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Sample records for winter sports area

  1. SKI AREAS AND SLOPES IN ROMANIA. REVIEWING CURRENT STATE OF WINTER SPORTS TOURISM UNFOLDING POSSIBILITIES WITHIN CARPATHIAN MOUNTAINS

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    N. CIANGĂ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ski Areas and Slopes in Romania. Reviewing Current State of Winter Sports Tourism Unfolding Possibilities within Carpathian Mountains. This study is reviewing nowadays Romania’s tourism supply (2015 – laying special emphasis on the North-West Development Region’s situation – in terms of winter sports potential (resources and material and technical base (specific infrastructure. It calls into question a highly discussed topic within the domain of interest of Tourism Geography, whose recursiveness could be justified by countinuous changes that influence the quantitative and qualitative configuration of ski areas, ski tracks and related equipment2. The existence of favourable natural support in terms of relief and climate is an indispensable prerequisite to the development of winter sports tourism within any area. From this point of view, the presence of the Carpathians is a major advantage for Romania, the more so as the proportion of the mountain sector represents 30 percent of the national area (238,391 square kilometres. By occupying different amounts of the territory belonging to 6 development regions and 19 counties, heterogeneous tourism potential values have emerged, causing unequal exploitation opportunities within the mountain area. The purpose of this paper is to provide a general framework of Romanian ski slopes, areas and corresponding facilities for assessing their current state, from regional perspective, with emphasis on North-West’s situation. On this line, the main objectives, starting from identifying and inventorising to classifying regions and ski tracks based on hierarchical categories, also deal with ranking slopes according to surface, length, width, elevation of departure point, difference in elevation, difficulty ratings, capacities of slopes and cable transportation means. In order to achieve these goals, quantitative research methods and techniques mostly refered to observation, analysis, synthesis and

  2. [Winter sport injuries in childhood (author's transl)].

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    Hausbrandt, D; Höllwarth, M; Ritter, G

    1979-01-01

    3374 accidents occurring on the field of sport during the years 1975--1977 accounted for 19% of all accidents dealt with at the Institute of Kinderchirurgie in Graz. 51% of the accidents were caused by the typical winter sports: skiing, tobogganing, ice-skating and ski-jumping with skiing accounting for 75% of the accidents. The fracture localization typical of the different kinds of winter sport is dealt with in detail. The correct size and safety of the equipment were found to be particularly important in the prevention of such accidents in childhood.

  3. The engineering approach to winter sports

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    Cheli, Federico; Maldifassi, Stefano; Melzi, Stefano; Sabbioni, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    The Engineering Approach to Winter Sports presents the state-of-the-art research in the field of winter sports in a harmonized and comprehensive way for a diverse audience of engineers, equipment and facilities designers, and materials scientists. The book examines the physics and chemistry of snow and ice with particular focus on the interaction (friction) between sports equipment and snow/ice, how it is influenced by environmental factors, such as temperature and pressure, as well as by contaminants and how it can be modified through the use of ski waxes or the microtextures of blades or ski soles. The authors also cover, in turn, the different disciplines in winter sports:  skiing (both alpine and cross country), skating and jumping, bob sledding and skeleton, hockey and curling, with attention given to both equipment design and on the simulation of gesture and  track optimization.

  4. Seasonal variation in orthopedic health services utilization in Switzerland: the impact of winter sport tourism.

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    Matter-Walstra, Klazien; Widmer, Marcel; Busato, André

    2006-03-03

    Climate- or holiday-related seasonality in hospital admission rates is well known for many diseases. However, little research has addressed the impact of tourism on seasonality in admission rates. We therefore investigated the influence of tourism on emergency admission rates in Switzerland, where winter and summer leisure sport activities in large mountain regions can generate orthopedic injuries. Using small area analysis, orthopedic hospital service areas (HSAo) were evaluated for seasonality in emergency admission rates. Winter sport areas were defined using guest bed accommodation rate patterns of guest houses and hotels located above 1000 meters altitude that show clear winter and summer peak seasons. Emergency admissions (years 2000-2002, n = 135'460) of local and nonlocal HSAo residents were evaluated. HSAo were grouped according to their area type (regular or winter sport area) and monthly analyses of admission rates were performed. Of HSAo within the defined winter sport areas 70.8% show a seasonal, summer-winter peak hospital admission rate pattern and only 1 HSAo outside the defined winter sport areas shows such a pattern. Seasonal hospital admission rates in HSAo in winter sport areas can be up to 4 times higher in winter than the intermediate seasons, and they are almost entirely due to admissions of nonlocal residents. These nonlocal residents are in general -and especially in winter- younger than local residents, and nonlocal residents have a shorter length of stay in winter sport than in regular areas. The overall geographic distribution of nonlocal residents admitted for emergencies shows highest rates during the winter as well as the summer in the winter sport areas. Small area analysis using orthopedic hospital service areas is a reliable method for the evaluation of seasonality in hospital admission rates. In Switzerland, HSAo defined as winter sport areas show a clear seasonal fluctuation in admission rates of only nonlocal residents, whereas

  5. Deer Wintering Areas

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    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Deer winter habitat is critical to the long term survival of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Vermont. Being near the northern extreme of the...

  6. Paralympic sports medicine--current evidence in winter sport: considerations in the development of equipment standards for paralympic athletes.

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    Burkett, Brendan

    2012-01-01

    To highlight and discuss the considerations for the future development of equipment standards for Winter Paralympic sports. Literature searches were performed (in English) during May 2011 using the key words "technology, winter sport, Olympic, and Paralympic" in the computerized databases PubMed, PsycINFO, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. In addition, personal scientific observations were made at several Winter Paralympic Games. The retrieved articles were screened and assessed for relevance to the biological, biomechanical, and sport medicine aspects of equipment. There are 3 key areas in which technology has influenced sports performance in Paralympic winter sports, namely, specialized prostheses, crutch skis or outriggers (in lieu of poles), and sport-specific wheelchairs (such as the sit-ski). From a sport medicine perspective, a crucial factor not considered in the standard laboratory test of mechanical efficiency is the influence of the human-equipment connection, such as the stump-to-prosthesis interface or the required human-to-wheelchair control. This connectivity is critical to the effective operation of the assistive device. When assessing the efficiency of this equipment, the not-so-obvious, holistic, compensatory factors need to be considered. Assistive equipment is fundamental for a person with a disability to participate and compete in winter sport activities. Although there have been improvements in the mechanical function of some assistive devices, the key issue is matching the residual function of the person with the assistive equipment. Equitable access to this technology will also ensure that the fundamental spirit of fair play that underpins the Paralympic Games is maintained.

  7. Sports injuries and illnesses during the Granada Winter Universiade 2015

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    Gallo-Vallejo, Miguel Ángel; de la Cruz-Márquez, Juan Carlos; de la Cruz-Campos, Adrián; de la Cruz-Campos, Juan Carlos; Pestaña-Melero, Francisco Luis; Carmona-Ruiz, Ginés; Gallo-Galán, Luz María

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyse the incidence of diseases and injuries suffered by athletes participating in the 27th Winter Sports Universiade held in Granada, Spain. Methods The daily occurrence of injuries and diseases was registered at the point of first aid (Borreguiles, 2665 metres above sea level (masl)) and in the clinic of Pradollano (2017 masl), both in Sierra Nevada, as well as in medical services provided by the organising committee of Granada 2015 Universiade and located in sport pavilions in which indoor competitions are held. Results A total of 1109 athletes (650 men, 58.61%; 459 women, 41.39%). Nine diseases and 68 injuries were recorded. In total, the rate of injury was 6.13% (7.07% for men and 4.79% for women). The percentage of injury was highest in alpine skiing (10.34%) followed by freestyle skiing (8.62%). In relation to the time of exposure, freestyle skiing showed the shortest time of exposure (0.31 hours) before suffering an injury. Short track speed skating showed the longest exposure (9.80 hours), before suffering an injury. The most common anatomical areas of injury were the head, shoulder and knee (13.23%). Only nine diseases were suffered (four women and five men) of which six were infections, one was a friction burn, one was a lipothymy and one a cluster headache due to height. Conclusion In general, 6.13% of the athletes sustained at least one injury and 0.81% a disease, which is a much lower percentage than that recorded in similar events. The incidence of injuries and diseases varied among sport specialities. PMID:28879023

  8. Sports injuries and illnesses during the Granada Winter Universiade 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo-Vallejo, Miguel Ángel; de la Cruz-Márquez, Juan Carlos; de la Cruz-Campos, Adrián; de la Cruz-Campos, Juan Carlos; Pestaña-Melero, Francisco Luis; Carmona-Ruiz, Ginés; Gallo-Galán, Luz María

    2016-01-01

    To analyse the incidence of diseases and injuries suffered by athletes participating in the 27th Winter Sports Universiade held in Granada, Spain. The daily occurrence of injuries and diseases was registered at the point of first aid (Borreguiles, 2665 metres above sea level (masl)) and in the clinic of Pradollano (2017 masl), both in Sierra Nevada, as well as in medical services provided by the organising committee of Granada 2015 Universiade and located in sport pavilions in which indoor competitions are held. A total of 1109 athletes (650 men, 58.61%; 459 women, 41.39%). Nine diseases and 68 injuries were recorded. In total, the rate of injury was 6.13% (7.07% for men and 4.79% for women). The percentage of injury was highest in alpine skiing (10.34%) followed by freestyle skiing (8.62%). In relation to the time of exposure, freestyle skiing showed the shortest time of exposure (0.31 hours) before suffering an injury. Short track speed skating showed the longest exposure (9.80 hours), before suffering an injury. The most common anatomical areas of injury were the head, shoulder and knee (13.23%). Only nine diseases were suffered (four women and five men) of which six were infections, one was a friction burn, one was a lipothymy and one a cluster headache due to height. In general, 6.13% of the athletes sustained at least one injury and 0.81% a disease, which is a much lower percentage than that recorded in similar events. The incidence of injuries and diseases varied among sport specialities.

  9. THE EVOLUTION OF THE WINTER PARALYMPIC GAMES AND SPORTS

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    Vasilios Giovanis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this research was to record and the evolution of the winter paralympic games and sports since 1976 until 2010. The history of the Winter Paralympic Games is relatively recent compared to that one of the Olympic Games. The first Games were held in 1976 in Ornskoldsvik, Sweden and the most recent, 38 years later in 2014, in Sochi, Russia. This article will examine the Winter Paralympic Games up until the ones in 2010 in Vancouver, Canada. During these years, there have been many changes in relation to the Games itself, the governing body of the Paralympic Movement, the sports’ facilities, the sports involved and sports’ categories. The motivation for writing this paper was the need to record and gather all of these items in one paper. Gathering information for the Winter Paralympic Games will be an important theoretical background. This information will create a database for the structure of the governing body of the Paralympic Games, for the organization of the Games [Local Organizing Committee (LOC, venues and equipment], for the evolution of the Winter Paralympic Sports and the categories of the athletes, as well as the evolution of the athletes’ and sports’ participation. Material : The research material that was used was mainly from the bibliography and records of the International Paralympic Committee (IPC, from the Official Post Games Reports and the Internet, while the research method that was used was descriptive. Moreover, the use of diagrams will depict the distribution of the participation of athletes and countries in each Games. Results : The participation of countries grew continuously and steadily from 16 to 44, during the years of 1976 to 2010 respectively. Regarding the athletes’ participation, starting in the first Games with 198 athletes, they reached the number of 502 in the 2010 Vancouver Winter Paralympic Games. The participation percentages of the athletes coming from Europe constituted the bulk

  10. Recrystallization and damage of ice in winter sports.

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    Seymour-Pierce, Alexandra; Lishman, Ben; Sammonds, Peter

    2017-02-13

    Ice samples, after sliding against a steel runner, show evidence of recrystallization and microcracking under the runner, as well as macroscopic cracking throughout the ice. The experiments that produced these ice samples are designed to be analogous to sliding in the winter sport of skeleton. Changes in the ice fabric are shown using thick and thin sections under both diffuse and polarized light. Ice drag is estimated as 40-50% of total energy dissipation in a skeleton run. The experimental results are compared with visual inspections of skeleton tracks, and to similar behaviour in rocks during sliding on earthquake faults. The results presented may be useful to athletes and designers of winter sports equipment.This article is part of the themed issue 'Microdynamics of ice'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. Sports injuries and illnesses during the Winter Olympic Games 2010.

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    Engebretsen, Lars; Steffen, Kathrin; Alonso, Juan Manuel; Aubry, Mark; Dvorak, Jiri; Junge, Astrid; Meeuwisse, Willem; Mountjoy, Margo; Renström, Per; Wilkinson, Mike

    2010-09-01

    Identification of high-risk sports, including their most common and severe injuries and illnesses, will facilitate the identification of sports and athletes at risk at an early stage. To analyse the frequencies and characteristics of injuries and illnesses during the XXI Winter Olympic Games in Vancouver 2010. All National Olympic Committees' (NOC) head physicians were asked to report daily the occurrence (or non-occurrence) of newly sustained injuries and illnesses on a standardised reporting form. In addition, the medical centres at the Vancouver and Whistler Olympic clinics reported daily on all athletes treated for injuries and illnesses. Physicians covering 2567 athletes (1045 females, 1522 males) from 82 NOCs participated in the study. The reported 287 injuries and 185 illnesses resulted in an incidence of 111.8 injuries and 72.1 illnesses per 1000 registered athletes. In relation to the number of registered athletes, the risk of sustaining an injury was highest for bobsleigh, ice hockey, short track, alpine freestyle and snowboard cross (15-35% of registered athletes were affected in each sport). The injury risk was lowest for the Nordic skiing events (biathlon, cross country skiing, ski jumping, Nordic combined), luge, curling, speed skating and freestyle moguls (less than 5% of registered athletes). Head/cervical spine and knee were the most common injury locations. Injuries were evenly distributed between training (54.0%) and competition (46.0%; p=0.18), and 22.6% of the injuries resulted in an absence from training or competition. In skeleton, figure and speed skating, curling, snowboard cross and biathlon, every 10th athlete suffered from at least one illness. In 113 illnesses (62.8%), the respiratory system was affected. At least 11% of the athletes incurred an injury during the games, and 7% of the athletes an illness. The incidence of injuries and illnesses varied substantially between sports. Analyses of injury mechanisms in high-risk Olympic winter

  12. [Winter sports injuries of the urogenital tract (author's transl)].

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    Jakse, G; Madersbacher, H

    1977-11-01

    During 1964-1974 112 injuries of the urogenital tract caused by winter sports were treated at the University Hospital Innsbruck, Department of Urology. Eighty-eight patients suffered skiing injuries, 20 tobogganing injuries, and one injury each was caused by ski jumping and bobsleighing accidents, two traumas resulted from a fall from a chair lift. On the basis of typical case reports the most common types of trauma of the urogenital tract are demonstrated and the basic mechanisms of the accidents are discussed. Particular attention is paid to the obvious increase of lesions of the external genitalia and the urethra in the last few years caused by the so-called spinning ski, as well as the frequency of kidney traumas, especially in winters with little snow. Tobogganing accidents caused injuries to the kidneys as well as to bladder and urethra. In contrast to traumas caused by skiing, tobogganing injuries were mostly multiple. Analysis of patients records shows an increase of these injuries, which were really not typical for winter sports. The possible reasons as well as their prevention are discussed.

  13. Key areas for wintering North American herons

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    Mikuska, T.; Kushlan, J.A.; Hartley, S.

    1998-01-01

    Nearly all North American heron populations are migratory, but details of where they winter are little known. Locations where North American herons winter were identified using banding recovery data. North American herons winter from Canada through northern South America but especially in eastern North America south of New York, Florida, California, Louisiana, Texas, Mexico and Cuba, these areas accounting for 63% of winter recoveries. We identified regions where recoveries for various species clustered as 'key areas.' These forty-three areas constitute a network of areas that hold sites that likely are important to wintering herons. The relative importance of each area and site within the network must be evaluated by further on the ground inventory. Because of biases inherent in the available data, these hypothesized key areas are indicative rather than exhaustive. As a first cut, this network of areas can serve to inform further inventory activities and can provide an initial basis to begin planning for the year-round conservation of North American heron populations.

  14. [Attitudes of winter sport participants toward ski helmet mandatory].

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    Ruedl, G; Kopp, M; Hotter, B; Ledochowski, L; Burtscher, M

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine attitudes of winter sport participants toward a ski helmet mandatory. In total, 959 persons who had to estimate statements regarding ski helmet and helmet mandatory with the aid of a five level Likert scale were interviewed. About 85 % of interviewed persons totally agreed that a ski helmet reduces head injury risk although only 64 % are wearing a ski helmet. Significant more helmet wearers and females compared to non-wearers and males totally agreed that all winter sport participants should wear ski helmets on slopes as well as that all children on slopes should wear a ski helmet. Also, significant more helmet wearers and females compared to non-wearers and males totally agreed that a ski helmet mandatory for all people has to be recommended as well as that a ski helmet mandatory for children under 16 years has to be recommended. However, the acceptance for a helmet mandatory for all people as well as for children was significantly lower compared to recommendations for helmet use irrespective of helmet use or gender. Therefore, we conclude that preventive helmet campaigns possibly attain a higher acceptance leading to a higher helmet use compared to a helmet mandatory. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. [Tibial plateau fractures in winter sports. Current treatment options].

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    Zimmermann, V

    2014-01-01

    Tibial plateau fractures overall and especially in winter sports are rare. However, the incidence in recent years is increasing. In a retrospective study from 2009-2012, we found 52 injuries affiliated with winter sports. Noticeable was the high rate of severe injury patterns. In 20 of the 52 cases, there were complete articular or bicondylar fractures (38 %). In 25 cases (48 %), fragment dislocation corresponding to the Moore classification was observed. The operative algorithm was based on the initial soft tissue damage and the type of fracture. A two or more stage procedure with first line soft tissue management and temporary external fixation stabilization was performed 12 times. The final internal osteosynthesis was based on the morphology of the fracture, i.e., direct exposition and stabilization of relevant fracture patterns. In 24 cases (46 %), there was a need for two (or more) approaches. In the anterior aspect of the tibial head, customary implants were used; posterior pathologies were stabilized with low-dimension implants. Summarizing with regard to the literature, there is a more discriminating view of tibial plateau fractures, regarding all relevant fracture patterns. Thus, different options in operative access and choice of implants can be made.

  16. Altitude training considerations for the winter sport athlete.

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    Chapman, Robert F; Stickford, Jonathon L; Levine, Benjamin D

    2010-03-01

    Winter sports events routinely take place at low to moderate altitudes, and nearly all Winter Olympic Games have had at least one venue at an altitude >1000 m. The acute and chronic effects of altitude can have a substantial effect on performance outcomes. Acutely, the decline in oxygen delivery to working muscle decreases maximal oxygen uptake, negatively affecting performance in endurance events, such as cross-country skiing and biathlon. The reduction in air resistance at altitude can dramatically affect sports involving high velocities and technical skill components, such as ski jumping, speed skating, figure skating and ice hockey. Dissociation between velocity and sensations usually associated with work intensity (ventilation, metabolic signals in skeletal muscle and heart rate) may impair pacing strategy and make it difficult to determine optimal race pace. For competitions taking place at altitude, a number of strategies may be useful, depending on the altitude of residence of the athlete and ultimate competition altitude, as follows. First, allow extra time and practice (how much is yet undetermined) for athletes to adjust to the changes in projectile motion; hockey, shooting, figure skating and ski jumping may be particularly affected. These considerations apply equally in the reverse direction; that is, for athletes practising at altitude but competing at sea level. Second, allow time for acclimatization for endurance sports: 3-5 days if possible, especially for low altitude (500-2000 m); 1-2 weeks for moderate altitude (2000-3000 m); and at least 2 weeks if possible for high altitude (>3000 m). Third, increase exercise-recovery ratios as much as possible, with 1:3 ratio probably optimal, and consider more frequent substitutions for sports where this is allowed, such as ice hockey. Fourth, consider the use of supplemental O(2) on the sideline (ice hockey) or in between heats (skating and Alpine skiing) to facilitate recovery. For competitions at sea

  17. India Annual Winter Cropped Area, 2001-2016

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    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — India Annual Winter Cropped Area, 2001 - 2016 consists of annual winter cropped areas for most of India (except the Northeastern states) from 2000-2001 to 2015-2016....

  18. Planning of traumatological hospital resources for a major winter sporting event as illustrated by the 2005 Winter Universiad.

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    Oberladstaetter, J; Kamelger, F S; Rosenberger, R; Dallapozza, Ch; Struve, P; Luger, T; Fink, Ch; Attal, R

    2009-03-01

    The 22nd Student World Winter Games took place in January 2005 in Innsbruck and Seefeld, Austria. Exactly 1,500 athletes of 50 nationalities competed in 69 events in ten winter sports. A total number of 750 functionaries, 800 volunteers and 85,000 spectators participated in the second largest winter sports event behind the Olympic winter games. The aim of this study was to evaluate the needed resources to ensure traumatological care for an event of that size. At the medical "call-center" all consultations, as well as patient data, diagnosis, and medical treatment were recorded using a preset protocol. Further, all patients treated in the University Hospital Innsbruck were registered with an emphasis on trauma patients. Forty-eight of 65 patients transported to the hospital as a result of the Universiade were trauma patients, 37 of whom were athletes. The gender distribution was 34:14 (m:f). Ice hockey players had the highest rate of injury (25% of all injured athletes), followed by alpine skiers (20.8% of injured athletes). The highest ISS was nine. Forty-three patients got ambulatory treatment, five were admitted to the hospital and surgical treatment was conducted in three cases. Mean patient number was 4.8 per day. No additional personnel, structural, or technical hospital resources were needed to accommodate a large winter sports event like the Universiad. Thus, a level-B trauma center with an emergency room and independent traumatological department with around the clock surgical capability seems to be sufficient to provide traumatological care for an event of this size if the possibility of patient transport to a larger facility exists in the case of catastrophic events.

  19. [Vitamin-antioxidant sufficiency of winter sports athletes].

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    Beketova, N A; Kosheleva, O V; Pereverzeva, O G; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Kodentsova, V M; Solntseva, T N; Khanfer'ian, R A

    2013-01-01

    The sufficiency of 169 athletes (six disciplines: bullet shooting, biathlon, bobsleigh, skeleton, freestyle skiing, snowboarding) with vitamins A, E, C, B2, and beta-carotene has been investigated in April-September 2013. All athletes (102 juniors, mean age--18.5 +/- 0.3 years, and 67 adult high-performance athletes, mean age--26.8 +/- 0.7 years) were sufficiently supplied with vitamin A (70.7 +/- 1.7 mcg/dl). Mean blood serum retinol level was 15% higher the upper limit of the norm (80 mcg/dl) in biathletes while median reached 90.9 mcg/dl. Blood serum level of tocopherols (1.22 +/- 0.03 mg/dl), ascorbic acid (1.06 +/- 0.03 mg/dl), riboflavin (7.1 +/- 0.4 ng/ml), and beta-carotene (25.1 +/- 1.7 mcg/dl) was in within normal range, but the incidence of insufficiency of vitamins E, C, B2, and carotenoid among athletes varied in the range of 0-25, 0-17, 15-67 and 42-75%, respectively. 95% of adults and 80% of younger athletes were sufficiently provided with vitamin E. Vitamin E level in blood serum of juniors involved in skeleton and biathlon was lower by 51 and 72% (p Vitamin A, C and B2, and beta-carotene blood serum level did not significantly differ in junior and adult athletes. Women were better supplied with vitamins C, B2, and beta-carotene: a reduced blood serum level of these micronutrients in women was detected 2-3 fold rare (p vitamin C (1.20 +/- 0.05 mg/dl) and beta-carotene (32.0 +/- 3.9 mcg/dl) in women was greater by 15 and 54% (p vitamins compared with other athletes. The vast majority (80%) were optimally provided by all three antioxidants (beta-carotene and vitamins E and C). In other sports, the relative quantity of athletes sufficiently supplied with these essential nutrients did not exceed 56%. The quota of supplied with all antioxidants among bullet shooters (31.1%) and bobsledders (23.5%) was significantly (p vitamin B2 deficiency. The data obtained suggest the necessity to optimize diet vitamin content of all athletes, taking into account the

  20. Sport and Recreation Influence upon Mountain Area and Sustainable Tourism Development

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    Jelica J. MARKOVIĆ

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary tourism, sport and recreation are increasingly becoming the dominant motives for undertaking the journey, and as a result of modern living, active holidays are more frequent. Mountain areas have always been attractive to deal with the various sports activities. Winter sports were the initiators of the development of mountain resorts. Mountain resorts invest in construction of hotels, ski lifts, snowmaking equipment, for the sake of attracting a growing number of tourist clientele. On the other hand, sport and recreation also serve to promote summer mountain tourism. Tennis, golf, swimming, horseback riding are key tools to attract visitors in the summer months toward the resorts facilities. The main problems regarding the development of mountain tourism centers come in the form of the growing concern for the preservation of the environment, of the human and traffic congestion in the mountains and the intensive use of natural resources by tourists. This paper aims to highlight the positive and negative impacts of sport and recreation in the development of mountain tourism and to present possible solutions to reduce negative impacts. Methodology is based on document review of many bibliographic resources, which are related with skiing and mountain biking as examples of winter and summer sport activities on mountains.

  1. Experimental log hauling through a traditional caribou wintering area

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    Harold G. Cumming

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available A 3-year field experiment (fall 1990-spring 1993 showed that woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou altered their dispersion when logs were hauled through their traditional wintering area. Unlike observations in control years 1 and 3, radio-collared caribou that had returned to the study area before the road was plowed on January 6 of the experimental year 2, moved away 8-60 km after logging activities began. Seasonal migration to Lake Nipigon islands usually peaked in April, but by February 22 of year 2, 4 of the 6 had returned. The islands provide summer refuge from predation, but not when the lake is frozen. Tracks in snow showed that some caribou remained but changed locations. They used areas near the road preferentially in year 1, early year 2, and year 3, but moved away 2-5 km after the road was plowed in year 2. In a nearby undisturbed control area, no such changes occurred. Caribou and moose partitioned habitat on a small scale; tracks showed gray wolf (Canis lupus remote from caribou but close to moose tracks. No predation on caribou was observed within the wintering area; 2 kills were found outside it. Due to the possibility of displacing caribou from winter refugia to places with higher predation risk, log hauling through important caribou winter habitat should be minimized.

  2. Conception of ecological strategy «Olympic sport for maintainance of nature» during leadthrough of winter Olympic Games 2022 in Ukrainian Carpathians

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    Tsyganenko O.I.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An analysis is conducted scientific and to scientifically-methodical literatures on issue of ecological strategy of organization and leadthrough of winter Olympiads. Conception of ecological strategy of organization and leadthrough of winter Olympiad is developed 2022 (Ukraine, Carpathians. It was offered, that ecological strategy of organization and leadthrough of Olympiad had an ecological motto «Olympic sport for the maintainance of nature». Strategy included the ways of decision of problem of negative influence of global change of climate on the olympic winter types of sport. The problems of providing of ecological safety of sporting activity are considered in relation to a man and wild-life. Solution is offered questions of the ecological marketing, management and ecological inlightening. The ecological ground of choice of Lvov is conducted as a city of organizer of winter Olympiad 2022. As a mountain-skier center a mountain-skier complex Borzhava, located in the area Carpathians of Ukraine, is offered.

  3. Paralympic sport: an emerging area for research and consultancy in sports biomechanics.

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    Keogh, Justin W L

    2011-09-01

    The Paralympic Games are the pinnacle of sport for many athletes with a disability. The overall purpose of this paper is to highlight the role that the field of sports biomechanics specifically (and sports science in general) may play in improving performance in various summer Paralympic sports through research and consultancy. To achieve this broad aim, this review provides some history and background on the Summer Paralympic Games, discusses the eligibility and classification rules, describes the potential for the constraints-led approach of dynamical systems theory to inform practice and research in this area, and reviews selected studies examining the biomechanics of the primary forms of Paralympic locomotion. Some recommendations on how sports biomechanics can help facilitate improvements in Paralympic athletic performance through applied research and consultancy are provided, along with commentary on what may be some of the most important issues addressing Paralympic sport.

  4. Mapping of QTLs for leaf area and the association with winter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variations in plant architecture are often associated with the ability of plants to survive cold stress during winter. In studies of winter hardiness in lentil, it appeared that small leaf area was associated with improved winter survival. Based on this observation, the inheritance of leaf area and the relationship with winter ...

  5. Helmet use in winter sport activities--attitude and opinion of neurosurgeons and non-traumatic-brain-injury-educated persons.

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    Jung, Carla S; Zweckberger, Klaus; Schick, Uta; Unterberg, Andreas W

    2011-01-01

    During the last winter season, some fatal sport injuries with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) prompted major discussions about protective helmet use. Although ski helmets reportedly lead to a 60% decrease of risk to incur TBI, little is known about the distribution of helmet users and which factors are crucial for the decision to wear a helmet. Especially, it is unknown whether knowledge or experience concerning TBI in winter sports influences the use of helmets, as well as the attitude and opinion of people. Since treatment of TBI is a major field in neurosurgery, 55 neurosurgical departments (NS) in Germany, Switzerland and Austria were addressed and asked to answer anonymous questionnaires. A "non-trauma-educated" control cohort (NTP) was interviewed in ski resorts in Austria as well as sports equipment stores in Germany. Questionnaires were returned by 465 NS and 546 NTP. Half of NS and NTP wore helmets in winter sports. Although some interviewees showed cognitive dissonant behaviour, experience in TBI after ski or snowboard accidents significantly affected the decision to wear helmets. After the fatal ski accidents, and increased media coverage 15.4% NS and 13.2% NTP bought their helmet. Furthermore, incidence of helmet use in children was correlated with the actual use and disposition of their parents to make the use of helmet compulsory. This study indicates that brain-trauma education affects ones attitude and opinion concerning protective helmet use in winter sports. However, without neglecting educational measures, emotional arguments should be added in the promotion of helmets to make them a popular integral part of winter sport outfits.

  6. Survey of sport participation and sport injury in Calgary and area high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Carolyn A; Meeuwisse, Willem H; McAllister, Jenelle R

    2006-01-01

    To examine (1) sport participation and (2) sport injury in adolescents. This was a retrospective survey design. In total, 2873 adolescents were recruited from a random sample of classes from 24 Calgary and area high schools. Each subject completed an in-class questionnaire in March 2004. Overall and sport-specific participation rates (number of sport participants/number of students completing survey). Overall and sport-specific injury rates (number of injuries/number of participants). In the previous 1 year, 94% of students participated in sport. The top 5 sports by participation for males were basketball, hockey, football, snowboarding, and soccer, and for females, basketball, dance, volleyball, snowboarding, and soccer. The injury rate including only injuries requiring medical attention was 40.2 injuries/100 adolescents/y (95% CI, 38.4-42.1), presenting to a hospital emergency department was 8.1 injuries/100 adolescents/y (95% CI, 7.1-9.2), resulting in time loss from sport was 49.9 injuries/100 adolescents/y (95% CI, 48-51.8), and resulting in loss of consciousness was 9.3 injuries/100 adolescents/y (95% CI, 8.3-10.5). The greatest proportion of injuries occurred in basketball, hockey, soccer, and snowboarding. The top 5 body parts injured were the ankle, knee, head, back, and wrist. The top 5 injury types were sprain, contusion, concussion, fracture, and muscle strain. A previous injury was associated with 49% of the injuries and direct contact with 45% of injuries. Rates of participation in sport and sport injury are high in adolescents. Future research should focus on prevention strategies in sports with high participation and injury rates to maximize population health impact.

  7. Simulated field trip on ski area development

    Science.gov (United States)

    John J. Lindsay; Hubertus J. Mittmann

    1979-01-01

    Not too long ago winter sports facilities were small and simple. As more people participated in winter sports and technology advanced, the impact on the land in-creased not only from the standpoint of actual facilities needed for winter recreation but also from associated facilities. In many instances winter sports areas developed into full fledged tourist oriented...

