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Sample records for winter wheat cultivar

  1. NS Pudarka: A new winter wheat cultivar

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    Hristov Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-yielding, medium late winter wheat cultivar NS Pudarka was developed by crossing genetic divergent parents: line NMNH-07 and cv. NS 40S and Simonida. In cultivar NS Pudarka genes responsible for high yield potential, very good technological quality, resistance to lodging, low temperature and diseases, were successfully combined. It was registered by Ministry of agriculture, forestry and water management of Serbia Republic in 2013. This cultivar has wide adaptability and stability of yield that enable growing in different environments with optimal agricultural practice. On the base of technological quality this cultivar belongs to the second quality class, A2 farinograph subgroup and second technological group.

  2. Genetics of leaf rust resistance in the hard red winter wheat cultivars Santa Fe and Duster

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    Leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina is a common and important disease of hard red winter wheat in the Great Plains of the United States. The hard red winter wheat cultivars 'Santa Fe' and 'Duster' have had effective leaf rust resistance since their release in 2003 and 2006, respectively. Both cul...

  3. Effects of organic and conventional production systems and cultivars on the technological properties of winter wheat.

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    Ceseviciene, Jurgita; Slepetiene, Alvyra; Leistrumaite, Alge; Ruzgas, Vytautas; Slepetys, Jonas

    2012-11-01

    The current study aimed to estimate the effects of organic and conventional production systems and four winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) bread cultivars on the technological properties of grain, flour, dough and bread, to increase current knowledge regarding the interactions of the technological properties of winter wheat and assess the cultivars for their suitability for organic production systems. All the technological properties winter wheat which were investigated were significantly affected by the agricultural production system and cultivars, and some of them, mostly grain quality parameters, by the harvest year. Grain from organic winter wheat had significantly lower protein and gluten contents, lower sedimentation and flour water absorption values, shorter dough stability time and lower loaf volume, but higher values of starch content and stronger gluten, compared with grain from the conventional wheat. For both production systems significant positive correlations of protein content with gluten content, sedimentation value, dough stability time, loaf volume, farinograph water absorption, and negative with starch content, gluten index were determined. Statistically significant differences between agricultural production systems were found. The cultivars Ada and Alma had better technological properties that make them more suitable for the organic production system, compared to Širvinta 1 and Zentos. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Resistance of Select Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Cultivars to Rhopalosiphum padi (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

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    Girvin, John; Whitworth, R Jeff; Rojas, Lina Maria Aguirre; Smith, C Michael

    2017-08-01

    The bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) is a global pest of wheat and vectors some of the most damaging strains of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV). In years of heavy R. padi infestation, R. padi and BYDV together reduce wheat yields by 30-40% in Kansas and other states of the U.S. Great Plains wheat production area. Cultivation of wheat cultivars resistant to R. padi can greatly reduce production costs and mitigate R. padi-BYDV yield losses, and increase producer profits. This study identified cultivars of hard red and soft white winter wheat with R. padi resistance that suppress R. padi populations or tolerate the effects of R. padi feeding damage. 'Pioneer (S) 25R40,' 'MFA (S) 2248,' 'Pioneer (S) 25R77,' and 'Limagrain LCS Mint' significantly reduced R. padi populations. MFA (S) 2248, Pioneer (S) 25R40, and 'Limagrain LS Wizard' exhibited tolerance expressed as significantly greater aboveground biomass. These findings are significant in that they have identified wheat cultivars currently available to producers, enabling the immediate improvement of tactics to manage R. padi and BYDV in heavily infested areas. Secondarily, these results identify cultivars that are good candidates for use in breeding and genetic analyses of arthropod resistance genes in wheat. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Mineral nutrition as a factor of stability of technological quality in winter wheat cultivars

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    Đurić Veselinka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Afield trial was carried out with eight cultivars (Libellula, Drina, Sremica NSR-2, Jugoslavija, Somborka, Lasta and Pobeda of winter wheat (Trticum aestivum L representing several different periods in our country's wheat selection and having different potentials for technological grain quality. Six different rates of nitrogen fertilizer were tested: 0, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 kgNha-1. Increasing N fertilizer rates resulted in a linear increase of the direct and indirect indicators of quality. The best results were obtained with the cultivar Sremica and the poorest with Lasta, while Jugoslavija and Pobeda were shown to be of approximately the same quality. The contribution of N fertilizer variance to total variance was the largest for protein content (43.7%. N nutrition had a greater influence on protein content in cultivars from the earlier periods of selection. Its effect on sedimentation value, on the other hand, was greater in the recently released cultivars. The contribution of the genetic factor to total variance was the highest for crumb value number (CVN (58.7% and bread volume yield (44.2% and the lowest for protein content (20.8%. The absence of significant differences in the CVN means at any of the N nutrition levels studied resulted from the variability of the indirect indicators closely linked with the direct indicators of baking quality, showing the importance of N nutrition for maintaining the stability of technological quality in winter wheat cultivars.

  6. [New data on the distribution of hybrid necrosis genes in winter bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars].

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    Pukhal'skiĭ, V A; Bilinskaia, E N; Martynov, S P; Dobrovol'skaia, T V; Obolenkova, G A

    2008-02-01

    Hybrid necrosis genotypes have been identified in 125 Russian cultivars of winter bread wheat. More than half of them (56%) carry the Ne2 gene (genotype ne1ne1Ne2Ne2); others are free of necrosis genes (genotype ne1ne1ne2ne2). The possible causes of the increase in the Ne2 allele frequency and the loss of the Ne1Ne1ne2ne2 genotype in modem Russian cultivars of winter wheat are discussed. The principal component method has been used to compare the structures of the genetic diversity of cultivars differing in the hybrid necrosis genotype. It has been found that the Ne2 allele in winter wheat cultivars from northern Russia has originated from the cultivar Mironovskaya 808, whereas the cultivar Bezostaya 1 is not a source of this gene. In cultivars from southern Russia, the presence of the Ne2 allele is also mainly accounted for by the use of Mironovskaya 808 wheat in their breeding. The recessive genotype is explained by the presence of descendants of the cultivar Odesskaya 16 in the pedigrees of southern Russian winter wheats. The genetic relationship of cultivars with identical and different necrosis genotypes has been analyzed in nine regions of the Russian Federation.

  7. Cultivar Mixture Cropping Increased Water Use Efficiency in Winter Wheat under Limited Irrigation Conditions.

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    Yunqi Wang

    Full Text Available The effects of cultivar mixture cropping on yield, biomass, and water use efficiency (WUE in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. were investigated under non-irrigation (W0, no irrigation during growth stage, one time irrigation (W1, irrigation applied at stem elongation and two times irrigation (W2, irrigation applied at stem elongation and anthesis conditions. Nearly 90% of cultivar mixture cropping treatments experienced an increase in grain yield as compared with the mean of the pure stands under W0, those for W1 and W2 were 80% and 85%, respectively. Over 75% of cultivar mixture cropping treatments got greater biomass than the mean of the pure stands under the three irrigation conditions. Cultivar mixture cropping cost more water than pure stands under W0 and W1, whereas the water consumption under W2 decreased by 5.9%-6.8% as compared with pure stands. Approximately 90% of cultivar mixtures showed an increase of 5.4%-34.5% in WUE as compared with the mean of the pure stands, and about 75% of cultivar mixtures had 0.8%-28.5% higher WUE than the better pure stands under W0. Similarly, there were a majority of mixture cropping treatments with higher WUE than the mean and the better one of the pure stands under W1 and W2. On the whole, proper cultivar mixture cropping could increase yield and WUE, and a higher increase in WUE occurred under limited irrigation condition.

  8. Cultivar Mixture Cropping Increased Water Use Efficiency in Winter Wheat under Limited Irrigation Conditions.

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    Wang, Yunqi; Zhang, Yinghua; Ji, Wei; Yu, Peng; Wang, Bin; Li, Jinpeng; Han, Meikun; Xu, Xuexin; Wang, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    The effects of cultivar mixture cropping on yield, biomass, and water use efficiency (WUE) in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were investigated under non-irrigation (W0, no irrigation during growth stage), one time irrigation (W1, irrigation applied at stem elongation) and two times irrigation (W2, irrigation applied at stem elongation and anthesis) conditions. Nearly 90% of cultivar mixture cropping treatments experienced an increase in grain yield as compared with the mean of the pure stands under W0, those for W1 and W2 were 80% and 85%, respectively. Over 75% of cultivar mixture cropping treatments got greater biomass than the mean of the pure stands under the three irrigation conditions. Cultivar mixture cropping cost more water than pure stands under W0 and W1, whereas the water consumption under W2 decreased by 5.9%-6.8% as compared with pure stands. Approximately 90% of cultivar mixtures showed an increase of 5.4%-34.5% in WUE as compared with the mean of the pure stands, and about 75% of cultivar mixtures had 0.8%-28.5% higher WUE than the better pure stands under W0. Similarly, there were a majority of mixture cropping treatments with higher WUE than the mean and the better one of the pure stands under W1 and W2. On the whole, proper cultivar mixture cropping could increase yield and WUE, and a higher increase in WUE occurred under limited irrigation condition.

  9. Effects of changing climate and cultivar on the phenology and yield of winter wheat in the North China Plain.

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    Li, Kenan; Yang, Xiaoguang; Tian, Hanqin; Pan, Shufen; Liu, Zhijuan; Lu, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how changing climate and cultivars influence crop phenology and potential yield is essential for crop adaptation to future climate change. In this study, crop and daily weather data collected from six sites across the North China Plain were used to drive a crop model to analyze the impacts of climate change and cultivar development on the phenology and production of winter wheat from 1981 to 2005. Results showed that both the growth period (GP) and the vegetative growth period (VGP) decreased during the study period, whereas changes in the reproductive growth period (RGP) either increased slightly or had no significant trend. Although new cultivars could prolong the winter wheat phenology (0.3∼3.8 days per decade for GP), climate warming impacts were more significant and mainly accounted for the changes. The harvest index and kernel number per stem weight have significantly increased. Model simulation indicated that the yield of winter wheat exhibited increases (5.0∼19.4%) if new cultivars were applied. Climate change demonstrated a negative effect on winter wheat yield as suggested by the simulation driven by climate data only (-3.3 to -54.8 kg ha(-1) year(-1), except for Lushi). Results of this study also indicated that winter wheat cultivar development can compensate for the negative effects of future climatic change.

  10. [Differences in root developmenly of winter wheat cultivars in Huang-Huai Plain, China].

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    Qiu, Xin-Qiang; Gao, Yang; Li, Xin-Qiang; Huang, Ling; Duan, Ai-Wang

    2012-07-01

    Selecting one presently popularized winter wheat cultivar (Zhengmai 9023) and two cultivars (Abo and Fengchan 3) introduced in the 1950s and 1960s in Huang-Huai Plain as test materials, and by using minirhizotron technique, this paper studied the live root length, root diameter distribution, and net root growth rate of the cultivars. Fine roots with a diameter from 0.05 mm to 0.25 mm occupied the majority of the whole root system, and the fine roots with a diameter less than 0.5 mm accounted for 98% of the live root length. The average root diameter varied with plant growth, the variation range being 0.15 - 0.22 mm, and no significant difference was observe among the cultivars. The live root length was significantly positively correlated root number, suggesting that root number was the main factor for the increase of live root length. The most vigorous growth period of the roots was from reviving to jointing stage, and Abo and Fengchan 3 had a longer period increased root vitality, as compared with Zhengmai 9023. For Zhengmai 9023, its fine roots with a diameter more than 0.1 mm had an increasing proportion after jointing stage, which was helpful for improving plant resistance, root activity, and grain-filling at late growth stages.

  11. Effects of external potassium (k supply on drought tolerances of two contrasting winter wheat cultivars.

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    Jiguang Wei

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Drought is a common stress limiting crops growth and productivities worldwide. Water deficit may increase cellular membrane permeability, resulting in K outflow. Internal K starvation may disorder plant metabolism and limit plant growth. However, it is seldom reported about the effects of external K on drought tolerance of contrasting wheat cultivars. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A hydroponics experiment was carried out in a non-controlled greenhouse. Seedlings of drought-tolerant SN16 and intolerant JM22 were simultaneously treated by five levels of K2CO3 (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 mM and two levels of PEG6000 (0, 20% for 7 days. External K2CO3 significantly increased shoot K(+ content, water potential, chlorophyll content as well as gas exchange, but decreased electrolyte leakage (EL and MDA content in both cultivars under PEG6000 stress. Antioxidant enzymes activities were up-regulated by PEG6000 while external K2CO3 reduced those changes. Molecular basis was explained by measuring the expression levels of antioxidant enzymes related genes. Shoot and root biomass were also increased by K2CO3 supply under drought stress. Although adequate K2CO3 application enhanced plant growth for both cultivars under drought stress, SN16 was better than JM22 due to its high drought tolerance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Adequate external K may effectively protect winter wheat from drought injuries. We conclude that drought-tolerant wheat combined with adequate external K supply may be a promising strategy for better growth in arid and semi-arid regions.

  12. Effects of external potassium (k) supply on drought tolerances of two contrasting winter wheat cultivars.

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    Wei, Jiguang; Li, Caihong; Li, Yong; Jiang, Gaoming; Cheng, Guanglei; Zheng, Yanhai

    2013-01-01

    Drought is a common stress limiting crops growth and productivities worldwide. Water deficit may increase cellular membrane permeability, resulting in K outflow. Internal K starvation may disorder plant metabolism and limit plant growth. However, it is seldom reported about the effects of external K on drought tolerance of contrasting wheat cultivars. A hydroponics experiment was carried out in a non-controlled greenhouse. Seedlings of drought-tolerant SN16 and intolerant JM22 were simultaneously treated by five levels of K2CO3 (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 mM) and two levels of PEG6000 (0, 20%) for 7 days. External K2CO3 significantly increased shoot K(+) content, water potential, chlorophyll content as well as gas exchange, but decreased electrolyte leakage (EL) and MDA content in both cultivars under PEG6000 stress. Antioxidant enzymes activities were up-regulated by PEG6000 while external K2CO3 reduced those changes. Molecular basis was explained by measuring the expression levels of antioxidant enzymes related genes. Shoot and root biomass were also increased by K2CO3 supply under drought stress. Although adequate K2CO3 application enhanced plant growth for both cultivars under drought stress, SN16 was better than JM22 due to its high drought tolerance. Adequate external K may effectively protect winter wheat from drought injuries. We conclude that drought-tolerant wheat combined with adequate external K supply may be a promising strategy for better growth in arid and semi-arid regions.

  13. Plant Density Effect on Grain Number and Weight of Two Winter Wheat Cultivars at Different Spikelet and Grain Positions

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    Ni, Yingli; Zheng, Mengjing; Yang, Dongqing; Jin, Min; Chen, Jin; Wang, Zhenlin; Yin, Yanping

    2016-01-01

    In winter wheat, grain development is asynchronous. The grain number and grain weight vary significantly at different spikelet and grain positions among wheat cultivars grown at different plant densities. In this study, two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, ‘Wennong6’ and ‘Jimai20’, were grown under four different plant densities for two seasons, in order to study the effect of plant density on the grain number and grain weight at different spikelet and grain positions. The results showed that the effects of spikelet and grain positions on grain weight varied with the grain number of spikelets. In both cultivars, the single-grain weight of the basal and middle two-grain spikelets was higher at the 2nd grain position than that at the 1st grain position, while the opposite occurred in the top two-grain spikelets. In the three-grain spikelets, the distribution of the single-grain weight was different between cultivars. In the four-grain spikelets of Wennong6, the single-grain weight was the highest at the 2nd grain position, followed by the 1st, 3rd, and 4th grain positions. Regardless of the spikelet and grain positions, the single-grain weight was the highest at the 1st and 2nd grain positions and the lowest at the 3rd and 4th grain positions. Overall, plant density affected the yield by controlling the seed-setting characteristics of the tiller spike. Therefore, wheat yield can be increased by decreasing the sterile basal and top spikelets and enhancing the grain weight at the 3rd and 4th grain positions, while maintaining it at the 1st and 2nd grain positions on the spikelet. PMID:27171343

  14. [Effects of post-anthesis irrigation frequency on the grain quality of strong gluten winter wheat cultivars].

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    Yao, Feng-juan; He, Ming-rong; Li, Fei; Xu, Liang-liang; Huang, Chuan-hua; Qu, Mu

    2008-12-01

    In order to investigate the effects of post-anthesis irrigation frequency on the grain quality of strong gluten winter wheat, two cultivars Jimai 20 and Gaocheng 8901 were subjected to a series of irrigation frequencies under rainfall proof conditions, with their grain yield and grain quality (farinograph parameters and loaf volume) and protein composition evaluated. The results indicated that with increasing irrigation frequency, the grain yield of the two cultivars, their wheat flour dough development time, dough stability time, and loaf volume were noted to be increased first but decreased then. The grain yield and quality of Gaocheng 8901 were the highest when irrigated once after anthesis, while those of Jimai 20 were the best when irrigated twice after anthesis, respectively. The contents of monomeric protein, soluble glutenin, insoluble glutenin, total glutenin, flour protein, and wet gluten in the grains displayed the similar trends. Stepwise regression analysis showed that under the test post-anthesis irrigation frequencies, the key factor affecting dough stability time was insoluble glutenin content, and loaf volume was significantly correlated with total glutenin content. It was suggested that to maintain the quality stability of high grade strong gluten winter wheat, irrigation management should take the improvement of grain protein composition, and glutenin in particular, as the target.

  15. Yield response of winter wheat cultivars to environments modeled by different variance-covariance structures in linear mixed models

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    Studnicki, M.; Mądry, W.; Noras, K.; Wójcik-Gront, E.; Gacek, E.

    2016-11-01

    The main objectives of multi-environmental trials (METs) are to assess cultivar adaptation patterns under different environmental conditions and to investigate genotype by environment (G×E) interactions. Linear mixed models (LMMs) with more complex variance-covariance structures have become recognized and widely used for analyzing METs data. Best practice in METs analysis is to carry out a comparison of competing models with different variance-covariance structures. Improperly chosen variance-covariance structures may lead to biased estimation of means resulting in incorrect conclusions. In this work we focused on adaptive response of cultivars on the environments modeled by the LMMs with different variance-covariance structures. We identified possible limitations of inference when using an inadequate variance-covariance structure. In the presented study we used the dataset on grain yield for 63 winter wheat cultivars, evaluated across 18 locations, during three growing seasons (2008/2009-2010/2011) from the Polish Post-registration Variety Testing System. For the evaluation of variance-covariance structures and the description of cultivars adaptation to environments, we calculated adjusted means for the combination of cultivar and location in models with different variance-covariance structures. We concluded that in order to fully describe cultivars adaptive patterns modelers should use the unrestricted variance-covariance structure. The restricted compound symmetry structure may interfere with proper interpretation of cultivars adaptive patterns. We found, that the factor-analytic structure is also a good tool to describe cultivars reaction on environments, and it can be successfully used in METs data after determining the optimal component number for each dataset. (Author)

  16. Yield response of winter wheat cultivars to environments modeled by different variance-covariance structures in linear mixed models

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    Marcin Studnicki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of multi-environmental trials (METs are to assess cultivar adaptation patterns under different environmental conditions and to investigate genotype by environment (G×E interactions. Linear mixed models (LMMs with more complex variance-covariance structures have become recognized and widely used for analyzing METs data. Best practice in METs analysis is to carry out a comparison of competing models with different variance-covariance structures. Improperly chosen variance-covariance structures may lead to biased estimation of means resulting in incorrect conclusions. In this work we focused on adaptive response of cultivars on the environments modeled by the LMMs with different variance-covariance structures. We identified possible limitations of inference when using an inadequate variance-covariance structure. In the presented study we used the dataset on grain yield for 63 winter wheat cultivars, evaluated across 18 locations, during three growing seasons (2008/2009-2010/2011 from the Polish Post-registration Variety Testing System. For the evaluation of variance-covariance structures and the description of cultivars adaptation to environments, we calculated adjusted means for the combination of cultivar and location in models with different variance-covariance structures. We concluded that in order to fully describe cultivars adaptive patterns modelers should use the unrestricted variance-covariance structure. The restricted compound symmetry structure may interfere with proper interpretation of cultivars adaptive patterns. We found, that the factor-analytic structure is also a good tool to describe cultivars reaction on environments, and it can be successfully used in METs data after determining the optimal component number for each dataset.

  17. Exogenous Cytokinins Increase Grain Yield of Winter Wheat Cultivars by Improving Stay-Green Characteristics under Heat Stress.

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    Dongqing Yang

    Full Text Available Stay-green, a key trait of wheat, can not only increase the yield of wheat but also its resistance to heat stress during active photosynthesis. Cytokinins are the most potent general coordinator between the stay-green trait and senescence. The objectives of the present study were to identify and assess the effects of cytokinins on the photosynthetic organ and heat resistance in wheat. Two winter wheat cultivars, Wennong 6 (a stay-green cultivar and Jimai 20 (a control cultivar, were subjected to heat stress treatment from 1 to 5 days after anthesis (DAA. The two cultivars were sprayed daily with 10 mg L-1 of 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA between 1 and 3 DAA under ambient and elevated temperature conditions. We found that the heat stress significantly decreased the number of kernels per spike and the grain yield (P < 0.05. Heat stress also decreased the zeatin riboside (ZR content, but increased the gibberellin (GA3, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, and abscisic acid (ABA contents at 3 to 15 DAA. Application of 6-BA significantly (P < 0.05 increased the grain-filling rate, endosperm cell division rate, endosperm cell number, and 1,000-grain weight under heated condition. 6-BA application increased ZR and IAA contents at 3 to 28 DAA, but decreased GA3 and ABA contents. The contents of ZR, ABA, and IAA in kernels were positively and significantly correlated with the grain-filling rate (P < 0.05, whereas GA3 was counter-productive at 3 to 15 DAA. These results suggest that the decrease in grain yield under heat stress was due to a lower ZR content and a higher GA3 content compared to that at elevated temperature during the early development of the kernels, which resulted in less kernel number and lower grain-filling rate. The results also provide essential information for further utilization of the cytokinin substances in the cultivation of heat-resistant wheat.

  18. Genetic analysis of resistance to septoria tritici blotch in the French winter wheat cultivars Balance and Apache

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabib Ghaffary, M.S.; Robert, O.; Laurent, V.; Lonnet, P.; Margalé, E.; Lee, van der T.A.J.; Visser, R.G.F.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    The ascomycete Mycosphaerella graminicola is the causal agent of septoria tritici blotch (STB), one of the most destructive foliar diseases of bread and durum wheat globally, particularly in temperate humid areas. A screening of the French bread wheat cultivars Apache and Balance with 30 M.

  19. BRS 277: Wheat cultivar

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    Eduardo Caierão

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The wheat cultivar ‘BRS 277’ was developed by Embrapa (Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária,resulting from a cross between OR1 and Coker 97-33. The plant height of ‘BRS 277’ is short, frost resistance in the vegetativestage is good and resistance to leaf rust moderate.

  20. Improvement of Resistance Against Septoria Leaf Blotch Caused By Zymoseptoria tritici in Danish Winter Wheat Cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagndorf, Nana; Nielsen, Nanna Hellum; Edriss, Vahid

    were evaluated for STB resistance in field trials in Denmark. All 170 wheat lines were genotyped with iSelect 15k SNP wheat array. We identified four QTL associated with resistance towards STB, located on chromosome 1B, 2A, 5D and 7A. Already identified resistance genes towards STB, Stb2 and Stb11...

  1. Productivity and stability of the yield from common winter wheat cultivars developed at IPGR Sadovo under the conditions of Dobrudzha region

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    P. Chamurliyski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. One of the main directions of the common winter wheat breeding programs in Bulgaria is related to enhancing productivity. Since wheat is a crop of the microclimate, yield is strongly influenced by the conditions of the environment. The contemporary tendencies in the breeding of this crop are directed not only towards achieving high results with regard to productivity but also towards maintaining a relative stability of yield under changeable climatic factors. The aim of this investigation was to study the productivity and determine the stability of the yield from common winter wheat cultivars developed at the Institute for Plant and Genetic Resources (IPGR Sadovo under the conditions of Dobrudzha region, Bulgaria. The field experiment was carried out in the trial field of Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute (DAI during 2011 – 2013. Nineteen cultivars, breeding of IPGR, were tested in three replications. Cultivar Enola was used as a standard. The productive potential, the elements of yield and its stability were investigated. Two-factor dispersion, variation and correlation analyses were applied for statistical evaluation of the results, and the method of Kang, PCA analysis and AMMI models were involved to describe stability. With regard to vegetation period, the investigated materials did not differ from the standard cultivar Enola. They possessed typical good combination of high tillering capacity and grain weight per spike. The productivity of the studied accessions was formed mainly by these two indices. The cultivars, which realized highest yields averaged for the tree years of the investigation, were Mustang, Diamant, Tsarevets and Geya 1, and cultivars Bononya, Momchil and Lusil demonstrated stability by this trait. The optimal ratio between high productive potential and yield stability was observed in cultivars Mustang, Tsarevets, Momchil and Boryana

  2. The effect of tillage system and herbicide application on weed infestation of crops of winter spelt wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta L. cultivars

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    Sylwia Andruszczak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on a 3-year field experiment conducted on medium heavy mixed rendzina soil, the present study evaluated the effect of chemical plant protection on the species composition, number and air-dry weight of weeds infesting crops of winter spelt wheat cultivars (‘Frankenkorn’, ‘Badengold’, ‘Schwaben- speltz’, and ‘Oberkulmer Rotkorn’ sown under ploughing and ploughless tillage systems. Ploughing tillage involved skim- ming done after harvest of the previous crop and pre-sowing ploughing, while in the ploughless tillage system ploughing was replaced with cultivating. Chemical weed control included the application of the herbicides Mustang 306 SE and Attribut 70 WG. Plots where the herbicides were not used were the control treatment. On average, from 21 to 30 weed species colonised the winter spelt wheat crops compared. Galium aparine and Apera spica-venti occurred in greatest numbers and their percentage in the total number of weeds was estimated at 26–35% and 17–25%, respectively. The cultivar ‘Frankenkorn’ was the least weed-infested. Both the number of weeds in the crop of this cultivar and their above-ground dry weight were lower compared to the other cultivars. The use of reduced tillage significantly increased the air-dry weight of weeds compared to ploughing tillage. Nevertheless, it should be indicated under ploughless tillage conditions the application of chemical crop protection reduced weed biomass by 59% compared to the control treatments without crop protection.

  3. Grain Yield and Water Use Efficiency in Extremely-Late Sown Winter Wheat Cultivars under Two Irrigation Regimes in the North China Plain.

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    Bin Wang

    Full Text Available Wheat production is threatened by water shortages and groundwater over-draft in the North China Plain (NCP. In recent years, winter wheat has been increasingly sown extremely late in early to mid-November after harvesting cotton or pepper. To improve water use efficiency (WUE and guide the extremely late sowing practices, a 3-year field experiment was conducted under two irrigation regimes (W1, one-irrigation, 75 mm at jointing; W2, two-irrigation, 75 mm at jointing and 75 mm at anthesis in 3 cultivars differing in spike size (HS4399, small spike; JM22, medium spike; WM8, large spike. Wheat was sown in early to mid-November at a high seeding rate of 800-850 seeds m(-2. Average yields of 7.42 t ha(-1 and WUE of 1.84 kg m(-3 were achieved with an average seasonal evapotranspiration (ET of 404 mm. Compared with W2, wheat under W1 did not have yield penalty in 2 of 3 years, and had 7.9% lower seasonal ET and 7.5% higher WUE. The higher WUE and stable yield under W1 was associated with higher 1000-grain weight (TGW and harvest index (HI. Among the 3 cultivars, JM22 had 5.9%-8.9% higher yield and 4.2%-9.3% higher WUE than WM8 and HS4399. The higher yield in JM22 was attributed mainly to higher HI and TGW due to increased post-anthesis biomass and deeper seasonal soil water extraction. In conclusion, one-irrigation with a medium-sized spike cultivar JM22 could be a useful strategy to maintain yield and high WUE in extremely late-sown winter wheat at a high seeding rate in the NCP.

  4. Grain Yield and Water Use Efficiency in Extremely-Late Sown Winter Wheat Cultivars under Two Irrigation Regimes in the North China Plain.

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    Wang, Bin; Zhang, Yinghua; Hao, Baozhen; Xu, Xuexin; Zhao, Zhigan; Wang, Zhimin; Xue, Qingwu

    2016-01-01

    Wheat production is threatened by water shortages and groundwater over-draft in the North China Plain (NCP). In recent years, winter wheat has been increasingly sown extremely late in early to mid-November after harvesting cotton or pepper. To improve water use efficiency (WUE) and guide the extremely late sowing practices, a 3-year field experiment was conducted under two irrigation regimes (W1, one-irrigation, 75 mm at jointing; W2, two-irrigation, 75 mm at jointing and 75 mm at anthesis) in 3 cultivars differing in spike size (HS4399, small spike; JM22, medium spike; WM8, large spike). Wheat was sown in early to mid-November at a high seeding rate of 800-850 seeds m(-2). Average yields of 7.42 t ha(-1) and WUE of 1.84 kg m(-3) were achieved with an average seasonal evapotranspiration (ET) of 404 mm. Compared with W2, wheat under W1 did not have yield penalty in 2 of 3 years, and had 7.9% lower seasonal ET and 7.5% higher WUE. The higher WUE and stable yield under W1 was associated with higher 1000-grain weight (TGW) and harvest index (HI). Among the 3 cultivars, JM22 had 5.9%-8.9% higher yield and 4.2%-9.3% higher WUE than WM8 and HS4399. The higher yield in JM22 was attributed mainly to higher HI and TGW due to increased post-anthesis biomass and deeper seasonal soil water extraction. In conclusion, one-irrigation with a medium-sized spike cultivar JM22 could be a useful strategy to maintain yield and high WUE in extremely late-sown winter wheat at a high seeding rate in the NCP.

  5. Soil compaction limits root development, radiation-use efficiency and yield of three winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Nielsen, Anne Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    , equivalent to decreases in the available soil water in the root zone of up to ca. 90 mm. These differences indicate some genetic variation in the ability of cultivars to penetrate compacted soil, although the interaction between compaction treatment and cultivar was not significant. Due to almost sufficient......Soil compaction has increased during recent years due to the traffic with increasingly heavier machinery. We evaluated the effect of soil compaction on soil penetration resistance, rooting depth, light interception, radiation-use efficiency (RUE) and yield of three different cultivars of winter....... The RUE was positively correlated with an estimated effective rooting depth across cultivars, while DM yield was not. This correlation probably was a result of restrictions on stomatal opening mediated by drought stress and abscisic acid produced in the root system in response to occasional soil drying...

  6. Adult plant leaf rust resistance derived from the soft red winter wheat cultivar Caldwell maps to chromosome 3BS

    Science.gov (United States)

    'Caldwell' is a U.S. soft red winter wheat that has partial, adult plant resistance to the leaf rust pathogen Puccinia triticina. A line of 'Thatcher*2/Caldwell' with adult plant resistance derived from Caldwell was crossed with 'Thatcher' to develop a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs). ...

  7. Weed infestation of crops of winter spelt wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta cultivars grown under different conditions of mineral fertilization and chemical plant protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Andruszczak

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out in the years 2008-2010 on rendzina soil. The aim of the study was to evaluate weed infestation of winter spelt cultivars (‘Schwabenkorn’ and ‘Spelt I.N.Z.’ grown under different conditions of mineral fertilization and chemical plant protection. In the experiment, two levels of mineral fertilization were compared (kg × ha-1: I. N 60; P 26.2; K 83; and II. N 80; P 34.9; K 99.6. The che- mical protection levels were as follows: A. Control treatment; B. Mustang 306 SE, Stabilan 750 SL; C. Mustang 306 SE, At- tribut 70 WG, Stabilan 750 SL; D. Mustang 306 SE, Attribut 70 WG, Alert 375 SC, Stabilan 750 SL. Apera spica-venti, Setaria pumila, and Galium aparine occurred in greatest numbers in the spelt wheat crop. The cultivar ‘Schwabenkorn’ was more competitive against weeds. The number of dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous weeds, their total number, and air-dry weight of weeds in the crop of this cultivar were significantly lower compared to cv. ‘Spelt I.N.Z.’. Chemical protection of spelt wheat decreased weed dry weight compared to the control treatment without chemical protection. The application of higher rates of mineral fertilizers slightly increased the number of weeds but did not influence their dry weight and number of weed species.

  8. Winter Wheat Root Growth and Nitrogen Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Irene Skovby

    in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L). Field experiments on the effect of sowing date, N fertilization and cultivars were conducted on a sandy loam soil in Taastrup, Denmark. The root studies were conducted by means of the minirhizotron method. Also, a field experiment on the effect of defoliation and N...

  9. Anatomical features of leaves of three cultivars of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and settling the plants by cereal leaf beetles, Oulema spp. (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of flag leaves anatomy of three winter wheat cultivars: Almari, Gama and Weneda were carried out as it was state that there are great differences in the intensity of cereal leaf beetle feeding on the leaves. In order to determine the features conditioning the differentiated resistance of these cultivars following parameters were measured: the thickness of leaf blade, the length of trichomes and their density in the adaxial epidermis, the number of silicon cells in 1 mm2 epidermis and the thickness of the external cell walls of epidermis. The observations of cross section of the leaves were made in a light microscope and that of surface of the adaxial epidermis in a scanning electron microscope. In this study it was shown that Gama cv. distinguishes of the shortest trichomes with poor density, the lowest number of the silicon cells in 1 mm2 and epidermis cells with the thinest walls. This features indicate a poor resistance of Gama cv. against feeding of the pests and give reasons for the presence a much higher number of the cereal leaf beetle larvae (about 100% than at the extant two cultivars. Dependence between the thickness of leaf blades and the number of larvae of the infesting pests has not been stated.

  10. Climate change effect on wheat phenology depends on cultivar change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Ehsan Eyshi; Siebert, Stefan; Hüging, Hubert; Ewert, Frank

    2018-03-20

    Changing crop phenology is considered an important bio-indicator of climate change, with the recent warming trend causing an advancement in crop phenology. Little is known about the contributions of changes in sowing dates and cultivars to long-term trends in crop phenology, particularly for winter crops such as winter wheat. Here, we analyze a long-term (1952-2013) dataset of phenological observations across western Germany and observations from a two-year field experiment to directly compare the phenologies of winter wheat cultivars released between 1950 and 2006. We found a 14-18% decline in the temperature sum required from emergence to flowering for the modern cultivars of winter wheat compared with the cultivars grown in the 1950s and 1960s. The trends in the flowering day obtained from a phenology model parameterized with the field observations showed that changes in the mean temperature and cultivar properties contributed similarly to the trends in the flowering day, whereas the effects of changes in the sowing day were negligible. We conclude that the single-cultivar concept commonly used in climate change impact assessments results in an overestimation of winter wheat sensitivity to increasing temperature, which suggests that studies on climate change effects should consider changes in cultivars.

  11. Effect of Foliar Application of Phosphorus and Water Deficit on Yield and Yield Components of Winter Wheat (Cultivar Alvand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vafapour

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of foliar application of phosphorus (P and water deficit on yield and yield components of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Alvand, a split-plot experiment, with completely randomized blocks design and three replications, was carried out at the Research Farm of Boyer Ahmad Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Station, 13 km west of Yasouj, in 2008-2009. The main plots were irrigation at three levels (1- full irrigation (control, 2- deficit irrigation from the stem elongation to booting stage, and 3- deficit irrigation from booting stage to the end of growth period and the subplots were five levels of foliar application of P fertilizer (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 kg/ha KH2PO4. The results showed that the effects of different irrigation regimes and foliar application of P were significant on all traits, and their interaction was significant on plant height, number of grain per spike, grain yield and biological yield. Full irrigation and foliar application of 6 kg/ha P produced the highest grain and biological yield (6000 and 14170 kg/ha, respectively and deficit irrigation from the stem elongation to booting stage without foliar application of P produced the lowest grain and biological yield (2920 and 8219 kg/ha, respectively. Foliar application of P affects significantly the evaluated traits only in drought-stress treatments and its effect was not significant in full irrigation treatment. In general, foliar application of 9 kg/ha P compensated the losses in wheat due to drought stress.

  12. IPR 118 - Bread wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Riede

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat cultivar IPR 118 developed by IAPAR has a good yield potential and is widely adapted. It is earlymaturing and moderately tolerant to shattering and soil aluminum, moderately resistant to leaf rust and presents high glutenstrength for bread-making. The overall yield exceeded controls by 13%.

  13. Freezing tolerance of wheat cultivars at the early growing season ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cold stress is a worldwide abiotic stress in temperate regions that affects plant development and yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars and other winter crops. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of freezing stress at the early growing season on survival and also the relationship between resistances ...

  14. Stamena winter wheat variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišić Todor

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Stamena is a winter wheat variety developed at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad, Yugoslavia. It was released by the Federal Commission for varietals Approval in 1999. Stamena was developed by crossing genetically divergent and highly productive parents Lasta and Rodna (Breeders: T. Mišić. N. Mladenov, Z. Jerković and R. Jevtić. Spike is white, smooth, awn less, medium compact with 18-21 spike lets. The grain is vitreous and dark red (Triticum aestivum L. ssp. vulgar e var. lutescens. Stamena is a medium early variety, 1 day earlier than Partizanka and 3 days earlier than Jugoslavija (Table 4. It has excellent resistance to winterkilling, as in very winter hardy Partizanka. The average stem height is 78 cm, with a good resistance to lodging. Stamena has field resistance to leaf rust (Pucce, recondita tritict, horizontal resistance, which is the type of resistance that modern wheat breeding is interested in. The resistance to stem rust (Pucce, graminis tritict is good and to powdery mildew (Erysiphegraminis tritici very good. The 1000 grain mass is about 32 g and volume grain mass 81.3 kg/hi. (Table 2. Stamena is classified in the subgroup A-l. It has excellent milling and baking quality and it belong to the 1st technological group (quality enhancer. The quantity of dry gluten is about 9%. The variety Stamena is a very productive, with the genetic potential for grain above 11 t/ha suitable for growing on fertile and less fertile soils. It has started to be grown commercially in 2000.

  15. Genetic Progress in Winter Wheat Cultivars released in Chile from 1920 to 2000 Progreso Genético en Cultivares de Trigo de Invierno Liberados en Chile desde 1920 a 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Matus

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is the major crop in terms of planted area and presents the largest distribution in the country covering a wide range of climatic regions. This study assesses the changes of various agronomic traits of winter wheat cultivars released in Chile between 1920 and 2000. A total of 117 winter accessions, representing 45 old and 72 modern cultivars were tested in a humid Mediterranean-type climate, with irrigation, in 2003. Old cultivars were those released before 1960 and modern ones were those released after 1960. Principal component (PC analysis using 10 agronomic traits clearly separate modern from old cultivars of winter wheat. Comparing modern cultivars with old ones, plant height have been reduced by 25.6%, but others traits have increased, like harvest index (21.1%, number of grains per ear (42.6%, sedimentation value (103%, and grain hardness (32.0%. The variation in plant height was negatively correlated with harvest index (r = -0.30, p El trigo (Triticum aestivum L. es el cultivo más importante en Chile en términos de superficie sembrada y áreas geográficas en las cuales se siembra, cubriendo una gran diversidad de condiciones climáticas. Este estudio evaluó los cambios de varias características agronómicas de variedades de trigo de invierno liberadas en el país entre 1920 y 2000. Un total de 117 genotipos de trigos de invierno, que representa 45 cultivares antiguos y 72 cultivares modernos, se evaluaron en un clima húmedo de tipo mediterráneo, en condiciones de riego, en el año 2003. Los cultivares antiguos corresponden a aquellos liberados antes del año 1960 y los modernos a los liberados después del año 1960. Mediante un análisis de componentes principales (CP usando 10 características agronómicas, permitió separar claramente los cultivares modernos de los antiguos. Al comparar los cultivares modernos con los antiguos se determinó que la altura de la planta se ha reducido un 25,6%, pero en

  16. Development of a multiple bulked segregant analysis (MBSA) method used to locate a new stem rust resistance gene (Sr54) in the winter wheat cultivar Norin 40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazvini, Habibollah; Hiebert, Colin W; Thomas, Julian B; Fetch, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    An important aspect of studying putative new genes in wheat is determining their position on the wheat genetic map. The primary difficulty in mapping genes is determining which chromosome carries the gene of interest. Several approaches have been developed to address this problem, each with advantages and disadvantages. Here we describe a new approach called multiple bulked segregant analysis (MBSA). A set of 423 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were selected based on profile simplicity, frequency of polymorphism, and distribution across the wheat genome. SSR primers were preloaded in 384-well PCR plates with each primer occupying 16 wells. In practice, 14 wells are reserved for "mini-bulks" that are equivalent to four gametes (e.g. two F(2) individuals) comprised of individuals from a segregated population that have a known homozygous genotype for the gene of interest. The remaining two wells are reserved for the parents of the population. Each well containing a mini-bulk can have one of three allele compositions for each SSR: only the allele from one parent, only the allele from the other parent, or both alleles. Simulation experiments were performed to determine the pattern of mini-bulk allele composition that would indicate putative linkage between the SSR in question and the gene of interest. As a test case, MBSA was employed to locate an unidentified stem rust resistance (Sr) gene in the winter wheat cultivar Norin 40. A doubled haploid (DH) population (n = 267) was produced from hybrids of the cross LMPG-6S/Norin 40. The DH population segregated for a single gene (χ (1:1) (2) = 0.093, p = 0.76) for resistance to Puccinia graminis f.sp. tritici race LCBN. Four resistant DH lines were included in each of the 14 mini-bulks for screening. The Sr gene was successfully located to the long arm of chromosome 2D using MBSA. Further mapping confirmed the chromosome location and revealed that the Sr gene was located in a linkage block that may represent an alien

  17. [Effects of sowing date and planting density on the grain' s protein component and quality of strong and medium gluten winter wheat cultivars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Cui-ping; Zhang, Yong-qing; Zhang, Ding-yi; Dang, Jian-you

    2008-08-01

    In a field experiment with split-split plot design, the effects of sowing date and planting density on the grain's protein component and quality of strong gluten wheat cultivar Linyou 145 and medium gluten wheat cultivar Linyou 2018 were studied. The results showed that proper sowing date brought the highest protein content and yield in wheat grain. With sowing date postponed, the grain's gliadin and glutenin contents of Linyou 145 increased obviously, while those of Linyou 2018 changed little. The grain quality of Linyou 145 was more affected by sowing date, compared with that of Linyou 2018. When sowing at proper date, the grain's protein and glutenin contents had significant correlations with its wet gluten content, sedimentation value, dough stability time, softness, and evaluation value; while when the sowing date postponed, there existed a positive correlation between the contents of gliadin and wet gluten. The change of the proportions of different protein components in wheat grain induced by the variation of sowing date could be the main reason of the improvement in wheat grain quality. Within the test range (2.25 million - 3.75 million plants x hm(-2)) of planting density, the grain's protein content was less affected, but the grain quality of Linyou 145 was affected to a certain extent. Low planting density (2.25 million plants x hm(-2)) brought the best grain quality of Linyou 2018.

  18. Estimating winter survival of winter wheat by simulations of plant frost tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergjord Olsen, A.K.; Persson, T.; Wit, de A.; Nkurunziza, L.; Sindhøj, E.; Eckersten, H.

    2018-01-01

    Based on soil temperature, snow depth and the grown cultivar's maximum attainable level of frost tolerance (LT50c), the FROSTOL model simulates development of frost tolerance (LT50) and winter damage, thereby enabling risk calculations for winter wheat survival. To explore the accuracy of this

  19. Progress in breeding of Novi Sad spring wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rončević Petar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad began working on spring wheat breeding in 1979 in order to develop cultivars that could be grown in conditions and years unfavorable for winter wheat cultivation. At the start of the program, a collection of spring wheat cultivars from all over the world was assembled for hybridization purposes, with cultivars from Mexico being the most numerous group. Parental pairs were first chosen based on the concept of cultivar, then trait, and, finally and most recently, the concept of gene. After the selection of parental pairs, the hybridization process began and a total 1,700 combinations have been made since. The material was bred using pedigree selection. A large number of lines were developed by positive selection and the best among them were tested in variety trials of the State Variety Commission. Based on the results of those trials, 31 spring wheat cultivars from the Novi Sad program have been released so far. Among them, the cultivars Jarka, Nevesinjka (a facultative variety, Venera, and, more recently Nataša have proven particularly successful in commercial production. Some of these varieties have also been released in foreign countries or are presently being tested for registration abroad. In order to assess the progress of spring wheat breeding at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad, a trial with all the cultivars released by the Institute thus far was set up. Statistical analysis after the trial has confirmed that significant progress towards better wheat cultivars has been made since the program was founded.

  20. Genetic Potential of Winter Wheat Grain Quality in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abugaliyeva, Aigul I.; Morgounov, Alexey I.

    2016-01-01

    The grain quality of winter wheat varies significantly by cultivars and growing region, not previously differentiated by end-use (baking, confectionery, etc.) in the national breeding programs. In these conditions it is advisable to determine the genetic potential and analyze the actual grain quality. Determining the genetic potential requires the…

  1. Sustainable use of winter Durum wheat landraces under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the two checks cultivars. Bi- plot analysis showed that some promising lines with reasonable grain yields, good quality parameters, winter hardiness and drought tolerances among yellow rust resistance durum wheat landraces can be selected for semiarid conditions of Mediterranean countries for sustainable production.

  2. Soil water potential requirement for germination of winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    In semi-arid climates seed is often sown into soil with inadequate water for rapid germination. This study was designed to measure the soil water potential limits for rapid, adequate, and marginal germination of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). We also tested for differences between cultivars an...

  3. Assessing solar energy and water use efficiencies in winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrar, G.; Hipps, L. E.; Kanemasu, E. T.

    1982-01-01

    The water use and solar energy conversion efficiencies of two cultivars of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L., vars, Centurk and Newton) planted at three densities, were examined during a growing season. Water use, based on soil moisture depletion, was the lowest under the light, and the highest under the heavy planting densities of both cultivars. Water use efficiency of medium and heavy planting densities were greater than the light planting densities in both cultivars. The canopy radiation extinction coefficients of both cultivars increased with increases in planting density. Efficiency of operation interception of photosynthetically active radiation by both cultivars improved from the time of jointing until anthesis, and then decreased during senescence. The efficiency of the conversion of intercepted radiation to dry matter (biochemical efficiency) decreased throughout the growing season both cultivars. The interception, biochemical, and photosynthetic efficiencies improved as planting density increased.

  4. Nitrogen use efficiency in modern wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Henrique Todeschini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The nitrogen use efficiency (NUE is defined as the capacity of a given genotype in take advantage of the applied nitrogen (N and transform it in biomass and grains. The objective of this study was to evaluate 12 wheat cultivars as to the NUE and its components. The experiment was conducted in a controlled environment, in a randomized block design with three replications. Twelve wheat cultivars were submitted to four N supply levels (0, 80, 160 and 240 kg of N∙ha–1. The data were submitted to analysis of variance, means multiple comparison, polynomial regression, and path analysis. The nitrogen remobilization efficiency (NRE was the main NUE component of the evaluated cultivars, in both low and high conditions of nitrogen fertilization. In the cultivars average, the nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUtE presented reduction tendency as the N supply was increased, tending to stabilization at the dose of 231 kg of N∙ha–1. The wheat cultivars Mirante, TBIO Itaipu, BRS Parrudo, and TBIO Iguaçu were the most efficient on the N use, and the first two were also efficient in remobilizing the N from the phytomass to the grains.

  5. Contribution of allelopathy and competition to weed suppression by winter wheat, triticale and winter rye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiss, Antje; Fomsgaard, Inge S.; Mathiassen, Solvejg Kopp

    of competitive traits, such as early vigour, crop height and leaf area index and presence of phytotoxic compounds of the group of benzoxazinoids to weed suppression. Four cultivars of each of the winter cereals wheat, triticale and rye were grown in field experiments at two locations. Soil samples were taken...... 2016. Competitive traits were measured throughout the growing season. Partial least squares regression with weed biomass as response variable was used for modelling. Competitive traits, as well as benzoxazinoid concentrations contributed significantly to the models on winter wheat, winter triticale...... and winter rye data and explained 63, 69 and 58% of the variance in weed biomass in the first two components, respectively. Consequently, it can be concluded that competitive, as well as allelopathic traits, contributed significantly to weed suppressive outcome in winter cereals. This knowledge...

  6. Aluminium toxicity in winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabó A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium is the most frequent metal of the earth crust; it occurs mainly as biologically inactive, insoluble deposit. Environmental problems, industrial contaminations and acid rains increase the soil acidity, leading to the mobilization of Al. Half of the world’s potential arable lands are acidic; therefore, Al-toxicity decreases crop productivity. Wheat is a staple food for 35% of the world population. The effects of Al-stress (0.1 mM were studied on winter wheat; seedlings were grown hydroponically, at acidic pH. After two weeks, the root weight was decreased; a significant difference was found in the P- and Ca-content. The shoot weight and element content changed slightly; Al-content in the root was one magnitude higher than in the shoot, while Al-translocation was limited. The root plasma membrane H+-ATPase has central role in the uptake processes; Al-stress increased the Mg2+-ATPase activity of the microsomal fraction.

  7. Yield and quality assessment of spelt (Triticum spelta L.) compared with winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn; Olsen, Carl Christian

    1997-01-01

    weight, protein and ash content were higher in the T. spelta cultivars than in the wheat cultivar. Remote sensing studies at Roskilde in 1996 showed that in 2 of the T. spelta cultivars biomass production occurred earlier and was higher than in the other T. spelta cultivars and the wheat cultivar. Early......The adaptation of 7 T. spelta cultivars to the Danish climate was investigated and compared with a well-adapted winter wheat cultivar in field trials in 1994/95 and 1995/96 at Roskilde and Ronhave. The yield of all T. spelta cultivars was lower than that of the wheat cultivar, while 1000-seed...... harvest for green grain resulted in a decreased 1000-seed weight, and a high seed protein and ash content....

  8. Identifying high-yielding dryland wheat cultivars for the summer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A number of new, improved dryland wheat cultivars released for the SRA during the recent period from 2003 to 2012 were evaluated for yield over several seasons under the National Wheat Cultivar Evaluation Program. As preliminary work for improving drought tolerance of wheat in the SRA, yield data of this genetic pool ...

  9. Logistic Regression Analysis of the Response of Winter Wheat to Components of Artificial Freezing Episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improvement of cold tolerance of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) through breeding methods has been problematic. A better understanding of how individual wheat cultivars respond to components of the freezing process may provide new information that can be used to develop more cold tolerance culti...

  10. Evaluation of nitrogen uptake patterns in spring and winter wheat in western Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, D.M.; Malghani, M.A.K.; Khan, M.A.; Kakar, E.

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of the ground nitrogen (N) uptake pattern for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is essential to facilitate nitrogen management. The purpose of this study was to determine the nitrogen uptake pattern of spring and winter wheat grown in western Oregon, USA. Data used in this study were obtained from three different trials. For spring wheat rotation trials five spring wheat cultivars were used. Fertilizer N (16-16-16-4) at the rate of 140 kg ha/sup -1/ was applied at the time of planting. In small plot rotation trials five fertilizer treatments - 0, 50, 100,150 and 200 kg N ha/sup -1/ were used. Rotations include winter wheat following clover and winter wheat following oat. The N uptake and dry matter yield of winter wheat were also determined from unfertilized plots of wheat trial. The maximum N uptake for spring wheat and winter wheat were at 1100 and 2000 accumulated growing degree days (GDD), before Feekes 10, respectively. The maximum N uptake rate for spring wheat, 0.038 kg N GDD/sup -1/, occurred at 750 GDD and the peak N uptake was observed approximately 35 days after Feekes 2. Nitrogen uptake in winter wheat was significantly affected by rotations. (author)

  11. Iron Biofortification of Modern Wheat Cultivar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shirvanehdeh, Behrooz Darbani; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Tauris, Birgitte

    2011-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a public health problem and is primarily due to poverty in the developing world which leads to a simple, undiversified diet that largely is based on stables, such as wheat and rice. One of the key targets in the international alliance HarvestPlus is to boost the iron...... content of these stables to improve the living conditions of the poor people. As member of HarvestPlus we are working to improve the iron content quanti- and qualitatively in the wheat grain. Therefore, wheat grain has been subjected to work through endosperm-specific expression of the ferritin protein...... as an iron storage complex. Primary evaluation of Bobwhite cv. has approved that endosperm expression of wheat’s own ferritin, works as a sink for iron and accumulates two to three folds more iron in the endosperm. To bring the bioavailable iron on the people's tables, modern cultivars were applied for co...

  12. Stem base rot of winter wheat by Fusarium spp. - causes and effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Narkiewicz-Jodko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to determine the influence of weather conditions and a degree of weed infestation on the incidence of stem bases rot (Fusarium spp. of winter wheat cultivars as well as their yield. The winter wheat cultivars (Kobra, Korweta, Mikon, Zyta were investigated (2000-2002 in the field where the following herbicides: Apyros 75 WG + Atpolan, Affinity 50,75 WG, Attribut 70 WG were applied. It has been shown the occurrence of stem base rot (Fusarium spp. depended mainly on weather conditions. The application of the herbicides improved the plant health. The stem base rot on winter wheat was caused by Fusarium spp., specially F. culmorum. The decrease in winter wheat yield depended on weather conditions, weed infestation and the occurrence of stem base rot (Fusarium spp..

  13. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN WHEAT CULTIVARS IN GRAIN PARAMETERS RELATED TO ETHANOL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Mikulíková

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat grain samples from sixteen winter cultivars originated from four localities were evaluated and compared in traits related to ethanol production as grain yield, grain hardness, content of protein, starch and amylose, and α-amylase activity. Results obtained indicate significant differences between cultivars in amylose content, α-amylase activity, and grain hardness compared to grain yield, protein content, and starch content where differences were not significant. The amylose content, α-amylase activity, and grain hardness were affected by cultivar. Both testing methods for starch fermentation - separated hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF revealed difference between cultivars in ethanol yield.

  14. Enhanced antioxidative responses of a salt-resistant wheat cultivar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enhanced antioxidative responses of a salt-resistant wheat cultivar facilitate its adaptation to salt stress. L Chen, H Yin, J Xu, X Liu. Abstract. Wheat cultivars capable of accumulating minerals under salt stress are of considerable interest for their potential to improve crop productivity and crop quality. This study addressed the ...

  15. Enhanced antioxidative responses of a salt-resistant wheat cultivar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-23

    Nov 23, 2011 ... Wheat cultivars capable of accumulating minerals under salt stress are of considerable interest for their potential to improve crop productivity and crop quality. This study addressed the role of antioxidative enzymes in the responses of a salt-resistant wheat cultivar Cang 6001 to high-salt stress compared to ...

  16. The Effect of Rates and Times of Nitrogen Fertilizer on N Accumulation and Remobilization Efficiency at Flag Leaf in Two Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum and Triticum.durum) Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrani, A.; Sarvestani, Z. Tahmasebi; Bagheri, A. R.; Abad, H. Heidari Sharif

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the physiological basis of absorption and transportation of nitrogen by plants has specific importance. In this experiment, a bread cultivar and durum wheat cultivar, were treated with different rates and times of nitrogen application, by using split factorial with on the basis of randomized complete block design with three replications at Shiraz region during 2004-2005. Main plots were consisted of two levels of cultivars (Falat and Yavaros) and sub plots included nitrogen rates (40, 80 and 160 kg ha-1) and times of nitrogen application (T1 = all N fertilizer at planting, T2 = 1/2 at planting+1/2 during booting stage and T3 = 1/3 at planting+1/3 during booting stage+1/3 at heading stage). The results showed that there were significant differences between cultivars in flag leaf nitrogen content in maturity stage, N remobilization and its efficiency from flag leaf to grains and also grain protein percentage. Durum wheat was more efficient in nitrogen remobilization and therefore, had a higher grain protein percentage. Increasing in rates and times of nitrogen application had significant effect on most of the measured traits. There were significant interactions between cultivars, rates and times of N application, indicating that durum wheat was more efficient in N remobilization from flag leaf to the grain. It appeared that, N remobilization efficiency was the main factor affecting the grain protein percentage, under the conditions of low N absorption and drought after flowering, in this experiment.

  17. Effect of seeding rate on grain quality of winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselinka Zecevic

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Planting density is important factor which influence yield and quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. For this reason, in scientific investigations is constantly investigated optimization of plant number per unit area. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of seeding rate in grain quality of winter wheat cultivars. The experiment was conducted with four winter wheat genotypes ('Ana Morava', 'Vizija', 'L-3027', and 'Perla' at the Small Grains Research Centre of Kragujevac, Serbia, in 3 yr at two seeding rates (SR1 = 500 and SR2 = 650 germinating seeds m-2. The 1000-kernel weight, Zeleny sedimentation, and wet gluten content in divergent wheat genotypes were investigated depending on the seeding rate and ecological factors. Significant differences in quality components were established between investigated seeding rates. The highest values of all investigated quality traits were established in SR2 variant when applied 650 seeds m-2. Genotypes reacted differently to seeding rate. 'Perla' in average had the highest mean sedimentation value (42.2 mL and wet gluten content (33.76% in SR2 variant and this cultivar responded the best to seeding rate. Significant differences for sedimentation value and wet gluten content were found among cultivars, years, seeding rate, and for all their interactions. Also, ANOVA for 1000-kernel weight showed highly significant differences among investigated varieties, seeding rate and growing seasons, but all their interactions were not significant. In all investigated genotypes, better quality was established in SR2 variant when applied 650 seeds m-2.

  18. Mechanical weed control in organic winter wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Euro Pannacci; Francesco Tei; Marcello Guiducci

    2017-01-01

    Three field experiments were carried out in organic winter wheat in three consecutive years (exp. 1, 2005-06; exp. 2, 2006- 07; exp. 3, 2007-08) in central Italy (42°57’ N - 12°22’ E, 165 m a.s.l.) in order to evaluate the efficacy against weeds and the effects on winter wheat of two main mechanical weed control strategies: i) spring tine harrowing used at three different application times (1 passage at T1, 2 passages at the time T1, 1 passage at T1 followed by 1 passage at T1 + 14 days) in t...

  19. Using tube rhizotrons to measure variation in depth penetration rate among modern North-European winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ytting, Nanna Karkov; Andersen, Sven Bode; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Deeper plant root systems are desired for improved water and nitrogen uptake in leaching environments. However, phenotyping for deep roots requires methods that enable plants to develop deep roots under realistic conditions. Winter cereals raise further complications as early growth occurs under ...

  20. Postharvest tillage reduces Downy Brome infestations in winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Pacific Northwest, downy brome continues to infest winter wheat producing regions especially in low-rainfall areas where the winter wheat-summer fallow rotation is the dominate production system. In Washington, a study was conducted for 2 years at each of two locations in the winter wheat -su...

  1. Winter wheat and summer shade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artru, S.; Garre, S.; Lassois, L.; Dupraz, C.

    2014-12-01

    Agroforestry research is in full expansion, but uncertainty remains on the performance of combinations of species with regard to the broad range of possible species associations. In addition, the variability of environmental conditions under which agroforestry stands can be successfully developed is unknown. Under Belgian pedoclimatic conditions, tree-crop competition for light might be the principal limiting factor in the agroforestry context. Most studies show that shade stress induces a systematic reduction of final crop yield. However, the response of a specific crop to shade is highly dependent on environmental conditions. In agroforestry systems, the tree canopy reduces the incident radiation for the crop following a dynamic spatio-temporal pattern. In this study, we will report on the efficiency of wheat under artificial dynamic shade in the experimental farm of Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, Belgium in order to evaluate it's potential for agroforestry purposes in the same region. Wheat productivity and development under artificial shade conditions have been monitored during 1 year and the observations will be continued for 2 more years. We constructed an artificial shade structure, which mimics the light environment observed under hybrid walnut agroforestry trees: periodic fluctuation in radiation transmittance and discontinuous light quantity. We collected information on biomass development, soil state and radiation patterns in the field. Using this data, we evaluated the influence of dynamic shade, light availability and the efficiency with which energy is converted in wheat dry matter under the artificial shade treatment. This, in combination with modeling, will allow a thorough study of the potential of wheat-walnut agroforestry systems in the Hesbaye region in Belgium.

  2. Responses of Six Wheat Cultivars to Terminal Water Deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Behrozi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the morpho-physiological and biochemical responses of six wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars to late season water deficit stress, this experiment was carried out in controlled conditions at College of Agriculture of Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran during 2013-14. The experimental treatments were water deficit (50 and 100% F.C. and wheat cultivars (Sirvan, Chamran, Shiraz, Marvdasht, Hamoun, Pishtaz. The results showed that water deficit significantly reduced flag leaf area (7.23%, number of grains per spike (17.37%, 1000 grain weight (20.88%, grain yield (17.73%, biological yield (15%, and harvest index (10.75% and increased the chlorophyll content (14.48% in all wheat cultivars. Significant differences were found in physiological responses among wheat cultivars. Under water deficit stress, Sirvan and Chamran cultivars had significantly higher growth and yield compared to other wheat cultivars. Water stress increased the activity of catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and this increase was significantly higher in Sirvan and Chamran cultivars. It could be concluded that in Sirvan and Chamran cultivars the increased antioxidants activities led to the partial amelioration of the adverse effects of water deficit, resulting in greater grain yield and yield components, compared to the remaining genotypes.

  3. WCS120 protein family and proteins soluble upon boiling in cold-acclimated winter wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitamvas, P.; Saalbach, Gerhard; Prasil, I.T.

    2007-01-01

    analysis of total sample of proteins soluble upon boiling showed seven COR proteins in the CA samples and only three COR proteins in the NA samples of cultivar Mironovskaya 808 (MIR). In conclusion, the Level of the accumulation of WCS120, WCS66 and WCS40 distinguished our two frost-tolerant winter wheat...

  4. Effect of boron on growth criteria of some wheat cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf Metwally; Rasha El-Shazoly; Afaf Mohamed Hamada

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Toxic soil concentrations of the essential micronutrient boron (B) represent major limitations to crop production worldwide. Plants have a range of defense systems that might be involved in their affinity to resist and tolerate nutrients stress.Materials and methods: The experiments were carried out to study the differential responses in five wheat cultivars to boron toxicity. Results: The fresh and dry matter yield of the test wheat cultivars showed marked decrease as the conc...

  5. Evaluating spring wheat cultivars for drought tolerance through yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Progress in wheat yields under drought conditions is rather a difficult task to achieve. The experiment was conducted in factorial design with 16 spring wheat cultivars grown under two irrigation regimes, non-stress and water-stress imposed at boot and anthesis growth stages. Water-stress significantly influenced the ...

  6. stem rust seedling resistance genes in ethiopian wheat cultivars

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici is one of the major biotic limiting factors for wheat production in Ethiopia. Host plant resistance is the best option to manage stem rust from its economic and environmental points of view. Wheat cultivars are released for production without carrying race specific tests against ...

  7. Stem rust seedling resistance genes in Ethiopian wheat cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici is one of the major biotic limiting factors for wheat production in Ethiopia. Host plant resistance is the best option to manage stem rust from its economic and environmental points of view. Wheat cultivars are released for production without carrying race specific tests against ...

  8. Winter wheat susceptibilty to leaf rust and resistance sources to diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Chełkowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Winter wheat cultivars were significantly infected by Puccinia triticina causing leaf rust in seasons 2000-2002 in southern and also central regions of Poland. Resistance genes Lr9, Lr19 and Lr24 were found to be effective against dominating populations of the pathogen and typical isolates of P. triticina. Mentioned three resistance genes as well as genes Lr10 and Lr37 were identified using STS (Sequence Tagged Site DNA - PCR markers in cultivars and resistance sources. Mentioned markers were found very useful in resistance breeding of wheat.

  9. Genetic Variation in Deep Root Growth of North-European Winter Wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ytting, Nanna Karkov

    traits were found to vary between modern North-European winter wheat cultivars including variation in depth penetration rate and root density in the deepest part of the root system. Wheat was shown to be capable of using deep N resources. After three to six weeks of root proliferation in the N rich...... the total N content of the shoots. Overall the results show, that variation exists for deeper root traits in existing elite germplasm adapted to North Europe. This opens the way for wider screening to assess the value in breeding for deeper roots in winter wheat. Deeper rooting, but not necessarily higher...... subsoil root density, has the potential to increase deep N utilization by winter wheat....

  10. BRS 331 – Early cycle double-haploid wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luiz Scheeren

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The wheat cultivar ‘BRS 331’ was developed by Embrapa. It results from an interspecific cross between wheat and maize by double-hapolid method. ‘BRS 331’ shows solid stem in the base of the plant, short leaves and super-early cycle to maturity. It is classified as bread wheat in all of the regions that is recommended in the States of Rio Grande do Sul, Paraná and Santa Catarina, Brazil.

  11. Mechanical weed control in organic winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euro Pannacci

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Three field experiments were carried out in organic winter wheat in three consecutive years (exp. 1, 2005-06; exp. 2, 2006- 07; exp. 3, 2007-08 in central Italy (42°57’ N - 12°22’ E, 165 m a.s.l. in order to evaluate the efficacy against weeds and the effects on winter wheat of two main mechanical weed control strategies: i spring tine harrowing used at three different application times (1 passage at T1, 2 passages at the time T1, 1 passage at T1 followed by 1 passage at T1 + 14 days in the crop sowed at narrow (traditional row spacing (0.15 m; and ii split-hoeing and finger-weeder, alone and combined at T1, in the crop sowed at wider row spacing (0.30 m. At the time T1 winter wheat was at tillering and weeds were at the cotyledons-2 true leaves growth stage. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replicates. Six weeks after mechanical treatments, weed ground cover (% was rated visually using the Braun-Blanquet coverabundance scale; weeds on three squares (0.6×0.5 m each one per plot were collected, counted, weighed, dried in oven at 105°C to determine weed density and weed above-ground dry biomass. At harvest, wheat ears density, grain yield, weight of 1000 seeds and hectolitre weight were recorded. Total weed flora was quite different in the three experiments. The main weed species were: Polygonum aviculare L. (exp. 1 and 2, Fallopia convolvulus (L. Á. Löve (exp. 1 and 3, Stachys annua (L. L. (exp. 1, Anagallis arvensis L. (exp. 2, Papaver rhoeas L. (exp.3, Veronica hederifolia L. (exp. 3. In the winter wheat sowed at narrow rows, 2 passages with spring-tine harrowing at the same time seems to be the best option in order to reconcile a good efficacy with the feasibility of treatment. In wider rows spacing the best weed control was obtained by split hoeing alone or combined with finger-weeder. The grain yield, on average 10% higher in narrow rows, the lower costs and the good selectivity of spring-tine harrowing

  12. Resistance of Some Iraqi Bread Wheat Cultivars to Puccinia triticina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Al-Maaroof

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Brown rust (leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina is one of the most serious diseases of wheat worldwide. In Iraq the occurrence and distribution of brown rust is more regular and uniform than that of other wheat rusts. with yield losses as high as 44% on susceptible wheat cultivars in commercial fields. Recently several promising wheat (Triticum aestivum cultivars with different levels of rust resistance have been released in Iraq. The present work was conducted to postulate the resistance genes in twenty-two Iraqi bread wheat cultivars by testing them with thirteen Mexican races of P. triticina. ‘Thatcher’ near-isogenic lines were used as testers for known resistance genes. Ten day old seedling sets were artificially inoculated with each race, and the infection type was recorded ten days later. Field reactions of the cultivars with the predominantly Iraqi races were determined under field conditions for three years. Results revealed that the Iraqi wheat cultivars possessed brown rust resistance genes Lr1, 3, 10, 13, 16, 17, 23 and 26, either alone or in various combinations. The presence of unknown resistance genes was also postulated in some cultivars. Lr23, derived from Triticum turgidum var. durum, was present in 23% of tested cultivars, whereas Lr13 was present in 18%. The presence of Lr26 in ‘Al-Nour’ and ‘Hashemia’ indicated that they carried the 1BL.1RS wheat-rye translocation. ‘Al-Melad’ displayed resistant reactions to all races used in the study. ‘Tamuz 3’ and ‘Al- Nour’ displayed high adult-plant resistance to P. triticina in the field.

