of air pollution index under conditions of optimal crop management in the NCP from 2001 to 2012. Results showed that air pollution was especially serious at the early phase of winter wheat growth significantly influencing various weather factors. However, no significant correlations were found between final grain yield and the weather factors during the early growth phase. In contrast, significant correlations were found between grain yield and total solar radiation gap, sunshine hour gap, diurnal temperature range and relative humidity during the late growing phase. To disentangle the confounding effects of various weather factors, and test the isolated effect of air pollution induced changes in incoming global solar radiation on yield under ceteris paribus conditions, crop model based scenario-analysis was conducted. The simulation results of the calibrated Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) model indicated that a reduction in radiation by 10% might cause a yield reduction by more than 10%. Increasing incident radiation by 10% would lead to yield increases of (only) 7%, with the effects being much stronger during the late growing phase compared to the early growing phase. However, there is evidence that APSIM overestimates the effect of air pollution induced changes on radiation, as it does not consider the changes in radiative properties of solar insulation, i.e. the relative increase of diffuse over direct radiation, which may partly alleviate the negative effects of reduced total radiation by air pollution. Concluding, the present study could not detect a significantly negative effect of air pollution on wheat yields in the NCP.

  10. Comparison of bloat potential between a variety of soft-red versus a variety of hard-red winter wheat forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akins, M S; Kegley, E B; Coffey, K P; Caldwell, J D; Lusby, K S; Moore, J C; Coblentz, W K

    2009-10-01

    Some aspects of wheat pasture bloat have been researched extensively, but few studies have evaluated the effect of wheat type or variety on bloat. Eight Gelbvieh x Angus ruminally cannulated heifers (515 +/- 49 kg of BW) and 48 Angus heifers (238 +/- 12 kg of BW) grazed 1-ha pastures of hard-red or soft-red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to evaluate the effect of wheat variety on bloat potential. In Exp. 1, cattle grazed from November 11 to 22 and from November 26 to December 7, 2006, in a crossover design. In Exp. 2, cattle were shrunk for 20 h and then grazed from December 19 to 20, 2006, and from January 19 to 20, 2007. In both experiments, bloat was scored at 1000 and 1600 h daily. Rumen samples were collected at 0600, 1200, and 1800 h during each of the last 2 d of each period in Exp. 1 and during both days of each period of Exp. 2. Rumen samples were evaluated for pH, foam production and strength, and viscosity. In Exp. 1, cannulated heifers grazing soft-red had a greater (P bloat (21.9 vs. 5.6%) than those grazing hard-red winter wheat, but bloat incidence was low (2.1%) for the stocker cattle, with no difference between hard-red and soft-red winter wheat (P = 0.52). Viscosity of the rumen fluid was affected (P = 0.03) by the wheat variety x time interaction, with soft-red at 1200 and 1800 h being more viscous than soft-red at 0600 h and hard-red at all times. Foam strength, as determined by bubbling CO(2) gas through rumen fluid, had a wheat variety x time interaction (P = 0.02) with both wheat varieties similar at 0600 h but soft-red having greater foam strength at 1200 and 1800 h. In Exp. 2, no bloat was observed, and no differences between wheat varieties were observed for any of the rumen foam measures. Therefore, for these 2 varieties, the soft-red winter wheat had a greater bloat potential than the hard-red winter wheat based on results from the cannulated heifers, but no differences were observed in the frequency of bloat in stocker cattle. In

  11. Improving Timeliness of Winter Wheat Production Forecast in United States of America, Ukraine and China Using MODIS Data and NCAR Growing Degree Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermote, E.; Franch, B.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Claverie, M.; Huang, J.; Zhang, J.; Sobrino, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Wheat is the most important cereal crop traded on international markets and winter wheat constitutes approximately 80% of global wheat production. Thus, accurate and timely forecasts of its production are critical for informing agricultural policies and investments, as well as increasing market efficiency and stability. Becker-Reshef et al. (2010) used an empirical generalized model for forecasting winter wheat production. Their approach combined BRDF-corrected daily surface reflectance from Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Climate Modeling Grid (CMG) with detailed official crop statistics and crop type masks. It is based on the relationship between the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) at the peak of the growing season, percent wheat within the CMG pixel, and the final yields. This method predicts the yield approximately one month to six weeks prior to harvest. In this study, we include the Growing Degree Day (GDD) information extracted from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data in order to improve the winter wheat production forecast by increasing the timeliness of the forecasts while conserving the accuracy of the original model. We apply this modified model to three major wheat-producing countries: United States of America, Ukraine and China from 2001 to 2012. We show that a reliable forecast can be made between one month to a month and a half prior to the peak NDVI (meaning two months to two and a half months prior to harvest) while conserving an accuracy of 10% in the production forecast.

  12. Genome-wide Association Analysis of Powdery Mildew Resistance in U.S. Winter Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat powdery mildew (PM), caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, is a major fungal disease of wheat worldwide. It can cause considerable yield losses when epidemics occur. Use of genetic resistance is the most effective approach to control the disease. To determine the genomic regions responsi...

  13. Milling and Baking Test REsults for Eastern Soft Winter Wheats Harvested in 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Soft Wheat Quality Council (SWQC) will provide an organization structure to evaluate the quality of soft wheat experimental lines and variety that may be grown in the traditional growing regions of the United States. The SWQC also will establish other activities as requested by the membership. ...

  14. Migration and health risks of nonylphenol and bisphenol a in soil-winter wheat systems with long-term reclaimed water irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiyu; Liu, Fei; Wu, Wenyong; Hu, Yaqi; Liao, Renkuan; Chen, Gaoting; Wang, Jiulong; Li, Jialin

    2018-04-12

    Reclaimed water reuse has become an important means of alleviating agricultural water shortage worldwide. However, the presence of endocrine disrupters has roused up considerable attention. Barrel test in farmland was conducted to investigate the migration of nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) in soil-winter wheat system simulating reclaimed water irrigation. Additionally, the health risks on humans were assessed based on US EPA risk assessment model. The migration of NP and BPA decreased from the soil to the winter wheat; the biological concentration factors (BCFs) of NP and BPA in roots, stems, leaves, and grains all decreased with their added concentrations in soils. The BCFs of NP and BPA in roots were greatest (0.60-5.80 and 0.063-1.45, respectively). The average BCFs of NP and BPA in winter wheat showed negative exponential relations to their concentrations in soil. The amounts of NP and BPA in soil-winter wheat system accounted for 8.99-28.24% and 2.35-4.95%, respectively, of the initial amounts added into the soils. The hazard quotient (HQ) for children and adults ranged between 10 -6 and 1, so carcinogenic risks could be induced by ingesting winter wheat grains under long-term reclaimed water irrigation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of Climate Change and Atmospheric CO2 Impact on Winter Wheat in the Pacific Northwest Using a Multimodel Ensemble

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    Mukhtar Ahmed

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Simulations of crop yields under climate change are subject to uncertainties whose quantification is important for effective use of projected results for adaptation and mitigation strategies. In the US Pacific Northwest (PNW, studies based on single crop models and weather projections downscaled from a few general circulation models (GCM have indicated mostly beneficial effects of climate change on winter wheat production for most of the twenty-first century. In this study we evaluated the uncertainty in the projection of winter wheat yields at seven sites in the PNW using five crop growth simulation models (CropSyst, APSIM, DSSAT, STICS, and EPIC and daily weather data downscaled from 14 GCMs for 2 representative concentration pathways (RCP of atmospheric CO2 (RCP4.5 and 8.5. All crop models were calibrated for high, medium, and low precipitation dryland sites and one irrigated site using 1979–2010 as the baseline period. All five models were run from years 2000 to 2100 to evaluate the effect of future conditions (precipitation, temperature and atmospheric CO2 on winter wheat grain yield. Simulations of future climatic conditions and impacts were organized into three 31-year periods centered around the years 2030, 2050, and 2070. All models predicted a decrease of the growing season length and crop transpiration, and increase in transpiration-use efficiency, biomass production, and yields, but with substantial variation that increased from the 2030s to 2070s. Most of the uncertainty (up to 85% associated with predictions of yield was due to variation among the crop models. Maximum uncertainty due to GCMs was 15% which was less than the maximum uncertainty associated with the interaction between the crop model effect and GCM effect (25%. Large uncertainty associated with the interaction between crop models and GCMs indicated that the effect of GCM on yield varied among the five models. The mean of the ensemble of all crop models and GCMs

  16. Modelling and Evaluation of Non-Linear Rootwater Uptake for Winter Cropping of Wheat and Berseem

    Science.gov (United States)

    GS, K.; Prasad, K. S. H.

    2017-12-01

    The plant water uptake is significant for study to monitor the irrigation supplied to the plant. The Richards equation has been the key governing equation to quantify the root water uptake in the vadose zone and it takes all the sources and sink terms into consideration. The β parameter or the non linearity parameter is used in this modeling to bring the non linearity in the plant root water uptake. The soil parameters are obtained by experimentation and are employed in the Van-Genuchten equation for soil moisture study. Field experiments were carried out at Civil Engineering Department IIT Roorkee, Uttarakhand, India, during the winter season of 2013 and 2014 for berseem and 2016 for wheat as per the local cropping practices. Drainage type lysimeters were installed to study the soil water balance. Soil moisture was monitored using profile probe. Precipitation and all meteorological data were obtained from the nearby gauges located at the National Institute of Hydrology, Roorkee.The moisture data and the deep percolation data were collected on a daily basis and the irrigation supply was controlled and monitored to satisfy the moisture requirements of the crops respectively.In order to study the effect of water scarcity on the crops, the plot was divided and deficited irrigation was applied for the second cropping season for Berseem.The yields for both the seasons was also measured. The solution of Richards equation as applied to the moisture movement in the root zone was modeled. For estimation of root water uptake, the governing equation is the one-dimensional mixed form of Richards' equation is employed (Ji et al., 2007; Shankar et al., 2012).The sink term in the model accounts for the root water uptake, which is utilized by the plant for transpiration. Smaxor the maximum root water uptake for the root zone on a given day must be equal to the maximum transpiration on the corresponding day The model computed moisture content and pressure head is calibrated with

  17. Mapping and characterization of the new adult plant leaf rust resistance gene Lr77 derived from Santa Fe winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmer, James A; Su, Zhenqi; Bernardo, Amy; Bai, Guihua; Chao, Shiaoman

    2018-04-25

    A new gene for adult plant leaf rust resistance in wheat was mapped to chromosome 3BL. This gene was designated as Lr77. 'Santa Fe' is a hard red winter cultivar that has had long-lasting resistance to the leaf rust fungus, Puccinia triticina. The objective of this study was to determine the chromosome location of the adult plant leaf rust resistance in Santa Fe wheat. A partial backcross line of 'Thatcher' (Tc) wheat with adult plant leaf rust resistance derived from Santa Fe was crossed with Thatcher to develop a Thatcher//Tc*2/Santa Fe F 6 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. The RIL population and parental lines were evaluated for segregation of leaf rust resistance in three field plot tests and in an adult plant greenhouse test. A genetic map of the RIL population was constructed using 90,000 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers with the Illumina Infinium iSelect 90K wheat bead array. A significant quantitative trait locus for reduction of leaf rust severity in all four tests was found on chromosome 3BL that segregated as a single adult plant resistance gene. The RILs with the allele from the resistant parent for SNP marker IWB10344 had lower leaf rust severity and a moderately resistant to moderately susceptible response compared to the susceptible RILs and Thatcher. The gene derived from Santa Fe on chromosome 3BL was designated as Lr77. Kompetitive allele-specific polymerase chain reaction assay markers linked to Lr77 on 3BL should be useful for selection of wheat germplasm with this gene.

  18. Race-Specific Adult-Plant Resistance in Winter Wheat to Stripe Rust and Characterization of Pathogen Virulence Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milus, Eugene A; Moon, David E; Lee, Kevin D; Mason, R Esten

    2015-08-01

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is an important disease of wheat in the Great Plains and southeastern United States. Growing resistant cultivars is the preferred means for managing stripe rust, but new virulence in the pathogen population overcomes some of the resistance. The objectives of this study were to characterize the stripe rust resistance in contemporary soft and hard red winter wheat cultivars, to characterize the virulence of P. striiformis f. sp. tritici isolates based on the resistances found in the cultivars, and to determine wheat breeders' perceptions on the importance and methods for achieving stripe rust resistance. Seedlings of cultivars were susceptible to recent isolates, indicating they lacked effective all-stage resistance. However, adult-plants were resistant or susceptible depending on the isolate, indicating they had race-specific adult-plant resistance. Using isolates collected from 1990 to 2013, six major virulence patterns were identified on adult plants of twelve cultivars that were selected as adult-plant differentials. Race-specific adult-plant resistance appears to be the only effective type of resistance protecting wheat from stripe rust in eastern United States. Among wheat breeders, the importance of incorporating stripe rust resistance into cultivars ranged from high to low depending on the frequency of epidemics in their region, and most sources of stripe rust resistance were either unknown or already overcome by virulence in the pathogen population. Breeders with a high priority for stripe rust resistance made most of their selections based on adult-plant reactions in the field, whereas breeders with a low priority for resistance based selections on molecular markers for major all-stage resistance genes.

  19. Integrated weed management in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marwat, K.B.; Khan, M.A.; Nawab, K.; Khattak, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The paper summarizes the results of an experiment conducted on wheat at Kohat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan during winter 2004-05. Randomized complete block design with split-split-plot arrangement was used where wheat line and broadcast sowing were kept in main plots. Seed rates (100 and 150 kg ha-1) were assigned as sub-plots, while four herbicides (Topik, Isoproturon, Puma super and Buctril super) and weed check were assigned to sub-sub-plots. Results revealed that higher biological yield was recorded in line sowing. However, higher wheat seed rate decreased weed biomass and increased biological yield. Herbicides proved to be effective in decreasing weed biomass and enhancing grain yield and its contributing traits. It was suggested that line sowing in combination with higher seeding rate and Buctril super should be used in an integrated weed management fashion. However further studies are required to investigate various ranges of seeding rate and herbicides doses. (author)

  20. Effect of proquinazid and copper hydroxide on homeostasis of anions in winter wheat plants in generative phase of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Riazanova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the effect of proquinazid and copper oxide application on structural characteristics and resistance of wheat to powdery mildew, as well as remobilisation and redistribution of anions pools at generative stage of development. The trial series was conducted in the experimental agricultural production of the Institute of Plant Physiology and Genetics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. Field experiments were carried out with Smuglyanka variety of winter wheat. The trial series included the application of fungicides such as Talius (proquinazid, 200 g/L 0,25 L/ha and Kocide 2000 (copper hydroxide, 350 g/kg 150 and 300 g/ha, and combination of both fungicides. Sprays were applied at tillering stage in autumn in the first trial series and at tillering-booting stage in spring in the second one. Assessment of affected plants by powdery mildew was carried out visually in points. Anion concentration was determined with the use of ion chromatography. Application of fungicides at tillering stage increases the amount of productive stems in wheat plants. The highest effect was recorded for application of copper hydroxide at dose of 300 g/ha in autumn. Analysis of plants affected by powdery mildew shows that application of proquinazid and its composition with copper hydroxide provides sustained protection against Blumeria graminis (DC Speer. Application of fungicides at tillering stage contributes to increase of the pool of free nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur anions in leaf tissues compared to control. These changes in anion composition may be caused by fungicide effect on activity of N, P, S transporters, as well as internal regulatory mechanisms of elements’ uptake by plants. Comparing the results of the autumn and spring application of fungicides should note the increase in concentration of free phosphates in wheat leaves in the 2nd trial with proquinazid and its composition with copper hydroxide. Accumulation of nitrogen in the

  1. Response of winter rape (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera Metzg., Sinsk to foliar fertilization and different seeding rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezary A. Kwiatkowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment in growing winter rape was carried out during the period 2009-2011 in a family farm (owned by Mr. M. Bednarczyk located in Jaroszewice (Lublin region, on podzolic soil. Plant biometric features as well as yield and seed qualitative parameters (oil, protein and glucosinolate content were evaluated depending on the following rates of soil NPK fertilizers and on foliar fertilization (autumn spraying with the fertilizer solution: 100% and 75% of NPK as well as urea + nickel chelate + MgSO4H2O; 100% and 75% of NPK as well as urea + Plonvit R + MgSO4H2O. Plots without foliar fertilization (only 100% of NPK were the control treatment. The other experimental factor was the seeding rate (2.5 kg×ha-1 – 30 cm row spacing; 4 kg×ha-1 – 18 cm row spacing. Foliar spraying was done once in the autumn in the second decade of October. Tillage as well as mechanical and chemical control of agricultural pests in the plantation were typical for this plant species and consistent with the recommendations for winter rape protection. A hypothesis was made that the application of foliar fertilizers would have a beneficial effect on winter rape productivity, at the same time maintaining the high quality of raw material. It was also assumed that a reduction in the seeding rate of winter oilseed rape would result in reduced plant lodging and an increased number of siliques per plant; as a consequence, seed and oil productivity would be at a level not lower than that obtained at the higher seeding rate. The present study has proved that foliar fertilization of winter oilseed rape in the autumn period contributes to improved plant winter hardiness and increased productivity. The application of foliar fertilizers also enables the rates of basic mineral NPK fertilizers to be reduced by 25% without detriment to seed yield. Foliar fertilizers have been found to have a weaker effect on changing the chemical composition of rapeseed. The study has shown that

  2. Leveraging the Use of Historical Data Gathered During Seed Regeneration of an ex Situ Genebank Collection of Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Philipp

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Genebanks are a rich source of genetic variation. Most of this variation is absent in breeding programs but may be useful for further crop plant improvement. However, the lack of phenotypic information forms a major obstacle for the educated choice of genebank accessions for research and breeding. A promising approach to fill this information gap is to exploit historical information gathered routinely during seed regeneration cycles. Still, this data is characterized by a high non-orthogonality hampering their analysis. By examining historical data records for flowering time, plant height, and thousand grain weight collected during 70 years of regeneration of 6,207 winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. accessions at the German Federal ex situ Genebank, we aimed to elaborate a strategy to analyze and validate non-orthogonal historical data in order to charge genebank information platforms with high quality ready-to-use phenotypic information. First, a three-step quality control assessment considering the plausibility of trait values and a standard as well as a weather parameter index based outlier detection was implemented, resulting in heritability estimates above 0.90 for all three traits. Then, the data was analyzed by estimating best linear unbiased estimations (BLUEs applying a linear mixed-model approach. An in silico resampling study mimicking different missing data patterns revealed that accessions should be regenerated in a random fashion and not blocked by origin or acquisition date in order to minimize estimation biases in historical data sets. Validation data was obtained from multi-environmental orthogonal field trials considering a random subsample of 3,083 accessions. Correlations above 0.84 between BLUEs estimated for historical data and validation trials outperformed previous approaches and confirmed the robustness of our strategy as well as the high quality of the historical data. The results indicate that the IPK winter wheat

  3. Water consumption characteristics and water use efficiency of winter wheat under long-term nitrogen fertilization regimes in northwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangquanwei Zhong

    Full Text Available Water shortage and nitrogen (N deficiency are the key factors limiting agricultural production in arid and semi-arid regions, and increasing agricultural productivity under rain-fed conditions often requires N management strategies. A field experiment on winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. was begun in 2004 to investigate effects of long-term N fertilization in the traditional pattern used for wheat in China. Using data collected over three consecutive years, commencing five years after the experiment began, the effects of N fertilization on wheat yield, evapotranspiration (ET and water use efficiency (WUE, i.e. the ratio of grain yield to total ET in the crop growing season were examined. In 2010, 2011 and 2012, N increased the yield of wheat cultivar Zhengmai No. 9023 by up to 61.1, 117.9 and 34.7%, respectively, and correspondingly in cultivar Changhan No. 58 by 58.4, 100.8 and 51.7%. N-applied treatments increased water consumption in different layers of 0-200 cm of soil and thus ET was significantly higher in N-applied than in non-N treatments. WUE was in the range of 1.0-2.09 kg/m3 for 2010, 2011 and 2012. N fertilization significantly increased WUE in 2010 and 2011, but not in 2012. The results indicated the following: (1 in this dryland farming system, increased N fertilization could raise wheat yield, and the drought-tolerant Changhan No. 58 showed a yield advantage in drought environments with high N fertilizer rates; (2 N application affected water consumption in different soil layers, and promoted wheat absorbing deeper soil water and so increased utilization of soil water; and (3 comprehensive consideration of yield and WUE of wheat indicated that the N rate of 270 kg/ha for Changhan No. 58 was better to avoid the risk of reduced production reduction due to lack of precipitation; however, under conditions of better soil moisture, the N rate of 180 kg/ha was more economic.

  4. Effect of Sowing Quantity on Soil Temperature and Yield of Winter Wheat under Straw Strip Mulching in Arid Region of Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Xuemei; Chai, Yuwei; Li, Rui; Li, Bowen; Cheng, Hongbo; Chang, Lei; Chai, Shouxi

    2018-01-01

    In order to explore the characteristics and relationship between soil temperature and yield of winter wheat, under different sowing quantities conditions of straw mulching conventional drilling in Northwest China, this study took Lantian 26 as material, under the whole corn mulching conventional drilling in Changhe town and Pingxiang town, setting up 3 different seeding quantities of 270 kg/ha (SSMC1), 324 kg/ha (SSMC2) and 405 kg/ha (SSMC3), to study the difference of soil temperature during the growth period of winter wheat and its correlation with yield components. Results showed: the average soil temperature of 0∼25cm in two ecological zones in the whole growth period have a significant change with the increase of sowing quantities; too much seeding had a sharp drop in soil temperature; the highest temperature of SSMC in Changhe town was the middle quantity of SSMC 2; the highest temperature of SSMC in Pingxiang town was the lowest sowing quantity of SSMC1. Diurnal variation of soil temperature at all growth stages showed: with the increase of SSMC, in the morning it increased with the increase of soil depth, noon and evening reducing with the depth of the soil. The average soil temperature of SSMC2 was higher than that of in all the two ecological zones in the whole growth period of SSMC.The maximum day temperature difference of each treatment was at noon. With the increase of SSMC, the yield increase varied with two ecological zones. SSMC of the local conventional sowing quantity of 270kg/ha SSMC1 yield was the highest in Changhe Town. SSMC of the middle sowing quantity SSMC2 of 324kg/ha yield was the highest in Pingxiang town. The difference of grain number per spike was the main cause of yield difference among these 3 treatments. Correlation analysis showed: the correlation among the yield and yield components, growth index and soil temperature varied with different ecological zones; thousand kernel weight and grain number per ear (.964** and.891**) had a

  5. Genome-Wide Association Studies and Comparison of Models and Cross-Validation Strategies for Genomic Prediction of Quality Traits in Advanced Winter Wheat Breeding Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter S. Kristensen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the this study was to identify SNP markers associated with five important wheat quality traits (grain protein content, Zeleny sedimentation, test weight, thousand-kernel weight, and falling number, and to investigate the predictive abilities of GBLUP and Bayesian Power Lasso models for genomic prediction of these traits. In total, 635 winter wheat lines from two breeding cycles in the Danish plant breeding company Nordic Seed A/S were phenotyped for the quality traits and genotyped for 10,802 SNPs. GWAS were performed using single marker regression and Bayesian Power Lasso models. SNPs with large effects on Zeleny sedimentation were found on chromosome 1B, 1D, and 5D. However, GWAS failed to identify single SNPs with significant effects on the other traits, indicating that these traits were controlled by many QTL with small effects. The predictive abilities of the models for genomic prediction were studied using different cross-validation strategies. Leave-One-Out cross-validations resulted in correlations between observed phenotypes corrected for fixed effects and genomic estimated breeding values of 0.50 for grain protein content, 0.66 for thousand-kernel weight, 0.70 for falling number, 0.71 for test weight, and 0.79 for Zeleny sedimentation. Alternative cross-validations showed that the genetic relationship between lines in training and validation sets had a bigger impact on predictive abilities than the number of lines included in the training set. Using Bayesian Power Lasso instead of GBLUP models, gave similar or slightly higher predictive abilities. Genomic prediction based on all SNPs was more effective than prediction based on few associated SNPs.