  8. Sports injuries and illnesses in the Sochi 2014 Olympic Winter Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soligard, Torbjørn; Steffen, Kathrin; Palmer-Green, Debbie; Aubry, Mark; Grant, Marie-Elaine; Meeuwisse, Willem; Mountjoy, Margo; Budgett, Richard; Engebretsen, Lars

    2015-04-01

    Systematic surveillance of injuries and illnesses is the foundation for developing preventive measures in sport. To analyse the injuries and illnesses that occurred during the XXII Olympic Winter Games, held in Sochi in 2014. We recorded the daily occurrence (or non-occurrence) of injuries and illnesses (1) through the reporting of all National Olympic Committee (NOC) medical teams and (2) in the polyclinic and medical venues by the Sochi 2014 medical staff. NOC and Sochi 2014 medical staff reported 391 injuries and 249 illnesses among 2780 athletes from 88 NOCs, equalling incidences of 14 injuries and 8.9 illnesses per 100 athletes over an 18-day period of time. Altogether, 12% and 8% of the athletes incurred at least one injury or illness, respectively. The percentage of athletes injured was highest in aerial skiing, snowboard slopestyle, snowboard cross, slopestyle skiing, halfpipe skiing, moguls skiing, alpine skiing, and snowboard halfpipe. Thirty-nine per cent of the injuries were expected to prevent the athlete from participating in competition or training. Women suffered 50% more illnesses than men. The rate of illness was highest in skeleton, short track, curling, cross-country skiing, figure skating, bobsleigh and aerial skiing. A total of 159 illnesses (64%) affected the respiratory system, and the most common cause of illness was infection (n=145, 58%). Overall, 12% of the athletes incurred at least one injury during the games, and 8% an illness, which is similar to prior Olympic Games. The incidence of injuries and illnesses varied substantially between sports. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Mapping of QTLs for leaf area and the association with winter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-12-13

    Dec 13, 2010 ... Variations in plant architecture are often associated with the ability of plants to survive cold stress during winter. In studies of winter hardiness in lentil, it appeared that small leaf area was associated with improved winter survival. Based on this observation, the inheritance of leaf area and the relationship ...

  10. The effect of winter sports participation on high school football players: strength, power, agility, and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroble, R R; Moxley, D R

    2001-02-01

    In this study, football players (N = 57) in grades 9-11 from 3 high schools chose to participate in 1 of 2 groups. Group WC (N = 39) participated in off-season strength training only. Group SP (N = 18) participated in both a winter sport (either wrestling or basketball) and an identical strength training program. All participants were tested at the close of football season (Pre) and at the end of the winter sports season (Post), a period of 4 months. Body composition (weight [W] and body fat percentage [BF]), strength (calculated 1RM [1 repetition maximum] max for barbell bench press [BP] and squat [SQ]), power (vertical jump [VJ] and seated shot put [UP]), and agility (18.3-m agility run [AG]) were measured. Both groups WC and SP increased significantly in W and BF and improved significantly in BP and VJ (p training.

  11. Relations between BMI, body mass and height, and sports competence among participants of the 2010 Winter Olympic Games: does sport metabolic demand differentiate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanula, Arkadiusz; Roczniok, Robert; Gabryś, Tomasz; Szmatlan-Gabryś, Urszula; Maszczyk, Adam; Pietraszewski, Przemysław

    2013-12-01

    This study characterizes the athletes participating in the 2010 Winter Olympic Games in terms of body height, body mass and BMI. The studied sample consisted of athletes in the top 20 places of each of 14 sports disciplines (1460 cases). Data on the athletes' age, height, body mass, and sports specialization were obtained from the Olympic Games' official website and from the International Ski Federation. The sampled athletes were grouped according to the predominant type of energy metabolism during competition. The anaerobic-glycolytic disciplines, such as cross-country sprint, figure skating, short track, and speed skating (500, 1000 and 1500 m), were found to have the youngest female athletes: 25.0 yr. (SD = 4.7). In the endurance sports (aerobic and aerobic-anaerobic), the female athletes were the oldest, being respectively 28.6 yr. (SD = 4.9) and 28.1 yr. (SD = 4.5) old. In the speed disciplines (anaerobic-alactic), the female athletes were the tallest (M = 172 cm; SD = 8.3). The male athletes in the anaerobic-alactic sports were the tallest (M = 181.8 cm, SD = 6.7) and those in the anaerobic-glycolytic sports were the shortest (M = 179.2 cm, SD = 6.7). The large differences in body mass among the groups of athletes, which appear to be related to the predominant type of metabolism during competition, show that this parameter is partly correlated with the level of sports competence, but only in disciplines where the athletes need larger muscle mass. The largest average values of BMI were found for males and females in the anaerobic-alactic group.

  12. Medical coverage of winter Nordic sports: an overview from the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaul, Lawrence W

    2010-01-01

    Traveling with sports teams requires flexibility and a wide range of knowledge, as well as problem-solving abilities. Dominating the medical types of problems in the Nordic sports are the respiratory illnesses, especially asthma and upper respiratory infections (URI). Additionally, the team physician must have an awareness of antidoping issues. This overview highlights many of the issues encountered traveling domestically as well as internationally with high-level Nordic teams. Helpful links are included to facilitate the care of all levels of athletes. Additionally, a few side issues such as altitude illness and minor trauma are mentioned.

  13. Blood lead concentrations in Alaskan tundra swans: linking breeding and wintering areas with satellite telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Craig R.; Franson, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) like many waterfowl species are susceptible to lead (Pb) poisoning, and Pb-induced mortality has been reported from many areas of their wintering range. Little is known however about Pb levels throughout the annual cycle of tundra swans, especially during summer when birds are on remote northern breeding areas where they are less likely to be exposed to anthropogenic sources of Pb. Our objective was to document summer Pb levels in tundra swans throughout their breeding range in Alaska to determine if there were population-specific differences in blood Pb concentrations that might pose a threat to swans and to humans that may consume them. We measured blood Pb concentrations in tundra swans at five locations in Alaska, representing birds that winter in both the Pacific Flyway and Atlantic Flyway. We also marked swans at each location with satellite transmitters and coded neck bands, to identify staging and wintering sites and determine if winter site use correlated with summer Pb concentrations. Blood Pb levels were generally low ( < 0.2 μg/ml) in swans across all breeding areas. Pb levels were lower in cygnets than adults, suggesting that swans were likely exposed to Pb on wintering areas or on return migration to Alaska, rather than on the summer breeding grounds. Blood Pb levels varied significantly across the five breeding areas, with highest concentrations in birds on the North Slope of Alaska (wintering in the Atlantic Flyway), and lowest in birds from the lower Alaska Peninsula that rarely migrate south for winter.

  14. [The ski camp doctor's role in the the prevention of winter sport accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felkai, Péter

    2007-08-26

    Skiing is a risky sport for many, even for children and beginners. When the ski-group is escorted by doctors who are able to provide advanced life support on the scene and are trained either in the field of emergency medicine or in travel medicine, a good possibility is given for the prevention of ski-accidents and for decreasing the number of travel related illnesses. This fact has led to the basic idea of training ski-camp doctors in Hungary. There is no similar initiative in the Hungarian literature. Therefore the article tries to summarise the medical knowledge and requirements of a ski-camp doctor, and analyses the prevention tasks of the doctor as well. The camp doctor must be well informed and highly trained in the field of emergency and travel medicine. The main tasks are: pre-travel advice, treatment of the common (travel-related) diseases, providing basic and advanced life-support on the scene, and to organise the hospitalisation and repatriation of patient, in cooperation with the hospital and insurance doctor. Moreover, the prevention should start before departure: the estimation of the physical and health condition of the skiers, a continuous care of the chronic people, and supervision of the place (hygienic circumstances, rescue forces available, the condition of the ski slopes, etc.) are vital--as for the primary prevention. The secondary level of the prevention is the treatment of the injured/sick persons, and assistance in the medical evacuation. During the training, not only postgraduate medical, mountain and alpine medicine lessons have been provided, but basic legal and insurance information as well. Moreover, the doctors received ski-course from professional ski-trainers in order to improve their ski-technique and skills on different slopes and off-piste places. In the future the local mountain rescue and air-rescue forces have to be involved in postgraduate training. Hopefully different travel-insurance companies and travel offices will use

  15. Relationships between NDVI and Leaf Area Index for spring and winter camelina in Northeastern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabro, Jay; Allen, Brett; long, Dan; Isbell, Terry; Gesch, Russ; Brown, Jack; Hatfield, Jerry; Archer, David; Oblath, Emily; Vigil, Merle; Kiniry, Jim

    2016-04-01

    To our knowledge no research has been reported on the relationship between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and leaf area index (LAI) in spring and winter camelina. Relationships between NDVI and LAI for winter camelina (Camelina sativa) "Joelle" and spring camelina "CO46" were determined and evaluated in a 3-yr field study conducted in Sidney Montana under dryland conditions. The NDVI and LAI were measured weekly throughout the growing season. The NDVI was continually measured at one sample per second across the whole plot using a Crop Circle ACS-470 active crop canopy sensor. The LAI was measured at two locations at 12 samples per plot using an AccuPar model LP-80 Ceptometer. Treatments were replicated four times in a randomized complete block design in plots of 3 m×9 m. Temporal dynamics of NDVI and LAI in various growth stages of both spring and winter camelina were evaluated throughout 2013, 2014 and 2015 growing seasons. Significant linear relationships between NDVI and LAI were obtained for both spring and winter camelina when all the measurements were pooled across three growing seasons. Coefficients of determination (R2) of linearity were 0.77 and 0.79 for spring and winter camelina, respectively.

  16. Sports Injury and Illness Epidemiology: Great Britain Olympic Team (TeamGB) surveillance during the Sochi 2014 Winter Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer-Green, Debbie; Elliott, Niall

    2015-01-01

    Background Sports injury and illness surveillance is the first step in injury and illness prevention, and is important for the protection of both athlete health and performance in major competitions. Aim To identify the prevalence, severity nature and causes of athlete injuries and illnesses in the Great Britain Olympic Team (TeamGB) during the Sochi 2014 Winter Olympic Games. Methods The observational prospective cohort study followed the Great Britain Injury/Illness Performance Project surveillance methodology and obtained information on injuries and illnesses that occurred during the Games between 30 January and 23 February 2014 in TeamGB athletes (n=56). Results Among the 56 TeamGB athletes, there were 27 injuries and 11 illnesses during the Olympic Games period. This equated to 39% sustaining at least one injury and 18% at least one illness, with an incidence of 48.2 injuries and 19.6 illnesses per 100 athletes, respectively. Of all injuries and illnesses, 9% and 7%, respectively, resulted in time loss. The risk of sustaining an injury was highest for freestyle skiing, skeleton and snowboarding; and lowest for curling, biathlon and Alpine skiing (with no reported injuries); with the lower limb being the most commonly injured location. Respiratory system illnesses were most frequently reported overall, and older female athletes were the ones most affected by illness. Conclusions The risk of injury was double the risk of illness for TeamGB athletes. Overall, the rate of time-loss issues was low. Methodological considerations are important when interpreting data, and prevention strategies should focus on those issues causing the greatest risk, in terms of prevalence and severity, to athlete health and performance. PMID:25425714

  17. [Winter wheat area estimation with MODIS-NDVI time series based on parcel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Le; Zhang, Jin-shui; Zhu, Wen-quan; Hu, Tan-gao; Hou, Dong

    2011-05-01

    Several attributes of MODIS (moderate resolution imaging spectrometer) data, especially the short temporal intervals and the global coverage, provide an extremely efficient way to map cropland and monitor its seasonal change. However, the reliability of their measurement results is challenged because of the limited spatial resolution. The parcel data has clear geo-location and obvious boundary information of cropland. Also, the spectral differences and the complexity of mixed pixels are weak in parcels. All of these make that area estimation based on parcels presents more advantage than on pixels. In the present study, winter wheat area estimation based on MODIS-NDVI time series has been performed with the support of cultivated land parcel in Tongzhou, Beijing. In order to extract the regional winter wheat acreage, multiple regression methods were used to simulate the stable regression relationship between MODIS-NDVI time series data and TM samples in parcels. Through this way, the consistency of the extraction results from MODIS and TM can stably reach up to 96% when the amount of samples accounts for 15% of the whole area. The results shows that the use of parcel data can effectively improve the error in recognition results in MODIS-NDVI based multi-series data caused by the low spatial resolution. Therefore, with combination of moderate and low resolution data, the winter wheat area estimation became available in large-scale region which lacks completed medium resolution images or has images covered with clouds. Meanwhile, it carried out the preliminary experiments for other crop area estimation.

  18. Leaf Area Index (LAI Estimation of Boreal Forest Using Wide Optics Airborne Winter Photos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Stenberg

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A new simple airborne method based on wide optics camera is developed for leaf area index (LAI estimation in coniferous forests. The measurements are carried out in winter, when the forest floor is completely snow covered and thus acts as a light background for the hemispherical analysis of the images. The photos are taken automatically and stored on a laptop during the flights. The R2 value of the linear regression of the airborne and ground based LAI measurements was 0.89.

  19. Wintering Waterbirds and Recreationists in Natural Areas: A Sociological Approach to the Awareness of Bird Disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Corre, Nicolas; Peuziat, Ingrid; Brigand, Louis; Gélinaud, Guillaume; Meur-Férec, Catherine

    2013-10-01

    Disturbance to wintering birds by human recreational activities has become a major concern for managers of many natural areas. Few studies have examined how recreationists perceive their effects on birds, although this impacts their behavior on natural areas. We surveyed 312 users on two coastal ornithological sites in Brittany, France, to investigate their perception of the effects of human activities on wintering birds. The results show that the awareness of environmental issues and knowledge of bird disturbance depends on the socioeconomic characteristics of each user group, both between the two sites and within each site. Results also indicate that, whatever the site and the user group, the vast majority of the respondents (77.6 %) believed that their own presence had no adverse effects on the local bird population. Various arguments were put forward to justify the users' own harmlessness. Objective information on recreationists' awareness of environmental issues, and particularly on their own impact on birds, is important to guide managers in their choice of the most appropriate visitor educational programs. We recommend developing global but also specific educational information for each type of user to raise awareness of their own impact on birds.

  20. LEAF AREA INDEX IN WINTER WHEAT: RESPONSE ON SEED RATE AND NITROGEN APPLICATION BY DIFFERENT VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M BAVEC

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The most important photosynthesis acceptor – leaf area vary among cultivation measures and it is limited factor for creating exact growth models in common winter wheat. The objective of this study was to investigate changes of leaf area index (LAI affected by agricultural treatments – 4 sowing rates and 9 nitrogen treatments based on fertilising rates, target values based on soil mineral nitrogen and plant sap tests target values including different varieties. Increasing sowing rates from 350 to 800 viable seeds m-2 increased LAI at EC 75 stage from 2.9 to 5.5, where LAI 4.1 at 500 seeds m-2 did not vary between lower and higher rates; also at EC 85 stage LAIs did not differ significantly. At EC 75 stage LAI differed among control and nitrogen treatments from 1.0 to 6.5 and at EC 85 stage from 0.1 to 2.4, with differences in interaction among varieties. Higher nitrogen rates for first and second top dressing increased LAI in both stages compared without dressing treatments. Due to significant differences among LAI as consequence of production system, we suggest to take this into account in every prediction and modelling of growth in winter wheat.

  1. 78 FR 63069 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System; Yellowstone National Park; Winter Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... National Park; Winter Use AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The... to experience the unique winter resources and values at Yellowstone National Park. This rule includes... cleaner and quieter than what has been allowed during the previous four winter seasons, reward oversnow...

  2. 78 FR 22470 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System; Yellowstone National Park; Winter Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... National Park; Winter Use AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The... experience the unique winter resources and values at Yellowstone National Park. This rule includes provisions... cleaner and quieter than what has been authorized during the previous four winter seasons, reward oversnow...

  3. Validation of a limited area model over Dome C, Antarctic Plateau, during winter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallee, Hubert; Gorodetskaya, Irina V. [Laboratoire de Glaciologie et de Geophysique de l' Environnement, CNRS, 54, rue Moliere, BP. 96, St Martin d' Heres Cedex (France)

    2010-01-15

    The limited area model MAR (Modele Atmospherique Regional) is validated over the Antarctic Plateau for the period 2004-2006, focussing on Dome C during the cold season. MAR simulations are made by initializing the model once and by forcing it through its lateral and top boundaries by the ECMWF operational analyses. Model outputs compare favourably with observations from automatic weather station (AWS), radiometers and atmospheric soundings. MAR is able to simulate the succession of cold and warm events which occur at Dome C during winter. Larger longwave downwelling fluxes (LWD) are responsible for higher surface air temperatures and weaker surface inversions during winter. Warm events are better simulated when the small Antarctic precipitating snow particles are taken into account in radiative transfer computations. MAR stratosphere cools during the cold season, with the coldest temperatures occurring in conjunction with warm events at the surface. The decrease of saturation specific humidity associated with these coldest temperatures is responsible for the formation of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) especially in August-September. PSCs then contribute to the surface warming by increasing the surface downwelling longwave flux. (orig.)

  4. Comparison of the Physical Education and Sports School Students' Multiple Intelligence Areas According to Demographic Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Cem Sinan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the multiple intelligence areas of a group of physical education and sports students according to their demographic features. In the study, "Multiple Intelligence Scale", consisting of 27 items, whose Turkish validity and reliability study have been done by Babacan (2012) and which is originally owned…

  5. Sewage-treatment under substantial load variations in winter tourism areas--a full case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, S; Matsché, N; Gamperer, T; Dum, M

    2004-01-01

    The sewage-load variations in winter tourism areas are characterized by sudden increases--in the range of a factor two to three--within only a few days at the start and the end of the tourist season, especially at Christmas. The sudden load increases occur during periods of low wastewater temperatures, which is an additional demanding factor with respect to nitrogen removal. A full case study was carried out at WWTP Saalfelden, which is located near one of Austria's largest skiing resorts. The plant is designed for 80,000 PE and built according to the HYBRID-concept, which is a special two stage activated sludge process for extensive nutrient removal.

  6. Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vitamin D Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter Winter sports enthusiasts are at increased risk for overexposure ... associated with sun exposure. "It's easy to associate winter with frostbite and windburn, but most people are ...

  7. The Effect of Climate Variability on Gray Whales (Eschrichtius robustus) within Their Wintering Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvadeo, Christian J; Gómez-Gallardo U, Alejandro; Nájera-Caballero, Mauricio; Urbán-Ramirez, Jorge; Lluch-Belda, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The environmental conditions of the breeding and feeding grounds of the gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) fluctuates at inter-annual scales in response to regional and basin climate patterns. Thus, the goals of this study were to assess if there are any relationships between summer sea ice on their feeding ground and counts of gray whale mother-calf (MC) pairs at Ojo de Liebre Lagoon (OLL); and if El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) influences the winter distribution of gray whales MC pairs in the three primary breeding lagoons of OLL, San Ignacio Lagoon (SIL) and Santo Domingo Channel north of Bahia Magdalena (SDCh). Maximum February counts of MC pairs were compared with the length of the open-water season at the Bering Sea during the previous year. Then, an ENSO index and sea surface temperature anomalies outside the primary lagoons was compared with the maximum February counts of MC pairs at these lagoons. Results showed that maximum counts of MC pairs in OLL correlates with sea ice conditions in their feeding grounds from the previous feeding season, and this relationship can be attributed to changes in nutritive condition of females. ENSO-related variability influences distribution of MC pairs in the southern area of SDCh during the warm 1998 El Niño and cold 1999 La Niña. This supports the hypothesis that changes in the whales' distribution related to sea temperature occurs to reduce thermal-stress and optimize energy utilization for newborn whales. Although this last conclusion should be considered in view of the limited data available from all the whales' wintering locations in all the years considered.

  8. Possible over-wintering of bluetongue virus in Culicoides populations in the Onderstepoort area, Gauteng, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumari Steyn

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have demonstrated the ability of certain viruses to overwinter in arthropod vectors. The over-wintering mechanism of bluetongue virus (BTV is unknown. One hypothesis is over-wintering within adult Culicoides midges (Diptera; Ceratopogonidae that survive mild winters where temperatures seldom drop below 10 °C. The reduced activity of midges and the absence of outbreaks during winter may create the impression that the virus has disappeared from an area. Light traps were used in close association with horses to collect Culicoides midges from July 2010 to September 2011 in the Onderstepoort area, in Gauteng Province, South Africa. More than 500 000 Culicoides midges were collected from 88 collections and sorted to species level, revealing 26 different Culicoides species. Culicoides midges were present throughout the 15 month study. Nine Culicoides species potentially capable of transmitting BTV were present during the winter months. Midges were screened for the presence of BTV ribonucleic acid (RNA with the aid of a real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR assay. In total 91.2% of midge pools tested positive for BTV RNA. PCR results were compared with previous virus isolation results (VI that demonstrated the presence of viruses in summer and autumn months. The results indicate that BTV-infected Culicoides vectors are present throughout the year in the study area. Viral RNA-positive midges were also found throughout the year with VI positive midge pools only in summer and early autumn. Midges that survive mild winter temperatures could therefore harbour BTV but with a decreased vector capacity. When the population size, biting rate and viral replication decrease, it could stop BTV transmission. Over-wintering of BTV in the Onderstepoort region could therefore result in re-emergence because of increased vector activity rather than reintroduction from outside the region.

  9. Sport participation and the social and physical environment: Explaining differences between urban and rural areas in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekman, R.H.A.; Breedveld, K.; Kraaykamp, G.L.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the intensity of sport participation in the Netherlands comparing urban and rural areas. Using a socio-ecological theoretical model, we focussed on the extent to which the rural–urban divide in sport participation is explained by micro-level (socio-demographics),

  10. Preliminary Checklist for Reporting Observational Studies in Sports Areas: Content Validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Chacón-Moscoso

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Observational studies are based on systematic observation, understood as an organized recording and quantification of behavior in its natural context. Applied to the specific area of sports, observational studies present advantages when comparing studies based on other designs, such as the flexibility for adapting to different contexts and the possibility of using non-standardized instruments as well as a high degree of development in specific software and data analysis. Although the importance and usefulness of sports-related observational studies have been widely shown, there is no checklist to report these studies. Consequently, authors do not have a guide to follow in order to include all of the important elements in an observational study in sports areas, and reviewers do not have a reference tool for assessing this type of work. To resolve these issues, this article aims to develop a checklist to measure the quality of sports-related observational studies based on a content validity study. The participants were 22 judges with at least 3 years of experience in observational studies, sports areas, and methodology. They evaluated a list of 60 items systematically selected and classified into 12 dimensions. They were asked to score four aspects of each item on 5-point Likert scales to measure the following dimensions: representativeness, relevance, utility, and feasibility. The judges also had an open-format section for comments. The Osterlind index was calculated for each item and for each of the four aspects. Items were considered appropriate when obtaining a score of at least 0.5 in the four assessed aspects. After considering these inclusion criteria and all of the open-format comments, the resultant checklist consisted of 54 items grouped into the same initial 12 dimensions. Finally, we highlight the strengths of this work. We also present its main limitation: the need to apply the resultant checklist to obtain data and, thus, increase

  11. Estimating regional winter wheat yield with WOFOST through the assimilation of green area index retrieved from MODIS observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de A.J.W.; Duveiller, G.; Defourny, P.

    2012-01-01

    Here, we describe and test a method for optimising winter wheat green area index (GAI) simulated with the WOFOST crop model using MODIS estimates of GAI in the Walloon region of Belgium. Detailed crop type maps during the period of 2000–2009 were used to derive time series of crop-specific GAI by

  12. Variability of snow line elevation, snow cover area and depletion in the main Slovak basins in winters 2001–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krajčí Pavel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal variability of snow line (SL elevation, snow cover area (SCA and depletion (SCD in winters 2001–2014 is investigated in ten main Slovak river basins (the Western Carpathians. Daily satellite snow cover maps from MODIS Terra (MOD10A1, V005 and Aqua (MYD10A1, V005 with resolution 500 m are used.

  13. Economic Impacts of Climate Change on Winter Tourism: Challenges for Ski Area Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, A.; Köberl, J.; Prettenthaler, F.; Töglhofer, C.

    2012-04-01

    Increasing temperatures and snow scarce winter seasons pose a big challenge for the winter tourism industry. Changing natural snow reliability influences tourism demand and ski area operators are faced with an enhanced need of technical snow production. The goal of the present research work is to analyze the economic effects of technical snow production under future climate conditions. Snowmaking as an adaptation strategy to climate change impacts on the ski tourism industry is already taken into consideration in several studies from a scientific perspective concerning snowmaking potentials under future climate conditions and the impacts on ski season length (e.g. Scott et al. 2003; Scott & McBoyle 2007; Hennessy et al. 2008; Steiger 2010). A few studies considered economic aspects of technical snowmaking (e.g. Teich et al. 2007; Gonseth 2008). However, a detailed analysis of the costs and benefits of snowmaking under future climate and snow conditions based on sophisticated climate and snow models has not been carried out yet. The present study addresses the gap of knowledge concerning the economic profitability of prospective snowmaking requirements under future climate scenarios. We carry out a detailed cost-revenue analysis of snowmaking under current and future climate conditions for a case study site in Styria (Austria) using dynamic investment models. The starting point of all economic calculations is the daily demand for artificial snow that determines the requirements for additional snowmaking investments and additional operating costs. The demand for artificial snow is delivered by the snow cover model AMUNDSEN (see Strasser et al. 2011) and is driven by four climate scenarios. Apart from future climate conditions the profitability of snowmaking depends on changes in costs and visitor numbers. The results of a ski tourism demand model analyzing daily visitor numbers and their dependencies of prevailing weather conditions enter the cost-revenue analysis of

  14. Sports Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gozalova Marina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This article is devoted to sports tourism. The purpose of this article is to examine theoretical material on sports tourism, to analyze sports tourism in Russia and to search for promising areas for the study of sports tourism in our country. Material and methods. In this part the authors develop the idea of the role of doing sports and keeping fit. For anyone who really wants to be healthy, fitness has become an integral part of their lives. Results. The purpose of this research is to study theoretical material on sports tourism, to analyze sports tourism in Russia and to search for promising areas for the study of sports tourism in our country. On the basis of their research the authors come to the conclusion that sports and tourism are interconnected. There are important factors affecting the situation of sports tourism in Russia. The paper examines sports tourism attractions in Russia. Conclusion. The authors conclude that there exists a high correlation dependence of foreign and domestic development of sports tourism on resources allocated for sports infrastructure. All in all, sports tourism tours draw visitors to their favorite sporting event, facility, or destination throughout the world.

  15. [Variation of air pollution in new Tangshan industrial area during winter heating period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Rui; Xing, Jin-Yuan; Xing, Li-Ting; Wang, Xiao-Yuan; Feng, Xiao-Xin; Ji, Dong-Sheng; Wang, Yue-Si

    2011-07-01

    To illuminate the air pollution situation of the new Tangshan industrial area in the heating period, the observation of atmospheric pollutants was conducted in Tangshan City, Qianan City and Caofeidian Town from Oct. 2009 to Apr. 2010. The result showed that air pollution was serious in the area in winter. The regional mean concentration of NO, NO2, SO2, CO, PM2.5 and PM10 reached (26 +/- 28), (52 +/- 27), (72 +/- 53), (3 500 +/- 3 600), (82 +/- 65), (164 +/- 121) microg x m(-3) in the heating period, respectively. The concentration of NO and SO2 was 2.5 times in the heating period more than in the non-heating period. The concentration of NO2 and PM10 increased by -30%. The rates that CO and PM10 exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standard II were 27% and 40%; and the rate that PM2.5 exceeded the WHO IT1 Standard was 38%. The typical diurnal variations of NO, NO2, SO2, PM2.5 and PM10 were similar with peaking at 08:00 and 18:00, but the diurnal variation of CO was single peak at 08:00 with accumulating in evening. The peaks of NO, CO and SO2 were very high in morning because of the rush hours and the heating, which were 50, 90, and 5100 microg x m(-3), respectively. The peaks of NO2, PM2.5 and PM10 were relatively gentle, which were 56, 105, and 202 microg x m(-3), respectively. The cluster analysis of backward trajectories showed only the northerwinds, the cold airs can wash away the air pollution, while the southerwinds and easternwinds can easily accumulate the pollutants or transport the pollutants to the Beijing-Tianjin region.

  16. Participation in Leisure and Sports by People with Disability Living in Rural Areas; Vision of Stakeholders in Quebec

    OpenAIRE

    Emilie Belley-Ranger; Romain Roult; Hélène Carbonneau; Isabelle Brunet

    2016-01-01

    People with disability face many constraints that affect their participation in leisure and sports, which can be seen in the gaps in the scientific literature. This study aims to document the specific issues in the leisure and sports participation of people with disability in rural areas. Qualitative research has documented the rurality-related items. Overall, stakeholders (n = 35) working with people with disability in rural areas were met in focus groups (n = 4). Strengths and difficulties ...

  17. Survival and local recruitment are driven by environmental carry-over effects from the wintering area in a migratory seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostek, K Lesley; Becker, Peter H

    2015-07-01

    We estimated annual apparent survival rates, as well as local recruitment rates in different age groups and for different breeding status in the common tern Sterna hirundo using mark-recapture analysis on a long-term individual-based dataset from a breeding colony in Germany. Strong inter-annual variability in survival rates became apparent, especially in prospectors. Local recruitment also varied strongly between years and age groups. To explain these fluctuations, we linked survival and recruitment estimates to several environmental covariates expected to be limiting during the wintering period and migration, including the global climate indices of North Atlantic Oscillation and Southern Oscillation, fish abundance indices, and marine primary productivity in the West African wintering area. Contrary to expectations, global indices did not seem to be linked strongly to vital rates. Results showed that primary productivity had the strongest effect on annual survival, especially in young and inexperienced individuals. Primary productivity in the wintering area was also strongly associated with the probability of recruitment in the following breeding season, indicating that conditions during winter can have carry-over effects on the life cycle of individuals.

  18. Deep-diving by narwhals Monodon monoceros: differences in foraging behavior between wintering areas?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laidre, K. L.; Heide-Jørgensen, M. P.; Dietz, R.

    2003-01-01

    between summer and winter. Clear differences were observed between 2 wintering grounds. Whales occupying one wintering ground spent most of their time diving to between 200 and 400 m (25 dives per day, SE 3), confirmed by both depth and temperature recording tags. In contrast, narwhals in a separate...... wintering ground spent less time at shallow depths and most of their time diving to at least 800 m (13 to 26 dives per day, SE 1 to 3). A model of occupancy time at depth showed that whales making multiple daily deep dives spent over 3 h at >800 m (SD 0.6) and traveled 13 min (SD 1) per round trip to reach...... this depth. Whales diving to between 200 and 400 m spent approximately 2.5 h (SD 0.4) at this depth, traveling 5 min per round trip. The observed differences in time allocation and dive behavior indicate local variation between the 2 wintering grounds in the Baffin Bay ecosystem....

  19. Winter Irrigation Effects in Cotton Fields in Arid Inland Irrigated Areas in the North of the Tarim Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengnian Yang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Winter irrigation is one of the water and salt management practices widely adopted in arid irrigated areas in the Tarim Basin located in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in the People’s Republic of China. A winter irrigation study was carried out from November 2013 to March 2014 in Korla City. A cotton field was divided into 18 plots with a size of 3 m × 3 m and five winter irrigation treatments (1200 m3/ha, 1800 m3/ha, 2400 m3/ha, 3000 m3/ha, and 3600 m3/ha and one non-irrigation as a control were designed. The results showed that the higher winter irrigation volumes allowed the significant short-term difference after the irrigation in the fields with the higher soil moisture content. Therefore, the soil moisture in the next sowing season could be maintained at the level which was slightly lower than field capacity and four times that in the non-irrigation treatment. The desalination effect of winter irrigation increased with the increase of water irrigation volume, but its efficiency decreased with the increase of water irrigation volume. The desalination effect was characterized by short-term desalination, long-term salt accumulation, and the time-dependent gradually decreasing trend. During the winter irrigation period, air temperature was the most important external influencing factor of the soil temperature. During the period of the decrease in winter temperatures from December to January, soil temperature in the 5-cm depth showed no significant difference in all the treatments and the control. However, during the period of rising temperatures from January to March, soil temperature in the control increased significantly, faster than that in all treatments. Under the same irrigation volume, the temperature difference between the upper soil layer and the lower soil layer increased during the temperature drop period and decreased during the temperature rise period. In this paper, we proposed the proper winter irrigation volume of 1800

  20. Responses of wintering geese to the designation of goose foraging areas in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koffijberg, K; Schekkerman, H.; van der Jeugd, H.P.; Hornman, M.; van Winden, E.