  13. Cellulosic ethanol: interactions between cultivar and enzyme loading in wheat straw processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felby Claus

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variations in sugar yield due to genotypic qualities of feedstock are largely undescribed for pilot-scale ethanol processing. Our objectives were to compare glucose and xylose yield (conversion and total sugar yield from straw of five winter wheat cultivars at three enzyme loadings (2.5, 5 and 10 FPU g-1 dm pretreated straw and to compare particle size distribution of cultivars after pilot-scale hydrothermal pretreatment. Results Significant interactions between enzyme loading and cultivars show that breeding for cultivars with high sugar yields under modest enzyme loading could be warranted. At an enzyme loading of 5 FPU g-1 dm pretreated straw, a significant difference in sugar yields of 17% was found between the highest and lowest yielding cultivars. Sugar yield from separately hydrolyzed particle-size fractions of each cultivar showed that finer particles had 11% to 21% higher yields than coarse particles. The amount of coarse particles from the cultivar with lowest sugar yield was negatively correlated with sugar conversion. Conclusions We conclude that genetic differences in sugar yield and response to enzyme loading exist for wheat straw at pilot scale, depending on differences in removal of hemicellulose, accumulation of ash and particle-size distribution introduced by the pretreatment.

  14. Performance of blueberry cultivars under mild winter conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gilberto Sousa Medeiros

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Evaluation of yield performance is important to find the most adapted blueberry cultivars in a particular region. This research aimed to evaluate the flowering and hasvesting periods, the production per plant, and fruit quality of eight rabbiteye blueberry cultivars (Aliceblue, Bluebelle, Bluegem, Briteblue, Climax, Delite, Powderblue, and Woodard and two highbush blueberries (Georgiagem and O’Neal, in mild winter conditions in Pinhais-PR. Flowering and harvesting periods, production, berry weight, size, pH, soluble solids, titratable acidity, ratio and color of the fruits were evaluated in the 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 growing seasons, when the plants had two and three years old, respectively. Cultivars flowered from August to September, and harvest was concentrated in November and December. Berry weight, size, pH, soluble solids and acidity varied among the cultivars. The average ratios of 14.97 and 13.39 for each crop proved that the cultivars have good fruit quality. There was little variation in fruit color in the two years evaluated. Blueberry cultivars showed the staining characteristics and physical and chemical attributes of quality compatible to blueberry from other traditional regions. Under mild winter conditions, young plants of rabbiteye blueberry cultivars, Climax, Delite, Bluegem and Powderblue, are the most productive, while the highbusch cultivars bear few fruits.

  15. Simulation of Winter Wheat Yield with WOFOST in County Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Shangjie; Pei, Zhiyuan; He, Yajuan; Wang, Lianlin; Ma, Zhiping

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Winter wheat is mainly planted in water shortage area, such as North China and Northwest China. As a key field management measure, irrigation plays an important role in the production of winter wheat. This paper focuses on the improvement of regional winter wheat yield estimation technique in county scale by adjusting the irrigation management measure in crop growth model. The WOFOST (World Food Study) model was used by dividing the whole county into a number of EMUs (...

  16. CULTIVAR RELEASE - CD 120 – wheat cultivar, standard quality soft, for the Southern Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Schuster

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivar CD 120, developed by the Cooperativa Central de Pesquisa Agrícola (COODETEC is suitable for cultivation in the VCU wheat-producing regions 1 and 2 of the states of Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. It is tolerant to the major wheat diseases and pre-harvest germination and has soft wheat quality and a 6.5 % higher grain yield (3.678 kg ha-1 than the control.

  17. Selection of high hectolitre weight mutants of winter wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley, C.; Jones, P.

    1989-01-01

    Grain quality in wheat includes hectolitre weight (HLW) besides protein content and thousand-grain weight (TGW). The British winter wheat variety ''Guardian'' has a very high yield potential. Although the long grain of ''Guardian'' results in a desirable high TGW the HLW is too low. To select mutants exhibiting increased HLW the character was first analyzed to identify traits that could more easily be screened for using M 2 seeds. In comparison of 6 wheat cultivars, correlation analyses with HLW resulted in coefficients of -0.86 (grain length, L:P 2 seeds for shorter, less prolate grains. Mutagenesis was carried out using EMS sulphonate (1.8 or 3.6%), sodium azide (2 or 20 mM) or X-rays (7.5 or 20 kR). 69 M 2 grains with altered shape were selected. Examination of the M 3 progeny confirmed 6 grain-shape mutants, most of them resulting from EMS treatment (Table). Two of the mutants showed TGW values significantly below the parental variety, but three mutants exhibited HLW and TGW values significantly greater than those of the parental variety. Microplot yield trails on selected M 3 lines are in progress. The influence of physical grain characteristics on HLW offers prospects for mechanical fractionation of large M 2 populations. The application of gravity separators (fractionation on the basis of grain density) and sieves (fractionation on the basis of grain length) in screening mutants possessing improved grain quality is being investigated

  18. Efficiency of foliar dressing of winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Л. В. Худолій

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To elaborate winter wheat cultivation technologies based on balanced fertilizer system that combines application of mineral fertilizers and the increase of their efficiency by the use of preparations with microelements. Methods. Field and laboratory studies, mathematical and statistical analysis. Results. During 2011–2013, the effect of cultivation technologies on the formation of yield and quality of winter wheat varie­ty ‘Benefis’ (pea is a predecessor was studied. In case of alternative technologies that provided adding only by-products of the predecessor, the yield of winter wheat was 3.73 t/ha when using integrated protection system, and it was increased to 4.22 t/ha with grain quality of the 4th–5th class of the group B when foliar dressing was applied. Resource saving technologies of cultivation with restricted use of fertilizers (Р45К45N30(II+30(IV provided productivity at the level of 5.19–5.61 t/ha with grain quality of the 2nd–3rd class of the group A. Grain yield of 6.27 t/ha of the 2nd class quality was obtained by the use of intensive cultivation technology, which included application of mineral fertilizers (Р90К90N30(II+60(IV+30(VIII in addition to the use of predecessor’s by-products and foliar dressing. The highest yield of grain (6.71 t/ha on average during all years of the study with the 1st class of the group A quality was provided by energy-intensive technology, which included application of P135K135N60(II+75(IV+45(VIII with embedding of predecessor’s by-products into the soil and foliar dressing. Conclusions. It was established that in the northern part of the Forest-Steppe zone of Ukraine the highest productivity of winter wheat was obtained in dark gray podzolic soils using the energy-intensive technology with application of P135K135N60(II+75(IV+45(VIII against the background of predecessor’s by-products embedded into the soil in case of integrated plant protection, and foliar dres

  19. Impact of Early Sowing on Winter Wheat Receiving Manure or Mineral Fertilizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Tolstrup; Jensen, Johannes Lund; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag

    2017-01-01

    To reduce over-winter nitrate leaching from temperate soil, nitrate catch crops can be grown between main crops. We hypothesize that earlier sowing can replace catch crops sown before winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and improve wheat yields and N uptake. Early sown (late August) and timely sown...... (late September) wheat were tested over two cropping seasons (2011–2012 and 2013–2014) using two contemporary cultivars (Hereford and Mariboss) and increasing rates of N (0–300 kg total N ha–1) with animal manure (AM; cattle slurry) or mineral fertilizers (NPK), surface applied in late March. We...... to late August provided higher grain and straw yields; the increased over-winter N uptake suggests that the beneficial effect of earlier sowing may surpass that of a catch crop. Cattle slurry surface applied in late March gave poor N use efficiency and low grain protein content....

  20. Long-term Low Radiation Decreases Leaf Photosynthesis, Photochemical Efficiency and Grain Yield in Winter Wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, H; Jiang, D; Wollenweber, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    the impact of low radiation on crop growth, photosynthesis and yield. Grain yield losses and leaf area index (LAI) reduction were less than the reduction in solar radiation under both shading treatment in both cultivars. Compared with the control (S0), grain yield only reduced 6.4 % and 9.9 % under 22.......0-22.9 % (S1) and 29.5-49.6 % (S2), which was consistent with the reduction in radiation. The reduction in LAI was partially compensated by increases in the fraction of the top and bottom leaf area to the total leaf area, which facilitated to intercept more solar radiation by the canopy. The decrease......Low radiation reduces wheat grain yield in tree-crop intercropping systems in the major wheat planting area of China. Here, two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L) cultivars, Yangmai 158 (shading tolerant) and Yangmai 11 (shading sensitive), were shaded from jointing to maturity to evaluate...

  1. Differential agronomic responses of bread wheat cultivars to drought ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-04

    Apr 4, 2011 ... Two similar and concurrent experiments were carried out in 2007- 2008 on dry land agriculture research sub- institute Sararood and Mahidasht agricultural research center to study the effects of drought stress on yield and yield components of wheat cultivars under field conditions. The experimental.

  2. Genetic diversity among old Portuguese bread wheat cultivars and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    48 cultivars belonging to nine botanical varieties, based on the ITS rDNA variation. This collection constitutes an ex- cellent repository of germplasm in Portugal. Additionally, we intend to test the reliability of the ITS rDNA PCR-RFLP markers for defining phylogenies among bread wheat botan- ical varieties which could be ...

  3. Differential agronomic responses of bread wheat cultivars to drought ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two similar and concurrent experiments were carried out in 2007- 2008 on dry land agriculture research sub- institute Sararood and Mahidasht agricultural research center to study the effects of drought stress on yield and yield components of wheat cultivars under field conditions. The experimental design was split plot ...

  4. Genetic variability in Brazilian wheat cultivars assessed by microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Ivan; Vieira, Elisa Serra Negra; da Silva, Glacy Jaqueline; de Assis Franco, Francisco; Marchioro, Volmir Sérgio

    2009-07-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is one of the most important food staples in the south of Brazil. Understanding genetic variability among the assortment of Brazilian wheat is important for breeding. The aim of this work was to molecularly characterize the thirty-six wheat cultivars recommended for various regions of Brazil, and to assess mutual genetic distances, through the use of microsatellite markers. Twenty three polymorphic microsatellite markers (PMM) delineated all 36 of the samples, revealing a total of 74 simple sequence repeat (SSR) alleles, i.e. an average of 3.2 alleles per locus. Polymorphic information content (PIC value) calculated to assess the informativeness of each marker ranged from 0.20 to 0.79, with a mean of 0.49. Genetic distances among the 36 cultivars ranged from 0.10 (between cultivars Ocepar 18 and BRS 207) to 0.88 (between cultivars CD 101 and Fudancep 46), the mean distance being 0.48. Twelve groups were obtained by using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means analysis (UPGMA), and thirteen through the Tocher method. Both methods produced similar clusters, with one to thirteen cultivars per group. The results indicate that these tools may be used to protect intellectual property and for breeding and selection programs.

  5. Genetic variability in Brazilian wheat cultivars assessed by microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Schuster

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum is one of the most important food staples in the south of Brazil. Understanding genetic variability among the assortment of Brazilian wheat is important for breeding. The aim of this work was to molecularly characterize the thirty-six wheat cultivars recommended for various regions of Brazil, and to assess mutual genetic distances, through the use of microsatellite markers. Twenty three polymorphic microsatellite markers (PMM delineated all 36 of the samples, revealing a total of 74 simple sequence repeat (SSR alleles, i.e. an average of 3.2 alleles per locus. Polymorphic information content (PIC value calculated to assess the informativeness of each marker ranged from 0.20 to 0.79, with a mean of 0.49. Genetic distances among the 36 cultivars ranged from 0.10 (between cultivars Ocepar 18 and BRS 207 to 0.88 (between cultivars CD 101 and Fudancep 46, the mean distance being 0.48. Twelve groups were obtained by using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means analysis (UPGMA, and thirteen through the Tocher method. Both methods produced similar clusters, with one to thirteen cultivars per group. The results indicate that these tools may be used to protect intellectual property and for breeding and selection programs.

  6. Effect of boron on growth criteria of some wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Metwally

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Toxic soil concentrations of the essential micronutrient boron (B represent major limitations to crop production worldwide. Plants have a range of defense systems that might be involved in their affinity to resist and tolerate nutrients stress.Materials and methods: The experiments were carried out to study the differential responses in five wheat cultivars to boron toxicity. Results: The fresh and dry matter yield of the test wheat cultivars showed marked decrease as the concentration of boron was increased. Elevated concentration of boron had a notable inhibitory effect on the biosynthesis of pigments fractions in the test wheat cultivars as severely as dry matter gain. The adverse concentration effects of boron on some metabolic responses were clearly displayed by shoot and root systems, exhibited in the elevated rates of proline, hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde formation. Potassium leakage was severely affected by boron-stress in some cultivars at all tested concentrations, while in some others a moderate damage was manifested only at the higher boron concentrations.Conclusions: Sakha 93 out of all the different cultivars investigated was found to display the lowest sensitivity to boron-stress, while Gemmeza 9 was the most sensitive one.

  7. Molecular genetic identification of some wheat cultivars in the sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekki, I. I; El Amin, H. B.

    2002-01-01

    Four wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, namely condor, El-Nellene, Wadi El Neil and Debeira were characterized on biochemical and molecular bases. The biochemical ones were protein-banding patterns, using sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and isozymes to identify the biochemical genetic fingerprint of the four cultivars. Water-soluble protein-banding pattern showed no polymorphisms among the tested cultivars. The data from starch gel electrophoresis of enzymes, malate dehydrogenase (MDH), esterase (EST) and acid phosphate (ACPH) showed that the cultivars are monomorphic. Further trials to identify the molecular genetic fingerprints of the studied cultivars were carried out using RAPD-PCR twenty-five primers were tested to perform. RAPD-PCR analysis. From the PCR products, a phylogenetic map, i.e, dendrogram, was constructed for the studied cultivars which depicted tow groups. The first group contained Wadi El Neil and Deberia with 48.4% similarity, and the second group contained Condor and El Neileen with 100% similarity. There was no similarity between Condor and Debeira (100% dissimilarity). Therefor, these data can be used subsequently for genetic engineering research and for wheat breeding programmes in the Sudan.(Author)

  8. Unfolding the potential of wheat cultivar mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, J.; Kiær, Lars Pødenphant; Lecarpentier, C.

    2018-01-01

    Increasing the biodiversity of cropped plants is a key leverage for agroecology, aiming to replace chemical inputs by ecological processes and regulations. Cultivar mixtures are a straightforward way to increase within-crop diversity, but they have so far been poorly used by farmers and they are ......Increasing the biodiversity of cropped plants is a key leverage for agroecology, aiming to replace chemical inputs by ecological processes and regulations. Cultivar mixtures are a straightforward way to increase within-crop diversity, but they have so far been poorly used by farmers...

  9. Molecular characterization of Pakistani wheat cultivars using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pair wise similarity values ranged from 54.88 to 82.93% and showed that genotypes Kohinoor-83 and Pak-81 were the closest with highest similarity value (82.93%), while genotypes Kohinoor-83 and Kohistan-97 were most distinct with minimum similarity value (54.88%). Key words: Cultivar, polymorphism, random ...

  10. Fusarium head blight incidence and mycotoxin accumulation in three durum wheat cultivars in relation to sowing date and density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorczyca, Anna; Oleksy, Andrzej; Gala-Czekaj, Dorota; Urbaniak, Monika; Laskowska, Magdalena; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Stępień, Łukasz

    2018-02-01

    Durum wheat ( Triticum turgidum var. durum) is an important crop in Europe, particularly in the Mediterranean countries. Fusarium head blight (FHB) is considered as one of the most damaging diseases, resulting in yield and quality reduction as well as contamination of grain with mycotoxins. Three winter durum wheat cultivars originating from Austria, Slovakia, and Poland were analyzed during 2012-2014 seasons for FHB incidence and Fusarium mycotoxin accumulation in harvested grain. Moreover, the effects of sowing density and delayed sowing date were evaluated in the climatic conditions of Southern Poland. Low disease severity was observed in 2011/2012 in all durum wheat cultivars analyzed, and high FHB occurrence was recorded in 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 seasons. Fusarium graminearum was the most abundant pathogen, followed by Fusarium avenaceum. Through all three seasons, cultivar Komnata was the most susceptible to FHB and to mycotoxin accumulation, while cultivars Auradur and IS Pentadur showed less symptoms. High susceptibility of cv. Komnata was reflected by the number of Fusarium isolates and elevated mycotoxin (deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and moniliformin) content in the grain of this cultivar across all three seasons. Nivalenol was identified in the samples of cv. Komnata only. Genotype-dependent differences in FHB susceptibility were observed for the plants sown at optimal date but not at delayed sowing date. It can be hypothesized that cultivars bred in Austria and Slovakia show less susceptibility towards FHB than the cultivar from Poland because of the environmental conditions allowing for more efficient selection of breeding materials.

  11. Characterization of zinc uptake, binding, and translocation in intact seedlings of bread and durum wheat cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, J.J.; Norvell, W.A.; Welch, R.M.; Sullivan, L.A.; Kochian, L.V.

    1998-01-01

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum) cultivars exhibit lower Zn efficiency than comparable bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars. To understand the physiological mechanism(s) that confers Zn efficiency, this study used 65Zn to investigate ionic Zn2+ root uptake, binding, and translocation to shoots in seedlings of bread and durum wheat cultivars. Time-dependent Zn2+ accumulation during 90 min was greater in roots of the bread wheat cultivar. Zn2+ cell wall binding was not different in the two cultivars. In each cultivar, concentration-dependent Zn2+ influx was characterized by a smooth, saturating curve, suggesting a carrier-mediated uptake system. At very low solution Zn2+ activities, Zn2+ uptake rates were higher in the bread wheat cultivar. As a result, the Michaelis constant for Zn2+ uptake was lower in the bread wheat cultivar (2.3 micromolar) than in the durum wheat cultivar (3.9 micromolar). Low temperature decreased the rate of Zn2+ influx, suggesting that metabolism plays a role in Zn2+ uptake. Ca inhibited Zn2+ uptake equally in both cultivars. Translocation of Zn to shoots was greater in the bread wheat cultivar, reflecting the higher root uptake rates. The study suggests that lower root Zn2+ uptake rates may contribute to reduced Zn efficiency in durum wheat varieties under Zn-limiting conditions

  12. Allelic analysis of low molecular weight glutenin subunits using 2-DGE in Korean wheat cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE) was used to determine the allelic compositions of LMW-GS in 32 Korean wheat cultivars. Protein patterns generated by 2-DGE from each cultivar were compared to patterns from standard wheat cultivars for each allele. At the Glu-A3 locus, thirteen c, twelve ...

  13. Ranking quantitative resistance to Septoria tritici blotch in elite wheat cultivars using automated image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karisto, Petteri; Hund, Andreas; Yu, Kang; Anderegg, Jonas; Walter, Achim; Mascher, Fabio; McDonald, Bruce A; Mikaberidze, Alexey

    2017-12-06

    Quantitative resistance is likely to be more durable than major gene resistance for controlling Septoria tritici blotch (STB) on wheat. Earlier studies hypothesized that resistance affecting the degree of host damage, as measured by the percentage of leaf area covered by STB lesions, is distinct from resistance that affects pathogen reproduction, as measured by the density of pycnidia produced within lesions. We tested this hypothesis using a collection of 335 elite European winter wheat cultivars that was naturally infected by a diverse population of Zymoseptoria tritici in a replicated field experiment. We used automated image analysis (AIA) of 21420 scanned wheat leaves to obtain quantitative measures of conditional STB intesity that were precise, objective, and reproducible. These measures allowed us to explicitly separate resistance affecting host damage from resistance affecting pathogen reproduction, enabling us to confirm that these resistance traits are largely independent. The cultivar rankings based on host damage were different from the rankings based on pathogen reproduction, indicating that the two forms of resistance should be considered separately in breeding programs aiming to increase STB resistance. We hypothesize that these different forms of resistance are under separate genetic control, enabling them to be recombined to form new cultivars that are highly resistant to STB. We found a significant correlation between rankings based on automated image analysis and rankings based on traditional visual scoring, suggesting that image analysis can complement conventional measurements of STB resistance, based largely on host damage, while enabling a much more precise measure of pathogen reproduction. We showed that measures of pathogen reproduction early in the growing season were the best predictors of host damage late in the growing season, illustrating the importance of breeding for resistance that reduces pathogen reproduction in order to minimize

  14. Quality of grain and flour of foreign bread wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L. under the conditions of south Dobrudzha region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Chamurliyski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute One of the main directions of the breeding programs in common winter wheat, besides increasing productivity, is developing of cultivars with excellent baking properties. An important prerequisite for this is the involvement of new gene plasma of variable origin, which is adequate to the growing conditions and the desired breeding direction. The aim of investigation is study of some main properties related to the grain quality and the baking properties of bread wheat accessions of foreign origin under the conditions of the South Dobrudzha region. Twenty-five foreign bread wheat cultivars of various origins were investigated for a three year period. Cultivars Aglika, Enola, Pryaspa and Yantur were used as standards. Some indices related to the quality of grain and flour were analyzed at the Bread Making Laboratory of (DAI. The expression of the following parameters was followed: test weigh, % of protein, sedimentation, wet gluten yield, softening degree, pharinographic value, bread volume, and the quality index (QI was calculated. The cultivars, which demonstrated high grain quality, were the Romanian Faur, Moldovan Dobropolka, American Wahoo and the Ukrainian Zmina. Averaged for the three years, highest variation was found for the index pharinographic value. On the whole, the materials with origin from Romania, Ukraine and USA were characterized with high values of the quality indices. Cultivars Faur and Zmina can be successfully included in the breeding program of DAI for development of strong wheat varieties

  15. Use of the delayed luminescence test for evaluation of changes in frost-resistance of winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Brzóstowicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of frost hardening conditions on the frost-resistance of three winter wheat cultivars ('Mironowska 808', 'Grana' and 'Maris Huntsman' was studied. Frost resistance was measured periodically during the autumn and winter season by the delayed luminescence method. Parallelly an electrical conductivity test was performed for comparison. It was found that the temperature which delayed luminescence reaches its maximum (tN correlates with (t50 obtained by the conductometric method. The differences in response of particular cultivars to frost and hardening conditions are described.

  16. Wheat Cultivar Performance and Stability between No-Till and Conventional Tillage Systems in the Pacific Northwest of the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arron H. Carter

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In Washington, over fifty percent of the wheat produced under rainfed conditions receives less than 300 mm of annual precipitation. Hence, a winter wheat-summer fallow cropping system has been established to obtain adequate moisture for winter wheat production. Current tilled fallow systems receive significant soil erosion through both wind and water. As a result, no-till chemical fallow systems are being adopted to mitigate erosion concerns. The objective of this study was to evaluate current Pacific Northwest cultivars under no-till chemical fallow and tilled fallow systems to identify cultivars adapted to a late-planted no-till system. Twenty-one cultivars were planted in a split-plot design with fallow type as the main plot and genotype as the sub-plot. Four replications were planted at two locations over three years. Data was collected on heading date, grain yield and grain volume weight. Analysis of variance was conducted on data from each year and location. Results were significant for all traits. Cultivars in the late-planted no-till system yielded an average of 39% less than the tilled fallow system. It is evident that cultivars vary in their adaptability and yield stability across production systems. Chukar and Eltan displayed the highest levels of yield stability, and growers who wish to plant winter wheat in a late-planted no-till system may benefit from choosing these cultivars.

  17. Management Effects On Quality of Organically Grown Winter Wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Schweinzer, A.; Friedel, J. K.

    2013-01-01

    following pre-crop pea. Danish grains generally contained more soluble polymers of less interest for the baking process than the Austrian ones. The study emphasizes the challenges in improving the quality of organically grown wheat beyond what is predetermined by environmental growth conditions and cultivar....... However, baking quality appeared better than could be expected from the quality parameters determined....

  18. Identification of vernalization responsive genes in the winter wheat ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    four different types of expression patterns over time during the 30-day-long vernalization treatment. ... For each wheat cultivar, total RNA was extracted from leaves .... nalization treatment. qRT-PCR was performed as described above, with primers listed in table 1 (the top 11). Results. Transcriptome sequencing, assembly ...

  19. Comparison of foliar anatomy of ten bread wheat (triticum, poaceae) and ten barley (hordeum, poaceae) cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardic, M.; Sezer, O.; Ozgdsd, K.; Yaylaci, O. K.; Koyuncu, O.; Olgun, M.; Bascdftcd, Z. B.; Ayter, N. G.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine anatomical differences and classification of leaf and leaf cell characteristics (cuticle thickness, upper epidermis thickness, lower epidermis thickness, mesophyll thickness, parenchyma thickness and leaf thickness) between 10 bread wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) and 10 barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.). Classification of leaf characteristics in bread wheat and barley cultivars and relationship between leaf characteristics are made by principal component and correlation analyses. Highest thickness belongs to W8 Mufitbey cultivar in mesophyll and lower epidermis and W1 Sonmez 01 cultivar have the lowest thickness of upper epidermis in bread wheat. In Barley, B1 Ince cultivar has highest leaf thickness mesophyll and parenchyma; lowest thickness of cuticle is included B7 Cumhuriyet 50 cultivar. All other cultivars have homogenous contents of leaf characteristics. (author)

  20. WHEAT CULTIVARS: RESPONSE TO IRRIGATION AND SOWING DATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klar A.E.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in an Alfisol-Oxisol transition sandy-clay texture, using six wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum, L.: two tall and tolerant to soil aluminium toxicity (BH-1146, and IAC-18, and four semi-dwarf cultivars - Anahuac, IAC-162, IAC-24, and IAC-60 - of which only the first two are sensitive to soil aluminium toxicity. Two minimum soil water potentials (ys levels were used: 1. watered, when Ys reached about -0.05 MPa; 2. dry, when the water potential reached around -1.5 MPa. Two sowing dates, 05/22/92 and 06/11/92, were used. The results showed that Anahuac and IAC-60 are the most indicated cultivars for the studied region; when irrigated all cultivars presented similar yield level under no irrigation conditions; the irrigation was not sufficient to avoid yield differences between the two growing seasons; differences in rainfall were important for the crop in the dry treatment for both seasons.

  1. Tebuconazole Regulates Fatty Acid Composition of Etiolated Winter Wheat Seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    A.V. Korsukova; T.G. Gornostai; O.I. Grabelnych; N.V. Dorofeev; T.P. Pobezhimova; N.A. Sokolova; L.V. Dudareva; V.K. Voinikov

    2016-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of shoots of unhardened and hardened to cold etiolated winter wheat seedlings grown from seeds treated with tebuconazole-based protectant «Bunker» (content of tebuconazole 60 grams per liter, g/L), and the seedlings frost resistance has been studied. It is shown that treatment of winter wheat seeds by «Bunker» preparation (1,5 microliter per gram of seeds, µl/g) is accompanied by an increase of the fatty acids unsaturation in the shoots and increase of the seedlings...

  2. BR 18-Terena: cultivar de trigo para o Brasil BR 18Terena: wheat cultivar for Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Gervini Sousa

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A cultivar de trigo BR 18-Terena, criada pelo Cimmyt e Embrapa, foi lançada em 1986 em Mato Grosso do Sul e no Paraná. É atualmente a cultivar mais difundida no País, pois está também recomendada em São Paulo, desde 1994, e Rio Grande do Sul, desde 1998. Apresenta as seguintes características positivas: ampla adaptação, alto potencial produtivo, resistência estável à ferrugem-da-folha, resistência à brusone, ciclo precoce, porte baixo e farinha de excelente qualidade industrial. O principal defeito é a sua suscetibilidade às manchas foliares e da gluma, à bacteriose, à germinação na espiga e à debulha natural.The wheat cultivar BR 18-Terena, created by Cimmyt and Embrapa, was released in 1986 for cropping at Mato Grosso do Sul and Paraná States, Brazil. It is today the most spread cultivar in the Country, because it is also recommended in São Paulo (since 1994 and Rio Grande do Sul States (since 1998. It presents the following good traits: wide adaptation, high yield potential, durable leaf rust resistance, blast resistance, early cycle, low height, and excellent flour. The main flaw is its susceptibility to the leaf and gluma spots fungi, to bacterioses, to germination in the spike and to natural trashing.

  3. The Effect of Seed Size on Seed Vigor Indices of Different Wheat Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Tavakoli Kakhki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Germination and beneficial seedling establishment is affected by different seed vigor indices. In order to study the effect of seed size on seed vigor indices of wheat, a factorial experiment with two factors was conducted in a completely randomized design with four replications at the Agricultural Natural Resources Research Center Lab of Khorasan Razavi. The first factor was thirteen genotypes of wheat in three types of growth, containing winter, facultative and spring and the second factor was seed size in four levels including 3, 2.5, 2 and 1.5 millimeter. Germination percentage, germination rate, shoots and root length, seedling growth rate and shoot:root length ratio characteristics were investigated. Analysis of variance showed that the effect of wheat cultivars and seed size on traits was significant (p≤ 0.01 but interaction effect of seed size and wheat cultivar was significant (p≤ 0.01 only for shoot and root length, seedling growth rate and shoot:root length ratio. The highest and lowest seedling growth rate was (15.85 and 8.23 mg dry weight/germinal seedling that they were related to 3 and 1.5mm seed size, respectively. According to these observations the most and least percentage and germination rate was related to these seed size treatments. Correlation coefficient of seed size and seedling growth rate was highly significant (r=0.85 p≤ 0.01. Stepwise regression method indicated that the seed size (x1 and shoot length (x2 as independent variables could be described (r2=0.84 seedling growth rate as a dependent variable in y= -5.000955+(5.128078x1+(0.78494x2 equation. Keywords: Seedling growth rate, Germination rate, Correlation, Regression

  4. [Effects of irrigation and planting pattern on winter wheat water consumption characteristics and dry matter production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hao; Chen, Yu-Hai; Zhou, Xun-Bo

    2013-07-01

    Taking high-yield winter wheat cultivar 'Jimai 22' as test material, a field experiment was conducted in 2008-2010 to study the effects of different irrigation and planting modes on the water consumption characteristics and dry matter accumulation and distribution of winter wheat. Three planting patterns (uniform row, wide-narrow row, and furrow) and four irrigation schedules (no irrigation, W0; irrigation at jointing stage, W1; irrigation at jointing and anthesis stages, W2; and irrigation at jointing, anthesis, and milking stages, W3; with 60 mm per irrigation) were installed. With increasing amount of irrigation, the total water consumption and the ratio of irrigation water to total water consumption under different planting patterns all increased, while the soil water consumption and its ratio to total water consumption decreased significantly. As compared with W0, the other three irrigation schedules had a higher dry matter accumulation after anthesis and a higher grain yield, but a lower water use efficiency (WUE). Under the same irrigation schedules, furrow pattern had higher water consumption ratio, grain yield, and WUE. Taking the grain yield and WUE into consideration, furrow pattern combined with irrigation at jointing and anthesis stages would be the optimal water-saving and planting modes for the winter wheat production in North China Plain.

  5. [Effects of different irrigation modes on winter wheat grain yield and water- and nitrogen use efficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Hong-wen; Zhang, Qiu; Dai, Xing-long; Cao, Qian; Wang, Cheng-yu; Zhou, Xiao-hu; He, Ming-rong

    2011-10-01

    Taking the widely planted winter wheat cultivar Tainong 18 as test material, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of different irrigation modes on the winter wheat grain yield and water- and nitrogen use efficiency in drier year (2009-2010) in Tai' an City of Shandong Province, China. Five treatments were installed, i. e., irrigation before sowing (CK), irrigation before sowing and at jointing stage (W1), irrigation before sowing and at jointing stages and at over-wintering stage with alternative irrigation at milking stage (W2), irrigation before sowing and at jointing and flowering stages (optimized traditional irrigation mode, W3), and irrigation before sowing and at over-wintering, jointing, and milking stages (traditional irrigation mode, W4). The irrigation amount was 600 m3 hm(-2) one time. Under the condition of 119.7 mm precipitation in the winter wheat growth season, no significant difference was observed in the grain yield between treatments W2 and W4, but the water use efficiency was significantly higher in W2 than in W4. Comparing with treatment W3, treatments W2 and W4 had obviously higher grain yield, but the water use efficiency had no significant difference. The partial factor productivity from N fertilization was the highest in W2 and W4, and the NO3(-)-N accumulation amount in 0-100 cm soil layer at harvest was significantly higher in W2 than in W3 and W4, suggesting that W2 could reduce NO3(-)-N leaching loss. Under the conditions of our experiment, irrigation before sowing and jointing stages and at over-wintering stage with alternative irrigation at milking stage was the optimal irrigation mode in considering both the grain yield and the water- and nitrogen use efficiency.

  6. Predicting Pre-planting Risk of Stagonospora nodorum blotch in Winter Wheat Using Machine Learning Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Lucky K; Cowger, Christina; Gross, Kevin; Ojiambo, Peter S

    2016-01-01

    Pre-planting factors have been associated with the late-season severity of Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB), caused by the fungal pathogen Parastagonospora nodorum, in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum). The relative importance of these factors in the risk of SNB has not been determined and this knowledge can facilitate disease management decisions prior to planting of the wheat crop. In this study, we examined the performance of multiple regression (MR) and three machine learning algorithms namely artificial neural networks, categorical and regression trees, and random forests (RF), in predicting the pre-planting risk of SNB in wheat. Pre-planting factors tested as potential predictor variables were cultivar resistance, latitude, longitude, previous crop, seeding rate, seed treatment, tillage type, and wheat residue. Disease severity assessed at the end of the growing season was used as the response variable. The models were developed using 431 disease cases (unique combinations of predictors) collected from 2012 to 2014 and these cases were randomly divided into training, validation, and test datasets. Models were evaluated based on the regression of observed against predicted severity values of SNB, sensitivity-specificity ROC analysis, and the Kappa statistic. A strong relationship was observed between late-season severity of SNB and specific pre-planting factors in which latitude, longitude, wheat residue, and cultivar resistance were the most important predictors. The MR model explained 33% of variability in the data, while machine learning models explained 47 to 79% of the total variability. Similarly, the MR model correctly classified 74% of the disease cases, while machine learning models correctly classified 81 to 83% of these cases. Results show that the RF algorithm, which explained 79% of the variability within the data, was the most accurate in predicting the risk of SNB, with an accuracy rate of 93%. The RF algorithm could allow early assessment of

  7. [Dynamics of hybrid necrosis genes in Russian cultivars of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukhal'skiĭ, V A; Martynov, S P; Bilinskaia, E N

    2010-11-01

    Study of necrosis genotypes of 72 Russian cultivars of winter common wheat has confirmed a tendency towards "washing off" of genotypes with the Ne1 gene. Fifty-six percent of cultivars have the genotype ne1ne1Ne2Ne2, and 44% have the genotype ne1ne1ne2ne2; i.e., they are free of hybrid necrosis genes. The results of the study indicate that the diversity of the original ancestors in the groups of cultivars with the ne1ne 1Ne2Ne2 and ne1ne1ne2ne2 genotypes is almost the same. This determines the instability of the tendency towards a higher prevalence of the nel ne 1Ne2Ne2 genotype in recent years. The changes in the diversity of the original ancestors with time have shown an increase in the diversity index. These processes may somewhat decrease the rate of genetic erosion caused by the fact that the Ne1Ne1ne2ne2 falls out of breeding. The routes of transmission of necrosis gene alleles from ancestors to descendants have been traced using extended pedigrees, and this information has been used to identify the probable donors and sources of hybrid necrosis gene alleles. In most cases, the cultivars Mironovskaya 808 and Krasnodarskaya 39 are the putative sources of the Ne2allele (60.6 and 27.3% of all cases, respectively). The old cultivar Gostianum 237 from Saratov oblast is the putative source of the Ne2 allele in the cultivar Krasnodarskaya 39. The cultivars Bezostaya 1 and Odesskaya 51 (whose pedigree also includes Bezostaya 1) are the donors of the recessive genotype ne1nelne2ne2 in 93.5% of cases. The old Ukrainian cultivar Ukrainka is the most frequent source of recessive alleles. The strength of the Ne2 allele has been estimated in 36 cultivars. The results indicate that modifier genes affect the expression of tumor necrosis genes.

  8. Effects of imidacloprid and clothianidin seed treatments on wheat aphids and their natural enemies on winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Xuefeng; Zhao, Yunhe; Wei, Yan; Mu, Wei; Liu, Feng

    2016-06-01

    Wheat aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is one of the major pests of winter wheat and has posed a significant threat to winter wheat production in China. Although neonicotinoid insecticidal seed treatments have been suggested to be a control method, the season-long efficacy on pests and the impact on their natural enemies are still uncertain. Experiments were conducted to determine the efficacy of imidacloprid and clothianidin on the control of aphids, the number of their natural enemies and the emergence rate and yield of wheat during 2011-2014. Imidacloprid and clothianidin seed treatments had no effect on the emergence rate of winter wheat and could prevent yield losses and wheat aphid infestations throughout the winter wheat growing season. Furthermore, their active ingredients were detected in winter wheat leaves up to 200 days after sowing. Imidacloprid and clothianidin seed treatments had no adverse effects on ladybirds, hoverflies or parasitoids, and instead increased the spider-aphid ratios. Wheat seeds treated with imidacloprid and clothianidin were effective against wheat aphids throughout the winter wheat growing season and reduced the yield loss under field conditions. Imidacloprid and clothianidin seed treatments may be an important component of the integrated management of wheat aphids on winter wheat. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Identification of vernalization responsive genes in the winter wheat ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1College of Agriculture, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471003, People's Republic of China. 2National Engineering ... Key Laboratory of Wheat and Maize Crop Science, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002,. People's ..... Entz M. and Fowler D. 1991 Agronomic performance of winter.

  10. Tebuconazole Regulates Fatty Acid Composition of Etiolated Winter Wheat Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Korsukova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid composition of shoots of unhardened and hardened to cold etiolated winter wheat seedlings grown from seeds treated with tebuconazole-based protectant «Bunker» (content of tebuconazole 60 grams per liter, g/L, and the seedlings frost resistance has been studied. It is shown that treatment of winter wheat seeds by «Bunker» preparation (1,5 microliter per gram of seeds, µl/g is accompanied by an increase of the fatty acids unsaturation in the shoots and increase of the seedlings frost resistance (–8°C, 24 h. The most pronounced decrease in the content of saturated palmitic acid and increase in the content of unsaturated α-linolenic acid were observed during cold hardening of winter wheat seedlings grown from seeds treated by tebuconazole-based protectant. It is concluded that the seeds treatment with tebuconazole-based protectant causes changes of fatty acid composition of winter wheat seedlings to increase their frost resistance.

  11. Summer fallow soil management - impact on rainfed winter wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Fucui; Wang, Zhaohui; Dai, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Summer fallow soil management is an important approach to improve soil and crop management in dryland areas. In the Loess Plateau regions, the annual precipitation is low and varies annually and seasonally, with more than 60% concentrated in the summer months from July to September, which...... is the summer fallow period in the winter wheat-summer fallow cropping system. With bare fallow in summer as a control, a 3-year location-fixed field experiment was conducted in the Loess Plateau to investigate the effects of wheat straw retention (SR), green manure (GM) planting, and their combination on soil...... water retention (WR) during summer fallow, winter wheat yield, and crop water use and nitrogen (N) uptake. The results showed that SR increased soil WR during summer fallow by 20 mm on average compared with the control over 3 experimental years but reduced the grain yield by 8% in the third year...

  12. Lodging resistance and yield potential of winter wheat: effect of planting density and genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggui XIAO,Jianjun LIU,Haosheng LI,Xinyou CAO,Xianchun XIA,Zhonghu HE

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Improved lodging resistance is important for achieving high yield in irrigated environments. This study was conducted to determine genotypic variation in lodging resistance and related morphological traits among winter wheat cultivars planted at two densities, and to identify key traits associated with lodging resistance. Lodging performance of 28 genotypes, including 24 released cultivars and four advanced lines, was evaluated at 250 plants per square meter and 500 plants per square meter in Shandong province during the 2008ndash;2009 and 2009ndash;2010 crop seasons. At the higher density, the average grain yield was 2.6% higher, even though lodging score rose by as much as 136%. The higher planting density increased lodging through increased leaf area index (LAI, plant height, center of gravity and length of basal internodes, and reduced grain weight per spike and diameter of the lower two stem internodes. LAI, center of gravity and diameter of first internodes, as the important indicators for lodging resistance, were significantly correlated with lodging score, with R= 0.62, 0.59 and minus;0.52 (P<0.01, respectively. Plant pushing resistance was significantly associated with diameter and length of the first internodes (R = 0.71ndash;0.77, P<0.01, indicating it could be used to assess the strength of the lower stem. Higher planting density could be used to select genotypes with lodging resistance in irrigated environments. Cultivars carrying high plant density tolerance and high yield potential, such as Jimai 22 and Liangxing 66, were recommended as leading cultivars for production as well as elite crossing parents for further increasing yield potential in the Yellow and Huai Valleys Winter Wheat Zone in China.

  13. Race-Specific Adult-Plant Resistance in Winter Wheat to Stripe Rust and Characterization of Pathogen Virulence Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milus, Eugene A; Moon, David E; Lee, Kevin D; Mason, R Esten

    2015-08-01

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is an important disease of wheat in the Great Plains and southeastern United States. Growing resistant cultivars is the preferred means for managing stripe rust, but new virulence in the pathogen population overcomes some of the resistance. The objectives of this study were to characterize the stripe rust resistance in contemporary soft and hard red winter wheat cultivars, to characterize the virulence of P. striiformis f. sp. tritici isolates based on the resistances found in the cultivars, and to determine wheat breeders' perceptions on the importance and methods for achieving stripe rust resistance. Seedlings of cultivars were susceptible to recent isolates, indicating they lacked effective all-stage resistance. However, adult-plants were resistant or susceptible depending on the isolate, indicating they had race-specific adult-plant resistance. Using isolates collected from 1990 to 2013, six major virulence patterns were identified on adult plants of twelve cultivars that were selected as adult-plant differentials. Race-specific adult-plant resistance appears to be the only effective type of resistance protecting wheat from stripe rust in eastern United States. Among wheat breeders, the importance of incorporating stripe rust resistance into cultivars ranged from high to low depending on the frequency of epidemics in their region, and most sources of stripe rust resistance were either unknown or already overcome by virulence in the pathogen population. Breeders with a high priority for stripe rust resistance made most of their selections based on adult-plant reactions in the field, whereas breeders with a low priority for resistance based selections on molecular markers for major all-stage resistance genes.

  14. Summer fallow soil management - impact on rainfed winter wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Fucui; Wang, Zhaohui; Dai, Jian

    2014-01-01

    is the summer fallow period in the winter wheat-summer fallow cropping system. With bare fallow in summer as a control, a 3-year location-fixed field experiment was conducted in the Loess Plateau to investigate the effects of wheat straw retention (SR), green manure (GM) planting, and their combination on soil...... water retention (WR) during summer fallow, winter wheat yield, and crop water use and nitrogen (N) uptake. The results showed that SR increased soil WR during summer fallow by 20 mm on average compared with the control over 3 experimental years but reduced the grain yield by 8% in the third year...... and the grain N content by 6–15% in all 3 years. In contrast, GM planting markedly reduced soil WR by 16 mm and 33 mm in the first and third year, respectively, but increased water use efficiency (WUE) by 16% in the third year and nitrate N accumulation in 0–100 cm soil at winter wheat sowing. Their combination...

  15. New wheat cultivars induced by fast neutrons in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, I.F.; Al-Maaroof, E.M.; Al-Aubaidi, M.O.; Al-Janabi, K.K.; Al-Janabi, A.A.; Al-Rawi, L.; Ali, A.H.

    1994-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. ssp. aestivum) seeds from the cultivar Mexipak and F2 of the cross SaberBeg/Mexipak and saberBeg/Mexipak/Abu-Ghraib-4 were irradiated with fast neutrons and screened for resistance to leaf rust (Puccinia recondita Rob. ex Desm.) during three generations. Thirty-eight and 226 variants showing resistant and moderately resistant reactions, respectively, were selected. Of these variants three mutants showing genetic purity and stability were studied for yield components for four successive generations. Analyses of proteins and isozymes along with chemical and physical properties were conducted on these mutants and their parents. Data on disease incidence, lodging, shattering and yield components indicated that all the mutants significantly surpassed the cultivars Mexipak, SaberBeg and Abu-Ghraib-4. Both mutants Tamuz-1 and Tamuz-2 surpassed Mexipak in bread-making quality, while the mutant Tamuz-3 had a higher tendency for better bread-making quality than Mexipak or SeberBeg

  16. Reaction of wheat cultivars and differential lines to Puccinia triticina races in detached leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Turra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The method of preserving detached wheat leaves in Petri dish was used for the inoculation and development of the fungus Puccinia triticina, the causal agent of wheat leaf rust. The reaction of 26 wheat cultivars was compared by using seedlings cultivated in pots (in vivo and detached leaves (in vitro inoculated with four physiological races of the pathogen. After inoculation, the material was kept in a growth chamber for 15 days. The reaction was evaluated on the 15th day after inoculation. Results for each race in the evaluated genotypes confirmed the efficiency of the detached leaf method in assessing the reaction of wheat cultivars.

  17. Sources of Nitrogen for Winter Wheat in Organic Cropping Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Schjønning, Per; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2013-01-01

    mineralizable N (PMN), microbial biomass N (MBN)] were monitored during two growth periods; at one site, biomass C/N ratios were also determined. Soil for labile N analysis was shielded from N inputs during spring application to isolate cumulated system effects. Potentially mineralizable N and MBN were...... explained 76 and 82% of the variation in grain N yields in organic cropping systems in 2007 and 2008, showing significant effects of, respectively, topsoil N, depth of A horizon, cumulated inputs of N, and N applied to winter wheat in manure. Thus, soil properties and past and current management all......In organic cropping systems, legumes, cover crops (CC), residue incorporation, and manure application are used to maintain soil fertility, but the contributions of these management practices to soil nitrogen (N) supply remain obscure. We examined potential sources of N for winter wheat (Triticum...

  18. Study on physiological characteristics of winter wheat in drought land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Man Huimin; Yu Guohua; Zhan Shumin; Liu Xin; Zhang Guoshu

    1995-01-01

    Physiological characteristics of winter wheat cultivated in drought land was studied. The results showed that with precipitation of 1 m in the growing period of wheat, it was feasible to use drought cultivation techniques, i.e., increasing the application of P, K and Zn, maintaining the present application of N and increasing the density of wheat plants, to increase the ability of photosynthesis in the parts from the top inter-node above, and a 4900 kg/hm 2 or more of grain yield was obtained. 14 C-assimilate transportation from different parts to grain in drought and irrigating cultivation conditions were 83. 73% and 75.31% respectively. The proline content in flag leaf and the chlorophyll content in the parts from the top inter-node above with drought cultivation were significantly higher than those with normal cultivation

  19. Root development of fodder radish and winter wheat before winter in relation to uptake of nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlström, Ellen Margrethe; Hansen, Elly Møller; Mandel, A.

    2015-01-01

    The nitrate (N) present in soil at the end of autumn is prone to leach during winter and spring in temperate climates if not taken up by plants. In Denmark catch crops are used as a regulatory tool to reduce N leaching and therefore a shift from winter cereals to spring cereals with catch crops has...... occurred. Quantitative data is missing on N leaching of a catch crop compared to a winter cereal in a conventional cereal-based cropping system. The aim of the study was to investigate whether fodder radish (Raphanus sativus L.) (FR) would be more efficient than winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (WW......) at depleting the soil of mineral nitrogen (Nmin) before winter. A secondary aim was to study the agreement between three different root measuring methods: root wash (RW), core break (CB) and minirhizotron (MR). The third aim of the was to correlate the N uptake of FR and WW with RLD. An experiment was made...

  20. Yield Stability in Winter Wheat Production: A Survey on German Farmers’ and Advisors’ Views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna Macholdt

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Most of the available research studies have focused on the production of high grain yields of wheat and have neglected yield stability. However, yield stability is a relevant factor in agronomic practice and, therefore, is the focus of this comprehensive survey. The aim was to first describe the importance of yield stability as well as currently used practical management strategies that ensure yield stability in wheat production and secondly, to obtain potential research areas supporting yield stability in the complex system of agronomy. The target groups were German farmers with experience in wheat production and advisors with expertise in the field of wheat cultivation or research. A sample size of 615 completed questionnaires formed the data basis of this study. The study itself provides evidence that the yield stability of winter wheat is even more important than the amount of yield for a large proportion of farmers (48% and advisors (47%. Furthermore, in the view of the majority of the surveyed farmers and advisors, yield stability is gaining importance in climate change. Data analysis showed that site adapted cultivar choice, favorable crop rotations and integrated plant protection are ranked as three of the most important agronomic management practices to achieve high yield stability of wheat. Soil tillage and fertilization occupied a middle position, whereas sowing date and sowing density were estimated with lower importance. However, yield stability is affected by many environmental, genetic and agronomic factors, which subsequently makes it a complex matter. Hence, yield stability in farming practice must be analyzed and improved in a systems approach.

  1. A regional implementation of WOFOST for calculating yield gaps of winter wheat across the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, H.; Wolf, J.; Supit, I.; Niemeyer, S.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2013-01-01

    Wheat is Europe’s dominant crop in terms of land use in the European Union (EU25). Most of this wheat area is sown in autumn, i.e., winter wheat in all EU25 countries, apart from southern Italy, southern Spain and most of Portugal, where spring wheat varieties are sown in late autumn. We evaluated

  2. Response of spring type wheat (triticum aestivum l.) cultivars to different chilling treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Late sowing of wheat in autumn due to environmental conditions or late harvesting of cotton crop results in substantial yield loss. It may be attributed to non-fulfillment of chilling requirements. The present study was conducted to identify the chilling requirement of autumn sown cultivars of wheat...

  3. Evaluation of 10 wheat cultivars under water stress at Moghan (Iran ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hami

    2011-09-14

    Sep 14, 2011 ... Accepted 20 May, 2011. Water deficit is one of the main abiotic factors that affect yield and yield component of wheat planted in ... evaluate the effects of water stress on seed yield and yield components of ten wheat cultivars and lines that differ in .... Analysis of variance is presented in Table 2. According to.

  4. The effect of aluminium on enzyme activities in two wheat cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to study the effect of different aluminum (Al) concentrations on the enzyme activities of wheat seedlings and the effect of malate and citrate treatments as chelates for reducing the noxious effect of Al in medium culture, the seedlings of two wheat cultivars, Darab (Al-sensitive) and Maroon (Al-tolerant) were grown on ...

  5. Evaluation of 10 wheat cultivars under water stress at Moghan (Iran ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of water stress on wheat yield and yield component during 2008 at Moghan conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of water stress on seed yield and yield components of ten wheat cultivars and lines that differ in adoption to drought stress. Ten bread ...

  6. Colonisation of winter wheat grain by Fusarium spp. and mycotoxin content as dependent on a wheat variety, crop rotation, a crop management system and weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaban, Janusz; Wróblewska, Barbara; Sułek, Alicja; Mikos, Marzena; Boguszewska, Edyta; Podolska, Grażyna; Nieróbca, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted during three consecutive growing seasons (2007/08, 2008/09 and 2009/10) with four winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars - 'Bogatka', 'Kris', 'Satyna' and 'Tonacja' - grown on fields with a three-field crop rotation (winter triticale, spring barley, winter wheat) and in a four-field crop rotation experiment (spring wheat, spring cereals, winter rapeseed, winter wheat). After the harvest, kernels were surface disinfected with 2% NaOCl and then analysed for the internal infection by different species of Fusarium. Fusaria were isolated on Czapek-Dox iprodione dichloran agar medium and identified on the basis of macro- and micro-morphology on potato dextrose agar and synthetic nutrient agar media. The total wheat grain infection by Fusarium depended mainly on relative humidity (RH) and a rainfall during the flowering stage. Intensive rainfall and high RH in 2009 and 2010 in the period meant the proportions of infected kernels by the fungi were much higher than those in 2008 (lack of precipitation during anthesis). Weather conditions during the post-anthesis period changed the species composition of Fusarium communities internally colonising winter wheat grain. The cultivars significantly varied in the proportion of infected kernels by Fusarium spp. The growing season and type of crop rotation had a distinct effect on species composition of Fusarium communities colonising the grain inside. A trend of a higher percentage of the colonised kernels by the fungi in the grain from the systems using more fertilisers and pesticides as well as the buried straw could be perceived. The most frequent species in the grain were F. avenaceum, F. tricinctum and F. poae in 2008, and F. avenaceum, F. graminearum, F. tricinctum and F. poae in 2009 and 2010. The contents of deoxynivalenol and zearalenon in the grain were correlated with the percentage of kernels colonised by F. graminearum and were the highest in 2009 in the grain from the four

  7. Production of Ethanol From Newly Developed and Improved Winter Barley Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Nhuan P; Brooks, Wynse S; Griffey, Carl A; Toht, Matthew J

    2017-05-01

    Winter barley has attracted strong interest as a potential feedstock for fuel ethanol production in regions with mild winter climate such as the mid-Atlantic and northeastern USA. Ten recently developed and improved winter barley cultivars and breeding lines including five hulled and five hull-less lines were experimentally evaluated for potential ethanol production. The five hulled barley lines included three released cultivars (Thoroughbred, Atlantic, and Secretariat) and two breeding lines (VA09B-34 and VA11B-4). The five hull-less lines also included three released cultivars (Eve, Dan, and Amaze 10) and two breeding lines (VA08H-65 and VA13H-34). On the average, the hull-less barley cultivars produced more ethanol per unit mass because of their higher starch and β-glucan contents. However, since the hulled barley cultivars had higher agronomic yield, the potential ethanol production per acre of land for the two types were approximately equal. Among the ten cultivars tested, the hull-less cultivar Amaze 10 was the best one for ethanol production. The ethanol yield values obtained for this cultivar were 2.61 gal per bushel and 292 gal per acre.

  8. Estimation of canopy carotenoid content of winter wheat using multi-angle hyperspectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Weiping; Huang, Wenjiang; Liu, Jiangui; Chen, Pengfei; Qin, Qiming; Ye, Huichun; Peng, Dailiang; Dong, Yingying; Mortimer, A. Hugh

    2017-11-01

    Precise estimation of carotenoid (Car) content in crops, using remote sensing data, could be helpful for agricultural resources management. Conventional methods for Car content estimation were mostly based on reflectance data acquired from nadir direction. However, reflectance acquired at this direction is highly influenced by canopy structure and soil background reflectance. Off-nadir observation is less impacted, and multi-angle viewing data are proven to contain additional information rarely exploited for crop Car content estimation. The objective of this study was to explore the potential of multi-angle observation data for winter wheat canopy Car content estimation. Canopy spectral reflectance was measured from nadir as well as from a series of off-nadir directions during different growing stages of winter wheat, with concurrent canopy Car content measurements. Correlation analyses were performed between Car content and the original and continuum removed spectral reflectance. Spectral features and previously published indices were derived from data obtained at different viewing angles and were tested for Car content estimation. Results showed that spectral features and indices obtained from backscattering directions between 20° and 40° view zenith angle had a stronger correlation with Car content than that from the nadir direction, and the strongest correlation was observed from about 30° backscattering direction. Spectral absorption depth at 500 nm derived from spectral data obtained from 30° backscattering direction was found to reduce the difference induced by plant cultivars greatly. It was the most suitable for winter wheat canopy Car estimation, with a coefficient of determination 0.79 and a root mean square error of 19.03 mg/m2. This work indicates the importance of taking viewing geometry effect into account when using spectral features/indices and provides new insight in the application of multi-angle remote sensing for the estimation of crop

  9. Responses of Winter Wheat Yield and Water Use Efficiency to Irrigation Frequency and Planting Pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Bian, Chengyue; Ma, Changjian; Liu, Xinhui; Gao, Chao; Liu, Quanru; Yan, Zhenxing; Ren, Yujie; Li, Quanqi

    2016-01-01

    A suitable planting pattern and irrigation strategy are essential for optimizing winter wheat yield and water use efficiency (WUE). The study aimed to evaluate the impact of planting pattern and irrigation frequency on grain yield and WUE of winter wheat. During the 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 winter wheat growing seasons in the North China Plain, the effects of planting patterns and irrigation frequencies were determined on tiller number, grain yield, and WUE. The two planting patterns tested we...

  10. Characterization of cadmium binding, uptake, and translocation in intact seedlings of bread and durum wheat cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, J.J.; Welch, R.M.; Norvell, W.A.; Sullivanm, L.A.; Kochian, L.V.

    1998-01-01

    High Cd content in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum) grain grown in the United States and Canada presents potential health and economic problems for consumers and growers. In an effort to understand the biological processes that result in excess Cd accumulation, root Cd uptake and xylem translocation to shoots in seedlings of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum wheat cultivars were studied. Whole-plant Cd accumulation was somewhat greater in the bread wheat cultivar, but this was probably because of increased apoplastic Cd binding. Concentration-dependent 109Cd2+-influx kinetics in both cultivars were characterized by smooth, nonsaturating curves that could be dissected into linear and saturable components. The saturable component likely represented carrier-mediated Cd influx across root-cell plasma membranes (Michaelis constant, 20-40 nM; maximum initial velocity, 26-29 nmol g-1 fresh weight h-1), whereas linear Cd uptake represented cell wall binding of 109Cd. Cd translocation to shoots was greater in the bread wheat cultivar than in the durum cultivar because a larger proportion of root-absorbed Cd moved to shoots. Our results indicate that excess Cd accumulation in durum wheat grain is not correlated with seedling-root influx rates or root-to-shoot translocation, but may be related to phloem-mediated Cd transport to the grain

  11. [Effects of sprinkler irrigation on the plant nitrogen accumulation and translocation and kernel protein content of winter wheat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Su-mei; Kang, Yue-hu; Ru, Zhen-gang; Liu, Ming-jiu; Yang, Wen-ping; Li, Gan

    2013-08-01

    Taking wheat cultivar Bainong AK58 as test material, a field experiment was conducted to study the plant nitrogen accumulation and translocation and kernel protein content of winter wheat under sprinkler irrigation and surface irrigation, aimed to understand the differences in the nitrogen metabolism characteristics of winter wheat under different irrigation regimes. At booting stage, no significant difference was observed in the total amount of plant nitrogen accumulation between sprinkler irrigation and surface irrigation; while from booting stage to maturing stage, the total amount of plant nitrogen accumulation under sprinkler irrigation was significantly higher. Under sprinkler irrigation, the translocation amount and contribution rate of the nitrogen stored in leaf, glume, stem and sheath at pre-anthesis to the kernel increased, while the contribution rate of the assimilated nitrogen after anthesis to the kernel nitrogen declined. Both the relative protein content and the total protein yield in the kernel increased significantly under sprinkler irrigation. In conclusion, sprinkler irrigation could significantly regulate the nitrogen translocation and kernel protein accumulation of winter wheat.

  12. Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae agrocenoses of spring and winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Purchart

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available On two monitoring areas of the Central Institute for Supervising and Testing in Agriculture (ÚKZÚZ loaded with risk elements we carried out investigations of beetles of the family Carabidae (Coleoptera in agricultural stands of winter and spring wheat. The focus of the present study is on synecological characteristics and in some extent on the impact of agricultural practise on the population and seasonal dynamics of the most important representatives of ground beetles. This paper precedes the following article aimed to contents of heavy metals in ground beetles.

  13. Color of whole-wheat foods prepared from a bright-white hard winter wheat and the phenolic acids in its coarse bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongxin; Martin, Joe; Okot-Kotber, Moses; Seib, Paul A

    2011-08-01

    The color of wheat kernels often impacts the color and thereby the value of wheat-based foods. A line of hard white winter wheat (B-W HW) with bright appearing kernels has been developed at the Kansas State Agricultural Research Center. The objective of this study was to compare the color of several foods made from the B-W HW wheat with those of 2 hard white wheat cultivars, Trego and Lakin. The B-W HW kernels showed higher lightness (L*, 57.6) than Trego (55.5) and Lakin (56.8), and the increased lightness was carried over to its bran and whole-wheat flour. Alkaline noodle and bread crumb made from the B-W HW whole-wheat flour showed slightly higher lightness (L*) than those made from Trego and Lakin. The sum of soluble and bound phenolics extracted from the 3 wheat brans, which had not been preextracted to remove lipids, was found to be 17.22 to 18.98 mg/g. The soluble phenolic acids in the brans were principally vanillic, ferulic, and syringic. The bound phenolic acids in the brans were dominated by ferulic, which accounted for 50.1% to 82.2% of total identified bound phenolic acids. Other bound phenolic acids were protocatechuic, caffeic, syringic, trans-cinnamic, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-coumaric, and vanillic. The lightness (L*) values of coarse wheat brans correlated positively with their levels of bound protocatechuic (r = 0.72, P < 0.01) and p-hydroxybenzoic acids (r = 0.75, P < 0.01). © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Effect of the herbicide treatment dose on the weed infestation in common winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Petrova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of this investigation was to determine the effect of the treatment dose of herbicides on the weed infestation in common winter wheat. The investigations were carried out during 2015 –2016 at Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute (DAI – General Toshevo. The following herbicides were used: Derby super WG (33 g/ha; 66 g/ha; 132 g/ha, Secator ОD (100 ml/ha; 200 ml/ha; 400 ml/ha, Ergon WG (50 g/ha; 100 g/ha; 200 g/ha, Granstar super 50SG (40 g/ha; 80 g/ha; 160 g/ha, Lintur 70WG (150 g/ha; 300 g/ha; 600 g/ha and Mustang 306.25 СК (800 ml/ha; 1600 ml/ha; 3200 ml/ha from the group of sulfunylureas with various mechanism of action. The preparations were applied at three doses – optimal, double and quadruple, at stage 29 (according to Zadoks et al., 1974 of common winter wheat cultivars Dragana, Zlatitsa and Kalina. The herbicide effect was determined by the quantitative weight method and evaluated by the EWRS scale. Regardless of the used dose and the cultivar, Derby super WG, Secator OD, Lintur 70WG and Mustang 306.25СК had highest efficiency (100% against the following investigated weeds: Sinapis arvensis L., Matricaria chamomilla L., Anthemis arvensis L., Galium tricorne (Stock., Consolida orientalis (J. Gay and Cirsium arvensis L. Ergon WG and Granstar super 50SG had 100% efficiency against Sinapis arvensis L., Matricaria chamomilla L. and Anthemis arvensis L. and lower effect (90-94% on Galium tricorne (Stock, Consolida orientalis (J. Gay and Cirsium arvensis L.

  15. [Characteristics of alpha-amylase isozymes in cytologenetically different wheat cultivars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netsvetaev, V P; Badaeva, E D

    2014-07-01

    The isoenzyme composition of alpha-amylase is studied by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in Tris-glycine (pH 8.3) system in wheat cultivars with different genome composition. We show that durum wheat (Triticum durum, 2n=4x=28, BBAA) lacks the isoenzymes encoded by 6D and 7D chromosomes that are present in common wheat zymograms (Triticum aestivum, 2n=6x=42, BBAADD). A similar pattern is observed in a synthetic allohexaploid carrying the BBAA genomes of wheat and the HchHch genome of barley (Hordeum chilense). Our method of electrophoresis fails to reveal additional variants of alpha-amylase encoded by the barley genome, although C-banding analysis confirms the genomic structure BBAAHChHCh of this allopolyploid. The electrophoretic spectrum of the spring common wheat cultivar Dobrynya with the wheat-Agropyron translocation 7DL-7AiL contains all of the alpha-amylase isoenzymes typical for common wheat (2n=6x=42, BBAADD) except for the zymotype encoded by the long arm of chromosome 7D. This observation confirms the results of cytogenetic analysis that identified a 7DL-7AiL translocation in this cultivar. No additional alpha-amylase isoenzymes encoded by Agropyron chromosome have been observed. Our data indicate that analysis of wheat-alien hybrids or introgressive forms should be carried out using a complex of different methods.

  16. Regional greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of winter wheat and winter rapeseed for biofuels in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsgaard, Lars; Olesen, Jørgen E; Hermansen, John Erik

    2013-01-01

    by such regional factors as soil conditions, climate and input of agrochemicals. Here we analysed at a regional scale the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with cultivation of winter wheat for bioethanol and winter rapeseed for rapeseed methyl ester (RME) under Danish conditions. Emitted CO2 equivalents...... (CO2eq) were quantified from the footprints of CO2, CH4 and N2O associated with cultivation and the emissions were allocated between biofuel energy and co-products. Greenhouse gas emission at the national level (Denmark) was estimated to 22.1 g CO2eq MJ−1 ethanol for winter wheat and 26.0 g CO2eq MJ−1...... RME for winter rapeseed. Results at the regional level (level 2 according to the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics [NUTS]) ranged from 20.0 to 23.9 g CO2eq MJ−1 ethanol and from 23.5 to 27.6 g CO2eq MJ−1 RME. Thus, at the regional level emission results varied by up to 20%. Differences...

  17. Frequency of powdery mildew resistances in winter barley cultivars tested in domestic variety trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonín Dreiseitl

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2006–2010, resistance to the powdery mildew pathogen was studied in 225 winter barley cultivars of which 86 two-rowed and 139 six-rowed. The examined set included 59 cultivars tested in the official variety trials and 166 cultivars in variety trials conducted by domestic breeding stations in that period. Thirteen known resistances were identified (Ar, Bw, Dr2, Ha, HH, IM9, La, Ly, Ra, Ru, Sp, St and We. No resistance was found in one cultivar only. The most frequent resistance was Ra detected in 114 cultivars (= 50.7%. The resistance Bw was found in 54 cultivars (24.0%. Resistances typical for spring barley cultivars (Ly, Sp, Ru and We were also frequent (4.0% to 23.6%. Unknown resistances were found in 20 cultivars, in nine of which they were effective to all used pathotypes of the pathogen. Thirty-six cultivars (16.0% exhibited heterogeneity in the examined trait, i.e. they were mostly composed of lines with different resistances. Research on cultivars possessing unknown resistances continues.

  18. Identificação de cultivares de trigo pelo teste de fenol Cultivars identification of wheat by phenol test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Lemos de Menezes

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available O teste de fenol é recomendado para a identificação de cultivares de trigo em laboratório e se baseia na reação de compostos presentes no pericarpo das sementes. Devido à reação constante para cada cultivar, o teste serve para caracterização rápida e fácil de materiais com reações diferentes. No presente trabalho, com o objetivo de facilitar a identificação varietal em trigo, determinou-se a reação ao fenol de 42 cultivares, que estiveram ou estão em recomendação no Brasil.The phenol test is recommended for wheat cultivar identification and is based on the reaction of compounds present in the seeds pericarp. Due to the constant reaction for each cultivar, the test may be used for a rapid and easy characterization of different reactions materiais. In this essay, the phenol reaction was determined in 42 brazilian wheat varieties aiming to facilitate its identification.