  6. Response of water use efficiency and carbon emission to no-tillage and winter wheat genotypes in the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yujie; Gao, Chao; Han, Huifang; Li, Quanqi

    2018-04-20

    No-tillage management practices reduce net CO 2 losses from farmland and keep soil from degrading, but also decrease winter wheat grain yield and water use efficiency (WUE) in the North China Plain (NCP). Suitable management practices, namely, the choice of genotypes, could enhance crop yield and WUE; however, how the WUE and CO 2 exchange responds to no-tillage practices and winter wheat genotypes remains unclear. In the 2015-2016 and 2016-2017 winter wheat growing seasons in the NCP, a field experiment was carried out, and tested two tillage methods (no-tillage with mulching and conventional tillage) and two winter wheat genotypes ('Tainong 18' and 'Jimai 22'). The goal of the study was to identify the relationship between winter wheat grain yield, water consumption, and carbon emissions in no-tillage practices. The results showed that, compared to conventional tillage, no-tillage significantly reduced the net CO 2 -C cumulative emissions and water consumption; however, the grain yield was significantly reduced by 6.8% and 12.0% in the first and second growing seasons, respectively. Compared with Jimai 22, Tainong 18 had a compensatory effect on the yield reduction caused by no-tillage. As a result, the yield carbon utilization efficiency (R) and WUE were the highest in no-tillage with Tainong 18 (NT18), and the carbon emission per unit water consumption was the lowest in NT18. The results support the idea that a combination of no-tillage with genotype can improve the regulation of soil carbon emissions and water consumption of winter wheat, thus, providing theoretical support for sustainable crop production and soil development in the NCP. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [Study of building quantitative analysis model for chlorophyll in winter wheat with reflective spectrum using MSC-ANN algorithm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xue; Ji, Hai-yan; Wang, Peng-xin; Rao, Zhen-hong; Shen, Bing-hui

    2010-01-01

    Preprocess method of multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) was used to reject noises in the original spectra produced by the environmental physical factor effectively, then the principal components of near-infrared spectroscopy were calculated by nonlinear iterative partial least squares (NIPALS) before building the back propagation artificial neural networks method (BP-ANN), and the numbers of principal components were calculated by the method of cross validation. The calculated principal components were used as the inputs of the artificial neural networks model, and the artificial neural networks model was used to find the relation between chlorophyll in winter wheat and reflective spectrum, which can predict the content of chlorophyll in winter wheat. The correlation coefficient (r) of calibration set was 0.9604, while the standard deviation (SD) and relative standard deviation (RSD) was 0.187 and 5.18% respectively. The correlation coefficient (r) of predicted set was 0.9600, and the standard deviation (SD) and relative standard deviation (RSD) was 0.145 and 4.21% respectively. It means that the MSC-ANN algorithm can reject noises in the original spectra produced by the environmental physical factor effectively and set up an exact model to predict the contents of chlorophyll in living leaves veraciously to replace the classical method and meet the needs of fast analysis of agricultural products.

  8. Effect of the New Plant Growth Biostimulants Based on Amino Acids on Yield and Grain Quality of Winter Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popko, Małgorzata; Michalak, Izabela; Wilk, Radosław; Gramza, Mateusz; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Górecki, Henryk

    2018-02-21

    Field and laboratory experiments were carried out in 2012-2013, aimed at evaluating the influence of new products stimulating plant growth based on amino acids on crop yield, characteristics of grain and content of macro- and micronutrients in winter wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.). The tests included two formulations produced in cooperation with INTERMAG Co. (Olkusz, Poland)-AminoPrim and AminoHort, containing 15% and 20% amino acids, respectively, and 0.27% and 2.1% microelements, respectively. Field experiments showed that the application of products based on amino acids influenced the increase of grain yield of winter wheat (5.4% and 11%, respectively, for the application of AminoPrim at a dose 1.0 L/ha and AminoHort at dose 1.25 L/ha) when compared to the control group without biostimulant. Laboratory tests showed an increase of technological characteristics of grain such as ash content, Zeleny sedimentation index and content of protein. The use of the tested preparations at different doses also contributed to the increase of the nutrients content in grains, in particular copper (ranging 31-50%), as well as sodium (35-43%), calcium (4.3-7.9%) and molybdenum (3.9-16%). Biostimulants based on amino acids, tested in the present study, can be recommended for an efficient agricultural production.

  9. Residual N effect of long-term applications of cattle slurry using winter wheat as test crop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suarez, Alfonso; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Rasmussen, Jim

    2018-01-01

    ) as reference treatments. In the test years, the customary nutrient treatments were withheld and each plot divided into six subplots randomly allocated increasing rates of mineral fertilizer N (0–250 kg N ha−1). The winter wheat yielded more in the first test year due to crop rotational effects and more benign...... climatic conditions, substantiating that more test years are needed when estimating residual N effects. The residual value of N added previously with NPK was negligible. In the first year, grain yields at N optimum were similar for NPK and SLU, but the amount of fertilizer N needed to reach optimum yield...... in cattle slurry (50, 100 and 150 kg total-N ha−1 termed ½, 1 and 1½ SLU), we estimated the residual N value over two consecutive growth periods (2014/2015 and 2015/2016). We used winter wheat as test crop and soils with a history of mineral fertilizers only (1 PK (no N)) and 1 NPK (100 kg N ha−1...

  10. Modeling Root Growth, Crop Growth and N Uptake of Winter Wheat Based on SWMS_2D: Model and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejun Yang

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Simulations for root growth, crop growth, and N uptake in agro-hydrological models are of significant concern to researchers. SWMS_2D is one of the most widely used physical hydrologically related models. This model solves equations that govern soil-water movement by the finite element method, and has a public access source code. Incorporating key agricultural components into the SWMS_2D model is of practical importance, especially for modeling some critical cereal crops such as winter wheat. We added root growth, crop growth, and N uptake modules into SWMS_2D. The root growth model had two sub-models, one for root penetration and the other for root length distribution. The crop growth model used was adapted from EU-ROTATE_N, linked to the N uptake model. Soil-water limitation, nitrogen limitation, and temperature effects were all considered in dry-weight modeling. Field experiments for winter wheat in Bouwing, the Netherlands, in 1983-1984 were selected for validation. Good agreements were achieved between simulations and measurements, including soil water content at different depths, normalized root length distribution, dry weight and nitrogen uptake. This indicated that the proposed new modules used in the SWMS_2D model are robust and reliable. In the future, more rigorous validation should be carried out, ideally under 2D situations, and attention should be paid to improve some modules, including the module simulating soil N mineralization.

  11. Effect of Salicylic Acid and Ethephon on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Wheat under Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheyla Shakeri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Water or soil salinities are the most important factors that reduce the seed germination of plants. Ethephon can break seed dormancy in a variety of plants, such as cereals and speeds up germination. In some plants pretreatment of seeds with salicylic acid has increased the germination percentage. To study effect of salicylic acid and ethephon on seed germination of wheat (Seivand cultivar under salinity condition a factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with three replications was conducted at the Plant Research Laboratory of Neyshabur Branch of Islamic Azad University in 2011. Four salinity levels (0, 50, 100, 150 mM, three salicylic acid levels (0, 0.5, 1 mM and four ethephon levels (0, 0.5, 1, 2 mM were used. The results showed that at salinity condition seed germination rate and percentage, shoot and root length, their dry weight and α-amylase activity decreased and proline content increased. Pretreatment of seeds by salicylic acid increased seed germination percentage, some growth parameters, α-amylase activity and proline content under salinity condition. Moreover, pretreatment of seeds by ethephon decreased some growth parameters and increased proline content but its effect on germination and α-amylase activity were not significant. It seems that Salicylic acid as a plant growth regulator under salinity condition and ethephon convertion to ethylene, activated plant tolerance mechanisms to salinity condition and decrease damaging effect of salinity on seed germination and seedling growth of wheat.

  12. The impact of tropospheric ozone pollution on trial plot winter wheat yields in Great Britain - an econometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliakatsou, Evridiki; Bell, J Nigel B; Thirtle, Colin; Rose, Daniel; Power, Sally A

    2010-05-01

    Numerous experiments have demonstrated reductions in the yields of cereal crops due to tropospheric O(3), with losses of up to 25%. However, the only British econometric study on O(3) impacts on winter wheat yields, found that a 10% increase in AOT40 would decrease yields by only 0.23%. An attempt is made here to reconcile these observations by developing AOT40 maps for Great Britain and matching levels with a large number of standardised trial plot wheat yields from many sites over a 13-year period. Panel estimates (repeated measures on the same plots with time) show a 0.54% decrease in yields and it is hypothesised that plant breeders may have inadvertently selected for O(3) tolerance in wheat. Some support for this is provided by fumigations of cultivars of differing introduction dates. A case is made for the use of econometric as well as experimental studies in prediction of air pollution induced crop loss. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cultural Characteristics of Rhizoctonia cerealis Isolated from Diseased Wheat Fields and Evaluation of the Resistance of Korean Winter Cereal Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Sook Lee

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It was identified as a sharp eyespot (Rhizoctonia cerealis that the isolates from abnormal symptoms in wheat that showed yellowing leaves, necrotic spot on stem base and dead tillers. These isolates have slower growth property and fewer mycelia than Rhizoctonia solani AG-1(1A (KACC 40106. They showed binuclear cell, same media cultural and DNA characteristics to R. cerealis. They caused same symptoms on leaves and stem base appeared in artificial inoculation test, comparing to diseased wheat fields and also affect to maturing of kernels. They have optimal growth temperature and acidity on the artificial media as 20~25℃ and pH 5~7, respectively. In the investigation of varietal resistance of Korean winter cereal crops to sharp eyespot, there was no resistant in wheat cultivars that all materials infected over 20% diseased ratio. 12 cultivars including ``Anbaekmil``, however, considered to moderate resistance with 20 to 30% infection ratio. The others crops using in feeding, whole crop barley, oat, rye and triticale were resistant below 15% diseased degree except the rye that showed over 50% infection rate. It was the first evaluation to sharp eyespot resistance for the Korean feeding crop cultivars. Most tested Korean barley cultivars for malting and food were moderate and susceptible to the sharp eyespot. Only 3 hulled barley, ``Tapgolbori``, ``Albori`` and ``Seodunchalbori``, showed resistance with less than 10% diseased ratio. All tested naked barley cultivars showed susceptible response to the disease.

  14. Genome-Wide Association Mapping for Resistance to Leaf and Stripe Rust in Winter-Habit Hexaploid Wheat Landraces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Kertho

    Full Text Available Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina (Pt, and stripe rust, caused by P. striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst, are destructive foliar diseases of wheat worldwide. Breeding for disease resistance is the preferred strategy of managing both diseases. The continued emergence of new races of Pt and Pst requires a constant search for new sources of resistance. Here we report a genome-wide association analysis of 567 winter wheat (Triticum aestivum landrace accessions using the Infinium iSelect 9K wheat SNP array to identify loci associated with seedling resistance to five races of Pt (MDCL, MFPS, THBL, TDBG, and TBDJ and one race of Pst (PSTv-37 frequently found in the Northern Great Plains of the United States. Mixed linear models identified 65 and eight significant markers associated with leaf rust and stripe rust, respectively. Further, we identified 31 and three QTL associated with resistance to Pt and Pst, respectively. Eleven QTL, identified on chromosomes 3A, 4A, 5A, and 6D, are previously unknown for leaf rust resistance in T. aestivum.

  15. Remotely Estimating Aerial N Uptake in Winter Wheat Using Red-Edge Area Index From Multi-Angular Hyperspectral Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin-Bin Guo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing techniques can be efficient for non-destructive, rapid detection of wheat nitrogen (N nutrient status. In the paper, we examined the relationships of canopy multi-angular data with aerial N uptake of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. across different growing seasons, locations, years, wheat varieties, and N application rates. Seventeen vegetation indices (VIs selected from the literature were measured for the stability in estimating aerial N uptake of wheat under 13 view zenith angles (VZAs in the solar principal plane (SPP. In total, the back-scatter angles showed better VI behavior than the forward-scatter angles. The correlation coefficient of VIs with aerial N uptake increased with decreasing VZAs. The best linear relationship was integrated with the optimized common indices DIDA and DDn to examine dynamic changes in aerial N uptake; this led to coefficients of determination (R2 of 0.769 and 0.760 at the −10° viewing angle. Our novel area index, designed the modified right-side peak area index (mRPA, was developed in accordance with exploration of the spectral area calculation and red-edge feature using the equation: mRPA = (R760/R6001/2 × (R760-R718. Investigating the predictive accuracy of mRPA for aerial N uptake across VZAs demonstrated that the best performance was at −10° [R2 = 0.804, p < 0.001, root mean square error (RMSE = 3.615] and that the effect was relatively similar between −20° to +10° (R2 = 0.782, p < 0.001, RMSE = 3.805. This leads us to construct a simple model under wide-angle combinations so as to improve the field operation simplicity and applicability. Fitting independent datasets to the models resulted in relative error (RE, % values of 12.6, 14.1, and 14.9% between estimated and measured aerial N uptake for mRPA, DIDA, and DDn across the range of −20° to +10°, respectively, further confirming the superior test performance of the mRPA index. These results illustrate that the novel index

  16. Winter wheat grain yield and its components in the North China Plain: irrigation management, cultivation, and climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Lv

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation has been identified as the main driving factor of groundwater drawdown in the North China Plain (NCP. In order to develop appropriate irrigation strategies for satisfactory yields of wheat (Triticum aestivum L., grain yield (GY, yield components, and water use efficiency (WUE were studied. A field experiment was conducted with two types of winter wheat, 'Shimai15' and 'Shixin733', and five irrigation treatments, including rainfed and four spring irrigation water applications, in four growing seasons (2005 to 2009. Results showed that maximum GY was achieved with three irrigation treatments in the 2005-2006 and 2008-2009 dry seasons and two irrigation treatments in the 2006-2007 normal season. However, in the 2007-2008 wet season, the four irrigation treatments, especially the additional irrigation event at the reviving stage (28, produced maximum GY. Grain yield was significantly related to seasonal full evapotranspiration (ET and 410 to 530 mm of seasonal full ET, including 143 mm rainfall and 214 mm irrigation water, which led to maximum GY. The two types of cultivars responded differently to irrigation management in different rainfall years. The yield of the water-saving cv. 'Shimai 15' was much higher in the dry seasons than in the other seasons. Variations of yield components were mainly caused by irrigation time and meteorological factors. The higher accumulated temperature during the sowing and tillering stages (24 and irrigation or precipitation at the reviving stage (28 significantly improved tiller growth. The lower average temperature in March and April greatly increased grain number per spike. Sunshine duration played a decisive role in improving grain weight. Our results provide very useful information about irrigation time and frequency of winter wheat in the NCP in order to obtain high yield but reduce the use of underground water.

  17. Plant growth regulators and ascorbic acid effects on physiological quality of wheat seedlings obtained from deteriorated seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moori, S.; Eisv, H.R.

    2017-01-01

    This study attempted to examine the effect of seed priming using plant growth regulators and vitamin C on the physiological traits of non-aged and aged seeds of wheat and their obtained seedlings. Accelerated aging (AA) method (40 degree C, RH=100% for 72h) was used for aging seeds. The seeds were pre-treated by gibberellin (GA), salicylic acid (SA), brassinosteroid (BR), and ascorbic acid (AS). Some seed traits such as germination and electric conductivity (EC) and seedling traits such as malondialdehyde (MDA) content, activity of some antioxidant enzymes, soluble protein content (SP), soluble sugar (SS), and proline were measured seven days after germination. The results showed that accelerated aging of seeds reduces the germination percentage and speed, increases soluble sugar, and reduces soluble protein, activity of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the seedling. Pre-treatment of the aged seed by GA had the maximum positive impact on seed germination and seedling growth. Priming improved germination indices, quality of seedling, and seedling resistance against the oxidative stress caused by AA. It also improved cell membrane integrity and thus reduced seeds’ EC. Priming increased the activity of CAT, POD and SOD enzymes in both aged and non-aged seeds. When the deteriorated seeds were primed, proline and SS contents of the seedling increased significantly, but SP and MDA decreased. In general, pre-treatment of the non-aged and aged seeds by gibberellin improved the physiological quality of the seed and seedling. (author)

  18. Effect of Low Temperature and Wheat Winter-Hardiness on Survival of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici under Controlled Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijie Ma

    Full Text Available Wheat stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst, is one of the most important diseases of wheat worldwide. Understanding the survival of Pst during the overwintering period is critical for predicting Pst epidemics in the spring. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR methods quantifying Pst DNA and RNA (cDNA were developed and compared for the ability to quantify viable Pst in leaf tissues. Both qPCR of DNA and RNA can provide reliable measurement of viable Pst in plant tissues prior to the late sporulation stage for which qPCR of DNA gave a much higher estimate of fungal biomass than qPCR of RNA. The percentage of Pst biomass that was viable in detached and attached leaves under low temperatures decreased over time. Pst survived longer on attached leaves than on detached leaves. The survival of Pst in cultivars with strong winter-hardiness at 0°C and -5°C was greater than those with weak winter-hardiness. However, such differences in Pst survival among cultivars were negligible at -10, -15 and -20°C. Results indicated that Pst mycelia inside green leaves can also be killed by low temperatures rather than through death of green leaves under low temperatures. The relationship of Pst survival in attached leaves with temperature and winter-hardiness was well described by logistic models. Further field evaluation is necessary to assess whether inclusion of other factors such as moisture and snow cover could improve the model performance in predicting Pst overwintering potential, and hence the epidemic in spring.

  19. Biosynthesis of raffinose family oligosaccharides and galactosyl pinitols in developing and maturing seeds of winter vetch (Vicia vlllosa Roth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesław B. Lahuta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the accumulation of two types of α-D-galactosides: raffinose family oligosaccharides and galactosyl pinitols were compared with changes in the activities of galactosyltransferases during winter vetch (Vicia villosa Roth. seed development and maturation. Occurrence of galactinol and raffinose in young seeds and changes in activities of galactinol synthase and raffinose synthase during seed development indicated that formation of raffinose oligosaccharides (RFOs preceded synthesis of galactopinitols. Although transfer of galactose residues into raffinose oligosaccharides increased as seeds were maturing, at late stages of seed maturation the accumulation of galactopinitols was preferred to that of RFOs. In the present study, activities of enzymes transferring galactose moieties from galactinol to D-pinitol forming galactopinitol A, and further transfer of galactose moieties from galactinol to mono- and di-galactopinitol A were detected throughout seed development and maturation. This is a new observation, indicating biological potential of winter vetch seeds to synthesize mono-, di- and tri-galactosides of D-pinitol in a pathway similar to RFOs. The pattern of changes in activities of stachyose synthase and enzymes synthesizing galactopinitols (named galactopinitol A synthase and ciceritol synthase suggests that formation of stachyose, mono- and di-galactopinitol A (ciceritol is catalyzed by one enzyme. High correlation between activities of verbascose synthase and enzyme catalyzing synthesis of tri-galactopinitol A from galactinol and ciceritol (named tri-galactopinitol A synthase also suggests that biosynthesis of both types of tri-galactosides was catalyzed by one enzyme, but distinct from stachyose synthase. Changes in concentrations of galactosyl acceptors (sucrose and D-pinitol can be a factor which regulates splitting of galactose moieties between both types of galactosides in winter vetch seeds.

  20. [Effects of combined pollution of lead and benzo[a] pyrene on seed growth of wheat in soils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Qi; Wang, Shuai; Ning, Shao-Wei; Sun, Yan-Ling; Hou, Ze-Qing

    2011-03-01

    Seed germination, root elongation, shoot elongation and ratio of shoot to root of wheat in soils polluted by lead (Pb) and benzo (a)pyrene (B[a] P) with medium-low concentrations were studied to reveal the ecological effects of combined pollution and screen the indicative markers. Results indicated that seed germination was not sensitive to single or combined pollution of Pb or B[a] P. Root elongation was inhibited by single pollution of Pb or B[a]P to different extents. Extensive interactions between Pb and B[a]P occurred to root elongation of wheat, including synergistic-stimulatory effect and antagonistic-inhibitory effect. The joint action was mainly antagonistic. Single pollution of B [a] P had an inhibitory effect on shoot elongation. Under combined pollution conditions, the shoot elongation of wheat correlated well with Pb contents (p pollutants had little effect on shoot elongation of wheat. The joint action on shoot elongation was consistently antagonistic. The response pattern of the ratio of shoot to root was similar to the response pattern of shoot elongation. However, the former had better correlation than the latter, indicating it as a more suitable indicative marker for Pb pollution. If lead acetate was employed instead of lead nitrate, longer root elongation, shorter shoot elongation and no effect on ratio of shoot to root were found. Therefore, the forms of Pb salt had significant influence on seed growth of wheat in soils.