    2017-01-01

    The Netherlands is important for wintering migratory herbivorous geese, numbers of which have rapidly increased, leading to conflict with agriculture. In 2005/2006, a new goose management policy aimed to limit compensation payments to farmers by concentrating foraging geese in 80 000 ha of

  1. Culicoides species abundance and potential over-wintering of African horse sickness virus in the Onderstepoort area, Gauteng, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert J. Venter

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa, outbreaks of African horse sickness (AHS occur in summer; no cases are reported in winter, from July to September. The AHS virus (AHSV is transmitted almost exclusively by Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae, of which Culicoides imicola is considered to be the most important vector. The over-wintering mechanism of AHSV is unknown. In this study, more than 500 000 Culicoides midges belonging to at least 26 species were collected in 88 light traps at weekly intervals between July 2010 and September 2011 near horses in the Onderstepoort area of South Africa. The dominant species was C. imicola. Despite relatively low temperatures and frost, at least 17 species, including C. imicola, were collected throughout winter (June–August. Although the mean number of midges per night fell from > 50 000 (March to < 100 (July and August, no midge-free periods were found. This study, using virus isolation on cell cultures and a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay, confirmed low infection prevalence in field midges and that the detection of virus correlated to high numbers. Although no virus was detected during this winter period, continuous adult activity indicated that transmission can potentially occur. The absence of AHSV in the midges during winter can be ascribed to the relatively low numbers collected coupled to low infection prevalence, low virus replication rates and low virus titres in the potentially infected midges. Cases of AHS in susceptible animals are likely to start as soon as Culicoides populations reach a critical level.

  2. Effect of living area and sports club participation on physical fitness in children: a 4 year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golle, Kathleen; Granacher, Urs; Hoffmann, Martin; Wick, Ditmar; Muehlbauer, Thomas

    2014-05-23

    Cross-sectional studies detected associations between physical fitness, living area, and sports participation in children. Yet, their scientific value is limited because the identification of cause-and-effect relationships is not possible. In a longitudinal approach, we examined the effects of living area and sports club participation on physical fitness development in primary school children from classes 3 to 6. One-hundred and seventy-two children (age: 9-12 years; sex: 69 girls, 103 boys) were tested for their physical fitness (i.e., endurance [9-min run], speed [50-m sprint], lower- [triple hop] and upper-extremity muscle strength [1-kg ball push], flexibility [stand-and-reach], and coordination [star coordination run]). Living area (i.e., urban or rural) and sports club participation were assessed using parent questionnaire. Over the 4 year study period, urban compared to rural children showed significantly better performance development for upper- (p = 0.009, ES = 0.16) and lower-extremity strength (p children continuously participating in sports clubs compared to their non-participating peers. Our findings suggest that sport club programs with appealing arrangements appear to represent a good means to promote physical fitness in children living in rural areas.

  3. Effect of living area and sports club participation on physical fitness in children: a 4 year longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Cross-sectional studies detected associations between physical fitness, living area, and sports participation in children. Yet, their scientific value is limited because the identification of cause-and-effect relationships is not possible. In a longitudinal approach, we examined the effects of living area and sports club participation on physical fitness development in primary school children from classes 3 to 6. Methods One-hundred and seventy-two children (age: 9–12 years; sex: 69 girls, 103 boys) were tested for their physical fitness (i.e., endurance [9-min run], speed [50-m sprint], lower- [triple hop] and upper-extremity muscle strength [1-kg ball push], flexibility [stand-and-reach], and coordination [star coordination run]). Living area (i.e., urban or rural) and sports club participation were assessed using parent questionnaire. Results Over the 4 year study period, urban compared to rural children showed significantly better performance development for upper- (p = 0.009, ES = 0.16) and lower-extremity strength (p children continuously participating in sports clubs compared to their non-participating peers. Conclusions Our findings suggest that sport club programs with appealing arrangements appear to represent a good means to promote physical fitness in children living in rural areas. PMID:24886425

  4. [Prediction model of meteorological grade of wheat stripe rust in winter-reproductive area, Sichuan Basin, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiang; Wang, Ming Tian; Zhang, Guo Zhi

    2017-12-01

    The winter reproductive areas of Puccinia striiformis var. striiformis in Sichuan Basin are often the places mostly affected by wheat stripe rust. With data on the meteorological condition and stripe rust situation at typical stations in the winter reproductive area in Sichuan Basin from 1999 to 2016, this paper classified the meteorological conditions inducing wheat stripe rust into 5 grades, based on the incidence area ratio of the disease. The meteorological factors which were biologically related to wheat stripe rust were determined through multiple analytical methods, and a meteorological grade model for forecasting wheat stripe rust was created. The result showed that wheat stripe rust in Sichuan Basin was significantly correlated with many meteorological factors, such as the ave-rage (maximum and minimum) temperature, precipitation and its anomaly percentage, relative humidity and its anomaly percentage, average wind speed and sunshine duration. Among these, the average temperature and the anomaly percentage of relative humidity were the determining factors. According to a historical retrospective test, the accuracy of the forecast based on the model was 64% for samples in the county-level test, and 89% for samples in the municipal-level test. In a meteorological grade forecast of wheat stripe rust in the winter reproductive areas in Sichuan Basin in 2017, the prediction was accurate for 62.8% of the samples, with 27.9% error by one grade and only 9.3% error by two or more grades. As a result, the model could deliver satisfactory forecast results, and predicate future wheat stripe rust from a meteorological point of view.

  5. Residuals, bioaccessibility and health risk assessment of PAHs in winter wheat grains from areas influenced by coal combustion in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Kai; Bao, Huanyu; Zhang, Xuechen; Shi, Taoran; Liu, Xueping; Wu, Fuyong

    2018-03-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination in atmospheric and soil was serious, which is mainly due to high level of emission of PAHs in China resulted from the predominating use of coal in energy consumption and continuous development of economy and society for years. However, the status of PAHs in winter wheat grains from the areas influenced by coal combustion in China was still not clear. During harvest season, the winter wheat grains were collected from agricultural fields surrounding coal-fired power plants located in Shaanxi and Henan Provinces. This study found that the mean concentrations of 15 priority PAHs ranged from 69.58 to 557.0μgkg -1 . Three-ring PAHs (acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, fluorene, phenanthrene and anthracene) were dominant in the grains, accounting for approximately 70-81% of the total PAHs. The bioaccessibility of low molecular weight (LMW, 2-3 ring) PAHs (51.1-52.8%), high molecular weight (HMW, 4-6 ring) PAHs (19.8-27.6%) and total PAHs (40.9-48.0%) in the intestinal condition was significantly (pvalues of incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) for children, adolescents, adults and seniors were all higher than the baseline value (10 -6 ) and some even fell in the range of 10 -5 -10 -4 , which indicated that most grains from the areas affected by coal combustion possessed considerable cancer risk. The present study also indicated that the children were the age group most sensitive to PAHs contamination. The pilot research provided relevant information for the regulation of PAHs in the winter wheat grains and for the safety of the agro-products growing in the PAHs-contaminated areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Winter weather demand considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Winter weather has varied effects on travel behavior. Using 418 survey responses from the Northern Virginia : commuting area of Washington, D.C. and binary logit models, this study examines travel related changes under : different types of winter wea...

  7. Winter temperatures in the second half of the sixteenth century in the central area of the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bullón

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the winter temperatures of the second part of the sixteenth century in the central area of the Iberian Peninsula. A large number of historical documents that are stored in many different Spanish archives were consulted in order to carry out this research. The data was first arranged and weighted according to the intensity and significance of the meteorological phenomena described and, subsequently, these values were assigned an ordinal index ranging from +4 to −4. The statistical treatment applied is based on the reconstruction of temperatures equivalent to this ordinal index, expressed as anomalies of the 1961–1990 period, belonging to a reference station located at the approximate geographical center of the area under study. The results show winter thermal conditions different from current ones that, for the most part, stay below the reference average and that occurred with a wide range of variability. The influence that thermal conditions had on the evolution of some environmental aspects are considered based on the forest exploitation problem information and on the wine harvest production.

  8. Evaluation of air temperature distribution using thermal image under conditions of nocturnal radiative cooling in winter season over Shikoku area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurose, Y.; Hayashi, Y.

    1993-01-01

    Using the thermal images offered by the infra-red thermometer and the LANDSAT, the air temperature distribution over mountainous regions were estimated under conditions of nocturnal radiative cooling in the winter season. The thermal image analyses by using an infra-red thermometer and the micrometeological observation were carried out around Zentsuji Kagawa prefecture. At the same time, the thermal image analyses were carried out by using the LANDSAT data. The LANDSAT data were taken on Dec. 7, 1984 and Dec. 5, 1989. The scenes covered the west part of Shikoku, southwest of Japan.The results were summarized as follows:Values of the surface temperature of trees, which were measured by an infra-red thermometer, were almost equal to the air temperature. On the other hand, DN values detected by LANDSAT over forest area were closely related with air temperature observed by AMeDAS. Therefore, it is possible to evaluate instantaneously a spatial distribution of the nocturnal air temperature from thermal image.The LANDSAT detect a surface temperature over Shikoku area only at 21:30. When radiative cooling was dominant, the thermal belt and the cold air lake were already formed on the mountain slopes at 21:30. Therfore, it is possible to estimate the characteristic of nocturnal temperature distribution by using LANDSAT data.It became clear that the temperature distribution estimated by thermal images offered by the infra-red thermometer and the LANDSAT was useful for the evaluation of rational land use for winter crops

  9. Increasing winter conductive heat transfer in the Arctic sea-ice-covered areas: 1979–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xieyu; Bi, Haibo; Wang, Yunhe; Fu, Min; Zhou, Xuan; Xu, Xiuli; Huang, Haijun

    2017-12-01

    Sea ice is a quite sensitive indicator in response to regional and global climate changes. Based on monthly mean Pan-Arctic Ice Ocean Modeling and Assimilation System (PIOMAS) sea ice thickness fields, we computed the conductive heat flux (CHF) in the Arctic Ocean in the four winter months (November-February) for a long period of 36 years (1979-2014). The calculated results for each month manifest the increasing extension of the domain with high CHF values since 1979 till 2014. In 2014, regions of roughly 90% of the central Arctic Ocean have been dominated by the CHF values larger than 18 W m-2 (November-December) and 12 W m-2 (January-February), especially significant in the shelf seas around the Arctic Ocean. Moreover, the population distribution frequency (PDF) patterns of the CHF with time show gradually peak shifting toward increased CHF values. The spatiotemporal patterns in terms of the trends in sea ice thickness and other three geophysical parameters, surface air temperature (SAT), sea ice thickness (SIT), and CHF, are well coupled. This suggests that the thinner sea ice cover preconditions for the more oceanic heat loss into atmosphere (as suggested by increased CHF values), which probably contributes to warmer atmosphere which in turn in the long run will cause thinner ice cover. This represents a positive feedback mechanism of which the overall effects would amplify the Arctic climate changes.

  10. Research on Time Selection of Mass Sports in Tibetan Areas Plateau of Gansu Province Based on Environmental Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jike

    2018-01-01

    Through using the method of literature review, instrument measuring, questionnaire and mathematical statistics, this paper analyzed the current situation in Mass Sports of Tibetan Areas Plateau in Gansu Province. Through experimental test access to Tibetan areas in gansu province of air pollutants and meteorological index data as the foundation, control related national standard and exercise science, statistical analysis of data, the Tibetan plateau, gansu province people participate in physical exercise is dedicated to providing you with scientific methods and appropriate time.

  11. An Automated Approach to Map Winter Cropped Area of Smallholder Farms across Large Scales Using MODIS Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meha Jain

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fine-scale agricultural statistics are an important tool for understanding trends in food production and their associated drivers, yet these data are rarely collected in smallholder systems. These statistics are particularly important for smallholder systems given the large amount of fine-scale heterogeneity in production that occurs in these regions. To overcome the lack of ground data, satellite data are often used to map fine-scale agricultural statistics. However, doing so is challenging for smallholder systems because of (1 complex sub-pixel heterogeneity; (2 little to no available calibration data; and (3 high amounts of cloud cover as most smallholder systems occur in the tropics. We develop an automated method termed the MODIS Scaling Approach (MSA to map smallholder cropped area across large spatial and temporal scales using MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI satellite data. We use this method to map winter cropped area, a key measure of cropping intensity, across the Indian subcontinent annually from 2000–2001 to 2015–2016. The MSA defines a pixel as cropped based on winter growing season phenology and scales the percent of cropped area within a single MODIS pixel based on observed EVI values at peak phenology. We validated the result with eleven high-resolution scenes (spatial scale of 5 × 5 m2 or finer that we classified into cropped versus non-cropped maps using training data collected by visual inspection of the high-resolution imagery. The MSA had moderate to high accuracies when validated using these eleven scenes across India (R2 ranging between 0.19 and 0.89 with an overall R2 of 0.71 across all sites. This method requires no calibration data, making it easy to implement across large spatial and temporal scales, with 100% spatial coverage due to the compositing of EVI to generate cloud-free data sets. The accuracies found in this study are similar to those of other studies that map crop production using automated methods

  12. THERAPEUTIC AND SPORT TRAINING OF SITTING VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS AS ONE OF THE SPECIFIC AREAS OF EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Kabok

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The motivation is one of the most important competents of the docility, it is the “propelling power” of our activities. People could be stimulated to do sportinfl uence on the personality is known- by a many different things. Sport means both happiness and the key of the independence for the people with physical impairment. With the help of our research’s results we would like to introduce what motivates physically impaired people to do regular sport.

  13. THERAPEUTIC AND SPORT TRAINING OF SITTING VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS AS ONE OF THE SPECIFIC AREAS OF EDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    Ida Kabok

    2007-01-01

    The motivation is one of the most important competents of the docility, it is the “propelling power” of our activities. People could be stimulated to do sportinfl uence on the personality is known- by a many different things. Sport means both happiness and the key of the independence for the people with physical impairment. With the help of our research’s results we would like to introduce what motivates physically impaired people to do regular sport.

  14. Combined Study of Snow Depth Determination and Winter Leaf Area Index Retrieval by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendzioch, Theodora; Langhammer, Jakub; Jenicek, Michal

    2017-04-01

    A rapid and robust approach using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) digital photogrammetry was performed for evaluating snow accumulation over different small localities (e.g. disturbed forest and open area) and for indirect field measurements of Leaf Area Index (LAI) of coniferous forest within the Šumava National Park, Czech Republic. The approach was used to reveal impacts related to changes in forest and snowpack and to determine winter effective LAI for monitoring the impact of forest canopy metrics on snow accumulation. Due to the advancement of the technique, snow depth and volumetric changes of snow depth over these selected study areas were estimated at high spatial resolution (1 cm) by subtracting a snow-free digital elevation model (DEM) from a snow-covered DEM. Both, downward-looking UAV images and upward-looking digital hemispherical photography (DHP), and additional widely used LAI-2200 canopy analyser measurements were applied to determine the winter LAI, controlling interception and transmitting radiation. For the performance of downward-looking UAV images the snow background instead of the sky fraction was used. The reliability of UAV-based LAI retrieval was tested by taking an independent data set during the snow cover mapping campaigns. The results showed the potential of digital photogrammetry for snow depth mapping and LAI determination by UAV techniques. The average difference obtained between ground-based and UAV-based measurements of snow depth was 7.1 cm with higher values obtained by UAV. The SD of 22 cm for the open area seemed competitive with the typical precision of point measurements. In contrast, the average difference in disturbed forest area was 25 cm with lower values obtained by UAV and a SD of 36 cm, which is in agreement with other studies. The UAV-based LAI measurements revealed the lowest effective LAI values and the plant canopy analyser LAI-2200 the highest effective LAI values. The biggest bias of effective LAI was observed

  15. Influences of meteorological conditions on interannual variations of particulate matter pollution during winter in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jianjun; Gong, Sunling; Liu, Hongli; An, Xingqin; Yu, Ye; Zhao, Suping; Wu, Lin; Song, Congbo; Zhou, Chunhong; Wang, Jie; Yin, Chengmei; Yu, Lijuan

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the interannual variations of particulate matter (PM) pollution in winter, this paper examines the pollution characteristics of PM with aerodynamic diameters of less than 2.5 and 10 μm (i.e., PM2.5 and PM10), and their relationship to meteorological conditions over the Beijing municipality, Tianjin municipality, and Hebei Province—an area called Jing-Jin-Ji (JJJ, hereinafter)—in December 2013-16. The meteorological conditions during this period are also analyzed. The regional average concentrations of PM2.5 (PM10) over the JJJ area during this period were 148.6 (236.4), 100.1 (166.4), 140.5 (204.5), and 141.7 (203.1) μg m-3, respectively. The high occurrence frequencies of cold air outbreaks, a strong Siberian high, high wind speeds and boundary layer height, and low temperature and relative humidity, were direct meteorological causes of the low PM concentration in December 2014. A combined analysis of PM pollution and meteorological conditions implied that control measures have resulted in an effective improvement in air quality. Using the same emissions inventory in December 2013-16, a modeling analysis showed emissions of PM2.5 to decrease by 12.7%, 8.6%, and 8.3% in December 2014, 2015, and 2016, respectively, each compared with the previous year, over the JJJ area.

  16. Linkage of the king eider population in Northeast Greenland: Migration, moult and discovery of a new offshore wintering area at Spitsbergenbanken

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, Anders; Johansen, Kasper Lambert; Sonne, Christian

    In late July 2009, two female king eiders were caught on the breeding grounds in Myggbukta, Northeast Greenland and equipped with satellite transmitters. Both individuals were tracked for approximately two years. The birds remained in the Myggbukta area until the onset of the autumn migration...... arrival 6 April) where they stayed for some time before returning on the spring migration to Greenland. During a ship-based survey in the offshore winter location at Spitsbergenbanken in April 2013, a previously unknown wintering ground with approximately 10.000 king eiders was discovered. The birds were...... concentrated in a partly ice-covered area 79 km from shore and of about 20 m depth. The number of king eiders indicated that Spitsbergenbanken is a wintering area for both the East Greenland and the Svalbard breeding populations. The discovery has important conservation implications due to the expanding...

  17. Ski areas affect Pacific marten movement, habitat use, and density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith M. Slauson; William J. Zielinski; Michael K. Schwartz

    2017-01-01

    Alpine ski recreation is one of the most popular outdoor winter sports globally but often involves habitat modification and dense human activity, both of which can harm wildlife. We investigated the effects of ski area development and winter recreation activities on movement, occupancy, and density of Pacific martens (Martes caurina) in the Lake...

  18. This is your brain on sports. Measuring concussions in high school athletes in the Twin Cities metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Sarah; Seymour, Leslie; Roesler, Jon; Glover, Lori; Kinde, Mark

    2014-09-01

    Concussions can have a negative impact on students' ability to perform in the classroom as well as on their health and well-being. Therefore, timely treatment is especially important. To better understand the scope of the problem in Minnesota, the Minnesota Department of Health piloted an online sports-related concussion reporting system in 36 public high schools in the Twin Cities metropolitan area. In the 2013-2014 academic year, 730 concussions were reported to our system from certified athletic trainers working with those schools, with one out of every 100 athletes sustaining concussions. From this, we estimated that 2,974 sports-related concussions occurred among high school athletes statewide. This information is useful for evaluating and guiding prevention efforts and for informing clinicians on how to treat concussions.

  19. Assessment of the mechanical properties of area-elastic sport surfaces with video analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Koning, J.J.; Nigg, B.M.; Gerritsen, K.G.M.

    1997-01-01

    Mechanical properties of a surface are assumed to he of importance with respect to injuries, comfort, and performance in sport. For a better understanding of the factors that do influence the etiology of injuries as well as comfort, a method was developed to compare mechanical characteristics of

  20. The Textile Industry and Sustainable Development: A Holt–Winters Forecasting Investigation for the Eastern European Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorel Paraschiv

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To achieve sustainable development, massive changes towards fostering a clean and pollution-reducing industrial sector are quintessential. The textile industry has been one of the main contributors to water pollution all over the world, causing more than 20% of the registered levels of water pollution in countries like Turkey, Indonesia and China (among the G20 group of countries and also in Romania and Bulgaria (in the Eastern European area, with even more than 44% in Macedonia. Given the controversy created by the textile industry’s contribution to pollution at a global level and also the need to diminish pollution in order to promote sustainable development, this paper comparatively investigates the contribution of the textile industry to the water pollution across Central and Eastern European countries, as well as developed countries. In addition, we employ the Holt–Winters model to forecast the trend of the total emissions of organic water pollutants, as well as of the textile industry’s contribution to pollution for the top polluters in Eastern Europe, i.e., Poland and Romania. According to our estimates, both countries are headed towards complete elimination of pollution caused by the textile industry and, hence, toward a more sustainable industrial sector, as Greenpeace intended with the release of its 2011 reports.

  1. Sports Physicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports Physicals KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports Physicals What's in ... beginning of your sports season. What Is a Sports Physical? In the sports medicine field, the sports ...

  2. Editorial - The winter Atomiades

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    As we wrote in our previous editorial, the Staff Association gives direct support to sports events, such as the Atomiades, a section of the Association of Sports Communities of European Research Institutes, which brings together sportsmen and women from 38 European research centres in 13 countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, United Kingdom, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Luxemburg, the Netherlands, Russia, and Switzerland). The summer Atomiades take place between the months of June and September every three years. Thirteen such events have taken place since 1973, the last one in June 2009 in Berlin. As far as the winter Atomiades are concerned, also organized every three years, and alternating with the summer Atomiades, there have been eleven since 1981, the last one at the end of January this year in neighbouring France. The following article tells the wonderful adventure of the CERN staff who took part in this event. A positive outcome for CERN skiers at the winter Atomiades The 11t...

  3. The impact of the Vancouver Winter Olympics on population level physical activity and sport participation among Canadian children and adolescents: population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Cora L; Bauman, Adrian E

    2014-09-03

    There has been much debate about the potential impact of the Olympics. The purpose of this study was to determine if hosting the 2010 Vancouver Olympic Games (OG) encouraged Canadian children to be physically active. Children 5-19 years (n = 19862) were assessed as part of the representative Canadian Physical Activity Levels Among Youth surveillance study between August 2007 and July 2011. Parents were asked if the child participated in organized physical activity or sport. In addition, children wore pedometers for 7 days to objectively provide an estimate of overall physical activity. Mean steps/day and percent participating in organized physical activity or sport were calculated by time period within year for Canada and British Columbia. The odds of participation by time period were estimated by logistic regression, controlling for age and sex. Mean steps were lower during the Olympic period compared with Pre- (607 fewer steps/day 95% CI 263-950 steps/day) and Post-Olympic (1246 fewer steps 95% CI 858-1634 steps) periods for Canada. There was no difference by time period in British Columbia. A similar pattern in mean steps by time period was observed across years, but there were no significant differences in activity within each of these periods between years. The likelihood of participating in organized physical activity or sport by time period within or across years did not differ from baseline (August-November 2007). The 2010 Olympic Games had no measurable impact on objectively measured physical activity or the prevalence of overall sports participation among Canadian children. Much greater cross-Government and long-term efforts are needed to create the conditions for an Olympic legacy effect on physical activity.

  4. The isotopic composition of precipitation from a winter storm – a case study with the limited-area model COSMOiso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yoshimura

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Stable water isotopes are valuable tracers of the atmospheric water cycle, and potentially provide useful information also on weather-related processes. In order to further explore this potential, the water isotopes H218O and HDO are incorporated into the limited-area model COSMO. In a first case study, the new COSMOiso model is used for simulating a winter storm event in January 1986 over the eastern United States associated with intense frontal precipitation. The modelled isotope ratios in precipitation and water vapour are compared to spatially distributed δ18O observations. COSMOiso very accurately reproduces the statistical distribution of δ18O in precipitation, and also the synoptic-scale spatial pattern and temporal evolution agree well with the measurements. Perpendicular to the front that triggers most of the rainfall during the event, the model simulates a gradient in the isotopic composition of the precipitation, with high δ18O values in the warm air and lower values in the cold sector behind the front. This spatial pattern is created through an interplay of large scale air mass advection, removal of heavy isotopes by precipitation at the front and microphysical interactions between rain drops and water vapour beneath the cloud base. This investigation illustrates the usefulness of high resolution, event-based model simulations for understanding the complex processes that cause synoptic-scale variability of the isotopic composition of atmospheric waters. In future research, this will be particularly beneficial in combination with laser spectrometric isotope observations with high temporal resolution.

  5. SEARCHING OF THE STUDENT WHO IS EDUCATED IN HIGH SCHOOL DOING SPORTS AND NOT’S RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THEIR CREATIVITY AND MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    Murat TEKİN; Özden TAŞĞIN

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this search is to present the differences between the creativity and multiple intelligence areas among the high-school level students who do sports and those who don’t.The group of this search is composed of totally 1000 students at 9th,10th and 11th grade that are 292 male students and 208 female students who do sports, 315 male students and 185 female students don’t do sports at the high schools in city centres of Afyon, Karaman, Kastamonu, Çorum, İstanbul, Batman, Kocaeli, M...

  6. Winter Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education Centers Harwood Training Grants Videos E-Tools Winter Storms Plan. Equip. Train To prevent injuries, illnesses and Fatalities during winter storms. This page requires that javascript be enabled ...

  7. Evaluation of winter food quality and its variability for red deer in forest environment: overwintering enclosures vs. free-ranging areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holá Michaela

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Populations of European ungulates have grown substantially over recent decades, resulting in considerable environmental and socio-economic impacts. Availability and quality of natural and supplemental food sources are among the main factors driving their population dynamics. Detailed knowledge of food quality of management-targeted species is therefore of primary importance for their successful management. The main aim of this study was to evaluate winter food quality and its variability for an important ungulate species in the Czech Republic - i.e. red deer, using faecal indices (faecal nitrogen, faecal acid detergent fibre, faecal neutral detergent fibre and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. We compared food quality for red deer and its possible differences between overwintering enclosures (i.e. fenced areas where red deer spend harsh winter conditions and neighbouring unfenced free-ranging areas within two study areas. The results obtained showed that winter food quality and its variability for red deer are of different quality and variability in the overwintering enclosure and neighbouring free-ranging area. The observed differences in concentrations and amounts of variation of faecal indices are most probably related to animal densities at individual study areas. Wildlife managers should therefore keep animals in overwintering enclosures at moderate densities and to provide high quality forage to all individuals in order to balance nutrition of both the individuals inside and outside the enclosures. Nevertheless, further studies are needed in order to provide deeper knowledge on red deer food quality and its variability in space and time.

  8. Early Season Large-Area Winter Crop Mapping Using MODIS NDVI Data, Growing Degree Days Information and a Gaussian Mixture Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skakun, Sergii; Franch, Belen; Vermote, Eric; Roger, Jean-Claude; Becker-Reshef, Inbal; Justice, Christopher; Kussul, Nataliia

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge on geographical location and distribution of crops at global, national and regional scales is an extremely valuable source of information applications. Traditional approaches to crop mapping using remote sensing data rely heavily on reference or ground truth data in order to train/calibrate classification models. As a rule, such models are only applicable to a single vegetation season and should be recalibrated to be applicable for other seasons. This paper addresses the problem of early season large-area winter crop mapping using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time-series and growing degree days (GDD) information derived from the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA-2) product. The model is based on the assumption that winter crops have developed biomass during early spring while other crops (spring and summer) have no biomass. As winter crop development is temporally and spatially non-uniform due to the presence of different agro-climatic zones, we use GDD to account for such discrepancies. A Gaussian mixture model (GMM) is applied to discriminate winter crops from other crops (spring and summer). The proposed method has the following advantages: low input data requirements, robustness, applicability to global scale application and can provide winter crop maps 1.5-2 months before harvest. The model is applied to two study regions, the State of Kansas in the US and Ukraine, and for multiple seasons (2001-2014). Validation using the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Crop Data Layer (CDL) for Kansas and ground measurements for Ukraine shows that accuracies of greater than 90% can be achieved in mapping winter crops 1.5-2 months before harvest. Results also show good correspondence to official statistics with average coefficients of determination R(exp. 2) greater than 0.85.

  9. Winter MVC

    OpenAIRE

    Castellón Gadea, Pasqual

    2013-01-01

    Winter MVC és un framework de presentació basat en Spring MVC que simplifica la metodologia de configuracions. Winter MVC es un framework de presentación basado en Spring MVC que simplifica la metodología de configuraciones. Winter MVC is a presentation framework that simplifies Spring MVC configuration methodology.

  10. Migration routes and stopover sites of the Eurasian Spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia between the Carpathian Basin and wintering areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pigniczki Csaba

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the migration routes of the Central European Spoonbill population is important for their conservation. Here we analysed movements of 3186 individuals of Eurasian Spoonbills marked with colour rings in the Carpathian Basin (Hungary, Croatia and Serbia between 2003 and 2015, and a satellite tagged individual, which was equipped in Italy in 2013, and later moved to the Carpathian Basin. Migration routes of these Spoonbills predominantly followed the Adriatic Flyway, however, some birds were also found to both east and west from this flyway. We identified 59 stopover sites, 55 of which were located along the Adriatic Flyway. Colourringed juveniles (1cy, on average, spent 4.0±0.9 (SE days on the stopover sites along the Adriatic Flyway during autumn migration, while non-juveniles (> 1cy spent 2.6±1.0 (SE days during autumn and 2.1±0.4 (SE days during spring migration there. These durations were not significantly different. Duration of stops of the satellite tracked individual was between 7 and 15 days during autumn and between 1 and 12 days during spring migration. Our results indicate the existence of two alternative routes of the Adriatic Flyway between the Carpathian Basin and the wintering areas in southern Italy and the central part of coastal North-Africa. The North-Adriatic Flyway includes stopover sites in north-eastern Italy at the river mouth of River Isonzo, Lagunes of Venice and wetlands around River Po. The South Adriatic Flyway leads through the Balkan Peninsula, with stopover sites at the karst lakes of Bosnia and Herzegovina, mouth of the river Neretva (Croatia, Ulcinj Salinas (Montenegro and wetlands in Gulf of Manfredonia (Italy. This hypothesis was also supported by the migration of the satellite tagged individual, the paths of which was described here in detail. The average coordinates of spring and autumn stopover sites were located at different parts of the flyway: it was in south-western Italy during autumn

  11. Winter Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Winter Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1992 and covered offshore areas from the Mid-Atlantic to Georges Bank. Inshore strata were covered...

  12. Observational tool to evaluate technician-tactical behavior in volleyball athletes in the base sport areas of Pinar del Rio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Rosa García-Hernández

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The volleyball, collective sport characterized by the cooperation-opposition in the obtaining of an ideal competitive performance level, has proven in the last decades a continuous and quick development based on the rules´ transformation that govern them; promoting changes in the methods and procedures trainings conception with reach that it consider the methodological systems for the technical and preparation tactics. The following research intend to search an own relevancy in the context of the initial formation and of the technical and tactical improvement in the high-performance levels that, it has the purpose to offer the volleyball trainers an evaluation tool to check the technician-tactical level of 10 and 12 years children in the base sport areas. In the same way, it hopes to contribute to the achievement of a bigger effectiveness in the technical-tactics evaluation in the initiation volleyball and to improve the theoretical - methodological conception of this evaluation component in the sportsman's preparation, as well as to incorporate instruments that provide it.

  13. Scaling the Equipment and Play Area in Children's Sport to improve Motor Skill Acquisition: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buszard, Tim; Reid, Machar; Masters, Rich; Farrow, Damian

    2016-06-01

    This review investigated the influence of scaling sports equipment and play area (e.g., field size) on children's motor skill acquisition. Peer-reviewed studies published prior to February 2015 were searched using SPORTDiscus and MEDLINE. Studies were included if the research (a) was empirical, (b) involved participants younger than 18 years, (c) assessed the efficacy of scaling in relation to one or more factors affecting skill learning (psychological factors, skill performance and skill acquisition factors, biomechanical factors, cognitive processing factors), and (d) had a sport or movement skills context. Risk of bias was assessed in relation to selection bias, detection bias, attrition bias, reporting bias and other bias. Twenty-five studies involving 989 children were reviewed. Studies revealed that children preferred using scaled equipment over adult equipment (n = 3), were more engaged in the task (n = 1) and had greater self-efficacy to execute skills (n = 2). Eighteen studies demonstrated that children performed skills better when the equipment and play area were scaled. Children also acquired skills faster in such conditions (n = 2); albeit the practice interventions were relatively short. Five studies showed that scaling led to children adopting more desirable movement patterns, and one study associated scaling with implicit motor learning. Most of the studies reviewed provide evidence in support of equipment and play area scaling. However, the conclusions are limited by the small number of studies that examined learning (n = 5), poor ecological validity and skills tests of few trials.