  19. Novi Sad wheat cultivars and their seed production in the period 1970-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denčić Srbislav

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad started a large-scale seed production of its wheat cultivars in1971. This activity was done in cooperation with a large number of seed companies from the former Yugoslavia and later on from Serbia. A total volume of production of all seed categories for the period from 1971 to 2010 was 3,790,712 tons. On average for this period, the annual production of certified seed was 94,768 t. The largest amount of seed of Novi Sad wheat cultivars was placed on the market in 1982 - 168,248 t (excluding exports. In the former Yugoslavia, Novi Sad wheat cultivars took from 30 to 65% of the total wheat market share. In the new Yugoslavia, Serbia and Montenegro, and finally in Serbia, the market share of Novi Sad cultivars ranged from 80 to 97%. The most popular and bestselling Novi Sad wheat cultivars were: Sava, Partizanka, Novi Sad Early 2 and 1, Balkan, Jugoslavija, Lasta, Evropa, Evropa 90, Pobeda, Novi Sad Early 5 and Renesansa.

  20. The impact exploration of agricultural drought on winter wheat yield in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianhua; Wu, Jianjun; Han, Xinyi; Zhou, Hongkui

    2017-04-01

    Drought is one of the most serious agro-climatic disasters in the North China Plain, which has a great influence on winter wheat yield. Global warming exacerbates the drought trend of this region, so it is important to study the effect of drought on winter wheat yield. In order to assess the drought-induced winter wheat yield losses, SPEI (standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index), the widely used drought index, was selected to quantify the drought from 1981 to 2013. Additionally, the EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) crop model was used to simulate winter wheat yield at 47 stations in this region from 1981 to 2013. We analyzed the relationship between winter wheat yield and the SPEI at different time scales in each month during the growing season. The trends of the SPEI and the trends of winter wheat yield at 47 stations over the past 32 years were compared with each other. To further quantify the effect of drought on winter wheat yield, we defined the year that SPEI varied from -0.5 to 0.5 as the normal year, and calculated the average winter wheat yield of the normal years as a reference yield, then calculated the reduction ratios of winter wheat based on the yields mentioned above in severe drought years. As a reference, we compared the results with the reduction ratios calculated from the statistical yield data. The results showed that the 9 to 12-month scales' SPEI in April, May and June had a high correlation with winter wheat yield. The trends of the SPEI and the trends of winter wheat yield over the past 32 years showed a positive correlation (pChina Plain

  1. VARIABILITY OF NUMBER OF KERNELS PER SPIKE IN WHEAT CULTIVARS (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desimir KNEZEVIC

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper was analyzed number of kernels per spike in 20 genetically divergent wheat cultivars originated from different breeding centers in Serbia. Investigation conducted during two seasons which characterized different climatic condition. For analysis used samples of 60 wheat plants (20 plants in 3 replications which were harvested in full maturity stage. The differences in average values for number of kernels per spike in studied cultivars were determined. The variability of number of kernels per spike was established. In average, number of kernels per spike for all cultivars was higher in second year 72.22 than in first experimental year 68.73. The highest number of kernels/spike in both year expressed Tanjugovka cultivar and the lowest Yugoslavia cultivar. Average value of coefficientvariation for all cultivars varied from 14.19 in first year to 12.92 in second year. Average number of kernels per spike for both year of growing, varied from 54.56 in cultivar Yugoslavia to 77.83 in cultivar Tanjugovka. Significant differences for number of kernels/spike were found among cultivars in both years as well between years. Heritability in wide sense for number of kernels/spike was 79.13%.

  2. Genetic analysis of rust resistance genes in global wheat cultivars: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aktar-Uz-Zaman, Md; Tuhina-Khatun, Mst; Hanafi, Mohamed Musa; Sahebi, Mahbod

    2017-01-01

    Rust is the most devastating fungal disease in wheat. Three rust diseases, namely, leaf or brown rust caused by Puccinia triticina Eriks, stem or black rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici West, and stripe or yellow rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. Tritici Eriks, are the most economically significant and common diseases among global wheat cultivars. Growing cultivars resistant to rust is the most sustainable, cost-effective and environmentally friendly approach for controlling rust diseases. To date, more than 187 rust resistance genes (80 leaf rust, 58 stem rust and 49 stripe rust) have been derived from diverse wheat or durum wheat cultivars and the related wild species using different molecular methods. This review provides a detailed discussion of the different aspects of rust resistance genes, their primitive sources, their distribution in global wheat cultivars and the importance of durable resistant varieties for controlling rust diseases. This information will serve as a foundation for plant breeders and geneticists to develop durable rust-resistant wheat varieties through marker-assisted breeding or gene pyramiding

  3. Model prediction of frost tolerance as related to winter survival of wheat in Finnish field trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. BERGJORD

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The model FROSTOL simulates course of frost tolerance in winter wheat on a daily basis from sowing on as affected by soil temperature (2 cm, snow cover, phenological development, and a genotypic maximum level of frost tolerance (LT50. A series of cultivar trials in Finland was used to evaluate the model's ability to estimate plant survival in natural field environments during winters with differing weather conditions. Recorded survival was compared with number of intersections between the curves of simulated LT50 and the soil temperature curve for each field. A cumulative stress level (CSL was calculated based both on number of intersections and FROSTOL simulated stress levels. The correlation between CSL and field recordings was quite low. While the field trials characterize a general ability to stand various types of winter stress, FROSTOL estimates damage caused by the soil temperature regime only. However, FROSTOL simulations seemed to correspond reasonably well to field observations when low temperature was the eventual cause of damage.

  4. Study of Winter Wheat Yield Quality Analysis at ARDS Turda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Adrian Ceclan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to study the potential for yield and quality indicators for winter wheat genotypes in terms of pedological and climate condition and applied technology, at ARDS Turda during 2014 – 2015. Depending on the climatic conditions that are associated with applied technology is a decisive factor in successful wheat crop for all genotypes that were studied at Ards Turda during the 2014 – 2016. That’s wy each genotype responded differently to the conditions of the ARDS Turda also through the two levels of fertilisations applied in the winter with fertilizers 20:20:0, 250 kg/ha assuring 50 kg/ha N and P active substance and second level of fertilisations with 150 kg/ha ammonium nitrate assuring 50 kg/ha N active substance. All genotype that were studied in terms of yield and quality indicators were influenced by the fertilization level. The influence of pedo-climatic conditions, applied technologies and fertilizers level at ARDS Turda showed that all genotypes with small yield had higher protein and gluten content respectively Zeleny index.

  5. Winter wheat response to irrigation, nitrogen fertilization, and cold hazards in the Community Land Model 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Winter wheat is a staple crop for global food security, and is the dominant vegetation cover for a significant fraction of earth's croplands. As such, it plays an important role in soil carbon balance, and land-atmosphere interactions in these key regions. Accurate simulation of winter wheat growth is not only crucial for future yield prediction under changing climate, but also for understanding the energy and water cycles for winter wheat dominated regions. A winter wheat growth model has been developed in the Community Land Model 4.5 (CLM4.5), but its responses to irrigation and nitrogen fertilization have not been validated. In this study, I will validate winter wheat growth response to irrigation and nitrogen fertilization at five winter wheat field sites (TXLU, KSMA, NESA, NDMA, and ABLE) in North America, which were originally designed to understand winter wheat response to nitrogen fertilization and water treatments (4 nitrogen levels and 3 irrigation regimes). I also plan to further update the linkages between winter wheat yield and cold hazards. The previous cold damage function only indirectly affects yield through reduction on leaf area index (LAI) and hence photosynthesis, such approach could sometimes produce an unwanted higher yield when the reduced LAI saved more nutrient in the grain fill stage.

  6. Conventional, integrated and organic winter wheat production in The Netherlands in the period 1993-1997

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamis, W.L.M.; Brink, van den W.J.

    1999-01-01

    In order to assess possible changes in occurrences of pests and diseases in winter wheat as a result of differences in farm management, a monitoring study was carried out between 1993 and 1997 in The Netherlands to assess pest and disease incidence in winter wheat produced by conventional,

  7. The impacts of surface ozone pollution on winter wheat productivity in China--An econometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Fujin; Jiang, Fei; Zhong, Funing; Zhou, Xun; Ding, Aijun

    2016-01-01

    The impact of surface ozone pollution on winter wheat yield is empirically estimated by considering socio-economic and weather determinants. This research is the first to use an economic framework to estimate the ozone impact, and a unique county-level panel is employed to examine the impact of the increasing surface ozone concentration on the productivity of winter wheat in China. In general, the increment of surface ozone concentration during the ozone-sensitive period of winter wheat is determined to be harmful to its yield, and a conservative reduction of ozone pollution could significantly increase China's wheat supply. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cluster analysis of historical and modern hard red spring wheat cultivars based on parentage and HPLC of gluten protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    There have been substantial breeding efforts in North Dakota to produce wheat cultivars that are well adapted to weather conditions and disease resistance. In this study, 30 hard red spring (HRS) wheat cultivars released between 1910 and 2013 were analyzed with regard to how they cluster in terms of...

  9. Descriptive modelling to predict deoxynivalenol in winter wheat in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Burgers, S.L.G.E.; Booij, C.J.H.

    2010-01-01

    Predictions of deoxynivalenol (DON) content in wheat at harvest can be useful for decision-making by stakeholders of the wheat feed and food supply chain. The objective of the current research was to develop quantitative predictive models for DON in mature winter wheat in the Netherlands for two

  10. Quantifying production potential of winter wheat in the North China Plain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, D.; Yu, Q.; Lu, C.; Hengsdijk, H.

    2006-01-01

    The North China Plain (NCP) is one of the major winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) producing areas in China. Current wheat yields in the NCP stabilize around 5 Mg ha¿1 while the demand for wheat in China is growing due to the increase in population and the change in diet. Since options for area

  11. [Effects of different irrigation modes in winter wheat growth season on the grain yield and water use efficiency of winter wheat-summer maize].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-xia; Li, Yu-yi; Ren, Tian-zhi; Pang, Huan-cheng

    2011-07-01

    Three irrigation modes in winter wheat growth season were carried out in Heilonggang basin of North China Plain to investigate their effects on the grain yield, water consumption, and water use efficiency (WUE) of winter wheat-summer maize. The three irrigation modes included irrigation before sowing (75 mm, W1), irrigation before sowing and at jointing stage (75 mm + 90 mm, W2), and irrigation before sowing, at jointing stage, and at filling stage (75 mm + 90 mm + 60 mm, W3). With the irrigation modes W2 and W3, the increment of the annual yield of winter wheat-summer maize was 8.7% and 12.5% higher than that with W1, respectively. The water consumption in winter wheat growth season decreased with increasing irrigation amount, while that in summer maize growth season increased with the increasing irrigation amount in winter wheat growth season. The WUE of winter wheat with the irrigation mode W2 was 11.1% higher than that with W3, but the WUE of summer maize had less difference between irrigation modes W2 and W3. The annual WUE (WUE(T)) of W2 and W1 was 21.28 and 21.60 kg(-1) x mm x hm(-2), being 7.8% and 9.4% higher than that of W3, respectively. Considering the annual yield, water consumption, and WUE, irrigation mode W2 could be the advisable mode for water-saving and high-yielding.

  12. [Effects of irrigation and planting patterns on photosynthetic characteristics of flag leaf and yield at late growth stages of winter wheat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hao; Bi, Jun; Xia, Guang-Li; Zhou, Xun-Bo; Chen, Yu-Hai

    2014-08-01

    High-yield winter wheat cultivar Jimai 22 was used to study effects of irrigation and planting patterns on water consumption characteristics and photosynthetic characteristics of winter wheat in field from 2009 to 2011. Three different planting patterns (uniform row, wide-narrow row and furrow) and four irrigation schedules (W0, no irrigation; W1, irrigation at jointing stage; W2, irrigations at jointing and anthesis stages; W3, irrigation at jointing, anthesis and milking stages. Each irrigation rate was 60 mm) were designed in the experiment. Results showed that, with the increasing of irrigation amount, flag leaf area, net photosynthesis rate, maximum photochemical efficiency and actual light transformation efficiency at late growth stages of winter wheat increased. Compared with W0 treatment, the other irrigation treatments had higher grain yields, but lower water use efficiencies. Under the same irrigation condition, the flag leaf net photosynthesis, maximum photochemical efficiency and actual light transformation efficiency were much higher in furrow pattern. Grain yields of winter wheat under furrow pattern and W2 treatment were significantly higher than that of the other treatments. Taking grain yield and WUE into consideration, furrow pattern combined with irrigation at jointing and anthesis stages might be the optimal water-saving and planting mode for the winter wheat production in North China Plain.

  13. The impact of tropospheric ozone pollution on trial plot winter wheat yields in Great Britain - An econometric approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaliakatsou, Evridiki; Bell, J. Nigel B.; Thirtle, Colin; Rose, Daniel; Power, Sally A.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous experiments have demonstrated reductions in the yields of cereal crops due to tropospheric O 3 , with losses of up to 25%. However, the only British econometric study on O 3 impacts on winter wheat yields, found that a 10% increase in AOT40 would decrease yields by only 0.23%. An attempt is made here to reconcile these observations by developing AOT40 maps for Great Britain and matching levels with a large number of standardised trial plot wheat yields from many sites over a 13-year period. Panel estimates (repeated measures on the same plots with time) show a 0.54% decrease in yields and it is hypothesised that plant breeders may have inadvertently selected for O 3 tolerance in wheat. Some support for this is provided by fumigations of cultivars of differing introduction dates. A case is made for the use of econometric as well as experimental studies in prediction of air pollution induced crop loss. - Econometric study of British winter wheat trial plot data suggests lower economic loss than predicted from experiments.

  14. Study on the Effects of Humic Acid on Germination of Four Wheat Cultivars (Triticun aestivum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    S Sabzevari; H Khazaie; M Kafi

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Humic acid is an organic acid without environmental destructive effects that is applied for increasing germination rate and wheat establishment. In order to evaluate effects of different levels of humic acid on germination of four wheat cultivars; an experiment was conducted in 2008 at Research Laboratory of Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. A randomized completely block design with four replications used with factorial combination of humic acid concentrati...

  15. Phenotyping of wheat cultivars for heat tolerance using chlorophyll a fluorescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Dew Kumari; Andersen, Sven Bode; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. In view of the global climate change, heat stress is an increasing constraint for the productivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Our aim was to identify contrasting cultivars in terms of heat tolerance by mass screening of 1274 wheat cultivars of diverse origin, based...... on a physiological trait, the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm). A chlorophyll fluorescence protocol was standardised and used for repeated screening with increased selection pressure with a view to identifying a set of cultivars extreme for the trait. An initial mass screening of 1274 wheat cultivars...... with a milder heat stress of 38Cin 300 mmolm–2 s–1 for 2 h with preheating at 33–35Cfor 19 h in 7–14 mmolm–2 s–1 light showed a genetic determination of 8.52.7%.Aheat treatment of 40Cin 300 mmolm–2 s–1 for 72 h in the second screening with 138 selected cultivars resulted in larger differentiation of cultivars...

  16. Reaction of durum wheat cultivars to mixed SBWMV and WSSMV infection in central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Vallega

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Forty-three cultivars of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. were grown during the 1998–99 growing season in a field near Rome with natural inoculum sources of Soilborne wheat mosaic virus (SBWMV and Wheat spindle streak mosaic virus (WSSMV, to evaluate their resistance to the mixed infection. Leaf extracts from twelve cultivars had relatively low ELISA values for WSSMV, and thirteen had low ELISA values for SBWMV. Results confirmed the high level of resistance to SBWMV of the cultivars Colorado, Ionio and Neodur. The reactions of the cultivars to SBWMV were consistent with those recorded in previous trials near Bologna, northern Italy, indicating that the SBWMV strains at the two test sites were pathogenically similar. Disease severity was significantly correlated with grain yield, thousand-kernel weight, heading date and the SBWMV-ELISA value, but not with the WSSMVELISA value. Regression analysis showed that, as a result of the mixed infection, the four cultivars with the most severe disease symptoms headed about 5 days later than normal, and suffered grain yield and kernel weight reductions of about 56 and 10% respectively. Cultivars with milder symptoms were also severely affected.

  17. Identification of Pm8 Suppressor at Pm3 Locus in Soft 1 Red Winter Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 1BL.1RS wheat-rye translocation possesses the Pm8, Yr9, Lr26, and Sr31 genes for resistance to several major fungal pathogens of small grains. However, not all wheat cultivars with the 1RS translocation are resistant to Pm8-avirulent isolates of Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), the causal...

  18. Effect of Drought Stress at Pre and Post-anthesis on Dry Matter Accumulation of Grains in Irrigated Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Elyasi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigating assimilate contribution and grain filling pattern in winter wheat is importance under drought stress condition. This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between drought stress on grain filling and yield of 4 cultivars including MV17 (dwarf, Alvand, Shahryar (semi-dwarf and Toos (tall. Experimental design was randomized complete block with three replications. Drought stress assigned to main plots and cultivars to sub plots. Growth curve sampling started at 7 days after anthesis with 4 days interval. In pre-anthesis drought stress Alvand produced highest yield, while it was 29.14% less than control treatment. The yield of Toos cultivar was lowest at pre-anthesis drought stress. Rate of grain filling of Toos cultivar did not change at pre-anthesis drought stress. Drought stress treatment at post-anthesis decreased rate of grain filling in all cultivars as compared to control, but it was significant only Toos c.v. In pre-anthesis drought stress grain filling duration increased in Alvand but decreased in Toos. Alvand with higher rate of grain filling produced highest grain yield (3850 kg/ha. It can be concluded that, drought stress decreases grain filling duration and rate of grain filling.

  19. Genetic Architecture of Anther Extrusion in Spring and Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quddoos H. Muqaddasi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid wheat breeding is gaining prominence worldwide because it ensures higher and more static yield than conventionally bred varieties. The cleistogamous floral architecture of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. impedes anthers inside the floret, making it largely an inbreeder. For hybrid seed production, high anther extrusion is needed to promote cross pollination and to ensure a high level of pollen availability for the seed plant. This study, therefore, aimed at the genetic dissection of anther extrusion (AE in panels of spring (SP, and winter wheat (WP accessions by genome wide association studies (GWAS. We performed GWAS to identify the SNP markers potentially linked with AE in each panel separately. Phenotypic data were collected for 3 years for each panel. The average levels of Pearson's correlation (r among all years and their best linear unbiased estimates (BLUEs within both panels were high (r(SP = 0.75, P < 0.0001;r(WP = 0.72, P < 0.0001. Genotypic data (with minimum of 0.05 minor allele frequency applied included 12,066 and 12,191 SNP markers for SP and WP, respectively. Both genotypes and environment influenced the magnitude of AE. In total, 23 significant (|log10(P| > 3.0 marker trait associations (MTAs were detected (SP = 11; WP = 12. Anther extrusion behaved as a complex trait with significant markers having either favorable or unfavorable additive effects and imparting minor to moderate levels of phenotypic variance (R2(SP = 9.75−14.24%; R2 (WP = 9.44−16.98%. All mapped significant markers as well as the markers within their significant linkage disequilibrium (r2 ≥ 0.30 regions were blasted against wheat genome assembly (IWGSC1+popseq to find the corresponding genes and their high confidence descriptions were retrieved. These genes and their orthologs in Hordeum vulgare, Brachypodium distachyon, Oryza sativa, and Sorghum bicolor revealed syntenic genomic regions potentially involved in flowering-related traits. Moreover, the

  20. [Effects of regulated deficit irrigation on water consumption characteristics and water use efficiency of winter wheat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhan-Jiang; Yu, Zhen-Wen; Wang, Dong; Wang, Xi-Zhi; Xu, Zhen-Zhu

    2009-11-01

    With the high-yielding winter wheat cultivar Jimai 22 as test material, a field experiment was conducted in Yanzhou of Shandong to examine the effects of regulated deficit irrigation on the water consumption and water use efficiency (WUE) of the cultivar. Five treatments were installed, i.e., the soil relative moisture content at sowing, jointing, and anthesis stages being 80%, 65% and 65% (W0), 80%, 70% and 70% (W1), 80%, 80% and 80% (W2), 90%, 80% and 80% (W3), and 90%, 85% and 85% (W4), respectively. Under the condition of 228 mm precipitation in growth season, the total water consumption was higher in treatments W1 and W4 than in treatments W0, W2, and W3, and no difference was observed between treatments W1 and W4. Comparing with W4, treatment W1 decreased the water storage in 0-200 cm soil layer and the water consumption by wheat from jointing to anthesis stages, but increased the water consumption from anthesis to maturity stages. The water consumption rates at the stages from jointing to anthesis and from anthesis to maturity in treatment W4 were higher. Under regulated deficit irrigation, treatment W0 had higher WUE, but the grain yield was the lowest. The WUE in other treatments increased first, and then decreased with increasing irrigation amount. Both the water consumption and the grain yield were the highest in treatments W1 and W4, and treatment W1 had higher irrigation water use efficiency and irrigation benefit than treatment W4, being the best irrigation regime of high-yielding and water-saving in our study.

  1. Some correlations between parameters of winter wheat technological quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jindřiška Kučerová

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of three-year trials (1999 to 2001 conducted with six winter wheat varieties in which was studied the grain yield and parameters of technological quality. Varieties of wheat come from four different localities of the Czech Republic. The most favourable weather conditions, a lot of precipitation and high temperature in the course of ripening from three years were proved in the year 2000. The best grain yield were in 2001 (average of sites 8.84 t/ha and variety Semper, worst quality, had the highest grain yield of 9.17 t/ha, the least grain yield had Sulamit, best quality (7.94 t/ha. The laboratory analysis revealed negative correlation between grain yield and baking quality. The number of statistically highly significant correlations among bread-making quality parameters too.The negative correlation was of grain yield and grain volume mass (P < 0.05, Zeleny test and protein content taken as a whole for three years (P < 0.01. The correlation of loaf volume, which is the traits of baking quality and Zeleny test (r = 0.6016**, protein content (r = 0.5932**, dough stability (r = 0.2898** and flour water absorption (r = 0.3632** was positive (P < 0.01.

  2. Leaf Gas Exchange and Fluorescence of Two Winter Wheat Varieties in Response to Drought Stress and Nitrogen Supply.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiubo Wang

    Full Text Available Water and nitrogen supply are the two primary factors limiting productivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. In our study, two winter wheat varieties, Xinong 979 and large-spike wheat, were evaluated for their physiological responses to different levels of nitrogen and water status during their seedling stage grown in a phytotron. Our results indicated that drought stress greatly reduced the net photosynthetic rate (Pn, transpiration rate (E, and stomatal conductance (Gs, but with a greater increase in instantaneous water use efficiency (WUE. At the meantime, the nitrogen (N supply improved photosynthetic efficiency under water deficit. Parameters inferred from chlorophyll a measurements, i.e., photochemical quenching coefficient (qP, the maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm, the quantum yield of photosystemII(ΦPSII, and the apparent photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR decreased under water stress at all nitrogen levels and declined in N-deficient plants. The root-shoot ratio (R/S increased slightly with water stress at a low N level; the smallest root-shoot ratio was found at a high N level and moderate drought stress treatment. These results suggest that an appropriate nitrogen supply may be necessary to enhance drought resistance in wheat by improving photosynthetic efficiency and relieving photoinhibition under drought stress. However, an excessive N supply had no effect on drought resistance, which even showed an adverse effect on plant growth. Comparing the two cultivars, Xinong 979 has a stronger drought resistance compared with large-spike wheat under N deficiency.

  3. Leaf Gas Exchange and Fluorescence of Two Winter Wheat Varieties in Response to Drought Stress and Nitrogen Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiubo; Wang, Lifang; Shangguan, Zhouping

    2016-01-01

    Water and nitrogen supply are the two primary factors limiting productivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In our study, two winter wheat varieties, Xinong 979 and large-spike wheat, were evaluated for their physiological responses to different levels of nitrogen and water status during their seedling stage grown in a phytotron. Our results indicated that drought stress greatly reduced the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (E), and stomatal conductance (Gs), but with a greater increase in instantaneous water use efficiency (WUE). At the meantime, the nitrogen (N) supply improved photosynthetic efficiency under water deficit. Parameters inferred from chlorophyll a measurements, i.e., photochemical quenching coefficient (qP), the maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), the quantum yield of photosystemII(ΦPSII), and the apparent photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR) decreased under water stress at all nitrogen levels and declined in N-deficient plants. The root-shoot ratio (R/S) increased slightly with water stress at a low N level; the smallest root-shoot ratio was found at a high N level and moderate drought stress treatment. These results suggest that an appropriate nitrogen supply may be necessary to enhance drought resistance in wheat by improving photosynthetic efficiency and relieving photoinhibition under drought stress. However, an excessive N supply had no effect on drought resistance, which even showed an adverse effect on plant growth. Comparing the two cultivars, Xinong 979 has a stronger drought resistance compared with large-spike wheat under N deficiency.

  4. Leaf Gas Exchange and Fluorescence of Two Winter Wheat Varieties in Response to Drought Stress and Nitrogen Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiubo; Wang, Lifang; Shangguan, Zhouping

    2016-01-01

    Water and nitrogen supply are the two primary factors limiting productivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In our study, two winter wheat varieties, Xinong 979 and large-spike wheat, were evaluated for their physiological responses to different levels of nitrogen and water status during their seedling stage grown in a phytotron. Our results indicated that drought stress greatly reduced the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (E), and stomatal conductance (Gs), but with a greater increase in instantaneous water use efficiency (WUE). At the meantime, the nitrogen (N) supply improved photosynthetic efficiency under water deficit. Parameters inferred from chlorophyll a measurements, i.e., photochemical quenching coefficient (qP), the maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), the quantum yield of photosystemII(ΦPSII), and the apparent photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR) decreased under water stress at all nitrogen levels and declined in N-deficient plants. The root–shoot ratio (R/S) increased slightly with water stress at a low N level; the smallest root–shoot ratio was found at a high N level and moderate drought stress treatment. These results suggest that an appropriate nitrogen supply may be necessary to enhance drought resistance in wheat by improving photosynthetic efficiency and relieving photoinhibition under drought stress. However, an excessive N supply had no effect on drought resistance, which even showed an adverse effect on plant growth. Comparing the two cultivars, Xinong 979 has a stronger drought resistance compared with large-spike wheat under N deficiency. PMID:27802318

  5. Genetic gains in wheat in Turkey: Winter wheat for dryland conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut Keser

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat breeders in Turkey have been developing new varieties since the 1920s, but few studies have evaluated the rates of genetic improvement. This study determined wheat genetic gains by evaluating 22 winter/facultative varieties released for rainfed conditions between 1931 and 2006. The study was conducted at three locations in Turkey during 2008–2012, with a total of 21 test sites. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four replicates in 2008 and 2009 and three replicates in 2010–2012. Regression analysis was conducted to determine genetic progress over time. Mean yield across all 21 locations was 3.34 t ha−1, but varied from 1.11 t ha−1 to 6.02 t ha−1 and was highly affected by moisture stress. Annual genetic gain was 0.50% compared to Ak-702, or 0.30% compared to the first modern landmark varieties. The genetic gains in drought-affected sites were 0.75% compared to Ak-702 and 0.66% compared to the landmark varieties. Modern varieties had both improved yield potential and tolerance to moisture stress. Rht genes and rye translocations were largely absent in the varieties studied. The number of spikes per unit area decreased by 10% over the study period, but grains spike−1 and 1000-kernel weight increased by 10%. There were no significant increases in harvest index, grain size, or spike fertility, and no significant decrease in quality over time. Future use of Rht genes and rye translocations in breeding programs may increase yield under rainfed conditions. Keywords: Genetic gain, Rainfed wheat production, Winter wheat, Yield

  6. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF RUSSIAN ADVANCED WHEAT CULTIVARS REVEALED WITH SSR MARKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potokina E.K.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A quick and reproducible tool for cultivar identification is useful to assess in certified seed production programs and to resolve legal conflicts over the recognition of a seed stock (Mangini et al., 2009. In order to obtain plant breeders’ rights (PBR the new variety has to pass the distinctness-uniformity-stability (DUS criteria in which the candidate breeding lines are compared with existing cultivars on the basis of a series of morphological traits. Although these traits are informative and practical, they exhibit a polygenic control and are subject to environmental influences. Seed storage protein electrophoresis is included in the DUS testing guidelines, but the low level of polymorphism limits the ability to distinguish different genotypes. The resolving power of DNA markers is significantly higher allowing to prove that a new variety is unique from all other varieties that have already been described and that all individuals are as identical as possible.As a part of research project initiated in 2011 we are developing a molecular identification key for 320 wheat cultivars registered in Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus using SSR markers. A subset of 24 cultivars was randomly selected from the 320 cultivars and screened with 84 genomic SSR primers (Xbarc, Xgwm. At the present stage of project the SSRs with high discriminating ability were further analysed on a set of 96 genotypes. The power of each primer to distinguish among the studied genotypes was estimated by Polymorphism Information Content and the Resolving power. With the selected markers 96 genotypes were easily discriminated. A molecular identification key to distinguish Russian advanced wheat cultivars using SSR-profiling is discussed. We suggest the reproducible fingerprint system for the identification of Russian hexaploid wheat cultivars that could be employed in certified seed production programs to identify sources of seed contamination, and to distinguish

  7. Impact of temperatures to Hessian Fly resistance of selected wheat cultivars in the Great Plains Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changes in temperature can result in fundamental changes in plant physiology. This study investigated the impact of different temperatures from 14 to 26 °C on the resistance or susceptibility to the Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor, of selected wheat cultivars that are either currently popular in ...

  8. Differential protection of ethylenediurea (EDU) against ambient ozone for five cultivars of tropical wheat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Shalini [Lab of Air Pollution and Global Climatic Change, Ecology Research Circle, Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Agrawal, S.B., E-mail: sbagrawal56@gmail.co [Lab of Air Pollution and Global Climatic Change, Ecology Research Circle, Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Agrawal, Madhoolika [Lab of Air Pollution and Global Climatic Change, Ecology Research Circle, Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2009-08-15

    The antiozonant EDU (ethylenediurea) was used to assess the impact of ambient O{sub 3} under field conditions on five cultivars of tropical wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). EDU solution (0 ppm and 400 ppm) was applied as soil drench (100 ml plant{sup -1}) 10 days after germination (DAG) at an interval of 12 days. EDU-treated plants showed significant increments in stomatal conductance, photosynthetic rate, variable fluorescence, total chlorophyll, ascorbic acid, proline and protein contents and protective enzymes (POX, SOD and APX) activities in HUW468, HUW510 and HUW234 cultivars, while, a reverse trend was observed for lipid peroxidation. EDU application restored grain yield significantly by maintaining higher levels of antioxidants, metabolites and enzymes in cultivars HUW468 and HUW510. Sonalika and PBW343 showed least response of measured parameters under EDU treatment suggesting their greater resistance to O{sub 3}. EDU, thus proved its usefulness in screening suitable wheat cultivars for areas experiencing elevated concentrations of O{sub 3}. - EDU successfully screened the sensitivity of tropical wheat cultivars to ambient O{sub 3} under natural field conditions.

  9. Natural radioactivity in winter wheat from organic and conventional agricultural systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindahl, Patric; Maquet, Alain; Hult, Mikael; Gasparro, Joel; Marissens, Gerd; Gonzalez de Orduna, Raquel

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of natural radionuclides was studied in winter wheat plants collected from three sites in Belgium during 2004-2007. Activity concentrations of 40 K, 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 228 Th in organically and conventionally grown wheat, and in the corresponding soil samples, were determined using ultra low-level gamma-ray spectrometry. The observed soil-to-wheat concentration ratios were calculated for the different parts of the wheat plant (root, stem and grain) in the two agricultural systems (organic and conventional). There were large variations in radionuclide activity concentrations between the sites and fields, but no significant difference between conventionally and organically grown wheat plants was observed. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research highlights: → Winter wheat was cultivated using both organic and conventional farming. → No difference in radioactivity in wheat between the two systems could be detected. → Data on the uptake of radionuclides in different parts of the plant are presented.

  10. CD 116: A vigorous wheat cultivar with high industrial quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis Franco

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultivar CD 116 was developed by the Cooperativa Central de Pesquisa Agrícola (COODETEC and issuitable for cultivation in the states of Paraná, São Paulo, Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Goiás, andDistrito Federal. CD 116 is tolerant to the major diseases, particularly blast, has a high industrial grain quality and meanyield of 3908 kg ha-1, exceeding the control cultivars by 6%.

  11. The impacts of surface ozone pollution on winter wheat productivity in China – An econometric approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Fujin; Jiang, Fei; Zhong, Funing; Zhou, Xun; Ding, Aijun

    2016-01-01

    The impact of surface ozone pollution on winter wheat yield is empirically estimated by considering socio-economic and weather determinants. This research is the first to use an economic framework to estimate the ozone impact, and a unique county-level panel is employed to examine the impact of the increasing surface ozone concentration on the productivity of winter wheat in China. In general, the increment of surface ozone concentration during the ozone-sensitive period of winter wheat is determined to be harmful to its yield, and a conservative reduction of ozone pollution could significantly increase China's wheat supply. - Highlights: • We examine the impacts of the surface ozone exposure on winter wheat yield in China. • An econometric method is used to measure the ozone impacts. • The results conclude that surface ozone is harmful to winter wheat yield in China. • We confirm that stress conditions such as drought and air particles can mitigate the adverse effect of ozone. - Surface ozone pollution is harmful to winter wheat yield in China by considering socio-economic determinants, weather, and other stress conditions like drought and air particles.

  12. A regional implementation of WOFOST for calculating yield gaps of winter wheat across the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Boogaard, H.; Wolf, J.; Supit, I.; Niemeyer, S.; Ittersum, van, M.K.

    2013-01-01

    Wheat is Europe’s dominant crop in terms of land use in the European Union (EU25). Most of this wheat area is sown in autumn, i.e., winter wheat in all EU25 countries, apart from southern Italy, southern Spain and most of Portugal, where spring wheat varieties are sown in late autumn. We evaluated the strengths and limitations of a regional implementation of the crop growth model WOFOST implemented in the Crop Growth Monitoring System (CGMS) for calculating yield gaps of autumn-sown wheat acr...

  13. Regional greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of winter wheat and winter rapeseed for biofuels in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsgaard, Lars; Olesen, Joergen E.; Hermansen, John E.; Kristensen, Inge T.; Boergesen, Christen D. [Dept. of Agroecology, Aarhus Univ., Tjele (Denmark)], E-mail: lars.elsgaard@agrsci.dk

    2013-04-15

    Biofuels from bioenergy crops may substitute a significant part of fossil fuels in the transport sector where, e.g., the European Union has set a target of using 10% renewable energy by 2020. Savings of greenhouse gas emissions by biofuels vary according to cropping systems and are influenced by such regional factors as soil conditions, climate and input of agrochemicals. Here we analysed at a regional scale the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with cultivation of winter wheat for bioethanol and winter rapeseed for rapeseed methyl ester (RME) under Danish conditions. Emitted CO{sub 2} equivalents (CO{sub 2}eq) were quantified from the footprints of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O associated with cultivation and the emissions were allocated between biofuel energy and co-products. Greenhouse gas emission at the national level (Denmark) was estimated to 22.1 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} ethanol for winter wheat and 26.0 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} RME for winter rapeseed. Results at the regional level (level 2 according to the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics [NUTS]) ranged from 20.0 to 23.9 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} ethanol and from 23.5 to 27.6 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} RME. Thus, at the regional level emission results varied by up to 20%. Differences in area-based emissions were only 4% reflecting the importance of regional variation in yields for the emission result. Fertilizer nitrogen production and direct emissions of soil N{sub 2}O were major contributors to the final emission result and sensitivity analyses showed that the emission result depended to a large extent on the uncertainty ranges assumed for soil N{sub 2}O emissions. Improvement of greenhouse gas balances could be pursued, e.g., by growing dedicated varieties for energy purposes. However, in a wider perspective, land-use change of native ecosystems to bioenergy cropping systems could compromise the CO{sub 2} savings of bioenergy production and challenge the targets set for biofuel

  14. Physiological and proteome studies of responses to heat stress during grain filling in contrasting wheat cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiao; Dinler, Burcu Seckin; Vignjevic, Marija

    2015-01-01

    Experiments to explore physiological and biochemical differences of the effects of heat stress in ten wheat (Triticum aestivum L) cultivars have been performed. Based on the response of photosynthesis rates, cell membrane lipid peroxide concentrations and grain yield to heat, six cultivars were...... compared to sensitive cultivars under heat stress. The tolerant cv. '810' and the sensitive cv. '1039' were selected for further proteome analysis of leaves. Proteins related to photosynthesis, glycolysis, stress defence, heat shock and ATP production were differently expressed in leaves of the tolerant...... and sensitive cultivar under heat stress in relation to the corresponding control. The abundance of proteins related to signal transduction, heat shock, photosynthesis, and antioxidants increased, while the abundance of proteins related to nitrogen metabolism decreased in the tolerant cv. '810' under heat...

  15. [Effects of irrigation with mine wastewater on physiological characters and heavy metals accumulation of winter wheat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shou-Chen; Ma, Shou-Tian; Shao, Yun; Jiang, Li-Na; Li, Chun-Xi

    2013-11-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of irrigation with mine wastewater on the physiological characters and heavy metals accumulation of winter wheat. Three treatments were installed, i. e., irrigation with coal-washing wastewater (T1), irrigation with coal-washing wastewater after its precipitation (T2), and irrigation with coal gangue leacheate (T3), taking the well water irrigation as the control (CK). The plants were irrigated with mine wastewater after the turning green stage. Irrigation with mine wastewater had negative effects on the winter wheat growth and grain yield. At anthesis stage, the leaf area, dry mass per stem, root activity, and net photosynthetic rate of winter wheat in treatments T1, T2, and T3 were significantly lower than those in CK (P wheat under mine wastewater irrigation were significantly higher than those in CK, suggesting that the irrigation with mine wastewater could result in the heavy metals accumulation in wheat grain.

  16. Nitrogen uptake, nitrate leaching and root development in winter-grown wheat and fodder radish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Hansen, Elly Møller; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag

    2017-01-01

    Early seeding of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has been proposed as a means to reduce N leaching as an alternative to growing cover crops like fodder radish (Raphanus sativus L.). The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of winter wheat, seeded early and normally, and of fodder...... and reduced N leaching during the winter compared with the normal seeding time. Early-seeded wheat (WWearly) was, however, not as efficient as fodder radish at reducing N leaching. Proper establishment of WWearly was a prerequisite for benefiting from early seeding, as indicated by the 2012–2013 results...... radish on N dynamics and root growth. Field experiments were carried out on a humid temperate sandy loam soil. Aboveground biomass and soil inorganic N were determined in late autumn; N uptake and grain yield of winter wheat were measured at harvest. Nitrate leaching was estimated from soil water samples...

  17. Responses of Winter Wheat Yields to Warming-Mediated Vernalization Variations Across Temperate Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuchen Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rapid climate warming, with much higher warming rates in winter and spring, could affect the vernalization fulfillment, a critical process for induction of crop reproductive growth and consequent grain filling in temperate winter crops. However, regional observational evidence of the effects of historical warming-mediated vernalization variations on temperate winter crop yields is lacking. Here, we statistically quantified the interannual sensitivity of winter wheat yields to vernalization degree days (VDD during 1975–2009 and its spatial relationship with multi-year mean VDD over temperate Europe (TE, using EUROSTAT crop yield statistics, observed and simulated crop phenology data and gridded daily climate data. Our results revealed a pervasively positive interannual sensitivity of winter wheat yields to variations in VDD (γVDD over TE, with a mean γVDD of 2.8 ± 1.5 kg ha−1 VDD−1. We revealed a significant (p < 0.05 negative exponential relationship between γVDD and multi-year mean VDD for winter wheat across TE, with higher γVDD in winter wheat planting areas with lower multi-year mean VDD. Our findings shed light on potential vulnerability of winter wheat yields to warming-mediated vernalization variations over TE, particularly considering a likely future warmer climate.

  18. Quantitative proteomic analysis of wheat cultivars with differing drought stress tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina L Ford

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Using a series of multiplexed experiments we studied the quantitative changes in protein abundance of three Australian bread wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L. in response to a drought stress. Three cultivars differing in their ability to maintain grain yield during drought, Kukri (intolerant, Excalibur (tolerant and RAC875 (tolerant, were grown in the glasshouse with cyclic drought treatment that mimicked conditions in the field. Proteins were isolated from leaves of mature plants and isobaric tags were used to follow changes in the relative protein abundance of 159 proteins. This is the first shotgun proteomics study in wheat, providing important insights into protein responses to drought as well as identifying the largest number of wheat proteins (1,299 in a single study. The changes in the three cultivars at the different time points reflected their differing physiological responses to drought, with the two drought tolerant varieties (Excalibur and RAC875 differing in their protein responses. Excalibur lacked significant changes in proteins during the initial onset of the water deficit in contrast to RAC875 that had a large number of significant changes. All three cultivars had changes consistent with an increase in oxidative stress metabolism and ROS scavenging capacity seen through increases in superoxide dismutases and catalases as well as ROS avoidance through the decreases in proteins involved in photosynthesis and the Calvin cycle.

  19. Characterization of brazilian wheat cultivars in terms of nitrogen use efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Lemes da Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N management in wheat crop is one of the most studied agricultural practices in Brazil; however, there are few reports on its use efficiency. The objective of this study was to characterize 18 Brazilian wheat cultivars, which are representative and have been recently released to cultivation, for nitrogen use efficiency (NUE. The experiments were carried out in Pato Branco, Paraná, and Coxilha, Rio Grande do Sul, during the 2011 crop season. It was used a randomized block design with three replications, in factorial scheme (2 environments × 18 cultivars. Genetic variability was observed for nitrogen utilization efficiency by grains (NUtEg=47.6 to 81.1 kg kg-1 and nitrogen harvest index (NHI=71.3 to 84.6% with significant effects relating to the environment of cultivation and performance of these traits. The evaluation of the protein concentration of grain by near infrared spectrometry (GPC N produced equivalent results to the direct analytical method of Kjeldahl (GPC K, in Pato Branco (r=0.56 and Coxilha (RS (r=0.80. However the CPG N overestimated the protein values by 16.85%. The GPC and protein yield were positively correlated with NUtEg and NHI. The best performance for the traits associated with NUE was observed for the following cultivars: Mirante, Quartzo, Fundacep Cristalino, Fundacep Raízes and CD 150. This is the first report of differences between Brazilian wheat cultivars for nitrogen use efficiency.

  20. Productivity, quality and sustainability of winter wheat underlong-term conventional and organic management in Switzerland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Jochen; Gunst, Lucie; Mäder, Paul

    2015-01-01

    protection as wellas preceding crop effects may modulate system performance with respect to wheat grain yield, qualityand environmental performance of the systems.Our aim was to evaluate data of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) performance from the DOK long-term systems experiment in Switzerland comparing...

  1. Spectral analysis of winter wheat leaves for detection and differentiation of diseases and insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. Tritici), powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis) and wheat aphid (Sitobion avenae F.) infestation are three serious conditions that have a severe impact on yield and grain quality of winter wheat worldwide. Discrimination among these three stressors is of practic...

  2. Distribution of cadmium, iron and zinc in millstreams of hard winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hard winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a major crop in the Great Plains of the United 14 States, and our previous work demonstrated that wheat genotypes vary for grain cadmium 15 accumulation, with some exceeding the CODEX standard (0.2 mg kg-1). Previous reports of 16 cadmium distribution in ...

  3. Winter wheat optimizes allocation in response to carbon limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianbei; Hammerbacher, Almuth; Trumbore, Susan; Hartmann, Henrik

    2016-04-01

    • Plant photosynthesis is not carbon-saturated at current atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) thus carbon allocation priority is of critical importance in determining plant response to environmental changes, including increasing [CO2]. • We quantified the percentage of daytime net assimilation (A) allocated to whole-plant nighttime respiration (R) and structural growth (SG), nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) and secondary metabolites (SMs) during winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) vegetative growth (over 4 weeks) at glacial, ambient, and elevated [CO2] (170, 390 and 680 ppm). • We found that R/A remained relatively constant (11-14%) across [CO2] treatments, whereas plants allocated less C to growth and more C to export at low [CO2] than elevated [CO2]; low [CO2] grown plants tended to invest overall less C into NSC and SMs than to SG due to reduced NSC availability; while leaf SMs/NSC was greater at 170 ppm than at 680 ppm [CO2] this was the opposite for root SMs/NSC; biomass, especially NSC, were preferentially allocated to leaves instead of stems and roots, likely to relieve C limitation induced by low [CO2]. • We conclude that C limitation may force plants to reduce C allocation to long-term survival in order to secure short-term survival. Furthermore, they optimized allocation of the available resource by concentrating biomass and storage to those tissues responsible for assimilation.

  4. Radiation use efficiency and yield of winter wheat under deficit irrigation in North China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, H.; Li, Z.; Ning, T.; Bai, M.; Zhang, X.; Shan, Y.

    2008-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in North China to investigate the effects of deficit irrigation and winter wheat varieties on the photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) capture ration, PAR utilization and grain yield. Field experiments involved Jimai 20 (J; high yield variety) and Lainong 0153 (L; dryland variety) with non-irrigation and irrigated at the jointing stage. The results showed that whether irrigated at jointing stage or not, there was no significant difference between J and L with respect to the amount of PAR intercepted by the winter wheat canopies. However, significant differences were observed between the varieties with respect to the amount of PAR intercepted by plants that were 60-80 cm above the ground surface. This result was mainly caused by the changes in the vertical distributions of leaf area index. As a result, the effects of the varieties and deficit irrigation on the radiation use efficiency (RUE) and grain yield of winter wheat were due to the vertical distribution of PAR in the winter wheat canopies. During the late growing season of winter wheat, irrespective of the irrigation regime, the RUE and grain yield of J were significantly higher than those of L. These results suggest that a combination of deficit irrigation and a suitable winter wheat variety should be applied in North China

  5. Winter wheat quality monitoring and forecasting system based on remote sensing and environmental factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haiyang, Yu; Yanmei, Liu; Guijun, Yang; Xiaodong, Yang; Chenwei, Nie; Dong, Ren

    2014-01-01

    To achieve dynamic winter wheat quality monitoring and forecasting in larger scale regions, the objective of this study was to design and develop a winter wheat quality monitoring and forecasting system by using a remote sensing index and environmental factors. The winter wheat quality trend was forecasted before the harvest and quality was monitored after the harvest, respectively. The traditional quality-vegetation index from remote sensing monitoring and forecasting models were improved. Combining with latitude information, the vegetation index was used to estimate agronomy parameters which were related with winter wheat quality in the early stages for forecasting the quality trend. A combination of rainfall in May, temperature in May, illumination at later May, the soil available nitrogen content and other environmental factors established the quality monitoring model. Compared with a simple quality-vegetation index, the remote sensing monitoring and forecasting model used in this system get greatly improved accuracy. Winter wheat quality was monitored and forecasted based on the above models, and this system was completed based on WebGIS technology. Finally, in 2010 the operation process of winter wheat quality monitoring system was presented in Beijing, the monitoring and forecasting results was outputted as thematic maps

  6. Representing winter wheat in the Community Land Model (version 4.5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yaqiong; Williams, Ian N.; Bagley, Justin E.; Torn, Margaret S.; Kueppers, Lara M.

    2017-05-01

    Winter wheat is a staple crop for global food security, and is the dominant vegetation cover for a significant fraction of Earth's croplands. As such, it plays an important role in carbon cycling and land-atmosphere interactions in these key regions. Accurate simulation of winter wheat growth is not only crucial for future yield prediction under a changing climate, but also for accurately predicting the energy and water cycles for winter wheat dominated regions. We modified the winter wheat model in the Community Land Model (CLM) to better simulate winter wheat leaf area index, latent heat flux, net ecosystem exchange of CO2, and grain yield. These included schemes to represent vernalization as well as frost tolerance and damage. We calibrated three key parameters (minimum planting temperature, maximum crop growth days, and initial value of leaf carbon allocation coefficient) and modified the grain carbon allocation algorithm for simulations at the US Southern Great Plains ARM site (US-ARM), and validated the model performance at eight additional sites across North America. We found that the new winter wheat model improved the prediction of monthly variation in leaf area index, reduced latent heat flux, and net ecosystem exchange root mean square error (RMSE) by 41 and 35 % during the spring growing season. The model accurately simulated the interannual variation in yield at the US-ARM site, but underestimated yield at sites and in regions (northwestern and southeastern US) with historically greater yields by 35 %.

  7. Classification system for rain fed wheat grain cultivars using artificial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Artificial neural network (ANN) models have found wide applications, including prediction, classification, system modeling and image processing. Image analysis based on texture, morphology and color features of grains is essential for various applications as wheat grain industry and cultivation. In order to classify the rain ...

  8. Classification system for rain fed wheat grain cultivars using artificial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-03

    Aug 3, 2011 ... Artificial neural network (ANN) models have found wide applications, including prediction, classification, system modeling and image processing. Image analysis based on texture, morphology and color features of grains is essential for various applications as wheat grain industry and cultivation. In order to ...

  9. Effects of wheat cultivar, nonphytate phosphorus levels and enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mahmood

    2015-07-22

    Jul 22, 2015 ... performance of birds fed wheat-included diets, but these are closely related to the regulation of the metabolism and ... Nutritional status is an important factor in the regulation of plasma hormones and intermediary metabolism in laying hens ..... Gao, F., Jiang, Y., Zhou, G.H. & Han Z.K., 2008. The effects of ...

  10. Contrasting response of biomass and grain yield to severe drought in Cappelle Desprez and Plainsman V wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenny Paul

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We report a case study of natural variations and correlations of some photosynthetic parameters, green biomass and grain yield in Cappelle Desprez and Plainsman V winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars, which are classified as being drought sensitive and tolerant, respectively. We monitored biomass accumulation from secondary leaves in the vegetative phase and grain yield from flag leaves in the grain filling period. Interestingly, we observed higher biomass production, but lower grain yield stability in the sensitive Cappelle cultivar, as compared to the tolerant Plainsman cv. Higher biomass production in the sensitive variety was correlated with enhanced water-use efficiency. Increased cyclic electron flow around PSI was also observed in the Cappelle cv. under drought stress as shown by light intensity dependence of the ratio of maximal quantum yields of Photosystem I and Photosystem II, as well by the plot of the Photosystem I electron transport rate as a function of Photosystem II electron transport rate. Higher CO2 uptake rate in flag leaves of the drought-stressed Plainsman cv. during grain filling period correlates well with its higher grain yield and prolonged transpiration rate through spikes. The increase in drought factor (DFI and performance (PI indices calculated from variable chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of secondary leaves also showed correlation with higher biomass in the Cappelle cultivar during the biomass accumulation period. However, during the grain filling period, DFI and PI parameters of the flag leaves were higher in the tolerant Plainsman V cultivar and showed correlation with grain yield stability. Our results suggest that overall biomass and grain yield may respond differentially to drought stress in different wheat cultivars and therefore phenotyping for green biomass cannot be used as a general approach to predict grain yield. We also conclude that photosynthetic efficiency of flag and secondary leaves

  11. Higher Ammonium Transamination Capacity Can Alleviate Glutamate Inhibition on Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Root Growth under High Ammonium Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Gao, Jingwen; Liu, Yang; Tian, Zhongwei; Muhammad, Abid; Zhang, Yixuan; Jiang, Dong; Cao, Weixing; Dai, Tingbo

    2016-01-01

    Most of the studies about NH4+ stress mechanism simply address the effects of free NH4+, failing to recognize the changed nitrogen assimilation products. The objective of this study was to elucidate the effects of glutamate on root growth under high ammonium (NH4+) conditions in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Hydroponic experiments were conducted using two wheat cultivars, AK58 (NH4+-sensitive) and Xumai25 (NH4+-tolerant) with either 5 mM NH4+ nitrogen (AN) as stress treatment or 5 mM nitrate (NO3-) nitrogen as control. To evaluate the effects of NH4+-assimilation products on plant growth, 1 μM L-methionine sulfoximine (MSO) (an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase (GS)) and 1 mM glutamates (a primary N assimilation product) were added to the solutions, respectively. The AN significantly reduced plant biomass, total root length, surface area and root volume in both cultivars, but less effect was observed in Xumai25. The inhibition effects were alleviated by the application of MSO but strengthened by the application of glutamate. The AN increased the activities of GS, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) in both cultivars, resulting in higher glutamate contents. However, its contents were decreased by the application of MSO. Compared to AK58, Xumai25 showed lower glutamate contents due to its higher activities of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT). With the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) contents decreasing in roots, the ratio of shoot to root in IAA was increased, and further increased by the application of glutamate, and reduced by the application of MSO, but the ratio was lower in Xumai25. Meanwhile, the total soluble sugar contents and its root to shoot ratio also showed similar trends. These results indicate that the NH4+-tolerant cultivar has a greater transamination ability to prevent glutamate over-accumulation to maintain higher IAA transport ability, and consequently promoted soluble sugar transport to roots, further

  12. Effectiveness of time of sowing and cultivar choice for managing climate change: wheat crop phenology and water use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qunying; O'Leary, Garry; Cleverly, James; Eamus, Derek

    2018-02-01

    Climate change (CC) presents a challenge for the sustainable development of wheat production systems in Australia. This study aimed to (1) quantify the impact of future CC on wheat grain yield for the period centred on 2030 from the perspectives of wheat phenology, water use and water use efficiency (WUE) and (2) evaluate the effectiveness of changing sowing times and cultivars in response to the expected impacts of future CC on wheat grain yield. The daily outputs of CSIRO Conformal-Cubic Atmospheric Model for baseline and future periods were used by a stochastic weather generator to derive changes in mean climate and in climate variability and to construct local climate scenarios, which were then coupled with a wheat crop model to achieve the two research aims. We considered three locations in New South Wales, Australia, six times of sowing (TOS) and three bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars in this study. Simulation results show that in 2030 (1) for impact analysis, wheat phenological events are expected to occur earlier and crop water use is expected to decrease across all cases (the combination of three locations, six TOS and three cultivars), wheat grain yield would increase or decrease depending on locations and TOS; and WUE would increase in most of the cases; (2) for adaptation considerations, the combination of TOS and cultivars with the highest yield varied across locations. Wheat growers at different locations will require different strategies in managing the negative impacts or taking the opportunities of future CC.

  13. Effectiveness of time of sowing and cultivar choice for managing climate change: wheat crop phenology and water use efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qunying; O'Leary, Garry; Cleverly, James; Eamus, Derek

    2018-02-08

    Climate change (CC) presents a challenge for the sustainable development of wheat production systems in Australia. This study aimed to (1) quantify the impact of future CC on wheat grain yield for the period centred on 2030 from the perspectives of wheat phenology, water use and water use efficiency (WUE) and (2) evaluate the effectiveness of changing sowing times and cultivars in response to the expected impacts of future CC on wheat grain yield. The daily outputs of CSIRO Conformal-Cubic Atmospheric Model for baseline and future periods were used by a stochastic weather generator to derive changes in mean climate and in climate variability and to construct local climate scenarios, which were then coupled with a wheat crop model to achieve the two research aims. We considered three locations in New South Wales, Australia, six times of sowing (TOS) and three bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars in this study. Simulation results show that in 2030 (1) for impact analysis, wheat phenological events are expected to occur earlier and crop water use is expected to decrease across all cases (the combination of three locations, six TOS and three cultivars), wheat grain yield would increase or decrease depending on locations and TOS; and WUE would increase in most of the cases; (2) for adaptation considerations, the combination of TOS and cultivars with the highest yield varied across locations. Wheat growers at different locations will require different strategies in managing the negative impacts or taking the opportunities of future CC.

  14. Effect of Low Temperature and Wheat Winter-Hardiness on Survival of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici under Controlled Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijie Ma

    Full Text Available Wheat stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst, is one of the most important diseases of wheat worldwide. Understanding the survival of Pst during the overwintering period is critical for predicting Pst epidemics in the spring. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR methods quantifying Pst DNA and RNA (cDNA were developed and compared for the ability to quantify viable Pst in leaf tissues. Both qPCR of DNA and RNA can provide reliable measurement of viable Pst in plant tissues prior to the late sporulation stage for which qPCR of DNA gave a much higher estimate of fungal biomass than qPCR of RNA. The percentage of Pst biomass that was viable in detached and attached leaves under low temperatures decreased over time. Pst survived longer on attached leaves than on detached leaves. The survival of Pst in cultivars with strong winter-hardiness at 0°C and -5°C was greater than those with weak winter-hardiness. However, such differences in Pst survival among cultivars were negligible at -10, -15 and -20°C. Results indicated that Pst mycelia inside green leaves can also be killed by low temperatures rather than through death of green leaves under low temperatures. The relationship of Pst survival in attached leaves with temperature and winter-hardiness was well described by logistic models. Further field evaluation is necessary to assess whether inclusion of other factors such as moisture and snow cover could improve the model performance in predicting Pst overwintering potential, and hence the epidemic in spring.

  15. Profiling dehydrin gene sequence and physiological parameters in drought tolerant and susceptible spring wheat cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, M.J.; Jatoi, W.A.

    2012-01-01

    Physiological and yield traits such as stomatal conductance (mmol m-/sup 2/s/sup -1/), Leaf relative water content (RWC %) and grain yield per plant were studied in a separate experiment. Results revealed that five out of sixteen cultivars viz. Anmol, Moomal, Sarsabz, Bhitai and Pavan, appeared to be relatively more drought tolerant. Based on morphophysiological results, studies were continued to look at these cultivars for drought tolerance at molecular level. Initially, four well recognized primers for dehydrin genes (DHNs) responsible for drought induction in T. durum L., T. aestivum L. and O. sativa L. were used for profiling gene sequence of sixteen wheat cultivars. The primers amplified the DHN genes variably like Primer WDHN13 (T. aestivum L.) amplified the DHN gene in only seven cultivars whereas primer TdDHN15 ( T. durum L.) amplified all the sixteen cultivars with even different DNA banding patterns some showing second weaker DNA bands. Third primer TdDHN16 (T. durum L.) has shown entirely different PCR amplification prototype, specially showing two strong DNA bands while fourth primer RAB16C (O. sativa L.) failed to amplify DHN gene in any of the cultivars. Examination of DNA sequences revealed several interesting features. First, it identified the two exon/one intron structure of this gene (complete sequences were not shown), a feature not previously described in the two database cDNA sequences available from T. aestivum L. (gi|21850). Secondly, the analysis identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), positions in gene sequence. Although complete gene sequence was not obtained for all the cultivars, yet there were a total of 38 variable positions in exonic (coding region) sequence, from a total gene length of 453 nucleotides. Matrix of SNP shows these 37 positions with individual sequence at positions given for each of the 14 cultivars (sequence of two cultivars was not obtained) included in this analysis. It demonstrated a considerab le

  16. Physiological mechanisms contributing to increased water-use efficiency in winter wheat under organic fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linlin; Wang, Shiwen; Chen, Wei; Li, Hongbing; Deng, Xiping

    2017-01-01

    Improving the efficiency of resource utilization has received increasing research attention in recent years. In this study, we explored the potential physiological mechanisms underlying improved grain yield and water-use efficiency of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) following organic fertilizer application. Two wheat cultivars, ChangHan58 (CH58) and XiNong9871 (XN9871), were grown under the same nitrogen (N) fertilizer rate (urea-N, CK; and manure plus urea-N, M) and under two watering regimes (WW, well-watered; and WS, water stress) imposed after anthesis. The M fertilizer treatment had a higher Pn and lower gs and Tr than CK under both water conditions, in particular, it significantly increased WRC and Ψw, and decreased EWLR and MDA under WS. Also, the M treatment increased post-anthesis N uptake by 81.4 and 16.4% under WS and WW, thus increasing post-anthesis photosynthetic capacity and delaying leaf senescence. Consequently, the M treatment increased post-anthesis DM accumulation under WS and WW by 51.5 and 29.6%, WUEB by 44.5 and 50.9%, grain number per plant by 11.5 and 12.2% and 1000-grain weight by 7.3 and 3.6%, respectively, compared with CK. The grain yield under M treatment increased by 23 and 15%, and water use efficiency (WUEg) by 25 and 23%, respectively. The increased WUE under organic fertilizer treatment was due to elevated photosynthesis and decreased Tr and gs. Our results suggest that the organic fertilizer treatment enabled plants to use water more efficiently under drought stress.

  17. [Effects of cultivation patterns on the radiation use and grain yield of winter wheat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue-chao; Li, Chuan-xing; Dai, Xing-long; Zhou, Xiao-yan; Zhang, Yu; Li, Hua-ying; He, Ming-rong

    2015-09-01

    Taking winter wheat cultivar 'Tainong 18' as test material, this paper set three treatments, local farmer's traditional cultivation pattern (FP), super high yield pattern (SH) and high yield high efficiency pattern ( HH) to investigate the effects of cultivation patterns on the intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (IPAR), PAR use efficiency (RUE), dry matter (DM) accumulation, harvest index (HI), grain yield and fertilizers' partial factor productivity (PFP) in 2012-2013. The results showed that IPAR, RUE and DM accumulation of the total growth stage and grain yield under SH pattern were significantly higher than those under FP pattern. IPAR of the total growth stage under HH pattern was lower than that under FP pattern, but RUE, DM accumulation and HI were significantly higher than that under FP pattern, so grain yield was higher than that under FP pattern. The grain yields under HH pattern were respectively decreased by 3.8% and 2.8% under high and low fertility levels compared that under SH pattern, while the PFP of N, P and K under HH pattern were averagely 26.4%, 68.5% and 92.6% higher than those under SH pattern, respectively. In conclusion, HH pattern, with the characteristics of 'reducing fertilizer', 'increasing planting density' and 'delaying sowing date', was the recommended cultivation pattern under the condition similar to this experiment balancing the grain yield, radiation use and fertilizer use.

  18. Identification of Pm24, Pm35 and Pm37 in thirteen Egyptian bread wheat cultivars using SSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Mahmoud Emara

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Powdery mildew of wheat (Triticum spp. caused by Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici (DC E.O. Speer Em. Marchal is one of the most important bread wheat diseases in Egypt. All the Egyptian common bread wheat cultivars are susceptible to that disease at seedling and adult stages. Breeding of resistant cultivars is the most economical and environmentally safe method to eliminate the disease and reduce crop losses. Combinations of two or more effective resistance genes may lead to better, more durable resistance to that disease. Eight Pm genes i.e. Pm2, Pm6, Pm12, Pm16, Pm24, Pm35, Pm36 and Pm37 out of 21 powdery mildew monogenic wheat lines (Pm were resistant to 42 individual isolates of powdery mildew collected from different governorates in the Nile Delta area, Egypt, at seedling and adult stages. Only four DNA specific SSR markers (Xgwm337, Xcfd7 linked to Pm24, Pm35 and Xgwm332, Xwmc790 linked to Pm37 resistance genes were selected to detect these genes in 13 Egyptian common bread wheat cultivars. This study reveals the absence of Pm24, Pm35 and Pm37 in all the 13 Egyptian bread wheat cultivars. These results gave evidence that the Egyptian cultivars are not having resistance genes and need to further incorporate one, two or more resistant genes in a single genotype as all commercial cultivars defeated by the pathogen.

  19. Effects of white clover cultivar and companion grass on winter survival of seedlings in autumn-sown swards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elgersma, A.; Schlepers, H.

    2003-01-01

    The aim was to study the effects of white clover cultivar and combinations with perennial ryegrass cultivars on seedling establishment in autumn-sown swards and on winter survival of seedlings. Large-leaved white clover cv. Alice and small-leaved white clover cv. Gwenda, and an erect and a prostrate

  20. Production and meiotic pairing behaviour of new hybrids of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) x winter barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár-Láng, M; Linc, G; Logojan, A; Sutka, J

    2000-12-01

    New winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) x winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) hybrids produced using cultivated varieties (wheat 'Martonvásári 9 krl'(Mv9 krl) x barley 'Igri', Mv9 krl x 'Osnova', 'Asakazekomugi' x 'Manas') were multiplied in tissue culture because of the high degree of sterility and then pollinated with wheat to obtain backcross progenies. Meiotic analysis of the hybrids Mv9 krl x 'Igri' and 'Asakazekomugi' x 'Manas' and their in vitro regenerated progenies with the Feulgen method revealed 1.59 chromosome arm associations per cell in both initial hybrids. The number of chromosome arm associations increased after in vitro culture to 4.72 and 2.67, respectively, in the two combinations. According to the genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) analysis, wheat-barley chromosome arm associations made up 3.6% of the total in the initial Mv9 krl x 'Igri' hybrid and 6.6% and 16.5% of the total in in vitro regenerated progenies of the 'Asakazekomugi' x 'Manas' and Mv9 krl x 'Igri' hybrids, respectively. The demonstration by GISH of wheat-barley chromosome pairing in the hybrids and especially in their in vitro regenerated progenies proves the possibility of producing recombinants between these two genera, and thus of transferring useful characters from barley into wheat. In vitro conditions caused an increase in chromosome arm association frequency in both combinations and in fertility in some regenerants.

  1. Real-time weed detection, decision making and patch spraying in maize, sugarbeet, winter wheat and winter barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerhards, R; Christensen, Svend

    2003-01-01

    with weed infestation levels higher than the economic weed threshold; a review of such work is provided. This paper presents a system for site-specific weed control in sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.), maize (Zea mays L.), winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), including...... online weed detection using digital image analysis, computer-based decision making and global positioning systems (GPS)-controlled patch spraying. In a 4-year study, herbicide use with this map-based approach was reduced in winter cereals by 60% for herbicides against broad-leaved weeds and 90% for grass...

  2. Water consumption characteristics and water use efficiency of winter wheat under long-term nitrogen fertilization regimes in northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yangquanwei; Shangguan, Zhouping

    2014-01-01

    Water shortage and nitrogen (N) deficiency are the key factors limiting agricultural production in arid and semi-arid regions, and increasing agricultural productivity under rain-fed conditions often requires N management strategies. A field experiment on winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was begun in 2004 to investigate effects of long-term N fertilization in the traditional pattern used for wheat in China. Using data collected over three consecutive years, commencing five years after the experiment began, the effects of N fertilization on wheat yield, evapotranspiration (ET) and water use efficiency (WUE, i.e. the ratio of grain yield to total ET in the crop growing season) were examined. In 2010, 2011 and 2012, N increased the yield of wheat cultivar Zhengmai No. 9023 by up to 61.1, 117.9 and 34.7%, respectively, and correspondingly in cultivar Changhan No. 58 by 58.4, 100.8 and 51.7%. N-applied treatments increased water consumption in different layers of 0-200 cm of soil and thus ET was significantly higher in N-applied than in non-N treatments. WUE was in the range of 1.0-2.09 kg/m3 for 2010, 2011 and 2012. N fertilization significantly increased WUE in 2010 and 2011, but not in 2012. The results indicated the following: (1) in this dryland farming system, increased N fertilization could raise wheat yield, and the drought-tolerant Changhan No. 58 showed a yield advantage in drought environments with high N fertilizer rates; (2) N application affected water consumption in different soil layers, and promoted wheat absorbing deeper soil water and so increased utilization of soil water; and (3) comprehensive consideration of yield and WUE of wheat indicated that the N rate of 270 kg/ha for Changhan No. 58 was better to avoid the risk of reduced production reduction due to lack of precipitation; however, under conditions of better soil moisture, the N rate of 180 kg/ha was more economic.