  1. Evaluating the Effect of Seed Treatment with Hydrogen Peroxide on Anatomical and Physiological Characteristics of Wheat under Dry Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Jafarian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Water deficit is the major abiotic factor limiting plant growth and crop productivity around the world. In all agricultural regions, yields of rain-fed crops are periodically reduced by drought. Among various strategies, pre-sowing treatment and priming of seeds are easy, low cost, low risk and effective approaches to overcome the environmental stress problems. Various priming strategies include osmopriming, halopriming, hormonal priming or hydropriming, etc. Hydrogen peroxide, a stress signal molecule, was evaluated as seed treatment to produce the metabolic changes, which could lead to improved drought tolerance in wheat. The interaction of signals conferring stress tolerance in accomplishing better crop growth and yield is a priority area of research. Here we report some anatomical, physiological and biochemical changes induced by Hydrogen peroxide during seed treatment and their involvement in conferring drought tolerance upon wheat. Materials and Methods A field study was conducted out at the research farm of agricultural collage of Ilam university during 2014-2015 cropping season. This study was aimed to investigate the priming seed with hydrogen peroxide on two wheat genotypes (Cross Sabalan (bread wheat and Saji (durum wheat, under dryland farming system condition. Experimental design was factorial, arranged in randomized complete block, with three replications. Two main factors were wheat genotypes and four soaking treatments of seeds with different concentration (zero, 25, 50 and 80 Mm of Hydrogen Peroxide. Seeds of each genotype were sown at 6 rows of 3 m length with lines space of 20 cm in depth 5 cm. At heading stage physiological traits were measured on selected leaves and then samples were taken to determine leaf area, Leaf rolling, number and length of Stomata on the epidermis, RWC, electrolyte leakage, photosynthetic pigments concentrations (Chla, b and carotenoid and antioxidant enzyme contents (catalase, ascorbate

  2. Effect of seed treatment with milk powder and mustard flour in control of common bunt (Tilletia tritici) in wheat and stem smut (Urocystis occulta) in rye

    OpenAIRE

    Borgen, Anders; Kristensen, Lars

    2001-01-01

    In field trials mustard flour was able to control seed borne infection by common bunt (Tilletia tritici) in wheat without decreasing the germination vigour of the treated seeds. Full control of common bunt by coating the seeds with milk powder could only be achieved at doses which reduced germination vigour of the seeds. Mustard flour can be recommended as a seed treatment in organic agriculture while a treatment based on milk powder should be developed in combination with biological control....

  3. Effects of storage and soaking on wheat seeds exposed to gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajayi, N.O.

    1975-07-01

    Wheat seeds, variety Starke II, of water content 11,5 per cent of dry weight, irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays over a wide range of absorbed doses were sowed in wet sand. When analysed after eight days, seedling growth was found to have decreased with increasing dose, very rapidly within the first 40 krad and more slowly thereafter until that dose, 500 krad, which made the shoot and the root fail to develop. Storage over three weeks was found to produce greater reduction in the seelding growth at doses below 40 krad, and lowering of the dose at which the seedling failed to develop from about 500 krad to 300 krad. Soaking the irradiated seeds immediately after irradiation for one hour before planting was found to improve the seedling growth in the low dose region compared to when seeds were immediately sowed. It is suggested that the water absorbed during soaking permits the free radicals to recombine and DNA-damage to be repaired. It is thought that radiation seriously affects cellular multiplication and the production of growth promoting homones of the embryo. On the other hand elongation of surviving, presumably non-mitotic cells, is apparently taking place even at high doses, in fact up to 500 krad. (author)

  4. Phosphorus Transport in Arabidopsis and Wheat: Emerging Strategies to Improve P Pool in Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushtak Kisko

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P is an essential macronutrient for plants to complete their life cycle. P taken up from the soil by the roots is transported to the rest of the plant and ultimately stored in seeds. This stored P is used during germination to sustain the nutritional demands of the growing seedling in the absence of a developed root system. Nevertheless, P deficiency, an increasing global issue, greatly decreases the vigour of afflicted seeds. To combat P deficiency, current crop production methods rely on heavy P fertilizer application, an unsustainable practice in light of a speculated decrease in worldwide P stocks. Therefore, the overall goal in optimizing P usage for agricultural purposes is both to decrease our dependency on P fertilizers and enhance the P-use efficiency in plants. Achieving this goal requires a robust understanding of how plants regulate inorganic phosphate (Pi transport, during vegetative growth as well as the reproductive stages of development. In this short review, we present the current knowledge on Pi transport in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and apply the information towards the economically important cereal crop wheat. We highlight the importance of developing our knowledge on the regulation of these plants’ P transport systems and P accumulation in seeds due to its involvement in maintaining their vigour and nutritional quality. We additionally discuss further discoveries in the subjects this review discusses substantiate this importance in their practical applications for practical food security and geopolitical applications.

  5. An Optimized Protocol for DNA Extraction from Wheat Seeds and Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP to Detect Fusarium graminearum Contamination of Wheat Grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Moslem

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple, rapid, and efficient method for isolating genomic DNA from germinated seeds of wheat that is free from polysaccharides and polyphenols is reported. DNA was extracted, treated with RNase, measured and tested for completeness using agarose gel electrophoresis. DNA purification from wheat grains yielded abundant, amplifiable DNA with yields typically between 100 and 200 ng DNA/mg. The effectiveness and reliability of the method was tested by assessing quantity and quality of the isolated DNA using three PCR-based markers. Inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs were used to assess the genetic diversity between different wheat varieties. Specific PCR primer pair Tox5-1/Tox5-2 and a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP procedure were used to detect genomic DNA of Fusarium graminearum in contaminated wheat seeds. In this method there is no need to use liquid nitrogen for crushing germinated seedlings. The protocol takes approximately one hour to prepare high quality DNA. In combination with the LAMP assay it is a fast and cost-effective alternative to traditional diagnostic methods for the early detection of toxigenic fusaria in cereals.

  6. An optimized protocol for DNA extraction from wheat seeds and Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) to detect Fusarium graminearum contamination of wheat grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elsalam, Kamel; Bahkali, Ali; Moslem, Mohamed; Amin, Osama E; Niessen, Ludwig

    2011-01-01

    A simple, rapid, and efficient method for isolating genomic DNA from germinated seeds of wheat that is free from polysaccharides and polyphenols is reported. DNA was extracted, treated with RNase, measured and tested for completeness using agarose gel electrophoresis. DNA purification from wheat grains yielded abundant, amplifiable DNA with yields typically between 100 and 200 ng DNA/mg. The effectiveness and reliability of the method was tested by assessing quantity and quality of the isolated DNA using three PCR-based markers. Inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) were used to assess the genetic diversity between different wheat varieties. Specific PCR primer pair Tox5-1/Tox5-2 and a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) procedure were used to detect genomic DNA of Fusarium graminearum in contaminated wheat seeds. In this method there is no need to use liquid nitrogen for crushing germinated seedlings. The protocol takes approximately one hour to prepare high quality DNA. In combination with the LAMP assay it is a fast and cost-effective alternative to traditional diagnostic methods for the early detection of toxigenic fusaria in cereals.

  7. Accumulation of Cs, Sr into leaves and grain of winter wheat under act of N, Zn, Li, Na

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grodzinsky, D.; Tkatchuk, K.; Zhmurko, N.; Bogdan, T.; Guralchuk, Zh.

    1998-01-01

    The experiments were carried out on cv Lutencens 7 winter wheat grown on grey forest soil. In order to study the influence of nitrogen on Cs and Sr accumulation, a background of P60 K60 added in autumn different doses of nitrogen (30, 60, 120 kg/ha) were applied in spring. The influence of micronutrients on Cs and Sr accumulation was studied by adding 3 kg/ha Zn and 2 kg/ha Li to the soil under ploughing on background of N60 P60 K60. Besides the foliar application with 0.05% Na 2 SO 4 was carried out. Cation content (Cs, Sn, Zn, Li, Na) in soil and plant organs was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The Cs, Sr content in control plant leaves made up 15.0 and 21.0 mg per g of dry matter at the early stages of plant development. As the plants aged, the content of those elements in the leaves decreased strongly (3-4 times). At early stages of plant development, nitrogen caused an 8.9-11% increase in the Cs content of the leaves. At the stages of heading to grain filling, the Cs content increase was only observed at a high nitrogen dose, whereas low nitrogen doses had no effected on Cs accumulation in leaves. In should be noted that nitrogen (N60 and N120) decreased the Cs content in grain by 32-33%. As for the Sr content of grain, this was 3 to 4-fold less than that of Cs. Nitrogen had no effected on the Sr content of grain. Zn and Li addition to soil as well as foliar nutrition with Na had a different effect on the Cs and Sr content of winter wheat leaves and grain. Addition of Li decreased the Cs and Sr content of old leaves by 13% and 25% respectively. Addition of Zn and Na decreased the Sr content of old leaves but had no effect on the Cs content. Zn, Na and Li reduced the Sr content in grain also, viz. by 16,11 and 7% respectively. Thus the research has demonstrated the possibility of regulating Cs and Sr accumulation in the above-ground organs of winter wheat plants

  8. Yield and size of oyster mushroom grown on rice/wheat straw basal substrate supplemented with cotton seed hull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenjie; Guo, Fengling; Wan, Zhengjie

    2013-10-01

    Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) was cultivated on rice straw basal substrate, wheat straw basal substrate, cotton seed hull basal substrate, and wheat straw or rice straw supplemented with different proportions (15%, 30%, and 45% in rice straw substrate, 20%, 30%, and 40% in wheat straw substrate) of cotton seed hull to find a cost effective substrate. The effect of autoclaved sterilized and non-sterilized substrate on growth and yield of oyster mushroom was also examined. Results indicated that for both sterilized substrate and non-sterilized substrate, oyster mushroom on rice straw and wheat basal substrate have faster mycelial growth rate, comparatively poor surface mycelial density, shorter total colonization period and days from bag opening to primordia formation, lower yield and biological efficiency, lower mushroom weight, longer stipe length and smaller cap diameter than that on cotton seed hull basal substrate. The addition of cotton seed hull to rice straw and wheat straw substrate slowed spawn running, primordial development and fruit body formation. However, increasing the amount of cotton seed hull can increase the uniformity and white of mycelium, yield and biological efficiency, and increase mushroom weight, enlarge cap diameter and shorten stipe length. Compared to the sterilized substrate, the non-sterilized substrate had comparatively higher mycelial growth rate, shorter total colonization period and days from bag opening to primordia formation. However, the non-sterilized substrate did not gave significantly higher mushroom yield and biological efficiency than the sterilized substrate, but some undesirable characteristics, i.e. smaller mushroom cap diameter and relatively long stipe length.

  9. Cold priming drives the sub-cellular antioxidant systems to protect photosynthetic electron transport against subsequent low temperature stress in winter wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiangnan; Cai, Jian; Liu, Fulai

    2014-01-01

    Low temperature seriously depresses the growth of wheat through inhibition of photosynthesis, while earlier cold priming may enhance the tolerance of plants to subsequent low temperature stress. Here, winter wheat plants were firstly cold primed (5.2°C lower temperature than the ambient temperatu......-cellular antioxidant systems, depressing the oxidative burst in photosynthetic apparatus, hereby enhanced the tolerance to subsequent low temperature stress in winter wheat plants.......Low temperature seriously depresses the growth of wheat through inhibition of photosynthesis, while earlier cold priming may enhance the tolerance of plants to subsequent low temperature stress. Here, winter wheat plants were firstly cold primed (5.2°C lower temperature than the ambient temperature......, viz., 10.0°C) at the Zadoks growth stage 28 (i.e.re-greening stage, starting on 20th of March) for 7d, and after 14d of recovery the plants were subsequently subjected to a 5d low temperature stress (8.4°C lower than the ambient temperature, viz., 14.1°C) at the Zadoks growth stage 31 (i...

  10. PLASMA-MEMBRANE LIPID ALTERATIONS INDUCED BY NACL IN WINTER-WHEAT ROOTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MANSOUR, MMF; VANHASSELT, PR; KUIPER, PJC

    A highly enriched plasma membrane fraction was isolated by two phase partitioning from wheat roots (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Vivant) grown with and without 100 mM NaCl. The lipids of the plasma membrane fraction were extracted and characterized. Phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine were

  11. A novel QTL associated with dwarf bunt resistance in Idaho 444 winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    A significant component of Mendel’s legacy has been the ability to discover, map, and utilize genes for resistance to diseases in the crops that the world relies on for food. Dwarf bunt [Tilletia contraversa Kühn (syn. Tilletia controversa)] is a destructive disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) ...

  12. Assessing uncertainties of water footprints using an ensemble of crop growth models on winter wheat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kersebaum, K. C.; Kroes, J.; Gobin, A.; Takáč, J.; Hlavinka, Petr; Trnka, Miroslav; Ventrella, D.; Giglio, L.; Ferrise, R.; Moriondo, M.; Marta, A. D.; Luo, Q.; Eitzinger, Josef; Mirschel, W.; Weigel, H-J.; Manderscheid, R.; Hofmann, M.; Nejedlík, P.; Hösch, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 12 (2016), č. článku 571. ISSN 2073-4441 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MŠk(CZ) LD13030 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : water footprint * uncertainty * model ensemble * wheat Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 1.832, year: 2016

  13. Sustainability of European winter wheat- and maize-based cropping systems: Economic, environmental and social ex-post assessment of conventional and IPM-based systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasileiadis, V.P.; Dachbrodt-saaydeh, S.; Kudsk, P.; Colnenne-David, C.; Leprince, F.; Holb, I.J.; Kierzek, R.; Furlan, L.; Loddo, D.; Melander, B.; Jørgensen, L.N.; Newton, A.C.; Toque, C.; Dijk, van W.; Lefebvre, M.; Benezit, M.; Sattin, M.

    2017-01-01

    In order to ensure higher sustainability of winter wheat and maize production in Europe, cropping systems featuring different levels of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) need to be tested in the field and validated for their sustainability before being adopted by farmers. However, the sustainability

  14. Long-term effects of manure and inorganic fertilizers on yield and soil fertility for a winter wheat-maize system in Jiangsu, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, J.; Hengsdijk, H.; Dai, T.; Boer, de W.; Qi, J.; Cao, W.

    2006-01-01

    Winter wheat-maize rotations are dominant cropping systems on the North China Plain, where recently the use of organic manure with grain crops has almost disappeared. This could reduce soil fertility and crop productivity in the long run. A 20-year field experiment was conducted to 1) assess the

  15. Planting Date and Seeding Rate Effects on Sunn Hemp Biomass and Nitrogen Production for a Winter Cover Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kipling S. Balkcom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L. is a tropical legume that produces plant biomass and nitrogen (N quickly. Our objectives were to assess the growth of a new sunn hemp cultivar breed to produce seed in a temperate climate and determine the residual N effect on a rye (Secale cereale L. cover crop in east-central Alabama from 2007 to 2009. Plant populations, plant height, stem diameter, biomass production, and N content were determined for two sunn hemp planting dates, following corn (Zea mays L. and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. harvest, across different seeding rates (17, 34, 50, and 67 kg/ha. Rye biomass was measured the following spring. Sunn hemp biomass production was inconsistent across planting dates, but did relate to growing degree accumulation. Nitrogen concentrations were inversely related to biomass production, and subsequent N contents corresponded to biomass levels. Neither planting date nor seeding rate affected rye biomass production, but rye biomass averaged over both planting dates following wheat/sunn hemp averaged 43% and 33% greater than rye following fallow. Rye biomass following corn/sunn hemp was equivalent to fallow plots. Early planting dates are recommended for sunn hemp with seeding rates between 17 and 34 kg/ha to maximize biomass and N production.

  16. Allelic variation at the vernalization and photoperiod sensitivity loci in Chinese winter wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangfen eZhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 205 wheat cultivars from the Yellow and Huai valley of China were used to identify allelic variations of vernalization and photoperiod response genes, as well as the copy number variations (CNVs of Ppd-B1 and Vrn-A1 genes. A novel Vrn-D1 allele with 174-bp insertion in the promoter region of the recessive allele vrn-D1 was discovered in three Chinese wheat cultivars and designated as Vrn-D1c. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that cultivars with the Vrn-D1c allele exhibited significantly higher expression of the Vrn-D1 gene than that in cultivars with the recessive allele vrn-D1, indicating that the 174-bp insertion of Vrn-D1c contributed to the increase in Vrn-D1 gene expression and caused early heading and flowering. The five new cis-elements (Box II-like, 3-AF1 binding site, TC-rich repeats, Box-W1 and CAT-box in the 174-bp insertion possibly promoted the basal activity level of Vrn-D1 gene. Two new polymorphism combinations of photoperiod genes were identified and designated as Ppd-D1_Hapl-IX and Ppd-D1_Hapl-X. Association of the CNV of Ppd-B1 gene with the heading and flowering days showed that the cultivars with Ppd-B1_Hapl-VI demonstrated the earliest heading and flowering times, and those with Ppd-B1_Hapl-IV presented the latest heading and flowering times in three cropping seasons. Distribution of the vernalization and photoperiod response genes indicated that all recessive alleles at the four vernalization response loci, Ppd-B1_Hapl-I at Ppd-B1 locus, and Ppd-D1_Hapl-I at the Ppd-D1 locus were predominant in Chinese winter wheat cultivars. This study can provide useful information for wheat breeding programs to screen wheat cultivars with relatively superior adaptability and maturity.

  17. Exogenous Cytokinins Increase Grain Yield of Winter Wheat Cultivars by Improving Stay-Green Characteristics under Heat Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongqing Yang

    Full Text Available Stay-green, a key trait of wheat, can not only increase the yield of wheat but also its resistance to heat stress during active photosynthesis. Cytokinins are the most potent general coordinator between the stay-green trait and senescence. The objectives of the present study were to identify and assess the effects of cytokinins on the photosynthetic organ and heat resistance in wheat. Two winter wheat cultivars, Wennong 6 (a stay-green cultivar and Jimai 20 (a control cultivar, were subjected to heat stress treatment from 1 to 5 days after anthesis (DAA. The two cultivars were sprayed daily with 10 mg L-1 of 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA between 1 and 3 DAA under ambient and elevated temperature conditions. We found that the heat stress significantly decreased the number of kernels per spike and the grain yield (P < 0.05. Heat stress also decreased the zeatin riboside (ZR content, but increased the gibberellin (GA3, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, and abscisic acid (ABA contents at 3 to 15 DAA. Application of 6-BA significantly (P < 0.05 increased the grain-filling rate, endosperm cell division rate, endosperm cell number, and 1,000-grain weight under heated condition. 6-BA application increased ZR and IAA contents at 3 to 28 DAA, but decreased GA3 and ABA contents. The contents of ZR, ABA, and IAA in kernels were positively and significantly correlated with the grain-filling rate (P < 0.05, whereas GA3 was counter-productive at 3 to 15 DAA. These results suggest that the decrease in grain yield under heat stress was due to a lower ZR content and a higher GA3 content compared to that at elevated temperature during the early development of the kernels, which resulted in less kernel number and lower grain-filling rate. The results also provide essential information for further utilization of the cytokinin substances in the cultivation of heat-resistant wheat.

  18. Waste rice seed in conventional and stripper-head harvested fields in California: Implications for wintering waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleskes, Joseph P.; Halstead, Brian J.; Casazza, Michael L.; Coates, Peter S.; Kohl, Jeffrey D.; Skalos, Daniel A.

    2012-01-01

    Waste rice seed is an important food for wintering waterfowl and current estimates of its availability are needed to determine the carrying capacity of rice fields and guide habitat conservation. We used a line-intercept method to estimate mass-density of rice seed remaining after harvest during 2010 in the Sacramento Valley (SACV) of California and compared results with estimates from previous studies in the SACV and Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV). Posterior mean (95% credible interval) estimates of total waste rice seed mass-density for the SACV in 2010 were 388 (336–449) kg/ha in conventionally harvested fields and 245 (198–307) kg/ha in stripper-head harvested fields; the 2010 mass-density is nearly identical to the mid-1980s estimate for conventionally harvested fields but 36% lower than the mid-1990s estimate for stripped fields. About 18% of SACV fields were stripper-head harvested in 2010 vs. 9–15% in the mid-1990s and 0% in the mid-1980s; but due to a 50% increase in planted rice area, total mass of waste rice seed in SACV remaining after harvest in 2010 was 43% greater than in the mid-1980s. However, total mass of seed-eating waterfowl also increased 82%, and the ratio of waste rice seed to seed-eating waterfowl mass was 21% smaller in 2010 than in the mid-1980s. Mass-densities of waste rice remaining after harvest in SACV fields are within the range reported for MAV fields. However, because there is a lag between harvest and waterfowl use in the MAV but not in the SACV, seed loss is greater in the MAV and estimated waste seed mass-density available to wintering waterfowl in SACV fields is about 5–30 times recent MAV estimates. Waste rice seed remains an abundant food source for waterfowl wintering in the SACV, but increased use of stripper-head harvesters would reduce this food. To provide accurate data on carrying capacities of rice fields necessary for conservation planning, trends in planted rice area, harvest method, and postharvest field

  19. Irrigation Water Availability and Winter Wheat Abandonment in the North China Plain (NCP: Findings from a Case Study in Cangxian County of Hebei Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The North China Plain (NCP is the major winter wheat producing area in China. Abandonment of this crop has, however, become more and more prevalent in this region since the late 1990s. Although the underlying causes of this phenomenon remain little understood, irrigation water availability (IWA has always been regarded as the key factor limiting winter wheat production on the NCP. The aim of this paper is to determine the role played by IWA in the abandonment of winter wheat, using evidence drawn from a case study in Cangxian County, Hebei Province. First-hand data were collected for this study from 350 households in 35 villages, using semistructured one-on-one questionnaires. Five types of irrigation water sources were defined and identified at the level of individual land plots: “ground and surface water”, “just groundwater”, “just rivers”, “just reservoirs”, and “no irrigation”. These levels correspond to a decreasing trend in the overall frequency of irrigation and thus provide a clear proxy indicator for IWA. The results from a series of multilevel multinomial models show that the higher the IWA, the less likely it is for a land plot to abandon winter wheat. Specifically, using “no irrigation” cases as a control group, the results show that land plots with more sources of irrigation water also tend to be characterized by greater IWA, including “ground and surface water” and “just groundwater”, and also have lower probabilities of abandoning winter wheat. In contrast, land plots with less IWA (less irrigation water sources, including “just reservoirs” and “just rivers”, are more likely to abandon winter wheat. The results also show that, in addition to IWA, soil quality and plot size at the plot level, as well as demographic characteristics, farm equipment, and land fragmentation at the household level and irrigation prices at the village level, all play additional significant roles in the cropping

  20. Benchmark levels for the consumptive water footprint of crop production for different environmental conditions: a case study for winter wheat in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, La; Mekonnen, Mesfin M.; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2016-11-01

    Meeting growing food demands while simultaneously shrinking the water footprint (WF) of agricultural production is one of the greatest societal challenges. Benchmarks for the WF of crop production can serve as a reference and be helpful in setting WF reduction targets. The consumptive WF of crops, the consumption of rainwater stored in the soil (green WF), and the consumption of irrigation water (blue WF) over the crop growing period varies spatially and temporally depending on environmental factors like climate and soil. The study explores which environmental factors should be distinguished when determining benchmark levels for the consumptive WF of crops. Hereto we determine benchmark levels for the consumptive WF of winter wheat production in China for all separate years in the period 1961-2008, for rain-fed vs. irrigated croplands, for wet vs. dry years, for warm vs. cold years, for four different soil classes, and for two different climate zones. We simulate consumptive WFs of winter wheat production with the crop water productivity model AquaCrop at a 5 by 5 arcmin resolution, accounting for water stress only. The results show that (i) benchmark levels determined for individual years for the country as a whole remain within a range of ±20 % around long-term mean levels over 1961-2008, (ii) the WF benchmarks for irrigated winter wheat are 8-10 % larger than those for rain-fed winter wheat, (iii) WF benchmarks for wet years are 1-3 % smaller than for dry years, (iv) WF benchmarks for warm years are 7-8 % smaller than for cold years, (v) WF benchmarks differ by about 10-12 % across different soil texture classes, and (vi) WF benchmarks for the humid zone are 26-31 % smaller than for the arid zone, which has relatively higher reference evapotranspiration in general and lower yields in rain-fed fields. We conclude that when determining benchmark levels for the consumptive WF of a crop, it is useful to primarily distinguish between different climate zones. If

  1. Quantitative microanalysis of Mn, Zn and other elements in mature wheat seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzolini, A.P.; Pallaghy, C.K.; Legge, G.J.F.