  14. Changing spaces for sports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kural, René

    2010-01-01

    The author argues that the fundamental values associated with sports seem to have changed. Accordingly spaces for sports are also undergoing change.The essay gives a number of examples of these new sports spaces. Their common denominator lies in their urban proximity, the combination of previously...... irreconcilable functions, high adaptability and the fact that they often make use of urban residual areas....

  15. Rapid Development of Sport and Sport Management at the Beginning of the Third Millennium

    OpenAIRE

    Irena Durdová

    2012-01-01

    Most people know through experience and intuition what the word „sport“ means. Sport includes a combination of these configurations when it involves team competitions, tournaments, or matches in dual sports or individual sports. Sport management - it is an area of professional endeavor in which a variety of sport-related managerial careers exist and it is also an area of academic professional preparation. Exists three unique aspects of sport management: sport marketing, sport enterprise finan...

  16. Late Quaternary aridity changes in the winter-rain areas on the Southern Hemisphere: inferences from the marine sediment archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuut, J.-B.; Temmesfeld, F.; Hebbeln, D.; Dedeckker, P.

    2012-04-01

    At present, the Southern Westerlies migrate zonally over the southern hemisphere through the seasons and cause winter rains in the generally dry west coasts of South America, South Africa, and the southern parts of Australia. On a geological time scale this winter-rain causing atmospheric system has shifted zonally as well, with a more equator-ward position during glacial times and a more pole-ward position during interglacial times. These glacial-interglacial changes are recorded in the marine sediment archive where aeolian dust and fluvial mud are deposited depending on the environmental conditions on land. Here we present aridity records from sediment cores off three continents on the southern hemisphere that register changes in runoff on different timescales throughout the late Quaternary. We demonstrate how the zonal movements of the atmospheric frontal systems dominate past environmental conditions and try to put these in a global context. The sediment records were retrieved from the sea floor at about the same latitude offshore the three large austral continents. The two aridity records off South America and South Africa show a pertinent southern-hemisphere signal with relatively wet glacials and dry interglacials, a pattern that is opposite to the general pattern on the northern hemisphere with dry glacials and wet interglacials. The record offshore northwestern Australia does not show the typical southern-hemisphere winter-rain pattern, which we explain by the strong influence of the Australian monsoon.

  17. The area of the Physical Education/ Sport Cciences in the era of the artistic or transaesthetic capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Camargo Silva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This book review presents the book “The world anesthetization: live in the era of the artistic capitalism” written by Gilles Lipovetsky and Jean Serroy, published in 2015, by Companhia das letras (publishing house. With an instigate analysis and its criticism about the relationship between the esthetic and the world in the capitalist context, the book contributes to the reflections related to the mediation between the Physical Education/ Sport Sciences and the body practices. Nowadays, the impact perceived in the artistic or transaesthetic capitalism in the styles of life, presented, carefully by the authors, allows the comprehension of multiples and widespread individualistic and hedonist ways to take care of himself/herself. This reality is still relevant to the debates among the academic and professional area.

  18. Developing Sport Psychology in a girls' sport academy curriculum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    What was gained during this process, as well as the associated challenges encountered, suggest possible areas for research as well as changes and adjustments which could be made in similar Sport Psychology curricula. Keywords: adolescent girls; curriculum; Life Orientation; life skills; sport; sport academy; sport ...

  19. Influence of vitamin D status on respiratory infection incidence and immune function during 4 months of winter training in endurance sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Cheng-Shiun; Handzlik, Michal; Fraser, William D; Muhamad, Ayu; Preston, Hannah; Richardson, Andrew; Gleeson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of vitamin D status on mucosal and systemic immunity and the incidence, severity and duration of upper respiratory tract illness (URTI) episodes in endurance athletes during a 16-week winter training period. Blood was collected from 225 subjects at the start of the study and plasma was analysed for total 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) and cathelicidin concentration. Blood was also collected at the end of the study and analysed for 25(OH)D and antigen-stimulated cytokine production. Unstimulated saliva samples were obtained at the start and at 4-week intervals during the study period. Saliva samples were analysed for salivary antimicrobial peptides and proteins (AMPs). Weekly training and daily illness logs were kept. At the start and end of the study 38% and 55%, respectively, of the athlete cohort had inadequate (plasma 25(OH)D 30-50 nmol/L) or deficient (plasma 25(OH)D 120 nmol/L) and the total number of URTI symptom days and the median symptom-severity score in the vitamin D deficient group was signifi- cantly higher than in the other groups. The plasma cathelicidin concentration positively correlated with the plasma 25(OH)D concentration and the saliva secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) secretion rate in the optimal vitamin D status group was significantly higher than in the other groups. Low vitamin D status was associated with lower pro-inflammatory cytokine production by monocytes and lymphocytes. Low vitamin D status could be an important determinant of URTI risk in endurance athletes and mucosal as well as systemic immunity may be modified via vitamin D-dependent mechanisms.

  20. Improving winter leaf area index estimation in evergreen coniferous forests and its significance in carbon and water fluxes modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R.; Chen, J. M.; Luo, X.

    2016-12-01

    Modeling of carbon and water fluxes at the continental and global scales requires remotely sensed LAI as inputs. For evergreen coniferous forests (ENF), severely underestimated winter LAI has been one of the issues for mostly available remote sensing products, which could cause negative bias in the modeling of Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and evapotranspiration (ET). Unlike deciduous trees which shed all the leaves in winter, conifers retains part of their needles and the proportion of the retained needles depends on the needle longevity. In this work, the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) was used to model GPP and ET at eight FLUXNET Canada ENF sites. Two sets of LAI were used as the model inputs: the 250m 10-day University of Toronto (U of T) LAI product Version 2 and the corrected LAI based on the U of T LAI product and the needle longevity of the corresponding tree species at individual sites. Validating model daily GPP (gC/m2) against site measurements, the mean RMSE over eight sites decreases from 1.85 to 1.15, and the bias changes from -0.99 to -0.19. For daily ET (mm), mean RMSE decreases from 0.63 to 0.33, and the bias changes from -0.31 to -0.16. Most of the improvements occur in the beginning and at the end of the growing season when there is large correction of LAI and meanwhile temperature is still suitable for photosynthesis and transpiration. For the dormant season, the improvement in ET simulation mostly comes from the increased interception of precipitation brought by the elevated LAI during that time. The results indicate that model performance can be improved by the application the corrected LAI. Improving the winter RS LAI can make a large impact on land surface carbon and energy budget.

  1. [Algal community structure and water quality assessment on drawdown area of Kaixian waters in Three Gorges Reservoir during winter storage period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing-Song; Xie, Dan; Li, Zhe; Chen, Yuan; Sun, Zhi-Yu; Chen, Yong-Bo; Long, Man

    2012-04-01

    The old town area of Kaixian county was flooded and showed reservoir characteristics after the water level of Three Gorges Reservoir got 172. 8 m in December 2008. The aquatic ecology and nutritional status of Kaixian drawdown area after water storage are still rarely reported. To understand the current water environment and changes in algal community structure of Kaixian drawdown area after 172.8 m water level, the algal composition, abundance, biomass distribution and changes of its sampling spots including Hanfeng Lake were observed twice during winter storage period in January and December 2009. The trends in phytoplankton community structure were analyzed and the water quality assessment of nutritional status was carried out. The results indicated that 6 phylums, 37 genera, 69 species of phytoplankton in total were identified in the two sampling, and the dominant species were Dinophyta and Cryptophyta. The cell density and biomass in December 2009 were lower than those in January 2009. The evaluation results of algal population structure and pollution indicators showed that the nutrition level of Kaixian drawdown area during the winter storage period was mesotrophic to eutrophic type, while diversity analysis result indicated moderate pollution.

  2. Sports Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports Supplements KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports Supplements What's in ... really work? And are they safe? What Are Sports Supplements? Sports supplements (also called ergogenic aids ) are ...

  3. Are Sport-Specific Profiles of Tendon Stiffness and Cross-Sectional Area Determined by Structural or Functional Integrity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Peter Wiesinger

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to determine whether distinct sets of tendon properties are seen in athletes engaged in sports with contrasting requirements for tendon function and structural integrity. Patellar and Achilles tendon morphology and force-deformation relation were measured by combining ultrasonography, electromyography and dynamometry in elite ski jumpers, distance runners, water polo players and sedentary individuals. Tendon cross-sectional area normalized to body mass2/3 was smaller in water polo players than in other athletes (patellar and Achilles tendon; -28 to -24% or controls (patellar tendon only; -9%. In contrast, the normalized cross-sectional area was larger in runners (patellar tendon only; +26% and ski jumpers (patellar and Achilles tendon; +21% and +13%, respectively than in controls. Tendon stiffness normalized to body mass2/3 only differed in ski jumpers, compared to controls (patellar and Achilles tendon; +11% and +27%, respectively and to water polo players (Achilles tendon only; +23%. Tendon size appears as an adjusting variable to changes in loading volume and/or intensity, possibly to preserve ultimate strength or fatigue resistance. However, uncoupled morphological and mechanical properties indicate that functional requirements may also influence tendon adaptations.

  4. SPECIAL EDUCATIONAL NEEDS AND SPORT. PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE INTERACTION BETWEEN COGNITIVE, AFFECTIVE-EMOTIONAL AND MOTOR AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedele Termini

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The practice of sport, intended not just as a physical activity performed exclusively for athletic competition, represents a key element for growth on an emotional and social level. Practicing sports can help to enhance one’s self- and body awareness through multidimensional dynamic and ludic activity. In this context, sport becomes an educational and training tool, and is often a forerunner of social change. Sports practice combining physical activity with recreational activity, can, in fact, promote health and longevity, as well as physical and psychological wellbeing. As highlighted by the European Union, sport is also a source of social inclusion, and an excellent tool for the integration of minorities and groups at risk of social exclusion.

  5. Concussion management in United States college sports: compliance with National Collegiate Athletic Association concussion policy and areas for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, Christine M; Kroshus, Emily; Daneshvar, Daniel H; Filali, Naji A; Hiscox, Michael J; Glantz, Leonard H

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) adopted its Concussion Policy and Legislation, which applies to more than 450,000 collegiate athletes annually. To date, there has been no examination of school-level compliance with the NCAA Concussion Policy. To examine whether stakeholders at NCAA schools report that their school has a concussion management plan and whether existing plans are consistent with the NCAA policy. Also examined were stakeholders' perceptions regarding concussion management at their institution and possible areas for improvement. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Surveys were sent by e-mail to coaches, sports medicine clinicians, and compliance administrators at all 1066 NCAA member institutions. Surveys asked population-specific questions about institutional concussion management. Individuals (N=2880) from 907 unique schools participated in this survey. Most respondents (n=2607; 92.7%) indicated their school had a concussion management plan. Most schools had all (82.1%) or some (15.2%) respondents indicate a concussion management plan was present. When asked to indicate all individuals who could have final responsibility for returning athletes to play after a concussion, 83.4% selected team doctor, 72.8% athletic trainer, 31.0% specialist physician, 6.8% coach, and 6.6% athlete. Most respondents (76.1%) indicated that their institution had a process for annual athlete concussion education; 91.2% required athletes to acknowledge their responsibility to report concussion symptoms. Nearly all respondents (98.8%) thought their school's concussion management plan protected athletes "well" or "very well." Top categories suggested for improvement included better coach education (39.7%), increasing sports medicine staffing (37.2%), and better athlete education (35.2%). Although a large majority of respondents indicated that their school has a concussion management plan, improvement is needed. Compliance with specified

  6. Weeds occurrence in areas submitted to distinct winter crops Ocorrência de plantas daninhas em áreas submetidas a manejos de inverno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Concenço

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Western Region of Brazil, it is usual to have two agricultural harvests in the same cropping season. Usually the first crop is soybean, followed by corn. In areas where corn is not planted due to a delayed harvest of soybean, farmers generally do not use winter crops. For these areas, the planting of winter oilseed crops aiming at the production of bio-fuels is one of the best alternatives; in addition, this would help in reducing the occurrence of weed species at the following summer crop. This study aimed to assessing the weed community in distinct winter crops post soybean crop, in terms of species composition, level of infestation and severity of occurrence. The following treatments were evaluated: agriculture under a no-till system with winter fallow, winter oilseed crops (crambe, radish, rapeseed with no-till agriculture in the summer, and agriculture under a conventional tillage system with winter fallow. Phytosociological evaluations of all treatments were carried out 75 DAE of the oilseed crops, and the diversity indexes of Margalef, Menhinick, Simpson, and Shannon-Weiner were determined. Areas were also grouped by cluster analysis based on UPGMA applied at Jaccard's similarity matrix. Among the treatments with winter coverage, radish was the most efficient crop in suppressing the occurrence of weed species. The area with conventional tillage agriculture and winter fallow allowed for a higher occurrence of troublesome weeds. On the other hand, the area under fallow showed the highest absolute level of infestation. Overall, oilseed crops in the winter contribute to lower levels of infestation by weed species in these areas.Na região Centro-Oeste do Brasil, é usual a obtenção de duas colheitas na mesma safra agrícola. Normalmente o primeiro cultivo é de soja, seguida por milho. Em áreas onde o milho não é cultivado devido à colheita tardia da soja, os produtores normalmente não utilizam culturas ou coberturas no per

  7. Winter is losing its cool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, S.

    2017-12-01

    Winter seasons have significant societal impacts across all sectors ranging from direct human health to ecosystems, transportation, and recreation. This study quantifies the severity of winter and its spatial-temporal variations using a newly developed winter severity index and daily temperature, snowfall and snow depth. The winter severity and the number of extreme winter days are decreasing across the global terrestrial areas during 1901-2015 except the southeast United States and isolated regions in the Southern Hemisphere. These changes are dominated by winter warming, while the changes in daily snowfall and snow depth played a secondary role. The simulations of multiple CMIP5 climate models can well capture the spatial and temporal variations of the observed changes in winter severity and extremes during 1951-2005. The models are consistent in projecting a future milder winter under various scenarios. The winter severity is projected to decrease 60-80% in the middle-latitude Northern Hemisphere under the business-as-usual scenario. The winter arrives later, ends earlier and the length of winter season will be notably shorter. The changes in harsh winter in the polar regions are weak, mainly because the warming leads to more snowfall in the high latitudes.

  8. DRUGS IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Mottram

    2005-12-01

    undergraduates and researchers in sports science. ASSESSMENT This book is almost a compulsory reading for anyone interested in drug in sport, performance in sport, drug treatment in sport injuries, actions of drugs, nutritional supplements in sport, doping control and rules, social/political viewpoint of drug usage, sports medicine and for those wishing to run comprehensive research in this and relevant areas. The fact that the contributors are leading international researchers in this field makes this book more welcome.

  9. Key Topics in Sports Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Key Topics in Sports Medicine is a single quick reference source for sports and exercise medicine. It presents the essential information from across relevant topic areas, and includes both the core and emerging issues in this rapidly developing field. It covers: 1) Sports injuries, rehabilitation and injury prevention, 2) Exercise physiology, fitness testing and training, 3) Drugs in sport, 4) Exercise and health promotion, 5) Sport and exercise for special and clinical populations, 6) The ps...

  10. Winter wheat yield estimation of remote sensing research based on WOFOST crop model and leaf area index assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanling; Gong, Adu; Li, Jing; Wang, Jingmei

    2017-04-01

    Accurate crop growth monitoring and yield predictive information are significant to improve the sustainable development of agriculture and ensure the security of national food. Remote sensing observation and crop growth simulation models are two new technologies, which have highly potential applications in crop growth monitoring and yield forecasting in recent years. However, both of them have limitations in mechanism or regional application respectively. Remote sensing information can not reveal crop growth and development, inner mechanism of yield formation and the affection of environmental meteorological conditions. Crop growth simulation models have difficulties in obtaining data and parameterization from single-point to regional application. In order to make good use of the advantages of these two technologies, the coupling technique of remote sensing information and crop growth simulation models has been studied. Filtering and optimizing model parameters are key to yield estimation by remote sensing and crop model based on regional crop assimilation. Winter wheat of GaoCheng was selected as the experiment object in this paper. And then the essential data was collected, such as biochemical data and farmland environmental data and meteorological data about several critical growing periods. Meanwhile, the image of environmental mitigation small satellite HJ-CCD was obtained. In this paper, research work and major conclusions are as follows. (1) Seven vegetation indexes were selected to retrieve LAI, and then linear regression model was built up between each of these indexes and the measured LAI. The result shows that the accuracy of EVI model was the highest (R2=0.964 at anthesis stage and R2=0.920 at filling stage). Thus, EVI as the most optimal vegetation index to predict LAI in this paper. (2) EFAST method was adopted in this paper to conduct the sensitive analysis to the 26 initial parameters of the WOFOST model and then a sensitivity index was constructed

  11. Migratory timing, rate, routes and wintering areas of White-crested Elaenia (Elaenia albiceps chilensis, a key seed disperser for Patagonian forest regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Patricia Bravo

    Full Text Available Migratory animals often play key ecological roles within the communities they visit throughout their annual journeys. As a consequence of the links between biomes mediated by migrants, changes in one biome could affect remote areas in unpredictable ways. Migratory routes and timing of most Neotropical austral migrants, which breed at south temperate latitudes of South America and overwinter closer to or within tropical latitudes of South America, have yet to be described in detail. As a result, our understanding about how these birds provide links between South American biomes is almost non-existent. White-crested Elaenia (Elaenia albiceps chilensis is a long-distance austral migrant that breeds in the Patagonian Forest biome and overwinters in tropical South America. Because this small flycatcher plays a key role in the regeneration of this ecosystem, our objective was to describe the annual cycle of White-crested elaenias to evaluate the degree of migratory connectivity between breeding and wintering areas and therefore to determine if there are specific biomes of northern South America linked by elaenias to Patagonian forests. Fifteen individuals were successfully tracked throughout a complete migration cycle using miniature light-level geolocators. All individuals resided and moved through the same general regions. During fall (March-April-May, elaenias were located in the Caatinga and the Atlantic Forest biomes, from Rio de Janeiro to the region near Salvador da Bahia, Brazil. During winter (June-July-Aug., birds were located further inland, within the Cerrado biome. Birds used three different routes during fall migration. Our results indicate that some individuals use a direct route, flying between 500-600 km/day, crossing desert and grasslands, while others took a detour, flying 100-200 km/day through forested areas with refueling opportunities. All birds used the Yunga forest during spring migration, with ten out of 15 individuals

  12. Dramatic intraspecific differences in migratory routes, stopover sites and wintering areas, revealed using light-level geolocators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmore, Kira E; Fox, James W; Irwin, Darren E

    2012-11-22

    Migratory divides are contact zones between breeding populations that use divergent migratory routes and have been described in a variety of species. These divides are of major importance to evolution, ecology and conservation but have been identified using limited band recovery data and/or indirect methods. Data from band recoveries and mitochondrial haplotypes suggested that inland and coastal Swainson's thrushes (Catharus ustulatus) form a migratory divide in western North America. We attached light-level geolocators to birds at the edges of this contact zone to provide, to our knowledge, the first direct test of a putative divide using data from individual birds over the entire annual cycle. Coastal thrushes migrated along the west coast to Mexico, Guatemala and Honduras. Some of these birds used multiple wintering sites. Inland thrushes migrated across the Rocky Mountains, through central North America to Columbia and Venezuela. These birds migrated longer distances than coastal birds and performed a loop migration, navigating over the Gulf of Mexico in autumn and around this barrier in spring. These findings support the suggestion that divergent migratory behaviour could contribute to reproductive isolation between migrants, advance our understanding of their non-breeding ecology, and are integral to development of detailed conservation strategies for this group.

  13. Sports and Technology. Resources in Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Fred W.

    1993-01-01

    Technology is making a significant impact in all areas of sports and recreation. New equipment and computer training methods in spectator sports have had a major social and economic impact, and individual sports have reaped the benefits of technology. (JOW)

  14. Social exclusion and Austerity policies in England: the role of sports in a new area of social polarisation and inequality?

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Mike; Haudenhuyse, Rein

    2015-01-01

    Poverty still counts as the core of social exclusion from sport and many other domains of people's lives. In the first part of this paper, we shortly describe the recent poverty trends in England, and identify groups that are more at-risk of being poor and socially excluded. We then focus on the relationship between poverty, social exclusion and leisure/sports participation, and describe a case study that addresses young people's social exclusion through the use of sports (i.e., Positive Futu...

  15. Sport Management Survey. Employment Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quain, Richard J.; Parks, Janet B.

    1986-01-01

    A survey of sport management positions was designed to determine projected vacancy rates in six sport management career areas. Respondents to the survey were also questioned regarding their awareness of college professional preparation programs. Results are presented. (MT)

  16. Problems of Sport Biomechanics and Robotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wlodzimierz S. Erdmann

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents many common areas of interest of different specialists. There are problems described from sport, biomechanics, sport biomechanics, sport engineering, robotics, biomechanics and robotics, sport biomechanics and robotics. There are many approaches to sport from different sciences and engineering. Robotics is a relatively new area and has had moderate attention from sport specialists. The aim of this paper is to present several areas necessary to develop sport robots based on biomechanics and also to present different types of sport robots: serving balls, helping to provide sports training, substituting humans during training, physically participating in competitions, physically participating in competitions against humans, serving as models of real sport performance, helping organizers of sport events and robot toys. Examples of the application of robots in sports communities are also given.

  17. Sports physical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000673.htm Sports physical To use the sharing features on this ... or routine checkups. Why do you Need a Sports Physical? The sports physical is done to: Find ...

  18. Team Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Paralysis > Health > Staying active > Team sports Team sports ☷ ▾ Page contents Basketball Quad rugby Sled hockey Softball ... Basketball Basketball is probably the most well-developed sport for wheelchair users in the United States, for ...

  19. Winter Wonderlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Listening to people complain about the hardships of winter and the dreariness of the nearly constant gray sky prompted the author to help her sixth graders recognize and appreciate the beauty that surrounds them for nearly five months of the year in western New York. The author opines that if students could see things more artistically, the winter…

  20. Sport tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Schwartzhoffová

    2010-01-01

    Sport tourism is one specific type of travel and tourism. The goal of this article is to introduce the definition and importance of sport tourism to academic and sports professionals. At present, sport tourism is a diverse social, economic and cultural phenomenon arising from the unique interaction of activity, people and place. The second part of this article reports about sports events as an important part of sport tourism.

  1. Assimilating a synthetic Kalman filter leaf area index series into the WOFOST model to improve regional winter wheat yield estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The scale mismatch between remotely sensed observations and crop growth models simulated state variables decreases the reliability of crop yield estimates. To overcome this problem, we used a two-step data assimilation phases: first we generated a complete leaf area index (LAI) time series by combin...

  2. Geography of a Sports Metropolis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feddersen, Arne; Ahlfeldt, Gabriel M.

    2010-01-01

    This study analyses the sports infrastructure of Hamburg, Germany, from the residents’ perspective. Empirical evidence is provided for the Sports Place Theory developed by BALE (2003) using a micro-level dataset of 1,319 sports facilities, which is merged with highly disaggregated data......, locations’ endowment of sports infrastructure is captured by potentiality variables, while accounting for natural and unnatural barriers. Given potential demand, central areas are found to be relatively underprovided with a sports infrastructure compared to peripheral areas where opportunity cost...... in the form of price of land is lower. The determinants of spatial distribution vary systematically across types of sports facilities. Publicly provided open sports fields and sport halls tend to be concentrated in areas of relatively low income which is in line with their social infrastructure character...

  3. SPORT MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Špirtović

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Word „marketing“ comes from AngloSaxon linguistic domain and implies in a narrow sense the market. Under marketing, we consider certain process, which should create and solve relations of exchange between manufacturers on one side, and consumers on the other. Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represents primaly an economical process of connecting produktion (sport organizations with sportsmen and coaches and consumption (sport and other public. Sport marketing is the reality in sport today, and cannot be observed as fashionabless of capitalistic production. Today is almost impossible for sport organization to make business without its business part called sport marketing if it wants to survive in sport arena.

  4. Neurologic emergencies in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Vernon B

    2014-12-01

    Sports neurology is an emerging area of subspecialty. Neurologists and non-neurologists evaluating and managing individuals participating in sports will encounter emergencies that directly or indirectly involve the nervous system. Since the primary specialty of sports medicine physicians and other practitioners involved in the delivery of medical care to athletes in emergency situations varies significantly, experience in recognition and management of neurologic emergencies in sports will vary as well. This article provides a review of information and elements essential to neurologic emergencies in sports for the practicing neurologist, although content may be of benefit to readers of varying background and expertise. Both common neurologic emergencies and less common but noteworthy neurologic emergencies are reviewed in this article. Issues that are fairly unique to sports participation are highlighted in this review. General concepts and principles related to treatment of neurologic emergencies that are often encountered unrelated to sports (eg, recognition and treatment of status epilepticus, increased intracranial pressure) are discussed but are not the focus of this article. Neurologic emergencies can involve any region of the nervous system (eg, brain, spine/spinal cord, peripheral nerves, muscles). In addition to neurologic emergencies that represent direct sports-related neurologic complications, indirect (systemic and generalized) sports-related emergencies with significant neurologic consequences can occur and are also discussed in this article. Neurologists and others involved in the care of athletes should consider neurologic emergencies in sports when planning and providing medical care.

  5. Ethics in sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Warren R; George, Michael S; Churchill, Larry; Spindler, Kurt P

    2007-05-01

    Physicians have struggled with the medical ramifications of athletic competition since ancient Greece, where rational medicine and organized athletics originated. Historically, the relationship between sport and medicine was adversarial because of conflicts between health and sport. However, modern sports medicine has emerged with the goal of improving performance and preventing injury, and the concept of the "team physician" has become an integral part of athletic culture. With this distinction come unique ethical challenges because the customary ethical norms for most forms of clinical practice, such as confidentiality and patient autonomy, cannot be translated easily into sports medicine. The particular areas of medical ethics that present unique challenges in sports medicine are informed consent, third parties, advertising, confidentiality, drug use, and innovative technology. Unfortunately, there is no widely accepted code of sports medicine ethics that adequately addresses these issues.

  6. Sport and Social Inequalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.; Farquharson, K.; Marjoribanks, T.

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews recent research on the relationship between sport and social inequalities, focusing on gender, race, nation and social mobility. Through an engagement with these areas of research, we highlight how sport reflects and reinforces broader hierarchical structures; how it serves as a

  7. A Conceptual Analysis of School Sports Development in Nigeria (Pp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Management of sports facilities and equipment d. Sports federation e. Associations and clubs f. Grassroots sports. While it is very important to examine the origin of policy prescription in PE and sports development in general, this paper will however focus more in the area of institutional sports growth. Education and sports ...

  8. Comparing Canadian and American Legislation and Litigation in the Area of Medical Malpractice in Sport and Recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutant, Monique; And Others

    This paper analyzes sport and fitness malpractice suits in the United States and Canada, emphasizing the responsibility of doctors, along with some application to physiotherapists, trainers, or athletic therapists. The number of suits is felt to be limited but growing rapidly in both countries. The issues discussed include duty to patients…

  9. Home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games 1976-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Darryl; Ramchandani, Girish

    2017-01-01

    There is a limited amount of home advantage research concerned with winter sports. There is also a distinct lack of studies that investigate home advantage in the context of para sport events. This paper addresses this gap in the knowledge by examining home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games. Using a standardised measure of success, we compared the performances of host nations at home with their own performances away from home between 1976 and 2014. Both country level and individual sport level analysis is conducted for this time period. Comparisons are also drawn with the Winter Olympic Games since 1992, the point from which both the Winter Olympic Games and the Winter Paralympic Games have been hosted by the same nations and in the same years. Clear evidence of a home advantage effect in the Winter Paralympic Games was found at country level. When examining individual sports, only alpine skiing and cross country skiing returned a significant home advantage effect. When comparing home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games with the Winter Olympic Games for the last seven host nations (1992-2014), we found that home advantage was generally more pronounced (although not a statistically significant difference) in the case of the former. The causes of home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games are unclear and should be investigated further.

  10. Sport Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Ekmekci, Ridvan; Ekmekçi, Aytul Yeter

    2009-01-01

    Abstract  Marketing which is entered to almost our whole life, now more than goods and services, became an important  concept of ideas, persons, institutions, events, and facilities. As a main activities of business co. marketing has an important place in sports industry. Recently, the development of special sport marketing strategies and the presentation of sport goods and services to consumers are gaining importance. Efforts of increasing income of sport clubs, because of sport organization...

  11. Sport Toekomstverkenning

    OpenAIRE

    Marieke van Bakel; Ine Pulles; Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Frank den Hertog; Robert Vonk; Casper Schoemaker

    2017-01-01

    Deze publicatie verschijnt enkel digitaal op www.sporttoekomstverkenning.nl. Welke maatschappelijke veranderingen beïnvloeden de sport in Nederland? Waar gaat het heen met de sport tussen nu en 2040? Welke kansen, maar ook keuzes biedt dit voor de sportsector en het sportbeleid? Deze vragen staan centraal in deze toekomstverkenning over sport die werd uitgevoerd door het RIVM en het SCP, op verzoek van het ministerie van Volksgezondheid, Welzijn en Sport (VWS). In de Sport Toekomstverken...

  12. THE HEURISTIC FUNCTION OF SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Petrović

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Being a significant area of human activity, sport has multiple functions. One of the more important functions of sport, especially top sport, is the inventive heuristic function. Creative work, being a process of creating new values, represents a significant possibility for advancement of sport. This paper aims at pointing at the various dimensions of human creative work, at the creative work which can be seen in sport (in a narrow sense and at the scientific and practical areas which borderline sport. The method of theoretical analysis of different approaches to the phenomenon of creative work , both in general and in sport, was applied in this paper. This area can be systematized according to various criterion : the level of creative work, different fields where it appears, the subjects of creative work - creators etc. Case analysis shows that the field of creative work in sport is widening and deepening constantly. There are different levels of creativity not only in the system of training and competition, but in a wider social context of sport as well. As a process of human spirit and mind the creative work belongs not just to athletes and coaches, but also to all the people and social groups who's creative power manifests itself in sport. The classification of creative work in sport according to various criterion allows for heuristic function of sport to be explained comprehensively and to create an image how do the sparks of human spirit improve the micro cosmos of sport. A thorough classification of creative work in sport allows for a detailed analysis of all the elements of creative work and each of it’s area in sport. In this way the progress in sport , as a consequence of innovations in both competitions and athletes’ training and of everything that goes with those activities, can be guided into the needed direction more easily as well as studied and applied.

  13. Report of the wintering party of the 45th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition, 2004-2005 -Activities at Syowa Station and the coastal area-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisao Yamagishi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The 45th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-45 wintering party, consisting of 40 members and 2 journalists, conducted the third year program of the VIth five-year plan of JARE at Syowa Station and inland Dome Fuji Station. The program included observations in meteorology, upper atmosphere physics, atmospheric sciences, glaciology, geophysics, biology and medical science, as well as logistic activities to support the observations and maintain the station from February 1, 2004 to January 31, 2005. An Intersat satellite station was installed at Syowa Station in this expedition and started various sevices such as data transfer, internet and TV conference system. Due to the unstable sea ice condition around Syowa Station and Ongul Strait, the start of the field activities on sea ice was delayed until early July. However, many teams were engaged in field work in biology, geophysics and atmospheric sciences in the coastal area of east Lutzow-Holm Bay, as well as aeroplane observations. Two journalists at Syowa Station reported on the nature of Antarctica and various activities of the expedition.

  14. SPORT FACILITIES - SPORT ACTIVITIES HARDWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Mašić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Realisation of sport activities always demanded certain conditions. Among those, sports facilities are certainly necessary. Since there were important changes in the process of training itself and successful performance, as well as, the results achieved by the sportsmen; there is a need for adequate sports facilities, that include whole variety of systems,equipment and necessities. Nowadays, Sport facilities are not only “the place of event”, but also a condition/necessity in achieving best sport results. It is demanded that these facilities are comfortable, absolutely secure and that they can accommodate transmissions: an opening, the course of sports activities and the announcement of the winner. The kind of sport activity, age, sex; so the “sports level” of the competitors is emphasising the specific demands to wards sports facilities.

