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Sample records for winter wheat crop

  1. Relay cropping of spring barley and winter wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Roslon, Ewa

    2003-01-01

    The general objective of this thesis was to investigate various management practices in order to design a relay cropping system of spring barley and winter wheat with high yielding capacity and good weed suppressive capability under Swedish conditions. The work consisted of two greenhouse experiments, one small-scale field experiment and two field experiments. The factors investigated were seed rate of barley and wheat, undersowing time of wheat and timing of nitrogen fertilisation. Wheat see...

  2. Long-term perspective changes in winter wheat crop production technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Harasim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Impact of 10 factors related to the environment, crop management and organisation on yields of commercially grown winter wheat was investigated at Błonie-Topola experiment farm over the years 1980-2007. From among the factors under investigation, yields of winter wheat were negatively affected by delayed seeding and excessively high seeding rates. Trends of grain yields, value of the preceding crops, NPK fertilization, percent of cereals in total cropland, labour consumption of crop production were also investigated. Due to changes in farming conditions (discontinuing of livestock production, employment reduction, increase of cereals in total cropland there was a tendency for the seedbed value to deteriorate and for potassium and phosphorus fertilization level to decrease. However, due to increased nitrogen rates and correctly applied other elements of crop management it was possible to obtain satisfactory yields of winter wheat.

  3. Sources of Nitrogen for Winter Wheat in Organic Cropping Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Schjønning, Per; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2013-01-01

    correlated across all sites and rotations (r2 = 0.72). The MBN corresponded to 46 to 85, 85 to 145, and 74 to 172 kg N ha−1 at the three sites and differed significantly between cropping systems, but MBN could not explain differences in wheat grain N yields. Instead, a multiple linear regression model...... mineralizable N (PMN), microbial biomass N (MBN)] were monitored during two growth periods; at one site, biomass C/N ratios were also determined. Soil for labile N analysis was shielded from N inputs during spring application to isolate cumulated system effects. Potentially mineralizable N and MBN were...

  4. Cultivar Mixture Cropping Increased Water Use Efficiency in Winter Wheat under Limited Irrigation Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Yunqi Wang; Yinghua Zhang; Wei Ji; Peng Yu; Bin Wang; Jinpeng Li; Meikun Han; Xuexin Xu; Zhimin Wang

    2016-01-01

    The effects of cultivar mixture cropping on yield, biomass, and water use efficiency (WUE) in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were investigated under non-irrigation (W0, no irrigation during growth stage), one time irrigation (W1, irrigation applied at stem elongation) and two times irrigation (W2, irrigation applied at stem elongation and anthesis) conditions. Nearly 90% of cultivar mixture cropping treatments experienced an increase in grain yield as compared with the mean of the pure s...

  5. Interactions between crop biomass and development of foliar diseases in winter wheat and the potential to graduate the fungicide dose according to crop biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Kryger; Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup

    2016-01-01

    Foliar pathogens such as Zymoseptoria tritici and Puccinia striiformis causing septoria leaf blotch and yellow rust respectively can cause serious yield reduction in winter wheat production, and control of the diseases often requires several fungicide applications during the growing season. Control...... and other foliar diseases in winter wheat was dependent on crop development and biomass level. If such a biomass dependent dose response was found it was further the purpose to evaluate the potential to optimize fungicide inputs in winter wheat crops applying a site-specific crop density dependent fungicide...... dose. The study was carried out investigating fungicide dose response controlling foliar diseases in winter wheat at three biomass densities obtained growing the crop at three nitrogen levels and using variable seed rates. Further the field experiments included three fungicide dose rates at each...

  6. Mycological composition in the rhizosphere of winter wheat in different crop production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frac, Magdalena; Lipiec, Jerzy; Usowicz, Boguslaw

    2010-05-01

    Fungi play an important role in the soil ecosystem as decomposers of plant residues, releasing nutrients that sustain and stimulate processes of plant growth. Some fungi possess antagonistic properties towards plant pathogens. The structure of plant and soil communities is influenced by the interactions among its component species and also by anthropogenic pressure. In the study of soil fungi, particular attention is given to the rhizosphere. Knowledge of the structure and diversity of the fungal community in the rhizosphere lead to the better understanding of pathogen-antagonist interactions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mycological composition of the winter wheat rhizosphere in two different crop production systems. The study was based on a field experiment established in 1994 year at the Experimental Station in South-East Poland. The experiment was conducted on grey-brown podzolic soil. In this experiment winter wheat were grown in two crop production systems: ecological and conventional - monoculture. The research of fungi composition was conducted in 15th year of experiment. Rhizosphere was collected two times during growing season, in different development stage: shooting phase and full ripeness phase. Martin medium and the dilutions 10-3 and 10-4 were used to calculate the total number cfu (colony forming units) of fungi occurring in the rhizosphere of winter wheat. The fungi were identified using Czapeka-Doxa medium for Penicillium, potato dextrose agar for all fungi and agar Nirenberga (SNA) for Fusarium. High number of antagonistic fungi (Penicillium sp., Trichoderma sp.) was recorded in the rhizosphere of wheat in ecological system. The presence of these fungi can testify to considerable biological activity, which contributes to the improvement of the phytosanitary condition of the soil. However, the decrease of the antagonistic microorganism number in the crop wheat in monoculture can be responsible for appearance higher number of the

  7. Seasonal spectral response patterns of winter wheat canopy for crop performance monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancheva, Rumiana; Georgiev, Georgi

    2013-10-01

    Agricultural monitoring is an important and continuously spreading activity in remote sensing and applied Earth observations. It supplies valuable information on crop condition and growth processes. Much research has been carried out on vegetation phenology issues. In agriculture, the timing of seasonal cycles of crop activity is important for species classification and evaluation of crop development, growing conditions and potential yield. The correct interpretation of remotely sensed data, however, and the increasing demand for data reliability require ground-truth knowledge of the seasonal spectral behaviuor of different species and their relation to crop vigour. For this reason, we performed groundbased study of the seasonal response of winter wheat reflectance patterns to crop growth patterns. The goal was to quantify crop seasonality by establishing empirical relationships between plant biophysical and spectral properties in main ontogenetic periods. Phenology and agr-specific relationships allow to assess crop condition during different portions of the growth cycle and thus effectively track plant development and make yield predictions. The applicability of different vegetation indices for monitoring crop seasonal dynamics, health condition, and yield potential was examined.

  8. Combined Use of Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2A Images for Winter Crop Mapping and Winter Wheat Yield Assessment at Regional Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergii Skakun

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Timely and accurate information on crop yield and production is critical to many applications within agriculture monitoring. Thanks to its coverage and temporal resolution, coarse spatial resolution satellite imagery has always been a source of valuable information for yield forecasting and assessment at national and regional scales. With availability of free images acquired by Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 remote sensing satellites, it becomes possible to provide temporal resolution of 3–5 days, and therefore, to develop next generation agriculture products at higher spatial resolution (10–30 m. This paper explores the combined use of Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2A for winter crop mapping and winter wheat yield assessment at regional scale. For the former, we adapt a previously developed approach for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS instrument at 250 m resolution that allows automatic mapping of winter crops taking into account a priori knowledge on crop calendar. For the latter, we use a generalized winter wheat yield forecasting model that is based on estimation of the peak Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI from MODIS image time-series, and further downscaled to be applicable at 30 m resolution. We show that integration of Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2A improves both winter crop mapping and winter wheat yield assessment. In particular, the error of winter wheat yield estimates can be reduced up to 1.8 times compared to using a single satellite.

  9. Cultivar Mixture Cropping Increased Water Use Efficiency in Winter Wheat under Limited Irrigation Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunqi Wang

    Full Text Available The effects of cultivar mixture cropping on yield, biomass, and water use efficiency (WUE in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. were investigated under non-irrigation (W0, no irrigation during growth stage, one time irrigation (W1, irrigation applied at stem elongation and two times irrigation (W2, irrigation applied at stem elongation and anthesis conditions. Nearly 90% of cultivar mixture cropping treatments experienced an increase in grain yield as compared with the mean of the pure stands under W0, those for W1 and W2 were 80% and 85%, respectively. Over 75% of cultivar mixture cropping treatments got greater biomass than the mean of the pure stands under the three irrigation conditions. Cultivar mixture cropping cost more water than pure stands under W0 and W1, whereas the water consumption under W2 decreased by 5.9%-6.8% as compared with pure stands. Approximately 90% of cultivar mixtures showed an increase of 5.4%-34.5% in WUE as compared with the mean of the pure stands, and about 75% of cultivar mixtures had 0.8%-28.5% higher WUE than the better pure stands under W0. Similarly, there were a majority of mixture cropping treatments with higher WUE than the mean and the better one of the pure stands under W1 and W2. On the whole, proper cultivar mixture cropping could increase yield and WUE, and a higher increase in WUE occurred under limited irrigation condition.

  10. Cultivar Mixture Cropping Increased Water Use Efficiency in Winter Wheat under Limited Irrigation Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunqi; Zhang, Yinghua; Ji, Wei; Yu, Peng; Wang, Bin; Li, Jinpeng; Han, Meikun; Xu, Xuexin; Wang, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    The effects of cultivar mixture cropping on yield, biomass, and water use efficiency (WUE) in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were investigated under non-irrigation (W0, no irrigation during growth stage), one time irrigation (W1, irrigation applied at stem elongation) and two times irrigation (W2, irrigation applied at stem elongation and anthesis) conditions. Nearly 90% of cultivar mixture cropping treatments experienced an increase in grain yield as compared with the mean of the pure stands under W0, those for W1 and W2 were 80% and 85%, respectively. Over 75% of cultivar mixture cropping treatments got greater biomass than the mean of the pure stands under the three irrigation conditions. Cultivar mixture cropping cost more water than pure stands under W0 and W1, whereas the water consumption under W2 decreased by 5.9%-6.8% as compared with pure stands. Approximately 90% of cultivar mixtures showed an increase of 5.4%-34.5% in WUE as compared with the mean of the pure stands, and about 75% of cultivar mixtures had 0.8%-28.5% higher WUE than the better pure stands under W0. Similarly, there were a majority of mixture cropping treatments with higher WUE than the mean and the better one of the pure stands under W1 and W2. On the whole, proper cultivar mixture cropping could increase yield and WUE, and a higher increase in WUE occurred under limited irrigation condition.

  11. Effects of break crops, and of wheat volunteers growing in break crops or in set-aside or conservation covers, all following crops of winter wheat, on the development of take-all (Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici) in succeeding crops of winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkyn, Jf; Gutteridge, Rj; White, Rp

    2014-11-01

    Experiments on the Rothamsted and Woburn Experimental Farms studied the effects on take-all of different break crops and of set-aside/conservation covers that interrupted sequences of winter wheat. There was no evidence for different effects on take-all of the break crops per se but the presence of volunteers, in crops of oilseed rape, increased the amounts of take-all in the following wheat. Severity of take-all was closely related to the numbers of volunteers in the preceding break crops and covers, and was affected by the date of their destruction. Early destruction of set-aside/conservation covers was usually effective in preventing damaging take-all in the following wheat except, sometimes, when populations of volunteers were very large. The experiments were not designed to test the effects of sowing dates but different amounts of take-all in the first wheats after breaks or covers apparently affected the severity of take-all in the following (second) wheats only where the latter were relatively late sown. In earlier-sown second wheats, take-all was consistently severe and unrelated to the severity of the disease in the preceding (first) wheats. Results from two very simple experiments suggested that substituting set-aside/conservation covers for winter wheat, for 1 year only, did not seriously interfere with the development of take-all disease or with the development or maintenance of take-all decline (TAD). With further research, it might be possible for growers wishing to exploit TAD to incorporate set-aside/conservation covers into their cropping strategies, and especially to avoid the worst effects of the disease on grain yield during the early stages of epidemics.

  12. Life Cycle Assessment on Carbon Footprint of Winter Wheat-Summer Maize Cropping System Based on Survey Data of Gaomi in Shandong Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yong-Chang; LI Yu-e; Jiang, De-Feng; ZOU Xiao-xia

    2017-01-01

    Grain production can generate huge amount of greenhouse gases through raw material production and energy comsumption, nitrogen fertilizer amendment and farming machinery operation. Based questionnaire survey of raw material inputs and management of wheat-maize cropping system in Gaomi, Shandong Province, carbon footprint of grain production was calculated using life cycle assessment methodology. Carbon footprint per unit area of wheat, maize, and winter wheat-summer maize cropping system were...

  13. Simulation of winter wheat yield and its variability in different climates of Europe: A comparison of eight crop growth models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palosuo, Taru; Kersebaum, Kurt Christian; Angulo, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    We compared the performance of eight widely used, easily accessible and well-documented crop growth simulation models (APES, CROPSYST, DAISY, DSSAT, FASSET, HERMES, STICS and WOFOST) for winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) during 49 growing seasons at eight sites in northwestern, Central and sout......We compared the performance of eight widely used, easily accessible and well-documented crop growth simulation models (APES, CROPSYST, DAISY, DSSAT, FASSET, HERMES, STICS and WOFOST) for winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) during 49 growing seasons at eight sites in northwestern, Central...... to this type of model application. Data used in the simulations consisted of daily weather statistics, information on soil properties, information on crop phenology for each cultivar, and basic crop and soil management information. Our results showed that none of the models perfectly reproduced recorded...... values. In spite of phenological observations being provided, the calibration results for wheat phenology, i.e. estimated dates of anthesis and maturity, were surprisingly variable, with the largest RMSE for anthesis being generated by APES (20.2 days) and for maturity by HERMES (12.6). The wide range...

  14. Monitoring Agronomic Parameters of Winter Wheat Crops with Low-Cost UAV Imagery

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    Michael Schirrmann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring the dynamics in wheat crops requires near-term observations with high spatial resolution due to the complex factors influencing wheat growth variability. We studied the prospects for monitoring the biophysical parameters and nitrogen status in wheat crops with low-cost imagery acquired from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV over an 11 ha field. Flight missions were conducted at approximately 50 m in altitude with a commercial copter and camera system—three missions were performed between booting and maturing of the wheat plants and one mission after tillage. Ultra-high resolution orthoimages of 1.2 cm·px−1 and surface models were generated for each mission from the standard red, green and blue (RGB aerial images. The image variables were extracted from image tone and surface models, e.g., RGB ratios, crop coverage and plant height. During each mission, 20 plots within the wheat canopy with 1 × 1 m2 sample support were selected in the field, and the leaf area index, plant height, fresh and dry biomass and nitrogen concentrations were measured. From the generated UAV imagery, we were able to follow the changes in early senescence at the individual plant level in the wheat crops. Changes in the pattern of the wheat canopy varied drastically from one mission to the next, which supported the need for instantaneous observations, as delivered by UAV imagery. The correlations between the biophysical parameters and image variables were highly significant during each mission, and the regression models calculated with the principal components of the image variables yielded R2 values between 0.70 and 0.97. In contrast, the models of the nitrogen concentrations yielded low R2 values with the best model obtained at flowering (R2 = 0.65. The nitrogen nutrition index was calculated with an accuracy of 0.10 to 0.11 NNI for each mission. For all models, information about the surface models and image tone was important. We conclude that low-cost RGB

  15. Effect of Irrigation to Winter Wheat on the Radiation Use Efficiency and Yield of Summer Maize in a Double Cropping System

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    Li Quanqi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In north China, double cropping of winter wheat and summer maize is a widely adopted agricultural practice, and irrigation is required to obtain a high yield from winter wheat, which results in rapid aquifer depletion. In this experiment conducted in 2001-2002, 2002-2003, and 2004-2005, we studied the effects of irrigation regimes during specific winter wheat growing stage with winter wheat and summer maize double cropping systems; we measured soil moisture before sowing (SMBS, the photosynthetic active radiation (PAR capture ratio, grain yield, and the radiation use efficiency (RUE of summer maize. During the winter wheat growing season, irrigation was applied at the jointing, heading, or milking stage, respectively. The results showed that increased amounts of irrigation and irrigation later in the winter wheat growing season improved SMBS for summer maize. The PAR capture ratio significantly (LSD, P<0.05 increased with increased SMBS, primarily in the 3 spikes leaves. With improved SMBS, both the grain yield and RUE increased in all the treatments. These results indicate that winter wheat should be irrigated in later stages to achieve reasonable grain yield for both crops.

  16. Estimation of Winter Wheat Biomass and Yield by Combining the AquaCrop Model and Field Hyperspectral Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuliang Jin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of spatial and temporal variations in crop growth is important for crop management and stable crop production for the food security of a country. A combination of crop growth models and remote sensing data is a useful method for monitoring crop growth status and estimating crop yield. The objective of this study was to use spectral-based biomass values generated from spectral indices to calibrate the AquaCrop model using the particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm to improve biomass and yield estimations. Spectral reflectance and concurrent biomass and yield were measured at the Xiaotangshan experimental site in Beijing, China, during four winter wheat-growing seasons. The results showed that all of the measured spectral indices were correlated with biomass to varying degrees. The normalized difference matter index (NDMI was the best spectral index for estimating biomass, with the coefficient of determination (R2, root mean square error (RMSE, and relative RMSE (RRMSE values of 0.77, 1.80 ton/ha, and 25.75%, respectively. The data assimilation method (R2 = 0.83, RMSE = 1.65 ton/ha, and RRMSE = 23.60% achieved the most accurate biomass estimations compared with the spectral index method. The estimated yield was in good agreement with the measured yield (R2 = 0.82, RMSE = 0.55 ton/ha, and RRMSE = 8.77%. This study offers a new method for agricultural resource management through consistent assessments of winter wheat biomass and yield based on the AquaCrop model and remote sensing data.

  17. Modeling Root Growth, Crop Growth and N Uptake of Winter Wheat Based on SWMS_2D: Model and Validation

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    Dejun Yang

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Simulations for root growth, crop growth, and N uptake in agro-hydrological models are of significant concern to researchers. SWMS_2D is one of the most widely used physical hydrologically related models. This model solves equations that govern soil-water movement by the finite element method, and has a public access source code. Incorporating key agricultural components into the SWMS_2D model is of practical importance, especially for modeling some critical cereal crops such as winter wheat. We added root growth, crop growth, and N uptake modules into SWMS_2D. The root growth model had two sub-models, one for root penetration and the other for root length distribution. The crop growth model used was adapted from EU-ROTATE_N, linked to the N uptake model. Soil-water limitation, nitrogen limitation, and temperature effects were all considered in dry-weight modeling. Field experiments for winter wheat in Bouwing, the Netherlands, in 1983-1984 were selected for validation. Good agreements were achieved between simulations and measurements, including soil water content at different depths, normalized root length distribution, dry weight and nitrogen uptake. This indicated that the proposed new modules used in the SWMS_2D model are robust and reliable. In the future, more rigorous validation should be carried out, ideally under 2D situations, and attention should be paid to improve some modules, including the module simulating soil N mineralization.

  18. Stamena winter wheat variety

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    Mišić Todor

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Stamena is a winter wheat variety developed at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad, Yugoslavia. It was released by the Federal Commission for varietals Approval in 1999. Stamena was developed by crossing genetically divergent and highly productive parents Lasta and Rodna (Breeders: T. Mišić. N. Mladenov, Z. Jerković and R. Jevtić. Spike is white, smooth, awn less, medium compact with 18-21 spike lets. The grain is vitreous and dark red (Triticum aestivum L. ssp. vulgar e var. lutescens. Stamena is a medium early variety, 1 day earlier than Partizanka and 3 days earlier than Jugoslavija (Table 4. It has excellent resistance to winterkilling, as in very winter hardy Partizanka. The average stem height is 78 cm, with a good resistance to lodging. Stamena has field resistance to leaf rust (Pucce, recondita tritict, horizontal resistance, which is the type of resistance that modern wheat breeding is interested in. The resistance to stem rust (Pucce, graminis tritict is good and to powdery mildew (Erysiphegraminis tritici very good. The 1000 grain mass is about 32 g and volume grain mass 81.3 kg/hi. (Table 2. Stamena is classified in the subgroup A-l. It has excellent milling and baking quality and it belong to the 1st technological group (quality enhancer. The quantity of dry gluten is about 9%. The variety Stamena is a very productive, with the genetic potential for grain above 11 t/ha suitable for growing on fertile and less fertile soils. It has started to be grown commercially in 2000.

  19. Assessing Uncertainties of Water Footprints Using an Ensemble of Crop Growth Models on Winter Wheat

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    Kurt Christian Kersebaum

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Crop productivity and water consumption form the basis to calculate the water footprint (WF of a specific crop. Under current climate conditions, calculated evapotranspiration is related to observed crop yields to calculate WF. The assessment of WF under future climate conditions requires the simulation of crop yields adding further uncertainty. To assess the uncertainty of model based assessments of WF, an ensemble of crop models was applied to data from five field experiments across Europe. Only limited data were provided for a rough calibration, which corresponds to a typical situation for regional assessments, where data availability is limited. Up to eight models were applied for wheat. The coefficient of variation for the simulated actual evapotranspiration between models was in the range of 13%–19%, which was higher than the inter-annual variability. Simulated yields showed a higher variability between models in the range of 17%–39%. Models responded differently to elevated CO2 in a FACE (Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment experiment, especially regarding the reduction of water consumption. The variability of calculated WF between models was in the range of 15%–49%. Yield predictions contributed more to this variance than the estimation of water consumption. Transpiration accounts on average for 51%–68% of the total actual evapotranspiration.

  20. Balance sheet method assessment for nitrogen fertilization in winter wheat: II. alternative strategies using the CropSyst simulation model

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    Maria Corbellini

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available It is important, both for farmer profit and for the environment, to correctly dose fertilizer nitrogen (N for winter wheat growth. Balance-sheet methods are often used to calculate the recommended dose of N fertilizer. Other methods are based on the dynamic simulation of cropping systems. Aim of the work was to evaluate the balance-sheet method set up by the Region Emilia-Romagna (DPI, by comparing it with the cropping systems simulation model CropSyst (CS, and with an approach based on fixed supplies of N (T. A 3-year trial was structured as a series of N fertility regimes at 3 sites (Papiano di Marsciano, Ravenna, San Pancrazio. The N-regimes were generated at each site-year as separate trials in which 3 N rates were applied: N1 (DPI, N2 (DPI+50 kg ha-1 N at spike initiation, N3 (DPI + 50 kg ha-1 N at early booting. Above ground biomass and soil data (NO3-N and water were sampled and used to calibrate CS. Doses of fertilizer N were calculated by both DPI and CS for winter wheat included in three typical rotations for Central and Northern Italy. Both these methods and method T were simulated at each site over 50 years, by using daily generated weather data. The long-term simulation allowed evaluating such alternative fertilization strategies. DPI and CS estimated comparable crop yields and N leached amounts, and both resulted better than T. Minor risk of leaching emerged for all N doses. The N2 and N3 rates allowed slightly higher crop yields than N1.

  1. Modelling soil water content variations under drought stress on soil column cropped with winter wheat

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    Csorba Szilveszter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical models are effective tools for evaluating the impact of predicted climate change on agricultural production, but it is difficult to test their applicability to future weather conditions. We applied the SWAP model to assess its applicability to climate conditions, differing from those, for which the model was developed. We used a database obtained from a winter wheat drought stress experiment. Winter wheat was grown in six soil columns, three having optimal water supply (NS, while three were kept under drought-stressed conditions (S. The SWAP model was successfully calibrated against measured values of potential evapotranspiration (PET, potential evaporation (PE and total amount of water (TSW in the soil columns. The Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient (N-S for TWS for the stressed columns was 0.92. For the NS treatment, we applied temporally variable soil hydraulic properties because of soil consolidation caused by regular irrigation. This approach improved the N-S values for the wetting-drying cycle from -1.77 to 0.54. We concluded that the model could be used for assessing the effects of climate change on soil water regime. Our results indicate that soil water balance studies should put more focus on the time variability of structuredependent soil properties.

  2. Straw export in continuous winter wheat and the ability of oil radish catch crops and early sowing of wheat to offset soil C and N losses: A simulation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peltre, Clément; Nielsen, M; Christensen, Bent Tolstrup

    2016-01-01

    The export of winter wheat straw for bioenergy may reduce soil C stocks and affect N losses. Establishing fast-growing catch crops between successive wheat crops could potentially offset some of the C and N losses. Another option is to sow wheat earlier, increasing biomass production during...... the autumn. The effects of straw export, oil radish catch crop and early sowing of wheat on soil C storage, N leaching losses and N2O emissions were simulated by applying the Daisy model to winter wheat grown continuously for a period of 100 years on a sandy loam soil in a Danish climate. The simulations...... included five levels of initial soil C content (1–3% C), three levels of straw incorporation (0, 50 and 100%), +/− catch crop (oil radish) and two sowing dates (1 and 22 September). Exporting the entire straw production reduced soil C stocks by 1.2 to 14% after 100 years, depending on the initial C content...

  3. Winter wheat yield estimation of remote sensing research based on WOFOST crop model and leaf area index assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanling; Gong, Adu; Li, Jing; Wang, Jingmei

    2017-04-01

    Accurate crop growth monitoring and yield predictive information are significant to improve the sustainable development of agriculture and ensure the security of national food. Remote sensing observation and crop growth simulation models are two new technologies, which have highly potential applications in crop growth monitoring and yield forecasting in recent years. However, both of them have limitations in mechanism or regional application respectively. Remote sensing information can not reveal crop growth and development, inner mechanism of yield formation and the affection of environmental meteorological conditions. Crop growth simulation models have difficulties in obtaining data and parameterization from single-point to regional application. In order to make good use of the advantages of these two technologies, the coupling technique of remote sensing information and crop growth simulation models has been studied. Filtering and optimizing model parameters are key to yield estimation by remote sensing and crop model based on regional crop assimilation. Winter wheat of GaoCheng was selected as the experiment object in this paper. And then the essential data was collected, such as biochemical data and farmland environmental data and meteorological data about several critical growing periods. Meanwhile, the image of environmental mitigation small satellite HJ-CCD was obtained. In this paper, research work and major conclusions are as follows. (1) Seven vegetation indexes were selected to retrieve LAI, and then linear regression model was built up between each of these indexes and the measured LAI. The result shows that the accuracy of EVI model was the highest (R2=0.964 at anthesis stage and R2=0.920 at filling stage). Thus, EVI as the most optimal vegetation index to predict LAI in this paper. (2) EFAST method was adopted in this paper to conduct the sensitive analysis to the 26 initial parameters of the WOFOST model and then a sensitivity index was constructed

  4. Sustainability of European winter wheat- and maize-based cropping systems: Economic, environmental and social ex-post assessment of conventional and IPM-based systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasileiadis, V.P.; Dachbrodt-saaydeh, S.; Kudsk, P.; Colnenne-David, C.; Leprince, F.; Holb, I.J.; Kierzek, R.; Furlan, L.; Loddo, D.; Melander, B.; Jørgensen, L.N.; Newton, A.C.; Toque, C.; Dijk, van W.; Lefebvre, M.; Benezit, M.; Sattin, M.

    2017-01-01

    In order to ensure higher sustainability of winter wheat and maize production in Europe, cropping systems featuring different levels of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) need to be tested in the field and validated for their sustainability before being adopted by farmers. However, the sustainability

  5. Benchmark levels for the consumptive water footprint of crop production for different environmental conditions: a case study for winter wheat in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhuo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Meeting growing food demands while simultaneously shrinking the water footprint (WF of agricultural production is one of the greatest societal challenges. Benchmarks for the WF of crop production can serve as a reference and be helpful in setting WF reduction targets. The consumptive WF of crops, the consumption of rainwater stored in the soil (green WF, and the consumption of irrigation water (blue WF over the crop growing period varies spatially and temporally depending on environmental factors like climate and soil. The study explores which environmental factors should be distinguished when determining benchmark levels for the consumptive WF of crops. Hereto we determine benchmark levels for the consumptive WF of winter wheat production in China for all separate years in the period 1961–2008, for rain-fed vs. irrigated croplands, for wet vs. dry years, for warm vs. cold years, for four different soil classes, and for two different climate zones. We simulate consumptive WFs of winter wheat production with the crop water productivity model AquaCrop at a 5 by 5 arcmin resolution, accounting for water stress only. The results show that (i benchmark levels determined for individual years for the country as a whole remain within a range of ±20 % around long-term mean levels over 1961–2008, (ii the WF benchmarks for irrigated winter wheat are 8–10 % larger than those for rain-fed winter wheat, (iii WF benchmarks for wet years are 1–3 % smaller than for dry years, (iv WF benchmarks for warm years are 7–8 % smaller than for cold years, (v WF benchmarks differ by about 10–12 % across different soil texture classes, and (vi WF benchmarks for the humid zone are 26–31 % smaller than for the arid zone, which has relatively higher reference evapotranspiration in general and lower yields in rain-fed fields. We conclude that when determining benchmark levels for the consumptive WF of a crop, it is useful to primarily

  6. Assessing uncertainties of water footprints using an ensemble of crop growth models on winter wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersebaum, Kurt Christian; Kroes, Joop; Gobin, Anne; Takáč, Jozef; Hlavinka, Petr; Trnka, Miroslav; Ventrella, Domenico; Giglio, Luisa; Ferrise, Roberto; Moriondo, Marco; Marta, Anna Dalla; Luo, Qunying; Eitzinger, Josef; Mirschel, Wilfried; Weigel, Hans Joachim; Manderscheid, Remy; Hoffmann, Munir; Nejedlik, Pavol; Iqbal, Muhammad Anjum; Hösch, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Crop productivity and water consumption form the basis to calculate the water footprint (WF) of a specific crop. Under current climate conditions, calculated evapotranspiration is related to observed crop yields to calculate WF. The assessment of WF under future climate conditions requires the

  7. Registration of “Pritchett” soft white winter club wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soft white club winter wheat (Triticium aestivum L. ssp. compactum) is a unique component of the wheat production in the PNW, comprising 6-10% of the wheat crop. It is valued for milling and baking functionality and marketed for export in a 20-30% blend with soft white wheat as Western White. Our g...

  8. Life Cycle Assessment on Carbon Footprint of Winter Wheat-Summer Maize Cropping System Based on Survey Data of Gaomi in Shandong Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHU Yong-chang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Grain production can generate huge amount of greenhouse gases through raw material production and energy comsumption, nitrogen fertilizer amendment and farming machinery operation. Based questionnaire survey of raw material inputs and management of wheat-maize cropping system in Gaomi, Shandong Province, carbon footprint of grain production was calculated using life cycle assessment methodology. Carbon footprint per unit area of wheat, maize, and winter wheat-summer maize cropping system were 5 183.33, 3 778.09 kg CO2-eq·hm-2 and 8 961.42 kg CO2-eq·hm-2, carbon footprint per unit grain yield were 0.69, 0.40 kg CO2-eq·kg-1 and 0.53 kg CO2-eq·kg-1, carbon footprint per unit net present value were 1.82, 0.40 kg CO2-eq·yuan-1 and 0.44 kg CO2-eq·yuan-1, respectively. Greenhouse gas(GHG emission of winter wheat-summer maize cropping system mainly came from nitrogen fertilizer production(48.30% and nitrogen fertilizer application(12.04%, irrigation electricity consumption(12.94% and machinery oil consumption(11.20%. Optimizing the application of fertilizer, reducing the amount of nitrogen fertilizer and saving water irrigation were important ways to realize the clean production.

  9. Crop water productivity under increasing irrigation capacities in Romania. A spatially-explicit assessment of winter wheat and maize cropping systems in the southern lowlands of the country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogaru, Diana

    2016-04-01

    Improved water use efficiency in agriculture is a key issue in terms of sustainable management and consumption of water resources in the context of peoples' increasing food demands and preferences, economic growth and agricultural adaptation options to climate variability and change. Crop Water Productivity (CWP), defined as the ratio of yield (or value of harvested crop) to actual evapotranspiration or as the ratio of yield (or value of harvested crop) to volume of supplied irrigation water (Molden et al., 1998), is a useful indicator in the evaluation of water use efficiency and ultimately of cropland management, particularly in the case of regions affected by or prone to drought and where irrigation application is essential for achieving expected productions. The present study investigates the productivity of water in winter wheat and maize cropping systems in the Romanian Plain (49 594 sq. km), an important agricultural region in the southern part of the country which is increasingly affected by drought and dry spells (Sandu and Mateescu, 2014). The scope of the analysis is to assess the gains and losses in CWP for the two crops, by considering increased irrigated cropland and improved fertilization, these being the most common measures potentially and already implemented by the farmers. In order to capture the effects of such measures on agricultural water use, the GIS-based EPIC crop-growth model (GEPIC) (Williams et al., 1989; Liu, 2009) was employed to simulate yields, seasonal evapotranspiration from crops and volume of irrigation water in the Romanian Plain for the 2002 - 2013 interval with focus on 2007 and 2010, two representative years for dry and wet periods, respectively. The GEPIC model operates on a daily time step, while the geospatial input datasets for this analysis (e.g. climate data, soil classes and soil parameters, land use) were harmonized at 1km resolution grid cell. The sources of the spatial data are mainly the national profile agencies

  10. The effect of tillage system and herbicide application on weed infestation of crops of winter spelt wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta L. cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Andruszczak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on a 3-year field experiment conducted on medium heavy mixed rendzina soil, the present study evaluated the effect of chemical plant protection on the species composition, number and air-dry weight of weeds infesting crops of winter spelt wheat cultivars (‘Frankenkorn’, ‘Badengold’, ‘Schwaben- speltz’, and ‘Oberkulmer Rotkorn’ sown under ploughing and ploughless tillage systems. Ploughing tillage involved skim- ming done after harvest of the previous crop and pre-sowing ploughing, while in the ploughless tillage system ploughing was replaced with cultivating. Chemical weed control included the application of the herbicides Mustang 306 SE and Attribut 70 WG. Plots where the herbicides were not used were the control treatment. On average, from 21 to 30 weed species colonised the winter spelt wheat crops compared. Galium aparine and Apera spica-venti occurred in greatest numbers and their percentage in the total number of weeds was estimated at 26–35% and 17–25%, respectively. The cultivar ‘Frankenkorn’ was the least weed-infested. Both the number of weeds in the crop of this cultivar and their above-ground dry weight were lower compared to the other cultivars. The use of reduced tillage significantly increased the air-dry weight of weeds compared to ploughing tillage. Nevertheless, it should be indicated under ploughless tillage conditions the application of chemical crop protection reduced weed biomass by 59% compared to the control treatments without crop protection.

  11. Sunn hemp as a cover crop to reduce nitrogen inputs for winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    The tropical legume sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) has the potential to perform as a beneficial cover crop in the southeastern United States due to its ability to accumulate large amounts of biomass and symbiotic nitrogen (N) in a short period of time during the summer months. Planting sunn hemp,...

  12. Control of seedling blight in winter wheat by seed treatments - impact on emergence, crop stand, yield and deoxynivalenol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lise N; K. Nielsen, Linda; Nielsen, Bent J

    2012-01-01

    Seedling blight caused by Fusarium spp. and Microdochium spp. is common on wheat grain, and severe attacks can lead to poor establishment of new crops. Several seed treatments using bitertanol, difenoconazole, triticonazole, maneb, fludioxonil or guazatine found to significantly control Fusarium ...

  13. Evalution of the healthiness of winter wheat cultivated in conventional tillage, direct sowing and direct sowing with underplant crop of white clover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Moszczyńska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Research of the healthiness of winter wheat depending on the soil tillage system and rate of nitrogen fertilization were carried out in 1998-2001. The largest threat to the healthiness of plants was tan spot, which was caused by Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, especially in cropping season 1999/2000. The soil tillage system diversified the intensification of occurence of this pathogen, only in two last years of research. The most infected by P. tritici-i was wheat, which was cultivated in the direct sowing. Application of underplant crop of white clover in the direct sowing contributed to the improvement of the plants healthiness. The highest rate of nitrogen fertilization (120 kg N.ha-1 in the highest degree favoured the damage of wheat by P. tritici-repentis, but only in two first years of research. The second pathogen Blumeria graminis, which caused powdery mildew of cereals, occured in small amount and didn't have any influence on the healthiness of winter wheat.

  14. [Evaluating the response of yield and evapotranspiration of winter wheat and the adaptation by adjusting crop variety to climate change in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shi; Mo, Xing-guo; Lin, Zhong-hui

    2015-04-01

    Based on the multi-model datasets of three representative concentration pathway (RCP) emission scenarios from IPCC5, the response of yield and accumulative evapotranspiration (ET) of winter wheat to climate change in the future were assessed by VIP model. The results showed that if effects of CO2 enrichment were excluded, temperature rise would lead to a reduction in the length of the growing period for wheat under the three climate change scenarios, and the wheat yield and ET presented a decrease tendency. The positive effect of atmospheric CO2 enrichment could offset most negative effect introduced by temperature rising, indicating that atmospheric CO2 enrichment would be the prime reason of the wheat yield rising in future. In 2050s, wheat yield would increase 14.8% (decrease 2.5% without CO2 fertilization) , and ET would decrease 2.1% under RCP4.5. By adoption of new crop variety with enhanced requirement on accumulative temperature, the wheat yield would increase more significantly with CO2 fertilization, but the water consumption would also increase. Therefore, cultivar breeding new irrigation techniques and agronomical management should be explored under the challenges of climate change in the future.

  15. Winter wheat yield estimation based on multi-source medium resolution optical and radar imaging data and the AquaCrop model using the particle swarm optimization algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiuliang; Li, Zhenhai; Yang, Guijun; Yang, Hao; Feng, Haikuan; Xu, Xingang; Wang, Jihua; Li, Xinchuan; Luo, Juhua

    2017-04-01

    Timely and accurate estimation of winter wheat yield at a regional scale is crucial for national food policy and security assessments. Near-infrared reflectance is not sensitive to the leaf area index (LAI) and biomass of winter wheat at medium to high canopy cover (CC), and most of the vegetation indices displayed saturation phenomenon. However, LAI and biomass at medium to high CC can be efficiently estimated using imaging data from radar with stronger penetration, such as RADARSAT-2. This study had the following three objectives: (i) to combine vegetation indices based on our previous studies for estimating CC and biomass for winter wheat using HJ-1A/B and RADARSAT-2 imaging data; (ii) to combine HJ-1A/B and RADARSAT-2 imaging data with the AquaCrop model using the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm to estimate winter wheat yield; and (iii) to compare the results from the assimilation of HJ-1A/B + RADARSAT-2 imaging data, HJ-1A/B imaging data, and RADARSAT-2 imaging data into the AquaCrop model using the PSO algorithm. Remote sensing data and concurrent LAI, biomass, and yield of sample fields were acquired in Yangling District, Shaanxi, China, during the 2014 winter wheat growing season. The PSO optimization algorithm was used to integrate the AquaCrop model and remote sensing data for yield estimation. The modified triangular vegetation index 2 (MTVI2) × radar vegetation index (RVI) and the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) × RVI had good relationships with CC and biomass, respectively. The results indicated that the predicted and measured yield (R2 = 0.31 and RMSE = 0.94 ton/ha) had agreement when the estimated CC from the HJ-1A/B and RADARSAT-2 data was used as the dynamic input variable for the AquaCrop model. When the estimated biomass from the HJ-1A/B and RADARSAT-2 data was used as the dynamic input variable for the AquaCrop model, the predicted yield showed agreement with the measured yield (R2 = 0.42 and RMSE = 0.81 ton/ha). These results show

  16. Stable isotope evidences for identifying crop water uptake in a typical winter wheat-summer maize rotation field in the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Li, Fadong; Ai, Zhipin; Li, Jing; Gu, Congke

    2017-11-09

    Better managing agricultural water resources, which are increasingly stressed by climate change and anthropogenic activities, is difficult, particularly because of variations in water uptake patterns associated with crop type and growth stage. Thus, the stable isotopes δ18O and δ2H were employed to investigate the water uptake patterns of a summer maize (Zea mays L.) and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) rotation system in the North China Plain. Based on the soil water content, soil layers were divided into four groups (0-20cm, 20-40cm, 40-120cm, and 120-200cm) using a hierarchical cluster analysis. The main soil layer of water uptake for summer maize was from 0-20cm at the trefoil (77.8%) and jointing (48.6%) stages to 20-40cm at the booting (33.6%) and heading (32.6%) stages, became 40-120cm at the silking (32.0%) and milking (36.7%) stages, and then returned to 0-20cm at the mature (35.0%) and harvest (52.4%) stages. Winter wheat most absorbed water from the 0-20cm soil water at the wintering (86.6%), seedling (83.7%), jointing (45.2%), booting (51.4%), heading (28.8%), and mature (67.8%) stages, but it was 20-40cm at the flowering (34.8%) and milking (25.2%) stages. The dry root weight density was positively correlated with the contributions of the water uptake for winter wheat. However, no similar correlation was found in summer maize. Regression analysis indicated that the soil volumetric water content (SVWC) was negatively correlated with the contribution of the water uptake (CWU) for summer maize (CWU=-0.91×SVWC+57.75) and winter wheat (CWU=-2.03×SVWC+92.73). These different responses to water uptake contributions suggested that a traditional irrigation event should be postponed from the booting to flowering stage of winter wheat. This study provides insights into crop water uptake and agricultural water management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Aluminium toxicity in winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabó A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium is the most frequent metal of the earth crust; it occurs mainly as biologically inactive, insoluble deposit. Environmental problems, industrial contaminations and acid rains increase the soil acidity, leading to the mobilization of Al. Half of the world’s potential arable lands are acidic; therefore, Al-toxicity decreases crop productivity. Wheat is a staple food for 35% of the world population. The effects of Al-stress (0.1 mM were studied on winter wheat; seedlings were grown hydroponically, at acidic pH. After two weeks, the root weight was decreased; a significant difference was found in the P- and Ca-content. The shoot weight and element content changed slightly; Al-content in the root was one magnitude higher than in the shoot, while Al-translocation was limited. The root plasma membrane H+-ATPase has central role in the uptake processes; Al-stress increased the Mg2+-ATPase activity of the microsomal fraction.

  18. Carbon Balance of No-Till Soybean with Winter Wheat Cover Crop in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremedhin, M. T.; Loescher, H.; Tsegaye, T.

    2012-12-01

    The southeast is an important agricultural region in the U.S. and key component of the continental carbon budget. Croplands in the region store a substantial amount of soil organic carbon (C). However, their C sink status may be altered under the projected changes in precipitation pattern for the region. The study was conducted at Winfred Thomas Agricultural Research Station, Hazel Green, Alabama (2007-2009). We investigated the seasonal and interannual variation in net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) of winter wheat (Tricticum aestivum) and soybean (Glycine max) using the eddy covariance method. Annual C balance ranged from the highest source in 2007 (NEE = 100 g C m-2 y-1) to sink (-20 g C m-2 y-1) in 2009. Annual ecosystem respiration (Re) ranged between 750 and 1013 g C m-2 y-1, while gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) was 650-1034 g C m-2 y-1. Seasonal NEE for soybean ranged between 42 and -66 g C m-2. Stronger winter wheat NEE (-80.0, -80.4, -40.0 g C m-2 for 2007, 2008 and 2009) than soybean suggested the importance of winter C uptakes offsetting summer C losses. Re was controlled by air temperature, and it varied between 286 and 542 g C m-2 for soybean, and between 160 and 313 g C m-2 for winter wheat. Precipitation was key determinant of C balance implying larger C release during drought periods. During fallow months, the site was C source. If we include removal of grain off site, this system could become a C source under all conditions.

  19. An Approach to Precise Nitrogen Management Using Hand-Held Crop Sensor Measurements and Winter Wheat Yield Mapping in a Mediterranean Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Quebrajo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Regardless of the crop production system, nutrients inputs must be controlled at or below a certain economic threshold to achieve an acceptable level of profitability. The use of management zones and variable-rate fertilizer applications is gaining popularity in precision agriculture. Many researchers have evaluated the application of final yield maps and geo-referenced geophysical measurements (e.g., apparent soil electrical conductivity-ECa as a method of establishing relatively homogeneous management zones within the same plot. Yield estimation models based on crop conditions at certain growth stages, soil nutrient statuses, agronomic factors, moisture statuses, and weed/pest pressures are a primary goal in precision agriculture. This study attempted to achieve the following objectives: (1 to investigate the potential for predicting winter wheat yields using vegetation measurements (the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index—NDVI at the beginning of the season, thereby allowing for a yield response to nitrogen (N fertilizer; and (2 evaluate the feasibility of using inexpensive optical sensor measurements in a Mediterranean environment. A field experiment was conducted in two commercial wheat fields near Seville, in southwestern Spain. Yield data were collected at harvest using a yield monitoring system (RDS Ceres II-volumetric meter installed on a combine. Wheat yield and NDVI values of 3498 ± 481 kg ha−1 and 0.67 ± 0.04 nm nm−1 (field 1 and 3221 ± 531 kg ha−1 and 0.68 ± 0.05 nm nm−1 (field 2 were obtained. In both fields, the yield and NDVI exhibited a strong Pearson correlation, with rxy = 0.64 and p < 10−4 in field 1 and rxy = 0.78 and p < 10−4 in field 2. The preliminary results indicate that hand-held crop sensor-based N management can be applied to wheat production in Spain and has the potential to increase agronomic N-use efficiency on a long-term basis.

  20. Root development of fodder radish and winter wheat before winter in relation to uptake of nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlström, Ellen Margrethe; Hansen, Elly Møller; Mandel, A.

    2015-01-01

    occurred. Quantitative data is missing on N leaching of a catch crop compared to a winter cereal in a conventional cereal-based cropping system. The aim of the study was to investigate whether fodder radish (Raphanus sativus L.) (FR) would be more efficient than winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (WW...

  1. Impact of Climate Change Adaptation Strategies on Winter Wheat and Cropping System Performance across Precipitation Gradients in the Inland Pacific Northwest, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai M. Maaz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ecological instability and low resource use efficiencies are concerns for the long-term productivity of conventional cereal monoculture systems, particularly those threatened by projected climate change. Crop intensification, diversification, reduced tillage, and variable N management are among strategies proposed to mitigate and adapt to climate shifts in the inland Pacific Northwest (iPNW. Our objectives were to assess these strategies across iPNW agroecological zones and time for their impacts on (1 winter wheat (WW (Triticum aestivum L. productivity, (2 crop sequence productivity, and (3 N fertilizer use efficiency. Region-wide analysis indicated that WW yields increased with increasing annual precipitation, prior to maximizing at 520 mm yr−1 and subsequently declining when annual precipitation was not adjusted for available soil water holding capacity. While fallow periods were effective at mitigating low nitrogen (N fertilization efficiencies under low precipitation, efficiencies declined as annual precipitation exceeded 500 mm yr−1. Variability in the response of WW yields to annual precipitation and N fertilization among locations and within sites supports precision N management implementation across the region. In years receiving <350 mm precipitation yr−1, WW yields declined when preceded by crops rather than summer fallow. Nevertheless, WW yields were greater when preceded by pulses and oilseeds rather than wheat across a range of yield potentials, and when under conservation tillage practices at low yield potentials. Despite the yield penalty associated with eliminating fallow prior to WW, cropping system level productivity was not affected by intensification, diversification, or conservation tillage. However, increased fertilizer N inputs, lower fertilizer N use efficiencies, and more yield variance may offset and limit the economic feasibility of intensified and diversified cropping systems.

  2. Summer fallow soil management - impact on rainfed winter wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Fucui; Wang, Zhaohui; Dai, Jian

    2014-01-01

    is the summer fallow period in the winter wheat-summer fallow cropping system. With bare fallow in summer as a control, a 3-year location-fixed field experiment was conducted in the Loess Plateau to investigate the effects of wheat straw retention (SR), green manure (GM) planting, and their combination on soil...

  3. Weed infestation of crops of winter spelt wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta cultivars grown under different conditions of mineral fertilization and chemical plant protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Andruszczak

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out in the years 2008-2010 on rendzina soil. The aim of the study was to evaluate weed infestation of winter spelt cultivars (‘Schwabenkorn’ and ‘Spelt I.N.Z.’ grown under different conditions of mineral fertilization and chemical plant protection. In the experiment, two levels of mineral fertilization were compared (kg × ha-1: I. N 60; P 26.2; K 83; and II. N 80; P 34.9; K 99.6. The che- mical protection levels were as follows: A. Control treatment; B. Mustang 306 SE, Stabilan 750 SL; C. Mustang 306 SE, At- tribut 70 WG, Stabilan 750 SL; D. Mustang 306 SE, Attribut 70 WG, Alert 375 SC, Stabilan 750 SL. Apera spica-venti, Setaria pumila, and Galium aparine occurred in greatest numbers in the spelt wheat crop. The cultivar ‘Schwabenkorn’ was more competitive against weeds. The number of dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous weeds, their total number, and air-dry weight of weeds in the crop of this cultivar were significantly lower compared to cv. ‘Spelt I.N.Z.’. Chemical protection of spelt wheat decreased weed dry weight compared to the control treatment without chemical protection. The application of higher rates of mineral fertilizers slightly increased the number of weeds but did not influence their dry weight and number of weed species.

  4. The spatial dynamics of crop and ground active predatory arthropods and their aphid prey in winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, J M; Winder, L; Woolley, C; Alexander, C J; Perry, J N

    2004-10-01

    The distribution of aphid predators within arable fields has been previously examined using pitfall traps. With this technique predominantly larger invertebrate species are captured, especially Carabidae, but the technique provides no estimate of density unless mark-recapture is used. However, many other numerically important aphid predators occur in arable fields and relatively little is known about their distribution patterns nor whether they exhibit a density-dependent response to patches of cereal aphids. Identification of the most effective predators can allow management practices to be developed accordingly. In this study, the distribution of cereal aphids and their predators was examined by suction sampling within a field of winter wheat in Devon, UK, along with visual estimates of weed patchiness. Sampling was conducted on four occasions in 1999 across a grid of 128 sample locations. The distribution of 11 predatory taxa from the Carabidae, Staphylinidae and Linyphiidae was examined. Additionally, the total number of aphid predators and a predation index were used in these analyses. Carabid adults and larvae, along with staphylinid larvae showed the strongest aggregation into patches and the most temporal stability in their distribution. Other taxa had more ephemeral distributions as did the cereal aphids. The distribution of carabid larvae was disassociated from the distribution of cereal aphids for the first two sampling occasions indicating biocontrol was occurring. Other predatory groups showed both association and disassociation. Carabid larvae, Bathyphantes and total numbers of Linyphiidae showed a strong correlation with weed cover for two of the sample dates. Cereal aphids were disassociated from weed cover on three sampling occasions.

  5. 7 CFR 457.102 - Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement. 457.102... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.102 Wheat or barley... Wheat or Barley Winter Coverage Endorsement (This is a continuous endorsement) 1. In return for payment...

  6. Impact of reduced tillage on greenhouse gas emissions and soil carbon stocks in an organic grass-clover ley - winter wheat cropping sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Maike; Ruser, Reiner; Müller, Torsten; Hansen, Sissel; Mäder, Paul; Gattinger, Andreas

    2017-02-15

    Organic reduced tillage aims to combine the environmental benefits of organic farming and conservation tillage to increase sustainability and soil quality. In temperate climates, there is currently no knowledge about its impact on greenhouse gas emissions and only little information about soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in these management systems. We therefore monitored nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) fluxes besides SOC stocks for two years in a grass-clover ley - winter wheat - cover crop sequence. The monitoring was undertaken in an organically managed long-term tillage trial on a clay rich soil in Switzerland. Reduced tillage (RT) was compared with ploughing (conventional tillage, CT) in interaction with two fertilisation systems, cattle slurry alone (SL) versus cattle manure compost and slurry (MC). Median N2O and CH4 flux rates were 13 μg N2O-N m-2 h-1 and -2 μg CH4C m-2 h-1, respectively, with no treatment effects. N2O fluxes correlated positively with nitrate contents, soil temperature, water filled pore space and dissolved organic carbon and negatively with ammonium contents in soil. Pulse emissions after tillage operations and slurry application dominated cumulative gas emissions. N2O emissions after tillage operations correlated with SOC contents and collinearly to microbial biomass. There was no tillage system impact on cumulative N2O emissions in the grass-clover (0.8-0.9 kg N2O-N ha-1, 369 days) and winter wheat (2.1-3.0 kg N2O-N ha-1, 296 days) cropping seasons, with a tendency towards higher emissions in MC than SL in winter wheat. Including a tillage induced peak after wheat harvest, a full two year data set showed increased cumulative N2O emissions in RT than CT and in MC than SL. There was no clear treatment influence on cumulative CH4 uptake. Topsoil SOC accumulation (0-0.1 m) was still ongoing. SOC stocks were more stratified in RT than CT and in MC than SL. Total SOC stocks (0-0.5 m) were higher in RT than CT in SL and

  7. Simulated effects of winter wheat cover crop on the cotton production systems of the Texas rolling plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    There has been an increasing interest to grow cover crops in the Texas Rolling Plains (TRP) region, mainly to build soil health. However, there are concerns that cover crops could potentially reduce soil water, and thereby affect subsequent cash crop yield. Previous field studies from this region de...

  8. Nutrient cycling in a cropping system with potato, spring wheat, sugar beet, oats and nitrogen catch crops. II. Effect of catch crops on nitrate leaching in autumn and winter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.; Putten, van der P.E.L.

    2004-01-01

    The Nitrate Directive of the European Union (EU) forces agriculture to reduce nitrate emission. The current study addressed nitrate emission and nitrate-N concentrations in leachate from cropping systems with and without the cultivation of catch crops (winter rye: Secale cereale L. and forage rape:

  9. Validation of AquaCrop Model for Simulation of Winter Wheat Yield and Water Use Efficiency under Simultaneous Salinity and Water Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mohammadi

    2016-02-01

    simulation of soil salinity. In general, the model accuracy for simulation yield and WP was better than simulation of biomass. The d (index of agreement values were very close to one for both varieties, which means that simulated reduction in grain yield and biomass was similar to those of measured ones. In most cases the R2 values were about one, confirming a good correlation between simulated and measured values. The NRMSE values in most cases were lower than 10% which seems to be good. The CRM values were close to zero (under- and over-estimation were negligible. Based on higher WP under deficit irrigation treatments (e.g. I3 compared to full irrigation treatments (e.g. I1 and I2, it seems logical to adopt I3 treatment, especially in Birjand as a water-short region, assigning the remaining 25% to another piece of land. By such strategy, WP would be optimized at the regional scale. Conclusion: The AquaCrop was separately and simultaneously nested calibrated and validated for all salinity treatments. The model accuracy under simultaneous case was slightly lower than that for separate case. According to the results, if the model is well calibrated for minimum and maximum irrigation treatments (full irrigation and maximum deficit irrigation, it could simulate grain yield for any other irrigation treatment in between these two limits. Adopting this approach may reduce the cost of field studies for calibrating the model, since only two irrigation treatments should be conducted in the field. AquaCrop model can be a valuable tool for modelling winter wheat grain yield, WP and biomass. The simplicity of AquaCrop, as it is less data dependent, made it to be user-friendly. Nevertheless, the performance of the model has to be evaluated, validated and fine-tuned under a wider range of conditions and crops. Keywords: Biomass, Plant modeling, Sensitivity analysis

  10. Pathosystem management of powdery mildew in winter wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daamen, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    Winter wheat cropping has changed considerably over the years 1974-1986 in The Netherlands. Yield has been increased from 5 to 8 ton/ha, due to short strawed cultivars and higher levels of agrochemical inputs. The changes were described. Epidemics and damage relations of powdery mildew

  11. The long-term effect of climate change on productivity of winter wheat in Denmark: a scenario analysis using three crop models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öztürk, Isik; Sharif, Behzad; Baby, Sanmohan

    2017-01-01

    The response of grain yield, grain nitrogen (N), phenological development and evapotranspiration of winter wheat to climate change was analysed over an 80-year period based on climate change predictions of four regional circulation models (RCMs) under the IPCC (International Panel on Climate Change...

  12. Root and soil carbon distribution at shoulderslope and footslope positions of temperate toposequences cropped to winter wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chirinda, Ngoni; Roncossek, Svenja Doreen; Heckrath, Goswin Johann

    2014-01-01

    .06) at footslope (1.2 Mg DM ha- 1) than at shoulderslope positions (0.9 Mg DM ha− 1), in particular in the subsoil. Likewise shoot biomass was higher (P = 0.03) at footslope (10.3 Mg DM ha− 1) compared to shoulderslope (7.1 Mg DM ha− 1) positions. Soil bulk density increased with depth at shoulderslope positions...... root residues and likely soil redistribution processes. Management practices that increase C input at shoulderslope positions potentially enhance soil carbon storage and increase crop productivity, which would probably not be the case for C rich footslope soils. These findings imply that models used...

  13. Nitrogen uptake, nitrate leaching and root development in winter-grown wheat and fodder radish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Hansen, Elly Møller; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag

    2017-01-01

    Early seeding of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has been proposed as a means to reduce N leaching as an alternative to growing cover crops like fodder radish (Raphanus sativus L.). The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of winter wheat, seeded early and normally, and of fodder...

  14. Registration of 'Sunshine' Hard White Winter Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ’Sunshine’ (Reg. No. CV-XXXX, PI 674741) hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released in August 2014 through a marketing agreement with the Colorado Wheat Research Foundation. In addition to researchers at Colorado State Un...

  15. Winter cover crops decrease weediness in organic cropping systems

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Helena; Talgre, Liina; Eremeev, Vyacheslav; Alaru, Maarika; Maeorg, Erkki; Luik, Anne

    2017-01-01

    By inserting cover crops into organic cropping systems, the number and biomass of weeds decreased. Winter cover crops clearly have a suppressive effect on weeds by providing competition for light, water and space.

  16. Responses of Winter Wheat Yields to Warming-Mediated Vernalization Variations Across Temperate Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuchen Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rapid climate warming, with much higher warming rates in winter and spring, could affect the vernalization fulfillment, a critical process for induction of crop reproductive growth and consequent grain filling in temperate winter crops. However, regional observational evidence of the effects of historical warming-mediated vernalization variations on temperate winter crop yields is lacking. Here, we statistically quantified the interannual sensitivity of winter wheat yields to vernalization degree days (VDD during 1975–2009 and its spatial relationship with multi-year mean VDD over temperate Europe (TE, using EUROSTAT crop yield statistics, observed and simulated crop phenology data and gridded daily climate data. Our results revealed a pervasively positive interannual sensitivity of winter wheat yields to variations in VDD (γVDD over TE, with a mean γVDD of 2.8 ± 1.5 kg ha−1 VDD−1. We revealed a significant (p < 0.05 negative exponential relationship between γVDD and multi-year mean VDD for winter wheat across TE, with higher γVDD in winter wheat planting areas with lower multi-year mean VDD. Our findings shed light on potential vulnerability of winter wheat yields to warming-mediated vernalization variations over TE, particularly considering a likely future warmer climate.

  17. Evaluating spectral indices for winter wheat health status monitoring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vegetation index relationships for winter wheat in order to determine indices that are sensitive to changes in the wheat health status. The indices were derived from Landsat 8 scenes over the wheat growing area across Bloemfontein, South Africa.

  18. Postharvest tillage reduces Downy Brome infestations in winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Pacific Northwest, downy brome continues to infest winter wheat producing regions especially in low-rainfall areas where the winter wheat-summer fallow rotation is the dominate production system. In Washington, a study was conducted for 2 years at each of two locations in the winter wheat -su...

  19. Impact of Early Sowing on Winter Wheat Receiving Manure or Mineral Fertilizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Tolstrup; Jensen, Johannes Lund; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag

    2017-01-01

    To reduce over-winter nitrate leaching from temperate soil, nitrate catch crops can be grown between main crops. We hypothesize that earlier sowing can replace catch crops sown before winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and improve wheat yields and N uptake. Early sown (late August) and timely sown...... (late September) wheat were tested over two cropping seasons (2011–2012 and 2013–2014) using two contemporary cultivars (Hereford and Mariboss) and increasing rates of N (0–300 kg total N ha–1) with animal manure (AM; cattle slurry) or mineral fertilizers (NPK), surface applied in late March. We...... to late August provided higher grain and straw yields; the increased over-winter N uptake suggests that the beneficial effect of earlier sowing may surpass that of a catch crop. Cattle slurry surface applied in late March gave poor N use efficiency and low grain protein content....

  20. Genomic regions associated with freezing tolerance and snow mold tolerance in winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crops grown through the winter are subject to selective pressures that vary with each year’s unique conditions, necessitating tolerance of numerous stress factors. The objective of this study was to identify molecular markers in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell) associated with tolerance...

  1. Phenolic acid concentrations in organically and conventionally cultivated spring and winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuchowski, Jerzy; Jonczyk, Krzysztof; Pecio, Lukasz; Oleszek, Wieslaw

    2011-04-01

    Organic crops are often thought to contain more phenolic secondary metabolites than conventional ones. This study evaluated the influence of organic and conventional farming on concentrations of phenolic acids in spring and winter wheat cultivars. Five phenolic acids were identified: ferulic, sinapic, p-coumaric, vanillic and p-hydroxybenzoic acid. Ferulic acid was the main phenolic acid in the grain of all tested wheat varieties. Significant differences among the examined cultivars in concentration of particular compounds were observed. Concentrations of phenolic acids varied significantly in organic and conventional wheat. Levels of ferulic and p-coumaric acids, as well as the total phenolic acid content were higher in organic crops. Concentrations of sinapic acid in spring wheat, as well as vanillic and p-hydroxybenzoic acid levels in both types of wheat were significantly higher in conventional grains. The 1000 kernel weight (TKW) of spring and winter wheat was significantly lower in organic crops. Organically produced spring and winter wheat had significantly higher concentrations of ferulic and p-coumaric acid as well as the total phenolic acid content than conventional wheat, though the differences in the levels of phenolics were not large. However, these differences are probably caused mainly by smaller size of organic wheat kernels (lower TKW). Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. ‘Savoy’: An adapted soft red winter wheat cultivar for Georgia and the South East regions of the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soft red winter wheat (SRWW) (Triticum aestivum L.) is a major crop in Georgia (GA) and the U.S. Southeast (SE) region. Despite a decrease of wheat acreages in this region, more than 230,000 acres were grown to SRWW in GA in 2015. To capture and maximize regional market value of wheat, the new rele...

  3. Experimental warming-driven soil drying reduced N2O emissions from fertilized crop rotations of winter wheat-soybean/fallow, 2009-2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, L; Hu, C; Yang, P

    2016-01-01

    infrared heaters and its control (C) combined with a nitrogen (N1) fertilization treatment (315 kg N ha−1 y−1) and no nitrogen treatment (N0) was conducted over five years at an agricultural research station in the North China Plain in a winter wheat–soybean double cropping system. N2O fluxes were measured...... moisture. The effect of lower soil moisture on N2O fluxes exceeded that of higher temperature, leading to less N2O being released by the drier soils under warming. Nitrogen fertilizer increased N2O emissions without warming, but did not routinely increase N2O emissions under warming treatment. In the N0......Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from agricultural soils play an important role in the global greenhouse gas budget. However, the response of N2O emissions from nitrogen fertilized agricultural soils to climate warming is not yet well understood. A field experiment with simulated warming (T) using...

  4. Representing winter wheat in the Community Land Model (version 4.5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yaqiong; Williams, Ian N.; Bagley, Justin E.; Torn, Margaret S.; Kueppers, Lara M.

    2017-05-01

    Winter wheat is a staple crop for global food security, and is the dominant vegetation cover for a significant fraction of Earth's croplands. As such, it plays an important role in carbon cycling and land-atmosphere interactions in these key regions. Accurate simulation of winter wheat growth is not only crucial for future yield prediction under a changing climate, but also for accurately predicting the energy and water cycles for winter wheat dominated regions. We modified the winter wheat model in the Community Land Model (CLM) to better simulate winter wheat leaf area index, latent heat flux, net ecosystem exchange of CO2, and grain yield. These included schemes to represent vernalization as well as frost tolerance and damage. We calibrated three key parameters (minimum planting temperature, maximum crop growth days, and initial value of leaf carbon allocation coefficient) and modified the grain carbon allocation algorithm for simulations at the US Southern Great Plains ARM site (US-ARM), and validated the model performance at eight additional sites across North America. We found that the new winter wheat model improved the prediction of monthly variation in leaf area index, reduced latent heat flux, and net ecosystem exchange root mean square error (RMSE) by 41 and 35 % during the spring growing season. The model accurately simulated the interannual variation in yield at the US-ARM site, but underestimated yield at sites and in regions (northwestern and southeastern US) with historically greater yields by 35 %.

  5. Factors limiting the grain protein content of organic winter wheat in south-eastern France: a mixed-model approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casagrande, M.; David, C.; Valantin-Morison, M.; Makowski, D.; Jeuffroy, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    Organic agriculture could achieve the objectives of sustainable agriculture by banning the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. However, organic crops generally show lower performances than conventional ones. In France, organic winter wheat production is characterized by low grain protein

  6. Warming and nitrogen fertilization effects on winter wheat yields in northern China varied between four years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Liting; Hu, Chunsheng; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2013-01-01

    Global warming is expected to affect wheat productivity significantly, but with large regional differences depending on current climatic conditions. We conducted a study that aimed to investigate how wheat growth and development as well as yield and yield components respond to warming combined...... with nitrogen fertilization. Infrared heaters were applied above the crop and soil to provide a warming of around 2 °C at 5 cm soil depth during the whole winter wheat growing season from 2008 to 2012 at a site near Shijiazhuang in the North China Plain. Two temperature levels (warming and ambient) for winter...

  7. NS Pudarka: A new winter wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-yielding, medium late winter wheat cultivar NS Pudarka was developed by crossing genetic divergent parents: line NMNH-07 and cv. NS 40S and Simonida. In cultivar NS Pudarka genes responsible for high yield potential, very good technological quality, resistance to lodging, low temperature and diseases, were successfully combined. It was registered by Ministry of agriculture, forestry and water management of Serbia Republic in 2013. This cultivar has wide adaptability and stability of yield that enable growing in different environments with optimal agricultural practice. On the base of technological quality this cultivar belongs to the second quality class, A2 farinograph subgroup and second technological group.