    1984-01-01

    A scanning proton microprobe has been used to determine quantitatively the distribution of Mn,Zn and other elements in the mature wheat seed. Both X-ray and nuclear scattered proton data were collected during the irradiation of a 40 μ-thick longitudinal section, and these were used to calculate absolute elemental concentrations for the various features of interest in the embryo region. In the embryo, Mn was highest in the radicle (1400 +- 200 ppm) and lowest in the coleorhiza (200 +- 30 ppm), whereas Zn was highest in the scutellum (600 +- 100 ppm) and lowest in the leaf primordium (410 +- 70 ppm). Comparisons with direct bulk chemical analysis of excised embryos showed agreement. The possible biological significance of the distribution of elements is discussed

  2. Capability of crop water content for revealing variability of winter wheat grain yield and soil moisture under limited irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Liu, Jiangui; Shang, Jiali; Cai, Huanjie

    2018-08-01

    Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a major crop in the Guanzhong Plain, China. Understanding its water status is important for irrigation planning. A few crop water indicators, such as the leaf equivalent water thickness (EWT: g cm -2 ), leaf water content (LWC: %) and canopy water content (CWC: kg m -2 ), have been estimated using remote sensing techniques for a wide range of crops, yet their suitability and utility for revealing winter wheat growth and soil moisture status have not been well studied. To bridge this knowledge gap, field-scale irrigation experiments were conducted over two consecutive years (2014 and 2015) to investigate relationships of crop water content with soil moisture and grain yield, and to assess the performance of four spectral process methods for retrieving these three crop water indicators. The result revealed that the water indicators were more sensitive to soil moisture variation before the jointing stage. All three water indicators were significantly correlated with soil moisture during the reviving stage, and the correlations were stronger for leaf water indicators than that of the canopy water indicator at the jointing stage. No correlation was observed after the heading stage. All three water indicators showed good capabilities of revealing grain yield variability in jointing stage, with R 2 up to 0.89. CWC had a consistent relationship with grain yield over different growing seasons, but the performances of EWT and LWC were growing-season specific. The partial least squares regression was the most accurate method for estimating LWC (R 2 =0.72; RMSE=3.6%) and comparable capability for EWT and CWC. Finally, the work highlights the usefulness of crop water indicators to assess crop growth, productivity, and soil water status and demonstrates the potential of various spectral processing methods for retrieving crop water contents from canopy reflectance spectrums. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Balance sheet method assessment for nitrogen fertilization in winter wheat: II. alternative strategies using the CropSyst simulation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Corbellini

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available It is important, both for farmer profit and for the environment, to correctly dose fertilizer nitrogen (N for winter wheat growth. Balance-sheet methods are often used to calculate the recommended dose of N fertilizer. Other methods are based on the dynamic simulation of cropping systems. Aim of the work was to evaluate the balance-sheet method set up by the Region Emilia-Romagna (DPI, by comparing it with the cropping systems simulation model CropSyst (CS, and with an approach based on fixed supplies of N (T. A 3-year trial was structured as a series of N fertility regimes at 3 sites (Papiano di Marsciano, Ravenna, San Pancrazio. The N-regimes were generated at each site-year as separate trials in which 3 N rates were applied: N1 (DPI, N2 (DPI+50 kg ha-1 N at spike initiation, N3 (DPI + 50 kg ha-1 N at early booting. Above ground biomass and soil data (NO3-N and water were sampled and used to calibrate CS. Doses of fertilizer N were calculated by both DPI and CS for winter wheat included in three typical rotations for Central and Northern Italy. Both these methods and method T were simulated at each site over 50 years, by using daily generated weather data. The long-term simulation allowed evaluating such alternative fertilization strategies. DPI and CS estimated comparable crop yields and N leached amounts, and both resulted better than T. Minor risk of leaching emerged for all N doses. The N2 and N3 rates allowed slightly higher crop yields than N1.

  4. Impact of soil moisture and winter wheat height from the Loess Plateau in Northwest China on surface spectral albedo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenchao; Yang, Jiaxi; Gao, Xiaoqing; Zheng, Zhiyuan; Yu, Ye; Hou, Xuhong; Wei, Zhigang

    2018-02-01

    The understanding of surface spectral radiation and reflected radiation characteristics of different surfaces in different climate zones aids in the interpretation of regional surface energy transfers and the development of land surface models. This study analysed surface spectral radiation variations and corresponding surface albedo characteristics at different wavelengths as well as the relationship between 5-cm soil moisture and surface albedo on typical sunny days during the winter wheat growth period. The analysis was conducted using observational Loess Plateau winter wheat data from 2015. The results show that the ratio of atmospheric downward radiation to global radiation on typical sunny days is highest for near-infrared wavelengths, followed by visible wavelengths and ultraviolet wavelengths, with values of 57.3, 38.7 and 4.0%, respectively. The ratio of reflected spectral radiation to global radiation varies based on land surface type. The visible radiation reflected by vegetated surfaces is far less than that reflected by bare ground, with surface albedos of 0.045 and 0.27, respectively. Thus, vegetated surfaces absorb more visible radiation than bare ground. The atmospheric downward spectral radiation to global radiation diurnal variation ratios vary for near-infrared wavelengths versus visible and ultraviolet wavelengths on typical sunny days. The near-infrared wavelengths ratio is higher in the morning and evening and lower at noon. The visible and ultraviolet wavelengths ratios are lower in the morning and evening and higher at noon. Visible and ultraviolet wavelength surface albedo is affected by 5-cm soil moisture, demonstrating a significant negative correlation. Excluding near-infrared wavelengths, correlations between surface albedo and 5-cm soil moisture pass the 99% confidence test at each wavelength. The correlation with 5-cm soil moisture is more significant at shorter wavelengths. However, this study obtained surface spectral radiation

  5. Morphoagrobiological properties and productivity of new soft winter wheat varieties under the conditions of Kirovohrad variety testing station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Л. Уліч

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study morphoagrobiological and adaptive properties, level of yielding capacity of recently registered soft winter wheat varieties of various ecological groups under agroecological conditions of Kirovohrad variety testing station. Methods. Field study, laboratory test, analytical procedure and statistical evaluation. Results. It was established that the yield level of is a key composite indicator of genotype adaptation to agroecological growing conditions. Experimental data indicate significant deviations of yield depending on the genotype and the year of study. During three years of experiments, yield depending of the variety ranged from 4.26 to 9.71 t/ha, such varieties as ‘CN Kombin’, ‘Estivus’, ‘Tradytsiia odeska’, ‘Mudrist odeska’, ‘Lil’ and ‘Fabius’ had higher yields. In case of dry weather conditions and unfavorable agro-ecological factors, the following varieties as ‘Mudrist odeska’, ‘Veteran’, ‘Lil’, ‘Tsentylivka’, ‘Fabius’, ‘Patras’, ‘Montrei’ have demonstrated good adaptive properties. Their yield has decreased by 9,2–19,0%, while in the varieties ‘Mahistral’, ‘Poltavka’, ‘Harantiia odeska’ and ‘Pokrova’ – by 34.4, 42.4, 45.2 and 50.6% accordingly. Conclusions. Investigated soft winter wheat varieties differ in morphoagrobiological characteristics, productivity, height, maturation period, adaptability as well as economic and agronomic value. According to the complex of such indices as productivity, agronomic characters and properties as well as adaptability, in the microzone of Kirovohrad variety testing station it is advisable to grow varie­ties ‘CN Kombi’, ‘Pokrova’, ‘Mudrist odeska’, ‘Veteran’ and ‘Lil’.

  6. [Effects of Short-time Conservation Tillage Managements on Greenhouse Gases Emissions from Soybean-Winter Wheat Rotation System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yan; Chen, Xi; Hu, Zheng-hua; Chen, Shu-tao; Zhang, Han; Ling, Hui; Shen, Shuang-he

    2016-04-15

    Field experiments including one soybean growing season and one winter-wheat growing season were adopted. The experimental field was divided into four equal-area sub-blocks which differed from each other only in tillage managements, which were conventional tillage (T) , no-tillage with no straw cover ( NT) , conventional tillage with straw cover (TS) , and no-tillage with straw cover (NTS). CO₂ and N₂O emission fluxes from soil-crop system were measured by static chamber-gas chromatograph technique. The results showed that: compared with T, in the soybean growing season, NTS significantly increased the cumulative amount of CO₂ (CAC) from soil-soybean system by 27.9% (P = 0.045) during the flowering-podding stage, while NT significantly declined CAC by 28.9% (P = 0.043) during the grain filling-maturity stage. Compared with T, NT significantly declined the cumulative amount of N₂O (CAN) by 28.3% (P = 0.042) during the grain filling-maturity stage. In the winter-wheat growing season, compared with T, TS and NT significantly declined CAC by 24.3% (P = 0.032) and 36.0% (P = 0.041) during the elongation-booting stage, and also declined CAC by 26.8% (P = 0.027) and 33.1% (P = 0.038) during the maturity stage. During the turning-green stage, compared with T treatment, NT, NTS, and TS treatments had no significant effect on CAN, while NTS significant declined CAN by 42.0% (P = 0.035) compared with NT. Our findings suggested that conservation tillage managements had a more significant impact on CO₂ emission than 20 emission from soil-crop system.

  7. Genome-wide association mapping for stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis F. sp. tritici) in US Pacific Northwest winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruoka, Y; Garland-Campbell, K A; Carter, A H

    2015-06-01

    Potential novel and known QTL for race-specific all-stage and adult plant resistance to stripe rust were identified by genome-wide association mapping in the US PNW winter wheat accessions. Stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis F. sp. tritici; also known as yellow rust) is a globally devastating disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and a major threat to wheat production in the US Pacific Northwest (PNW), therefore both adult plant and all-stage resistance have been introduced into the winter wheat breeding programs in the PNW. The goal of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) and molecular markers for these resistances through genome-wide association (GWAS) mapping in winter wheat accessions adapted to the PNW. Stripe rust response for adult plants was evaluated in naturally occurring epidemics in a total of nine environments in Washington State, USA. Seedling response was evaluated with three races under artificial inoculation in the greenhouse. The panel was genotyped with the 9K Illumina Wheat single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array and additional markers linked to previously reported genes and QTL for stripe rust resistance. The population was grouped into three sub-populations. Markers linked to Yr17 and previously reported QTL for stripe rust resistance were identified on chromosomes 1B, 2A, and 2B. Potentially novel QTL associated with race-specific seedling response were identified on chromosomes 1B and 1D. Potentially novel QTL associated with adult plant response were located on chromosomes 2A, 2B, 3B, 4A, and 4B. Stripe rust was reduced when multiple alleles for resistance were present. The resistant allele frequencies were different among sub-populations in the panel. This information provides breeders with germplasm and closely linked markers for stripe rust resistance to facilitate the transfer of multiple loci for durable stripe rust resistance into wheat breeding lines and cultivars.

  8. [Flag leaf photosynthetic characteristics, change in chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, and their relationships with yield of winter wheat sowed in spring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lan; Gao, Zhi-qang; An, Wei; Li, Yan-liang; Jiao, Xiong-fei; Wang, Chuang-yun

    2016-01-01

    With five good winter wheat cultivars selected from the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River and Southwest China as test materials, a field experiment in Xinding basin area of Shanxi Province was conducted to study the photosynthetic characteristics, chlorophyll content, and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of flag leaf at different sowing dates, as well as the correlations between these indices and yield for two years (2013-2014). The results showed that the difference in most fluorescence parameters except chlorophyll content among cultivars was significant. The correlations between these fluorescence parameters and yield were significant. The variation coefficient of chlorophyll (Chl) content was low (0.12-0.17), and that of performance index based on absorption (PIabs) was high (0.32-0.39), with the partial correlation coefficients of them with grain yield from 2013 to 2014 ranged in 0.70-0.81. Under the early sowing condition, the grain yield positively correlated with PIabs at flowering and filling stages and chlorophyll content at grain filling stage, but negatively correlated with the relative variable fluorescence at I point (Vi) at grain filling stage. About 81.1%-82.8% of grain yield were determined by the variations of PIabs, Chl, and Vi. Wheat cultivars had various performances in the treatments with different sowing dates and a consistent trend was observed in the two experimental years. Among these 5 cultivars, Yangmai 13 was suitable for early sowing, with the flag leaf photosynthetic rate (Pn), Chl, most fluorescence parame-ters, and grain yield showed obviously high levels. In conclusion, under early sowing condition chlorophyll content at grain filling stages, PIabs at flowering and filling stages, and Pn were important indices for selecting wheat cultivars with high photosynthetic efficiency.

  9. The influence of inorganic nitrogen fertilizer forms on micronutrient retranslocation and accumulation in grains of winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barunawati, Nunun; Giehl, Ricardo F Hettwer; Bauer, Bernhard; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2013-01-01

    The fortification of cereal grains with metal micronutrients is a major target to combat human malnutrition of Fe and Zn. Based on recent studies showing that N fertilization can promote Fe and Zn accumulation in cereal grains, we investigated here the influence of nitrate- or ammonium-based N fertilization on the accumulation of Fe, Zn, and Cu as well as metal chelator pools in flag leaves and grains of winter wheat. Fertilization with either N form increased the concentrations of N and of the metal chelator nicotianamine (NA) in green leaves, while 2'-deoxymugineic acid (DMA) remained unaffected. Despite the differential response to N fertilization of NA and DMA levels in flag leaves, N fertilization remained without any significant effect on the net export of these metals during flag leaf senescence, which accounted for approximately one third of the total Fe, Zn, or Cu content in leaves. The significant increase in the accumulation of Fe, Zn, and Cu found in the grains of primarily ammonium-fertilized plants was unrelated to the extent of metal retranslocation from flag leaves. These results indicate that an increased N nutritional status of flag leaves promotes the accumulation of Fe, Zn, and Cu in flag leaves, which is accompanied by an increased pool of NA but not of DMA. With regard to the far higher concentrations of DMA relative to NA in leaves and leaf exudates, DMA may be more relevant for the mobilization and retranslocation of these metals in high-yielding wheat production.

  10. Ozone exposure- and flux-based response relationships with photosynthesis of winter wheat under fully open air condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhaozhong; Calatayud, Vicent; Zhu, Jianguo; Kobayashi, Kazuhiko

    2018-04-01

    Five winter wheat cultivars were exposed to ambient (A-O 3 ) and elevated (E-O 3 , 1.5 ambient) O 3 in a fully open-air fumigation system in China. Ozone exposure- and flux based response relationships were established for seven physiological variables related to photosynthesis. The performance of the fitting of the regressions in terms of R 2 increased when second order regressions instead of first order ones were used, suggesting that effects of O 3 were more pronounced towards the last developmental stages of the wheat. The more robust indicators were those related with CO 2 assimilation, Rubisco activity and RuBP regeneration capacity (A sat , J max and Vc max ), and chlorophyll content (Chl). Flux-based metrics (POD y , Phytotoxic O 3 Dose over a threshold ynmolO 3 m -2 s -1 ) predicted slightly better the responses to O 3 than exposure metrics (AOTX, Accumulated O 3 exposure over an hourly Threshold of X ppb) for most of the variables. The best performance was observed for metrics POD 1 ( A sat , J max and Vc max ) and POD 3 (Chl). For this crop, the proposed response functions could be used for O 3 risk assessment based on physiological effects and also to include the influence of O 3 on yield or other variables in models with a photosynthetic component. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. An Advanced Backcross Population through Synthetic Octaploid Wheat as a “Bridge”: Development and QTL Detection for Seed Dormancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Dale

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The seed dormancy characteristic is regarded as one of the most critical factors for pre-harvest sprouting (PHS resistance. As a wild wheat relative species, Aegilops tauschii is a potential genetic resource for improving common wheat. In this study, an advanced backcross population (201 strains containing only Ae. tauschii segments was developed by means of synthetic octaploid wheat (hexaploid wheat Zhoumai 18 × Ae. tauschii T093. Subsequently, seed dormancy rate (Dor in the advanced backcross population was evaluated on the day 3, 5 and 7, in which 2 major QTLs (QDor-2D and QDor-3D were observed on chromosomes 2D and 3D with phenotypic variance explained values (PVEs of 10.25 and 20.40%, respectively. Further investigation revealed significant correlation between QDor-3D and Tamyb10 gene, while no association was found between the former and TaVp1 gene, implying that QDor-3D site could be of closer position to Tamyb10. The obtained quantitative trait locus sites (QTLs in this work could be applied to develop wheat cultivars with PHS resistance.

  12. In Winter Wheat, No-Till Increases Mycorrhizal Colonization thus Reducing the Need for Nitrogen Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Verzeaux

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF play a major role in the uptake of nutrients by agricultural plants. Nevertheless, some agricultural practices can interrupt fungal-plant signaling and thus impede the establishment of the mycorrhizal symbiosis. A field experiment performed over a 5-year period demonstrated that both the absence of tillage and of nitrogen (N fertilization improved AMF colonization of wheat roots. Moreover, under no-till conditions, N uptake and aboveground biomass production did not vary significantly between N-fertilized and N-unfertilized plots. In contrast, both N uptake and above ground biomass were much lower when N fertilizer was not added during conventional tillage. This finding strongly suggests that for wheat, no-till farming is a sustainable agricultural system that allows a gradual reduction in N fertilizer use by promoting AMF functionality and at the same time increasing N uptake.

  13. Leaf absorption of atmospheric ammonia emitted from pig slurry applied beneath the canopy of winter wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjedde Sommer, S.; Jensen, E.S.; Kofoed Schjoerring, J.

    1993-01-01

    Absorption of volatilized ammonia after application of slurry onto the soil surface (sand) between rows of a wheat crop was studied in two experiments. The slurry was labelled with 15 N-NH 4 . During seven days the accumulated gaseous N loss from the slurry varied from 6.9 to 11.1 g N m -2 . In April ammonia losses from slurry applied beneath a 5 cm high wheat crop were equal to losses from slurry applied to a fallow, but 2.2% of the lost atmospheric ammonia was taken up by the leaves. In May ammonia loss from slurry applied between the rows of a 43 cm high crop was reduced by 6% compared to the loss from fallow, because of a reduced transfer of ammonia from the slurry to the air. Of the emitted ammonia 3.3% was absorbed by the canopy. (au)

  14. Projections of uncertainties in climate change scenarios into expected winter wheat yields

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trnka, M.; Dubrovský, Martin; Semerádová, Daniela; Žalud, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 77, - (2004), s. 229-249 ISSN 0177-798X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/02/0827 Grant - others:Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry Brno(CZ) J 08/98:432100001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3042911 Keywords : climate change scenarios * wheat yields Subject RIV: GC - Agronomy Impact factor: 0.964, year: 2004

  15. The Relationship between Black Point and Fungi Species and Effects of Black Point on Seed Germination Properties in Bread Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    TOKLU, Faruk; AKGÜL, Davut Soner; BİÇİCİ, Mehmet; KARAKÖY, Tolga

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between some fungi species and black point incidence and the effect of black point on seed weight, germination percentage, seedling emergence, seedling establishment, number of embryonic roots, and coleoptile length under field conditions in bread wheat. In this research, black-pointed and black point-free kernel samples of 5 bread wheat cultivars, namely Ceyhan-99, Doğankent-1, Yüreğir-89, Seyhan-95, and Adana-99 - commonly grown unde...

  16. Downy Brome (Bromus tectorum L. and Broadleaf Weed Control in Winter Wheat with Acetolactate Synthase-Inhibiting Herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick W. Geier

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted for three seasons in northwest Kansas, USA to evaluate acetolactate synthase (ALS-inhibiting herbicides for downy brome (Bromus tectorum L. and winter annual broadleaf weed control in winter wheat. Herbicides included pyroxsulam at 18.4 g ai ha−1, propoxycarbazone-Na at 44 g ai ha−1, premixed propoxycarbazone-Na & mesosulfuron-methyl at 27 g ai ha−1, and sulfosulfuron at 35 g ai ha−1. The herbicides were applied postemergence in fall and spring seasons. Averaged over time of application, no herbicide controlled downy brome more than 78% in any year. When downy brome densities were high, control was less than 60%. Pyroxsulam controlled downy brome greater than or similar to other herbicides tested. Flixweed (Descurainia sophia L., blue mustard [Chorispora tenella (Pallas DC.], and henbit (Lamium amplexicaule L. control did not differ among herbicide treatments. All herbicides tested controlled flixweed and blue mustard at least 87% and 94%, respectively. However, none of the herbicides controlled henbit more than 73%. Fall herbicide applications improved weed control compared to early spring applications; improvement ranged from 3% to 31% depending on the weed species. Henbit control was greatly decreased by delaying herbicide applications until spring compared to fall applications (49% vs. 80% control. Herbicide injury was observed in only two instances. The injury was ≤13% with no difference between herbicides and the injury did not impact final plant height or grain yield.

  17. Response of soft winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. to longtime enforced dormancy and time of spring vegetation recommencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. С. Хахула

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the results of studying the soft winter wheat response to the duration of enforced winter dormancy and the time of vegetation recommencing, their impact on growth, development and the survival of the crops. It is found that the impact of those factors in the conditions of central Forest-Steppe of Ukraine is essential, which is to be taken into consideration when scheduling the measures of spring and summer care over the cultivated crops, in particular, where the spring extra nutrition takes place, pesticides and growth regulators are applied, the spaced planting resowing or partial resowing issues are to be settled down. The ecological effect of spring vegetation recommencing dates does not expose annually, therefore it is not always possible to predict the plant development type, but it is possible, nevertheless, to influence the processes of growth, development and survival of plants throughout spring-summer period and the development of their production capacity by means of introducing the intense technologies, optimization of mineral nutrition and the use of plant growth regulators, protection from rogues, diseases, pests.