  15. Comparing effects of Winter Universiade (2011) and European ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... both positive and negative effects of these two events have high averages. In other words, positive and negative effects were detected in both the Winter Universiade held in Erzurum and the European Youth Olympic Festival held in Trabzon. Key words: Mega sport events; Local spectator impressions; Winter Universiade; ...

  16. Wintering ecology of adult North American ospreys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Brian E.; Martell, Mark S.; Bierregaard, Richard O.; Henny, Charles J.; Dorr, Brian S.; Olexa, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    North American Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) typically migrate long distances to their wintering grounds in the tropics. Beyond the general distribution of their wintering range (i.e., the Caribbean, South America, and Central America), very little is known about the wintering ecology of these birds. We used satellite telemetry to determine the duration of wintering period, to examine the characteristics of wintering areas used by Ospreys, and to quantify space use and activity patterns of wintering Ospreys. Adult Ospreys migrated to wintering sites and exhibited high wintering site fidelity among years. Overall, Ospreys wintered on river systems (50.6%) more than on lakes (19.0%), and use of coastal areas was (30.4%) intermediate. Ospreys remained on their wintering grounds for an average of 154 d for males and 167 d for females. Locations of wintering Ospreys obtained via GPS-capable satellite telemetry suggest these birds move infrequently and their movements are very localized (i.e., 2 and 1.4 km2, respectively. Overall, our findings suggest wintering adult North American Ospreys are very sedentary, demonstrating a pattern of limited daily movements and high fidelity to a few select locations (presumably roosts). We suggest this wintering strategy might be effective for reducing the risk of mortality and maximizing energy conservation.

  17. Overview of sports vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Linda A.; Ferreira, Jannie T.

    2003-03-01

    Sports vision encompasses the visual assessment and provision of sports-specific visual performance enhancement and ocular protection for athletes of all ages, genders and levels of participation. In recent years, sports vision has been identified as one of the key performance indicators in sport. It is built on four main cornerstones: corrective eyewear, protective eyewear, visual skills enhancement and performance enhancement. Although clinically well established in the US, it is still a relatively new area of optometric specialisation elsewhere in the world and is gaining increasing popularity with eyecare practitioners and researchers. This research is often multi-disciplinary and involves input from a variety of subject disciplines, mainly those of optometry, medicine, physiology, psychology, physics, chemistry, computer science and engineering. Collaborative research projects are currently underway between staff of the Schools of Physics and Computing (DIT) and the Academy of Sports Vision (RAU).

  18. Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...

  19. Sports Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Playing sports can be fun, but it can also be dangerous if you are not careful. You can help ... you are healthy before you start playing your sport Wearing the right shoes, gear, and equipment Drinking ...

  20. SPORT MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    Omer Špirtović; Danilo Aćimović; Ahmet Međedović; Zoran Bogdanović

    2010-01-01

    Word „marketing“ comes from AngloSaxon linguistic domain and implies in a narrow sense the market. Under marketing, we consider certain process, which should create and solve relations of exchange between manufacturers on one side, and consumers on the other. Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represents primaly an eco...

  1. oh sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2017-03-01

    Sports play a very important and diverse role in the present-day global culture. On the occasion of the 105th anniversary of Coubertin’s Ode we would like to wish sports to return to the main words of the Ode and to correspond with them: “Oh sport, you are the peace”.

  2. Sport Biomechanist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Megan

    2005-01-01

    If you are an athlete or sports enthusiast, you know that every second counts. To find that 1-2% improvement that can make the difference between 1st and 5th place, sport biomechanists use science to investigate sports techniques and equipment, seeking ways to improve athlete performance and reduce injury risk. In essence, they want athletes to…

  3. WINTER SAECULUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Mihalina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Accumulated imbalances in the economy and on the markets cause specific financial market dynamics that have formed characteristic patterns kept throughout long financial history. In 2008 Authors presented their expectations of key macroeconomic and selected asset class markets developments for period ahead based on Saeculum theory. Use of term Secular describes a specific valuation environment during prolonged period. If valuations as well as selected macro variables are considered as a tool for understanding business cycles then market cycles become much more obvious and easily understandable. Therefore over the long run, certain asset classes do better in terms of risk reward profile than others. Further on, there is no need for frequent portfolio rebalancing and timing of specific investment positions within a particular asset class market. Current stage in cycle development suggests a need for reassessment of trends and prevailing phenomena due to cyclical nture of long lasting Saeculums. Paper reviews developments in recognizable patterns of selected metrics in current Winter Saeculum dominated with prevailing forces of delivering, deflation and decrease in velocity of money.

  4. Sports Related Injuries: Incidence, Management and Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Stanger, Michael A.

    1982-01-01

    The incidence of injury related to various sports is reviewed according to sport, area of injury, number of participants and hours per week spent at the sport. Organized sports accounted for fewer injuries than unsupervised recreational activities like tree climbing, skateboarding and running. The knee is the most commonly injured site. Sensitivity to patients' commitment to their sport is necessary: sometimes instead of rest, they can substitute a less hazardous form of exercise. Principles ...

  5. Winter Weather: Frostbite

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety During Fire Cleanup Wildfires PSAs Related Links Winter Weather About Winter Weather Before a Storm Prepare Your Home Prepare Your Car Winter Weather Checklists During a Storm Indoor Safety During ...

  6. Particulate matters emitted from maize straw burning for winter heating in rural areas in Guanzhong Plain, China: Current emission and future reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian; Shen, Zhenxing; Cao, Junji; Zhang, Leiming; Wu, Tingting; Zhang, Qian; Yin, Xiuli; Lei, Yali; Huang, Yu; Huang, R.-J.; Liu, Suixin; Han, Yongming; Xu, Hongmei; Zheng, Chunli; Liu, Pingping

    2017-02-01

    Maize straw smoldering in "Heated Kang" is the traditional way for heating in winter in rural areas of Guanzhong Plain. This smolder procedure produced large quantities of pollutants and got more and more concern from both public and researchers. In this study, on-site measurements of straw smoldering in a residence with a Chinese 'Heated Kang' (Scenario 1) were done to determine the emissions factors (EFs) for pollutants. Moreover, EFs of pollutants from an advanced stove fired with maize straw (Scenario 2) and maize-straw pellet (Scenario 3) had been conducted in a laboratory to find the new measure to reduce the pollution emissions. The results showed that the EFs of PM2.5 for three scenarios were 38.26 ± 13.94 g·kg- 1, 17.50 ± 8.29 g·kg- 1 and 2.95 ± 0.71 g·kg- 1, respectively. Comparing EFs of pollutants from 3 scenarios indicates that both briquetting of straw and advanced stove with air distribution system could efficiently reduce pollutants emission especially for Scenario 3. In detail, EFs of PM2.5, OC, EC and water soluble ions all have over 90% reduction between Scenarios 1 and 3. All particle-size distributions were unimodal, and all peaked in particle sizes size groups. Converting to pellets and advanced stoves for residential heating could reduce PM2.5 emission from 48.3 Gg to 3.59 Gg, OC from 19.0 Gg to 0.91 Gg, EC from 1.7 Gg to 0.17 Gg and over 90% reduction on total water soluble ions in the whole region. A box model simulation for the Guanzhong Plain indicated that this conversion would lead to a 7.7% reduction in PM2.5 (from 130 to 120 μg·m- 3) in normal conditions and a 14.2% reduction (from 350 to 300 μg·m- 3) in hazy conditions. The results highlighted that the straw pellets burning in advanced stove can effectively reduce pollutants emitted and improve the energy use efficiency in comparison with maize straw smoldering in "Heated Kang". The study supplies an effective measure to reduce the rural biomass burning emission, and this

  7. Sport Governance and Policy Development: An Ethical Approach to Managing Sport in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Thomas H.; Bodey, Kimberly J.; Judge, Lawrence W.

    2008-01-01

    "Sport Governance and Policy Development" is written with the sport management student in mind. Designed to address the curriculum standards set by the National Association for Sport and Physical Education and the North American Society for Sport Management, this book provides information to meet core and related competency areas required for the…

  8. Injuries in extreme sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laver, Lior; Pengas, Ioannis P; Mei-Dan, Omer

    2017-04-18

    Extreme sports (ES) are usually pursued in remote locations with little or no access to medical care with the athlete competing against oneself or the forces of nature. They involve high speed, height, real or perceived danger, a high level of physical exertion, spectacular stunts, and heightened risk element or death.Popularity for such sports has increased exponentially over the past two decades with dedicated TV channels, Internet sites, high-rating competitions, and high-profile sponsors drawing more participants.Recent data suggest that the risk and severity of injury in some ES is unexpectedly high. Medical personnel treating the ES athlete need to be aware there are numerous differences which must be appreciated between the common traditional sports and this newly developing area. These relate to the temperament of the athletes themselves, the particular epidemiology of injury, the initial management following injury, treatment decisions, and rehabilitation.The management of the injured extreme sports athlete is a challenge to surgeons and sports physicians. Appropriate safety gear is essential for protection from severe or fatal injuries as the margins for error in these sports are small.The purpose of this review is to provide an epidemiologic overview of common injuries affecting the extreme athletes through a focus on a few of the most popular and exciting extreme sports.

  9. Geoecological evaluation of Ravna planina in the function of winter tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golijanin Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Geoecological evaluation of Ravna planina terrain in the context of its industrial exploitation is carried out on the basis of previous geomorphological analysis. The evaluation of this area is carried out from the point of its possible exploitation in the function of winter tourism. Development of winter tourism is mostly conditioned by the morphometrical characteristics of the relief that is dominated by mountain areas in the first place, due to their hipsometric characteristics, and to the features of the terrain slope and exposure. Therefore, mountain areas have better preconditions for the development of this branch of tourism in comparison to the lowlying areas. This paper provides the evaluation of morphometrical characteristics of Ravna planina terrain, in the possible function of winter tourism development, using GIS. The paper tried to present the needs of certain branches of tourism (such as Alpine and Nordic skiing and different kinds of extreme ski disciplines as possible preconditions for winter sport tourism development. The evaluation in this paper is based on classification method that provided the scale of Ravna planina terrain relevant values.

  10. Sports Digitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Xiao; Hedman, Jonas; Tan, Felix Ter Chian

    2017-01-01

    evolution, as digital technologies are increasingly entrenched in a wide range of sporting activities and for applications beyond mere performance enhancement. Despite such trends, research on sports digitalization in the IS discipline is surprisingly still nascent. This paper aims at establishing......Ever since its first manifesto in Greece around 3000 years ago, sports as a field has accumulated a long history with strong traditions while at the same time, gone through tremendous changes toward professionalization and commercialization. The current waves of digitalization have intensified its...... a discourse on sports digitalization within the discipline. Toward this, we first provide an understanding of the institutional characteristics of the sports industry, establishing its theoretical importance and relevance in our discipline; second, we reveal the latest trends of digitalization in the sports...

  11. SPORT AND EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Lane

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION The book introduces the undergraduate psychology student to both academic and professional aspects of Sport and Exercise Psychology. It uses up to date research evidence, established theory and a variety of activities that help the student consider and understand academic and professional aspects of this particular academic discipline. PURPOSE The book aims to provide the undergraduate psychology student with a structured introduction to the subject area and an insight into the theoretical evidence and practical suggestions that underpin what a Sport and Exercise psychologist does. The book also aims to support one term or one semester courses in Sport and Exercise Psychology. It is also appropriate for Masters level courses. FEATURES The book begins with a chapter on applied sports psychology to give the reader an insight into the domain of sport psychology, providing an overview of the techniques that could be used. The next three chapters focus on mood, anxiety and self confidence, which influence performance. This leads on to four chapters that focus on managing psychological states. There is also a chapter on leadership which interestingly includes leadership development in coaches and in athletes. Two chapters focus on the effects of exercise on psychological states, providing a balance between the benefits and potential drawbacks. The final chapter examines the issue of placebo effects. Throughout each chapter there are useful activities than can help the reader's understanding of practical and theoretical issues. These also have practical implications for the work of a Sport and Exercise Psychologist. Key ethical issues are raised on a regular basis throughout the text. The book offers an excellent blend of theory and practical suggestions which are critically discussed thus giving valuable insights regarding the research process and applied practice which is often lacking in the more well known standard textbooks for Sport

  12. Sport and Mathematics: A Definition and Delineation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutz, Robert W.

    1980-01-01

    There are many areas within sport studies that require using mathematical analyses, which would foster a fuller understanding of the structure and strategy of sport and the development of quantitatively viable theories of motor development. (CJ)

  13. Parenting in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Camilla J; Berrow, Steffan R; Harwood, Chris G

    2017-08-01

    This paper provides a brief summary and commentary on the growing literature on parenting in sport, with a particular emphasis on literature from the last 2-3 years. Following a brief introduction overviewing the topic area, we firstly focus on the influence of parental involvement on children. Specifically, we examine the range of factors that influence children's perceptions of parental involvement and the consequences of different behaviors. Next we discuss the factors influencing parental involvement, such as the challenges and stressors associated with parenting children in sport and the culture within different sports. Finally, our review focuses upon the strategies developed by parents to facilitate their involvement in their children's sport, as well as the few papers focused upon parent education and support. We conclude by examining the need for further research and examination of support strategies for parents. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The effects of a winter upwelling on biogeochemical and planktonic components in an area close to the Galician Upwelling Core: The Sound of Corcubión (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Manuel; Álvarez-Ossorio, Ma Teresa; Bode, Antonio; Prego, Ricardo; Bernárdez, Patricia; Garcia-Soto, Carlos

    2010-10-01

    To study the biogeochemical response and the coupling plankton-benthos to an unusual winter upwelling event a cruise was carried out in February 2005 in the Sound of Corcubión, near Cape Finisterre (NW Iberian Peninsula), the Galician upwelling core. This area represents the northern boundary of the Eastern North Atlantic Upwelling System (ENAUS). The spatial distribution of plankton assemblages (phytoplankton and zooplankton), chlorophyll, physical and chemical parameters as well as diatom distribution in surface sediments, were studied in a total of 17 stations in the Sound. The upwelling processes caused an important accumulation of water in the inner Sound and near the Cape. This accumulation zone must be persistent through the upwelling events in the area, including those of summer, as indicated by the diatoms' distribution in the sediment. Unlike the summer upwelling events, the main effect of winter upwelling in the area is the increase in solar radiation due to the persistent clear skies. In this season nutrient supply is not critical due to water column mixing. The meteorological conditions were equivalent to those of early spring. As a result, both phyto- and zooplankton species assemblages were typical of spring blooms in Galician coasts. The bloom lasted for up to 6 days, as estimated from the availability and uptake of nitrogen forms. Winter blooms represented ca. 20% of total annual phytoplankton biomass, and 30% of the average biomass during summer upwelling, in the period 1997-2007, as estimated from the analysis of both, in situ and satellite derived chlorophyll.

  15. Sustainability of winter tourism in a changing climate over Kashmir Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Reyaz Ahmad; Rashid, Irfan; Romshoo, Shakil Ahmad; Marazi, Asif

    2014-04-01

    Mountain areas are sensitive to climate change. Implications of climate change can be seen in less snow, receding glaciers, increasing temperatures, and decreasing precipitation. Climate change is also a severe threat to snow-related winter sports such as skiing, snowboarding, and cross-country skiing. The change in climate will put further pressure on the sensitive environment of high mountains. Therefore, in this study, an attempt has been made to know the impact of climate change on the snow precipitation, water resources, and winter tourism in the two famous tourist resorts of the Kashmir Valley. Our findings show that winters are getting prolonged with little snow falls on account of climate change. The average minimum and maximum temperatures are showing statistically significant increasing trends for winter months. The precipitation is showing decreasing trends in both the regions. A considerable area in these regions remains under the snow and glacier cover throughout the year especially during the winter and spring seasons. However, time series analysis of LandSat MODIS images using Normalized Difference Snow Index shows a decreasing trend in snow cover in both the regions from past few years. Similarly, the stream discharge, comprising predominantly of snow- and glacier-melt, is showing a statistically significant declining trend despite the melting of these glaciers. The predicted futuristic trends of temperature from Predicting Regional Climates for Impact Studies regional climate model are showing an increase which may enhance snow-melting in the near future posing a serious threat to the sustainability of winter tourism in the region. Hence, it becomes essential to monitor the changes in temperature and snow cover depletion in these basins in order to evaluate their effect on the winter tourism and water resources in the region.

  16. Sport Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhouse, Bonnie L., Ed.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Traditional teaching and coaching positions have become scarce but the expanding field of sport management has created its own job market, demanding new skills and preparation. Three articles are offered that explore different aspects and possibilities for a sport management career. (DF)

  17. Sports Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri State Dept. of Health, Jefferson City.

    This guide deals with various aspects of sports and nutrition. Twelve chapters are included: (1) "Sports and Nutrition"; (2) "Eat to Compete"; (3) "Fit Folks Need Fit Food"; (4) "The Food Guide Pyramid"; (5) "Fat Finder's Guide"; (6) "Pre- and Post-Event Meals"; (7) "Tips for the…

  18. Sport Toekomstverkenning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marieke van Bakel; Ine Pulles; Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Frank den Hertog; Robert Vonk; Casper Schoemaker

    2017-01-01

    Deze publicatie verschijnt enkel digitaal op www.sporttoekomstverkenning.nl. Welke maatschappelijke veranderingen beïnvloeden de sport in Nederland? Waar gaat het heen met de sport tussen nu en 2040? Welke kansen, maar ook keuzes biedt dit voor de sportsector en het sportbeleid? Deze vragen

  19. Teaching Sport as History, History through Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Robert F.

    1978-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate history course based on two themes: sport as a reflection of society and sport as a socializing agent affecting society. The course focuses on sports and industrialization, traditional and modern sports, political and economic aspects of sport, and inequality and discrimination in sports. (Author/JK)

  20. ETHICS AND CHANGES IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovo Radoš

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Ethics, as a practical philosophy, is found in essential relationships and relations with other relevant practical disciplines (economics, law, politics, sport, etc.. Every human activity is ethically grounded. Therefore, human ethics, which includes sport ethics, is one of the fundamental criteria for establishing moral relations in different are as of sport life. Sport morale stems from a universally accepted ethics legal principles that aim at maintaining sport spirit based on the Olympics codex and humanity principles, among which are: consciousness and honesty, righteousness, cultural-behavior principle, openness, and the like. Changes in sport (organizational, structural, competition, etc. need to be adequately adjusted to universal, and generally accepted, values. Avoiding deontological ethics inevitably leads to increased sports immorality (referees_ fixing match results, spectators_ aggressive behavior, cheating using for bidden doping, etc.. Thus, projecting and introducing innovations in the field of sport, which, after all, are necessary and unavoidable in all areas of life, including sport, will eventually show its positive results only if the aforementioned aspects of sport ethics are taken into consideration.

  1. [Winter surveillance of cold exposure effects on health among the homeless population in the Paris area: data from the Coordinated Health Surveillance of Emergency Department network (Organisation de la surveillance coordonnée des urgences [Oscour(®)])].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouquette, A; Mandereau-Bruno, L; Baffert, E; Laaidi, K; Josseran, L; Isnard, H

    2011-12-01

    A program for helping homeless individuals in winter is implemented from November 1(st) to March 31(st) each year in France. Its aim is to prevent morbidity and mortality in this population during cold spells and periods of severe cold. A health surveillance system of the homeless population in the Paris area has been proposed to evaluate the effectiveness of the program and to alert decision-makers if an unusual increase in cold-weather effects is observed. The goal of this study was the creation of an indicator for the proposed surveillance system based on emergency department activity in the Paris area (Oscour(®) Network - Organisation de la surveillance coordonnée des urgences). The winter 2007-2008 computer medical files of 11 emergency departments in the Paris area were examined to confirm diagnosis and ascertain patient-homelessness for each patient visit which was selected from the Oscour(®) database by the patient chief-complaint or diagnosis code referring to hypothermia or frostbites. The proposed indicator is based on the maximization of three criteria: the positive predictive value, the proportion of people identified as being homeless and the number of emergency department visits. A Shewhart control chart was applied to the indicator for the four winters between 2005 and 2009 in the Paris area. Values beyond the statistical threshold would indicate a need for an adjustment to the program strategy. Two hundred and sixteen medical files were analyzed. An indicator was created, "number of emergency department visits of 15 to 69-years-old persons with chief-complaint or diagnosis code referring to hypothermia". It had a positive predictive value estimated near 85 % and identified 61.7 % people as being homeless. In the winter of 2008-2009, the statistical threshold was reached in December during the first cold spell, and again at the beginning of January during a period of severe cold. Our results support the use of this health indicator

  2. [Sports injuries in children. Epidemiologic study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Boullay, C T; Bardier, M; Cheneau, J; Bortolasso, J; Gaubert, J

    1984-01-01

    Among 49 000 cases of infantile emergencies which were received in the BUCI (Bloc d'urgence chirurgical infantile: surgical infantile emergency unit), 5 546 were sport traumas. At an early age, they were caused by outdoor plays; during adolescence, the main cases were caused by team sports. Males are predominant. The number of cases has been regularly progressing, particularly since 1976. The fashion in sports is influenced by médias (i.e. skate board), and can be opposed to the continuous practice of popular sports (swimming, ball games, bycicle. There are winter, summer, school timed sports (the latter being influenced by the sportive scholar associations). The most frequent sports are cycling, football playing, swimming and horse riding, athleticism skating, Other are occasionnal. Changes in sport fashions, female increasing participation, such as horse riding and skating, democratisation (skiing, riding), the worsening of traumas; the pathology concerning bystanders, are described. Cranial and peripheric pathology are dominant. Trunk traumas are scarce but severe. Each sport has an elective pathologic localisation. Injury mechanisms are found, such as stirrup, saddle, ski baton pathology. There is traumatologic similarities; skate board and roller skating; judo and atheleticism; cycling and horse riding. Sport in children is not a replica of the one among adults. Riding a bike is not cycling. Some sports are dangerous: cycling, horse riding, rugby. A traumatological outline is revealed. Preventive measures should be taken. The socio-economical cost is heavy.

  3. Perceived Impacts of Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANNIS DOUVIS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available It was the purpose of this preliminary project to measure how individuals perceive the impacts of sport in such areas as the economy, the environment, culture, community image and the quality of life, among other areas. The instrument was initially field tested in 1999 with a sample of 702 residents in the North eastern part of the United States. Their views suggest that they perceive sports to make a generally positive contribution to their communities and the local region. Some negative impacts were also identified, mostly of an environmental nature. However, the findings suggest that sports for the most part are perceived to play a major role in the lives of people and contribute in significant ways to the economy, and community pride.

  4. Sport-specific balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemková, Erika

    2014-05-01

    This review includes the latest findings based on experimental studies addressing sport-specific balance, an area of research that has grown dramatically in recent years. The main objectives of this work were to investigate the postural sway response to different forms of exercise under laboratory and sport-specific conditions, to examine how this effect can vary with expertise, and to provide examples of the association of impaired balance with sport performance and/or increasing risk of injury. In doing so, sports where body balance is one of the limiting factors of performance were analyzed. While there are no significant differences in postural stability between athletes of different specializations and physically active individuals during standing in a standard upright position (e.g., bipedal stance), they have a better ability to maintain balance in specific conditions (e.g., while standing on a narrow area of support). Differences in magnitude of balance impairment after specific exercises (rebound jumps, repeated rotations, etc.) and mainly in speed of its readjustment to baseline are also observed. Besides some evidence on an association of greater postural sway with the increasing risk of injuries, there are many myths related to the negative influence of impaired balance on sport performance. Though this may be true for shooting or archery, findings have shown that in many other sports, highly skilled athletes are able to perform successfully in spite of increased postural sway. These findings may contribute to better understanding of the postural control system under various performance requirements. It may provide useful knowledge for designing training programs for specific sports.

  5. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF PEDIATRIC SPORTS INJURIES: INDIVIDUAL SPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Caine

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the book is to review comprehensively what is known about the distribution and determinants of injury rates in a variety of individual sports, and to suggest injury prevention measures and guidelines for further research. This book provides comprehensive compilation and critical analysis of epidemiological data over children's individual sports: including equestrian, gymnastics, martial arts, skiing and snowboarding, tennis, track and field, and wrestling. This book encourages coaches and sports administrators to discuss rules, equipment standards, techniques, and athlete conditioning programs. In turn, they can inform parents about the risks and how they can help their children avoid or limit injury in sports. A common, uniform strategy and evidence-based approach to organizing and interpreting the literature is used in all chapters. All the sports-specific chapters are laid out with the same basic headings, so that it is easy for the reader to find common information across chapters. Chapter headings are: 1 Epidemiology of children's individual sports injuries, 2 Equestrian injuries, 2 Gymnastics injuries, 3 Martial arts injuries, 4 Skiing and snowboard injuries, 5 Tennis injuries, 6 Track and field injuries, 7 Wrestling injuries, 8 Injury prevention and future research. Chapter headings include: i Incidence of injury, ii Injury characteristics, iii Injury severity, iv njury risk factors, v Suggestions for injury prevention, vi Suggestions for further research. In each sports-specific chapter, an epidemiological picture has been systematically developed from the data available in prospective cohort, retrospective cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. The tables are numerous, helpful and very useful. The book provides a very useful resource for sport scientist, pediatricians, family practitioners and healthcare professionals in the field of child and adolescent injury and prevention The readers are going to

  6. STRATEGIC APPROACHES TO CHANGES OF ENVIRONMENT\\ OF SPORTS ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojša Maksimović

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Determining acceptable strategic goals requires analysis of the position of a sports organization within the sport world and wider business environment. A range of trends may affect development prospects and business activities of an organization. There are possibilities of population fluctuation (e.g. purchase power of winter sports practitioners, trends of economy, technological development, and legislation (e.g. prohibition of tobacco and alcohol advertisements, or activities of special interest groups (e.g. development of violence in sport. After clarifying its mission and goals, management of a sports organization reveals that some factors are important, while series of others are not

  7. OR Challenges in Major Sport Events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barros, A.I.

    2012-01-01

    Although the origins of Operations Research are usually linked to the military, nowadays successful applications in different areas of the society (business, industrial, health sector and sports) can be found. In particular, applications in sports like sport tactics and strategy, scheduling and

  8. Sport Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotee, March L.

    1980-01-01

    Sport psychology is defined in terms of human behavior in athletic situations. The psychosocial cross-cultural setting provides a model for studying trait and state psychosocial attributes and suggests issues and concerns for further study. (JMF)

  9. [Sports purpura].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluger, Nicolas

    2012-10-01

    Recreational or regular physical and sport activities may be responsible for a wide range of cutaneous complications. Among them, "sports purpura" is a peculiar symptom that can occur during a large number of sports. "Effort purpura" defines any purpura occurring within the context of physical exercise irrespective of its cause. Therefore this clinical diagnosis includes various aetiologies. Diagnosis of traumatic purpura is often easy if the sport is mentioned in the anamnesis; cutaneous exercise - induced vasculitis must be also noted. Purpura can reveal systemic diseases or internal haemorrhage, such as spleen rupture, thrombopathies or systemic vasculitis, and other effort purpuras must be taken into account, including those related to the environment (cold, sun exposure...). Knowledge of a physical activity before the occurrence of purpura should be known by practitioner to avoid unnecessary and costly explorations in most of the cases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Sport Technology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kirkbride, T

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Technology is transforming the games themselves and at times with dire consequences. Tony Kirkbride, Head: CSIR Technology Centre said there are a variety of sports technologies and there have been advances in material sciences and advances...

  11. Rapportage sport 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koen Breedveld; Carlijn Kamphuis; Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst

    2008-01-01

    Sport boeit. Sport bindt. Sport bevordert de gezondheid. En sport betaalt. Sport is anno 2008 ongekend populair. Tweederde van de Nederlanders doet aan sport. Na zwemmen en fietsen is fitness de meest populaire sport geworden. Daarnaast zetten anderhalf miljoen Nederlanders zich als vrijwilliger

  12. Winter Weather Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health ... Although there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect ...

  13. Winter maintenance performance measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Winter Performance Index is a method of quantifying winter storm events and the DOTs response to them. : It is a valuable tool for evaluating the States maintenance practices, performing post-storm analysis, training : maintenance personnel...

  14. Sports Accidents

    CERN Document Server

    Kiebel

    1972-01-01

    Le Docteur Kiebel, chirurgien à Genève, est aussi un grand ami de sport et de temps en temps médecin des classes genevoises de ski et également médecin de l'équipe de hockey sur glace de Genève Servette. Il est bien qualifié pour nous parler d'accidents de sport et surtout d'accidents de ski.

  15. CONSIDERATIONS ON MANAGERIAL ETHICS IN SPORTS ORGANIZATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Mihai Constantin Razvan BARBU; Liviu CRACIUN

    2012-01-01

    The scholarly literature in the ethics field approaches the ethical management issue in different areas such as accounting, retail, banking, public institutions or private companies. The subject of sports managers’ ethics is not very well highlighted in the national literature, as "sports industry" is constantly evolving. Sports have a strong impact on the national culture, influencing the values of millions of spectators and participants. The definition of sports given by the Council of Euro...

  16. 36 CFR 1002.19 - Winter activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Winter activities. 1002.19... RECREATION § 1002.19 Winter activities. (a) Skiing, snowshoeing, ice skating, sledding, innertubing.... (c) Failure to abide by area designations or activity restrictions established under this section is...

  17. SPORTS WATCHING CULTURE AMONG MALAYSIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunathevan Elumalai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ardent sports watching will lead an individual to engage in sports and recreational activities continuously, while it also creates a sports culture among Malaysians. Sports watching culture is actually an intellectual activity. It is capable of evaluating behaviour, moral values and the level of appreciation of every spectator. Methods: This survey was conducted to identify the sports viewing culture among Malaysians. A cluster sampling method was used to select 6000 respondents from 30 million Malaysian population. Respondents were selected from urban (50% and rural areas (50%. Ethnically 56% were Malays, Sarawak and Sabah natives were 11%, Chinese 25% and finally Indians 7%. The respondents age categories were 12 to 19 years (30%, 20 to 25 years (50%, 56 and above (20%. A questionnaire developed by the research team was used to collect data. The quantitative data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 21.0 for windows. Results: The findings indicate that from 5864 respondents who answered the questionnaire in full, a total of 4553 people or 77.6% watch sporting events, while a total of 1311 people or 22.4% have stated not watching any sports activities. Comparison by gender showed that 85.2% of the 2482 males watch sports events while among the female 70.2% of the 2071 watch sports events. In the category of those who do not watch, the female are higher at 29.8% than the males at 14.8%. In terms of ethnicity the Malays 80.2%. Chinese 64.6%, Indians 81.9%, natives of Sabah 94.0%, natives of Sarawak 77.6% like to watch sports events. Residential locations showed no significant differences as 78.7% of urban respondents watch sports events compared to 76.8% of rural communities. Conclusion: The findings indicated that majority of Malaysians having fun in watching sports activities. Gender still plays a role in the involvement and enjoyment of sports events either as a player or supporter. Ethnicity

  18. Decontamination and winter conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quenild, C.; Tveten, U.

    1984-12-01

    The report deals with two decontamonation experiments under winter conditions. A snow-covered parking lot was contaminated, and the snow was subsequently removed using standard snow-moving equipment. The snow left behind was collected and the content of contaminant was determined. A non-radioactive contaminant was used. A decontamination factor exceeding 100 was obtained. Although the eksperimental conditions were close to ideal, it is reason to believe that extremely efficient removal of deposited materials on a snow surface is achivable. In another investigation, run-off from agricultural surface, contaminated while covered with snow, was measured A lycimeter was used in this experiment. A stable layer of ice and snow was allowed to form before contamination. The run-off water was collected at each thaw period until all snow and ice was gone. Cs-134 was used as contaminant. Roughly 30% of the Cs-134 with which the area was contaminated ran off with the melt water. Following a reactor accident situation, this would have given a corresponding reduction in the long term doses. Both of these experiments show that consequence calculation assumptions, as they are currently applied to large accident assessment, tend to overestimate the consequences resulting from accidents taking place under winter conditions

  19. Winter-to-winter variations in indoor radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mose, D.G.; Mushrush, G.W.; Kline, S.W.