  8. Effects of Neonicotinoids and Crop Rotation for Managing Wireworms in Wheat Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Aaron D; Milosavljević, Ivan; Crowder, David W

    2015-08-01

    Soil-dwelling insects are severe pests in many agroecosystems. These pests have cryptic life cycles, making sampling difficult and damage hard to anticipate. The management of soil insects is therefore often based on preventative insecticides applied at planting or cultural practices. Wireworms, the subterranean larvae of click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae), have re-emerged as problematic pests in cereal crops in the Pacific Northwestern United States. Here, we evaluated two management strategies for wireworms in long-term field experiments: 1) treating spring wheat seed with the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam and 2) replacing continuous spring wheat with a summer fallow and winter wheat rotation. Separate experiments were conducted for two wireworm species--Limonius californicus (Mannerheim) and Limonius infuscatus (Motschulsky). In the experiment with L. californicus, spring wheat yields and economic returns increased by 24-30% with neonicotinoid treatments. In contrast, in the experiment with L. infuscatus, spring wheat yields and economic returns did not increase with neonicotinoids despite an 80% reduction in wireworms. Thus, the usefulness of seed-applied neonicotinoids differed based on the wireworm species present. In experiments with both species, we detected significantly fewer wireworms with a no-till summer fallow and winter wheat rotation compared with continuous spring wheat. This suggests that switching from continuous spring wheat to a winter wheat and summer fallow rotation may aid in wireworm management. More generally, our results show that integrated management of soil-dwelling pests such as wireworms may require both preventative insecticide treatments and cultural practices. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. New winter hardy winter bread wheat cultivar (Triticum aestivum L. Voloshkova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Л. М. Голик

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Creation of Initial raw for breeding of winter wheat by change of the development type under low temperatures influence was described. Seeds of spring wheat were vernalized in aluminum weighting bottle. By using low temperatures at sawing of M2-6 at the begin ind of optimal terms of sawing of winter wheat, new winter-hardy variety of Voloshkova was bred.

  10. Carbon budget of a winter-wheat and summer-maize rotation cropland in the North China plain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Yuying; Hu, Chunsheng; Dong, Wenxu; Li, Xiaoxin; Zhang, Yuming; Qin, Shuping; Oenema, Oene

    2015-01-01

    Crop management exerts a strong influence on the agroecosystem carbon (C) budget. From October 2007 to October 2008, the net C budget of an intensive winter-wheat and summer-maize double cropping system in the North China Plain (NCP) was investigated in a long-term field experiment with crop

  11. Evapotranspiration in winter wheat under different grazing and tillage practices in the southern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precipitation in the Southern Great Plains (SGP) is highly variable both spatially and temporally with recurring periods of severe drought. Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) – summer fallow system with conventional tillage is the principal dryland cropping system in this region for both grazing an...

  12. A Genetic/Heuristic Approach to Simulating Plant Height in Winter Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    A challenge for crop simulation modeling is to incorporate existing and rapidly emerging genomic information into models to develop new and improved algorithms. The objective of this effort was to simulate plant height in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) across a range of environments in Nebraska...

  13. Regional greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of winter wheat and winter rapeseed for biofuels in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsgaard, Lars; Olesen, Jørgen E; Hermansen, John Erik

    2013-01-01

    (CO2eq) were quantified from the footprints of CO2, CH4 and N2O associated with cultivation and the emissions were allocated between biofuel energy and co-products. Greenhouse gas emission at the national level (Denmark) was estimated to 22.1 g CO2eq MJ−1 ethanol for winter wheat and 26.0 g CO2eq MJ−1...... by such regional factors as soil conditions, climate and input of agrochemicals. Here we analysed at a regional scale the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with cultivation of winter wheat for bioethanol and winter rapeseed for rapeseed methyl ester (RME) under Danish conditions. Emitted CO2 equivalents...... to a large extent on the uncertainty ranges assumed for soil N2O emissions. Improvement of greenhouse gas balances could be pursued, e.g., by growing dedicated varieties for energy purposes. However, in a wider perspective, land-use change of native ecosystems to bioenergy cropping systems could compromise...

  14. Study of Winter Wheat Yield Quality Analysis at ARDS Turda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Adrian Ceclan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to study the potential for yield and quality indicators for winter wheat genotypes in terms of pedological and climate condition and applied technology, at ARDS Turda during 2014 – 2015. Depending on the climatic conditions that are associated with applied technology is a decisive factor in successful wheat crop for all genotypes that were studied at Ards Turda during the 2014 – 2016. That’s wy each genotype responded differently to the conditions of the ARDS Turda also through the two levels of fertilisations applied in the winter with fertilizers 20:20:0, 250 kg/ha assuring 50 kg/ha N and P active substance and second level of fertilisations with 150 kg/ha ammonium nitrate assuring 50 kg/ha N active substance. All genotype that were studied in terms of yield and quality indicators were influenced by the fertilization level. The influence of pedo-climatic conditions, applied technologies and fertilizers level at ARDS Turda showed that all genotypes with small yield had higher protein and gluten content respectively Zeleny index.

  15. Warming impacts on winter wheat phenophase and grain yield under field conditions in Yangtze Delta Plain, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tian, Y.L.; Chen, J.; Chen, C.Q.; Deng, A.X.; Song, Z.W.; Zheng, C.Y.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Zhang, W.J.

    2012-01-01

    A five-year experiment with Free Air Temperature Increase facility was conducted to investigate the actual responses of winter wheat phenophase and yield to warming in Yangtze Delta Plain, China. Air temperature increase of around 1.5 degrees C in wheat canopy advanced crop phenophases

  16. Extraction of Winter Wheat Area and Growth Analysis Based on Remote Sensing Imagery of Adjacent Tracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIN Fen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Winter wheat is one of the most valuable crops in Northern China, so getting a good knowledge of real-time information of its area and growing situation can help the manager of agricultural production and financial departments to make better decisions, meanwhile it can also increase the output capacity and farmers' income. In this paper, Binzhou City and Dongying City of Shandong Province were taken as the research areas. We extracted the information of winter wheat from ETM+ remote sensing image based on a combined method of principal component analysis, supervised and unsupervised classification. The growing situation of winter wheat in Binzhou was estimated through clustering analysis in SPSS, and winter wheat growing situation in Dongying was predicted by building vegetation growing situation hierarchical model in adjacent tracks using the distance-weighted method. The results showed that the mean extracting precision was 93.79%. There was a clear tendency of its distribution with characteristics of concentrated in the west and in the south other than that in the east and in the north. Also the regions where the wheat was concentrately distributed had better growth in general. We found that the vegetation growing situation hierarchical model built with distance-weighted method in the overlapping areas could eliminate the time differences between two remote sensing images in adjacent tracks to some extent, and it was beneficial for winter wheat growth analysis in large-scale regions.

  17. Agroecological features of the new varieties soft winter wheat Yuvivata 60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. В. Москалець

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The main factor, and cost-effective rapid increase in yield of all crops and raising its quality is an innovative process for the creation and introduction of new varieties. Overall condition of use in the production of new varieties is very unsatisfactory. For this year the country loses more than 1.5 mln. tonnes of grains of winter cereals. Currently, the requirements for soft winter wheat, as a factor of sustainable productivity, increase. Despite the obvious advances in breeding wheat varieties as genetic yield potential of more than 10 t/ha, the actual implementation of it is around 50 %. Therefore remains an urgent problem of developing varieties with high potential and implementation of evidence-based their growth. Thus, the genetic yield potential genotype implemented with a balanced exposure of a number of factors. The purpose of research – create a soft winter wheat variety with well-defined ecological and adaptive properties and high quantitative and qualitative indicators of grain yield, varieties show ability to withstand adverse abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic factors of the environment for future breeding. Stated agroecological characteristics of variety soft winter wheat Yuvivata 60 by economically valuable indicators. Performed a detailed description of the new variety wheat based on morphological and biological characteristics. Showing environmental features Yuvivata 60 (in terms of genotypic effect and degree of plasticity under different conditions ecotops of Ukraine. For agricultural producers proposed of adaptive variety soft winter wheat Yuvivata 60, that will provide guaranteed high quality and grain yield.

  18. Boron rates for triticale and wheat crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrêa Juliano Corulli

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available No reports are registered on responses to boron fertilization nutrient deficiency and toxicity in triticale crops. The aim of this study was to evaluate triticale response to different rates of boron in comparison to wheat in an hapludox with initial boron level at 0.08 mg dm-3 4 4 factorial design trial completely randomized blocks design (n = 4. Boron rates were 0; 0.62; 1.24 and 1.86 mg dm-3; triticale cultivars were IAC 3, BR 4 and BR 53 and IAPAR 38 wheat crop was used for comparison. The wheat (IAPAR 38 crop presented the highest boron absorption level of all. Among triticale cultivars, the most responsive was IAC 53, presenting similar characteristics to wheat, followed by BR 4; these two crops are considered tolerant to higher boron rates in soil. Regarding to BR 53, no absorption effect was observed, and the cultivars was sensitive to boron toxicity. Absorption responses differed for each genotype. That makes it possible to choose and use the best-adapted plants to soils with different boron rates.

  19. Impact of climate change adaptation strategies on winter wheat and cropping system performance across precipitation gradients in the inland Pacific Northwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological instability and low resource use efficiencies are concerns for the long-term productivity of conventional cereal monoculture systems, particularly those threatened by projected climate change. Crop intensification, diversification, reduced tillage, and variable N management are among str...

  20. Leaching and utilization of nitrogen during a spring wheat catch crop succession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Juan M; Liedgens, Markus

    2009-01-01

    An experiment covering a 2-yr spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) catch crop succession was conducted in lysimeters to account for the losses of N due to leaching. We sought to relate these losses to the N uptake of the main crop and to integrate the estimated N loss and uptake into a balance. The non-winter hardy catch crops [yellow mustard (Sinapis alba L.), Phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia Benth), and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)] as well as bare soil fallow were studied at low and high N input levels of 4 and 29 g N m(-2) yr(-1), respectively. Catch crops allowed for an effective reduction of N leaching of 0.33 to 1.67 g N m(-2) yr(-1) compared to fallow. Reductions in N leaching were achieved mainly by avoiding the fallow period during autumn and winter while the catch crop species grown had little impact. During the spring wheat growing season, N leaching losses were highest after yellow mustard, the most effective catch crop for the entire crop succession. A balance of N indicated that the reductions in N leaching exerted by the catch crops did not result in a higher overall utilization of N by spring wheat. Thus, the efficacy shown by catch crops in reducing N leaching during growth is relatively lower when considering the entire crop succession. In addition, the N saved by growing catch crops does not increase N utilization by succeeding spring wheat.

  1. Determining crop acreage estimates for specific winter crops using shape attributes from sequential MODIS imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potgieter, A. B.; Lawson, K.; Huete, A. R.

    2013-08-01

    There are increasing societal and plant industry demands for more accurate, objective and near real-time crop production information to meet both economic and food security concerns. The advent of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite platform has augmented the capability of satellite-based applications to monitor large agricultural areas at acceptable pixel scale, cost and accuracy. Fitting parametric profiles to growing season vegetation index time series reduces the volume of data and provides simple quantitative parameters that relates to crop phenology (sowing date, flowering). In this study, we modelled various Gaussian profiles to time sequential MODIS enhanced vegetation index (EVI) images over winter crops in Queensland, Australia. Three simple Gaussian models were evaluated in their effectiveness to identify and classify various winter crop types and coverage at both pixel and regional scales across Queensland's main agricultural areas. Equal to or greater than 93% classification accuracies were obtained in determining crop acreage estimates at pixel scale for each of the Gaussian modelled approaches. Significant high to moderate correlations (log-linear transformation) were also obtained for determining total winter crop (R2 = 0.93) areas as well as specific crop acreage for wheat (R2 = 0.86) and barley (R2 = 0.83). Conversely, it was much more difficult to predict chickpea acreage (R2 ≤ 0.26), mainly due to very large uncertainties in survey data. The quantitative approach utilised here further had additional benefits of characterising crop phenology in terms of length of growing season and providing regression diagnostics of how well the fitted profiles matched the EVI time series. The Gaussian curve models utilised here are novel in application and therefore will enhance the use and adoption of remote sensing technologies in targeted agricultural application. With innate simplicity and accuracies comparable to other

  2. Projecting the impact of climate change on phenology of winter wheat in northern Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juknys, Romualdas; Velička, Rimantas; Kanapickas, Arvydas; Kriaučiūnienė, Zita; Masilionytė, Laura; Vagusevičienė, Ilona; Pupalienė, Rita; Klepeckas, Martynas; Sujetovienė, Gintarė

    2017-10-01

    Climate warming and a shift in the timing of phenological phases, which lead to changes in the duration of the vegetation period may have an essential impact on the productivity of winter crops. The main purpose of this study is to examine climate change-related long-term (1961-2015) changes in the duration of both initial (pre-winter) and main (post-winter) winter wheat vegetation seasons and to present the projection of future phenological changes until the end of this century. Delay and shortening of pre-winter vegetation period, as well as the advancement and slight extension of the post-winter vegetation period, resulted in the reduction of whole winter wheat vegetation period by more than 1 week over the investigated 55 years. Projected changes in the timing of phenological phases which define limits of a main vegetation period differ essentially from the observed period. According to pessimistic (Representative Concentration Pathways 8.5) scenario, the advancement of winter wheat maturity phase by almost 30 days and the shortening of post-winter vegetation season by 15 days are foreseen for a far (2071-2100) projection. An increase in the available chilling amount is specific not only to the investigated historical period (1960-2015) but also to the projected period according to the climate change scenarios of climate warming for all three projection periods. Consequently, the projected climate warming does not pose a threat of plant vernalization shortage in the investigated geographical latitudes.

  3. Projecting the impact of climate change on phenology of winter wheat in northern Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juknys, Romualdas; Velička, Rimantas; Kanapickas, Arvydas; Kriaučiūnienė, Zita; Masilionytė, Laura; Vagusevičienė, Ilona; Pupalienė, Rita; Klepeckas, Martynas; Sujetovienė, Gintarė

    2017-05-01

    Climate warming and a shift in the timing of phenological phases, which lead to changes in the duration of the vegetation period may have an essential impact on the productivity of winter crops. The main purpose of this study is to examine climate change-related long-term (1961-2015) changes in the duration of both initial (pre-winter) and main (post-winter) winter wheat vegetation seasons and to present the projection of future phenological changes until the end of this century. Delay and shortening of pre-winter vegetation period, as well as the advancement and slight extension of the post-winter vegetation period, resulted in the reduction of whole winter wheat vegetation period by more than 1 week over the investigated 55 years. Projected changes in the timing of phenological phases which define limits of a main vegetation period differ essentially from the observed period. According to pessimistic (Representative Concentration Pathways 8.5) scenario, the advancement of winter wheat maturity phase by almost 30 days and the shortening of post-winter vegetation season by 15 days are foreseen for a far (2071-2100) projection. An increase in the available chilling amount is specific not only to the investigated historical period (1960-2015) but also to the projected period according to the climate change scenarios of climate warming for all three projection periods. Consequently, the projected climate warming does not pose a threat of plant vernalization shortage in the investigated geographical latitudes.

  4. Development of groundwater pesticide exposure modeling scenarios for vulnerable spring and winter wheat-growing areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Lauren; Winchell, Michael; Peranginangin, Natalia; Grant, Shanique

    2017-11-01

    Wheat crops and the major wheat-growing regions of the United States are not included in the 6 crop- and region-specific scenarios developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for exposure modeling with the Pesticide Root Zone Model conceptualized for groundwater (PRZM-GW). The present work augments the current scenarios by defining appropriately vulnerable PRZM-GW scenarios for high-producing spring and winter wheat-growing regions that are appropriate for use in refined pesticide exposure assessments. Initial screening-level modeling was conducted for all wheat areas across the conterminous United States as defined by multiple years of the Cropland Data Layer land-use data set. Soil, weather, groundwater temperature, evaporation depth, and crop growth and management practices were characterized for each wheat area from publicly and nationally available data sets and converted to input parameters for PRZM. Approximately 150 000 unique combinations of weather, soil, and input parameters were simulated with PRZM for an herbicide applied for postemergence weed control in wheat. The resulting postbreakthrough average herbicide concentrations in a theoretical shallow aquifer were ranked to identify states with the largest regions of relatively vulnerable wheat areas. For these states, input parameters resulting in near 90th percentile postbreakthrough average concentrations corresponding to significant wheat areas with shallow depth to groundwater formed the basis for 4 new spring wheat scenarios and 4 new winter wheat scenarios to be used in PRZM-GW simulations. Spring wheat scenarios were identified in North Dakota, Montana, Washington, and Texas. Winter wheat scenarios were identified in Oklahoma, Texas, Kansas, and Colorado. Compared to the USEPA's original 6 scenarios, postbreakthrough average herbicide concentrations in the new scenarios were lower than all but Florida Potato and Georgia Coastal Peanuts of the original scenarios and better

  5. Nutrient stoichiometry in winter wheat: Element concentration pattern reflects developmental stage and weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weih, M.; Pourazari, F.; Vico, G.

    2016-10-01

    At least 16 nutrient elements are required by plants for growth and survival, but the factors affecting element concentration and their temporal evolution are poorly understood. The objective was to investigate i) element concentration pattern in winter wheat as affected by crop developmental stage and weather, and ii) whether, in the short term, element stoichiometry reflects the type of preceding crop. We assessed the temporal trajectories of element concentration pattern (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Mn, Fe, Cu, Na, Zn) across the life cycle (from seed to seed) of winter wheat field-grown in cool-temperate Sweden during two years with contrasting weather and when cultivated in monoculture or after different non-wheat preceding crops. We found strong influence of developmental stage on concentration pattern, with the greatest deviation from grain concentrations found in plants at the start of stem elongation in spring. Inter-annual differences in weather affected stoichiometry, but no evidence was found for a short-term preceding-crop effect on element stoichiometry. Winter wheat element stoichiometry is similar in actively growing plant tissues and seeds. Nitrogen exerts a strong influence on the concentration pattern for all elements. Three groups of elements with concentrations changing in concert were identified.

  6. Nutrient stoichiometry in winter wheat: Element concentration pattern reflects developmental stage and weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weih, M; Pourazari, F; Vico, G

    2016-10-24

    At least 16 nutrient elements are required by plants for growth and survival, but the factors affecting element concentration and their temporal evolution are poorly understood. The objective was to investigate i) element concentration pattern in winter wheat as affected by crop developmental stage and weather, and ii) whether, in the short term, element stoichiometry reflects the type of preceding crop. We assessed the temporal trajectories of element concentration pattern (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Mn, Fe, Cu, Na, Zn) across the life cycle (from seed to seed) of winter wheat field-grown in cool-temperate Sweden during two years with contrasting weather and when cultivated in monoculture or after different non-wheat preceding crops. We found strong influence of developmental stage on concentration pattern, with the greatest deviation from grain concentrations found in plants at the start of stem elongation in spring. Inter-annual differences in weather affected stoichiometry, but no evidence was found for a short-term preceding-crop effect on element stoichiometry. Winter wheat element stoichiometry is similar in actively growing plant tissues and seeds. Nitrogen exerts a strong influence on the concentration pattern for all elements. Three groups of elements with concentrations changing in concert were identified.

  7. Effect of different tillage intensity on yields and yield-forming factors in winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Houšť

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of a study on application of minimum tillage technologies when growing winter wheat. Experiments were performed in the sugar-beet-growing region with loamy chernozem within the period of 2005–2009. Aanalysed and evaluated were effects of different methods of soil processing on yield-forming factors in stands of winter wheat grown after three different preceding crops (i.e. alfalfa, maize for silage and pea. Evaluated were the following four variants of tillage: (1 conventional ploughing to the depth of 0.22 m (Variant 1; (2 ploughing to the depth of 0.15 m (Variant 2; (3 direct sowing into the untilled soil (Variant 3, and (4 shallow tillage to the depth of 0.10 m (Variant 4.The effect of different tillage intensity on winter wheat yields was statistically non-significant after all forecrops. After alfalfa, the highest and the lowest average yields were recorded in Variant 2 (i.e. with ploughing to the depth of 0.15 m and Variant 3 (direct sowing into the untilled soil, respectively. After maize grown for silage, higher yields were obtained in Variant 2 and Variant 1 (conventional ploughing while in Variants 4 and 3 the obtained yields were lower. When growing winter wheat after pea as a preceding crop, the highest and the lowest average yields were recorded after direct sowing (Variant 3 and in Variant 1 (i.e. ploughing to the depth of 0.22 m, respectively. Results of studies on effect of different tillage technologies on yields of winter wheat crops indicate that under the given pedological and climatic conditions it is possible to apply methods of reduced tillage intensity. However, the choice of the corresponding technology must be performed with regard to the type of preceding crop.

  8. Identification of vernalization responsive genes in the winter wheat ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, People's Republic of China. 7China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, People's Republic of China. Abstract. This study aimed to identify vernalization responsive genes in the winter wheat cultivar Jing841 by comparing the transcrip- tome data with that of a spring wheat cultivar ...

  9. Regional greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of winter wheat and winter rapeseed for biofuels in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsgaard, Lars; Olesen, Joergen E.; Hermansen, John E.; Kristensen, Inge T.; Boergesen, Christen D. [Dept. of Agroecology, Aarhus Univ., Tjele (Denmark)], E-mail: lars.elsgaard@agrsci.dk

    2013-04-15

    Biofuels from bioenergy crops may substitute a significant part of fossil fuels in the transport sector where, e.g., the European Union has set a target of using 10% renewable energy by 2020. Savings of greenhouse gas emissions by biofuels vary according to cropping systems and are influenced by such regional factors as soil conditions, climate and input of agrochemicals. Here we analysed at a regional scale the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with cultivation of winter wheat for bioethanol and winter rapeseed for rapeseed methyl ester (RME) under Danish conditions. Emitted CO{sub 2} equivalents (CO{sub 2}eq) were quantified from the footprints of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O associated with cultivation and the emissions were allocated between biofuel energy and co-products. Greenhouse gas emission at the national level (Denmark) was estimated to 22.1 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} ethanol for winter wheat and 26.0 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} RME for winter rapeseed. Results at the regional level (level 2 according to the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics [NUTS]) ranged from 20.0 to 23.9 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} ethanol and from 23.5 to 27.6 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} RME. Thus, at the regional level emission results varied by up to 20%. Differences in area-based emissions were only 4% reflecting the importance of regional variation in yields for the emission result. Fertilizer nitrogen production and direct emissions of soil N{sub 2}O were major contributors to the final emission result and sensitivity analyses showed that the emission result depended to a large extent on the uncertainty ranges assumed for soil N{sub 2}O emissions. Improvement of greenhouse gas balances could be pursued, e.g., by growing dedicated varieties for energy purposes. However, in a wider perspective, land-use change of native ecosystems to bioenergy cropping systems could compromise the CO{sub 2} savings of bioenergy production and challenge the targets set for biofuel

  10. Effect of winter cover crops on nematode population levels in north Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K-H; McSorley, R; Gallaher, R N

    2004-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted in north-central Florida to examine the effects of various winter cover crops on plant-parasitic nematode populations through time. In the first experiment, six winter cover crops were rotated with summer corn (Zea mays), arranged in a randomized complete block design. The cover crops evaluated were wheat (Triticum aestivum), rye (Secale cereale), oat (Avena sativa), lupine (Lupinus angustifolius), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum). At the end of the corn crop in year 1, population densities of Meloidogyne incognita were lowest on corn following rye or oat (P Crotalaria juncea), and corn. Population densities of M. incognita and Helicotylenchus dihystera were affected by previous tropical cover crops (P winter cover crops present at the time of sampling. Plots planted to sunn hemp in the fall maintained the lowest M. incognita and H. dihystera numbers. Results suggest that winter cover crops tested did not suppress plant-parasitic nematodes effectively. Planting tropical cover crops such as sunn hemp after corn in a triple-cropping system with winter cover crops may provide more versatile nematode management strategies in northern Florida.

  11. Sensitivity of crop yield and N losses in winter wheat to changes in mean and variability of temperature and precipitation in Denmark using the FASSET model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patil, Ravi; Lægdsmand, Mette; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2012-01-01

    temperatures, caused by early maturity, with little change in variability. This, however, increased soil mineral N causing increased N losses. On sandy loam, larger temperature variability lowered grain yields and increased N losses coupled with higher variability at all the mean temperature ranges. On coarse...... in variability. Larger temperature variability did not affect soil mineral N and N2O emissions, but increased N leaching on coarse sand. Large response in grain yield, N uptake and soil N cycling, and in their variability was predicted when summer precipitation was varied, whereas only N leaching responded...... loam. This study illustrates the importance of considering effects of changes to mean climatic factors, climatic variability and soil types on both crop yield and soil N losses...

  12. Management of Fresh Wheat Residue for Irrigated Winter Canola Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter canola is popular with many irrigated growers as it provides excellent disease control benefits for potatoes grown in rotation. There is a belief among irrigated canola growers that fresh wheat residue must be burned and the soil then heavily tilled before winter canola is planted. These grow...

  13. Effects of changing climate and cultivar on the phenology and yield of winter wheat in the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kenan; Yang, Xiaoguang; Tian, Hanqin; Pan, Shufen; Liu, Zhijuan; Lu, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how changing climate and cultivars influence crop phenology and potential yield is essential for crop adaptation to future climate change. In this study, crop and daily weather data collected from six sites across the North China Plain were used to drive a crop model to analyze the impacts of climate change and cultivar development on the phenology and production of winter wheat from 1981 to 2005. Results showed that both the growth period (GP) and the vegetative growth period (VGP) decreased during the study period, whereas changes in the reproductive growth period (RGP) either increased slightly or had no significant trend. Although new cultivars could prolong the winter wheat phenology (0.3∼3.8 days per decade for GP), climate warming impacts were more significant and mainly accounted for the changes. The harvest index and kernel number per stem weight have significantly increased. Model simulation indicated that the yield of winter wheat exhibited increases (5.0∼19.4%) if new cultivars were applied. Climate change demonstrated a negative effect on winter wheat yield as suggested by the simulation driven by climate data only (-3.3 to -54.8 kg ha(-1) year(-1), except for Lushi). Results of this study also indicated that winter wheat cultivar development can compensate for the negative effects of future climatic change.

  14. Effects of crop rotation on weed density, biomass and yield of wheat (Titicum aestivum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    A. Zareafeizabadi; H.R. Rostamzadeh

    2016-01-01

    In order to study the weed populations in wheat, under different crop rotations an experiment was carried out at Agricultural Research Station of Jolgeh Rokh, Iran. During growing season this project was done in five years, based on Randomized Complete Bloch Design with three replications, on Crop rotations included: wheat monoculture for the whole period (WWWWW), wheat- wheat- wheat- canola- wheat (WWWCW), wheat- sugar beet- wheat-sugar beet- wheat (WSWSW), wheat- potato- wheat- potato- whea...

  15. Mapping Winter Wheat with Multi-Temporal SAR and Optical Images in an Urban Agricultural Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tao; Pan, Jianjun; Zhang, Peiyu; Wei, Shanbao; Han, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Winter wheat is the second largest food crop in China. It is important to obtain reliable winter wheat acreage to guarantee the food security for the most populous country in the world. This paper focuses on assessing the feasibility of in-season winter wheat mapping and investigating potential classification improvement by using SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) images, optical images, and the integration of both types of data in urban agricultural regions with complex planting structures in Southern China. Both SAR (Sentinel-1A) and optical (Landsat-8) data were acquired, and classification using different combinations of Sentinel-1A-derived information and optical images was performed using a support vector machine (SVM) and a random forest (RF) method. The interference coherence and texture images were obtained and used to assess the effect of adding them to the backscatter intensity images on the classification accuracy. The results showed that the use of four Sentinel-1A images acquired before the jointing period of winter wheat can provide satisfactory winter wheat classification accuracy, with an F1 measure of 87.89%. The combination of SAR and optical images for winter wheat mapping achieved the best F1 measure–up to 98.06%. The SVM was superior to RF in terms of the overall accuracy and the kappa coefficient, and was faster than RF, while the RF classifier was slightly better than SVM in terms of the F1 measure. In addition, the classification accuracy can be effectively improved by adding the texture and coherence images to the backscatter intensity data. PMID:28587066

  16. Mapping Winter Wheat with Multi-Temporal SAR and Optical Images in an Urban Agricultural Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Winter wheat is the second largest food crop in China. It is important to obtain reliable winter wheat acreage to guarantee the food security for the most populous country in the world. This paper focuses on assessing the feasibility of in-season winter wheat mapping and investigating potential classification improvement by using SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar images, optical images, and the integration of both types of data in urban agricultural regions with complex planting structures in Southern China. Both SAR (Sentinel-1A and optical (Landsat-8 data were acquired, and classification using different combinations of Sentinel-1A-derived information and optical images was performed using a support vector machine (SVM and a random forest (RF method. The interference coherence and texture images were obtained and used to assess the effect of adding them to the backscatter intensity images on the classification accuracy. The results showed that the use of four Sentinel-1A images acquired before the jointing period of winter wheat can provide satisfactory winter wheat classification accuracy, with an F1 measure of 87.89%. The combination of SAR and optical images for winter wheat mapping achieved the best F1 measure–up to 98.06%. The SVM was superior to RF in terms of the overall accuracy and the kappa coefficient, and was faster than RF, while the RF classifier was slightly better than SVM in terms of the F1 measure. In addition, the classification accuracy can be effectively improved by adding the texture and coherence images to the backscatter intensity data.

  17. Mapping Winter Wheat with Multi-Temporal SAR and Optical Images in an Urban Agricultural Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tao; Pan, Jianjun; Zhang, Peiyu; Wei, Shanbao; Han, Tao

    2017-05-25

    Winter wheat is the second largest food crop in China. It is important to obtain reliable winter wheat acreage to guarantee the food security for the most populous country in the world. This paper focuses on assessing the feasibility of in-season winter wheat mapping and investigating potential classification improvement by using SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) images, optical images, and the integration of both types of data in urban agricultural regions with complex planting structures in Southern China. Both SAR (Sentinel-1A) and optical (Landsat-8) data were acquired, and classification using different combinations of Sentinel-1A-derived information and optical images was performed using a support vector machine (SVM) and a random forest (RF) method. The interference coherence and texture images were obtained and used to assess the effect of adding them to the backscatter intensity images on the classification accuracy. The results showed that the use of four Sentinel-1A images acquired before the jointing period of winter wheat can provide satisfactory winter wheat classification accuracy, with an F1 measure of 87.89%. The combination of SAR and optical images for winter wheat mapping achieved the best F1 measure-up to 98.06%. The SVM was superior to RF in terms of the overall accuracy and the kappa coefficient, and was faster than RF, while the RF classifier was slightly better than SVM in terms of the F1 measure. In addition, the classification accuracy can be effectively improved by adding the texture and coherence images to the backscatter intensity data.

  18. Evaluation of fermented whole crop wheat and barley feeding on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of fermented whole crop wheat and barley feeding on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, faecal volatile fatty acid emission, blood constituents, and faecal microbiota in growing pigs.

  19. EFFECT OF PLANTITNG PATTERN OF WINTER WHEAT ON AGRODIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Моskalets Т. Z.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We studied the introductions of cultivars and lines of wheat soft winter wheat that are adaptive to specific physical and climatic conditions ecotopes regards forest-steppe and Polissia ecotypes by ecological and biological characteristics. We also determined their influence on formation of the diversity and productivity of agricultural ecosystems. It was established that mosaic planting pattern of winter wheat allows to get a high yield (up to 9 t/ha and of strong and superstrong wheat (Ariivka, L 4696/96, KC-5, KC-7, KC-14, KC-22, Yuvivata 60, etc. in comparison to monocultivar technology. Some genotypes, namely Yuvivata 60, Ariiivka KC-22, KC-7 have moderate and high resistance towards complex diseases. The mosaic planting pattern of cultivars is the important factor of increasing the diversity and strengthening the links in agricultural ecosystems. Based on the long-term ecological research of genetic forms of winter soft wheat in different ecotopes and comparing them by major agronomic features with cultivar-standards we selected some promising cultivars and lines. We suggested the semi dwarf, medium-grown productive, and high adaptive genotypes of wheat soft winter, like Prydesnianska, Ariiivka, Nosshpa 100, КС-5, КС-7, КС-14, КС-21, КС-22, Yuvivata 60, Zoriana Nosivska, КС-16, КС-17, Л9646/96.

  20. Management Effects On Quality of Organically Grown Winter Wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Schweinzer, A.; Friedel, J. K.

    2013-01-01

    The potential for improving wheat grain quality by management strategies involving crop rotation, catch crops, and organic manure was tested in organic long-term experiments in Denmark and Austria. Growing grass clover in a four-year rotation resulted in a higher wheat yield increase that could...... by the experimental conditions than grain yield. None of the tested management parameters affected grain protein concentrations in the Danish experiment. In the Austrian trial, a significant pre-crop × treatment interaction reflected a positive effect of the animal manure treatment on protein and dry gluten in wheat...... following pre-crop pea. Danish grains generally contained more soluble polymers of less interest for the baking process than the Austrian ones. The study emphasizes the challenges in improving the quality of organically grown wheat beyond what is predetermined by environmental growth conditions and cultivar...

  1. Long-term Low Radiation Decreases Leaf Photosynthesis, Photochemical Efficiency and Grain Yield in Winter Wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, H; Jiang, D; Wollenweber, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    the impact of low radiation on crop growth, photosynthesis and yield. Grain yield losses and leaf area index (LAI) reduction were less than the reduction in solar radiation under both shading treatment in both cultivars. Compared with the control (S0), grain yield only reduced 6.4 % and 9.9 % under 22.......0-22.9 % (S1) and 29.5-49.6 % (S2), which was consistent with the reduction in radiation. The reduction in LAI was partially compensated by increases in the fraction of the top and bottom leaf area to the total leaf area, which facilitated to intercept more solar radiation by the canopy. The decrease......Low radiation reduces wheat grain yield in tree-crop intercropping systems in the major wheat planting area of China. Here, two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L) cultivars, Yangmai 158 (shading tolerant) and Yangmai 11 (shading sensitive), were shaded from jointing to maturity to evaluate...

  2. Crop growth and nitrogen turnover under increased temperatures and low autumn and winter light intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Lægdsmand, Mette; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2010-01-01

    The rise in mean annual temperatures under the projected climate change will affect both soil organic matter turnover and cropping patterns in agriculture. Nitrogen (N) mineralization may be higher during autumn and winter and may increase the risk of nitrate leaching. Our study tested whether...... pots in November, December and February. Reference pots with bare soil were included. N mineralization clearly increased with higher temperatures with, respectively, 22% and 80% more N mineralized in bare soil at T+4 and T+8 than at T0 after 136 days. The ryegrass catch crop emptied the soil...... a soil cover of winter wheat or a ryegrass catch crop would be able to take up the extra N mineralized during autumn and winter under the low light conditions in Northern Europe, both at current average temperatures (T0) and at 4 °C (T+4) and 8 °C (T+8) above average. The crops were grown in pots...

  3. Cereal aphid colony turnover and persistence in winter wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linton Winder

    Full Text Available An understanding of spatial and temporal processes in agricultural ecosystems provides a basis for rational decision-making with regards to the management and husbandry of crops, supporting the implementation of integrated farming strategies. In this study we investigated the spatial and temporal distribution of aphid pests (Sitobion avenae and Metopolophium dirhodum within winter wheat fields. Using an intensive sampling programme we investigated distributions at both the small (single shoot and large (field scales. Within two fields, a grid with 82 locations was established (area 120 m by 168 m. At each location, 25 shoots were individually marked and aphid counts by observation conducted on 21 and 22 occasions as the crop matured, resulting in 43,050 and 45,100 counts being conducted in the two fields respectively. We quantified field scale spatial distributions, demonstrating that spatial pattern generally emerged, with temporal stability being both species- and field- dependent. We then measured turnover of colonies at the small (individual shoot and large (field scales by comparing consecutive pairs of sampling occasions. Four turnover categories were defined: Empty (no aphids recorded on either occasion; Colonised (aphids recorded on the second occasion but not the first; Extinction (aphids recorded on the first occasion but not the second; Stable (aphids recorded on both occasions. At the field scale, population stability soon established, but, at the small scale there was a consistently high proportion of unoccupied shoots with considerable colonisation and extinction and low stability. The redistribution of aphids within the crop at the local scale is a vulnerability which could be used to disrupt population development--by mediating exposure to ground-active natural enemies and by incurring a metabolic cost caused by the physiological demands to re-establish on a nearby host plant.

  4. Spatial decision supporting for winter wheat irrigation and fertilizer optimizing in North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaodong; Yang, Hao; Dong, Yansheng; Yu, Haiyang

    2014-11-01

    Production management of winter wheat is more complicated than other crops since its growth period is covered all four seasons and growth environment is very complex with frozen injury, drought, insect or disease injury and others. In traditional irrigation and fertilizer management, agricultural technicians or farmers mainly make decision based on phenology, planting experience to carry out artificial fertilizer and irrigation management. For example, wheat needs more nitrogen fertilizer in jointing and booting stage by experience, then when the wheat grow to the two growth periods, the farmer will fertilize to the wheat whether it needs or not. We developed a spatial decision support system for optimizing irrigation and fertilizer measures based on WebGIS, which monitoring winter wheat growth and soil moisture content by combining a crop model, remote sensing data and wireless sensors data, then reasoning professional management schedule from expert knowledge warehouse. This system is developed by ArcIMS, IDL in server-side and JQuery, Google Maps API, ASP.NET in client-side. All computing tasks are run on server-side, such as computing 11 normal vegetable indexes (NDVI/ NDWI/ NDWI2/ NRI/ NSI/ WI/ G_SWIR/ G_SWIR2/ SPSI/ TVDI/ VSWI) and custom VI of remote sensing image by IDL; while real-time building map configuration file and generating thematic map by ArcIMS.

  5. The conversion of spring wheat into winter wheat and vice versa ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 35; Issue 2. The conversion of spring wheat into winter wheat and vice versa: false claim or Lamarckian inheritance? Xiuju Li Yongsheng Liu. Mini-review Volume 35 Issue 2 June 2010 pp 321-325 ...

  6. Effect of temperature on wheat streak mosaic disease development in winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temperature is one of the key factors that influence viral disease development in plants. In this study, temperature effect on Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) replication and in planta movement was determined using a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged virus in two winter wheat cultivars. Virus-...

  7. Estimating inter-annual variability in winter wheat sowing dates from satellite time series in Camargue, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfron, Giacinto; Delmotte, Sylvestre; Busetto, Lorenzo; Hossard, Laure; Ranghetti, Luigi; Brivio, Pietro Alessandro; Boschetti, Mirco

    2017-05-01

    Crop simulation models are commonly used to forecast the performance of cropping systems under different hypotheses of change. Their use on a regional scale is generally constrained, however, by a lack of information on the spatial and temporal variability of environment-related input variables (e.g., soil) and agricultural practices (e.g., sowing dates) that influence crop yields. Satellite remote sensing data can shed light on such variability by providing timely information on crop dynamics and conditions over large areas. This paper proposes a method for analyzing time series of MODIS satellite data in order to estimate the inter-annual variability of winter wheat sowing dates. A rule-based method was developed to automatically identify a reliable sample of winter wheat field time series, and to infer the corresponding sowing dates. The method was designed for a case study in the Camargue region (France), where winter wheat is characterized by vernalization, as in other temperate regions. The detection criteria were chosen on the grounds of agronomic expertise and by analyzing high-confidence time-series vegetation index profiles for winter wheat. This automatic method identified the target crop on more than 56% (four-year average) of the cultivated areas, with low commission errors (11%). It also captured the seasonal variability in sowing dates with errors of ±8 and ±16 days in 46% and 66% of cases, respectively. Extending the analysis to the years 2002-2012 showed that sowing in the Camargue was usually done on or around November 1st (±4 days). Comparing inter-annual sowing date variability with the main local agro-climatic drivers showed that the type of preceding crop and the weather conditions during the summer season before the wheat sowing had a prominent role in influencing winter wheat sowing dates.

  8. Tebuconazole Regulates Fatty Acid Composition of Etiolated Winter Wheat Seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    A.V. Korsukova; T.G. Gornostai; O.I. Grabelnych; N.V. Dorofeev; T.P. Pobezhimova; N.A. Sokolova; L.V. Dudareva; V.K. Voinikov

    2016-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of shoots of unhardened and hardened to cold etiolated winter wheat seedlings grown from seeds treated with tebuconazole-based protectant «Bunker» (content of tebuconazole 60 grams per liter, g/L), and the seedlings frost resistance has been studied. It is shown that treatment of winter wheat seeds by «Bunker» preparation (1,5 microliter per gram of seeds, µl/g) is accompanied by an increase of the fatty acids unsaturation in the shoots and increase of the seedlings...

  9. Long-term effects of manure and inorganic fertilizers on yield and soil fertility for a winter wheat-maize system in Jiangsu, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, J.; Hengsdijk, H.; Dai, T.; Boer, de W.; Qi, J.; Cao, W.

    2006-01-01

    Winter wheat-maize rotations are dominant cropping systems on the North China Plain, where recently the use of organic manure with grain crops has almost disappeared. This could reduce soil fertility and crop productivity in the long run. A 20-year field experiment was conducted to 1) assess the

  10. Comparative Advantage and Competitiveness of Wheat Crop in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Sofia Anwar; Zakir Hussain; M. Siddique Javed

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to analyze the comparative advantage and competitiveness of wheat crop and its implications for resource allocation towards competing crops. The extent of policy distortion and agricultural protection was also determined by the study. The data were collected from APCom on cost of production of wheat cropover the three year period (2001-2003). Two main provinces contributing towards wheat production i.e. Punjab and Sindh were selected as the sample. This data were then...

  11. Registration of ‘Joe’ hard white winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Joe’, a hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed at the Agricultural Research Center-Hays, Kansas State University and released by the Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station in 2015. Joe was selected from a two-way cross of KS04HW101-3/KS04HW119-3 made in 2005 at Hays, KS. The ...

  12. Registration of ‘Tatanka’ Hard Red Winter Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Tatanka’ hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed at the Agricultural Research Center-Hays, Kansas State University and released by the Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station in 2016. Tatanka was selected from a single cross of KS07HW81/T151 made in 2006 at Hays, KS. The objectiv...

  13. Registration of ‘Snowglenn’ Winter Durum Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowglenn’ (Reg. No. CV-#####, PI ######) winter durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) developed and tested as VA05WD-40 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station was released in March 2008. Snowglenn was derived from the three-way cross N1291-86 / N1439-83 // ‘Alidur’. Snowglenn is a f...

  14. Soil water potential requirement for germination of winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    In semi-arid climates seed is often sown into soil with inadequate water for rapid germination. This study was designed to measure the soil water potential limits for rapid, adequate, and marginal germination of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). We also tested for differences between cultivars an...

  15. Tebuconazole Regulates Fatty Acid Composition of Etiolated Winter Wheat Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Korsukova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid composition of shoots of unhardened and hardened to cold etiolated winter wheat seedlings grown from seeds treated with tebuconazole-based protectant «Bunker» (content of tebuconazole 60 grams per liter, g/L, and the seedlings frost resistance has been studied. It is shown that treatment of winter wheat seeds by «Bunker» preparation (1,5 microliter per gram of seeds, µl/g is accompanied by an increase of the fatty acids unsaturation in the shoots and increase of the seedlings frost resistance (–8°C, 24 h. The most pronounced decrease in the content of saturated palmitic acid and increase in the content of unsaturated α-linolenic acid were observed during cold hardening of winter wheat seedlings grown from seeds treated by tebuconazole-based protectant. It is concluded that the seeds treatment with tebuconazole-based protectant causes changes of fatty acid composition of winter wheat seedlings to increase their frost resistance.

  16. Genetic Potential of Winter Wheat Grain Quality in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abugaliyeva, Aigul I.; Morgounov, Alexey I.

    2016-01-01

    The grain quality of winter wheat varies significantly by cultivars and growing region, not previously differentiated by end-use (baking, confectionery, etc.) in the national breeding programs. In these conditions it is advisable to determine the genetic potential and analyze the actual grain quality. Determining the genetic potential requires the…

  17. Simulation of Wild oat (Avena ludoviciana L. Competition on Winter Wheat (Triticum astivum Growth and Yield. I: Model Description and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Mondani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Crop growth models could stimulate growth and development based on science principles and mathematical equations. They also able to evaluate effects of climate, soil, water and agronomic management practices on crop yield. In the present study, an eco-physiological simulation model developed to assess wild oat damage to winter wheat growth and yield. The general structure of this model is derived from LINTUL1 model which modified to wild oat competition against winter wheat. LINTUL1 model was developed for simulation of spring wheat potential production level. In this study, first, we added development stage (DVS and vernalization to LINTUL1 for simulation of winter wheat growth and development and then the model calibrated for potential production level. Finally, we incorporate harmful effects of wild oat to winter wheat growth and yield. Weather data used as input were average daily minimum and maximum temperature (°C and daily global radiation (MJ m-2 in Mashhad, Iran. Parameter values were derived from the literature. The model is written in Fortran Simulation Translator (FST programming language and then validated based on an experiment data. For these purposes different wild oat plant densities were arranged. The data of this experiment does not use for calibration. The results showed that this model was in general able to simulate the temporal changes in DVS of winter wheat and wild oat, total dry matter (TDM of winter wheat and wild oat and yield loss of wheat due to wild oat competition in all treatments, satisfactorily. Root mean square error (RMSE for winter wheat DVS, wild oat DVS, average winter wheat TDM, average wild oat TDM, and yield loss of winter wheat was 10.4, 14.5, 5.8, 7.6 and 7.5, respectively.

  18. Comparison of tillage treatments on greenhouse gas and soil carbon and nitrogen cycling in established winter wheat production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillage is commonly used to control weeds and prepare fields for planting. Repeated tillage can result in soil drying, sudden bursts of mineralized carbon and nitrogen from soil organic matter, and alterations in soil microbial communities. The effects of tillage on winter wheat cropping systems an...

  19. Inversion techniques in radar remote sensing of agricultural field : case studies on sugar beet and winter wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijckenberg, G.J.

    1997-01-01

    This thesis is an attempt to gain insight in the retrieval of the soil moisture content and the vegetation water content from the radar backscatter of agricultural fields. Two crops have been selected: sugar beet and winter wheat. For a retrieval of the two agricultural parameters two

  20. Relative contributions of allelopathy and competitive traits to the weed suppressive ability of winter wheat lines against Italian ryegrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allelopathy and competitive ability have been identified as independent factors contributing to the weed suppressive ability of crop cultivars; however, it is not clear whether these factors have equal influence on weed suppression outcomes of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) lines in the field. ...

  1. Lime and gypsum application on the wheat crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caires Eduardo Fávero

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Root growth and crop yield can be affected by chemical modifications of the soil profile owing to lime and gypsum applications. A field trial was carried out on a dystrophic Clayey Rhodic Hapludox at Ponta Grossa, PR, Brazil, aiming to evaluate lime (without or with incorporation into the soil and gypsum effects on root growth, mineral nutrition and grain yield of wheat (cv. OR 1. A randomized complete block design was used, with three replications, in a split-plot experiment. Treatments with dolomitic limestone (without lime and 4.5 t ha-1 of lime applied on the surface, in total rate and 1/3 of the requirement per year during 3 years, or incorporated into the soil were applied in July 1998 (main plots and the rates of gypsum (0, 3, 6 and 9 t ha-1 in October 1998 (subplots. Wheat was evaluated in the 2000 winter season. In conditions of water deficit absence, there was no limitation in root growth in depth, for exchangeable Ca of 6 mmol c dm-3. Lime incorporation of lime increased the Mg concentration in the leaves, but wheat yield was not influenced by the correction of soil acidity through liming treatments. Gypsum increased the concentrations of Ca and S in wheat leaves, with significant effects on grain yield. The critical level of S-SO4(2- in the 0-20 cm soil layer, extracted by ammonium acetate 0.5 mol L-1 in acetic acid 0.25 mol L-1, was 25.8 mg dm-3.

  2. Evaluation of the Effect of Crop Rotations on Yield and Yield Components of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Darya)

    OpenAIRE

    H. A. Fallahi; U. Mahmadyarov; H. Sabouri; M. Ezat-Ahmadi4

    2013-01-01

    Grain yield in wheat is influenced directly and indirectly by other plant characteristics. One of the main goals in wheat breeding programs is increase of grain yield. Considering the role of crop rotation in increasing grain yield, and in order to study the difference between crop rotations for wheat yield and yield components (Darya cultivar), an experiment was conducted with six rotation treatments (wheat-chickpea-wheat, wheat-cotton-wheat, wheat-watermelon-wheat, wheat-wheat-wheat, wheat-...

  3. Impact of Triticum mosaic virus infection on hard winter wheat milling and bread baking quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Rebecca A; Martin, T Joe; Seifers, Dallas L

    2012-03-15

    Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) is a newly discovered wheat virus. Information regarding the effect of wheat viruses on milling and baking quality is limited. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of TriMV infection on the kernel characteristics, milling yield and bread baking quality of wheat. Commercial hard winter varieties evaluated included RonL, Danby and Jagalene. The TriMV resistance of RonL is low, while that of Danby and Jagalene is unknown. KS96HW10-3, a germplasm with high TriMV resistance, was included as a control. Plots of each variety were inoculated with TriMV at the two- to three-leaf stage. Trials were conducted at two locations in two crop years. TriMV infection had no effect on the kernel characteristics, flour yield or baking properties of KS96HW10-3. The effect of TriMV on the kernel characteristics of RonL, Danby and Jagalene was not consistent between crop years and presumably an environmental effect. The flour milling and bread baking properties of these three varieties were not significantly affected by TriMV infection. TriMV infection of wheat plants did not affect harvested wheat kernel characteristics, flour milling properties or white pan bread baking quality. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Nutritional composition and in vitro digestibility of grass and legume winter (cover) crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A N; Ferreira, G; Teets, C L; Thomason, W E; Teutsch, C D

    2017-12-20

    In dairy farming systems, growing winter crops for forage is frequently limited to annual grasses grown in monoculture. The objectives of this study were to determine how cropping grasses alone or in mixtures with legumes affects the yield, nutritional composition, and in vitro digestibility of fresh and ensiled winter crops and the yield, nutritional composition, and in vitro digestibility of the subsequent summer crops. Experimental plots were planted with 15 different winter crops at 3 locations in Virginia. At each site, 4 plots of each treatment were planted in a randomized complete block design. The 15 treatments included 5 winter annual grasses (barley [BA], ryegrass [RG], rye [RY], triticale [TR], and wheat [WT]) in monoculture (i.e., no legumes [NO]) or with 1 of 2 winter annual legumes (crimson clover [CC] and hairy vetch [HV]). After harvesting the winter crops, corn and forage sorghum were planted within the same plots perpendicular to the winter crop plantings. The nutritional composition and the in vitro digestibility of winter and summer crops were determined for fresh and ensiled samples. Growing grasses in mixtures with CC increased forage dry matter (DM) yield (2.84 Mg/ha), but the yield of mixtures with HV (2.47 Mg/ha) was similar to that of grasses grown in monoculture (2.40 Mg/ha). Growing grasses in mixtures with legumes increased the crude protein concentration of the fresh forage from 13.0% to 15.5% for CC and to 17.3% for HV. For neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations, the interaction between grasses and legumes was significant for both fresh and ensiled forages. Growing BA, RY, and TR in mixtures with legumes decreased NDF concentrations, whereas growing RG and WT with legumes did not affect the NDF concentrations of either the fresh or the ensiled forages. Growing grasses in mixtures with legumes decreased the concentration of sugars of fresh forages relative to grasses grown in monoculture. Primarily, this decrease can be

  5. Identification of vernalization responsive genes in the winter wheat ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    YALAN FENG1,2,3,4

    Key Laboratory of Wheat and Maize Crop Science, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, ... polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and the expression change over the time was investigated for the top 11 genes with ... qRT-PCR validated changes in the expression of 18 DEGs that were detected by RNA-seq.

  6. Weed infestation of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. under the conditions of application of some retardants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Harasim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A field study was conducted in the period 2004–2007 on grey-brown podzolic soil (sandy. This study analysed the relationship between the use of stem shortening in cereals by means of retardants with the following active substances: chlormequat chloride (Antywylegacz Płynny 675 SL, trinexapac-ethyl (Moddus 250 EC, chlormequat chloride + ethephon (Cecefon 465 SL, and weed infestation. The retardants were applied at the 1st node stage (BBCH 31 – Antywylegacz Płynny 675 SL and the 2nd node stage of winter wheat (BBCH 32 – Moddus 250 EC and Cecefon 465 SL, together with the adjuvant Atpolan 80 EC (75% of SN 200 mineral oil or without the adjuvant. Winter wheat, cv. 'Muza', was grown after vetch grown for seed. The whole experiment was sprayed with the herbicides Apyros 75 WG and Starane 250 EC at the full tillering stage (BBCH 29–30. Plots where no growth regulators were used were the control treatment. Weed density and biomass showed great variation between years. In the winter wheat crop, Veronica persica, Viola arvensis, Veronica arvensis, Capsella bursa-pastoris,and Chenopodium album dominated in the dicotyledonous class, whereas Apera spica-venti, Echinochloa crus-galli,and Elymus repens were predominant among monocotyledonous plants. The level of weed infestation of the winter wheat crop, as measured by the number and air-dry weight of weeds, was significantly differentiated by years and retardants used as well as by interactions of these factors. The adjuvant Atpolan 80 EC did not have a significant effect on the above-mentioned weed infestation parameters. .

  7. Feasibility of winter cover crop production under rainfed conditions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    release and uptake by the follow-on crop. Improved synchrony, as observed by Murungu et al. (2010), with ... particularly timely planting and weed control. Relaying cover crops, particularly after late vegetative stage ..... appropriate fertilizer management on winter cover crops in a conservation agriculture system. PhD Thesis ...

  8. [Effects of different tillage and fertilization modes on the soil physical and chemical properties and crop yield under winter wheat/spring corn rotation on dryland of east Gansu, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-jun; Wang, Yong; Fan, Ting-lu; Guo, Tian-wen; Zhao, Gang; Dang, Yi; Wang, Lei; Li, Shang-zhong

    2013-04-01

    Based on the 7-year field experiment on the dryland of east Gansu of Northwest China in 2005-2011, this paper analyzed the variations of soil moisture content, bulk density, and nutrients content at harvest time of winter wheat and of the grain yield under no-tillage and conventional tillage and five fertilization modes, and approached the effects of different tillage and fertilization modes on the soil water storage and conservation, soil fertility, and grain yield under winter wheat/ spring corn rotation. In 2011, the soil moisture content in 0-200 cm layer and the soil bulk density and soil organic matter and available nitrogen and phosphorus contents in 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm layers under different fertilization modes were higher under no-tillage than under conventional tillage. Under the same tillage modes, the contents of soil organic matter and available nitrogen and available phosphorus were higher under the combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers, as compared with other fertilization modes. The soil available potassium content under different tillage and fertilization modes decreased with years. The grain yield under conventional tillage was higher than that under no-tillage. Under the same tillage modes, the grain yield was the highest under the combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers, and the lowest under no fertilization. In sum, no-tillage had the superiority than conventional tillage in improving the soil water storage and conservation and soil fertility, and the combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers under conventional tillage could obtain the best grain yield.

  9. Comparison of the effects of different crop rotation systems on winter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... sunflower-wheat-fodder pea + sunflower crop rotation system both in the first and second three year ... that binary cropping system consisting of wheat- ... The first 3 year (1995-1998) application plan for the crop rotation trials in which wheat was used as main crop. Year 1.System 2.System 3.System. 4.

  10. Assessment of winter wheat loss risk impacted by climate change from 1982 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xin

    2017-04-01

    The world's farmers will face increasing pressure to grow more food on less land in succeeding few decades, because it seems that the continuous population growth and agricultural products turning to biofuels would extend several decades into the future. Therefore, the increased demand for food supply worldwide calls for improved accuracy of crop productivity estimation and assessment of grain production loss risk. Extensive studies have been launched to evaluate the impacts of climate change on crop production based on various crop models drove with global or regional climate model (GCM/RCM) output. However, assessment of climate change impacts on agriculture productivity is plagued with uncertainties of the future climate change scenarios and complexity of crop model. Therefore, given uncertain climate conditions and a lack of model parameters, these methods are strictly limited in application. In this study, an empirical assessment approach for crop loss risk impacted by water stress has been established and used to evaluate the risk of winter wheat loss in China, United States, Germany, France and United Kingdom. The average value of winter wheat loss risk impacted by water stress for the three countries of Europe is about -931kg/ha, which is obviously higher in contrast with that in China (-570kg/ha) and in United States (-367kg/ha). Our study has important implications for further application of operational assessment of crop loss risk at a country or region scale. Future studies should focus on using higher spatial resolution remote sensing data, combining actual evapo-transpiration to estimate water stress, improving the method for downscaling of statistic crop yield data, and establishing much more rational and elaborate zoning method.

  11. Molecular diversity and distribution of indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal communities colonizing roots of two different winter cover crops in response to their root proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higo, Masao; Isobe, Katsunori; Miyazawa, Yusuke; Matsuda, Yukiya; Drijber, Rhae A; Torigoe, Yoichi

    2016-02-01

    A clear understanding of how crop root proliferation affects the distribution of the spore abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and the composition of AMF communities in agricultural fields is imperative to identify the potential roles of AMF in winter cover crop rotational systems. Toward this goal, we conducted a field trial using wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) or red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) grown during the winter season. We conducted a molecular analysis to compare the diversity and distribution of AMF communities in roots and spore abundance in soil cropped with wheat and red clover. The AMF spore abundance, AMF root colonization, and abundance of root length were investigated at three different distances from winter crops (0 cm, 7.5 cm, and 15 cm), and differences in these variables were found between the two crops. The distribution of specific AMF communities and variables responded to the two winter cover crops. The majority of Glomerales phylotypes were common to the roots of both winter cover crops, but Gigaspora phylotypes in Gigasporales were found only in red clover roots. These results also demonstrated that the diversity of the AMF colonizing the roots did not significantly change with the three distances from the crop within each rotation but was strongly influenced by the host crop identity. The distribution of specific AMF phylotypes responded to the presence of wheat and red clover roots, indicating that the host crop identity was much more important than the proliferation of crop roots in determining the diversity of the AMF communities.

  12. Estimation of canopy carotenoid content of winter wheat using multi-angle hyperspectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Weiping; Huang, Wenjiang; Liu, Jiangui; Chen, Pengfei; Qin, Qiming; Ye, Huichun; Peng, Dailiang; Dong, Yingying; Mortimer, A. Hugh

    2017-11-01

    Precise estimation of carotenoid (Car) content in crops, using remote sensing data, could be helpful for agricultural resources management. Conventional methods for Car content estimation were mostly based on reflectance data acquired from nadir direction. However, reflectance acquired at this direction is highly influenced by canopy structure and soil background reflectance. Off-nadir observation is less impacted, and multi-angle viewing data are proven to contain additional information rarely exploited for crop Car content estimation. The objective of this study was to explore the potential of multi-angle observation data for winter wheat canopy Car content estimation. Canopy spectral reflectance was measured from nadir as well as from a series of off-nadir directions during different growing stages of winter wheat, with concurrent canopy Car content measurements. Correlation analyses were performed between Car content and the original and continuum removed spectral reflectance. Spectral features and previously published indices were derived from data obtained at different viewing angles and were tested for Car content estimation. Results showed that spectral features and indices obtained from backscattering directions between 20° and 40° view zenith angle had a stronger correlation with Car content than that from the nadir direction, and the strongest correlation was observed from about 30° backscattering direction. Spectral absorption depth at 500 nm derived from spectral data obtained from 30° backscattering direction was found to reduce the difference induced by plant cultivars greatly. It was the most suitable for winter wheat canopy Car estimation, with a coefficient of determination 0.79 and a root mean square error of 19.03 mg/m2. This work indicates the importance of taking viewing geometry effect into account when using spectral features/indices and provides new insight in the application of multi-angle remote sensing for the estimation of crop

  13. The importance of winter forage crops and mixtures in total fodder needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvonimir Štafa

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Winter cereals and legume crops may be used in early spring as forages. The surpluses of produced mixtures are ensilaged. Under dry land conditions some mixtures are dried for hay, or used for grain production after physiological maturity. The early cultivars of fodder rapeseed (Perko and Starška were cut as early as in the middle of April, winter rye at the end of April, triticale at the beginning of May, while winter wheat cutting time was in the middle of May. Winter fodder pea can be used from the beginning of May and by the middle of June. The mixture of winter rye and fodder pea yielded 32.5 %, 26.3 %, 56.0 % and 26.0 % more green mass yield, dry matter yield, digestible crude protein and starch units, respectively, compared to pure winter rye crop. Generally, the advantages of winter cereals and legume mixtures are in higher and more stable yields, balanced fodder, easy cut, and decreased yield losses.

  14. Predicting Pre-planting Risk of Stagonospora nodorum blotch in Winter Wheat Using Machine Learning Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucky eMehra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pre-planting factors have been associated with the late-season severity of Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB, caused by the fungal pathogen Parastagonospora nodorum, in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum. The relative importance of these factors in the risk of SNB has not been determined and this knowledge can facilitate disease management decisions prior to planting of the wheat crop. In this study, we examined the performance of multiple regression (MR and three machine learning algorithms namely artificial neural networks, categorical and regression trees, and random forests (RF in predicting the pre-planting risk of SNB in wheat. Pre-planting factors tested as potential predictor variables were cultivar resistance, latitude, longitude, previous crop, seeding rate, seed treatment, tillage type, and wheat residue. Disease severity assessed at the end of the growing season was used as the response variable. The models were developed using 431 disease cases (unique combinations of predictors collected from 2012 to 2014 and these cases were randomly divided into training, validation, and test datasets. Models were evaluated based on the regression of observed against predicted severity values of SNB, sensitivity-specificity ROC analysis, and the Kappa statistic. A strong relationship was observed between late-season severity of SNB and specific pre-planting factors in which latitude, longitude, wheat residue, and cultivar resistance were the most important predictors. The MR model explained 33% of variability in the data, while machine learning models explained 47 to 79% of the total variability. Similarly, the MR model correctly classified 74% of the disease cases, while machine learning models correctly classified 81 to 83% of these cases. Results show that the RF algorithm, which explained 79% of the variability within the data, was the most accurate in predicting the risk of SNB, with an accuracy rate of 93%. The RF algorithm could allow early

  15. Evaluation of fermented whole crop wheat and barley feeding on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    이창희

    2017-07-11

    Jul 11, 2017 ... Abstract. This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding diets with fermented whole crop wheat (FWW) and fermented whole crop barley (FWB) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood constituents, faecal volatile fatty acid (VFA) emission and faecal microbiota in growing pigs. A total ...

  16. Fertilizer effects on a winter cereal cover crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benefits associated with conservation tillage in the Southeast are improved by using a winter cereal cover crop. In general, cover crop benefits increase as biomass production is increased, but the infertile soils typically require additional N (inorganic or organic). Currently, limited informatio...

  17. The Effect of Preceding Crop, Nitrogen Fertilizer and Return of Crop Residue on Growth and Yield of Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rahimizadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was conducted under cold temperate climate condition in Khorasan during 2006-2008 growing season to determine the suitable preceding crop, nitrogen and crop residue management for wheat. A randomized complete block design in split-split plot arrangement with three replicates was used. Main plots were rotation with five different crops including wheat-wheat, potato-wheat, silage corn-wheat, clover- wheat and sugar beet-wheat. Sub plots were N fertilizer rates in preceding crop including no N (Control, 50% lower than optimum N rate, optimum N rate and 50% more than optimum rate. The sub-sub plots were preceding crop residue return with two levels including no residue return (Control and 50% return of crop residue. Results showed that crop rotation and N rate in preceding crop influenced grain yield, biological yield, spike per m2, stem length and spike length in wheat. Interaction of crop rotation and N rate on grain yield and yield components was significant. The highest yield obtained from potato-wheat rotation and the lowest grain yield observed in continuous wheat rotation for all N rates. There was no significant difference for 1000 kernel weight and kernel per spike of wheat in all treatments. Return of crop residue had no significant effect on grain yield but was effective on biological yield, spike per m2 and harvest index. Keywords: Crop rotation, Crop residue management, Nitrogen, Wheat

  18. Domestication and crop physiology: roots of green-revolution wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waines, J Giles; Ehdaie, Bahman

    2007-11-01

    Most plant scientists, in contrast to animal scientists, study only half the organism, namely above-ground stems, leaves, flowers and fruits, and neglect below-ground roots. Yet all acknowledge roots are important for anchorage, water and nutrient uptake, and presumably components of yield. This paper investigates the relationship between domestication, and the root systems of landraces, and the parents of early, mid- and late green-revolution bread wheat cultivars. It compares the root system of bread wheat and 'Veery'-type wheat containing the 1RS translocation from rye. Wheat germplasm was grown in large pots in sand culture in replicated experiments. This allowed roots to be washed free to study root characters. The three bread wheat parents of early green-revolution wheats have root biomass less than two-thirds the mean of some landrace wheats. Crossing early green-revolution wheat to an F(2) of 'Norin 10' and 'Brevor', further reduced root biomass in mid-generation semi-dwarf and dwarf wheats. Later-generation semi-dwarf wheats show genetic variation for root biomass, but some exhibit further reduction in root size. This is so for some California and UK wheats. The wheat-rye translocation in 'Kavkaz' for the short arm of chromosome 1 (1RS) increased root biomass and branching in cultivars that contained it. Root size of modern cultivars is small compared with that of landraces. Their root system may be too small for optimum uptake of water and nutrients and maximum grain yield. Optimum root size for grain yield has not been investigated in wheat or most crop plants. Use of 1RS and similar alien translocations may increase root biomass and grain yield significantly in irrigated and rain-fed conditions. Root characters may be integrated into components of yield analysis in wheat. Plant breeders may need to select directly for root characters.