  18. Nitrogen Fertilizer Sources and Application Timing Affects Wheat and Inter-Seeded Red Clover Yields on Claypan Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A. Nelson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Controlled-release N fertilizer, such as polymer-coated urea (PCU, may be a fall N management option for wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grown in poorly-drained claypan soils. Field research evaluated (1 urea release from fall-applied PCU in 2006 and 2007; (2 broadcast fall-spring split (25%:75% of N sources; and (3 a single fall (100% application of PCU, urea, urea plus NBPT (N-(n-butyl thiophosphoric triamide] (U + NBPT, ammonium nitrate (AN, or urea ammonium nitrate (UAN at 0, 56, 84, and 112 kg·N·ha−1 on wheat yield, wheat biomass, N uptake by wheat, and frost-seeded red clover (FSC (Trifolium pratense L. forage yield (2004–2007. PCU applied in fall released less than 30% urea by February. Urea released from PCU by harvest was 60% and 85% in 2006 and 2007, respectively. In poorly-drained soils, wheat yields ranked PCU > AN > U + NBPT > urea ≥ UAN over the rates evaluated for fall-only application. PCU was a viable fall-applied N source, with yields similar to or greater than urea or U + NBPT split-applied. Split-N applications of AN, urea, UAN, and U + NBPT generally resulted in greater wheat yields than a fall application. Enhanced efficiency fertilizers provide farmers with flexible options for maintaining high yielding production systems.

  19. Investigation of seed damaging pathogens associated with wheat crop in bhimber azad kashmir, pakistan and their managements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, T.; Ishtiaq, M.; Azam, S.; Maqbool, M.; Mushtaq, W.

    2017-01-01

    Mycopathogens were explored from wheat germplasm cultivars from District Bhimber of Azad Kashmir. In this study, 10 different seed-borne pathogens were isolated from District of Bhimber, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. The Agar Plate Method (APM) and Towel Paper Method (TPM) were used for detection of seed borne pathogens. The disease incidence (percentage) and disease severity of fungi varied with respect to type of pathogen and seed sampling sites. Kernel bunt caused by Tilletia indica showed highest incidence (67.25%) and severity (7.0) on 0-9 rating scale. Fusarium graminearum showed the highest infection rate in three sub-divisions of district Bhimber as compared to others. The fungal attacking pathogens on wheat crop were control through fungicides treatment and treatments with plant extracts. Maximum germination rates were calculated in three sub-divisions of Bhimber after treatment of Tilt fungicide. As 86% germination rate in Samahni, 87.5% in Bhimber and 84.5% in Bernala was calculated. Antifungal activity of five plant extracts (Acacia nilotica L., Azadirachta indica L. Juss., Eucalyptus citriodora Hook, Ficus bengalensis L. and Allium sativum L.) were evaluated in four different solvents. Highest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was calculated of all plants in methanolic extracts. Maximum MIC (57.38 mcg/ml) exhibited by extracts of Acacia nilotica leaves against ten fungi. Azadirachta indica extracts in different solvents against wheat-seed fungal pathogens was shown more antimicrobial activity as compared to other four plants. Azadirachta indica extract in methanol showed the highest mean of antifungal activity (62.20 mcg/ml) against ten different fungal pathogens. Antimicrobial activity (MIC) of Ficus bengalensis in different solvents against nine wheat-seed fungal pathogens was also investigated. Highest MIC was measured against B. graminis (57.50 mcg/ml) and S. macrospora (57.00 mcg/ml) by using methanolic extract of Ficus bengalensis

  20. Effects of accelerated aging upon the lipid composition of seeds from two soft wheat varieties from Morocco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouzouline, M.; Tahani, N.; Demandre, C.; El Amrani, A.; Benhassaine-Kesri, G.; Serghini Caid, H.

    2009-07-01

    The lipid composition of the seeds from two soft wheat varieties (Triticum aestivum, cv. Marchouche and Mahdia) were analyzed before and after accelerated aging. Eight days of accelerated aging resulted in a total inhibition of seed germ inability as well as a decrease in their total and especially unsaturated fatty acid contents. Oleic and linoleic acid contents decreased particularly in the phosphatidylcholine of the seeds from both varieties. The proportion of polar lipids also decreased after aging as compared to neutral lipids: a 5.8% and 7.2% decrease in polar lipids was e observed in Mahdia and Marchouche cultivars, respectively. In the neutral lipids of the seeds from the Marchouche variety, the percentage of free fatty acids increased whereas the triacylglycerols decreased. After aging, the fatty acid compositions of all lipid classes were modified in the same manner as total fatty acid compositions. Among polar lipids, phospholipid proportions were particularly small, especially the phosphatidylcholine percentages with an 18.1% and 19.1% decrease in Mahdia and Marchouche varieties, respectively. In contrast, MGDG percentages increased, especially in the seeds from the Marchouche variety. A 15.5% increase was noticed when compared with seeds which were not aged. At the same time, the DGDG percentage showed a 16.6% decrease after accelerated aging of the seeds from the Marchouche variety. From these results we concluded that the lipid content decrease observed in seeds after accelerated aging could be linked to a loss in the germination and vigor of wheat seeds. (Author) 38 refs.

  1. The role of seed size in the non-genetic variation exhibited in salt tolerance studies involving the bread wheat cv. chinese spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Martin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this study was to confirm the role of seed size in the non-genetic variation exhibited during salinity tolerance experiments involving the bread wheat cv. Chinese Spring. The nutrient film/rockwool hydroponics technique was utilised. This study concluded that seed size does not play a significant role in the non-genetic variation generated during a study of salinity tolerance of the bread wheat cv. Chinese Spring.

  2. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Wheat Seeds during Artificial Ageing and Priming Using the Isobaric Tandem Mass Tag Labeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangyong Lv

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is an important crop worldwide. The physiological deterioration of seeds during storage and seed priming is closely associated with germination, and thus contributes to plant growth and subsequent grain yields. In this study, wheat seeds during different stages of artificial ageing (45°C; 50% relative humidity; 98%, 50%, 20%, and 1% Germination rates and priming (hydro-priming treatment were subjected to proteomics analysis through a proteomic approach based on the isobaric tandem mass tag labeling. A total of 162 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs mainly involved in metabolism, energy supply, and defense/stress responses, were identified during artificial ageing and thus validated previous physiological and biochemical studies. These DEPs indicated that the inability to protect against ageing leads to the incremental decomposition of the stored substance, impairment of metabolism and energy supply, and ultimately resulted in seed deterioration. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG analysis revealed that the up-regulated proteins involved in seed ageing were mainly enriched in ribosome, whereas the down-regulated proteins were mainly accumulated in energy supply (starch and sucrose metabolism and stress defense (ascorbate and aldarate metabolism. Proteins, including hemoglobin 1, oleosin, agglutinin, and non-specific lipid-transfer proteins, were first identified in aged seeds and might be regarded as new markers of seed deterioration. Of the identified proteins, 531 DEPs were recognized during seed priming compared with unprimed seeds. In contrast to the up-regulated DEPs in seed ageing, several up-regulated DEPs in priming were involved in energy supply (tricarboxylic acid cycle, glycolysis, and fatty acid oxidation, anabolism (amino acids, and fatty acid synthesis, and cell growth/division. KEGG and protein-protein interaction analysis indicated that the up-regulated proteins in seed priming were

  3. New Seeds are Resistant to Wheat Stem Rust (Ug99) Multinational Programme Supported by FAO and IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    working together we can overcome the challenges we face', said FAO Director-General Jose Graziano da Silva. The rust-resistant wheat varieties were developed with the support of an IAEA Technical Cooperation project, Responding to the Transboundary Threat of Wheat Black Stem Rust (Ug99), which involved more than 20 nations and international organizations. The varieties were developed using a nuclear technique for crop improvement known as mutation breeding. By exposing seeds, or plant tissue, to radiation, scientists accelerate the natural process of mutation, and then breeders are able to select and develop new varieties. In 2009, Miriam Kinyua, a Kenyan plant breeder, sent 10 kilograms of five varieties of wheat seed to the FAO/IAEA laboratories in Seibersdorf, south of Vienna, where they were irradiated for mutation breeding. These seeds were returned to Kenya where they were planted in a hot spot for the disease for screening and selection. Kinyua and her colleagues at the University of Eldoret's Biotechnology Department identified eight lines resistant to Ug99. Four of these lines were submitted to Kenyan national performance trials, and two were officially approved as varieties by the national committee of the Ministry of Agriculture. About six tonnes of seeds of the new varieties will be made available this month for the next planting season in Kenya. (IAEA)

  4. Studies on seed yield potential of some selected kenaf (Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-11

    Jun 11, 2014 ... Kenaf seed yield depends on morpho-physiological traits between varieties, .... separated using Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at 5% ... Mean squares derived from combined analysis of variance for seed yield and yield components in 20 .... environment interaction and yield stability in winter wheat.

  5. Warming and nitrogen fertilization effects on winter wheat yields in northern China varied between four years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Liting; Hu, Chunsheng; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2013-01-01

    per m2. This suggests that the wheat yield loss may be related to reduction of spike number, which was affected by decreased soil water content under warming. Warming tended to give larger yield reductions at higher nitrogen fertilizer rates, and this may be related to larger water consumption...... with both higher nitrogen and temperature leading to water shortages. These effects indicate that wheat yield loss from warming was primarily associated with more severe water shortage from greater evapotranspiration under warming. The large crop canopy in the fertilized plot may further have enhanced......). The volumetric water content decreased significantly before heading by 9.3, 3.9, 2.4 and 1.2 vol% in the soil depth of 0.10, 0.20, 0.40, 0.60 m in N2 and by 5.9, 1.4, 1.3 and 1.2 vol% in N1 from heating compared with no heating. The duration of the entire growth period was shortened by on average 7 days...

  6. Dissecting the genetic architecture of frost tolerance in Central European winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yusheng; Gowda, Manje; Würschum, Tobias; Longin, C Friedrich H; Korzun, Viktor; Kollers, Sonja; Schachschneider, Ralf; Zeng, Jian; Fernando, Rohan; Dubcovsky, Jorge; Reif, Jochen C

    2013-11-01

    Abiotic stress tolerance in plants is pivotal to increase yield stability, but its genetic basis is still poorly understood. To gain insight into the genetic architecture of frost tolerance, this work evaluated a large mapping population of 1739 wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) lines and hybrids adapted to Central Europe in field trials in Germany and fingerprinted the lines with a 9000 single-nucleotide polymorphism array. Additive effects prevailed over dominance effects. A two-dimensional genome scan revealed the presence of epistatic effects. Genome-wide association mapping in combination with a robust cross-validation strategy identified one frost tolerance locus with a major effect located on chromosome 5B. This locus was not in linkage disequilibrium with the known frost loci Fr-B1 and Fr-B2. The use of the detected diagnostic markers on chromosome 5B, however, does not allow prediction of frost tolerance with high accuracy. Application of genome-wide selection approaches that take into account also loci with small effect sizes considerably improved prediction of the genetic variation of frost tolerance in wheat. The developed prediction model is valuable for improving frost tolerance because this trait displays a wide variation in occurrence across years and is therefore a difficult target for conventional phenotypic selection.

  7. N balance of different N application rate of winter wheat under water-saving condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shijuan; Zhu Yeping; Sun Kaimeng; E Yue

    2003-01-01

    N uptake and N balance of different N rate applied to wheat under water-saving condition were investigated with 15 N tracer technique and the dynamic N uptake of economic N treatment under two irrigation conditions was compared. The results showed that (1) compared with conventional n treatment, the N loss of economic N treatment reduced while NUE and N residue in soil improved under water-saving condition; (2) Use efficiency of fertilizer applied as basal fertilizer was higher than that as top-dressing fertilizer under water-saving condition; (3) The fertilizer N residue rate was from 29% to 41%, and 60% of N residue, which distributed in 1 m depth soil concentrated in 0-20 cm surface layer; (4) In whole growing stage of wheat, fertilizer N hadn't leach to 130 cm depth; (5) NUE of economic N treatment under conventional irrigation decreased by 16.6% compared with the same n treatment under water-saving condition

  8. The Effect of Accelerated Aging on Germination Characteristics, Seed Reserve Utilization and Malondialdehyde Content of Two Wheat Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Goodarzian Ghahfarokhi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study experiment was conducted to evaluated the effect of accelerated aging on germination characteristics, seed reserve utilization and malondialdehyde of two wheat cultivars. The experiment was conducted in factorial with a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Results of variance analysis showed that, seed aging had significant effects on germination percentage, germination index, normal seedling percentage, mean time to germination, malondialdehyde content, seedling dry weight, weight of utilized (mobilized seed reserve and electrical conductivity. The highest germination percentage, germination index, normal seedling percentage, seedling dry weight and weight of utilized (mobilized seed reserve and the minimum mean time to germination, electrical conductivity and malondialdehyde content were attained from Verinak cultivar under control conditions (0 day aging. Results indicates that germination percentage, germination index, normal seedling percentage, seedling dry weight, and weight of utilized (mobilized seed reserve decreased significantly as seed aging progressed. But, mean time to germination, electrical conductivity and malondialdehyde content increased significantly as seed aging progressed. Also, the decrease in seed reserve mobilization rate was the cause of decreased other traits.

  9. Effects of Zn, macronutrients, and their interactions through foliar applications on winter wheat grain nutritional quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoxia Wang

    Full Text Available Although application of Zn combined with macronutrients (K, P, and N can be used to fortify wheat grain with Zn, little is known about their interactions when foliar application is employed or the influences of common soil fertility management practices (e.g. N and straw management on their efficiency. Therefore, the effects of foliar-applied Zn and N, P, or K on grain nutritional quality (especially Zn were investigated in wheat grown under different soil N rates at two sites with (Sanyuan or without (Yangling employing straw return. A 4-year-long field experiment was also conducted to evaluate the environmental stability of the foliar formulations. Across 6 site-years, foliar Zn application alone or combined with N, P, or K fertilizers resulted in 95.7%, 101%, 67.9% and 121% increases in grain Zn concentration, respectively. In terms of increasing grain Zn concentration, foliar-applied Zn positively interacted with N (at Sanyuan and K (at Yangling, but negatively interacted with P at any condition tested, suggesting depressive effects of foliarly-applied P on physiological availability of Zn. Although these interaction effects were the major factor that governing the efficiency of foliar-applied Zn combined with N, P, or K on grain Zn concentration, the magnitude of the increase/decrease in grain Zn (-3.96~5.71 mg kg-1 due to these interactions was much less than the average increases following Zn+K (31.3, Zn+P (18.7, and Zn+N (26.5 mg kg-1 treatments relative to that observed in foliar Zn-only treatment. The combined foliar application of Zn with N, P, or K did not cause any adverse impact on grain yield and other nutritional quality and in some cases slightly increased grain yield and macronutrient concentrations. Grain phytic acid:Zn molar ratios were respectively 52.0%, 53.1%, 43.4% and 63.5% lower in the foliar Zn, Zn+N, Zn+P and Zn+K treatments than in the control treatment. These effects were consistent over four years and across three

  10. Effects of Zn, macronutrients, and their interactions through foliar applications on winter wheat grain nutritional quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaoxia; Li, Meng; Liu, Ke; Tian, Xiaohong; Li, Shuo; Chen, Yanlong; Jia, Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Although application of Zn combined with macronutrients (K, P, and N) can be used to fortify wheat grain with Zn, little is known about their interactions when foliar application is employed or the influences of common soil fertility management practices (e.g. N and straw management) on their efficiency. Therefore, the effects of foliar-applied Zn and N, P, or K on grain nutritional quality (especially Zn) were investigated in wheat grown under different soil N rates at two sites with (Sanyuan) or without (Yangling) employing straw return. A 4-year-long field experiment was also conducted to evaluate the environmental stability of the foliar formulations. Across 6 site-years, foliar Zn application alone or combined with N, P, or K fertilizers resulted in 95.7%, 101%, 67.9% and 121% increases in grain Zn concentration, respectively. In terms of increasing grain Zn concentration, foliar-applied Zn positively interacted with N (at Sanyuan) and K (at Yangling), but negatively interacted with P at any condition tested, suggesting depressive effects of foliarly-applied P on physiological availability of Zn. Although these interaction effects were the major factor that governing the efficiency of foliar-applied Zn combined with N, P, or K on grain Zn concentration, the magnitude of the increase/decrease in grain Zn (-3.96~5.71 mg kg-1) due to these interactions was much less than the average increases following Zn+K (31.3), Zn+P (18.7), and Zn+N (26.5 mg kg-1) treatments relative to that observed in foliar Zn-only treatment. The combined foliar application of Zn with N, P, or K did not cause any adverse impact on grain yield and other nutritional quality and in some cases slightly increased grain yield and macronutrient concentrations. Grain phytic acid:Zn molar ratios were respectively 52.0%, 53.1%, 43.4% and 63.5% lower in the foliar Zn, Zn+N, Zn+P and Zn+K treatments than in the control treatment. These effects were consistent over four years and across three soil N

  11. Winter wheat yield estimation of remote sensing research based on WOFOST crop model and leaf area index assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanling; Gong, Adu; Li, Jing; Wang, Jingmei

    2017-04-01

    Accurate crop growth monitoring and yield predictive information are significant to improve the sustainable development of agriculture and ensure the security of national food. Remote sensing observation and crop growth simulation models are two new technologies, which have highly potential applications in crop growth monitoring and yield forecasting in recent years. However, both of them have limitations in mechanism or regional application respectively. Remote sensing information can not reveal crop growth and development, inner mechanism of yield formation and the affection of environmental meteorological conditions. Crop growth simulation models have difficulties in obtaining data and parameterization from single-point to regional application. In order to make good use of the advantages of these two technologies, the coupling technique of remote sensing information and crop growth simulation models has been studied. Filtering and optimizing model parameters are key to yield estimation by remote sensing and crop model based on regional crop assimilation. Winter wheat of GaoCheng was selected as the experiment object in this paper. And then the essential data was collected, such as biochemical data and farmland environmental data and meteorological data about several critical growing periods. Meanwhile, the image of environmental mitigation small satellite HJ-CCD was obtained. In this paper, research work and major conclusions are as follows. (1) Seven vegetation indexes were selected to retrieve LAI, and then linear regression model was built up between each of these indexes and the measured LAI. The result shows that the accuracy of EVI model was the highest (R2=0.964 at anthesis stage and R2=0.920 at filling stage). Thus, EVI as the most optimal vegetation index to predict LAI in this paper. (2) EFAST method was adopted in this paper to conduct the sensitive analysis to the 26 initial parameters of the WOFOST model and then a sensitivity index was constructed

  12. Weed infestation of a winter wheat canopy under the conditions of application of different herbicide doses and foliar fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kraska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in the years 2006-2008 in the Bezek Experimental Farm (University of Life Sciences in Lublin. A two-factor field experiment was set up according to a randomized block design, in three replications. The experimental field was situated on medium heavy mixed rendzina developed from chalk rock with medium dusty loam granulometric composition. The soil was characterised by neutral pH, a very high content of P (342.1 and K (278.9 along with a very low level of magnesium (16.0 mg × kg-1 of soil and organic carbon (over 3.5%. The aim of this research was to compare the effect of three herbicide doses and two foliar fertilizers applied in a winter wheat canopy on weed infestation. The herbicides Mustang 306 SE 0.4 l × ha-1 and Attribut 70 WG 60 g × ha-1 were applied at full recommended doses as well as at doses reduced to 75% and 50%. Foliar fertilizers Insol 3 (1 1 × ha-1 and FoliCare (20 kg × ha-1 were applied at full recommended doses twice in the growing season BBCH* development stage 23-25* and 33-35*. The control was not treated with the herbicides and foliar fertilizers. The weed infestation level was determined by means of the quantitative gravimetric method at two dates: the first one 6 weeks after herbicide application and the second one - before harvest. The number of weed individuals was counted; species composition and air-dry biomass of aboveground parts were estimated from randomly selected areas of 1 m × 0.25 m at four sites on each plot. Galium aparine and Apera spica-venti plants were sampled for molecular analysis 6 weeks after herbicide application (the treatments with the full herbicide dose, a 50% dose and the control without herbicides. The density of weeds and weed air-dry weight were statistically analysed by means of variance analysis, and the mean values were estimated with Tukey's confidence intervals (p=0.05. It was found that the number of weeds and air-dry weight of weeds in the

  13. Analysis of Yield and Yield Related Traits Variability of Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Cv. Izolda and Double Haploid Lines

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    Kozdój Janusz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The yield-forming potential of winter wheat is determined by several factors, namely total number of shoots per plant and total number of spikelets per spike. The field experiments were conducted during three vegetation seasons at the Plant Breeding and Acclimatization Institute – National Research Institute (PBAI–NRI, located in Radzików, Poland. The objective of this study was a comparative analysis of the structural yield-forming factor levels, which determine grain yield per spike and per plant of the DH lines and standard Izolda cultivar. Results indicate that several DH lines showed some differences in tested morphological structures of plant, yield factor levels and in grain yield per spike and per plant in comparison to standard Izolda, regardless of the year. Mean grain yield per plant of DH lines was 26.5% lower in comparison to standard Izolda only in the second year of study. It was caused by a reduction of productive tillers number. Structural yield-forming potential of DH lines was used in 38% and 59% and in case of Izolda in 47% and 61% (the second and the third year of experiment, respectively. The mean grain yield per spike of DH lines was 14.8% lower than Izolda cultivar only in third year of experiment and it was caused by about 12% lower number of grains per spike. Structural yield-forming potential of DH spikes was used in 82.4%, 85.4% and 84.9% and in case of Izolda in 83.8%, 87% and 89.5% (the first, the second and the third year of experiment, respectively. The grain yield per winter wheat plant (both DH lines and standard Izolda was significantly correlated with the number of productive tillers per plant (r = 0.80. The grain yield per winter wheat spike (both DH lines and Izolda cultivar was significantly and highly correlated with the number of grains per spike (r = 0.96, number of fertile spikelets per spike (r = 0.87 and the spike length (r = 0.80. Variation of spike and plant structural yield-forming factors

  14. Effect of Foliar Application of Phosphorus and Water Deficit on Yield and Yield Components of Winter Wheat (Cultivar Alvand

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    M. Vafapour

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of foliar application of phosphorus (P and water deficit on yield and yield components of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Alvand, a split-plot experiment, with completely randomized blocks design and three replications, was carried out at the Research Farm of Boyer Ahmad Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Station, 13 km west of Yasouj, in 2008-2009. The main plots were irrigation at three levels (1- full irrigation (control, 2- deficit irrigation from the stem elongation to booting stage, and 3- deficit irrigation from booting stage to the end of growth period and the subplots were five levels of foliar application of P fertilizer (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 kg/ha KH2PO4. The results showed that the effects of different irrigation regimes and foliar application of P were significant on all traits, and their interaction was significant on plant height, number of grain per spike, grain yield and biological yield. Full irrigation and foliar application of 6 kg/ha P produced the highest grain and biological yield (6000 and 14170 kg/ha, respectively and deficit irrigation from the stem elongation to booting stage without foliar application of P produced the lowest grain and biological yield (2920 and 8219 kg/ha, respectively. Foliar application of P affects significantly the evaluated traits only in drought-stress treatments and its effect was not significant in full irrigation treatment. In general, foliar application of 9 kg/ha P compensated the losses in wheat due to drought stress.