    1989-01-01

    Indoor radon concentrations in northern Virginia and central Maryland show a strong dependence on weather. Winter tends to be associated with higher than average indoor radon, and summer with lower than average. However, compared to the winter of 1986-1987, the winter of 1987-1988 was warmer and drier. Consequently, winter-to-winter indoor radon decreased by about 25%. This winter-to-winter decrease is unexpectedly large, and simulates winter-to-summer variations that have been reported

  20. Descriptive epidemiology of Paralympic sports injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webborn, Nick; Emery, Carolyn

    2014-08-01

    Paralympic sports have seen an exponential increase in participation since 16 patients took part in the first Stoke Mandeville Games on the opening day of the 1948 London Olympic Games. More than 4,000 athletes took part in the London 2012 Paralympic Games. Few sporting events have seen such rapid evolution. This rapid pace of change also has meant challenges for understanding the injury risks of participation, not only because of the variety of sports, impairment types, the evolution of adapted equipment but also because of the inclusion of additional impairment types and development of new sports over time. Early studies were limited in scope but patterns of injuries are slowly emerging within Winter and Summer Paralympic sports. The IPC's London 2012 study is the largest to date with a prospective cohort study involving 49,910 athlete-days. The results identified large differences across sports and highlighted the need for longitudinal sport specific studies rather than solely games-time studies. This will require collaboration with international sports federations to examine injury patterns and risk factors for injury in this population to appropriately inform injury prevention strategies. Further studies will also need to address the impact of sporting participation, injury, and future health. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. State of the Science-Ultraendurance Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Martin D

    2016-09-01

    Participation in ultraendurance sports has been increasing in recent years. This participation growth has been associated with an increase in research focused on such events. While the total amount of research related to these sports remains relatively small compared with other sports, the research growth is encouraging. New sources for research funding for ultraendurance sports should advance the science. In addition to continued opportunities with observational studies, promising areas of investigation remain for experimental studies and research that uses ultraendurance-sport environments as models for studies relevant to wider populations. Insight into the breadth of research opportunities in ultraendurance sports can be gained by reviewing the abstracts published online in the International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance from the annual Medicine & Science in Ultra-Endurance Sports Conference that took place this year in Chamonix, France.

  2. [Epidemiology, treatment and results of proximal humeral fractures: experience of a district hospital in a sports- and tourism area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonderegger, J; Simmen, H-P

    2003-02-01

    The epidemiology, therapy and results of proximal humeral fractures in a touristic area were investigated and our concept for treatment presented. Between 1.1.1999 and 30.04.2000 adult patients with proximal humeral fractures were included, the fractures classified (Codman/Neer and AO) and results determined after an average of 9 months. 62 adults were treated. 59 (95 %) had an accident during leisure time, mainly skiing accidents (52 %). 7 patients (11 %) had an associated luxation of the shoulder. 51 (82 %) were treated conservatively, 11 (18 %) operatively with a T-plate. The conservatively treated had to wear a Gilchrist-cast for an average of 29 (operatively 13) days, started passive movement after 20 (operatively 9) days, and active movement after 44 (operatively 45) days. The 32 employed (52 %) were not able to work for 46 days on average. Overall, 52 patients (84 %) were totally or mostly satisfied with the result. 5 among the 13 patients (38.5 %) with 3- or 4-part-fractures, and 4 among the 11 operated patients (36.4 %) were not satisfied with the result. Proximal humeral fractures are common skiing injuries, they need a long and intensive treatment and are economically expensive. The Codman/Neer and AO-classifications are equal. The results for simple, mainly conservatively treated fractures (Codman/Neer 1, 2A, 2-part) are good. Complex, mainly operatively treated fractures (Codman/Neer 3- and 4-part) have a much poorer prognosis. Diagnostically the computed tomography with 3-D-reconstruction is recommended for a better representation of the fracture and a safer choice of the therapeutical strategy.

  3. Facial Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Facial Sports Injuries Facial Sports Injuries Patient Health Information News ... should receive immediate medical attention. Prevention Of Facial Sports Injuries The best way to treat facial sports ...

  4. Postharvest tillage reduces Downy Brome infestations in winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Pacific Northwest, downy brome continues to infest winter wheat producing regions especially in low-rainfall areas where the winter wheat-summer fallow rotation is the dominate production system. In Washington, a study was conducted for 2 years at each of two locations in the winter wheat -su...

  5. Sports Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.

    This document presents the Ohio Integrated Technical and Academic Competency profile for sports marketing. The profile is to serve as the basis for curriculum development in Ohio's secondary, adult, and postsecondary programs. The profile includes a comprehensive listing of 999 specialty key indicators for evaluating mastery of 113 competencies in…

  6. Racquet Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebas, Carole J., Ed.; Groppel, Jack L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    In six articles on racquet sports, the origins of the games are traced, methods for teaching skills such as footwork, racquetball strategy, and badminton techniques are discussed, and the biomechanics of the one- and two-handed backhand in tennis are reviewed. Information about paddle tennis is included. (PP)

  7. Sports Ballistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clanet, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    This review describes and classifies the trajectories of sports projectiles that have spherical symmetry, cylindrical symmetry, or (almost) no symmetry. This classification allows us to discuss the large diversity observed in the paths of spherical balls, the flip properties of shuttlecocks, and the optimal position and stability of ski jumpers.

  8. Interfacing Sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tem Frank

    This study tries to map out the possible interplay between interactive digital media (including mobile and wearable technologies) and sport as performance and participation. The ambition is to create a model providing the analytical framework for understanding questions like "are we running...

  9. Sports Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... motivator. Physically, you need strength and endurance. Your training will vary with your sport. You would not train the same way for pole vaulting as for swimming. You might, however, cross train. Cross training simply means that you include a variety of ...

  10. Meeting the global demand of sports safety: the intersection of science and policy in sports safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpka, Toomas; Finch, Caroline F; Goulet, Claude; Noakes, Tim; Yammine, Kaissar

    2008-01-01

    Sports and physical activity are transforming, and being transformed by, the societies in which they are practised. From the perspectives of both competitive and non-competitive sports, the complexity of their integration into today's society has led to neither sports federations nor governments being able to manage the safety problem alone. In other words, these agencies, whilst promoting sport and physical activity, deliver policy and practices in an uncoordinated way that largely ignores the need for a concurrent overall policy for sports safety. This article reviews and analyses the possibility of developing an overall sports safety policy from a global viewpoint. Firstly, we describe the role of sports in today's societies and the context within which much sport is delivered. We then discuss global issues related to injury prevention and safety in sports, with practical relevance to this important sector, including an analysis of critical policy issues necessary for the future development of the area and significant safety gains for all. We argue that there is a need to establish the sports injury problem as a critical component of general global health policy agendas, and to introduce sports safety as a mandatory component of all sustainable sports organizations. We conclude that the establishment of an explicit intersection between science and policy making is necessary for the future development of sports and the necessary safety gains required for all participants around the world. The Safe Sports International safety promotion programme is outlined as an example of an international organization active within this arena.

  11. Constraints to leisure travel and visitation to natural areas: An international comparison of four cities.In: Chavez, Deborah J.; Winter, Patricia L.; Absher, James D., eds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick T. Tierney; Deborah J. Chavez; James D. Absher

    2008-01-01

    Leisure travel and visitation to natural areas and constraints to undertaking these activities are important concerns for recreation resource managers and tourism businesses. Surveys were administered to Los Angeles, Barcelona, Glasgow, and Morelia, Mexico, residents to ascertain leisure travel and undeveloped natural area visitation levels and constraints. A...

  12. Is Hosting the Games Enough to Win? A predictive economic model of medal wins at 2014 Winter Olympics

    OpenAIRE

    Wladimir Andreff

    2012-01-01

    An econometric model which has first been estimated on medal wins at Summer Olympics and has predicted 88% of medal distribution at Beijing Games 2008, is revisited for Winter Olympics. After changing some variables to take into account the winter sports specificity, the model is estimated again on all Winter Games since 1964.Then it is used to predict (forecast) the medal distribution per country at the 2014 Sochi Winter Olympics.

  13. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN GLOBALIZATION AND SPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senem ÇEYİZ

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We live in a world of rapid change. Although the most obvious examples of this change are seen in technology, it, in fact, has permeated all areas of life. When viewed from an international perspective, it is possible to say that almost all of the borders in many areas - particularly economic, social and cultural - in the world have disappeared due to the impact of technology. Nowadays the process which is seen as the source of all these changes and interactions is referred to as globalization. The word globalization has often been used as a multidimensional concept . Today, owin g to the process of globalization in many areas , spatial distances are almost diminished, so much so that the developments which take place at one end of the world may affect another country at the other end . The effects of globalization are as visible in the sports field as in many other areas. Sports is becoming more and more industrialized day by day . Live broadcasting of several sporting events has quite a large audience all over the world. Many foreign ath letes take part in national teams by changing their nationalities . It can also be argued that as much as globalization has an impact on sports today so does sports on globalization. The concepts inherent in sports like performance , competition, breaking re cords have created a common language recognized all over the world, a situation which serves to accelerate globalization.

  14. A developmental overview of child and youth sports in society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryer, B K; Tofler, I R; Lapchick, R

    1998-10-01

    This article provides a brief review of sport participation for children and adolescents from psychological, physical, and social developmental perspectives. The following areas are reviewed: the relationship between normal developmental readiness and sporting participation; the potential positive and negative aspects of athletic participation for the child and adolescent; the effects of sporting participation on self-concept; potential adverse physical and psychological effects; recent research regarding motivation for youth sports participation; proposed recommendations for guidelines in youth sport programs; a social perspective on sports in the United States; the current and future role of child and adolescent psychiatrists; and future challenges for sport psychiatry.

  15. Volunteers in Sport Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VESNA CILERDZIC

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The research is done in order to describe student’s attitudes on volunteering in sport. The sample consists of 231 students from Serbia, average age 21,06±3,12years. They were from eight colleges and faculties. For nominal and ordinal variables, frequencies were determined. Many of examined students have volunteering experiences. The results confirm that students believe that we live in a society which his generally thought only to its own benefit; they think that volunteering can not solve the problems in society; that people do not have enough experience with volunteering and people do not have time to volunteering; volunteering is for young people; in their family and among friends, there are no volunteers; everyone could be volunteer only if that wishes; do not believe that volunteering is a waste of time and it helps in future career. The prevalent number of students, regardless of the Faculty which they belong, rarely volunteered in areas outside of sport. Results also shows that students from sport faculties have less experience in volunteering in sport than students from other faculties, but this difference is not dramatic.

  16. Formation of National Identity through Sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Per

    The area of Danish national consciousness, national feelings or nationalism which was culturally expressed and formed through sport journalism is examined in the period 1908-1960.......The area of Danish national consciousness, national feelings or nationalism which was culturally expressed and formed through sport journalism is examined in the period 1908-1960....

  17. Onepoto sports changing facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Byrd, Hugh

    2011-01-01

    Located in the centre of a small extinct volcano, the sports changing rooms are the focus for community activities. The construction exploits natural and local products such as the volcanic rock contained in stainless steel gabions. The roof awnings serve several purposes: to increase rainwater harvesting area, to provide shade for spectator seating and for solar panels. Short-listed for the NZIA sustainability award.

  18. Winters fuels report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The outlook for distillate fuel oil this winter is for increased demand and a return to normal inventory patterns, assuming a resumption of normal, cooler weather than last winter. With industrial production expected to grow slightly from last winter's pace, overall consumption is projected to increase 3 percent from last winter, to 3.4 million barrels per day during the heating season (October 1, 1995-March 31, 1996). Much of the supply win come from stock drawdowns and refinery production. Estimates for the winter are from the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) 4th Quarter 1995 Short-Tenn Energy Outlook (STEO) Mid-World Oil Price Case forecast. Inventories in place on September 30, 1995, of 132 million barrels were 9 percent below the unusually high year-earlier level. Inventories of high-sulfur distillate fuel oil, the principal type used for heating, were 13 percent lower than a year earlier. Supply problems are not anticipated because refinery production and the ready availability of imports should be adequate to meet demand. Residential heating off prices are expected to be somewhat higher than last winter's, as the effects of lower crude oil prices are offset by lower distillate inventories. Heating oil is forecast to average $0.92 per gallon, the highest price since the winter of 1992-93. Diesel fuel (including tax) is predicted to be slightly higher than last year at $1.13 per gallon. This article focuses on the winter assessment for distillate fuel oil, how well last year's STEO winter outlook compared to actual events, and expectations for the coming winter. Additional analyses include regional low-sulfur and high-sulfur distillate supply, demand, and prices, and recent trends in distillate fuel oil inventories

  19. Writing lives in sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh

    Writing lives in sport is a book of stories about sports-persons. The people concerned include sports stars, sports people who are not quite so famous, and relatively unknown physical education teachers and sports scientists.Writing lives in sport raises questions about writing biographies...... in the academis world of sport studies. It does not set out to be a methodological treatise but through the writing of lives in sports does raise questions of method. Each essay in this collection deals with problems of writing sports-people's lives. These essays could be said to fall along a spectrum from those...

  20. Report on Sport 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koen Breedveld; Rob Goossens; Maarten van Bottenburg; Wil Ooijendijk; Vincent Hildebrandt; Maarten Stiggelbout; Jo Lucassen; Hugo van der Poel

    2003-01-01

    Original title: Rapportage Sport 2003. There has been a huge increase in the interest in sport in recent decades. The number of people taking part in sport has grown strongly and more sport is broadcast on television than ever before. The government has invested a great deal in sport, not

  1. [Sports injuries in German club sports, Aspects of epidemiology and prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, T; Luig, P; Schulz, D

    2014-06-01

    Almost one of four Germans is registered in a sports club. Nowadays, sport is acknowledged as an integral component of a healthy lifestyle. Numerous studies provide evidence of the benefits of sports on health. However, about 2 million sports injuries per year diminish the health benefits of sport. (a) Description of the epidemiology of sports injuries in German sports club between 1987 and 2012 and (b) identification of focal areas for the development and implementation of prevention measures. Continuous questionnaire-based injury monitoring of club sports injuries that have been reported to the respective sports insurance. Full survey among selected federal sports associations. Since 1987, a sample of 200,884 sports injuries has been established. About two thirds of the injuries are reported in soccer, handball, basketball, and volleyball, although only one third of all sports club members are registered in these team sports. The number of women's soccer injuries has risen from 7.5 to 15.6 %. Ankle injuries have decreased from 28.7 to 16.9 %. By contrast, the rate of knee injuries has increased from 18.4 to 20.3 %. Days of disability have dropped steadily since the 1990s. Inpatient hospital days have decreased from 10 to 5 days, whereas the share of injuries that needed surgery increased from 30 to 40 %. Team ball sports are still a clear focal area for injury prevention, as participation and injury risk are highest in this group. While the prevention of ankle injuries seems to be headed in the right direction, knee injuries are increasing. As team ball sports become more popular among women, who are more prone to severe knee injuries, prevention programs should be tailored toward the specific situation and needs of the targeted sports participants.

  2. [PM2.5 pollution and aerosol optical properties in fog and haze days during autumn and winter in Beijing area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiu-Juan; Pu, Wei-Wei; Meng, Wei; Ma, Zhi-Qiang; Dong, Fan; He, Di

    2013-02-01

    A study on the PM2.5 pollution and aerosol optical properties in haze-fog days was carried out from Sep. 1st to Dec. 7th, 2011 in Beijing area by using PM2.5 concentration, aerosol scattering coefficient (sigma sca) and absorption coefficient (sigma abs) measured under urban and rural environment. The effect of weather condition on the PM25 pollution and aerosol optical properties was discussed as well. The results showed that the PM2.5 concentration, sigma sca and sigma abs, were evidently higher in haze-fog days than those in non-haze-fog days. The average PM2.5 concentrations in haze-fog days with values of 97.6 microg m-3 and 64.4 microg.m-3 were as 3.3 and 4.8 times as those in non-haze-fog days at urban and rural stations, respectively. The higher PM2.5 concentration in urban area resulted in the more frequent fog and haze phenomena than that in rural area. The PM25 concentration, sigma sca, and sigma abs were significantly higher in urban area than that in rural area in mist days, while relatively close in mist-haze days. This difference suggested that the effect of regional transport of pollution was relatively evident in mist-haze days but weak in mist day. In fog days the sigma sca showed no evident difference between urban and rural area, and was the highest in all types of fog and haze weather. The scattering property of aerosol was the strongest in fog days. The different weather conditions resulted in various characteristics of spatial distribution of PM2.5 concentration, sigma sca and sigma abs, as well as the strength of PM2,5 pollution and aerosol extinction. The pollutants transported by the strong southwest wind above the boundary layer and subsided in the boundary layer companying with the local accumulation of pollutants due to the weak diffusion resulted in the most serious haze-fog episode with the strongest PM2.5 pollution and aerosol extinction.

  3. Modern psychological science to sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem I. Kovalev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In April 2015 the 7th All-Russian Festival of Student Sport took place. It was established seven years ago by the decision of the Academician V.A. Sadovnichy, rector of Lomonosov Moscow State University. This year the sports festival has embraced more than two hundreds of higher education institutions of the Russian Federation. A variety of sporting events with the participation of undergraduate and graduate students, performances by famous athletes, delivery standards and other sport events allowed to attract both participants and spectators of all ages, professional sports facilities and the degree of preparedness. A distinctive feature of the Festival’2015 was the fact of timing the celebration of the 70th anniversary of Victory in the 1941-1945Great Patriotic War in Russia. As a result, the program of the festival in addition to traditional sports and competitive events also includes sports and patriotic elements, i.e. trips to places of military glory, lectures and discussion clubs devoted to the development of sport and athletes during the war. Another innovation this year was held in the framework of the festival of scientific-practical conference “Fundamental science – sport”. The interdisciplinary nature of the conference allowed to unite representatives of different areas of knowledge, e.g. psychologists, biologists, doctors, philosophers and educators. The wide coverage of the audience and the speakers allowed to hold the conference in the format of online video simultaneously with the Tomsk State University, St. Petersburg State University, Southern Federal University and Perm State Humanitarian Teacher-Training University. To emphasize the importance of both fundamental and practical research, the conference was divided into two parts: the plenary session which highlighted the important methodological issues of interaction between science and sport, and the youth section of the conference that included reports on the

  4. Climatic potential for tourism in the Black Forest, Germany--winter season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endler, Christina; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2011-05-01

    Climate change, whether natural or human-caused, will have an impact on human life, including recreation and tourism among other things. In this study, methods from biometeorology and tourism climatology are used to assess the effect of a changed climate on tourism and recreation in particular. The study area is the Black Forest mountainous region of south-west Germany, which is well known for its tourist and recreational assets. Climate model projections for the 2021-2050 period based on REMO-UBA simulations with a high spatial resolution of 10 km are compared to a 30-year reference period (1971-2000) using the IPCC emission scenarios A1B and B1. The results show that the mean winter air temperature will increase by up to 1.8°C, which is the most pronounced warming compared to the other seasons. The annual precipitation amount will increase marginally by 5% in the A1B scenario and 10% in the B1 scenario. Winter precipitation contributes about 10% (A1B) and 30% (B1) to variations in annual precipitation. Although the results show that winter precipitation will increase slightly, snow days affecting skiing will be reduced on average by approximately 40% due to regional warming. Cold stress will be reduced on average by up to 25%. The result is that the thermal environment will be advanced, and warmer winters are likely to lead to an upward altitudinal shift of ski resorts and winter sport activities, thus displacing land-use currently dedicated to nature conservation.

  5. Climatic potential for tourism in the Black Forest, Germany — winter season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endler, Christina; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2011-05-01

    Climate change, whether natural or human-caused, will have an impact on human life, including recreation and tourism among other things. In this study, methods from biometeorology and tourism climatology are used to assess the effect of a changed climate on tourism and recreation in particular. The study area is the Black Forest mountainous region of south-west Germany, which is well known for its tourist and recreational assets. Climate model projections for the 2021-2050 period based on REMO-UBA simulations with a high spatial resolution of 10 km are compared to a 30-year reference period (1971-2000) using the IPCC emission scenarios A1B and B1. The results show that the mean winter air temperature will increase by up to 1.8°C, which is the most pronounced warming compared to the other seasons. The annual precipitation amount will increase marginally by 5% in the A1B scenario and 10% in the B1 scenario. Winter precipitation contributes about 10% (A1B) and 30% (B1) to variations in annual precipitation. Although the results show that winter precipitation will increase slightly, snow days affecting skiing will be reduced on average by approximately 40% due to regional warming. Cold stress will be reduced on average by up to 25%. The result is that the thermal environment will be advanced, and warmer winters are likely to lead to an upward altitudinal shift of ski resorts and winter sport activities, thus displacing land-use currently dedicated to nature conservation.

  6. Behavior Management in Physical Education, Recreation, and Sport: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavay, Barry

    1986-01-01

    This bibliography contains references specifically pertaining to physical education, recreation, or sport and to behavior management. The references are classified into areas of behavior management overview, reinforcement systems, motor performance, physical fitness, recreation, and sport. (MT)

  7. New Perspectives of Corporate Identity in Sports Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Voráček

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the topic of corporate identity in sports. The main objective of this paper is to present new views, trends and tools in building a desirable image for sports organizations using corporate identity tools, including some selected areas relating to the brand. The main points of this paper include corporate design, communication, culture and sports organizations’ product. These tools are all linked and transformed into the creation of a cool brand for a new generation of athletes and consumers – the so-called Generation Y of sports. This group is becoming a new economically important group for many companies in sports, as well as many sports organizations. The Sports industry is heavily dependent on the new generation of athletes in all performance levels, and sport fans. Therefore, it is necessary to constantly be innovating new corporate identity tools with a focus on the sports area.

  8. Organochlorines and mercury in livers of great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) wintering in northeastern Mediterranean wetlands in relation to area, bird age, and gender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goutner, V.; Becker, P.H.; Liordos, V.

    2011-01-01

    Wild birds are exposed to pollutants in their habitats. Top consumers of aquatic environments such as the fish-eating great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) are especially affected due to the bioaccumulation of toxic substances in their tissues. This study analysed the livers of 80 great cormorants from Greece to estimate the concentration of organochlorines and mercury and to examine their possible toxic effects and origin. The results showed that mercury (geometric mean 8089 ng g -1 dw), p,p'-DDE (2628 ng g -1 dw), Σ HCHs (47 ng g -1 dw) and HCB (116 ng g -1 dw) concentrations can be considered high compared with those found in great cormorant livers elsewhere except in highly polluted areas, whereas Σ PCBs occurred in relatively low concentrations (1091 ng g -1 dw). β-HCH was the dominant HCH isomer. Pollutant levels were generally unrelated to area, age and gender. However, p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD showed intersite differences, whilst the proportion of PCBs with 8 chlorine atoms were significantly higher in adult than 1st year great cormorants. Pollution did not reflect local patterns but rather these along the Baltic and Black Seas, whilst differences in p,p'-DDE concentration and Σ DDTs/ΣPCBs ratios between Evros, Axios or Amvrakikos, found on common migration route, suggested different bird origins. Most birds had toxic mercury concentrations; 83.7% above 4000 ng g -1 dw and 16% above 17,000 ng g -1 dw. Other pollutant levels were too low to have adverse effects. - Research Highlights: → Mercury, p,p'-DDE, β-HCH and HCB occurred in highest concentrations. → More than 80% of Greek great cormorants might have suffered from mercurial intoxication. → Pollutant levels were generally unrelated to gender, age and area (except DDTs). → Baltic and Black Seas are possible regions of origin and accumulation of Hg and DDTs.

  9. Population levels of sport participation: implications for sport policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eime, R M; Harvey, J T; Charity, M J; Payne, W R

    2016-08-09

    Participation in sport can contribute to health-enhancing levels of leisure-time physical activity. There are recent reports that participation in sport in Australia is decreasing. However, these studies are limited to ages 15 years and over. This study integrates sports club membership data from five popular team sports and investigates sport participation across the lifespan (4-100 years) by sex and region (metropolitan/non-metropolitan). Overall participant numbers per annum increased from 414,167 in 2010 to 465,403 in 2012 corresponding to a rise in the proportion of Victorian's participating in these sports from 7.5 % in 2010 to 8.3 % in 2012. The highest proportion of participants was in the 10-14 year age range, with participation rates of 36 % in 2010 and 40 % in 2012. There was a considerably lower participation rate in the 15-19 year age group compared to the 10-14 age group, in all three years studied, and the decline continued progressively with increasing age. Male and female age profiles of participation were generally similar in shape, but the female peak at age 10-14 was sharper than for the males, and conversely there were very few 4 year old female participants. Participation rates were generally higher in non-metropolitan than metropolitan areas; the difference increased with increasing age from 4 to 34 years, then steadily declined, reaching parity at around 60 years of age. It is a positive sign that participation in these popular sports increased by over 50,000 participants from 2010 to 2012. Large proportions of the population aged 5-14 participate in club based sport. Participation rates decline sharply in late adolescence, particularly for females, and while this may not be a concern from a broad health perspective so long as they transition into other forms of physical activity, it is certainly a matter of concern for the sport sector. It is recommended that sport policy places a higher priority on grass-roots participation and

  10. Sports Medicine Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Allan J.

    1978-01-01

    Includes a general discussion of sports medicine including exercise and conditioning techniques, prevention of illness and injury, treatment of and rehabilitation after sports injury, and the future of sports medicine. (BB)

  11. Dealing with Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Dealing With Sports Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Dealing With Sports Injuries ... a long way toward preventing injuries. Types of Sports Injuries Common reasons why teens get injured playing ...

  12. Sports and Concussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports and Concussions KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports and Concussions ... skiers or snowboarders How Can I Prevent a Sports Concussion? Start With the Right Equipment Everyone should ...

  13. Sports cream overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sports creams are creams or ointments used to treat aches and pains. Sports cream overdose can occur if someone uses this ... Two ingredients in sports creams that can be poisonous are: Menthol Methyl salicylate

  14. Eye Injuries in Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well-Being Mental Health ... Splints Home Prevention and Wellness Exercise and Fitness Sports Safety Eye Injuries in Sports Eye Injuries in ...

  15. Employment and winter construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2011-01-01

    Reduced seasonal building activity in the construction sector is often assumed to be related to hard winter conditions for building activities and poor working conditions for construction workers, resulting in higher costs and poor quality of building products, particularly in the northern...... hemisphere. Can climatic conditions alone explain the sizeable difference in reduction in building activity in the construction sector in European countries in the winter months, or are other factors such as technology, economic cycles and schemes for financial compensation influential as well? What...... possibilities exist for reducing seasonal variation in employment? In addition to a literature review related to winter construction, European and national employment and meteorological data were studied. Finally, ministerial acts, ministerial orders or other public policy documents related to winter...

  16. Organochlorines and mercury in livers of great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) wintering in northeastern Mediterranean wetlands in relation to area, bird age, and gender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goutner, V., E-mail: vgoutner@bio.auth.gr [Department of Zoology, School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Becker, P.H., E-mail: peter.becker@ifv-vogelwarte.de [Institute of Avian Research ' Vogelwarte Helgoland' , An der Vogelwarte 21, D-26386 Wilhelmshaven (Germany); Liordos, V., E-mail: liordos@yahoo.com [Department of Zoology, School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2011-01-15

    Wild birds are exposed to pollutants in their habitats. Top consumers of aquatic environments such as the fish-eating great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) are especially affected due to the bioaccumulation of toxic substances in their tissues. This study analysed the livers of 80 great cormorants from Greece to estimate the concentration of organochlorines and mercury and to examine their possible toxic effects and origin. The results showed that mercury (geometric mean 8089 ng g{sup -1} dw), p,p'-DDE (2628 ng g{sup -1} dw), {Sigma} HCHs (47 ng g{sup -1} dw) and HCB (116 ng g{sup -1} dw) concentrations can be considered high compared with those found in great cormorant livers elsewhere except in highly polluted areas, whereas {Sigma} PCBs occurred in relatively low concentrations (1091 ng g{sup -1} dw). {beta}-HCH was the dominant HCH isomer. Pollutant levels were generally unrelated to area, age and gender. However, p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD showed intersite differences, whilst the proportion of PCBs with 8 chlorine atoms were significantly higher in adult than 1st year great cormorants. Pollution did not reflect local patterns but rather these along the Baltic and Black Seas, whilst differences in p,p'-DDE concentration and {Sigma} DDTs/{Sigma}PCBs ratios between Evros, Axios or Amvrakikos, found on common migration route, suggested different bird origins. Most birds had toxic mercury concentrations; 83.7% above 4000 ng g{sup -1} dw and 16% above 17,000 ng g{sup -1} dw. Other pollutant levels were too low to have adverse effects. - Research Highlights: {yields} Mercury, p,p'-DDE, {beta}-HCH and HCB occurred in highest concentrations. {yields} More than 80% of Greek great cormorants might have suffered from mercurial intoxication. {yields} Pollutant levels were generally unrelated to gender, age and area (except DDTs). {yields} Baltic and Black Seas are possible regions of origin and accumulation of Hg and DDTs.

  17. KEY TOPICS IN SPORTS MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ali Narvani

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Key Topics in Sports Medicine is a single quick reference source for sports and exercise medicine. It presents the essential information from across relevant topic areas, and includes both the core and emerging issues in this rapidly developing field. It covers: 1 Sports injuries, rehabilitation and injury prevention, 2 Exercise physiology, fitness testing and training, 3 Drugs in sport, 4 Exercise and health promotion, 5 Sport and exercise for special and clinical populations, 6 The psychology of performance and injury. PURPOSE The Key Topics format provides extensive, concise information in an accessible, easy-to-follow manner. AUDIENCE The book is targeted the students and specialists in sports medicine and rehabilitation, athletic training, physiotherapy and orthopaedic surgery. The editors are authorities in their respective fields and this handbook depends on their extensive experience and knowledge accumulated over the years. FEATURES The book contains the information for clinical guidance, rapid access to concise details and facts. It is composed of 99 topics which present the information in an order that is considered logical and progressive as in most texts. Chapter headings are: 1. Functional Anatomy, 2. Training Principles / Development of Strength and Power, 3. Biomechanical Principles, 4. Biomechanical Analysis, 5. Physiology of Training, 6. Monitoring of Training Progress, 7. Nutrition, 8. Hot and Cold Climates, 9. Altitude, 10. Sport and Travelling, 11. Principles of Sport Injury Diagnosis, 12. Principles of Sport and Soft Tissue Management, 13. Principles of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, 14. Principles of Sport Injury Prevention, 15. Sports Psychology, 16. Team Sports, 17. Psychological Aspects of Injury in Sport, 18. Injury Repair Process, 19. Basic Biomechanics of Tissue Injury, 20. Plain Film Radiography in Sport, 21. Nuclear Medicine, 22. Diagnostic Ultrasound, 23. MRI Scan, 24. Other Imaging, 5. Head Injury, 26. Eye

  18. Preventing Children's Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dealing With Sports Injuries Concussions: What to Do Sports and Concussions Burner (Stinger) Concussions: Alex's Story Compulsive Exercise Repetitive Stress Injuries View more Partner Message About Us Contact ...

  19. Spatial accessibility to specific sport facilities and corresponding sport practice: the RECORD Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karusisi, Noëlla; Thomas, Frédérique; Méline, Julie; Chaix, Basile

    2013-04-20

    Physical activity is considered as a major component of a healthy lifestyle. However, few studies have examined the relationships between the spatial accessibility to sport facilities and sport practice with a sufficient degree of specificity. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between the spatial accessibility to specific types of sports facilities and the practice of the corresponding sports after carefully controlling for various individual socio-demographic characteristics and neighborhood socioeconomic variables. Data from the RECORD Study involving 7290 participants recruited in 2007-2008, aged 30-79 years, and residing in the Paris metropolitan area were analyzed. Four categories of sports were studied: team sports, racket sports, swimming and related activities, and fitness. Spatial accessibility to sport facilities was measured with two complementary approaches that both take into account the street network (distance to the nearest facility and count of facilities around the dwelling). Associations between the spatial accessibility to sport facilities and the practice of the corresponding sports were assessed using multilevel logistic regression after adjusting for individual and contextual characteristics. High individual education and high household income were associated with the practice of racket sports, swimming or related activities, and fitness over the previous 7 days. The spatial accessibility to swimming pools was associated with swimming and related sports, even after adjustment for individual/contextual factors. The spatial accessibility to facilities was not related to the practice of other sports. High neighborhood income was associated with the practice of a racket sport and fitness. Accessibility is a multi-dimensional concept that integrates educational, financial, and geographical aspects. Our work supports the evidence that strategies to increase participation in sport activities should improve the spatial and

  20. Research on Volatile Organic Compounds in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) in two campaigns collected in the Winter-2011 and Spring-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaña, M.; González-Vargas, S.; Blanco, S.; Watanabe, T.; Maeda, T.; Cardenas, B.