  19. Genetic Variation in Deep Root Growth of North-European Winter Wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ytting, Nanna Karkov

    Increased rooting depth in crops is known to enhance nitrogen use from deep soil layers and increase drought tolerance. Both parameters are known to increase productivity when natural occurring topsoil resources are scarce and input to the agricultural system is limited. Problems with nitrogen...... and scientists wish to develop screening methods that allow breeding for genotypes with increased deep root growth for effective N uptake. The study revealed that tube rhizotrons allows for screening of root traits in close-to-field conditions. It is important to perform the screening in relevant seasons...... traits were found to vary between modern North-European winter wheat cultivars including variation in depth penetration rate and root density in the deepest part of the root system. Wheat was shown to be capable of using deep N resources. After three to six weeks of root proliferation in the N rich...

  20. Efficient strategies to assess yield stability in winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guozheng; Zhao, Yusheng; Mirdita, Vilson; Reif, Jochen Christoph

    2017-08-01

    Selecting contrasting environments allows decreasing phenotyping intensity but still maintaining high accuracy to assess yield stability. Improving yield stability of wheat varieties is important to cope with enhanced abiotic stresses caused by climate change. The objective of our study was to (1) develop and implement an improved heritability estimate to examine the required scale of phenotyping for assessing yield stability in wheat, (2) compare yield performance and yield stability of wheat hybrids and inbred lines, (3) investigate the association of agronomic traits with yield stability, and (4) explore the possibility of selecting subsets of environments allowing to portray large proportion of the variation of yield stability. Our study is based on phenotypic data from five series of official winter wheat registration trials in Germany each including 119-132 genotypes evaluated in up to 50 environments. Our findings suggested that phenotyping in at least 40 environments is required to reliably estimate yield stability to guarantee heritability estimates above 0.7. Contrasting the yield stability of hybrids versus lines revealed no significant differences. Absence of stable associations between yield stability and further agronomic traits suggested low potential of indirect selection to improve yield stability. Selecting posteriori contrasting environments based on the genotype-by-environment interaction effects allowed decreasing phenotyping intensity, but still maintaining high accuracy to assess yield stability. The huge potential of the developed strategy to select contrasting and informative environments has to be validated as a next step in an a priori scenario based on genotype-by-location interaction effects.

  1. Efficacy of Cotton Root Destruction and Winter Cover Crops for Suppression of Hoplolaimus columbus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R F; Baird, R E; McNeil, R D

    2000-12-01

    The efficacy of rye (Secale cereale) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) winter cover crops and cotton stalk and root destruction (i.e., pulling them up) were evaluated in field tests during two growing seasons for Hoplolaimus columbus management in cotton. The effect of removing debris from the field following root destruction also was evaluated. Wheat and rye produced similar amounts of biomass, and both crops produced more biomass (P Cover crops did not suppress H. columbus population levels or increase subsequent cotton yields. Cotton root destruction did not affect cotton stand or plant height the following year. Cotton root destruction lowered (P wheat cover crop or cotton root destruction following harvest is ineffective for H. columbus management in cotton.

  2. Application of DSSAT crop model for wheat crop growth simulation in some wheat growing districts of northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anima Biswal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Process based Crop growth simulation models are being used as a potential decision support tool for informed decision making by policy makers and researchers. Calibration and validation of a crop growth simulation model is the fundamental process before applying the model projections to a new location. CERES crop growth simulation model has been used by a number of researchers worldwide to simulate wheat growth. This study is undertaken to calibrate and validate CERES model on DSSAT (Decision Support System for Agro Technology Transfer platform for six predominantly wheat growing districts of Northern India.

  3. Efficacies of designer biochars in improving biomass and nutrient uptake of winter wheat grown in a hard setting subsoil layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigua, G C; Novak, J M; Watts, D W; Johnson, M G; Spokas, K

    2016-01-01

    In the Coastal Plains region of the United States, the hard setting subsoil layer of Norfolk soils results in low water holding capacity and nutrient retention, which often limits root development. In this region, the Norfolk soils are under intensive crop production that further depletes nutrients and reduces organic carbon (C). Incorporation of pyrolyzed organic residues or "biochars" can provide an alternative recalcitrant C source. However, biochar quality and effect can be inconsistent and different biochars react differently in soils. We hypothesized that addition of different designer biochars will have variable effects on biomass and nutrient uptake of winter wheat. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of designer biochars on biomass productivity and nutrient uptake of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in a Norfolk's hard setting subsoil layer. Biochars were added to Norfolk's hard setting subsoil layer at the rate of 40 Mg ha(-1). The different sources of biochars were: plant-based (pine chips, PC); animal-based (poultry litter, PL); 50:50 blend (50% PC:50% PL); 80:20 blend (80% PC:20% PL); and hardwood (HW). Aboveground and belowground biomass and nutrient uptake of winter wheat varied significantly (p⩽0.0001) with the different designer biochar applications. The greatest increase in the belowground biomass of winter wheat over the control was from 80:20 blend of PC:PL (81%) followed by HW (76%), PC (59%) and 50:50 blend of PC:PL (9%). However, application of PL resulted in significant reduction of belowground biomass by about 82% when compared to the control plants. The average uptake of P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Al, Fe, Cu and Zn in both the aboveground and belowground biomass of winter wheat varied remarkably with biochar treatments. Overall, our results showed promising significance for the treatment of a Norfolk's hard setting subsoil layer since designer biochars did improve both aboveground/belowground biomass and nutrient uptake

  4. Assessing the ratio of leaf carbon to nitrogen in winter wheat and spring barley based on hyperspectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin-gang; Gu, Xiao-he; Song, Xiao-yu; Xu, Bo; Yu, Hai-yang; Yang, Gui-jun; Feng, Hai-kuan

    2016-10-01

    The metabolic status of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) as two essential elements of crop plants has significant influence on the ultimate formation of yield and quality in crop production. The ratio of carbon to nitrogen (C/N) from crop leaves, defined as ratio of LCC (leaf carbon concentration) to LNC (leaf nitrogen concentration), is an important index that can be used to diagnose the balance between carbon and nitrogen, nutrient status, growth vigor and disease resistance in crop plants. Thus, it is very significant for effectively evaluating crop growth in field to monitor changes of leaf C/N quickly and accurately. In this study, some typical indices aimed at N estimation and chlorophyll evaluation were tested to assess leaf C/N in winter wheat and spring barley. The multi-temporal hyperspectral measurements from the flag-leaf, anthesis, filling, and milk-ripe stages were used to extract these selected spectral indices to estimate leaf C/N in wheat and barley. The analyses showed that some tested indices such as MTCI, MCARI/OSAVI2, and R-M had the better performance of assessing C/N for both of crops. Besides, a mathematic algorithm, Branch-and-Bound (BB) method was coupled with the spectral indices to assess leaf C/N in wheat and barley, and yielded the R2 values of 0.795 for winter wheat, R2 of 0.727 for spring barley, 0.788 for both crops combined. It demonstrates that using hyperspectral data has a good potential for remote assessment of leaf C/N in crops.

  5. Domestication and Crop Physiology: Roots of Green-Revolution Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waines, J. Giles; Ehdaie, Bahman

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Most plant scientists, in contrast to animal scientists, study only half the organism, namely above-ground stems, leaves, flowers and fruits, and neglect below-ground roots. Yet all acknowledge roots are important for anchorage, water and nutrient uptake, and presumably components of yield. This paper investigates the relationship between domestication, and the root systems of landraces, and the parents of early, mid- and late green-revolution bread wheat cultivars. It compares the root system of bread wheat and ‘Veery’-type wheat containing the 1RS translocation from rye. Methods Wheat germplasm was grown in large pots in sand culture in replicated experiments. This allowed roots to be washed free to study root characters. Key Results The three bread wheat parents of early green-revolution wheats have root biomass less than two-thirds the mean of some landrace wheats. Crossing early green-revolution wheat to an F2 of ‘Norin 10’ and ‘Brevor’, further reduced root biomass in mid-generation semi-dwarf and dwarf wheats. Later-generation semi-dwarf wheats show genetic variation for root biomass, but some exhibit further reduction in root size. This is so for some California and UK wheats. The wheat–rye translocation in ‘Kavkaz’ for the short arm of chromosome 1 (1RS) increased root biomass and branching in cultivars that contained it. Conclusions Root size of modern cultivars is small compared with that of landraces. Their root system may be too small for optimum uptake of water and nutrients and maximum grain yield. Optimum root size for grain yield has not been investigated in wheat or most crop plants. Use of 1RS and similar alien translocations may increase root biomass and grain yield significantly in irrigated and rain-fed conditions. Root characters may be integrated into components of yield analysis in wheat. Plant breeders may need to select directly for root characters. PMID:17940075

  6. Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae agrocenoses of spring and winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Purchart

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available On two monitoring areas of the Central Institute for Supervising and Testing in Agriculture (ÚKZÚZ loaded with risk elements we carried out investigations of beetles of the family Carabidae (Coleoptera in agricultural stands of winter and spring wheat. The focus of the present study is on synecological characteristics and in some extent on the impact of agricultural practise on the population and seasonal dynamics of the most important representatives of ground beetles. This paper precedes the following article aimed to contents of heavy metals in ground beetles.

  7. NITRATE REDUCTASE ACTIVITY DURING HEAT SHOCK IN WINTER WHEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimenko S.B.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrates are the basic source of nitrogen for the majority of plants. Absorption and transformation of nitrates in plants are determined by external conditions and, first of all, temperature and light intensity. The influence of the temperature increasing till +40 0С on activity of nitrate reductase was studied. It is shown, that the rise of temperature was accompanied by sharp decrease of activity nitrate reductase in leaves of winter wheat, what, apparently, occurred for the account deactivations of enzyme and due to its dissociation.

  8. Nitrate Leaching from Winter Cereal Cover Crops Using Undisturbed Soil-Column Lysimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisinger, John J; Ricigliano, Kristin A

    2017-05-01

    Cover crops are important management practices for reducing nitrogen (N) leaching, especially in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, which is under total maximum daily load (TMDL) restraints. Winter cereals are common cool-season crops in the Bay watershed, but studies have not directly compared nitrate-N (NO-N) leaching losses from these species. A 3-yr cover crop lysimeter study was conducted in Beltsville, MD, to directly compare NO-N leaching from a commonly grown cultivar of barley ( L.), rye ( L.), and wheat ( L.), along with a no-cover control, using eight tension-drained undisturbed soil column lysimeters in a completely randomized design with two replicates. The lysimeters were configured to exclude runoff and to estimate NO-N leaching and flow-weighted NO-N concentration (FWNC). The temporal pattern of NO-N leaching showed a consistent highly significant ( cover crops compared with no cover but showed only small and periodically significant ( covers. Nitrate-N leaching was more affected by the quantity of establishment-season (mid-October to mid-December) precipitation than by cover crop species. For example, compared with no cover, winter cereal covers reduced NO-N leaching 95% in a dry year and 50% in wet years, with corresponding reductions in FWNC of 92 and 43%, respectively. These results are important for scientists, nutrient managers, and policymakers because they directly compare NO-N leaching from winter cereal covers and expand knowledge for developing management practices for winter cereals that can improve water quality and increase N efficiency in cropping systems. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  9. Forage radish winter cover crop suppresses winter annual weeds in fall and before corn planting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forage radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. longipinnatus) is a new winter cover crop in the Mid-Atlantic region. The objective of this project was to characterize the repeatability, amount, and duration of weed suppression during and after a fall-planted forage radish cover crop and to quantify the sub...

  10. Tolerance of two Bifora radians bieb populations to ALS inhibitors in winter wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mennan, Husrev; Streibig, Jens Carl; Ngouajio, Mathieu

    2012-01-01

    allegedly sensitive population was estimated at the ED50 and ED90 response levels. The recommended rates of herbicides controlled 90% of the weed (ED90) in the sensitive population at the early stage of B. radians development, but not in the tolerant population. The relative potencies (EDx......BACKGROUND:Bifora radians, an annual weed in winter wheat, is distributed mainly in the Mediterranean area, Asia Minor and the Caucasus. It infests winter-sown crops of the Central Anatolia and Middle Black Sea regions of Turkey. Field experiments in heavily B. radians-infested fields were...... conducted over 3 years in Samsun, Turkey, to determine the response of B. radians to ALS-inhibiting herbicides, because growers had complained of a decrease in herbicide effect. RESULTS: The efficacy of ALS inhibitors on a putatively tolerant population sprayed annually with ALS inhibitors and an adjacent...

  11. Ecological and Geographical Selection of Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Р. А. Уразалієв

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the lead long-term selection works wint involving a World' s collection and intertype and intertype hybridization with purposeful selection on economic-biological attributes highly productive • grades of a winter wheat, with stability to various kinds of illnesses and high technological qualities of grain have been allocated. The adapted grades of a winter wheat for a various environment of various zones of the countries of the Central Asia that allows to realize potential opportunities of grades in different environments of cultivation and by that to prevent losses of a crop from biotic and abiotic stresses that allows to stabilize productivity and adaptability of culture in a zon winter husbandry are created. The long-term field experiences lead by us and laboratory analyses on a level of productivity, qualities of grain and stability to stresses allows to conclude, that alongside with a genotype, stabilityenvironmental conditions render strong and significant influence on all complex of selection attributes.

  12. Projecting Future Change in Growing Degree Days of Winter Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Castillo, N.; Gaitan Ospina, C. F.; Mcpherson, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    Southwest Oklahoma is one of the most productive regions in the Great Plains where winter wheat is produced. To assess the effect of climate change on the growing degree days (GDD) available for winter wheat production, we selected from the CMIP5 archive, two of the best performing Global Climate Models (GCMs) for the region (MIROC5 and CCSM4) to project the future change in GDD under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 —a "business as usual" future trajectory for greenhouse gas concentrations. Two quantile mapping downscaling methods were applied to both GCMs to obtain local scale projections. The downscaled outputs were applied to a GDD formula to show the GDD changes between the historical period (1961-2004) and the future period (2006-2098) in terms of mean differences. The results show that at the end of the 2098 growing season, the increase in GDD is expected to be between -2.0 and 6. Depending on the GCM used, Southwest Oklahoma is expected to see an increase in future GDD under the CCSM4 GCM and a mix of increase, no change and decrease under the MIROC5 GCM.

  13. Contribution of crop models to adaptation in wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chenu, Karine; Porter, John Roy; Martre, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    With world population growing quickly, agriculture needs to produce more with fewer inputs while being environmentally friendly. In a context of changing environments, crop models are useful tools to simulate crop yields. Wheat (Triticum spp.) crop models have been evolving since the 1960s...... to translate processes related to crop growth and development into mathematical equations. These have been used over decades for agronomic purposes, and have more recently incorporated advances in the modeling of environmental footprints, biotic constraints, trait and gene effects, climate change impact...

  14. Occurrence and distribution of soil Fusarium species under wheat crop in zero tillage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestro, L. B.; Stenglein, S. A.; Forjan, H.; Dinolfo, M. I.; Aramburri, A. M.; Manso, L.; Moreno, M. V.

    2013-05-01

    The presence of Fusarium species in cultivated soils is commonly associated with plant debris and plant roots. Fusarium species are also soil saprophytes. The aim of this study was to examine the occurrence and distribution of soil Fusarium spp. at different soil depths in a zero tillage system after the wheat was harvested. Soil samples were obtained at three depths (0-5 cm, 5-10 cm and 10-20 cm) from five crop rotations: I, conservationist agriculture (wheat-sorghum-soybean); II, mixed agriculture/livestock with pastures, without using winter or summer forages (wheat-sorghum-soybean-canola-pastures); III, winter agriculture in depth limited soils (wheat-canola-barley-late soybean); IV, mixed with annual forage (wheat-oat/Vicia-sunflower); V, intensive agriculture (wheat-barley-canola, with alternation of soybean or late soybean). One hundred twenty two isolates of Fusarium were obtained and identified as F. equiseti, F. merismoides, F. oxysporum, F. scirpi and F. solani. The most prevalent species was F. oxysporum, which was observed in all sequences and depths. The Tukey's test showed that the relative frequency of F. oxysporum under intensive agricultural management was higher than in mixed traditional ones. The first 5 cm of soil showed statistically significant differences (p=0.05) with respect to 5-10 cm and 10-20 cm depths. The ANOVA test for the relative frequency of the other species as F. equiseti, F. merismoides, F. scirpi and F. solani, did not show statistically significant differences (p<0.05). We did not find significant differences (p<0.05) in the effect of crop rotations and depth on Shannon, Simpson indexes and species richness. Therefore we conclude that the different sequences and the sampling depth did not affect the alpha diversity of Fusarium community in this system. (Author) 51 refs.

  15. Conventional, integrated and organic winter wheat production in The Netherlands in the period 1993-1997

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamis, W.L.M.; Brink, van den W.J.

    1999-01-01

    In order to assess possible changes in occurrences of pests and diseases in winter wheat as a result of differences in farm management, a monitoring study was carried out between 1993 and 1997 in The Netherlands to assess pest and disease incidence in winter wheat produced by conventional,

  16. Genetics of leaf rust resistance in the hard red winter wheat cultivars Santa Fe and Duster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina is a common and important disease of hard red winter wheat in the Great Plains of the United States. The hard red winter wheat cultivars 'Santa Fe' and 'Duster' have had effective leaf rust resistance since their release in 2003 and 2006, respectively. Both cul...

  17. The impacts of surface ozone pollution on winter wheat productivity in China--An econometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Fujin; Jiang, Fei; Zhong, Funing; Zhou, Xun; Ding, Aijun

    2016-01-01

    The impact of surface ozone pollution on winter wheat yield is empirically estimated by considering socio-economic and weather determinants. This research is the first to use an economic framework to estimate the ozone impact, and a unique county-level panel is employed to examine the impact of the increasing surface ozone concentration on the productivity of winter wheat in China. In general, the increment of surface ozone concentration during the ozone-sensitive period of winter wheat is determined to be harmful to its yield, and a conservative reduction of ozone pollution could significantly increase China's wheat supply. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Registration of ‘NE05548’ (husker genetics brand panhandle) hard red winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western Nebraska wheat producers and those in adjacent areas want taller wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars that retain their height under drought for better harvestability. ‘NE05548’ (Reg. No. CV-1117, PI 670462) hard red winter wheat was developed cooperatively by the Nebraska Agricultural Exp...

  19. Quantifying production potential of winter wheat in the North China Plain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, D.; Yu, Q.; Lu, C.; Hengsdijk, H.

    2006-01-01

    The North China Plain (NCP) is one of the major winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) producing areas in China. Current wheat yields in the NCP stabilize around 5 Mg ha¿1 while the demand for wheat in China is growing due to the increase in population and the change in diet. Since options for area

  20. [Freezing resistance and injury indices for different cultivars of winter-spring wheat in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain. I . Comparison of freezing resistance for different cultivars of winter-spring wheat during mid-winter period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Cheng-ying; Yang, Xiao-guang; Yang, Jie; Li, Ke-nan; Zheng, Dong-xiao

    2015-10-01

    The relationships between mortality rate and low temperature for different cultivars of winter-spring wheat during mid-winter period were identified through two-year outdoor potting experiments and indoor manually controlled freezing experiments. We defined the lethally critical temperature and the density of antifreeze capability when the mortality rate reached 10%, 20% and 50% for different cultivars of winter-spring wheat during mid-winter period. The strong-winterness wheat (Yanda 1817 and Jing 411) showed the best freezing resistance and the 50%-lethal temperatures (LT50) of these two cultivars were -21.5 °C and -21.2 °C, respectively. The freezing resistance of winterness wheat and weak-winternes wheat were worse than that of strong-winterness wheat. The LT50 of winterness wheat cultivars Nongda 211 and Nongda 5363 were -21.1 °C and -20.3 °C, while that of weak-winterness wheat cultivars Zheng 366 and Ping' an 8 were -18.5 °C and -18.4 °C , respectively. Springness wheat (Zheng 9023 and Yanzhan 4110) showed the worst freezing resistance, and the LT50 were -15.4 °C and -14.7 °C, respectively. When temperature declined to freezing injury occurred, mortality rate increment for weak-winterness wheat was the highest for each 1 °C decrease. The mortality rates of weak-winterness wheat cultivars Zheng 366 and Ping' an 8 increased by 16.8% and 25.8%, and that of winterness wheat cultivars Nongda 211 and Nongda 5363 increased by 14.7% and 18.9%. The mortality rate of strong-winterness wheat cultivars Yanda 1817 and Jing 411 increased by 15.4% and 13.1%, and that of springiness wheat cultivas Zheng 9023 and Yanzhan 4110 increased by 13.8% and 15.1%. Comparatively, if temperature decreased continuously after the occurrence of freezing injury, the weak-winterness wheat would suffer greater risk.

  1. [Characteristics and adaption of seasonal drought in southern China under the background of global climate change. II. Spatiotemporal characteristics of drought for wintering grain- and oil crops based on crop water deficit index].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Yue; Huang, Wan-Hua; Yang, Xiao-Guang; Li, Mao-Song

    2012-09-01

    In recent years, seasonal drought occurs frequently in southern China, giving severe impact on the production of local wintering crops. Based on the 1959-2009 meteorological data from 268 meteorological stations in southern China, and by using crop water deficit index (CWDI) as agricultural drought index, this paper analyzed the spatiotemporal characteristics of drought for winter wheat and rapeseed. The results showed that in southern China, drought happened more frequently in Southwest China, north Huaihe basin, and parts of South China during the developmental stages of wintering crops. In the mid-lower Yangtze basin, the intensity and extent of drought increased during the mid-late developmental stages of winter wheat, and became much heavier at its later developmental stages. For rapeseed, the intensity and extent of drought increased during the developmental stage before winter and the late developmental stages. In southwest part, the intensity and extent of drought increased significantly during the developmental stage before winter for winter wheat and rapeseed. Since the early 1990s, the intensity and extent of drought in southern China increased during the mid-late developmental stages of wintering crops.

  2. [Winter wheat area estimation with MODIS-NDVI time series based on parcel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Le; Zhang, Jin-shui; Zhu, Wen-quan; Hu, Tan-gao; Hou, Dong

    2011-05-01

    Several attributes of MODIS (moderate resolution imaging spectrometer) data, especially the short temporal intervals and the global coverage, provide an extremely efficient way to map cropland and monitor its seasonal change. However, the reliability of their measurement results is challenged because of the limited spatial resolution. The parcel data has clear geo-location and obvious boundary information of cropland. Also, the spectral differences and the complexity of mixed pixels are weak in parcels. All of these make that area estimation based on parcels presents more advantage than on pixels. In the present study, winter wheat area estimation based on MODIS-NDVI time series has been performed with the support of cultivated land parcel in Tongzhou, Beijing. In order to extract the regional winter wheat acreage, multiple regression methods were used to simulate the stable regression relationship between MODIS-NDVI time series data and TM samples in parcels. Through this way, the consistency of the extraction results from MODIS and TM can stably reach up to 96% when the amount of samples accounts for 15% of the whole area. The results shows that the use of parcel data can effectively improve the error in recognition results in MODIS-NDVI based multi-series data caused by the low spatial resolution. Therefore, with combination of moderate and low resolution data, the winter wheat area estimation became available in large-scale region which lacks completed medium resolution images or has images covered with clouds. Meanwhile, it carried out the preliminary experiments for other crop area estimation.

  3. Relationship Between Eyespot Severity and Productivity of Winter Wheat in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanauskienė Jūratė

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cereal yield loss from eyespot directly depends on the severity of the disease. The aim of this study was to establish the relationship between eyespot damage in winter wheat and components of yield of winter wheat cultivars Ada, Mulan and Tukan in Lithuania in the 2011/2012 cropping season. Several eyespot did not decrease the grain number per ear cv. of Tukan while for cvs. Ada and Mulan the decrease was 14 and 15%, respectively; however, the grain number per ear of moderately eyespot-affected stems of cv. Ada did not differ from that of visually healthy stems. For cv. Ada, the grain weight per ear of moderately affected stems was 5.8% less and that of severely affected stems was 12.8% less than that of healthy stems, while for cv. Mulan the decrease in grain weight per ear was 40.3 and 35.5%, respectively and for cv. Tukan it was 59.0 and 63.2%, respectively for moderately and severely affected stems. The decrease in thousand grain weight of moderately eyespot-affected stems of cv. Ada was less (6.5% compared with that of cv. Mulan (31.3% and cv. Tukan (55.8%. Thousand grain weight of severely eyespot-affected stems of cvs. Ada, Mulan and Tukan was 22.2, 26.0, and 65.0%, respectively, less than that of healthy stems. Screening of healthy, moderately and severely affected plants of the winter wheat varieties Ada, Mulan and Tukan for grain number per ear, grain weight per ear and TGW revealed that these varieties differed in tolerance to eyespot

  4. ADAPTIVE AGRO-TECHNOLOGY OF FARMING NEW WINTER WHEAT VARIETY IN THE TERSKO-SULAK TERRITORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. Magomedov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the research was to improve the elements of agro-technology for cultivating new high-yielding varieties of winter wheat under conditions of the plain zone irrigation depending on the doses and the terms of introducing mineral nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizers.Methods. Research was carried out on chestnut heavy loamy soils. Sampling of soils and plants, as well as agrochemical properties of soils were determined according to standard generally accepted methods. Mathematical processing of data on the yield of cereals was carried out by analysis-of-variance method using computer technology.Results. Our studies showed that the most productive of the studied varieties was Grom, which, on average for three years (2012-2015 gave a grain yield of 7.6 t/ha with nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizers introduced at a dose of N180P100 against 5.6 t/ha in a similar version to the control during sowing of the Tanya variety. Vassa and Sila varieties were also inferior to Grom variety for yields, respectively, by 1.1 t/ha and 1.4 t / ha. It was also revealed that with the Grom variety, when applying an increased dose of mineral fertilizers (N180P100, on average for three years, the best indicators were by the area of the leaf surface (63.6 thousand m2/ha, photosynthetic index of crops was 2765.6 thousand m2/ha and net productivity of photosynthesis was 6.3 g/m2, day. For other varieties of winter wheat and doses of mineral fertilizers, these indicators were lower.Conclusion. In steady-state experiment, when studying the potential of new high-yielding varieties of winter wheat at different levels and times of introducing mineral nutrition, the Grom variety showed the best yields. 

  5. [Effects of mulching on soil moisture in a dryland winter wheat field, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ying-Dan; Chai, Shou-Xi; Cheng, Hong-Bo; Chen, Yu-Zhang; Yang, Chang-Gang; Huang, Cai-Xia; Chang, Lei; Pang, Lei

    2013-11-01

    This paper studied the effects of different mulching modes on the soil moisture in a semi-arid rainfed area of Loess Plateau, Northwest China. Seven treatments were installed, i. e., mulching plastic film in summer (T1), mulching plastic film in autumn (T2), mulching 5 cm long wheat straw in summer (T3), mulching whole wheat straw in summer (T4), mulching plastic film in summer plus wheat straw (T5), mulching used plastic film after harvest (T6), and un-mulching (CK). In T6, the soil moisture in different layers at different crop growth stages was all higher than that in CK. In the other five mulching treatments, the soil moisture in 0-90 cm layer before flowering stage was obviously higher, but that in 0-90 cm layer after flowering stage and in 90-200 cm layer during the whole growth season was lower than that of CK. The soil moisture in 0-200 cm layer in T6 during the whole growth period was significantly higher than that in CK, with a difference of 0.9%, but the soil moisture in 0-200 cm layer in other mulching treatments was lower. As compared with plastic film mulching, straw mulching increased the soil moisture in 0-200 cm layer. The soil moisture under mulching with used plastic film after harvest was higher than that under mulching with new plastic film. As compared to CK, the grain yield of winter wheat with plastic film mulching was increased by 20.3%-29.0%, and that With straw mulching was increased by 5.0%-16.7%. There was a significant positive correlation between the crop productivity and the soil water consumption during the growth period (r = 0.77*).

  6. Reduced irrigation increases the water use efficiency and productivity of winter wheat-summer maize rotation on the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunqi; Zhang, Yinghua; Zhang, Rui; Li, Jinpeng; Zhang, Meng; Zhou, Shunli; Wang, Zhimin

    2017-11-08

    The groundwater table has fallen sharply over the last 30years on the North China Plain, resulting in a shortage of water for winter wheat irrigation. Reducing irrigation may be an important strategy to maintain agricultural sustainability in the region; however, few studies have evaluated the transition from conventional irrigation management practices to reduced irrigation management practices in the winter wheat-summer maize rotation system. Here, we compare the yield, water consumption, and water use efficiency of winter wheat-summer maize rotation under conventional irrigation and reduced irrigation on the North China Plain from 2012 to 2015. Reducing irrigation decreased the yield but increased the water use efficiency and significantly advanced the harvest date of winter wheat. As a result, the summer maize sowing date advanced significantly, and the flowering date subsequently advanced 2-8days, thus extending the summer maize grain-filling stage. Therefore, the yield and water use efficiency of summer maize were higher under reduced irrigation than conventional irrigation, which compensated for the winter wheat yield loss under reduced irrigation. In addition, under reduced irrigation from 2012 to 2015, the yield and water use efficiency advantage of the winter wheat-summer maize rotation ranged from 0.0 to 9.7% and from 4.1 to 14.7%, respectively, and water consumption and irrigated water decreased by 20-61mm and 150mm, respectively, compared to conventional irrigation. Overall, the reduced irrigation management practice involving no irrigation after sowing winter wheat, and sowing summer maize on June 7 produced the most favorable grain yield with superb water use efficiency in the winter wheat-summer maize rotation. This study indicates that reducing irrigation could be an efficient means to cope with water resource shortages while maintaining crop production sustainability on the North China Plain. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Sustainability issues on rice–wheat cropping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan Bhatt

    2016-03-01

    In this review, an attempt was made to highlight different issues resulted from the practise of intensive rice–wheat cropping sequence of the region, which must be considered while framing and implementing any integrated approach/project such as conservation agriculture for improving the productions, profits and sustainability of RWCS in the region.

  8. Feasibility of winter cover crop production under rainfed conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low winter rainfall poses a challenge to production of high biomass from cover crops, which is necessary for the success of conservation agriculture systems in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the adaptability of white oats (Avena sativa), grazing vetch (Vicia dasycarpa), ...

  9. THE STRUCTURE AND ABUNDANCE OF INVERTEBRATE FAUNA IN WHEAT CROP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela Mocanu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The observations were made in 2015 in wheat crops in three variants: • V 1 - untreated wheat consumption • V2 - treated wheat for consumption •V 3 - treated wheat seed The material was harvested using Barber soil traps, in which was placed a solution of NaCl in a concentration of 8-10%. The harvesting of the all 15 traps for each variant was done at the following dates: 17.05, 29.05, 13.06 and 27.06. There were collected a number of 103 coleoptera species with 2360 specimens, the colembolas species with a total of 1732 specimens, 736 specimens of arachnids, 660 specimens of himenoptera, 282 specimens of aphids, 208 specimensof diptera, 55 specimens of orthoptera, 24 specimen of heteroptera , 7 specimen of mites, dermaptera with one copy.

  10. [Estimation of Winter Wheat Biomass Using Visible Spectral and BP Based Artificial Neural Networks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ri-xian; Liu, Ya-dong; Fu, Jin-dong

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using color digital image analysis and back propagation (BP) based artificial neural networks (ANN) method to estimate above ground biomass at the canopy level of winter wheat field. Digital color images of winter wheat canopies grown under six levels of nitrogen treatments were taken with a digital camera for four times during the elongation stage and at the same time wheat plants were sampled to measure above ground biomass. Canopy cover (CC) and 10 color indices were calculated from winter wheat canopy images by using image analysis program (developed in Microsoft Visual Basic). Correlation analysis was carried out to identify the relationship between CC, 10 color indices and winter wheat above ground biomass. Stepwise multiple linear regression and BP based ANN methods were used to establish the models to estimate winter wheat above ground biomass. The results showed that CC, and two color indices had a significant cor- relation with above ground biomass. CC revealed the highest correlation with winter wheat above ground biomass. Stepwise multiple linear regression model constituting CC and color indices of NDI and b, and BP based ANN model with four variables (CC, g, b and NDI) for input was constructed to estimate winter wheat above ground biomass. The validation results indicate that the model using BP based ANN method has a better performance with higher R2 (0.903) and lower RMSE (61.706) and RRMSE (18.876) in comparation with the stepwise regression model.

  11. Real-time weed detection, decision making and patch spraying in maize, sugarbeet, winter wheat and winter barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerhards, R; Christensen, Svend

    2003-01-01

    with weed infestation levels higher than the economic weed threshold; a review of such work is provided. This paper presents a system for site-specific weed control in sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.), maize (Zea mays L.), winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), including...

  12. Genetic Architecture of Anther Extrusion in Spring and Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quddoos H. Muqaddasi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid wheat breeding is gaining prominence worldwide because it ensures higher and more static yield than conventionally bred varieties. The cleistogamous floral architecture of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. impedes anthers inside the floret, making it largely an inbreeder. For hybrid seed production, high anther extrusion is needed to promote cross pollination and to ensure a high level of pollen availability for the seed plant. This study, therefore, aimed at the genetic dissection of anther extrusion (AE in panels of spring (SP, and winter wheat (WP accessions by genome wide association studies (GWAS. We performed GWAS to identify the SNP markers potentially linked with AE in each panel separately. Phenotypic data were collected for 3 years for each panel. The average levels of Pearson's correlation (r among all years and their best linear unbiased estimates (BLUEs within both panels were high (r(SP = 0.75, P < 0.0001;r(WP = 0.72, P < 0.0001. Genotypic data (with minimum of 0.05 minor allele frequency applied included 12,066 and 12,191 SNP markers for SP and WP, respectively. Both genotypes and environment influenced the magnitude of AE. In total, 23 significant (|log10(P| > 3.0 marker trait associations (MTAs were detected (SP = 11; WP = 12. Anther extrusion behaved as a complex trait with significant markers having either favorable or unfavorable additive effects and imparting minor to moderate levels of phenotypic variance (R2(SP = 9.75−14.24%; R2 (WP = 9.44−16.98%. All mapped significant markers as well as the markers within their significant linkage disequilibrium (r2 ≥ 0.30 regions were blasted against wheat genome assembly (IWGSC1+popseq to find the corresponding genes and their high confidence descriptions were retrieved. These genes and their orthologs in Hordeum vulgare, Brachypodium distachyon, Oryza sativa, and Sorghum bicolor revealed syntenic genomic regions potentially involved in flowering-related traits. Moreover, the

  13. Composite Simulation of Dynamic Water Content and Water Use Efficiency of Winter Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Liming

    2014-01-01

    In order to forecast the effect of climate warming on agriculture, ENWATBAL model was used to simulate evapotranspiration of winter wheat due to the change of air temperature and precipitation in the coming decades. The effect of climate warming on winter wheat yield in the future decades was speculated by the past yield and climate data in last decades, and the possible water use efficiency in the future decades was calculated. The results indicate that climate warming would increase winter ...

  14. Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) mitigation in seedling cotton using strip tillage and winter cover crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toews, Michael D; Tubbs, R Scott; Wann, Dylan Q; Sullivan, Dana

    2010-10-01

    Thrips are the most consistent insect pests of seedling cotton in the southeastern United States, where symptoms can range from leaf curling to stand loss. In a 2 year study, thrips adults and immatures were sampled at 14, 21 and 28 days after planting on cotton planted with a thiamethoxam seed treatment in concert with crimson clover, wheat or rye winter cover crops and conventional or strip tillage to investigate potential differences in thrips infestations. Densities of adult thrips, primarily Frankliniella fusca (Hinds), peaked on the first sampling date, whereas immature densities peaked on the second sampling date. Regardless of winter cover crop, plots that received strip tillage experienced significantly fewer thrips at each sampling interval. In addition, assessment of percentage ground cover 42 days after planting showed that there was more than twice as much ground cover in the strip-tilled plots compared with conventionally tilled plots. Correlation analyses showed that increased ground cover was inversely related to thrips densities that occurred on all three sampling dates in 2008 and the final sampling date in 2009. Growers who utilize strip tillage and a winter cover crop can utilize seed treatments for mitigation of early-season thrips infestation.

  15. Assessing solar energy and water use efficiencies in winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrar, G.; Hipps, L. E.; Kanemasu, E. T.

    1982-01-01

    The water use and solar energy conversion efficiencies of two cultivars of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L., vars, Centurk and Newton) planted at three densities, were examined during a growing season. Water use, based on soil moisture depletion, was the lowest under the light, and the highest under the heavy planting densities of both cultivars. Water use efficiency of medium and heavy planting densities were greater than the light planting densities in both cultivars. The canopy radiation extinction coefficients of both cultivars increased with increases in planting density. Efficiency of operation interception of photosynthetically active radiation by both cultivars improved from the time of jointing until anthesis, and then decreased during senescence. The efficiency of the conversion of intercepted radiation to dry matter (biochemical efficiency) decreased throughout the growing season both cultivars. The interception, biochemical, and photosynthetic efficiencies improved as planting density increased.

  16. Genetic gains in wheat in Turkey: Winter wheat for dryland conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut Keser

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat breeders in Turkey have been developing new varieties since the 1920s, but few studies have evaluated the rates of genetic improvement. This study determined wheat genetic gains by evaluating 22 winter/facultative varieties released for rainfed conditions between 1931 and 2006. The study was conducted at three locations in Turkey during 2008–2012, with a total of 21 test sites. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four replicates in 2008 and 2009 and three replicates in 2010–2012. Regression analysis was conducted to determine genetic progress over time. Mean yield across all 21 locations was 3.34 t ha−1, but varied from 1.11 t ha−1 to 6.02 t ha−1 and was highly affected by moisture stress. Annual genetic gain was 0.50% compared to Ak-702, or 0.30% compared to the first modern landmark varieties. The genetic gains in drought-affected sites were 0.75% compared to Ak-702 and 0.66% compared to the landmark varieties. Modern varieties had both improved yield potential and tolerance to moisture stress. Rht genes and rye translocations were largely absent in the varieties studied. The number of spikes per unit area decreased by 10% over the study period, but grains spike−1 and 1000-kernel weight increased by 10%. There were no significant increases in harvest index, grain size, or spike fertility, and no significant decrease in quality over time. Future use of Rht genes and rye translocations in breeding programs may increase yield under rainfed conditions. Keywords: Genetic gain, Rainfed wheat production, Winter wheat, Yield

  17. Some correlations between parameters of winter wheat technological quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jindřiška Kučerová

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of three-year trials (1999 to 2001 conducted with six winter wheat varieties in which was studied the grain yield and parameters of technological quality. Varieties of wheat come from four different localities of the Czech Republic. The most favourable weather conditions, a lot of precipitation and high temperature in the course of ripening from three years were proved in the year 2000. The best grain yield were in 2001 (average of sites 8.84 t/ha and variety Semper, worst quality, had the highest grain yield of 9.17 t/ha, the least grain yield had Sulamit, best quality (7.94 t/ha. The laboratory analysis revealed negative correlation between grain yield and baking quality. The number of statistically highly significant correlations among bread-making quality parameters too.The negative correlation was of grain yield and grain volume mass (P < 0.05, Zeleny test and protein content taken as a whole for three years (P < 0.01. The correlation of loaf volume, which is the traits of baking quality and Zeleny test (r = 0.6016**, protein content (r = 0.5932**, dough stability (r = 0.2898** and flour water absorption (r = 0.3632** was positive (P < 0.01.

  18. Changes in reflectance anisotropy of wheat crop during different phenophases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunagaria, Manoj M.; Patel, Haridas R.

    2017-04-01

    The canopy structure of wheat changes significantly with growth stages and leads to changes in reflectance anisotropy. Bidirectional reflectance distribution function characterises the reflectance anisotropy of the targets, which can be approximated. Spectrodirectional reflectance measurements on wheat crop were acquired using a field goniometer system. The bidirectional reflectance spectra were acquired at 54 view angles to cover the hemispheric span up to 60° view zenith. The observations were made during early growth stages till maturity of the crop. The anisotropy was not constant for all wavelengths and anisotropic factors clearly revealed spectral dependence, which was more pronounced in near principal plane. In near infrared, wheat canopy expressed less reflectance anisotropy because of higher multiple scattering. The broad hotspot signature was noticeable in reflectance of canopy whenever view and solar angles were close. Distinct changes in bidirectional reflectance distribution function were observed during booting to flowering stages as the canopy achieves more uniformity, height and head emergence. The function clearly reveals bowl shape during heading to early milking growth stages of the crop. Late growth stages show less prominent gap and shadow effects. Anisotropy index revealed that wheat exhibits changes in reflectance anisotropy with phenological development and with spectral bands.

  19. Effects Of Spring Herbicide Treatments On Winter Wheat Growth And Grain Yield*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamouz P.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Herbicides provide a low-cost solution for protecting crops from significant yield losses. If weed infestations are below damage thresholds, however, then herbicide application is unnecessary and can even lead to yield loss. A small-plot field trial was conducted to examine the effect of herbicides on winter wheat yields. Weeds were removed manually from the trial area before herbicide application. Twenty-four treatments were tested in four replications. Treatment 1 consisted of an untreated weed-free control, whereas the other treatments comprised applications of the following herbicides and their combinations: metsulfuron-methyl + tribenuron-methyl (4.95 + 9.99 g ha−1, pinoxaden (30 g ha−1, fluroxypyr (175 g ha−1, and clopyralid (120 g ha−1. Water (250 l ha−1 or a urea-ammonium nitrate fertilizer solution (UAN, 120.5 l ha−1 was used as the herbicide carrier. Crop injury 30 days after treatment and yield loss were recorded. Results showed minor crop injury by herbicides and their combinations when applied without UAN and moderate injury caused by UAN in combination with herbicides. Yield losses reached 5.3% and 4.3% in those treatments where all of the tested herbicides were applied with and without UAN, respectively. The effect of all treatments on crop yield was, however, statistically insignificant (P = 0.934.

  20. ROLE OF TILLAGE AND APPLICATION OF HERBICIDE TRIZLAK FOR GROWING OF WINTER WHEAT ON GRAIN QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Bobkova

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of main soil treatment methods and herbicide Trizlak on the phytosanitary planting condition, productivity and grain quality was examined on the base of winter wheat Moscow 39. During study it was determined that the winter wheat under-reacted on the main soil treatment methods and the influence of the herbicide Trizlak was statistically proved on the plowing. While cultivating the winter wheat in the Orel region it's possible to avoid plowing till zero tillage, that will reduce grain costs of production to a great extent.

  1. Persistence of Imazapyr herbicide in the soil and its phytotoxic effect on winter and summer crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIANELLI, V

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Imazapyr is a broad-spectrum herbicide of the imidazolinone chemical family that in Argentina is used on imidazolinone-tolerant corn and sunflower (Clearfield. Determining the persistence of imazapyr is important since its level of activity in the soil is high. The objective of this study was to determine the phytotoxic persistence of two rates of imazapyr applied on Clearfield sunflower through of its phytotoxic effect on winter and summer crops. The experiment was performed in a clay loam soil of Balcarce (Buenos Aires Province by mean of a randomized complete block design with four replications. Treatments included 80 and 160 g of imazapyr of active ingredient (a.i./ha and a non-treated control. Soil samples were collected every month after the sunflower harvest (March 2003. At the end of the sampling period, a bioassay in a growth chamber was performed with corn wheat, canola and non tolerant sunflower and corn. Concurrently, non-imidazolinone tolerant corn and sunflower as well as potato were seeded in the field and their yield was measured. Results were analyzed by variance analysis (p = 0.5. Duration of phytotoxic persistence determined with the bioassay could be aligned as follows: wheat > canola > sunflower = corn. In the field, none of the crops showed negative effects indicating absence of residual effect in the crops.

  2. Impact of grazing dairy steers on winter rye (Secale cereale) versus winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) and effects on meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and consumer acceptability of organic beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Hannah N; Heins, Bradley J; Delate, Kathleen; Turnbull, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Meat from Holstein and crossbred organic dairy steers finished on winter rye and winter wheat pastures was evaluated and compared for meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and consumer acceptability. Two adjacent 4-ha plots were established with winter rye or winter wheat cover crops in September 2015 at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center (Morris, MN). During spring of 2015, 30 steers were assigned to one of three replicate breed groups at birth. Breed groups were comprised of: Holstein (HOL; n = 10), crossbreds comprised of Montbéliarde, Viking Red, and HOL (MVH; n = 10), and crossbreds comprised of Normande, Jersey, and Viking Red (NJV; n = 10). Dairy steers were maintained in their respective replicate breed group from three days of age until harvest. After weaning, steers were fed an organic total mixed ration of organic corn silage, alfalfa silage, corn, soybean meal, and minerals until spring 2016. Breed groups were randomly assigned to winter rye or winter wheat and rotationally grazed from spring until early summer of 2016. For statistical analysis, independent variables were fixed effects of breed, forage, and the interaction of breed and forage, with replicated group as a random effect. Specific contrast statements were used to compare HOL versus crossbred steers. Fat from crossbreds had 13% greater omega-3 fatty acids than HOL steers. Furthermore, the omega-6/3 ratio was 14% lower in fat from crossbreds than HOL steers. For consumer acceptability, steaks from steers grazed on winter wheat had greater overall liking than steers grazed on winter rye. Steak from crossbreeds had greater overall liking than HOL steers. The results suggest improvement in fatty acids and sensory attributes of beef from crossbred dairy steers compared to HOL steers, as well as those finished on winter wheat compared to winter rye.

  3. Impact of grazing dairy steers on winter rye (Secale cereale versus winter wheat (Triticum aestivum and effects on meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and consumer acceptability of organic beef.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah N Phillips

    Full Text Available Meat from Holstein and crossbred organic dairy steers finished on winter rye and winter wheat pastures was evaluated and compared for meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and consumer acceptability. Two adjacent 4-ha plots were established with winter rye or winter wheat cover crops in September 2015 at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center (Morris, MN. During spring of 2015, 30 steers were assigned to one of three replicate breed groups at birth. Breed groups were comprised of: Holstein (HOL; n = 10, crossbreds comprised of Montbéliarde, Viking Red, and HOL (MVH; n = 10, and crossbreds comprised of Normande, Jersey, and Viking Red (NJV; n = 10. Dairy steers were maintained in their respective replicate breed group from three days of age until harvest. After weaning, steers were fed an organic total mixed ration of organic corn silage, alfalfa silage, corn, soybean meal, and minerals until spring 2016. Breed groups were randomly assigned to winter rye or winter wheat and rotationally grazed from spring until early summer of 2016. For statistical analysis, independent variables were fixed effects of breed, forage, and the interaction of breed and forage, with replicated group as a random effect. Specific contrast statements were used to compare HOL versus crossbred steers. Fat from crossbreds had 13% greater omega-3 fatty acids than HOL steers. Furthermore, the omega-6/3 ratio was 14% lower in fat from crossbreds than HOL steers. For consumer acceptability, steaks from steers grazed on winter wheat had greater overall liking than steers grazed on winter rye. Steak from crossbreeds had greater overall liking than HOL steers. The results suggest improvement in fatty acids and sensory attributes of beef from crossbred dairy steers compared to HOL steers, as well as those finished on winter wheat compared to winter rye.

  4. Improving wheat simulation capabilities in Australia from a cropping systems perspective. III. The integrated wheat model (I-WHEAT).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinke, H.; Hammer, G.L.; Keulen, van H.; Rabbinge, R.

    1998-01-01

    Previous work has identified several short-comings in the ability of four spring wheat and one barley model to simulate crop processes and resource utilization. This can have important implications when such models are used within systems models where final soil water and nitrogen conditions of one

  5. Short Communication A vetch winter cover crop can improve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... after a fallow (no winter cover crop) for most of the cases when the N fertiliser application rate was below 180 kg ha−1. Where no N fertiliser was applied, maize yields after vetch were 4.71 and 7.26 tons ha−1 for the first and second seasons, translating into an N fertiliser replacement value of approximately 90 kg N ha−1.

  6. Changes in the elemental composition of winter wheat plants caused by the action of Megafol and retardants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Miroshnichenko

    2017-08-01

    increase in the content of nutrients in winter wheat of the Podolyanka variety. It should be noted that wheat grain of the Smuglyanka variety contained a significantly higher pool of macro- and trace elements than the Podolyanka variety. It was established that the treatment of Podolyanka winter wheat varieties by mepiquat-chloride and ethephon (Terpal, 1.5 l/ha positively influenced the accumulation of potassium, magnesium and calcium and manganese, copper and zinc in the grain. We found that foliar application of compositions of amino acids simultaneously with retardants can reduce the negative action of PGRs on formation of the harvest in conditions of drought and influence the maintenance of composition of inorganic elements in the plants and in the grain. The composition of retardants with the content of cyclohexadione derivative (Medax Top also significantly influenced the changes in the content of inorganic elements in plants and grains. We note the significant increase in the content of magnesium in the leaves and in grain due to the action of Medax Top. These differences in reaction of winter wheat varieties to the action of retardants of the class of cyclohexadione are important for clarifying the systems of nutrition of crops in intensive growing technologies, especially in the conditions of drought and high temperatures. Reduction in the pools of a number of inorganic elements in plants, for example iron, by the action of retardants may be due to the constraints on the entry of these elements from the poor soils of the Polissya zone and should be compensated via foliar nutrition. Also, the peculiarities of the activity of plant growth regulators have been shown to indicate a close relationship between signal systems of plants and changes in ionome.

  7. Automated irrigation systems for wheat and tomato crops in arid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results revealed that the water use efficiency (WUE) and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) were typically higher in the AIS than in the conventional irrigation control system (CIS). Under the AIS treatment, the WUE and IWUE values were 1.64 and 1.37 k·gm-3 for wheat, and 7.50 and 6.50 kg·m-3 for tomato crops; ...

  8. Stem base rot of winter wheat by Fusarium spp. - causes and effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Narkiewicz-Jodko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to determine the influence of weather conditions and a degree of weed infestation on the incidence of stem bases rot (Fusarium spp. of winter wheat cultivars as well as their yield. The winter wheat cultivars (Kobra, Korweta, Mikon, Zyta were investigated (2000-2002 in the field where the following herbicides: Apyros 75 WG + Atpolan, Affinity 50,75 WG, Attribut 70 WG were applied. It has been shown the occurrence of stem base rot (Fusarium spp. depended mainly on weather conditions. The application of the herbicides improved the plant health. The stem base rot on winter wheat was caused by Fusarium spp., specially F. culmorum. The decrease in winter wheat yield depended on weather conditions, weed infestation and the occurrence of stem base rot (Fusarium spp..

  9. Biomass and nutrient cycling by winter cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Koefender

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cover crops are of fundamental importance for the sustainability of the no-tillage system, to ensure soil coverage and to provide benefits for the subsequent crop. The objective of this study was to evaluate the production of biomass and the content and accumulation of nutrients by winter cover crops. The experimental design used in the experiment was a randomized complete block with four replications and six treatments: oilseed radish, vetch, black oats, vetch + black oats, vetch + oilseed radish and fallow. Black oat, oilseed radish in single cultivation and black oat + vetch and vetch + oilseed radish intercroppings showed higher dry matter production. Vetch + oilseed radish intercropping demonstrates higher performance regarding cycling of nutrients, with higher accumulations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Cu, Zn, Fe, Na and B.

  10. Organically vs conventionally grown winter wheat: effects on grain yield, technological quality, and on phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of bran and refined flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoncini, Marco; Antichi, Daniele; Silvestri, Nicola; Ciantelli, Giulia; Sgherri, Cristina

    2015-05-15

    Since organic food is widely assumed to have a better nutritional quality than conventional food, our aim was to study the effects of organic vs conventional cropping systems on yield and the phenolic composition of winter wheat cv. 'Bologna'. Although organic wheat yielded less than conventional wheat, mainly due to the nitrogen shortage, and its bread-making quality was lower, the cultivation system did not affect the total amounts of phenolics and phenolic acids. Of the eight phenolic acids identified, only ferulic acid was influenced by the cultivation system. Phenolic composition and quantity were significantly affected by the milling fraction (bran or white flour): phenolics were more concentrated in the bran, which showed the highest antioxidant power. Under the conditions adopted in this study, an organic cropping system can maintain or even increase the health properties of the wheat milled products, provided a reduction in grain yield is accepted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Winter wheat optimizes allocation in response to carbon limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianbei; Hammerbacher, Almuth; Trumbore, Susan; Hartmann, Henrik

    2016-04-01

    • Plant photosynthesis is not carbon-saturated at current atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) thus carbon allocation priority is of critical importance in determining plant response to environmental changes, including increasing [CO2]. • We quantified the percentage of daytime net assimilation (A) allocated to whole-plant nighttime respiration (R) and structural growth (SG), nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) and secondary metabolites (SMs) during winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) vegetative growth (over 4 weeks) at glacial, ambient, and elevated [CO2] (170, 390 and 680 ppm). • We found that R/A remained relatively constant (11-14%) across [CO2] treatments, whereas plants allocated less C to growth and more C to export at low [CO2] than elevated [CO2]; low [CO2] grown plants tended to invest overall less C into NSC and SMs than to SG due to reduced NSC availability; while leaf SMs/NSC was greater at 170 ppm than at 680 ppm [CO2] this was the opposite for root SMs/NSC; biomass, especially NSC, were preferentially allocated to leaves instead of stems and roots, likely to relieve C limitation induced by low [CO2]. • We conclude that C limitation may force plants to reduce C allocation to long-term survival in order to secure short-term survival. Furthermore, they optimized allocation of the available resource by concentrating biomass and storage to those tissues responsible for assimilation.

  12. Sustainable use of winter Durum wheat landraces under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research expected to determine new durum wheat germplasm resistant to biotic and abiotic stress factors. Eighty durum wheat lines selected from eighteen diverse landraces were tested together with eight durum wheat cultivars under reliable yellow rust epidemic during two successive years. Average infection ...

  13. Physiological role of amino acids in the nutrition of highly productive varieties of winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. В. Швартау

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To define the role of fertilizers containing amino acids in the nutrition systems of highly productive varieties of winter wheat. Methods. Field studies, biochemical technique, analytical procedure, statistical evalua­tion. Results. In the process of investigations, sufficiently high activity of fertilizers containing amino acids was established when applying them for leaf-feeding. Fertilizers based on algae (Megafol, Megafol Protein, Terra-Sorb foliar and animal (Izabion hydrolysates appeared to be very effective for increasing yield of culture. It was found that in case of low doses of mineral nitrogen, fertilizers helped to increase both the yield and quality indicators of high-yielding wheat variety. Conclusions. It was defined that fertilizers that include amino acids are highly effective compositions containing plant-available nitrogen in organic form and can be promising for application as antistress agents and improving efficiency of macro- and microelements use by cultivated plants. They are essential components of modern technologies for cultivation of highly productive varieties and hybrids in crop production of Ukraine.

  14. Performance evaluation of selected crop yield-water use models for wheat crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. E. Igbadun

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Crop yield-water use models that provide useful information about the exact form of crop response to different amounts of water used by the crop throughout its growth stages and those that provide adequate information for decisions on optimal use of water in the farm were evaluated. Three crop yield models: Jensen (1968, Minhas et al., (1974 and Bras and Cordova (1981 additive type models were studied. Wheat (Triticum aestivum was planted at the Institute for Agricultural Research Farm during the 1995/96 and 1996/97 irrigation seasons of November to March. The data collected from the field experiments during the 1995/96 planting season were used to calibrate the models and their stress sensitivity factors estimated for four selected growth stages of the wheat crop. The ability of the model to predict grain yield of wheat with the estimated stress sensitivity factors was evaluated by comparing predicted grain yields by each model with those obtained in the field during the 1996/97 season. The three models performed fairly well in predicting grain yields, as the predicted results were not significantly different from the field measured grain yield at 5% level of significance.

  15. Natural Lactic Acid Bacteria Population and Silage Fermentation of Whole-crop Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Kuikui; Wang, Yanping; Cai, Yimin; Pang, Huili

    2015-01-01

    Winter wheat is a suitable crop to be ensiled for animal feed and China has the largest planting area of this crop in the world. During the ensiling process, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) play the most important role in the fermentation. We investigated the natural population of LAB in whole-crop wheat (WCW) and examined the quality of whole-crop wheat silage (WCWS) with and without LAB inoculants. Two Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum strains, Zhengzhou University 1 (ZZU 1) selected from corn and forage and grass 1 (FG 1) from a commercial inoculant, were used as additives. The silages inoculated with LAB strains (ZZU 1 and FG 1) were better preserved than the control, with lower pH values (3.5 and 3.6, respectively) (p<0.05) and higher contents of lactic acid (37.5 and 34.0 g/kg of fresh matter (FM), respectively) (p<0.05) than the control. Sixty LAB strains were isolated from fresh material and WCWS without any LAB inoculation. These LAB strains were divided into the following four genera and six species based on their phenotypic, biochemical and phylogenetic characteristics: Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, Leuconostoc citreum, Weissella cibaria, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Lactobacillus buchneri, and Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum. However, the prevalent LAB, which was predominantly heterofermentative (66.7%), consisted of Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, Leuconostoc citreum, Weissella cibaria, and Lactobacillus buchneri. This study revealed that most of isolated LAB strains from control WCWS were heterofermentative and could not grow well at low pH condition; the selective inoculants of Lactobacillus strains, especially ZZU 1, could improve WCWS quality significantly. PMID:26104520

  16. Fusarium head blight (FHB and Fusarium populations in grain of winter wheat grown in different cultivation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenc Leszek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium head blight (FHB incidence, and colonisation of grain by Fusarium species on winter wheat grown in organic, integrated, and conventional systems as well as in monoculture, were studied locally in Poland, from 2002 to 2010. Fusarium head blight incidence differed throughout the study years. It was found to occur the most where rainfall was highest and where rainfall was the most prolonged before, during, and after flowering of wheat. Fusarium head blight incidence was generally less on wheat grown organically than on wheat grown in other systems. In some years, FHB was noted more in monocultures than in other systems. Fusarium poae was the most common species of FHB populations in wheat kernels, followed by F. avenaceum and F. tricinctum. Other species which occurred more rarely or sporadically were: F. culmorum, F. equiseti, F. graminearum, F. langsethiae, F. oxysporum, and F. sporotrichioides. There were found to be significant effects of the cropping system on grain colonisation by Fusarium in some years. There was a positive correlation between FHB incidence and number of kernels colonised and damaged by Fusarium, in all four systems. Inferences were drawn concerning the effects of different procedures in different production systems and the possible value for controlling FHB

  17. Research on the Effects of Water Stress on Growth Traits and Water Use Efficiency of Winter Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Sun Shuhong; Liu Ling; Yang Shusheng

    2015-01-01

    This research about the effects of water stress at different growth stages on the crop growth traits has a practical significance in guiding water-saving irrigation. The box test method is adopted to test the water stress of winter wheat at different stages, observe the plant height, leaf area and yield, and analyze the water use efficiency under the condition of water stress. The results show that the water stress in each growth period will play an inhibiting role in the plant height and lea...

  18. Leaching of nitrate and phosphorus after autumn and spring application of separated solid manures to winter wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter; Rubæk, Gitte Holton

    2012-01-01

    ) leaching. We studied the leaching of nitrate and P in lysimeters with winter wheat crops (Triticum aestivum L.) after autumn incorporation versus spring surface application of solid manure fractions, and we compared also spring applications of mineral N fertilizer and pig slurry. Leaching was compared...... N). Total P leaching was 40–165 g P/ha/yr, and the application of solid manure in autumn did not increase P leaching. The nitrogen fertilizer replacement value of solid manure N was similar after autumn and spring application (17–32% of total N). We conclude that from an environmental perspective...

  19. Substantial N2O emission during the initial period of the wheat season due to the conversion of winter-flooded paddy to rice-wheat rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Lin, Shan; Wu, Lei; Zhao, Jingsong; Wang, Milan; Zhu, Bo; Mo, Yongliang; Hu, Ronggui; Chadwick, Dave; Shaaban, Muhammad

    2017-12-01

    Winter-flooded paddy is a typical rice-based cropping system to conserve water for the next rice growing season. Conversion of winter-flooded paddy to rice-wheat rotation has been widely adopted with the development of the water conservation infrastructure and the government's encouragement of winter agriculture in China in recent decades. However, the effects of this conversion on N2O emission are still not clear. Three winter-flooded paddy fields were studied in a split-plot design. One-half of each field was converted to rice-wheat rotation (RW), and the other half remained winter-flooded as rice-fallow (RF). Each plot of RW and RF was further divided into four subplots: three subplots for conventional N fertilizer application (RW-NC and RF-NC) and one for unfertilized treatment (RW-N0 and RF-N0). Conversion of RF-NC to RW-NC increased the N2O emission up to 6.6-fold in the first year and 4.4-fold in the second year. Moreover, N2O emissions for the entire wheat season were 1.74-3.74 kg N ha-1 and 0.24-0.31 kg N ha-1 from RW-NC and RW-N0, respectively, and accounted for 78%-94% and 78%-97% of the total annual amount. N2O emitted during the first 11-21 days of the wheat season from RW-NC was 1.48-3.28 kg N ha-1 and that from RW-N0 was 0.14-0.17 kg N ha-1, which contributed to 66%-82% and 45%-71% of the total annual amount, respectively. High N2O fluxes occurred when the soil water-filled pore space (WFPS) was in the range of 68%-72% and the ratio of available carbon to nitrogen in the soil was rice-wheat rotation increased N2O emissions that could be mitigated by controlling the soil moisture and ratio of available soil carbon to nitrogen.

  20. Extraction of Sensitive Bands for Monitoring the Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum Growth Status and Yields Based on the Spectral Reflectance.

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    Chao Wang

    Full Text Available To extract the sensitive bands for estimating the winter wheat growth status and yields, field experiments were conducted. The crop variables including aboveground biomass (AGB, soil and plant analyzer development (SPAD value, yield, and canopy spectra were determined. Statistical methods of correlation analysis, partial least squares (PLS, and stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR were used to extract sensitive bands and estimate the crop variables with calibration set. The predictive model based on the selected bands was tested with validation set. The results showed that the crop variables were significantly correlated with spectral reflectance. The major spectral regions were selected with the B-coefficient and variable importance on projection (VIP parameter derived from the PLS analysis. The calibrated SMLR model based on the selected wavelengths demonstrated an excellent performance as the R2, TC, and RMSE were 0.634, 0.055, and 843.392 for yield; 0.671, 0.017, and 1.798 for SPAD; and 0.760, 0.081, and 1.164 for AGB. These models also performed accurately and robustly by using the field validation data set. It indicated that these wavelengths retained in models were important. The determined wavelengths for yield, SPAD, and AGB were 350, 410, 730, 1015, 1185 and 1245 nm; 355, 400, 515, 705, 935, 1090, and 1365 nm; and 470, 570, 895, 1170, 1285, and 1355 nm, respectively. This study illustrated that it was feasible to predict the crop variables by using the multivariate method. The step-by-step procedure to select the significant bands and optimize the prediction model of crop variables may serve as a valuable approach. The findings of this study may provide a theoretical and practical reference for rapidly and accurately monitoring the crop growth status and predicting the yield of winter wheat.

  1. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for field-scale assessment of winter wheat yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šestak, Ivana; Mesić, Milan; Zgorelec, Željka; Perčin, Aleksandra

    2017-04-01

    The objective was to evaluate the ability of visible and near infrared spectroscopy to predict winter wheat grain yield, and to compare different prediction models according to the spatial variability. Research was conducted on experimental field in Western Pannonian subregion of Croatia. Reflectance measurements (350-1050 nm) were acquired from winter wheat flag leaves grown under nine mineral N fertilization treatments ranging from 0 to 300 kg N ha-1, during the stem extension stage of the year 2010. Linear statistical models (MLR - multiple linear regression, PLSR - partial least squares regression) and non-linear pattern analysis (ANN - artificial neural networks) were generated to estimate grain yield, based on the first derivative of reflectance in form of principal components (PC) and vegetation indices (VI). ANN models were the most efficient in capturing the complex link between yield and leaf reflectance spectra (train and test dataset with r = 0.95 and r = 0.92, RMSEC = 2.57 dt ha-1 and RMSEP = 4.41 dt ha-1, respectively) compared to corresponding VIs, MLR and PLSR models. Performance of the 8 factor PLSR model indicated the highest consistency due to the small difference between RMSEC (4.10 dt ha-1) and RMSEP (4.61 dt ha-1) besides high prediction ability (validation R2 = 0.84). Correlations between measured and predicted data were found to be significantly very strong and complete with the highest correlation coefficient obtained for ANN model (r = 0.94, p explore within-field and intra-treatment differences in crop productivity needed for assessing good calibration model. Results indicated similarities between the maps generated from the equations and the one generated from field measurements, which is in agreement with high portion of yield variability explained by spectral data (p networks, ordinary kriging

  2. Effects of external potassium (k supply on drought tolerances of two contrasting winter wheat cultivars.

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    Jiguang Wei

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Drought is a common stress limiting crops growth and productivities worldwide. Water deficit may increase cellular membrane permeability, resulting in K outflow. Internal K starvation may disorder plant metabolism and limit plant growth. However, it is seldom reported about the effects of external K on drought tolerance of contrasting wheat cultivars. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A hydroponics experiment was carried out in a non-controlled greenhouse. Seedlings of drought-tolerant SN16 and intolerant JM22 were simultaneously treated by five levels of K2CO3 (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 mM and two levels of PEG6000 (0, 20% for 7 days. External K2CO3 significantly increased shoot K(+ content, water potential, chlorophyll content as well as gas exchange, but decreased electrolyte leakage (EL and MDA content in both cultivars under PEG6000 stress. Antioxidant enzymes activities were up-regulated by PEG6000 while external K2CO3 reduced those changes. Molecular basis was explained by measuring the expression levels of antioxidant enzymes related genes. Shoot and root biomass were also increased by K2CO3 supply under drought stress. Although adequate K2CO3 application enhanced plant growth for both cultivars under drought stress, SN16 was better than JM22 due to its high drought tolerance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Adequate external K may effectively protect winter wheat from drought injuries. We conclude that drought-tolerant wheat combined with adequate external K supply may be a promising strategy for better growth in arid and semi-arid regions.