  3. Water consumption characteristics and water use efficiency of winter wheat under long-term nitrogen fertilization regimes in northwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangquanwei Zhong

    Full Text Available Water shortage and nitrogen (N deficiency are the key factors limiting agricultural production in arid and semi-arid regions, and increasing agricultural productivity under rain-fed conditions often requires N management strategies. A field experiment on winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. was begun in 2004 to investigate effects of long-term N fertilization in the traditional pattern used for wheat in China. Using data collected over three consecutive years, commencing five years after the experiment began, the effects of N fertilization on wheat yield, evapotranspiration (ET and water use efficiency (WUE, i.e. the ratio of grain yield to total ET in the crop growing season were examined. In 2010, 2011 and 2012, N increased the yield of wheat cultivar Zhengmai No. 9023 by up to 61.1, 117.9 and 34.7%, respectively, and correspondingly in cultivar Changhan No. 58 by 58.4, 100.8 and 51.7%. N-applied treatments increased water consumption in different layers of 0-200 cm of soil and thus ET was significantly higher in N-applied than in non-N treatments. WUE was in the range of 1.0-2.09 kg/m3 for 2010, 2011 and 2012. N fertilization significantly increased WUE in 2010 and 2011, but not in 2012. The results indicated the following: (1 in this dryland farming system, increased N fertilization could raise wheat yield, and the drought-tolerant Changhan No. 58 showed a yield advantage in drought environments with high N fertilizer rates; (2 N application affected water consumption in different soil layers, and promoted wheat absorbing deeper soil water and so increased utilization of soil water; and (3 comprehensive consideration of yield and WUE of wheat indicated that the N rate of 270 kg/ha for Changhan No. 58 was better to avoid the risk of reduced production reduction due to lack of precipitation; however, under conditions of better soil moisture, the N rate of 180 kg/ha was more economic.

  4. Road verges and winter wheat fields as resources for wild bees in agricultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Casper Christian I; Langer, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    had a strong positive effect in both road verges and wheat fields on the density of high value bee plants. This was due to the absence of herbicides and to practices inherent to organic farming systems, such as the use of clover (a high value bee plant) as a green manure and fodder crop.......The effects of farming system on plant density and flowering of dicotyledonous herbs of high value for bees were investigated in 14 organic and 14 conventional winter wheat fields and adjacent road verges. The organic and conventional winter wheat fields/road verges were paired based...... on the percentage of semi-natural habitats in the surrounding landscape at 1-km scale. Mean density of high value bee plants per Raunkiaer circle was significantly higher in organic winter wheat fields and their adjacent road verges than in their conventionally farmed counterparts. The effect of organic farming...

  5. Cereal aphid colony turnover and persistence in winter wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linton Winder

    Full Text Available An understanding of spatial and temporal processes in agricultural ecosystems provides a basis for rational decision-making with regards to the management and husbandry of crops, supporting the implementation of integrated farming strategies. In this study we investigated the spatial and temporal distribution of aphid pests (Sitobion avenae and Metopolophium dirhodum within winter wheat fields. Using an intensive sampling programme we investigated distributions at both the small (single shoot and large (field scales. Within two fields, a grid with 82 locations was established (area 120 m by 168 m. At each location, 25 shoots were individually marked and aphid counts by observation conducted on 21 and 22 occasions as the crop matured, resulting in 43,050 and 45,100 counts being conducted in the two fields respectively. We quantified field scale spatial distributions, demonstrating that spatial pattern generally emerged, with temporal stability being both species- and field- dependent. We then measured turnover of colonies at the small (individual shoot and large (field scales by comparing consecutive pairs of sampling occasions. Four turnover categories were defined: Empty (no aphids recorded on either occasion; Colonised (aphids recorded on the second occasion but not the first; Extinction (aphids recorded on the first occasion but not the second; Stable (aphids recorded on both occasions. At the field scale, population stability soon established, but, at the small scale there was a consistently high proportion of unoccupied shoots with considerable colonisation and extinction and low stability. The redistribution of aphids within the crop at the local scale is a vulnerability which could be used to disrupt population development--by mediating exposure to ground-active natural enemies and by incurring a metabolic cost caused by the physiological demands to re-establish on a nearby host plant.

  6. Genetic variation of carotenoids in Chinese bread wheat cultivars and the effect of the 1BL.1RS translocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenshuang LI,Shengnan ZHAI,Hui JIN,Weie WEN,Jindong LIU,Xianchun XIA,Zhonghu HE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoid content of wheat is an important criterion for prediction of the commercial and nutritional value of products made from bread wheat (Triticum aestivum cultivars. The objective of this study was to determine the major components of carotenoids in Chinese wheat using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC including lutein, zeaxanthin, α-carotene and β-carotene. Grain carotenoid content was investigated in 217 cultivars from three major Chinese wheat regions and from seven other countries grown in two environments. Genotype contributed to the majority of variation in carotenoid components. Lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene concentrations varied from 18.3 to 100.1, 4.9 to 12.0 and 0.9 to 48.7 μg per 100 g in wheat flour with an average of 40.2, 7.2 and 18.2 μg per 100 g, respectively. Lutein (61.3% was the main carotenoid component, followed by β-carotene (27.7% and zeaxanthin (11.0%. No α-carotene was detected. Total carotenoids, lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene were all higher in cultivars with the 1BL.1RS translocation compared to those without the translocation. This is the first report on assay of lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene concentrations for a large number of wheat cultivars. These data will be useful for genetic improvement of wheat carotenoid content and for understanding of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in wheat.

  7. Virulence of Egyptian blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici population and powdery mildew response of Egyptian wheat cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis (DC.) Speer f. sp. tritici (Em. Marchal) is a serious disease of wheat that can cause a severe reduction in yield. In Egypt, high powdery mildew severity has been observed in the past few years on many commercial cultivars of both bread and durum wheat. Lit...

  8. [Effects of irrigation time on the growth and water- and fertilizer use efficiencies of winter wheat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Jian-You; Pei, Xue-Xia; Wang, Jiao-Ai; Zhang, Jing; Cao, Yong; Zhang, Ding-Yi

    2012-10-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of irrigation time before wintering (November 10th, November 25th, and December 10th) and in spring (March 5th, re-greening stage; and April 5th, jointing stage) on the growth, dry matter translocation, water use efficiency (WUE), and fertilizer use efficiency (FUE) of winter wheat after returning corn straw into soil. The irrigation time before wintering mainly affected the wheat population size before wintering and at jointing stage, whereas the irrigation time in spring mainly affected the spike number, grain yield, dry matter translocation, WUE, and FUE. The effects of irrigation time before wintering to the yield formation of winter wheat were closely related to the irrigation time in spring. When the irrigation time in spring was at re-greening stage, the earlier the irrigation time before wintering, the larger the spike number and the higher the grain yield; when the irrigation time in spring was at jointing stage, the delay of the irrigation time before wintering made the spike number and grain yield decreased after an initial increase, the kernel number per plant increased, while the 1000-kernel mass was less affected. The WUE, nutrition uptake, and FUE all decreased with the delay of the irrigation time before wintering, but increased with the delay of the irrigation time in spring. Therefore, under the conditions of returning corn straw into soil and sowing when the soil had enough moisture, to properly advance the irrigation time before wintering could make the soil more compacted, promote the tillering and increase the population size before winter, and in combining the increased irrigation at jointing stage, could control the invalid tillering in early spring, increase the spiking rate, obtain stable kernel mass, and thus, increase the WUE and FUE, realizing water-saving and high efficiency for winter wheat cultivation.

  9. Wheat cultivar tolerance to boron deficiency and toxicity in nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furlani Ângela Maria Cangiani

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Field symptoms of open spikelets in wheat were observed in specific cultivars and supposedly related to low B soils and differential B requirement among cultivars. This study aimed to evaluate the response of four wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars, IAC 24, IAC 60, IAC 287 and IAC 289, to increasing B concentrations in nutrient solution. The experiment was set up in a randomized complete block design, with four replicates and five B concentrations (0.0, 0.05, 0.2, 0.8 and 2.0 mg L-1, during 1997/1998, in a greenhouse. Plants were grown to maturity and evaluated for plant height, spike number and length, open spikelet number, grains per spike, plant parts dry matter, B, P, K, Ca and Mg leaf concentrations and total nutrient contents. The visual symptoms of B deficiency consisted of open spikelets, distorted spikes without grains. 'IAC 60' and 'IAC 287' had higher B efficiency, with the highest grain yields in lower B concentrations. The 'IAC 287' and 'IAC 24' were more tolerant to the highest B concentrations. 'IAC 24' required more B for grain production as compared to the other cultivars. The critical leaf B concentration for deficiency was 25 mg kg-1 of dry matter tissue for all cultivars, and for toxicity were: 44 to 45 mg kg-1 for 'IAC 60' and 'IAC 289'; 228 and 318 mg kg-1 for 'IAC 24' and 'IAC 287', respectively. Except for the highest B level in the nutrient solution, the leaf P, K, Ca and Mg concentrations and whole plant contents were in an adequate range in the plants and did not vary among cultivars.

  10. Projecting the impact of climate change on phenology of winter wheat in northern Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juknys, Romualdas; Velička, Rimantas; Kanapickas, Arvydas; Kriaučiūnienė, Zita; Masilionytė, Laura; Vagusevičienė, Ilona; Pupalienė, Rita; Klepeckas, Martynas; Sujetovienė, Gintarė

    2017-10-01

    Climate warming and a shift in the timing of phenological phases, which lead to changes in the duration of the vegetation period may have an essential impact on the productivity of winter crops. The main purpose of this study is to examine climate change-related long-term (1961-2015) changes in the duration of both initial (pre-winter) and main (post-winter) winter wheat vegetation seasons and to present the projection of future phenological changes until the end of this century. Delay and shortening of pre-winter vegetation period, as well as the advancement and slight extension of the post-winter vegetation period, resulted in the reduction of whole winter wheat vegetation period by more than 1 week over the investigated 55 years. Projected changes in the timing of phenological phases which define limits of a main vegetation period differ essentially from the observed period. According to pessimistic (Representative Concentration Pathways 8.5) scenario, the advancement of winter wheat maturity phase by almost 30 days and the shortening of post-winter vegetation season by 15 days are foreseen for a far (2071-2100) projection. An increase in the available chilling amount is specific not only to the investigated historical period (1960-2015) but also to the projected period according to the climate change scenarios of climate warming for all three projection periods. Consequently, the projected climate warming does not pose a threat of plant vernalization shortage in the investigated geographical latitudes.

  11. The impact of tropospheric ozone pollution on trial plot winter wheat yields in Great Britain - an econometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliakatsou, Evridiki; Bell, J Nigel B; Thirtle, Colin; Rose, Daniel; Power, Sally A

    2010-05-01

    Numerous experiments have demonstrated reductions in the yields of cereal crops due to tropospheric O(3), with losses of up to 25%. However, the only British econometric study on O(3) impacts on winter wheat yields, found that a 10% increase in AOT40 would decrease yields by only 0.23%. An attempt is made here to reconcile these observations by developing AOT40 maps for Great Britain and matching levels with a large number of standardised trial plot wheat yields from many sites over a 13-year period. Panel estimates (repeated measures on the same plots with time) show a 0.54% decrease in yields and it is hypothesised that plant breeders may have inadvertently selected for O(3) tolerance in wheat. Some support for this is provided by fumigations of cultivars of differing introduction dates. A case is made for the use of econometric as well as experimental studies in prediction of air pollution induced crop loss. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mapping and characterization of the new adult plant leaf rust resistance gene Lr77 derived from Santa Fe winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmer, James A; Su, Zhenqi; Bernardo, Amy; Bai, Guihua; Chao, Shiaoman

    2018-04-25

    A new gene for adult plant leaf rust resistance in wheat was mapped to chromosome 3BL. This gene was designated as Lr77. 'Santa Fe' is a hard red winter cultivar that has had long-lasting resistance to the leaf rust fungus, Puccinia triticina. The objective of this study was to determine the chromosome location of the adult plant leaf rust resistance in Santa Fe wheat. A partial backcross line of 'Thatcher' (Tc) wheat with adult plant leaf rust resistance derived from Santa Fe was crossed with Thatcher to develop a Thatcher//Tc*2/Santa Fe F 6 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. The RIL population and parental lines were evaluated for segregation of leaf rust resistance in three field plot tests and in an adult plant greenhouse test. A genetic map of the RIL population was constructed using 90,000 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers with the Illumina Infinium iSelect 90K wheat bead array. A significant quantitative trait locus for reduction of leaf rust severity in all four tests was found on chromosome 3BL that segregated as a single adult plant resistance gene. The RILs with the allele from the resistant parent for SNP marker IWB10344 had lower leaf rust severity and a moderately resistant to moderately susceptible response compared to the susceptible RILs and Thatcher. The gene derived from Santa Fe on chromosome 3BL was designated as Lr77. Kompetitive allele-specific polymerase chain reaction assay markers linked to Lr77 on 3BL should be useful for selection of wheat germplasm with this gene.

  13. Genome-wide association mapping for stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis F. sp. tritici) in US Pacific Northwest winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruoka, Y; Garland-Campbell, K A; Carter, A H

    2015-06-01

    Potential novel and known QTL for race-specific all-stage and adult plant resistance to stripe rust were identified by genome-wide association mapping in the US PNW winter wheat accessions. Stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis F. sp. tritici; also known as yellow rust) is a globally devastating disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and a major threat to wheat production in the US Pacific Northwest (PNW), therefore both adult plant and all-stage resistance have been introduced into the winter wheat breeding programs in the PNW. The goal of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) and molecular markers for these resistances through genome-wide association (GWAS) mapping in winter wheat accessions adapted to the PNW. Stripe rust response for adult plants was evaluated in naturally occurring epidemics in a total of nine environments in Washington State, USA. Seedling response was evaluated with three races under artificial inoculation in the greenhouse. The panel was genotyped with the 9K Illumina Wheat single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array and additional markers linked to previously reported genes and QTL for stripe rust resistance. The population was grouped into three sub-populations. Markers linked to Yr17 and previously reported QTL for stripe rust resistance were identified on chromosomes 1B, 2A, and 2B. Potentially novel QTL associated with race-specific seedling response were identified on chromosomes 1B and 1D. Potentially novel QTL associated with adult plant response were located on chromosomes 2A, 2B, 3B, 4A, and 4B. Stripe rust was reduced when multiple alleles for resistance were present. The resistant allele frequencies were different among sub-populations in the panel. This information provides breeders with germplasm and closely linked markers for stripe rust resistance to facilitate the transfer of multiple loci for durable stripe rust resistance into wheat breeding lines and cultivars.

  14. Traits in Spring Wheat Cultivars Associated with Yield Loss Caused by a Heat Stress Episode after Anthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vignjevic, Marija; Wang, Xiao; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress resulting from climate change and more frequent weather extremes is expected to negatively affect wheat yield. We evaluated the response of different spring wheat cultivars to a post-anthesis high temperature episode and studied the relationship between different traits associated...... with heat tolerance. Fifteen spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars were grown in pots under semifield conditions, and heat stress (35/26 °C) and control treatments (20/12 °C) were applied in growth chambers for 5 days starting 14 days after flowering. The heat stress treatment reduced final yield...... in all cultivars. Significant variation was observed among cultivars in the reduction in average grain weight and grain dry matter yield under heat stress (up to 36 % and 45 %, respectively). The duration of the grain-filling period was reduced by 3–12 days by the heat treatment. The reduction...

  15. A Comparative Study of Phenolic Antioxidant Activity and Flavonoid Biosynthesis-Related Gene Expression Between Summer and Winter Strawberry Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Doori; Park, Yeri; Lee, Young Hun; Choi, Ik-Young; Park, Kyong Cheul; Park, Sang Un; Kim, Byung Sup; Yeoung, Young Rog; Park, Nam Il

    2017-02-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) possesses good antioxidant properties. Phenolic compounds in strawberries, such as anthocyanins and ellagic acid, mainly act as antioxidants. This study aimed to compare the phenolic content and expression patterns of genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis between summer and winter strawberry cultivars affected by seasonal variation, degree of ripeness, and genotype. Antioxidant activity and the total content of phenols and flavonoids decreased with fruit ripening. Most notably, summer strawberry cultivars showed higher antioxidant activity than winter cultivars. The expression patterns of flavonoid biosynthetic genes tested were cultivar-dependent and were also affected by ripening. These results help us understand the nutritional and physiological characteristics of selected cultivars and provide a range of information for strawberry consumption. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  16. [Effects of sprinkler irrigation amount on winter wheat growth, water consumption, and water use efficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Li-Peng; Huang, Guan-Hua; Liu, Hai-Jun; Wang, Xiang-Ping; Wang, Ming-Qiang

    2010-08-01

    In 2006-2008, a field experiment was conducted at the Tongzhou Experimental Base for Water-Saving Irrigation Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, aimed to study the effects of sprinkler irrigation amount on the growth, grain yield, water consumption, and water use efficiency of winter wheat. Different treatments were installed, with the irrigation amounts expressed by the multiples of the evaporation (E) from a standard 20-cm diameter pan placed above winter wheat canopy. The grain yield was the highest in treatment 0.75 E in 2006-2007 and in treatment 0.625 E in 2007-2008. In treatments with irrigation amount less than 0.25 E, winter wheat growth was subjected to water stress, and the yield loss was larger than 25%. The water consumption of winter wheat in the two growth seasons was in the range of 219-486 mm, and increased with increasing irrigation amount. The relationships between the grain yield and the water consumption and water use efficiency could be described by quadratic function. Sprinkler irrigation with an amount of 0.50-0.75 E was recommended for the winter wheat growth after its turning green stage in Beijing area.

  17. [Effects of water deficit and nitrogen fertilization on winter wheat growth and nitrogen uptake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, You-Ling; Zhang, Fu-Cang; Li, Kai-Feng

    2009-10-01

    Winter wheat plants were cultured in vitro tubes to study their growth and nitrogen uptake under effects of water deficit at different growth stages and nitrogen fertilization. Water deficit at any growth stages could obviously affect the plant height, leaf area, dry matter accumulation, and nitrogen uptake. Jointing stage was the most sensitive stage of winter wheat growth to water deficit, followed by flowering stage, grain-filling stage, and seedling stages. Rewatering after the water deficit at seedling stage had a significant compensation effect on winter wheat growth, and definite compensation effect was observed on the biomass accumulation and nitrogen absorption when rewatering was made after the water deficit at flowering stage. Under the same nitrogen fertilization levels, the nitrogen accumulation in root with water deficit at seedling, jointing, flowering, and grain-filling stages was reduced by 25.82%, 55.68%, 46.14%, and 16.34%, and the nitrogen accumulation in aboveground part was reduced by 33.37%, 51.71%, 27.01%, and 2.60%, respectively, compared with no water deficit. Under the same water deficit stages, the nitrogen content and accumulation of winter wheat decreased with decreasing nitrogen fertilization level, i. e., 0.3 g N x kg(-1) FM > 0.2 g N x kg(-1) FM > 0.1 g N x kg(-1) FM. Nitrogen fertilization had obvious regulation effect on winter wheat plant growth, dry matter accumulation, and nitrogen uptake under water stress.

  18. Characterization of wheat cultivars for pre-harvest sprouting Caracterización de cultivares de trigo por brotado en precosecha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bainotti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Sprouting or germination in wheat takes place as a result of the rupture of the dormancy in grain, expressed in physiological terms as the increase of α-amylases and proteases activity, which has been associated with low values of falling number. Grain sprouting has been related with high moisture and temperature at harvest and it is a serious problem in the north of Argentina. The objectives of this study were to characterize introduced and local wheat cultivars for sprouting response through falling number and, tentatively, to identify adapted materials with good behavior for this trait. A set of thirty introduced and local late and early heading wheat varieties was tested through falling number in two experiments conducted at Marcos Juárez, Argentina in 2005 and 2006. Significant differences in falling number between tested cultivars were detected with a strong interaction with environment. Late heading cultivars introductions showed significantly higher falling number values than local cultivars, and early heading cultivars introductions and local cultivars showed similar values. In the early heading cultivars group, the highest falling number value was observed in Klein Proteo, a local cultivar.En trigo el término brotado se refiere a la ruptura de la dormición en el grano, lo que expresado en términos fisiológicos es el incremento de las actividades proteásica y α-amilásica, que se asocia con valores bajos del test falling number. El brotado de grano se ha relacionado con elevada temperatura y humedad a cosecha. En este estudio se propuso caracterizar la respuesta a brotado de cultivares de trigo, locales e introducidos, a través de falling number y tentativamente, identificar materiales adaptados con buen comportamiento a brotado de grano en precosecha. Treinta variedades de trigo locales e introducidas con espigazón precoz y tardía fueron evaluadas a través del falling number en dos experimentos conducidos en Marcos Ju

  19. The dynamics of acid-soluble phosphorus compounds in the course of winter and spring wheat germination under various thermic conditions. Part I. Fractionation of wheat germs extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Barbaro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Results of investigations are reported on the role of acid-soluble phosphorus compounds in the process of winter wheat vernalization. Fractionation of germ extracts by the precipitation method revealed the dynamics of phosphorylated glycolysis metabolites during germination. The variability curves for spring wheat germinated at 1.5° and 22° and for winter wheat at 1.5° had a similar course, only that for winter wheat germinated at 22° showed differences. It is concluded that glycolysis is essential in the process of vernalization.

  20. The dynamics of acid-soluble phosphorus compounds in the course of winter and spring wheat germination under various thermic conditions. Part I. Fractionation of wheat germs extracts

    OpenAIRE

    A. Barbaro

    2015-01-01

    Results of investigations are reported on the role of acid-soluble phosphorus compounds in the process of winter wheat vernalization. Fractionation of germ extracts by the precipitation method revealed the dynamics of phosphorylated glycolysis metabolites during germination. The variability curves for spring wheat germinated at 1.5° and 22° and for winter wheat at 1.5° had a similar course, only that for winter wheat germinated at 22° showed differences. It is concluded that glycolysis is ess...

  1. Effect of Postsowing Compaction on Cold and Frost Tolerance of North China Plain Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiyun Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Improper postsowing compaction negatively affects soil temperature and thereby cold and frost tolerance, particularly in extreme cold weather. In North China Plain, the temperature falls to 5 degrees below zero, even lower in winter, which is period for winter wheat growing. Thus improving temperature to promote wheat growth is important in this area. A field experiment from 2013 to 2016 was conducted to evaluate effects of postsowing compaction on soil temperature and plant population of wheat at different stages during wintering period. The effect of three postsowing compaction methods—(1 compacting wheel (CW, (2 crosskill roller (CR, and (3 V-shaped compacting roller after crosskill roller (VCRCR—on winter soil temperatures and relation to wheat shoot growth parameters were measured. Results showed that the highest soil midwinter temperature was in the CW treatment. In the 20 cm and 40 cm soil layer, soil temperatures were ranked in the following order of CW > VCRCR > CR. Shoot numbers under CW, CR, and VCRCR treatments were statistically 12.40% and 8.18% higher under CW treatment compared to CR or VCRCR treatments at the end of wintering period. The higher soil temperature under CW treatment resulted in higher shoot number at the end of wintering period, apparently due to reduced shoot death by cold and frost damage.

  2. Colour characteristics of winter wheat grits of different grain size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horváth Zs. H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, wheat has spread all over the world due to its extensive usability. The colour of wheat grits is very important for the milling and baking industry because it determines the colour of the products made from it. The instrumental colour measuring is used, first of all, for durum wheat. We investigated the relationship between colour characteristics and grain size in the case of different hard aestivum wheats. We determined the colour using the CIE (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage 1976 L*, a*, b* colour system measured by MINOLTA CR-300 tristimulus colorimeter. After screening the colour of the wheat fractions of different grain size, grits was measured wet and dry. We determined the L*, a*, b* colour co-ordinates and the whiteness index, too. To evaluate the values we had obtained, we used analysis of variance and regression analysis. We pointed out that the colour of wheat grits of different grain size is dependent on the hardness index of wheat. The lightness co-ordinate (L* of grits of the harder wheat is smaller, while a* and b* co-ordinates are higher. We also found that while grain size rises, the L* co-ordinate decreases and a*, b* values increase in the case of every type of wheat. The colour of grits is determined by the colour of fractions of 250-400 μm in size, independently from the average grain size. The whiteness index and the L* colour co-ordinate have a linear relation (R2 = 0.9151; so, the determination of whiteness index is not necessary. The L* value right characterizes the whiteness of grits.

  3. Molecular basis of adaptation to high soil boron in wheat landraces and elite cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallotta, Margaret; Schnurbusch, Thorsten; Hayes, Julie; Hay, Alison; Baumann, Ute; Paull, Jeff; Langridge, Peter; Sutton, Tim

    2014-10-02

    Environmental constraints severely restrict crop yields in most production environments, and expanding the use of variation will underpin future progress in breeding. In semi-arid environments boron toxicity constrains productivity, and genetic improvement is the only effective strategy for addressing the problem. Wheat breeders have sought and used available genetic diversity from landraces to maintain yield in these environments; however, the identity of the genes at the major tolerance loci was unknown. Here we describe the identification of near-identical, root-specific boron transporter genes underlying the two major-effect quantitative trait loci for boron tolerance in wheat, Bo1 and Bo4 (ref. 2). We show that tolerance to a high concentration of boron is associated with multiple genomic changes including tetraploid introgression, dispersed gene duplication, and variation in gene structure and transcript level. An allelic series was identified from a panel of bread and durum wheat cultivars and landraces originating from diverse agronomic zones. Our results demonstrate that, during selection, breeders have matched functionally different boron tolerance alleles to specific environments. The characterization of boron tolerance in wheat illustrates the power of the new wheat genomic resources to define key adaptive processes that have underpinned crop improvement.

  4. Flour quality and kernel hardness connection in winter wheat

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    Szabó B. P.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Kernel hardness is controlled by friabilin protein and it depends on the relation between protein matrix and starch granules. Friabilin is present in high concentration in soft grain varieties and in low concentration in hard grain varieties. The high gluten, hard wheat our generally contains about 12.0–13.0% crude protein under Mid-European conditions. The relationship between wheat protein content and kernel texture is usually positive and kernel texture influences the power consumption during milling. Hard-textured wheat grains require more grinding energy than soft-textured grains.

  5. Crop coefficients for winter wheat in a sub-humid climate regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærsgaard, Jeppe Hvelplund; Plauborg, Finn; Mollerup, Mikkel

    2008-01-01

    coefficients for a winter wheat crop growing under standard conditions, i.e. not short of water and growing under optimal agronomic conditions, were estimated for a cold sub-humid climate regime. One of the two methods used to estimate ET from a reference crop required net radiation (Rn) as input. Two sets...... of coefficients were used for calculating Rn. Weather data from a meteorological station was used to estimate Rn and ET from the reference crop. The winter wheat ET was measured using an eddy covariance system during the main parts of the growing seasons 2004 and 2005. The meteorological data and field...... measurements were quality controlled and discarded from the analysis if flagged for errors. Daily values of ET from the reference crop and winter wheat calculated from hourly values were used to calculate the crop coefficients. Average daily crop coefficients were in the 1.1-1.15 range during mid...

  6. Effect of the transgenerational exposure to elevated CO2 on the drought response of winter wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yafei; Li, Xiangnan; Yu, Jingjie

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Climate change predicts more frequent drought spells along with an elevation in atmospheric CO2 concentration (e[CO2]). Although the responses of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants to drought or a single generation exposure to e[CO2] have been well documented, the transgeneration...... water status could have contributed to the enhanced DM and WUE. These findings provide new insights into the response of wheat plants to a future drier and CO2-enriched environment....

  7. Comparison of Leaf Sheath Transcriptome Profiles with Physiological Traits of Bread Wheat Cultivars under Salinity Stress

    KAUST Repository

    Takahashi, Fuminori

    2015-08-05

    Salinity stress has significant negative effects on plant biomass production and crop yield. Salinity tolerance is controlled by complex systems of gene expression and ion transport. The relationship between specific features of mild salinity stress adaptation and gene expression was analyzed using four commercial varieties of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) that have different levels of salinity tolerance. The high-throughput phenotyping system in The Plant Accelerator at the Australian Plant Phenomics Facility revealed variation in shoot relative growth rate and salinity tolerance among the four cultivars. Comparative analysis of gene expression in the leaf sheaths identified genes whose functions are potentially linked to shoot biomass development and salinity tolerance. Early responses to mild salinity stress through changes in gene expression have an influence on the acquisition of stress tolerance and improvement in biomass accumulation during the early “osmotic” phase of salinity stress. In addition, results revealed transcript profiles for the wheat cultivars that were different from those of usual stress-inducible genes, but were related to those of plant growth. These findings suggest that, in the process of breeding, selection of specific traits with various salinity stress-inducible genes in commercial bread wheat has led to adaptation to mild salinity conditions.

  8. Characterization of heat tolerance in wheat cultivars and effects on production components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adérico Júnior Badaró Pimentel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: There is a need for heat tolerant wheat cultivars adapted to the expansion of cultivation areas in warmer regions due to the high demand of this cereal for human consumption. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of high temperatures on grain yield and yield components of wheat and characterize heat tolerant wheat genotypes at different development stages. The genotypes were evaluated in the field with and without heat stress. High temperatures reduced the number of spikelets per spike (21%, number of grains per spike (39%, number of grains per spikelet (23%, 1000-grain weight (27% and grain yield (79%. Cultivars MGS 1 Aliança, Embrapa 42, IAC 24-Tucuruí and IAC 364-Tucuruí III are the most tolerant to heat stress between the stages double ridge and terminal spikelet; MGS 1 Aliança, BRS 264, IAC 24-Tucuruí, IAC 364-Tucuruí III and VI 98053, between meiosis and anthesis; and BRS 254, IAC-24-Tucuruí, IAC-364-Tucuruí III and VI 98053, between anthesis and physiological maturity. High temperatures reduce grain yield and yield components. The number of grains per spike is the most reduced component under heat stress. The genotypes differed in tolerance to heat stress in different developmental stages.

  9. Mapping Winter Wheat with Multi-Temporal SAR and Optical Images in an Urban Agricultural Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tao; Pan, Jianjun; Zhang, Peiyu; Wei, Shanbao; Han, Tao

    2017-05-25

    Winter wheat is the second largest food crop in China. It is important to obtain reliable winter wheat acreage to guarantee the food security for the most populous country in the world. This paper focuses on assessing the feasibility of in-season winter wheat mapping and investigating potential classification improvement by using SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) images, optical images, and the integration of both types of data in urban agricultural regions with complex planting structures in Southern China. Both SAR (Sentinel-1A) and optical (Landsat-8) data were acquired, and classification using different combinations of Sentinel-1A-derived information and optical images was performed using a support vector machine (SVM) and a random forest (RF) method. The interference coherence and texture images were obtained and used to assess the effect of adding them to the backscatter intensity images on the classification accuracy. The results showed that the use of four Sentinel-1A images acquired before the jointing period of winter wheat can provide satisfactory winter wheat classification accuracy, with an F1 measure of 87.89%. The combination of SAR and optical images for winter wheat mapping achieved the best F1 measure-up to 98.06%. The SVM was superior to RF in terms of the overall accuracy and the kappa coefficient, and was faster than RF, while the RF classifier was slightly better than SVM in terms of the F1 measure. In addition, the classification accuracy can be effectively improved by adding the texture and coherence images to the backscatter intensity data.

  10. [Evaluating the response of yield and evapotranspiration of winter wheat and the adaptation by adjusting crop variety to climate change in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shi; Mo, Xing-guo; Lin, Zhong-hui

    2015-04-01

    Based on the multi-model datasets of three representative concentration pathway (RCP) emission scenarios from IPCC5, the response of yield and accumulative evapotranspiration (ET) of winter wheat to climate change in the future were assessed by VIP model. The results showed that if effects of CO2 enrichment were excluded, temperature rise would lead to a reduction in the length of the growing period for wheat under the three climate change scenarios, and the wheat yield and ET presented a decrease tendency. The positive effect of atmospheric CO2 enrichment could offset most negative effect introduced by temperature rising, indicating that atmospheric CO2 enrichment would be the prime reason of the wheat yield rising in future. In 2050s, wheat yield would increase 14.8% (decrease 2.5% without CO2 fertilization) , and ET would decrease 2.1% under RCP4.5. By adoption of new crop variety with enhanced requirement on accumulative temperature, the wheat yield would increase more significantly with CO2 fertilization, but the water consumption would also increase. Therefore, cultivar breeding new irrigation techniques and agronomical management should be explored under the challenges of climate change in the future.

  11. Winter wheat grain yield and its components in the North China Plain: irrigation management, cultivation, and climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Lv

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation has been identified as the main driving factor of groundwater drawdown in the North China Plain (NCP. In order to develop appropriate irrigation strategies for satisfactory yields of wheat (Triticum aestivum L., grain yield (GY, yield components, and water use efficiency (WUE were studied. A field experiment was conducted with two types of winter wheat, 'Shimai15' and 'Shixin733', and five irrigation treatments, including rainfed and four spring irrigation water applications, in four growing seasons (2005 to 2009. Results showed that maximum GY was achieved with three irrigation treatments in the 2005-2006 and 2008-2009 dry seasons and two irrigation treatments in the 2006-2007 normal season. However, in the 2007-2008 wet season, the four irrigation treatments, especially the additional irrigation event at the reviving stage (28, produced maximum GY. Grain yield was significantly related to seasonal full evapotranspiration (ET and 410 to 530 mm of seasonal full ET, including 143 mm rainfall and 214 mm irrigation water, which led to maximum GY. The two types of cultivars responded differently to irrigation management in different rainfall years. The yield of the water-saving cv. 'Shimai 15' was much higher in the dry seasons than in the other seasons. Variations of yield components were mainly caused by irrigation time and meteorological factors. The higher accumulated temperature during the sowing and tillering stages (24 and irrigation or precipitation at the reviving stage (28 significantly improved tiller growth. The lower average temperature in March and April greatly increased grain number per spike. Sunshine duration played a decisive role in improving grain weight. Our results provide very useful information about irrigation time and frequency of winter wheat in the NCP in order to obtain high yield but reduce the use of underground water.

  12. [Effects of irrigation scheme on the grain glutenin macropolymer's size distribution and the grain quality of winter wheat with strong gluten].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-Yan; Jia, Dian-Yong; Dai, Xing-Long; He, Ming-Rong

    2013-09-01

    Taking two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars (Gaocheng 8901 and Jimai 20) with high quality strong gluten as test materials, a 2-year field experiment was conducted to study the grain glutenin macropolymer (GMP)'s content and size distribution, grain quality, and grain yield under effects of different irrigation schemes. The schemes included no irrigation in whole growth period (W0), irrigation once at jointing stage (W1), irrigation two times at wintering and jointing stages (W2), respectively, and irrigation three times at wintering, jointing, and filling stages (W3), respectively, with the irrigation amount in each time being 675 m3 x hm(-2). Among the test irrigation schemes, W2 had the best effects on the dough development time, dough stability time, loaf volume, grain yield, GMP content, weighted average surface area of particle D(3,2), weighted average volume of particle D(4,3), and volume percent and surface area percent of particle size >100 microm of the two cultivars. The dough development time, dough stability time, and loaf volume were negatively correlated with the volume percent of GMP particle size 100 microm, D(3,2), and D(4,3). It was suggested that both water deficit and water excess had detrimental effects on the grain yield and grain quality, and irrigation level could affect the wheat grain quality through altering GMP particle size distribution.

  13. [Effects of straw mulching and irrigation on solar energy utilization efficiency of winter wheat farmland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Quanqi; Chen, Yuhai; Wu, Wei; Yu, Shunzhang; Zhou, Xunbo; Dong, Qingyu; Yu, Songlie

    2006-02-01

    The study showed that straw mulching decreased the basic seedlings and tillers of winter wheat and the leaf area index (LAI) at earlier growth stage, but increased the LAI at latter growth stage. Straw mulching and irrigation reduced the transmittance and reflectance of PAR, resulting in the increase of PAR capture ratio mainly at the height of 40-60 cm. The solar energy utilization ratio of grain was decreased by straw mulching, while that of stem and leaf was increased. The total solar energy utilization efficiency of winter wheat could also be increased by straw mulching.

  14. Métodos de soma térmica e datas de semeadura na determinação de filocrono de cultivares de trigo Thermal time methods and sowing dates in phyllochron determination in wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton Telles Rosa

    2009-11-01

    temperatures improves the precision of the vegetative development simulation of this crop, in comparison to the other methods. The phyllochron varies with wheat cultivar and sowing date, and early cultivars (BRS Louro and CEP 51 have lower phyllochron than late cultivars (Nova Era and BRS Tarumã. The phyllochron is greater in sowings carried out during fall and winter than in the ones carried out during spring and summer.

  15. Descriptive modelling to predict deoxynivalenol in winter wheat in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Fels-Klerx, H J; Burgers, S L G E; Booij, C J H

    2010-05-01

    Predictions of deoxynivalenol (DON) content in wheat at harvest can be useful for decision-making by stakeholders of the wheat feed and food supply chain. The objective of the current research was to develop quantitative predictive models for DON in mature winter wheat in the Netherlands for two specific groups of end-users. One model was developed for use by farmers in underpinning Fusarium spp. disease management, specifically the application of fungicides around wheat flowering (model A). The second model was developed for industry and food safety authorities, and considered the entire wheat cultivation period (model B). Model development was based on observational data collected from 425 fields throughout the Netherlands between 2001 and 2008. For each field, agronomical information, climatic data and DON levels in mature wheat were collected. Using multiple regression analyses, the set of biological relevant variables that provided the highest statistical performance was selected. The two final models include the following variables: region, wheat resistance level, spraying, flowering date, several climatic variables in the different stages of wheat growing, and length of the period between flowering and harvesting (model B only). The percentages of variance accounted for were 64.4% and 65.6% for models A and B, respectively. Model validation showed high correlation between the predicted and observed DON levels. The two models may be applied by various groups of end-users to reduce DON contamination in wheat-derived feed and food products and, ultimately, reduce animal and consumer health risks.

  16. Natural radioactivity in winter wheat from organic and conventional agricultural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Patric; Maquet, Alain; Hult, Mikael; Gasparro, Joël; Marissens, Gerd; González de Orduña, Raquel

    2011-02-01

    The distribution of natural radionuclides was studied in winter wheat plants collected from three sites in Belgium during 2004-2007. Activity concentrations of (40)K, (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (228)Th in organically and conventionally grown wheat, and in the corresponding soil samples, were determined using ultra low-level gamma-ray spectrometry. The observed soil-to-wheat concentration ratios were calculated for the different parts of the wheat plant (root, stem and grain) in the two agricultural systems (organic and conventional). There were large variations in radionuclide activity concentrations between the sites and fields, but no significant difference between conventionally and organically grown wheat plants was observed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Discrimination of winter wheat on irrigated land in southern Finney County, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morain, S. A. (Principal Investigator); Williams, D. L.; Barker, B.; Coiner, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Winter wheat in the large field irrigated landscape of southern Finney County, Kansas was successfully discriminated by use of 4 ERTS-1 images. These images were acquired 16 August 1972, 21 September 1972, and 2 December 1972. MSS-5 images from each date and the MSS-7 image from 2 December 1972 were used. Human interpretation of the four images resulted in a classification scheme which produced 98% correct estimation of the number of wheat fields in the training sample and 100% correct estimation in the test sample. Overall correct separation of wheat from non-wheat fields was 93% and 86%, respectively. Offsetting errors resulted in the estimation accuracy for wheat.

  18. Winter soil warming exacerbates the impacts of spring low temperature stress on wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiangnan; Jiang, D.; Liu, Fulai

    2016-01-01

    The increase in global mean air temperature is likely to affect the soil temperatures in agricultural areas. This study aims to study the effects of winter soil warming on the responses of wheat to low temperature stress in spring. Wheat plants were grown under either normal or increased soil...... temperature by 2.5 °C for 82 days in winter. The physiological and yield responses of the plants to a 2-day low temperature stress (4/2 °C in the day/night) at jointing stage were investigated. After exposing to low spring temperature, the plants that had experienced winter soil warming showed lower leaf...... and root water potential, lower oxygen scavenging capacity and poor photosynthetic performance as compared with the plants grown under normal soil temperature during winter. WL plants had significantly lower sugar content in shoot than the CL plants, which might have contributed to their higher...

  19. Comparative proteomics reveals the physiological differences between winter tender shoots and spring tender shoots of a novel tea (Camellia sinensis L.) cultivar evergrowing in winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shengjie; Gao, Jiadong; Chen, Zhongjian; Qiao, Xiaoyan; Huang, Hualin; Cui, Baiyuan; Zhu, Qingfeng; Dai, Zhangyan; Wu, Hualing; Pan, Yayan; Yang, Chengwei; Liu, Jun

    2017-11-20

    A recently discovered tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] cultivar can generate tender shoots in winter. We performed comparative proteomics to analyze the differentially accumulated proteins between winter and spring tender shoots of this clonal cultivar to reveal the physiological basis of its evergrowing character during winter. We extracted proteins from the winter and spring tender shoots (newly formed two leaves and a bud) of the evergrowing tea cultivar "Dongcha11" respectively. Thirty-three differentially accumulated high-confidence proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF / TOF MS). Among these, 24 proteins had increased abundance while nine showed were decreased abundance in winter tender shoots as compared with the spring tender shoots. We categorized the differentially accumulated proteins into eight critical biological processes based on protein function annotation including photosynthesis, cell structure, protein synthesis & destination, transporters, metabolism of sugars and polysaccharides, secondary metabolism, disease/defense and proteins with unknown functions. Proteins with increased abundance in winter tender shoots were mainly related to the processes of photosynthesis, cytoskeleton and protein synthesis, whereas those with decreased abundance were correlated to metabolism and the secondary metabolism of polyphenolic flavonoids. Biochemical analysis showed that the total contents of soluble sugar and amino acid were higher in winter tender shoots while tea polyphenols were lower as compared with spring tender shoots. Our study suggested that the simultaneous increase in the abundance of photosynthesis-related proteins rubisco, plastocyanin, and ATP synthase delta chain, metabolism-related proteins eIF4 and protease subunits, and the cytoskeleton-structure associated proteins phosphatidylinositol transfer protein and profilin may be because of the adaptation of the

  20. Winter wheat GPC estimation with fluorescence-based sensor measurements of canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoyu; Wang, Jihua; Gu, Xiaohe; Xu, Xingang

    2015-10-01

    This study focused on the wheat grain protein content (GPC) estimation based on wheat canopy chlorophyll parameters which acquired by hand-held instrument, Multiplex 3. Nine fluorescence spectral indices from Multiplex sensor were used in this study. The wheat GPC estimation experiment was conducted in 2012 at the National Experiment Station for Precision Agriculture in Changping district, Beijing. A square with area of 1.1 ha was selected and divided to 110 small plots by 10×10m in this study. In each plot, four 1-m2 area distributed in the square were selected for canopy fluorescence spectral measurements, physiological and biochemical analyses. Measurements were performed five times at wheat raising, jointing, heading stage, milking and ripening stage, respectively. The wheat plant samples for each plot were then collected after the measurement and sent to Lab for leaf N concentration (LNC) and canopy nitrogen density (CND) analyzed. GPC sampling for each plot was collected manually during the harvested season. Then, statistical analysis were performed to detect the correlation between fluorescence spectral indices and wheat CND for each growth stage, as well as GPC. The results indicate that two Nitrogen Balance Indices, NBI_G and NBI_R were more sensitive to wheat GPC than other fluorescence spectral indices at milking stage and ripening stage. Five linear regression models with GPC and fluorescence indices at different winter wheat growth stages were then established. The R2 of GPC estimated model increased form 0.312 at raising stage to 0.686 at ripening stage. The study reveals that canopy-level fluorescence spectral parameters were better indicators for the wheat group activity and could be demonstrated to be good indicators for winter wheat GPC estimation.

  1. [Effects of planting density on root spatiotemporal distribution and plant nitrogen use efficiency of winter wheat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Li; He, Ming-Rong; Dai, Xing-Long; Zhou, Xiao-Hu

    2012-07-01

    Taking winter wheat cultivars Tainong 18 (TN18) and Shannong 15 (SN15) as test materials, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of planting density (135 x 10(4), 270 x 10(4), and 405 x 10(4) plants x hm(-2) for TN18; 172.5 x 10(4), 345 x 10(4), and 517.5 x 10(4) plants x hm(-2) for SN15) on the root spatiotemporal distribution and plant nitrogen use efficiency of the varieties. For TN18, its root length density, total root absorbing area, and active root absorbing area increased with increasing planting density, and peaked at planting density 405 x 10(4) plants x hm(-2) during the whole growth period. For SN15, its root length density, total root absorbing area, and active root absorbing area achieved the highest values at planting density 345 x 10(4) plants x hm(-2) at booting and late grain-filling stages. The grain yield, nitrogen uptake efficiency, nitrogen partial factor productivity, and nitrogen use efficiency of TN18 were the highest at planting density 405 x 10(4) plants x hm(-2), and those of SN were the highest at planting density 345 x 10(4) plants x hm(-2) but had less differences between the densities 345 x 10(4) and 517.5 x 10(4) plants x hm(-2). The inorganic nitrogen accumulation in different soil layers decreased with increasing planting density at maturity stage. Taking grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency into consideration, the appropriate planting density of TN18 and SN15 would be 405 x 10(4) and 345 x 10(4) plants x hm(-2), respectively.

  2. Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Organic Fertilizers Application on Yield Components of Two Wheat Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gholamalizadeh Ahangar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was conducted in order to evaluate the direct effects of organic and bio - fertilizers on yield components of two native wheat cultivars, Bolani and cross - Bolani. The experiment conducted as a factorial in a completely randomized design with three replications. Treatment includes fertilizer factor: vermicompost (F1, vermicompost + compost (F2, vermicompost + mycorrhiza (F3, compost + vermicompost + mycorrhiza (F4, compost (F5, mycorrhiza + compost (F6, mycorrhiza (F7 and control (no fertilizer application F8 and cultivar factor includes two cultivar Bolani (C1 and cross - Bolani (C2. The results showed that the interaction effect of combined treatments (F7C2 of high yield (1.13 g.pot-1 obtained. The treatment combination (F7C2 of (0.355 was highest harvest index. The high correlation between weight per plant with plant height, spike length, grain yield and harvest index were observed. Generally the combined application of vermicompost and mycorrhiza cultivar cross - Bolani is more suitable for grain production.

  3. Genetics of mycorrhizal symbiosis in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Heike; Serfling, Albrecht; Enders, Matthias; Friedt, Wolfgang; Ordon, Frank

    2017-07-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is a major staple food and therefore of prime importance for feeding the Earth's growing population. Mycorrhiza is known to improve plant growth, but although extensive knowledge concerning the interaction between mycorrhizal fungi and plants is available, genotypic differences concerning the ability of wheat to form mycorrhizal symbiosis and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) involved in mycorrhization are largely unknown. Therefore, a diverse set of 94 bread wheat genotypes was evaluated with regard to root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. In order to identify genomic regions involved in mycorrhization, these genotypes were analyzed using the wheat 90k iSelect chip, resulting in 17 823 polymorphic mapped markers, which were used in a genome-wide association study. Significant genotypic differences (P colonization, representing six QTL regions, were detected on chromosomes 3A, 4A and 7A, and candidate genes located in these QTL regions were proposed. The results reported here provide key insights into the genetics of root colonization by mycorrhizal fungi in wheat. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Effects of Cultivar and Nitrogen Nutrition on the Lipid Composition of Wheat Flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Byoung; González-Thuillier, Irene; Powers, Stephen J; Wilde, Peter; Shewry, Peter R; Haslam, Richard P

    2017-07-05

    Despite being minor components of flour, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) lipids contribute to grain processing. They are particularly important for bread making, where they adsorb to the surface of gas bubbles formed during the proving stage of bread making, stabilizing the gas cells and improving gas retention within the dough. This contributes to the volume and texture of the loaf. However, little is understood about how their amount, composition, and properties vary in response to genotype (G), environment (E) or G × E interactions. Six wheat lines were therefore grown at three levels of nitrogen supply at Rothamsted Research, and 48 lipid species across six lipid classes were identified and quantified in white flour using electrospray ionization-tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). This showed clear differences in the contents and compositions of lipids between cultivar as well as effects of nitrogen fertilization, which would be expected to have impacts on the processing properties of the samples.

  5. Effects of supplemental irrigation on water consumption characteristics and grain yield in different wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Weiwei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Shortage of water resources is a major limiting factor for wheat (Triticum aestivum L. production in the North China Plain. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of supplemental irrigation (SI on water use characteristics and grain yield of the wheat cultivars 'Jimai 22'and 'Zhouyuan 9369'. Two supplemental irrigation treatment regimens were designed based on target relative soil moisture contents in 0-140 cm soil layers at jointing rising to 75% of field capacity (FC for each cultivar, and at anthesis rising to 65% and 75% (W1, and 70% and 80% (W2 in 2009-2010 and 2010-2011, respectively. Rain-fed (W0 treatment was used as control. Under W1, grain yield of 'Jimai 22' was 5.22% higher than that of W2, and water use efficiency (WUE of 'Zhouyuan 9369' was 4.0% higher than that under W2. No significant differences in WUE of 'Jimai 22' and grain yield of 'Zhouyuan 9369' were observed for the two treatment regimens in 2009-2010. Grain yield and WUE in W1 were higher than those of W2 for both cultivars in 2010-2011. W1 enhanced soil water consumption compared to W2, especially in the 100-200 cm soil layers, for both cultivars in 2009-2011. Meanwhile, 'Jimai 22' showed higher soil water consumption and ET from anthesis to mature stage, which resulted in increase in grain yield and WUE of 'Jimai 22' by 8.15-21.7% and 7.75-11.73% in 2009-2010 and 2010-2011, respectively, compared with 'Zhouyuan 9369'. Thus, our results showed that SI increased the yield and WUE of 'Jimai 22' and W1 was the better treatment regimen.

  6. Seedling Resistance to Stem Rust and Molecular Marker Analysis of Resistance Genes in Wheat Cultivars of Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tian Ya; Cao, Yuan Yin; Wu, Xian Xin; Xu, Xiao Feng; Wang, Wan Lin

    2016-01-01

    Stem rust is one of the most potentially harmful wheat diseases, but has been effectively controlled in China since 1970s. However, the interest in breeding wheat with durable resistance to stem rust has been renewed with the emergence of Ug99 (TTKSK) virulent to the widely used resistance gene Sr31, and by which the wheat stem rust was controlled for 40 years in wheat production area worldwide. Yunnan Province, located on the Southwest border of China, is one of the main wheat growing regions, playing a pivotal role in the wheat stem rust epidemic in China. This study investigated the levels of resistance in key wheat cultivars (lines) of Yunnan Province. In addition, the existence of Sr25, Sr26, Sr28, Sr31, Sr32, and Sr38 genes in 119 wheat cultivars was assessed using specific DNA markers. The results indicated that 77 (64.7%) tested wheat varieties showed different levels of resistance to all the tested races of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici. Using molecular markers, we identified the resistance gene Sr31 in 43 samples; Sr38 in 10 samples; Sr28 in 12 samples, and one sample which was resistant against Ug99 (avirulent to Sr32). No Sr25 or Sr26 (effective against Ug99) was identified in any cultivars tested. Furthermore, 5 out of 119 cultivars tested carried both Sr31 and Sr38 and eight contained both Sr31 and Sr28. The results enable the development of appropriate strategies to breed varieties resistant to stem rust.

  7. Seedling Resistance to Stem Rust and Molecular Marker Analysis of Resistance Genes in Wheat Cultivars of Yunnan, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Ya Li

    Full Text Available Stem rust is one of the most potentially harmful wheat diseases, but has been effectively controlled in China since 1970s. However, the interest in breeding wheat with durable resistance to stem rust has been renewed with the emergence of Ug99 (TTKSK virulent to the widely used resistance gene Sr31, and by which the wheat stem rust was controlled for 40 years in wheat production area worldwide. Yunnan Province, located on the Southwest border of China, is one of the main wheat growing regions, playing a pivotal role in the wheat stem rust epidemic in China. This study investigated the levels of resistance in key wheat cultivars (lines of Yunnan Province. In addition, the existence of Sr25, Sr26, Sr28, Sr31, Sr32, and Sr38 genes in 119 wheat cultivars was assessed using specific DNA markers. The results indicated that 77 (64.7% tested wheat varieties showed different levels of resistance to all the tested races of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici. Using molecular markers, we identified the resistance gene Sr31 in 43 samples; Sr38 in 10 samples; Sr28 in 12 samples, and one sample which was resistant against Ug99 (avirulent to Sr32. No Sr25 or Sr26 (effective against Ug99 was identified in any cultivars tested. Furthermore, 5 out of 119 cultivars tested carried both Sr31 and Sr38 and eight contained both Sr31 and Sr28. The results enable the development of appropriate strategies to breed varieties resistant to stem rust.

  8. Virulence of wheat yellow rust races and resistance genes of wheat cultivars in Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ochoa, J.B.; Danial, D.L.; Paucar, B.

    2007-01-01

    Virulence factors of the yellow rust, Puccinia striiformis, populations in bread wheat were studied in Ecuador between 1973 and 2004. The number of virulence factors has increased markedly from very few in the early seventies to 16 at the end of the 90s. Isolates belonging to race 0E0 seem to be the

  9. The alleviating effect of elevated CO2 on heat stress susceptibility of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Ottosen, Carl-Otto; Rosenqvist, Eva S. K.

    2013-01-01

    Title: The alleviating effect of elevated CO2 on heat stress susceptibility of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars Session: Plant response and adaptation to abiotic stress Sindhuja Shanmugam1, Katrine Heinsvig Kjaer2*, Carl-Otto Ottosen2, Eva Rosenqvist3, Dew Kumari Sharma3 and Bernd Wolle...... crop performance under various climatic stresses.......Title: The alleviating effect of elevated CO2 on heat stress susceptibility of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars Session: Plant response and adaptation to abiotic stress Sindhuja Shanmugam1, Katrine Heinsvig Kjaer2*, Carl-Otto Ottosen2, Eva Rosenqvist3, Dew Kumari Sharma3 and Bernd......Institute for Agroecology, Aarhus University, Forsøgsvej 1, 4200 Slagelse, Denmark *Presenting author This study analysed the alleviating effect of elevated CO2 on stress-induced decreases in photosynthesis and changes in carbohydrate metabolism in two wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) of different...

  10. Heredity of flake- and stripe-variegated traits and their introduction into Japanese day-neutral winter-flowering sweet pea (Lathyrus odoratus L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagishita, Yoshimi; Hara, Yasuhide; Nakayama, Masayoshi

    2018-01-01

    Sweet pea ( Lathyrus odoratus L.) is a major cut flower in Japan, generally grown in greenhouses in winter to spring. The wild-type sweet pea is a long-day summer-flowering plant. The day-neutral winter-flowering ability, which allows cut-flower production in Japan, is a recessive phenotype that emerged by spontaneous mutation. Although Japanese winter-flowering cultivars and additionally spring-flowering cultivars, which have semi-long-day flowering ability generated by crossing the winter- and summer-flowering cultivars, have superior phenotypes for cut flowers, they have limited variation in color and fragrance. In particular, variegated phenotypes do not appear in modern winter- and spring-flowering cultivars, only in summer-flowering cultivars. We try to expand the phenotypic diversity of Japanese cut flower cultivars. In the processes, we introduced the variegated phenotypes by crossing with summer-flowering cultivars, and succeeded in breeding some excellent cultivars. During breeding, we analyzed the segregation ratios and revealed the heredity of the phenotypes. Here we review the heredity of these variegated phenotypes and winter-flowering phenotypes and their related genes. We also describe how we introduced the trait into winter-flowering cultivars, tracing their pedigrees to show both phenotypes and genotypes of the progeny at each generation. This knowledge is useful for the efficient breeding of new variegated cultivars.

  11. Effect of Irrigation to Winter Wheat on the Radiation Use Efficiency and Yield of Summer Maize in a Double Cropping System

    OpenAIRE

    Quanqi, Li; Yuhai, Chen; Xunbo, Zhou; Songlie, Yu; Changcheng, Guo

    2012-01-01

    In north China, double cropping of winter wheat and summer maize is a widely adopted agricultural practice, and irrigation is required to obtain a high yield from winter wheat, which results in rapid aquifer depletion. In this experiment conducted in 2001-2002, 2002-2003, and 2004-2005, we studied the effects of irrigation regimes during specific winter wheat growing stage with winter wheat and summer maize double cropping systems; we measured soil moisture before sowing (SMBS), the photosynt...

  12. Analysis of historical and modern hard red spring wheat cultivars based on parentage and HPLC of gluten proteins using Ward's clustering method

    Science.gov (United States)

    There have been substantial breeding efforts in North Dakota to produce wheat cultivars that are well adapted to weather conditions and are disease resistant. In this study, 30 hard red spring (HRS) wheat cultivars released between 1910 and 2013 were analyzed with regard to how they cluster in terms...

  13. Integrating remote sensing and GIS for prediction of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum protein contents in Linfen (Shanxi, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-chen Feng

    Full Text Available In this study, relationships between normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and plant (winter wheat nitrogen content (PNC and between PNC and grain protein content (GPC were investigated using multi-temporal moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS data at the different stages of winter wheat in Linfen (Shanxi, P. R. China. The anticipating model for GPC of winter wheat was also established by the approach of NDVI at the different stages of winter wheat. The results showed that the spectrum models of PNC passed F test. The NDVI4.14 regression effect of PNC model of irrigated winter wheat was the best, and that in dry land was NDVI4.30. The PNC of irrigated and dry land winter wheat were significantly (P<0.01 and positively correlated to GPC. Both of protein spectral anticipating model of irrigated and dry land winter wheat passed a significance test (P<0.01. Multiple anticipating models (MAM were established by NDVI from two periods of irrigated and dry land winter wheat and PNC to link GPC anticipating model. The coefficient of determination R(2 (R of MAM was greater than that of the other two single-factor models. The relative root mean square error (RRMSE and relative error (RE of MAM were lower than those of the other two single-factor models. Therefore, test effects of multiple proteins anticipating model were better than those of single-factor models. The application of multiple anticipating models for predication of protein content (PC of irrigated and dry land winter wheat was more accurate and reliable. The regionalization analysis of GPC was performed using inverse distance weighted function of GIS, which is likely to provide the scientific basis for the reasonable winter wheat planting in Linfen city, China.

  14. Integrating Remote Sensing and GIS for Prediction of Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Protein Contents in Linfen (Shanxi), China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Mei-chen; Xiao, Lu-jie; Zhang, Mei-jun; Yang, Wu-de; Ding, Guang-wei

    2014-01-01

    In this study, relationships between normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and plant (winter wheat) nitrogen content (PNC) and between PNC and grain protein content (GPC) were investigated using multi-temporal moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data at the different stages of winter wheat in Linfen (Shanxi, P. R. China). The anticipating model for GPC of winter wheat was also established by the approach of NDVI at the different stages of winter wheat. The results showed that the spectrum models of PNC passed F test. The NDVI4.14 regression effect of PNC model of irrigated winter wheat was the best, and that in dry land was NDVI4.30. The PNC of irrigated and dry land winter wheat were significantly (Pirrigated and dry land winter wheat passed a significance test (Pirrigated and dry land winter wheat and PNC to link GPC anticipating model. The coefficient of determination R2 (R) of MAM was greater than that of the other two single-factor models. The relative root mean square error (RRMSE) and relative error (RE) of MAM were lower than those of the other two single-factor models. Therefore, test effects of multiple proteins anticipating model were better than those of single-factor models. The application of multiple anticipating models for predication of protein content (PC) of irrigated and dry land winter wheat was more accurate and reliable. The regionalization analysis of GPC was performed using inverse distance weighted function of GIS, which is likely to provide the scientific basis for the reasonable winter wheat planting in Linfen city, China. PMID:24404124

  15. Landing Preference and Reproduction of Rhopalosiphum padi (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in the Laboratory on Three Maize, Potato, and Wheat Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Michelle L; Glinwood, Robert; Ignell, Rickard; Krüger, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    The bird cherry-oat aphid Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) transmits the nonpersistent Potato virus Y (PVY) to seed potatoes. Planting a nonvirus host plant around the main crop can reduce PVY incidence, because aphids tend to land in high numbers at the edge of a field and the crop border acts as a virus sink. This study determined R. padi landing and settling preferences and reproductive rates on three cultivars each of maize and wheat compared with potato in the laboratory as a basis for identifying an attractive crop border plant. Aphids were reared on maize and wheat to control for bias due to previous experience. Irrespective of origin, alates preferred to land almost exclusively on maize and wheat rather than on potato cultivars in choice experiments. Aphid settling on the maize and wheat cultivars depended on aphid origin. In no-choice experiments, R. padi produced the highest number of offspring on the wheat cultivars, irrespective of origin. Plant nitrogen content and trichome density did not influence R. padi reproduction. The study demonstrates that host plant preference of aphids may vary between plant cultivars and can therefore influence the effectiveness of a crop border. The high landing rate but low reproduction suggest that maize cultivars '6Q-121' and '78-15B' could be suitable crop border plants in regions where R. padi is abundant. Before testing potential crop border plants in the field, cultivars should be screened using aphid landing, settling and reproduction as selection criteria. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  16. Control of Fusarium head blight of winter wheat by artificial and natural infection using new fungicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Treikale

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In Latvia, climatic factors are influential in spreading of Fusarium head blight of cereals caused by Fusarium species. The most significant factor affecting the incidence of the disease in winter wheat is hightened temperature at the time of wheat anthesis. Field trials for the control of the disease in winter wheat were done in 2003-2004 using new fungicides applied at various rates by natural infection and artificial inoculation. Three species of causative agents: Fusarium avenaceum var. herbarum, F. gibbosum, F. culmorum were collected from infected seeds of wheat and used for inoculation of experimental plots at the concentration 106 conidia ml-1 (1:1:1 at the stage of full anthesis. Effective control of the disease was obtained through application of new fungicides with different active ingredient: Prosaro 250 EC (tebuconazole 125 G, prothioconazole 125 G L-1, Input 460 EC (spiroxamine 300 G, prothioconazole 160 G L-1. In conditions of artificial infection by severe attack of Fusarium spp. the application of fungicides containing tebuconazole at T3 gave significant influence on yield of winter wheat through plumpness of grains increase. High efficacy of fungicides against leaf infection with Erysiphe graminis and Drechslera tritici-repentis was also in the trial achieved. Application of fungicide containing cyproconazole and trifloxystrobin at T1 in the trial 2004 gave good control of Septoria tritici, E. graminis and D. triticirepentis.

  17. Projecting the impact of climate change on phenology of winter wheat in northern Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juknys, Romualdas; Velička, Rimantas; Kanapickas, Arvydas; Kriaučiūnienė, Zita; Masilionytė, Laura; Vagusevičienė, Ilona; Pupalienė, Rita; Klepeckas, Martynas; Sujetovienė, Gintarė

    2017-10-01

    Climate warming and a shift in the timing of phenological phases, which lead to changes in the duration of the vegetation period may have an essential impact on the productivity of winter crops. The main purpose of this study is to examine climate change-related long-term (1961-2015) changes in the duration of both initial (pre-winter) and main (post-winter) winter wheat vegetation seasons and to present the projection of future phenological changes until the end of this century. Delay and shortening of pre-winter vegetation period, as well as the advancement and slight extension of the post-winter vegetation period, resulted in the reduction of whole winter wheat vegetation period by more than 1 week over the investigated 55 years. Projected changes in the timing of phenological phases which define limits of a main vegetation period differ essentially from the observed period. According to pessimistic (Representative Concentration Pathways 8.5) scenario, the advancement of winter wheat maturity phase by almost 30 days and the shortening of post-winter vegetation season by 15 days are foreseen for a far (2071-2100) projection. An increase in the available chilling amount is specific not only to the investigated historical period (1960-2015) but also to the projected period according to the climate change scenarios of climate warming for all three projection periods. Consequently, the projected climate warming does not pose a threat of plant vernalization shortage in the investigated geographical latitudes.

  18. Considering the method of frost resistance determination for Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. І. Рябчун

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available There is the method represented in the article for frost resistance determination for Winter Wheat (soft and hard varieties by experts’ assessment of varieties submitted for Official Variety Studying. Prescribed temperature limits for artificial freezing of the plants, example varieties for frost-resistance groups, are indicated.

  19. Improvement of baking quality traits through a diverse soft winter wheat population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeding baking quality improvements into soft winter wheat (SWW) entails crossing lines based on quality traits, assessing new lines, and repeating several times as little is known about the genetics of these traits. Previous research on SWW baking quality focused on quantitative trait locus and ge...

  20. Evapotranspiration in winter wheat under different grazing and tillage practices in the southern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precipitation in the Southern Great Plains (SGP) is highly variable both spatially and temporally with recurring periods of severe drought. Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) – summer fallow system with conventional tillage is the principal dryland cropping system in this region for both grazing an...

  1. Feeding and multiplication of three cereal aphid species and their effect on yield of winter wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereijken, P.H.

    1979-01-01

    Sitobion avenae F. multiplies at a higher rate on winter wheat than Rhopalosiphum padi L. and Metopolophium dirhodum Wlk. Unlike the other two species S. avenae prefers the ear, where it multiplies twice as quickly as on the flag leaf. Infestation of the ear rather than of the leaves leads to

  2. Predicting pre-planting risk of Stagonospora nodorum blotch in winter wheat using machine learning models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pre-planting factors have been associated with the late-season severity of Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB), caused by the fungal pathogen Parastagonospora nodorum, in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum). The relative importance of these factors in the risk of SNB has not been determined and this know...

  3. Water availability for winter wheat affected by summer fallow tillage practices in sloping dryland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.B.; Cai, D.X.; Jin, K.; Wu, H.J.; Bai, Z.G.; Zhang, C.J.; Yao, Y.Q.; Lu, J.J.; Wang, Y.H.; Yang, B.; Hartman, R.; Gabriels, D.

    2003-01-01

    The tillage experiments for winter wheat were conducted on the slope farmland in Luoyang,Henan Province in the semihumid to arid loess plateau areas of North China. Different tillage methods inclu-ding reduced tillage (RT), no-till (NT), 2 crops/year (2C), subsoiling(SS), and conventional tillage

  4. Population dynamics of Fusarium spp. and Microdochium nivale in crops and crop residues of winter wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhl, J.; Haas, de B.H.; Kastelein, P.; Burgers, S.L.G.E.; Waalwijk, C.

    2007-01-01

    Naturally occurring populations of Fusarium avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. graminearum, F. poae, and Microdochium nivale were studied in two field experiments from anthesis in June 2003 until harvest in crops of winter wheat, and subsequently during 10 months after harvest until June 2004 on their

  5. A Genetic/Heuristic Approach to Simulating Plant Height in Winter Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    A challenge for crop simulation modeling is to incorporate existing and rapidly emerging genomic information into models to develop new and improved algorithms. The objective of this effort was to simulate plant height in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) across a range of environments in Nebraska...