  15. The influence of inorganic nitrogen fertilizer forms on micronutrient retranslocation and accumulation in grains of winter wheat

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    Nunun eBarunawati

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The fortification of cereal grains with metal micronutrients is a major target to combat human malnutrition of Fe and Zn. Based on recent studies showing that N fertilization can promote Fe and Zn accumulation in cereal grains, we investigated here the influence of nitrate- or ammonium-based N fertilization on the accumulation of Fe, Zn and Cu as well as metal chelator pools in flag leaves and grains of winter wheat. Fertilization with either N form increased the concentrations of N and of the metal chelator nicotianamine (NA in green leaves, while 2’-deoxymugineic acid (DMA remained unaffected. Despite the differential response to N fertilization of NA and DMA levels in flag leaves, N fertilization remained without any significant effect on the net export of these metals during flag leaf senescence, which accounted for approx. one third of the total Fe, Zn or Cu content in leaves. The significant increase in the accumulation of Fe, Zn and Cu found in the grains of primarily ammonium-fertilized plants was unrelated to the extent of metal retranslocation from flag leaves. These results indicate that an increased N nutritional status of flag leaves promotes the accumulation of Fe, Zn and Cu in flag leaves, which is accompanied by an increased pool of NA but not of DMA. With regard to the far higher concentrations of DMA relative to NA in leaves and leaf exudates, DMA may be more relevant for the mobilization and retranslocation of these metals in high-yielding wheat production.

  16. Envelhecimento acelerado em sementes de trigo Accelerated aging in wheat seeds

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    Daniele Cardoso Pedroso

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de estudar procedimentos de condução do teste de envelhecimento acelerado para determinar o potencial fisiológico de sementes de trigo. Utilizaram-se quatro cultivares: 'Pampeano', 'Safira', 'Ônix' e 'Jaspe'. Foram realizadas determinações de teor de água e avaliações de germinação, emergência, índice de velocidade de emergência e teste de envelhecimento acelerado. O teste de envelhecimento acelerado foi conduzido de três formas: teste tradicional (água, teste com solução saturada de NaCl (11g de NaCl por 100mL de água e teste com solução supersaturada de NaCl (40g de NaCl por 100mL de água, nos períodos de 48, 72 e 96h de permanência na câmara de envelhecimento a 42°C. O teste de envelhecimento acelerado com solução saturada de NaCl, no período de 96h, foi o mais adequado para avaliar o potencial fisiológico das sementes de trigo, em alto, médio e baixo vigor.This research aimed to study procedures for conducting the accelerated aging test to determine the physiological potential of wheat seeds. The experiment was conducted with four varieties: 'Pampeano', 'Sapphire', Onyx' and 'Jasper'. Tests were performed with water content, germination, seedling emergence, speed of emergence and accelerated aging. The accelerated aging test was conducted in three stages: traditional (water, test using saturated NaCl solution (11g of NaCl per 100mL of water and with the use of supersaturated solution of NaCl (40g of NaCl per 100mL of water, each for 48, 72 and 96h at 42°C. The accelerated aging test with saturated solution of NaCl, within 96h was suitable to evaluate the physiological potential of seeds of wheat in high, medium and low vigor.

  17. DSSHerbicide: Herbicide field trials in winter wheat. How to come to a decision

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    Sefzat, David

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Herbicide decision support systems can calculate efficient, economically optimized herbicide mixtures with reduced dosages, if field specific weed data are given. Thus, they can be a sensible tool for integrated weed control. However, advises of decision support systems have to be tested before introducing them into practical farming. In Mecklenburg-Vorpommern two herbicide field trials were installed with four different prototypes of decision support systems. An untreated plot and three expert advices, private advisors, official advisory service and a farmer decision, were included as additional test variables. Herbicide efficacies in autumn, weed dry matter after spring applications, herbicide costs and wheat yield were measured to evaluate the decision support system prototypes. In one field trial with low weed density before treatments efficacies were at least 85%. In two prototypes efficacies were lower than in the expert plots. No significant differences between decision variables were found regarding weed dry matter after spraying in spring. On this site, herbicide costs were higher when expert advises were used compared to decision support system advises. No significant differences were detected in yield. Even yield in “untreated” was not significantly different. The second field trial carried higher weed densities. Here herbicide efficacies were lower in all treatments. Poa annua and Matricaria recutita were significantly affected by the treatments resulting from the decision tools. However, these differences did not result in statistically different weed dry matter or wheat yield. Three of the prototypes advised solutions with very low herbicide costs in autumn, but high costs in spring. As a result, total weed costs in these plots were higher than in the plots advised by experts. It is concluded from the field trials, that different prototypes of decision support systems are giving sensible herbicide advice. In fields with low

  18. The Effect of Elevated Ozone Concentrations with Varying Shading on Dry Matter Loss in a Winter Wheat-Producing Region in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingxin; Zheng, Youfei; He, Yuhong; Wu, Rongjun; Mai, Boru; Kang, Hanqing

    2016-01-01

    Surface-level ozone pollution causes crop production loss by directly reducing healthy green leaf area available for carbon fixation. Ozone and its precursors also affect crop photosynthesis indirectly by decreasing solar irradiance. Pollutants are reported to have become even more severe in Eastern China over the last ten years. In this study, we investigated the effect of a combination of elevated ozone concentrations and reduced solar irradiance on a popular winter wheat Yangmai13 (Triticum aestivum L.) at field and regional levels in China. Winter wheat was grown in artificial shading and open-top-chamber environments. Treatment 1 (T1, i.e., 60% shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb), Treatment 2 (T2, i.e., 20% shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb), and Control Check Treatment (CK, i.e., no shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb), with two plots under each, were established to investigate the response of winter wheat under elevated ozone concentrations and varying solar irradiance. At the field level, linear temporal relationships between dry matter loss and cumulative stomatal ozone uptake were first established through a parameterized stomatal-flux model. At the regional level, ozone concentrations and meteorological variables, including solar irradiance, were simulated using the WRF-CMAQ model (i.e., a meteorology and air quality modeling system). These variables were then used to estimate cumulative stomatal ozone uptake for the four major winter wheat-growing provinces. The regional-level cumulative ozone uptake was then used as the independent variable in field data-based regression models to predict dry matter loss over space and time. Field-level results showed that over 85% (T1: R(2) = 0.85 & T2: R(2) = 0.89) of variation in dry matter loss was explained by cumulative ozone uptake. Dry matter was reduced by 3.8% in T1 and 2.2% in T2 for each mmol O3·m(-2) of cumulative ozone uptake. At the regional level, dry matter loss in winter

  19. The Effect of Elevated Ozone Concentrations with Varying Shading on Dry Matter Loss in a Winter Wheat-Producing Region in China.

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    Jingxin Xu

    Full Text Available Surface-level ozone pollution causes crop production loss by directly reducing healthy green leaf area available for carbon fixation. Ozone and its precursors also affect crop photosynthesis indirectly by decreasing solar irradiance. Pollutants are reported to have become even more severe in Eastern China over the last ten years. In this study, we investigated the effect of a combination of elevated ozone concentrations and reduced solar irradiance on a popular winter wheat Yangmai13 (Triticum aestivum L. at field and regional levels in China. Winter wheat was grown in artificial shading and open-top-chamber environments. Treatment 1 (T1, i.e., 60% shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb, Treatment 2 (T2, i.e., 20% shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb, and Control Check Treatment (CK, i.e., no shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb, with two plots under each, were established to investigate the response of winter wheat under elevated ozone concentrations and varying solar irradiance. At the field level, linear temporal relationships between dry matter loss and cumulative stomatal ozone uptake were first established through a parameterized stomatal-flux model. At the regional level, ozone concentrations and meteorological variables, including solar irradiance, were simulated using the WRF-CMAQ model (i.e., a meteorology and air quality modeling system. These variables were then used to estimate cumulative stomatal ozone uptake for the four major winter wheat-growing provinces. The regional-level cumulative ozone uptake was then used as the independent variable in field data-based regression models to predict dry matter loss over space and time. Field-level results showed that over 85% (T1: R(2 = 0.85 & T2: R(2 = 0.89 of variation in dry matter loss was explained by cumulative ozone uptake. Dry matter was reduced by 3.8% in T1 and 2.2% in T2 for each mmol O3·m(-2 of cumulative ozone uptake. At the regional level, dry matter

  20. Pathogenic fungi found in wheat seeds and medium early maturity, produced in three parts of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Anderson Durante Danelli

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Seed samples of wheat harvest in 2010 from Santo Augusto, Passo Fundo and Vacaria, RS; were plated on gerbox acrylic sterilized culture medium PSA (potato, sucrose and agar plus antibiotics. Were used 400 seeds of each cultivar total of 45 cultivars. Were distributed equally spaced 25 seeds in each seedling with four replications, totaling 100 seeds per replicate. The seeds were incubated at 25 ± 2°C in an incubator with a photoperiod of 12 hours for 12 days. The experimental design was blocks and the experimental unit consists of four gerbox containing 25 seeds each. Was considered to be infected the seed of conidiophore presence and/or conidia of the fungus. The data were transformed to (x+11/2 and subjected to analysis of variance and means compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. Fungi F. graminearum and Alternaria spp. were detected in high incidence in most lots, performing at respectively 96.0% and 98.0% of samples, thereafter Bipolaris spp. So too, Drechslera siccans was found in 41.5% of samples showing that their incidence is increasing

  1. Effects of tillage system and forecrop type on frequency of Fusarium culmorum and F. avenaceum occurrence on culm base of some winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Ryszard Weber; Włodzimierz Kita

    2012-01-01

    In the years 2001 - 2003, there were analyzed relations between the number of Fusarium culmorum and F. avenaceum, fungi found on culm base parts of stalks of seven winter wheat cultivars, and preceding crop type as well as the cultivation system. The research was carried out in Poland, on light soil plots of a Lower Silesia-based experimental station subordinate to the Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation (IUNG). The loglinear and correspondence analyses proved varying immunity of ...

  2. EPR spin probe investigation of irradiated wheat, rice and sunflower seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paktas, Dilek Dadayl [Department of Physics, Faculty of Art and Science, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, 67100 Zonguldak (Turkey)]. E-mail: dadayli@karaelmas.edu.tr; Suennetcioglu, M. Maral [Department of Physics Engineering, Hacettepe University, 06532 Beytepe, Ankara (Turkey)

    2007-01-15

    TEMPO and 4-nitro-TEMPO spin probes were used to monitor dose-dependent changes in the EPR spectra of irradiated wheat and rice embryos and sunflower embryo parts. Rice embryos were studied in the 233-293 K temperature range using 4-nitro-TEMPO. TEMPAMINE, TEMPYO and DTBN spin probes were also studied for their applicability in the determination of irradiated seeds. All the recorded spectra were simulated, and spectral parameters and partition of the probes among various domains were determined. Despite the contribution of the signal from extracellular regions, it was possible to detect the changes in the water/lipid ratios with dose. The hydrophilic character of the probe alone was not sufficient to distinguish the different doses of irradiation. Line widths and rotational correlation times of various domains within embryo also play an important role. Partition after dehydration was another measure in the selection of the suitable probes for irradiation studies. Better results were obtained in dehydrated embryos for the probes preferring lipid bodies.

  3. Submergence sensitivity of durum wheat, bread wheat and barley at the germination stage

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    Iduna Arduini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil waterlogging at initial growth stages can cause heavy yield losses of winter cereals. Therefore, the screening for submergence tolerance traits in seeds of commercial varieties is of high concern worldwide. Ten Italian varieties of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf., bread wheat (T. aestivum L. and barley (Hordeum vulgare L. were investigated for their ability to germinate in submerged conditions and to recover after submergence periods of three to 15 days. Submergence prevented germination and decreased germinability, at rates that increased with duration of submergence. Sensitivity ranked in the order: barley >durum wheat >bread wheat. We related the higher sensitivity of barley to its slower germination and slightly higher leakage of electrolytes, whereas the percentage of abnormal seedlings was lower than in other species. It was less than 4%, compared to less than 15 and 8% in durum wheat and bread wheat, respectively. Wide varietal differences were found in all species. According to variety, after 6-day submergence, germinability ranged from 2 to 42% in barley, from 5 to 80% in durum wheat, and from 30 to 77% in bread wheat. Varieties with more than 40% seed survival were three, six and seven per species, in the same order. The differential submergence sensitivity of varieties indicates a potential to select for waterlogging tolerance within Italian genotypes of winter cereal crops.

  4. Quantitative Research on the Relationship between Yield of Winter Wheat and Agroclimatological Resources—the Case Study from Yanzhou District, Shandong Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Maoling; Liu, Pingzeng; Zhang, Chao; Zheng, Yong; Wang, Xizhi; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Weijie; Zhao, Rui

    2018-01-01

    Agroclimatological resources provide material and energy for agricultural production. This study is aimed to analyze the impact of selected climate factors change on wheat yield over the different growth period applied quantitatively method, by comparing two different time division modules of wheat growth cycle- monthly empirical-statistical multiple regression models ( From October to June of next year ) and growth stage empirical-statistical multiple regression models (Including sowing stage, seedling stage, tillering stage, overwintering period, regreening period, jointing stage, heading stage, maturity stage) analysis of relationship between agrometeorological data and growth stage records and winter wheat production in Yanzhou, Shandong Province of China. Correlation analysis(CA)was done for 35 years (from 1981 to 2015) between crop yield and corresponding weather parameters including daily mean temperature, sunshine duration, and average daily precipitation selected from 18 different meteorological factors. The results shows that the greatest impact on the winter wheat yield is the precipitation overwintering period in this area, each 1mm increase in daily mean rainfall was associated with 201.64 kg/hm2 lowered output. Moreover, the temperature and sunshine duration in heading period and maturity stage also exert significant influence on the output, every 1°C increase in daily mean temperature was associated with 199.85kg/hm2 adding output, every 1h increase in mean sunshine duration was associated with 130.68kg/hm2 reduced output. Comparing with the results of experiment which using months as step sizes and using farming as step sizes was in better agreement with the fluctuation in meteorological yield, offered a better explanation on the growth mechanism of wheat. Eventually the results indicated that 3 factors affects the yield during different growing periods of wheat in different extent and provided more specific reference to guide the agricultural

  5. Evalution of the healthiness of winter wheat cultivated in conventional tillage, direct sowing and direct sowing with underplant crop of white clover

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    Ewa Moszczyńska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Research of the healthiness of winter wheat depending on the soil tillage system and rate of nitrogen fertilization were carried out in 1998-2001. The largest threat to the healthiness of plants was tan spot, which was caused by Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, especially in cropping season 1999/2000. The soil tillage system diversified the intensification of occurence of this pathogen, only in two last years of research. The most infected by P. tritici-i was wheat, which was cultivated in the direct sowing. Application of underplant crop of white clover in the direct sowing contributed to the improvement of the plants healthiness. The highest rate of nitrogen fertilization (120 kg N.ha-1 in the highest degree favoured the damage of wheat by P. tritici-repentis, but only in two first years of research. The second pathogen Blumeria graminis, which caused powdery mildew of cereals, occured in small amount and didn't have any influence on the healthiness of winter wheat.

  6. Life Cycle Assessment on Carbon Footprint of Winter Wheat-Summer Maize Cropping System Based on Survey Data of Gaomi in Shandong Province, China

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    ZHU Yong-chang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Grain production can generate huge amount of greenhouse gases through raw material production and energy comsumption, nitrogen fertilizer amendment and farming machinery operation. Based questionnaire survey of raw material inputs and management of wheat-maize cropping system in Gaomi, Shandong Province, carbon footprint of grain production was calculated using life cycle assessment methodology. Carbon footprint per unit area of wheat, maize, and winter wheat-summer maize cropping system were 5 183.33, 3 778.09 kg CO2-eq·hm-2 and 8 961.42 kg CO2-eq·hm-2, carbon footprint per unit grain yield were 0.69, 0.40 kg CO2-eq·kg-1 and 0.53 kg CO2-eq·kg-1, carbon footprint per unit net present value were 1.82, 0.40 kg CO2-eq·yuan-1 and 0.44 kg CO2-eq·yuan-1, respectively. Greenhouse gas(GHG emission of winter wheat-summer maize cropping system mainly came from nitrogen fertilizer production(48.30% and nitrogen fertilizer application(12.04%, irrigation electricity consumption(12.94% and machinery oil consumption(11.20%. Optimizing the application of fertilizer, reducing the amount of nitrogen fertilizer and saving water irrigation were important ways to realize the clean production.

  7. Productivity performance of bread winter wheat genotypes of local and foreign origin

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    P. Chamurliyski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The proper choice of parental forms is the basis for developing superior varieties with valuable agronomic properties. A priority in modern breeding is increased productivity. The aim of this study was to establish the relative contribution of the yield traits to the productivity of common wheat accessions of different geographical origin. The trial was conducted during 2012 – 2014 at Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute, General Toshevo. The study included 118 varieties and lines originating from Europe, Asia and North America. The tested materials were grown in a randomized block design in three replications, the 2 plot size being 7.5 m . Six cultivars were used as standards: Aglika, Pobeda, Enola, Sadovo 1, Antonovka and Pryaspa. Number of grains per spike, number of 2 grains per m and thousand kernel weight had the highest positive influence on grain yield. The highest levels of productivity were reported in cultivars PKB -1 Vizelika, PKB Rodika, Joana and Midas averaged for the two years of the study, cultivar Vizelika with origin from PKB - Serbia realizing a yield of 9.03 t.ha . Despite environmental effect and interaction, significant genotypic modality on the investigated traits was observed and analysed. All studied accessions can be successfully included in a breeding program to increase productivity.

  8. Assessing Uncertainties of Water Footprints Using an Ensemble of Crop Growth Models on Winter Wheat

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    Kurt Christian Kersebaum

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Crop productivity and water consumption form the basis to calculate the water footprint (WF of a specific crop. Under current climate conditions, calculated evapotranspiration is related to observed crop yields to calculate WF. The assessment of WF under future climate conditions requires the simulation of crop yields adding further uncertainty. To assess the uncertainty of model based assessments of WF, an ensemble of crop models was applied to data from five field experiments across Europe. Only limited data were provided for a rough calibration, which corresponds to a typical situation for regional assessments, where data availability is limited. Up to eight models were applied for wheat. The coefficient of variation for the simulated actual evapotranspiration between models was in the range of 13%–19%, which was higher than the inter-annual variability. Simulated yields showed a higher variability between models in the range of 17%–39%. Models responded differently to elevated CO2 in a FACE (Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment experiment, especially regarding the reduction of water consumption. The variability of calculated WF between models was in the range of 15%–49%. Yield predictions contributed more to this variance than the estimation of water consumption. Transpiration accounts on average for 51%–68% of the total actual evapotranspiration.

  9. Role of Changes in Cell Fatty Acids Composition in the Increasing of Frost Resistance of Winter Wheat Suspension Culture

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    I.V. Lyubushkina

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Influences of low temperatures (4 and 8 ° С on the frost tolerance and fatty acid compositions of cells in a winter wheat suspension culture have been studied. It has been found that treatment of the culture with 4 °C (7 days did not protect cells from subsequent freezing temperature action (-8 °С, 6 h and was not accompanied significant changes in the fatty acid composition. On the contrary, the treatment of the culture with the temperature 8 °C (7 days prevented the death caused by freezing temperature and the content of saturated fatty acids decreased: pentadecanoic acid (by 35,0%, palmitic acid (by 19,9% and stearic acid (by 65,4%, and the content of α-linolenic acid increased by 94%. That was the cause of the double bond index (DBI increase by 16%. The role of fatty acids composition changes in the process of increasing frost tolerance in plants are discussed.

  10. Effect of Drought Stress at Pre and Post-anthesis on Dry Matter Accumulation of Grains in Irrigated Winter Wheat

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    Sh. Elyasi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigating assimilate contribution and grain filling pattern in winter wheat is importance under drought stress condition. This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between drought stress on grain filling and yield of 4 cultivars including MV17 (dwarf, Alvand, Shahryar (semi-dwarf and Toos (tall. Experimental design was randomized complete block with three replications. Drought stress assigned to main plots and cultivars to sub plots. Growth curve sampling started at 7 days after anthesis with 4 days interval. In pre-anthesis drought stress Alvand produced highest yield, while it was 29.14% less than control treatment. The yield of Toos cultivar was lowest at pre-anthesis drought stress. Rate of grain filling of Toos cultivar did not change at pre-anthesis drought stress. Drought stress treatment at post-anthesis decreased rate of grain filling in all cultivars as compared to control, but it was significant only Toos c.v. In pre-anthesis drought stress grain filling duration increased in Alvand but decreased in Toos. Alvand with higher rate of grain filling produced highest grain yield (3850 kg/ha. It can be concluded that, drought stress decreases grain filling duration and rate of grain filling.

  11. Assessing the impact of time of spring vegetation renewal on growth, development and productivity of soft winter wheat varieties

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    О. Л. Уліч

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of study focusing on impact of environmental factor – time of spring vegetation renewal (TSVR of soft winter wheat on growth and development of plants, crop productivity and modern varieties response are presented. It is found that in the central part of the Right-Bank of Forest-Steppe of Ukraine this factor is important and it should be considered in planning of spring and summer care techniques, fertilizer system, especially at spring fertilizing, use of pesticides and growth regulators, in taking a decision on reseeding or underseeding of space plants. At the same time, it was determined that the environmental effect of TSVR was not occurred every year, thus it is not always possible to forecast the type of plant development. But in such years it is possible to influence the processes of plants growth, development and survival in spring and summer periods and the formation of their productivity by introducing such intensive technologies as differential crop tending, mineral nutrition optimization, the use of plant growth regulators, trace nutrients, weed, pest and disease control agents.

  12. Ecosystem function and service quantification and valuation in a conventional winter wheat production system with DAISY model in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghaley, Bhim Bahadur; Porter, John Roy

    2014-01-01

    and ES provision. The objective was to quantify two EF: soil water storage and nitrogen mineralization and three ES: food and fodder production and carbon sequestration, in a conventional winter wheat production system at 2.6% SOM compared to 50% lower (1.3%) and 50% higher (3.9%) SOM in Denmark by DAISY...... model. At 2.6% SOM, the food and fodder production was 6.49 and 6.86tha-1year-1 respectively whereas carbon sequestration and soil water storage was 9.73tha-1year-1 and 684mmha-1year-1 respectively and nitrogen mineralisation was 83.58kgha-1year-1. At 2.6% SOM, the two EF and three ES values were US......$ 177 and US$ 2542ha-1year-1 respectively equivalent to US$ 96 and US$1370 millionyear-1 respectively in Denmark. The EF and ES quantities and values were positively correlated with SOM content. Hence, the quantification and valuation of EF and ES provides an empirical tool for optimising the EF and ES...