  3. Response of Winter Wheat Grain Yield and Phosphorus Uptake to Foliar Phosphite Fertilization

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    Muaid S. Ali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major problems that potentially hinders the use of foliar fertilization as a tool to improve nutrient use efficiency is the lack of effective formulations. A phosphite based product, Nutri-phite (3% N, 8.7% P, and 5.8% K was used as model phosphite formulation for foliar application in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Five field trials were established in the fall of 2009 and 2010 at Perkins, Perry, and Morrison, OK. Treatments encompassed the application of nitrogen (N at 100 or 75% of crop need and phosphorus at 100 (P 100% and 80% (P 80% sufficiency with and without Nutri-phite. Nutri-phite was applied at one and/or two stages of wheat; GS 13 to 14 and GS 49 to 53 at the rate of 433 and 148 g ha−1 P and N, respectively. Grain yield was increased by Nutri-phite treatments, especially at Morrison. Grain P concentration of plots treated with two applications of Nutri-phite ranged from 13 to 55% more than the nontreated and standard NP received plots at Perkins in 2009/10 and Perry in 2010/11. Grain P uptake was increased due to application of Nutri-phite at Perkins in 2009/10 and Morrison and Perry in 2010/11. Combined over three year-locations, Nutri-phite increased grain P concentration by 11.6%. The higher grain P concentration of plots treated with Nutri-phite compared to the other treatments clearly demonstrates its potential in improving P status of wheat grain.

  4. Functional and nutritional characteristics of soft wheat grown in no-till and conventional cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of no-till vs. conventional farming practices were evaluated on soft wheat functional and nutritional characteristics, including kernel physical properties, whole wheat composition, antioxidant activity and end-product quality. Soft white winter wheat cv. ORCF 102 was evaluated over a tw...

  5. Functional and nutritional characteristics of wheat grown in organic and conventional cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of organic vs. conventional farming practices on wheat functional and nutritional characteristics were compared. Soft white winter wheat and hard red spring wheat were obtained from long-term replicated field plots near Pullman, Washington and Bozeman, Montana. Test weight, kernel weight...

  6. INFLUENCE OF REDUCED SOIL TILLAGE AND NITROGEN FERTILIZATION AT WINTER WHEAT AND SOYBEAN GRAIN YIELDS AT BARANYA HIPOGLEY SOIL TYPE

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    Miro Stošić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available During the three years (2006/2007-2008/2009 stationary research of reduced soil tillage had been conducted for winter wheat and soybean, at marsh gley (hipogley hydromeliorated soil type of Baranya. The research has been conducted with eight soil tillage treatments and three nitrogen fertilization treatments set up in split-plot design in four repetitions. Soil tillage treatments consisted of four continued soil tillage systems for both crops: OR-conventional soil tillage, TR-multiple diskharrowing, RT-chiseling and diskharrowing, NT-no-tillage and four discontinued soil tillage systems: OsTp-OR for soybean TR for w. wheat in the forthcoming season: OpTs-OR for w.wheat TR for soybean in the forthcoming season, NpOs-NT for w. wheat OR for soybean in forthcoming season: NsOp-NT for soybean OR for w. wheat in forthcoming season. Nitrogen fertilization treatment had three levels of applied nitrogen: for w.wheat G-1=120, G-2=150, G-3=180 kg N ha -1 and for soybean G-1=35, G-2=70, G-3=110 kg N ha-1. Weather conditions had significant aberrations during 2006/2007 and 2008/2009 (extremely drought seasons, whereas 2007/2008 season was moderately humid. The high and stabile average winter wheat grain yields had been achieved, with statistical difference among years of the research, whereas yield decreased by applied soil tillage systems in the order as follows: RT (7.78 > NsOp (7.75 > OR (7.74 > OpTs (7.62 > TR (7.63 > OsTp (7.58 > NpOs (6.95 > NT (6.92 t ha-1, with NpOs and NT treatments recorded significantly lower yields in comparison with OR treatment. According to three year averages, normal and relatively stabile soybean grain yield has been achieved, with significant difference among years, whereas soil tillage systems showed the following decrease order: NpOs (2.62 > OR (2.58 > OsTp (2.56 > NsOp (2.49 > TR (2.46 = RT (2.46 > NT (2.42 > OpTs (2.35 t ha-1. In comparison with OR treatment, only OpTs had significantly lower soybean grain yield. The

  7. Forms of inorganic phosphorus in soil under different long term soil tillage systems and winter crops

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    Tales Tiecher

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of crops with different capacity of P uptake and use under long-term soil tillage systems can affect the distribution of P cycling and inorganic forms in the soil, as a result of higher or lower use efficiency of P applied in fertilizers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of long-term cultivation of different winter species under tillage systems on the distribution of inorganic P forms in the soil. In 1986, the experiment was initiated with six winter crops (blue lupin, hairy vetch, oat, oilseed radish, wheat and fallow on a Rhodic Hapludox in southwestern Paraná, under no-tillage (NT and conventional tillage (CT. The application of phosphate fertilizer in NT rows increased inorganic P in the labile and moderately labile forms, and soil disturbance in CT redistributed the applied P in the deeper layers, increasing the moderately labile P concentration in the subsurface layers. Black oat and blue lupin were the most efficient P-recyclers and under NT, they increased the labile P content in the soil surface layers.

  8. Simulation model for longterm management of Avena fatua L. in winter wheat

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    Jäck, Ortrud

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Decision support systems (DSS are used for weed control decisions worldwide. Several DSS for weed management have been published. However they mostly rely on full herbicide dosages and do not take weed population dynamics into account. We developed a modular DSS for long-term Avena fatua L. control in winter wheat. The DSS was parameterized with three year field experiment datasets covering yield loss data, densitydependent population dynamics data as well as data on dose dependent herbicide efficacy and dosedependent population dynamics. The DSS aims to control the A. fatua in the long run. Our hypothesis is that the optimized DSS reduces herbicide input while keeping the population density at low level, maintaining high grain yields and net return. The DSS comprises four sub-models calculating crop yield loss, A. fatua population dynamics as well as dose dependent herbicide efficacy and economics of the weed control decision. The economic sub-model calculates net return in dependency of the herbicide dosage and thus the resulting crop yield. First results of a 10-year simulation showed that herbicide input could be reduced by 40% compared to the economic threshold strategy, while the population density of A. fatua is controlled. Up to now the DSS has been parameterized for the herbicides Ralon Super, Axial 50 and Broadway. The results show the great potential of reducing herbicide input and point out the importance of including population dynamics models into DSS.

  9. Testing efficacy of monthly forecast application in agrometeorology: Winter wheat phenology dynamic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalic, B.; Jankovic, D.; Dekic, Lj; Eitzinger, J.; Firanj Sremac, A.

    2017-02-01

    Use of monthly weather forecast as input meteorological data for agrometeorological forecasting, crop modelling and plant protection can foster promising applications in agricultural production. Operational use of monthly or seasonal weather forecast can help farmers to optimize field operations (fertilizing, irrigation) and protection measures against plant diseases and pests by taking full advantage of monthly forecast information in predicting plant development, pest and disease risks and yield potentials few weeks in advance. It can help producers to obtain stable or higher yield with the same inputs and to minimise losses caused by weather. In Central and South-Eastern Europe ongoing climate change lead to shifts of crops phenology dynamics (i.e. in Serbia 4-8 weeks earlier in 2016 than in previous years) and brings this subject in the front of agronomy science and practice. Objective of this study is to test efficacy of monthly forecast in predicting phenology dynamics of different winter wheat varieties, using phenological model developed by Forecasting and Warning Service of Serbia in plant protection. For that purpose, historical monthly forecast for four months (March 1, 2005 - June 30, 2005) was assimilated from ECMWF MARS archive for 50 ensemble members and control run. Impact of different agroecological conditions is tested by using observed and forecasted data for two locations - Rimski Sancevi (Serbia) and Groß-Enzersdorf (Austria).

  10. Quantifying the risks of winter damage on overwintering crops under future climates: Will low-temperature damage be more likely in warmer climates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vico, G.; Weih, M.

    2014-12-01

    Autumn-sown crops act as winter cover crop, reducing soil erosion and nutrient leaching, while potentially providing higher yields than spring varieties in many environments. Nevertheless, overwintering crops are exposed for longer periods to the vagaries of weather conditions. Adverse winter conditions, in particular, may negatively affect the final yield, by reducing crop survival or its vigor. The net effect of the projected shifts in climate is unclear. On the one hand, warmer temperatures may reduce the frequency of low temperatures, thereby reducing damage risk. On the other hand, warmer temperatures, by reducing plant acclimation level and the amount and duration of snow cover, may increase the likelihood of damage. Thus, warmer climates may paradoxically result in more extensive low temperature damage and reduced viability for overwintering plants. The net effect of a shift in climate is explored by means of a parsimonious probabilistic model, based on a coupled description of air temperature, snow cover, and crop tolerable temperature. Exploiting an extensive dataset of winter wheat responses to low temperature exposure, the risk of winter damage occurrence is quantified under conditions typical of northern temperate latitudes. The full spectrum of variations expected with climate change is explored, quantifying the joint effects of alterations in temperature averages and their variability as well as shifts in precipitation. The key features affecting winter wheat vulnerability to low temperature damage under future climates are singled out.

  11. Crop Sequence Influences on Sustainable Spring Wheat Production in the Northern Great Plains

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    Joseph M. Krupinsky

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Cropping systems in American agriculture are highly successful since World War II, but have become highly specialized, standardized, and simplified to meet the demands of an industrialized food system. Minimal attention has been given to the efficient exploitation of crop diversity and the synergistic and/or antagonistic relationships of crops in crop sequences. Objectives of our research were to determine if previous crop sequences have long-term benefits and/or drawbacks on spring wheat seed yield, seed N concentration, and seed precipitation-use efficiency in the semiarid northern Great Plains, USA. Research was conducted 6 km southwest of Mandan, ND using a 10 × 10 crop matrix technique as a research tool to evaluate multiple crop sequence effects on spring wheat (triticum aestivum L. production in 2004 and 2005. Spring wheat production risks can be mitigated when second year crop residue was dry pea (Pisium sativum L. averaged over all first year crop residues. When compared to spring wheat as second year crop residue in the dry year of 2004, dry pea as the second year residue crop resulted in a 30% spring wheat seed yield increase. Sustainable cropping systems need to use precipitation efficiently for crop production, especially during below average precipitation years like 2004. Precipitation use efficiency average over all treatments, during the below average precipitation year was 23% greater than the above average precipitation year of 2005. Diversifying crops in cropping systems improves production efficiencies and resilience of agricultural systems.

  12. Assessing the Impact of Air Pollution on Grain Yield of Winter Wheat - A Case Study in the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiuwei; Sun, Hongyong; Feike, Til; Zhang, Xiying; Shao, Liwei; Chen, Suying

    2016-01-01

    The major wheat production region of China the North China Plain (NCP) is seriously affected by air pollution. In this study, yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was analyzed with respect to the potential impact of air pollution index under conditions of optimal crop management in the NCP from 2001 to 2012. Results showed that air pollution was especially serious at the early phase of winter wheat growth significantly influencing various weather factors. However, no significant correlations were found between final grain yield and the weather factors during the early growth phase. In contrast, significant correlations were found between grain yield and total solar radiation gap, sunshine hour gap, diurnal temperature range and relative humidity during the late growing phase. To disentangle the confounding effects of various weather factors, and test the isolated effect of air pollution induced changes in incoming global solar radiation on yield under ceteris paribus conditions, crop model based scenario-analysis was conducted. The simulation results of the calibrated Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) model indicated that a reduction in radiation by 10% might cause a yield reduction by more than 10%. Increasing incident radiation by 10% would lead to yield increases of (only) 7%, with the effects being much stronger during the late growing phase compared to the early growing phase. However, there is evidence that APSIM overestimates the effect of air pollution induced changes on radiation, as it does not consider the changes in radiative properties of solar insulation, i.e. the relative increase of diffuse over direct radiation, which may partly alleviate the negative effects of reduced total radiation by air pollution. Concluding, the present study could not detect a significantly negative effect of air pollution on wheat yields in the NCP.

  13. Volatile organic compounds of whole grain soft winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aroma from volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is an indicator of grain soundness and also an important quality attribute of grain foods. To identify the inherent VOCs of wheat grain unaffected by fungal infestation and other extrinsic factors, grains of nine soft wheat varieties were collected at...

  14. Carbon and Water Budgets in Multiple Wheat-Based Cropping Systems in the Inland Pacific Northwest US: Comparison of CropSyst Simulations with Eddy Covariance Measurements

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    Jinshu Chi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Accurate carbon and water flux simulations for croplands are greatly dependent on high quality representation of management practices and meteorological conditions, which are key drivers of the surface-atmosphere exchange processes. Fourteen site-years of carbon and water fluxes were simulated using the CropSyst model over four agricultural sites in the inland Pacific Northwest (iPNW US from October 1, 2011 to September 30, 2015. Model performance for field-scale net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE and evapotranspiration (ET was evaluated by comparing simulations with long-term eddy covariance measurements. The model captured the temporal variations of NEE and ET reasonably well with an overall r of 0.78 and 0.80, and a low RMSE of 1.82 g C m−2 d−1 and 0.84 mm d−1 for NEE and ET, respectively. The model slightly underestimated NEE and ET by 0.51 g C m−2 d−1 and 0.09 mm d−1, respectively. ET simulations showed better agreement with eddy covariance measurements than NEE. The model performed much better for the sites with detailed initial conditions (e.g., SOC content and management practice information (e.g., tillage type. The CropSyst results showed that the winter wheat fields could be annual net carbon sinks or close to neutral with the net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB ranging from 92 to −17 g C m−2, while the spring crop fields were net carbon sources or neutral with an annual NECB of −327 to −3 g C m−2. Simulations for the paired tillage sites showed that the no-till site resulted in lower CO2 emissions for the crop rotations of winter wheat-spring garbanzo, but had higher carbon loss into the atmosphere for spring canola compared to the conventional tillage site. Water budgets did not differ significantly between the two tillage systems. Winter wheat in the high-rainfall area had higher crop yields and water use efficiency but emitted larger amounts of CO2 into the atmosphere than in the low-rainfall area. Based on

  15. Evaluation of Nitrogen Absorption and Use Efficiency in Relay Intercropping of Winter Wheat and Maize

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    A Koocheki

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of nitrogen absorption and use efficiency in relay intercropping for winter wheat and maize, a field experiment was conducted during 2008-2009 at the Agricultural Research Station of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. A randomized block design with three replications was used. Treatments included four combinations of relay intercropping of wheat and maize (three rows of wheat + one row of maize (3:1, three rows of wheat + two rows of maize (3:2, four rows of wheat + two rows of maize (4:2 and six rows of wheat + two rows of maize (6:2 and their monoculture. Results indicated that the effect of relay intercropping on the absorbed nitrogen, nitrogen relative absorption, nitrogen absorption and use efficiency of maize and wheat was significant (p≤0.05. The highest and the lowest nitrogen absorption efficiency of wheat and maize were observed in three rows of wheat + two rows of maize (33.70 and 36.50 kg tissue N content kg-1 soil N and monoculture (14.73 and 19.37 kg tissue N content kg-1 soil N, respectively. Range of nitrogen relative absorption of intercropped wheat and maize were 1.47-1.08 and 0.41-0.54, respectively. Nitrogen use efficiency of wheat and maize were 88.62 and 147.33 kg seed N content kg-1 tissue N content, respectively. In general, relay intercropping of winter wheat with maize increased nitrogen absorption and use efficiency.

  16. Road verges and winter wheat fields as resources for wild bees in agricultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Casper Christian I; Langer, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    The effects of farming system on plant density and flowering of dicotyledonous herbs of high value for bees were investigated in 14 organic and 14 conventional winter wheat fields and adjacent road verges. The organic and conventional winter wheat fields/road verges were paired based on the perce......The effects of farming system on plant density and flowering of dicotyledonous herbs of high value for bees were investigated in 14 organic and 14 conventional winter wheat fields and adjacent road verges. The organic and conventional winter wheat fields/road verges were paired based...... on the percentage of semi-natural habitats in the surrounding landscape at 1-km scale. Mean density of high value bee plants per Raunkiaer circle was significantly higher in organic winter wheat fields and their adjacent road verges than in their conventionally farmed counterparts. The effect of organic farming...... was even more pronounced on the flowering stage of high value bee plants, with 10-fold higher mean density of flowering plants in organic fields than in conventional fields and 1.9-fold higher in road verges bordering organic fields than in those bordering conventional fields. In summary, organic farming...

  17. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE SPECIES OF BEETLES (INSECTA: COLEOPTERA FROM WHEAT CROP

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    Mihai Tălmaciu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the species of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera between in wheat crops from Tişiţa, in Vrancea county. The observations were made in a crop of wheat in 2013, who were placed the soil traps type Barber, during the two months, May and June. It was used three variants: • Variant 1 - consumption wheat untreated • Variant 2 - consumption wheat treaty • Variant 3 - treated wheat seed The gathering of samples from the traps was done periodically, every 12-15 days. The most species frequent gathered was: Pentodon idiota, Epicometis hirta, Opatrum sabulosum, Phyllotreta atra, Phyllotreta nemorum, Tanymecus dilaticollis.

  18. Absorption Kinetics and Subcellular Fractionation of Zinc in Winter Wheat in Response to Nitrogen Supply

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    Zhaojun Nie

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N is critical for zinc (Zn absorption into plant roots; this in turn allows for Zn accumulation and biofortification of grain in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L., an important food crop. However, little is known about root morphology and subcellular Zn distribution in response to N treatment at different levels of Zn supply. In this study, two nutrient solution culture experiments were conducted to examine Zn accumulation, Zn absorption kinetics, root morphology, and Zn subcellular distribution in wheat seedlings pre-cultured with different N concentrations. The results showed positive correlations between N and Zn concentrations, and N and Zn accumulation, respectively. The findings suggested that an increase in N supply enhanced root absorption and the root-to-shoot transport of Zn. Nitrogen combined with the high Zn (Zn10 treatment increased the Zn concentration and consequently its accumulation in both shoots and roots. The maximum influx rate (Vmax, root length, surface area, and volume of 14-d-old seedlings, and root growth from 7 to 14 d in the medium N (N7.5 treatment were higher, but the Michaelis constant (Km and minimum equilibrium concentrations (Cmin in this treatment were lower than those in the low (N0.05 and high (N15 N treatments, when Zn was supplied at a high level (Zn10. Meanwhile, there were no pronounced differences in the above root traits between the N0.05Zn0 and N7.5Zn10 treatments. An increase in N supply decreased Zn in cell walls and cell organelles, while it increased Zn in the root soluble fraction. In leaves, an increase in N supply significantly decreased Zn in cell walls and the soluble fraction, while it increased Zn in cell organelles under Zn deficiency, but increased Zn distribution in the soluble fraction under medium and high Zn treatments. Therefore, a combination of medium N and high Zn treatments enhanced Zn absorption, apparently by enhancing Zn membrane transport and stimulating root

  19. Determination of critical pH and Al concentration of acidic Ultisols for wheat and canola crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulaha-Al Baquy, M.; Li, Jiu-Yu; Xu, Chen-Yang; Mehmood, Khalid; Xu, Ren-Kou

    2017-02-01

    Soil acidity has become a principal constraint in dry land crop production systems of acidic Ultisols in tropical and subtropical regions of southern China, where winter wheat and canola are cultivated as important rotational crops. There is little information on the determination of critical soil pH as well as aluminium (Al) concentration for wheat and canola crops. The objective of this study is to determine the critical soil pH and exchangeable aluminium concentration (AlKCl) for wheat and canola production. Two pot cultures with two Ultisols from Hunan and Anhui (SE China) were conducted for wheat and canola crops in a controlled growth chamber. Aluminium sulfate (Al2(SO4)3) and hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2) were used to obtain the target soil pH levels from 3.7 (Hunan) and 3.97 (Anhui) to 6.5. Plant height, shoot dry weight, root dry weight, and chlorophyll content (SPAD value) of wheat and canola were adversely affected by soil acidity in both locations. The critical soil pH and AlKCl of the Ultisol from Hunan for wheat were 5.29 and 0.56 cmol kg-1, respectively. At Anhui, the threshold soil pH and AlKCl for wheat were 4.66 and 1.72 cmol kg-1, respectively. On the other hand, the critical soil pH for canola was 5.65 and 4.87 for the Ultisols from Hunan and Anhui, respectively. The critical soil exchangeable Al for canola cannot be determined from the experiment of this study. The results suggested that the critical soil pH and AlKCl varied between different locations for the same variety of crop, due to the different soil types and their other soil chemical properties. The critical soil pH for canola was higher than that for wheat for both Ultisols, and thus canola was more sensitive to soil acidity. Therefore, we recommend that liming should be undertaken to increase soil pH if it falls below these critical soil pH levels for wheat and canola production.

  20. Characteristics and Gradations of Cultivated Land Fertility for Winter Wheat-Summer Maize Rotation System in North China

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    XUE Yan-dong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available North China area is playing a significant role in grain production in China. Winter wheat-summer maize rotation is a major cropping system in this region. Based on the database of county cultivated land survey of soil fertility in Ministry of Agriculture of the People's Republic of China, total 23 862 samples were selected, 17 945 evaluation units were taken from the superposition of soil map, landuse map and administrative map. 11 evaluation indicators, including precipitation, accumulated temperature, top layer thickness, texture, organic matter, available P, available K, available Zn, salinity and irrigation capacity, were used to evaluate the gradation of the cultivated land fertility. The results showed that the fertility grades from first to sixth of the cultivated land for winter wheat-summer maize rotation system in North China accounted for 11.29%, 19.30%, 28.06%, 21.57%, 11.99% and 7.80%, respectively, and the overall cultivated land fertility upgraded in comparison with the second soil survey. The concentrations of soil organic matter, available P, available K were increasing significantly. In conclusion, this study will provide some basic information and scientific insights into specifically practical fertilization and soil improvement, scientific layout of crop production and adjustment of agricultural structure to promote cultivated land production capacity.

  1. Research on the Effects of Water Stress on Growth Traits and Water Use Efficiency of Winter Wheat

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    Sun Shuhong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research about the effects of water stress at different growth stages on the crop growth traits has a practical significance in guiding water-saving irrigation. The box test method is adopted to test the water stress of winter wheat at different stages, observe the plant height, leaf area and yield, and analyze the water use efficiency under the condition of water stress. The results show that the water stress in each growth period will play an inhibiting role in the plant height and leaf area of winter wheat; the water stress duration at a single stage is relatively short, and rehydration crop has a certain compensatory growth without making a big difference; the continuous water stress stage plays a significantly inhibiting role in the plant height and leaf area.; water stress has a largest effect on the plant height in the elongation period; the heading period suffers from water stress, so the leaf area decreases rapidly; water stress at a single stage in the appropriate period can increase water use efficiency. Regulated deficit irrigation can reduce luxury water consumption, which has a little effect on the yield and plays a guiding role in water saving and stable yield.

  2. The impact of tropospheric ozone pollution on trial plot winter wheat yields in Great Britain - an econometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliakatsou, Evridiki; Bell, J Nigel B; Thirtle, Colin; Rose, Daniel; Power, Sally A

    2010-05-01

    Numerous experiments have demonstrated reductions in the yields of cereal crops due to tropospheric O(3), with losses of up to 25%. However, the only British econometric study on O(3) impacts on winter wheat yields, found that a 10% increase in AOT40 would decrease yields by only 0.23%. An attempt is made here to reconcile these observations by developing AOT40 maps for Great Britain and matching levels with a large number of standardised trial plot wheat yields from many sites over a 13-year period. Panel estimates (repeated measures on the same plots with time) show a 0.54% decrease in yields and it is hypothesised that plant breeders may have inadvertently selected for O(3) tolerance in wheat. Some support for this is provided by fumigations of cultivars of differing introduction dates. A case is made for the use of econometric as well as experimental studies in prediction of air pollution induced crop loss. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Relay cropping of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) improves the profitability of cotton-wheat cropping system in Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjad, Aamer; Anjum, Shakeel Ahmad; Ahmad, Riaz; Waraich, Ejaz Ahmad

    2018-01-01

    Delayed sowing of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in cotton-based system reduces the productivity and profitability of the cotton-wheat cropping system. In this scenario, relay cropping of wheat in standing cotton might be a viable option to ensure the timely wheat sowing with simultaneous improvement in wheat yields and system profitability. This 2-year study (2012-2013 and 2013-2014) aimed to evaluate the influence of sowing dates and relay cropping combined with different management techniques of cotton sticks on the wheat yield, soil physical properties, and the profitability of the cotton-wheat system. The experiment consisted of five treatments viz. (S1) sowing of wheat at the 7th of November by conventional tillage (two disc harrows + one rotavator + two plankings) after the removal of cotton sticks, (S2) sowing of wheat at the 7th of November by conventional tillage (two disc harrows + two plankings) after the incorporation of cotton sticks in the field with a rotavator, (S3) sowing of wheat at the 7th of November as relay crop in standing cotton with broadcast method, (S4) sowing of wheat at the 15th of December by conventional tillage (two disc harrows + one rotavator + two plankings) after the removal of cotton sticks, and (S5) sowing of wheat at the 15th of December by conventional tillage (two disc harrows + two plankings) after the incorporation of cotton sticks in the field with a rotavator. The highest seed cotton yield was observed in the S5 treatment which was statistically similar with the S3 and S4 treatments; seed cotton yield in the S1 and S2 treatments has been the lowest in both years of experimentation. However, the S2 treatment produced substantially higher root length, biological yield, and grain yield of wheat than the other treatments. The lower soil bulk density at 0-10-cm depth was recorded in the S2 treatment which was statistically similar with the S5 treatment during both years of experimentation. The volumetric water contents, net

  4. Colour characteristics of winter wheat grits of different grain size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horváth Zs. H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, wheat has spread all over the world due to its extensive usability. The colour of wheat grits is very important for the milling and baking industry because it determines the colour of the products made from it. The instrumental colour measuring is used, first of all, for durum wheat. We investigated the relationship between colour characteristics and grain size in the case of different hard aestivum wheats. We determined the colour using the CIE (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage 1976 L*, a*, b* colour system measured by MINOLTA CR-300 tristimulus colorimeter. After screening the colour of the wheat fractions of different grain size, grits was measured wet and dry. We determined the L*, a*, b* colour co-ordinates and the whiteness index, too. To evaluate the values we had obtained, we used analysis of variance and regression analysis. We pointed out that the colour of wheat grits of different grain size is dependent on the hardness index of wheat. The lightness co-ordinate (L* of grits of the harder wheat is smaller, while a* and b* co-ordinates are higher. We also found that while grain size rises, the L* co-ordinate decreases and a*, b* values increase in the case of every type of wheat. The colour of grits is determined by the colour of fractions of 250-400 μm in size, independently from the average grain size. The whiteness index and the L* colour co-ordinate have a linear relation (R2 = 0.9151; so, the determination of whiteness index is not necessary. The L* value right characterizes the whiteness of grits.

  5. Estimation of leaf nitrogen concentration on winter wheat by multispectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leemans, Vincent; Marlier, Guillaume; Destain, Marie-France; Dumont, Benjamin; Mercatoris, Benoit

    2017-04-01

    Precision agriculture can be considered as one of the solutions to optimize agricultural practice such as nitrogen fertilization. Nitrogen deficiency is a major limitation to crop production worldwide whereas excess leads to environmental pollution. In this context, some devices were developed as reflectance spot sensors for on-the-go applications to detect leaves nitrogen concentration deduced from chlorophyll concentration. However, such measurements suffer from interferences with the crop growth stage and the water content of plants. The aim of this contribution is to evaluate the nitrogen status in winter wheat by using multispectral imaging. The proposed system is composed of a CMOS camera and a set of filters ranged from 450 nm to 950 nm and mounted on a wheel which moves due to a stepper motor. To avoid the natural irradiance variability, a white reference is used to adjust the integration time. The segmentation of Photosynthetically Active Leaves is performed by using Bayes theorem to extract their mean reflectance. In order to introduce information related to the canopy architecture, i.e. the crop growth stage, textural attributes are also extracted from raw images at different wavelength ranges. Nc was estimated by partial least squares regression (R² = 0.94). The best attribute was homogeneity extracted from the gray level co-occurrence matrix (R² = 0.91). In order to select in limited number of filters, best subset selection was performed. Nc could be estimated by four filters (450 +/- 40 nm, 500 +/- 20 nm, 650 +/- 40 nm, 800 +/- 50 nm) (R² = 0.91).

  6. Flour quality and kernel hardness connection in winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabó B. P.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Kernel hardness is controlled by friabilin protein and it depends on the relation between protein matrix and starch granules. Friabilin is present in high concentration in soft grain varieties and in low concentration in hard grain varieties. The high gluten, hard wheat our generally contains about 12.0–13.0% crude protein under Mid-European conditions. The relationship between wheat protein content and kernel texture is usually positive and kernel texture influences the power consumption during milling. Hard-textured wheat grains require more grinding energy than soft-textured grains.

  7. Influence of climatic factors on the low yields of spring barley and winter wheat in Southern Moravia (Czech Republic) during the 1961-2007 period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolář, Petr; Trnka, Miroslav; Brázdil, Rudolf; Hlavinka, Petr

    2014-08-01

    The paper aims to study the variability of spring barley and winter wheat yields, the most important crops in the Czech Republic, with respect to the variability of weather and climatic factors. Yields of both crops have been studied for 13 districts in Southern Moravia for the 1961-2007 period. From detrended series of spring barley and winter wheat yields, years with very low (lower than the mean minus a 2.5-multiple of the standard deviation) and extremely low (interval given by the mean minus a 1.5- and 2.5-multiple of the standard deviation) yields were selected. Years in which at least one of the districts had extremely low/very low yields were further analyzed. From 10 such years selected separately for spring barley and winter wheat, six of them agreed for both crops. Extreme years were studied using NUTS4-level yield data with respect to temperature, precipitation, the self-calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index (scPDSI), snow cover, frost patterns, and the onset and duration of select phenophases. Extremely/very low barley yields in 1993, 2000, and 2007 were related to high April-June (AMJ) temperatures, low AMJ precipitation totals, and negative AMJ scPDSI (indicating drought) with an earlier onset of flowering and full ripeness and shorter intervals from tillering to flowering and from flowering to full ripeness compared to the entire 1961-2007 mean. As for extremely/very low winter wheat yields, in addition to the previously mentioned factors, winter patterns also played an important role, particularly the occurrence of severe frosts with a coinciding lack of snow cover and a long-lasting snow cover (in highlands), indicating that low yields are the result of not only one unfavorable factor but a combination of several of them.

  8. Yield and adaptive potential of modern varieties of soft winter wheat in the Northern Steppe conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. М. Солодушко

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Results obtained during the study of special features of cultivation and productivity of soft winter wheat varieties that differ by origin in the Steppe zone in Ukraine are presented. Relevance of the executed work was determined by ambiguous assessment and selection of available soft winter wheat variety assortment that is used in Steppe zone farms. Findings allow to find out  and expose to a greater extent unused reserves for increasing the croppage level. It was found in the process of the study that now according to comprehensive assessment the best varieties of a soft winter wheat for corn growers in the steppe zone are Smuhlianka, Epokha odes`ka, Kiriia, Zolotokolosa, Blahodarka odes`ka, Bohdana, Lyst 25, Rozkishna.

  9. Evaluating the Various Cropping Systems on Cd Concentrations of Different Growth Stages of Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoshnaz Payandeh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil contamination with heavy metals would accumulate these elements in plant tissues and decrease qualitaty and quantity of agricultural producs and thus endanger human and animal healths. Previous crop residues and rates of fertilizers applications (especially phosphorus fertilizer are the most important effective factors on accumulation of cadmium in crop tissues. Another influential factor affecting soil shrinkage is crop rotation which induces the solubility of cadmium. This research was aimed to assess the effects of conventional cropping system on cadmium concentrations in wheat at its different growth stages by using a split plot in time experiment based on completely randomized block design with three replications in the 2014-2015 growing season in Shavoor Agricultural Research Station (Khuzestan province. Main plot consisted of cropping system (rice-wheat, fallow-wheat and sub plot of growth stages at three levels (tillering, flowering and ripening. Different wheat seed cadmium concentrations due to two cropping systems were different significantly at 1% probability level. Cadmium concentration in the seeds at rice-wheat cropping system (0.31 mg.kg-1 was higher than fallow-wheat system (0.27 mg.kg-1 which is higher than World Health Organization standards. Result of analysis of variance showed that the effect of cropping systems and different growth stages of wheat on root and stem cadmium concentrations were significant at 1% probability level. Rice-wheat cropping system resulted in higher cadmium concentration in root (1.09 mg.kg-1 and stem (0.73 mg.kg-1 compared to that of the fallow-wheat cropping system. Accumulation of cadmium in stem or root at different growth stages of wheat were not significant but it was totally additive, because range of variation of cadmium concentration from planting to harvest was low.

  10. Dual cropping winter camelina with soybean in the northern Corn Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainably balancing biofuel crop production with food, feed, and fiber on agricultural lands will require developing new cropping strategies. Double- and/or relay-cropping winter camelina (Camelina sativa L.) with soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] may be a means to produce an energy and food crop o...

  11. [Effects of ozone stress upon winter wheat photosynthesis, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, You-fei; Hu, Cheng-da; Wu, Rong-jun; Liu, Rui-na; Zhao, Ze; Zhang, Jin-en

    2010-07-01

    Stress effects of surface increased ozone concentration on winter wheat photosynthesis, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant systems in varied growth stages (jointing stage, booting stage, blooming stage and grain filling stage) were studied, the winter wheat was exposed to open top chambers (OTCs) in an open field conditions to three levels ozone concentrations (CK, 100 nmol x mol(-1), 150 nmol x mol(-1)). The results revealed that within 150 nmol x mol(-1) ozone concentration, as the ozone concentration and time increased,total chlorophyll content,chlorophyll a and b contents of winter wheat leaves were general declined,but compared to CK, the total chlorophyll and chlorophyll a content of T1 treatment groups were a little higher at booting and blooming stage; the conductance of stomatal was affected, the activation of unit leaf area decreased, intercellular CO2 concentration and stomatal limitation value showed a fluctuation change tendency. At the same time, a self-protective mechanism of winter wheat were launched. Concrete expression of SOD activity first increased rapidly and then gradually decreased, the activity of POD showed a decrease firstly and then rapidly increased. From the jointing stage to the blooming stage and from the grain filling stage one to grain filling stage two, the activity of CAT rapidly increased first and then comparatively decreased, but the content of MDA kept steadily rising. The carotenoid content increased first and then decreased, heat dissipation of unit leaf area increased. These results indicate that antioxidant enzymes can not completely eliminate excessive reactive oxygen species in vivo of winter wheat, then lead to accumulation of reactive oxygen species, further exacerbate the lipid peroxidation, that result in the increase of membrane permeability, degradation of chlorophyll, reduction of net photosynthetic rate, imposing on the winter wheat leaves senescence process.

  12. Forecasting wheat and barley crop production in arid and semi-arid regions using remotely sensed primary productivity and crop phenology: A case study in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qader, Sarchil Hama; Dash, Jadunandan; Atkinson, Peter M

    2018-02-01

    Crop production and yield estimation using remotely sensed data have been studied widely, but such information is generally scarce in arid and semi-arid regions. In these regions, inter-annual variation in climatic factors (such as rainfall) combined with anthropogenic factors (such as civil war) pose major risks to food security. Thus, an operational crop production estimation and forecasting system is required to help decision-makers to make early estimates of potential food availability. Data from NASA's MODIS with official crop statistics were combined to develop an empirical regression-based model to forecast winter wheat and barley production in Iraq. The study explores remotely sensed indices representing crop productivity over the crop growing season to find the optimal correlation with crop production. The potential of three different remotely sensed indices, and information related to the phenology of crops, for forecasting crop production at the governorate level was tested and their results were validated using the leave-one-year-out approach. Despite testing several methodological approaches, and extensive spatio-temporal analysis, this paper depicts the difficulty in estimating crop yield on an annual base using current satellite low-resolution data. However, more precise estimates of crop production were possible. The result of the current research implies that the date of the maximum vegetation index (VI) offered the most accurate forecast of crop production with an average R2=0.70 compared to the date of MODIS EVI (Avg R2=0.68) and a NPP (Avg R2=0.66). When winter wheat and barley production were forecasted using NDVI, EVI and NPP and compared to official statistics, the relative error ranged from -20 to 20%, -45 to 28% and -48 to 22%, respectively. The research indicated that remotely sensed indices could characterize and forecast crop production more accurately than simple cropping area, which was treated as a null model against which to evaluate

  13. Irrigation Water Availability and Winter Wheat Abandonment in the North China Plain (NCP: Findings from a Case Study in Cangxian County of Hebei Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The North China Plain (NCP is the major winter wheat producing area in China. Abandonment of this crop has, however, become more and more prevalent in this region since the late 1990s. Although the underlying causes of this phenomenon remain little understood, irrigation water availability (IWA has always been regarded as the key factor limiting winter wheat production on the NCP. The aim of this paper is to determine the role played by IWA in the abandonment of winter wheat, using evidence drawn from a case study in Cangxian County, Hebei Province. First-hand data were collected for this study from 350 households in 35 villages, using semistructured one-on-one questionnaires. Five types of irrigation water sources were defined and identified at the level of individual land plots: “ground and surface water”, “just groundwater”, “just rivers”, “just reservoirs”, and “no irrigation”. These levels correspond to a decreasing trend in the overall frequency of irrigation and thus provide a clear proxy indicator for IWA. The results from a series of multilevel multinomial models show that the higher the IWA, the less likely it is for a land plot to abandon winter wheat. Specifically, using “no irrigation” cases as a control group, the results show that land plots with more sources of irrigation water also tend to be characterized by greater IWA, including “ground and surface water” and “just groundwater”, and also have lower probabilities of abandoning winter wheat. In contrast, land plots with less IWA (less irrigation water sources, including “just reservoirs” and “just rivers”, are more likely to abandon winter wheat. The results also show that, in addition to IWA, soil quality and plot size at the plot level, as well as demographic characteristics, farm equipment, and land fragmentation at the household level and irrigation prices at the village level, all play additional significant roles in the cropping

  14. Genetic resources as initial material for developing new soft winter wheat varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. М. Кір’ян

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To estimate genetic resources collection of soft winter wheat plants (new collection accessions of Ustymivka Experimental Station for Plant Production and select initial material for breeding of adaptive, productive and qualitative soft winter wheat varieties. Methods. Field experiment, laboratory testing. Results. The authors pre- sented results of study of over 1000 samples of gene pool of soft winter wheat from 25 countries during 2001–2005 in Ustymivka Experimental Station for Plant Production of Plant Production Institute nd. a. V. Ya. Yuriev, NAAS of Ukraine for a complex of economic traits. More than 400 new sources with high adaptive properties were selected that combine traits of high productivity and high quality of grain, early ripening, resistance to biotic and abiotic fac- tors (the assessment of samples for 16 valuable traits is given. The selected material comes from various agro-cli- matic zones, including zones of unsustainable agriculture. Conclusions. Recommended sources of traits that have breeding value will allow to enrich high-quality assortment of wheat and considerably accelerate breeding process du- ring development of new soft winter wheat varieties.

  15. Effects of organic and conventional production systems and cultivars on the technological properties of winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceseviciene, Jurgita; Slepetiene, Alvyra; Leistrumaite, Alge; Ruzgas, Vytautas; Slepetys, Jonas

    2012-11-01

    The current study aimed to estimate the effects of organic and conventional production systems and four winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) bread cultivars on the technological properties of grain, flour, dough and bread, to increase current knowledge regarding the interactions of the technological properties of winter wheat and assess the cultivars for their suitability for organic production systems. All the technological properties winter wheat which were investigated were significantly affected by the agricultural production system and cultivars, and some of them, mostly grain quality parameters, by the harvest year. Grain from organic winter wheat had significantly lower protein and gluten contents, lower sedimentation and flour water absorption values, shorter dough stability time and lower loaf volume, but higher values of starch content and stronger gluten, compared with grain from the conventional wheat. For both production systems significant positive correlations of protein content with gluten content, sedimentation value, dough stability time, loaf volume, farinograph water absorption, and negative with starch content, gluten index were determined. Statistically significant differences between agricultural production systems were found. The cultivars Ada and Alma had better technological properties that make them more suitable for the organic production system, compared to Širvinta 1 and Zentos. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. WCS120 protein family and proteins soluble upon boiling in cold-acclimated winter wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitamvas, P.; Saalbach, Gerhard; Prasil, I.T.

    2007-01-01

    The amount of proteins soluble upon boiling (especially WCS120 proteins) and the ability to develop frost tolerance (FT) after cold acclimation was studied in two frost-tolerant winter wheat cultivars, Mironovskaya 808 and Bezostaya 1. Protein get Not analysis, mass spectrometry (MS) and image...... analysis of total sample of proteins soluble upon boiling showed seven COR proteins in the CA samples and only three COR proteins in the NA samples of cultivar Mironovskaya 808 (MIR). In conclusion, the Level of the accumulation of WCS120, WCS66 and WCS40 distinguished our two frost-tolerant winter wheat...

  17. Discrimination of winter wheat on irrigated land in southern Finney County, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morain, S. A. (Principal Investigator); Williams, D. L.; Barker, B.; Coiner, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Winter wheat in the large field irrigated landscape of southern Finney County, Kansas was successfully discriminated by use of 4 ERTS-1 images. These images were acquired 16 August 1972, 21 September 1972, and 2 December 1972. MSS-5 images from each date and the MSS-7 image from 2 December 1972 were used. Human interpretation of the four images resulted in a classification scheme which produced 98% correct estimation of the number of wheat fields in the training sample and 100% correct estimation in the test sample. Overall correct separation of wheat from non-wheat fields was 93% and 86%, respectively. Offsetting errors resulted in the estimation accuracy for wheat.

  18. Natural radioactivity in winter wheat from organic and conventional agricultural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Patric; Maquet, Alain; Hult, Mikael; Gasparro, Joël; Marissens, Gerd; González de Orduña, Raquel

    2011-02-01

    The distribution of natural radionuclides was studied in winter wheat plants collected from three sites in Belgium during 2004-2007. Activity concentrations of (40)K, (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (228)Th in organically and conventionally grown wheat, and in the corresponding soil samples, were determined using ultra low-level gamma-ray spectrometry. The observed soil-to-wheat concentration ratios were calculated for the different parts of the wheat plant (root, stem and grain) in the two agricultural systems (organic and conventional). There were large variations in radionuclide activity concentrations between the sites and fields, but no significant difference between conventionally and organically grown wheat plants was observed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Preceding crop affects grain cadmium and zinc of wheat grown in saline soils of central Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir H; Chaney, Rufus L

    2007-01-01

    Enhanced Cd concentrations in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain produced on saline soils of central Iran have been recently reported. Because wheat bread is a major dietary component for the Iranian people, practical approaches to decrease Cd concentration in wheat grain were investigated. This study investigated the influence of sunflower-wheat vs. cotton-wheat rotations on extractable Cd and on Cd uptake by wheat in these salt-affected soils. Two fields with different levels of Cd contamination (1.5 and 3.2 mg total Cd kg(-1) dry soil) were cropped with different rotations (cotton-wheat and sunflower-wheat) in Qom province, central Iran. Seeds of cotton (Gossypium L.) or sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. cv. Record) were planted in plots. After harvesting of the plants and removal of crop residues, wheat (cv. Rushan) was seeded in all plots. For both studied soils, the concentrations of Cd extracted by 0.04 M EDTA and 1 M CaCl(2) were significantly (P sunflower. Accordingly, the total amount of Cd in sunflower shoot was significantly (P sunflower were significantly different; wheat shoots after cotton accumulated more Cd (two to four times) than after sunflower. Wheat grain Cd concentration after sunflower was much lower (more than seven times) than after cotton. The results of this study showed that sunflower in rotation with wheat in salt-affected soils of central Iran significantly reduced the risk of Cd transfer to wheat grain.

  20. Winter soil warming exacerbates the impacts of spring low temperature stress on wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiangnan; Jiang, D.; Liu, Fulai

    2016-01-01

    The increase in global mean air temperature is likely to affect the soil temperatures in agricultural areas. This study aims to study the effects of winter soil warming on the responses of wheat to low temperature stress in spring. Wheat plants were grown under either normal or increased soil...... temperature by 2.5 °C for 82 days in winter. The physiological and yield responses of the plants to a 2-day low temperature stress (4/2 °C in the day/night) at jointing stage were investigated. After exposing to low spring temperature, the plants that had experienced winter soil warming showed lower leaf...... and root water potential, lower oxygen scavenging capacity and poor photosynthetic performance as compared with the plants grown under normal soil temperature during winter. WL plants had significantly lower sugar content in shoot than the CL plants, which might have contributed to their higher...

  1. Assessing winter cover crop nutrient uptake efficiency using a water quality simulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, In-Young; Lee, Sangchui; Sadeghi, Ali M.; Beeson, Peter C.; Hively, W. Dean; McCarty, Greg W.; Lang, Megan W.

    2013-01-01

    Winter cover crops are an effective conservation management practice with potential to improve water quality. Throughout the Chesapeake Bay Watershed (CBW), which is located in the Mid-Atlantic US, winter cover crop use has been emphasized and federal and state cost-share programs are available to farmers to subsidize the cost of winter cover crop establishment. The objective of this study was to assess the long-term effect of planting winter cover crops at the watershed scale and to identify critical source areas of high nitrate export. A physically-based watershed simulation model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), was calibrated and validated using water quality monitoring data and satellite-based estimates of winter cover crop species performance to simulate hydrological processes and nutrient cycling over the period of 1991–2000. Multiple scenarios were developed to obtain baseline information on nitrate loading without winter cover crops planted and to investigate how nitrate loading could change with different winter cover crop planting scenarios, including different species, planting times, and implementation areas. The results indicate that winter cover crops had a negligible impact on water budget, but significantly reduced nitrate leaching to groundwater and delivery to the waterways. Without winter cover crops, annual nitrate loading was approximately 14 kg ha−1, but it decreased to 4.6–10.1 kg ha−1 with winter cover crops resulting in a reduction rate of 27–67% at the watershed scale. Rye was most effective, with a potential to reduce nitrate leaching by up to 93% with early planting at the field scale. Early planting of winter cover crops (~30 days of additional growing days) was crucial, as it lowered nitrate export by an additional ~2 kg ha−1 when compared to late planting scenarios. The effectiveness of cover cropping increased with increasing extent of winter cover crop implementation. Agricultural fields with well-drained soils

  2. The Effects of Different Amounts of Controlled Release Fertilizer on the Root Growth and the Filling Rate in Winter Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Meng Li; Jingtian Yang; Liyuan Yan; Yan Shi

    2014-01-01

    In order to increase the fertilizer use efficiency and yield in winter wheat, the effects of controlled release fertilizer on the root growth and the filling rate in winter wheat by applying different amounts of controlled release fertilizer had been studied in open field. The results indicated that conventional complex fertilizer and controlled release fertilizer could cause corresponding changes of the wheat root activity, dry root weight, root-shoot ratio and filling rate, but the fertiliz...

  3. Assessment of water-limited winter wheat yield potential at spatially contrasting sites in Ireland using a simple growth and development model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynch J.P.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Although Irish winter wheat yields are among the highest globally, increases in the profitability of this crop are required to maintain its economic viability. However, in order to determine if efforts to further increase Irish wheat yields are likely to be successful, an accurate estimation of the yield potential is required for different regions within Ireland. A winter wheat yield potential model (WWYPM was developed, which estimates the maximum water-limited yield achievable, within the confines of current genetic resources and technologies, using parameters for winter wheat growth and development observed recently in Ireland and a minor amount of daily meteorological input (maximum and minimum daily temperature, total daily rainfall and total daily incident radiation. The WWYPM is composed of three processes: (i an estimation of potential green area index, (ii an estimation of light interception and biomass accumulation and (iii an estimation of biomass partitioning to grain yield. Model validation indicated that WWYPM estimations of water-limited yield potential (YPw were significantly related to maximum yields recorded in variety evaluation trials as well as regional average and maximum farm yields, reflecting the model’s sensitivity to alterations in the climatic environment with spatial and seasonal variations. Simulations of YPw for long-term average weather data at 12 sites located at spatially contrasting regions of Ireland indicated that the typical YPw varied between 15.6 and 17.9 t/ha, with a mean of 16.7 t/ha at 15% moisture content. These results indicate that the majority of sites in Ireland have the potential to grow high-yielding crops of winter wheat when the effects of very high rainfall and other stresses such as disease incidence and nutrient deficits are not considered.

  4. Cultivar and planting date selection for relay-cropping soybean with winter oilseeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Double- and relay-cropping soybean with winter camelina (Camelina sativa L. Crantz) and pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) have been shown to be viable cropping systems for the Upper Midwest. Relaying soybean with these winter oilseeds can result in greater total seed yield (i.e., both combined) and ec...

  5. Subsurface drainage to enable the cultivation of winter crops in consolidated paddy fields in Northern Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jafari-Talukolaee, Mehdi; Ritzema, Henk; Darzi-Naftchali, Abdullah; Shahnazari, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Subsurface drainage is a prerequisite to grow winter crops in the consolidated paddy fields in Northern Iran. A four-year study (2011-2015) was conducted to quantify the effects of subsurface drainage on the saturated hydraulic conductivity, water table, drain discharge and winter crop yields.

  6. Algal derivatives may protect crops from residual soil salinity: a case study on a tomato-wheat rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stasio, Emilio; Raimondi, Giampaolo; Van Oosten, Michael; Maggio, Albino

    2017-04-01

    In coastal areas, summer crops are frequently irrigated with saline water. As a consequence, salts may accumulate in the root zone with detrimental effects on the following winter crops if the rainfall is insufficient to leach them. Two field experiments were performed in 2015-2016 on a field used for tomato (summer) wheat (winter) rotation cropping. The spring-summer experiment was carried in order to evaluate the effect of two algal derivatives (Ascophyllum nodosum), Rygex and Super Fifty, on a tomato crop exposed to increasing salinity and reduced nutrient availability. In the autumn-winter experiment we investigated the effect of residual salts from the previous summer irrigations on plant growth and yield of wheat treated with the same two algal extracts. The salt treatment for the irrigated summer crop was 80 mM NaCl plus a non-salinized control. The nutrient regimes were 100% and 50% of the tomato nutritional requirements. With both the seaweeds applications the salt stressed plants were demonstrated improved Relative Water Content and water potential. Nevertheless the total fresh biomass and the fruit fresh weight were enhanced only in the non salinized controls. Application of algal derivatives increased the total fresh weight over controls in the non salinized plants. The seaweed treatments enhanced the fruit fresh weight with an increase of 30% and 46% for Rygex and Super Fifty, respectively. Preliminary analysis of the ion profile in roots, shoots and leaves, indicates that the seaweed extracts may enhance the assimilation of ions in fruits affecting their nutritional value. The residual salinity of the summer experiment reduced the wheat biomass production. However, the seaweed extracts treatments improved growth under salinity. In the salt stressed plants the Super Fifty application increased shoots and ears by 34% and 23% respectively, compared to the non treated plants. Plant height was increased by application of seaweeds extracts for both the

  7. Effect of organic and conventional crop rotation, fertilization, and crop protection practices on metal contents in wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Julia; Sanderson, Roy; Cakmak, Ismail; Ozturk, Levent; Shotton, Peter; Carmichael, Andrew; Haghighi, Reza Sadrabadi; Tetard-Jones, Catherine; Volakakis, Nikos; Eyre, Mick; Leifert, Carlo

    2011-05-11

    The effects of organic versus conventional crop management practices (crop rotation, crop protection, and fertility management strategies) on wheat yields and grain metal (Al, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) concentrations were investigated in a long-term field trial. The interactions between crop management practices and the season that the crop was grown were investigated using univariate and redundancy analysis approaches. Grain yields were highest where conventional fertility management and crop protection practices were used, but growing wheat after a previous crop of grass/clover was shown to partially compensate for yield reductions due to the use of organic fertility management. All metals except for Pb were significantly affected by crop management practices and the year that the wheat was grown. Grain Cd and Cu levels were higher on average when conventional fertility management practices were used. Al and Cu were higher on average when conventional crop protection practices were used. The results demonstrate that there is potential to manage metal concentrations in the diet by adopting specific crop management practices shown to affect crop uptake of metals.

  8. Effects of mine wastewater irrigation on activities of soil enzymes and physiological properties, heavy metal uptake and grain yield in winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shou-Chen; Zhang, He-Bing; Ma, Shou-Tian; Wang, Rui; Wang, Gui-Xian; Shao, Yun; Li, Chun-Xi

    2015-03-01

    In China, coal-mining industries are mainly located in the water shortage areas including arid or semiarid areas. Mine wastewater is used for irrigation of agricultural land in these areas. However, few studies have been conducted to address ecological and food safety risks caused by mine wastewater irrigation. In this research, a pot experiment was performed to examine the effects of mine wastewater irrigation on soil enzymes, physiological properties of wheat and potential risks of heavy metal contamination to wheat crop. Plants were subjected to three mine wastewater irrigation treatments: leacheate of coal gangue (T1), coal-washing wastewater (T2) and precipitated coal-washing wastewater (T3). Plants irrigated with well water were taken as the control (CK). The results showed that mine wastewater irrigation caused adverse effects on soil enzymes, physiological properties and grain yield of winter wheat. At anthesis, T1, T2 and T3 treatments significantly reduced the activities of soil enzymes (urease, sucrase and catalase), root activity and net photosynthetic rate of wheat compared to CK. At maturity, grain yield was decreased by 17.8%, 15.4% and 9.8% by T1, T2 and T3, respectively, as compared to that of CK. Importantly, mine wastewater irrigation resulted in accumulation of heavy metals (Cr, Pb, Cu and Zn) in wheat grain. Contents of these heavy metals in grains of winter wheat subjected to mine wastewater irrigation were significantly higher than those in CK. The comprehensive contamination indexes of wheat grain in T1, T2 and T3 all reached high pollution level. Our results showed that mine wastewater irrigation significantly increased the pollution risk of heavy metals, thus unsuitable for crop irrigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of vernalization responsive genes in the winter wheat ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    College of Agriculture, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471003, People's Republic of China; National Engineering Research Centre for Wheat ... Institute of Vegetables and Flowers, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, People's Republic of China; China Agricultural University, ...

  10. Control of Fusarium head blight of winter wheat by artificial and natural infection using new fungicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Treikale

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In Latvia, climatic factors are influential in spreading of Fusarium head blight of cereals caused by Fusarium species. The most significant factor affecting the incidence of the disease in winter wheat is hightened temperature at the time of wheat anthesis. Field trials for the control of the disease in winter wheat were done in 2003-2004 using new fungicides applied at various rates by natural infection and artificial inoculation. Three species of causative agents: Fusarium avenaceum var. herbarum, F. gibbosum, F. culmorum were collected from infected seeds of wheat and used for inoculation of experimental plots at the concentration 106 conidia ml-1 (1:1:1 at the stage of full anthesis. Effective control of the disease was obtained through application of new fungicides with different active ingredient: Prosaro 250 EC (tebuconazole 125 G, prothioconazole 125 G L-1, Input 460 EC (spiroxamine 300 G, prothioconazole 160 G L-1. In conditions of artificial infection by severe attack of Fusarium spp. the application of fungicides containing tebuconazole at T3 gave significant influence on yield of winter wheat through plumpness of grains increase. High efficacy of fungicides against leaf infection with Erysiphe graminis and Drechslera tritici-repentis was also in the trial achieved. Application of fungicide containing cyproconazole and trifloxystrobin at T1 in the trial 2004 gave good control of Septoria tritici, E. graminis and D. triticirepentis.

  11. Flixweed is more competitive than winter wheat under ozone pollution: evidences from membrane lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes and biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cai-Hong; Wang, Tian-Zuo; Li, Yong; Zheng, Yan-Hai; Jiang, Gao-Ming

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effects of ozone on winter wheat and flixweed under competition, two species were exposed to ambient, elevated and high [O3] for 30 days, planted singly or in mixculture. Eco-physiological responses were examined at different [O3] and fumigating time. Ozone reduced the contents of chlorophyll, increased the accumulation of H2O2 and malondialdehyde in both wheat and flixweed. The effects of competition on chlorophyll content of wheat emerged at elevated and high [O3], while that of flixweed emerged only at high [O3]. The increase of H2O2 and malondialdehyde of flixweed was less than that of wheat under the same condition. Antioxidant enzyme activities of wheat and flixweed were seriously depressed by perennial and serious treatment using O3. However, short-term and moderate fumigation increased the activities of SOD and POD of wheat, and CAT of flixweed. The expression levels of antioxidant enzymes related genes provided explanation for these results. Furthermore, the increase of CAT expression of flixweed was much higher than that of SOD and POD expression of wheat. Ozone and competition resulted in significant reductions in biomass and grain yield in both winter wheat and flixweed. However, the negative effects on flixweed were less than wheat. Our results demonstrated that winter wheat is more sensitive to O3 and competition than flixweed, providing valuable data for further investigation on responses of winter wheat to ozone pollution, in particular combined with species competition.

  12. The impact of atmospheric ammonia and temperature on growth and nitrogen metabolism of winter wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clement, J.M A M; Loorbach, J; Meijer, J; van Hasselt, P.R; Stulen, G

    The effect of atmospheric ammonia in combination with low and moderate growth temperature on growth and nitrogen metabolism of winter wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Urban) was investigated. Plants were exposed to 0, 1000 and 2000 nl l(-1) NH3 for 1 week at moderate day/night temperatures

  13. Yield and grain quality of winter wheat under Southern Steppe of Ukraine growing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. М. Корхова

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of three years study of the effect of sowing time and seed application rates on yield and grain quality of different varieties of winter wheat under the conditions of South Steppe of Ukraine were presented. It was found that winter wheat provides optimal combination of high yield and grain quality in case of sowing in October 10 with seed application rate of 5,0 million seeds/ha. The highest yield – 4,59 t/ha on average in 2011–2013 was obtained for the variety of Natalka when sowing in October 10 with seed application rate  of 5 million germinable seeds. With increasing seed application rate from 3 to 5 million seeds/ha, protein content in winter wheat was decreased by 0,3%, gluten – by 0,6%. The variety Natalka  formed the highest quality grains when sowing in October 20 with seed application rate of 3 million seeds/ha, in this case protein content was 15,8%, gluten – 32,9%. It is proved that early sowing time  – September 10 leads to yields reduction and grain   quality deterioration for all winter wheat varieties.

  14. Predicting pre-planting risk of Stagonospora nodorum blotch in winter wheat using machine learning models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pre-planting factors have been associated with the late-season severity of Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB), caused by the fungal pathogen Parastagonospora nodorum, in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum). The relative importance of these factors in the risk of SNB has not been determined and this know...

  15. Development of frost tolerance in winter wheat as modulated by differential root and shoot temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windt, C.W.; van Hasselt, P.R

    Winter wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Urban), grown in nutrient solution, were exposed to differential shoot/root temperatures (i.e., 4/4, 4/20, 20/4 and 20/20 degrees C) for six weeks. Leaves grown at 4 degrees C showed an increase in frost tolerance from - 4 degrees C down to -11 degrees

  16. Registration of 'Mesa' Russian wheat aphid-resistant winter feed barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    'Mesa' (Reg. No., PI 659768), Russian wheat aphid [RWA, Diruaphis noxia (Kurdjumov)]-resistant six-rowed winter feed barley Hordeum vulgare L.) tested as 97BX 43-99A and STARS 1401B, was developed and released by USDA-ARS, Stillwater, OK. Although all crossing, selection, and evaluation was done by...

  17. Warming enhances nitrogen uptake by winter wheat under two tillage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ruixing

    2017-04-01

    Despite the perceived importance of N to wheat growth and production, few studies have attempted to examine the effects of warming on wheat N uptake patter or its preference for NO3-N, NH4+-N, especially under different tillage systems. In the North China Plain, an in situ 15N labelling study was conducted on winter wheat in which effects of experimental warming during the jointing stage under till and no-till tillage systems on uptake of total N and three forms of N (NO3-N, NH4+-N and glycine-N) was studied. Warming strongly enhanced wheat biomass and N content in both roots and shoots. Total N uptake rates increased by 40% and 47% under till and no-till treatments, respectively. Warming changed the uptake pattern of the three forms of N by significantly increasing the contributions of NO3-N and glycine-derived N, while decreasing the contribution of NH4+-N. Between the two tillage systems, wheat under no-till without warming obtained more N than till. However, warming was found to suppress N uptake under no-till relative to till. Collectively, high temperatures accelerate N sequestration in winter wheat and improve the preferential contribution of NO3-N due to high soil N availability and enhanced microbial activity.

  18. Yield stability in barley-wheat mixed cropping in Central Highlands of Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldeamlak, A.; Struik, P.C.; Sharma, J.K.

    2008-01-01

    Yield data of a large set of experiments with barley and wheat were analysed in order to assess whether yield stability was greater in mixed cropping than in sole cropping, and to identify which varietal mixture showed most stable grain yields. Stable cropping system were those having reasonably

  19. Nitrous oxide emission from highland winter wheat field after long-term fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, X. R.; Hao, M. D.; Xue, X. H.; Shi, P.; Horton, R.; Wang, A.; Zang, Y. F.

    2010-10-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important greenhouse gas. N2O emissions from soils vary with fertilization and cropping practices. The response of N2O emission to fertilization of agricultural soils plays an important role in global N2O emission. The objective of this study was to assess the seasonal pattern of N2O fluxes and the annual N2O emissions from a rain-fed winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) field in the Loess Plateau of China. A static flux chamber method was used to measure soil N2O fluxes from 2006 to 2008. The study included 5 treatments with 3 replications in a randomized complete block design. Prior to initiating N2O measurements the treatments had received the same fertilization for 22 years. The fertilizer treatments were unfertilized control (CK), manure (M), nitrogen (N), nitrogen + phosphorus (NP), and nitrogen + phosphorus + manure (NPM). Soil N2O fluxes in the highland winter wheat field were highly variable temporally and thus were fertilization dependent. The highest fluxes occurred in the warmer and wetter seasons. Relative to CK, m slightly increased N2O flux while N, NP and NPM treatments significantly increased N2O fluxes. The fertilizer induced increase in N2O flux occurred mainly in the first 30 days after fertilization. The increases were smaller in the relatively warm and dry year than in the cold and wet year. Combining phosphorous and/or manure with mineral N fertilizer partly offset the nitrogen fertilizer induced increase in N2O flux. N2O fluxes at the seedling stage were mainly controlled by nitrogen fertilization, while fluxes at other plant growth stages were influenced by plant and environmental conditions. The cumulative N2O emissions were always higher in the fertilized treatments than in the non-fertilized treatment (CK). Mineral and manure nitrogen fertilizer enhanced N2O emissions in wetter years compared to dryer years. Phosphorous fertilizer offset 0.50 and 1.26 kg N2O-N ha-1 increases, while manure + phosphorous offset 0

  20. The reaction of some winter wheat variety at cultivation in the conservative system in the Transylvanian Plain area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Chetan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Europe between wheat cultivators countries, Romania ranks fifth with an area of 2.07 million hectares with a production of 7.45 million tonnes and production obtained is just 3601 kg /ha (www.ager.press.ro. Aims: Through the experience realised at ARDS Turda we follow the behavior of native varieties grȃu autumn, compared ȋn varieties of foreign origin, to make recommendations on their pretability to different systems of culture and levels of fertilization. Materials and Method: The experiment realized at the ARDS Turda, includes two ways to work the soil, a classic conventional system (with autumn ploughing, land preparation, sowing and fertilized in parallel with the conservative ("no-tillage” with stubble crop directly into the preemergent plant. Experimental factors: A - soil tillage system; B - winter wheat variety; C - fertilization. Results: Of the eight winter wheat varieties, in the experiment is remarkable the variety Capo    that registered highest values of the gluten content at the level of fertilization c2, c3 and c4 at cultivation in both work systems (classic and “no tillage”. At most varieties, the highest protein content is at the c2 level of fertilization, except Capo and Exotic that react the best at c3 level of fertilization, in the system "no tillage". Conclusion: The winter wheat  indigenous Andrada, Dumbrava, Arieşan and line T-29-04 and cultivar Renan (Limagrain reacts most favorable in  gluten content at level of  fertilization c2 (at sowing 250 kg/ ha NPK 20: 20: 0 + resumption spring vegetation ȋn 214 kg/ ha ammonium nitrate. The productions obtained at all varieties wheat,  is not existlarge quantitative differences (200-700 kg/ha differences, but  variety Apache, Exotic, Ariesan and Dumbrava had reached over 7,400 kg / ha.   Acknowledgments: This work was supported by a grant of the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research and Innovation, CNCS – UEFISCDI, project

  1. Selecting winter wheat lines from a composite cross population

    OpenAIRE

    Fradgley, Nick; Wolfe, Martin; Howlett, Sally; Creissen, Henry; Girling, Robbie

    2014-01-01

    The extremely diverse genetic variation in wheat Composite Cross Populations (CCP) represents a valuable source of breeding material. Such material could be selected as part of a participatory breeding programme with the potential advantage of selecting adaptation targeted for particular environments. For example, selections could be made aimed at producing lines that would thrive under the wide range of management practices conducted as part of organic and low input farming systems. Ear...

  2. Long-term experiments as a platform for monitoring bread wheat quality

    OpenAIRE

    Thomsen, Ingrid K.

    2008-01-01

    Both winter wheat and spring wheat have the potential for producing grain of bread wheat quality under North European conditions. The two crops may due to their different growth length respond differently to previous use of green manure and to the soil organic matter content. To compare winter wheat and spring wheat for their ability to produce quality grain for bread production, both crops are included in a long-term experiment (LTE) at Askov Experimental Station. The LTE provides a unique p...