  6. Development of frost tolerance in winter wheat as modulated by differential root and shoot temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windt, C.W.; van Hasselt, P.R

    Winter wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Urban), grown in nutrient solution, were exposed to differential shoot/root temperatures (i.e., 4/4, 4/20, 20/4 and 20/20 degrees C) for six weeks. Leaves grown at 4 degrees C showed an increase in frost tolerance from - 4 degrees C down to -11 degrees

  7. The impact of atmospheric ammonia and temperature on growth and nitrogen metabolism of winter wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clement, J.M A M; Loorbach, J; Meijer, J; van Hasselt, P.R; Stulen, G

    The effect of atmospheric ammonia in combination with low and moderate growth temperature on growth and nitrogen metabolism of winter wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Urban) was investigated. Plants were exposed to 0, 1000 and 2000 nl l(-1) NH3 for 1 week at moderate day/night temperatures

  8. Biochemical and Physicochemical Background of Mammalian Androgen Activity in Winter Wheat Exposed to Low Temperature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janeczko, A.; Biesaga-Koscielniak, J.; Dziurka, M.; Filek, M.; Hura, K.; Jurczyk, B.; Kula, M.; Oklešťková, Jana; Novák, Ondřej; Rudolphi-Skórska, E.; Skoczowski, A.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 1 (2018), s. 199-219 ISSN 0721-7595 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Androstenedione * Frost resistance * Langmuir analysis * Phytohormones * Soluble sugars * Winter wheat Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 2.073, year: 2016

  9. Yield and grain quality of winter wheat under Southern Steppe of Ukraine growing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. М. Корхова

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of three years study of the effect of sowing time and seed application rates on yield and grain quality of different varieties of winter wheat under the conditions of South Steppe of Ukraine were presented. It was found that winter wheat provides optimal combination of high yield and grain quality in case of sowing in October 10 with seed application rate of 5,0 million seeds/ha. The highest yield – 4,59 t/ha on average in 2011–2013 was obtained for the variety of Natalka when sowing in October 10 with seed application rate  of 5 million germinable seeds. With increasing seed application rate from 3 to 5 million seeds/ha, protein content in winter wheat was decreased by 0,3%, gluten – by 0,6%. The variety Natalka  formed the highest quality grains when sowing in October 20 with seed application rate of 3 million seeds/ha, in this case protein content was 15,8%, gluten – 32,9%. It is proved that early sowing time  – September 10 leads to yields reduction and grain   quality deterioration for all winter wheat varieties.

  10. Mass photosynthesis and distribution of photo assimilates of winter wheat varieties with different maturity feature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fahong; Zhao Junshi

    1996-01-01

    The mass photosynthesis rate and distribution of photoassimilates of winter wheat varieties with different maturity feature were studied using GXH-305 portable CO 2 infrared ray analyzer. The mass photosynthesis rate of winter wheat varieties with better maturity feature showed little difference from the varieties with general maturity feature during the early stage of grain filling phase. However, the mass photosynthesis rate of the former was significantly higher than that of the later during the middle and late stage of grain filling. The study with 14 CO 2 -tracing method showed that the relative activity in different organs of varieties with better maturity feature was significantly higher than that of varieties with worse maturity feature during the later growth stage of winter wheat. The rate of photoassimilates distribution in stalk and root system of winter wheat varieties with better maturity was higher than that in the others organs. The physiological mechanism of difference of grain yield and plant decay in varieties with different maturity feature were also discussed

  11. Study on the weediness of winter wheat in a long-term fertilization field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehoczky, E; Kismányoky, A; Kismányoky, T

    2006-01-01

    The study was carried out in Keszthely, in the long-term fertilization field experiment in April of 2005. In the experiment we had opportunity to compare the weediness in NPK and NPK + FYM* treatments, and we could study the effect of increasing N dosis on the weeds and winter wheat. The weed survey was made on the 20th of April at the end of tillering. For the weed survey used the Balázs-Ujvárosi method. After that we collected all the weeds from the plots per 1 m2. We counted, measured the fresh and dry matter weight of aerial parts. Winter wheat sampels were taken also from all plots (1 running meter per plot). In the experiment 10 weed species were found, 9 annual: Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Consolida regalis, Galium aparine, Lamiunt amplexicaule, Matricaria inodora, Papaver rhoeas, Stellaria media, Veronica hederifolia, Veronica triphyllos, and 1 perennial: Cirsium arvense. Veronica hederifolia was the dominant species in both fertilized plots, Stellaria media has the second highest weed coverage. The manuring treatments, and the N-dosis has important and significantly effect to the weedeness and the biomass production of winter wheat. On the control plots was the relation of biomass weight of weeds the highest. This relation reduced to the effect of N treatments, wich had an favorable effect on the winter wheat.

  12. Selection and hydroponic growth of bread wheat cultivars for bioregenerative life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, V.; Feller, U.

    2013-08-01

    As part of the ESA-funded MELiSSA program, the suitability, the growth and the development of four bread wheat cultivars were investigated in hydroponic culture with the aim to incorporate such a cultivation system in an Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). Wheat plants can fulfill three major functions in space: (a) fixation of CO2 and production of O2, (b) production of grains for human nutrition and (c) production of cleaned water after condensation of the water vapor released from the plants by transpiration. Four spring wheat cultivars (Aletsch, Fiorina, Greina and CH Rubli) were grown hydroponically and compared with respect to growth and grain maturation properties. The height of the plants, the culture duration from germination to harvest, the quantity of water used, the number of fertile and non-fertile tillers as well as the quantity and quality of the grains harvested were considered. Mature grains could be harvested after around 160 days depending on the varieties. It became evident that the nutrient supply is crucial in this context and strongly affects leaf senescence and grain maturation. After a first experiment, the culture conditions were improved for the second experiment (stepwise decrease of EC after flowering, pH adjusted twice a week, less plants per m2) leading to a more favorable harvest (higher grain yield and harvest index). Considerably less green tillers without mature grains were present at harvest time in experiment 2 than in experiment 1. The harvest index for dry matter (including roots) ranged from 0.13 to 0.35 in experiment 1 and from 0.23 to 0.41 in experiment 2 with modified culture conditions. The thousand-grain weight for the four varieties ranged from 30.4 to 36.7 g in experiment 1 and from 33.2 to 39.1 g in experiment 2, while market samples were in the range of 39.4-46.9 g. Calcium levels in grains of the hydroponically grown wheat were similar to those from field-grown wheat, while potassium, magnesium

  13. Analysis of deoxynivalenol and deoxynivalenol-3-glucosides content in Canadian spring wheat cultivars inoculated with Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasinghe, Chami C; Simsek, Senay; Brûlé-Babel, Anita; Fernando, W G Dilantha

    2016-07-01

    Contamination of wheat grains with Fusarium mycotoxins and their modified forms is an important issue in wheat industry. The objective of this study was to analyse the deoxynivalenol (DON) and deoxynivalenol-3-glucosides (D3G) content in Canadian spring wheat cultivars grown in two locations, inoculated with a mixture of 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON)-producing Fusarium graminearum strains and a mixture of 15-acetlyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON)-producing F. graminearum strains. According to the analysis of variance, significant differences were observed among the cultivars for Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease index, Fusarium-damaged kernel percentage (%FDK), DON content and D3G content. When the effect of chemotype was considered, significant differences were observed for FHB disease index, FDK percentage and DON content. The D3G content and D3G/DON ratio were not significantly different between the chemotypes, except for D3G content at the Winnipeg location. The Pearson correlation coefficient between DON and D3G was 0.84 and 0.77 at Winnipeg and Carman respectively. The highest D3G/DON ratio was observed in cultivars Carberry (44%) in Carman and CDC Kernen (63.8%) in Winnipeg. The susceptible cultivars showed lower D3G/DON ratio compared with the cultivars rated as moderately resistant and intermediate. The current study indicated that Canadian spring cultivars produce D3G upon Fusarium infection.

  14. Higher Ammonium Transamination Capacity Can Alleviate Glutamate Inhibition on Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Root Growth under High Ammonium Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Tian, Zhongwei; Muhammad, Abid; Zhang, Yixuan; Jiang, Dong; Cao, Weixing; Dai, Tingbo

    2016-01-01

    Most of the studies about NH4+ stress mechanism simply address the effects of free NH4+, failing to recognize the changed nitrogen assimilation products. The objective of this study was to elucidate the effects of glutamate on root growth under high ammonium (NH4+) conditions in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Hydroponic experiments were conducted using two wheat cultivars, AK58 (NH4+-sensitive) and Xumai25 (NH4+-tolerant) with either 5 mM NH4+ nitrogen (AN) as stress treatment or 5 mM nitrate (NO3-) nitrogen as control. To evaluate the effects of NH4+-assimilation products on plant growth, 1 μM L-methionine sulfoximine (MSO) (an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase (GS)) and 1 mM glutamates (a primary N assimilation product) were added to the solutions, respectively. The AN significantly reduced plant biomass, total root length, surface area and root volume in both cultivars, but less effect was observed in Xumai25. The inhibition effects were alleviated by the application of MSO but strengthened by the application of glutamate. The AN increased the activities of GS, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) in both cultivars, resulting in higher glutamate contents. However, its contents were decreased by the application of MSO. Compared to AK58, Xumai25 showed lower glutamate contents due to its higher activities of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT). With the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) contents decreasing in roots, the ratio of shoot to root in IAA was increased, and further increased by the application of glutamate, and reduced by the application of MSO, but the ratio was lower in Xumai25. Meanwhile, the total soluble sugar contents and its root to shoot ratio also showed similar trends. These results indicate that the NH4+-tolerant cultivar has a greater transamination ability to prevent glutamate over-accumulation to maintain higher IAA transport ability, and consequently promoted soluble sugar transport to roots, further

  15. Higher Ammonium Transamination Capacity Can Alleviate Glutamate Inhibition on Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Root Growth under High Ammonium Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wang

    Full Text Available Most of the studies about NH4+ stress mechanism simply address the effects of free NH4+, failing to recognize the changed nitrogen assimilation products. The objective of this study was to elucidate the effects of glutamate on root growth under high ammonium (NH4+ conditions in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. Hydroponic experiments were conducted using two wheat cultivars, AK58 (NH4+-sensitive and Xumai25 (NH4+-tolerant with either 5 mM NH4+ nitrogen (AN as stress treatment or 5 mM nitrate (NO3- nitrogen as control. To evaluate the effects of NH4+-assimilation products on plant growth, 1 μM L-methionine sulfoximine (MSO (an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase (GS and 1 mM glutamates (a primary N assimilation product were added to the solutions, respectively. The AN significantly reduced plant biomass, total root length, surface area and root volume in both cultivars, but less effect was observed in Xumai25. The inhibition effects were alleviated by the application of MSO but strengthened by the application of glutamate. The AN increased the activities of GS, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH in both cultivars, resulting in higher glutamate contents. However, its contents were decreased by the application of MSO. Compared to AK58, Xumai25 showed lower glutamate contents due to its higher activities of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT. With the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA contents decreasing in roots, the ratio of shoot to root in IAA was increased, and further increased by the application of glutamate, and reduced by the application of MSO, but the ratio was lower in Xumai25. Meanwhile, the total soluble sugar contents and its root to shoot ratio also showed similar trends. These results indicate that the NH4+-tolerant cultivar has a greater transamination ability to prevent glutamate over-accumulation to maintain higher IAA transport ability, and consequently promoted soluble sugar transport to roots

  16. Improvement of the agronomic traits of a wheat-barley centric fusion by introgressing the 3HS.3BL translocation into a modern wheat cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkösi, Edina; Farkas, András; Aranyi, Nikolett Réka; Hoffmann, Borbála; Tóth, Viola; Molnár-Láng, Márta

    2014-11-01

    The 3HS.3BL spontaneous Robertsonian translocation obtained from the progenies of wheat-barley (Chinese Spring × Betzes) hybrids backcrossed with wheat line Mv9kr1 was transferred into the modern Martonvásár wheat cultivar Mv Bodri. The translocation was identified with molecular cytogenetic methods. The inheritance of the translocation was traced using genomic in situ hybridization. Fluorescence in situ hybridization using barley subtelomeric (HvT01) and centromere-specific [(AGGGAG)4] repetitive DNA probes confirmed that the complete barley chromosome arm was involved in the Robertsonian translocation. The wheat-specific repetitive DNA probes identified the presence of the whole wheat genome, except the short arm of the 3B chromosome. Genotypes homozygous for the centric fusion were selected, after which morphological analysis was performed on the plants and the yield components were measured in the field during two consecutive vegetative seasons. The introgression of the 3HS.3BL translocation into the modern wheat cultivar Mv Bodri significantly reduced the plant height due to the incorporation of the dwarfing allele RhtD1b. The presence of the 3HS.3BL translocation in the Mv9kr1 and Mv Bodri wheat background improved tillering and seeds per plant productivity in field experiments carried out in Martonvásár and Keszthely, Hungary.

  17. Breeding bread wheat cultivars for high protein content by transfer of protein genes from Triticum dicoccoides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grama, A.; Gerechter-Amitai, Z.K.; Blum, A.; Rubenthaler, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    Triticum dicoccoides sel. G-25, a selection of wild emmer with a protein content of 20.5% and a kernel weight of 31.5 mg, was used as the donor of protein genes. Since this selection is highly resistant to stripe rust, the object of the crossing programme was to transfer this resistance, together with the high protein potential, to durum and bread wheat cultivars susceptible to the disease. In the tetraploid lines obtained from the T. dicoccoides/T. durum cross, the protein values ranged from 17 to 22%. These lines had resistance to stripe rust from the wild emmer and to stem rust from the durum. After two further crosses between these tetraploid lines and T. aestivum cultivars, several lines were selected which combined good yield, high protein level and resistance to rust diseases. These lines attained protein levels of 14 to 19% in the whole grain and 14 to 17% in the flour, combined with yields of 4.5 to 6.0 t/ha. They had also inherited resistance to stem rust, and in some instances also to leaf rust, from the cultivated wheat parental lines. (author)

  18. Glycine betaine and salicylic acid induced modification in productivity of two different cultivars of wheat grown under water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshmat S. Aldesuquy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the beneficial effect of foliar application of glycine betaine (10mM, grain presoaking in salicylic acid (0.05 M and their interaction on drought tolerance of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars (sensitive, Sakha 94 and resistant, Sakha 93. Water stress decreased wheat yield components (spike length, number of spikelets / main spike, 100 kernel weight, grain number / spike, grain yield / spike, grain yield / plant, straw yield / plant, crop yield / plant, harvest, mobilization and crop indices and the biochemical aspects of grains(grain biomass, carbohydrates, total protein, total phosphorus, ions content and amino acids in both wheat cultivars. The applied chemicals appeared to alleviate the negative effects of water stress on wheat productivity (particularly the sensitive one and the biochemical aspects of yielded grains. The effect was more pronounced with GB+SA treatment. This improvement would result from the repairing effect of the provided chemicals on growth and metabolism of wheat plants grown under water deficit condition. In response to the applied water stress and the used chemicals, the grain yield of the sensitive and resistant wheat cultivars was strongly correlated with all the estimated yield components (shoot length, spike length, plant height, main spike weight, number of spikelets per main spike, 100 kernel weight, grain number per spike, grain weight per plant, straw weight per plant, crop yield per plant, harvest, mobilization and crop indices.

  19. Effect of different tillage intensity on yields and yield-forming factors in winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Houšť

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of a study on application of minimum tillage technologies when growing winter wheat. Experiments were performed in the sugar-beet-growing region with loamy chernozem within the period of 2005–2009. Aanalysed and evaluated were effects of different methods of soil processing on yield-forming factors in stands of winter wheat grown after three different preceding crops (i.e. alfalfa, maize for silage and pea. Evaluated were the following four variants of tillage: (1 conventional ploughing to the depth of 0.22 m (Variant 1; (2 ploughing to the depth of 0.15 m (Variant 2; (3 direct sowing into the untilled soil (Variant 3, and (4 shallow tillage to the depth of 0.10 m (Variant 4.The effect of different tillage intensity on winter wheat yields was statistically non-significant after all forecrops. After alfalfa, the highest and the lowest average yields were recorded in Variant 2 (i.e. with ploughing to the depth of 0.15 m and Variant 3 (direct sowing into the untilled soil, respectively. After maize grown for silage, higher yields were obtained in Variant 2 and Variant 1 (conventional ploughing while in Variants 4 and 3 the obtained yields were lower. When growing winter wheat after pea as a preceding crop, the highest and the lowest average yields were recorded after direct sowing (Variant 3 and in Variant 1 (i.e. ploughing to the depth of 0.22 m, respectively. Results of studies on effect of different tillage technologies on yields of winter wheat crops indicate that under the given pedological and climatic conditions it is possible to apply methods of reduced tillage intensity. However, the choice of the corresponding technology must be performed with regard to the type of preceding crop.

  20. Rapid and targeted introgression of genes into popular wheat cultivars using marker-assisted background selection.

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    Harpinder S Randhawa

    Full Text Available A marker-assisted background selection (MABS-based gene introgression approach in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. was optimized, where 97% or more of a recurrent parent genome (RPG can be recovered in just two backcross (BC generations. A four-step MABS method was developed based on 'Plabsim' computer simulations and wheat genome structure information. During empirical optimization of this method, double recombinants around the target gene were selected in a step-wise fashion during the two BC cycles followed by selection for recurrent parent genotype on non-carrier chromosomes. The average spacing between carrier chromosome markers was <4 cM. For non-carrier chromosome markers that flanked each of the 48 wheat gene-rich regions, this distance was approximately 12 cM. Employed to introgress seedling stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici resistance gene Yr15 into the spring wheat cultivar 'Zak', marker analysis of 2,187 backcross-derived progeny resulted in the recovery of a BC(2F(2ratio3 plant with 97% of the recurrent parent genome. In contrast, only 82% of the recurrent parent genome was recovered in phenotypically selected BC(4F(7 plants developed without MABS. Field evaluation results from 17 locations indicated that the MABS-derived line was either equal or superior to the recurrent parent for the tested agronomic characteristics. Based on these results, MABS is recommended as a strategy for rapidly introgressing a targeted gene into a wheat genotype in just two backcross generations while recovering 97% or more of the recurrent parent genotype.

  1. The Effect of Chlormequat Chloride on Yield and Yield Components of Three Wheat Cultivars under Drought Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KH. Rokhafrooz

    2016-07-01

    to 5 g L-1. The positive effect of CCC was greater under control and light stress compared to under severe stress conditions. In the greenhouse study where Marvdasht, Shiraz, and Chamran cultivars were evaluated, Chamran cultivar produced the highest grain yield under both normal and drought conditions; although Shiraz cultivar was found more responsive to CCC. Overall; drought stress reduced growth and grain yield of wheat crop; however, CCC could compensate, at least in part (i.e. 30% to 60% for the latter reductions.

  2. Genetic Mapping of Stem Rust Resistance to Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Race TRTTF in the Canadian Wheat Cultivar Harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert, Colin W; Rouse, Matthew N; Nirmala, Jayaveeramuthu; Fetch, Tom

    2017-02-01

    Stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, is a destructive disease of wheat that can be controlled by deploying effective stem rust resistance (Sr) genes. Highly virulent races of P. graminis f. sp. tritici in Africa have been detected and characterized. These include race TRTTF and the Ug99 group of races such as TTKSK. Several Canadian and U.S. spring wheat cultivars, including the widely grown Canadian cultivar 'Harvest', are resistant to TRTTF. However, the genetic basis of resistance to TRTTF in Canadian and U.S. spring wheat cultivars is unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine the number of Sr genes involved in TRTTF resistance in Harvest, genetically map the resistance with DNA markers, and use markers to assess the distribution of that resistance in a panel of Canadian cultivars. A doubled haploid (DH) population was produced from the cross LMPG-6S/Harvest. The DH population was tested with race TRTTF at the seedling stage. Of 92 DH progeny evaluated, 46 were resistant and 46 were susceptible which perfectly fit a 1:1 ratio indicating a single Sr gene was responsible for conferring resistance to TRTTF in Harvest. Mapping with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers placed the resistance gene distally on the chromosome 6AS genetic map, which corresponded to the location reported for Sr8. SSR marker gwm459 and 30 cosegregating SNP markers showed the closest linkage, mapping 2.2 cM proximal to the Sr gene. Gene Sr8a confers resistance to TRTTF and may account for the resistance in Harvest. Testing a panel of Canadian wheat cultivars with four SNP markers closely linked to resistance to TRTTF suggested that the resistance present in Harvest is present in many Canadian cultivars. Two of these SNP markers were also predictive of TRTTF resistance in a panel of 241 spring wheat lines from the United States, Canada, and Mexico.

  3. Short-term winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cover crop grazing influence on calf growth, grain yield, and soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter cover cropping has many agronomic benefits and can provide forages base for spring livestock grazing. Winter cover crop grazing has shown immediate economic benefits through increased animal production. Winter wheat pasture grazing is common in beef cow-calf production and stocker operations....

  4. Carbon-13 discrimination as a criterion for identifying high water use efficiency wheat cultivars under water deficit conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazza, M.

    1996-01-01

    During four consecutive years, 20 durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf) and bread wheat (Triticum aestrivum L.) cultivars were grown under rain-fed conditions and supplementary irrigation with the objective of assessing the possibility of using 13 C discrimination Δ as a criterion to screen for wheat cultivars that produce high yields and have a better water use efficiency under water deficit conditions. In all four growing season, both treatments were subjected to some water stress which was higher under rain-fed conditions and varied according to the intensity and time of rainfall. During the first growing season, and despite small differences between the two treatments in terms of the amounts of water used, the grain and straw yields as well as Δ were significantly higher in the treatment which received an irrigation at installation than in the one without irrigation. There was substantial genotypic variation in Δ. When both treatments were considered, the total above ground dry matter yield and grain yield were positively correlated with Δ although the correlation coefficient of grain yield versus Δ was not high ( ** ). The data suggest that while a high Δ value may be used as a criterion for selection of cultivars of wheat with potential for high yield and high water use efficiency in wheat under field conditions, caution must be exercised in the selection process as the size of the canopy and the changes in environmental factors mainly soil water content, can result in changes in Δ and the yield of a cultivar. However, Δ of a genotype can also provide valuable information with respect to plant parameters responsible for the control of Δ and this information can be usefully employed in breeding programmes aimed at developing wheat cultivars high in yield and high in water use efficiency, and suitable for cultivation in arid and semi-arid regions of the tropics and sub-tropics. 11 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  5. Genetics and mapping of stem rust resistance to Ug99 in the wheat cultivar Webster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert, Colin W; Fetch, Thomas G; Zegeye, Taye

    2010-06-01

    New races of wheat stem rust, namely TTKSK (Ug99) and its variants, pose a threat to wheat production in the regions where they are found. The accession of the wheat cultivar Webster (RL6201) maintained at the Cereal Research Centre in Winnipeg, Canada, shows resistance to TTKSK and other races of stem rust. The purpose of this study was to study the inheritance of seedling resistance to stem rust in RL6201 and genetically map the resistance genes using microsatellite (SSR) markers. A population was produced by crossing the stem rust susceptible line RL6071 with Webster. The F(2) and F(3) were tested with TPMK, a stem rust race native to North America. The F(3) was also tested with TTKSK. Two independently assorting genes were identified in RL6201. Resistance to TPMK was conferred by Sr30, which was mapped with microsatellites on chromosome 5DL. The second gene, temporarily designated SrWeb, conferred resistance to TTKSK. SrWeb was mapped to chromosome 2BL using SSR markers. Comparison with previous genetic maps showed that SrWeb occupies a locus near Sr9. Further analysis will be required to determine if SrWeb is a new gene or an allele of a previously identified gene.

  6. Grain Yield Stability of Bread Wheat Cultivars under Irrigation in Cold and Temperate Climatic Conditions of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bakhshayeshi Geshlagh,

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to study yield stability of bread wheat cultivars including Alvand, Alamout, Zarrin, Navid, Azar 2, Sabalan, Omid and Bezostiya under irrigation an experiment was conducted in RCBD for three cropping seasons (2007-2010 at six locations. Simple and combined analysis of variances for three years, each location and also combined analysis of variances for 3 years and 6 locations were implemented. Lin and Binns parameter, environmental coefficient of variations and rank method were used for determination of stable cultivars. Results of combined ANOVA (three years x six locations showed that interaction effect of year x location x genotype was significant. The highest grain yield belonged to the Alvand cultivar  with 3.74 tha -1. Results of stability analysis with Lin and Binns method also showed that Zarrin cultivar had the lowest within location variance for grain yield and lowest environmental coefficient of variations was belonged to cultivars Zarrin and Sabalan. The results of rank method showed that cultivars Alvand and Sabalan had the lowest rankingand cultivars Sabalan and Bezostiya had the lowest SDR among the experimental cultivars. It can be concluded that Zarrin and Sabalan cultivars had the highest yield stability and thus it can be recommended for locations in which it was studied.

  7. Evolutionary Effects on Morphology and Agronomic Performance of Three Winter Wheat Composite Cross Populations Maintained for Six Years under Organic and Conventional Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Brumlop

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Three winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. composite cross populations (CCPs that had been maintained in repeated parallel populations under organic and conventional conditions from the F5 to the F10 were compared in a two-year replicated field trial under organic conditions. The populations were compared to each other, to a mixture of the parental varieties used to establish the CCPs, and to three winter wheat varieties currently popular in organic farming. Foot and foliar diseases, straw length, ear length, yield parameters, and baking quality parameters were assessed. The overall performance of the CCPs differed clearly from each other due to differences in their parental genetics and not because of their conventional or organic history. The CCPs with high yielding background (YCCPs also yielded higher than the CCPs with a high baking quality background (QCCPs; in the absence of extreme winter stress. The QCCPs performed equally well in comparison to the reference varieties, which were also of high baking quality. Compared to the parental mixture the CCPs proved to be highly resilient, recovering much better from winter kill in winter 2011/12. Nevertheless, they were out yielded by the references in that year. No such differences were seen in 2013, indicating that the CCPs are comparable with modern cultivars in yielding ability under organic conditions. We conclude that—especially when focusing on traits that are not directly influenced by natural selection (e.g. quality traits—the choice of parents to establish a CCP is crucial. In the case of the QCCPs the establishment of a reliable high-quality population worked very well and quality traits were successfully maintained over time. However, in the YCCPs lack of winter hardiness in the YCCP parents also became clearly visible under relevant winter conditions.

  8. Development and implementation of a multiscale biomass model using hyperspectral vegetation indices for winter wheat in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnyp, Martin L.; Bareth, Georg; Li, Fei; Lenz-Wiedemann, Victoria I. S.; Koppe, Wolfgang; Miao, Yuxin; Hennig, Simon D.; Jia, Liangliang; Laudien, Rainer; Chen, Xinping; Zhang, Fusuo

    2014-12-01

    Crop monitoring during the growing season is important for regional management decisions and biomass prediction. The objectives of this study were to develop, improve and validate a scale independent biomass model. Field studies were conducted in Huimin County, Shandong Province of China, during the 2006-2007 growing season of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The field design had a multiscale set-up with four levels which differed in their management, such as nitrogen fertilizer inputs and cultivars, to create different biomass conditions: small experimental fields (L1), large experimental fields (L2), small farm fields (L3), and large farm fields (L4). L4, planted with different winter wheat varieties, was managed according to farmers' practice while L1 through L3 represented controlled field experiments. Multitemporal spectral measurements were taken in the fields, and biomass was sampled for each spectral campaign. In addition, multitemporal Hyperion data were obtained in 2006 and 2007. L1 field data were used to develop biomass models based on the relation between the winter wheat spectra and biomass: several published vegetation indices, including NRI, REP, OSAVI, TCI, and NDVI, were investigated. A new hyperspectral vegetation index, which uses a four-band combination in the NIR and SWIR domains, named GnyLi, was developed. Following the multiscale concept, the data of higher levels (L2 through L4) were used stepwise to validate and improve the models of the lower levels, and to transfer the improved models to the next level. Lastly, the models were transferred and validated at the regional scale using Hyperion images of 2006 and 2007. The results showed that the GnyLi and NRI models, which were based on the NIR and SWIR domains, performed best with R2 > 0.74. All the other indices explained less than 60% model variability. Using the Hyperion data for regionalization, GnyLi and NRI explained 81-89% of the biomass variability. These results highlighted

  9. Evapotranspiration and its partitioning in an irrigated winter wheat field: A combined isotopic and micrometeorologic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yucui; Shen, Yanjun; Sun, Hongyong; Gates, John B.

    2011-10-01

    SummaryGroundwater overdraft threatens the future of irrigated agriculture in the North China Plain. Because irrigated winter wheat is the dominant user of extracted groundwater, improved understanding of water cycling through the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum during wheat cultivation in the North China Plain is necessary for improving the sustainable utilization of limited water resources and promoting food security. In this paper, a combination of micrometeorological and stable isotope techniques was used to investigate evapotranspiration and soil water dynamics in a typical winter wheat agro-ecosystem (Luancheng Agro-ecosystem Experiment Station, Hebei Province). Stable isotope mixing models were used with eddy covariance evapotranspiration estimates and micro-lysimeter evaporation measurements to partition evapotranspiration and determine temporal variability of root water uptake depths. Results suggest that evaporation during the winter wheat irrigation season can reach up to 30% of the total water consumption (almost two typical irrigations). The main depths of root water uptake were 0-40 cm. Therefore, it is suggested that the planned irrigation wetting depth can be reduced at least to 40 cm, rather than the traditional 100 cm, as a means of water conservation. Widespread implementation of these practices could amount to a significant water savings for the North China Plain.

  10. Leaf Chlorophyll Content Estimation of Winter Wheat Based on Visible and Near-Infrared Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianfeng; Han, Wenting; Huang, Lvwen; Zhang, Zhiyong; Ma, Yimian; Hu, Yamin

    2016-03-25

    The leaf chlorophyll content is one of the most important factors for the growth of winter wheat. Visual and near-infrared sensors are a quick and non-destructive testing technology for the estimation of crop leaf chlorophyll content. In this paper, a new approach is developed for leaf chlorophyll content estimation of winter wheat based on visible and near-infrared sensors. First, the sliding window smoothing (SWS) was integrated with the multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) or the standard normal variable transformation (SNV) to preprocess the reflectance spectra images of wheat leaves. Then, a model for the relationship between the leaf relative chlorophyll content and the reflectance spectra was developed using the partial least squares (PLS) and the back propagation neural network. A total of 300 samples from areas surrounding Yangling, China, were used for the experimental studies. The samples of visible and near-infrared spectroscopy at the wavelength of 450,900 nm were preprocessed using SWS, MSC and SNV. The experimental results indicate that the preprocessing using SWS and SNV and then modeling using PLS can achieve the most accurate estimation, with the correlation coefficient at 0.8492 and the root mean square error at 1.7216. Thus, the proposed approach can be widely used for winter wheat chlorophyll content analysis.

  11. Spatial decision supporting for winter wheat irrigation and fertilizer optimizing in North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaodong; Yang, Hao; Dong, Yansheng; Yu, Haiyang

    2014-11-01

    Production management of winter wheat is more complicated than other crops since its growth period is covered all four seasons and growth environment is very complex with frozen injury, drought, insect or disease injury and others. In traditional irrigation and fertilizer management, agricultural technicians or farmers mainly make decision based on phenology, planting experience to carry out artificial fertilizer and irrigation management. For example, wheat needs more nitrogen fertilizer in jointing and booting stage by experience, then when the wheat grow to the two growth periods, the farmer will fertilize to the wheat whether it needs or not. We developed a spatial decision support system for optimizing irrigation and fertilizer measures based on WebGIS, which monitoring winter wheat growth and soil moisture content by combining a crop model, remote sensing data and wireless sensors data, then reasoning professional management schedule from expert knowledge warehouse. This system is developed by ArcIMS, IDL in server-side and JQuery, Google Maps API, ASP.NET in client-side. All computing tasks are run on server-side, such as computing 11 normal vegetable indexes (NDVI/ NDWI/ NDWI2/ NRI/ NSI/ WI/ G_SWIR/ G_SWIR2/ SPSI/ TVDI/ VSWI) and custom VI of remote sensing image by IDL; while real-time building map configuration file and generating thematic map by ArcIMS.

  12. Quality characteristics of northern-style Chinese steamed bread prepared from soft red winter wheat flours with waxy wheat flour substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quality characteristics of Chinese steamed bread (CSB) prepared from two soft red winter (SRW) wheat flours blended with 0-30% waxy wheat flour (WWF) were determined to estimate the influence of starch amylose content. The increased proportion of WWF in blends raised mixograph absorption with insign...

  13. Improved Method for Reliable HMW-GS Identification by RP-HPLC and SDS-PAGE in Common Wheat Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, You-Ran; Beom, Hye-Rang; Altenbach, Susan B; Lee, Min-Ki; Lim, Sun-Hyung; Lee, Jong-Yeol

    2017-06-24

    The accurate identification of alleles for high-molecular weight glutenins (HMW-GS) is critical for wheat breeding programs targeting end-use quality. RP-HPLC methods were optimized for separation of HMW-GS, resulting in enhanced resolution of 1By and 1Dx subunits. Statistically significant differences in retention times (RTs) for subunits corresponding to HMW-GS alleles were determined using 16 standard wheat cultivars with known HMW-GS compositions. Subunits that were not identified unambiguously by RP-HPLC were distinguished by SDS-PAGE or inferred from association with linked subunits. The method was used to verify the allelic compositions of 32 Korean wheat cultivars previously determined using SDS-PAGE and to assess the compositions of six new Korean cultivars. Three cultivars contained subunits that were identified incorrectly in the earlier analysis. The improved RP-HPLC method combined with conventional SDS-PAGE provides for accurate, efficient and reliable identification of HMW-GS and will contribute to efforts to improve wheat end-use quality.

  14. Wheat cultivar-specific selection of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol-producing Pseudomonas species from resident soil populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazzola, M.; Funnell, D.L.; Raaijmakers, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    An emerging body of evidence indicates a role for plant genotype as a determinant of the species and genetic composition of the saprophytic microbial community resident to the rhizosphere. In this study, experiments were conducted to determine the capacity of five different wheat cultivars to

  15. Evaluation of Diversity and Traits Correlation in Spring Wheat Cultivars under Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza NAGHAVI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to study of diversity and classify agro-morphological characters under normal irrigation and drought stress in spring wheat cultivars, 20 cultivars were evaluated in the research farm of University of Tabriz, Iran. According to the results, significant correlation was found between grain yield and number of spikes per plant, number of tiller per plant, number of fertile tillers, spike length, root length, root number, root volume, root diameter and root dry weight under both conditions. Moreover, 1,000 grain weight and plant dry weight had significant positive correlation with grain yield under drought stress. Factor analysis detected four and two factors which explained 96.77% and 90.59% of the total variation in normal irrigation and drought stress conditions, respectively. In drought stress condition the first factor justified 69.52% of total variation and was identified as yield factor. The second factor explained 21.07% of total variation and represented the biomass and plant height factor. Cluster analysis was based on the four and two factors obtained. According to the amount of factors for clusters obtained under drought stress, ‘Kavir’, ‘Niknejhad’, ‘Moghan 3’, ‘Darya’ and ‘Marvdasht’ were identified as the most drought tolerant cultivars. Other cluster was comprised of ‘Bahar’, ‘Pishtaz’, ‘Bam’, ‘Sepahan’, ‘Sistan’, ‘Pars’ and ‘Sivand’ and was named as the most sensitive under drought stress. Tolerant cultivars identified within the study can be used for direct culture or as genitors in breeding programs.

  16. Chromosomal rearrangements caused by gamma-irradiation in winter wheat cells

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    M. M. Nazarenko

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article we report the results of our investigation into several cytogenetic parameters of variability in mutation induction of modern winter wheat varieties and some connections between the means of cytogenetic indices and different doses of gamma-rays. Analysis of chromosomal aberrations following the action of any kind of mutagen by the anaphases method is one of the most widely investigated and most precise methods which can be used to determine the fact of mutagenic action on plants and identify the nature of the mutagen. We combined in our investigation the sensitivity of genotype to mutagen using cytological analysis of mutagen treated wheat populations with the corresponding different varieties by breeding methods to reveal its connections and differences, specific sensitivity to mutagens action on the cell level. Dry seeds of 8 varieties of winter wheat were subjected to 100, 150, 200, 250 Gy gamma irradiation, which are trivial for winter wheat mutation breeding. We investigated rates and spectra of chromosomal aberrations in the cells of winter wheat primary roots tips. The coefficients of correlations amid the rate of chromosomal aberrations and the dose of gamma-rays were on the level 0.8–0.9. The fragments/bridges ratio is a clear and sufficient index for determining the nature of the mutagen agent. We distinguished the following types of chromosomal rearrangements: chromatid and chromosome bridges, single and double fragments, micronuclei, and delayed chromosomes. The ratio of chromosomal aberrations changes with the change in mutagen; note that bridge-types are characteristic of irradiation. Radiomutants are more resistant to gamma rays. This is apparent in the lower rate of chromosomal aberrations. Varieties obtained by chemical mutagenesis (varieties Sonechko, Kalinova are more sensitive to gamma-irradiation than others. We propose these varieties as objects for a mutation breeding programme and radiation of mutants

  17. Analysis of Yield and Yield Related Traits Variability of Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Cv. Izolda and Double Haploid Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozdój Janusz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The yield-forming potential of winter wheat is determined by several factors, namely total number of shoots per plant and total number of spikelets per spike. The field experiments were conducted during three vegetation seasons at the Plant Breeding and Acclimatization Institute – National Research Institute (PBAI–NRI, located in Radzików, Poland. The objective of this study was a comparative analysis of the structural yield-forming factor levels, which determine grain yield per spike and per plant of the DH lines and standard Izolda cultivar. Results indicate that several DH lines showed some differences in tested morphological structures of plant, yield factor levels and in grain yield per spike and per plant in comparison to standard Izolda, regardless of the year. Mean grain yield per plant of DH lines was 26.5% lower in comparison to standard Izolda only in the second year of study. It was caused by a reduction of productive tillers number. Structural yield-forming potential of DH lines was used in 38% and 59% and in case of Izolda in 47% and 61% (the second and the third year of experiment, respectively. The mean grain yield per spike of DH lines was 14.8% lower than Izolda cultivar only in third year of experiment and it was caused by about 12% lower number of grains per spike. Structural yield-forming potential of DH spikes was used in 82.4%, 85.4% and 84.9% and in case of Izolda in 83.8%, 87% and 89.5% (the first, the second and the third year of experiment, respectively. The grain yield per winter wheat plant (both DH lines and standard Izolda was significantly correlated with the number of productive tillers per plant (r = 0.80. The grain yield per winter wheat spike (both DH lines and Izolda cultivar was significantly and highly correlated with the number of grains per spike (r = 0.96, number of fertile spikelets per spike (r = 0.87 and the spike length (r = 0.80. Variation of spike and plant structural yield-forming factors

  18. Association analysis of stem rust resistance in U.S. winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dadong; Bowden, Robert L; Yu, Jianming; Carver, Brett F; Bai, Guihua

    2014-01-01

    Stem rust has become a renewed threat to global wheat production after the emergence and spread of race TTKSK (also known as Ug99) and related races from Africa. To elucidate U.S. winter wheat resistance genes to stem rust, association mapping was conducted using a panel of 137 lines from cooperative U.S. winter wheat nurseries from 2008 and simple sequence repeat (SSR) and sequence tagged site (STS) markers across the wheat genome. Seedling infection types were evaluated in a greenhouse experiment using six U.S. stem rust races (QFCSC, QTHJC, RCRSC, RKQQC, TPMKC and TTTTF) and TTKSK, and adult plant responses to bulked U.S. races were evaluated in a field experiment. A linearization algorithm was used to convert the qualitative Stakman scale seedling infection types for quantitative analysis. Association mapping successfully detected six known stem rust seedling resistance genes in U.S. winter wheat lines with frequencies: Sr6 (12%), Sr24 (9%), Sr31 (15%), Sr36 (9%), Sr38 (19%), and Sr1RSAmigo (8%). Adult plant resistance gene Sr2 was present in 4% of lines. SrTmp was postulated to be present in several hard winter wheat lines, but the frequency could not be accurately determined. Sr38 was the most prevalent Sr gene in both hard and soft winter wheat and was the most effective Sr gene in the adult plant field test. Resistance to TTKSK was associated with nine markers on chromosome 2B that were in linkage disequilibrium and all of the resistance was attributed to the Triticum timopheevii chromosome segment carrying Sr36. Potential novel rust resistance alleles were associated with markers Xwmc326-203 on 3BL, Xgwm160-195 and Xwmc313-225 on 4AL near Sr7, Xgwm495-182 on 4BL, Xwmc622-147 and Xgwm624-146 on 4DL, and Xgwm334-123 on 6AS near Sr8. Xwmc326-203 was associated with adult plant resistance to bulked U.S. races and Xgwm495-182 was associated with seedling resistance to TTKSK.

  19. Association analysis of stem rust resistance in U.S. winter wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadong Zhang

    Full Text Available Stem rust has become a renewed threat to global wheat production after the emergence and spread of race TTKSK (also known as Ug99 and related races from Africa. To elucidate U.S. winter wheat resistance genes to stem rust, association mapping was conducted using a panel of 137 lines from cooperative U.S. winter wheat nurseries from 2008 and simple sequence repeat (SSR and sequence tagged site (STS markers across the wheat genome. Seedling infection types were evaluated in a greenhouse experiment using six U.S. stem rust races (QFCSC, QTHJC, RCRSC, RKQQC, TPMKC and TTTTF and TTKSK, and adult plant responses to bulked U.S. races were evaluated in a field experiment. A linearization algorithm was used to convert the qualitative Stakman scale seedling infection types for quantitative analysis. Association mapping successfully detected six known stem rust seedling resistance genes in U.S. winter wheat lines with frequencies: Sr6 (12%, Sr24 (9%, Sr31 (15%, Sr36 (9%, Sr38 (19%, and Sr1RSAmigo (8%. Adult plant resistance gene Sr2 was present in 4% of lines. SrTmp was postulated to be present in several hard winter wheat lines, but the frequency could not be accurately determined. Sr38 was the most prevalent Sr gene in both hard and soft winter wheat and was the most effective Sr gene in the adult plant field test. Resistance to TTKSK was associated with nine markers on chromosome 2B that were in linkage disequilibrium and all of the resistance was attributed to the Triticum timopheevii chromosome segment carrying Sr36. Potential novel rust resistance alleles were associated with markers Xwmc326-203 on 3BL, Xgwm160-195 and Xwmc313-225 on 4AL near Sr7, Xgwm495-182 on 4BL, Xwmc622-147 and Xgwm624-146 on 4DL, and Xgwm334-123 on 6AS near Sr8. Xwmc326-203 was associated with adult plant resistance to bulked U.S. races and Xgwm495-182 was associated with seedling resistance to TTKSK.

  20. Effects of Magnetized Saline on Growth and Development of Winter Wheat Seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Dandan LIU; Yan SHI

    2013-01-01

    In order to explore the effects of magnetized saline solution treatment on crop growth and development, with Jimai 22 as experimental material, this experiment studied the effects of magnetized water solution of 0.3% NaCl and 0.5% NaCl, groundwater solution of 0.3% NaCl and 0.5% NaCl on SPAD value, soluble protein content and activities of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) of winter wheat. The results showed that, under the conditions of this experiment, the wheat of the magnetize...

  1. Manthar-03: a high-yielding cultivar of wheat released for general cultivation in Southern Punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.; Akhtar, L.H.; Nasim, M.

    2010-01-01

    We report the release of a new wheat variety Manthar-03. 'Manthar-03' is a high yielding and rust resistant variety of bread wheat with erect growth habit. It was released in the year 2003 as a general purpose variety. Manthar-03 is a selection from CIMMYT material (Entry No. 42 of 29 International Bread Wheat Screening Nursery) made at Regional Agricultural Research Institute (RARI), Bahawalpur during 1996-97. This strain has the famous CIMMYT line 'Kauz' in its parentage (KAUZ//ALTAR 84/AOS). Its pedigree is CM11163-6M-20Y-10M- 0M-0B. It is a more adapted and a high yielder. Genetically, this strain differs from existing commercial cultivars of Punjab. Resistance against leaf rust (5MRMS to 10MR), RRI value of 6.7 and 7.6 for leaf rust and ACI values of 3.4 and 0.7 for leaf rust) and high yield potential (6300 kg ha-1 ) are the major attributes of Manthar-03 that make it a superior variety for its target regions. Manthar-03 is tolerant to wheat aphid and Helicoverpa armigera. The thousand seed weight of this variety is 40-44 g. Seed is amber in color and contains 12.97% protein, 8.2% dry gluten and 1.55% ash. It has good chapati making quality. Plant type of Manthar-03 is erect with plant height 94 cm and droopy flag leaves. It is lodging resistant. It completes heading in 98 days and matures in 142 days. Manthar-03 performs better when planted from 15, November to 1, December, keeping 125 kg ha/sup -1/ seed rate and 125-85-50 kg NPK ha/sup -1/ are applied. (author)

  2. Physiological Processes and Yield of Winter Wheat and Triticale under the Influence of Sprinkling Irrigation and Nitrogen Fertilization Part II. Acticity of Some Enzymes and Yield of Winter Wheat and Triticale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Kaczmarczyk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The second part of this paper presents effects of supplemental irrigation and nitrogen fertilization on nitrate levels in flag leaf, activity of some enzymes and yield of winter wheat and triticale. Both sprinkling irrigation and high doses of nitrogen enhanced the activity of nitrate reductase and peroxydase and slightly that of acid phosphatase. Plants from plots treated with high rates of nitrogen contained more nitrate nitrogen. Sprinkling irrigation and intensive nitrogen fertilization significantly increased the crops of winter wheat and triticale. As effect of sprinkling the yield of winter wheat increased by 35 % and triticale by 14 %. High nitrogen doses affected the yield respectively by 92 and 115 % and the combined effect of both treatments increased the yield of winter wheat by 158 % (3.3 t/ha and triticale by 139 % 3.10 t/ha.

  3. Evaluation of ISSR markers to assess genetic variability and relationship among winter triticale (x triticosecale wittmack) cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sozen, E.

    2010-01-01

    The ISSR technique was used to identify genetic relationships in 11 winter hexaploid triticale cultivars Lasko, Stan-1, Malno, Purdy, AN-34, Tatlicak-97, Karma-2000, Presto, Melez-2001, Mikham-2002, Samur Sorti. Twenty ISSR primers were tested and twelve of them amplified clear and reproducible bands. The number of ISSR fragments generated per primer set ranged from 5 to 31 with fragment sizes varying from 320 to 2700bp. A total of 209 ISSR fragments were detected, of which 159 were polymorphic (76.07%). All cultivars were clearly differentiated by their ISSR fingerprints. Based on UPGMA analysis a dendrogram was constructed and 11 triticale cultivars were grouped in two clusters. Cluster I was the largest, comprising 10 cultivars which can be divided into four subclusters. Only one cultivar, Stan-1 was positioned in Cluster II. The polymorphic patterns generated by ISSR profiles showed different degrees of genetic relationship among the cultivars studied. Similarity values between cultivars ranged from 0.59 to 0.89. The results indicate that ISSRs may constitute a relatively simple and efficient method for analysing genetic variation in triticale. (author)

  4. Selenium supplementation of Portuguese wheat cultivars through foliar treatment in actual field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catarina Galinha; Pacheco, A.M.G.; Maria do Carmo Freitas; Jose Coutinho; Benvindo Macas; Ana Sofia Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is a trace element essential to the well-being and health quality of humankind. Plant-derived foodstuffs, namely cereals, are the major dietary sources of Se in most countries throughout the world, even if Se contents are strongly dependent upon the corresponding levels in cereal-growing soils. Therefore, wheat is one of the staple crops that appears as an obvious candidate for Se biofortification, considering its gross-tonnage production and nutritional relevance worldwide. The present paper focuses on the ability of bread and durum wheat-Triticum aestivum L. and Triticum durum Desf., respectively-to accumulate Se after supplementation via a foliar-addition procedure. Two of the most representative wheat cultivars in Portugal - Jordao (bread) and Marialva (durum) - have been selected for supplementation trials, following the same agronomic practices and field schedules as the regular (non-supplemented) crops of those varieties (sowing: November 2010; harvesting: July 2011). Foliar additions were performed at the booting and grain-filling stages, using sodium selenate and sodium selenite solutions at three different Se concentrations-equivalent to field supplementation rates of 4, 20 and 100 g of Se per ha-with and without potassium iodide. Selenium contents in wheat grains obtained under foliar application are compared to data from regular wheat samples (field blanks) grown at the same soil/season, yet devoid of any Se supplementation. Total Se in all field samples was determined by cyclic neutron activation analysis (CNAA), via the short-lived nuclide 77m Se (half-life time: 17.5 s), in the Portuguese Research Reactor (RPI; CTN-IST, Sacavem). Quality control of the analytical procedure was asserted through concurrent analyses of NIST-SRM R 1567a (Wheat Flour). Results show that foliar additions can increase Se contents in mature grains up to 15 and 40 times for Marialva and Jordao, respectively, when compared to non-supplemented crops. Jordao and

  5. Impacts of IOD, ENSO and ENSO Modoki on the Australian Winter Wheat Yields in Recent Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chaoxia; Yamagata, Toshio

    2015-11-01

    Impacts of the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), two different types of El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO): canonical ENSO and ENSO Modoki, on the year-to-year winter wheat yield variations in Australia have been investigated. It is found that IOD plays a dominant role in the recent three decades; the wheat yield is reduced (increased) by -28.4% (12.8%) in the positive (negative) IOD years. Although the canonical ENSO appears to be responsible for the wheat yield variations, its influences are largely counted by IOD owing to their frequent co-occurrence. In contrast, the ENSO Modoki may have its distinct impacts on the wheat yield variations, but they are much smaller compared to those of IOD. Both the observed April-May and the predicted September-November IOD indices by the SINTEX-F ocean-atmosphere coupled model initialized on April 1st just before the sowing season explain ~15% of the observed year-to-year wheat yield variances. The present study may lead to a possible scheme for predicting wheat yield variations in Australia in advance by use of simple climate mode indices.

  6. Mapping of Leaf Rust Resistance Genes and Molecular Characterization of the 2NS/2AS Translocation in the Wheat Cultivar Jagger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Shulin; Kolmer, James A; Wang, Shuwen; Yan, Liuling

    2018-04-19

    Winter wheat cultivar 'Jagger' was recently found to have an alien chromosomal segment 2NS that has Lr37 , a gene conferring resistance against leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina The objective of this study was to map and characterize the gene(s) for seedling leaf rust resistance in Jagger. The recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of Jagger × '2174' was inoculated with leaf rust pathogen THBJG and BBBDB, and evaluated for infection type (IT) response. A major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for THBJG and BBBDB was coincidently mapped to chromosome arm 2AS, and the QTL accounted for 56.6% - 66.2% of total phenotypic variation in infection type (IT) response to THBJG, and 72.1% - 86.9% to BBBDB. The causal gene for resistance to these rust races was mapped to the 2NS segment in Jagger. The 2NS segment was located in a region of approximately 27.8 Mb starting from the telomere of chromosome arm 2AS, based on the sequences of the A genome in tetraploid wheat. The Lr17a gene on chromosome arm 2AS was delimited to 3.1 Mb in the genomic region, which was orthologous to the 2NS segment. Therefore, the Lr37 gene in the 2NS segment can be pyramided with other effective resistance genes, rather than Lr17a in wheat, to improve resistance to rust diseases. Copyright © 2018, G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics.

  7. [Influence of planting density and precipitation on N2O emission from a winter wheat field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y; Jiang, J; Zong, L; Zhou, Q; Sass, R L; Fisher, F M

    2001-11-01

    To investigate the impact of plant density on N2O emission from winter wheat field and the cause of seasonal variation in the emission, field experiment with four planting rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg/ha was conducted at the Jiangning County near Nanjing during 1999-2000 winter wheat growing season. Data of the field measurements indicated that the N2O emission rates during the season from planting to overwintering were not influenced by the plant density, while the emission was positively correlated with the planting density during the season from turning green to maturity. The emissions from the field plots with planting rates of 0 and 90 kg/ha were not found to be significantly different. A further analysis suggested that the seasonal variation of N2O emission be mainly influenced by precipitation, which could be quantitatively described by an exponential function of a weighted average precipitation of 6-day period before measurement.

  8. Association and Validation of Yield-Favored Alleles in Chinese Cultivars of Common Wheat (Triticumaestivum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Guo

    Full Text Available Common wheat is one of the most important crops in China, which is the largest producer in the world. A set of 230 cultivars was used to identify yield-related loci by association mapping. This set was tested for seven yield-related traits, viz. plant height (PH, spike length (SL, spikelet number per spike (SNPS, kernel number per spike (KNPS, thousand-kernel weight (TKW, kernel weight per spike (KWPS, and sterile spikelet number (SSN per plant in four environments. A total of 106 simple sequence repeat (SSR markers distributed on all 21 chromosomes were used to screen the set. Twenty-one and 19 of them were associated with KNPS and TKW, respectively. Association mapping detected 73 significant associations across 50 SSRs, and the phenotypic variation explained (R2 by the associations ranged from 1.54 to 23.93%. The associated loci were distributed on all chromosomes except 4A, 7A, and 7D. Significant and potentially new alleles were present on 8 chromosomes, namely 1A, 1D, 2A, 2D, 3D, 4B, 5B, and 6B. Further analysis showed that genetic effects of associated loci were greatly influenced by association panels, and the R2 of crucial loci were lower in modern cultivars than in the mini core collection, probably caused by strong selection in wheat breeding. In order to confirm the results of association analysis, yield-related favorable alleles Xgwm135-1A138, Xgwm337-1D186, Xgwm102-2D144, and Xgwm132-6B128 were evaluated in a double haploid (DH population derived from Hanxuan10 xLumai14.These favorable alleles that were validated in various populations might be valuable in breeding for high-yield.

  9. Weed infestation of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. under the conditions of application of some retardants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Harasim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A field study was conducted in the period 2004–2007 on grey-brown podzolic soil (sandy. This study analysed the relationship between the use of stem shortening in cereals by means of retardants with the following active substances: chlormequat chloride (Antywylegacz Płynny 675 SL, trinexapac-ethyl (Moddus 250 EC, chlormequat chloride + ethephon (Cecefon 465 SL, and weed infestation. The retardants were applied at the 1st node stage (BBCH 31 – Antywylegacz Płynny 675 SL and the 2nd node stage of winter wheat (BBCH 32 – Moddus 250 EC and Cecefon 465 SL, together with the adjuvant Atpolan 80 EC (75% of SN 200 mineral oil or without the adjuvant. Winter wheat, cv. 'Muza', was grown after vetch grown for seed. The whole experiment was sprayed with the herbicides Apyros 75 WG and Starane 250 EC at the full tillering stage (BBCH 29–30. Plots where no growth regulators were used were the control treatment. Weed density and biomass showed great variation between years. In the winter wheat crop, Veronica persica, Viola arvensis, Veronica arvensis, Capsella bursa-pastoris,and Chenopodium album dominated in the dicotyledonous class, whereas Apera spica-venti, Echinochloa crus-galli,and Elymus repens were predominant among monocotyledonous plants. The level of weed infestation of the winter wheat crop, as measured by the number and air-dry weight of weeds, was significantly differentiated by years and retardants used as well as by interactions of these factors. The adjuvant Atpolan 80 EC did not have a significant effect on the above-mentioned weed infestation parameters. .

  10. Frost-Resistant Plants Selection Peculiarities at Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Varieties Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. П. Чебаков

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Giving regard to the main elements of Winter Wheat varieties assessment when selecting frost resistant plants and taking into account genetic potential of the parents, date of hybrids sowing and their assessment by the speed of spring vegetation, it is possible in the sense of successful breeding to derive the most steady genotypes by the specified characteristics starting from F1. hybrids.

  11. Irrigation management strategies for winter wheat using AquaCrop model

    OpenAIRE

    M. H. Ali; I. Abustan

    2013-01-01

    Many regions of the world face the challenge to ensure high yield with limited water supply. This calls for utilization of available water in an efficient and sustainable manner. Quantitative models can assist in management decision and planning purposes. The FAO’s newly developed crop-water model, AquaCrop, which simulates yield in response to water, has been calibrated for winter wheat and subsequently used to simulate yield under different sowing dates, irrigation frequencies, and irrigati...

  12. Responses of Winter Wheat Yield and Water Use Efficiency to Irrigation Frequency and Planting Pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengyue Bian

    Full Text Available A suitable planting pattern and irrigation strategy are essential for optimizing winter wheat yield and water use efficiency (WUE. The study aimed to evaluate the impact of planting pattern and irrigation frequency on grain yield and WUE of winter wheat. During the 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 winter wheat growing seasons in the North China Plain, the effects of planting patterns and irrigation frequencies were determined on tiller number, grain yield, and WUE. The two planting patterns tested were wide-precision and conventional-cultivation. Each planting pattern had three irrigation regimes: irrigation (120 mm at the jointing stage; irrigation (60 mm at both the jointing and heading stages; and irrigation (40 mm at the jointing, heading, and milking stages. In our study, tiller number was significantly higher in the wide-precision planting pattern than in the conventional-cultivation planting pattern. Additionally, the highest grain yields and WUE were observed when irrigation was applied at the jointing stage (120 mm or at the jointing and heading stages (60 mm each in the wide-precision planting pattern. These results could be attributed to higher tiller numbers as well as reduced water consumption due to reduced irrigation frequency. In both growing seasons, applying 60 mm of water at jointing and heading stages resulted in the highest grain yield among the treatments. Based on our results, for winter wheat production in semi-humid regions, we recommend a wide-precision planting pattern with irrigation (60 mm at both the jointing and heading stages.

  13. Responses of Winter Wheat Yield and Water Use Efficiency to Irrigation Frequency and Planting Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Chengyue; Ma, Changjian; Liu, Xinhui; Gao, Chao; Liu, Quanru; Yan, Zhenxing; Ren, Yujie; Li, Quanqi

    2016-01-01

    A suitable planting pattern and irrigation strategy are essential for optimizing winter wheat yield and water use efficiency (WUE). The study aimed to evaluate the impact of planting pattern and irrigation frequency on grain yield and WUE of winter wheat. During the 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 winter wheat growing seasons in the North China Plain, the effects of planting patterns and irrigation frequencies were determined on tiller number, grain yield, and WUE. The two planting patterns tested were wide-precision and conventional-cultivation. Each planting pattern had three irrigation regimes: irrigation (120 mm) at the jointing stage; irrigation (60 mm) at both the jointing and heading stages; and irrigation (40 mm) at the jointing, heading, and milking stages. In our study, tiller number was significantly higher in the wide-precision planting pattern than in the conventional-cultivation planting pattern. Additionally, the highest grain yields and WUE were observed when irrigation was applied at the jointing stage (120 mm) or at the jointing and heading stages (60 mm each) in the wide-precision planting pattern. These results could be attributed to higher tiller numbers as well as reduced water consumption due to reduced irrigation frequency. In both growing seasons, applying 60 mm of water at jointing and heading stages resulted in the highest grain yield among the treatments. Based on our results, for winter wheat production in semi-humid regions, we recommend a wide-precision planting pattern with irrigation (60 mm) at both the jointing and heading stages.

  14. Relationships between the climate change and the grain filling of winter wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang, Z.; Jiang, D.

    2016-01-01

    The present study is based on the material in a grain filling rate experiment of winter wheat and hourly weather data organised by Xinghua city of Jiangsu Province. The aims are to objectively evaluate the possible influences of the temperature, precipitation, sunshine at the different time of the same day on the grain filling rate of winter wheat. The grain filling rate evaluation model of climate change is firstly developed, and then, the model calculation results are compared with the observed data. The along the changes of the microclimate, changes of the grain filling rate of winter wheat, which is not same in the gradual, rapid and slow increase stages. The changes in grain filling rate of winter wheat, which were caused by variations of temperature, precipitation and sunshine duration, showed periodic fluctuation. Variation in temperature resulted in 1.36 g d/sup -1/(10a)/sup -1/ of grain filling rate change; variation in precipitation resulted in -1.35 g d/sup -1/. (10a)/sup -1/ of grain filling rate change; and variation in sunshine duration resulted in 0.07 g d/sup -1/ (10a)/sup -1/ of grain filling rate change. Three samples showed a grain filling rate change of 0.08 g d/sup -1/(10a)/sup -1/. These findings indicate that the increase in temperature and sunshine duration caused the elevation of grain filling rate, whereas the increase in precipitation decreased the grain filling rate. Therefore, monitoring and predication capability of Meteorological disasters, such as drought caused by high temperature, should be strengthened to ensure the favourable weather condition and improve the grain filling rate through scientific methods such as artificial precipitation. (author)

  15. Estimation of Nitrogen Vertical Distribution by Bi-Directional Canopy Reflectance in Winter Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Wenjiang; Yang, Qinying; Pu, Ruiliang; Yang, Shaoyuan

    2014-01-01

    Timely measurement of vertical foliage nitrogen distribution is critical for increasing crop yield and reducing environmental impact. In this study, a novel method with partial least square regression (PLSR) and vegetation indices was developed to determine optimal models for extracting vertical foliage nitrogen distribution of winter wheat by using bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) data. The BRDF data were collected from ground-based hyperspectral reflectance measuremen...

  16. [Temporal and spatial variation of water requirement of winter wheat and its influencing factors in Henan Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ni; Sun, Jing-Sheng; Wang, Jing-Lei; Chen, Zhi-Fang; Liu, Zu-Gui

    2014-06-01

    Based on mean meteorological data of ten days in 17 observation stations from 1961 to 2012, the reference crop evapotranspiration was computed using Penman-Monteith formula recommended by FAO. The water requirement of winter wheat in Henan Province was calculated by adopting crop coefficients and the growth stage of winter wheat from the "National Irrigation Experiment Database", and the temporal and spatial distribution, variation and affecting factors in recent 51 years were analyzed by means of time-series analysis and gray relational grade analysis. The results showed that the average water requirement of winter wheat was 345-492 mm in Henan Province from 1961 to 2011, and it was lowest at Lushi station and highest at Mengjin station. The average water requirement of winter wheat was lowest from 1980 to 1989 and highest from 1961 to 1969 at most stations. The water requirement of winter wheat showed a tendency to increase with years at the 7 stations (Xinxiang, Luanchuan, Kaifeng, Xixia, Nanyang, Xinyang and Gushi) , while it indicated a tendency to decline in the other 10 stations. The water requirement of winter wheat in North Henan was higher than in South Henan, and had a high span variation in West Henan. During the growing period of winter wheat, the average daily maximum and minimum temperatures showed a tendency to increase with years, while the average daily wind speed and relative humidity, and the sunshine hours had a tendency to decline. In Henan Province, the water requirement of winter wheat was mainly affected by the average daily maximum temperature and the sunshine hours, and least influenced by the average daily relative humidity.

  17. Straw export in continuous winter wheat and the ability of oil radish catch crops and early sowing of wheat to offset soil C and N losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peltre, Clément; Nielsen, Martin Preuss; Christensen, B.T.

    2016-01-01

    The export of winter wheat straw for bioenergy may reduce soil C stocks and affect N losses. Establishing fast-growing catch crops between successive wheat crops could potentially offset some of the C and N losses. Another option is to sow wheat earlier, increasing biomass production during...... the autumn. The effects of straw export, oil radish catch crop and early sowing of wheat on soil C storage, N leaching losses and N2O emissions were simulated by applying the Daisy model to winter wheat grown continuously for a period of 100 years on a sandy loam soil in a Danish climate. The simulations...... included five levels of initial soil C content (1–3% C), three levels of straw incorporation (0, 50 and 100%), +/− catch crop (oil radish) and two sowing dates (1 and 22 September). Exporting the entire straw production reduced soil C stocks by 1.2 to 14% after 100 years, depending on the initial C content...

  18. Effect of irrigation to winter wheat on the radiation use efficiency and yield of summer maize in a double cropping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quanqi, Li; Yuhai, Chen; Xunbo, Zhou; Songlie, Yu; Changcheng, Guo

    2012-01-01

    In north China, double cropping of winter wheat and summer maize is a widely adopted agricultural practice, and irrigation is required to obtain a high yield from winter wheat, which results in rapid aquifer depletion. In this experiment conducted in 2001-2002, 2002-2003, and 2004-2005, we studied the effects of irrigation regimes during specific winter wheat growing stage with winter wheat and summer maize double cropping systems; we measured soil moisture before sowing (SMBS), the photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) capture ratio, grain yield, and the radiation use efficiency (RUE) of summer maize. During the winter wheat growing season, irrigation was applied at the jointing, heading, or milking stage, respectively. The results showed that increased amounts of irrigation and irrigation later in the winter wheat growing season improved SMBS for summer maize. The PAR capture ratio significantly (LSD, P wheat should be irrigated in later stages to achieve reasonable grain yield for both crops.

  19. A model for making field-based nitrogen recommendations for winter wheat in western oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, D.M.; Malghani, M.A.K.; Khan, M.A.; Kakar, E.

    2010-01-01

    A model based on early spring soil and tissue analysis was developed and evaluated for predicting the need for additional nitrogen (N) fertilizer on winter wheat. To develop the model, On-farm trials were' established over three years 1994-95 in grower's fields at three different locations across the Willamette Valley of western Oregon. Two field-scale validation trials were run in 1996-97. Rotations were soft white winter wheat following grass seed, sweet corn or a legume. Four treatments, including a check receiving no nitrogen, were used at each site At the site where wheat followed corn, the predicted optimum N rate was 168 kg N ha/sup -1/ however, the 112 kg N ha/sup -1/ rate was the optimum rate predicted by the developed model. The 84 kgN ha/sup -1/ and 140 kgN ha/sup -1/ rates were selected to bracket the recommended rate (+- 28 kg N ha/sup -1/). Wheat following grass seed had high soil supplied N which depressed the yield even at moderate fertilizer N rates. The model overall accurately assess field-specific optimum fertilizer N status. (author)

  20. Simultaneous Transfer of Leaf Rust and Powdery Mildew Resistance Genes from Hexaploid Triticale Cultivar Sorento into Bread Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Wheat powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, and wheat leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina Eriks, are two important diseases that severely threaten wheat production. Sorento, a hexaploid triticale cultivar from Poland, shows high resistance to the wheat powdery mildew isolate E09 and the leaf rust isolate PHT in Beijing, China. To introduce resistance genes into common wheat, Sorento was crossed with wheat line Xuezao, which is susceptible to both diseases, and the F1 hybrids were then backcrossed with Xuezao as the recurrent male parent. By marker analysis, we demonstrate that the long arm of the 2R (2RL chromosome confers resistance to both the leaf rust and powdery mildew isolates at adult-plant and seedling stages, while the long arm of 4R (4RL confers resistance only to powdery mildew at both stages. The chromosomal composition of BC2F3 plants containing 2R or 2RL and 4R or 4RL in the form of substitution and translocation were confirmed by GISH (genomic in situ hybridization and FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization. Monosomic and disomic substitutions of a wheat chromosome with chromosome 2R or 4R, as well as one 4RS-4DL/4DS-4RL reciprocal translocation homozigote and one 2RL-1DL translocation hemizigote, were recovered. Such germplasms are of great value in wheat improvement.

  1. [Hyperspectral estimation of leaf water content for winter wheat based on grey relational analysis (GRA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiu-Liang; Xu, Xin-Gang; Wang, Ji-Hua; Li, Xin-Chuan; Wang, Yan; Tan, Chang-Wei; Zhu, Xin-Kai; Guo, Wen-Shan

    2012-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare two methods for the precision of estimating leaf water content (LWC) in winter wheat by combining stepwise regression method and partial least squares (SRM-PLS) or PLS based on the relational degree of grey relational analysis (GRA) between water vegetation indexes (WVIs) and LWC. Firstly, data utilized to analyze the grey relationships between LWC and the selected typical WVIs were used to determine the sensitivity of different WVIs to LWC. Secondly, the two methods of estimating LWC in winter wheat were compared, one was to directly use PLS and the other was to combine SRM and PLS, and then the method with the highest determination coefficient (R2) and lowest root mean square error (RMSE) was selected to estimate LWC in winter wheat. The results showed that the relationships between the first five WVI and LWC were stable by using GRA, and then LWC was estimated by using PLS and SRM-PLS at the whole stages with the R2 and RMSEs being 0.605 and 0.575, 4.75% and 7.35%, respectively. The results indicated that the estimation accuracy of LWC could be improved by using GRA firstly and then by using PLS and SRM-PLS.