    2013-05-01

    Because of the importance of information on the concentration and speciation of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) in the atmosphere for the development of regulatory programs or emission control, is necessary to determine the type and the concentrations of reactive and toxic VOC in atmospheric air. The aim of this study is to determine the speciation and quantification of VOC in the atmospheric air of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA), from samples obtained in November-December 2011 (cold-dry) and March-April (warm-dry). This study presents the results of characterization of VOC in ambient air in the MCMA conducted during 2011-2012. Sampling of VOC was done in two sampling campaigns: from November 17th to December 11th, 2011, and March 1st to April 6th, 2012 through collection of ambient air each six days in six liters stainless steel SUMMA canisters of 24 hours integrated samples, in three sites (Merced: commercial area with vehicular sources, Pedregal: residential area with vehicular sources and San Agustin: industrial sources with heavy traffic), in the MCMA. The analysis of samples was carried out with two chromatographic systems: 1) method equivalent to the EPA's Method TO-14, and 2) GC/MSD coupled to a preconcentrator ENTECH, for the analysis of the compounds listed in EPA method TO15. It was investigated the concentration of 111 volatile organic compounds, (ozone precursors and toxic compounds). It was found that concentrations of 23 species, constitute 80% of the total VOC concentration tested: ethane, propane, isobutane, n-butane, n-pentane, n-hexane, isopentane, methylcyclopentane, ethylene, propylene, acetylene, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m/p-xylene, o-xylene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, ethyl and isopropyl alcohols, acetone, 2-butanone, MTBE and ethyl acetate. Both in 2011 and 2012, the highest concentrations measured in the three sites were for compounds associated with the combustion of LPG gas: propane, n-butane. The highest concentrations of

  1. Proximity to Sports Facilities and Sports Participation for Adolescents in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimers, Anne K.; Wagner, Matthias; Alvanides, Seraphim; Steinmayr, Andreas; Reiner, Miriam; Schmidt, Steffen; Woll, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the relationship between proximity to specific sports facilities and participation in the corresponding sports activities for adolescents in Germany. Methods A sample of 1,768 adolescents aged 11–17 years old and living in 161 German communities was examined. Distances to the nearest sports facilities were calculated as an indicator of proximity to sports facilities using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Participation in specific leisure-time sports activities in sports clubs was assessed using a self-report questionnaire and individual-level socio-demographic variables were derived from a parent questionnaire. Community-level socio-demographics as covariates were selected from the INKAR database, in particular from indicators and maps on land development. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between proximity to the nearest sports facilities and participation in the corresponding sports activities. Results The logisitic regression analyses showed that girls residing longer distances from the nearest gym were less likely to engage in indoor sports activities; a significant interaction between distances to gyms and level of urbanization was identified. Decomposition of the interaction term showed that for adolescent girls living in rural areas participation in indoor sports activities was positively associated with gym proximity. Proximity to tennis courts and indoor pools was not associated with participation in tennis or water sports, respectively. Conclusions Improved proximity to gyms is likely to be more important for female adolescents living in rural areas. PMID:24675689

  2. Childhood Sports Participation and Adolescent Sport Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallant, François; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L; Brunet, Jennifer; Sabiston, Catherine M; Bélanger, Mathieu

    2017-12-01

    We aimed to increase understanding of the link between sport specialization during childhood and adolescent physical activity (PA). The objectives were as follows: (1) describe the natural course of sport participation over 5 years among children who are early sport samplers or early sport specializers and (2) determine if a sport participation profile in childhood predicts the sport profile in adolescence. Participants ( n = 756, ages 10-11 years at study inception) reported their participation in organized and unorganized PA during in-class questionnaires administered every 4 months over 5 years. They were categorized as early sport samplers, early sport specializers, or nonparticipants in year 1 and as recreational sport participants, performance sport participants, or nonparticipants in years 2 to 5. The likelihood that a childhood sport profile would predict the adolescent profile was computed as relative risks. Polynomial logistic regression was used to identify predictors of an adolescent sport profile. Compared with early sport specialization and nonparticipation, early sport sampling in childhood was associated with a higher likelihood of recreational participation (relative risk, 95% confidence interval: 1.55, 1.18-2.03) and a lower likelihood of nonparticipation (0.69, 0.51-0.93) in adolescence. Early sport specialization was associated with a higher likelihood of performance participation (1.65, 1.19-2.28) but not of nonparticipation (1.01, 0.70-1.47) in adolescence. Nonparticipation in childhood was associated with nearly doubling the likelihood of nonparticipation in adolescence (1.88, 1.36-2.62). Sport sampling should be promoted in childhood because it may be linked to higher PA levels during adolescence. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. [Effect of swine manure application on nitrate leaching in winter wheat field in the Yellow River irrigation area of Ningxia, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shi-Qi; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Xie, Xiao-Jun; Yang, Zheng-Li

    2014-06-01

    The effect of swine manure application on nitrate nitrogen leaching was investigated in the Yellow River irrigation area of Ningxia. The field experiment was conducted with 3 Treatments: Traditional fertilization 225 kg N kg x hm(-2) without swine manure (CK), traditional fertilization with swine manure 4500 kg x hm(-2) (T1) and traditional fertilization with swine manure 9000 kg x hm(-2) (T2). Nitrate nitrogen leaching rates were measured for 30, 60, 90 cm depth soil layers with a resin core absorption method. The results indicated that the nitrate leaching losses of T1 and T2 treatments ranged from 9.33 to 14.04 kg x hm(-2) (pure nitrogen), which accounted for 4.2%-6.2% of applied nitrogen fertilizer. Compared to CK, the nitrate leaching losses of T1 and T2 increased by 2.6% and 2.1% at 30 cm depth, increased by 1.5% and decreased by 1.3% at 60 cm depth, decreased by 8.7% and increased by 4.0% at 90 cm depth, respectively. The difference did not reach statistical significance among CK and T1 and T2 in nitrate leaching loss at 30, 60 and 90 cm depths. However, there was a declining trend of nitrate leaching at deep soil layers of treatments. The key period of nitrate leaching loss was from spring reviving to early filling stage, which had a higher daily leaching loss than the average of the whole growth period, and accounted for 58.7%-75.3% of total leaching loss. Compared with CK, the yields of T1 and T2 increased by 9.3% and 12.5%, respectively.

  4. Estimation and Validation of RapidEye-Based Time-Series of Leaf Area Index for Winter Wheat in the Rur Catchment (Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Leaf Area Index (LAI is an important variable for numerous processes in various disciplines of bio- and geosciences. In situ measurements are the most accurate source of LAI among the LAI measuring methods, but the in situ measurements have the limitation of being labor intensive and site specific. For spatial-explicit applications (from regional to continental scales, satellite remote sensing is a promising source for obtaining LAI with different spatial resolutions. However, satellite-derived LAI measurements using empirical models require calibration and validation with the in situ measurements. In this study, we attempted to validate a direct LAI retrieval method from remotely sensed images (RapidEye with in situ LAI (LAIdestr. Remote sensing LAI (LAIrapideye were derived using different vegetation indices, namely SAVI (Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. Additionally, applicability of the newly available red-edge band (RE was also analyzed through Normalized Difference Red-Edge index (NDRE and Soil Adjusted Red-Edge index (SARE. The LAIrapideye obtained from vegetation indices with red-edge band showed better correlation with LAIdestr (r = 0.88 and Root Mean Square Devation, RMSD = 1.01 & 0.92. This study also investigated the need to apply radiometric/atmospheric correction methods to the time-series of RapidEye Level 3A data prior to LAI estimation. Analysis of the the RapidEye Level 3A data set showed that application of the radiometric/atmospheric correction did not improve correlation of the estimated LAI with in situ LAI.

  5. Contribution of allelopathy and competition to weed suppression by winter wheat, triticale and winter rye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiss, Antje; Fomsgaard, Inge S.; Mathiassen, Solvejg Kopp

    of competitive traits, such as early vigour, crop height and leaf area index and presence of phytotoxic compounds of the group of benzoxazinoids to weed suppression. Four cultivars of each of the winter cereals wheat, triticale and rye were grown in field experiments at two locations. Soil samples were taken...... 2016. Competitive traits were measured throughout the growing season. Partial least squares regression with weed biomass as response variable was used for modelling. Competitive traits, as well as benzoxazinoid concentrations contributed significantly to the models on winter wheat, winter triticale...... and winter rye data and explained 63, 69 and 58% of the variance in weed biomass in the first two components, respectively. Consequently, it can be concluded that competitive, as well as allelopathic traits, contributed significantly to weed suppressive outcome in winter cereals. This knowledge...

  6. Cortical Structures Associated With Sports Participation in Children: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vicente, Mónica; Tiemeier, Henning; Wildeboer, Andrea; Muetzel, Ryan L; Verhulst, Frank C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Sunyer, Jordi; White, Tonya

    2017-01-01

    We studied cortical morphology in relation to sports participation and type of sport using a large sample of healthy children (n = 911). Sports participation data was collected through a parent-reported questionnaire. Magnetic resonance scans were acquired, and different morphological brain features were quantified. Global volumetric measures were not associated with sports participation. We observed thicker cortex in motor and premotor areas associated with sports participation. In boys, team sports participation, relative to individual sports, was related to thinner cortex in prefrontal brain areas involved in the regulation of behaviors. This study showed a relationship between sports participation and brain maturation.

  7. Creating sport consumers in Dutch sport policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Roest, Jan Willem; Vermeulen, Jeroen; van Bottenburg, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with the tension between the association logic and the market logic that appears in the domain of voluntary sport clubs (VSCs). We present a qualitative analysis of sport policy texts of fifteen Dutch national sport organizations (NSOs) and the national umbrella organization to

  8. Creating sport consumers in Dutch sport policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Roest, Jan Willem; Vermeulen, Jeroen; van Bottenburg, Maarten; LS Sportontw. & Managing Social Issues; UU LEG Research USG Public Matters Managing Social Issues; LS Management van Cultuur en Zingeving

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the tension between the association logic and the market logic that appears in the domain of voluntary sport clubs (VSCs). We present a qualitative analysis of sport policy texts of fifteen Dutch national sport organizations (NSOs) and the national umbrella organization to

  9. Safe! Sports, Campers & Reducing Sports Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Beth J.

    1989-01-01

    Acceptance of adult roles by children increases "adult injuries," notably broken bones from sports. Suggests camp administrators be familiar with clientele, particular sports, and the kinds of injuries that generally result in each. Discusses children's age, types of sports, and other factors that come into play when anticipating and treating…

  10. [Medicine in sports or sport medicine?] ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimer, S; Tonković-Lojović, M

    2001-01-01

    Sports medicine is a profession pertaining to primary health care of sport population (competitors, coaches, referees, participants in sports recreation). It embraces the physical and mental health protection and promotion of participants in relation to a particular sport activity and sport environment, directing athletes to a sport and adapting them to sport and the sport to them. Sports medicine takes part in selection procedure, training process planning and programming, and cares for epidemiological, hygienic, nutritional and other problems in sport. The Republic of Croatia belongs to those world states in which the field of sports medicine is regulated neither by a law or by profession. A consequence is that wide circle of physicians and paramedics work in clubs and various medical units without any legal or/and professional control not being adequately educated nor having licence for it. This review is an appeal to the Croatian Medical Chamber and the Ministry of Health to make efforts to promote the education and medical profession in sports medicine.

  11. Sports Nutrition: What the Future may Bring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Bill

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The field of sports nutrition is a dynamic one. Core competencies in exercise physiology, psychology, integrated metabolism and biochemistry are the initial parameters for a successful career in sports nutrition. In addition to the academic fundamentals, it is imperative that the sports nutritionist understand the sport in which our client participates. This sport specific understanding should manifest itself in fuel utilization, mechanics of movement, as well as psychological processes that motivate the participant to perform optimally. Sports nutrition as a field has grown substantially over the past 50 years, from glycogen loading to today's scientifically validated ergogenic aids. The last ten years has seen the largest advancement of sports nutrition, with the following areas driving much of the research: the effects of exercise on protein utilization, meal timing to maximize the anabolic response, the potential for ribose to benefit those engaged in high-energy repetitive sports, and creatine and its uses within athletics and medicine. The future of sports nutrition will dictate that we 1 collectively strive for a higher standard of care and education for counseling athletes and 2 integrate different disciplines. We are in an era of unprecedented growth and the new knowledge is constantly evolving. The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN will contribute to this exciting field in many ways, and we ask for your contribution by sharing your passion, stories, research, and life experiences with us.

  12. Are neighbourhood social capital and availability of sports facilities related to sports participation among Dutch adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Richard G; Mohnen, Sigrid M; van Lenthe, Frank J; Brug, Johannes; Oenema, Anke

    2012-07-31

    The aim of this study is to explore whether availability of sports facilities, parks, and neighbourhood social capital (NSC) and their interaction are associated with leisure time sports participation among Dutch adolescents. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on complete data from the last wave of the YouRAction evaluation trial. Adolescents (n = 852) completed a questionnaire asking for sports participation, perceived NSC and demographics. Ecometric methods were used to aggregate perceived NSC to zip code level. Availability of sports facilities and parks was assessed by means of geographic information systems within the zip-code area and within a 1600 meter buffer. Multilevel logistic regression analyses, with neighborhood and individual as levels, were conducted to examine associations between physical and social environmental factors and leisure time sports participation. Simple slopes analysis was conducted to decompose interaction effects. NSC was significantly associated with sports participation (OR: 3.51 (95%CI: 1.18;10.41)) after adjustment for potential confounders. Availability of sports facilities and availability of parks were not associated with sports participation. A significant interaction between NSC and density of parks within the neighbourhood area (OR: 1.22 (90%CI: 1.01;1.34)) was found. Decomposition of the interaction term showed that adolescents were most likely to engage in leisure time sports when both availability of parks and NSC were highest. The results of this study indicate that leisure time sports participation is associated with levels of NSC, but not with availability of parks or sports facilities. In addition, NSC and availability of parks in the zip code area interacted in such a way that leisure time sports participation is most likely among adolescents living in zip code areas with higher levels of NSC, and higher availability of parks. Hence, availability of parks appears only to be important for leisure time

  13. MARKETING ORGANIZATION ACTIVITY IN SPORTS ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Župljanin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sports organizations as "sui generis" organizations inevitably have to adopt the concept of marketing as a business philosophy, if you want to survive and develop its activities in the modern business environment. Supply and demand as the market, and psychological phenomena are inherent in sports organizations. Sport is a special area of human activity in which marketing has a specific place and role. Sports and sporting events are also a massive public and media events and high level of interest involving multi-million audience. Between direct and indirect participants of these events takes place appropriate communication sociological, psychological and marketing character. The aim of this paper is to present the possibility of more efficient operation of sports organizations using and adopting the marketing concept as a philosophy of action.

  14. Learning Sports and Entertainment Marketing: "Apprentice" Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidlich, Jon

    2008-01-01

    The sports and entertainment marketing program is a satellite program of Great Oaks Institute of Technology and Career Development in Cincinnati. Held in two area school districts, at Winton Woods High School and North College Hill High School, sports and entertainment marketing has been a popular choice for students for more than a decade. The…

  15. South African Journal of Sports Medicine: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    POSITION STATEMENTS: These succinct but comprehensive documents are typically prepared by a recognised society for the purpose of providing clinical guidelines in important areas of sports medicine. Form of manuscript. Send manuscripts to Professor Mike Lambert, Sports Science Institute of South Africa, P O Box ...

  16. BS sport

    OpenAIRE

    Pruchnický, Lukáš

    2014-01-01

    Předmětem diplomové práce je návrh novostavby sportovního zařízení na úrovni dokumentace pro provedení stavby. Návrh klade důraz na dispoziční řešení včetně zajištění konstrukce pro statické stránce, architektonické, požární bezpečnosti, úspory energie a bezpečnosti při užívání objektu. Práce obsahuje textovou i grafickou část. Grafická část práce je zpracována v programu ArchiCad. The subject of the diploma thesis is to design a new building of sports facilities at the documentation for b...

  17. Aquatic sports and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Володимир Миколайович Зюзь

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic sports or boating, has become a mass sport and recreation. It is as delightful a holiday as one might wish for, gaining strength around the world and especially in Ukraine. More and more people are eager to see the beauty of the underwater world, enjoy exciting sailing races, long journeys along beautiful rivers and unexplored areas, as well as smooth sailing at the height of the season. The article analyzes the modern aquatic (water tourism hazards that can lie in wait for a person in the water during camping trips and various boating competitions. This kind of sports is dangerous in principle, as aqueous medium is always perilous whether water is rough or calm. Accidents are always possible and tourists may find themselves in water, hypothermia, impossibility to breathe, impactions against different objects in the water resulting. Ships, food and equipment may also be damaged or lost, that is the consequences may be extremely negative. This article includes description of boating types, extreme forms of boating, the design features of the swimming facilities used in boating, practical skills and the ability to apply the facilities; characteristics of waves and currents; types of rivers; forms and methods of transportation and rescue of the drowning people; rendering assistance and first aid to the victims; promotion of safety rules on the water during the boating. The main goals and objectives in preparing aquatic tourism professionals whose main duty is safety, training topics, theoretical and practical materials for training the basics of safety that makes it possible to get acquainted with all the requirements have been discussed. The first attempt to develop general educational standards in training professionals in water sports and safety basing on the new priorities and the principles of modern vocational education has been made in the articles

  18. OXFORD DICTIONARY OF SPORTS SCIENCE AND MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kent

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science and Medicine provides reliable definitions of sports science and medicine terms. It provides an invaluable reference book for anyone interested in the captivating subject of sport. PURPOSE This dictionary aims to include almost every sports science, anatomy, physiology, biomechanical, injuries description, and psychological term as related to sports medicine and science and support the explanations by illustrations wherever necessary. AUDIENCE As a comprehensive dictionary of sports science and medicine, it will be of particular help to medical specialists and general practitioners, as well as students of PE, coaches, and athletes who need to understand the anatomical structures and physiological processes which affect athletic performance. Any member of public interested in health and fitness; exercise and sport or wants to understand what the obscure terms mean, like jogger's nipple, social loafing, and Zatopek phenomenon will also benefit from this book. FEATURES The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science and Medicine features terms in A to Z fashion at all the major areas of sports science and medicine including: anatomy, physiology/exercise physiology, biomechanics, training principles and techniques, nutrition, sports psychology and sociology, sports injuries and rehabilitation. A team of prominent contributors and advisers put together this dictionary in the first edition. The third edition includes around 8000 cross-referenced terms which have been updated or added since the first edition. There are plenty of illustrations wherever appropriate to make the terms easily understandable. ASSESSMENT A must-have dictionary for all medics practising in sports and exercise medicine, as well as students of medicine, physical education, nursing and physiotherapy. Even coaches, trainers, biomechanical experts; in fact anyone who has a special interest in this area will find this dictionary useful.

  19. Sports Medicine in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomquist, Lorraine E.

    This report on a visit to the People's Republic of China in April 1985 to explore methodology of sports science research, treatment of injuries, and role of sports in everyday life discusses the following topics: (1) introduction to China; (2) sports and physical culture; (3) sports medicine and rehabilitation; (4) health factors; (5) cost of…

  20. Report on Sport 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koen Breedveld; Carlijn Kamphuis; Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst

    2008-01-01

    Original title: Rapportage sport 2008. Sport: it appeals to people; it brings people together; it promotes health; and it is profitable. Today, in 2008, sport is enjoying popularity as never before. Two-thirds of the Dutch population take part in some form of sport. After swimming and cycling,

  1. Sport and culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Andries van den Broek

    2016-01-01

    Oringinal title: Sport en cultuur Many people derive enjoyment from sport and culture in their free time: attending matches, performances, exhibitions or festivals, following sport and culture via the media or participating in a sport or cultural activity. Who takes part in which activities? Does

  2. COMMUNICATIONS IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasoje Bjelica

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing questions related to business communications, especially communications in sport, is possible if the analysis of the size and the subject of the communication concept has been done before, in order to enter into a specific stratum of sport communications. This stratum contains the subjects of communications which could be realized in sport or somehow are connected with sport.

  3. The nuclear winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velikhow, Y.P.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear winter is an example of possible secondary effects, and if we speak of secondary we are thinking of small-scale second-order effects, but a nuclear winter is not a second-order effect. If you calculate the amount of heat produced by a nuclear explosion, it is a very small amount which does not have any chance of changing the Earth's climate, but a nuclear explosion drives or stars some new mechanism - the mechanism of nuclear winter - after 100 megatons of dust are transferred to the upper atmosphere. Another example of such amplification is radioactive fall-out, especially long-life radioactive fall-out after the possible elimination of the nuclear power industry, nuclear storage and distribution of storage waste around the globe. This is a very powerful amplification mechanism

  4. Report on Sport 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Koen Breedveld; Rob Goossens; Maarten van Bottenburg; Wil Ooijendijk; Vincent Hildebrandt; Maarten Stiggelbout; Jo Lucassen; Hugo van der Poel

    2003-01-01

    Original title: Rapportage Sport 2003. There has been a huge increase in the interest in sport in recent decades. The number of people taking part in sport has grown strongly and more sport is broadcast on television than ever before. The government has invested a great deal in sport, not least because of the growing awareness of the positive effect that sport can have on health, social cohesion and the economy. Sport is now an integral part of society and has developed into the biggest infor...

  5. Research Update: Enhancing the Youth Sports Experience through Coaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steelman, Todd

    1995-01-01

    Reviews research on the relationship between youth sports coaches and players, noting that the youth sports coach can be the most important figure in socializing children in the area of sports. The paper discusses how to deal with the stresses in coaching and examines the need for coach effectiveness training. (SM)

  6. Scholarship on gender and sport in Sex Roles and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoppers, A.E.; McDonald, M.P.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we critically review how research on girls or women and sport has developed over the last 35 years. We use a post-positivist lens to explore the content of the papers published in Sex Roles in the area of women, gender and sport and examine the shifts in how gender and sport have been

  7. Using Sports to Teach Geography: Examples from Kansas City

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeChano, Lisa M.; Shelley, Fred M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper illustrates how sports can be used to teach geographic concepts, using illustrative examples from the Kansas City area. Given the global popularity of sport and its impacts and links to environment, economy, and culture, it is surprising that more attention has not been paid to sport as a vehicle for the conceptualization and teaching…

  8. Youth Sports/Athletic Programs--Local or National Control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Dick

    The author (1) explains a system analysis approach developed by the Sports Institute for Research through Change Agent Research (SIR/CAR) for working with government, business, and service organizations in sport-related areas; (2) examines the distinction between professional athletics and amateur sport; (3) discusses conflict resolution by…

  9. The Effects of Motivational Climate on Youth Sport Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Alison; Deutsch, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Sports are popular across the nation and youth sport participation is at an all-time high, yet children are quitting youth sports at an alarming rate. If this trend is going to change, several areas of concern must be addressed. The climate created on youth teams can be polarizing, having the potential for significant positive or negative…

  10. Sport Specialization, Part I

    OpenAIRE

    Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Sports sp...

  11. Promoting Sportsmanship in Youth Sports: Perspectives from Sport Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Jay D.; Iso-Ahola, Seppo E.

    2006-01-01

    This article introduces the physical education, recreation, and health practitioner to the relevant practical and theoretical information pertaining to sportsmanship in youth sports. It discusses four key areas related to sportsmanship: (1) constructs, (2) underlying theories, (3) empirical evidence, and (4) application and education. It also…

  12. Sport and measurement of competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, R.H.

    Sport is becoming an activity of increasing importance: over time more people participate in sport (active sport consumption), more time is spent watching sport (passive sport consumption). An important part of sport consumption is passive sport consumption where production and consumption are

  13. A study on the market segmentation for spectator sports

    OpenAIRE

    畑, 攻; 小野里, 真弓

    2006-01-01

    Spectator sports in Japan have been rapidly increasing, and sports marketing area has been so highlighted, The purpose of this study was to clarify efficient spectator sports market segments. This study employed specially designed questionnaire which were consisted of general demographics, favorite sports, and items of attendance behavior. Samples were gathered from real attendance of Japan Professional Baseball League, Japan Professional Football League, and Japan Women's Basketball League. ...

  14. Simulation of Winter Wheat Yield with WOFOST in County Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Shangjie; Pei, Zhiyuan; He, Yajuan; Wang, Lianlin; Ma, Zhiping

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Winter wheat is mainly planted in water shortage area, such as North China and Northwest China. As a key field management measure, irrigation plays an important role in the production of winter wheat. This paper focuses on the improvement of regional winter wheat yield estimation technique in county scale by adjusting the irrigation management measure in crop growth model. The WOFOST (World Food Study) model was used by dividing the whole county into a number of EMUs (...

  15. Titan's Emergence from Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flasar, F. Michael; Achterberg, Richard; Jennings, Donald; Schinder, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We summarize the changes in Titans thermal structure derived from Cassini CIRS and radio-occultation data during the transition from winter to early spring. Titan's surface, and middle atmosphere show noticeable seasonal change, whereas that in most of the troposphere is mated. This can be understood in terms of the relatively small radiative relaxation time in the middle atmosphere and much larger time scale in the troposphere. The surface exhibits seasonal change because the heat capacity in an annual skin depth is much smaller than that in the lowest scale height of the troposphere. Surface temperatures rise 1 K at raid and high latitudes in the winter northern hemisphere and cool in the southern hemisphere. Changes in in the middle atmosphere are more complicated. Temperatures in the middle stratosphere (approximately 1 mbar) increase by a few kelvin at mid northern latitudes, but those at high latitudes first increase as that region moves out of winter shadow, and then decrease. This probably results from the combined effect of increased solar heating as the suit moves higher in the sky and the decreased adiabatic warming as the sinking motions associated with the cross-equatorial meridional cell weaken. Consistent with this interpretation, the warm temperatures observed higher up at the winter polar stratopause cool significantly.

  16. One of the first literary sports writer “Islam Cupi” and a study on sports authoring

    OpenAIRE

    İlhan, Erol; Çelik, Elçin

    2018-01-01

    Football is one of thegreatest phenomena in the world which has mass audiences and  increasingly got popular during the the 20thand 21st centuries both in Turkey and World wide. Sports has become a globalindustry with its developing structures. Sports (soccer), media is the dominantfactor reach the audiences. On the other hand Sports journalism is a field thatconnected to football and media, which is followed by the people who shows a greatinterest to this field (area). Recently sports journa...

  17. Evaluating judge performance in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Marilyn A

    2004-01-01

    Many sports, such as, gymnastics, diving, ski jumping, and figure skating, use judges' scores to determine the winner of a competition. These judges use some type of rating scale when judging performances (e.g., figure skating: 0.0 - 6.0). Sport governing bodies have the responsibility of setting and enforcing quality control parameters for judge performance. Given the judging scandals in figure skating at the 1998 and 2002 Olympics, judge performance in sport is receiving greater scrutiny. The purpose of this article is to illustrate how results from Rasch analyses can be used to provide in-depth feedback to judges about their scoring patterns. Nine judges' scores for 20 pairs of figure skaters who competed at the 2002 Winter Olympics were analyzed using a four-faceted (skater pair ability, skating aspect difficulty, program difficulty, and judge severity) Rasch rating scale model that was not common to all judges. Fit statistics, the logical ordering of skating aspects, skating programs, and separation indices all indicated a good fit of the data to the model. The type of feedback that can be given to judges about their scoring pattern was illustrated for one judge (USA) whose performance was flagged as being unpredictable. Feedback included a detailed description of how the rating scale was used; for example, 10% of all marks given by the American judge were unexpected by the model (Z > |2|). Three figures illustrated differences between the judge's observed and expected marks arranged according to the pairs' skating order and final placement in the competition. Scores which may represent "nationalistic bias" or a skating order influence were flagged by looking at these figures. If sport governing bodies wish to improve the performance of their judges, they need to employ methods that monitor the internal consistency of each judge as a many-facet Rasch analysis does.

  18. MANAGEMENT PARTICULARITIES IN SPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORIN NEFERU

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Management applied in sport contributes to achieving full functionality of sports structures, the large masses of people, a plurality of means and skills, objectives and intentions. Through the efforts of management in sport individuals or groups of people are coordinated towards achieving a common goal, complicated and difficult process due to concerns divergent which always, through his, they are converted into cutting issues ensuring mobility objectives. Sports management helps to master and control both situations and complex systems ensuring permanent and continuous management of a multitude of sporting activities generating efficiency. Particularities of management in sport resides in that it applies to all forms of sports, all sports disciplines, which provides an organized leading to superior results in sporting competitions.

  19. [Sports medicine in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickhuth, H-H

    2005-08-01

    Sports medicine covers many different aspects, ranging from clinical specialties, such as internal medicine, orthopedics or pediatrics to physiology and sports sciences. The requirements for sports medicine evolve mainly from exercise physiology (elite, leisure and health oriented physical activity), orthopedics and traumatology as well as from preventive and rehabilitative issues. In the new German curriculum, sports medicine is defined as a subspecialty. Historically, sports medicine in Germany has a federal structure with a governing body (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Sportmedizin und Prävention). Due to these facts, University Departments of Sports Medicine (which vary greatly in size and performance) are either attached to Medical or non-Medical Faculties, such as Sports Sciences. In medical schools, sports medicine can be selected as an elective subject. However, the main part of teaching sports medicine is covered by Sports Science Faculties. In an international context, the strength of German sports medicine is its clinical orientation and close cooperation with the sport itself, especially high-performance sports. In the future, like in the Anglo- American countries, sports medicine in Germany will play a major role in health prevention and rehabilitation.

  20. Effects of environmental features and sport hunting on caribou migration in northwestern Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullman, Timothy J; Joly, Kyle; Ackerman, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Ungulate movements are influenced by a variety of biotic and abiotic factors, which may affect connectivity between key resource areas and seasonal ranges. In northwestern Alaska, one important question regarding human impacts on ungulate movement involves caribou ( Rangifer tarandus ) response to autumn hunting and related aircraft activity. While concerns have been voiced by local hunters about the influence of transporter aircraft and non-local sport hunters, there has been little quantitative analysis of the effects of hunter activity on caribou movement. We utilized a novel spatial dataset of commercial aircraft landing locations and sport hunter camps in and around Noatak National Preserve to analyze resource selection of caribou in autumn for non-local hunting activity and environmental features. We combined step selection functions with randomized shortest paths to investigate whether terrain ruggedness, river width, land cover, and hunting activity (in the form of aircraft landings and sport hunter camps) facilitated or impeded caribou movement. By varying a parameter in the randomized shortest path models, we also explored the tradeoff between exploration and exploitation in movement behavior exhibited by traveling caribou. We found that caribou avoided rugged terrain and areas with more river, forest, and tall shrubs while selecting for areas dominated by tussock tundra and dwarf shrubs. Migration of caribou through Noatak does not appear to be inhibited by sport hunting activity, though this does not preclude the possibility of temporary effects altering availability of caribou for individual hunters. Caribou exhibited exploratory movement, following predictions of a random walk model. This behavior may facilitate the location of remaining patches of high-quality forage prior to the onset of winter, especially during mild autumns. Understanding animal movement behavior is fundamental to protecting critical areas of connectivity and to informing

  1. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN CLIMATIC CONDITIONS AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF WINTER TOURISM IN THE ORIENTAL CARPATHIANS. CASE STUDY: HARGHITA MOUNTAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. MARIN

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of weather conditions for winter tourism development in the Eastern Carpathians. Case Study: Harghita Mountains. In the context of the ongoing global and regional climate change debates, the present study intends to analyze the impact these changes have on winter tourism development in the Harghita Mountains. With a maximum altitude of 2545 m, a complex structure of the underlying surface responsible fo r local climatic particularities, as well as for a wide range of complex and elementary topoclimates, the Romanian alpine zone has a moderate potential for the development of winter sports. Our objectives consist of making correlations between annual average temperatures and the average thickness of snow, between the years 1961 and 2000, in three resorts (Bãile Tuşnad, Bãile Harghita and Homorod. In certain cases, the ski slopes’ locations were not correlated with site-specific topoclimate conditions - in such a situation, equally affected are both the users and the owners of the establishment and last but not least, the natural ecosystems they overlap. The study aims to draw attention to development opportunities for winter tourism in the Harghita Mountains area, located west of the Eastern Carpathians. At present, the Harghita Mountains are mainly exploited locally, despite having important winter sports-related assets. From November to April, in Bãile Harghita, Bãile Tuşnad and Bãile Homorod, located in the south-east and south-west of this mountainous area, there is a consistent snow cover on numerous slopes of various inclinations and orientations. The methods that were used in this study aim to determine the average dates of occurrence of the first and last layers of snow and therefore the average annual snow cover interval in the study area. The results show that there is untapped natural potential related to the average and maximum levels of snow thickness and to the number of days with snow-covered ground

  2. Major international sport profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dilip R; Stier, Bernhard; Luckstead, Eugene F

    2002-08-01

    Sports are part of the sociocultural fabric of all countries. Although different sports have their origins in different countries, many sports are now played worldwide. International sporting events bring athletes of many cultures together and provide the opportunity not only for athletic competition but also for sociocultural exchange and understanding among people. This article reviews five major sports with international appeal and participation: cricket, martial arts, field hockey, soccer, and tennis. For each sport, the major aspects of physiological and biomechanical demands, injuries, and prevention strategies are reviewed.