  3. Water use in a winter camelina – soybean double crop system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Double-cropping winter camelina (Camelina sativa) followed by soybean (Glycine max) may increase land-use efficiency by producing food and biofuel in a single season and is a viable cropping system for the northern Corn Belt. However, regional success of double-cropping, especially under dryland con...

  4. Root-knot Nematode Management and Yield of Soybean as Affected by Winter Cover Crops, Tillage Systems, and Nematicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minton, N A; Parker, M B

    1987-01-01

    Management of Meloidogyne incognita on soybean as affected by winter small grain crops or fallow, two tillage systems, and nematicides was studied. Numbers of M. incognita did not differ in plots planted to wheat and rye. Yields of soybean planted after these crops also did not differ. Numbers of M. incognita were greater in fallow than in rye plots, but soybean yield was not affected by the two treatments. Soybean yields were greater in subsoil-plant than in moldboard plowed plots. Ethylene dibromide reduced nematode population densities more consistently than aldicarb and phenamiphos. Also, ethylene dibromide increased yields the most and phenamiphos the least. There was a positive correlation (P = 0.001) of seed size (weight of 100 seeds) with yield (r = 0.79), indicating that factors affecting yield also affected seed size.

  5. Resistance of Select Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Cultivars to Rhopalosiphum padi (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girvin, John; Whitworth, R Jeff; Rojas, Lina Maria Aguirre; Smith, C Michael

    2017-08-01

    The bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) is a global pest of wheat and vectors some of the most damaging strains of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV). In years of heavy R. padi infestation, R. padi and BYDV together reduce wheat yields by 30-40% in Kansas and other states of the U.S. Great Plains wheat production area. Cultivation of wheat cultivars resistant to R. padi can greatly reduce production costs and mitigate R. padi-BYDV yield losses, and increase producer profits. This study identified cultivars of hard red and soft white winter wheat with R. padi resistance that suppress R. padi populations or tolerate the effects of R. padi feeding damage. 'Pioneer (S) 25R40,' 'MFA (S) 2248,' 'Pioneer (S) 25R77,' and 'Limagrain LCS Mint' significantly reduced R. padi populations. MFA (S) 2248, Pioneer (S) 25R40, and 'Limagrain LS Wizard' exhibited tolerance expressed as significantly greater aboveground biomass. These findings are significant in that they have identified wheat cultivars currently available to producers, enabling the immediate improvement of tactics to manage R. padi and BYDV in heavily infested areas. Secondarily, these results identify cultivars that are good candidates for use in breeding and genetic analyses of arthropod resistance genes in wheat. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Jasmonic acid induces resistance to economically important insect pests in winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Wakeil, Nabil E; Volkmar, Christa; Sallam, Ahmed A

    2010-05-01

    Insect damage induces chemical changes in plants, and frequently these changes are part of a defensive response to the insect injury. Induced resistance was activated in winter wheat using a foliar application of synthetic jasmonic acid. Field trials were conducted to observe effects of jasmonic acid application on some wheat insects. Two wheat cultivars (Cubus and Tommi) were sprayed twice at growth stages (GS) 41 and 59 with two concentrations of jasmonic acid, along with control plots that were sprayed with water. There was a significant difference in the number of thrips and wheat blossom midges (WBM) among treatments in both cultivars. Plants in control plots had higher numbers of thrips and midges than in treated plots. There were higher numbers of thrips in the Tommi cultivar than in the Cubus cultivar, while the latter had higher numbers of WBM larvae than the Tommi cultivar. There was a positive correlation between WBM numbers and infested kernels in both cultivars. This study also indicated that jasmonic acid enhances the wheat yield in sprayed plots compared with control plots. The results indicate that jasmonic acid induced pest resistance in wheat plants and may act as a resistance mechanism of wheat against insect herbivores.

  7. Winter pasture and cover crops and their effects on soil and summer grain crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvadi Antonio Balbinot Junior

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of winter land use on the amount of residual straw, the physical soil properties and grain yields of maize, common bean and soybean summer crops cultivated in succession. The experiment was carried out in the North Plateau of Santa Catarina state, Brazil, from May 2006 to April 2010. Five strategies of land use in winter were evaluated: intercropping with black oat + ryegrass + vetch, without grazing and nitrogen (N fertilization (intercropping cover; the same intercropping, with grazing and 100 kg ha-1 of N per year topdressing (pasture with N; the same intercropping, with grazing and without nitrogen fertilization (pasture without N; oilseed radish, without grazing and nitrogen fertilization (oilseed radish; and natural vegetation, without grazing and nitrogen fertilization (fallow. Intercropping cover produces a greater amount of biomass in the system and, consequently, a greater accumulation of total and particulate organic carbon on the surface soil layer. However, land use in winter does not significantly affect soil physical properties related to soil compaction, nor the grain yield of maize, soybean and common bean cultivated in succession.

  8. Pre-planting risk assessment models for Stagonospora nodorum blotch in winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB) caused by Parastagonospora nodorum, is a major disease of wheat. Pre-planting factors such as previous crop, tillage, host genotype, disease history, and location of a field affect disease intensity. However, the risk of SNB due to these factors has not been quantif...

  9. Canola integration into semi-arid wheat cropping systems of the inland Pacific Northwestern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The inland Pacific Northwestern USA (iPNW) wheat-producing region has a diversity of environments and soils, yet it lacks crop diversity and is one of the few semi-arid wheat-growing regions without significant integration of oilseeds. Four major agroecological zones, primarily characterised by wate...

  10. Quality characteristics of northern-style Chinese steamed bread prepared from soft red winter wheat flours with waxy wheat flour substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quality characteristics of Chinese steamed bread (CSB) prepared from two soft red winter (SRW) wheat flours blended with 0-30% waxy wheat flour (WWF) were determined to estimate the influence of starch amylose content. The increased proportion of WWF in blends raised mixograph absorption with insign...

  11. Stem base diseases of winter wheat grown after forecrops of the family Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Majchrzak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A study into the sanitary state of roots and culm base of winter wheat was carried out in 1999-2002 in the Production and Experimental Station in Bałcyny near Ostróda. Experimental wheat was cultivated after spring cross plants such as spring oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp. oleiferus Metz., white mustard (Sinapis alba L, chinese mustard (Brassica juncea L., oleiferous radish (Raphanus sativus var. oleiferus L., false flax (Camelina sativa L., crambe (Crambe abbysinica Hoechst. and after oats (Avena sativa L. as a control. The other experimental factor was the method of after-harvest residue management, i.e. ploughing in the stubble, ploughing in the stubble and straw, ploughing in the stubble and straw with nitrogen added. The occurrence of root rot and stem base diseases was affected by weather conditions and forecrop species. Winter wheat roots were attacked to the lowest degree when spring rape and radish were used as forecrops, and to the highest degree - when grown after oat. The culm base was most intensely infected with fusarium foot rot (Fusarium spp.. The remaining root-rot diseases occurred every year but with different intensity. The method of utilization of after-harvest residues did not have a clear effect on the intensity of infection of the roots and culm base of winter wheat.

  12. Winter wheat morphology response to cold temperature stress during autumn acclimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligita Baležentienė

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. abilities depend on development during autumn acclimation. The plant ability of acclimation to low temperatures is closely associated with the photosynthesis level, leaf area index (LAI, root system development. This study investigated the effect of liquid humic fertilizers (LHF on biometric characteristics, namely LAI, root and shoot development. The fertilizers were applied in conventional and organic growth technologies of w. wheat to adapt to the low temperatures during autumn acclimation. Winter wheat «Širvinta 1 » was grown in different rotation fields of conventional (CF; Albi-EpihypogleyicLuvisol, LVg-p-w-ab and organic (OF; Hapli-EpihypogleyicLuvisol, LVg-p-w-ha farming of Training Farm at Aleksandras Stulginskis University (ASU during 2010–2011. The obtained results confirmed the significant LHF influence on enhancing winter wheat biometrical indices and seedling growth. Nonetheless, seed felting exhibited stronger effect on LAI (increased by 0.7-1.1 g m -1 day -1 in OF and 0.25-0.7 g m -1 day -1 in CF, root length (increased by 1166 mm in OF and 1182.55 mm in CF and area (increased by 72.45 mm 2 in OF and 588.7 mm 2 in CF during autumn acclimation rather than seedling spraying.

  13. Water consumption characteristics and water use efficiency of winter wheat under long-term nitrogen fertilization regimes in northwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangquanwei Zhong

    Full Text Available Water shortage and nitrogen (N deficiency are the key factors limiting agricultural production in arid and semi-arid regions, and increasing agricultural productivity under rain-fed conditions often requires N management strategies. A field experiment on winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. was begun in 2004 to investigate effects of long-term N fertilization in the traditional pattern used for wheat in China. Using data collected over three consecutive years, commencing five years after the experiment began, the effects of N fertilization on wheat yield, evapotranspiration (ET and water use efficiency (WUE, i.e. the ratio of grain yield to total ET in the crop growing season were examined. In 2010, 2011 and 2012, N increased the yield of wheat cultivar Zhengmai No. 9023 by up to 61.1, 117.9 and 34.7%, respectively, and correspondingly in cultivar Changhan No. 58 by 58.4, 100.8 and 51.7%. N-applied treatments increased water consumption in different layers of 0-200 cm of soil and thus ET was significantly higher in N-applied than in non-N treatments. WUE was in the range of 1.0-2.09 kg/m3 for 2010, 2011 and 2012. N fertilization significantly increased WUE in 2010 and 2011, but not in 2012. The results indicated the following: (1 in this dryland farming system, increased N fertilization could raise wheat yield, and the drought-tolerant Changhan No. 58 showed a yield advantage in drought environments with high N fertilizer rates; (2 N application affected water consumption in different soil layers, and promoted wheat absorbing deeper soil water and so increased utilization of soil water; and (3 comprehensive consideration of yield and WUE of wheat indicated that the N rate of 270 kg/ha for Changhan No. 58 was better to avoid the risk of reduced production reduction due to lack of precipitation; however, under conditions of better soil moisture, the N rate of 180 kg/ha was more economic.

  14. Research on the quantitative diagnosis of drought hazard degree of winter wheat using multi-source remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Haixia

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to perform the quantitative diagnosis of drought hazard degree using multi-source remote sensing data. Hazard degree is the basic function for disaster risk assessment and loss assessment. Quantitative diagnosis of drought hazard degree is essential to decision-making of drought early warning and emergency relief in practice. The currently used diagnosis methods are based on disaster loss and drought indices. The response process and impacts of drought in different crop growth stages were ignored in these methods. So, the instructions were not dynamic and real time. This study investigated the drought hazard degree diagnosing of winter wheat based on continuous multi-source remote sensing imagery and comprehensive ground-based observations. The resulted indicated that the correlation is high and drought hazard degree is suitable and sensitive to reveal drought disaster-forming environment evolution, drought formation mechanism and drought influence.

  15. Chromosomal rearrangements caused by gamma-irradiation in winter wheat cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Nazarenko

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article we report the results of our investigation into several cytogenetic parameters of variability in mutation induction of modern winter wheat varieties and some connections between the means of cytogenetic indices and different doses of gamma-rays. Analysis of chromosomal aberrations following the action of any kind of mutagen by the anaphases method is one of the most widely investigated and most precise methods which can be used to determine the fact of mutagenic action on plants and identify the nature of the mutagen. We combined in our investigation the sensitivity of genotype to mutagen using cytological analysis of mutagen treated wheat populations with the corresponding different varieties by breeding methods to reveal its connections and differences, specific sensitivity to mutagens action on the cell level. Dry seeds of 8 varieties of winter wheat were subjected to 100, 150, 200, 250 Gy gamma irradiation, which are trivial for winter wheat mutation breeding. We investigated rates and spectra of chromosomal aberrations in the cells of winter wheat primary roots tips. The coefficients of correlations amid the rate of chromosomal aberrations and the dose of gamma-rays were on the level 0.8–0.9. The fragments/bridges ratio is a clear and sufficient index for determining the nature of the mutagen agent. We distinguished the following types of chromosomal rearrangements: chromatid and chromosome bridges, single and double fragments, micronuclei, and delayed chromosomes. The ratio of chromosomal aberrations changes with the change in mutagen; note that bridge-types are characteristic of irradiation. Radiomutants are more resistant to gamma rays. This is apparent in the lower rate of chromosomal aberrations. Varieties obtained by chemical mutagenesis (varieties Sonechko, Kalinova are more sensitive to gamma-irradiation than others. We propose these varieties as objects for a mutation breeding programme and radiation of mutants

  16. Winter wheat susceptibilty to leaf rust and resistance sources to diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Chełkowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Winter wheat cultivars were significantly infected by Puccinia triticina causing leaf rust in seasons 2000-2002 in southern and also central regions of Poland. Resistance genes Lr9, Lr19 and Lr24 were found to be effective against dominating populations of the pathogen and typical isolates of P. triticina. Mentioned three resistance genes as well as genes Lr10 and Lr37 were identified using STS (Sequence Tagged Site DNA - PCR markers in cultivars and resistance sources. Mentioned markers were found very useful in resistance breeding of wheat.

  17. [Effects of Short-time Conservation Tillage Managements on Greenhouse Gases Emissions from Soybean-Winter Wheat Rotation System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yan; Chen, Xi; Hu, Zheng-hua; Chen, Shu-tao; Zhang, Han; Ling, Hui; Shen, Shuang-he

    2016-04-15

    Field experiments including one soybean growing season and one winter-wheat growing season were adopted. The experimental field was divided into four equal-area sub-blocks which differed from each other only in tillage managements, which were conventional tillage (T) , no-tillage with no straw cover ( NT) , conventional tillage with straw cover (TS) , and no-tillage with straw cover (NTS). CO₂ and N₂O emission fluxes from soil-crop system were measured by static chamber-gas chromatograph technique. The results showed that: compared with T, in the soybean growing season, NTS significantly increased the cumulative amount of CO₂ (CAC) from soil-soybean system by 27.9% (P = 0.045) during the flowering-podding stage, while NT significantly declined CAC by 28.9% (P = 0.043) during the grain filling-maturity stage. Compared with T, NT significantly declined the cumulative amount of N₂O (CAN) by 28.3% (P = 0.042) during the grain filling-maturity stage. In the winter-wheat growing season, compared with T, TS and NT significantly declined CAC by 24.3% (P = 0.032) and 36.0% (P = 0.041) during the elongation-booting stage, and also declined CAC by 26.8% (P = 0.027) and 33.1% (P = 0.038) during the maturity stage. During the turning-green stage, compared with T treatment, NT, NTS, and TS treatments had no significant effect on CAN, while NTS significant declined CAN by 42.0% (P = 0.035) compared with NT. Our findings suggested that conservation tillage managements had a more significant impact on CO₂ emission than 20 emission from soil-crop system.

  18. Evaluating Spectral Indices for Winter Wheat Health Status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Helen

    Although, this study could be extended with a longer time series, the Landsat 8 satellite was only launched ... which substitutes the green band in place of the red band in the NDVI equation. The GNDVI is ..... 2101-2139. Löw, F. & Duveiller, G 2014, 'Defining the spatial resolution requirements for crop identification using.

  19. The Potential of Hyperspectral Patterns of Winter Wheat to Detect Changes in Soil Microbial Community Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Sabrina; van der Putten, Wim H; Hol, W H G

    2016-01-01

    Reliable information on soil status and crop health is crucial for detecting and mitigating disasters like pollution or minimizing impact from soil-borne diseases. While infestation with an aggressive soil pathogen can be detected via reflected light spectra, it is unknown to what extent hyperspectral reflectance could be used to detect overall changes in soil biodiversity. We tested the hypotheses that spectra can be used to (1) separate plants growing with microbial communities from different farms; (2) to separate plants growing in different microbial communities due to different land use; and (3) separate plants according to microbial species loss. We measured hyperspectral reflectance patterns of winter wheat plants growing in sterilized soils inoculated with microbial suspensions under controlled conditions. Microbial communities varied due to geographical distance, land use and microbial species loss caused by serial dilution. After 3 months of growth in the presence of microbes from the two different farms plant hyperspectral reflectance patterns differed significantly from each other, while within farms the effects of land use via microbes on plant reflectance spectra were weak. Species loss via dilution on the other hand affected a number of spectral indices for some of the soils. Spectral reflectance can be indicative of differences in microbial communities, with the Renormalized Difference Vegetation Index the most common responding index. Also, a positive correlation was found between the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and the bacterial species richness, which suggests that plants perform better with higher microbial diversity. There is considerable variation between the soil origins and currently it is not possible yet to make sufficient reliable predictions about the soil microbial community based on the spectral reflectance. We conclude that measuring plant hyperspectral reflectance has potential for detecting changes in microbial

  20. Effect of date of termination of a winter cereal rye cover crop (Secale cereale) on corn seedling disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover cropping is an expanding conservation practice that offers substantial benefits to soil protection, soil health, water quality, and potentially crop yields. Presently, winter cereals are the most widely used cover crops in the upper Midwest. However, winter cereal cover crops preceding corn, ...

  1. Nitrogen dynamics following grain legumes and subsequent catch crops and the effects on succeeding cereal crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Mundus, Simon; Jensen, Erik Steen

    2009-01-01

    The effects of faba bean, lupin, pea and oat crops, with and without an undersown grass-clover mixture as a nitrogen (N) catch crop, on subsequent spring wheat followed by winter triticale crops were determined by aboveground dry matter (DM) harvests, nitrate (NO3) leaching measurements and soil N...... on the subsequent spring wheat or winter triticale DM production. Nitrate leaching following grain legumes was significantly reduced with catch crops compared to without catch crops during autumn and winter before sowing subsequent spring wheat. Soil N balances were calculated from monitored N leaching from...

  2. The Effect of Elevated Ozone Concentrations with Varying Shading on Dry Matter Loss in a Winter Wheat-Producing Region in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingxin; Zheng, Youfei; He, Yuhong; Wu, Rongjun; Mai, Boru; Kang, Hanqing

    2016-01-01

    Surface-level ozone pollution causes crop production loss by directly reducing healthy green leaf area available for carbon fixation. Ozone and its precursors also affect crop photosynthesis indirectly by decreasing solar irradiance. Pollutants are reported to have become even more severe in Eastern China over the last ten years. In this study, we investigated the effect of a combination of elevated ozone concentrations and reduced solar irradiance on a popular winter wheat Yangmai13 (Triticum aestivum L.) at field and regional levels in China. Winter wheat was grown in artificial shading and open-top-chamber environments. Treatment 1 (T1, i.e., 60% shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb), Treatment 2 (T2, i.e., 20% shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb), and Control Check Treatment (CK, i.e., no shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb), with two plots under each, were established to investigate the response of winter wheat under elevated ozone concentrations and varying solar irradiance. At the field level, linear temporal relationships between dry matter loss and cumulative stomatal ozone uptake were first established through a parameterized stomatal-flux model. At the regional level, ozone concentrations and meteorological variables, including solar irradiance, were simulated using the WRF-CMAQ model (i.e., a meteorology and air quality modeling system). These variables were then used to estimate cumulative stomatal ozone uptake for the four major winter wheat-growing provinces. The regional-level cumulative ozone uptake was then used as the independent variable in field data-based regression models to predict dry matter loss over space and time. Field-level results showed that over 85% (T1: R(2) = 0.85 & T2: R(2) = 0.89) of variation in dry matter loss was explained by cumulative ozone uptake. Dry matter was reduced by 3.8% in T1 and 2.2% in T2 for each mmol O3·m(-2) of cumulative ozone uptake. At the regional level, dry matter loss in winter

  3. The Effect of Elevated Ozone Concentrations with Varying Shading on Dry Matter Loss in a Winter Wheat-Producing Region in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxin Xu

    Full Text Available Surface-level ozone pollution causes crop production loss by directly reducing healthy green leaf area available for carbon fixation. Ozone and its precursors also affect crop photosynthesis indirectly by decreasing solar irradiance. Pollutants are reported to have become even more severe in Eastern China over the last ten years. In this study, we investigated the effect of a combination of elevated ozone concentrations and reduced solar irradiance on a popular winter wheat Yangmai13 (Triticum aestivum L. at field and regional levels in China. Winter wheat was grown in artificial shading and open-top-chamber environments. Treatment 1 (T1, i.e., 60% shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb, Treatment 2 (T2, i.e., 20% shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb, and Control Check Treatment (CK, i.e., no shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb, with two plots under each, were established to investigate the response of winter wheat under elevated ozone concentrations and varying solar irradiance. At the field level, linear temporal relationships between dry matter loss and cumulative stomatal ozone uptake were first established through a parameterized stomatal-flux model. At the regional level, ozone concentrations and meteorological variables, including solar irradiance, were simulated using the WRF-CMAQ model (i.e., a meteorology and air quality modeling system. These variables were then used to estimate cumulative stomatal ozone uptake for the four major winter wheat-growing provinces. The regional-level cumulative ozone uptake was then used as the independent variable in field data-based regression models to predict dry matter loss over space and time. Field-level results showed that over 85% (T1: R(2 = 0.85 & T2: R(2 = 0.89 of variation in dry matter loss was explained by cumulative ozone uptake. Dry matter was reduced by 3.8% in T1 and 2.2% in T2 for each mmol O3·m(-2 of cumulative ozone uptake. At the regional level, dry matter

  4. Cover cropping under temperate conditions: influence of growth period and incorporation time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Hansen, Elly Møller

    sativus L., Sinapis alba L.) spread in a growing winter wheat crop in July and incorporated in September (Autumn CC) before sowing the following winter wheat was compared with the same CC cultivars sown after harvest and incorporated in spring (Winter CC). The cruciferous CC were compared with Winter CC......Cover crops (CC) are generally followed by spring sown crops which limits the use of winter cereals in a crop rotation. A change from winter cereals as e.g. winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to a spring sown crop as barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) often results in a reduction in grain yield....... To encourage increased use of CC and to lessen the consequences on choice of main crop new innovative ways of using CC should be considered. This study tested the potential for using CC that could allow for repeated winter wheat growing and still permit CC in breaks between crops. Cruciferous CC (Raphanus...

  5. Aphidophagous parasitoids can forage wheat crops before aphid infestation, Parana State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceolin Bortolotto, Orcial; de Oliveira Menezes Júnior, Ayres; Thibes Hoshino, Adriano

    2015-01-01

    Aphid parasitoids are common in Brazilian wheat fields, and parasitize aphids at the wheat tillering stage. However, there is little information available about when this natural enemy occurs in wheat crops. This study investigated the initial occurrence of aphid parasitoids in four commercial wheat crops in northern Paraná during the 2009 crop season. We installed two Malaise traps at each wheat farm, and 400 tillers were assessed weekly in each field for aphid abundance. During this study, we captured 4,355 aphid parasitoids and 197 aphids. Three species of braconid parasitoids were identified, including Aphidius colemani (Viereck 1912), Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson 1880), and Diaeretiella rapae (McIntosh 1855). The aphids species identified were Rhopalosiphum padi (Linnaeus 1758) and Sitobion avenae (Fabricius 1775). This study showed that aphid parasitoids are present in wheat crops even when aphid densities are low, and in one farm, occurred before the aphids colonization. These reports can justified the high efficiency of these natural enemies against aphids in wheat fields. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  6. Influence of Previous Crop on Durum Wheat Yield and Yield Stability in a Long-term Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Stellacci

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Long-term experiments are leading indicators of sustainability and serve as an early warning system to detect problems that may compromise future productivity. So the stability of yield is an important parameter to be considered when judging the value of a cropping system relative to others. In a long-term rotation experiment set up in 1972 the influence of different crop sequences on the yields and on yield stability of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. was studied. The complete field experiment is a split-split plot in a randomized complete block design with two replications; the whole experiment considers three crop sequences: 1 three-year crop rotation: sugar-beet, wheat + catch crop, wheat; 2 one-year crop rotation: wheat + catch crop; 3 wheat continuous crop; the split treatments are two different crop residue managements; the split-split plot treatments are 18 different fertilization formulas. Each phase of every crop rotation occurred every year. In this paper only one crop residue management and only one fertilization treatment have been analized. Wheat crops in different rotations are coded as follows: F1: wheat after sugar-beet in three-year crop rotation; F2: wheat after wheat in three-year crop rotation; Fc+i: wheat in wheat + catch crop rotation; Fc: continuous wheat. The following two variables were analysed: grain yield and hectolitre weight. Repeated measures analyses of variance and stability analyses have been perfomed for the two variables. The stability analysis was conducted using: three variance methods, namely the coefficient of variability of Francis and Kannenberg, the ecovalence index of Wricke and the stability variance index of Shukla; the regression method of Eberhart and Russell; a method, proposed by Piepho, that computes the probability of one system outperforming another system. It has turned out that each of the stability methods used has enriched of information the simple variance analysis. The Piepho

  7. ECOTOXICITY AND PHYTOTOXICITY OF PLANT PROTECTION PRODUCTS TO RHIZOSPHERE FUNGI AND WINTER WHEAT SEEDLINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Daria Stasiulewicz-Paluch

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Registration of plant protection products involves the analysis of their effects on soil microorganisms. The residues of plant protection products penetrate the soil, but their impact on fungi remains scarcely researched. In this study, the influence of selected plant protection products on the abundance of rhizosphere-dwelling fungi and the growth of winter wheat seedlings was evaluated under greenhouse conditions. The analysed plant protection products had an inhibitory effect on the growth of filamentous fungi in the rhizosphere, whereas yeasts were resistant to those products applied to soil. Tebuconazole exerted the strongest suppressive effect on the growth of filamentous fungi, and propiconazole was characterized by the greatest phytotoxic activity against winter wheat seedlings. Azoxystrobin had the weakest ecotoxic and phytotoxic effects, and its application to soil usually led to a rapid increase in the counts of fungi of the genus Acremonium.

  8. Remobilization in Winter and Facultative Wheat Genotypes under Optimal and Late Season Water Limited Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bahraini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to study remobilization in wheat genotypes (Triticum aestivam L. under optimal and water limited conditions at the end of growing season a field experiment was conducted using 16 wheat genotypes obtain from countrywide program of cold climate. The selected genotypes with winter and facultative growth habit were compared with two cultivar Shahriar and C-80-4 as control. The experiment was conducted as randomized complete block design with three replications at Torogh Research Station, Khorasan Agricultural Research Center. Dry matter translocated (DMT, contribution of pre anthesis assimilates to grain filling (CPAAG, remobilization efficiency (RE and spike harvest index (SHI was compared between genotypes. All traits were correlated with remobilization and the highest percentage of remobilization under water limited conditions was obtained in genotype 14. Keywords: Wheat, Remobilization, Genotype

  9. Fluxes of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane in grass sod and winter wheat-fallow tillage management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessavalou, A.; Drijber, R.A. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States). Dept. of Agronomy; Mosier, A.R. [Dept. of Agriculture, Fort Collins, CO (United States); Doran, J.W. [Dept. of Agriculture, Lincoln, NE (United States)]|[Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Lyon, D.J. [Panhandle Research and Extension Center, Scottsbluff, NE (United States); Heinemeyer, O. [FAL, Braunschweig (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Cropping and tillage management can increase atmospheric CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, and CH{sub 4} concentrations, and contribute to global warming and destruction of the ozone layer. Fluxes of these gases in vented surface chambers, and water-filled pore space (WFPS) and temperature of surface soil were measured weekly from a long-term winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-fallow rotation system under chemical and mechanical tillage follow management and compared with those from native grass sod at Sidney, NE, from March 1993 to July 1995. Cropping, tillage, within-field location, time of year, soil temperature, and WFPS influenced net greenhouse gas fluxes. Mean annual interrow CO{sub 2} emissions from wheat-fallow ranged from 6.0 to 20.1 kg C ha{sup {minus}1} d{sup {minus}1} and generally increased with intensity and degree of tillage. Nitrous oxide flux averaged < 1.2 g N ha{sup {minus}1} d{sup {minus}1} for sod and 1 to 2 g N ha{sup {minus}1} d{sup {minus}1} for wheat-fallow. Tillage during fallow increased N{sub 2}O flux by almost 100%. Nitrous oxide emissions were 1.5 to 3.7 times greater from crop row than interrow locations with greatest differences occurring during periods of highest N{sub 2}O emission. Mean annual N{sub 2}O flux over the 3 yr of study were 1.54 and 0.76 g N ha{sup {minus}1} d{sup {minus}1} for row and interrow locations. Methane uptake ranged from 5.9 to 9.9 g C ha{sup {minus}1} d{sup {minus}1} and was not influenced by row location. Seasonal CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O flux, and CH{sub 4} uptake ranked as spring {ge} summer > autumn > winter. Winter periods accounted for 4 to 10% and 3 to 47% of the annual CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O flux, respectively, and 12 to 21% of the annual CH{sub 4} uptake. Fluxes of CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O, and CH{sub 4} uptake increased linearly with soil temperature. No-till fallow exhibited the least threat to deterioration of atmospheric or soil quality as reflected by greater CH{sub 4} uptake, decreased N{sub 2}O and CO

  10. Energy auditing of diversified rice-wheat cropping systems in Indo-gangetic plains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhary, V.P.; Gangwar, B.; Pandey, D.K.; Gangwar, K.S. [Project Directorate for Cropping Systems Research, Modipuram, Meerut 250110 (U.P.) (India)

    2009-09-15

    The field investigations were carried out for energy use analysis in terms of different input requirements and outputs harvested under the diversified rice-wheat cropping systems at the research farm of Project Directorate for Cropping Systems Research, Modipuram, Meerut, India during the year 2000-2004. The experiments were conducted on rice (Oryza sativa L.)-wheat (Triticum aestivum L. emend. Fiori and Paol) system involving 8 sequences using diversification, furrow irrigated raised bed system (FIRB) of sowing wheat, use of summer period for deep ploughing or raising legume crops for seed or green manure to study the energy dynamics of different diversified cropping systems. Results revealed that total energy use was highest in rice-potato-wheat (i.e. 77,601 MJ/ha in flat bed and 75,697 MJ/ha in raised bed) followed by rice-wheat-sesbania (i.e. 48,770 MJ/ha in flat and 47,830 MJ/ha in raised bed) and rice-wheat-greengram (i.e. 48,414 MJ/ha in flat and 47,482 MJ/ha in raised bed). In overall, the raised bed sowing of wheat in the cropping system consumed 6-11% less fertilizer energy than flat bed while saved up to 4.2% energy through irrigation. The total output energy of the system was recorded significantly higher in rice-potato-wheat system (i.e. 222,836 MJ/ha in flat bed and 218,065 MJ/ha in raised bed) in comparison to rice-wheat-greengram (i.e. 177,477 MJ/ha in flat bed and 175,125 MJ/ha in raised bed), rice-wheat-sesbania (i.e. 172,000 MJ/ha in flat bed and 168,919 MJ/ha in raised bed) and rice-wheat system (i.e. 156,085 MJ/ha in flat bed and 151,862 MJ/ha in raised bed). The significantly higher net return of energy was obtained in rice-potato-wheat system as compared to other systems. This system required about 75% more input energy but provided about 42% more output energy compared to conventional rice-wheat system. About 10% higher output energy was obtained through growing greengram in summer for grain and foliage incorporation while 14% gain obtained

  11. Frost-Resistant Plants Selection Peculiarities at Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Varieties Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. П. Чебаков

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Giving regard to the main elements of Winter Wheat varieties assessment when selecting frost resistant plants and taking into account genetic potential of the parents, date of hybrids sowing and their assessment by the speed of spring vegetation, it is possible in the sense of successful breeding to derive the most steady genotypes by the specified characteristics starting from F1. hybrids.

  12. Combination of different methods for direct control of Vicia hirsuta in winter wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Lukashyk, P.; Köpke, U.

    2005-01-01

    Combinations of three different direct methods for controlling Vicia hirsuta (kainite application, flame weeding and harrowing) were investigated in field experiments. They were based on different strategies at early growth stages of V. hirsuta and standardised harrowing at late growth stages. The highest efficacy of kainite application and flame weeding was achieved at the one leaf stage of V. hirsuta. Winter wheat regeneration from damage caused by both kainite and thermal control was satis...

  13. The Influence of Rotation, Tillage and Row Spacing on Near-Surface Soil Temperature for Winter Wheat in Southern Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larney, F. J.; Ren, Tennis L.; McGinn, Sean M.; Lindwall, C W.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.

    2003-02-01

    The influence of rotation, tillage and row spacing on near-surface soil temperature for winter wheat in southern Alberta. Rotation, tillage and row spacing and their effects on surface residue levels can modify soil temperature. Our study investigated the effect of rotation, tillage and row spacing on near-surface (0.025 m) soil temperature under winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in 1993-94 and 1994-95.

  14. Shifts in comparative advantages for maize, oat, and wheat cropping under climate change in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsgaard, Lars; Børgesen, Christen Duus; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2012-01-01

    and the consequences this may have for crop rotations. This paper analyses the impact of climate on cropping shares of maize, oat and wheat on a 50-km square grid across Europe (45–65°N) and provides model-based estimates of the changes in cropping shares in response to changes in temperature and precipitation...... cropping shares of maize, oat and wheat. The observed cropping shares show a south-to-north gradient, where maize had its maximum at 45–55°N, oat had its maximum at 55–65°N, and wheat was more evenly distributed along the latitudes in Europe. Under the projected climate changes, there was a general...... increase in maize cropping shares, whereas for oat no areas showed distinct increases. For wheat, the projected changes indicated a tendency towards higher cropping shares in the northern parts and lower cropping shares in the southern parts of the study area. The present modelling approach represents...

  15. Assessing the sustainability of wheat-based cropping systems using APSIM: Model parameterisation and evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moeller, C.; Pala, M.; Manschadi, A.M.; Meinke, H.B.; Sauerborn, J.

    2007-01-01

    Assessing the sustainability of crop and soil management practices in wheat-based rotations requires a well-tested model with the demonstrated ability to sensibly predict crop productivity and changes in the soil resource. The Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) suite of models was

  16. 100-year history of the development of bread winter wheat breeding programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. А. Литвиненко

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Review of the main achievements of the Wheat Breeding and Seed ProductionDepartment in the Plant Breeding and Genetic Institute – National Centre of Seed and Cultivar Investigation in the developing theoretical principles of breeding and creation of winter wheat varieties of different types during 100-year (1916–2016 period of breeding programs realization. Results. The main theoretical, methodical developments and breeding achievements of Wheat Breeding and Seed Production Department during 100-year (1916–2016 history have been considered. In the course of the Department activity, the research and metho­dology grounds of bread winter wheat breeding and seed production have been laid, 9 stages of breeding programs development have been accomplished. As a result, more than 130 varieties of different types have been created, 87 of them have been released in some periods or registered in the State registers of plants varieties of Ukraine and other countries and grown in the total sowing area about 220 million hectares.

  17. Timing of glyphosate applications to wheat cover crops to reduce onion stunting caused by Rhizoctonia solani

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stunting caused by Rhizoctonia spp. is economically important in irrigated onion bulb crops in the semi-arid Columbia Basin of Oregon and Washington, where cereal winter cover crops commonly are planted the previous fall to prevent wind erosion of soil. The cover crop is killed with herbicide applic...

  18. Species composition and density of weeds in a wheat crop depending on the soil tillage system in crop rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Yankov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The investigation was carried out in the trial field of Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute, General Toshevo on slightly leached chernozem soil type. For the purposes of this investigation, variants from a stationary field experiment initiated in 1987 and based on various soil tillage tools and operations were analyzed. The species composition and density of weeds were followed in a wheat crop grown after grain maize using the following soil tillage systems: plowing at 24 – 26 cm (for maize – disking at 10 – 12 cm (for wheat; cutting at 24 – 26 cm (for maize – cutting at 8 – 10 cm (for wheat; disking at 10 – 12 cm (for maize – disking at 10 – 12 cm (for wheat; no-tillage (for maize – no-tillage (for wheat.Weed infestation was read at the fourth rotation since the initiation of the trial. The observations were made in spring before treatment of the crop with herbicides. The soil tillage system had a significant effect on the species composition and density of weeds in the field with wheat grown after previous crop maize. The long-term alternation of plowing with disking in parallel with the usage of chemicals for weed control lead to lower weed infestation of the weed crop. The lower weed density after this soil tillage system was not related to changes in the species composition and the relative percent of the individual species in the total weed infestation. The long-term application in crop rotation of systems without turning of the soil layer and of minimal and no-tillage increased the amount of weeds. The reason is the greater variability of weed species which typically occur after shallow soil tillage.

  19. Effect of agricultural practices on mycorrhizal diversity and abundance in winter wheat fields of Khorasan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    alireza koochaki

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available As a part of soil biodiversity, mycorrhiza has an important role on soil function. For assessment of agricultural practices on spore density and diversity of mycorrhiza, a study was conducted in winter wheat fields on Shirvan, Mashhad and Gonabad, three regions of Khorasan. In each region, high and low input fields of winter wheat and a natural system for comparison were selected. Use of agricultural inputs was criteria for selection of low and high input fields in each region. Soil sampling was done on fields and natural systems. Organic matter and spore density of mycorrhiza were measured in soil samples. Percent of soil organic matter in all systems was low, but in agroecosystems was greater than in natural system. Mean spore density of mycorrhiza in the soil of Shirvan, Mashhad and Gonabad was 118, 99 and 76 per gram dry soil, respectively and was affected by region and soil organic matter. Soil spore density in agroecosystems was greater than natural systems and was affected by soil organic matter and plant production. Species richness of mycorrhiza in high input and natural systems of Gonabad was 4 and in other systems were 5. Results showed that agroecosystems improved conditions for mycorrhiza and efficient use of these services. Keywords: Mycorrhiza, soil organic matter, winter wheat, agricultural systems.

  20. [Effects of long-term ozone exposure on chlorophyll a fluorescence and gas exchange of winter-wheat leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, You-fei; Zhao, Ze; Wu, Rong-jun; Hu, Cheng-da; Liu, Hong-ju

    2010-02-01

    In order to provide basis for evaluating the effects of air pollutant such as O3 on crops yield and food security, the effects of O3 fumigation (ambient air, CK; 100 nL x L(-1), T1; 150 nL x L(-1), T2) on chlorophyll a fluorescence and gas exchange of a field-grown winter-wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Yang Mai 13) in different growing period were conducted via open-top chamber technique in conjunction with Diving-PAM fluorometer and LC pro + photosynthesis system. Results indicated that Fv/Fm caused by T1 was higher than 0.8, while the Pm, qP, (1-qP)/NPQ and Y(NO) were similar to those of CK, the NPQ and Y(NPQ) were increased by 13.5%-29.0% and 13.3%-22.7% respectively due to O3 stress. Under nature light (rapid light curve, RLC) and after dark adaptation (induction curve in steady-state, IC) the Yield of T1 was decreased by 4.6%-7.6% and 11.3%-19.3% respectively, with 8.0%-9.8% and 11.0%-23.1% reductions in Pn, and Gs compared to CK, respectively. In heading stage and blooming stage, the Ls of T, was greater than CK, but in filling stage and mature stage, it became lower compared to CK. The Fv/Fm was slightly lower than 0.8 under T2 treatment, with the Y(NO), (1-qP)/NPQ and c(i) were increased by 37.9%-75.6%, 157.1%-325.8% and 3.4%-18.1% relative to CK. Under RLC and IC condition, the Yield of T2 was respectively decreased by 10.2%-13.6% and 21.4%-29.1%, and the Pn, Ls, qP, Pm, NPQ and Y(NPQ) were decreased by 28.1%-39.9%, 5.2%-21.3%, 15.8%-30.4%, 27.6%-45.6%, 3.3%-52.9% and 5.7%-17.9% in comparison, respectively. Obviously the enhanced O3 causes a significant decrease in the capacity of photosynthesis of winter wheat, and the influence mechanism presents a series of dynamic changes according to growing seasons. The reduction of Fv/Fm under T1 treatment is a response of PS II reaction center to the increase of NPQ, and the decrease in Pn and Yield is a consequence of protective adjustment, by this approach, the antioxidant system and energy dissipation mechanism can

  1. Double-cropping with winter camelina in the northern Corn Belt to produce fuel and food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelina (Camelina sativa L.) is a viable oilseed feedstock for biofuels. Recently, it was shown that fall-seeded winter camelina can be successfully grown in the upper Midwest and may be harvested early enough the following summer to allow producing a second crop. Double-cropping may offer a profit...

  2. Field studies on the germination behaviour of black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds. depending on sowing date und winter wheat variety in Northern Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landschreiber, Manja

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides, Huds. is the most important herbicide-resistant weed in Europe. In Germany it is not only a problem in the maritime influenced areas like Schleswig-Holstein and Lower Saxony anymore, as well in other regions black-grass develops to the most important weed in winter wheat and oilseed rape. There are multifaceted reasons for that, one reason are close winter crop rotations and early sowing dates which are economically very attractive for the farmers, another one are herbicide resistances. Black-grass germinates in autumn and in spring, but the main germination period is from late August to early October. If winter wheat is sown early in autumn, the main germination is in parallel to the wheat. Then the weeds can only be managed by culture specific herbicides. The pressure on the herbicides is therefore increasing. Herbicide resistances can be the result. As long as very effective herbicides are available, so that farmers are not dependent on weed biology and plant production weed management measures such as sowing date. Late sowing dates can reduce the black-grass populations, but this option is not attractive to many farmers in Schleswig-Holstein. In mind of the farmers the risk of delayed sowing dates in autumn is too high, because increased rainfall such as can make it difficult to marsh soils sowing, or make impossible. Objective of this trial was the germination of Black-grass to show to two sowing dates. The results of the field trial show, that black-grass populations can be reduced if winter wheat is sown later in autumn.

  3. Quantitative Research on the Relationship between Yield of Winter Wheat and Agroclimatological Resources—the Case Study from Yanzhou District, Shandong Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Maoling; Liu, Pingzeng; Zhang, Chao; Zheng, Yong; Wang, Xizhi; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Weijie; Zhao, Rui

    2018-01-01

    Agroclimatological resources provide material and energy for agricultural production. This study is aimed to analyze the impact of selected climate factors change on wheat yield over the different growth period applied quantitatively method, by comparing two different time division modules of wheat growth cycle- monthly empirical-statistical multiple regression models ( From October to June of next year ) and growth stage empirical-statistical multiple regression models (Including sowing stage, seedling stage, tillering stage, overwintering period, regreening period, jointing stage, heading stage, maturity stage) analysis of relationship between agrometeorological data and growth stage records and winter wheat production in Yanzhou, Shandong Province of China. Correlation analysis(CA)was done for 35 years (from 1981 to 2015) between crop yield and corresponding weather parameters including daily mean temperature, sunshine duration, and average daily precipitation selected from 18 different meteorological factors. The results shows that the greatest impact on the winter wheat yield is the precipitation overwintering period in this area, each 1mm increase in daily mean rainfall was associated with 201.64 kg/hm2 lowered output. Moreover, the temperature and sunshine duration in heading period and maturity stage also exert significant influence on the output, every 1°C increase in daily mean temperature was associated with 199.85kg/hm2 adding output, every 1h increase in mean sunshine duration was associated with 130.68kg/hm2 reduced output. Comparing with the results of experiment which using months as step sizes and using farming as step sizes was in better agreement with the fluctuation in meteorological yield, offered a better explanation on the growth mechanism of wheat. Eventually the results indicated that 3 factors affects the yield during different growing periods of wheat in different extent and provided more specific reference to guide the agricultural

  4. Integrating winter camelina into maize and soybean cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelina [Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz.] is an industrial oilseed crop in the Brassicaceae family with multiple uses. Currently, camelina is not used as a cover crop, but it has the potential to be used as such in maize (Zea mays L.)-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] systems. The objectives of this st...

  5. Effect of Nitrogen and Sulphur Fertilization on Chlorophyll Content in Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skudra Ilze

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen management strategy in plant growth period based on chlorophyll content evaluation in plant can improve nitrogen usage efficiency and reduce environmental contamination. This study is aimed to determine the impact of different nitrogen and sulphur fertilizer rates on dynamics of chlorophyll content in winter wheat during vegetative growth and to determine the relationship between nitrogen and chlorophyll content and grain yield of winter wheat. Field trial involving a winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. variety ‘Kranich’ was conducted at the LUA Research and Study Farm Vecauce during a three-year period (2012-2015. The treatments were 0, 85, 153, 175+S21, 175 (in 2015, 187 N kg ha−1 and different nitrogen norms according to chlorophyll meter Yara N-tester (Konica Minolta Ltd. data: 180, 150, 205 N kg ha−1 depending on the year. The results of the trial show that the maximum chlorophyll content in different plant parts was observed at the end of flowering stage. The chlorophyll content depended on the level of mineral fertilisation. The highest chlorophyll content in leaves, stems and ears was obtained by using additional sulphur in two trial years. Usage of chlorophyll meter Yara N-tester obtained the highest chlorophyll content in all analyzed plant parts in one trial year. Chlorophyll content was significantly dependant on plant growth stage in stems in all trial years, in leaves in two trial years, and in ears in one year. Nitrogen fertilization significantly affected chlorophyll content in leaves and stems in one trial year. Close positive correlation was observed between grain yield and wheat plant chlorophyll content and average nitrogen concentration at the end of flowering stage in all three trial years.

  6. Effect of nitrogen fertilizer application timing on nitrogen use efficiency and grain yield of winter wheat in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efretuei A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to determine the effects of initiating application of fertilizer nitrogen (N to winter wheat at different growth stages (GSs on grain yield and N use efficiency (NUE. A factorial experiment was carried out in two growing seasons (2011 and 2012 with five timings of first N application (GS 24/26 [tillering], GS 30, GS 31, GS 32 or GS 37 and an unfertilized control, two sowing densities (100 and 400 seeds/m2 and a cattle slurry treatment (with or without slurry. The latter was included to simulate variation in soil N supply (SNS. Delaying the first application of N from the tillering stage until GS 30 had no significant effect on grain yield in either year. Further delaying the initial N application until GS 31 caused a significant yield reduction in 2011, in comparison to GS 30 application, but not in 2012. Differences in efficiency of recovery and use of fertilizer N by the crop among the first three application timings were small. There was no evidence to support alteration in the timing of the first application of N in response to low plant density. Slurry application did not influence SNS, so the interaction between SNS and fertilizer N application timing could not be determined. It is concluded that in order to maximise yield and NUE, the first N application should be applied to winter wheat between late tillering and GS 30 and that delaying the first N until GS 31 can lead to yield reductions compared to the yield obtained with earlier application.

  7. Soil physical properties response to tillage practices during summer fallow of dryland winter wheat field on the Loess Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jian-Fu; Ren, Ai-Xia; Li, Hui; Gao, Zhi-Qiang; Du, Tian-Qing

    2018-01-01

    Soil physical properties are a greatly important part of the soil and indicator of soil quality, which can directly affect soil nutrient turnover and crop yields in dryland. This study was carried out with three tillage practices during the summer fallow season since 2011, including no tillage (NT), plow tillage (PT), and subsoiling (ST) in dryland winter wheat fields of the Loess Plateau. Results showed that soil tillage during the summer fallow had a small effect on soil bulk density (ρ b) in the 0-50-cm soil profile before sowing and after harvesting of winter wheat. Soil ρ b under NT at a depth of 20-30 cm was significantly greater than those under PT in both seasons. Both soil gravimetric water content (θ g) and volumetric moisture content (θ v) after harvesting increased by 28.8-78.6% and 37.5-87.3%, respectively, compared with those before sowing. Adoption of PT significantly increased soil θ g and θ v in the entire 0-50-cm profile before sowing compared with NT and ST (P < 0.05). In addition, there was a small effect on soil porosity (e.g., total porosity, air-filled porosity, and capillary porosity) in the profile of 0-50 cm both before sowing and after harvesting. Overall, short-term tillage during summer fallow mainly affected soil water content in the 0-50-cm soil profile, and it had a slight effect on other physical soil properties.

  8. Shallow tillage generates higher N2O emissions: results of continuous chamber-based measurement in a winter wheat field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broux, François; Lognoul, Margaux; Theodorakopoulos, Nicolas; Hiel, Marie-Pierre; Bodson, Bernard; Heinesch, Bernard; Aubinet, Marc

    2017-04-01

    Agriculture is one of the most important contributors to GHG emission, notably through fertilized croplands. Though, few publications have studied simultaneously and through continuous measurement the N2O and CO2 emissions in cultivated lands. We conducted this study to assess the effect of farming practices and climate on both N2O and CO2 emissions from a winter wheat crop. The experiment was held in an experimental field in the loamy region in Belgium from March 2016 till crop harvest in August 2016. The fluxes were measured on two nearby parcels in a winter wheat field with restitution of the residues from previous crop. For the past 8 years, one parcel was subjected to a shallow tillage (ST, 10 cm depth) and the other one to a conventional tillage (CT, 25 cm depth). On each parcel, the emissions are assessed with homemade automated closed chambers. Measurement continuity and good temporal resolution (one mean flux every 4 hours) of the system allowed a fine detection and quantification of the emission peaks which usually represent the major part of N2O fluxes. In addition to gas fluxes, soil water content and temperature were measured continuously. Soil samples were taken regularly to determine soil pH, soil organic carbon and nitrogen pools (total, NO3- and NH4+) and study microbial diversity and nitrification/denitrification gene expression. Unexpectedly, results showed N2O emissions twice as large in the ST parcel as in the CT parcel. On the contrary, less important CO2 emissions were observed under ST. Several emission peaks of N2O were observed during the measurement period. The peaks occurred after fertilization events and seemed to be triggered by an elevation of soil water content. Interesting links could be made between soil NH4-N and NO3-N pools and N2O emissions. Nitrification being the main process originating the fluxes was suggested on the one hand by the temporal evolution of nitrogen pools and N2O emissions and on the other hand by the relation

  9. Is the OJIP Test a Reliable Indicator of Winter Hardiness and Freezing Tolerance of Common Wheat and Triticale under Variable Winter Environments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapacz, Marcin; Sasal, Monika; Kalaji, Hazem M.; Kościelniak, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    OJIP analysis, which explores changes in photosystem II (PSII) photochemical performance, has been used as a measure of plant susceptibility to stress. However, in the case of freezing tolerance and winter hardiness, which are highly environmentally variable, the use of this method can give ambiguous results depending on the species as well as the sampling year and time. To clarify this issue, we performed chlorophyll fluorescence measurements over three subsequent winters (2010/11, 2011/12 and 2012/13) on 220 accessions of common winter wheat and 139 accessions of winter triticale. After freezing, leaves were collected from cold-acclimated plants in the laboratory and field-grown plants. Observations of field survival in seven locations across Poland and measurements of freezing tolerance of the studied plants were also recorded. Our results confirm that the OJIP test is a reliable indicator of winter hardiness and freezing tolerance of common wheat and triticale under unstable winter environments. Regardless of species, the testing conditions giving the most reliable results were identical, and the reliability of the test could be easily checked by analysis of some relationships between OJIP-test parameters. We also found that triticale is more winter hardy and freezing tolerant than wheat. In addition, the two species were characterized by different patterns of photosynthetic apparatus acclimation to cold. PMID:26230839

  10. Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on Winter Cover Crops Used in Cotton Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timper, Patricia; Davis, Richard F; Tillman, P Glynn

    2006-03-01

    Substantial reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on winter cover crops may lead to damaging populations in a subsequent cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) crop. The amount of population increase during the winter depends on soil temperature and the host status of the cover crop. Our objectives were to quantify M. incognita race 3 reproduction on rye (Secale cereale) and several leguminous cover crops and to determine if these cover crops increase population densities of M. incognita and subsequent damage to cotton. The cover crops tested were 'Bigbee' berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum), 'Paradana' balansa clover (T. balansae), 'AU Sunrise' and 'Dixie' crimson clover (T. incarnatum), 'Cherokee' red clover (T. pratense), common and 'AU Early Cover' hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), 'Cahaba White' vetch (V. sativa), and 'Wrens Abruzzi' rye. In the greenhouse tests, egg production was greatest on berseem clover, Dixie crimson clover, AU Early Cover hairy vetch, and common hairy vetch; intermediate on Balansa clover and AU Sunrise crimson clover; and least on rye, Cahaba White vetch, and Cherokee red clover. In both 2002 and 2003 field tests, enough heat units were accumulated between 1 January and 20 May for the nematode to complete two generations. Both AU Early Cover and common hairy vetch led to greater root galling than fallow in the subsequent cotton crop; they also supported high reproduction of M. incognita in the greenhouse. Rye and Cahaba White vetch did not increase root galling on cotton and were relatively poor hosts for M. incognita. Only those legumes that increased populations of M. incognita reduced cotton yield. In the southern US, M. incognita can complete one to two generations on a susceptible winter cover crop, so cover crops that support high nematode reproduction may lead to damage and yield losses in the following cotton crop. Planting rye or Meloidogyne-resistant legumes as winter cover crops will lower the risk of increased nematode populations

  11. Linyphiid spider populations in sustainable wheat‐clover bi‐cropping compared to conventional wheat‐growing practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Eigil Vestergaard

    2008-01-01

    Linyphiid web densities in wheat-clover bi-crop systems where winter wheat was grown in an under-storey of white clover were compared with web densities estimated in conventional wheat-growing systems. The web densities in the wheat-clover bi-crop systems were on average between 200 and 250 webs ...

  12. Evaluating the relationship between biomass, percent groundcover and remote sensing indices across six winter cover crop fields in Maryland, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakara, Kusuma; Hively, W. Dean; McCarty, Greg W.

    2015-01-01

    Winter cover crops are an essential part of managing nutrient and sediment losses from agricultural lands. Cover crops lessen sedimentation by reducing erosion, and the accumulation of nitrogen in aboveground biomass results in reduced nutrient runoff. Winter cover crops are planted in the fall and are usually terminated in early spring, making them susceptible to senescence, frost burn, and leaf yellowing due to wintertime conditions. This study sought to determine to what extent remote sensing indices are capable of accurately estimating the percent groundcover and biomass of winter cover crops, and to analyze under what critical ranges these relationships are strong and under which conditions they break down. Cover crop growth on six fields planted to barley, rye, ryegrass, triticale or wheat was measured over the 2012–2013 winter growing season. Data collection included spectral reflectance measurements, aboveground biomass, and percent groundcover. Ten vegetation indices were evaluated using surface reflectance data from a 16-band CROPSCAN sensor. Restricting analysis to sampling dates before the onset of prolonged freezing temperatures and leaf yellowing resulted in increased estimation accuracy. There was a strong relationship between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and percent groundcover (r2 = 0.93) suggesting that date restrictions effectively eliminate yellowing vegetation from analysis. The triangular vegetation index (TVI) was most accurate in estimating high ranges of biomass (r2 = 0.86), while NDVI did not experience a clustering of values in the low and medium biomass ranges but saturated in the higher range (>1500 kg/ha). The results of this study show that accounting for index saturation, senescence, and frost burn on leaves can greatly increase the accuracy of estimates of percent groundcover and biomass for winter cover crops.

  13. Evaluating the relationship between biomass, percent groundcover and remote sensing indices across six winter cover crop fields in Maryland, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakara, Kusuma; Hively, W. Dean; McCarty, Gregory W.

    2015-07-01

    Winter cover crops are an essential part of managing nutrient and sediment losses from agricultural lands. Cover crops lessen sedimentation by reducing erosion, and the accumulation of nitrogen in aboveground biomass results in reduced nutrient runoff. Winter cover crops are planted in the fall and are usually terminated in early spring, making them susceptible to senescence, frost burn, and leaf yellowing due to wintertime conditions. This study sought to determine to what extent remote sensing indices are capable of accurately estimating the percent groundcover and biomass of winter cover crops, and to analyze under what critical ranges these relationships are strong and under which conditions they break down. Cover crop growth on six fields planted to barley, rye, ryegrass, triticale or wheat was measured over the 2012-2013 winter growing season. Data collection included spectral reflectance measurements, aboveground biomass, and percent groundcover. Ten vegetation indices were evaluated using surface reflectance data from a 16-band CROPSCAN sensor. Restricting analysis to sampling dates before the onset of prolonged freezing temperatures and leaf yellowing resulted in increased estimation accuracy. There was a strong relationship between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and percent groundcover (r2 = 0.93) suggesting that date restrictions effectively eliminate yellowing vegetation from analysis. The triangular vegetation index (TVI) was most accurate in estimating high ranges of biomass (r2 = 0.86), while NDVI did not experience a clustering of values in the low and medium biomass ranges but saturated in the higher range (>1500 kg/ha). The results of this study show that accounting for index saturation, senescence, and frost burn on leaves can greatly increase the accuracy of estimates of percent groundcover and biomass for winter cover crops.

  14. Effect of Nitrogen and Irrigation Application on Water Movement and Nitrogen Transport for a Wheat Crop under Drip Irrigation in the North China Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Sui

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available For improving water scarcity and groundwater pollution from agriculture, two-year experiments (2011–2013 with three water levels (0.3, 0.5 and 0.8 evaporation (E in 20-cm-diameter pans and four nitrogen (N levels (120, 140 and 190 kg·ha−1 in 2012 and 120, 190 and 290 kg·ha−1 in 2013 were conducted to study effects of water and N availability on water movement and N transport for a wheat crop under drip irrigation in the North China Plain. The results indicated that under drip irrigation, deep percolation at 1-m depth was stable at 0.5–0.8 E with the same N rate for winter wheat. At 0.5–0.8 E, deep percolation was also relatively stable with increasing N rate from 120 to 140 kg·ha−1 or from 190 to 290 kg·ha−1. The irrigation schedule and N rates only affected N leaching below the root zone of winter wheat (60-cm depth, while the N residual in the soil layer presented more risk to the environment than N leaching. In general, the 290-kg-ha−1 N level was not recommended using drip fertigation for winter wheat in the North China Plain. The empirical equation given by the Ministry of Geology and Mineral Resources was also not recommended for estimating the drainage under drip irrigation.

  15. Effects of the Tillage Technology and the Forecrop on Weeds in Stands of Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Winkler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The semipilot-scale field experiment was established in the cadastre of the village Letkovice in the South Moravian Region (Czech Republic. The study area was situated in a warm climatic region T2. Winter wheat was cultivated in two variants of tillage, viz. conventional tillage (CT and minimum tillage (MT and after three different forecrops (fodder beet, late potatoes, and broad (faba bean. Weed infestation of wheat stands was evaluated in spring seasons of 2007 and 2008, always before the application of herbicides. Numbers of weed specimens and their species were defined by means of a calculation method. Recorded data were processed by means of multidimensional analyses of ecological data, viz. Data Correspondence Analysis (DCA and Redundancy Analysis (RDA. Within the study period, altogether 22 weed species were identified in all variants with different tillage technologies and different forecrops. In the MT variant, the degree of winter wheat stand infestation with weeds was lower. As far as the forecrops were concerned, the most and the least intensive degrees of infestation were recorded on plots with faba bean and late potatoes, respectively.

  16. Mineral nutrition as a factor of stability of technological quality in winter wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić Veselinka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Afield trial was carried out with eight cultivars (Libellula, Drina, Sremica NSR-2, Jugoslavija, Somborka, Lasta and Pobeda of winter wheat (Trticum aestivum L representing several different periods in our country's wheat selection and having different potentials for technological grain quality. Six different rates of nitrogen fertilizer were tested: 0, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 kgNha-1. Increasing N fertilizer rates resulted in a linear increase of the direct and indirect indicators of quality. The best results were obtained with the cultivar Sremica and the poorest with Lasta, while Jugoslavija and Pobeda were shown to be of approximately the same quality. The contribution of N fertilizer variance to total variance was the largest for protein content (43.7%. N nutrition had a greater influence on protein content in cultivars from the earlier periods of selection. Its effect on sedimentation value, on the other hand, was greater in the recently released cultivars. The contribution of the genetic factor to total variance was the highest for crumb value number (CVN (58.7% and bread volume yield (44.2% and the lowest for protein content (20.8%. The absence of significant differences in the CVN means at any of the N nutrition levels studied resulted from the variability of the indirect indicators closely linked with the direct indicators of baking quality, showing the importance of N nutrition for maintaining the stability of technological quality in winter wheat cultivars.

  17. The optimal atmospheric CO2 concentration for the growth of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ming

    2015-07-20

    This study examined the optimal atmospheric CO2 concentration of the CO2 fertilization effect on the growth of winter wheat with growth chambers where the CO2 concentration was controlled at 400, 600, 800, 1000, and 1200 ppm respectively. I found that initial increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration dramatically enhanced winter wheat growth through the CO2 fertilization effect. However, this CO2 fertilization effect was substantially compromised with further increase in CO2 concentration, demonstrating an optimal CO2 concentration of 889.6, 909.4, and 894.2 ppm for aboveground, belowground, and total biomass, respectively, and 967.8 ppm for leaf photosynthesis. Also, high CO2 concentrations exceeding the optima not only reduced leaf stomatal density, length and conductance, but also changed the spatial distribution pattern of stomata on leaves. In addition, high CO2 concentration also decreased the maximum carboxylation rate (Vc(max)) and the maximum electron transport rate (J(max)) of leaf photosynthesis. However, the high CO2 concentration had little effect on leaf length and plant height. The optimal CO2 fertilization effect found in this study can be used as an indicator in selecting and breeding new wheat strains in adapting to future high atmospheric CO2 concentrations and climate change. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  18. Economic assessment of conventional and conservation tillage practices in different wheat-based cropping systems of Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Muhammad; Hussain, Mubshar; Farooq, Muhammad; Farooq, Shahid; Jabran, Khawar; Nawaz, Ahmad

    2017-11-01

    Wheat productivity and profitability is low under conventional tillage systems as they increase the production cost, soil compaction, and the weed infestation. Conservation tillage could be a pragmatic option to sustain the wheat productivity and enhance the profitability on long term basis. This study was aimed to evaluate the economics of different wheat-based cropping systems viz. fallow-wheat, rice-wheat, cotton-wheat, mung bean-wheat, and sorghum-wheat, with zero tillage, conventional tillage, deep tillage, bed sowing (60/30 cm beds and four rows), and bed sowing (90/45 cm beds and six rows). Results indicated that the bed sown wheat had the maximum production cost than other tillage systems. Although both bed sowing treatments incurred the highest production cost, they generated the highest net benefits and benefit: cost ratio (BCR). Rice-wheat cropping system with bed sown wheat (90/45 cm beds with six rows) had the highest net income (4129.7 US$ ha-1), BCR (2.87), and marginal rate of return compared with rest of the cropping systems. In contrast, fallow-wheat cropping system incurred the lowest input cost, but had the least economic return. In crux, rice-wheat cropping system with bed sown wheat (90/45 cm beds with six rows) was the best option for getting the higher economic returns. Moreover, double cropping systems within a year are more profitable than sole planting of wheat under all tillage practices.

  19. Assessing the impact of time of spring vegetation renewal on growth, development and productivity of soft winter wheat varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Л. Уліч

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of study focusing on impact of environmental factor – time of spring vegetation renewal (TSVR of soft winter wheat on growth and development of plants, crop productivity and modern varieties response are presented. It is found that in the central part of the Right-Bank of Forest-Steppe of Ukraine this factor is important and it should be considered in planning of spring and summer care techniques, fertilizer system, especially at spring fertilizing, use of pesticides and growth regulators, in taking a decision on reseeding or underseeding of space plants. At the same time, it was determined that the environmental effect of TSVR was not occurred every year, thus it is not always possible to forecast the type of plant development. But in such years it is possible to influence the processes of plants growth, development and survival in spring and summer periods and the formation of their productivity by introducing such intensive technologies as differential crop tending, mineral nutrition optimization, the use of plant growth regulators, trace nutrients, weed, pest and disease control agents.

  20. Crop production management: Organic wheat and small grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key management practices for organic wheat and small grain production are provided, including variety selection, planting date, seeding rate, drill calibration and operation, soil fertility, and management of weeds, insect pests, and diseases. ...

  1. FREE PHENOL CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF WINTER WHEAT IN SUSTAINABLE FARMING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Kosík

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the free phenol content and antioxidant activity of winter wheat white flour, whole grain flour and bran in ecological and integrated farming system. The experiment was established on a scientific research base Dolná Malanta in western Slovakia during the years 2009 - 2011. Free phenol content was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu’s method and antioxidant activity by DPPH radical scavenging method. Whole grain flour and bran had higher content of free phenols in ecological farming system. Antioxidant activity was not affected by farming systems. The content of free phenols and antioxidant activity was affected by growing year and forecrop. Fertilisation had no effect on the content of free phenols and antioxidant activity. White flour contain two times less free phenols and antioxidant activity than whole grain flour. The highest free phenol content and antioxidant activity was determined in wheat bran.

  2. Effects of climate change on yield potential of wheat and maize crops in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, J.; Diepen, van C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Yields of winter wheat, silage maize and grain maize in the main arable areas of the European Union (EU) were calculated with a simulation model, WOFOST, using historical weather data and average soil characteristics. The sensitivity of the model to individual weather variables was determined.

  3. Intraguild interference and biocontrol effects of generalist predators in a winter wheat field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    Arable land typically harbours communities of polyphagous invertebrate natural enemies, among them numerous soil-surface dwelling predators such as ground beetles (Carabidae) and spiders (Lycosidae, Linyphiidae). Numbers of these predators were experimentally manipulated in a winter wheat field in order to study the predation impact of a generalist predator assemblage on herbivorous insects, the possible interferences among the predators concerned, and subsequent effects on wheat plant parameters. Removing ground beetles doubled numbers of Lycosidae indicative of intraguild interference between these two predator groups. Aphid densities were highest in carabid removal plots implying a substantial predation impact of ground beetles on the pest population. The predation impact of ground beetles was strongest earlier and disappeared later in the season. In mid-season, at intermediate aphid densities, the combined impact of carabid beetles and spiders appeared to be responsible for the reduction in aphid abundance. This result was probably due to a biomass effect rather than to a synergistic effect of the predator community. Thysanoptera decreased when spiders were removed (perhaps because spiders were preying on a predator of thrips), while Cicadellidae and Delphacidae showed no effect at all. The rise of aphid numbers in carabid removal plots corresponded to an increase in protein content of the wheat grains, while other plant parameters such as plant numbers and grain mass were not affected. In conclusion, this study provided field evidence for intraguild interference among generalist ground predators in arable land. Despite this interference the polyphagous predator community was able to depress numbers of aphids in winter wheat, a result cascading down to plant quality parameters.