  2. Grain yield and competitive ability against weeds in modern and heritage common wheat cultivars are differently influenced by sowing density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariateresa Lazzaro

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sowing density can have a strong impact on crop stand development during wheat growing cycle. In organic and low-input agriculture, and therefore with minimum or nil use of chemical herbicides, increased sowing density is expected to affect not only grain yield but also weed suppression. In this study we tested, under Mediterranean conditions, six common wheat cultivars (three modern and three heritage and two three-component mixtures (arranged by combining the three modern or the three heritage cultivars. The different crop stands were tested at sowing densities of 250 (low and 400 (high, similar to standard sowing density used by local farmers viable seeds m–2 for two growing seasons. We did not detect a significant effect of crop stand diversity (single cultivars vs mixtures on grain yield and weed suppression. Differences were ascribed to type of cultivars used (heritage vs modern. Compared to high sowing density, in modern cultivars grain yield did not decrease significantly with low sowing density, whereas in heritage cultivars it increased by 15.6%, possibly also because of 21.5% lower plant lodging. Weed biomass increased with low sowing density both in heritage and modern cultivar crop stand types. However, heritage crop stands had, on average, a lower weed biomass (56% than modern crop stands. Moreover, weed biomass in heritage crop stands at low density (6.82±1.50 g m–2 was lower than that of modern cultivars at the same sowing density (15.54±3.35 g m–2, confirming the higher suppressive potential of the former. We can conclude that lower sowing density can be advisable when using heritage crop stands as it keeps productivity while decreasing plant lodging and maintaining weeds under control.

  3. Quantitative protein composition and baking quality of winter wheat as affected by late sulfur fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zörb, Christian; Steinfurth, Dorothee; Seling, Simone; Langenkämper, Georg; Koehler, Peter; Wieser, Herbert; Lindhauer, Meinolf G; Mühling, Karl H

    2009-05-13

    Increasing prices for wheat products and fertilizers, as well as reduced sulfur (S) contributions from the atmosphere, call for an improvement of product quality and agricultural management. To detect the impact of a time-dependent S fertilization, the quantitative protein composition and the baking quality of two different wheat cultivars, Batis and Turkis, were evaluated. The glutathione concentration in grains serves as a reliable marker of the need for added S fertilizer. The quantitation of gliadins and glutenin subunits by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography confirmed that S-rich proteins significantly increased with S fertilization, whereas the S-poor proteins significantly decreased. Proteome analysis by means of high-resolution protein profiles detected 55 and 37 proteins from Batis and Turkis changed by late S fertilization. A microscale baking test using wholemeal flour was implemented for the evaluation of baking quality, and late S fertilization was found to improve the composition of gluten proteins and baking quality.

  4. Physiological and biochemical constituents as predictive appreciation for selection of drought tolerant cultivars in wheat (triticum aestivum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalal-ud-Din; Khan, S.U.; Gurmani, A.R.

    2012-01-01

    A pot study was undertaken to assess the effect of drought stress imposed at various growth stages on growth, physiological and biochemical attributes of wheat. Five commercial wheat cultivars viz. Chakwal-97, Inqalab-91, Margalla-99, NR-234 and Wafaq-2001 were grown in pots. The plants were subjected to three consecutive drought cycles at tillering, pre-anthesis and milky growth stages. Measurements pertaining to various physiological and biochemical parameters such as relative water content (RWC), proline, superoxide dismutase (SOD), membrane stability index (MSI), yield and yield components were made. Significant reduction in grain yield was observed in all the test varieties when drought was imposed at any growth stage. The reduction was highest (39-64%) when stress was imposed at pre-anthesis followed by tillering growth stage. The wheat variety Wafaq-2001 and Inqalab-91 performed better by giving higher yield and produced greater numbers of filled seeds per spike compared to other varieties. Under water stress proline contents were higher in the drought-tolerant cultivar Wafaq-2001. The same variety showed higher membrane stability index and antioxidant enzymes (SOD) activity under drought stress conditions. The results suggest that pre-anthesis growth stage is the most sensitive towards drought stress. Wheat cultivars: Wafaq-2001 and Inqalab-91 showed best tolerance response against drought stress. Higher proline, RWC and SOD activity under drought stress seems to be the most reliable parameters enabling the discrimination of varieties for drought tolerance. (author)

  5. Chemometric Analysis of High Molecular Mass Glutenin Subunits and Image Data of Bread Crumb Structure from Croatian Wheat Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Jurković

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate functional relationships among wheat properties, high molecular mass (weight (HMW glutenin subunits and bread quality produced from eleven Croatian wheat cultivars by chemometric analysis. HMW glutenin subunits were fractionated by sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamid gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and subsequently analysed by scanning densitometry in order to quantify HMW glutenin fractions. Wheat properties are characterised by four variables: protein content, sedimentation value, wet gluten and gluten index. Bread quality is assessed by the standard measurement of loaf volume, and visual quality of bread slice is quantified by 8 parameters by the use of computer image analysis. The data matrix with 21 columns (measured variables and 11 rows (cultivars is analysed for determination of number of latent variables. It was found that the first two latent variables account for 92, 85 and 87 % of variance of wheat quality properties, HMW glutenin fractions, and the bread quality parameters, respectively. Classification and functional relationships are discussed from the case data (cultivars and variable projections to the planes of the first two latent variables. Between Glu-D1y proportion and the bread quality parameters (standard parameter loaf volume and bread crumb cell area fraction determined by image analysis the strongest positive correlations are found r = 0.651 and r = 0.885, respectively. Between Glu-B1x proportion and the bread quality parameters the strongest negative correlations are found r =-0.535 and r = –0.841, respectively. The results are discussed in view of possible development of new and improvement of existing wheat cultivars and optimisation of bread production.

  6. Effects of soil water availability on water fluxes in winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, G.; Vanderborght, J.; Langensiepen, M.; Vereecken, H.

    2014-12-01

    Quantifying soil water availability in water-limited ecosystems on plant water use continues to be a practical problem in agronomy. Transpiration which represents plant water demand is closely in relation to root water uptake in the root zone and sap flow in plant stems. However, few studies have been concentrated on influences of soil moisture on root water uptake and sap flow in crops. This study was undertaken to investigate (i) whether root water uptake and sap flow correlate with the transpiration estimated by the Penman-Monteith model for winter wheat(Triticum aestivum), and (ii) for which soil water potentials in the root zone, the root water uptake and sap flow rates in crop stems would be reduced. Therefore, we measured sap flow velocities by an improved heat-balance approach (Langensiepen et al., 2014), calculated crop transpiration by Penman-Monteith model, and simulated root water uptake by HYDRUS-1D on an hourly scale for different soil water status in winter wheat. In order to assess the effects of soil water potential on root water uptake and sap flow, an average soil water potential was calculated by weighting the soil water potential at a certain depth with the root length density. The temporal evolution of root length density was measured using horizontal rhizotubes that were installed at different depths.The results showed that root water uptake and sap flow matched well with the computed transpiration by Penman-Monteith model in winter wheat when the soil water potential was not limiting root water uptake. However, low soil water content restrained root water uptake, especially when soil water potential was lower than -90 kPa in the top soil. Sap flow in wheat was not affected by the observed soil water conditions, suggesting that stomatal conductance was not sensitive to soil water potentials. The effect of drought stress on root water uptake and sap flow in winter wheat was only investigated in a short time (after anthesis). Further research

  7. Warming and nitrogen fertilization effects on winter wheat yields in northern China varied between four years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Liting; Hu, Chunsheng; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2013-01-01

    Global warming is expected to affect wheat productivity significantly, but with large regional differences depending on current climatic conditions. We conducted a study that aimed to investigate how wheat growth and development as well as yield and yield components respond to warming combined wi...... evapotranspiration and thus severity of the drought leading to larger yield reduction in fertilized plots. Yield increased under warming when water was not a limited factor in a year with unusual cold and wet winter.......Global warming is expected to affect wheat productivity significantly, but with large regional differences depending on current climatic conditions. We conducted a study that aimed to investigate how wheat growth and development as well as yield and yield components respond to warming combined...... per m2. This suggests that the wheat yield loss may be related to reduction of spike number, which was affected by decreased soil water content under warming. Warming tended to give larger yield reductions at higher nitrogen fertilizer rates, and this may be related to larger water consumption...

  8. Impact of Triticum mosaic virus infection on hard winter wheat milling and bread baking quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Rebecca A; Martin, T Joe; Seifers, Dallas L

    2012-03-15

    Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) is a newly discovered wheat virus. Information regarding the effect of wheat viruses on milling and baking quality is limited. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of TriMV infection on the kernel characteristics, milling yield and bread baking quality of wheat. Commercial hard winter varieties evaluated included RonL, Danby and Jagalene. The TriMV resistance of RonL is low, while that of Danby and Jagalene is unknown. KS96HW10-3, a germplasm with high TriMV resistance, was included as a control. Plots of each variety were inoculated with TriMV at the two- to three-leaf stage. Trials were conducted at two locations in two crop years. TriMV infection had no effect on the kernel characteristics, flour yield or baking properties of KS96HW10-3. The effect of TriMV on the kernel characteristics of RonL, Danby and Jagalene was not consistent between crop years and presumably an environmental effect. The flour milling and bread baking properties of these three varieties were not significantly affected by TriMV infection. TriMV infection of wheat plants did not affect harvested wheat kernel characteristics, flour milling properties or white pan bread baking quality. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Root growth in field-grown winter wheat: Some effects of soil conditions, season and genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkinson, L; Dodd, I C; Binley, A; Ashton, R W; White, R P; Watts, C W; Whalley, W R

    2017-11-01

    This work compared root length distributions of different winter wheat genotypes with soil physical measurements, in attempting to explain the relationship between root length density and soil depth. Field experiments were set up to compare the growth of various wheat lines, including near isogenic lines (Rht-B1a Tall NIL and Rht-B1c Dwarf NIL) and wheat lines grown commercially (cv. Battalion, Hystar Hybrid, Istabraq, and Robigus). Experiments occurred in two successive years under rain fed conditions. Soil water content, temperature and penetrometer resistance profiles were measured, and soil cores taken to estimate vertical profiles of pore distribution, and root number with the core-break method and by root washing. Root length distributions differed substantially between years. Wetter soil in 2014/2015 was associated with shallower roots. Although there was no genotypic effect in 2014/2015, in 2013/2014 the dwarf wheat had the most roots at depth. In the shallower layers, some wheat lines, especially Battalion, seemed better at penetrating non-structured soil. The increase in penetrometer resistance with depth was a putative explanation for the rapid decrease in root length density with depth. Differences between the two years in root profiles were greater than those due to genotype, suggesting that comparisons of different genotypic effects need to take account of different soil conditions and seasonal differences. We also demonstrate that high yields are not necessarily linked to resource acquisition, which did not seem to be limiting in the low yielding dwarf NIL.

  10. Unraveling Key Metabolomic Alterations in Wheat Embryos Derived from Freshly Harvested and Water-Imbibed Seeds of Two Wheat Cultivars with Contrasting Dormancy Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aayudh Das

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Untimely rains in wheat fields during harvest season can cause pre-harvest sprouting (PHS, which deteriorates the yield and quality of wheat crop. Metabolic homeostasis of the embryo plays a role in seed dormancy, determining the status of the maturing grains either as dormant (PHS-tolerant or non-dormant (PHS-susceptible. Very little is known for direct measurements of global metabolites in embryonic tissues of dormant and non-dormant wheat seeds. In this study, physiologically matured and freshly harvested wheat seeds of PHS-tolerant (cv. Sukang, dormant and PHS-susceptible (cv. Baegjoong, non-dormant cultivars were water-imbibed, and the isolated embryos were subjected to high-throughput, global non-targeted metabolomic profiling. A careful comparison of identified metabolites between Sukang and Baegjoong embryos at 0 and 48 h after imbibition revealed that several key metabolic pathways [such as: lipids, fatty acids, oxalate, hormones, the raffinose family of oligosaccharides (RFOs, and amino acids] and phytochemicals were differentially regulated between dormant and non-dormant varieties. Most of the membrane lipids were highly reduced in Baegjoong compared to Sukang, which indicates that the cell membrane instability in response to imbibition could also be a key factor in non-dormant wheat varieties for their untimely germination. This study revealed that several key marker metabolites (e.g., RFOs: glucose, fructose, maltose, and verbascose, were highly expressed in Baegjoong after imbibition. Furthermore, the data showed that the key secondary metabolites and phytochemicals (vitexin, chrysoeriol, ferulate, salidroside and gentisic acid, with known antioxidant properties, were comparatively low at basal levels in PHS-susceptible, non-dormant cultivar, Baegjoong. In conclusion, the results of this investigation revealed that after imbibition the metabolic homeostasis of dormant wheat is significantly less affected compared to non

  11. Redistribution Response of Photosynthetic Assimilates of Different Spring Bread Wheat Cultivars in Different Densities of Wild Oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Mousavi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the redistribution response of photosynthetic assimilates of different spring bread wheat cultivars in different densities of wild oat, an experiment was conducted based on a strip block experiment with three replications at the Research Farm of Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University, Ahwaz, Iran during 2012. Treatments were four oat densities (0, 40, 80 and 120 plants m-2 in horizontal strips and 10 spring bread wheat cultivars (Chamran, Baz, Atrak, Arvand, Maroon, Shoeleh, Chenab, Veree/Nak and Falat in vertical strips. Results showed that with increase in oat density up to 120 plants m-2, efficiency and percentage of the assimilates redistribution was increased, but current assimilates contributed less to the grain filling and grain yield. However, dwarf and early maturing cultivars of Veree/Nak and Atrak, with 2400 Kg ha-1 and Chenab with 2200 Kg ha-1 of redistribution appeared to benefit from an efficient transport system against the weed (wild oat. In contrast to the dwarf cultivars, the tall cultivar of Arvand with minimum assimilates redistribution of 600 Kg ha-1 and maximum amount of current assimilates of 3700 Kg ha-1 and also Shoeleh and Maroon were less dependent on their stem reserves at the grain filling stage.

  12. Utilization of thermal infrared image for inversion of winter wheat yield and biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wen-Yong; Zhang, Lu-Da; Hu, Zhen-Fang; Shamaila, Z; Zeng, Ai-Jun; Song, Jian-Li; Liu, Ya-Jia; Wolfram, S; Joachim, M; He, Xiong-Kui

    2011-06-01

    The present paper utilizes thermal infrared image for inversion of winter wheat yield and biomass with different technology of irrigation (drip irrigation, sprinkler irrigation, flood irrigation). It is the first time that thermal infrared image is used for predicting the winter wheat yield and biomass. The temperature of crop and background was measured by thermal infrared image. It is necessary to get the crop background separation index (CBSI(L), CBSI(H)), which can be used for distinguishing the crop value from the image. CBSI(L) and CBSI(H) (the temperature when the leaves are wet adequately; the temperature when the stomata of leaf is closed completely) are the threshold values. The temperature of crop ranged from CBSI(L) to CBSI(H). Then the ICWSI was calculated based on relevant theoretical method. The value of stomata leaf has strong negative correlation with ICWSI proving the reliable value of ICWSI. In order to construct the high accuracy simulation model, the samples were divided into two parts. One was used for constructing the simulation model, the other for checking the accuracy of the model. Such result of the model was concluded as: (1) As for the simulation model of soil moisture, the correlation coefficient (R2) is larger than 0.887 6, the average of relative error (Er) ranges from 13.33% to 16.88%; (2) As for the simulation model of winter wheat yield, drip irrigation (0.887 6, 16.89%, -0.12), sprinkler irrigation (0.970 0, 14.85%, - 0.12), flood irrigation (0.969 0, 18.87%, -0.18), with the values of R2, Er and CRM listed in the parentheses followed by the individual term. (3) As for winter wheat biomass, drip irrigation (0.980 0, 13.70%, -0.13), sprinkler irrigation (0.95, 13.15%, -0.14), flood irrigation (0.970 0, 14.48%, -0.13), and the values in the parentheses are demonstrated the same as above. Both the CRM and Er are shown to be very low values, which points to the accuracy and reliability of the model investigated. The accuracy of model

  13. Changes in Nutrient Content of Root and Grain of Wheat Cultivars Inoculated by Azospirillum and Mycorrhiza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jiriaie

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Providing the nutritional requirements of agricultural crops by non-chemical resources is a new approach in the organic farming that has attracted the attention of both the researchers and the consumers in recent years. Therefore, it is highly important to find new fertilizer resources that are both economically able to provide the nutritional needs of the crop plants and have no adverse effects on the consumers and the environment. Materials and Methods: With this approach, an experiment was conducted in the research station of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran in 2012-13. The experimental design was factorial based on randomized complete blocks design with three replications. The treatments including Mycorrhizal fungi in three levels (i.e. no use of strain; use of Glomus intraradices strain; and use of Glomus mosseae strain, bacteria Azospirillum lipoferum in two-levels (i.e. non-inoculated and inoculated and wheat cultivars in three levels (i.e. Chamran; Dena; and Behrang. The measured parameters include the concentration of macronutrients (i.e. nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium and some micronutrients (i.e. zinc, iron and manganese in two part seed and the root of wheat. Results and Discussion: Surveying the elements content in the root and the grain indicated a significant and positive effect of the use the Azospirillum and Mycorrhiza to improve the concentration of the elements in wheat cultivars. However, the simultaneous use of these microorganisms led to an increase of the effects of their application on their assessed traits.Finally the highest concentration of N (2.21 present, P (0.50 present and Fe (33.88 mg.kg-1 were observed in the grain; the highest concentration of K (0.93 present and 0.54 present and Mn (43.11 and 23.63 mg.kg-1 were observed in the grain and root, respectively. Moreover, the highest concentration of Zn in the root (19.70 mg.kg-1 was obtained from inoculation of C.V Dena seeds with

  14. SDS-PAGE For Glutenins Protein of Some Durum Wheat Cultivars coming from Different Agro-Ecological Areas

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    Ahmed Salih Khalaf

    Full Text Available Ten durum wheat cultivars of different agro-ecological resources were involved, and subjected to electrophoresis for their glutenin subunits. Glutenin subunits resolution and coding based on relative mobility. Cultivars shown differences in migration patterns and categorized into different groups in accordance to possessing a particular subunits. Caronia and Haurani were similar as they possess subunits 6 + 15, while ACSAD 65, Simeto, and Waha possess subunits 7 + 8; but Korifla and Gidara 2 and Creso possess subunits 6 + 8 with an additional subunit 20 for the Creso. Lastly, Cham 5 and Om rabi 5 possess subunits 20.

  15. BRS Guamirim: cultivar de trigo da classe pão, precoce e de baixa estatura BRS Guamirim: bread wheat cultivar, early cycle and short stature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luiz Scheeren

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A cultivar de trigo BRS Guamirim foi desenvolvida pela Embrapa e resultou de um cruzamento entre os genitores Embrapa 27/Buck Nandu e PF 93159. Possui ciclo precoce, baixa estatura de planta e intenso afilhamento. Apresenta equilibrada reação às principais moléstias do trigo, pertence à classe pão e demonstra adaptabilidade às diferentes regiões tritícolas do país, com estabilidade de produção. Seu potencial de rendimento é superior a 5 t ha-1.Wheat cultivar BRS Guamirim was developed by Embrapa and resulted from a cross among Embrapa 27/Buck Nandu and PF 93159. BRS Guamirim has early cycle, short plant stature and high tillering. It shows equilibrate behaviour to mainly wheat deseases, belongs to bread class and is adapted to different wheat regions, showing production stability. Its grain yield potential is higher than 5 t ha-1.

  16. Tolerance of two Bifora radians bieb populations to ALS inhibitors in winter wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mennan, Husrev; Streibig, Jens Carl; Ngouajio, Mathieu

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Bifora radians, an annual weed in winter wheat, is distributed mainly in the Mediterranean area, Asia Minor and the Caucasus. It infests winter-sown crops of the Central Anatolia and Middle Black Sea regions of Turkey. Field experiments in heavily B. radians-infested fields were conduc...

  17. Accumulation and translocation of toxic heavy metals in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growing in agricultural soil of Zhengzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W-X; Liu, J-W; Wu, M-Z; Li, Y; Zhao, Y; Li, S-R

    2009-03-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the accumulation of toxic heavy metals by winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown in the agricultural soil in the suburb of Zhengzhou City, China. The quantities of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Pb, As, Hg) were determined in different parts of wheat plant. The content of five toxic metals was found significantly higher in roots than in the aerial parts of wheat (stems and leaves, and grains). Additionally, wheat roots were enriched in Cd, Pb, and Hg from the soil, while Cr and As were hardly taken up by the roots. On the other hand, the winter wheat transported five toxic heavy metals very weakly from root to grain in the various irrigation regions.

  18. Reação de cultivares de trigo à ferrugem da folha e mancha amarela e responsividade a fungicidas Reaction of wheat cultivars to leaf rust and yellow spot and responsiveness to fungicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nédio Rodrigo Tormen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a reação de cultivares de trigo à ferrugem da folha, causada por Puccinia triticina, e mancha amarela, causada por Drechslera tritici-repentis, e sua responsividade ao controle químico com fungicidas, foi conduzido experimento de campo durante os invernos de 2009 e 2010, Itaara-RS. As cultivares avaliadas foram 'FCEP 51', 'FCEP 52', 'CD 114', 'FCEP Campo Real', 'FCEP Cristalino', 'FCEP Nova Era', 'OR Marfim', 'OR Abalone', 'OR Safira' e 'OR Pampeano'; na safra 2010, a cultivar 'CD 114' foi substituída pela OR Quartzo. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: P1 - testemunha sem aplicação de fungicida; P2 - fempropimorfe (560g ha-1 de i.a.; P3 - azoxistrobina + ciproconazol (60+24g ha-1 de i.a.; e P4 - piraclostrobina + metconazol (60+97,5g ha-1 de i.a.. Após a segunda aplicação, efetuaram-se avaliações semanais de severidade das doenças, cujos dados foram utilizados para o cálculo da Área Abaixo da Curva de Progresso da Doença (AACPD. Também foram determinados a produtividade e o peso do hectolitro. No que se refere à suscetibilidade às doenças, as cultivares estudadas apresentaram respostas distintas de um ano para o outro. Para ferrugem, o comportamento mostrou-se similar em ambos os anos, enquanto que, para mancha amarela, houve variação. Quanto à resposta ao controle químico, ocorreram variações de acordo com o patógeno e com o grau de suscetibilidade das cultivares. O uso integrado de resistência genética e controle químico mostrou-se mais efetivo para ferrugem da folha.Aiming to evaluate the susceptibility of wheat cultivars to leaf rust and yellow spot and their responsiveness to chemical fungicides, two field trials were carried out, during 2009 and 2010 winter's. The cultivars evaluated were: 'FCEP 51', 'FCEP 52', 'CD114', 'FCEP Campo Real', 'FCEP Cristalino', 'FCEP Nova Era', 'OR Marfim', 'OR Abalone', 'OR Safira' and 'OR Pampeano'. In 2010, the 'CD 114' cultivar was replaced by Quartzo

  19. Effects of the Tillage Technology and the Forecrop on Weeds in Stands of Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Winkler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The semipilot-scale field experiment was established in the cadastre of the village Letkovice in the South Moravian Region (Czech Republic. The study area was situated in a warm climatic region T2. Winter wheat was cultivated in two variants of tillage, viz. conventional tillage (CT and minimum tillage (MT and after three different forecrops (fodder beet, late potatoes, and broad (faba bean. Weed infestation of wheat stands was evaluated in spring seasons of 2007 and 2008, always before the application of herbicides. Numbers of weed specimens and their species were defined by means of a calculation method. Recorded data were processed by means of multidimensional analyses of ecological data, viz. Data Correspondence Analysis (DCA and Redundancy Analysis (RDA. Within the study period, altogether 22 weed species were identified in all variants with different tillage technologies and different forecrops. In the MT variant, the degree of winter wheat stand infestation with weeds was lower. As far as the forecrops were concerned, the most and the least intensive degrees of infestation were recorded on plots with faba bean and late potatoes, respectively.

  20. Influence of fungicides on occurence of Fusarium spp. and other stem base diseases on winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Sklenář

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available From 1999 to 2004 the occurence of fungi: Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides (Fron. and Fusarium spp. was evaluated in small plot field trials on seven varieties of winter wheat. The efficacy of fungicide protection against stem base diseases and influence on yields was monitored in field conditions in Velká Bystřice near Olomouc.For diagnostic of casual fungi two methods were used: 1. Method of coloring mycelium in stems, 2. Method of cultivation of mycelim on agar.Results from detection of casual fungi are following: Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides (Fron., Fusarium culmorum (W. G. Sm. Sacc. and Fusarium graminearum Schwabe.For high efficacy of protection against roots and stem base disease the following fungicide variants should be applied: Sportak Alpha 1.5 l . ha−1 (BBCH 30/Cerelux Plus 0.7 l . ha−1 (BBCH 51, Sportak HF 1 l . ha−1 (BBCH 30/Cerelux Plus 0.7 l . ha−1, Alert S 1.0 l . ha−1 (BBCH 30/Cerelux Plus 0.7 l . ha−1 (BBCH 51. The application of fungicides positively influenced yields. Yield increased at average by10–20 % after the aplication but the rise in yields was not in total correlation with the efficacy. These results can be possibly used in the system of integral control of winter wheat against stem base disease in wheat.

  1. Investigation of Tolerance, Yield and Yield Components of Wheat Cultivars to Salinity of Irrigation Water at Sensitive Stages of Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Saadatian

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This research in order to study of tolerance ability of wheat cultivates yield and yield components to salinity of irrigation water at sensitive stages of growth, was carried out as a factorial based on a randomized complete block design with 3 replications at greenhouse of Agricultural Faculty of Bu-Ali Sina University, in 2009. Treatments were included wheat cultivars of Alvand, Tous, Sayson and Navid and salinity of irrigation water induced by sodium chloride at five levels of 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 dS m-1. The results showed that percentage and rate of emergence, plant height, 1000-grain weight, number of seed per spike, number of spike per pot, biological and grain yield reduced by increasing salinity level. At all stress levels Navid cv. had highest emergence percentage. In non-stress and 4 dS m-1, Alvand cv. and at higher levels of stress, Tous cv. had high height in reproductive phase. At control and 4 dS m-1, Sayson cv. and at 8, 12 and 16 dS m-1, Tous cv. in majority of yield and yield components traits had significant superior than other cultivars. Tolerance index of Sayson cv. at 4 and 8 dS m-1 was more than other cultivars but at 12 and 16 dS m-1, maximum value of this index was belonged to Tous cv. At all salinity levels, Alvand cv. had least tolerance index to stress. Number of spike per pot had maximum direct effect on grain yield of wheat cultivars in stress condition. Also indirect effect of biological yield via number of spike per pot than other its indirect effects, had maximum share in wheat seed yield.

  2. Irrigation Water Availability and Winter Wheat Abandonment in the North China Plain (NCP): Findings from a Case Study in Cangxian County of Hebei Province

    OpenAIRE

    Xue Wang; Xiubin Li

    2018-01-01

    The North China Plain (NCP) is the major winter wheat producing area in China. Abandonment of this crop has, however, become more and more prevalent in this region since the late 1990s. Although the underlying causes of this phenomenon remain little understood, irrigation water availability (IWA) has always been regarded as the key factor limiting winter wheat production on the NCP. The aim of this paper is to determine the role played by IWA in the abandonment of winter wheat, using evidence...

  3. The high-quality genome of Brassica napus cultivar 'ZS11' reveals the introgression history in semi-winter morphotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fengming; Fan, Guangyi; Hu, Qiong; Zhou, Yongming; Guan, Mei; Tong, Chaobo; Li, Jiana; Du, Dezhi; Qi, Cunkou; Jiang, Liangcai; Liu, Weiqing; Huang, Shunmou; Chen, Wenbin; Yu, Jingyin; Mei, Desheng; Meng, Jinling; Zeng, Peng; Shi, Jiaqin; Liu, Kede; Wang, Xi; Wang, Xinfa; Long, Yan; Liang, Xinming; Hu, Zhiyong; Huang, Guodong; Dong, Caihua; Zhang, He; Li, Jun; Zhang, Yaolei; Li, Liangwei; Shi, Chengcheng; Wang, Jiahao; Lee, Simon Ming-Yuen; Guan, Chunyun; Xu, Xun; Liu, Shengyi; Liu, Xin; Chalhoub, Boulos; Hua, Wei; Wang, Hanzhong

    2017-11-01

    Allotetraploid oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is an agriculturally important crop. Cultivation and breeding of B. napus by humans has resulted in numerous genetically diverse morphotypes with optimized agronomic traits and ecophysiological adaptation. To further understand the genetic basis of diversification and adaptation, we report a draft genome of an Asian semi-winter oilseed rape cultivar 'ZS11' and its comprehensive genomic comparison with the genomes of the winter-type cultivar 'Darmor-bzh' as well as two progenitors. The integrated BAC-to-BAC and whole-genome shotgun sequencing strategies were effective in the assembly of repetitive regions (especially young long terminal repeats) and resulted in a high-quality genome assembly of B. napus 'ZS11'. Within a short evolutionary period (~6700 years ago), semi-winter-type 'ZS11' and the winter-type 'Darmor-bzh' maintained highly genomic collinearity. Even so, certain genetic differences were also detected in two morphotypes. Relative to 'Darmor-bzh', both two subgenomes of 'ZS11' are closely related to its progenitors, and the 'ZS11' genome harbored several specific segmental homoeologous exchanges (HEs). Furthermore, the semi-winter-type 'ZS11' underwent potential genomic introgressions with B. rapa (A r ). Some of these genetic differences were associated with key agronomic traits. A key gene of A03.FLC3 regulating vernalization-responsive flowering time in 'ZS11' was first experienced HE, and then underwent genomic introgression event with A r , which potentially has led to genetic differences in controlling vernalization in the semi-winter types. Our observations improved our understanding of the genetic diversity of different B. napus morphotypes and the cultivation history of semi-winter oilseed rape in Asia. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Seed rate and nitrogen fertilizer effects on wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L. and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    karim moosavi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate wild mustard competitive effect on winter wheat, an additive series experiment was conducted in 2000-2001 at Agricultural Research Station of Mashhad University.The experiment had 3 factor: wheat seed rate (175 , 215 and 255 kg/ha, nitrogen rate (150 and 225 kg/ha, and a range of wild mustard densities. Hyperbolic functions was used to describe yield-weed density relationship. Increasing wild mustard density had a negative , asymptotic – type effect on wheat biomass and grain yield. By increasing wheat seed rate , in optimum nitrogen rate , maximum wheat biomas loss has reduced about 51 %. Maximum yield loss has increased from 42.1 % to 50.4 %, as nitrogen rate incrased from optimum to upper optimum rate of wheat. By increasing of wheat seed rate from 175 to 255 kg/ha, maximum tiller number reduction due to high densities of wild mustard, has decreased by 54 %. Reduction of fertile tiller number was mostly occurred at presence of high nitrogen level, thus, reduction of fertile tiller number compared to control in N1 was 18% , while in N2 has increased to 30%. Wild mustard competition has reduced wheat seed number per ear 30% in compare to weed free control. Results show that wheat 1000 seed weight was more affected by nitrogen rate than plant densities. Apparently, in competition with wheat, wild mustard was better able to utilize the added nitrogen and thus gained a competitive adventage over the wheat.

  5. Monosomic and molecular mapping of adult plant leaf rust resistance genes in the Brazilian wheat cultivar Toropi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da-Silva, P R; Brammer, S P; Guerra, D; Milach, S C K; Barcellos, A L; Baggio, M I

    2012-08-24

    Leaf rust is one of the most destructive diseases affecting wheat worldwide. The most effective way to control it is to use resistant cultivars. Resistance based on slow-rusting adult plant resistance (APR) genes has proven to be the best method for developing cultivars with durable resistance. A source of slow-rusting APR for leaf rust is the Brazilian wheat cultivar Toropi. The Toropi/IAC 13 F₂ and F₇ recombinant inbred lines (RILs) were developed in previous studies. Phenotypic analysis of the F₂ and F₇ RILs showed that 2 recessive genes that were temporarily named trp-1 and trp-2 conferred APR in Toropi. In the present study, we used monosomic families and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), sequence-tagged site, and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to map trp-1 and trp-2 on wheat chromosomes. Analysis of the F₂ monosomic RIL showed that trp- 1 and trp-2 were located on chromosomes 1A and 4D, respectively. AFLP analysis of the F₇ RIL identified 2 independent AFLP markers, XPacgMcac3 and XPacgMcac6, which were associated with Toropi APR. These markers explained 71.5% of the variation in the phenotypic data in a multiple linear regression model. The AFLP markers XPacg/ Mcac3 and XPacg/Mcac6 were anchored by SSR markers previously mapped on the short arms of chromosomes 1A (1AS) and 4D (4DS), respectively. The trp-2 gene is the first leaf rust resistance gene mapped on wheat chromosome 4DS. The mapping of trp-1 and trp-2 provides novel and valuable information that could be used in future studies involving the fine mapping of these genes, as well as in the identification of molecular markers that are closely related to these genes for marker-assisted selection of this important trait in wheat.

  6. Ecological and Geographical Selection of Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Р. А. Уразалієв

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the lead long-term selection works wint involving a World' s collection and intertype and intertype hybridization with purposeful selection on economic-biological attributes highly productive • grades of a winter wheat, with stability to various kinds of illnesses and high technological qualities of grain have been allocated. The adapted grades of a winter wheat for a various environment of various zones of the countries of the Central Asia that allows to realize potential opportunities of grades in different environments of cultivation and by that to prevent losses of a crop from biotic and abiotic stresses that allows to stabilize productivity and adaptability of culture in a zon winter husbandry are created. The long-term field experiences lead by us and laboratory analyses on a level of productivity, qualities of grain and stability to stresses allows to conclude, that alongside with a genotype, stabilityenvironmental conditions render strong and significant influence on all complex of selection attributes.

  7. The response of winter wheat to water stress and nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, F.; Qi, M.; Wang, H.; Changjiu, Z.

    1995-01-01

    The response of winter wheat to water stress imposed at different crop growth stages by deficit irrigation and fertilizer use under several schemes of irrigation were evaluated on fine sandy soil and sand loam soil. The results showed that according to grain yield response factor K, the order of sensitive growth stages of winter wheat to water stress in decreasing sequence were booting to flowering ( K= 0.90), winter afterward to booting ( K= 0.69), flowering to milking ( K= 0.44) and milking to ripening ( K= 0.25). Field water efficiency would get 16.7 kg/mm.ha when no water stress in growth period, and when water stress has occurred in some growth stages, the value of it decreased by 5 - 20 percent. It was also found that high fertilizer application rate without split application would not significantly influence the yield on fine sandy soil. But schedule of irrigation affected the translocation of nitrogen in the plant. When water stress occurred in later growth stage, the ratio of NUE in gain to straw decreased, and fertilizer was available for crop only about one month after fertilizer application, excessive fertilizer rate would result in decrease of NUE by leaching of nitrogen in sandy soil. Total recovery of fertilizer at harvest was half amount of application. 6 refs; 10 tabs; ( author)

  8. Irrigation management strategies for winter wheat using AquaCrop model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Ali

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Many regions of the world face the challenge to ensure high yield with limited water supply. This calls for utilization of available water in an efficient and sustainable manner. Quantitative models can assist in management decision and planning purposes. The FAO’s newly developed crop-water model, AquaCrop, which simulates yield in response to water, has been calibrated for winter wheat and subsequently used to simulate yield under different sowing dates, irrigation frequencies, and irrigation sequences using 10 years daily weather data. The simulation results suggest that “2 irrigation frequency” is the most water-efficient schedule for wheat under the prevailing climatic and soil conditions. The results also indicate decreasing yield trend under late sowing. The normal/recommended sequence of irrigation performed better than the seven-days shifting from the normal. The results will help to formulate irrigation management plan based on the resource availability (water, and land availability from previous crop.

  9. Exogenous abscisic acid application during grain filling in winter wheat improves cold tolerance of offspring's seedlings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, X.; Cai, J.; Liu, Fulai

    2014-01-01

    Low temperature seriously depresses seed germination and seedling growth in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In this study, wheat plants were sprayed with abscisic acid (ABA) and fluridone (inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis) at 19 days after anthesis (DAA) and repeated at 26 DAA. The seeds of those...... plants were harvested, and seed germination and offspring's seedling growth under low temperature were evaluated. The results showed that exogenous ABA application decreased seed weight and slightly reduced seed set and seed number per spike. Under low temperature, seeds from ABA-treated plants showed...... reduced germination rate, germination index, growth of radicle and coleoptile, amylase activity and depressed starch degradation as compared with seeds from non-ABA-treated plants; however, activities of the antioxidant enzymes in both germinating seeds and seedling were enhanced from those exposed...

  10. Characteristics of action of nitrosoalkylureas on cell level in winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Nazarenko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Here we report the cytogenetic characteristics of variability of mutation induction in new wheat varieties and some relationships between the means of the cytogenetic characteristics and different doses and types of mutagens. Analysis of chromosomal aberrations caused by mutagenic action of any kind of mutagen by the meto-anaphase method is one of the best known and most precise methods which we can use for determining the fact of mutagenic action on plants, and identifying the nature of the mutagenic factor. The strategy of investigation combined the identification of genotypes with a specific low-sensitivity to mutagenic factors using cytological analysis screening of mutagen treated wheat populations with the approach of comparing different varieties by breeding methods to reveal their connections and differences, specific sensitivity to mutagenic effects on the cell level. Dry seeds of 8 varieties of winter wheat were treated by nitrosomethilurea at concentrations 0.0125%, 0.0250%, and nitrosoethilurea 0.010%, 0.025%, which are normal levels for mutagenic selection of winter wheat mutation. The frequency and spectra of chromosomal aberrations were investigated. The overall correlations between the frequency of chromosomal aberrations and the value of a concentration were at the level 0.7–0.8. It was established that the fragments-bridges ratio is a reliable parameter for identifyingthe nature of mutagen. We identified genotypes and groups of genotypes which have a resistance to different types of mutagenic action. The resistance of a group is dependant on the breeding method of the variety initially obtained. It expressed as a decrease in the frequency of aberrations. Varieties obtained through chemical mutagenesis were less sensitive to the same chemical mutagens. Higher rates of chromosomal aberrations were typical for varieties obtained through field hybridization without any mutagen treatment or when the initial material was changed by

  11. Phytochemical Composition and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Extracts from the Whole-Meal Flour of Italian Durum Wheat Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Laddomada

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the quali-quantitative composition of hydrophilic (phenolic acids and lipophilic (isoprenoids extracts from whole-meal flour of five elite Italian durum wheat cultivars was determined. Significant differences in the content of bioactive compounds were observed among the wheat extracts, in particular concerning the content of bound phenolic acids, lutein and β-tocotrienols. The cultivars Duilio and Svevo showed the highest amount of phenolic acids and isoprenoids, respectively. Extracts were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity on HT-29 human colon cells by measuring the levels of interleukin 8 (IL-8 and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1. Durum wheat extracts significantly inhibited the secretion of the pro-inflammatory IL-8 mediator at 66 µg/mL of phenolic acids and at 0.2 µg/mL of isoprenoids. Conversely, the secretion of the anti-inflammatory mediator TGF-β1 was not modified by neither hydrophilic nor lipophilic extracts. These results provide further insight into the potential of durum wheat on human health suggesting the significance of varieties with elevated contents of bioactive components.

  12. [Winter wheat area estimation with MODIS-NDVI time series based on parcel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Le; Zhang, Jin-shui; Zhu, Wen-quan; Hu, Tan-gao; Hou, Dong

    2011-05-01

    Several attributes of MODIS (moderate resolution imaging spectrometer) data, especially the short temporal intervals and the global coverage, provide an extremely efficient way to map cropland and monitor its seasonal change. However, the reliability of their measurement results is challenged because of the limited spatial resolution. The parcel data has clear geo-location and obvious boundary information of cropland. Also, the spectral differences and the complexity of mixed pixels are weak in parcels. All of these make that area estimation based on parcels presents more advantage than on pixels. In the present study, winter wheat area estimation based on MODIS-NDVI time series has been performed with the support of cultivated land parcel in Tongzhou, Beijing. In order to extract the regional winter wheat acreage, multiple regression methods were used to simulate the stable regression relationship between MODIS-NDVI time series data and TM samples in parcels. Through this way, the consistency of the extraction results from MODIS and TM can stably reach up to 96% when the amount of samples accounts for 15% of the whole area. The results shows that the use of parcel data can effectively improve the error in recognition results in MODIS-NDVI based multi-series data caused by the low spatial resolution. Therefore, with combination of moderate and low resolution data, the winter wheat area estimation became available in large-scale region which lacks completed medium resolution images or has images covered with clouds. Meanwhile, it carried out the preliminary experiments for other crop area estimation.

  13. [Effects of supplemental irrigation based on the measurement of moisture content in different soil layers on the water consumption characteristics and grain yield of winter wheat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Li-Pan; Yu, Zhen-Wen; Zhang, Yong-Li; Wang, Dong; Shi, Yu; Zhao, Jun-Ye

    2013-05-01

    In 2010-2011, a field experiment with high-yielding winter wheat cultivar Jimai 22 was conducted to study the effects of supplemental irrigation based on the measurement of moisture content in different soil layers on the water consumption characteristics and grain yield of winter wheat. Four soil layers (0-20 cm, W1; 0-40 cm, W2; 0-60 cm, W3; and 0-140 cm, W4) were designed to make the supplemental irrigation at wintering stage (target soil relative moisture content = 75%), jointing stage (target soil relative moisture content = 70%), and anthesis stage (target soil relative moisture content = 70%), taking no irrigation (W0) during the whole growth season as the control. At the wintering, jointing, and anthesis stages, the required irrigation amount followed the order of W3 > W2 > W1. Treatment W4 required smaller irrigation amount at wintering and jointing stages, but significantly higher one at anthesis stage than the other treatments. The proportion of the irrigation amount relative to the total water consumption over the entire growth season followed the sequence of W4, W3 > W2 > W1. By contrast, the proportion of soil water consumption relative to the total water consumption followed the trend of W1 > W2 > W3 > W4. With the increase of the test soil depths, the soil water utilization ratio decreased. The water consumption in 80-140 cm and 160-200 cm soil layers was significantly higher in W2 than in W3 and W4. The required total irrigation amount was in the order of W3 > W4 > W2 > W1, the grain yield was in the order of W2, W3, W4 > W1 > W0, and the water use efficiency followed the order of W2, W4 > W0, W1 > W3. To consider the irrigation amount, grain yield, and water use efficiency comprehensively, treatment W2 under our experimental condition could be the optimal treatment, i. e., the required amount of supplemental irrigation based on the measurement of the moisture content in 0-40 cm soil layer should be feasible for the local winter wheat production.

  14. Growth stage-based modulation in physiological and biochemical attributes of two genetically diverse wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars grown in salinized hydroponic culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Muhammad Arslan; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2016-04-01

    Hydroponic experiment was conducted to appraise variation in the salt tolerance potential of two wheat cultivars (salt tolerant, S-24, and moderately salt sensitive, MH-97) at different growth stages. These two wheat cultivars are not genetically related as evident from randomized polymorphic DNA analysis (random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)) which revealed 28% genetic diversity. Salinity stress caused a marked reduction in grain yield of both wheat cultivars. However, cv. S-24 was superior to cv. MH-97 in maintaining grain yield under saline stress. Furthermore, salinity caused a significant variation in different physiological attributes measured at different growth stages. Salt stress caused considerable reduction in different water relation attributes of wheat plants. A significant reduction in leaf water, osmotic, and turgor potentials was recorded in both wheat cultivars at different growth stages. Maximal reduction in leaf water potential was recorded at the reproductive stage in both wheat cultivars. In contrast, maximal turgor potential was observed at the boot stage. Salt-induced adverse effects of salinity on different water relation attributes were more prominent in cv. MH-97 as compared to those in cv. S-24. Salt stress caused a substantial decrease in glycine betaine and alpha tocopherols. These biochemical attributes exhibited significant salt-induced variation at different growth stages in both wheat cultivars. For example, maximal accumulation of glycine betaine was evident at the early growth stages (vegetative and boot). However, cv. S-24 showed higher accumulation of this organic osmolyte, and this could be the reason for maintenance of higher turgor than that of cv. MH-97 under stress conditions. Salt stress significantly increased the endogenous levels of toxic ions (Na(+) and Cl(-)) and decreased essential cations (K(+) and Ca(2+)) in both wheat cultivars at different growth stages. Furthermore, K(+)/Na(+) and Ca(2+)/Na(+) ratios

  15. The evaluation of winter wheat roots and leaf sheath diseases diagnostic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Solarska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The maltose and mineral media for isolation of Gaeumannomyces graminis from roots were assessed. The differences in numbers of obtained isolates were found depending on the medium used and sampling date. Easier identification of pathogen was possible employing maltose medium. The fungi from genus Fusarium occurring on winter wheat leaf sheaths were identified by mycological analysis and PCR, while the fungus Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides was detected by PCR and ELISA methods. PCR and ELISA methods enabled to detect pathogens also in periods before the disease symptoms on plants occurred.

  16. Effects of electromagnetic radiation on yields and yield components in winter wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milošev, D.; Pekarić-Nadj, N.; Molnar, I.; Rončević, P.

    1999-01-01

    Just before sowing, the seed of winter wheat was subjected to a single exposure to the pulsating electromagnetic field (PEMF) at different frequencies: 8, 15, 30 and 72 Hz. The duration of exposure was variable: 30, 60 and 90 minutes. Observations made during the growing season, analyses of yield and yield components and comparison with the untreated (control) revealed significant, mostly positive differences with regard to plant height, spike length and yield level. The highest yield was recorded in the treatment with 30 Hz for 30 minutes. The study findings indicate that different frequencies and exposure times of PEMF have different effects on plant growth development and hence, biochemical processes in plants

  17. Impact of cultivation technologies elements on winter wheat grain productivity and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К. М. Олійник

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To develop and improve adaptive technologies of winter wheat cultivation which provide high productivity and quality of grain. Methods. Field and laboratory stu­dies, mathematical and statistical analysis. Results. During 2011–2015, the impact of cultivation technologies on the formation of grain quality and yield of winter wheat varie­ty ‘Stolychna’ (with pea as predecessor was studied. When using alternative technologies with only predecessor by-products application, the yield of winter wheat with integ­rated crop protection system was 4,56 t/ha, with minimal protection – 4.25 t/ha with grain quality of the 5th class of B group. Resource saving cultivation technologies with limi­ted application of fertilizers (Р45К45N30(II+30(IV provided productivity at the level of 4,87–5,50 t/ha with grain qua­lity of the 2nd–3rd class of A group. Grain yield of 6.01 t/ha with indicators of the 2nd–3rd class of quality was obtained with the use of intensive cultivation technology with application of mineral fertilizers (Р90К90N30(II+60(IV+30(VIII on the background of applying predecessor’s by-products and integra­ted crop protection. The highest yield of grain (6.22 t/ha with indicators of the 2nd class of A group quality on average for the research period was provided by energy-intensive technology, that requires the application of mineral fertilize­rs (P135K135N60(II+75(IV+45(VIII and incorporation of predecessor’s by-products in the soil, and integrated plant protection. Conclusion. It was found that in the northern part of the Right-Bank Forest-Steppe zone of Ukraine, the highest productivity of winter wheat was obtained in dark grey podzolic soils when using the energy-intensive technology with application of P135K135N60(II+75(IV+45(VIII on the background of predecessor’s by-products and integrated crop protection. This technology ensured the grain yield of 6.22 t/ha of the 2nd class of A group quality.

  18. A Study of Estimating Winter Wheat Yields by Using Satellite Data Assimilation with Crop Growth Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwata, K.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate information of crop yield is important for production planning in agriculture. Crop growth model is a effective tool to comprehend crop growth situation. Accordingly, we use the MOSIS data for two types of utilization to provide necessary information for DSSAT. The objective of this study is developing a method of estimating winter wheat yield without adequate information of the field. The first use is estimation of solar radiation, which is required as input data into DSSAT. Since MODIS is observing the earth everyday, solar radiation can be estimated in a region where a climate observation system is not developed. The second use is data assimilation that provides appropriate parameter of cultivation management to DSSAT. MODIS LAI and Dry Matter Production (DMP) estimated from MODIS GPP are assimilated into DSSAT. Before developing data assimilation, we have accomplished sensitivity analysis of DSSAT. As the result of the analysis, we found that planting date and amount of applied fertilizer have correlated strongly with LAI and Dry Matter (DM) for specific growth period. Based on the result, we estimated winter wheat yield by assimilating MODIS LAI and DMP observed during the specific period. In contrast, previous study estimated crop yield by assimilating satellite data observed for the whole growth period. Three different assimilation schemes were tested to verify the accuracy of our method. Our results showed that the estimated winter wheat yield agreed very well with the Japanese agricultural experiment station data. Among different assimilating scenarios, the best result was obtained when MODIS LAI and DMP observed for specific growth period; the Root Square Mean Error (RMSE) was 406.52 kg ha2. The distribution map of full year incident PAR in Asia. Estimated Winter Wheat Yield in Japan In the case 1, detail information gathered by experiment reports.In the case 2, all management parameters are determined by reference to cultivation manuals.In the

  19. Characterization of Stripe Rust Resistance Genes in the Wheat Cultivar Chuanmai45

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ennian Yang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to characterize the high level of resistance to stripe that has been observed in the released wheat cultivar, Chuanmai45. A combination of classic genetic analysis, molecular and cytogenetic methods were used to characterize resistance in an F2 population derived from Chuanmai45 and the susceptible Chuanmai42. Inheritance of resistance was shown to be conferred by two genes in Chuanmai45. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH was used along with segregation studies to show that one gene was located on a 1RS.1BL translocation. Molecular markers were employed to show that the other locus was located on chromosome 4B. The defeated gene, Yr24/26, on chromosome 1BL was present in the susceptible parent and lines that recombined this gene with the 1RS.1BL translocation were identified. The germplasm, loci, and associated markers identified in this study will be useful for application in breeding programs utilizing marker-assisted selection.

  20. Laboratory, greenhouse and field methods for screening rust-resistant wheat cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashaal, S.F.; Kiraly, Z.; Barabas, Z.; Barna, B.; Cereal Research Inst., Szeged, Hungary)

    1977-01-01

    Detached flag leaf cultures were not suitable for evaluation of stem-rust resistance in our screening programme. On the basis of yield evaluation it was possible to screen out ten stem-rust ''tolerant'' wheat lines in field experiments. Rusted and protected microplots of each line were paired within a replicate. After artificial inoculation, the protected plants were sprayed with fungicides (benomyl plus dithiocarbamate plus copper salt) at weekly intervals until maturation to keep each protected plot rust-free. The thousand-kernel weights of rusted and protected plots were compared. When the thousand-kernel weight of protected plot increased only slightly and the rust reaction type of plants was susceptible in the rusted plot, the line was screened out as putative ''tolerant''. On the basis of three-year field trial ten ''tolerant'' lines were selected. Nine out of ten lines proved to be resistant to two stem-rust races in greenhouse tests in the seedling stage, when resistance was determined on the basis of reduced spore production instead of infection types. Resistance of these seedlings related partly to the reduced number of pustules and partly to a slow rusting character of plants. It seems possible to screen resistant cultivars in the greenhouse by the method outlined in this paper, when resistance is determined on the basis of a reduced number of infection sites and/or by the slow rusting capacity. (author)

  1. Genetics and mapping of seedling resistance to Ug99 stem rust in Canadian wheat cultivars 'Peace' and 'AC Cadillac'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert, Colin W; Fetch, Tom G; Zegeye, Taye; Thomas, Julian B; Somers, Daryl J; Humphreys, D Gavin; McCallum, Brent D; Cloutier, Sylvie; Singh, Davinder; Knott, Doug R

    2011-01-01

    Stem rust (caused by Puccinia graminis Pers.:Pers. f. sp. tritici Eriks. & E. Henn.) has re-emerged as a threat to wheat production with the evolution of new pathogen races, namely TTKSK (Ug99) and its variants, in Africa. Deployment of resistant wheat cultivars has provided long-term control of stem rust. Identification of new resistance genes will contribute to future cultivars with broad resistance to stem rust. The related Canadian cultivars Peace and AC Cadillac show resistance to Ug99 at the seedling stage and in the field. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the inheritance and genetically map resistance to Ug99 in these two cultivars. Two populations were produced, an F(2:3) population from LMPG/AC Cadillac and a doubled haploid (DH) population from RL6071/Peace. Both populations showed segregation at the seedling stage for a single stem rust resistance (Sr) gene, temporarily named SrCad. SrCad was mapped to chromosome 6DS in both populations with microsatellite markers and a marker (FSD_RSA) that is tightly linked to the common bunt resistance gene Bt10. FSD_RSA was the closest marker to SrCad (≈ 1.6 cM). Evaluation of the RL6071/Peace DH population and a second DH population, AC Karma/87E03-S2B1, in Kenya showed that the combination of SrCad and leaf rust resistance gene Lr34 provided a high level of resistance to Ug99-type races in the field, whereas in the absence of Lr34 SrCad conferred moderate resistance. A survey confirmed that SrCad is the basis for all of the seedling resistance to Ug99 in Canadian wheat cultivars. While further study is needed to determine the relationship between SrCad and other Sr genes on chromosome 6DS, SrCad represents a valuable genetic resource for producing stem rust resistant wheat cultivars.

  2. Irrigation of winter wheat to improve the realization of genetic yield potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragović Svetimir

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Realization of genetic yield potential of winter wheat depends on a large number of environmental factors among which rainfall level and air temperature are particularly important. Because of frequent rainfall shortages on the territory of Serbia in the period of wheat sowing in the fall and the vegetation in the spring, it is not possible to realize maximum yields, i.e., to reach the full genetic yield potential. In this situation, irrigation practice may be a solution needed to provide optimum soil moisture throughout the wheat growing season. Irrigation response of ten winter wheat varieties (Evropa, Avala, Pobeda, Balkan, Slavija, Milica, NS Rana 5, NS 4339, Nova Jadranka and Proteinka was studied in the period 1993 -1995. The varieties were irrigated at the time of sowing and during the growing period, the schedule being determined on the basis of soil moisture analysis and irrigation being performed at the soil moisture level of 70-75% FWC. The three-year average yields obtained with and without irrigation were 6.72 and 6.47 t/ha, respectively. The average annual yields with and without irrigation were 7.95, 6.08 and 612 t/ha, and 7.25, 6.08 and 6.09 t/ha, respectively. The variety Evropa was the best performer with 7.03 t/ha in irrigation and 6.58 t/ha without irrigation. The highest yield in irrigation, 8.66 t/ha, was obtained in 1993. The average effect of irrigation was only 0.25 t/ha, i.e., 4%. This was due to relatively high rainfalls that occurred in all experiment years in the period when wheat had the highest water requirement. The relatively small irrigation doses could not be very effective in this situation. Furthermore, high temperatures occurred in June in all years, causing premature ripening of wheat. The differences in plant condition that existed between the irrigated and non-irrigated variants before June were thus eradicated and the yields were evened out.

  3. Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Light Interception and Light Extinction Coefficient in Different Wheat Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Samadiyan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Wheat (Triticum aestivum is a cereal grain, originated from the levant region of the near east and Ethiopian highlands, currently cultivated worldwide. Light extinction coefficient K is a coefficient that represents the amount of light reduced by the plant. Light or radiation extinction coefficient is a concept that expresses the light penetration decrease into the canopy in the way the upper leaves of the canopy with less angles have lower amount of K in comparison with the horizontal leaves. Green et al., (2003 stated that nitrogen fertilizer increased light absorption by plant leaves; and affects the yield. The distribution patterns of nitrogen allocation in leaves are more exposed therefore photosynthesis rate per unit leaf area and canopy were optimized. Differences in canopy structure by the light extinction coefficient (k of the Act Lambert - Beer is described, along LAI differing due to different species and genotypes which are important factors in absorption and light use efficiency. This experiment was performed to evaluate the maximum light absorption and light extinction coefficient in different levels of nitrogen usage and wheat cultivars. Materials and Methods An experiment was conducted during 2011-2012 on a research farm of Islamic Azad University, Isfahan Branch, located in Khatoon Abad Village (northern latitude of 320 and 40´ and eastern longitude of 510 and 48´ with altitude of 1555 m above sea level. A split plot layout within randomized complete block design was used with three replications. Main plots were consisted in four levels of N fertilizer (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1 from an urea source in main plots and different cultivars of wheat included Pishtaz, Sepahan and SW-486 in sub plots. Planting was performed on 14 November 2011 and at a density of 400 plants per square meter. In order to strengthen the land and required elements for plant regarding soil test and treatments based on the test plan, the

  4. Comparing Relationships among Yield and Its Related Traits in Mycorrhizal and Nonmycorrhizal Inoculated Wheat Cultivars under Different Water Regimes Using Multivariate Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Saed-Moucheshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate statistical techniques were used to compare the relationship between yield and its related traits under noninoculated and inoculated cultivars with mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus intraradices; each one consisted of three wheat cultivars and four water regimes. Results showed that, under inoculation conditions, spike weight per plant and total chlorophyll content of the flag leaf were the most important variables contributing to wheat grain yield variation, while, under noninoculated condition, in addition to two mentioned traits, grain weight per spike and leaf area were also important variables accounting for wheat grain yield variation. Therefore, spike weight per plant and chlorophyll content of flag leaf can be used as selection criteria in breeding programs for both inoculated and noninoculated wheat cultivars under different water regimes, and also grain weight per spike and leaf area can be considered for noninoculated condition. Furthermore, inoculation of wheat cultivars showed higher value in the most measured traits, and the results indicated that inoculation treatment could change the relationship among morphological traits of wheat cultivars under drought stress. Also, it seems that the results of stepwise regression as a selecting method together with principal component and factor analysis are stronger methods to be applied in breeding programs for screening important traits.

  5. Tocantins (IAC-23 e Tucuruí (IAC-24: novos cultivares de trigo Tocantins (IAC-23 and Tucuruí (IAC-24: new wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Felício

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Os cultivares de trigo Tocantins (IAC-23 e Tucuruí (IAC-24, provenientes de cruzamentos artificiais e obtidos por seleção pelo método genealógico, foram avaliados quanto à produtividade de grãos e às reações aos agentes causais das ferrugens-do-colmo e da-folha na região do Vale do Paranapanema, SP, em condição de sequeiro e, no caso do 'Tucuruí', com a utilização de irrigação por aspersão, na região Norte (SP. Esses cultivares foram avaliados também em relação às qualidades industriais de panificação. As produções médias de grãos de ambos não se apresentaram estatisticamente diferentes da produção da testemunha 'Anahuac', em condição de sequeiro. O 'Tucuruí' superou estatisticamente, em produção, o 'Anahuac' em solos com porcentagem de saturação por bases inferior a 60%, com irrigação, apresentando uma produtividade média de 2.842 kg/ha contra 2.421 kg/ha. O 'Tucuruí', de estatura semi-anã, apresentou-se tolerante à presença de 10 mg/litro de Al3+ e o 'Tocantins', de porte alto, exibiu sensibilidade à concentração de 6 mg/litro de Al3+, ambos em solução nutritiva. Os novos cultivares apresentaram moderada suscetibilidade à ferrugem-da-folha e baixos níveis de infecção para a ferrugem-do-colmo, bem próximos aos apresentados pelo 'Anahuac'. Nos ensaios de panificação, a farinha do 'Tucuruí', de maneira geral, propiciou pães de excelente qualidade física, com volume específico bastante superior à farinha de trigo comercial e levemente superior à do 'Tocantins'.The wheat cultivars Tocantins (IAC-23 and Tucuruí (IAC-24 were obtained by hybridization and screened by the pedigree method from the segregating generations. These genotypes were evaluated for grain yield and resistance to stem and leaf rusts in several experiments carried out in different locations, with and without irrigation, in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, in the period 1980-85. They were also evaluated in relation to

  6. Donald's Ideotype and growth redundancy: a pot experimental test using an old and a modern spring wheat cultivar.

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    Li Zhu

    Full Text Available Human selection for high crop yield under water-limited conditions should have led modern cereal cultivars to invest less in root biomass, be it unconsciously. To test this hypothesis we conducted a pot experiment with two spring wheat cultivars, one old and one modern, both widely grown in the semi-arid regions of China. Using the replacement series method introduced by de Wit, we showed that the older landrace (Monkhead was significantly more competitive than the more-modern cultivar (92-46. However, when grown in pure stand, old Monkhead had grown root biomass 3.5 times modern 92-46, whereas modern 92-46 gained a 20% higher grain yield. We also found modern 92-46 significantly increased root biomass per plant and root allocation (i.e., root biomass/total individual biomass as its frequency in mixtures decreased, whereas old Monkhead did not respond in a similar way. This result suggests that the roots of modern cultivars may have gained an ability to recognize neighboring root systems and show more plastic self-restraining response to intra-cultivar competition.

  7. Estimation of winter wheat canopy nitrogen density at different growth stages based on Multi-LUT approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenhai; Li, Na; Li, Zhenhong; Wang, Jianwen; Liu, Chang

    2017-10-01

    Rapid real-time monitoring of wheat nitrogen (N) status is crucial for precision N management during wheat growth. In this study, Multi Lookup Table (Multi-LUT) approach based on the N-PROSAIL model parameters setting at different growth stages was constructed to estimating canopy N density (CND) in winter wheat. The results showed that the estimated CND was in line with with measured CND, with the determination coefficient (R2) and the corresponding root mean square error (RMSE) values of 0.80 and 1.16 g m-2, respectively. Time-consuming of one sample estimation was only 6 ms under the test machine with CPU configuration of Intel(R) Core(TM) i5-2430 @2.40GHz quad-core. These results confirmed the potential of using Multi-LUT approach for CND retrieval in winter wheat at different growth stages and under variables climatic conditions.

  8. Estimation of Winter Wheat Yield with the Assimilation of FY-3 MERSI Data into the WOFOST Crop Growth Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenbo; Fan, Jinlong

    2014-11-01

    Taking the winter wheat planting area Taihang piedmont as object of the study, and based on WOFST model and FY Satellite 250m-resolution MERSI data, this article launched the assimilation yield estimation study on winter wheat. Firstly, MERSI-LAI data is inversed from the measured biophysics data and MERSI data of winter wheat in growing season within the study area; next, WOFOST model sensitivity analysis was developed and conduct assimilation yield estimation through MERSI-LAI built by SCE algorithm and the minimum cost function of model simulation LAI; finally, conduct comparison validation between the estimation results and MODIS-LAI assimilation yield estimation results as well as the statistical data. The conclusion has been drawn that the estimation accuracy based on FY-3 MERSI data assimilation is higher than that based on MODIS data assimilation, with the RMES being reduced by 750.20kg/ha, and the yield being closer to the statistics.

  9. Winter wheat grain yield and its components in the North China Plain: irrigation management, cultivation, and climate

    OpenAIRE

    Lihua Lv; Yanrong Yao; Lihua Zhang; Zhiqiang Dong; Xiuling Jia; Shuangbo Liang; Junjie Ji

    2013-01-01

    Irrigation has been identified as the main driving factor of groundwater drawdown in the North China Plain (NCP). In order to develop appropriate irrigation strategies for satisfactory yields of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), grain yield (GY), yield components, and water use efficiency (WUE) were studied. A field experiment was conducted with two types of winter wheat, 'Shimai15' and 'Shixin733', and five irrigation treatments, including rainfed and four spring irrigation water applications, i...

  10. Effects of elevated O3 concentration on winter wheat and rice yields in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoke; Zhang Qianqian; Zheng Feixiang; Zheng Qiwei; Yao Fangfang; Chen Zhan; Zhang Weiwei; Hou Peiqiang; Feng Zhaozhong; Song Wenzhi; Feng Zongwei; Lu Fei

    2012-01-01

    The effects of a continuing rise of ambient ozone on crop yield will seriously threaten food security in China. In the Yangtze River Delta, a rapidly developing and seriously air polluted region in China, innovative open-top chambers have been established to fumigate winter wheat and rice in situ with elevated O 3 . Five years of study have shown that the yields of wheat and rice decreased with increasing O 3 concentration. There were significant relationships between the relative yield and AOT40 (accumulated hourly O 3 concentration over 40 ppb) for both winter wheat and rice. Winter wheat was more sensitive to O 3 than rice. O 3 -induced yield declines were attributed primarily to 1000-grain weight and harvest index for winter wheat, and attributed primarily to grain number per panicle and harvest index for rice. Control of ambient O 3 pollution and breeding of O 3 tolerant crops are urgent to guarantee food security in China. - Highlights: ► The wheat and rice response to ozone had been investigated for five years in China. ► There were significant relationships between relative crop yields and AOT40 dose. ► O 3 -induced wheat yield loss was primarily due to 1000-grain weight and harvest index. ► O 3 -induced rice yield loss was primarily due to grains per panicle and harvest index. ► Wheat and rice in this study are more sensitive to O 3 than previous investigations. - The dose–response relationships derived from field fumigation experiments over 5 years can be used to accurately estimate crop losses in China.

  11. Sowing terms of winter bread wheat variety-innovations (Triticum aestivum L. in the conditions of change of climate

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    О. Л. Дергачов

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Results of studying of influence of sowing terms on productivity and indices of quality of grain of winter bread wheat variety-innovations of V.M. Remeslo Myronivka Institute of Wheat of NAAS of Ukraine in the conditions of Right-bank Forest-steppe are shown. Negative correlation of productivity of varieties on average temperature of air during the sowing period is shown.

  12. Modelling soil water content variations under drought stress on soil column cropped with winter wheat

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    Csorba Szilveszter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical models are effective tools for evaluating the impact of predicted climate change on agricultural production, but it is difficult to test their applicability to future weather conditions. We applied the SWAP model to assess its applicability to climate conditions, differing from those, for which the model was developed. We used a database obtained from a winter wheat drought stress experiment. Winter wheat was grown in six soil columns, three having optimal water supply (NS, while three were kept under drought-stressed conditions (S. The SWAP model was successfully calibrated against measured values of potential evapotranspiration (PET, potential evaporation (PE and total amount of water (TSW in the soil columns. The Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient (N-S for TWS for the stressed columns was 0.92. For the NS treatment, we applied temporally variable soil hydraulic properties because of soil consolidation caused by regular irrigation. This approach improved the N-S values for the wetting-drying cycle from -1.77 to 0.54. We concluded that the model could be used for assessing the effects of climate change on soil water regime. Our results indicate that soil water balance studies should put more focus on the time variability of structuredependent soil properties.

  13. Use of no-till winter wheat by nesting ducks in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duebbert, H.F.; Kantrud, H.A.

    1987-01-01

    Nesting of dabbling ducks (Anatinae) was studied in fields of no-till winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) in the prairie pothole region of North Dakota during 1984 and 1985. Total area of 59 fields searched in 1984 was 1,135 ha and total area of 70 fields searched in 1985 was 1,175 ha. Field sizes ranged from 3 ha to 110 ha. Nests of five duck species were found: blue-winged teal (Anas discors), 55 nests; northern pintail (A. acuta), 44; mallard (A. platyrhynchos), 29; gadwall (A. strepera), 15; and northern shoveler (A. clypeata), 8. The average number of nests found was 8/100 ha in 1984 and 6/100 ha in 1985. Nest success for all species averaged 26% in 1984 and 29% in 1985. Predation by mammals was the principal cause of nest destruction. No egg or hen mortality could be attributed to pesticide use. Only 6 of 151 nests (4%) were abandoned during the two years. We also found 29 nests of seven other ground-nesting bird species. The trend toward increased planting of no-till winter wheat in the prairie pothole region should benefit production of ducks and other ground-nesting birds.