  13. Evolutionary Effects on Morphology and Agronomic Performance of Three Winter Wheat Composite Cross Populations Maintained for Six Years under Organic and Conventional Conditions

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    Sarah Brumlop

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Three winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. composite cross populations (CCPs that had been maintained in repeated parallel populations under organic and conventional conditions from the F5 to the F10 were compared in a two-year replicated field trial under organic conditions. The populations were compared to each other, to a mixture of the parental varieties used to establish the CCPs, and to three winter wheat varieties currently popular in organic farming. Foot and foliar diseases, straw length, ear length, yield parameters, and baking quality parameters were assessed. The overall performance of the CCPs differed clearly from each other due to differences in their parental genetics and not because of their conventional or organic history. The CCPs with high yielding background (YCCPs also yielded higher than the CCPs with a high baking quality background (QCCPs; in the absence of extreme winter stress. The QCCPs performed equally well in comparison to the reference varieties, which were also of high baking quality. Compared to the parental mixture the CCPs proved to be highly resilient, recovering much better from winter kill in winter 2011/12. Nevertheless, they were out yielded by the references in that year. No such differences were seen in 2013, indicating that the CCPs are comparable with modern cultivars in yielding ability under organic conditions. We conclude that—especially when focusing on traits that are not directly influenced by natural selection (e.g. quality traits—the choice of parents to establish a CCP is crucial. In the case of the QCCPs the establishment of a reliable high-quality population worked very well and quality traits were successfully maintained over time. However, in the YCCPs lack of winter hardiness in the YCCP parents also became clearly visible under relevant winter conditions.

  14. After-ripening induced transcriptional changes of hormonal genes in wheat seeds: the cases of brassinosteroids, ethylene, cytokinin and salicylic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya R Chitnis

    Full Text Available Maintenance and release of seed dormancy is regulated by plant hormones; their levels and seed sensitivity being the critical factors. This study reports transcriptional regulation of brassinosteroids (BR, ethylene (ET, cytokinin (CK and salicylic acid (SA related wheat genes by after-ripening, a period of dry storage that decays dormancy. Changes in the expression of hormonal genes due to seed after-ripening did not occur in the anhydrobiotic state but rather in the hydrated state. After-ripening induced dormancy decay appears to be associated with imbibition mediated increase in the synthesis and signalling of BR, via transcriptional activation of de-etiolated2, dwarf4 and brassinosteroid signaling kinase, and repression of brassinosteroid insensitive 2. Our analysis is also suggestive of the significance of increased ET production, as reflected by enhanced transcription of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase in after-ripened seeds, and tight regulation of seed response to ET in regulating dormancy decay. Differential transcriptions of lonely guy, zeatin O-glucosyltransferases and cytokinin oxidases, and pseudo-response regulator between dormant and after-ripened seeds implicate CK in the regulation of seed dormancy in wheat. Our analysis also reflects the association of dormancy decay in wheat with seed SA level and NPR independent SA signaling that appear to be regulated transcriptionally by phenylalanine ammonia lyase, and whirly and suppressor of npr1 inducible1 genes, respectively. Co-expression clustering of the hormonal genes implies the significance of synergistic and antagonistic interaction between the different plant hormones in regulating wheat seed dormancy. These results contribute to further our understanding of the molecular features controlling seed dormancy in wheat.

  15. An evaluation of soil water outlooks for winter wheat in south-eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western, A. W.; Dassanayake, K. B.; Perera, K. C.; Alves, O.; Young, G.; Argent, R.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract: Soil moisture is a key limiting resource for rain-fed cropping in Australian broad-acre cropping zones. Seasonal rainfall and temperature outlooks are standard operational services offered by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology and are routinely used to support agricultural decisions. This presentation examines the performance of proposed soil water seasonal outlooks in the context of wheat cropping in south-eastern Australia (autumn planting, late spring harvest). We used weather ensembles simulated by the Predictive Ocean-Atmosphere Model for Australia (POAMA), as input to the Agricultural Production Simulator (APSIM) to construct ensemble soil water "outlooks" at twenty sites. Hindcasts were made over a 33 year period using the 33 POAMA ensemble members. The overall modelling flow involved: 1. Downscaling of the daily weather series (rainfall, minimum and maximum temperature, humidity, radiation) from the ~250km POAMA grid scale to a local weather station using quantile-quantile correction. This was based on a 33 year observation record extracted from the SILO data drill product. 2. Using APSIM to produce soil water ensembles from the downscaled weather ensembles. A warm up period of 5 years of observed weather was followed by a 9 month hindcast period based on each ensemble member. 3. The soil water ensembles were summarized by estimating the proportion of outlook ensembles in each climatological tercile, where the climatology was constructed using APSIM and observed weather from the 33 years of hindcasts at the relevant site. 4. The soil water outlooks were evaluated for different lead times and months using a "truth" run of APSIM based on observed weather. Outlooks generally have useful some forecast skill for lead times of up to two-three months, except late spring; in line with current useful lead times for rainfall outlooks. Better performance was found in summer and autumn when vegetation cover and water use is low.

  16. Defense enzyme responses in dormant wild oat and wheat caryopses challenged with a seed decay pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed dormancy and resistance to seed decay organisms are fundamental ecological strategies for weed seed persistence in the weed seed-bank. Seeds have well-established physical, chemical, and biological defense mechanisms that protect their food reserves from decay-inducing organisms and herbivores....

  17. Transfer factor of "9"0Sr and "1"3"7Cs to lettuce and winter wheat at different growth stage applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Attar, Lina; Al-Oudat, Mohammad; Safia, Bassam; Ghani, Basem Abdul

    2015-01-01

    The effect of clay soil contamination time on the transfer factors (F_vs) of "1"3"7Cs and "9"0Sr was investigated in four different growth stages of winter wheat and lettuce crops. The experiment was performed in an open field using lysimeters. The F_vs were the ratio of the activity concentrations of the radionuclides in crops to those in soil, both as dry weight (Bq kg"−"1). Significant difference of log-F_vs was evaluated using one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Basically, F_vs of "9"0Sr were higher than those of "1"3"7Cs, despite of the application stage or crop' variety. Higher F_vs for both radionuclides were observed for lettuce in comparison to winter wheat. F_vs of "9"0Sr showed comparable trends for both crops with enhanced F_vs obtained when contamination occurred in early stages, i.e. 1.20 for lettuce and 0.88 and 0.02 for winter wheat, straw and grains, respectively. Despite the fluctuation noted in the pattern of F_vs for "1"3"7Cs, soil contaminated at the second stage gave the highest F_vs for lettuce and grains, with geometric means of 0.21 and 0.01, respectively. However, wheat-straw showed remarkable increase in F_v for the latest contamination (ripening stage), about 0.06. It could be concluded that soil contamination at early growth stages would represent high radiological risk for the scenarios studied with an exception to "1"3"7Cs in winter wheat-straw which reflected greater hazard at the latest application. - Highlights: • Higher TFs for both radionuclides were observed for leafy plant in comparison to cereals. • Despite the growth stages & plants' variety, TFs of "9"0Sr were always higher than those of "1"3"7Cs. • TFs of "9"0Sr showed comparable trends in both crops and were higher at earlier growth stages. • Fluctuation noted in TFs for "1"3"7Cs in lettuce with higher TFs at second contamination-stage. • High TFs for "1"3"7Cs when contamination occurred at the latest growth stage of wheat vegetative.

  18. Comparative metabolome analysis of wheat embryo and endosperm reveals the dynamic changes of metabolites during seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Caixia; Zhen, Shoumin; Zhu, Gengrui; Bian, Yanwei; Yan, Yueming

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we performed the first comparative metabolomic analysis of the wheat embryo and endosperm during seed germination using GC-MS/MS. In total, 82 metabolites were identified in the embryo and endosperm. Principal component analysis (PCA), metabolite-metabolite correlation and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) revealed distinct dynamic changes in metabolites between the embryo and endosperm during seed germination. Generally, the metabolite changes in the embryo were much greater than those in the endosperm, suggesting that the embryo is more active than the endosperm during seed germination. Most amino acids were upregulated in both embryo and endosperm, while polysaccharides and organic acids associated with sugars were mainly downregulated in the embryo. Most of the sugars showed an upregulated trend in the endosperm, but significant changes in lipids occurred only in the embryo. Our results suggest that the embryo mobilises mainly protein and lipid metabolism, while the endosperm mobilises storage starch and minor protein metabolism during seed germination. The primary energy was generated mainly in the embryo by glycolysis during seed imbibition. The embryo containing most of the genetic information showed increased nucleotides during seed germination process, indicating more active transcription and translation metabolisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Antioxidant activity of free and bound compounds in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) seeds in comparison with durum wheat and emmer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laus, Maura N; Gagliardi, Anna; Soccio, Mario; Flagella, Zina; Pastore, Donato

    2012-11-01

    Antioxidant activity (AA) of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) seeds, as well as of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum Desf.) and of emmer (T. turgidum L. ssp. dicoccum Schübler) grains, was evaluated by studying hydrophilic (H), lipophilic (L), free-soluble (FSP) and insoluble-bound (IBP) phenolic extracts using the new lipoxygenase/4-nitroso-N,N-dimethylaniline (LOX/RNO) method, able to simultaneously detect different antioxidant mechanisms, as well as using the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) and the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) assays, which measure the scavenging activity against peroxyl and ABTS [2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate)] radicals, respectively. The species under study were compared with respect to the sum of AA values of H, L and FSP extracts (AA(H+L+FSP)), containing freely solvent-soluble antioxidants, and AA values of IBP extracts (AA(IBP)), representing the phenolic fraction ester-linked to insoluble cell wall polymers. The LOX/RNO and ORAC methods measured in quinoa flour a remarkable AA(H+L+FSP) higher than durum wheat, although lower than emmer; according to the same assays, the IBP component of quinoa resulted less active than the durum wheat and emmer ones. The TEAC protocol also revealed a high AA(H+L+FSP) for quinoa. Interestingly, the ratio AA(H+L+FSP)/AA(H+L+FSP+IBP), as evaluated by the LOX/RNO and ORAC assays, resulted in quinoa higher than that of both durum wheat and emmer, and much higher than durum wheat, according to the TEAC protocol. This may suggest that antioxidants from quinoa seeds may be more readily accessible with respect to that of both the examined wheat species. Quinoa seeds may represent an excellent source of natural antioxidant compounds and, in particular, of the free-soluble antioxidant fraction. These compounds may improve nutritive and health-beneficial properties of quinoa-based gluten-free products, thus expanding interest for quinoa utilization from

  20. Effects of different phosphorus and potassium fertilization on contents and uptake of macronutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg in winter wheat I. Content of macronutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata GAJ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study carried out under field conditions was to evaluate the effect of differentiated phosphorus and potassium fertilization level on nutritional status of winter wheat at stem elongation (BBCH 31 and flowering (BBCH 65 development stages as well as on macronutrient contents in yield obtained (grain and straw. The research was conducted in 2007-2010, within an individual agricultural holding, on lessive soil with medium and high richness in potassium and phosphorus, respectively. The contents of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and calcium in wheat changed depending on the organ assessed and plant development stage. At BBCH 31, regardless fertilization level, the plants observed were malnourished with potassium, phosphorus and calcium and at the control site also with nitrogen. Furthermore, there were found significant correlation relationships among the contents of nutrient pairs: nitrogen-potassium, nitrogen-phosphorus, nitrogen-magnesium and nitrogen-calcium. The content of nitrogen in wheat grain and straw differed mainly due to weather conditions during the study. Irrespective of the years of observation, differentiated rates of P and K applied had no significant effect on N accumulation in wheat at full ripening stage. In contrast to nitrogen, the level of P and K fertilization significantly differentiated the contents of phosphorus, potassium and magnesium in wheat grain and straw. In case of calcium, the effect of fertilization factor was indicated only as regards the content of this nutrient in grain.

  1. Promoting certified seed availability of wheat (triticum aestivum L) through public-private partnership and its impact on yield in rainfed areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, M.; Mian, M.A.; Omer, M.; Abbass, K.; Rehman, O.U.

    2012-01-01

    The use of poor quality seed results in poor crop stand and eventually in lesser vegetative growth leading to poor crop yield. Hence, it is the need of the time to enhance provision of certified seed of improved varieties to the farmers. An approved wheat variety 'Chakwal-50' of rainfed areas was selected for certified seed production and distribution in rainfed District Chakwal under joint venture of a study on comparison of seed source(Certified vs. Farmer's seed) contribution towards wheat yield at six sites in the District. All the agronomic practices were the same in both -2 treatments. The number of fertile tillers m were significantly higher in certified seed source than the farmer's own seed that resulted in significant increase in grain yield. Other yield contributing parameters including number of spikelet per spike, numbers of grains per spike and 1000 grain weight were at par in both seed sources. It was concluded that healthy and pure seed source gave high seed germination and good crop stand which enabled the plants to withstand abiotic stress especially drought during the crop season. The seed multiplication of crop varieties of rainfed areas can be done in irrigated areas to ensure the quality of seed and its availability in rainfed areas, which ultimately will increase the income of the farming community of the area. (author)

  2. Fungicide seed treatments for evaluating the corn seedling disease complex following a winter rye cover crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed treatments have been used to manage corn seedling diseases since the 1970’s and they contain a combination of active ingredients with specificity towards different pathogens. We hypothesized that using different seed treatment combinations and assessing seedling disease incidence and severity ...

  3. Sustainability Assessment of Plant Protection Strategies in Swiss Winter Wheat and Potato Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Mouron

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of arable crops in Switzerland is subsidized for services performed within the Proof of Ecological Performance (PEP program, the crop protection part of which is based on IPM principles. Within PEP, chemical insect control must rely on those approved insecticides that are deemed harmless for beneficial arthropods. Approved insecticides potentially impacting beneficial arthropods may also be applied, but only if unavoidable and with an official permit. In order to assess the ecological and economic sustainability of this PEP program, a reference insecticide strategy illustrating the current PEP requirements was compared with other strategies. For this purpose, a sustainability assessment taking account of ecotoxicological risks and economic viability in addition to the preservation of beneficial arthropods was performed according to the SustainOS methodology. The results show that the one-off use of Audienz (spinosad to control cereal leaf beetle (Oulema melanopus—a key pest in winter wheat—would significantly improve sustainability vis-à-vis the reference (Nomolt (teflubenzuron plus Biscaya (thiacloprid. However, in the case of the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata, in potato crops, where Audienz is considered the reference, no alternative would exhibit better sustainability. Moreover, the study shows that strategies using Novodor (Bacillus thuringiensis protect beneficial species well but have the drawbacks of increased yield risk and higher costs. The conclusions drawn from these analyses allow recommendations for modifications of the PEP requirements for these two pest insects. The SustainOS methodology, a multi-step process combining expert knowledge with quantitative assessments including a sensitivity analysis of key target parameters and a rule-based aggregation of assessment results, yielded valuable insights into the sustainability of different crop protection strategies.

  4. SURVEY OF FUNGI IN WHEAT SEEDS LEVANTAMENTO DE FUNGOS EM SEMENTES DE TRIGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Pellozo Pires

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The occurrence of pathogenic fungi in wheat seeds has been frequently reported, and this association is sometimes responsible for decreasing seeds physiologic quality, as well as introducing and disseminating pathogens and transferring early pathogens to the progeny. The objective of this study was to perform the first survey of fungi associated with upland and irrigated wheat seeds, in the Mato Grosso State, Brazil. The Brilhante, BRS 264, Aliança, BR 18, BRS 254, and IAC 350 cultivars were used. The health analysis was performed with the aid of the Blotter test adapted to water restriction (NaCl - 1.0 MPa, with eight replications (25 seeds per plate, totalizing 200 seeds per sample. The fungi identification was based on their morphologic features and their incidence was quantified. The results showed variability in diversity and incidence, with a total of 20 fungi genera in the 32 samples. Cladosporium cladosporioides and Bipolaris sorokiniana were present in 96.87% of the samples, followed by Fusarium graminearum, with 75.00%, and Pyricularia grisea, with 59.37%.

    A presença de fungos patogênicos em sementes de trigo tem sido relatada com frequência, e esta associação é responsável, muitas vezes, pela redução da

  5. Comparative proteome analysis of metabolic proteins from seeds of durum wheat (cv. Svevo) subjected to heat stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laino, Paolo; Shelton, Dale; Finnie, Christine

    2010-01-01

    of nonprolamin proteins were monitored to identify polypeptides affected by heat stress during grain fill. This study shows that heat stress alters significantly the durum wheat seed proteome, although the changes range is only between 1.2- and 2.2-fold. This analysis revealed 132 differentially expressed...... include proteins with metabolic activity or structural function. In order to investigate the consequences of heat stress on the accumulation of nonprolamin proteins in mature durum wheat kernels, the Italian cultivar Svevo was subjected to two thermal regimes (heat stress versus control). The 2-D patterns...... polypeptides, 47 of which were identified by MALDI-TOF and MALDI-TOF-TOF MS and included HSPs, proteins involved in the glycolysis and carbohydrate metabolism, as well as stress-related proteins. Many of the heat-induced polypeptides are considered to be allergenic for sensitive individuals....

  6. Delivery of Flavonoids and Saponins from Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Seed Coats Incorporated into Whole Wheat Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Santoscoy, Rocio A.; Lazo-Vélez, Marco A.; Serna-Sáldivar, Sergio O.; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A.

    2016-01-01

    Cereal-based products can be used as vehicles for the delivery of relevant bioactive compounds since they are staple foods for most cultures throughout the world. The health promoting benefits of flavonoids and saponins contained in black bean seed coats have been previously described. In the present work, the effect of adding flavonoids and saponins from black bean seed coat to the typical yeast-leavened whole wheat bread formulation in terms of bread features, organoleptic properties and phytochemical profile was studied. The retention of bioactive compounds was determined and the inhibitory effects of in vitro enzyme digested samples on two colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2 and HT29) was evaluated. The addition of bioactive compounds did not significantly affect baking properties or texture parameters. Among organoleptic properties of enriched breads, only crumb color was affected by the addition of bioactive compounds. However, the use of whole wheat flour partially masked the effect on color. More than 90% of added flavonoids and saponins and 80% of anthocyanins were retained in bread after baking. However, saponins were reduced more than 50% after the in vitro enzyme digestion. The black bean seed coat phytochemicals recovered after in vitro enzyme digestion of enriched breads significantly reduced by 20% the viability of colon cancer cells without affecting standard fibroblast cells (p < 0.05). PMID:26901186

  7. Delivery of Flavonoids and Saponins from Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris Seed Coats Incorporated into Whole Wheat Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio A. Chávez-Santoscoy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cereal-based products can be used as vehicles for the delivery of relevant bioactive compounds since they are staple foods for most cultures throughout the world. The health promoting benefits of flavonoids and saponins contained in black bean seed coats have been previously described. In the present work, the effect of adding flavonoids and saponins from black bean seed coat to the typical yeast-leavened whole wheat bread formulation in terms of bread features, organoleptic properties and phytochemical profile was studied. The retention of bioactive compounds was determined and the inhibitory effects of in vitro enzyme digested samples on two colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2 and HT29 was evaluated. The addition of bioactive compounds did not significantly affect baking properties or texture parameters. Among organoleptic properties of enriched breads, only crumb color was affected by the addition of bioactive compounds. However, the use of whole wheat flour partially masked the effect on color. More than 90% of added flavonoids and saponins and 80% of anthocyanins were retained in bread after baking. However, saponins were reduced more than 50% after the in vitro enzyme digestion. The black bean seed coat phytochemicals recovered after in vitro enzyme digestion of enriched breads significantly reduced by 20% the viability of colon cancer cells without affecting standard fibroblast cells (p < 0.05.

  8. Photobiostimulation effects on germination and early growth of wheat seeds (Triticum aestivum L) produced by a semiconductor laser with λ=980nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michtchenko, A.; Hernandez, M.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of the exposure of wheat (Triticum aestivum L) seeds to a IR laser radiation with λ=980nm produced by a semiconductor laser on germination and early growth had been studied under laboratory conditions. Seeds were irradiated to one of two laser intensities 15 mWcm - ''2 or 30 mWcm -2 for different periods of time 30, 60 or 120 s. Seeds exposed to a light intensity of 15mWcm -2 and an exposition time of 30 s. showed an increase on the percentage of seeds germinated normally while the percentage of seeds germinated abnormally decreased. At the same time there is a stimulation effect on the growth of the stem and on the growth of the root of 10% on wheat seedlings over control seedlings. Significant differences (ρ < 0.001) were observed between the control and the above treatment. (Author)

  9. Photosynthetic characteristics and distribution of 14C assimilates in the winter wheat of late growing period in dry land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qing Huimin; Yu Guohua; Yin Xisheng; Zhan Shumin; Liu Xin

    1999-01-01

    The photosynthetic characteristics and distribution of 14 C assimilates of winter wheat in late growing period in the field of natural drought condition was studied. The results showed that photosynthetic rate of flag leaves was up to 14.24 μmol CO 2 ·m -2 ·s -1 , the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RUBpCase) activity of flag leaves in late growing period in field drought treatment was about 20∼23 μmol CO 2 ·min -1 ·g -1 dw when the water potential of flag leaves was about -1.8∼-2.1 MPa. The photosynthetic rate of flag leaves of control was 15.15 μmol CO 2 ·m -2 ·s -1 . The RUBpCase activity was about 22∼25 μmol CO 2 ·min -1 · -1 ·g -1 dw in the field of irrigated condition when the water potential of flag leaves was about -1.65∼-1.8 MPa, indicating that the RUBpCase activity of flag leaves in drought condition was not a major limiting factor. The total distribution rate of 14 C assimilates of flag leaves, flag leaf sheath, flag leaf node and awn to grain in drought treatment was about 44.8%, and that of control was about 40.2%. The results also showed that in late growing period the proportion of 14 C assimilates to roots in the both drought and control treatment was similar, about 2.0%. But the amount of 14 C assimilates in the roots in the soil layer of 120∼200 cm was up to 8.34% of the total 14 C assimilates in the roots, however, that of control was only about 3.6%

  10. Yield response of winter wheat cultivars to environments modeled by different variance-covariance structures in linear mixed models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studnicki, M.; Mądry, W.; Noras, K.; Wójcik-Gront, E.; Gacek, E.