  4. Characteristics of winter wheat varieties for resistance to causal agents and pests

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    Г. М. Ковалишина

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Studying and identifying winter wheat varieties that are resistant to causal agents of major diseases and pests. Methods. Laboratory analysis, field study. Results. On artificial infection backgrounds of causal agents such varieties as ‘Smuhlianka’, ‘Svitanok Myronivskyi’, ‘Berehynia Myronіvska’, ‘Horlytsia Myronіvska’ have shown high level of resistance to brown rust; ‘Svitanok Myronivskyi’, ‘Berehynia Myronіvska’ – to powdery mildew; ‘Smuhlianka’ – to covered smut. Varieties ‘Voloshkova’, ‘Yuviliar Myronivskyi’, ‘Myrliena’, ‘Oberih Myronivskyi’, ‘Kolos Myronivschyny’, ‘Lehenda Myronivska’ had medium resistance to Septoria leaf blotch; ‘Smuhlianka’, ‘Myrliena’, ‘Oberih Myronivskyi’, ‘Berehynia Myronіvska’, ‘Horlytsia Myronіvska’, ‘Myronivska storichna’ – to Fusarium head blight; ‘Myronіvska 65’, ‘Smuhlianka’, ‘Lehenda Myronivska’, ‘Berehynia Myronіvska’ – to root rots. Among the varieties studied, there were those with group resistance to diseases: ‘Voloshkova’, ‘Myrliena’, ‘Yuviliar Myronivskyi’, ‘Oberih Myronivskyi’, ‘Bohdana’, ‘Myronivska storichna’, ‘Ekonomka’, ‘Svitanok Myronivskyi’, ‘Berehynia Myronіvska’, ‘Horlytsia Myronіvska’, ‘Smuhlianka’. Varieties bred at the V. M. Remeslo Myronivka Institute of Wheat are distinguished by pest resistance. During autumn tillering phase of winter wheat the smallest number of large cereal aphids was observed in varieties ‘Smuhlianka’ and ‘Myronivska storichna’, leafhoppers – in varieties ‘Smuhlianka’, ‘Myrliena’, ‘Yuviliar Myronivskyi’. The slight population of thrips in the phase of earing was marked in the variety ‘Kolos Myronivschyny’, in the milk-ripe stage the smallest number of larvae per ear was detected in varieties ‘Smuhlianka’, ‘Voloshkova’, ‘Kolos Myronivschyny’. Varieties

  5. Effects of Maturity Stages on the Nutritive Composition and Silage Quality of Whole Crop Wheat

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    Z. L. Xie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The changes in yields and nutritive composition of whole crop wheat (Triticum aestivum L. during maturation and effects of maturity stage and lactic acid bacteria (LAB inoculants on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability were investigated under laboratory conditions. Whole crop wheat harvested at three maturation stages: flowering stage, milk stage and dough stage. Two strains of LAB (Lactobacillus plantarum: LAB1, Lactobacillus parafarraqinis: LAB2 were inoculated for wheat ensiling at 1.0×105 colony forming units per gram of fresh forage. The results indicated that wheat had higher dry matter yields at the milk and dough stages. The highest water-soluble carbohydrates content, crude protein yields and relative feed value of wheat were obtained at the milk stage, while contents of crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber were the lowest, compared to the flowering and dough stages. Lactic acid contents of wheat silage significantly decreased with maturity. Inoculating homofermentative LAB1 markedly reduced pH values and ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N content (p<0.05 of silages at three maturity stages compared with their corresponding controls. Inoculating heterofermentative LAB2 did not significantly influence pH values, whereas it notably lowered lactic acid and NH3-N content (p<0.05 and effectively improved the aerobic stability of silages. In conclusion, considering both yields and nutritive value, whole crop wheat as forage should be harvested at the milk stage. Inoculating LAB1 improved the fermentation quality, while inoculating LAB2 enhanced the aerobic stability of wheat silages at different maturity stages.

  6. [Estimation of Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation for Winter Wheat Based on Hyperspectral Characteristic Parameters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Cai, Huan-jie; Li, Zhi-jun

    2015-09-01

    Estimating fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR) precisely has great importance for detecting vegetation water content, energy and carbon cycle balance. Based on this, ASD FieldSpec 3 and SunScan canopy analyzer were applied to measure the canopy spectral reflectance and photosynthetically active radiation over whole growth stage of winter wheat. Canopy reflectance spectral data was used to build up 24 hyperspectral characteristic parameters and the correlation between FPAR and different spectral characteristic parameters were analyzed to establish the estimation model of FPAR for winter wheat. The results indicated that there were extremely significant correlations (pcharacteristic parameters except the slope of blue edge (Db). The correlation coefficient between FPAR and the ratio of red edge area to blue edge area (VI4) was the highest, reaching at 0.836. Seven spectral parameters with higher correlation coefficient were selected to establish optimal linear and nonlinear estimation models of FPAR, and the best estimating models of FPAR were obtained by accuracy analysis. For the linear model, the inversin model between green edge and FPAR was the best, with R2, RMSE and RRMSE of predicted model reaching 0.679, 0.111 and 20.82% respectively. For the nonlinear model, the inversion model between VI2 (normalized ratio of green peak to red valley of reflectivity) and FPAR was the best, with R2, RMSE and RRMSE of predicted model reaching 0.724, 0.088 and 21.84% for. In order to further improve the precision of the model, the multiple linear regression and BP neural network methods were used to establish models with multiple high spectral parameters BP neural network model (R2=0.906, RMSE=0.08, RRMSE=16.57%) could significantly improve the inversion precision compared with the single variable model. The results show that using hyperspectral characteristic parameters to estimate FPAR of winter wheat is feasible. It provides a new method and

  7. Seeding date affects fall growth of winter canola (Brassica napus L. ‘Baldur’) and its performance as a winter cover crop in central Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, interest has increased in finding non-grass cover crop species that could be planted after soybean (Glycine max (L) Merr.) and before corn (Zea mays L.) in Iowa crop rotations. In this study, we investigate the use of winter canola (Brassica napus L.) as an alternative cover crop fo...

  8. A linear model to predict with a multi-spectral radiometer the amount of nitrogen in winter wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyniers, M.; Walvoort, D.J.J.; Baardemaaker, De J.

    2006-01-01

    The objective was to develop an optimal vegetation index (VIopt) to predict with a multi-spectral radiometer nitrogen in wheat crop (kg[N] ha-1). Optimality means that nitrogen in the crop can be measured accurately in the field during the growing season. It also means that the measurements are

  9. Stability of yield and miller's quality of winter wheat selected varieties' grain

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    Viera Šottníková

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the project of small-plot field trials we cultivated 10 varieties of winter wheat in 5 different trial stations of the Central Institute for Supervising and Testing in Agriculture in years 2001–2002. The yields achieved were assessed and the miller’s quality of the grain was defined. Wheat variety Contra reached the highest yields (10.226 t.ha–1 and Niagara wheat variety reached the lowest yields (8.516 t. ha–1 where the yields were conclusively lower (LSD, 95% compared with the group C varieties. Apache and Ebi varieties achieved the most stable yields; the least plastic variety was Banquet. We marked high variability of volume capacity (682–840 g.1–1. The highest average volume capacity was proved by Niagara variety (802 g.1–1 while the lowest was provided by Windsor (736.9 g.1–1. The elite group wheat varieties (E and the quality varieties (Niagara, Samanta proved conclusively higher volume capacity than the group C varieties. The highest TGW, in comparison with the rest of varieties, was achieved by Niagara variety and the lowest TGW proved by Contra. The high proportion of grains on 2,5 mm sieve corresponded with TGW. In average, the highest proportion of grains on 2,5 mm sieve was achieved by Niagara variety (95.21%, the lowest by Contra. Higher TGW value achieved in 2001, in comparison with 2002, positively influenced the yield of flour. The highest yield were reached by the A class flour in 2001 and the elite wheat (E in the following year. The highest content of ashes in flour T550 was found at Windsor variety (0.61% contrary to the most positively evaluated Samanta (0.55%.

  10. Coupled Effects of Climatic and Socio-economic Factors on Winter Cropping in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, M.; Mondal, P.; Galford, G. L.; DeFries, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    India is predicted to be one of the most vulnerable regions in terms of agricultural sensitivity to future climate changes. Approximately 69% of India's population is rural, and over 55% of the working population relies on agriculture for sustenance and livelihoods. Indian smallholder farmers who own less than 2 ha of farmland represent 78% of the total Indian farmers and produce 41% of the country's food crops. These smallholder farmers are among some of the most vulnerable communities to climatic and economic changes due to limited access to technology, infrastructure, markets, and institutional or financial support in the case of adverse climatic events. Baseline information on agricultural sensitivity to climate variability will provide useful information for regional-level, and eventually state- and national-level, strategies and policies that promote adaption to climate variability. We use a decade of remote sensing analysis of cropping patterns and climatic factors along with census data for irrigation and demographic factors to understand winter cropping trajectories across agro-ecological zones in India. Findings from multiple agro-ecological zones indicate that there are three primary trajectories in winter cropping in India - increasing, fluctuating, and decreasing. In the Central Indian Highlands, for example, the most dominant trend is that of fluctuating cropped area, ranging between ~37,300 km2 in 2010 and ~21,100 km2 in 2013, which is associated with village-level access to irrigation and local labor dynamics. Clay soil type and increasing irrigation coverage were associated with intensification. Yet, suitable soil type and access to irrigation do not reduce vulnerability to high daytime temperatures that is negatively associated with winter crop cover. With pronounced winter warming projected in the coming decades, effective adaptation by smallholder farmers would require additional strategies, such as access to fine-scale temperature forecasts

  11. Forms of Inorganic Phosphorus in Soil under Different Long Term Soil Tillage Systems and winter Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Tiecher, T.; Santos, D.R.; Kaminski, J.; Calegari, A.

    2012-01-01

    The cultivation of crops with different capacity of P uptake and use under long-term soil tillage systems can affect the distribution of P cycling and inorganic forms in the soil, as a result of higher or lower use efficiency of P applied in fertilizers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of long-term cultivation of different winter species under tillage systems on the distribution of inorganic P forms in the soil. In 1986, the experiment was initiated with six winter crops...

  12. Forms of inorganic phosphorus in soil under different long term soil tillage systems and winter crops

    OpenAIRE

    Tiecher, Tales; Santos, Danilo Rheinheimer dos; Kaminski, João; Calegari, Ademir

    2012-01-01

    The cultivation of crops with different capacity of P uptake and use under long-term soil tillage systems can affect the distribution of P cycling and inorganic forms in the soil, as a result of higher or lower use efficiency of P applied in fertilizers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of long-term cultivation of different winter species under tillage systems on the distribution of inorganic P forms in the soil. In 1986, the experiment was initiated with six winter crops ...

  13. Remote Sensing and GIS Based wheat Crop Acreage and Yield Estimation of District Hyderabad, Pakistan

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    Altaf Ali Siyal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pre-harvest reliable and timely yield forecast and area estimates of cropped area is vital to planners and policy makers for making important and timely decisions with respect to food security in a country. The present study was conducted to estimate the wheat cropped area and crop yield in Hyderabad District, Pakistan from the Landsat 8 satellite imagery for Rabi 2013-14 and ground trothing. The required imagery of district Hyderabad was acquired from GLOVIS and was classified with maximum likelihood algorithm using ArcGIS 10.1. The classified image revealed that in district Hyderabad wheat covered 10,210 hectares (9.74% of total area during Rabi season 2013-14 against 15,000 hectares (14.3% of total area reported by Crop reporting Services (CRS, Sindh which is 30% less than that of reported by CRS. A positive linear relation between the wheat crop yield and the peak NDVI with coefficient of determination R2 = 0.91 was observed. Crop area and yield forecast through remote sensing is easy, cost effective, quick and reliable hence this technology needs to be introduced and propagated in the concerned government departments of Pakistan

  14. Changes of Respiration Activities in Cells of Winter Wheat and Sugar Cane Suspension Cultures During Programmed Cell Death Process

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    I.V. Lyubushkina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Process of cell death in suspension cultures of winter wheat and sugar cane under high (50 °С and negative (-8 °С temperature treatment has been studied. It has been shown, that programmed cell death (PCD process caused by the negative temperature in the culture of winter wheat was noted for slow rate of realization and it was carried out for 10 days. It has been state that rate of cell respiration was significantly higher than in the control culture. At the same time PCD processes induced by the high temperature in the culture of sugar cane and winter wheat and by the negative temperature in the culture of sugar cane realized for 24-48 h and was accompanied by graduate decrease of respiration activities. We can conclude that the main reason of PCD processes realization differences was a different level of respiration metabolism resistance to high and negative temperatures action.

  15. Sowing terms of winter bread wheat variety-innovations (Triticum aestivum L. in the conditions of change of climate

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    О. Л. Дергачов

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Results of studying of influence of sowing terms on productivity and indices of quality of grain of winter bread wheat variety-innovations of V.M. Remeslo Myronivka Institute of Wheat of NAAS of Ukraine in the conditions of Right-bank Forest-steppe are shown. Negative correlation of productivity of varieties on average temperature of air during the sowing period is shown.

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions from a wheat-maize double cropping system with different nitrogen fertilization regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, X.K.; Su, F.; Ju, X.T.; Gao, B.; Oenema, O.; Christie, P.; Huang, B.X.; Jiang, R.F.; Zhang, F.S.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we report on a two-years field experiment aimed at the quantification of the emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) from the dominant wheat maize double cropping system in North China Plain. The experiment had 6 different fertilization strategies, including a control treatment,

  17. Discrimination of wheat and oat crops using field hyperspectral remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Allison; Duchesne-Onoro, Rocio

    2017-04-01

    In this study we attempt to identify the most suitable spectral bands to discriminate among wheat and oat crops using field hyperspectral remote sensing. Discrimination of these crops using ordinary aerial or multispectral satellite imagery can be challenging. Even though multispectral images could have a high spatial resolution, their few wide spectral bands hinder crop discrimination. Therefore, both high spatial resolution and spectral resolution are necessary to accurately discriminate between visually similar crops. One field each of oats and spring wheat, each at least 10 acres in size, was selected in southeastern Wisconsin. Biweekly spectral readings were taken using a spectroradiometer during the growing season from May to July. In each field, seven 10 m x 10 m quadrants were randomly placed and in each quadrants five points were selected from which 20 radiometric readings were taken. Radiometric measurements taken at each sampling point were averaged to derive a single reflectance curve per sampling date, covering the spectral range of 300 nm to 2,500 nm. Each spectral curve was divided into hyperspectral bands each 3 nm wide. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to estimate how separable the two crops were. Results show that selected regions of the visible light and infrared radiation spectrum have the potential to discriminate between these crops. Crop discrimination is one of the first steps to support crop monitoring and agricultural surveys efforts.

  18. Ozone exposure of field-grown winter wheat affects soil mesofauna in the rhizosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrader, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.schrader@vti.bund.d [Johann Heinrich von Thuenen-Institute (vTI), Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forestry and Fisheries, Institute of Biodiversity, Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Bender, Juergen; Weigel, Hans-Joachim [Johann Heinrich von Thuenen-Institute (vTI), Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forestry and Fisheries, Institute of Biodiversity, Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    A 2-year open-top chamber experiment with field-grown winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Astron) was conducted to examine the effects of ozone on plant growth and selected groups of soil mesofauna in the rhizosphere. From May through June in each year, plants were exposed to two levels of O{sub 3}: non-filtered (NF) ambient air or NF+ 40 ppb O{sub 3} (NF+). During O{sub 3} exposure, soil sampling was performed at two dates according to different plant growth stages. O{sub 3} exposure reduced above- and below-ground plant biomass in the first year, but had little effect in the second year. The individual density of enchytraeids, collembolans and soil mites decreased significantly in the rhizosphere of plants exposed to NF+ in both years. Differences were highest around anthesis, i.e. when plants are physiologically most active. The results suggest that elevated O{sub 3} concentrations may influence the dynamic of decomposition processes and the turnover of nutrients. - Ozone reduced the individual densities of enchytraeids, collembolans and soil mites in the rhizosphere of winter wheat indirectly via the plant-soil-system.

  19. Winter wheat water productivity evaluated by the developed remote sensing evapotranspiration model in Hebei Plain, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengwei; Zhao, Hongbin; Lei, Huimin; Shao, Hongbo; Liu, Tingxi

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural water is the main reason for the rapid decline of the NCP groundwater levels. It is of vital importance for the NCP sustainable agricultural development to master the ETa and its CWP. In this paper, the EBEM model was developed according to the theory of energy balance. From 2001 to 2006, the winter wheat ETa and CWP were estimated, and the spatial and temporal variations and their influencing factors were studied in the Hebei Plain. The results indicate that the EBEM model performed well by applying MODIS data to estimate the daily net radiation and ETa. For the daytime net radiation, the relative error between the estimation and the measurement amounted to 8.2% and the SEE was 0.82 MJ m(-2)/day. The average ETa deviation between the estimates and the measures amounted to 0.86 mm daily, and the SE was 1.2 mm. The spatial variations indicated that the major distribution of ETa ranged from 350 to 450 mm, which trended downward within the study area from west to east. In the study period, the winter wheat CWP was mainly distributed between 0.29 and 1.67 kg/m(3). In space, the CWP was higher in the west than in the east.

  20. LEAF AREA INDEX IN WINTER WHEAT: RESPONSE ON SEED RATE AND NITROGEN APPLICATION BY DIFFERENT VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M BAVEC

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The most important photosynthesis acceptor – leaf area vary among cultivation measures and it is limited factor for creating exact growth models in common winter wheat. The objective of this study was to investigate changes of leaf area index (LAI affected by agricultural treatments – 4 sowing rates and 9 nitrogen treatments based on fertilising rates, target values based on soil mineral nitrogen and plant sap tests target values including different varieties. Increasing sowing rates from 350 to 800 viable seeds m-2 increased LAI at EC 75 stage from 2.9 to 5.5, where LAI 4.1 at 500 seeds m-2 did not vary between lower and higher rates; also at EC 85 stage LAIs did not differ significantly. At EC 75 stage LAI differed among control and nitrogen treatments from 1.0 to 6.5 and at EC 85 stage from 0.1 to 2.4, with differences in interaction among varieties. Higher nitrogen rates for first and second top dressing increased LAI in both stages compared without dressing treatments. Due to significant differences among LAI as consequence of production system, we suggest to take this into account in every prediction and modelling of growth in winter wheat.

  1. [Weed biodiversity in winter wheat field of loess soil under different fertilization regimes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qiao-zhen; Yang, Xue-yun; Sun, Ben-hua; Zhang, Shu-lan; Tong, Yan-an

    2007-05-01

    Employing an inverted 'W' investigation procedure with 9 sampling locations and adopting a biodiversity analysis approach integrated with typical statistic method, this paper studied the effects of different long-term stationary fertilization regimes on the weed biodiversity in winter wheat fields on loess soil. The results showed that in the experimental plots, there were 16 weed species belonging to 10 family and 16 genera, occupying about 34% of the total number of weed species in winter wheat fields in Shaanxi Province. The weed biodiversity was decreased with the improvement of soil nutrient status. There were 3-5 weed populations in treatments NPK and NPK plus organic materials, and 6-8 populations in treatments CK, N, NK and NP. The relative abundance of weeds ranged from 0 to 73%, and the ranges of Shannon's diversity index, Shannon's evenness index and Margalef' s species richness index were 0.2-1.08, 0.05-0.26 and 0.26-1.26, respectively. All of these 3 parameters were higher in unbalanced than in balanced fertilization treatments, and the differences between unbalanced and balanced fertilization treatments were significant in most case, which was probably due to the different status of available soil nutrients and might have different effects on the growth of weeds.

  2. Radiation and nitrogen use in wheat and oilseed rape crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreccer, M.F.

    1999-01-01

    Raising yield potential of crops with an efficient use of nutrients is imperative, given the prospects of increase in world population and the need to reduce environmental problems. Yield potential is proportional to the total biomass of a crop, which is highly responsive to nitrogen

  3. Effect of foliar fertilizer and fungicidal protection against leaf spot diseases on winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Mączyńska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were carried out in the seasons 2000/2001 and 2001/2002 in Plant Protection Institute, Sooenicowice Branch to assess the influence of foliar fertilizers such as Ekolist PK 1, Ekolist Mg, Mikrosol Z and Urea on healthiness of winter wheat. Foliar fertilizers were mixed with fungicides. The fungicides were applied at full or half recommended doses. The effect of the disease on wheat leaves was evaluated three times in each vegetation season. Remaining green leaf area (GLA of leaves was also determined. GLA of the leaves F-1 was not significantly different for each combination with different fertilization and different levels of chemical treatment. The application of foliar fertilizer only had no effect on green leaf area (GLA. The results indicate that foliar fertilization of all experimental plots improved leaf condition and therefore halted the development of wheat leaf diseases. The increases of 1000 grain mass and yield was high for each plot where a fertilizer and a full or half dose of a fungicide was applied. Foliar fertilizing with no chemical control had no proven effect on studied parameters.

  4. Correlation of Deoxynivalenol Accumulation in Fusarium-Infected Winter and Spring Wheat Cultivars with Secondary Metabolites at Different Growth Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzerodt, Thomas; Gislum, Rene; Laursen, Bente B; Heinrichson, Kirsten; Gregersen, Per L; Jørgensen, Lise N; Fomsgaard, Inge S

    2016-06-08

    Fusarium infection in wheat causes Fusarium head blight, resulting in yield losses and contamination of grains with trichothecenes. Some plant secondary metabolites inhibit accumulation of trichothecenes. Eighteen Fusarium infected wheat cultivars were harvested at five time points and analyzed for the trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON) and 38 wheat secondary metabolites (benzoxazinoids, phenolic acids, carotenoids, and flavonoids). Multivariate analysis showed that harvest time strongly impacted the content of secondary metabolites, more distinctly for winter wheat than spring wheat. The benzoxazinoid 2-β-glucopyranoside-2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA-glc), α-tocopherol, and the flavonoids homoorientin and orientin were identified as potential inhibitors of DON accumulation. Several phenolic acids, lutein and β-carotene also affected DON accumulation, but the effect varied for the two wheat types. The results could form a basis for choosing wheat cultivars using metabolite profiling as a marker for selecting wheat cultivars with improved resistance against Fusarium head blight and accumulation of trichothecene toxins in wheat heads.

  5. Evaluating Split Nitrogen Applications and In-Season Tests for Organic Winter Bread Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin H. Roche

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Achieving high grain yields and crude protein (CP standards in organic winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is challenging because ensuring that adequate nitrogen (N is available at key periods of wheat growth is difficult in organic systems. Split application regimes and in-season N management tests may improve organic production. In field trials conducted over four site-years in Maine and Vermont, USA, N application regimes were analyzed for their effects on organic winter wheat, N uptake, grain yield, and CP. Tiller density and tissue N tests were evaluated as in-season decision tools. Eight treatments arranged in a non-factorial design differed in terms of N application timing (pre-plant (PP, topdress at tillering (T1, and topdress at pre-stem extension (T2 and N rate. Treatments were: (1 an untreated check, (2 pre-plant N at a low rate of 78 kg N ha−1 (PPL, (3 pre-plant N at a high rate of 117 or 157 kg N ha−1 (PPH, (4 T178, (5 PPL + T139, (6 PPL + T239, (7 PPH + T239, and (8 PPL + T139 +T239. Responses to N treatments were variable among site-years, however some common results were identified. The PP-only treatments increased grain yields more than they increased CP. The T178 and PPH + T239 treatments were the most effective at increasing yield and CP, compared with the PP-only treatments. Tiller density and tissue N tests were good predictors of grain yield (r = 0.52, p < 0.001 and CP (r = 0.75, p < 0.001 respectively. Future work should test in-season decision tools using a wider range of tiller densities, and topdress N rates against tissue N measurements.

  6. Exogenous Cytokinins Increase Grain Yield of Winter Wheat Cultivars by Improving Stay-Green Characteristics under Heat Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongqing; Li, Yong; Shi, Yuhua; Cui, Zhengyong; Luo, Yongli; Zheng, Mengjing; Chen, Jin; Li, Yanxia; Yin, Yanping; Wang, Zhenlin

    2016-01-01

    Stay-green, a key trait of wheat, can not only increase the yield of wheat but also its resistance to heat stress during active photosynthesis. Cytokinins are the most potent general coordinator between the stay-green trait and senescence. The objectives of the present study were to identify and assess the effects of cytokinins on the photosynthetic organ and heat resistance in wheat. Two winter wheat cultivars, Wennong 6 (a stay-green cultivar) and Jimai 20 (a control cultivar), were subjected to heat stress treatment from 1 to 5 days after anthesis (DAA). The two cultivars were sprayed daily with 10 mg L-1 of 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) between 1 and 3 DAA under ambient and elevated temperature conditions. We found that the heat stress significantly decreased the number of kernels per spike and the grain yield (P cytokinin substances in the cultivation of heat-resistant wheat.

  7. Factors affecting soil organic matter conservation in Mediterranean hillside winter cereals-legumes cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Marraccini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil conservation is an important issue for farming and environmental protection in Mediterranean areas. Hillside farming systems, based on winter cereals and legumes, are common in these areas and are the target of several environmental policies. Soil organic matter (SOM is widely used to assess the environmental performance of these cropping systems. Nevertheless, few studies have considered soil conservation practices in hillside systems in terms of implementing more effective agro-environmental policies for these areas. This paper compares the SOM conservation of different winter cereal based cropping systems within Mediterranean hillside crops/livestock farms. Seventeen cropping systems were characterised by on-farm surveys in the inland hilly area of Grosseto (Tuscany, Italy. For each cropping system, we performed a SOM balance, based on Hénin-Dupuis’ equation, using either local environmental databases or data from on-farm surveys. Differences between cropping systems were analysed by the Kruskal-Wallis test. On average, the cropping systems identified did not guarantee SOM conservation and varied considerably from farm to farm, however, some practices seemed to have a positive performance, e.g. cropping systems of cattle farms. According to the literature, annual SOM balance differs significantly depending on crop rotation length and longer crop rotations performed better than shorter ones. However, we found a local effect indicating that this better performance was influenced by local farmers' cooperatives, which to some extent counteracted the negative effect of crop rotation length. There were significant differences in the performance of dairy sheep and cattle farms (-1031 kg ha-1 yr-1 vs. +103 kg ha-1 yr-1, respectively. This suggests that the presence of livestock did not have the same favourable effect on soil conservation in Mediterranean systems and that this factor should be more investigated. Surprisingly, in our sample

  8. Climatic warming increases winter wheat yield but reduces grain nitrogen concentration in east China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlu Tian

    Full Text Available Climatic warming is often predicted to reduce wheat yield and grain quality in China. However, direct evidence is still lacking. We conducted a three-year experiment with a Free Air Temperature Increase (FATI facility to examine the responses of winter wheat growth and plant N accumulation to a moderate temperature increase of 1.5°C predicted to prevail by 2050 in East China. Three warming treatments (AW: all-day warming; DW: daytime warming; NW: nighttime warming were applied for an entire growth period. Consistent warming effects on wheat plant were recorded across the experimental years. An increase of ca. 1.5°C in daily, daytime and nighttime mean temperatures shortened the length of pre-anthesis period averagely by 12.7, 8.3 and 10.7 d (P<0.05, respectively, but had no significant impact on the length of the post-anthesis period. Warming did not significantly alter the aboveground biomass production, but the grain yield was 16.3, 18.1 and 19.6% (P<0.05 higher in the AW, DW and NW plots than the non-warmed plot, respectively. Warming also significantly increased plant N uptake and total biomass N accumulation. However, warming significantly reduced grain N concentrations while increased N concentrations in the leaves and stems. Together, our results demonstrate differential impacts of warming on the depositions of grain starch and protein, highlighting the needs to further understand the mechanisms that underlie warming impacts on plant C and N metabolism in wheat.

  9. [Effects of mulching and fertilization on winter wheat field soil moisture in dry highland region of Loess Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Feng; Tian, Xiao-Hong; Chen, Zi-Hui; Chen, Hui-Lin; Wang, Zhao-Hui

    2009-05-01

    A field experiment was conducted in a winter wheat field in Weibei dry highland region of Loess Plateau to study the effects of different mulching and fertilization treatments on soil moisture regime. The treatments were 1) no fertilization, 2) conventional fertilization, 3) recommended fertilization, 4) recommended fertilization + manure, 5) recommended fertilization + plastic mulch on soil ridges, 6) recommended fertilization + plastic mulch on soil ridges and straw mulch in furrows, and 7) recommended fertilization + straw mulch on entire plot. Soil moisture content was determined regularly with a neutron probe. Among the treatments, recommended fertilization plus plastic mulch on soil ridges and straw mulch in furrows in dry season (spring) resulted in the greatest increase of soil water storage and maintained the storage to the critical stage crops needed, followed by recommended fertilization plus plastic mulch on soil ridges. These two treatments could store more precipitation in field, and would benefit the development of rainfed agriculture in dry highland region of Loess Plateau. As for recommended fertilization plus manure, it had the least increase of soil water storage, with a difference of 48.2 mm to the recommended fertilization plus plastic mulch on soil ridges and straw mulch in furrows in dry season.

  10. Cereal Crops Are not Created Equal: Wheat Consumption Associated with Obesity Prevalence Globally and Regionally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenpeng You

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cereals have been extensively advocated as the beneficial food group in terms of body weight management, but each staple cereal crop may contribute in different ways. Studies of the association between wheat availability and risk of obesity are controversial. This study aimed to test the global and regional association between wheat availability as reported by FAO and obesity prevalence at a population level. FAO does not distinguish between whole grain wheat and refined wheat. Methods: Population-specific data from 170 countries on prevalence of obesity, availabilities of mixed cereals, wheat, rice, maize, meat, sugar, fat, soy and calories and GDP are obtained from the UN agencies. All variables were measured as per capita per day (or per year. Each country is treated as an individual subject. SPSS v. 22 is used to analyse these data for all the 170 countries and official country groupings (regions using non parametric and parametric correlations, including partial correlation analysis. Results: Pearson’s correlation coefficient analysis showed that obesity prevalence is positively associated with wheat availability (r = 0.500, p < 0.001, but is inversely associated with availabilities of total cereals (r = -0.132, p = 0.087, rice (r = -0.405, p < 0.001 and maize (r = -0.227, p = 0.004. These associations remain in partial correlation model when we keep availabilities of meat, fat, sugar, soy, caloric intake and GDP statistically constant. Overall, positive associations between wheat availability and obesity prevalence remain in different regions. Maize and mixed cereal availabilities do not show independent associations with the obesity prevalence. Conclusions: Our study suggests that wheat availability is an independent predictor of the obesity prevalence both worldwide and with special regard to the regions of Africa, Americas and Asia. Future studies should distinguish between possible influence of whole grain and ultra

  11. Root growth and nitrate-nitrogen leaching of catch crops following spring wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Juan M; Feil, Boy; Stamp, Peter; Liedgens, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Growing nitrogen (N) catch crops can reduce NO(3)-N leaching after cultivating cereals. The objective of this study was to relate NO(3)-N leaching to variation in the uptake of N and the size and distribution of the root systems of different catch crops species. In a 3-yr lysimeter experiment, phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia Benth.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), and a Brassica species (yellow mustard [Brassica alba L.] or a hybrid of turnip rape [B. rapa L. spp. oleifera (DC.) Metzg.] and Chinese cabbage [B. rapa L. ssp. chinensis (L.) Hanelt]) were grown after the harvest of spring wheat under two levels of N supply. Bare soil lysimeters served as the control. Water percolation from the lysimeters and the NO(3)(-) concentration in the leachate were measured weekly from the sowing until the presumed frost-kill of the catch crops. Minirhizotrons were used to assess the spatial and temporal patterns of root growth from 0.10 to 1.00 m. The catch crop species differed in their shoot biomass, N uptake, total NO(3)-N leaching, and root growth. The results suggested that there was no strict relationship between the total NO(3)-N leaching of each catch crop species and the N uptake or parameters that indicate static characteristics of the root system. In contrast, the ranking of each catch crop species by parameters that indicate early root growth was inversely related to the ranking of each catch crop species in NO(3)-N leaching. The rapid establishment of the root system is essential for a catch crop following spring wheat to reduce the amount of NO(3)-N leaching after the harvest of spring wheat.

  12. Effect of weather data aggregation on regional crop simulation for different crops, production conditions, and response variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Gang; Hoffmann, Holger; Bussel, Van L.G.J.; Enders, Andreas; Specka, Xenia; Sosa, Carmen; Yeluripati, Jagadeesh; Tao, Fulu; Constantin, Julie; Raynal, Helene; Teixeira, Edmar; Grosz, Balázs; Doro, Luca; Zhao, Zhigan; Nendel, Claas; Kiese, Ralf; Eckersten, Henrik; Haas, Edwin; Vanuytrecht, Eline; Wang, Enli; Kuhnert, Matthias; Trombi, Giacomo; Moriondo, Marco; Bindi, Marco; Lewan, Elisabet; Bach, Michaela; Kersebaum, Kurt Christian; Rötter, Reimund; Roggero, Pier Paolo; Wallach, Daniel; Cammarano, Davide; Asseng, Senthold; Krauss, Gunther; Siebert, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the weather data aggregation effect (DAE) on the simulation of cropping systems for different crops, response variables, and production conditions. Using 13 processbased crop models and the ensemble mean, we simulated 30 yr continuous cropping systems for 2 crops (winter wheat and

  13. Infrared warming reduced winter wheat yields and some physiological parameters, which were mitigated by irrigation and worsened by delayed sowing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibo Fang

    Full Text Available Winter wheat has a central role in ensuring the food security and welfare of 1.3 billion people in China. Extensive previous studies have concluded that winter wheat yields would decrease with higher temperatures, owing to warming-induced soil drying or shortening of phenophase. Temperature in China is predicted to increase by 1-5°C by 2100, which may greatly impact plant production and cause other negative effects. We performed a manipulative field experiment, creating diverse growth regimes for wheat by infrared radiation (IR warming day and night, including IR warming only (DW, IR warming + delayed sowing dates (DS, IR warming + increased irrigation (IW, and a control (CK. The results show that IR warming increased daily average wheat canopy and soil temperatures by 2.0°C and 2.3°C, respectively. DW was associated with an advanced maturity of 10 days and yield reduction of 8.2%. IR-warming effects on the photosynthetic apparatus of wheat varied with season as well as significant differences were found in the booting stage. DS represented a worsened situation, lowering yield per plant by 16.4%, with a significant decline in aboveground biomass and functional leaf area. Wheat under DS showed double-peak patterns of diurnal gas exchange during booting stages and, consequently, lower photosynthetic capacity with high transpiration for cooling. Significantly lower actual water use efficiency and intrinsic water use efficiency from jointing to anthesis stages were also found under DS. However, IW had no significant difference from CK, irrespective of yield and photosynthesis. Therefore, we concluded that delayed sowing date may not be a good choice for winter wheat, whereas a thoroughly-watered wheat agroecosystem should be promoted in the context of global warming.

  14. Wheat Yield Trend and Soil Fertility Status in Long Term Rice-Rice-Wheat Cropping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabin Rawal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A long-term soil fertility experiment under rice-rice-wheat system was performed to evaluate the long term effects of inorganic fertilizer and manure applications on soil properties and grain yield of wheat. The experiment began since 1978 was laid out in randomized complete block design with 9 treatments replicated 3 times. From 1990 onwards, periodic modifications have been made in all the treatments splitting the plots in two equal halves of 4 x 3 m2 leaving one half as original. In the original treatments, recent data revealed that the use of Farm Yard Manure (FYM @10 t ha-1 gave significantly (P≤0.05 higher yield of 2.3 t ha-1 in wheat, whereas control plot gave the lowest grain yield of 277 kg ha-1. Similarly, in the modified treatments, the use of FYM @10 t ha-1 along with inorganic Nitrogen (N and Potassium oxide (K2O @ 50 kg ha-1 produced significantly (P≤0.05 the highest yield of 2.4 t/ha in wheat. The control plot with an indigenous nutrient supply only produced wheat yield of 277 kg ha-1 after 35th year completion of rice-rice-wheat system. A sharp decline in wheat yields was noted in minus N, phosphorus (P, Potassium (K treatments during recent years. Yields were consistently higher in the N:P2O5:K2O and FYM treatments than in treatments, where one or more nutrients were lacking. The application of P2O5 and K2O caused a partial recovery of yield in P and K deficient plots. There was significant (P≤0.05 effect of use of chemical fertilizers and manure on soil properties. The soil analysis data showed an improvement in soil pH (7.8, soil organic matter (4.1%, total N content (0.16%, available P (503.5 kg P2O5 ha-1 and exchangeable K (137.5 kg K2O ha-1 in FYM applied treatments over all other treatments. The findings showed that the productivity of the wheat can be increased and sustained by improving nutrient through the integrated use of organic and inorganic manures in long term.

  15. Color of whole-wheat foods prepared from a bright-white hard winter wheat and the phenolic acids in its coarse bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongxin; Martin, Joe; Okot-Kotber, Moses; Seib, Paul A

    2011-08-01

    The color of wheat kernels often impacts the color and thereby the value of wheat-based foods. A line of hard white winter wheat (B-W HW) with bright appearing kernels has been developed at the Kansas State Agricultural Research Center. The objective of this study was to compare the color of several foods made from the B-W HW wheat with those of 2 hard white wheat cultivars, Trego and Lakin. The B-W HW kernels showed higher lightness (L*, 57.6) than Trego (55.5) and Lakin (56.8), and the increased lightness was carried over to its bran and whole-wheat flour. Alkaline noodle and bread crumb made from the B-W HW whole-wheat flour showed slightly higher lightness (L*) than those made from Trego and Lakin. The sum of soluble and bound phenolics extracted from the 3 wheat brans, which had not been preextracted to remove lipids, was found to be 17.22 to 18.98 mg/g. The soluble phenolic acids in the brans were principally vanillic, ferulic, and syringic. The bound phenolic acids in the brans were dominated by ferulic, which accounted for 50.1% to 82.2% of total identified bound phenolic acids. Other bound phenolic acids were protocatechuic, caffeic, syringic, trans-cinnamic, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-coumaric, and vanillic. The lightness (L*) values of coarse wheat brans correlated positively with their levels of bound protocatechuic (r = 0.72, P < 0.01) and p-hydroxybenzoic acids (r = 0.75, P < 0.01). © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Chlorophyll fluorescence as a parameter for frost hardiness in winter wheat. A comparison with other hardiness parameters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clement, JMAM; vanHasselt, PR

    1996-01-01

    Frost hardiness of winter wheat leaves (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Urban) was measured during an eight weeks hardening period using chlorophyll fluorescence. Determination of frost induced damage after freezing, measured as the decrease of photochemical capacity of photosystem II (F-V/F-M =

  17. Adult plant leaf rust resistance derived from the soft red winter wheat cultivar Caldwell maps to chromosome 3BS

    Science.gov (United States)

    'Caldwell' is a U.S. soft red winter wheat that has partial, adult plant resistance to the leaf rust pathogen Puccinia triticina. A line of 'Thatcher*2/Caldwell' with adult plant resistance derived from Caldwell was crossed with 'Thatcher' to develop a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs). ...

  18. SHORT-TERM EXPOSURE TO ATMOSPHERIC AMMONIA DOES NOT AFFECT LOW-TEMPERATURE HARDENING OF WINTER-WHEAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CLEMENT, JMAM; VENEMA, JH; VANHASSELT, PR

    1995-01-01

    The effect of atmospheric NH3 on low-temperature hardening of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Urban) was investigated. Growth and photosynthesis were stimulated by ammonia exposure. After a 14 d exposure at moderate temperatures (day/night 18.5/16 degrees C) total nitrogen content was

  19. Effects of plant tannin extracts supplementation on animal performance and gastrointestinal parasites infestation in steers grazing winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty-six stocker cattle (286.1 ± 25.7 kg) were used to quantify the effect of commercial plant tannin extracts (control vs. mimosa and chestnut tannins) on animal performance, gastrointestinal parasites control, and plasma metabolite changes in heifers grazing winter wheat forage (Triticum aestivu...

  20. Freezing tolerance of winter wheat as influenced by extended growth at low temperature and exposure to freeze-thaw cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the seasons progress, autumn-planted winter wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L.) first gain, then progressively lose freezing tolerance. Exposing the plants to freeze-thaw cycles of -3/3°C results in increased ability to tolerate subsequent freezing to potentially damaging temperatures. This stu...

  1. Forming of productivity of new soft winter wheat varieties (Triticum aestivum L. subject to phyto-virus pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. П. Петренкова

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The infection by phytoviruses and the productivity formation in the new varieties of winter bread wheat in the different years with virus damage were investigated. There were identified the varieties being more tolerant to the observed diseases, among these - the samples with different constituents of tolerance, which could be used in the breeding programs.

  2. Regulation of the membrane structure by brassinosteroids and progesterone in winter wheat seedlings exposed to low temperature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filek, M.; Rudolphi-Skórska, E.; Sieprawska, A.; Kvasnica, Miroslav; Janeczko, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 128, DEC (2017), s. 37-45 ISSN 0039-128X R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ15-08202Y Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : 24-Epibrassinolide * 24-Epicastasterone * Galactolipids * Phospholipids * Progesterone * Seedlings * Winter wheat Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.282, year: 2016

  3. Improvement of Resistance Against Septoria Leaf Blotch Caused By Zymoseptoria tritici in Danish Winter Wheat Cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagndorf, Nana; Nielsen, Nanna Hellum; Edriss, Vahid

    Septoria tritici blotch (STB) caused by the ascomycete fungus Zymoseptoria tritici (formerly Mycosphaerella graminicola), is a devastating disease causing major yield losses in winter wheat. It is therefore important to develop varieties with a broad range of resistance towards the disease...

  4. Genetic architecture of main effect QTL for heading date in European winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanke, Christine; Ling, Jie; Plieske, Jörg; Kollers, Sonja; Ebmeyer, Erhard; Korzun, Viktor; Argillier, Odile; Stiewe, Gunther; Hinze, Maike; Beier, Sebastian; Ganal, Martin W; Röder, Marion S

    2014-01-01

    A genome-wide association study (GWAS) for heading date (HD) was performed with a panel of 358 European winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties and 14 spring wheat varieties through the phenotypic evaluation of HD in field tests in eight environments. Genotyping data consisted of 770 mapped microsatellite loci and 7934 mapped SNP markers derived from the 90K iSelect wheat chip. Best linear unbiased estimations (BLUEs) were calculated across all trials and ranged from 142.5 to 159.6 days after the 1st of January with an average value of 151.4 days. Considering only associations with a -log10 (P-value) ≥ 3.0, a total of 340 SSR and 2983 SNP marker-trait associations (MTAs) were detected. After Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, a total of 72 SSR and 438 SNP marker-trait associations remained significant. Highly significant MTAs were detected for the photoperiodism gene Ppd-D1, which was genotyped in all varieties. Consistent associations were found on all chromosomes with the highest number of MTAs on chromosome 5B. Linear regression showed a clear dependence of the HD score BLUEs on the number of favorable alleles (decreasing HD) and unfavorable alleles (increasing HD) per variety meaning that genotypes with a higher number of favorable or a low number of unfavorable alleles showed lower HD and therefore flowered earlier. For the vernalization gene Vrn-A2 co-locating MTAs on chromosome 5A, as well as for the photoperiodism genes Ppd-A1 and Ppd-B1 on chromosomes 2A and 2B were detected. After the construction of an integrated map of the SSR and SNP markers and by exploiting the synteny to sequenced species, such as rice and Brachypodium distachyon, we were able to demonstrate that a marker locus on wheat chromosome 5BL with homology to the rice photoperiodism gene Hd6 played a significant role in the determination of the heading date in wheat.

  5. Wheat Yield Forecasting for Punjab Province from Vegetation Index Time Series and Historic Crop Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Dempewolf

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Policy makers, government planners and agricultural market participants in Pakistan require accurate and timely information about wheat yield and production. Punjab Province is by far the most important wheat producing region in the country. The manual collection of field data and data processing for crop forecasting by the provincial government requires significant amounts of time before official reports can be released. Several studies have shown that wheat yield can be effectively forecast using satellite remote sensing data. In this study, we developed a methodology for estimating wheat yield and area for Punjab Province from freely available Landsat and MODIS satellite imagery approximately six weeks before harvest. Wheat yield was derived by regressing reported yield values against time series of four different peak-season MODIS-derived vegetation indices. We also tested deriving wheat area from the same MODIS time series using a regression-tree approach. Among the four evaluated indices, WDRVI provided more consistent and accurate yield forecasts compared to NDVI, EVI2 and saturation-adjusted normalized difference vegetation index (SANDVI. The lowest RMSE values at the district level for forecast versus reported yield were found when using six or more years of training data. Forecast yield for the 2007/2008 to 2012/2013 growing seasons were within 0.2% and 11.5% of final reported values. Absolute deviations of wheat area and production forecasts from reported values were slightly greater compared to using the previous year's or the three- or six-year moving average values, implying that 250-m MODIS data does not provide sufficient spatial resolution for providing improved wheat area and production forecasts.

  6. Winter annual cover crop has only minor effects on major corn arthropod pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Holly N; Currie, Randall S; Klocke, Norman L; Buschman, Lawrent L

    2010-04-01

    We studied the effects of downy brome, Bromus tectorum L., winter cover crop on several corn, Zea mays L., pests in the summer crop after the cover crop. An experiment was conducted that consisted of two trials with two levels of irrigation, two levels of weed control, and two levels of downy brome. Corn was grown three consecutive years after the downy brome grown during the winter. Banks grass mites, Oligonychus pratensis (Banks), twospotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch, and predatory mites from the genus Neoseiulus were present in downy brome at the beginning of the growing season. They moved into corn, but their numbers did not differ significantly across the treatments. Larval western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, feeding on corn roots was evaluated the second and third years of corn, production. Irrigation and herbicide treatments had no significant effects on rootworm injury levels. In one trial, rootworm injury ratings were significantly greater in treatments with a history of high versus low brome, but this effect was not significant in the other trial. Rootworm injury seemed to be similar across plots with different surface soil moistures. This suggests that the use of a winter cover crop such as downy brome will not have a major negative impact the arthropods studied.

  7. FREE FLAVONOID CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF WINTER WHEAT IN SUSTAINABLE FARMING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdaléna Lacko - Bartošová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the free flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of winter wheat white flour, whole grain flour and bran in ecological and integrated farming system in the years 2009-2010. The experiment was established on a scientific research base Dolná Malanta in western Slovakia during the years 2009 and 2010. Content of free flavonoids and antioxidant activity of white flour and whole grain flour was not affected by farming systems. Antioxidant activity of whole grain flour was more effected by a year and by a forecrop. White flour contain two times less free flavonoids and antioxidant activity than whole grain flour. By milling process most of the free flavonoids and other compounds with higher antioxidant activity remain in outer layers of grain.

  8. Environmental impact assessment of double- and relay-cropping with winter camelina in the northern Great Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent findings indicate that double- or relay-cropping winter camelina (Camelina sativa L. Crantz.) with feed or food crops can increase yield per area, improve energy balance, and provide several ecosystem services. Double-cropping can help balance food and energy production. The objective of this...

  9. Genomic Regions Associated with Tolerance to Freezing Stress and Snow Mold in Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika B. Kruse

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants grown through the winter are subject to selective pressures that vary with each year’s unique conditions, necessitating tolerance of numerous abiotic and biotic stress factors. The objective of this study was to identify molecular markers in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. associated with tolerance of two of these stresses, freezing temperatures and snow mold—a fungal disease complex active under snow cover. A population of 155 F2:5 recombinant inbred lines from a cross between soft white wheat cultivars “Finch” and “Eltan” was evaluated for snow mold tolerance in the field, and for freezing tolerance under controlled conditions. A total of 663 molecular markers was used to construct a genetic linkage map and identify marker-trait associations. One quantitative trait locus (QTL associated with both freezing and snow mold tolerance was identified on chromosome 5A. A second, distinct, QTL associated with freezing tolerance also was found on 5A, and a third on 4B. A second QTL associated with snow mold tolerance was identified on chromosome 6B. The QTL on 5A associated with both traits was closely linked with the Fr-A2 (Frost-Resistance A2 locus; its significant association with both traits may have resulted from pleiotropic effects, or from greater low temperature tolerance enabling the plants to better defend against snow mold pathogens. The QTL on 4B associated with freezing tolerance, and the QTL on 6B associated with snow mold tolerance have not been reported previously, and may be useful in the identification of sources of tolerance for these traits.

  10. Genomic Regions Associated with Tolerance to Freezing Stress and Snow Mold in Winter Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Erika B.; Carle, Scott W.; Wen, Nuan; Skinner, Daniel Z.; Murray, Timothy D.; Garland-Campbell, Kimberly A.; Carter, Arron H.

    2017-01-01

    Plants grown through the winter are subject to selective pressures that vary with each year’s unique conditions, necessitating tolerance of numerous abiotic and biotic stress factors. The objective of this study was to identify molecular markers in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) associated with tolerance of two of these stresses, freezing temperatures and snow mold—a fungal disease complex active under snow cover. A population of 155 F2:5 recombinant inbred lines from a cross between soft white wheat cultivars “Finch” and “Eltan” was evaluated for snow mold tolerance in the field, and for freezing tolerance under controlled conditions. A total of 663 molecular markers was used to construct a genetic linkage map and identify marker-trait associations. One quantitative trait locus (QTL) associated with both freezing and snow mold tolerance was identified on chromosome 5A. A second, distinct, QTL associated with freezing tolerance also was found on 5A, and a third on 4B. A second QTL associated with snow mold tolerance was identified on chromosome 6B. The QTL on 5A associated with both traits was closely linked with the Fr-A2 (Frost-Resistance A2) locus; its significant association with both traits may have resulted from pleiotropic effects, or from greater low temperature tolerance enabling the plants to better defend against snow mold pathogens. The QTL on 4B associated with freezing tolerance, and the QTL on 6B associated with snow mold tolerance have not been reported previously, and may be useful in the identification of sources of tolerance for these traits. PMID:28143950

  11. [Effects of reduced solar radiation on winter wheat flag leaf net photosynthetic rate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, You-Fei; Ni, Yan-Li; Mai, Bo-Ru; Wu, Rong-Jun; Feng, Yan; Sun, Jian; Li, Jian; Xu, Jing-Xin

    2011-06-01

    Taking winter wheat Triticum aestivum L. (cv. Yangmai 13) as test material, a field experiment was conducted in Nanjing City to study the effects of simulated reduced solar radiation on the diurnal variation of winter wheat flag leaf photosynthetic rate and the main affecting factors. Five treatments were installed, i. e., 15% (T15), 20% (T20) , 40% (T40), 60% (T60), and 100% (CK) of total incident solar radiation. Reduced solar irradiance increased the chlorophyll and lutein contents significantly, but decreased the net photosynthetic rate (Pn). Under different solar irradiance, the diurnal variation of Pn had greater difference, and the daily maximum Pn was in the order of CK > T60 > T40 > T 20 > T15. In CK, the Pn exhibited a double peak diurnal curve; while in the other four treatments, the Pn showed a single peak curve, and the peak was lagged behind that of CK. Correlation analysis showed that reduced solar irradiance was the main factor affecting the diurnal variation of Pn, but the physiological parameters also played important roles in determining the diurnal variation of Pn. In treatments T60 and T40, the photosynthesis active radiation (PAR), leaf temperature (T1) , stomatal conductance (Gs) , and transpiration rate (Tr) were significantly positively correlated with Pn, suggesting their positive effects on Pn. The intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and stomatal limitation (Ls) had significant negative correlations with Pn in treatments T60 and T40 but significant positive correlations with Pn in treatments T20 and T15, implying that the Ci and Ls had negative (or positive) effects on Pn when the solar irradiance was higher (or lower) than 40% of incident solar irradiance.

  12. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Yield and Grain Quality Traits in Winter Wheat Genotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Tadesse

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to investigate the genetic basis of yield and grain quality traits in winter wheat genotypes using association mapping approach, and identify linked molecular markers for marker assisted selection. A total of 120 elite facultative/winter wheat genotypes were evaluated for yield, quality and other agronomic traits under rain-fed and irrigated conditions for two years (2011-2012 at the Tel Hadya station of ICARDA, Syria. The same genotypes were genotyped using 3,051 Diversity Array Technologies (DArT markers, of which 1,586 were of known chromosome positions. The grain yield performance of the genotypes was highly significant both in rain-fed and irrigated sites. Average yield of the genotypes ranged from 2295 to 4038 kg/ha and 4268 to 7102 kg/ha under rain-fed and irrigated conditions, respectively. Protein content and alveograph strength (W ranged from 13.6-16.1% and 217.6-375 Jx10-4, respectively. DArT markers wPt731910 (3B, wPt4680 (4A, wPt3509 (5A, wPt8183 (6B, and wPt0298 (2D were significantly associated with yield under rain-fed conditions. Under irrigated condition, tPt4125 on chromosome 2B was significantly associated with yield explaining about 13% of the variation. Markers wPt2607 and wPt1482 on 5B were highly associated with protein content and alveograph strength explaining 16 and 14% of the variations, respectively. The elite genotypes have been distributed to many countries using ICARDA's International system for potential direct release and/or use as parents after local adaptation trials by the NARSs of respective countries. The QTLs identified in this study are recommended to be used for marker assisted selection after through validation using bi-parental populations.

  13. Breeding for wheat quality to assure food security of a staple crop: the case study of Tajikistan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Husenov, Bahromiddin; Makhkamov, Marufkul; Gustavsson, Larisa; Muminjanov, Hafiz; Johansson, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study evaluated options and obstacles to strengthening food security through breeding a staple crop in a developing country, using the case of quality of bread wheat in Tajikistan as an example. Methods...

  14. Implementation of Molecular Systems for Identification of Genetic Polymorphism in Winter Wheat to Obtain High-Performance Specialized Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgun, B.V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The molecular genetic polymorphism detection systems to screen the presence of alleles in winter wheat 100 varieties were developed. Polymerase chain reactions were deployed to identify relevant genes. The level of allele prevalence of low and medium activity of polyphenol oxidase enzymes was defined and the validation was carried out. Wheat varieties carrying rye 1AL.1RS, 1BL.1RS translocations were characterized and those containing recessive allele of Tamyb10 gene, with Stb4 gene resistance to Septoria linked to polymorphic locus Xgwm111. Waxy wheat variety was discovered and other varieties carrying atypical functional Wx-B1e allele. Characteristics of 100 elite and perspective varieties of wheat were compiled for the presence of alleles of genes determining grain quality (genes PPO, Tamyb10-A1, Wx, resistance to biotic and abiotic stress (rye translocative material, Tamyb10-A1, Stb4.

  15. Growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum adapted to lowland Lombok Island as an alternative food crop for dryland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zubaidi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Wheat is not currently grown as a commercial crop in Indonesia, however since the consumption of wheat in Indonesia is steadily increasing and alternative of dry season crops are required for farming system diversification, wheat becomes an important crop to be adapted in dry land areas of Indonesia, one of them is dry land area of Lombok Island. The aims of this experiment is to adapt and screen wheat varieties including national and introduced Australian varieties in lowland Lombok Island. In future, wheat is expected to be an alternative crop for degraded lands. The experimental method used to evaluate growth and yield of 10 wheat varieties to look at the adaptability on the lowland of 200 m asl (Pringgarata and on higher land of 400 m asl (Aik Bukak. The results showed that at a lower altitude (Pringgarata, wheat growth is slower than in Aik Bukak, which can be caused by the temperature at 200 m asl has exceeded the tolerance limit for grain growth (supra optimal temperature. Wheat can give good yields on 400 m asl, but the yield is decreased at 200 m asl (average 1.68 t/ha vs 0.82 t/ha. This low yield is mainly due to sterility indicated by the low number of grain/spikelet ( 2 t/ha , higher than other varieties

  16. Winter cover crops on processing tomato yield, quality, pest pressure, nitrogen availability, and profit margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfry, Kimberly D.; Trueman, Cheryl; Vyn, Richard J.; Loewen, Steven A.; Van Eerd, Laura L.

    2017-01-01

    Much of cover crop research to date focuses on key indicators of impact without considering the implications over multiple years, in the absence of a systems-based approach. To evaluate the effect of three years of autumn cover crops on subsequent processing tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) production in 2010 and 2011, a field split-split-plot factorial design trial with effects of cover crop type, urea ammonium nitrate fertilizer rate (0 or 140 kg N ha-1 preplant broadcast incorporated) and tomato cultivar (early vs. late) was conducted. The main plot factor, cover crop, included a no cover crop control, oat (Avena sativa L.), winter cereal rye (hereafter referred to as rye) (Secale cereale L.), oilseed radish (OSR) (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg Stokes), and mix of OSR and rye (OSR + rye) treatments. Cover crop biomass of 0.5 to 2.8 and 1.7 to 3.1 Mg ha-1 was attained in early Oct. and the following early May, respectively. In general, OSR increased soil mineral N during cover crop growth and into the succeeding summer tomato growing season, while the remaining cover crops did not differ from the no cover crop control. The lack of a cover crop by N rate interaction in soil and plant N analyses at harvest suggests that growers may not need to modify N fertilizer rates to tomatoes based on cover crop type. Processing tomato fruit quality at harvest (rots, insect or disease damage, Agtron colour, pH, or natural tomato soluble solids (NTSS)) was not affected by cover crop type. In both years, marketable yield in the no cover crop treatment was lower or not statistically different than all planted cover crops. Partial profit margins over both years were 1320 $ ha-1 higher with OSR and $960 higher with oat compared to the no cover crop control. Thus, results from a systems-based approach suggest that the cover crops tested had no observed negative impact on processing tomato production and have the potential to increase marketable yield and profit margins

  17. Winter cover crops on processing tomato yield, quality, pest pressure, nitrogen availability, and profit margins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfry, Kimberly D; Trueman, Cheryl; Vyn, Richard J; Loewen, Steven A; Van Eerd, Laura L

    2017-01-01

    Much of cover crop research to date focuses on key indicators of impact without considering the implications over multiple years, in the absence of a systems-based approach. To evaluate the effect of three years of autumn cover crops on subsequent processing tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) production in 2010 and 2011, a field split-split-plot factorial design trial with effects of cover crop type, urea ammonium nitrate fertilizer rate (0 or 140 kg N ha-1 preplant broadcast incorporated) and tomato cultivar (early vs. late) was conducted. The main plot factor, cover crop, included a no cover crop control, oat (Avena sativa L.), winter cereal rye (hereafter referred to as rye) (Secale cereale L.), oilseed radish (OSR) (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg Stokes), and mix of OSR and rye (OSR + rye) treatments. Cover crop biomass of 0.5 to 2.8 and 1.7 to 3.1 Mg ha-1 was attained in early Oct. and the following early May, respectively. In general, OSR increased soil mineral N during cover crop growth and into the succeeding summer tomato growing season, while the remaining cover crops did not differ from the no cover crop control. The lack of a cover crop by N rate interaction in soil and plant N analyses at harvest suggests that growers may not need to modify N fertilizer rates to tomatoes based on cover crop type. Processing tomato fruit quality at harvest (rots, insect or disease damage, Agtron colour, pH, or natural tomato soluble solids (NTSS)) was not affected by cover crop type. In both years, marketable yield in the no cover crop treatment was lower or not statistically different than all planted cover crops. Partial profit margins over both years were 1320 $ ha-1 higher with OSR and $960 higher with oat compared to the no cover crop control. Thus, results from a systems-based approach suggest that the cover crops tested had no observed negative impact on processing tomato production and have the potential to increase marketable yield and profit margins.

  18. Impact of Graze-­‐Out in Hard Red Winter Wheat Production

    OpenAIRE

    Neupane, Diwash; Moss, Charles B.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between wheat graze-­‐out and cattle-­‐wheat price ratio and moisture level and examine the impact of graze-­‐out on wheat yield in major wheat-­‐producing states in US. Results indicate that cattle-­‐wheat price ratio and moisture level affect farmers’ graze out decision and graze-­‐out have significant impact on wheat yield.

  19. Physiological mechanisms contributing to the increased water-use efficiency in winter wheat under deficit irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Qingwu; Zhu, Zixi; Musick, Jack T; Stewart, B A; Dusek, Donald A

    2006-02-01

    Deficit irrigation in winter wheat has been practiced in the areas with limited irrigation water resources. The objectives of this study were to (i) understand the physiological basis for determinations of grain yield and water-use efficiency in grain yield (WUE) under deficit irrigation; and (ii) investigate the effect of deficit irrigation on dry matter accumulation and remobilization of pre-anthesis carbon reserves during grain filling. A field experiment was conducted in the Southern High Plains of the USA and winter wheat (cv. TAM 202) was grown on Pullman clay loam soil (fine mixed thermic Torretic Paleustoll). Treatments consisted of rain-fed, deficit irrigation from jointing to the middle of grain filling, and full irrigation. The physiological measurements included leaf water potential, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), and leaf area index. The rain-fed treatment had the lowest seasonal evapotranspiration (ET), biomass, grain yield, harvest index (HI) and WUE as a result of moderate to severe water stress from jointing to grain filling. Irrigation application increased seasonal ET, and ET increased as irrigation frequency increased. The seasonal ET increased 20% in one-irrigation treatments between jointing and anthesis, 32-46% in two-irrigation treatments, and 67% in three- and full irrigation treatments. Plant biomass, grain yield, HI and WUE increased as the result of increased ET. The increased yield under irrigation was mainly contributed by the increased number of spikes, and seeds per square meter and per spike. Among the irrigation treatments, grain yield increased significantly but the WUE increased slightly as irrigation frequency increased. The increased WUE under deficit irrigation was contributed by increased HI. Water stress during grain filling reduced Pn and Gs, and accelerated leaf senescence. However, the water stress during grain filling induced remobilization of pre-anthesis carbon reserves to grains, and the

  20. Potential impact of climate change on durum wheat cropping in Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Lhomme, Jean-Paul; Mougou, R.; M. Mansour

    2009-01-01

    The potential effect of climate change on durum wheat in Tunisia is assessed using a simple crop simulation model and a climate projection for the 2071-2100 period, obtained from the M,t,o-France ARPEGE-Climate atmospheric model run under the IPCC (International Panel on Climate Change) scenario A1B. In the process-oriented crop model, phenology is estimated through thermal time. Water balance is calculated on a daily basis by means of a simple modelling of actual evapotranspiration involving...

  1. Health risk assessment and growth characteristics of wheat and maize crops irrigated with contaminated wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahat, Emad A; Galal, Tarek M; Elawa, Omar E; Hassan, Loutfy M

    2017-10-02

    The present study evaluated the effect of untreated wastewater irrigation and its health risks in Triticum aestivum (wheat) and Zea mays (maize) cultivated at south Cairo, Egypt. Morphological measurements (stem and root lengths, number of leaves per plant, and dry weights of main organs) as well as soil, irrigation water, and plant analyses for nutrients and heavy metals were conducted in polluted and unpolluted sites. Wastewater irrigations leads to reduction in the morphological traits of the plants and reduced its vegetative biomass and yield production, with more negative impacts on maize than wheat. The concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cr, and Fe in roots and leaves of wheat were above the phytotoxic limits. Conversely, Pb, Cd, and Fe were significantly high and at phytotoxic concentrations in the leaves of maize at polluted site. The present study indicated that wheat plants tend to phytostabilize heavy metals in their roots, while maize accumulates it more in their leaves. Maize and wheat had toxic concentrations of Pb and Cd in their grains under wastewater irrigation. The health risk index showed values > 1 for Pb and Cd in polluted site for both crops, in addition to maize in unpolluted site. Consequently, this will have greatest potential to pose health risk to the consumers.

  2. Effect of different mulch materials on winter wheat production in desalinized soil in Heilonggang region of North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan-min; Liu, Xiao-jing; Li, Wei-qiang; Li, Cun-zhen

    2006-11-01

    Freshwater shortage is the main problem in Heilonggang lower-lying plain, while a considerable amount of underground saline water is available. We wanted to find an effective way to use the brackish water in winter wheat production. Surface mulch has significant effect in reducing evaporation and decreasing soil salinity level. This research was aimed at comparing the effect of different mulch materials on winter wheat production. The experiment was conducted during 2002~2003 and 2003~2004. Four treatments were setup: (1) no mulch, (2) mulch with plastic film, (3) mulch with corn straw, (4) mulch with concrete slab between the rows. The result indicated that concrete mulch and straw mulch was effective in conserving soil water compared to plastic film mulch which increased soil temperature. Concrete mulch decreases surface soil salinity better in comparison to other mulches used. Straw mulch conserved more soil water but decreased wheat grain yield probably due to low temperature. Concrete mulch had similar effect with plastic film mulch on promoting winter wheat development and growth.

  3. Growth stage of Phalaris minor Retz. and wheat determines weed control and crop tolerance of four post-emergence herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubia Rasool

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Phalaris minor Retz. has evolved multiple herbicide resistance in wheat growing areas in northwestern India. An understanding of the effect of growth stage on herbicide tolerance of wheat and control of P. minor will help in selecting the most appropriate herbicide for different situations. The weed control and crop safety of four commonly used wheat herbicides (sulfosulfuron, pinoxaden, fenoxaprop plus metribuzin and mesosulfuron plus iodosulfuron, each applied at four different wheat growth stages was investigated in field studies for two years. P. minor plants were at 1, 2-3, 3-4 and 7-8 leaf stages when the herbicides were applied at Zadok 12-Z12, Z13, Z21 and Z23 stages of wheat, respectively. Sulfosulfuron application at Z12 and Z13 wheat stages (before first irrigation, provided >80% control of P. minor and produced wheat grain yield (4.5-4.7 t/ha similar to the weed-free check (4.9 t/ha in both years. Pinoxaden, fenoxaprop plus metribuzin and mesosulfuron plus iodosulfuron application at Z12 and Z13 wheat stages recorded significantly lower wheat grain yield (3.62-3.95 t/ha due to poor weed control, crop toxicity or both. All the four herbicides were equally effective on P. minor when applied at Z21 wheat stage. At Z23 wheat stage, pinoxaden gave >90% control of P. minor and the highest wheat grain yield (4.82 t/ha. The results are expected to allow changes in the current recommendation of the timing of post-emergence herbicides for the management of P. minor in wheat.