  14. [Winter wheat yield gap between field blocks based on comparative performance analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Wang, Zhong-Yi; Li, Liang-Tao; Zhang, Ke-Feng; Yu, Zhen-Rong

    2008-09-01

    Based on a two-year household survey data, the yield gap of winter wheat in Quzhou County of Hebei Province, China in 2003-2004 was studied through comparative performance analysis (CPA). The results showed that there was a greater yield gap (from 4.2 to 7.9 t x hm(-2)) between field blocks, with a variation coefficient of 0.14. Through stepwise forward linear multiple regression, it was found that the yield model with 8 selected variables could explain 63% variability of winter wheat yield. Among the variables selected, soil salinity, soil fertility, and irrigation water quality were the most important limiting factors, accounting for 52% of the total yield gap. Crop variety was another important limiting factor, accounting for 14%; while planting date, fertilizer type, disease and pest, and water press accounted for 7%, 14%, 10%, and 3%, respectively. Therefore, besides soil and climate conditions, management practices occupied the majority of yield variability in Quzhou County, suggesting that the yield gap could be reduced significantly through optimum field management.

  15. Damage Mapping of Powdery Mildew in Winter Wheat with High-Resolution Satellite Image

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    Lin Yuan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew, caused by the fungus Blumeria graminis, is a major winter wheat disease in China. Accurate delineation of powdery mildew infestations is necessary for site-specific disease management. In this study, high-resolution multispectral imagery of a 25 km2 typical outbreak site in Shaanxi, China, taken by a newly-launched satellite, SPOT-6, was analyzed for mapping powdery mildew disease. Two regions with high representation were selected for conducting a field survey of powdery mildew. Three supervised classification methods—artificial neural network, mahalanobis distance, and maximum likelihood classifier—were implemented and compared for their performance on disease detection. The accuracy assessment showed that the ANN has the highest overall accuracy of 89%, following by MD and MLC with overall accuracies of 84% and 79%, respectively. These results indicated that the high-resolution multispectral imagery with proper classification techniques incorporated with the field investigation can be a useful tool for mapping powdery mildew in winter wheat.

  16. LEAF AREA INDEX IN WINTER WHEAT: RESPONSE ON SEED RATE AND NITROGEN APPLICATION BY DIFFERENT VARIETIES

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    M BAVEC

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The most important photosynthesis acceptor – leaf area vary among cultivation measures and it is limited factor for creating exact growth models in common winter wheat. The objective of this study was to investigate changes of leaf area index (LAI affected by agricultural treatments – 4 sowing rates and 9 nitrogen treatments based on fertilising rates, target values based on soil mineral nitrogen and plant sap tests target values including different varieties. Increasing sowing rates from 350 to 800 viable seeds m-2 increased LAI at EC 75 stage from 2.9 to 5.5, where LAI 4.1 at 500 seeds m-2 did not vary between lower and higher rates; also at EC 85 stage LAIs did not differ significantly. At EC 75 stage LAI differed among control and nitrogen treatments from 1.0 to 6.5 and at EC 85 stage from 0.1 to 2.4, with differences in interaction among varieties. Higher nitrogen rates for first and second top dressing increased LAI in both stages compared without dressing treatments. Due to significant differences among LAI as consequence of production system, we suggest to take this into account in every prediction and modelling of growth in winter wheat.

  17. Immunoblot quantification of three classes of proteinaceous xylanase inhibitors in different wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) cultivars and milling fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croes, Evi; Gebruers, Kurt; Luyten, Nikkie; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2009-02-11

    In wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) grains, TAXI- (T. aestivum xylanase inhibitor), XIP- (xylanase inhibiting protein), and TLXI-type (thaumatin-like xylanase inhibitor) xylanase inhibitors (XIs) are expressed in considerable levels and under different forms. As these proteins have a significant impact on microbial xylanases frequently used in cereal-based biotechnological processes, knowledge of their quantitative and qualitative variability in wheat is of great interest. This paper reports the successful use of immunoquantification by Western blotting to determine the intercultivar variation in the three structurally different classes of XIs, as well as their distribution among various industrial milling fractions. TAXI and XIP protein levels in eight wheat cultivars ranged from 81 to 190 ppm and from 156 to 371 ppm, with average values of 133 and 235 ppm, respectively. Using immunoblotting, TLXI protein levels could be measured directly for the first time. They ranged from 51 to 150 ppm and amounted to 112 ppm on average. The three classes of XIs were distributed among different wheat milling fractions in a similar way, with 4 and 10 times higher concentrations in the aleurone-enriched fraction than in white flour and pericarp fractions, respectively. Immunoblot patterns suggested that the observed intercultivar and spatial variabilities within the wheat grain are not due to the presence or absence of specific members of the large polymorphic XI families but to differences in the overall level and/or proportions of the specific members.

  18. Sensory, yield and quality differences between organically and conventionally grown winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arncken, Christine M; Mäder, Paul; Mayer, Jochen; Weibel, Franco P

    2012-11-01

    Consumers expect organic produce to have higher environmental, health and sensory related qualities than conventional produce. In order to test sensory differences between bio-dynamically, bio-organically and conventionally grown winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Runal), we performed double-blinded triangle tests with two panels on dry wholemeal flour from the harvest years 2006, 2007 and 2009 and from two field replicates of the 'DOK' long-term farming system comparison field trial near Basel, Switzerland. Yield and quality parameters were also assessed. Significant farming system effects were found for yield (up to 42% reduction in the organic system), thousand kernel weight, hectolitre weight and crude protein content across the three years. In the triangle tests one out of 12 pair-wise farming system comparisons (PFSCs) on wholemeal flour made from the different wheat samples showed significant sensory differentiation (between bio-dynamically and conventionally grown wheat). When all data from the three harvest years and two panels were aggregated, a statistically significant effect (P = 0.045) of PFSCs on the number of correct answers became evident. Although testing of dry wholemeal flour was very challenging for panellists, we were able to show that sensory differences between farming systems can occur. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Growth indices of winter wheat as affected by irrigation regimes under Iran conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazy, Hamid Dehghanzadeh; Poor, Mohammad Reza Khajeh; Abad, Hossain Heidari Sharif; Soleimani, Ali

    2007-12-15

    An experiment was conducted during 2004-2006 at the Agricultural Research Station, Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch, Isfahan, Iran. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of irrigation regimes on growth indices of three bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes. A split plot layout with a randomized complete block design with four replications was used. Irrigation treatments (irrigation after 70 (I1), 90 (I2) and 110 (I3) mm cumulative evaporation from class A evaporation pan) were considered as the main plot and three wheat genotypes (Mahdavy, Ghods and Roshan-Backcross) as subplots. The I1 and I2 did not differ significantly for all growth indices, total dry matter and grain yield. Delay in irrigation from the I2 to I3 significantly reduced growth indices, total dry matter and grain yield. Trend of changes in Leaf Area Index (LAI), Total Dry Matter (TDM), Net Assimilation Rate (NAR) and Crop Growth Rate (CGR) were similar in the I1 and the I2. In all samplings, delay in irrigation from the I2 to I3 reduced all growth indices. The trend of changes in crop growth rate was more similar to leaf area index, than to net assimilation rate. Genotypes were not significantly different in respect to growth indices. The results indicate that irrigation after 90 mm cumulative evaporation from class A evaporation pan might be suitable for winter wheat production under conditions similar to this experiment where irrigation water during spring is not abundant.

  20. Effect of foliar fertilizer and fungicidal protection against leaf spot diseases on winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Mączyńska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were carried out in the seasons 2000/2001 and 2001/2002 in Plant Protection Institute, Sooenicowice Branch to assess the influence of foliar fertilizers such as Ekolist PK 1, Ekolist Mg, Mikrosol Z and Urea on healthiness of winter wheat. Foliar fertilizers were mixed with fungicides. The fungicides were applied at full or half recommended doses. The effect of the disease on wheat leaves was evaluated three times in each vegetation season. Remaining green leaf area (GLA of leaves was also determined. GLA of the leaves F-1 was not significantly different for each combination with different fertilization and different levels of chemical treatment. The application of foliar fertilizer only had no effect on green leaf area (GLA. The results indicate that foliar fertilization of all experimental plots improved leaf condition and therefore halted the development of wheat leaf diseases. The increases of 1000 grain mass and yield was high for each plot where a fertilizer and a full or half dose of a fungicide was applied. Foliar fertilizing with no chemical control had no proven effect on studied parameters.

  1. [Compensation effects of regulated deficit irrigation and tillering interference to winter wheat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Min-hua; Li, Yuan-nong; Zhou, Chang-ming; Gu, Xiao-bo; Zhang, Tian-le; Yang, Dan; Wu, Guo-jun

    2015-10-01

    Pot experiments were carried out to explore the approach of optimizing crop group performance through restriction of individual growth redundancy and increasing crop yield potential. Two winter wheat varieties of 'Xiaoyan-22' (with moderate tillering ability) and 'Zhengmai-7698' (with strong tillering ability) were chosen to investigate the effects of two irrigation schedules (full irrigation and regulated deficit irrigation) and three kinds of tillering interference (only retaining the main stem and the biggest tiller at jointing stage; removing all nonbearing tillers at heading stage; and without any interference as the control treatment). Thus, we simulated the compensation effects of different water supplies and unpredictable disturbances on the physiology, growth, yield, and water use efficiency of winter wheat. The results showed that there existed growth redundancy for both varieties. Compared with 'Xiaoyan-22', 'Zhengmai-7698' had relatively higher tillering number but weak panicle traits. Regulated deficit irrigation and removing all nonbearing tillers at heading stage could reduce growth redundancy, weaken competitive ability, change source-sink relations, and optimize resources allocation. However, excessive elimination of redundancy (e.g. only retaining the main stem and the biggest tiller at jointing stage) could destroy the inherent root-shoot balance and functional structure of plant and lead to inadequate compensation. In contrast to the control treatment (full irrigation and without any disturbance), the combination of regulated deficit irrigation and removing all nonbearing tillers at heading stage could help crops sufficiently exploit and utilize their own regulation potentials at spatial and temporal scales and finally realize compensation growth. The combination above could increase the water use efficiency by 20.4% - 25.4% without remarkable impact on grain yield, and hence, could be suitable for wheat growth redundancy reduction.

  2. Assessing the impact of ambient ozone on growth and yield of a rice (Oryza sativa L.) and a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar grown in the Yangtze Delta, China, using three rates of application of ethylenediurea (EDU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoke; Zheng Qiwei; Yao Fangfang; Chen Zhan; Feng Zhaozhong; Manning, W.J.

    2007-01-01

    Foliar applications of ethylenediurea (abbreviated as EDU) were made at 0, 150, 300 or 450 ppm to field-grown rice and wheat in the Yangtze Delta in China. Rice and wheat responded differently to ambient ozone and EDU applications. For wheat, some growth characteristics, such as yield, seed number per plant, seed set rate and harvest index, increased significantly at 300 ppm EDU treatment, while for rice no parameters measured were statistically different regarding EDU application. The reason may be that the wheat cultivar used may be more sensitive to ozone than the rice cultivar. EDU was effective in demonstrating ozone effects on the wheat cultivar, but not on the rice cultivar. Cultivar sensitivity might be an important consideration when assessing the effects of ambient ozone on plants. - Cultivar sensitivity should be considered when using protective chemical to assess the effects of ambient ozone on plants

  3. INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE AND RELATIVE HUMIDITY ON GRAIN MOISTURE, GERMINATION AND VIGOUR OF THREE WHEAT CULTIVARS DURING ONE YEAR STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Strelec

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in grain moisture, germination and vigour of three wheat cultivars packed in paper bags and stored for one year under four different conditions of environmental temperature and relative humidity (RH were investigated. During the first ninety days of storage significant reduction in grain moisture content of 4, 2.5 and 0.9 %, respectively, under 40 °C, 25 °C and 4 °C and RH of 45 % occurred. Subsequently grain moisture remained constant until the end of storage. Seeds of examined cultivars lost their germination ability and vigour only under elevated storage temperatures. Germination and vigour loss after one year of storage differed between cultivars being higher for seeds kept under 40°C, RH = 45% (35-85 % and 55-94 %, respectively, than under 25°C, RH = 45 % (10-20 % and 15-22 %, respectively. Obtained data indicate significant influence of storage conditions on moisture content, germination and vigour changes during storage of wheat seeds, as well as varietal dependence of seed viability.

  4. Bread winter wheat breeding (Triticum aestivum L. using spring varieties genepool in forest-steppe Environments of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. С. Кочмарський

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available It is concluded by investigations that wheat crossing of various development types between themselves cause increase of formbuilding process in hybrid progeny, promoting the selection of practically valuable recombinats. The genotypes which present the practical valuable by complex of adaptive traits and properties have been selected by phenotype stability in the breeding process. The new bread winter wheat variety Pamyati Remesla developed with participation of spring wheat variety Hja 22139 (Finland has been proposed for including it into the Register of Plant varieties of Ukraine adapted for use in Steppe, Forest- Steppe and Woodland of Ukraine since 2010.

  5. Evaluation Grain Yield and Yield Component of Three Wheat Cultivars to Drought Stress and Different Levels of Nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Enayatgholizadeh

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of drought stress and N fertilizer application on biological yield, grain yield and yield component of three wheat cultivars, a field experiment was conducted in 2006-2007 at Shushter region in Iran. The experiment was a factorial based on completely randomized block design with replications. Treatments were wheat cultivars (Chamran, Showa and Falat, N fertilizer in two levels (50 and 150 kg/ha and levels of drought stress (without stress, and stress at grain filling. Chamran and Falat were soft bread wheat type  and Showa was durum. Results indicated that under drought stress Chamran had the higher grain yield (5584 kg/ha as compared to Showa (5332 kg/ha and Falat (4821 kg/ha.The high level of N increased grain yield by 45% against low level N application. Response of Chamran to N fertiliser was more than that of Showa and Falat respectively. Spike number, grain number per spike and 1000 grain weight affected grain yield

  6. Physiological basis for allelopathic potential of different wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physiological basis for allelopathic potential of different wheat cultivars in heading period on the Loess Plateau of China. ... With the breeding history from No. 1 Bima, No. 3 Fengchan, No. 1 Ningdong to No 22 Xiaoyan and agronomic properties of winter wheat like thousand seed weight and yield, etc increased gradually.

  7. [Effects of mulching on soil moisture in a dryland winter wheat field, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ying-Dan; Chai, Shou-Xi; Cheng, Hong-Bo; Chen, Yu-Zhang; Yang, Chang-Gang; Huang, Cai-Xia; Chang, Lei; Pang, Lei

    2013-11-01

    This paper studied the effects of different mulching modes on the soil moisture in a semi-arid rainfed area of Loess Plateau, Northwest China. Seven treatments were installed, i. e., mulching plastic film in summer (T1), mulching plastic film in autumn (T2), mulching 5 cm long wheat straw in summer (T3), mulching whole wheat straw in summer (T4), mulching plastic film in summer plus wheat straw (T5), mulching used plastic film after harvest (T6), and un-mulching (CK). In T6, the soil moisture in different layers at different crop growth stages was all higher than that in CK. In the other five mulching treatments, the soil moisture in 0-90 cm layer before flowering stage was obviously higher, but that in 0-90 cm layer after flowering stage and in 90-200 cm layer during the whole growth season was lower than that of CK. The soil moisture in 0-200 cm layer in T6 during the whole growth period was significantly higher than that in CK, with a difference of 0.9%, but the soil moisture in 0-200 cm layer in other mulching treatments was lower. As compared with plastic film mulching, straw mulching increased the soil moisture in 0-200 cm layer. The soil moisture under mulching with used plastic film after harvest was higher than that under mulching with new plastic film. As compared to CK, the grain yield of winter wheat with plastic film mulching was increased by 20.3%-29.0%, and that With straw mulching was increased by 5.0%-16.7%. There was a significant positive correlation between the crop productivity and the soil water consumption during the growth period (r = 0.77*).

  8. Climatic warming increases winter wheat yield but reduces grain nitrogen concentration in east China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlu Tian

    Full Text Available Climatic warming is often predicted to reduce wheat yield and grain quality in China. However, direct evidence is still lacking. We conducted a three-year experiment with a Free Air Temperature Increase (FATI facility to examine the responses of winter wheat growth and plant N accumulation to a moderate temperature increase of 1.5°C predicted to prevail by 2050 in East China. Three warming treatments (AW: all-day warming; DW: daytime warming; NW: nighttime warming were applied for an entire growth period. Consistent warming effects on wheat plant were recorded across the experimental years. An increase of ca. 1.5°C in daily, daytime and nighttime mean temperatures shortened the length of pre-anthesis period averagely by 12.7, 8.3 and 10.7 d (P<0.05, respectively, but had no significant impact on the length of the post-anthesis period. Warming did not significantly alter the aboveground biomass production, but the grain yield was 16.3, 18.1 and 19.6% (P<0.05 higher in the AW, DW and NW plots than the non-warmed plot, respectively. Warming also significantly increased plant N uptake and total biomass N accumulation. However, warming significantly reduced grain N concentrations while increased N concentrations in the leaves and stems. Together, our results demonstrate differential impacts of warming on the depositions of grain starch and protein, highlighting the needs to further understand the mechanisms that underlie warming impacts on plant C and N metabolism in wheat.

  9. Canopy Apparent Photosynthetic Characteristics and Yield of Two Spike-Type Wheat Cultivars in Response to Row Spacing under High Plant Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tiening; Wang, Zhenlin; Cai, Tie

    2016-01-01

    In northern China, large-spike wheat (Triticum aestivum L) is considered to have significant potential for increasing yields due to its greater single-plant productivity despite its lower percentage of effective tillers, and increasing the plant density is an effective means of achieving a higher grain yield. However, with increases in plant density, the amount of solar radiation intercepted by lower strata leaves is decreased and the rate of leaf senescence is accelerated. Row spacing can be manipulated to optimize the plant spatial distribution under high plant density, therefore improving light conditions within the canopy. Consequently, field experiments were conducted from 2010 to 2012 to investigate whether changes in row spacing under high plant density led to differences in canopy apparent photosynthesis (CAP), individual leaf photosynthesis and grain yield. Two different spike-type winter wheat cultivars, Jimai22 (a small-spike cultivar as a control cultivar) and Wennong6 (a large-spike cultivar), were grown at a constant plant density of 3,600,000 plants ha(-1) (a relatively higher plant density) over a wide range of row spacing as follows: 5-cm row spacing (R0), 15-cm row spacing (R1), 25-cm conventional row spacing (R2), and 35-cm row spacing (R3). The two-year investigations revealed that increased row spacing exhibited a significantly higher light transmission ratio (LT), which improved light conditions within the canopy; however, excessive light leakage losses in R2 and R3 treatments were not favorable to improved irradiation energy utilization efficiency. Aboveground biomass accumulation was influenced by row spacing. Two spike-type wheat accumulated greater biomass under 15-cm row spacing compared to other row spacing treatments, although a markedly improved photosynthetic rate (PN), effective quantum yield of photosystem II (ΦPSII) and maximal efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry (Fv/Fm) in the penultimate and third leaves were observed in

  10. Canopy Apparent Photosynthetic Characteristics and Yield of Two Spike-Type Wheat Cultivars in Response to Row Spacing under High Plant Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Tie

    2016-01-01

    In northern China, large-spike wheat (Triticum aestivum L) is considered to have significant potential for increasing yields due to its greater single-plant productivity despite its lower percentage of effective tillers, and increasing the plant density is an effective means of achieving a higher grain yield. However, with increases in plant density, the amount of solar radiation intercepted by lower strata leaves is decreased and the rate of leaf senescence is accelerated. Row spacing can be manipulated to optimize the plant spatial distribution under high plant density, therefore improving light conditions within the canopy. Consequently, field experiments were conducted from 2010 to 2012 to investigate whether changes in row spacing under high plant density led to differences in canopy apparent photosynthesis (CAP), individual leaf photosynthesis and grain yield. Two different spike-type winter wheat cultivars, Jimai22 (a small-spike cultivar as a control cultivar) and Wennong6 (a large-spike cultivar), were grown at a constant plant density of 3,600,000 plants ha–1 (a relatively higher plant density) over a wide range of row spacing as follows: 5-cm row spacing (R0), 15-cm row spacing (R1), 25-cm conventional row spacing (R2), and 35-cm row spacing (R3). The two-year investigations revealed that increased row spacing exhibited a significantly higher light transmission ratio (LT), which improved light conditions within the canopy; however, excessive light leakage losses in R2 and R3 treatments were not favorable to improved irradiation energy utilization efficiency. Aboveground biomass accumulation was influenced by row spacing. Two spike-type wheat accumulated greater biomass under 15-cm row spacing compared to other row spacing treatments, although a markedly improved photosynthetic rate (PN), effective quantum yield of photosystem II (ΦPSII) and maximal efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry (Fv/Fm) in the penultimate and third leaves were observed in

  11. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Blum

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Some modern agrochemicals with antioxidant potential were tested for their protective effect against ozone injury using clover and tobacco ozone-sensitive cultivars as model plants subjected to ambient ozone at two sites (Kyiv city in Ukraine and Szarów village in Poland. All used agrochemicals showed partial protective effects against ozone injury on clover and tobacco. Conducted studies confirmed the effectiveness of modern fungicides belonging to strobilurin group as protectants of sensitive crops against ozone damage. The effectiveness of new growth regulators “Emistym C” and “Agrostymulin” was showed for the first time. Out of the studied agrochemicals, fungicide “Strobi” and natural growth regulator “Emistym C” demonstrated the best protective effects. These agrochemicals present promise for further studies of their possible utilization for enhancement of ozone tolerance of sensitive crops.

  12. Estimating inter-annual variability in winter wheat sowing dates from satellite time series in Camargue, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfron, Giacinto; Delmotte, Sylvestre; Busetto, Lorenzo; Hossard, Laure; Ranghetti, Luigi; Brivio, Pietro Alessandro; Boschetti, Mirco

    2017-05-01

    Crop simulation models are commonly used to forecast the performance of cropping systems under different hypotheses of change. Their use on a regional scale is generally constrained, however, by a lack of information on the spatial and temporal variability of environment-related input variables (e.g., soil) and agricultural practices (e.g., sowing dates) that influence crop yields. Satellite remote sensing data can shed light on such variability by providing timely information on crop dynamics and conditions over large areas. This paper proposes a method for analyzing time series of MODIS satellite data in order to estimate the inter-annual variability of winter wheat sowing dates. A rule-based method was developed to automatically identify a reliable sample of winter wheat field time series, and to infer the corresponding sowing dates. The method was designed for a case study in the Camargue region (France), where winter wheat is characterized by vernalization, as in other temperate regions. The detection criteria were chosen on the grounds of agronomic expertise and by analyzing high-confidence time-series vegetation index profiles for winter wheat. This automatic method identified the target crop on more than 56% (four-year average) of the cultivated areas, with low commission errors (11%). It also captured the seasonal variability in sowing dates with errors of ±8 and ±16 days in 46% and 66% of cases, respectively. Extending the analysis to the years 2002-2012 showed that sowing in the Camargue was usually done on or around November 1st (±4 days). Comparing inter-annual sowing date variability with the main local agro-climatic drivers showed that the type of preceding crop and the weather conditions during the summer season before the wheat sowing had a prominent role in influencing winter wheat sowing dates.

  13. Infrared Warming Reduced Winter Wheat Yields and Some Physiological Parameters, Which Were Mitigated by Irrigation and Worsened by Delayed Sowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shibo; Su, Hua; Liu, Wei; Tan, Kaiyan; Ren, Sanxue

    2013-01-01

    Winter wheat has a central role in ensuring the food security and welfare of 1.3 billion people in China. Extensive previous studies have concluded that winter wheat yields would decrease with higher temperatures, owing to warming-induced soil drying or shortening of phenophase. Temperature in China is predicted to increase by 1–5°C by 2100, which may greatly impact plant production and cause other negative effects. We performed a manipulative field experiment, creating diverse growth regimes for wheat by infrared radiation (IR) warming day and night, including IR warming only (DW), IR warming + delayed sowing dates (DS), IR warming + increased irrigation (IW), and a control (CK). The results show that IR warming increased daily average wheat canopy and soil temperatures by 2.0°C and 2.3°C, respectively. DW was associated with an advanced maturity of 10 days and yield reduction of 8.2%. IR-warming effects on the photosynthetic apparatus of wheat varied with season as well as significant differences were found in the booting stage. DS represented a worsened situation, lowering yield per plant by 16.4%, with a significant decline in aboveground biomass and functional leaf area. Wheat under DS showed double-peak patterns of diurnal gas exchange during booting stages and, consequently, lower photosynthetic capacity with high transpiration for cooling. Significantly lower actual water use efficiency and intrinsic water use efficiency from jointing to anthesis stages were also found under DS. However, IW had no significant difference from CK, irrespective of yield and photosynthesis. Therefore, we concluded that delayed sowing date may not be a good choice for winter wheat, whereas a thoroughly-watered wheat agroecosystem should be promoted in the context of global warming. PMID:23874424

  14. Infrared warming reduced winter wheat yields and some physiological parameters, which were mitigated by irrigation and worsened by delayed sowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shibo; Su, Hua; Liu, Wei; Tan, Kaiyan; Ren, Sanxue

    2013-01-01

    Winter wheat has a central role in ensuring the food security and welfare of 1.3 billion people in China. Extensive previous studies have concluded that winter wheat yields would decrease with higher temperatures, owing to warming-induced soil drying or shortening of phenophase. Temperature in China is predicted to increase by 1-5°C by 2100, which may greatly impact plant production and cause other negative effects. We performed a manipulative field experiment, creating diverse growth regimes for wheat by infrared radiation (IR) warming day and night, including IR warming only (DW), IR warming + delayed sowing dates (DS), IR warming + increased irrigation (IW), and a control (CK). The results show that IR warming increased daily average wheat canopy and soil temperatures by 2.0°C and 2.3°C, respectively. DW was associated with an advanced maturity of 10 days and yield reduction of 8.2%. IR-warming effects on the photosynthetic apparatus of wheat varied with season as well as significant differences were found in the booting stage. DS represented a worsened situation, lowering yield per plant by 16.4%, with a significant decline in aboveground biomass and functional leaf area. Wheat under DS showed double-peak patterns of diurnal gas exchange during booting stages and, consequently, lower photosynthetic capacity with high transpiration for cooling. Significantly lower actual water use efficiency and intrinsic water use efficiency from jointing to anthesis stages were also found under DS. However, IW had no significant difference from CK, irrespective of yield and photosynthesis. Therefore, we concluded that delayed sowing date may not be a good choice for winter wheat, whereas a thoroughly-watered wheat agroecosystem should be promoted in the context of global warming.

  15. Infrared warming reduced winter wheat yields and some physiological parameters, which were mitigated by irrigation and worsened by delayed sowing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibo Fang

    Full Text Available Winter wheat has a central role in ensuring the food security and welfare of 1.3 billion people in China. Extensive previous studies have concluded that winter wheat yields would decrease with higher temperatures, owing to warming-induced soil drying or shortening of phenophase. Temperature in China is predicted to increase by 1-5°C by 2100, which may greatly impact plant production and cause other negative effects. We performed a manipulative field experiment, creating diverse growth regimes for wheat by infrared radiation (IR warming day and night, including IR warming only (DW, IR warming + delayed sowing dates (DS, IR warming + increased irrigation (IW, and a control (CK. The results show that IR warming increased daily average wheat canopy and soil temperatures by 2.0°C and 2.3°C, respectively. DW was associated with an advanced maturity of 10 days and yield reduction of 8.2%. IR-warming effects on the photosynthetic apparatus of wheat varied with season as well as significant differences were found in the booting stage. DS represented a worsened situation, lowering yield per plant by 16.4%, with a significant decline in aboveground biomass and functional leaf area. Wheat under DS showed double-peak patterns of diurnal gas exchange during booting stages and, consequently, lower photosynthetic capacity with high transpiration for cooling. Significantly lower actual water use efficiency and intrinsic water use efficiency from jointing to anthesis stages were also found under DS. However, IW had no significant difference from CK, irrespective of yield and photosynthesis. Therefore, we concluded that delayed sowing date may not be a good choice for winter wheat, whereas a thoroughly-watered wheat agroecosystem should be promoted in the context of global warming.

  16. Heat stress and recovery of photosystem II efficiency in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars acclimated to different growth temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haque, Sabibul; Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Rosenqvist, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The effect of heat stress on photosystem II (PS II) efficiency and post-stress recovery was studied in four wheat cultivars using chlorophyll fluorescence. The main aim was to examine the cultivar differences in relation to inhibition and recovery of PSII functionality after heat stress...... at different growth stages. The secondary aim was to investigate whether a pre-acclimation of plants to elevated temperature during the growth period induces a better tolerance to heat stress than for plants grown in ambient temperature or not. The plants were grown in two growth temperature conditions (15 °C...... and 25 °C) and subjected to heat stress (40 °C) for two days at early tillering and three days at anthesis and early grain development stages. The plants were returned to their original growth conditions after heat stress and recovery was observed for three days. The maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv...

  17. Proteomic and genetic analysis of wheat endosperm albumins and globulins using deletion lines of cultivar Chinese Spring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merlino, Marielle; Bousbata, Sabrina; Svensson, Birte

    2012-01-01

    in endosperm proteins due to chromosomal deletions. This differential analysis of spots allowed structural or regulatory genes, encoding 211 proteins, to be located on segments of the 21 wheat chromosomes. In addition, variance analysis of quantitative variations in spot volume showed that the expression......Albumins and globulins from the endosperm of Triticum aestivum L. cv Chinese Spring (CS) were analysed to establish a proteome reference map for this standard wheat cultivar. Approximately, 1,145 Coomassie-stained spots were detected by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE), 410 of which were...... identified using mass spectrometry and data mining. Salt-soluble endosperm proteins from 67 CS deletion lines were also separated by 2DE (four gels per line). Image analysis of the 268 2DE gels as compared to the CS reference proteome allowed the detection of qualitative and quantitative variations...

  18. The Effect of Cutting On The Yield and Yield Components of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    ÇELEN, A. Esen; SOYA, Hikmet

    1998-01-01

    In the research conducted in the fields of Field Crops Department of Faculty of Agriculture of Ege University, Bornova, İzmir, Turkey in 1993-94 and 1994-95, the effects of cutting treatments [a. uncut control, b. cutting at Zadoks stage 25 (main stem and 5 tillers), c. cutting at Zadoks stage 30 (at the end of tillering, pseudostem erection), and d. cutting at Zadoks stage 31 (first node detectable) ] on the seed yield and some yield components of two bread wheat cultivars (Cumhuriyet-75 and...

  19. Influence of cultivar, cooking, and storage on cell-wall polysaccharide composition of winter squash (Cucurbita maxima).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, R M Sunil; Melton, Laurence D; Hurst, Paul L

    2003-03-26

    Changes in the cell-wall polysaccharides (CWP) of the edible tissues of four winter squash cultivars during storage and after cooking were investigated. A procedure for isolating cell walls of tissues containing high levels of starch was used. The starch-free CWP were sequentially fractionated using CDTA, dilute Na(2)CO(3), and 4 M KOH. Cellulose made up 40-42% of the total CWP for three cultivars (Delica, CF 2, and CF 4) at harvest but was 35% in the softer Red Warren. The pectic polysaccharides of Delica, CF 2, and CF 4 cell walls are more branched than those from Red Warren squash. The higher proportion of uronic acid in the pectic polysaccharides of Red Warren squash correlates with its lower firmness. Cooking resulted in an increase in the water-soluble pectins and a decrease in the pectins associated with cellulose. The total CWP content of the squash cultivars remained unchanged for up to 2 months of storage and then markedly decreased between 2 and 3 months of storage. The galactose content of Delica and Red Warren cell walls remained relatively constant from harvest to 2 months of storage and then decreased markedly during 2-3 months of storage.

  20. SHORT-TERM EXPOSURE TO ATMOSPHERIC AMMONIA DOES NOT AFFECT LOW-TEMPERATURE HARDENING OF WINTER-WHEAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CLEMENT, JMAM; VENEMA, JH; VANHASSELT, PR

    1995-01-01

    The effect of atmospheric NH3 on low-temperature hardening of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Urban) was investigated. Growth and photosynthesis were stimulated by ammonia exposure. After a 14 d exposure at moderate temperatures (day/night 18.5/16 degrees C) total nitrogen content was

  1. Chlorophyll fluorescence as a parameter for frost hardiness in winter wheat. A comparison with other hardiness parameters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clement, JMAM; vanHasselt, PR

    1996-01-01

    Frost hardiness of winter wheat leaves (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Urban) was measured during an eight weeks hardening period using chlorophyll fluorescence. Determination of frost induced damage after freezing, measured as the decrease of photochemical capacity of photosystem II (F-V/F-M =

  2. Estimating regional winter wheat yield with WOFOST through the assimilation of green area index retrieved from MODIS observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de A.J.W.; Duveiller, G.; Defourny, P.

    2012-01-01

    Here, we describe and test a method for optimising winter wheat green area index (GAI) simulated with the WOFOST crop model using MODIS estimates of GAI in the Walloon region of Belgium. Detailed crop type maps during the period of 2000–2009 were used to derive time series of crop-specific GAI by

  3. Forming of productivity of new soft winter wheat varieties (Triticum aestivum L. subject to phyto-virus pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. П. Петренкова

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The infection by phytoviruses and the productivity formation in the new varieties of winter bread wheat in the different years with virus damage were investigated. There were identified the varieties being more tolerant to the observed diseases, among these - the samples with different constituents of tolerance, which could be used in the breeding programs.

  4. Sensitivities of crop models to extreme weather conditions during flowering period demonstrated for maize and winter wheat in Austria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eitzinger, Josef; Thaler, S.; Schmid, E.; Strauss, F.; Ferrise, R.; Moriondo, M.; Bindi, M.; Palosuo, T.; Rötter, R.; Kersebaum, K. C.; Olesen, J. E.; Patil, R. H.; Saylan, L.; Çaldag, B.; Caylak, O.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 151, č. 6 (2013), s. 813-835 ISSN 0021-8596 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : crop models * weather conditions * winter wheat * Austria Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.891, year: 2013

  5. Inversion techniques in radar remote sensing of agricultural field : case studies on sugar beet and winter wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijckenberg, G.J.

    1997-01-01

    This thesis is an attempt to gain insight in the retrieval of the soil moisture content and the vegetation water content from the radar backscatter of agricultural fields. Two crops have been selected: sugar beet and winter wheat. For a retrieval of the two agricultural parameters two

  6. Comparison of the root morphology of oilseed rape and winter wheat during the seedling period using a rhizotron tube method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Song Juan; Cao, Wei Dong; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    was typically between 0-0.50 mm. In terms of root growth, there were more and more thinner lateral roots, meaning that average root diameter became smaller. At 16 days after germination, the root elongation rate of winter wheat was 1.83 cm/d, larger than that of oilseed rape (1.51 cm/d). In conclusion, the root...

  7. Compounds of natural origin inducing resistance in winter wheat to powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Věchet, L.; Martínková, J.; Šindelářová, Milada; Burketová, Lenka

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 10 (2005), s. 469-475 ISSN 1214-1178 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/03/0353 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : winter wheat * inducer of resistence * powdery mildew Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 0.170, year: 2004

  8. Effects of plant tannin extracts supplementation on animal performance and gastrointestinal parasites infestation in steers grazing winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty-six stocker cattle (286.1 ± 25.7 kg) were used to quantify the effect of commercial plant tannin extracts (control vs. mimosa and chestnut tannins) on animal performance, gastrointestinal parasites control, and plasma metabolite changes in heifers grazing winter wheat forage (Triticum aestivu...

  9. Regulation of the membrane structure by brassinosteroids and progesterone in winter wheat seedlings exposed to low temperature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filek, M.; Rudolphi-Skórska, E.; Sieprawska, A.; Kvasnica, Miroslav; Janeczko, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 128, DEC (2017), s. 37-45 ISSN 0039-128X R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ15-08202Y Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : 24-Epibrassinolide * 24-Epicastasterone * Galactolipids * Phospholipids * Progesterone * Seedlings * Winter wheat Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry Impact factor: 2.282, year: 2016

  10. Root and soil carbon distribution at shoulderslope and footslope positions of temperate toposequences cropped to winter wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chirinda, Ngoni; Roncossek, Svenja Doreen; Heckrath, Goswin Johann

    2014-01-01

    Crop root residues are an important source of soil organic carbon (SOC) in arable systems. However, the spatial distribution of root biomass in arable systems remains largely unknown. In this study, we determined the spatial distribution of macro-root and shoot biomass of winter wheat at shoulder...

  11. Evaluating the potential nitrogen savings without yield loss using variable nitrogen application strategies in a heterogeneous winter wheat field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn; Søgaard, Henning Tangen

    During a single growth season, a plot trial was carried out in a selected heterogeneous field in Denmark in an attempt to estimate the optimal variable nitrogen rate applied to winter wheat. 61 Nitrogen/grain yield dose–response curves were estimated using five nitrogen application rates (30, 90,...

  12. The Effects of Carboxin-thiram on Associative Relationships between Azospirillum Species and Wheat (Chamran Cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. rejali

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biofertilizers have been identified as alternative to chemical fertilizers to increase soil fertility and crop production in sustainable farming systems. One of the most useful kind of biofertilizers include plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR. Azospirillum is an associative rhizobacteria which can be very useful for plants such as wheat. It can help plant by fixing nitrogen through biological way, causing root development, plant strength improvement in primary phases, causing germination percent increment, improving plant tolerance in stress situations (drought, salinity, soil compaction and pathogens, secreting plant promoting hormones like cytokinin, Oxin and finally yield increment will be observable. Modern agriculture largely relies on the extensive application of agrochemicals, including inorganic fertilizers and pesticides. Although pesticides are important, their effects on nontarget organisms are of great concern because this poses a risk to the entire ecological system. The fungicides may also adversely affect the soil microflora, especially the types of microorganisms that can applied to seeds as bacterial inoculants. Considering useful effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria especially Azospirillum on Wheat, this study was done in order to survey interaction effects between fungicide and available biofertilizers in Iran market. Materials and Methods: Effect of carboxin tiram in 2 levels (applied, non-applied as fungicide, on efficacy of wheat plant (Chamran Cultivar and final crop yields under association conditions with 5 Azospirillum species (A.brasilense, A.lipoferum, A.halopraeferense, A.irakense, A.sp using powdery and liquid formulation were studied in a greenhouse test for four months in Soil and Water Research Institute.At first some properties of used soil, including soil texture, pH, EC,organic carbon and available soil K, P, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu were measured by laboratory methods.Nutrient Broth

  13. Predicting the yield and quality of winter wheat grown on calcareous chernozem in the lower Don Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Biryukova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Long-term studies have revealed a system of indicators for predicting the yield of winter wheat grown on a calcareous chernozem. It has been established that the prediction and integrated assessment of the yield and quality of grain should be performed with consideration for the balance of macro- and micronutrients in the grain and the above-ground biomass of plants. It has been shown that the contents of protein and gluten in winter wheat grain are mainly determined by the supply of plants with nitrogen and its balance with Mn, Р, Fe, Zn, and K. Possibility of predicting the contents of macro- and micronutrients in wheat grain from the chemical composition of plants at the shooting stage has been revealed.

  14. FREE FLAVONOID CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF WINTER WHEAT IN SUSTAINABLE FARMING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdaléna Lacko - Bartošová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the free flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of winter wheat white flour, whole grain flour and bran in ecological and integrated farming system in the years 2009-2010. The experiment was established on a scientific research base Dolná Malanta in western Slovakia during the years 2009 and 2010. Content of free flavonoids and antioxidant activity of white flour and whole grain flour was not affected by farming systems. Antioxidant activity of whole grain flour was more effected by a year and by a forecrop. White flour contain two times less free flavonoids and antioxidant activity than whole grain flour. By milling process most of the free flavonoids and other compounds with higher antioxidant activity remain in outer layers of grain.

  15. The effect of tillage intensity on soil structure and winter wheat root/shoot growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Hansen, Elly Møller; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2008-01-01

    of this study was to investigate the effect of tillage intensity on crop growth dynamics and soil structure. A tillage experiment was established in autumn 2002 on two Danish sandy loams (Foulum and Flakkebjerg) in a cereal-based crop rotation. The tillage systems included in this study were direct drilling (D...... with decreasing tillage intensity for the first year winter wheat at Foulum. In general ploughing resulted in the highest grain yields. This study highlights the important interaction between soil structure and crop growth dynamics....... was followed during the growing seasons using spectral reflectance and mini-rhizotron measurements, respectively. A range of soil physical properties were measured. We found decreased early season shoot and root growth with decreasing tillage intensity. Differences diminished later in the growing season...

  16. A meteorologically-driven yield reduction model for spring and winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravet, F. W.; Cremins, W. J.; Taylor, T. W.; Ashburn, P.; Smika, D.; Aaronson, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    A yield reduction model for spring and winter wheat was developed for large-area crop condition assessment. Reductions are expressed in percentage from a base yield and are calculated on a daily basis. The algorithm contains two integral components: a two-layer soil water budget model and a crop calendar routine. Yield reductions associated with hot, dry winds (Sukhovey) and soil moisture stress are determined. Input variables include evapotranspiration, maximum temperature and precipitation; subsequently crop-stage, available water holding percentage and stress duration are evaluated. No specific base yield is required and may be selected by the user; however, it may be generally characterized as the maximum likely to be produced commercially at a location.

  17. Assessment of winter wheat loss risk impacted by climate change from 1982 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xin

    2017-04-01

    The world's farmers will face increasing pressure to grow more food on less land in succeeding few decades, because it seems that the continuous population growth and agricultural products turning to biofuels would extend several decades into the future. Therefore, the increased demand for food supply worldwide calls for improved accuracy of crop productivity estimation and assessment of grain production loss risk. Extensive studies have been launched to evaluate the impacts of climate change on crop production based on various crop models drove with global or regional climate model (GCM/RCM) output. However, assessment of climate change impacts on agriculture productivity is plagued with uncertainties of the future climate change scenarios and complexity of crop model. Therefore, given uncertain climate conditions and a lack of model parameters, these methods are strictly limited in application. In this study, an empirical assessment approach for crop loss risk impacted by water stress has been established and used to evaluate the risk of winter wheat loss in China, United States, Germany, France and United Kingdom. The average value of winter wheat loss risk impacted by water stress for the three countries of Europe is about -931kg/ha, which is obviously higher in contrast with that in China (-570kg/ha) and in United States (-367kg/ha). Our study has important implications for further application of operational assessment of crop loss risk at a country or region scale. Future studies should focus on using higher spatial resolution remote sensing data, combining actual evapo-transpiration to estimate water stress, improving the method for downscaling of statistic crop yield data, and establishing much more rational and elaborate zoning method.

  18. [Effects of reduced solar radiation on winter wheat flag leaf net photosynthetic rate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, You-Fei; Ni, Yan-Li; Mai, Bo-Ru; Wu, Rong-Jun; Feng, Yan; Sun, Jian; Li, Jian; Xu, Jing-Xin

    2011-06-01

    Taking winter wheat Triticum aestivum L. (cv. Yangmai 13) as test material, a field experiment was conducted in Nanjing City to study the effects of simulated reduced solar radiation on the diurnal variation of winter wheat flag leaf photosynthetic rate and the main affecting factors. Five treatments were installed, i. e., 15% (T15), 20% (T20) , 40% (T40), 60% (T60), and 100% (CK) of total incident solar radiation. Reduced solar irradiance increased the chlorophyll and lutein contents significantly, but decreased the net photosynthetic rate (Pn). Under different solar irradiance, the diurnal variation of Pn had greater difference, and the daily maximum Pn was in the order of CK > T60 > T40 > T 20 > T15. In CK, the Pn exhibited a double peak diurnal curve; while in the other four treatments, the Pn showed a single peak curve, and the peak was lagged behind that of CK. Correlation analysis showed that reduced solar irradiance was the main factor affecting the diurnal variation of Pn, but the physiological parameters also played important roles in determining the diurnal variation of Pn. In treatments T60 and T40, the photosynthesis active radiation (PAR), leaf temperature (T1) , stomatal conductance (Gs) , and transpiration rate (Tr) were significantly positively correlated with Pn, suggesting their positive effects on Pn. The intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and stomatal limitation (Ls) had significant negative correlations with Pn in treatments T60 and T40 but significant positive correlations with Pn in treatments T20 and T15, implying that the Ci and Ls had negative (or positive) effects on Pn when the solar irradiance was higher (or lower) than 40% of incident solar irradiance.

  19. [Effects of population distribution pattern and irrigation schedule on radiation utilization in winter wheat farmland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guo-Min; Sun, Shu-Juan; Zhou, Xun-Bo; Chen, Yu-Hai; Qi, Lin; Gao, Hui-Jun; Liu, Yan

    2009-08-01

    A field experiment was conducted in 2006-2008 to study the effects of different population distribution pattern and irrigation schedule on the radiation utilization in a winter wheat farmland at the same population density (2.04 x 10(6) plant x hm(-2)). Four population distribution patterns were designed, i.e., row spacing (cm) x plant spacing (cm) 7 x 7 (A), 14 x 3.5 (B), 24.5 x 2 (C), and 49 x 1 (D), and each pattern had four irrigation schedules, i. e., no-irrigation, irrigation at jointing stage, irrigation at jointing and heading stages, and irrigation at jointing, heading and filling stages. The irrigation amount was 0.60 m3 each time. In the patterns A and B, the tiller number and leaf area index (LIA) were significantly higher than those in C and D (Pirrigation times increased the tiller number and LAI, but decreased the transmittance ratio of PAR, resulting in a significant increase of PAR capture ratio (Pirrigation increased the PAR capture ratio in the upper 40 cm canopy layers significantly. The radiation use efficiency (RUE) decreased with increasing row spacing, with the two year's average total RUE in A, B, C, and D being 1.24%, 1.27%, 1.21% and 1.06%, respectively, and that in B was 5.21% and 19.56% higher than that in C and D, respectively, with the difference being significant. It was suggested that relatively uniform population distribution improved the winter wheat population structure and PAR capture, being beneficial to the fully use of radiation, and irrigation also had positive effects on the population structure, being helpful to the increase of crop RUE.

  20. Estimating growth status of winter wheat based on aerial images and hyperspectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yunxia; Li, Minzan; Jia, Liangliang; Zhang, Xijie; Zhang, Fusuo

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to estimate the growth status and yield of winter wheat using aerial images and hyperspectral data obtained by unmanned aircraft, and then to perform precision management to the crop. The test farm was divided into 48 cells. Twenty-four cells were selected as variable rate fertilization area, and the other 24 cells were used as contrast area with low fertilization in growth season. In 2004, the aerial images of winter wheat canopy were measured from an unmanned aircraft. The SPAD value of crop leaf was acquired using a SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter, and then the hyperspectral reflectance of the crop canopy was measured by a handheld spectroradiometer. The vegetation indices, NDVI and DVI, were calculated from the hyperspectral data. The characteristics of the aerial images were used to evaluate the growth status. The RGB values of all cells were calculated from aerial images. The result showed that total nitrogen had better correlation with SPAD, NDVI, DVI, and RGB. NDVI and DVI had high correlation with the growth condition, and R/(R+G+B) and G/(R+G+B) had good correlation with the growth status and yield. The variable rate fertilization based on aerial images and NDVI was executed in the experimental cells. The yield map showed that the spatial variation of the yield was reduced and the total yield was increased. While in contrast cells, the spatial variation of the yield is greater than in experimental cells because of the spatial variation of the field nutrition. Therefore, it is practical to use aerial images and hyperspectral data of the crop canopy in estimation of the crop growth status.

  1. Estimating leaf SPAD values of freeze-damaged winter wheat using continuous wavelet analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-fang; Huo, Zhi-guo; Zhou, Guang-sheng; Liao, Qin-hong; Feng, Hai-kuan; Wu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Freeze injury, one of the most destructive agricultural disasters caused by climate, has a significant impact on the growth and production of winter wheat. Chlorophyll content is an important indicator of a plant's growth status. In this study, we analyzed the hyperspectral reflectance of normal and freeze-stressed leaves of winter wheat using a spectro-radiometer in a laboratory. The response of the chlorophyll spectra of plants under freeze stress was analyzed to predict the severity of freeze injury. A continuous wavelet transform (CWT) was conducted in conjunction with a correlation analysis, which generated a correlation scalogram that summarized the correlation between the chlorophyll content (SPAD value) and wavelet power at different wavelengths and decomposition scales. A linear regression model was established to relate the SPAD values and wavelet power coefficients. The results indicated that the most sensitive wavelet feature (region E: 553 nm, scale 5, R(2) = 0.8332) was located near the strong pigment absorption bands, and the model based on this feature could estimate the SPAD value with a high coefficient of determination (R(2) = 0.7444, RMSE = 7.359). The data revealed that the chlorophyll content of leaves under different low temperatures treatments could be accurately estimated using CWT. Also, this emerging spectral analytical approach can be applied to other complex datasets, including a broad range of species, and may be adapted to estimate basic leaf biochemical elements, such as nitrogen, cellulose, and lignin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Yield and Grain Quality Traits in Winter Wheat Genotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Tadesse

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to investigate the genetic basis of yield and grain quality traits in winter wheat genotypes using association mapping approach, and identify linked molecular markers for marker assisted selection. A total of 120 elite facultative/winter wheat genotypes were evaluated for yield, quality and other agronomic traits under rain-fed and irrigated conditions for two years (2011-2012 at the Tel Hadya station of ICARDA, Syria. The same genotypes were genotyped using 3,051 Diversity Array Technologies (DArT markers, of which 1,586 were of known chromosome positions. The grain yield performance of the genotypes was highly significant both in rain-fed and irrigated sites. Average yield of the genotypes ranged from 2295 to 4038 kg/ha and 4268 to 7102 kg/ha under rain-fed and irrigated conditions, respectively. Protein content and alveograph strength (W ranged from 13.6-16.1% and 217.6-375 Jx10-4, respectively. DArT markers wPt731910 (3B, wPt4680 (4A, wPt3509 (5A, wPt8183 (6B, and wPt0298 (2D were significantly associated with yield under rain-fed conditions. Under irrigated condition, tPt4125 on chromosome 2B was significantly associated with yield explaining about 13% of the variation. Markers wPt2607 and wPt1482 on 5B were highly associated with protein content and alveograph strength explaining 16 and 14% of the variations, respectively. The elite genotypes have been distributed to many countries using ICARDA's International system for potential direct release and/or use as parents after local adaptation trials by the NARSs of respective countries. The QTLs identified in this study are recommended to be used for marker assisted selection after through validation using bi-parental populations.

  3. [Prediction model of meteorological grade of wheat stripe rust in winter-reproductive area, Sichuan Basin, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiang; Wang, Ming Tian; Zhang, Guo Zhi

    2017-12-01

    The winter reproductive areas of Puccinia striiformis var. striiformis in Sichuan Basin are often the places mostly affected by wheat stripe rust. With data on the meteorological condition and stripe rust situation at typical stations in the winter reproductive area in Sichuan Basin from 1999 to 2016, this paper classified the meteorological conditions inducing wheat stripe rust into 5 grades, based on the incidence area ratio of the disease. The meteorological factors which were biologically related to wheat stripe rust were determined through multiple analytical methods, and a meteorological grade model for forecasting wheat stripe rust was created. The result showed that wheat stripe rust in Sichuan Basin was significantly correlated with many meteorological factors, such as the ave-rage (maximum and minimum) temperature, precipitation and its anomaly percentage, relative humidity and its anomaly percentage, average wind speed and sunshine duration. Among these, the average temperature and the anomaly percentage of relative humidity were the determining factors. According to a historical retrospective test, the accuracy of the forecast based on the model was 64% for samples in the county-level test, and 89% for samples in the municipal-level test. In a meteorological grade forecast of wheat stripe rust in the winter reproductive areas in Sichuan Basin in 2017, the prediction was accurate for 62.8% of the samples, with 27.9% error by one grade and only 9.3% error by two or more grades. As a result, the model could deliver satisfactory forecast results, and predicate future wheat stripe rust from a meteorological point of view.

  4. Changes in the elemental composition of winter wheat plants caused by the action of Megafol and retardants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Miroshnichenko

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the course of field experiments conducted during the 2015–2016 vegetation seasons, retardants Medax Top, 1.0 l/ha (prohexadione-Са and mepiquat-chloride, appeared more effective than Terpal, 1.5 l/ha (mepiquat-chloride and ethephon, on field plots with high-yield varieties. Foliar application of Megafol promoted the productivity of winter wheat varieties Smuglyanka and Podolyanka and reduced the negative influence of retardants on the wheat plants in the vegetation seasons which were characterized by moisture deficit. The influence of modern retardants – prohexadione-Ca + mepiquat-chloride (Medax Top and mepiquat-chloride + etefone (Terpal, both BASF, Germany on the accumulation of some macro- and micronutrients in winter wheat plants was determined. The assays were performed on an ICP-MS Agilent 7700x mass spectrometer (Agilent Technologies, USA with ICP-MS Mass Hunter WorkStation. Samples of winter wheat plants were taken in the phase of flowering and grain ripening. The samples were dried, homogenized, 0.400 gof weight was dissolved in ICP-grade nitric acid in the Milestone Start D (Milestone Inc., USA. All solutions were prepared on 1st class water (18 MΩ cm–1 obtained on the Scholar-UV Nex Up 1000 (Human Corporation, Korea water purification system. The ICP-MS Complete Standard IV-ICPMS-71A was used as the external standard, and the internal standard was Sc, both of Inorganic Ventures, USA. According to the ICP-MS results of plant samples of winter wheat of Smuglylanka and Podolanka, it has been shown that, in conditions of wheat growing on light soils of Polissya, modern compositional retardants affect the ionome of plants during the vegetation season, as well as change the content of inorganic elements in the grain. It was found that winter wheat of the middle-stem intensive Podolyanka type reacted more responsively to retardant treatment than the short-stem highly intensive Smuglyanka type. At the same time, there was an

  5. Physiological mechanisms contributing to the increased water-use efficiency in winter wheat under deficit irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Qingwu; Zhu, Zixi; Musick, Jack T; Stewart, B A; Dusek, Donald A

    2006-02-01

    Deficit irrigation in winter wheat has been practiced in the areas with limited irrigation water resources. The objectives of this study were to (i) understand the physiological basis for determinations of grain yield and water-use efficiency in grain yield (WUE) under deficit irrigation; and (ii) investigate the effect of deficit irrigation on dry matter accumulation and remobilization of pre-anthesis carbon reserves during grain filling. A field experiment was conducted in the Southern High Plains of the USA and winter wheat (cv. TAM 202) was grown on Pullman clay loam soil (fine mixed thermic Torretic Paleustoll). Treatments consisted of rain-fed, deficit irrigation from jointing to the middle of grain filling, and full irrigation. The physiological measurements included leaf water potential, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), and leaf area index. The rain-fed treatment had the lowest seasonal evapotranspiration (ET), biomass, grain yield, harvest index (HI) and WUE as a result of moderate to severe water stress from jointing to grain filling. Irrigation application increased seasonal ET, and ET increased as irrigation frequency increased. The seasonal ET increased 20% in one-irrigation treatments between jointing and anthesis, 32-46% in two-irrigation treatments, and 67% in three- and full irrigation treatments. Plant biomass, grain yield, HI and WUE increased as the result of increased ET. The increased yield under irrigation was mainly contributed by the increased number of spikes, and seeds per square meter and per spike. Among the irrigation treatments, grain yield increased significantly but the WUE increased slightly as irrigation frequency increased. The increased WUE under deficit irrigation was contributed by increased HI. Water stress during grain filling reduced Pn and Gs, and accelerated leaf senescence. However, the water stress during grain filling induced remobilization of pre-anthesis carbon reserves to grains, and the

  6. Impact of Graze-­‐Out in Hard Red Winter Wheat Production

    OpenAIRE

    Neupane, Diwash; Moss, Charles B.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between wheat graze-­‐out and cattle-­‐wheat price ratio and moisture level and examine the impact of graze-­‐out on wheat yield in major wheat-­‐producing states in US. Results indicate that cattle-­‐wheat price ratio and moisture level affect farmers’ graze out decision and graze-­‐out have significant impact on wheat yield.

  7. IAC 25 (Pedrinhas e IAC 161 (Taiamã: novos cultivares de trigo IAC 25 (Pedrinhas and IAC 161 (Taiamã: new wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Felíco

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os cultivares de trigo IAC 25 (Pedrinhas e IAC 161 (Taiamã, provenientes de cruzamentos artificiais e obtidos por seleção pelo método genealógico, quanto à produtividade de grãos e às reações aos agentes causais da ferrugem-do-colmo e da-folha e da helmintosporiose no Vale do Paranapanema (SP, em condições de sequeiro, e na região Norte (SP, com irrigação por aspersão. Avaliaram-nos também em relação às qualidades industriais de panificação. Em condições de sequeiro, as produções médias de grãos dos novos cultivares não se apresentaram estatisticamente diferentes das da testemunha 'Anahuac', porém 'Pedrinhas' confirmou como grande vantagem o ciclo precoce (100-115 dias. Para as áreas com irrigação por aspersão, em solos com elevada acidez (porcentagem de saturação por bases inferior a 60% 'Pedrinhas' e Taiamã' exibiram melhor produção de grãos em relação ao 'Anahuac'. Para solos com baixa acidez, não houve diferença estatística entre os três cultivares. O 'Pedrinhas' e o 'Taiamã' apresentaram moderada tolerância ao Al3+, quando testados em soluções nutritivas contendo esse elemento; 'Taiamã' demonstrou alta suscetibilidade à toxicidade de ferro e, 'Pedrinhas', moderada tolerância, enquanto para o manganês ambos exibiram tolerância. O 'Taiamã' mostrou resistência à ferrugem-do-colmo e, o 'Pedrinhas', moderada resistência, em testes em casa de vegetação. O 'Pedrinhas' revelou-se mais suscetível à ferrugem-da-folha que o 'Taiamã' e o 'Anahuac' em condições de campo, enquanto, para a helmintosporiose, os três apresentaram-se suscetíveis. Nos ensaios de panificação, a farinha do 'Taiamã' foi superior à do 'Pedrinhas', proporcionando pães de excelente qualidade física, com volume específico bastante superior à farinha de trigo comercial.The wheat cultivars IAC 25 (Pedrinhas and IAC 161 (Taiamã originated from artificial crosses and selected by the pedigree method

  8. Inheritance of resistance to Ug99 stem rust in wheat cultivar Norin 40 and genetic mapping of Sr42.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazvini, Habibollah; Hiebert, Colin W; Zegeye, Taye; Liu, Sixin; Dilawari, Mridull; Tsilo, Toi; Anderson, James A; Rouse, Matthew N; Jin, Yue; Fetch, Tom

    2012-08-01

    Stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, is a devastating disease of wheat. The emergence of race TTKSK (Ug99) and new variants in Africa threatens wheat production worldwide. The best method of controlling stem rust is to deploy effective resistance genes in wheat cultivars. Few stem rust resistance (Sr) genes derived from the primary gene pool of wheat confer resistance to TTKSK. Norin 40, which carries Sr42, is resistant to TTKSK and variants TTKST and TTTSK. The goal of this study was to elucidate the inheritance of resistance to Ug99 in Norin 40 and map the Sr gene(s). A doubled haploid (DH) population of LMPG-6/Norin 40 was evaluated for resistance to the race TTKST. Segregation of 248 DH lines fitted a 1:1 ratio (χ (2) 1:1= 0.58, p = 0.45), indicating a single gene in Norin 40 conditioned resistance to Ug99. This was confirmed by an independent F(2:3) population also derived from the cross LMPG-6/Norin 40 where a 1:2:1 ratio (χ (2)1:2:1 = 0.69, p = 0.71) was observed following the inoculation with race TTKSK. Mapping with DNA markers located this gene to chromosome 6DS, the known location of Sr42. PCR marker FSD_RSA co-segregated with Sr42, and simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker BARC183 was closely linked (0.5 cM) to Sr42. A previous study found close linkage between FSD_RSA and SrCad, a temporarily designated gene that also confers resistance to Ug99, thus Sr42 may be the same gene or allelic. Marker FSD_RSA is suitable for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in wheat breeding programs to improve stem rust resistance, including Ug99.

  9. Growth, yield and composition of four winter cereals. 1. Biomass, grain yield and yield formation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellen, J.

    1993-01-01

    A field experiment with 3 cultivars of each of 4 winter cereals (wheat, rye, triticale and barley), sown at about 320 plants/msuperscript 2, was conducted on a fertile clay soil in the central Netherlands. The N fertilizer was split-dressed: 120 kg/ha in total for wheat and triticale, and 60 kg/ha

  10. Substantial N2O emission during the initial period of the wheat season due to the conversion of winter-flooded paddy to rice-wheat rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Lin, Shan; Wu, Lei; Zhao, Jingsong; Wang, Milan; Zhu, Bo; Mo, Yongliang; Hu, Ronggui; Chadwick, Dave; Shaaban, Muhammad

    2017-12-01

    Winter-flooded paddy is a typical rice-based cropping system to conserve water for the next rice growing season. Conversion of winter-flooded paddy to rice-wheat rotation has been widely adopted with the development of the water conservation infrastructure and the government's encouragement of winter agriculture in China in recent decades. However, the effects of this conversion on N2O emission are still not clear. Three winter-flooded paddy fields were studied in a split-plot design. One-half of each field was converted to rice-wheat rotation (RW), and the other half remained winter-flooded as rice-fallow (RF). Each plot of RW and RF was further divided into four subplots: three subplots for conventional N fertilizer application (RW-NC and RF-NC) and one for unfertilized treatment (RW-N0 and RF-N0). Conversion of RF-NC to RW-NC increased the N2O emission up to 6.6-fold in the first year and 4.4-fold in the second year. Moreover, N2O emissions for the entire wheat season were 1.74-3.74 kg N ha-1 and 0.24-0.31 kg N ha-1 from RW-NC and RW-N0, respectively, and accounted for 78%-94% and 78%-97% of the total annual amount. N2O emitted during the first 11-21 days of the wheat season from RW-NC was 1.48-3.28 kg N ha-1 and that from RW-N0 was 0.14-0.17 kg N ha-1, which contributed to 66%-82% and 45%-71% of the total annual amount, respectively. High N2O fluxes occurred when the soil water-filled pore space (WFPS) was in the range of 68%-72% and the ratio of available carbon to nitrogen in the soil was <1.42. The contribution of WFPS and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) explained most of the variation of the N2O fluxes compared with the other measured environmental and soil factors. These findings suggest that the conversion of winter-flooded paddy to rice-wheat rotation increased N2O emissions that could be mitigated by controlling the soil moisture and ratio of available soil carbon to nitrogen.

  11. Effect of different mulch materials on winter wheat production in desalinized soil in Heilonggang region of North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan-min; Liu, Xiao-jing; Li, Wei-qiang; Li, Cun-zhen

    2006-11-01

    Freshwater shortage is the main problem in Heilonggang lower-lying plain, while a considerable amount of underground saline water is available. We wanted to find an effective way to use the brackish water in winter wheat production. Surface mulch has significant effect in reducing evaporation and decreasing soil salinity level. This research was aimed at comparing the effect of different mulch materials on winter wheat production. The experiment was conducted during 2002~2003 and 2003~2004. Four treatments were setup: (1) no mulch, (2) mulch with plastic film, (3) mulch with corn straw, (4) mulch with concrete slab between the rows. The result indicated that concrete mulch and straw mulch was effective in conserving soil water compared to plastic film mulch which increased soil temperature. Concrete mulch decreases surface soil salinity better in comparison to other mulches used. Straw mulch conserved more soil water but decreased wheat grain yield probably due to low temperature. Concrete mulch had similar effect with plastic film mulch on promoting winter wheat development and growth.

  12. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (pal) and peroxidase activity in brown rust infected tissues of pakistani wheat cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riaz, A.; Tahir, M.I.

    2014-01-01

    Besides other factors resistance and susceptibility is the outcome of biochemical processes such as activities of defense-related enzymes. So in this study, Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and Peroxidase activity of resistant (Inqilab-91) and susceptible (Kirin-95) wheat cultivars were determined through spectrophotometer to address the biochemical aspect related to the disease after 8 hours, 24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours of leaf rust inoculation. The results have shown that these enzymes were present in both the resistant and susceptible cultivars but the activity was more pronounced in the resistant one. The effect of PAL and peroxidase activity was also investigated among inoculated and uninoculated plants within the same cultivar. The activity of both PAL and peroxidase were more significant in inoculated ones. The results have shown that the after 72 hours of inoculation Inqilab-91 had more PAL activity i.e., 5.47 IU/ml/min than in Kirin-95 i.e., 2.08 IU/ml/min at 270 nm. While peroxidase activity in Inqilab-91 was 6.41 IU/ml/min and in Kirin-95, 3.66 IU/ml/min after 72 hours of inoculation, observed under 470 nm wavelength. Increase in one's activity increases the other enzyme's activity. The activity was more prominent after 72 hours of infection as pathogen had successfully established itself in the host plant tissue. The activities of these enzymes act as plants active defense mechanism against the attack of pathogen. (author)

  13. Estudo comparativo de cultivares de trigo em latossolo roxo no estado de São Paulo em 1974 A comparative study on wheat cultivars on latossolic B "Terra Roxa" soils in the state of São Paulo in 1974

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Felício

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi executado com o propósito de estudar o comportamento de diferentes cultivares de trigo, em latossolo roxo na região tritícola do Vale do Paranapanema no Estado de São Paulo. Foram instalados três experimentos em 1974. Os cultivares IRN-526-63, IAS-55, Sonora-63, BH-1146, IAS-54, Londrina, LA-1434 e Pitic-62 foram os que apresentaram maior produtividade por unidade de área; os cultivares IAC-5, Sonora-63, Sonora-64 x Selkirk, Triticum agropyrum, Tobari-66, IAC-11, Sonora-64, Norteno-67 e Super X mostraram-se resistentes às raças prevalentes de ferrugem do colmo. Os cultivares Super X, Sonora-64 x Selkirk, IRN-152-63 e Triticum agropyrum mostraram-se resistentes à ferrugem da folha, e BH-1146, IAC-5, IAC-11, LA-1434, T. agropyrum e IRN-152-63 foram suscetíveis ao acamamento.Selected germplasms of wheat were tested for yield potential and resistance to rusts and cultivar trials in the State of São Paulo. Performance was evaluated in several locations in 1974 in the wheat area of the State on Latossolic B "Terra Roxa" soils. The cultivars IRN-526-63, IAS-55, Sonora-63, BH-1146, IAS-54, Londrina, LA-1434 and Pitic-62 showed superior performance for yield. The cultivars IAC-5, Sonora-63, Sonora-64 x Selkink, Triticum agropyrum, Tobai-66, IAC-11, Sonora-64, Norteno-67, and Super X showed better resistance to stem rust. The cultivars Super X, Sonora-64 x Selkink, IRN-152,63, and Triticum agropyrum, were more resistant to leaf rust. The cultivars BH-1146, IAC-5, Triticum agropyrum, IRN-152-62, LA-1434 and IAC-11 were susceptible to lay.

  14. Comportamento de cultivares de trigo em duas regiões tritícolas do estado de São Paulo em 1976 Behavior of wheat cultivars in different regions of the State São Paulo in 1976

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Felício

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de estudar o comportamento em duas regiões tritícolas do Estado de São Paulo foram instalados seis ensaios com trigo, sendo dois com cultivares sem tolerância ao Al+++ (comprovada, três com cultivares tolerante ao Al+++ e um com cultivares já em cultivo. BH-1146, IAC-5 (maringá tobari-F-66, LA-1434 e super X foram considerados cultivares preferenciais para a semeadura na região do Vale do Paranapanema, e IAC-5 (maringá foi considerado preferencial para a região sul do Estado de São Paulo. Os cultivares de origem mexicana têm-se mostrado suscetíveis a Puccinia graminis tritici.Competition trials of different wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L. were started for yield potencial and resistance to lay, to stem rust and to leaf rust, and for a wide adaptation in two regions of the State of São Paulo without irrigation. The cultivars BH-1146, IAC-5 (maringá, tobari-F-66, LA-1434 and super X showed superior performance in the Paranapanema Valley; the cultivars IAC-5 (maringá did so in the south of the State of São Paulo.