    2016-11-01

    The main objectives of multi-environmental trials (METs) are to assess cultivar adaptation patterns under different environmental conditions and to investigate genotype by environment (G×E) interactions. Linear mixed models (LMMs) with more complex variance-covariance structures have become recognized and widely used for analyzing METs data. Best practice in METs analysis is to carry out a comparison of competing models with different variance-covariance structures. Improperly chosen variance-covariance structures may lead to biased estimation of means resulting in incorrect conclusions. In this work we focused on adaptive response of cultivars on the environments modeled by the LMMs with different variance-covariance structures. We identified possible limitations of inference when using an inadequate variance-covariance structure. In the presented study we used the dataset on grain yield for 63 winter wheat cultivars, evaluated across 18 locations, during three growing seasons (2008/2009-2010/2011) from the Polish Post-registration Variety Testing System. For the evaluation of variance-covariance structures and the description of cultivars adaptation to environments, we calculated adjusted means for the combination of cultivar and location in models with different variance-covariance structures. We concluded that in order to fully describe cultivars adaptive patterns modelers should use the unrestricted variance-covariance structure. The restricted compound symmetry structure may interfere with proper interpretation of cultivars adaptive patterns. We found, that the factor-analytic structure is also a good tool to describe cultivars reaction on environments, and it can be successfully used in METs data after determining the optimal component number for each dataset. (Author)

  11. Biophysical controls on light response of net CO2 exchange in a winter wheat field in the North China Plain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojuan Tong

    Full Text Available To investigate the impacts of biophysical factors on light response of net ecosystem exchange (NEE, CO2 flux was measured using the eddy covariance technique in a winter wheat field in the North China Plain from 2003 to 2006. A rectangular hyperbolic function was used to describe NEE light response. Maximum photosynthetic capacity (P max was 46.6 ± 4.0 µmol CO2 m(-2 s(-1 and initial light use efficiency (α 0.059 ± 0.006 µmol µmol(-1 in April-May, two or three times as high as those in March. Stepwise multiple linear regressions showed that P max increased with the increase in leaf area index (LAI, canopy conductance (g c and air temperature (T a but declined with increasing vapor pressure deficit (VPD (P25°C or VPD>1.1-1.3 kPa, NEE residual increased with the increase in T a and VPD (P<0.001, indicating that temperature and water stress occurred. When g c was more than 14 mm s(-1 in March and May and 26 mm s(-1 in April, the NEE residuals decline disappeared, or even turned into an increase in g c (P<0.01, implying shifts from stomatal limitation to non-stomatal limitation on NEE. Although the differences between sunny and cloudy sky conditions were unremarkable for light response parameters, simulated net CO2 uptake under the same radiation intensity averaged 18% higher in cloudy days than in sunny days during the year 2003-2006. It is necessary to include these effects in relevant carbon cycle models to improve our estimation of carbon balance at regional and global scales.

  12. [Effects of nitrogen application rate on nitrate reductase activity, nitric oxide content and gas exchange in winter wheat leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Zhou-Ping

    2007-07-01

    In this paper, the effects of different nitrogen application rates on the nitrate reductase (NR) activity, nitric oxide (NO) content and gas exchange parameters in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) leaves from tillering stage to heading stage and on grain yield were studied. The results showed that the photosynthetic rate (P(n)), transpiration rate (T(r)) and instantaneous water use efficiency (IWUE) of leaves as well as the grain yield were increased with increasing nitrogen application rate first but decreased then, with the values of all these parameters reached the highest in treatment N180. The NR activity increased with increasing nitrogen application rate, and there was a significant linear correlation between NR activity and NO content at tillering and jointing stages (R2 > or = 0.68, n = 15). NO content had a quadratic positive correlation with stomatal conductance (G(s)) (R2 > or = 0.43, n = 15). The lower NO content produced by lower NR activity under lower nitrogen application rate promoted the stoma opened, while the higher NO content produced by higher NR activity under higher nitrogen application rate induced the stoma closed. Although the leaf NO content had a quadratic positive correlation with stomatal conductance (R2 > or = 0.36, n = 15), no remarkable correlation was observed between NR activity and NO content at heading stage, suggesting that nitrogen fertilization could not affect leaf NO content through promoting NR activity, and further more, regulate the stomatal action. Under appropriate nitrogen application the leaf NR activity and NO content were lower, G(s), T(r) and IWUE were higher, and thus, the crop had a better drought-resistant ability, higher P(n), and higher grain yield.

  13. The influence of seed treatment with gamma radiation on plant yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølle, K.G.

    1965-01-01

    The effect of seed irradiation with γ-rays on the yield of plants has been examined for the following species: Spring barley, spring and winter wheat, winter rye, maize, fodder pea, white mustard, fodder beet, and radish. Cobalt-60 was used as the source of radiation, with doses varying from 10...

  14. Dual effects of Metarhizium spp. and Clonostachys rosea against an insect and a seed-borne pathogen in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyser, Chad A; Jensen, Birgit; Meyling, Nicolai V

    2016-03-01

    Crops are often prone to both insect herbivory and disease, which necessitate multiple control measures. Ideally, an efficacious biological control agent must adequately control the target organism and not be inhibited by other biological control agents when applied simultaneously. Wheat seeds infected with the plant pathogen Fusarium culmorum were treated with Metarhizium brunneum or M. flavoviride and Clonostachys rosea individually and in combination, with the expectation to control both root-feeding insects and the pathogen. Emerging roots were evaluated for disease and then placed with Tenebrio molitor larvae, which were monitored for infection. Plant disease symptoms were nearly absent for seeds treated with C. rosea, both individually and in combination with Metarhizium spp. Furthermore, roots grown from seeds treated with Metarhizium spp. caused significant levels of fungal infection in larvae when used individually or combined with C. rosea. However, cotreated seeds showed reduced virulence towards T. molitor when compared with treatments using Metarhizium spp. only. This study clearly shows that seed treatments with both the entomopathogenic fungus M. brunneum and the mycoparasitic fungus C. rosea can protect plant roots from insects and disease. The dual-treatment approach to biological control presented here is consistent with the ideals of IPM strategies. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. THE EFFECTS OF SEED SOAKING WITH PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS ON SEEDLING VIGOR OF WHEAT UNDER SALINITY STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afzal Irfan

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Effects of seed soaking with plant growth regulators (IAA, GA3, kinetin or prostart on wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Auqab-2000 emergence and seedling growth under normal (4 dS/cm and saline (15 dS/cm conditions were studied to determine their usefulness in increasing relative salt-tolerance. During emergence test, emergence percentage and mean emergence time (MET were significantly affected by most of priming treatments, however, root and shoot length, fresh and dry weight of seedlings were significantly increased by 25 ppm kinetin followed by 1% prostart for 2 h treatments under both normal and saline conditions. All pre-sowing seed treatments decreased the electrolyte leakage of steep water as compared to that of non-primed seeds even after 12 h of soaking. Seed soaking with 25 ppm kinetin induced maximum decrease in electrolyte leakage while an increase in electrolyte leakage was observed by 25, 50 or 100 ppm IAA treatments. It is concluded that priming has reduced the severity of the effect of salinity but the amelioration was better due to 25 ppm kinetin and 1% prostart (2 h treatments as these showed best results on seedling growth, fresh and dry weights under non-saline and saline conditions whereas seed soaking with IAA and GA3 were not effective in inducing salt tolerance under present experimental material and conditions.

  16. Utilization and effects of gamma rays in conservation of wheat seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarenga, Moema Goncalves de; Mendes, Adrienne Marie Silveira; Carmo, Vildete Aparecida Sousa.

    1989-01-01

    The process of conservation and treatment of wheat by irradiation was studied. The advantages of this method in relation to conventional method were analysed. The radiation effects were observed to different radiation doses on wheat metabolism, proteins, starch, alpha-amylases and physical-chemical characteristics. 30 refs., 22 tabs

  17. Hard Winter Wheat and Flour Properties in Relation to Breadmaking Quality of Straight-dough Bread: Flour Particle Size and Bread Crumb Grain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S H Park; O K Chung; P A Seib

    2006-01-01

    Samples of 12 hard winter wheats and their flours that produced breads varying in crumb grain scores were studied for 38 quality parameters including: wheat physical and chemical characteristics; flour ash and protein contents, starch damage,swelling power, pasting characteristics, and flour particle size distribution; dough properties determined by a mixograph; and breadmaking properties for pup loaves (100g flour). Only two parameters, the protein content of wheat and the granulation of flour, showed significant correlations with bread crumb grain scores. Protein content of wheat ranging 12.9%~ 14.5% determined by an NIR method showed a weak inverse relationship (r =-0.61, p < 0.05) with bread crumb grain score. Flour particle size distribution measured by both Alpine Air Jet Sieve and NIR methods revealed that the weight wt % of particles less than 38μ m in size and representing 9.6%~ 19.3% of the flour weights was correlated positively (r =0.78, p < 0.01) with crumb grain score, whereas wt % of flour particles larger than 125μm had an inverse relationship (r =-0.60, p<0.05) with crumb grain score.

  18. SEWAGE SLUDGE EFFECTS ON POTATO, WINTER WHEAT AND MAIZE YIELD CULTIVATED IN ROTATION, AND SOIL PROPERTY MODIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Lixandru

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of sewage sludge as phosphorus and nitrogen amendment for cambic chernozem soils in comparison with inorganic fertilizers (NH4NO3 and KCl. The experiment reported here were conducted during 10 years in two rotation: 1 potato – winter wheat – maize, and 2 maize – potato – winter wheat. Sewage sludge rates applied in potato was 65, 130 and 195 t/ha respectively, and in maize 30, 60 and 90 t/ha, sewage sludge rates applied alone or in combination with N and K as mineral fertilizers. The results led to the following conclusions: 1 The air-dried sewage sludge from plot Iaşi contained about 200 kg organic matter, 6 kg N, 8 kg P, 2 kg K, 30 kg Ca and 10 kg soluble salts in 1000 kg. The heavy metals content was under the maximum limits allowable, excepting Zn which was found between 4140 and 5378 ppm Zn. 2 At potato crops resulted in an yield increase of 100 kg tubers for one ton sewage sludge in case of rate of 65 t/ha, at higher rates the yield increase being lower. Annual rainfall had a significant influence on yield increase. 3 The nitrogen utilization from sewage sludge was of 8.5 % at a rate of 65 t/ha and 2.5 % at a rate of 195 t/ha. From 100 kg N as mineral fertilizer, potato used 30 % and produced 60 kg tubers/1 kg N applied in soil. The yield increase at 1 kg N from sewage sludge was of 17 kg tubers at a rate of 65 t/ha. Therefore, the nitrogen efficiency from mineral fertilizer was about three times higher compared to N from sewage sludge. 4 Applied in maize crop, resulted an yield increase of 23.2 kg grains for 1 ton sewage sludge at a rate of 30 t/ha and only 13.2 kg/1 t at a rates 90 t/ha. By comparing to manure, the yield increased was lower. The nitrogen utilization from sewage sludge by maize was of 11 % at 3o t/ha and 6.6 % at 90 t/ha. From mineral fertilizer, maize used 25.9 % of 100 kg N/ha. 5 Residual effect of sewage sludge in second year in wheat crop was of 7

  19. Canopy temperature depression at grain filling correlates to winter wheat yield in the U.S. southern high plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat breeding has improved drought tolerance over the years. However, our knowledge on drought tolerance in relation to the canopy temperature (CT) and grain yield is limited. A three-season wheat field study ending 2012, 2015, and 2016 was conducted at Bushland, Texas to investigate the relationsh...

  20. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) producing Pseudomonas isolates inhibit seed germination and α-amylase activity in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabatabaei, S.; Ehsanzadeh, P.; Etesami, H.; Alikhani, H.A.; Glick, B.R.

    2016-11-01

    The role of plant-associated bacteria in plant physiology and metabolism is well documented, but little has been known about the roles played by Pseudomonas in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum) growth and development. An in vitroexperiment was conducted to observe the effect of the inoculation of four indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-producing Pseudomonas isolates and exogenous IAA on seed germination traits and α-amylase activity of durum wheat. The results showed inoculation with all bacterial isolates led to a decrease in the germination percent, although the extent of the depression varied with the isolate. A significant relationship between concentrations of bacterial IAA and the germination inhibition percent in durum wheat seeds by different bacteria strains was observed. The results of this assay showed the effect of bacterial isolates on α-amylase activity after six and 8 days of inoculation was significant, while effect of these isolates on α-amylase activity after two and 4 days of inoculation was not meaningful. In addition, the exogenously applied IAA displayed a concentration-dependent effect on seed germination attributes and α-amylase activity, consistent with the possibility that the inhibitory effect of bacterial inoculation on seed germination was in consequence of bacteria-produced IAA. Therefore, it may suggested that the inhibitory role of IAA in seed germination and α-amylase activity should be taken into account during the screening of IAA-producing Pseudomonas isolates for durum wheat growth promoting agents. (Author)

  1. Genome-wide association mapping of resistance to eyespot disease (Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides) in European winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and fine-mapping of Pch1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanke, Christine D; Rodemann, Bernd; Ling, Jie; Muqaddasi, Quddoos H; Plieske, Jörg; Polley, Andreas; Kollers, Sonja; Ebmeyer, Erhard; Korzun, Viktor; Argillier, Odile; Stiewe, Gunther; Zschäckel, Thomas; Ganal, Martin W; Röder, Marion S

    2017-03-01

    Genotypes with recombination events in the Triticum ventricosum introgression on chromosome 7D allowed to fine-map resistance gene Pch1, the main source of eyespot resistance in European winter wheat cultivars. Eyespot (also called Strawbreaker) is a common and serious fungal disease of winter wheat caused by the necrotrophic fungi Oculimacula yallundae and Oculimacula acuformis (former name Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides). A genome-wide association study (GWAS) for eyespot was performed with 732 microsatellite markers (SSR) and 7761 mapped SNP markers derived from the 90 K iSELECT wheat array using a panel of 168 European winter wheat varieties as well as three spring wheat varieties and phenotypic evaluation of eyespot in field tests in three environments. Best linear unbiased estimations (BLUEs) were calculated across all trials and ranged from 1.20 (most resistant) to 5.73 (most susceptible) with an average value of 4.24 and a heritability of H 2  = 0.91. A total of 108 SSR and 235 SNP marker-trait associations (MTAs) were identified by considering associations with a -log 10 (P value) ≥3.0. Significant MTAs for eyespot-score BLUEs were found on chromosomes 1D, 2A, 2D, 3D, 5A, 5D, 6A, 7A and 7D for the SSR markers and chromosomes 1B, 2A, 2B, 2D, 3B and 7D for the SNP markers. For 18 varieties (10.5%), a highly resistant phenotype was detected that was linked to the presence of the resistance gene Pch1 on chromosome 7D. The identification of genotypes with recombination events in the introgressed genomic segment from Triticum ventricosum harboring the Pch1 resistance gene on chromosome 7DL allowed the fine-mapping of this gene using additional SNP markers and a potential candidate gene Traes_7DL_973A33763 coding for a CC-NBS-LRR class protein was identified.

  2. Response of vegetation to carbon dioxide - effect of elevated levels of CO{sub 2} on winter wheat under two moisture regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhuri, U.N.; Burnett, R.B.; Kanemasu, E.T.; Kirkham, M.B.

    1987-12-31

    This report deals with the second-year (1985-86) findings of an on going experiment with winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) at different carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) levels and under two moisture regimes. The results for the first year are given in the U.S. Department of Energy, Carbon Dioxide Research Division Response of Vegetation to Carbon Dioxide. The purpose of the second year`s experiment was to verify the results of 1984-85. However, based on the performance and the results of 1984-85 experiments, a few modifications were made.

  3. Impacts of climate change and alternative adaptation options on winter wheat yield and water productivity in a dry climate in Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Thaler, S.; Eitzinger, Josef; Trnka, Miroslav; Dubrovský, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 150, č. 5 (2012), s. 537-555 ISSN 0021-8596 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300420806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520; CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : climate change * weather generator * winter wheat * adaptation options * Central Europe Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour; DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology (UFA-U) Impact factor: 2.878, year: 2012 http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8678290

  4. Greenhouse (III): Gas-Exchange and Seed-to-Seed Experiments on the Russian Space Station MIR and Earth-grown, Ethylene-Treated Wheat Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, William F.; Bingham, Gail; Carman, John; Bubenheim, David; Levinskikh, Margarita; Sytchev, Vladimir N.; Podolsky, Igor B.; Chernova, Lola; Nefodova, Yelena

    2001-01-01

    The Mir Space Station provided an outstanding opportunity to study long-term plant responses when exposed to a microgravity environment. Furthermore, if plants can be grown to maturity in a microgravity environment, they might be used in future bioregenerative life-support systems (BLSS). The primary objective of the Greenhouse experiment onboard Mir was to grow Super Dwarf and Apogee wheat through complete life cycles in microgravity; i.e., from seed-to-seed-to-seed. Additional objectives were to study chemical, biochemical, and structural changes in plant tissues as well as photosynthesis, respiration, and transpiration (evaporation of water from plants). Another major objective was to evaluate the suitability clothe facilities on Mir for advanced research with plants. The Greenhouse experiment was conducted in the Russian/Bulgarian plant growth chamber, the Svet, to which the United States added instrumentation systems to monitor changes in CO2 and water vapor caused by the plants (with four infrared gas analyzers monitoring air entering and leaving two small plastic chambers). In addition, the US instrumentation also monitored O2; air, leaf (IR), cabin pressure; photon flux; and substrate temperature and substrate moisture (16 probes in the root module). Facility modifications were first performed during the summer of 1995 during Mir 19, which began after STS-72 left Mir. Plant development was monitored by daily observations and some photographs.

  5. Root growth, water uptake, and sap flow of winter wheat in response to different soil water conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Gaochao; Vanderborght, Jan; Langensiepen, Matthias; Schnepf, Andrea; Hüging, Hubert; Vereecken, Harry

    2018-04-01

    How much water can be taken up by roots and how this depends on the root and water distributions in the root zone are important questions that need to be answered to describe water fluxes in the soil-plant-atmosphere system. Physically based root water uptake (RWU) models that relate RWU to transpiration, root density, and water potential distributions have been developed but used or tested far less. This study aims at evaluating the simulated RWU of winter wheat using the empirical Feddes-Jarvis (FJ) model and the physically based Couvreur (C) model for different soil water conditions and soil textures compared to sap flow measurements. Soil water content (SWC), water potential, and root development were monitored noninvasively at six soil depths in two rhizotron facilities that were constructed in two soil textures: stony vs. silty, with each of three water treatments: sheltered, rainfed, and irrigated. Soil and root parameters of the two models were derived from inverse modeling and simulated RWU was compared with sap flow measurements for validation. The different soil types and water treatments resulted in different crop biomass, root densities, and root distributions with depth. The two models simulated the lowest RWU in the sheltered plot of the stony soil where RWU was also lower than the potential RWU. In the silty soil, simulated RWU was equal to the potential uptake for all treatments. The variation of simulated RWU among the different plots agreed well with measured sap flow but the C model predicted the ratios of the transpiration fluxes in the two soil types slightly better than the FJ model. The root hydraulic parameters of the C model could be constrained by the field data but not the water stress parameters of the FJ model. This was attributed to differences in root densities between the different soils and treatments which are accounted for by the C model, whereas the FJ model only considers normalized root densities. The impact of differences in

  6. Root growth, water uptake, and sap flow of winter wheat in response to different soil water conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cai

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available How much water can be taken up by roots and how this depends on the root and water distributions in the root zone are important questions that need to be answered to describe water fluxes in the soil–plant–atmosphere system. Physically based root water uptake (RWU models that relate RWU to transpiration, root density, and water potential distributions have been developed but used or tested far less. This study aims at evaluating the simulated RWU of winter wheat using the empirical Feddes–Jarvis (FJ model and the physically based Couvreur (C model for different soil water conditions and soil textures compared to sap flow measurements. Soil water content (SWC, water potential, and root development were monitored noninvasively at six soil depths in two rhizotron facilities that were constructed in two soil textures: stony vs. silty, with each of three water treatments: sheltered, rainfed, and irrigated. Soil and root parameters of the two models were derived from inverse modeling and simulated RWU was compared with sap flow measurements for validation. The different soil types and water treatments resulted in different crop biomass, root densities, and root distributions with depth. The two models simulated the lowest RWU in the sheltered plot of the stony soil where RWU was also lower than the potential RWU. In the silty soil, simulated RWU was equal to the potential uptake for all treatments. The variation of simulated RWU among the different plots agreed well with measured sap flow but the C model predicted the ratios of the transpiration fluxes in the two soil types slightly better than the FJ model. The root hydraulic parameters of the C model could be constrained by the field data but not the water stress parameters of the FJ model. This was attributed to differences in root densities between the different soils and treatments which are accounted for by the C model, whereas the FJ model only considers normalized root densities

  7. The transcriptome of the developing grain: a resource for understanding seed development and the molecular control of the functional and nutritional properties of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangan, Parimalan; Furtado, Agnelo; Henry, Robert J

    2017-10-11

    Wheat is one of the three major cereals that have been domesticated to feed human populations. The composition of the wheat grain determines the functional properties of wheat including milling efficiency, bread making, and nutritional value. Transcriptome analysis of the developing wheat grain provides key insights into the molecular basis for grain development and quality. The transcriptome of 35 genotypes was analysed by RNA-Seq at two development stages (14 and 30 days-post-anthesis, dpa) corresponding to the mid stage of development (stage Z75) and the almost mature seed (stage Z85). At 14dpa, most of the transcripts were associated with the synthesis of the major seed components including storage proteins and starch. At 30dpa, a diverse range of genes were expressed at low levels with a predominance of genes associated with seed defence and stress tolerance. RNA-Seq analysis of changes in expression between 14dpa and 30dpa stages revealed 26,477 transcripts that were significantly differentially expressed at a FDR corrected p-value cut-off at ≤0.01. Functional annotation and gene ontology mapping was performed and KEGG pathway mapping allowed grouping based upon biochemical linkages. This analysis demonstrated that photosynthesis associated with the pericarp was very active at 14dpa but had ceased by 30dpa. Recently reported genes for flour yield in milling and bread quality were found to influence wheat quality largely due to expression patterns at the earlier seed development stage. This study serves as a resource providing an overview of gene expression during wheat grain development at the early (14dpa) and late (30dpa) grain filling stages for use in studies of grain quality and nutritional value and in understanding seed biology.

  8. Foliar K application delays leaf senescence of winter rape-seed (Brassica napus L.) under waterlogging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Wan; Chao Hu; Chang Chen; Liyan Zhang; Ni Ma; Chunlei Zhang

    2017-01-01

    To better understand waterlogging effect on leaf senescence in winter rapseed (Brassica napus L.) during flowering stage, experiments were designed to explore foliar K application influence