  4. Spatial distribution and controlling factors of heavy metals contents in paddy soil and crop grains of rice-wheat cropping system along highway in East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jinfei; Zhao, Jian; Bian, Xinmin; Zhang, Weijian

    2012-10-01

    There is consensus concerning the heavy metal pollution from traffic emission on roadside agricultural land. However, few efforts have been paid on examining the contamination characteristics of heavy metals in roadside paddy-upland rotation field, and especially in combination with detailed quantitative analysis. In this study, we investigated the concentrations of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr and Zn) in soil and crop grains of the rice-wheat cropping system along a major highway in East China in 2008 and analyzed the spatial distribution characteristics of heavy metals and their influencing factors with GIS and Classification and Regression Trees (CART). Significantly elevated levels of heavy metals in soil, rice and wheat grains indicated the heavy metals contamination of traffic emission in roadside rice-wheat rotation field. The contamination levels of Cd, Cr and Zn in wheat grain were higher than rice grain, while that of Pb showed an opposite trend. Obvious dissimilarities in the spatial distributions of heavy metals contents were found between in the soil, rice and wheat grains, indicating that the heavy metals contents in the roadside crop grains were not only determined by the concentrations of heavy metals in the paddy soil. Results of CART analysis showed that the spatial variation of the heavy metals contents in crop grains was mainly affected by the soil organic matter or soil pH, followed by the distance from highway and wind direction. Our findings have important implications for the environmental assessment and crop planning for food security along the highway.

  5. Study of Nitrogen Use Efficiency Indices in the Double Cropping Rotations of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. in Ilam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nasri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out under temperate climate condition of Ilam province, Iran, during 2012-2013 growing season to determine the suitable crop rotation for enhancing nitrogen uptake, utilization, and use efficiency of wheat. A two factor experiment was laid out as split plot arrangement (RCBD with four replications. The main plots consisted of 6 pre-sowing plant treatments (control, Perko, Buko, Clover, Oilseed radish and combination of three plants Ramtil, Phaselia, Clover, and sub-plots were allocated to four levels of nitrogen fertilizer (Zero, conventionally recommended fertilizer, 50% lower and 50% higher than the recommended fertilizer. Results showed that nitrogen use efficiency (NUE, nitrogen uptake efficiency (NUpE, nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUtE and nitrogen efficiency ratio (NER in wheat were significantly affected by crop rotation and nitrogen fertilizer and their interaction. The lowest and highest nitrogen use efficiencies were achieved in oilseed radish-wheat and fallow-wheat rotations. The greatest nitrogen use efficiency in oilseed radish-wheat was due to high utilization efficiency of nitrogen in the rotation. The greatest and smallest nitrogen utilization efficiencies (NUtE were observed in oilseed radish-wheat and fallow-wheat rotations, respectively. Perko-wheat rotation with application of nitrogen at the conventional level for wheat brings about an acceptable economic yield and high nitrogen uptake and use efficiency and seems to be advantageous to other rotations.

  6. Effectiveness of time of sowing and cultivar choice for managing climate change: wheat crop phenology and water use efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qunying; O'Leary, Garry; Cleverly, James; Eamus, Derek

    2018-02-08

    Climate change (CC) presents a challenge for the sustainable development of wheat production systems in Australia. This study aimed to (1) quantify the impact of future CC on wheat grain yield for the period centred on 2030 from the perspectives of wheat phenology, water use and water use efficiency (WUE) and (2) evaluate the effectiveness of changing sowing times and cultivars in response to the expected impacts of future CC on wheat grain yield. The daily outputs of CSIRO Conformal-Cubic Atmospheric Model for baseline and future periods were used by a stochastic weather generator to derive changes in mean climate and in climate variability and to construct local climate scenarios, which were then coupled with a wheat crop model to achieve the two research aims. We considered three locations in New South Wales, Australia, six times of sowing (TOS) and three bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars in this study. Simulation results show that in 2030 (1) for impact analysis, wheat phenological events are expected to occur earlier and crop water use is expected to decrease across all cases (the combination of three locations, six TOS and three cultivars), wheat grain yield would increase or decrease depending on locations and TOS; and WUE would increase in most of the cases; (2) for adaptation considerations, the combination of TOS and cultivars with the highest yield varied across locations. Wheat growers at different locations will require different strategies in managing the negative impacts or taking the opportunities of future CC.

  7. The effect of pro-ecological procedures and insect foraging on the total content of phenol compounds in winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamparski, Robert; Balcerek, Maciej; Modnicki, Daniel; Kotwica, Karol; Wawrzyniak, Maria

    2015-06-01

    In laboratory conditions, the effect of pro-ecological procedures (application of effective microorganisms and Asahi SL biostimulator) and foraging by insects [cereal leaf beetle (Oulema melanopa L.) and bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi (L.)] on the total content of phenolic compounds in winter wheat, was studied. Correlations between the total content of phenolic compounds (determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau colorimetric method) expressed as the amount of pyrogallol in wheat plants: undamaged, damaged by O. melanopa, damaged by R. padi, the length of feeding scar left by cereal leaf beetle and the number of pricks made by actively feeding insects of bird cherry-oat aphid were analysed. The wheat was treated by EM inoculant and a biostimulator. The mode of application of the preparations used had a significant effect on level the total phenolic compounds in the undamaged wheat and the wheat exposed to foraging by the above-mentioned insects. The plants not exposed to insects foraging contained greater amounts of phenolic compounds than those exposed to the insects. The correlation between the total content of phenols in the wheat damaged by the insects in the 'no-choice' conditions, proved insignificant.

  8. Physiological mechanisms contributing to increased water-use efficiency in winter wheat under organic fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linlin; Wang, Shiwen; Chen, Wei; Li, Hongbing; Deng, Xiping

    2017-01-01

    Improving the efficiency of resource utilization has received increasing research attention in recent years. In this study, we explored the potential physiological mechanisms underlying improved grain yield and water-use efficiency of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) following organic fertilizer application. Two wheat cultivars, ChangHan58 (CH58) and XiNong9871 (XN9871), were grown under the same nitrogen (N) fertilizer rate (urea-N, CK; and manure plus urea-N, M) and under two watering regimes (WW, well-watered; and WS, water stress) imposed after anthesis. The M fertilizer treatment had a higher Pn and lower gs and Tr than CK under both water conditions, in particular, it significantly increased WRC and Ψw, and decreased EWLR and MDA under WS. Also, the M treatment increased post-anthesis N uptake by 81.4 and 16.4% under WS and WW, thus increasing post-anthesis photosynthetic capacity and delaying leaf senescence. Consequently, the M treatment increased post-anthesis DM accumulation under WS and WW by 51.5 and 29.6%, WUEB by 44.5 and 50.9%, grain number per plant by 11.5 and 12.2% and 1000-grain weight by 7.3 and 3.6%, respectively, compared with CK. The grain yield under M treatment increased by 23 and 15%, and water use efficiency (WUEg) by 25 and 23%, respectively. The increased WUE under organic fertilizer treatment was due to elevated photosynthesis and decreased Tr and gs. Our results suggest that the organic fertilizer treatment enabled plants to use water more efficiently under drought stress.

  9. THE PROSPECTS OF AGRICULTURAL ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE: CLIMATE-TECHNOLOGY INTERACTION IN RICE -WHEAT CROPPING SYSTEM IN NEPAL

    OpenAIRE

    Netra B. Chhetri; Shrestha, Sundar S.

    2004-01-01

    We use panel data from Nepal to examine the effect of climate in inducing technology to understand potential agricultural adaptation to climate change in rice and wheat crops. We find different degree of climate-technology interaction in the productivity of two crops.

  10. Mixed cropping of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) landraces in the central highlands of Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldeamlak, A.

    2001-01-01

    A common cropping system in the central highlands of Eritrea is mixed cropping of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum); it is called hanfetz (Tigrigna word). Mixtures may give higher yield, better yield stability, better food quality and more animal feed. Factors affecting

  11. An evaluation of soil water outlooks for winter wheat in south-eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western, A. W.; Dassanayake, K. B.; Perera, K. C.; Alves, O.; Young, G.; Argent, R.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract: Soil moisture is a key limiting resource for rain-fed cropping in Australian broad-acre cropping zones. Seasonal rainfall and temperature outlooks are standard operational services offered by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology and are routinely used to support agricultural decisions. This presentation examines the performance of proposed soil water seasonal outlooks in the context of wheat cropping in south-eastern Australia (autumn planting, late spring harvest). We used weather ensembles simulated by the Predictive Ocean-Atmosphere Model for Australia (POAMA), as input to the Agricultural Production Simulator (APSIM) to construct ensemble soil water "outlooks" at twenty sites. Hindcasts were made over a 33 year period using the 33 POAMA ensemble members. The overall modelling flow involved: 1. Downscaling of the daily weather series (rainfall, minimum and maximum temperature, humidity, radiation) from the ~250km POAMA grid scale to a local weather station using quantile-quantile correction. This was based on a 33 year observation record extracted from the SILO data drill product. 2. Using APSIM to produce soil water ensembles from the downscaled weather ensembles. A warm up period of 5 years of observed weather was followed by a 9 month hindcast period based on each ensemble member. 3. The soil water ensembles were summarized by estimating the proportion of outlook ensembles in each climatological tercile, where the climatology was constructed using APSIM and observed weather from the 33 years of hindcasts at the relevant site. 4. The soil water outlooks were evaluated for different lead times and months using a "truth" run of APSIM based on observed weather. Outlooks generally have useful some forecast skill for lead times of up to two-three months, except late spring; in line with current useful lead times for rainfall outlooks. Better performance was found in summer and autumn when vegetation cover and water use is low.

  12. The effect of delaying autumn incorporation of green manure crop on N mineralization and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lahti, T.; Kuikman, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    The use of legumes as green manuring crops does involve a potential riskof N leaching losses over the winter period. The susceptibility of cropresidue-derived N to losses and the pre-crop value of a green manuring crop canbe manipulated by proper timing of incorporation into soil. In this

  13. Stigmatic receptivity determines the seed set in Indian mustard, rice and wheat crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ramwant; Sutradhar, Hrishikesh; Chakrabarty, S K; Ansari, Mohhammed Wahid; Singh, Yogendra

    2015-01-01

    Stigmatic receptivity restricts the successful pollination in cereal crops. The present study deals with the biochemical test for enzymes producing in stigma of field crops such as Indian mustard, rice and wheat. The alcohol dehydrogenase and hydrogen peroxide assays revealed stigmatic receptivity as a violet color and oxygen bubbles released by the chemical reaction. Therefore, the 2 quick tests are in conformity to each other and supported the seed set data, which was utmost at blooming stage of flower ranged between 2-4 d All the 3 crops showed variation in stigmatic receptivity with respect to different time periods of blooming stages and hence, it may affects simultaneous pollen germination and tube growth, fertilization and seed set. The present finding suggests that the growth of pollen tube and stigma receptivity could be influenced by specific enzymes on stigma surface after 2-4 d of blooming stage, which contributes to proper seed set.

  14. Multiple mid-Atlantic field experiments show no economic benefit to fungicide application when fungal disease is absent in winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, Randy; Cowger, Christina; Ambrose, Gaylon; Gardner, Andrew

    2011-03-01

    Strobilurin fungicides produce intensified greening and delayed senescence in plants, and have been claimed to enhance yields of field crops in the absence of disease. To help evaluate this claim, available publicly sponsored tests of fungicides on soft red winter wheat in Virginia and North Carolina (n = 42) were analyzed for the period 1994 to 2010. All tests were replicated and had a randomized complete block, split-plot, or split-block design. Each test included 1 to 32 cultivars and one to five fungicides (two strobilurins, one triazole, and two strobilurin-triazole mixtures). There was a total of 311 test-cultivar-fungicide treatment comparisons, where a comparison was the reported yield difference between sprayed and unsprayed treatments of a given cultivar in a given test. Parameters used to calculate the economic benefit or loss associated with fungicide application included a grain price range of $73.49 to 257.21 Mg(-1) ($2 to 7 bu(-1)), a total fungicide application cost of $24.71 to 74.13 ha(-1) ($10 to 30 acre(-1)), and a 0.14 to 0.21 Mg ha(-1) (2.3 to 3.4 bu acre(-1)) loss in yield from driving over wheat during application (with a sprayer 27.4 or 18.3 m [90 or 60 feet] wide, respectively). The yield increase needed to pay for a fungicide application at each combination of cost and price was calculated, and the cumulative probability function for the fungicide yield-response data was modeled. The model was used to predict the probability of achieving a break-even yield, and the probabilities were graphed against each cost-price combination. Tests were categorized as "no-disease" or "diseased" based on reports of the researchers rating the tests. Subsets of the data were analyzed to assess the profitability of the triazole fungicide and the strobilurin-containing fungicides separately in no-disease versus diseased experiments. From the results, it was concluded that, with routine fungicide application based solely on wheat growth stage, total fungicide

  15. Physicochemical Properties of Silt Loamy Soil and Diversity of Diatom Species Under Winter Wheat and Oats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga Stanek-Tarkowska

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to investigate the soil properties and the species diversity of diatoms growing in different agricultural fields with silt loamy soil. The field experiment was conducted in 2014 in Kosina, near Łańcut (SE Poland, at three sites (indicated as fields K1, K2, K3 with different soil environmental conditions and plants. The growth of winter wheat Triticum aestivum (cv. Bogatka in fields K1 and K2 and oats Avena Sativa (cv. Haker in field K3 under different soil management were studied. The soil samples were collected from the top layers (0-5 cm depth each month, from April to December. Certain physical and chemical parameters of soil were measured. The pH of soil was acidic and slightly acidic in fields K1 (5.0-5.4, K2 (4.9-5.9 and K3 (4.5-5.1. The soil in field K3 had a significantly greater content of organic matter (1.06-1.30% and water content (12.9–33.8%, v/v than fields K1 and K2. A total of 91 diatom taxa were found. The diversity was greatest in field K2 (71 taxa, lower in K1 (54 taxa and K3 (24 taxa. In K1, the most numerous species were Luticola D.G. Mann cf. mutica, Mayamaea atomus var. permitis (Hust. Lange-Bertalot, and Stauroneis thermicola (Petersen Lund, with more than a 20% share in the assemblage. In K2, very abundant assemblages were formed by Mayamaea atomus (Kütz. Lange-Bertalot, Mayamaea atomus var. permitis (Hust. Lange-Bertalot, and Stauroneis thermicola (Petersen Lund with a 25 to 50% share in the total diatom community. In K3, with oat cultivation, a different diatom species structure was found. Here, the most abundant were Halamphora montana (Krasske Levkov, Hantzchia amphioxys (Ehrenb. Grunow, Mayamaea atomus (Kütz. Lange-Bertalot, and Nitzschia pusilla Grunow, which attained a share in the assemblage exceeding than 20%. The effects of different soil management regimes under different plants on the physical and chemical properties of the soil, and on the diversity of diatoms, were

  16. Profitability of Integrated Management of Fusarium Head Blight in North Carolina Winter Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowger, Christina; Weisz, Randy; Arellano, Consuelo; Murphy, Paul

    2016-08-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is one of the most difficult small-grain diseases to manage, due to the partial effectiveness of management techniques and the narrow window of time in which to apply fungicides profitably. The most effective management approach is to integrate cultivar resistance with FHB-specific fungicide applications; yet, when forecasted risk is intermediate, it is often unclear whether such an application will be profitable. To model the profitability of FHB management under varying conditions, we conducted a 2-year split-plot field experiment having as main plots high-yielding soft red winter wheat cultivars, four moderately resistant (MR) and three susceptible (S) to FHB. Subplots were sprayed at flowering with Prosaro or Caramba, or left untreated. The experiment was planted in seven North Carolina environments (location-year combinations); three were irrigated to promote FHB development and four were not irrigated. Response variables were yield, test weight, disease incidence, disease severity, deoxynivalenol (DON), Fusarium-damaged kernels, and percent infected kernels. Partial profits were compared in two ways: first, across low-, medium-, or high-DON environments; and second, across environment-cultivar combinations divided by risk forecast into "do spray" and "do not spray" categories. After surveying DON and test weight dockage among 21 North Carolina wheat purchasers, three typical market scenarios were used for modeling profitability: feed-wheat, flexible (feed or flour), and the flour market. A major finding was that, on average, MR cultivars were at least as profitable as S cultivars, regardless of epidemic severity or market. Fungicides were profitable in the feed-grain and flexible markets when DON was high, with MR cultivars in the flexible or flour markets when DON was intermediate, and on S cultivars aimed at the flexible market. The flour market was only profitable when FHB was present if DON levels were intermediate and cultivar

  17. Sustainability Assessment of Plant Protection Strategies in Swiss Winter Wheat and Potato Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Mouron

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of arable crops in Switzerland is subsidized for services performed within the Proof of Ecological Performance (PEP program, the crop protection part of which is based on IPM principles. Within PEP, chemical insect control must rely on those approved insecticides that are deemed harmless for beneficial arthropods. Approved insecticides potentially impacting beneficial arthropods may also be applied, but only if unavoidable and with an official permit. In order to assess the ecological and economic sustainability of this PEP program, a reference insecticide strategy illustrating the current PEP requirements was compared with other strategies. For this purpose, a sustainability assessment taking account of ecotoxicological risks and economic viability in addition to the preservation of beneficial arthropods was performed according to the SustainOS methodology. The results show that the one-off use of Audienz (spinosad to control cereal leaf beetle (Oulema melanopus—a key pest in winter wheat—would significantly improve sustainability vis-à-vis the reference (Nomolt (teflubenzuron plus Biscaya (thiacloprid. However, in the case of the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata, in potato crops, where Audienz is considered the reference, no alternative would exhibit better sustainability. Moreover, the study shows that strategies using Novodor (Bacillus thuringiensis protect beneficial species well but have the drawbacks of increased yield risk and higher costs. The conclusions drawn from these analyses allow recommendations for modifications of the PEP requirements for these two pest insects. The SustainOS methodology, a multi-step process combining expert knowledge with quantitative assessments including a sensitivity analysis of key target parameters and a rule-based aggregation of assessment results, yielded valuable insights into the sustainability of different crop protection strategies.

  18. Root development of winter wheat in erosion-affected soils depending on the position in a hummocky ground moraine soil landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbrich, Marcus; Gerke, Horst H.; Sommer, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The soil water uptake by crops is a key process in the hydrological cycle of agricultural ecosystems. In the arable hummocky ground moraines soil landscapes, an erosion-induced spatial differentiation of soil types has been established due to water and tillage erosion. Crop development may reflect soil landscape patterns and erosion-induced soil profile modifications, respectively, by increased or reduced plant and root growth. The objective was analyze field data of the root density and the root lengths of winter wheat for a non-eroded reference soil at the plateau (Albic Luvisol), an extremely eroded soil at steep midslope (Calcaric Regosol), and depositional soil at the footslope (Colluvic Regosol) using the minirhizotron technique. From 9/14 to 8/15 results indicate that root density values were highest for the Colluvic Regosol, followed by the Albic Luvisol and lowest for the Calcaric Regosol. In turn, the lowest maximum root penetration depth was found in the Colluvic Regosol because of the relatively high and fluctuating water table at this landscape position. The analyzed field root data revealed positive relations to above-ground plant parameters and corroborated the hypothesis that the crop root system was reflecting erosion-induced soil profile modifications. When accounting for the position-specific root development, the simulation of water and solute movement suggested differences in the balances as compared to assuming a spatially uniform development.

  19. Assessment of toxic metals in wheat crops grown on selected soils, irrigated by different water sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeid A. Al-Othman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe a comparative study of the concentration of different metals (e.g., Cd, Pb, As, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mn, and Cr in various parts of wheat plants (e.g., roots, stem, leaves and seeds collected at several locations in Khyber Pukhtoon Khaw, Pakistan. The wheat crop in these areas was irrigated using different irrigation sources, including rain, tube well, river, and canal. In wheat samples, the concentration of metals was analyzed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Among the various parts of the plant, the roots had the highest levels of heavy metals, followed by the vegetative parts. By comparison, the seeds and grains had the lowest levels of heavy metals. The levels of heavy metals in all of the studied areas were not significantly localized to any particular area. The general order for the accumulation of studied metals in wheat was found to be Mn > Zn > Cu > Ni > Cr > As > Pb > Cd.

  20. Impact of Wheat/Faba Bean Mixed Cropping or Rotation Systems on Soil Microbial Functionalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahbi, Sanâa; Prin, Yves; Thioulouse, Jean; Sanguin, Hervé; Baudoin, Ezékiel; Maghraoui, Tasnime; Oufdou, Khalid; Le Roux, Christine; Galiana, Antoine; Hafidi, Mohamed; Duponnois, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Cropping systems based on carefully designed species mixtures reveal many potential advantages in terms of enhancing crop productivity, reducing pest and diseases, and enhancing ecological services. Associating cereals and legume production either through intercropping or rotations might be a relevant strategy of producing both type of culture, while benefiting from combined nitrogen fixed by the legume through its symbiotic association with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and from a better use of P and water through mycorrhizal associations. These practices also participate to the diversification of agricultural productions, enabling to secure the regularity of income returns across the seasonal and climatic uncertainties. In this context, we designed a field experiment aiming to estimate the 2 years impact of these practices on wheat yield and on soil microbial activities as estimated through Substrate Induced Respiration method and mycorrhizal soil infectivity (MSI) measurement. It is expected that understanding soil microbial functionalities in response to these agricultural practices might allows to target the best type of combination, in regard to crop productivity. We found that the tested cropping systems largely impacted soil microbial functionalities and MSI. Intercropping gave better results in terms of crop productivity than the rotation practice after two cropping seasons. Benefits resulting from intercrop should be highly linked with changes recorded on soil microbial functionalities.

  1. Impact of wheat / faba bean mixed cropping or rotation systems on soil microbial functionalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanâa Wahbi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cropping systems based on carefully designed species mixtures reveal many potential advantages in terms of enhancing crop productivity, reducing pest and diseases and enhacing ecological serices. Associating cereals and legume production either through intercropping or rotations might be a relevant strategy of producing both type of culture, while benefiting from combined nitrogen fixed by the legume through its symbiotic association with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and from a better use of P and water through mycorrhizal associations. These practices also participate to the diversification of agricultural productions, enabling to secure the regularity of income returns across the seasonal and climatic uncertainties. In this context, we designed a field experiment aiming to estimate the two years impact of these practices on wheat yield and on soil microbial activities as estimated through Substrate Induced Respiration (SIR method and mycorrhizal soil infectivity (MSI measurement. It is expected that understanding soil microbial functionalities in response to these agricultural practices might allows to target the best type of combination, in regard to crop productivity. We found that the tested cropping systems largely impacted soil microbial functionalities and mycorrhizal soil infectivity. Intercropping gave better results in terms of crop productivity than the rotation practice after 2 cropping seasons. Benefits resulting from intercrop should be highly linked with changes recorded on soil microbial functionalities.

  2. The effect of sowing strategy, row distance and mechanical weed control on weeds and yield in organic winter wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Ilse A.

    2002-01-01

    A series of field experiments were carried out in winter wheat grown under organic conditions in Denmark on fields with different weed pressure. The treatments were sowing strategy (normal sowing time, late sowing and false seedbed), row distance (12 cm and 24 cm row distance) and weed control method (untreated, mechanical weed control (weed harrowing at 12 cm supplemented with row hoeing at 24 cm), and herbicide weed control). Weed biomass was largest at the normal sowing time and was reduce...

  3. Population Growth of Pratylenchus penetrans on Winter Cover Crops Grown in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forge, T A; Ingham, R E; Kaufman, D; Pinkerton, J N

    2000-03-01

    Population growth of Pratylenchus penetrans on 13 fall and winter cover crops was studied in the greenhouse and field. All crops except oat cv. Saia supported population growth of P. penetrans in greenhouse experiments, although the response of P. penetrans to oat cv. Saia varied considerably between experiments. The mean ratio of the final population density/initial population density (Pf/Pi) after 16 weeks for P. penetrans added to a greenhouse soil mix was 0.09, whereas Pf/Pi values after 10 weeks for two experiments with naturally infested soil were 0.95 and 2.3. Although P. penetrans increased on sudangrass cv. Trudan 8 and sudangrass x sorghum hybrid cv. SS 222, subsequent incorporation of sudangrass vegetation into soil reduced P. penetrans populations to preplant levels. Field experiments were inconclusive but suggested that oat cv. Saia or rye cv. Wheeler may be better choices for winter cover than weed-contaminated fallow or other crops on P. penetrans-infested sites in the Pacific Northwest.

  4. Response of some crops grown in rotation with wheat to the residues of sulfonylurea herbicides in Khuzestan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Poorazar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Maize and mungbean rotational responses to sulfonylurea herbicides applied on wheat at the previous year were investigated in two separated experiments at Ahvaz in 2006 and 2007. In the first experiment, 10 treatments of herbicides applied to wheat at the year before planting, and after wheat harvesting, the maize crop was planted. Treatments consisted of Chevaliar (idosulfosulfuron + mesosulfuron at 0.4L/ha, Apyrus (sulfosulfuron at 28, 42, 56 and 68 g/ha, megaton (chlorsulfuron at 20 g/ha, bromicide + topic ("bromoxynil + MCPA"+ clodinafop-propargyl at 1.5+0.8 L/ha, Total (sulfosulfuron +mesosulfuron at 45 g/ha, atlantis (idosulfuron + mesosulfuron at 1.5 L/ha and non-treated control. The second experiment was the same as the first one, but the rotational crop following wheat was mungbean. Grain yield, biological yield and harvest index of rotational crops were analyzed. According to the result, when mungbean and maize were planted in rotation with wheat, residues of megaton and apyrus at 56 and 68 g/ha, had the most negative impacts on their yields. So that yield reduction were 37%, 24% and 21% in mungbean and 36%, 10% and 17% in maize, respectively. Therefore, it is needed to pay more attention to the response of rotational crops following wheat to residues of sulfonylurea herbicides in soil.

  5. Effects of cropping system and rates of nitrogen in animal slurry and mineral fertilizer on nitrate leaching from a sandy loam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Hansen, Jørgen Frederik; Kjellerup, Viggo K.

    1993-01-01

    Leaching of nitrate from a sandy loam cropped with spring barley, winter wheat and grass was compared in a 4-year lysimeter study. Crops were grown continuously or in a sequence including sugarbeet. Lysimeters were unfertilized or supplied with equivalent amounts of inorganic nitrogen in calcium...... ley of perennial ryegrass wheat grown in rotation wheat

  6. [Effects of ground cover and water-retaining agent on winter wheat growth and precipitation utilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ji-Cheng; Guan, Xiu-Juan; Yang, Yong-Hui

    2011-01-01

    An investigation was made at a hilly upland in western Henan Province to understand the effects of water-retaining agent (0, 45, and 60 kg x hm(-2)), straw mulching (3000 and 6000 kg x hm(-2)), and plastic mulching (thickness straw- or plastic mulching was combined with the use of water-retaining agent. Comparing with the control, all the measures increased the soil moisture content at different growth stages by 0.1%-6.5%. Plastic film mulching had the best water-retention effect before jointing stage, whereas water-retaining agent showed its best effect after jointing stage. Soil moisture content was the lowest at flowering and grain-filling stages. Land cover increased the grain yield by 2.6%-20.1%. The yield increment was the greatest (14.2%-20.1%) by the combined use of straw mulching and water-retaining agent, followed by plastic mulching combined with water-retaining agent (11.9% on average). Land cover also improved the precipitation use efficiency (0.4-3.2 kg x mm(-1) x hm(-2)) in a similar trend as the grain yield. This study showed that land cover and water-retaining agent improved soil moisture and nutrition conditions and precipitation utilization, which in turn, promoted the tillering of winter wheat, and increased the grain number per ear and the 1000-grain mass.

  7. Effect of the transgenerational exposure to elevated CO2 on the drought response of winter wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yafei; Li, Xiangnan; Yu, Jingjie

    2017-01-01

    in 4 L pots, and the plants were grown separately in greenhouse cells with either a[CO2] or e[CO2]. At stem elongation stage, in each of the cells half of the plants were subjected to progressive drought stress until all the plant available soil water was depleted, and the other half were well-watered...... effect of e[CO2] in combination of drought on stomatal behavior, plant water consumption and water use efficiency (WUE) have not been investigated. Seeds harvested from plants after two generations (2014–2015) continuously grown in ambient CO2 (a[CO2], 400 μmol L−1) and e[CO2] (800 μmol L−1) were sown...... and served as controls. The results showed that transgenerational exposure of the winter wheat plants to e[CO2] could attenuate the negative impact of drought stress on dry biomass (DM) and WUE. The modulations of multi-generational e[CO2] on leaf abscisic acid concentration, stomatal conductance, and leaf...

  8. The Relationship Between Grain Hardness, Dough Mixing Parameters and Bread-Making Quality in Winter Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmanowicz, Bolesław P.; Adamski, Tadeusz; Surma, Maria; Kaczmarek, Zygmunt; Karolina, Krystkowiak; Kuczyńska, Anetta; Banaszak, Zofia; Ługowska, Bogusława; Majcher, Małgorzata; Obuchowski, Wiktor

    2012-01-01

    The influence of grain hardness, determined by using molecular markers and physical methods (near-infrared (NIR) technique and particle size index—PSI) on dough characteristics, which in turn were determined with the use of a farinograph and reomixer, as well as bread-making properties were studied. The material covered 24 winter wheat genotypes differing in grain hardness. The field experiment was conducted at standard and increased levels of nitrogen fertilization. Results of molecular analyses were in agreement with those obtained by the use of physical methods for soft-grained lines. Some lines classified as hard (by physical methods) appeared to have the wild-type Pina and Pinb alleles, similar to soft lines. Differences in dough and bread-making properties between lines classified as hard and soft on the basis of molecular data appeared to be of less significance than the differences between lines classified as hard and soft on the basis of physical analyses of grain texture. Values of relative grain hardness at the increased nitrogen fertilization level were significantly higher. At both fertilization levels the NIR parameter determining grain hardness was significantly positively correlated with the wet gluten and sedimentation values, with most of the rheological parameters and bread yield. Values of this parameter correlated with quality characteristics in a higher degree than values of particle size index. PMID:22605973

  9. Ice recrystallization inhibition in ice cream as affected by ice structuring proteins from winter wheat grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regand, A; Goff, H D

    2006-01-01

    Ice recrystallization in quiescently frozen sucrose solutions that contained some of the ingredients commonly found in ice cream and in ice cream manufactured under commercial conditions, with or without ice structuring proteins (ISP) from cold-acclimated winter wheat grass extract (AWWE), was assessed by bright field microscopy. In sucrose solutions, critical differences in moisture content, viscosity, ionic strength, and other properties derived from the presence of other ingredients (skim milk powder, corn syrup solids, locust bean gum) caused a reduction in ice crystal growth. Significant ISP activity in retarding ice crystal growth was observed in all solutions (44% for the most complex mix) containing 0.13% total protein from AWWE. In heat-shocked ice cream, ice recrystallization rates were significantly reduced 40 and 46% with the addition of 0.0025 and 0.0037% total protein from AWWE. The ISP activity in ice cream was not hindered by its inclusion in mix prior to pasteurization. A synergistic effect between ISP and stabilizer was observed, as ISP activity was reduced in the absence of stabilizer in ice cream formulations. A remarkably smoother texture for ice creams containing ISP after heat-shock storage was evident by sensory evaluation. The efficiency of ISP from AWWE in controlling ice crystal growth in ice cream has been demonstrated.

  10. Release of resource constraints allows greater carbon allocation to secondary metabolites and storage in winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianbei; Hammerbacher, Almuth; Forkelová, Lenka; Hartmann, Henrik

    2017-05-01

    The atmospheric CO 2 concentration ([CO 2 ]) is rapidly increasing, and this may have substantial impact on how plants allocate metabolic resources. A thorough understanding of allocation priorities can be achieved by modifying [CO 2 ] over a large gradient, including low [CO 2 ], thereby altering plant carbon (C) availability. Such information is of critical importance for understanding plant responses to global environmental change. We quantified the percentage of daytime whole-plant net assimilation (A) allocated to night-time respiration (R), structural growth (SG), nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) and secondary metabolites (SMs) during 8 weeks of vegetative growth in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) growing at low, ambient and elevated [CO 2 ] (170, 390 and 680 ppm). R/A remained relatively constant over a large gradient of [CO 2 ]. However, with increasing C availability, the fraction of assimilation allocated to biomass (SG + NSC + SMs), in particular NSC and SMs, increased. At low [CO 2 ], biomass and NSC increased in leaves but decreased in stems and roots, which may help plants achieve a functional equilibrium, that is, overcome the most severe resource limitation. These results reveal that increasing C availability from rising [CO 2 ] releases allocation constraints, thereby allowing greater investment into long-term survival in the form of NSC and SMs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Genotypic specificity of some winter wheat traits and their effect on grain yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deletić Nebojša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the two year results of a study dealing with genotypic specificity of some nitrogen accumulation parameters and yield components, as well as their individual and joint influence on grain yield per plant, in twenty Serbian winter wheat cultivars. There were significant differences among the investigated cultivars regarding the all studied traits. Coefficient of variation ranged from 6.81% for 1000 grain mass to 12.91% for total nitrogen accumulation. Cluster analysis showed the studied genotypes divided into two clusters, where larger one was further divided into several smaller clusters. Good definition of clusters is a sign that these traits’ pattern is a distinctive property of a genotype. Multiple regression analysis showed that the all four studied traits, as well as intercept value, had significant effect on grain yield. The greatest effect was expressed by number of grain per spike, where standardized regression coefficient (β was 0.535. Adjusted R2 value (0.984 showed that 98.4% of the observed variation in grain yield was explained by the studied four traits. When biological yield is regarded, only total nitrogen accumulation and intercept value were significant. β value for total NA was 0.713, and adjusted R2 was 0.787. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31054: The development of new technologies of small grains cultivation on acid soils using contemporary biotechnology

  12. Increasing carbon availability stimulates growth and secondary metabolites via modulation of phytohormones in winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianbei; Reichelt, Michael; Chowdhury, Somak; Hammerbacher, Almuth; Hartmann, Henrik

    2017-02-01

    Phytohormones play important roles in plant acclimation to changes in environmental conditions. However, their role in whole-plant regulation of growth and secondary metabolite production under increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) is uncertain but crucially important for understanding plant responses to abiotic stresses. We grew winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) under three [CO2] (170, 390, and 680 ppm) over 10 weeks, and measured gas exchange, relative growth rate (RGR), soluble sugars, secondary metabolites, and phytohormones including abscisic acid (ABA), auxin (IAA), jasmonic acid (JA), and salicylic acid (SA) at the whole-plant level. Our results show that, at the whole-plant level, RGR positively correlated with IAA but not ABA, and secondary metabolites positively correlated with JA and JA-Ile but not SA. Moreover, soluble sugars positively correlated with IAA and JA but not ABA and SA. We conclude that increasing carbon availability stimulates growth and production of secondary metabolites via up-regulation of auxin and jasmonate levels, probably in response to sugar-mediated signalling. Future low [CO2] studies should address the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in leaf ABA and SA biosynthesis, and at the transcriptional level should focus on biosynthetic and, in particular, on responsive genes involved in [CO2]-induced hormonal signalling pathways. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  13. Recent changes in the climate yield forecasting of various crops in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Supit, I.; Diepen, van C.A.; Wit, de A.J.W.; Kabat, P.; Baruth, B.; Ludwig, F.

    2010-01-01

    Recent changes in the simulated potential crop yield and biomass production caused by changes in the temperature and global radiation patterns are examined, using the Crop Growth Monitoring System. The investigated crops are winter wheat, spring barley, maize, winter rapeseed, potato, sugar beet,

  14. Distribution of the Respiratory Pathways in the Isolated Mitochondria from Etiolated Leaves of Winter Wheat and Rye after the Action of Low Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Borovik

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of low temperature (2 °С, 7 days on the content of soluble carbohydrates in the leaves and oxidative activity of isolated mitochondria from the etiolated plants of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and winter rye (Secale cereale L. has been studied. This paper describes the effect of low temperature on the distribution of the respiratory pathways in the isolated mitochondria from etiolated leaves of winter wheat and rye that are different by resistance to cold. With using the different oxidation substrates (malate, malate + rotenone, succinate, NADH and NADPH, we identified changes in the oxidative activity of winter wheat and rye mitochondria. In this work, the dependence of the functioning of cyanide-insensitive oxidase and rotenone-insensitive NAD(PH dehydrogenases in the isolated mitochondria of winter cereals from content of the soluble carbohydrates is discussed.

  15. Effects of Nitrogen Application Rate on the Yields, Nutritive Value and Silage Fermentation Quality of Whole-crop Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Whole-crop wheat (Triticum aestivum L. as forage has been extensively used in the world. In this study, the effects of N application rates on the yields, nutritive value and silage quality were investigated. The N application rates were 0, 75, 150, 225, and 300 kg/ha. The research results indicated that the dry matter yield of whole-crop wheat increased significantly with increasing N rate up to 150 kg/ha, and then leveled off. The crude protein content and in vitro dry matter digestibility of whole-crop wheat increased significantly with increasing N up to 225 kg/ha, while they no longer increased at N 300 kg/ha. On the contrary, the content of various fibers tended to decrease with the increase of N application. The content of lactic acid, acetic acid and propionic acid in silages increased with the increase of N rate (p<0.05. The ammonia-N content of silages with higher N application rates (≥225 kg/ha was significantly higher than that with lower N application rates (≤150 kg/ha. Whole-crop wheat applied with high levels of N accumulated more nitrate-N. In conclusion, taking account of yields, nutritive value, silage quality and safety, the optimum N application to whole-crop wheat should be about 150 kg/ha at the present experiment conditions.

  16. Temperature-mediated developmental delay may limit yield of cotton in relay intercrops with wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.Z.; Werf, van der W.; Zhang, S.; Li, B.; Spiertz, J.H.J.

    2008-01-01

    In the Yellow River valley of China, more then 1.4 million ha of cotton are grown as relay intercrops with wheat. Cotton is sown in April when winter wheat is already in the reproductive phase; thus, a wheat crop with a fully developed canopy will compete for resources with cotton plants in the

  17. Toxicology of isoproturon to the food crop wheat as affected by salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lu; Lu, Yan Li; Yang, Hong

    2012-07-01

    Isoproturon, a herbicide belonging to the phenylurea family, is widely used to kill weeds in soils. Recent study indicated that isoproturon has become a contaminant in ecosystems due to its intensive use, thus bringing environmental risks to crop production safety. Salicylic acid (SA) is one of the components in plant defense signaling pathways and regulates diverse physiological responses to biotic and environmental stresses. The purpose of the study is to help to understand how SA mediates the biological process in wheat under isoproturon stress. Wheat seeds (Triticum aestivum, cv. Yangmai 13) were surface-sterilized and placed on moist filter paper for germination. After 24 h, the germinating seeds were placed on a plastic pot (1 L) containing 1,120 g soil mixed with isoproturon at 4 mg kg(-1) soil. After 4 days, wheat leaves were sprayed with 5 mg L(-1) SA. The SA treatment was undertaken once a day and lasted for 6 days, when the third true leaf was well developed. For control seedlings, only water was sprayed. Seedlings were grown under a light intensity of 300 µmol m(-2) s(-1) with a light/dark cycle of 12/12 h at 25°C, and watered to keep 70% relative water content in soils. We investigated the role of SA in alleviating isoproturon-induced toxicity in the food crop wheat (T. aestivum). Plants exposed to 4 mg kg(-1) isoproturon showed growth stunt and oxidative damage, but concomitant treatment with 5 mg L(-1) SA was able to attenuate the toxic effect. Isoproturon in soils was readily accumulated by wheat, but such accumulation can be blocked significantly by SA application. Treatment with SA decreased the abundance of O(2) (.-) and H(2)O(2), as well as activities of antioxidant enzymes, and increased activities of catalase in isoproturon-exposed plants. The enzyme activities were confirmed by the native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Further, an RT-PCR-based assay was performed to show that several transcripts coding antioxidant enzymes were

  18. SEWAGE SLUDGE EFFECTS ON POTATO, WINTER WHEAT AND MAIZE YIELD CULTIVATED IN ROTATION, AND SOIL PROPERTY MODIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Lixandru

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of sewage sludge as phosphorus and nitrogen amendment for cambic chernozem soils in comparison with inorganic fertilizers (NH4NO3 and KCl. The experiment reported here were conducted during 10 years in two rotation: 1 potato – winter wheat – maize, and 2 maize – potato – winter wheat. Sewage sludge rates applied in potato was 65, 130 and 195 t/ha respectively, and in maize 30, 60 and 90 t/ha, sewage sludge rates applied alone or in combination with N and K as mineral fertilizers. The results led to the following conclusions: 1 The air-dried sewage sludge from plot Iaşi contained about 200 kg organic matter, 6 kg N, 8 kg P, 2 kg K, 30 kg Ca and 10 kg soluble salts in 1000 kg. The heavy metals content was under the maximum limits allowable, excepting Zn which was found between 4140 and 5378 ppm Zn. 2 At potato crops resulted in an yield increase of 100 kg tubers for one ton sewage sludge in case of rate of 65 t/ha, at higher rates the yield increase being lower. Annual rainfall had a significant influence on yield increase. 3 The nitrogen utilization from sewage sludge was of 8.5 % at a rate of 65 t/ha and 2.5 % at a rate of 195 t/ha. From 100 kg N as mineral fertilizer, potato used 30 % and produced 60 kg tubers/1 kg N applied in soil. The yield increase at 1 kg N from sewage sludge was of 17 kg tubers at a rate of 65 t/ha. Therefore, the nitrogen efficiency from mineral fertilizer was about three times higher compared to N from sewage sludge. 4 Applied in maize crop, resulted an yield increase of 23.2 kg grains for 1 ton sewage sludge at a rate of 30 t/ha and only 13.2 kg/1 t at a rates 90 t/ha. By comparing to manure, the yield increased was lower. The nitrogen utilization from sewage sludge by maize was of 11 % at 3o t/ha and 6.6 % at 90 t/ha. From mineral fertilizer, maize used 25.9 % of 100 kg N/ha. 5 Residual effect of sewage sludge in second year in wheat crop was of 7

  19. Evolution of the Crop Rhizosphere: Impact of Domestication on Root Exudates in Tetraploid Wheat (Triticum turgidumL.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannucci, Anna; Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Beleggia, Romina; Nigro, Franca; Papa, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Domestication has induced major genetic changes in crop plants to satisfy human needs and as a consequence of adaptation to agroecosystems. This adaptation might have affected root exudate composition, which can influence the interactions in the rhizosphere. Here, using two different soil types (sand, soil), we provide an original example of the impact of domestication and crop evolution on root exudate composition through metabolite profiling of root exudates for a panel of 10 wheat genotypes that correspond to the key steps in domestication of tetraploid wheat (wild emmer, emmer, durum wheat). Our data show that soil type can dramatically affect the composition of root exudates in the rhizosphere. Moreover, the composition of the rhizosphere metabolites is associated with differences among the genotypes of the wheat domestication groups, as seen by the high heritability of some of the metabolites. Overall, we show that domestication and breeding have had major effects on root exudates in the rhizosphere, which suggests the adaptive nature of these changes.

  20. [Effects of winter cover crop on methane and nitrous oxide emission from paddy field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hai-ming; Tang, Wen-guang; Shuai, Xi-qiang; Yang, Guang-li; Tang, Hai-tao; Xiao, Xiao-Ping

    2010-12-01

    Static chamber-GC technique was employed to study the effects of different treatment winter cover crops, including no-tillage and directly sowing ryegrass (T1), no-tillage and directly sowing Chinese milk vetch (T2), tillage and transplanting rape (T3), no-tillage and directly sowing rape (T4), and fallowing (CK), on the CH4 and N2O emission from double cropping rice paddy field. During the growth period of test winter cover crops, the CH4 and N2O emission in treatments T1-T4 was significantly higher than that in CK (P cover crops returned to field, the CH4 emission from early and late rice fields in treatments T1, T2, T3, and T4 was larger than that in CK. In early rice field, treatments T1 and T2 had the largest CH4 emission (21.70 and 20.75 g x m(-2)); while in late rice field, treatments T3 and T4 had the largest one (58.90 and 54.51 g x m(-2) respectively). Treatments T1-T4 also had larger N2O emission from early and late rice fields than the CK did. The N2O emission from early rice field in treatments T1, T2, T3, and T4 was increased by 53.7%, 12.2%, 46.3%, and 29.3%, and that from late rice field in corresponding treatments was increased by 28.6%, 3.8%, 34.3%, and 27.6%, respectively, compared with CK.

  1. Water Use Efficiency of Cotton and Wheat Crops at Various Management Allowed Depletion in Lower Indus Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHALIFA QASIML AGHARI

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with contemporary irrigation water management of major crops in Lower Indus Basin of Pakistan. Field experiments were conducted to estimate the optimum WUE (Water Use Efficiency for various MAD (Management Allowed Depletion levels including 55, 65 and 75% for cotton crop, and 45, 55 and 65% for wheat crop. The daily actual crop Etca (Evapotranspiration was observed through gypsum blocks and a drainage Lysimeter. The observed seasonal cotton crops ETca in the experiments were 486, 413, and 397 mm for 55, 65, and 75% MAD levels, respectively. Similarly, wheat crops ETca observed were 363, 359, and 332mm for 45, 55, and 65% MAD levels, respectively. The WUE determined in terms of seed-cotton yield per unit of seasonal water use were 6.0, 6.5, and 5.8kg (ha mm-1 The corresponding values of WUE for wheat were 14.1, 15.0 and 13.4kg (ha mm-1. Hence; the highest WUE was achieved with MAD at 65% for cotton and at 55% for wheat.

  2. Controlled Drainage As Measure to Reduce Nitrate Leaching in a Wheat Cropping System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børgesen, Christen Duus; Hvid, Søren Kolind; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag

    2013-01-01

    Subsurface drainage of soil to avoid water logging is a prerequisite for crop cultivation for a large proportion of the agricultural land, and approximately 50% of the Danish agricultural area is artificially drained. Multifunctional drain systems can be effective measures to reduce losses...... of nutrients, such as Controlled Drainage (CD). With CD the water table of drained fields is raised or lowered by adjusting the drain pipe outlet elevation. By restricting drain flow at times when drainage is not needed, the overall volume of water flow is reduced, more soil moisture is available......, preserving ammonium for crop uptake in the following cropping season. Installed equipment, soil survey results and measurement results from the first winter season will be presented....

  3. THE EFFECT OF ORGANIC FERTILISATION OF LIQUID MANURE AND THE PRP FIX PREPARATION ON THE YIELD AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF WINTER RAPE SEEDS AND SPRING WHEAT GRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Możdżer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2011–2013, a field experiment was carried out at the Experimental Station of Cultivar Evaluation in Szczecin-Dąbie. The experiment aimed at determining the effect of slurry without and with addition of increasing PRP Fix preparation doses on the crop yields and some of their qualitative traits. The soil where the experiment was set up was slightly acidic (pHKCL 5.95; nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents were 0.86, 1.55 and 2.70 g·kg-1 d.m., respectively. The total content of macro-elements for this type of soil was average. The content of bioavailable forms of phosphorus, magnesium and sulphur was average, while that of potassium was high. The content of organic carbon in soil was low, while the C:N ratio was 10.2:1 and was average for that type of soils. The obtained results show that the applied fertilisation with slurry combined with PRP Fix preparation and PK fertilisation increased the yield of winter rape seeds and spring wheat grain and the content of macro-elements being examined in them. The yields of the test plants were larger in the fertilisation objects where fertilisation with slurry with addition of 8 kg PRP Fix preparation per 1 m3 slurry was applied, when compared to those where only mineral fertilisation or slurry was used. Winter rape seeds and spring wheat grain usually contained more nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium and sulphur in the fertilisation objects being fertilised with slurry with PRP Fix preparation in the amount of 8 or 12 kg per 1 m3 slurry with additional PK fertilisation (experimental series II compared to experimental series I without additional PK fertilisation. Differences in the content of macro-elements in test plants after application of the fertilisation scheme being used varied. These differences were not always significant.

  4. Characterization of spatial variability of the relative chlorophyll index in wheat crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar Henrique de Castro Pias

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Site-specific nitrogen application, based on relative chlorophyll index from leaves, may provide many economic and environmental benefits, however, the knowledge on sampling methodologies is still incipient. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the use of different sampling grids to characterize the spatial variability of relative chlorophyll index of leaves from wheat crop and elaborate thematic maps for site-specific nitrogen application. For determining the relative chlorophyll index, a CFL 1030 chlorophyll meter was used on a regular sampling grid of 10 m x 10 m with 472 sampling points. Based on the initial sampling grid, by using the point elimination method, the simulation was performed in the following sampling grids: 10 m x 20 m; 20 m x 20 m; 20 m x 30 m; 30 m x 30 m; 30 m x 40 m; and 40 m x 40 m. The increase of the sampling grid reduced the diagnostic accuracy of relative chlorophyll index in wheat leaves. As the sampling grid increased, the maps became more general and information on the spatial variability of the relative chlorophyll index were lost. Sampling grids smaller or equal to 20 m x 20 m were effective to detect the spatial variability of the relative chlorophyll index in wheat leaves and enable the elaboration of thematic maps for site-specific nitrogen application.

  5. Urease inhibitor (NBPT and efficiency of single or split application of urea in wheat crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Curitiba Espindula

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available NBPT (N-(n-butyl thiophosphoric triamide, a urease inhibitor, has been reported as one of the most promising compounds to maximize urea nitrogen use in agricultural systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of irrigated wheat fertilized with urea or urea + NBPT as single or split application. The experiment was conducted from June to October 2006 in Viçosa, MG, Brazil. The experimental design followed a 2×2 factorial scheme, in which urea or urea + NBPT were combined with two modes of application: full dose at sowing (60kg ha-1 or split (20kg ha-1 at sowing + 40kg ha-1 as topdressing at tillering, in randomized blocks with ten replications. The split application of nitrogen fertilization does not improve the yield wheat under used conditions. The use of urease inhibitor improves the grain yield of wheat crop when urea is applied in topdressing at tillering, but its use does not promote difference when urea is applied in the furrow at planting.

  6. Assesment of winter wheat advanced lines by use of multivariate statistical analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boshev Dane

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate 49 advanced lines of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. for their morphoagronomic traits and to determine best criteria for selection of lines to be included in future breeding program. The material was assessed in two years experiment at two locations, using RCBD design with three replications. Ten quantitative traits: plant height, number of fertile tillers, spike length, number of spikelets per spike, number of grains per spike, weight of grain per spike and per plant, fertility, biological yield and harvest index were evaluated by PCA and two-way cluster analysis. Three main principal components were determined explaining 71.391% of the total variation among the genotypes. One third of the variation is explained by PC1 which reflects the genotype yield potential. PC2 and PC3 explained 25.22% and 15.49% of the total variance, mostly in relation to the plant height and spike components, respectively. Biplot graph revealed strongest positive association between spike length, number of spikelets and biological yield and between number of tillers, weight of grains per spike and per plant. Two-way cluster analysis resulted with a dendrogram with one solely separated genotype, superior for all traits and two main clusters of genotypes defined with wide genetic diversity especially between the groups within the second cluster. Genotypes with high values for specific traits will be included in the future breeding programmes. Classification of genotypes and the extend of variation among them illustrated on the heatmap has proved to be practical tool for selecting genotypes with desired traits in the early stages of the breeding process.

  7. Optimizing Training Population Data and Validation of Genomic Selection for Economic Traits in Soft Winter Wheat

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    Amber Hoffstetter

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Genomic selection (GS is a breeding tool that estimates breeding values (GEBVs of individuals based solely on marker data by using a model built using phenotypic and marker data from a training population (TP. The effectiveness of GS increases as the correlation of GEBVs and phenotypes (accuracy increases. Using phenotypic and genotypic data from a TP of 470 soft winter wheat lines, we assessed the accuracy of GS for grain yield, Fusarium Head Blight (FHB resistance, softness equivalence (SE, and flour yield (FY. Four TP data sampling schemes were tested: (1 use all TP data, (2 use subsets of TP lines with low genotype-by-environment interaction, (3 use subsets of markers significantly associated with quantitative trait loci (QTL, and (4 a combination of 2 and 3. We also correlated the phenotypes of relatives of the TP to their GEBVs calculated from TP data. The GS accuracy within the TP using all TP data ranged from 0.35 (FHB to 0.62 (FY. On average, the accuracy of GS from using subsets of data increased by 54% relative to using all TP data. Using subsets of markers selected for significant association with the target trait had the greatest impact on GS accuracy. Between-environment prediction accuracy was also increased by using data subsets. The accuracy of GS when predicting the phenotypes of TP relatives ranged from 0.00 to 0.85. These results suggest that GS could be useful for these traits and GS accuracy can be greatly improved by using subsets of TP data.

  8. Effect of Winter Cover Crops on Soil Nitrogen Availability, Corn Yield, and Nitrate Leaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kuo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Biculture of nonlegumes and legumes could serve as cover crops for increasing main crop yield, while reducing NO3 leaching. This study, conducted from 1994 to 1999, determined the effect of monocultured cereal rye (Secale cereale L., annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa, and bicultured rye/vetch and ryegrass/vetch on N availability in soil, corn (Zea mays L. yield, and NO3-N leaching in a silt loam soil. The field had been in corn and cover crop rotation since 1987. In addition to the cover crop treatments, there were four N fertilizer rates (0, 67, 134, and 201 kg N ha-1, referred to as N0, N1, N2, and N3, respectively applied to corn. The experiment was a randomized split-block design with three replications for each treatment. Lysimeters were installed in 1987 at 0.75 m below the soil surface for leachate collection for the N0, N2, and N3 treatments. The result showed that vetch monoculture had the most influence on soil N availability and corn yield, followed by the bicultures. Rye or ryegrass monoculture had either no effect or an adverse effect on corn yield and soil N availability. Leachate NO3-N concentration was highest where vetch cover crop was planted regardless of N rates, which suggests that N mineralization of vetch N continued well into the fall and winter. Leachate NO3-N concentration increased with increasing N fertilizer rates and exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s drinking water standard of 10 mg N l�1 even at recommended N rate for corn in this region (coastal Pacific Northwest. In comparisons of the average NO3-N concentration during the period of high N leaching, monocultured rye and ryegrass or bicultured rye/vetch and ryegrass/vetch very effectively decreased N leaching in 1998 with dry fall weather. The amount of N available for leaching (determined based on the presidedress nitrate test, the amount of N fertilizer applied, and N uptake correlated well with average NO3

  9. Effect of winter cover crops on soil nitrogen availability, corn yield, and nitrate leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, S; Huang, B; Bembenek, R

    2001-10-25

    Biculture of nonlegumes and legumes could serve as cover crops for increasing main crop yield, while reducing NO3 leaching. This study, conducted from 1994 to 1999, determined the effect of monocultured cereal rye (Secale cereale L.), annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), and bicultured rye/vetch and ryegrass/vetch on N availability in soil, corn (Zea mays L.) yield, and NO3-N leaching in a silt loam soil. The field had been in corn and cover crop rotation since 1987. In addition to the cover crop treatments, there were four N fertilizer rates (0, 67, 134, and 201 kg N ha(-1), referred to as N0, N1, N2, and N3, respectively) applied to corn. The experiment was a randomized split-block design with three replications for each treatment. Lysimeters were installed in 1987 at 0.75 m below the soil surface for leachate collection for the N 0, N 2, and N 3 treatments. The result showed that vetch monoculture had the most influence on soil N availability and corn yield, followed by the bicultures. Rye or ryegrass monoculture had either no effect or an adverse effect on corn yield and soil N availability. Leachate NO3-N concentration was highest where vetch cover crop was planted regardless of N rates, which suggests that N mineralization of vetch N continued well into the fall and winter. Leachate NO3-N concentration increased with increasing N fertilizer rates and exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's drinking water standard of 10 mg N l(-1) even at recommended N rate for corn in this region (coastal Pacific Northwest). In comparisons of the average NO3-N concentration during the period of high N leaching, monocultured rye and ryegrass or bicultured rye/vetch and ryegrass/vetch very effectively decreased N leaching in 1998 with dry fall weather. The amount of N available for leaching (determined based on the presidedress nitrate test, the amount of N fertilizer applied, and N uptake) correlated well with average NO3-N during

  10. Effects of winter cover crops residue returning on soil enzyme activities and soil microbial community in double-cropping rice fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai-Ming, Tang; Xiao-Ping, Xiao; Wen-Guang, Tang; Ye-Chun, Lin; Ke, Wang; Guang-Li, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Residue management in cropping systems is useful to improve soil quality. However, the studies on the effects of residue management on the enzyme activities and microbial community of soils in South China are few. Therefore, the effects of incorporating winter cover crop residue with a double-cropping rice (Oryza sativa L.) system on soil enzyme activities and microbial community in Southern China fields were studied. The experiment has conducted at the experimental station of the Institute of Soil and Fertilizer Research, Hunan Academy of Agricultural Science, China since winter 2004. Four winter cropping systems were used: rice-rice-ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) (R-R-Ry), rice-rice-Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.) (R-R-Mv), rice-rice-rape (Brassica napus L.) (R-R-Ra) and rice-rice with winter fallow (R-R-Fa). The result indicated that the enzyme activities in the R-R-Ry, R-R-Mv and R-R-Ra systems were significantly higher (Pcover crops into rotations may increase enzyme activities and microbial community in soil and therefore improve soil quality.

  11. Influence of N fertilization rates, rainfall, and temperature on nitrate leaching from a rainfed winter wheat field in Taihu watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xin-Qiang; Xu, Lei; Li, Hua; He, Miao-Miao; Qian, Yi-Chao; Liu, Jin; Nie, Ze-Yu; Ye, Yu-Shi; Chen, Yingxu

    Cropland derived nitrate leaching was a major reason for groundwater pollution. The objective of this study was to on-farm investigate the behavior of nitrate leaching affected by N fertilization rates, rainfall, and temperature in a rainfed winter wheat field in Taihu watershed. The experiment had five urea-N rates (0-360 kg N ha -1 in 90-kg increments), and nitrate-N in leachate was daily collected by wedge-shaped fiberglass wick lysimeters during four stages (seeding stage, SS; tillering stage, TS; booting stage, BS; harvesting stage, HS). Results showed that: (1) higher potential of leachate would be engendered when the rainfall intensity was over 5.9 mm d -1; (2) variations of nitrate concentrations in leachate were well responsed to three split fertilizations, which increased with the increase of urea-N applied rates. A similar variation pattern of nitrate concentrations was observed in -0.3 m and -0.6 m soil leachate. Besides, the nitrate concentrations in leachate could be raised with the sharply increase of air temperature, especially in the SS and TS stages; (3) the fluxes of nitrate leaching were significantly affected by N rates ( P HS > BS > SS. The N application rate of 180 kg N ha -1 optimized wheat production, but N application over that rate greatly increased nitrate leaching potential. Therefore, options other than lowering the N application rate need to be considered to reduce environmental impacts while maintain winter wheat production.

  12. [Effects of conservation tillage and weed control on soil water and organic carbon contents in winter wheat field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hui-Fang; Ning, Tang-Yuan; Li, Zeng-Jia; Tian, Shen-Zhong; Wang, Yu; Zhong, Wei-Lei; Tian, Xin-Xin

    2011-05-01

    Taking a long-term (since 2004) straw-returning winter wheat field as the object, an investigation was made in the wheat growth seasons of 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 to study the effects of different tillage methods (rotary tillage, harrow tillage, no-tillage, subsoil tillage, and conventional tillage) and weed management on the soil water and organic carbon contents. No matter retaining or removing weeds, the weed density under subsoil tillage and no-tillage was much higher than that under rotary tillage, harrow tillage, and conventional tillage. From the jointing to the milking stage of winter wheat, retaining definite amounts of weeds, no matter which tillage method was adopted, could significantly increase the 0-20 cm soil water content, suggesting the soil water conservation effect of retaining weeds. Retaining weeds only increased the soil organic carbon content in 0-20 cm layer at jointing stage. At heading and milking stages, the soil organic carbon contents in 0-20, 20-40, and 40-60 cm layers were lower under weed retaining than under weed removal. Under the conditions of weed removal, the grain yield under subsoil tillage increased significantly, compared with that under the other four tillage methods. Under the conditions of weed retaining, the grain yield was the highest under rotary tillage, and the lowest under conventional tillage.

  13. Ozone pollution effects on gas exchange, growth and biomass yield of salinity-treated winter wheat cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yanhai; Cheng, Da; Simmons, Matthew

    2014-11-15

    A sand-culture experiment was conducted in four Open-Top-Chambers to assess the effects of O3 on salinity-treated winter wheat. Two winter wheat cultivars, salt-tolerant Dekang961 and salt-sensitive Lumai15, were grown under saline (100 mM NaCl) and/or O3 (80±5 nmol mol(-1)) conditions for 35 days. Significant (Pgrowth and biomass yield in the no-salinity treatment. Significant (Psalinity treatment. Soluble sugar and proline contents significantly increased in both cultivars in combined salinity and O3 exposure. O3-induced down-regulation in the gradients of A-C(i) and A-PPFD response curves were much larger in Dekang961 than in Lumai15 under saline conditions. Significant (Psalinity×cultivars and salinity×O3 stresses. The results clearly demonstrated that O3 injuries were closely correlated with plant stomatal conductance (g(s)); the salt-tolerant wheat cultivar might be damaged more severely than the salt-sensitive cultivar by O3 due to its higher g(s) in saline conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Effects of drought stress, high temperature and elevated CO2 concentration on the growth of winter wheat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Fu-Yan; Qiao, Yun-Zhou; Jiang, Jing-Wei; Dong, Bao-Di; Shi, Chang-Hai; Liu, Meng-Yu

    2014-09-01

    The impacts of climate change on the grain yield, photosynthesis, and water conditions of winter wheat were assessed based on an experiment, in which wheat plants were subjected to ambient and elevated CO2 concentrations, ambient and elevated temperatures, and low and high water conditions independently and in combination. The CO2 enrichment alone had no effect on the photosynthesis of winter wheat, whereas higher temperature and drought significantly decreased the photosynthetic rate. Water conditions in flag leaves were not significantly changed at the elevated CO2 concentration or elevated temperature. However, drought stress decreased the relative water content in flag leaves, and the combination of elevated temperature and drought reduced the water potential in flag leaves. The combination of elevated CO2 concentration, elevated temperature, and drought significantly reduced the photosynthetic rate and water conditions, and led to a 41.4% decrease in grain yield. The elevated CO2 concentration alone increased the grain yield by 21.2%, whereas the elevated temperature decreased the grain yield by 12.3%. The grain yield was not affected by the combination of elevated CO2 concentration and temperature, but the grain yield was significantly decreased by the drought stress if combined with any of the climate scenarios applied in this study. These findings suggested that maintaining high soil water content might be a vital means of reducing the potential harm caused by the climate change.

  15. Genotype, environment, seeding rate, and top-dressed nitrogen effects on end-use quality of modern Nebraska winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatta, Madhav; Regassa, Teshome; Rose, Devin J; Baenziger, P Stephen; Eskridge, Kent M; Santra, Dipak K; Poudel, Rachana

    2017-12-01

    Fine-tuning production inputs such as seeding rate, nitrogen (N), and genotype may improve end-use quality of hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivium L.) when growing conditions are unpredictable. Studies were conducted at the Agronomy Research Farm (ARF; Lincoln, NE, USA) and the High Plains Agricultural Laboratory (HPAL; Sidney, NE, USA) in 2014 and 2015 in Nebraska, USA, to determine the effects of genotype (6), environment (4), seeding rate (3), and flag leaf top-dressed N (0 and 34 kg N ha(-1) ) on the end-use quality of winter wheat. End-use quality traits were influenced by environment, genotype, seeding rate, top-dressed N, and their interactions. Mixograph parameters had a strong correlation with grain volume weight and flour yield. Doubling the recommended seeding rate and N at the flag leaf stage increased grain protein content by 8.1% in 2014 and 1.5% in 2015 at ARF and 4.2% in 2014 and 8.4% in 2015 at HPAL. The key finding of this research is that increasing seeding rates up to double the current recommendations with N at the flag leaf stage improved most of the end-use quality traits. This will have a significant effect on the premium for protein a farmer could receive when marketing wheat. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Understanding long-term (1982-2013) patterns and trends in winter wheat spring green-up date over the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sisi; Mo, Xingguo; Liu, Zhengjia; Baig, Muhammad Hasan Ali; Chi, Wenfeng

    2017-05-01

    Monitoring the spring green-up date (GUD) has grown in importance for crop management and food security. However, most satellite-based GUD models are associated with a high degree of uncertainty when applied to croplands. In this study, we introduced an improved GUD algorithm to extract GUD data for 32 years (1982-2013) for the winter wheat croplands on the North China Plain (NCP), using the third-generation normalized difference vegetation index form Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS3g NDVI). The spatial and temporal variations in GUD with the effects of the pre-season climate and soil moisture conditions on GUD were comprehensively investigated. Our results showed that a higher correlation coefficient (r = 0.44, p controlled by the pre-season temperature, our findings underline that the effect of the pre-season soil moisture on GUD should also be considered. The improved GUD algorithm and satellite-based long-term GUD data are helpful for improving the representation of GUD in terrestrial ecosystem models and enhancing crop management efficiency.