  15. Genetic diversity of European cultivars of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L. based on RAPD and protein markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tímea KUŤKA HLOZÁKOVÁ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of genetic diversity of wheat genotypes based on DNA and protein polymorphism is very important for breeding programs (MAS. The objective of this study was to assess the genetic variability among twenty – four European cultivars of common wheat using SDS – PAGE and RAPD techniques. Protein electrophoreses showed 31 polymorphic bands with 63.2% polymorphism. Genetic similarity based on Jaccard´s coefficient ranged from 0.067 to 0.933. Also twelve different Glu – 1 encoded allelic variants were identified among these 24 genotypes resulting from combination of 3 alleles of Glu – 1A, 7 of Glu – 1B and 2 of Glu – 1D loci. One novel allelic variant 6.5+7.5 at the Glu – 1B locus was identified. RAPD analysis showed that the number of polymorphic amplicons was 56 out of a total of 63 amplicons, thus revealing a level of 37.56% polymorphism. Maximum level of polymorphism (55.8% was observed for the primer OPA – 03 and minimum one for OPD – 08 (13.8%. Genetic similarity based on Jaccard´s coefficient ranged from 0.396 to 0.805. As a result of this investigation, might be expected that the SDS – PAGE using protein markers and RAPD – PCR using DNA markers would be a useful tool for assessment of genetic diversity among wheat genotypes.

  16. CO2 Dynamics in winter wheat and canola under different management practices in the Southern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagle, P.; Manjunatha, P.; Gowda, P. H.; Northup, B. K.; Neel, J. P. S.; Turner, K.; Steiner, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration and increased air temperature and climatic variability concerns have prompted considerable interest regarding CO2 dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems in response to major climatic and biophysical factors. However, detailed information on CO2 dynamics in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and canola (Brassica napus L.) under different agricultural management practices is lacking. As a part of the GRL-FLUXNET, a cluster of eight eddy covariance (EC) systems was deployed on the 420-ha Grazinglands Research on agroEcosystems and the ENvironment (GREEN) Farm at the United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS), Grazinglands Research Laboratory (GRL), El Reno, OK. The GRL is also one of 18 USDA-ARS Long-Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) network sites in the United States. A 4-year crop rotation plan at the farm includes winter wheat for grain only, graze-grain, and graze-out, and canola under conventional till and no-till management conditions. Biometric measurements such as biomass, leaf area index (LAI), canopy cover %, canopy height, and chlorophyll content were collected approximately every 16 days to coincide with Landsat satellite overpass dates. As expected, biomass and LAI were highest in the grain only wheat fields followed by graze-grain and graze-out wheat fields, but they were similar for till and no-till wheat fields within the same grazing practice. Biomass and LAI were similar in till and no-till canola in fall 2016, but both were substantially lower in no-till compared to tilled canola during spring 2017 due to more severe winter damage. Because net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) is strongly regulated by vegetation cover, the magnitudes of NEE were highest in the grain only wheat fields due to more biomass and LAI, followed by graze-grain and graze-out wheat fields. Similarly, the magnitudes of NEE were also higher in tilled canola (i.e., higher biomass and LAI) than

  17. Spatial Variation of Soil Respiration in a Cropland under Winter Wheat and Summer Maize Rotation in the North China Plain.

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    Ni Huang

    Full Text Available Spatial variation of soil respiration (Rs in cropland ecosystems must be assessed to evaluate the global terrestrial carbon budget. This study aims to explore the spatial characteristics and controlling factors of Rs in a cropland under winter wheat and summer maize rotation in the North China Plain. We collected Rs data from 23 sample plots in the cropland. At the late jointing stage, the daily mean Rs of summer maize (4.74 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 was significantly higher than that of winter wheat (3.77μmol CO2 m-2 s-1. However, the spatial variation of Rs in summer maize (coefficient of variation, CV = 12.2% was lower than that in winter wheat (CV = 18.5%. A similar trend in CV was also observed for environmental factors but not for biotic factors, such as leaf area index, aboveground biomass, and canopy chlorophyll content. Pearson's correlation analyses based on the sampling data revealed that the spatial variation of Rs was poorly explained by the spatial variations of biotic factors, environmental factors, or soil properties alone for winter wheat and summer maize. The similarly non-significant relationship was observed between Rs and the enhanced vegetation index (EVI, which was used as surrogate for plant photosynthesis. EVI was better correlated with field-measured leaf area index than the normalized difference vegetation index and red edge chlorophyll index. All the data from the 23 sample plots were categorized into three clusters based on the cluster analysis of soil carbon/nitrogen and soil organic carbon content. An apparent improvement was observed in the relationship between Rs and EVI in each cluster for both winter wheat and summer maize. The spatial variation of Rs in the cropland under winter wheat and summer maize rotation could be attributed to the differences in spatial variations of soil properties and biotic factors. The results indicate that applying cluster analysis to minimize differences in soil properties among different

  18. Estimating the responses of winter wheat yields to moisture variations in the past 35 years in Jiangsu Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiangying; Gao, Ping; Zhu, Xinkai; Guo, Wenshan; Ding, Jinfeng; Li, Chunyan

    2018-01-01

    Jiangsu is an important agricultural province in China. Winter wheat, as the second major grain crop in the province, is greatly affected by moisture variations. The objective of this study was to investigate whether there were significant trends in changes in the moisture conditions during wheat growing seasons over the past decades and how the wheat yields responded to different moisture levels by means of a popular drought index, the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). The study started with a trend analysis and quantification of the moisture conditions with the Mann-Kendall test and Sen's Slope method, respectively. Then, correlation analysis was carried out to determine the relationship between de-trended wheat yields and multi-scalar SPEI. Finally, a multivariate panel regression model was established to reveal the quantitative yield responses to moisture variations. The results showed that the moisture conditions in Jiangsu were generally at a normal level, but this century appeared slightly drier in because of the relatively high temperatures. There was a significant correlation between short time scale SPEI values and wheat yields. Among the three critical stages of wheat development, the SPEI values in the late growth stage (April-June) had a closer linkage to the yields than in the seedling stage (October-November) and the over-wintering stage (December-February). Moreover, the yield responses displayed an asymmetric characteristic, namely, moisture excess led to higher yield losses compared to moisture deficit in this region. The maximum yield increment could be obtained under the moisture level of slight drought according to the 3-month SPEI at the late growth stage, while extreme wetting resulted in the most severe yield losses. The moisture conditions in the first 15 years of the 21st century were more favorable than in the last 20 years of the 20th century for wheat production in Jiangsu.

  19. Estimating the responses of winter wheat yields to moisture variations in the past 35 years in Jiangsu Province of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangying Xu

    Full Text Available Jiangsu is an important agricultural province in China. Winter wheat, as the second major grain crop in the province, is greatly affected by moisture variations. The objective of this study was to investigate whether there were significant trends in changes in the moisture conditions during wheat growing seasons over the past decades and how the wheat yields responded to different moisture levels by means of a popular drought index, the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI. The study started with a trend analysis and quantification of the moisture conditions with the Mann-Kendall test and Sen's Slope method, respectively. Then, correlation analysis was carried out to determine the relationship between de-trended wheat yields and multi-scalar SPEI. Finally, a multivariate panel regression model was established to reveal the quantitative yield responses to moisture variations. The results showed that the moisture conditions in Jiangsu were generally at a normal level, but this century appeared slightly drier in because of the relatively high temperatures. There was a significant correlation between short time scale SPEI values and wheat yields. Among the three critical stages of wheat development, the SPEI values in the late growth stage (April-June had a closer linkage to the yields than in the seedling stage (October-November and the over-wintering stage (December-February. Moreover, the yield responses displayed an asymmetric characteristic, namely, moisture excess led to higher yield losses compared to moisture deficit in this region. The maximum yield increment could be obtained under the moisture level of slight drought according to the 3-month SPEI at the late growth stage, while extreme wetting resulted in the most severe yield losses. The moisture conditions in the first 15 years of the 21st century were more favorable than in the last 20 years of the 20th century for wheat production in Jiangsu.

  20. Appearance of Powdery Mildew of Wheat (caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. Tritici) on Pm17-bearing Cultivars in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pm17 is a gene for resistance to powdery mildew (caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici) that was first confirmed in the wheat-rye translocation cultivar Amigo (1). In Amigo, the translocation is T1AL-1RS, and the 1RS arm has the gene Pm17. In the Mid-Atlantic USA, at least two widely deployed...

  1. Cluster analysis of historical and modern hard red spring wheat cultivars based on parentage and HPLC analysis of gluten forming proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, 30 hard red spring (HRS) wheat cultivars released between 1910 and 2013 were analyzed to determine how they cluster in terms of parentage and protein data, analyzed by reverse-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) of gliadins, and size-exclusion HPLC (SE-HPLC) of unreduced proteins. Dwarfing genes in...

  2. Nitrous oxide emission from highland winter wheat field after long-term fertilization

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    X. R. Wei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Nitrous oxide (N2O is an important greenhouse gas. N2O emissions from soils vary with fertilization and cropping practices. The response of N2O emission to fertilization of agricultural soils plays an important role in global N2O emission. The objective of this study was to assess the seasonal pattern of N2O fluxes and the annual N2O emissions from a rain-fed winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. field in the Loess Plateau of China. A static flux chamber method was used to measure soil N2O fluxes from 2006 to 2008. The study included 5 treatments with 3 replications in a randomized complete block design. Prior to initiating N2O measurements the treatments had received the same fertilization for 22 years. The fertilizer treatments were unfertilized control (CK, manure (M, nitrogen (N, nitrogen + phosphorus (NP, and nitrogen + phosphorus + manure (NPM. Soil N2O fluxes in the highland winter wheat field were highly variable temporally and thus were fertilization dependent. The highest fluxes occurred in the warmer and wetter seasons. Relative to CK, m slightly increased N2O flux while N, NP and NPM treatments significantly increased N2O fluxes. The fertilizer induced increase in N2O flux occurred mainly in the first 30 days after fertilization. The increases were smaller in the relatively warm and dry year than in the cold and wet year. Combining phosphorous and/or manure with mineral N fertilizer partly offset the nitrogen fertilizer induced increase in N2O flux. N2O fluxes at the seedling stage were mainly controlled by nitrogen fertilization, while fluxes at other plant growth stages were influenced by plant and environmental conditions. The cumulative N2O emissions were always higher in the fertilized treatments than in the non-fertilized treatment (CK. Mineral and manure

  3. Nitrous oxide emission from highland winter wheat field after long-term fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, X. R.; Hao, M. D.; Xue, X. H.; Shi, P.; Horton, R.; Wang, A.; Zang, Y. F.

    2010-10-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important greenhouse gas. N2O emissions from soils vary with fertilization and cropping practices. The response of N2O emission to fertilization of agricultural soils plays an important role in global N2O emission. The objective of this study was to assess the seasonal pattern of N2O fluxes and the annual N2O emissions from a rain-fed winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) field in the Loess Plateau of China. A static flux chamber method was used to measure soil N2O fluxes from 2006 to 2008. The study included 5 treatments with 3 replications in a randomized complete block design. Prior to initiating N2O measurements the treatments had received the same fertilization for 22 years. The fertilizer treatments were unfertilized control (CK), manure (M), nitrogen (N), nitrogen + phosphorus (NP), and nitrogen + phosphorus + manure (NPM). Soil N2O fluxes in the highland winter wheat field were highly variable temporally and thus were fertilization dependent. The highest fluxes occurred in the warmer and wetter seasons. Relative to CK, m slightly increased N2O flux while N, NP and NPM treatments significantly increased N2O fluxes. The fertilizer induced increase in N2O flux occurred mainly in the first 30 days after fertilization. The increases were smaller in the relatively warm and dry year than in the cold and wet year. Combining phosphorous and/or manure with mineral N fertilizer partly offset the nitrogen fertilizer induced increase in N2O flux. N2O fluxes at the seedling stage were mainly controlled by nitrogen fertilization, while fluxes at other plant growth stages were influenced by plant and environmental conditions. The cumulative N2O emissions were always higher in the fertilized treatments than in the non-fertilized treatment (CK). Mineral and manure nitrogen fertilizer enhanced N2O emissions in wetter years compared to dryer years. Phosphorous fertilizer offset 0.50 and 1.26 kg N2O-N ha-1 increases, while manure + phosphorous offset 0

  4. Anatomical and physiological characteristics of two argentine wheat cultivars Características anatômicas e fisiológicas de dois cultivares argentinos de trigo

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    Raúl Roberto Filgueira

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Two Argentine field grown wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L., Buck Cencerro (BC with traditional germoplasm, and Buck Pucará (BP with Mexican germoplasm, have been investigated in order to compare anatomical and physiological characteristics of the flag leaf measured in heading (stage E59, anthesis (stage E69 and kernel water ripe (stage 71. In both cultivars, photosynthetic rate was not different for the same phenological stage, except for E71. Averages in stage E59 were higher than stages E69 and E71 for both cultivars (22.70, 18.40 and 10.40 µmol m-2 s-1 for BP and 23.82, 18.41 and 8.28 µmol m-2 s-1 for BC, respectively. Transpiration rates were higher in BP (5.0, 5.6 and 4.89 mmol m-2 s-1 than BC (3.3, 4.4 and 2.57 mmol m-2 s-1 for stages E59, E69 and E71, respectively. Consequently, instantaneous water use efficiencies were higher in BC than in BP. No difference between cultivars and phenological stages was observed in specific surface area (mesophyll area per unit mass determined by physical adsorption of nitrogen at low temperature (78° K; the mean was 8.9 m² g-1. It was similar as values found in previous works, in others T. aestivum L. and greater than the values found for Ligustrum lucidum Aiton, by the same technique. Differences could be attributed to the roughness of the cell wall and the dimensions of the cell itself. No positive correlation between specific surface and photosynthetic rate was observed neither for cultivars nor for phenological stages.Dois cultivares argentinos de trigo (Triticum aestivium L, Buck Cencerro (BC, com germoplasma tradicional e Buck Pucará (BP, com germoplasma mexicano, foram pesquisados para comparar as características anatômicas e fisiológicas da folha bandeira medida no espigamento (estádio E59, na antese (estádio E69 e na fase de grão aquoso completo (estádio E71. Nos dois cultivares, a taxa fotossintética foi semelhante no mesmo estágio fenológico, exceto no E71. As médias no

  5. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Cultivar Selection Affects Double-Crop and Relay-Intercrop Soybean (Glycine max L. Response on Claypan Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A. Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Field research (2003–2005 evaluated the effect of wheat row spacing (19 and 38 cm and cultivar on double-cropped (DC soybean response, 38-cm wheat on relay-intercrop (RI response, and wheat cultivar selection on gross margins of these cropping systems. Narrow-row wheat increased grain yield 460 kg ha−1, light interception (LI 7%, and leaf area index (LAI 0.5 compared to wide rows, but did not affect DC soybean yield. High yielding wheat (P25R37 with greater LI and LAI produced lower (330 kg ha−1 soybean yields in an RI system than a low yielding cultivar (Ernie. Gross margins were $267 ha−1 greater when P25R37 was RI with H431 Intellicoat (ITC soybean compared to Ernie. Gross margins were similar for monocrop H431 non-coated (NC or ITC soybean, P25R37 in 19- or 38-cm rows with DC H431 NC soybean, and P25R37 in 38-cm rows with RI H431 ITC soybean in the absence of an early fall frost.

  6. Analysis of wheat microspore embryogenesis induction by transcriptome and small RNA sequencing using the highly responsive cultivar "Svilena".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Felix; Bössow, Sandra; Kumlehn, Jochen; Gnad, Heike; Scholten, Stefan

    2016-04-21

    Microspore embryogenesis describes a stress-induced reprogramming of immature male plant gametophytes to develop into embryo-like structures, which can be regenerated into doubled haploid plants after whole genome reduplication. This mechanism is of high interest for both research as well as plant breeding. The objective of this study was to characterize transcriptional changes and regulatory relationships in early stages of cold stress-induced wheat microspore embryogenesis by transcriptome and small RNA sequencing using a highly responsive cultivar. Transcriptome and small RNA sequencing was performed in a staged time-course to analyze wheat microspore embryogenesis induction. The analyzed stages were freshly harvested, untreated uninucleate microspores and the two following stages from in vitro anther culture: directly after induction by cold-stress treatment and microspores undergoing the first nuclear divisions. A de novo transcriptome assembly resulted in 29,388 contigs distributing to 20,224 putative transcripts of which 9,305 are not covered by public wheat cDNAs. Differentially expressed transcripts and small RNAs were identified for the stage transitions highlighting various processes as well as specific genes to be involved in microspore embryogenesis induction. This study establishes a comprehensive functional genomics resource for wheat microspore embryogenesis induction and initial understanding of molecular mechanisms involved. A large set of putative transcripts presumably specific for microspore embryogenesis induction as well as contributing processes and specific genes were identified. The results allow for a first insight in regulatory roles of small RNAs in the reprogramming of microspores towards an embryogenic cell fate.

  7. Physicochemical Properties of Silt Loamy Soil and Diversity of Diatom Species Under Winter Wheat and Oats

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    Jadwiga Stanek-Tarkowska

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to investigate the soil properties and the species diversity of diatoms growing in different agricultural fields with silt loamy soil. The field experiment was conducted in 2014 in Kosina, near Łańcut (SE Poland, at three sites (indicated as fields K1, K2, K3 with different soil environmental conditions and plants. The growth of winter wheat Triticum aestivum (cv. Bogatka in fields K1 and K2 and oats Avena Sativa (cv. Haker in field K3 under different soil management were studied. The soil samples were collected from the top layers (0-5 cm depth each month, from April to December. Certain physical and chemical parameters of soil were measured. The pH of soil was acidic and slightly acidic in fields K1 (5.0-5.4, K2 (4.9-5.9 and K3 (4.5-5.1. The soil in field K3 had a significantly greater content of organic matter (1.06-1.30% and water content (12.9–33.8%, v/v than fields K1 and K2. A total of 91 diatom taxa were found. The diversity was greatest in field K2 (71 taxa, lower in K1 (54 taxa and K3 (24 taxa. In K1, the most numerous species were Luticola D.G. Mann cf. mutica, Mayamaea atomus var. permitis (Hust. Lange-Bertalot, and Stauroneis thermicola (Petersen Lund, with more than a 20% share in the assemblage. In K2, very abundant assemblages were formed by Mayamaea atomus (Kütz. Lange-Bertalot, Mayamaea atomus var. permitis (Hust. Lange-Bertalot, and Stauroneis thermicola (Petersen Lund with a 25 to 50% share in the total diatom community. In K3, with oat cultivation, a different diatom species structure was found. Here, the most abundant were Halamphora montana (Krasske Levkov, Hantzchia amphioxys (Ehrenb. Grunow, Mayamaea atomus (Kütz. Lange-Bertalot, and Nitzschia pusilla Grunow, which attained a share in the assemblage exceeding than 20%. The effects of different soil management regimes under different plants on the physical and chemical properties of the soil, and on the diversity of diatoms, were

  8. Genetic analysis of differences in stomatal guard cell lengths of bread wheat

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    Наталия Петровна Ламари

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Variation in stomatal guard cell length of parental cultivars and its inheritance in F1 and F2 hybrids have been studied after crossing between contrast genotypes of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. Analysis of F2 populations has shown the action of three non-allelic genes in control of stomatal guard cell length of parental cultivars

  9. Interactions between crop biomass and development of foliar diseases in winter wheat and the potential to graduate the fungicide dose according to crop biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Kryger; Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup

    2016-01-01

    Foliar pathogens such as Zymoseptoria tritici and Puccinia striiformis causing septoria leaf blotch and yellow rust respectively can cause serious yield reduction in winter wheat production, and control of the diseases often requires several fungicide applications during the growing season. Control...... and other foliar diseases in winter wheat was dependent on crop development and biomass level. If such a biomass dependent dose response was found it was further the purpose to evaluate the potential to optimize fungicide inputs in winter wheat crops applying a site-specific crop density dependent fungicide...... dose. The study was carried out investigating fungicide dose response controlling foliar diseases in winter wheat at three biomass densities obtained growing the crop at three nitrogen levels and using variable seed rates. Further the field experiments included three fungicide dose rates at each...

  10. Simulation of winter wheat yield and its variability in different climates of Europe: A comparison of eight crop growth models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palosuo, Taru; Kersebaum, Kurt Christian; Angulo, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    We compared the performance of eight widely used, easily accessible and well-documented crop growth simulation models (APES, CROPSYST, DAISY, DSSAT, FASSET, HERMES, STICS and WOFOST) for winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) during 49 growing seasons at eight sites in northwestern, Central and sout......We compared the performance of eight widely used, easily accessible and well-documented crop growth simulation models (APES, CROPSYST, DAISY, DSSAT, FASSET, HERMES, STICS and WOFOST) for winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) during 49 growing seasons at eight sites in northwestern, Central...... values were lowest (1428 and 1603 kg ha−1) and the index of agreement (0.71 and 0.74) highest. CROPSYST systematically underestimated yields (MBE – 1186 kg ha−1), whereas HERMES, STICS and WOFOST clearly overestimated them (MBE 1174, 1272 and 1213 kg ha−1, respectively). APES, DAISY, HERMES, STICS...

  11. The relationship between growth and development of above ground organs with roots of winter wheat using 32P tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhifen; Chen Xueliu; Yu Meiyan

    1997-01-01

    The relationship of growth and development between above ground organs and roots of winter wheat, Lumai-14, was studied using 32 P tracer. The results showed that before the spike formation, dry matter accumulation in roots, stems and leaves were synchronous, and after that they were asynchronous. The dry matter accumulation in stems and leaves were significantly related to that of roots throughout the whole growing period of winter wheat. After the spike formation, the dry matter accumulation in spikes was not related to that of roots. The 32 P distribution in stems and leaves were related to that of roots significantly, however, the relationship between spikes and roots was not obviously related, which was consistent with the dry matter accumulations in various organs. The metabolic activities of stems, leaves and spike were significantly related to that of roots respectively

  12. Mineral Composition of Organically Grown Wheat Genotypes: Contribution to Daily Minerals Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Abrar; Larsson, Hans; Kuktaite, Ramune; Johansson, Eva

    2010-01-01

    In this study, 321 winter and spring wheat genotypes were analysed for twelve nutritionally important minerals (B, Cu, Fe, Se, Mg, Zn, Ca, Mn, Mo, P, S and K). Some of the genotypes used were from multiple locations and years, resulting in a total number of 493 samples. Investigated genotypes were divided into six genotype groups i.e., selections, old landraces, primitive wheat, spelt, old cultivars and cultivars. For some of the investigated minerals higher concentrations were observed in selections, primitive wheat, and old cultivars as compared to more modern wheat material, e.g., cultivars and spelt wheat. Location was found to have a significant effect on mineral concentration for all genotype groups, although for primitive wheat, genotype had a higher impact than location. Spring wheat was observed to have significantly higher values for B, Cu, Fe, Zn, Ca, S and K as compared to winter wheat. Higher levels of several minerals were observed in the present study, as compared to previous studies carried out in inorganic systems, indicating that organic conditions with suitable genotypes may enhance mineral concentration in wheat grain. This study also showed that a very high mineral concentration, close to daily requirements, can be produced by growing specific primitive wheat genotypes in an organic farming system. Thus, by selecting genotypes for further breeding, nutritional value of the wheat flour for human consumption can be improved. PMID:20948934

  13. Identification of Ug99 stem rust resistance loci in winter wheat germplasm using genome-wide association analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Long-Xi; Morgounov, Alexey; Wanyera, Ruth; Keser, Mesut; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Sorrells, Mark

    2012-08-01

    The evolution of a new race of stem rust, generally referred to as Ug99, threatens global wheat production because it can overcome widely deployed resistance genes that had been effective for many years. To identify loci conferring resistance to Ug99 in wheat, a genome-wide association study was conducted using 232 winter wheat breeding lines from the International Winter Wheat Improvement Program. Breeding lines were genotyped with diversity array technology, simple sequence repeat and sequence-tagged site markers, and phenotyped at the adult plant stage for resistance to stem rust in the stem rust resistance screening nursery at Njoro, Kenya during 2009-2011. A mixed linear model was used for detecting marker-trait associations. Twelve loci associated with Ug99 resistance were identified including markers linked to known genes Sr2 and Lr34. Other markers were located in the chromosome regions where no Sr genes have been previously reported, including one each on chromosomes 1A, 2B, 4A and 7B, two on chromosome 5B and four on chromosome 6B. The same data were used for investigating epistatic interactions between markers with or without main effects. The marker csSr2 linked to Sr2 interacted with wPt4930 on 6BS and wPt729773 in an unknown location. Another marker, csLV34 linked to Lr34, also interacted with wPt4930 on 6BS and wPt4916 on 2BS. The frequent involvement of wPt4916 on 2BS and wPt4930 on 6BS in interactions with other significant loci on the same or different chromosomes suggested complex genetic control for adult plant resistance to Ug99 in winter wheat germplasm.

  14. INFLUENCE OF REDUCED SOIL TILLAGE AND NITROGEN FERTILIZATION AT WINTER WHEAT AND SOYBEAN GRAIN YIELDS AT BARANYA HIPOGLEY SOIL TYPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miro Stošić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available During the three years (2006/2007-2008/2009 stationary research of reduced soil tillage had been conducted for winter wheat and soybean, at marsh gley (hipogley hydromeliorated soil type of Baranya. The research has been conducted with eight soil tillage treatments and three nitrogen fertilization treatments set up in split-plot design in four repetitions. Soil tillage treatments consisted of four continued soil tillage systems for both crops: OR-conventional soil tillage, TR-multiple diskharrowing, RT-chiseling and diskharrowing, NT-no-tillage and four discontinued soil tillage systems: OsTp-OR for soybean TR for w. wheat in the forthcoming season: OpTs-OR for w.wheat TR for soybean in the forthcoming season, NpOs-NT for w. wheat OR for soybean in forthcoming season: NsOp-NT for soybean OR for w. wheat in forthcoming season. Nitrogen fertilization treatment had three levels of applied nitrogen: for w.wheat G-1=120, G-2=150, G-3=180 kg N ha -1 and for soybean G-1=35, G-2=70, G-3=110 kg N ha-1. Weather conditions had significant aberrations during 2006/2007 and 2008/2009 (extremely drought seasons, whereas 2007/2008 season was moderately humid. The high and stabile average winter wheat grain yields had been achieved, with statistical difference among years of the research, whereas yield decreased by applied soil tillage systems in the order as follows: RT (7.78 > NsOp (7.75 > OR (7.74 > OpTs (7.62 > TR (7.63 > OsTp (7.58 > NpOs (6.95 > NT (6.92 t ha-1, with NpOs and NT treatments recorded significantly lower yields in comparison with OR treatment. According to three year averages, normal and relatively stabile soybean grain yield has been achieved, with significant difference among years, whereas soil tillage systems showed the following decrease order: NpOs (2.62 > OR (2.58 > OsTp (2.56 > NsOp (2.49 > TR (2.46 = RT (2.46 > NT (2.42 > OpTs (2.35 t ha-1. In comparison with OR treatment, only OpTs had significantly lower soybean grain yield. The

  15. Identification of physiological races of Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici and evaluation of powdery mildew resistance in wheat cultivars in Sistan province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, M; Okhovat, S M; Sharifi-Tehrani, A; Hedjaroude, Gh A; Zad, S J; Mohammadi, M

    2003-01-01

    Powdery mildew of wheat caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt) is one of the most important fungal diseases in Iran. During the years 1998-2001, wheat fields in Sistan province were surveyed and powdery mildew infected samples were collected from various areas and transferred to the laboratory. In the greenhouse, fungal spores were purified and inoculated onto susceptible wheat cultivars using single pustule and single spore procedures. Selected pure isolates were inoculated onto the first leaves of eight differential wheat varieties for identifying physiological races. The results showed the existence of Bgt races 5, 11, 14, 19, 21, 24, 27, 28, 31, 32, 44, 50, 53, 58, 66, 73 and 84 in Sistan. These races were new to Sistan province and Iran as a whole. Among 17 races studied, races 11, 53 and 73 were important dominant races thus constituting 40% of total population. Race 53 constituted 16% of all isolates and was the dominant race in the area with 62.5% pathogenicity. Therefore, this race was introduced as the most virulent race during the period of this study. This study showed that Bgt isolates were compatible with host plant genes pm8, pm3 and pm3b but incompatible with gene pm4b. Powdery mildew resistance was evaluated using race 11 on 70 wheat cultivars during seedling stage as well as adult plant under both greenhouse and field conditions between 1999 and 2001. Among wheat lines tested for resistance against powdery mildew, cultivar Hirmand resembled the differential line Weihenst M1 in that both may possess gene pm4b and showed no symptoms under the greenhouse and field conditions. Cultivar Chamran was found to be highly resistant whereas Sorkhtokhm was susceptible. Other cutivars showed partial and gradual resistance against the powdery mildew disease.

  16. Nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide emissions from monoculture and rotational cropping of corn, soybean and winter wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, C.F.; Yang, X.M.; Reynolds, W.D.; McLaughlin, N.B.

    2008-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from agricultural soils are influenced by different types of crops, the amounts and types of nitrogen fertilizers used, and the soil and climatic conditions under which the crops are grown. Crop rotation also has an impact on N 2 O emissions, as the crop residues used to supply soluble carbon to soil biota often differ from the crops being grown. This study compared the influence of crops and residues from preceding crops on N 2 O and CO 2 emissions from monoculture crops of soybeans, corn, and winter wheat at a site in Ontario. The phases of different rotations were compared with 2- and 3-year crop rotations. Results of the study showed that N 2 O emissions were approximately 3.1 to 5.1 times higher in monoculture corn than levels observed in winter wheat or soybean crops. When corn followed corn, average N 2 O emissions twice as high as when corn followed soybeans, and 65 per cent higher than when corn followed winter wheat. The higher levels of both N 2 O and CO 2 were attributed to higher inorganic nitrogen (N) application rates in corn crops. In the corn phase, CO 2 levels were higher when the preceding crop was winter wheat. It was concluded that N 2 O and CO 2 emissions from agricultural fields are influenced by both current and preceding crops, a fact which should be considered and accounted for in estimates and forecasts of agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. 21 refs., 3 tabs., 10 figs

  17. Effect of climate change on the irrigation and discharge scheme for winter wheat in Huaibei Plain, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y.; Ren, L.; Lü, H.; Chen, Y.; Wang, Z.

    2015-12-01

    On the Huaibei Plain of Anhui Province, China, winter wheat (WW) is the most prominent crop. The study area belongs to transitional climate, with shallow water table. The original climate change is complex, in addition, global warming make the climate change more complex. The winter wheat growth period is from October to June, just during the rainless season, the WW growth always depends on part of irrigation water. Under such complex climate change, the rainfall varies during the growing seasons, and water table elevations also vary. Thus, water tables supply variable moisture change between soil water and groundwater, which impact the irrigation and discharge scheme for plant growth and yield. In Huaibei plain, the environmental pollution is very serious because of agricultural use of chemical fertilizer, pesticide, herbicide and etc. In order to protect river water and groundwater from pollution, the irrigation and discharge scheme should be estimated accurately. Therefore, determining the irrigation and discharge scheme for winter wheat under climate change is important for the plant growth management decision-making. Based on field observations and local weather data of 2004-2005 and 2005-2006, the numerical model HYDRUS-1D was validated and calibrated by comparing simulated and measured root-zone soil water contents. The validated model was used to estimate the irrigation and discharge scheme in 2010-2090 under the scenarios described by HadCM3 (1970 to 2000 climate states are taken as baselines) with winter wheat growth in an optimum state indicated by growth height and LAI.

  18. [Estimating the impacts of future climate change on water requirement and water deficit of winter wheat in Henan Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xing-jie; Cheng, Lin; Fang, Wen-song

    2015-09-01

    Based on the analysis of water requirement and water deficit during development stage of winter wheat in recent 30 years (1981-2010) in Henan Province, the effective precipitation was calculated using the U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Conservation method, the water requirement (ETC) was estimated by using FAO Penman-Monteith equation and crop coefficient method recommended by FAO, combined with the climate change scenario A2 (concentration on the economic envelopment) and B2 ( concentration on the sustainable development) of Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) , the spatial and temporal characteristics of impacts of future climate change on effective precipitation, water requirement and water deficit of winter wheat were estimated. The climatic impact factors of ETc and WD also were analyzed. The results showed that under A2 and B2 scenarios, there would be a significant increase in anomaly percentage of effective precipitation, water requirement and water deficit of winter wheat during the whole growing period compared with the average value from 1981 to 2010. Effective precipitation increased the most in 2030s under A2 and B2 scenarios by 33.5% and 39.2%, respectively. Water requirement increased the most in 2010s under A2 and B2 scenarios by 22.5% and 17.5%, respectively, and showed a significant downward trend with time. Water deficit increased the most under A2 scenario in 2010s by 23.6% and under B2 scenario in 2020s by 13.0%. Partial correlation analysis indicated that solar radiation was the main cause for the variation of ETc and WD in future under A2 and B2 scenarios. The spatial distributions of effective precipitation, water requirement and water deficit of winter wheat during the whole growing period were spatially heterogeneous because of the difference in geographical and climatic environments. A possible tendency of water resource deficiency may exist in Henan Province in the future.

  19. The effect of sowing strategy, row distance and mechanical weed control on weeds and yield in organic winter wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Ilse A.

    2002-01-01

    A series of field experiments were carried out in winter wheat grown under organic conditions in Denmark on fields with different weed pressure. The treatments were sowing strategy (normal sowing time, late sowing and false seedbed), row distance (12 cm and 24 cm row distance) and weed control method (untreated, mechanical weed control (weed harrowing at 12 cm supplemented with row hoeing at 24 cm), and herbicide weed control). Weed biomass was largest at the normal sowing time and was reduce...

  20. Compensation effect of winter wheat grain yield reduction under straw mulching in wide-precision planting in the North China Plain

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xinhui; Ren, Yujie; Gao, Chao; Yan, Zhenxing; Li, Quanqi

    2017-01-01

    Climate change and the growing demand for food security force growers to identify ways both to improve food production and to reduce agricultural carbon emissions. Although straw mulching is known to decrease CO2 emissions, winter wheat grain yield in the North China Plain was declined under straw mulching. In an effort to determine the most effective way to increase winter wheat yield under straw mulching, a field experiment was conducted using two planting patterns (wide-precision planting ...

  1. Reduced irrigation increases the water use efficiency and productivity of winter wheat-summer maize rotation on the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunqi; Zhang, Yinghua; Zhang, Rui; Li, Jinpeng; Zhang, Meng; Zhou, Shunli; Wang, Zhimin

    2018-03-15

    The groundwater table has fallen sharply over the last 30years on the North China Plain, resulting in a shortage of water for winter wheat irrigation. Reducing irrigation may be an important strategy to maintain agricultural sustainability in the region; however, few studies have evaluated the transition from conventional irrigation management practices to reduced irrigation management practices in the winter wheat-summer maize rotation system. Here, we compare the yield, water consumption, and water use efficiency of winter wheat-summer maize rotation under conventional irrigation and reduced irrigation on the North China Plain from 2012 to 2015. Reducing irrigation decreased the yield but increased the water use efficiency and significantly advanced the harvest date of winter wheat. As a result, the summer maize sowing date advanced significantly, and the flowering date subsequently advanced 2-8days, thus extending the summer maize grain-filling stage. Therefore, the yield and water use efficiency of summer maize were higher under reduced irrigation than conventional irrigation, which compensated for the winter wheat yield loss under reduced irrigation. In addition, under reduced irrigation from 2012 to 2015, the yield and water use efficiency advantage of the winter wheat-summer maize rotation ranged from 0.0 to 9.7% and from 4.1 to 14.7%, respectively, and water consumption and irrigated water decreased by 20-61mm and 150mm, respectively, compared to conventional irrigation. Overall, the reduced irrigation management practice involving no irrigation after sowing winter wheat, and sowing summer maize on June 7 produced the most favorable grain yield with superb water use efficiency in the winter wheat-summer maize rotation. This study indicates that reducing irrigation could be an efficient means to cope with water resource shortages while maintaining crop production sustainability on the North China Plain. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Comportamento de cultivares de triticale e de trigo no Vale do Paranapanema Behaviour of triticale and wheat cultivars in the Paranapanema Valley, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Felício

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram instalados nos anos de 1979, 1980 e 1981, na Fazenda Santa Inês, no Vale do Paranapanema, município de Maracaí, ensaios comparativos entre quinze cultivares de triticale e três de trigo cultivados no Estado de São Paulo. Considerando os ensaios em conjunto, não houve diferença estatística, para a produção de grãos, entre todos os cultivares estudados; houve, porém, uma tendência de o 'TCEP 77138' (triticale apresentar maior média de produtividade. Os cultivares de triticale apresentaram maior resistência a Puccinia graminis tritici, em condições de campo, quando comparados aos de trigo, que demonstraram reações de suscetibilidade. No entanto, foram mais sensíveis às manchas foliares causadas por Helminthosporium sp, e Septoria sp., e mostraram grãos mais enrugados, embora 'TCEP 77138' apresentasse grãos com boa formação, isto é, com muito pouco enrugamento.Fifteen triticale and three wheat cultivars were evaluated in three experimental trials carried out at the Santa Inês Farm, Maracaí, in the Paranapanema Valley during the years of 1979, 1980 and 1981. The wheat and triticale cultivars did no differ in relation to grain yield, however, the triticale TCEP-77138 presented high yield associated with resistance to stem rust, and with high weight of one hectoliter of seeds. Triticale cultivars were more sensitive than wheat to leaf diseases caused by Helminthosporium sp. and Septoria sp.

  3. [Comparison of principal component analysis with VI-empirical approach for estimating severity of yellow rust of winter wheat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun-Hao; Jiang, Jin-Bao; Huang, Wen-Jiang; Wang, Yuan-Yuan

    2009-08-01

    The canopy reflectance of winter wheat infected by yellow rust with different severity was measured through artificial inoculation, and the disease index (DI) of the wheat corresponding to the spectra acquired in the field was obtained. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to compute the first 5 principal components (PCs) of canopy spectra in the 350-1 350 nm range and the first 3 PCs of first-order derivative in blue edge (490-530 nm), yellow edge (550-582 nm) and red edge (630-673 nm), respectively. Step-wise regression was used to build models, the results of those models are compared with that of VI-empirical models, and the result shows that the model based on PCs of first-order derivative is particularly accurate compared to others, with the RMSE of 7.65 and relative error of 15.59%. Comparison was made between the estimated DI and the measured DI, indicating that the model based on SDr'/SDg' is suitable to monitoring early disease and the model based on PCs of first-order derivative is suitable to monitoring the more severe disease of yellow rust of winter wheat. The conclusion has great practical and application value to acquiring and evaluating wheat disease severity using hyperspectral remote sensing, and has an important meaning for increasing yields of crops and ensuring security of food supplies.

  4. Prediction of winter wheat high yield from remote sensing based model: application in United States and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franch, B.; Vermote, E.; Roger, J. C.; Skakun, S.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Justice, C. O.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate and timely crop yield forecasts are critical for making informed agricultural policies and investments, as well as increasing market efficiency and stability. In Becker-Reshef et al. (2010) and Franch et al. (2015) we developed an empirical generalized model for forecasting winter wheat yield. It is based on the relationship between the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) at the peak of the growing season and the Growing Degree Day (GDD) information extracted from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data. These methods were applied to MODIS CMG data in Ukraine, the US and China with errors around 10%. However, the NDVI is saturated for yield values higher than 4 MT/ha. As a consequence, the model had to be re-calibrated in each country and the validation of the national yields showed low correlation coefficients. In this study we present a new model based on the extrapolation of the pure wheat signal (100% of wheat within the pixel) from MODIS data at 1km resolution and using the Difference Vegetation Index (DVI). The model has been applied to monitor the national yield of winter wheat in the United States and Ukraine from 2001 to 2016.

  5. Cold priming drives the sub-cellular antioxidant systems to protect photosynthetic electron transport against subsequent low temperature stress in winter wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiangnan; Cai, Jian; Liu, Fulai

    2014-01-01

    Low temperature seriously depresses the growth of wheat through inhibition of photosynthesis, while earlier cold priming may enhance the tolerance of plants to subsequent low temperature stress. Here, winter wheat plants were firstly cold primed (5.2°C lower temperature than the ambient temperatu...

  6. Traits associated with winter wheat grain yield in Central and West Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Marta Silva; Saglam, Didem; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Reynolds, Matthew

    2014-07-01

    Improved adaptation of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to drought and heat may be influenced by days to heading, plant height, biomass, canopy temperature (CT) at grain filling, and rate of senescence. This study shows that, under supplemental irrigation or rainfed conditions, days to heading and plant height together explain up to 68% of grain yield (GY) variation, and these associations were further confirmed in several locations across West and Central Asia. Days to heading can be slightly reduced below that of check line Karahan to further improve GY while avoiding the effect of late frosts. Plant height has been decreased in recent germplasm, but further reductions below that of check line Karahan could still improve GY in a wide range of environments. However, in Iranian sites, taller genotypes showed better adaptation with higher biomass and increased reserves for grain filling. Canopy temperature and rate senescence were not associated with GY. A normalized difference vegetation index, used to estimate biomass (Feekes stages 4-5), had intermediate heritability across environments and correlated positively with GY under low plant density and should be explored further as a tool for early selection. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  7. [Effects of ground cover and water-retaining agent on winter wheat growth and precipitation utilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ji-Cheng; Guan, Xiu-Juan; Yang, Yong-Hui

    2011-01-01

    An investigation was made at a hilly upland in western Henan Province to understand the effects of water-retaining agent (0, 45, and 60 kg x hm(-2)), straw mulching (3000 and 6000 kg x hm(-2)), and plastic mulching (thickness straw- or plastic mulching was combined with the use of water-retaining agent. Comparing with the control, all the measures increased the soil moisture content at different growth stages by 0.1%-6.5%. Plastic film mulching had the best water-retention effect before jointing stage, whereas water-retaining agent showed its best effect after jointing stage. Soil moisture content was the lowest at flowering and grain-filling stages. Land cover increased the grain yield by 2.6%-20.1%. The yield increment was the greatest (14.2%-20.1%) by the combined use of straw mulching and water-retaining agent, followed by plastic mulching combined with water-retaining agent (11.9% on average). Land cover also improved the precipitation use efficiency (0.4-3.2 kg x mm(-1) x hm(-2)) in a similar trend as the grain yield. This study showed that land cover and water-retaining agent improved soil moisture and nutrition conditions and precipitation utilization, which in turn, promoted the tillering of winter wheat, and increased the grain number per ear and the 1000-grain mass.

  8. The Effect of Freezing Temperatures on Microdochium majus and M. nivale Seedling Blight of Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian M. Haigh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to pre-emergent freezing temperatures significantly delayed the rate of seedling emergence (P<0.05 from an infected and a non-infected winter wheat cv. Equinox seed lot, but significant effects for timing of freezing and duration of freezing on final emergence were only seen for the Microdochium-infested seed lot. Freezing temperatures of −5∘C at post-emergence caused most disease on emerged seedlings. Duration of freezing (12 hours or 24 hours had little effect on disease index but exposure to pre-emergent freezing for 24 hours significantly delayed rate of seedling emergence and reduced final emergence from the infected seed lot. In plate experiments, the calculated base temperature for growth of M. nivale and M. majus was −6.3∘C and −2.2∘C, respectively. These are the first set of experiments to demonstrate the effects of pre-emergent and post-emergent freezing on the severity of Microdochium seedling blight.

  9. The Relationship Between Grain Hardness, Dough Mixing Parameters and Bread-Making Quality in Winter Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmanowicz, Bolesław P.; Adamski, Tadeusz; Surma, Maria; Kaczmarek, Zygmunt; Karolina, Krystkowiak; Kuczyńska, Anetta; Banaszak, Zofia; Ługowska, Bogusława; Majcher, Małgorzata; Obuchowski, Wiktor

    2012-01-01

    The influence of grain hardness, determined by using molecular markers and physical methods (near-infrared (NIR) technique and particle size index—PSI) on dough characteristics, which in turn were determined with the use of a farinograph and reomixer, as well as bread-making properties were studied. The material covered 24 winter wheat genotypes differing in grain hardness. The field experiment was conducted at standard and increased levels of nitrogen fertilization. Results of molecular analyses were in agreement with those obtained by the use of physical methods for soft-grained lines. Some lines classified as hard (by physical methods) appeared to have the wild-type Pina and Pinb alleles, similar to soft lines. Differences in dough and bread-making properties between lines classified as hard and soft on the basis of molecular data appeared to be of less significance than the differences between lines classified as hard and soft on the basis of physical analyses of grain texture. Values of relative grain hardness at the increased nitrogen fertilization level were significantly higher. At both fertilization levels the NIR parameter determining grain hardness was significantly positively correlated with the wet gluten and sedimentation values, with most of the rheological parameters and bread yield. Values of this parameter correlated with quality characteristics in a higher degree than values of particle size index. PMID:22605973

  10. Testing efficacy of monthly forecast application in agrometeorology: Winter wheat phenology dynamic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalic, B.; Jankovic, D.; Dekic, Lj; Eitzinger, J.; Firanj Sremac, A.

    2017-02-01

    Use of monthly weather forecast as input meteorological data for agrometeorological forecasting, crop modelling and plant protection can foster promising applications in agricultural production. Operational use of monthly or seasonal weather forecast can help farmers to optimize field operations (fertilizing, irrigation) and protection measures against plant diseases and pests by taking full advantage of monthly forecast information in predicting plant development, pest and disease risks and yield potentials few weeks in advance. It can help producers to obtain stable or higher yield with the same inputs and to minimise losses caused by weather. In Central and South-Eastern Europe ongoing climate change lead to shifts of crops phenology dynamics (i.e. in Serbia 4-8 weeks earlier in 2016 than in previous years) and brings this subject in the front of agronomy science and practice. Objective of this study is to test efficacy of monthly forecast in predicting phenology dynamics of different winter wheat varieties, using phenological model developed by Forecasting and Warning Service of Serbia in plant protection. For that purpose, historical monthly forecast for four months (March 1, 2005 - June 30, 2005) was assimilated from ECMWF MARS archive for 50 ensemble members and control run. Impact of different agroecological conditions is tested by using observed and forecasted data for two locations - Rimski Sancevi (Serbia) and Groß-Enzersdorf (Austria).

  11. Simulation model for longterm management of Avena fatua L. in winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jäck, Ortrud

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Decision support systems (DSS are used for weed control decisions worldwide. Several DSS for weed management have been published. However they mostly rely on full herbicide dosages and do not take weed population dynamics into account. We developed a modular DSS for long-term Avena fatua L. control in winter wheat. The DSS was parameterized with three year field experiment datasets covering yield loss data, densitydependent population dynamics data as well as data on dose dependent herbicide efficacy and dosedependent population dynamics. The DSS aims to control the A. fatua in the long run. Our hypothesis is that the optimized DSS reduces herbicide input while keeping the population density at low level, maintaining high grain yields and net return. The DSS comprises four sub-models calculating crop yield loss, A. fatua population dynamics as well as dose dependent herbicide efficacy and economics of the weed control decision. The economic sub-model calculates net return in dependency of the herbicide dosage and thus the resulting crop yield. First results of a 10-year simulation showed that herbicide input could be reduced by 40% compared to the economic threshold strategy, while the population density of A. fatua is controlled. Up to now the DSS has been parameterized for the herbicides Ralon Super, Axial 50 and Broadway. The results show the great potential of reducing herbicide input and point out the importance of including population dynamics models into DSS.

  12. The inheritance of plant height in winter wheat -Triticum aestivum L.-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zečević Veselinka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Four winter wheat varieties (Srbijanka, Partizanka, KG-56 and PKB-111 have been selected for diallel crossing in other to study the mode of inheritance, gene effect and genetic variance components for the plant height in F2 generation. Sixty plants of parents and F2 generation were used for analysis. The mode of inheritance was done on the basis of the significance of components of genetic variance and the regression analysis. The inheritance of plant height in the most crossing combinations was superdominance. The combining ability analysis was found to be highly significant, which means both additive and non-additive type of gene actions. The best general combining ability manifested KG-56 variety, and the best specific combining ability have shown hybrids KG-56 x PKB-111, Srbijanka x PKB-111 and Partizanka x KG-56. The genetic variance components, average degree of dominance and regression line indicated superdominance in the inheritance of plant height. The dominant alleles frequency was higher than recessive alleles frequency, which confirmed the ratio of dominant/recessive alleles.

  13. Genetic Diversity for Grain Yield and its Components in Winter Wheat Genotypes (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tabrizi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to detect the most effective characters on grain yield and its component in winter wheat genotypes, an experiment in a randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted at Research Station of the Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch. Planting seed, application of fertilizers and fertilizers and pesticides and irrigation regimes were processed as they are usually done in the region. Some traits such as days to heading, days to maturity, height plant, main spike weight, straw yield, grain number per spike, grain weight per spike, grain yield and harvest index were characterized. Analysis of variance revealed that there were significant differences among genotypes for most of the traits except the weight of main spike and grain number per plant. Results also showed that the highest phenotypic (19.77% diversity belonged to the weight of main spike and least to days to maturity and days to heading (with 0.27% and 0.52% respectively. Results of factor analysis showed that four factors accounted for 82.73% of the total variation. Cluster analysis, based on traits under study, grouped the genotypes into two groups. The first group consisted of seven and the second on of five genotypes.

  14. Release of resource constraints allows greater carbon allocation to secondary metabolites and storage in winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianbei; Hammerbacher, Almuth; Forkelová, Lenka; Hartmann, Henrik

    2017-05-01

    The atmospheric CO 2 concentration ([CO 2 ]) is rapidly increasing, and this may have substantial impact on how plants allocate metabolic resources. A thorough understanding of allocation priorities can be achieved by modifying [CO 2 ] over a large gradient, including low [CO 2 ], thereby altering plant carbon (C) availability. Such information is of critical importance for understanding plant responses to global environmental change. We quantified the percentage of daytime whole-plant net assimilation (A) allocated to night-time respiration (R), structural growth (SG), nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) and secondary metabolites (SMs) during 8 weeks of vegetative growth in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) growing at low, ambient and elevated [CO 2 ] (170, 390 and 680 ppm). R/A remained relatively constant over a large gradient of [CO 2 ]. However, with increasing C availability, the fraction of assimilation allocated to biomass (SG + NSC + SMs), in particular NSC and SMs, increased. At low [CO 2 ], biomass and NSC increased in leaves but decreased in stems and roots, which may help plants achieve a functional equilibrium, that is, overcome the most severe resource limitation. These results reveal that increasing C availability from rising [CO 2 ] releases allocation constraints, thereby allowing greater investment into long-term survival in the form of NSC and SMs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The transfer of radionuclides from contaminated groundwater into perennial ryegrass and winter wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadey, P.; Shaw, G.; Butler, A. P.; Tompkins, J. A.; Wheater, H. S.

    1996-01-01

    Lysimeter studies of the migration of radionuclides from a contaminated water table and their subsequent uptake by plant roots have been undertaken using two distinct soil types and varying crop regimes. An eight year multi-disciplinary research project (funded by Nirex) has concentrated on the upward migration of contaminants from near-surface water tables, and their uptake by winter wheat and perennial ryegrass crops. Experimental data are presented for the movement and uptake of radiocaesium 137 Cs. These data show significant movement in the unsaturated zone during the first year of dosing, followed by progressively reduced availability in subsequent years. A suite of physically based hydrological and solute transport models has been developed to model radionuclide transport in the unsaturated zone. Model simulations, based on a conventional advection-dispersion representation incorporating linear sorption processes, were unable to describe adequately the distribution of radiocaesium within the soil profile. However, the introduction of root storage and translocation processes provided significantly improved results. (author)

  16. Estimation of Nitrogen Vertical Distribution by Bi-Directional Canopy Reflectance in Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjiang Huang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Timely measurement of vertical foliage nitrogen distribution is critical for increasing crop yield and reducing environmental impact. In this study, a novel method with partial least square regression (PLSR and vegetation indices was developed to determine optimal models for extracting vertical foliage nitrogen distribution of winter wheat by using bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF data. The BRDF data were collected from ground-based hyperspectral reflectance measurements recorded at the Xiaotangshan Precision Agriculture Experimental Base in 2003, 2004 and 2007. The view zenith angles (1 at nadir, 40° and 50°; (2 at nadir, 30° and 40°; and (3 at nadir, 20° and 30° were selected as optical view angles to estimate foliage nitrogen density (FND at an upper, middle and bottom layer, respectively. For each layer, three optimal PLSR analysis models with FND as a dependent variable and two vegetation indices (nitrogen reflectance index (NRI, normalized pigment chlorophyll index (NPCI or a combination of NRI and NPCI at corresponding angles as explanatory variables were established. The experimental results from an independent model verification demonstrated that the PLSR analysis models with the combination of NRI and NPCI as the explanatory variables were the most accurate in estimating FND for each layer. The coefficients of determination (R2 of this model between upper layer-, middle layer- and bottom layer-derived and laboratory-measured foliage nitrogen density were 0.7335, 0.7336, 0.6746, respectively.

  17. Estimation of nitrogen vertical distribution by bi-directional canopy reflectance in winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenjiang; Yang, Qinying; Pu, Ruiliang; Yang, Shaoyuan

    2014-10-28

    Timely measurement of vertical foliage nitrogen distribution is critical for increasing crop yield and reducing environmental impact. In this study, a novel method with partial least square regression (PLSR) and vegetation indices was developed to determine optimal models for extracting vertical foliage nitrogen distribution of winter wheat by using bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) data. The BRDF data were collected from ground-based hyperspectral reflectance measurements recorded at the Xiaotangshan Precision Agriculture Experimental Base in 2003, 2004 and 2007. The view zenith angles (1) at nadir, 40° and 50°; (2) at nadir, 30° and 40°; and (3) at nadir, 20° and 30° were selected as optical view angles to estimate foliage nitrogen density (FND) at an upper, middle and bottom layer, respectively. For each layer, three optimal PLSR analysis models with FND as a dependent variable and two vegetation indices (nitrogen reflectance index (NRI), normalized pigment chlorophyll index (NPCI) or a combination of NRI and NPCI) at corresponding angles as explanatory variables were established. The experimental results from an independent model verification demonstrated that the PLSR analysis models with the combination of NRI and NPCI as the explanatory variables were the most accurate in estimating FND for each layer. The coefficients of determination (R2) of this model between upper layer-, middle layer- and bottom layer-derived and laboratory-measured foliage nitrogen density were 0.7335, 0.7336, 0.6746, respectively.

  18. Diurnal variation of apoplastic ascorbate in winter wheat leaves in relation to ozone detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Pang, Jing; Feng, Zhaozhong; Zhu, Jianguo; Kobayashi, Kazuhiko

    2015-12-01

    Besides stomatal closure, biological detoxification is an important protection mechanism for plants against ozone (O3). This study investigated the diurnal changes of ascorbate (a major detoxification agent) in the apoplast and leaf tissues of winter wheat grown under ambient air field conditions. Results showed the reduced ascorbate in the apoplast (ASCapo) exhibited a peak in late morning or midday, mismatching with either the maximum external O3 concentrations in mid-afternoon or the maximum stomatal O3 uptake between late morning and mid-afternoon. In contrast, the ASC in leaf tissues remained stable throughout the day. The investigations conducted in a Free-Air Concentration Elevation of O3 system confirmed that the diurnal variations of the ASCapo were induced more by the daily variations of O3 concentrations rather than the cumulative O3 effects. In conclusion, the O3-stress detoxification should be a dynamic variable rather than a fixed threshold as assumed in the stomatal flux-based O3 dose metrics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ice recrystallization inhibition in ice cream as affected by ice structuring proteins from winter wheat grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regand, A; Goff, H D

    2006-01-01

    Ice recrystallization in quiescently frozen sucrose solutions that contained some of the ingredients commonly found in ice cream and in ice cream manufactured under commercial conditions, with or without ice structuring proteins (ISP) from cold-acclimated winter wheat grass extract (AWWE), was assessed by bright field microscopy. In sucrose solutions, critical differences in moisture content, viscosity, ionic strength, and other properties derived from the presence of other ingredients (skim milk powder, corn syrup solids, locust bean gum) caused a reduction in ice crystal growth. Significant ISP activity in retarding ice crystal growth was observed in all solutions (44% for the most complex mix) containing 0.13% total protein from AWWE. In heat-shocked ice cream, ice recrystallization rates were significantly reduced 40 and 46% with the addition of 0.0025 and 0.0037% total protein from AWWE. The ISP activity in ice cream was not hindered by its inclusion in mix prior to pasteurization. A synergistic effect between ISP and stabilizer was observed, as ISP activity was reduced in the absence of stabilizer in ice cream formulations. A remarkably smoother texture for ice creams containing ISP after heat-shock storage was evident by sensory evaluation. The efficiency of ISP from AWWE in controlling ice crystal growth in ice cream has been demonstrated.

  20. Drought priming effects on alleviating later damages of heat and drought stress in different wheat cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendanha, Thayna; Hyldgaard, Benita; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    The ongoing change is climate; in particular the increase of drought and heat waves episodes are a major challenge in the prospect of food safety. Under many field conditions, plants are usually exposed to mild intermittent stress episodes rather than a terminal stress event. Previous, but limited...... tolerant cultivar, while Paragon was perceived as heat and drought sensitive cultivar. TM acknowledges financial support from CAPES Scholarship and Science without Borders program, grant no. 002108/2015-01. Funded by the FP7 JPI-FACCE-ERANET + Modcarbo-stress, grant agreement n° 618105....

  1. Chromosome-scale comparative sequence analysis unravels molecular mechanisms of genome evolution between two wheat cultivars

    KAUST Repository

    Thind, Anupriya Kaur

    2018-02-08

    Background: Recent improvements in DNA sequencing and genome scaffolding have paved the way to generate high-quality de novo assemblies of pseudomolecules representing complete chromosomes of wheat and its wild relatives. These assemblies form the basis to compare the evolutionary dynamics of wheat genomes on a megabase-scale. Results: Here, we provide a comparative sequence analysis of the 700-megabase chromosome 2D between two bread wheat genotypes, the old landrace Chinese Spring and the elite Swiss spring wheat line CH Campala Lr22a. There was a high degree of sequence conservation between the two chromosomes. Analysis of large structural variations revealed four large insertions/deletions (InDels) of >100 kb. Based on the molecular signatures at the breakpoints, unequal crossing over and double-strand break repair were identified as the evolutionary mechanisms that caused these InDels. Three of the large InDels affected copy number of NLRs, a gene family involved in plant immunity. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) density revealed three haploblocks of 8 Mb, 9 Mb and 48 Mb with a 35-fold increased SNP density compared to the rest of the chromosome. Conclusions: This comparative analysis of two high-quality chromosome assemblies enabled a comprehensive assessment of large structural variations. The insight obtained from this analysis will form the basis of future wheat pan-genome studies.

  2. USO DE REGULADOR DE CRESCIMENTO EM CULTIVARES DE FEIJÃO DE INVERNO PLANT GROWTH STIMULANT APPLICATION ON WINTER COMMON BEAN CULTIVARS

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    Salatiér Buzetti

    2011-04-01

    contradictory. For that reason, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of plant growth stimulant application on components and grains yield of two winter common bean cultivars under Brazilian savannah conditions. The experiment was conducted during the 2007 fall-winter season, at the Unesp experimental farm, Ilha Solteira campus, in Selvíria, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks, in a strips scheme, with four replications. The treatments consisted of a combination of five plant growth stimulant doses (0 L ha-1; 0.5 L ha-1; 1.0 L ha-1; 1.5 L ha-1; and 2.0 L ha-1, composed of three vegetable hormones (kinetin, gibberellic acid, and indolbutyric acid, in two application periods: at the vegetative stage (V4 and at the reproductive stage (R5. Vegetative characteristics such as plant height, first pod insertion height, number of grains per pod, and weight of 100 grains were not affected by the product application. However, its application at the reproductive stage (R5 increased the number of grains per plant and grain yield of the Carioca Precoce and IAC Apuã bean cultivars. For that increase, 2 L ha-1 was the best plant growth stimulant dose.

    KEY-WORDS: Phaseolus vulgaris; yield components; application period.

  3. Palatable and bio-functional wheat/rice products developed from pre-germinated brown rice of super-hard cultivar EM10.

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    Nakamura, Sumiko; Satoh, Hikaru; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi

    2010-01-01

    It became possible to produce high-quality and bio-functional wheat/rice bread and wheat/rice noodles by blending, pre-germinated and cooked brown rice of a super-hard cultivar with wheat flour. Super-hard rice (SHR) is not suitable for table rice because of its low palatability. Nevertheless, it was found to be suitable as a blending material for bread-making or noodle-making due to its hard texture and high content of resistant starch. We developed a novel rapid germination method to improve the quality and to save the time needed for germination. By blending pre-germinated and cooked SHR (30% w/w on a dry basis) as a rice gel with wheat flour (70% w/w on a dry basis), the bread became very soft and any hardening after bread-making was markedly retarded. Similarly, blending pre-germinated and cooked SHR as cooked a rice gel with wheat flour gave high-quality noodles with a similar texture to that of durum semolina noodles. The resistant starch of the SHR-blended bread and noodles was also markedly increased. White waxy rice (9%) soaked and cooked with the pre-germinated brown rice of SHR (21%) produced a rice gel that was very useful as a material for bread-making and noodle-making by blending with wheat flour (70%) to prepare soft, tasty and bio-functional wheat/rice bread and wheat/rice noodles.

  4. The Effect of Accelerated Aging on Germination Characteristics, Seed Reserve Utilization and Malondialdehyde Content of Two Wheat Cultivars

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    Maryam Goodarzian Ghahfarokhi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study experiment was conducted to evaluated the effect of accelerated aging on germination characteristics, seed reserve utilization and malondialdehyde of two wheat cultivars. The experiment was conducted in factorial with a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Results of variance analysis showed that, seed aging had significant effects on germination percentage, germination index, normal seedling percentage, mean time to germination, malondialdehyde content, seedling dry weight, weight of utilized (mobilized seed reserve and electrical conductivity. The highest germination percentage, germination index, normal seedling percentage, seedling dry weight and weight of utilized (mobilized seed reserve and the minimum mean time to germination, electrical conductivity and malondialdehyde content were attained from Verinak cultivar under control conditions (0 day aging. Results indicates that germination percentage, germination index, normal seedling percentage, seedling dry weight, and weight of utilized (mobilized seed reserve decreased significantly as seed aging progressed. But, mean time to germination, electrical conductivity and malondialdehyde content increased significantly as seed aging progressed. Also, the decrease in seed reserve mobilization rate was the cause of decreased other traits.

  5. Trigo EMBRAPA 41: Nova cultivar para Minas Gerais, Goiás e Distrito Federal Wheat cultivar EMBRAPA 41 recommended to Minas Gerais, Goiás and Distrito Federal, Brazil

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    Julio Cesar Albrecht

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available A cultivar de trigo (Triticum aestivum L. EMBRAPA 41 foi criada pela Embrapa-Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária dos Cerrados (CPAC, em Planaltina, DF. Essa cultivar é o resultado da seleção realizada na descendência do cruzamento entre PF 813 e Polo 1; foi avaliada na fase experimental como linhagem CPAC 88118. A nova cultivar foi recomendada, pela Comissão Centro-Brasileira de Pesquisa de Trigo, para cultivo irrigado durante a estação seca, em 1995, nos estados de Minas Gerais e Goiás e no Distrito Federal. Essa cultivar destaca-se por apresentar estatura média, ciclo precoce, alto potencial de rendimento e por sua superior qualidade industrial. Nas avaliações de resistência a enfermidades, apresentou reação de resistência em relação à ferrugem-do-colmo, causada por Puccinia graminis tritici.The wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivar EMBRAPA 41 was developed by Embrapa-Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária dos Cerrados (CPAC, in Planaltina, DF, Brazil. This cultivar is the result of a cross between PF 813 and Polo 1 and it was evaluated in variety trials as CPAC 88118. The new cultivar was recommended by the National Commission for Wheat Research for use under irrigation during the dry season, in the states of Minas Gerais and Goiás and the Federal District. It has intermediate height, early maturity, high grain yield potential and superior industrial quality. It showed resistance to the stem rust, Puccinia graminis tritici.

  6. Combined effects of elevated temperature and CO2 enhance threat from low temperature hazard to winter wheat growth in North China.

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    Tan, Kaiyan; Zhou, Guangsheng; Lv, Xiaomin; Guo, Jianping; Ren, Sanxue

    2018-03-12

    We examined the growth and yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) in response to the predicted elevated CO 2 concentration and temperature to determine the mechanism of the combined impacts in North China Plain. An elevated treatment (CO 2 : 600 μmol mol -1 , temperature: +2.5~3.0 °C, ECTI) and a control treatment (ambient CO 2 and temperature, CK) were conducted in open-top chambers from October 2013 to June 2016. Post-winter growth stages of winter wheat largely advanced and shifted to a cooler period of nature season under combined impact of elevated CO 2 and temperature during the entire growing season. The mean temperature and accumulated photosynthetic active radiations (PAR) over the post-winter growing period in ECTI decreased by 0.8-1.5 °C and 10-13%, respectively compared with that in CK, negatively impacted winter wheat growth. As a result, winter wheat in ECTI suffered from low temperature hazards during critical period of floret development and anthesis and grain number per ear was reduced by 10-31% in the three years. Although 1000-kernel weight in ECTI increased by 8-9% mainly due to elevated CO 2 , increasing CO 2 concentration from 400 to 600 μmol mol -1 throughout the growth stage was not able to offset the adverse effect of warming on winter wheat growth and yield.

  7. Fusarium head blight (FHB and Fusarium populations in grain of winter wheat grown in different cultivation systems

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    Lenc Leszek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium head blight (FHB incidence, and colonisation of grain by Fusarium species on winter wheat grown in organic, integrated, and conventional systems as well as in monoculture, were studied locally in Poland, from 2002 to 2010. Fusarium head blight incidence differed throughout the study years. It was found to occur the most where rainfall was highest and where rainfall was the most prolonged before, during, and after flowering of wheat. Fusarium head blight incidence was generally less on wheat grown organically than on wheat grown in other systems. In some years, FHB was noted more in monocultures than in other systems. Fusarium poae was the most common species of FHB populations in wheat kernels, followed by F. avenaceum and F. tricinctum. Other species which occurred more rarely or sporadically were: F. culmorum, F. equiseti, F. graminearum, F. langsethiae, F. oxysporum, and F. sporotrichioides. There were found to be significant effects of the cropping system on grain colonisation by Fusarium in some years. There was a positive correlation between FHB incidence and number of kernels colonised and damaged by Fusarium, in all four systems. Inferences were drawn concerning the effects of different procedures in different production systems and the possible value for controlling FHB

  8. Cultivar-specific high temperature stress responses in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) associated with physicochemical traits and defense pathways.

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    Mishra, Divya; Shekhar, Shubhendu; Agrawal, Lalit; Chakraborty, Subhra; Chakraborty, Niranjan

    2017-04-15

    The increasing global temperature by 1°C is estimated to reduce the harvest index in a crop by 6%, and this would certai