  17. Nitrate leaching in a winter wheat-summer maize rotation on a calcareous soil as affected by nitrogen and straw management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Ju, Xiaotang; Yang, Hao

    2017-02-01

    Nitrate leaching is one of the most important pathways of nitrogen (N) loss which leads to groundwater contamination or surface water eutrophication. Clarifying the rates, controlling factors and characteristics of nitrate leaching is the pre-requisite for proposing effective mitigation strategies. We investigated the effects of interactions among chemical N fertilizer, straw and manure applications on nitrogen leaching in an intensively managed calcareous Fluvo-aquic soil with winter wheat-summer maize cropping rotations on the North China Plain from October 2010 to September 2013 using ceramic suction cups and seepage water calculations based on a long-term field experiment. Annual nitrate leaching reached 38-60 kg N ha-1 from conventional N managements, but declined by 32-71% due to optimum N, compost manure or municipal waste treatments, respectively. Nitrate leaching concentrated in the summer maize season, and fewer leaching events with high amounts are the characteristics of nitrate leaching in this region. Overuse of chemical N fertilizers, high net mineralization and nitrification, together with predominance of rainfall in the summer season with light soil texture are the main controlling factors responsible for the high nitrate leaching loss in this soil-crop-climatic system.

  18. Operational application and improvements of the disease risk forecast model PROCULTURE to optimize fungicides spray for the septoria leaf blotch disease in winter wheat in Luxembourg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Junk

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The model PROCULTURE has been developed by the Université Catholique de Louvain – UCL (Belgium to simulate the progress of the septoria leaf blotch disease on winter wheat during the cropping season. The model has been validated in Luxembourg for four years at four distinct representative sites. It is able to identify infection periods due to the causal agent Mycosphaerella graminicola on the last five leaf layers by combining meteorological data with phenological data from PROCULTURE's crop growth model component. The meteorological forcing consists of hourly time-series of air temperature, relative humidity and cumulative rainfall since the time of sowing, retrieved from automatic weather stations for hindcast and numerical weather prediction model outputs for the forecast periods. In order to improve the model, leaf wetness – which is one of the most important drivers for the spread of the disease – shall be added as an additional predictor. Therefore leaf wetness sensors were set up at four test sites during the 2007 growing season. To get a continuous spatial coverage of the country, it is planned to couple the PROCULTURE model offline to 12-hourly operational weather forecasts from an implementation of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model for Luxembourg at 1 km resolution. Because the WRF model does not provide leaf wetness directly, an artificial neural network (ANN is used to model this parameter.

  19. GHG AND AEROSOL EMISSION FROM FIRE PIXEL DURING CROP RESIDUE BURNING UNDER RICE AND WHEAT CROPPING SYSTEMS IN NORTH-WEST INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Acharya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Emission of smoke and aerosol from open field burning of crop residue is a long-standing subject matter of atmospheric pollution. In this study, we proposed a new approach of estimating fuel load in the fire pixels and corresponding emissions of selected GHGs and aerosols i.e. CO2, CO, NO2, SO2, and total particulate matter (TPM due to burning of crop residue under rice and wheat cropping systems in Punjab in north-west India from 2002 to 2012. In contrasts to the conventional method that uses RPR ratio to estimate the biomass, fuel load in the fire pixels was estimated as a function of enhanced vegetation index (EVI. MODIS fire products were used to detect the fire pixels during harvesting seasons of rice and wheat. Based on the field measurements, fuel load in the fire pixels were modelled as a function of average EVI using second order polynomial regression. Average EVI for rice and wheat crops that were extracted through Fourier transformation were computed from MODIS time series 16 day EVI composites. About 23 % of net shown area (NSA during rice and 11 % during wheat harvesting seasons are affected by field burning. The computed average fuel loads are 11.32 t/ha (±17.4 during rice and 10.89 t/ha (±8.7 during wheat harvesting seasons. Calculated average total emissions of CO2, CO, NO2, SO2 and TPM were 8108.41, 657.85, 8.10, 4.10, and 133.21 Gg during rice straw burning and 6896.85, 625.09, 1.42, 1.77, and 57.55 Gg during wheat burning. Comparison of estimated values shows better agreement with the previous concurrent estimations. The method, however, shows its efficiency parallel to the conventional method of estimation of fuel load and related pollutant emissions.

  20. Distribution and prevalence of crown rot pathogens affecting wheat crops in southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Moya-Elizondo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Crown rot pathogens are associated with higher losses for wheat crop farmers, but information about the distribution and prevalence of these pathogens in Chile is inadequate. Distribution and prevalence of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. crown rot pathogens were examined in a survey of 48 commercial fields from December 2011 to February 2012 in southern Chile. These fields were located between Collipulli (37°56'00" S; 72°26'39" W and Purranque (40°50'30" S; 73°22'03" W. Severity of crown rot disease was determined through visual assessment of the first internode of 20 tillers obtained from each field. Incidence of crown rot pathogens per field was determined by plating the 20 tillers on Petri plates with 20% potato dextrose agar amended with lactic acid (aPDA medium. Resulting fungal colonies from monoxenic culture were identified by morphological or molecular-assisted identification. Severity of crown rot varied between 11.3% and 80% for individual fields. Culture plate analysis showed 72.2% of stems were infected with some fungus. Fusarium avenaceum, F. graminearum, and F. culmorum, pathogens associated with Fusarium crown rot disease were isolated from 13.5% of tillers. Gaeumannomyces graminis, causal agent of take-all disease in cereals, was isolated from 11.1% of culms. Phaeosphaeria sp., an endophyte and possibly a non-pathogenic fungus, was isolated from 13.9% of tillers. Pathogenic fungi such as Rhizoctonia spp. and Microdochium nivale, other saprophyte, and several unidentified non-sporulating fungi were isolated at frequencies lower than 3% of the total. Fusarium crown rot and take-all were the most prevalent and distributed crown rot diseases present in wheat crops in southern Chile.

  1. Using Canopy Reflectance and Crop Stress Index to Enhance Wheat Yield Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, S.; Zare, H.; Paymard, P.; Lashkari, A.; Salehnia, N.; Bannayan, M.

    2015-12-01

    Canopy reflectance can be useful indicator of crop health status. Canopy stress index (CSI) is usually expressed as canopy temperature minus air temperature, and this value is higher and a positive number in a well irrigated wheat field. Three main environmental variables constructing CSI are: plant canopy temperature (Tc), air temperature (Ta) and atmospheric vapor pressure deficiency (VPD). CSI is effected by biological and environmental factors such as soil water status, wind speed, evapotranspiration, conduction systems, plant metabolism, air temperature, relative humidity, etc. which all influence on final yield. This paper aims to investigate the relation of CSI calculated by Landsat images and wheat yield. So, eighteen wheat fields were selected for two years (2009 and 2010) and 5 Landsat images (TM and ETM+) from April to Jun were used to monitor field status in each year. Tc was calculated by applying single-channel method and VPD was computed from Tc, air temperature and humidity. Each single Landsat bands and CSI were defined as the descriptor variables. Relation between wheat yield and the descriptors was assessed by means of linear correlation. The results of stepwise correlation depicted that band 1 (blue) and 3 (red) had the most correlations to yield until grain filling stage. This reflects the importance of photosynthesis rate which absorb blue and red wavelength during mentioned period. This two bands also could capture yield changes (r2=0.77). However, during grain filling period CSI was the only descriptor determining yield volatility (r2=0.85). Low temperature is one of the key factors which increase remobilization of carbohydrate to grain. Therefore, grain yield in the canopy which has less temperature in compared to air temperature would be higher than others.

  2. Differentiation of organic and non-organic winter wheat cultivars from a controlled field trial by crystallization patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Johannes; Busscher, Nicolaas; Mergardt, Gaby; Mäder, Paul; Torp, Torfinn; Ploeger, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for authentication tools in order to verify the existing certification system. Recently, markers for analytical authentication of organic products were evaluated. Herein, crystallization with additives was described as an interesting fingerprint approach which needs further evidence, based on a standardized method and well-documented sample origin. The fingerprint of wheat cultivars from a controlled field trial is generated from structure analysis variables of crystal patterns. Method performance was tested on factors such as crystallization chamber, day of experiment and region of interest of the patterns. Two different organic treatments and two different treatments of the non-organic regime can be grouped together in each of three consecutive seasons. When the k-nearest-neighbor classification method was applied, approximately 84% of Runal samples and 95% of Titlis samples were classified correctly into organic and non-organic origin using cross-validation. Crystallization with additive offers an interesting complementary fingerprint method for organic wheat samples. When the method is applied to winter wheat from the DOK trial, organic and non-organic treated samples can be differentiated significantly based on pattern recognition. Therefore crystallization with additives seems to be a promising tool in organic wheat authentication. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Manipulating field margins to increase predation intensity in fields of winter wheat (Triticum eastivum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansion-Vaquie, Agathe; Ferrante, Marco; Cook, S M

    2017-01-01

    .3) than in flower margins (mean = 30.7%, SD = 17.4). We found a significant positive relationship between the number of artificial caterpillars attacked by chewing insects, and activity density for large (≥15 mm) ground beetles. Predation of sentinel aphids in wheat fields did not vary significantly......, intraguild predation, hyperparasitism) may complicate the assumption that a higher density of natural enemies would increase the level of biological control. We investigated the natural enemy guild composition and the predation rate along flower vs. grass margins at the edge of winter wheat (Triticum...... to the two margin types: specialists (mostly parasitic wasps) were attracted by the flower margins, while generalists (ground beetles, rove beetles and spiders) were more active in grass margins. The number of artificial caterpillars attacked was significantly greater in grass margins (mean = 48.9%, SD = 24...

  4. [Effect of Irrigation Patterns on Soil CO₂ and N₂O Emissions from Winter Wheat Field in North China Plain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shu-fang; Qi, Yu-chun; Yin, Fei-hu; Peng, Qin; Dong, Yun-she; He, Yun-long; Yan, Zhong-qing

    2016-05-15

    The water-saving irrigation is the trend of modernized agriculture. This paper aimed to study the effect of water-saving irrigation on soil CO₂ and N₂O emissions. The field experiments were conducted under micro sprinkler irrigation of integrated water and fertilizer (MSI) and conventional flooding irrigation (FI) in winter wheat growth season in the west of North China Plain during 2013- 2014 using the static chamber method. This paper analyzed the seasonal variation of soil CO₂and N₂O emissions under MSI and FI, and then compared the soil CO₂ and N₂O emissions from treatments located in different vertical distance away from micro sprinkler pipe. Root exclusion was used to estimate the components of soil respiration and agricultural carbon sequestration intensity under MSI and FI in winter wheat field. The results indicated that: (1) The average soil CO₂ emissions under MSI and FI were 418.19 mg (m² · h)⁻¹ and 372.14 mg · (m² · h)⁻¹ respectively with no significant difference, and cumulative CO₂ emissions under MSI and FI were 2 150.6 g · m⁻² and 1 904.6 g · m⁻², respectively. (2) During returning green stage to harvest stage of winter wheat, the highest soil CO₂ cumulative emissions were found at the closest site to the micro sprinkler irrigated pipes under MSI. However, there were no significant differences among spatial treatments. (3) Under MSI and FI, soil heterotrophic respiration (C) was 468.49 g · m⁻² and 427.31 g · m⁻², and the net primary productivity (3) was 1988.21 g · m⁻² and 1770.54 g · m⁻²; the carbon sink (C) during winter wheat growing season was 1 519.72 g · m⁻² and 1 343.24 g · m⁻², respectively. (4) The average N₂O emissions under MSI and FI were 50.77 µg · (m² · h)⁻¹ and 28.81 µg · (m² · h)⁻¹ respectively with no significant difference. Cumulative N₂O emission under MSI and FI was 272.67 mg · m⁻² and 154.08 mg · m⁻², respectively. (5) During returning green

  5. Evolution of the Crop Rhizosphere: Impact of Domestication on Root Exudates in Tetraploid Wheat (Triticum turgidum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Iannucci, Anna; Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Beleggia, Romina; Nigro, Franca; Papa, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Domestication has induced major genetic changes in crop plants to satisfy human needs and as a consequence of adaptation to agroecosystems. This adaptation might have affected root exudate composition, which can influence the interactions in the rhizosphere. Here, using two different soil types (sand, soil), we provide an original example of the impact of domestication and crop evolution on root exudate composition through metabolite profiling of root exudates for a panel of 10 wheat genotype...

  6. Identification of Cephalosporium stripe resistance quantitative trait loci in two recombinant inbred line populations of winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, M Dolores; Zemetra, Robert; Peterson, C James; Mundt, Christopher C

    2015-02-01

    Identification of genome regions linked to Cephalosporium stripe resistance across two populations on chromosome 3BS, 4BS, 5AL, C5BL. Results were compared to a similar previous study. Cephalosporium stripe is a vascular wilt disease of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) caused by the soil-borne fungus Cephalosporium gramineum Nisikado & Ikata. In the USA it is known to be a recurring disease when susceptible cultivars are grown in the wheat-growing region of Midwest and Pacific Northwest. There is no complete resistance in commercial wheat cultivars, although the use of moderately resistant cultivars reduces the disease severity and the amount of inoculum in subsequent seasons. The goal of this study was to detect and to compare chromosomal regions for resistance to Cephalosporium stripe in two winter wheat populations. Field inoculation was performed and Cephalosporium stripe severity was visually scored as percent of prematurely ripening heads (whiteheads) per plot. 'Tubbs'/'NSA-98-0995' and 'Einstein'/'Tubbs', each comprising a cross of a resistant and a susceptible cultivar, with population sizes of 271 and 259 F (5:6) recombinant inbred lines, respectively, were genotyped and phenotyped across four environments. In the quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis, six and nine QTL were found, explaining in total, around 30 and 50 % of the phenotypic variation in 'Tubbs'/'NSA-98-0995' and 'Einstein'/'Tubbs', respectively. The QTL with the largest effect from both 'NSA-98-0995' and 'Einstein' was on chromosome 5AL.1 and linked to marker gwm291. Several QTL with smaller effects were identified in both populations on chromosomes 5AL, 6BS, and 3BS, along with other QTL identified in just one population. These results indicate that resistance to Cephalosporium stripe in both mapping populations was of a quantitative nature.

  7. Cultivation-Based and Molecular Assessment of Bacterial Diversity in the Rhizosheath of Wheat under Different Crop Rotations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tahir

    Full Text Available A field study was conducted to compare the formationand bacterial communities of rhizosheaths of wheat grown under wheat-cotton and wheat-rice rotation and to study the effects of bacterial inoculation on plant growth. Inoculation of Azospirillum sp. WS-1 and Bacillus sp. T-34 to wheat plants increased root length, root and shoot dry weight and dry weight of rhizosheathsoil when compared to non-inoculated control plants, and under both crop rotations. Comparing both crop rotations, root length, root and shoot dry weight and dry weight of soil attached with roots were higher under wheat-cotton rotation. Organic acids (citric acid, malic acid, acetic acid and oxalic acid were detected in rhizosheaths from both rotations, with malic acid being most abundant with 24.8±2 and 21.3±1.5 μg g(-1 dry soil in wheat-cotton and wheat-rice rotation, respectively. Two sugars (sucrose, glucose were detected in wheat rhizosheath under both rotations, with highest concentrations of sucrose (4.08±0.5 μg g(-1 and 7.36±1.0 μg g(-1 and glucose (3.12±0.5 μg g(-1 and 3.01± μg g(-1 being detected in rhizosheaths of non-inoculated control plants under both rotations. Diversity of rhizosheath-associated bacteria was evaluated by cultivation, as well as by 454-pyrosequencing of PCR-tagged 16S rRNA gene amplicons. A total of 14 and 12 bacterial isolates predominantly belonging to the genera Arthrobacter, Azospirillum, Bacillus, Enterobacter and Pseudomonaswere obtained from the rhizosheath of wheat grown under wheat-cotton and wheat-rice rotation, respectively. Analysis of pyrosequencing data revealed Proteobacteria, Bacteriodetes and Verrucomicrobia as the most abundant phyla in wheat-rice rotation, whereas Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, Planctomycetes and Cyanobacteria were predominant in wheat-cotton rotation. From a total of 46,971 sequences, 10.9% showed ≥97% similarity with 16S rRNA genes of 32 genera previously shown to include

  8. Screening and Characterization of Potentially Suppressive Soils against Gaeumannomyces graminis under Extensive Wheat Cropping by Chilean Indigenous Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Durán

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Wheat production around the world is severely compromised by the occurrence of “take-all” disease, which is caused by the soil-borne pathogen Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt. In this context, suppressive soils are those environments in which plants comparatively suffer less soil-borne pathogen diseases than expected, owing to native soil microorganism activities. In southern Chile, where 85% of the national cereal production takes place, several studies have suggested the existence of suppressive soils under extensive wheat cropping. Thus, this study aimed to screen Ggt-suppressive soil occurrence in 16 locations managed by indigenous “Mapuche” communities, using extensive wheat cropping for more than 10 years. Ggt growth inhibition in vitro screenings allowed the identification of nine putative suppressive soils. Six of these soils, including Andisols and Ultisols, were confirmed to be suppressive, since they reduced take-all disease in wheat plants growing under greenhouse conditions. Suppressiveness was lost upon soil sterilization, and recovered by adding 1% of the natural soil, hence confirming that suppressiveness was closely associated to the soil microbiome community composition. Our results demonstrate that long-term extensive wheat cropping, established by small Mapuche communities, can generate suppressive soils that can be used as effective microorganism sources for take-all disease biocontrol. Accordingly, suppressive soil identification and characterization are key steps for the development of environmentally-friendly and efficient biotechnological applications for soil-borne disease control.

  9. Screening and Characterization of Potentially Suppressive Soils againstGaeumannomyces graminisunder Extensive Wheat Cropping by Chilean Indigenous Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Paola; Jorquera, Milko; Viscardi, Sharon; Carrion, Victor J; Mora, María de la Luz; Pozo, María J

    2017-01-01

    Wheat production around the world is severely compromised by the occurrence of "take-all" disease, which is caused by the soil-borne pathogen Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt). In this context, suppressive soils are those environments in which plants comparatively suffer less soil-borne pathogen diseases than expected, owing to native soil microorganism activities. In southern Chile, where 85% of the national cereal production takes place, several studies have suggested the existence of suppressive soils under extensive wheat cropping. Thus, this study aimed to screen Ggt-suppressive soil occurrence in 16 locations managed by indigenous "Mapuche" communities, using extensive wheat cropping for more than 10 years. Ggt growth inhibition in vitro screenings allowed the identification of nine putative suppressive soils. Six of these soils, including Andisols and Ultisols, were confirmed to be suppressive, since they reduced take-all disease in wheat plants growing under greenhouse conditions. Suppressiveness was lost upon soil sterilization, and recovered by adding 1% of the natural soil, hence confirming that suppressiveness was closely associated to the soil microbiome community composition. Our results demonstrate that long-term extensive wheat cropping, established by small Mapuche communities, can generate suppressive soils that can be used as effective microorganism sources for take-all disease biocontrol. Accordingly, suppressive soil identification and characterization are key steps for the development of environmentally-friendly and efficient biotechnological applications for soil-borne disease control.

  10. Screening and Characterization of Potentially Suppressive Soils against Gaeumannomyces graminis under Extensive Wheat Cropping by Chilean Indigenous Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Paola; Jorquera, Milko; Viscardi, Sharon; Carrion, Victor J.; Mora, María de la Luz; Pozo, María J.

    2017-01-01

    Wheat production around the world is severely compromised by the occurrence of “take-all” disease, which is caused by the soil-borne pathogen Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt). In this context, suppressive soils are those environments in which plants comparatively suffer less soil-borne pathogen diseases than expected, owing to native soil microorganism activities. In southern Chile, where 85% of the national cereal production takes place, several studies have suggested the existence of suppressive soils under extensive wheat cropping. Thus, this study aimed to screen Ggt-suppressive soil occurrence in 16 locations managed by indigenous “Mapuche” communities, using extensive wheat cropping for more than 10 years. Ggt growth inhibition in vitro screenings allowed the identification of nine putative suppressive soils. Six of these soils, including Andisols and Ultisols, were confirmed to be suppressive, since they reduced take-all disease in wheat plants growing under greenhouse conditions. Suppressiveness was lost upon soil sterilization, and recovered by adding 1% of the natural soil, hence confirming that suppressiveness was closely associated to the soil microbiome community composition. Our results demonstrate that long-term extensive wheat cropping, established by small Mapuche communities, can generate suppressive soils that can be used as effective microorganism sources for take-all disease biocontrol. Accordingly, suppressive soil identification and characterization are key steps for the development of environmentally-friendly and efficient biotechnological applications for soil-borne disease control. PMID:28861064

  11. Gene Editing in Polyploid Crops: Wheat, Camelina, Canola, Potato, Cotton, Peanut, Sugar Cane, and Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Donald P

    2017-01-01

    Polyploid crops make up a significant portion of the major food and fiber crops of the world and include wheat, potato, cotton, apple, peanut, citrus, and brassica oilseeds such as rape, canola, and Camelina. The presence of three sets of chromosomes in triploids, four sets in tetraploids, and six sets in hexaploids present significant challenges to conventional plant breeding and, potentially, to efficient use of rapidly emerging gene and genome-editing systems such as zinc finger nucleases, single-stranded oligonucleotides, TALE effector nucleases, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/Cas9). However, recent studies with each of these techniques in several polyploid crops have demonstrated facile editing of some or all of the genes targeted for modification on homeologous chromosomes. These modifications have allowed improvements in food nutrition, seed oil composition, disease resistance, weed protection, plant breeding procedures, and food safety. Plants and plant products exhibiting useful new traits created through gene editing but lacking foreign DNA may face reduced regulatory restrictions. Such plants can be obtained either by simply selecting for null segregants that have lost their editing transgenes during plant breeding or, even more attractively, by delivery of biodegradable Cas9/sgRNA ribonucleoprotein complexes (i.e., no DNA) into plant cells where they are expressed only transiently but allow for efficient gene editing-a system that has been recently demonstrated in at least two polyploid crops. Such systems that create precise mutations but leave no transgene footprint hold potential promise for assisting with the elimination or great diminution of regulatory processes that presently burden approvals of conventional transgenic crops. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Upscaling plot-scale soil respiration in winter wheat and summer maize rotation croplands in Julu County, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ni; Wang, Li; Guo, Yiqiang; Niu, Zheng

    2017-02-01

    Soil respiration (Rs) data from 45 plots were used to estimate the spatial patterns of Rs during the peak growing seasons of winter wheat and summer maize in Julu County, North China, by combining satellite remote sensing data, field-measured data, and a support vector regression (SVR) model. The observed Rs values were well reproduced by the model at the plot scale, with a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 0.31 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 and a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.73. No significant difference was detected between the prediction accuracy of the SVR model for winter wheat and summer maize. With forcing from satellite remote sensing data and gridded soil property data, we used the SVR model to predict the spatial distributions of Rs during the peak growing seasons of winter wheat and summer maize rotation croplands in Julu County. The SVR model captured the spatial variations of Rs at the county scale. The satellite-derived enhanced vegetation index was found to be the most important input used to predict Rs. Removal of this variable caused an RMSE increase from 0.31 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 to 0.42 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1. Soil properties such as soil organic carbon (SOC) content and soil bulk density (SBD) were the second most important factors. Their removal led to an RMSE increase from 0.31 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 to 0.37 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1. The SVR model performed better than multiple regression in predicting spatial variations of Rs in winter wheat and summer maize rotation croplands, as shown by the comparison of the R2 and RMSE values of the two algorithms. The spatial patterns of Rs are better captured using the SVR model than performing multiple regression, particularly for the relatively high and relatively low Rs values at the center and northeast study areas. Therefore, SVR shows promise for predicting spatial variations of Rs values on the basis of remotely sensed data and gridded soil property data at the county scale.

  13. Potential of fungal antagonists for biocontrol of toxigenic Fusarium spp. in wheat and maize through competition in crop debris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luongo, L.; Galli, M.; Corazza, L.; Meekes, E.T.M.; Haas, de B.H.; Lombaers-van der Plas, C.H.; Köhl, J.

    2005-01-01

    Pathogenic Fusarium spp. cause head blight in wheat or ear rot in maize leading to yield losses and also a reduction in quality due to mycotoxin contamination of the grain. Infected crop residues are the main inoculum source for epidemics. Saprophytic fungi, obtained from cereal tissues or necrotic

  14. Effect of green manure crops and nitrogen fertilizer levels on dry matter remobilization efficiency in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. internodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gerami

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of nitrogen rates and green manure crops on dry matter mobilization and mobilization efficiency indices of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. a field experiment was conducted in Agricultural Faculty of Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz during growing season of 2010-2011. The experimental design was split-plot based on randomized complete block with three replications. Main plot included four nitrogen rates (i.e. 0, 50, 100 and 150 kgN.ha-1 and sub-plot included six green manure crops containing millet (Pennisetum sp., amaranth (Amaranthus sp., sesbania (Sesbania sp., cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L., mung bean (Vigna radiata L. and fallow. This experiment was done at two stages. First, planting and turn down of green manure crops and then planting of wheat. The results showed that the maximum weight and specific weight of all stem internodes obtained from 0 to 20 days after wheat anthesis. Then, this trend decreased from 20 to 50 days after wheat anthesis due to remobilization of dry matter to grain. Mobilized dry matter was more in control (0 kg.N.h-1 than in high N application for peduncle (219 vs. 181 mg and penultimate (203 vs. 165 mg, while, was less in the lower internodes (403 vs. 407 mg. Generally, with increasing of nitrogen levels, dry matter mobilization efficiency was decreased by. So, the effect of green manure crops not limited only by soil properties, while influences the relationship between physiological sources and sink.

  15. Modeling turbulent fluxes at a winter wheat stand -possibilities and limitations of ground-based thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrends, H. E.; Haseneder-Lind, R.; Schickling, A.; Crewell, S.; Rascher, U.

    2013-12-01

    Aircraft and satellite sensors operating in the thermal infrared (TIR) region of the spectrum provide spatially comprehensive information on the radiometric surface temperature (TR), representing an integrated temperature based on the radiation emitted from different surface components. TR data are commonly applied as a proxy for the (theoretical) aerodynamic temperature, which satisfies the bulk resistance formulation for the sensible heat transport. The quantitative relation between the radiometric and the aerodynamic temperature is however complex and strongly affected by ambient conditions and surface characteristics. Consequently, TR-based estimates of the latent and sensible heat flux can have high levels of uncertainty. Ground-based studies for the validation of remotely sensed TR data and for the evaluation of TR-based models are crucial. Ground-based TIR cameras, allowing for a high observation frequency and for studying the spatial variability of temperatures, might provide a suitable tool for such studies. We aim at testing the limitations and the possibilities of passive ground-based thermography for the application in studies on the diurnal and seasonal changes of land-atmosphere interactions. Operating at a frequency of 5 min., a TIR camera is mounted at a height of 2m at a winter wheat stand (TR32 research site, Germany), capturing images of a 1m x 1m area (320 × 240 pixel) during spring and summer 2013. Radiometric temperatures are corrected for the influence of cloud cover and evaluated using observations from thermocouples (leaf temperature), RTDs (canopy temperature profile) and an IR radiometer (spatially integrated temperature). Simultaneous hyperspectral and sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence measurements are used as a proxy for plant functioning and status. Spatial image information is integrated into the framework of different flux modeling approaches, ranging from established one-source to complex, multi-layer models. Modelled fluxes are

  16. Effect of proquinazid and copper hydroxide on homeostasis of anions in winter wheat plants in generative phase of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Riazanova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the effect of proquinazid and copper oxide application on structural characteristics and resistance of wheat to powdery mildew, as well as remobilisation and redistribution of anions pools at generative stage of development. The trial series was conducted in the experimental agricultural production of the Institute of Plant Physiology and Genetics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. Field experiments were carried out with Smuglyanka variety of winter wheat. The trial series included the application of fungicides such as Talius (proquinazid, 200 g/L 0,25 L/ha and Kocide 2000 (copper hydroxide, 350 g/kg 150 and 300 g/ha, and combination of both fungicides. Sprays were applied at tillering stage in autumn in the first trial series and at tillering-booting stage in spring in the second one. Assessment of affected plants by powdery mildew was carried out visually in points. Anion concentration was determined with the use of ion chromatography. Application of fungicides at tillering stage increases the amount of productive stems in wheat plants. The highest effect was recorded for application of copper hydroxide at dose of 300 g/ha in autumn. Analysis of plants affected by powdery mildew shows that application of proquinazid and its composition with copper hydroxide provides sustained protection against Blumeria graminis (DC Speer. Application of fungicides at tillering stage contributes to increase of the pool of free nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur anions in leaf tissues compared to control. These changes in anion composition may be caused by fungicide effect on activity of N, P, S transporters, as well as internal regulatory mechanisms of elements’ uptake by plants. Comparing the results of the autumn and spring application of fungicides should note the increase in concentration of free phosphates in wheat leaves in the 2nd trial with proquinazid and its composition with copper hydroxide. Accumulation of nitrogen in the

  17. Can conservation trump impacts of climate change on soil erosion? An assessment from winter wheat cropland in the Southern Great Plains of the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgen D. Garbrecht

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the need to increase crop production to meet the needs of a growing population, protecting the productivity of our soil resource is essential. However, conservationists are concerned that conservation practices that were effective in the past may no longer be effective in the future under projected climate change. In winter wheat cropland in the Southern Great Plains of the U.S., increased precipitation intensity and increased aridity associated with warmer temperatures may pose increased risks of soil erosion from vulnerable soils and landscapes. This investigation was undertaken to determine which conservation practices would be necessary and sufficient to hold annual soil erosion by water under a high greenhouse gas emission scenario at or below the present soil erosion levels. Advances in and benefits of agricultural soil and water conservation over the last century in the United States are briefly reviewed, and challenges and climate uncertainties confronting resource conservation in this century are addressed. The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP computer model was used to estimate future soil erosion by water from winter wheat cropland in Central Oklahoma and for 10 projected climates and 7 alternative conservation practices. A comparison with soil erosion values under current climate conditions and conventional tillage operations showed that, on average, a switch from conventional to conservation tillage would be sufficient to offset the average increase in soil erosion by water under most projected climates. More effective conservation practices, such as conservation tillage with a summer cover crop would be required to control soil erosion associated with the most severe climate projections. It was concluded that a broad range of conservation tools are available to agriculture to offset projected future increases in soil erosion by water even under assumed worst case climate change scenarios in Central Oklahoma. The problem

  18. Mapping Winter Wheat Biomass and Yield Using Time Series Data Blended from PROBA-V 100- and 300-m S1 Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zheng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring crop areas and yields is crucial for food security and agriculture management across the world. In this paper, we mapped the biomass and yield of winter wheat using the new Project for On-Board Autonomy-Vegetation (PROBA-V products in the North China Plain (NCP. First, the daily 100-m land surface reflectance was generated by fusing the PROBA-V 100-m and 300-m S1 products. Our results show that the blended data exhibited high correlations with the referenced data (0.71 ≤ R2 ≤ 0.94 for the red band, 0.50 ≤ R2 ≤ 0.95 for the near-infrared band, and 0.88 ≤ R2 ≤ 0.97 for the shortwave infrared band. The time-series Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI derived from the synthetic reflectance was then clustered for winter wheat identification. The overall classification accuracy was between 78% and 87%, with a kappa coefficient above 0.57, which was 10%–20% higher than the classification accuracy using the 300-m data. Finally, a light use efficiency model was employed to estimate the biomass and yield. The estimation results were closely related to the field-measured biomass and yield, with high R2 and low root mean square errors (RMSE (0.864 ≤ R2 ≤ 0.871 and 168 ≤ RMSE ≤ 191 g/m2 for biomass; and 0.631 ≤ R2 ≤ 0.663 and 41.8 ≤ RMSE ≤ 62.8 g/m2 for yield. This paper shows the strong potential of using PROBA-V 100-m data to enhance the spatial resolution of PROBA-V 300-m data and because the proposed framework in this study was based only on the relatively high spatio-temporal resolution PROBA-V data and achieved favorable results, it provides a novel approach for crop areas and yields estimation utilizing the relatively new data set.

  19. Effects of Monoculture, Crop Rotation, and Soil Moisture Content on Selected Soil Physicochemical and Microbial Parameters in Wheat Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Marais

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Different plants are known to have different soil microbial communities associated with them. Agricultural management practices such as fertiliser and pesticide addition, crop rotation, and grazing animals can lead to different microbial communities in the associated agricultural soils. Soil dilution plates, most-probable-number (MPN, community level physiological profiling (CLPP, and buried slide technique as well as some measured soil physicochemical parameters were used to determine changes during the growing season in the ecosystem profile in wheat fields subjected to wheat monoculture or wheat in annual rotation with medic/clover pasture. Statistical analyses showed that soil moisture had an over-riding effect on seasonal fluctuations in soil physicochemical and microbial populations. While within season soil microbial activity could be differentiated between wheat fields under rotational and monoculture management, these differences were not significant.

  20. HYDRUS Simulation of Sustainable Brackish Water Irrigation in a Winter Wheat-Summer Maize Rotation System in the North China Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangkang He

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater resources in the North China Plain (NCP are near depletion due to the unceasing overexploitation of deep groundwater, by far the most significant source of freshwater in the region. To deal with the deepening freshwater crisis, brackish water (rich but largely unused water in agriculture is increasingly being used in irrigation in the region. However, inappropriate irrigation with brackish water could lead to soil salinization and cropland degradation. To evaluate such negative impacts, the HYDRUS-1D model was used to simulate soil salt transport and accumulation under 15 years of irrigation with brackish water. The irrigation scenarios included brackish water irrigation during the wintering and jointing stages of winter wheat and then freshwater irrigation just before the sowing of summer maize. Freshwater irrigation was done to leach out soil salts, which is particularly vital in dry years. For the littoral region of the plain, HYDRUS-ID was used to simulate the irrigated cropping system stated above for a total period of 15 years. The results showed that it was feasible to use brackish water twice in one year, provided freshwater irrigation was performed before sowing summer maize. Freshwater irrigation, in conjunction with precipitation, leached out soil salts from the 100 cm root-zone depth. The maximum salt accumulation was in the 160–220 cm soil layer, which ensured that root-zone soil was free of restrictive salinity for crop growth. Precipitation was a critical determinant of the rate and depth leaching of soil salt. Heavy rainfall (>100 mm caused significant leaching of soluble salts in the 0–200 cm soil profile. Salt concentration under brackish water irrigation had no significant effect on the variations in the trend of soil salt transport in the soil profile. The variations of soil salinity were mainly affected by hydrological year type, for which the buried depth of soil salt was higher in wet years than in dry years

  1. Crop Establishment Practices Are a Driver of the Plant Microbiota in Winter Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Ridhdhi; Dowling, David N.; Forristal, Patrick D.; Spink, John; Cotter, Paul D.; Bulgarelli, Davide; Germaine, Kieran J.

    2017-01-01

    Gaining a greater understanding of the plant microbiota and its interactions with its host plant heralds a new era of scientific discovery in agriculture. Different agricultural management practices influence soil microbial populations by changing a soil’s physical, chemical and biological properties. However, the impact of these practices on the microbiota associated with economically important crops such as oilseed rape, are still understudied. In this work we investigated the impact of two contrasting crop establishment practices, conventional (plow based) and conservation (strip–tillage) systems, on the microbiota inhabiting different plant microhabitats, namely rhizosphere, root and shoot, of winter oilseed rape under Irish agronomic conditions. Illumina 16S rRNA gene sequence profiling showed that the plant associated microhabitats (root and shoot), are dominated by members of the bacterial phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. The root and shoot associated bacterial communities displayed markedly distinct profiles as a result of tillage practices. We observed a very limited ‘rhizosphere effect’ in the root zone of WOSR, i.e., there was little or no increase in bacterial community richness and abundance in the WOSR rhizosphere compared to the bulk soil. The two tillage systems investigated did not appear to lead to any major long term differences on the bulk soil or rhizosphere bacterial communities. Our data suggests that the WOSR root and shoot microbiota can be impacted by management practices and is an important mechanism that could allow us to understand how plants respond to different management practices and environments. PMID:28848510

  2. Crop Establishment Practices Are a Driver of the Plant Microbiota in Winter Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridhdhi Rathore

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Gaining a greater understanding of the plant microbiota and its interactions with its host plant heralds a new era of scientific discovery in agriculture. Different agricultural management practices influence soil microbial populations by changing a soil’s physical, chemical and biological properties. However, the impact of these practices on the microbiota associated with economically important crops such as oilseed rape, are still understudied. In this work we investigated the impact of two contrasting crop establishment practices, conventional (plow based and conservation (strip–tillage systems, on the microbiota inhabiting different plant microhabitats, namely rhizosphere, root and shoot, of winter oilseed rape under Irish agronomic conditions. Illumina 16S rRNA gene sequence profiling showed that the plant associated microhabitats (root and shoot, are dominated by members of the bacterial phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. The root and shoot associated bacterial communities displayed markedly distinct profiles as a result of tillage practices. We observed a very limited ‘rhizosphere effect’ in the root zone of WOSR, i.e., there was little or no increase in bacterial community richness and abundance in the WOSR rhizosphere compared to the bulk soil. The two tillage systems investigated did not appear to lead to any major long term differences on the bulk soil or rhizosphere bacterial communities. Our data suggests that the WOSR root and shoot microbiota can be impacted by management practices and is an important mechanism that could allow us to understand how plants respond to different management practices and environments.

  3. Exploring the limits of crop productivity. I. Photosynthetic efficiency of wheat in high irradiance environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugbee, B. G.; Salisbury, F. B.

    1988-01-01

    The long-term vegetative and reproductive growth rates of a wheat crop (Triticum aestivum L.) were determined in three separate studies (24, 45, and 79 days) in response to a wide range of photosynthetic photon fluxes (PPF, 400-2080 micromoles per square meter per second; 22-150 moles per square meter per day; 16-20 hour photoperiod) in a near-optimum, controlled-environment. The CO2 concentration was elevated to 1200 micromoles per mole, and water and nutrients were supplied by liquid hydroponic culture. An unusually high plant density (2000 plants per square meter) was used to obtain high yields. Crop growth rate and grain yield reached 138 and 60 grams per square meter per day, respectively; both continued to increase up to the highest integrated daily PPF level, which was three times greater than a typical daily flux in the field. The conversion efficiency of photosynthesis (energy in biomass/energy in photosynthetic photons) was over 10% at low PPF but decreased to 7% as PPF increased. Harvest index increased from 41 to 44% as PPF increased. Yield components for primary, secondary, and tertiary culms were analyzed separately. Tillering produced up to 7000 heads per square meter at the highest PPF level. Primary and secondary culms were 10% more efficient (higher harvest index) than tertiary culms; hence cultural, environmental, or genetic changes that increase the percentage of primary and secondary culms might increase harvest index and thus grain yield. Wheat is physiologically and genetically capable of much higher productivity and photosynthetic efficiency than has been recorded in a field environment.

  4. Yield and quality assessment of spelt (Triticum spelta L.) compared with winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn; Olsen, Carl Christian

    1997-01-01

    The adaptation of 7 T. spelta cultivars to the Danish climate was investigated and compared with a well-adapted winter wheat cultivar in field trials in 1994/95 and 1995/96 at Roskilde and Ronhave. The yield of all T. spelta cultivars was lower than that of the wheat cultivar, while 1000-seed...... harvest for green grain resulted in a decreased 1000-seed weight, and a high seed protein and ash content....

  5. Evaluation of the CropSyst Model during Wheat-Maize Rotations on the North China Plain for Identifying Soil Evaporation Losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Umair

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The North China Plain (NCP is a major grain production zone that plays a critical role in ensuring China's food supply. Irrigation is commonly used during grain production; however, the high annual water deficit [precipitation (P minus evapotranspiration (ET] in typical irrigated cropland does not support double cropping systems (such as maize and wheat and this has resulted in the steep decline in the water table (~0.8 m year−1 at the Luancheng station that has taken place since the 1970s. The current study aimed to adapt and check the ability of the CropSyst model (Suite-4 to simulate actual evapotranspiration (ETa, biomass, and grain yield, and to identify major evaporation (E losses from winter wheat (WW and summer maize (SM rotations. Field experiments were conducted at the Luancheng Agro-ecosystem station, NCP, in 2010–2011 to 2012–2013. The CropSyst model was calibrated on wheat/maize (from weekly leaf area/biomass data available for 2012–2013 and validated onto measured ETa, biomass, and grain yield at the experimental station from 2010–2011 to 2011–2012, by using model calibration parameters. The revalidation was performed with the ETa, biomass, grain yield, and simulated ETa partition for 2008–2009 WW [ETa partition was measured by the Micro-lysimeter (MLM and isotopes approach available for this year]. For the WW crop, E was 30% of total ETa; but from 2010–11 to 2013, the annual average E was ~40% of ETa for the WW and SM rotation. Furthermore, the WW and SM rotation from 2010–2011 to 2012–2013 was divided into three growth periods; (i pre-sowing irrigation (PSI; sowing at field capacity to emergence period (EP, (ii EP to canopy cover period (CC and (iii CC to harvesting period (HP, and E from each growth period was ~10, 60, and 30%, respectively. In general, error statistics such as RMSE, Willmott's d, and NRMSE in the model evaluation for wheat ETa (maize ETa were 38.3 mm, 0.81, and 9.24% (31.74 mm, 0.73, and 11

  6. Evaluation of the CropSyst Model during Wheat-Maize Rotations on the North China Plain for Identifying Soil Evaporation Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umair, Muhammad; Shen, Yanjun; Qi, Yongqing; Zhang, Yucui; Ahmad, Ayesha; Pei, Hongwei; Liu, Meiying

    2017-01-01

    The North China Plain (NCP) is a major grain production zone that plays a critical role in ensuring China's food supply. Irrigation is commonly used during grain production; however, the high annual water deficit [precipitation (P) minus evapotranspiration (ET)] in typical irrigated cropland does not support double cropping systems (such as maize and wheat) and this has resulted in the steep decline in the water table (~0.8 m year−1 at the Luancheng station) that has taken place since the 1970s. The current study aimed to adapt and check the ability of the CropSyst model (Suite-4) to simulate actual evapotranspiration (ETa), biomass, and grain yield, and to identify major evaporation (E) losses from winter wheat (WW) and summer maize (SM) rotations. Field experiments were conducted at the Luancheng Agro-ecosystem station, NCP, in 2010–2011 to 2012–2013. The CropSyst model was calibrated on wheat/maize (from weekly leaf area/biomass data available for 2012–2013) and validated onto measured ETa, biomass, and grain yield at the experimental station from 2010–2011 to 2011–2012, by using model calibration parameters. The revalidation was performed with the ETa, biomass, grain yield, and simulated ETa partition for 2008–2009 WW [ETa partition was measured by the Micro-lysimeter (MLM) and isotopes approach available for this year]. For the WW crop, E was 30% of total ETa; but from 2010–11 to 2013, the annual average E was ~40% of ETa for the WW and SM rotation. Furthermore, the WW and SM rotation from 2010–2011 to 2012–2013 was divided into three growth periods; (i) pre-sowing irrigation (PSI; sowing at field capacity) to emergence period (EP), (ii) EP to canopy cover period (CC) and (iii) CC to harvesting period (HP), and E from each growth period was ~10, 60, and 30%, respectively. In general, error statistics such as RMSE, Willmott's d, and NRMSE in the model evaluation for wheat ETa (maize ETa) were 38.3 mm, 0.81, and 9.24% (31.74 mm, 0.73, and 11

  7. PERFORMANCE OF ‘NANICÃO JANGADA’ BANANA PLANTS INTERCROPPED WITH WINTER COVER CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICARDO SFEIR DE AGUIAR

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of cover crops species may be an important strategy in the pursuit of sustainability of agroecosystems, considering benefits to soil, such as improvements of physical and chemical characteristics, and weed control. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of winter cover crops and other soil managements on chemical soil properties, on the cycle, on the production of the first cycle and on the fruit quality of banana cv. Nanicão Jangada in Andirá – PR, Brazil. The experiment was carried out in a commercial. Planting of banana suckers from the grower area occurred in the first half of March 2011, with a spacing of 2.40 m between rows and 1.90 m between plants. The experiment was designed in randomized blocks with four replications and six plants per plot. The six treatments were: black oat (Avenastrigosa Schreb, forage turnip (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus, consortium of black oat and forage turnip, chicken litter, residues of banana plants, and bare ground. The evaluations were vegetative development and life cycle of banana plants, yield and quality of fruits, soil chemical characterstics, and fresh and dry mass of green manures. The results were submitted to ANOVA (F Test, and Tukey test at 5 % probability. Black oat and black oat with forage turnip consortium were superior in biomass production. Systems of soil management had no effect on the variables, except in the periods between planting and flowering and between planting and harvest, which were shorter in the treatment of soil management with crop residues, longer in the treatment with forage turnip, and intermediate in the other treatments.

  8. Performance of winter wheat cultivars in organic and conventional farming systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hildermann, Isabell

    2010-01-01

    In the past decades, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) breeding on a global scale was strongly focused on grain yield improvement to limit starvation. The introgression of semi-dwarfing genes for example improved the harvest index, which is the ratio of grain yield to total aboveground biomass. Accompanied by the increased input of mineral nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizers and the application of pesticides, it resulted in considerable yield increase. Focusing on yield improvement, wheat ...

  9. A genotype, environment and management (GxExM) analysis of adaptation in winter wheat to climate change in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montesino-San Martin, M; Olesen, Jørgen E; Porter, John Roy

    2014-01-01

    Wheat yields in Europe have shown stagnating trends during the last two decades, partly attributed to climate change. Such developments challenge the needs for increased production, in particular at higher latitudes, to meet increasing global demands and expected productivity reductions at lower...... version of AFRCWHEAT2 to model several combinations of genotypes (varying in crop growth, development and tolerance to water and nitrogen scarcity) and management (sowing dates and nitrogen fertilization rate). The simulations showed a slight improvement of grain yields (0.3–1.2 Mg ha−1) in the medium...

  10. Effect of inoculation and nitrogen top-dressing on yield of new genotype winter pea and wheat cv. Sana mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Uher

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Three year field trials (2002-2005 were carried out to determine the effect of new genotype winter pea L4 seed inoculation and nitrogen top-dressing on number and nodule dry weight g/plant of pea root and also on the yield of winter pea and wheat cv. Sana mixture. Just before sowing, pea seeds were inoculated with of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 1001 from the collection of the Department of Microbiology at the Faculty of Agriculture University of Zagreb. The highest total nodule number on pea root (39 nodule/plant was determined on the inoculated variant 2 as well as nodule dry weight (0.194 g/plant. Dry matter yields of pea were ranging from 2.36 t ha-1 (control up to 3.50 t ha-1 (inoculation. Dry matter yields of wheat were ranging from 5.63 t ha-1 (control up to 7.31 t ha-1 (nitrogen top-dressing. Total dry matter yields were ranging from 7.99 t ha-1 (control up to 10.69 t ha-1 (nitrogen top-dressing.

  11. Effect of fertilization on yields and fodder value of winter pea cv. Maksimirski ozimi in wheat cv. Sana mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Uher

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Two year field trials (1999-2001 were carried out to determine the effect of seed winter pea inoculation and nitrogen top-dressing effect on nodule dry weight of pea root and also on the dry matter yield and fodder value of winter pea cv. Maksimirski ozimi and wheat cv. Sana mixture. Just before sowing the inoculation of pea seeds was performed by the indigenous variety of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae which is part of the microbial collection of the Department of Microbiology at the Faculty of Agriculture University of Zagreb. The highest total nodule dry weight on pea root was determined on the inoculated variant 2 (0.710 g/variant. Total dry matter yields were ranging from 8.64 t ha-1 (control up to 10.98 t ha-1 (inoculation. Yields crude proteins pea in 2001 were ranging from 942 kg ha-1 (control up to 1510 kg ha-1 (inoculation and for wheat, those values were from 450 kg ha-1 (control up to 813 kg ha-1 (nitrogen top-dressing. Total crude proteins mixture yields were from 1392 kg ha-1 (control up to 2140 kg ha-1 (inoculation.

  12. Genome-Wide Association Mapping for Resistance to Leaf and Stripe Rust in Winter-Habit Hexaploid Wheat Landraces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Kertho

    Full Text Available Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina (Pt, and stripe rust, caused by P. striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst, are destructive foliar diseases of wheat worldwide. Breeding for disease resistance is the preferred strategy of managing both diseases. The continued emergence of new races of Pt and Pst requires a constant search for new sources of resistance. Here we report a genome-wide association analysis of 567 winter wheat (Triticum aestivum landrace accessions using the Infinium iSelect 9K wheat SNP array to identify loci associated with seedling resistance to five races of Pt (MDCL, MFPS, THBL, TDBG, and TBDJ and one race of Pst (PSTv-37 frequently found in the Northern Great Plains of the United States. Mixed linear models identified 65 and eight significant markers associated with leaf rust and stripe rust, respectively. Further, we identified 31 and three QTL associated with resistance to Pt and Pst, respectively. Eleven QTL, identified on chromosomes 3A, 4A, 5A, and 6D, are previously unknown for leaf rust resistance in T. aestivum.

  13. Mitigating Groundwater Depletion in North China Plain with Cropping System that Alternate Deep and Shallow Rooted Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Lin Yang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the North China Plain, groundwater tables have been dropping at unsustainable rates of 1 m per year due to irrigation of a double cropping system of winter wheat and summer maize. To reverse the trend, we examined whether alternative crop rotations could save water. Moisture contents were measured weekly at 20 cm intervals in the top 180 cm of soil as part of a 12-year field experiment with four crop rotations: sweet potato→ cotton→ sweet potato→ winter wheat-summer maize (SpCSpWS, 4-year cycle; peanuts → winter wheat-summer maize (PWS, 2-year cycle; ryegrass–cotton→ peanuts→ winter wheat-summer maize (RCPWS, 3-year cycle; and winter wheat-summer maize (WS, each year. We found that, compared to WS, the SpCSpWS annual evapotranspiration was 28% lower, PWS was 19% lower and RCPWS was 14% lower. The yield per unit of water evaporated improved for wheat within any alternative rotation compared to WS, increasing up to 19%. Average soil moisture contents at the sowing date of wheat in the SpCSpWS, PWS, and RCPWS rotations were 7, 4, and 10% higher than WS, respectively. The advantage of alternative rotations was that a deep rooted crop of winter wheat reaching down to 180 cm followed shallow rooted crops (sweet potato and peanut drawing soil moisture from 0 to 120 cm. They benefited from the sequencing and vertical complementarity of soil moisture extraction. Thus, replacing the traditional crop rotation with cropping system that involves rotating with annual shallow rooted crops is promising for reducing groundwater depletion in the North China Plain.

  14. The participation of cyanide-resistant respiration in heat generation and antioxidative defense of cell in winter wheat shoots under cold influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabelnych O.I.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It was shown, that activation of the cyanide-resistant respiration by treatment of 30 mkM antimycine A and 10 mM hydrogen peroxide during 24 hours induced the intensification of heat generation by tissues of winter wheat shoots and decreased death of shoots under subsequent action of freezing temperature -6 0C (3 hours. At the same time the activation of alternative pathway in winter wheat shoots under long-term action of low temperature effectively prevented the reactive oxygen species (ROS production in electron transport chain (ETC of mitochondria, which was induced by oxidizing substrate and antimycine A.

  15. Detection of Powdery Mildew in Two Winter Wheat Plant Densities and Prediction of Grain Yield Using Canopy Hyperspectral Reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xueren; Luo, Yong; Zhou, Yilin; Fan, Jieru; Xu, Xiangming; West, Jonathan S.; Duan, Xiayu; Cheng, Dengfa

    2015-01-01

    To determine the influence of plant density and powdery mildew infection of winter wheat and to predict grain yield, hyperspectral canopy reflectance of winter wheat was measured for two plant densities at Feekes growth stage (GS) 10.5.3, 10.5.4, and 11.1 in the 2009–2010 and 2010–2011 seasons. Reflectance in near infrared (NIR) regions was significantly correlated with disease index at GS 10.5.3, 10.5.4, and 11.1 at two plant densities in both seasons. For the two plant densities, the area of the red edge peak (Σdr680–760 nm), difference vegetation index (DVI), and triangular vegetation index (TVI) were significantly correlated negatively with disease index at three GSs in two seasons. Compared with other parameters Σdr680–760 nm was the most sensitive parameter for detecting powdery mildew. Linear regression models relating mildew severity to Σdr680–760 nm were constructed at three GSs in two seasons for the two plant densities, demonstrating no significant difference in the slope estimates between the two plant densities at three GSs. Σdr680–760 nm was correlated with grain yield at three GSs in two seasons. The accuracies of partial least square regression (PLSR) models were consistently higher than those of models based on Σdr680760 nm for disease index and grain yield. PLSR can, therefore, provide more accurate estimation of disease index of wheat powdery mildew and grain yield using canopy reflectance. PMID:25815468

  16. Winter wheat grain yield and its components in the North China Plain: irrigation management, cultivation, and climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Lv

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation has been identified as the main driving factor of groundwater drawdown in the North China Plain (NCP. In order to develop appropriate irrigation strategies for satisfactory yields of wheat (Triticum aestivum L., grain yield (GY, yield components, and water use efficiency (WUE were studied. A field experiment was conducted with two types of winter wheat, 'Shimai15' and 'Shixin733', and five irrigation treatments, including rainfed and four spring irrigation water applications, in four growing seasons (2005 to 2009. Results showed that maximum GY was achieved with three irrigation treatments in the 2005-2006 and 2008-2009 dry seasons and two irrigation treatments in the 2006-2007 normal season. However, in the 2007-2008 wet season, the four irrigation treatments, especially the additional irrigation event at the reviving stage (28, produced maximum GY. Grain yield was significantly related to seasonal full evapotranspiration (ET and 410 to 530 mm of seasonal full ET, including 143 mm rainfall and 214 mm irrigation water, which led to maximum GY. The two types of cultivars responded differently to irrigation management in different rainfall years. The yield of the water-saving cv. 'Shimai 15' was much higher in the dry seasons than in the other seasons. Variations of yield components were mainly caused by irrigation time and meteorological factors. The higher accumulated temperature during the sowing and tillering stages (24 and irrigation or precipitation at the reviving stage (28 significantly improved tiller growth. The lower average temperature in March and April greatly increased grain number per spike. Sunshine duration played a decisive role in improving grain weight. Our results provide very useful information about irrigation time and frequency of winter wheat in the NCP in order to obtain high yield but reduce the use of underground water.

  17. The Potential of Five Winter-grown Crops to Reduce Root-knot Nematode Damage and Increase Yield of Tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Pérez, Jose Antonio; Roubtsova, Tatiana; de Cara García, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea), carrot (Daucus carota), marigold (Tagetes patula), nematode-resistant tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) were grown for three years during the winter in a root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) infested field in Southern California. Each year in the spring, the tops of all crops were shredded and incorporated in the soil. Amendment with poultry litter was included as a sub-treatment. The soil was then covered with clear plastic for six weeks and M. incognita-susceptible tomato was grown during the summer season. Plastic tarping raised the average soil temperature at 13 cm depth by 7°C.The different winter-grown crops or the poultry litter did not affect M. incognita soil population levels. However, root galling on summer tomato was reduced by 36%, and tomato yields increased by 19% after incorporating broccoli compared to the fallow control. This crop also produced the highest amount of biomass of the five winter-grown crops. Over the three-year trial period, poultry litter increased tomato yields, but did not affect root galling caused by M. incognita. We conclude that cultivation followed by soil incorporation of broccoli reduced M. incognita damage to tomato. This effect is possibly due to delaying or preventing a portion of the nematodes to reach the host roots. We also observed that M. incognita populations did not increase under a host crop during the cool season when soil temperatures remained low (< 18°C). PMID:22736848

  18. Freezing tolerance of wheat cultivars at the early growing season ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-02-28

    Feb 28, 2012 ... Cold stress is a worldwide abiotic stress in temperate regions that affects plant development and yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars and other winter crops. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of freezing stress at the early growing season on survival and also the relationship.

  19. Freezing tolerance of wheat cultivars at the early growing season ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cold stress is a worldwide abiotic stress in temperate regions that affects plant development and yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars and other winter crops. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of freezing stress at the early growing season on survival and also the relationship between resistances ...

  20. Effect of Low Temperature and Wheat Winter-Hardiness on Survival of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici under Controlled Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijie Ma

    Full Text Available Wheat stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst, is one of the most important diseases of wheat worldwide. Understanding the survival of Pst during the overwintering period is critical for predicting Pst epidemics in the spring. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR methods quantifying Pst DNA and RNA (cDNA were developed and compared for the ability to quantify viable Pst in leaf tissues. Both qPCR of DNA and RNA can provide reliable measurement of viable Pst in plant tissues prior to the late sporulation stage for which qPCR of DNA gave a much higher estimate of fungal biomass than qPCR of RNA. The percentage of Pst biomass that was viable in detached and attached leaves under low temperatures decreased over time. Pst survived longer on attached leaves than on detached leaves. The survival of Pst in cultivars with strong winter-hardiness at 0°C and -5°C was greater than those with weak winter-hardiness. However, such differences in Pst survival among cultivars were negligible at -10, -15 and -20°C. Results indicated that Pst mycelia inside green leaves can also be killed by low temperatures rather than through death of green leaves under low temperatures. The relationship of Pst survival in attached leaves with temperature and winter-hardiness was well described by logistic models. Further field evaluation is necessary to assess whether inclusion of other factors such as moisture and snow cover could improve the model performance in predicting Pst overwintering potential, and hence the epidemic in spring.

  1. The usefulness of fungicide mixtures and alternation for delaying the selection for resistance in populations of Mycosphaerella graminicola on winter wheat: a modeling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbelen, P H F; Paveley, N D; Oliver, R P; van den Bosch, F

    2013-07-01

    A fungicide resistance model (reported and tested previously) was amended to describe the development of resistance in Mycosphaerella graminicola populations in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) crops in two sets of fields, connected by spore dispersal. The model was used to evaluate the usefulness of concurrent, alternating, or mixture use of two high-resistance-risk fungicides as resistance management strategies. We determined the effect on the usefulness of each strategy of (i) fitness costs of resistance, (ii) partial resistance to fungicides, (iii) differences in the dose-response curves and decay rates between fungicides, and (iv) different frequencies of the double-resistant strain at the start of a treatment strategy. Parameter values for the quinine outside inhibitor pyraclostrobin were used to represent two fungicides with differing modes of action. The effectiveness of each strategy was quantified as the maximum number of growing seasons that disease was effectively controlled in both sets of fields. For all scenarios, the maximum effective lives achieved by the use of the strategies were in the order mixtures ≥ alternation ≥ concurrent use. Mixtures were of particular benefit where the pathogen strain resistant to both modes of action incurred a fitness penalty or was present at a low initial frequency.

  2. Effects of relay-intercropping sorghum with winter wheat, alfalfa, and cotton on lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) abundance and species composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoofolo, Mpho W; Giles, Kristopher L; Elliott, Norman C

    2010-06-01

    Creating conditions that enhance the abundance of resident populations of natural enemies in agroecosystems is considered critical to the efficiency of biological control of insect pests. We conducted a study to determine the potential of relay-intercropping for enhancing the abundance of aphidophagous lady beetles in sorghum. A relay-intercropping system consisting of alfalfa, winter wheat, and cotton as intercrops and sorghum as a main crop was compared with sorghum monoculture plots at two study sites in OK from 2003 to 2006. Lady beetles and aphids were sampled throughout the season using sticky traps and field counts on individual sorghum plants. Results from sticky traps and field counts show that differences in abundance and species composition of lady beetles between intercropped and monoculture sorghum were not statistically different during each year of study. Also, the lady beetle-greenbug ratios in relay-intercropped and monoculture plots were not significantly different. Lack of significant effects of relay-intercropping in our study may have been attributable to the confounding effects of spatial and temporal scale and the low number of aphids and other alternative prey in the intercrops compared with high incidence of corn leaf aphids in sorghum early in the season.

  3. Estimating economic thresholds for site-specific weed control using manual weed counts and sensor technology: an example based on three winter wheat trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Martina; Gutjahr, Christoph; Möhring, Jens; Weis, Martin; Sökefeld, Markus; Gerhards, Roland

    2014-02-01

    Precision experimental design uses the natural heterogeneity of agricultural fields and combines sensor technology with linear mixed models to estimate the effect of weeds, soil properties and herbicide on yield. These estimates can be used to derive economic thresholds. Three field trials are presented using the precision experimental design in winter wheat. Weed densities were determined by manual sampling and bi-spectral cameras, yield and soil properties were mapped. Galium aparine, other broad-leaved weeds and Alopecurus myosuroides reduced yield by 17.5, 1.2 and 12.4 kg ha(-1) plant(-1)  m(2) in one trial. The determined thresholds for site-specific weed control with independently applied herbicides were 4, 48 and 12 plants m(-2), respectively. Spring drought reduced yield effects of weeds considerably in one trial, since water became yield limiting. A negative herbicide effect on the crop was negligible, except in one trial, in which the herbicide mixture tended to reduce yield by 0.6 t ha(-1). Bi-spectral cameras for weed counting were of limited use and still need improvement. Nevertheless, large weed patches were correctly identified. The current paper presents a new approach to conducting field trials and deriving decision rules for weed control in farmers' fields. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Non-overwintering cover crops: a significant source of nitrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, J.; Holte, ten L.; Janssen, B.H.

    1997-01-01

    In field experiments in 1982-89 at 2 sites in the Netherlands, potatoes cv. Bintje and sugarbeet cv. Monohil or Ovatio in a wheat/potatoes/wheat/sugarbeet rotation were preceded during winter by fallow or a green manure crop of Lolium multiflorum cv. Tetila with 0 (G0), 100 (G100) or 200 kg N/ha

  5. Non-overwintering cover crops: significant source of N.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, J.J.; Holte, ten L.; Janssen, B.H.

    1997-01-01

    In field experiments in 1982-89 at 2 sites in the Netherlands, potatoes cv. Bintje and sugarbeet cv. Monohil or Ovatio in a wheat/potatoes/wheat/sugarbeet rotation were preceded during winter by fallow or a green manure crop of Lolium multiflorum cv. Tetila with 0 (G0), 100 (G100) or 200 kg N/ha

  6. Multi-model uncertainty analysis in predicting grain N for crop rotations in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Xiaogang; Kersebaum, Kurt C; Kollas, Chris

    2017-01-01

    simulating different treatments (catch crops, CO2 concentrations, irrigation, N application, residues and tillage) in four multi-year rotation experiments in Europe to assess modelling accuracy. Seven grain and seed crops in four rotation systems in Europe were included in the study, namely winter wheat......, winter barley, spring barley, spring oat, winter rye, pea and winter oilseed rape. Our results indicate that the higher level of calibration significantly increased the quality of the simulation for grain N. In addition, models performed better in predicting grain N of winter wheat, winter barley...... than a random single model. Models correctly simulated the effects of enhanced N input on grain N of winter wheat and winter barley, whereas effects of tillage and irrigation were less well estimated. However, the use of continuous simulation did not improve the simulations as compared to single year...

  7. Atmospheric dynamics in Laboratory Biosphere with wheat and sweet potato crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, W. F.; Allen, J. P.; Alling, A.; Nelson, M.; Silvertone, S.; van Thillo, M.

    Laboratory Biosphere is a 40 m3 closed life system equipped with 12000 watts of high pressure sodium lamps over planting beds with 5.37 m2 of soil. Atmospheric composition changes due to photosynthetic fixation of carbon dioxide and corresponding production of oxygen or the reverse, respiration, are observed in short timeframes, eg. hourly. To focus on inherent characteristics of the crop as distinct from its area or the volume of the chamber, we report fixation and respiration rates in millimoles per hour per square meter of planted area. An 85 day crop of USU Apogee wheat under a 16 hour lighted / 8 hour dark regime peaked in fixation rate at about 100 mmol h-1 m-2 approximately 24 days after planting. Light intensity was about 840 mol m-2 s-1. Dark respiration peaked at about 31 mmol h-1 m-2 at the same time. Thereafter, both fixation and respiration declined toward zero as harvest time approached. A residual soil respiration rate of about 1.9 mmol h-1 m-2 was observed in the dark closed chamber for 100 days after the harvest. A 126 day crop of Tuskegee TU-82-155 sweet potato behaved quite differently. Under a 680 mol m-2 s-1, 18 hour lighted / 6 hour dark regime, fixation during lighted hours rose to a plateau ranging from about 27 to 48 mmol h-1 m-2 after 42 days and respiration settled into a range of 12 to 23 mmol h-1 m-2. These rates continued unabated until the harvest at 126 days, suggesting that tuber biomass production might have continued at about the same rate for some time beyond the harvest time that was exercised in this experiment. In both experiments CO2 levels were allowed to range widely from a few hundred ppm to about 3000 ppm, which permitted observation of fixation rates both at varying CO2 concentrations and at each number of days after planting. This enables plotting the fixation rate as a function of both variables. Understanding the atmospheric dynamics of individual crops will be essential for design and atmospheric management of more

  8. Atmospheric dynamics in the “Laboratory Biosphere” with wheat and sweet potato crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, William F.; Allen, J. P.; Alling, A.; Silverstone, S.; Van Thillo, M.

    Laboratory Biosphere is a 40-m 3 closed life system equipped with 12,000 W of high pressure sodium lamps over planting beds with 5.37 m 2 of soil. Atmospheric composition changes due to photosynthetic fixation of carbon dioxide and corresponding production of oxygen or the reverse, respiration, are observed in short timeframes, e.g., hourly. To focus on inherent characteristics of the crop as distinct from its area or the volume of the chamber, we report fixation and respiration rates in mmol h -1 m -2 of planted area. An 85-day crop of USU Apogee wheat under a 16-h lighted/8-h dark regime peaked in fixation rate at about 100 mmol h -1 m -2 approximately 24 days after planting. Light intensity was about 840 μmol m -2 s -1. Dark respiration peaked at about 31 mmol h -1 m -2 at t