  3. Overhead irrigation increased winter chilling and floral bud ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus nitens requires a sufficiently cold winter to produce flower buds. In areas in South Africa where E. nitens commercial plantations as well as breeding and production seed orchards are located, winter chilling is often insufficient for floral bud initiation. Hence, under such conditions, E. nitens floral bud and seed ...

  4. Identifying the potential wintering sites of the globally threatened ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Aquatic Warbler is a threatened Afro-Palaearctic migrant with a largely unknown distribution in the winter (non-breeding) season. Protection of wintering sites may be crucial for the conservation of the species. Previous studies have identified extensive areas of north-western sub-Saharan Africa that could potentially be ...

  5. EVALUATION OF SPORTS MARKETING EFFICIENCY IN ARAB COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEBRIL MOHAMED R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Purposes of this Study are evaluating the efficiency of sports marketing in the organizations of some Arab countries through the following sub-goals:1-Identify the philosophy of sports organizations towards sports marketing.2- Identify the extent and existence of an organizational unit to perform specialized functions for sports marketing activity.3- Determine the extent of the use effective marketing methods in sporting organizations in order to get the material and technical support required to implement the plans and programs.Research sample consisted of officials, members of boards of directors, and managers of sports bodies' in some Arab countries (Egypt, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, and Qatar. Two hundred forty Seven board members from Egypt (N 101, United Arab Emirates (N 76, Bahrain (N 40, and Qatar (N30 were involved in the investigation. The Subjects were administered a Questionnaire developed by the researchers.The most important results are Research sample differed (clubs -sporting associations - the Olympic Committee Arab countries (Egypt - Emirates - Bahrain - Qatar in philosophy toward sport marketing. Sample search (clubs -sporting associations - the Olympic Committee Arab countries (Egypt - Emirates - Bahrain - Qatar agree on the sport marketing methods used sporting organizations. There are a difference among sample search sports organizations (clubs - Olympic Committee in Arab countries (Egypt - Emirates - Bahrain - Qatar and there are agreement by the sports federations in marketing efficiency. The most importance Recommendations are :1.Need to add sports fields of investment to create the appropriate field to become sports areas for attracting investment.2.Guarantee the right of return sporting bodies in competitions organized through the radio and television.3.Establishment channels of sports economic. 4.Exempt contributions businessmen and sponsor and the players from taxes.5.Use the name and logo and flag

  6. Sports Biostatistician: a critical member of all sports science and medicine teams for injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casals, Martí; Finch, Caroline F

    2017-12-01

    Sports science and medicine need specialists to solve the challenges that arise with injury data. In the sports injury field, it is important to be able to optimise injury data to quantify injury occurrences, understand their aetiology and most importantly, prevent them. One of these specialty professions is that of Sports Biostatistician. The aim of this paper is to describe the emergent field of Sports Biostatistics and its relevance to injury prevention. A number of important issues regarding this profession and the science of sports injury prevention are highlighted. There is a clear need for more multidisciplinary teams that incorporate biostatistics, epidemiology and public health in the sports injury area. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Winter barley mutants created in the Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayats, O.M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Increasing fodder and protein production is one of the objectives of the development of agriculture in Ukraine. Higher productivity of fodder crops, due to new highly productive varieties, is the means to meet this aim. Winter barley is an important crop for fodder purposes. The climate of the Ukraine is favourable for growing this crop. The areas used for the growth of winter barley are however, small (500,000-550,000 ha) and there is a shortage of good quality varieties. The main aim of the work was therefore to create new varieties of highly productive winter barley, of good quality. The new varieties and mutation lines of winter barley were created under the influence of water solutions of N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMH - 0,012, 0,005%), N-nitroso-N-ethylurea (NEH - 0,05; 0.025; 0,012%) ethyleneimine (EI - 0,02; 0,01; 0,005%) on winter barley seeds of the varieties of local and foreign selections. On the basis of many years of investigations (1984-94) the following mutations were described: hard-grained, winter-hardiness, earliness, middle-maturity, late-maturity, wide and large leaves, narrow leaves, multinodal, great number of leaves, great number of flowers, strong stem (lodging resistant), tallness, semi-dwarfness, dwarfness, and high productivity. Particularly valuable are mutants with high productivity of green bulk. Their potential yield is 70 t/ha. As a result of the work two varieties of winter barley 'Shyrokolysty' and 'Kormovy' were released into the State register of plant varieties of the Ukraine. The other valuable mutant genotypes are used in cross breeding programmes. (author)

  8. THE MANAGEMENT METHODS IN PERFORMANCE SPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia GRĂDINARU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sports are a widespread phenomenon, capable of raising human energies and mobilize financial and material resources that can be difficult compared with those in other areas of social life. Management of sports organizations is influenced and determined by the compliance and requirements arising from the documents issued by international organizations with authority in the field. Organizational development is considered essentially as a strategy to increase organizational effectiveness by determining changes that consider both human resources and organizations. On the whole society, it is accelerated by an industry evolving sport with distinctive features. Its development is conditional on macroeconomics and technology. The complexity of the activities of sports organizations performance, the main laboratory performance national and international sports, requiring a more thorough investigation to enable knowledge of the complex mechanisms of their management and simultaneously identify some optimization solutions throughout the economic-financial and human resources.

  9. AOSSM Early Sport Specialization Consensus Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPrade, Robert F.; Agel, Julie; Baker, Joseph; Brenner, Joel S.; Cordasco, Frank A.; Côté, Jean; Engebretsen, Lars; Feeley, Brian T.; Gould, Daniel; Hainline, Brian; Hewett, Timothy E.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Kocher, Mininder S.; Myer, Gregory D.; Nissen, Carl W.; Philippon, Marc J.; Provencher, Matthew T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early sport specialization is not a requirement for success at the highest levels of competition and is believed to be unhealthy physically and mentally for young athletes. It also discourages unstructured free play, which has many benefits. Purpose: To review the available evidence on early sports specialization and identify areas where scientific data are lacking. Study Design: Think tank, roundtable discussion. Results: The primary outcome of this think tank was that there is no evidence that young children will benefit from early sport specialization in the majority of sports. They are subject to overuse injury and burnout from concentrated activity. Early multisport participation will not deter young athletes from long-term competitive athletic success. Conclusion: Youth advocates, parents, clinicians, and coaches need to work together with the sport governing bodies to ensure healthy environments for play and competition that do not create long-term health issues yet support athletic competition at the highest level desired. PMID:27169132

  10. Sport Culture of Hong Kong: Recent Development and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddie T. C. Lam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hong Kong is well-known for its beautiful natural harbor, vibrant nightlife, as well as tremendous entertainment and shopping opportunities. It is a paradise for outdoor activities such as golfing, hiking, fishing, and water sports. Throughout the city, there are extensive hiking trails that are over 30 miles long and navigate through beautiful scenic areas and parks. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the sport culture of Hong Kong, including the development and administration of sports and sporting events. After a thorough review on the sports development of Hong Kong, it was found that the following three main themes would guide the direction of future sports development: (a promoting “Sports for All,” (b fostering high performance sports, and (c equipping Hong Kong to host international sports events. In this regard, the Hong Kong Government provides a wide range of sports facilities and funding to support the development of sports. In addition, sport development is also supported by the business sector in Hong Kong. Among those different departments, the Leisure and Cultural Services Department (LCSD takes an active role in promoting sports in the community and administers funding support for relevant organizations under the established sports policy. The LCSD not only develops and manages a wide range of sports and recreational facilities for use by the general public, but also supports and organizes sports and recreational programs for the community. For instance, the most exciting projects people cannot wait to see their completion are the HK$19.7 billion Kai Tak Sports Complex and the Tseung Kwan O Football Training Centre that is supported with a grant of HK$133 million from the Hong Kong Jockey Club Charities Trust.

  11. Sport and globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gems, Gerald R.; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2014-01-01

    The authors describe, analyze and evaluate sport related globalization processes with a focus on transnationalism, colonialism, imperialism, and, more generally, geopolitical developments. They provide a variety of theoretical frameworks as they explore the emergence of modern sport and its...

  12. Sports and Concussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Concussion Sports and Concussion Past Issues / Summer 2015 Table of ... ages—reducing blows to the head by playing sports safely and avoiding falls is vital to a ...

  13. Analysis of Sport Management Literature: European Sport Management Quarterly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Pitts

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A profession must be built upon a sound body of knowledge in order for its professional status to be recognized and considered credible by society (Zeigler, 1987. The body of literature should also reflect and define the field (Fielding, Pitts, & Miller, 1991. To that end, examining the state of a body of literature is essential as the findings can reveal such significant information as content, trends, author collaboration, and topical gaps and disparities. The purpose of this study was to examine the European Sport Management Quarterly and its predecessor the European Journal for Sport Management. A content analysis of the journal from 1994 to 2012 was the methodology employed. Results determined that a vast majority of the papers are in four content areas – “Management and Organizational Skills in Sport”, “Sport Business in the Social Context”, “Sport Marketing”, and “Sport Economics”. Sport business industry segments as a focus of the papers stayed relatively the same over the years, although “International Sport” increased much more than any other industry segment. The gender focus of the articles was primarily male, and the authorship and editorial membership was also male-focused. The geographical dispersion of both authors and editorial review board members has broadened over time to be less European. Academics may find information from this study useful in developing strategies and lines of inquiry in research agendas. As well, editors of journals may utilize the findings to plan strategies related to addressing gaps or disparities.

  14. Investigating sport celebrity endorsement and sport event ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When detailed product information is not available to consumers inferences are made using product cues to reduce uncertainty and to form perceptions of products. Advertisers can make use of sport sponsorship and sport celebrity endorsement as extrinsic cues to influence consumers\\' pre-purchase attitudes. These cues ...

  15. SOCIAL ASPECTS OF SPORT

    OpenAIRE

    YETİM, Azmi

    2000-01-01

    Sport is themost effective and common social institute of modern societies. The mostimportant element of societies is individual. Societies in which individualshealthy, well educated, social and cultured could be thought as modern basicaim of sport is to support the development of human in terms of physical mentaland social. And also sport is very effective phenomenon to create a modernsociety. In addition personel benefits and missions sport has very importantsocial effects. In this age, it ...

  16. Drugs in sport

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, D

    2007-01-01

    This new edition includes fresh information regarding drugs use and abuse in sport and the updated worldwide anti-doping laws, and changes to the prohibited and therapeutic use exemption lists. The objectives of the book are to review/discuss the latest information on drugs in sport by considering i) actions of drugs and hormones, ii) medication and nutritional supplements in sport, iii) the latest doping control regulations of the WADA, iv) the use of banned therapeutic drugs in sport, v) an...

  17. International Colloquium on Sports Science, Exercise, Engineering and Technology 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Shariman; Sulaiman, Norasrudin

    2014-01-01

    The proceeding is a collection of research papers presented at the International Colloquium on Sports Science, Exercise, Engineering and Technology (ICoSSEET2014), a conference dedicated to address the challenges in the areas of sports science, exercise, sports engineering and technology including other areas of sports, thereby presenting a consolidated view to the interested researchers in the aforesaid fields. The goal of this conference was to bring together researchers and practitioners from academia and industry to focus on the scope of the conference and establishing new collaborations in these areas. The topics of interest are as follows but are not limited to:1. Sports and Exercise Science • Sports Nutrition • Sports Biomechanics • Strength and Conditioning • Motor Learning and Control • Sports Psychology • Sports Coaching • Sports and Exercise Physiology • Sports Medicine and Athletic Trainer • Fitness and Wellness • Exercise Rehabilitation • Adapted Physical Activity...

  18. Sport in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Koen Breedveld

    2007-01-01

    Sport is a popular pastime in the Netherlands; 10 million people take part in at least one sport. To do this, they can choose from more than 27,000 non-profit sports clubs, or more than 5,000 commercial providers such as fitness centres or riding stables. These clubs and commercial providers

  19. LAW IMPLEMENTATION IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mexhid Krasniqi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This work offers a short review of sports marketing and management. It presents different ways of advertising some products either in sports events or throng electronic mediums. In addition, it reviles different aspects of the influence that politics and discrimination has on sport as well as the way of solving eventual arguments of any kind.

  20. Sport and Social Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Howard L., II

    Sport is examined in relation to a number of basic aspects of social organization. Each of the seven sections includes a brief clarification of the key sociological concepts used for analysis, a consideration of various applications of those concepts to sport, and a review and discussion of what is known about specific aspects of sport in relation…

  1. Sport Specialization, Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Sports specialization is defined as year-round training (greater than 8 months per year), choosing a single main sport, and/or quitting all other sports to focus on 1 sport. Specialized training in young athletes has risks of injury and burnout, while the degree of specialization is positively correlated with increased serious overuse injury risk. Risk factors for injury in young athletes who specialize in a single sport include year-round single-sport training, participation in more competition, decreased age-appropriate play, and involvement in individual sports that require the early development of technical skills. Adults involved in instruction of youth sports may also put young athletes at risk for injury by encouraging increased intensity in organized practices and competition rather than self-directed unstructured free play. Strength-of-Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): C. PMID:26502420

  2. Changing spaces for sports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kural, René

    2010-01-01

    The author argues that the fundamental values associated with sports seem to have changed. Accordingly spaces for sports are also undergoing change.The essay gives a number of examples of these new sports spaces. Their common denominator lies in their urban proximity, the combination of previously...

  3. Sports and Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables Sports and Your Eyes Gear up! If you play sports, you know they can be a lot of ... the right safety gear. Think about your favorite sport. Do you wear anything to protect your eyes, ...

  4. 4 Corruption in Sport

    OpenAIRE

    Andreff, Wladimir

    2016-01-01

    International audience; A typology of sport corruption differentiates petty corruption, barter corruption, corruption at the level of sport governing bodies, betting scandals and point-shaving. A deeper analysis goes further as regards match fixing-related bets and global online fraudulent sport betting networks and suggests new tools for combatting match fixing.

  5. Researching Sport Education Appreciatively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pill, Shane; Hastie, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In order to plan and enact appropriate learning environments in physical education (PE) teachers are increasingly directed to models based practice. The Sport Education model is one of these models for PE curriculum and teaching design that informs the content and pedagogical direction of sport teaching in PE. Despite Sport Education being well…

  6. Report on Sport 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst

    2015-01-01

    More than half the Dutch population participated in sport on a weekly basis in 2014. Fitness training and running are the most popular sports among adults. Government interventions at the level of neighbourhoods, primary schools, secondary schools and sports clubs are intended to persuade more

  7. eSport: Construct specifications and implications for sport management

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, G.; Fairley, S.; Ferkins, L.; Lock, Daniel; Kerwin, S.; Shaw, S.; Wicker, P.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to add to the conceptual discussion on eSport, analyze the role of\\ud eSport within sport management, and suggest avenues for future eSport research. The authors\\ud suggest that debates surround the degree to which eSport represents formal sport, and\\ud disagreements likely stem from conceptualizations of sport and context. Irrespective of one’s\\ud notion of eSport as formal sport, the authors suggest the topic has a place in sport management\\ud scholarship and ...

  8. Relationship between sport commitment and sport consumer behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberta Elisa Fernandes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between sport commitment and three types of sport consumer behaviors: participation frequency, sporting goods and media consumption. A survey was conducted among sport participants of both individual and team sports, fitness and outdoor activities (n= 900. The survey included questions related to demographic information, measures of sport commitment and sport consumption behavior. The results analyzed trough structural equation modeling showed that the sport commitment influences positively the participation frequency, sporting goods consumption and media consumption. Implications of these results are discussed and suggestions for future research on sport consumers are provided.

  9. Sport psychology education for sport injury rehabilitation professionals: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Caroline A; Walker, Natalie C; Green, Alison J K; Rostron, Claire L

    2015-02-01

    Sport psychology education has been shown to have a positive impact on the practice of sport injury rehabilitation professionals (SIRPs). The purpose of this paper is to review recommendations relating to such education. The paper presents a review of existing literature relating to the content and mode of delivery for a sport psychology education programme for SIRPs. The review seeks to address four questions: (1) What topic areas do researchers suggest should be integrated into the sport psychology education of SIRPs? (2) What topic areas are currently being recommended by professional bodies? (3) What are the findings of research examining the impact of sport psychology education on SIRPs? and (4) What do researchers recommend to be the most appropriate mode of delivery for sport psychology education for SIRPs? The findings of the review suggest that in order to maximise adherence amongst already qualified SIRPs sport psychology education should be delivered in a flexible short duration package. Additionally three broad areas that sport psychology education should cover emerged: (1) understanding of the psychological impact of injury, (2) interventions and psychological skills/techniques, and (3) referral and professional boundaries. This has important implications for the future training of SIRPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Applicable Law for Contracts in the Sporting Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medić Ines

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of contractual relations in sport from the standpoint of the Croatian legislative system. Due to the complexity of the subject matter, the author considers only a small fragment of it - the significance and the role of sport in Croatian society and the law of contracts „as a cornerstone on which „sports law“ has been built and which is of primary importance in most areas where there is an interface between sport and the law, irrespective of whether the sport is being played at an elite level or at a more humble one“.

  11. ULUDAĞ WINTER TOURISM and ITS IMPORTANCE IN THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema AY

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Tourism that is a regional means of development is closely related with the local economic development. Winter tourism is a set of activities and relationships composed of trips made to the regions which are located in the heart of ski sports and accordingly with slopes and snow, accommodations and other services. Since winter tourism mainly consists of a number of activities depending on snowy environments, it requires locations with certain height and slope which will also allow the execution of other nature sports such as walking, climbing etc. besides skiing and snowboarding. Uludağ, the most popular winter sports center that is 30 km away from the Bursa city center has significant natural advantages in terms of winter tourism. However, with the recently changing tourism demands in winter tourism, developments have been taking place in the types of tourism. Uludağ having natural advantages have not been able to sufficiently benefit from these advantages and cannot make use of its existing potential. Besides the countries having sucessful snow resorts of Europe such as Austria, France, Switzerland, Italy and Andorra, Romania and Bulgaria are also increasing their competitiveness in the international markets in recent years with ambitious investments. When Uludağ that is in the location of the largest snow resort in Turkey is compared with these resorts, it is thought that there is a way to go in the field of winter tourism. Starting from this idea, in the research, it is aimed to identify the contribution of Uludağ to the local economic development and the potentials for increasing this contribution. Towards the mentioned aim, the study will be carried out based on field research. In the conclusion of the study, it is planned to submit the proposals focused on policy and strategy to be followed in terms of having Uludağ use its potential in the most efficient way and provide more contribution to the local economy. In addition, its

  12. Interventions implemented through sporting organisations for increasing participation in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Naomi; Armstrong, Rebecca; Doyle, Jodie; Waters, Elizabeth

    2008-07-16

    There is now compelling scientific evidence that increased levels of physical activity can bring wide-ranging health benefits. These benefits can extend beyond physical health to include other positive impacts relating to mental health and personal development. The sport and recreation sector is viewed as a priority area for increasing rates of physical activity. Participation rates in organised sport have been shown to be lower in females and to decline with age, and are reduced in lower socio-economic and minority groups including people from non-English speaking and Indigenous backgrounds. It is important to determine the most effective interventions that sporting organisations can use to increase people's participation. To update a review of all controlled studies evaluating interventions implemented through sporting organisations to increase participation. We updated the original (2004) searches in May 2007. We searched: The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 2 2007); MEDLINE and MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations (2004 to Week 3 April 2007); EMBASE (2004 to Week 17 2007); PsyclNFO (2004 to April Week 1 2007); CINAHL (2004 to Week 1 May 2007); SPORTDiscus (2004 to April 2007); Sociological Abstracts (2004 to 2007); Dissertation Abstracts (2004 to May 2007), and a number of freely-available online health promotion and sports-related databases. We used the internet extensively to search for studies and locate information generated by sporting bodies throughout the world. Controlled studies evaluating any intervention designed to increase active and/ or non-active participation in sport by people of all ages. Interventions could include: mass media campaigns; information or education sessions; management or organisational change strategies; policy changes, for example to improve the socio-cultural environment to encourage people of specific age, gender or ethnicity to participate; changes to

  13. The injury experience at the 2010 winter paralympic games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webborn, Nick; Willick, Stuart; Emery, Carolyn A

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine incidence proportion and the characteristics of athlete injuries sustained during the 2010 Vancouver Paralympic Games. Descriptive epidemiological study. All medical venues at the 2010 Vancouver Paralympic Games, Canada. A total of 505 athletes from 44 National Paralympic Committees participating in the 2010 Vancouver Winter Paralympic Games. Baseline covariates included sport specificity (ie, ice sledge hockey, alpine skiing, Nordic skiing, wheelchair curling), gender, age, and disability classification. All injuries that occurred during the 2010 Vancouver Paralympic Games. "Injury" was defined as any sport-related musculoskeletal complaint that caused the athlete to seek medical attention during the study period, regardless of the athlete's ability to continue with training or competition. The Injury Surveillance System identified a total of 120 injuries among 505 athletes [incidence proportion = 23.8% (95% confidence interval, 20.11-27.7)] participating in the 2010 Winter Paralympic Games. There was a similar injury incidence proportion among male (22.8%) and female (26.6%) athletes [incidence rate ratio = 1.1 (95% confidence interval, 0.7-1.7)]. Medical encounters for musculoskeletal complaints were generated in 34% of all sledge hockey athletes, 22% of alpine ski racers, 19% of Nordic skiers, and 18% of wheelchair curling athletes. The Injury Surveillance System identified sport injuries in 24% of all athletes participating in the 2010 Winter Paralympic Games. The injury risk was significantly higher than during the 2002 (9.4%) and 2006 (8.4%) Winter Paralympic Games. This may reflect improved data collection systems but also highlights the high risk of acute injury in alpine skiing and ice sledge hockey at Paralympic Games. These data will assist future Organizing Committees with the delivery of medical care to athletes with a disability and guide future injury prevention research.

  14. Psicologia do esporte: uma área emergente da psicologia Psicología del deporte: un area emergente de la psicología Sport psychology: an emergent field in psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenamar Fiorese Vieira

    2010-06-01

    Sport Psychology field as a psychologist's emergent field of action in Brazil. A historical analysis is performed concerning the path of Sport Psychology presenting the areas of professional action (research, teaching and intervention, the role of the sport psychologist (researcher, academic teacher and consultant and the field's recent scientific state. Although the vast professional field, the diversity of knowledge needed to act in this subdivision of Psychology is an intervening element, resulting in an insufficient professional formation and a division of the professional action into two specialties: the Clinical Psychology and Educational Psychology applied to sport. Finally, it is highlighted the emergency in the comprehension of this aspects, providing background to understand the importance of the professional qualification in the field of Sport and Physical Exercise.

  15. Marketing of sport tourism

    OpenAIRE

    A.S. Teletov; V.I. Karpets

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to clarify the concept of «sport tourism marketing», to examine the state of its objects and to determine prospects for development of sport tourism in Ukraine. The paper singles out the role of sport in life; compares different types of cities in terms of provision the infrastructure for tourism development in the field of sports. Authors show the example of the campaign. The results of the analysis. The article deals with sport tourism as...

  16. Adventure and Extreme Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Andrew Thomas; Rao, Ashwin

    2016-03-01

    Adventure and extreme sports often involve unpredictable and inhospitable environments, high velocities, and stunts. These activities vary widely and include sports like BASE jumping, snowboarding, kayaking, and surfing. Increasing interest and participation in adventure and extreme sports warrants understanding by clinicians to facilitate prevention, identification, and treatment of injuries unique to each sport. This article covers alpine skiing and snowboarding, skateboarding, surfing, bungee jumping, BASE jumping, and whitewater sports with emphasis on epidemiology, demographics, general injury mechanisms, specific injuries, chronic injuries, fatality data, and prevention. Overall, most injuries are related to overuse, trauma, and environmental or microbial exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. SPORTS MARKETING AS A BUSINESS FUNCTION IN MODERN SPORTS

    OpenAIRE

    Danilo Aćimović; Omer Špirtović

    2013-01-01

    Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing, belongs to the newer type of the marketing. It appeared in time of increasing activity and significance of sport in the world. Huge human potential, with which sport as an activity disposes, implied the need to organize more properly and use it purposefully. “Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represen...

  18. Sports eyewear protective standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dain, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Eye injuries sustained during sport comprise up to 20 per cent of all injuries to the eye serious enough for medical attention to be sought. The prevalence of eye injuries in sport is not easily assessed due to lack of authoritative participation rates, so most studies report total numbers in a time period. The evidence on the proportion of all ocular injuries that are from sport is reviewed. The relative frequencies in different sports are compared in a qualitative manner and the sports with greater numbers of ocular injuries are detailed. In common with occupational injuries to the eye, most sports eye injuries are considered preventable. The hierarchy of action for occupational risk is detailed and adapted to use in a sports scenario. All the available international, regional and national standards on sports eye protection are detailed and their provisions compared. The major function of the standards is to provide adequate protection against the hazard of the sport concerned. These are detailed and compared as a function of energy transfer. Eye protection must not introduce additional or secondary hazards (for instance, fracturing into sharp fragments on impact) and not introduce features that would deter the wearing of eye protection (for instance, restricting field of view to impede playing the sport). The provisions of the standards intended to limit secondary hazards are detailed and compared. The need for future work in standards writing and the activities of the International Standardization Organization in sports eye protection are detailed. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  19. The relationship of sport participation to provision of sports facilities and socioeconomic status: a geographical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eime, Rochelle M; Harvey, Jack; Charity, Melanie J; Casey, Meghan; Westerbeek, Hans; Payne, Warren R

    2017-06-01

    Ecological models have been applied to investigate multiple domains influencing physical activity behaviour, including individual, social, organisational, community, environmental and policy factors. With regard to the built environment, research to date has been limited to small geographical areas and/or small samples of participants. This study examined the geographical association between provision of sport facilities and participation in sport across an entire Australian state, using objective total enumerations of both, for a group of sports, with adjustment for the effect of socioeconomic status (SES). De-identified membership registration data were obtained from state sport governing bodies of four popular team sports. Associations between participation rate, facility provision rate and SES were investigated using correlation and regression methods. Participation rate was positively associated with provision of facilities, although this was complicated by SES and region effects. The non-metropolitan region generally had higher participation rates and better provision of facilities than the metropolitan region. Better provision of sports facilities is generally associated with increased sport participation, but SES and region are also contributing factors. Implications for public health: Community-level analysis of the population, sport participation and provision of facilities should be used to inform decisions of investments in sports facilities. © 2017 The Authors.

  20. Sport and migrants' acculturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morela, Eleftheria

    the acculturation process and to identify factors that may regulate the acculturation process through sport participation. The second study focuses on adolescent migrants and aimed at identifying differences in acculturation attitudes and acculturative stress among young migrants who participate in sports and those...... who do not.Furthermore, it investigates the role of the coach-created sporting environment in the acculturation process within those participating in sport. The results revealed significant differences regarding the level of acculturative stress with migrant participants engaging in sports scoring...... multiculturalism. Sport is considered to be a vehicle for bringing people together, and recently there has been an increasing policy interest in the use of sport as a venue for promoting social integration and intercultural dialogue. Regardless of its political significance, research on the integrative role...

  1. Is Sport Nationalism Justifiable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Pérez Triviño

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to clarify the deep relationships established between sport and nationalism by considering, among other factors, the instrumentalisation of sport by political elites, political apathy of citizens, economic resources for sport, the question of violence or identitarian matters. In order to define if the combination of sport and nationalism is admissible, the paper defines sport nationalism and distinguishes the political use of sport for purposes of domestic and foreign policy. In the first section the analysis focuses on whether a causal link with respect to the contribution to violence can be established and with respect to its use in the internal politics of a state, the paper differentiates between normal political circumstances and political crises in order to properly address the question of whether there are grounds to assert that sport can distract citizens from asserting their genuine interests.

  2. Technology and Sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Rasmus Bysted; Møller, Verner

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between sport and technology is close and can be both fruitful and destructive. Technology has a constitutive function in sport as it makes the activity possible and it can enhance performance as well as the sporting experience. The use of football boots is clearly more comfortable...... and effective than playing in bare feet in a game of football. However, sport challenges its athletes by demanding the employment of less efficient means rather than more efficient means in pursuit of sport specific goals. Therefore technology can potentially subtract from the sporting experience and even...... has long been a heated topic and with gene technology waiting around the corner the relationship between sport and technology has become strained and is more and more often viewed as problematic rather than benign. In this chapter we follow up on this trend by exposing what we consider a tendency...

  3. [Hand injuries in mountain sports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prommersberger, K-J; Mühldorfer-Fodor, M; Kalb, K

    2015-06-01

    Apart from clean cut finger amputations, every kind of hand injury can be seen in mountain and winter sports but only skier's thumb and injuries of the pulley system in sport climbers are seen in a greater number of cases. Nevertheless, these two common injuries as well as the rare frostbite of the fingers are often underdiagnosed or overdiagnosed as well as undertreated or overtreated. This paper describes the diagnostics and treatment of skier's thumb, injuries of the pulley system in sport climbers and frostbite of the fingers. Before checking the metacarpophalangeal (MP) joint of the thumb for stability, radiographs should be taken to exclude a bony avulsion of the ulnar collateral ligament in skier's thumb. If there is no bony ligament avulsion further diagnostic procedures, e.g. ultrasound, are recommended to prove or exclude a Stener lesion, which is an absolute indication for operative treatment together with a dislocated bony ligament avulsion. To quantify the severity of a lesion of the pulley system ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are needed. Most lesions of the pulley system can be treated conservatively. Only multiple pulley ruptures or isolated ruptures associated with a lesion of the lumbrical muscles or collateral ligaments require operative treatment. As long as there is no infection amputation should be done as late as possible in frostbite of the fingers because the extent of the frostbite can rarely be correctly estimated. Most cases of skier's thumb as well as lesions of the pulley system can be treated non-operatively but precise diagnostics are needed.

  4. Taking the Temperature of Sports Arenas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Rikke

    the technology of the sensor and the different application areas. Two new methods for counting people are presented, as well as two methods for sports type recognition. Tracking of sports players is an important task in many applications, from recognition of activities to evaluation of performance. This thesis...... is automatic analysis of the use of sports arenas. This work is organised under three themes: Occupancy analysis, Activity recognition and Tracking. Finally, the thesis demonstrates how thermal imaging can also be applied efficiently for analysing humans in the Smart City. This thesis starts by introducing...

  5. FUNCTION of MANAGEMENT IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srećko Novaković

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the sport management coordination represents the basic deposit of management, and terms through numerous activities. Brother-in-law activity in sport has the specific management so speak about the management of sport event, management of sports facilities, management of management to the human activities, financial management in sport etc. The sportively management has presumed the specific management related to sports activities whose basic task of coordinations of sports activities. Management of sport organisations have been confided sport managers of special profile which differs towards the type of sport, rank of contest etc. The sport managers could utter survived the statement that in sport have not been educated special diameters manager, besides sport coaches. Specifically, in the role of manager in sport prevails almost all diameters of professional in professional or the volunteer relationship.

  6. Does Zoning Winter Recreationists Reduce Recreation Conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Aubrey D.; Vaske, Jerry J.; Squires, John R.; Olson, Lucretia E.; Roberts, Elizabeth K.

    2017-01-01

    Parks and protected area managers use zoning to decrease interpersonal conflict between recreationists. Zoning, or segregation, of recreation—often by non-motorized and motorized activity—is designed to limit physical interaction while providing recreation opportunities to both groups. This article investigated the effectiveness of zoning to reduce recreation conflict in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area in Colorado, USA. Despite a zoning management system, established groomed travel routes were used by both non-motorized recreationists (backcountry skiers, snowboarders, snowshoers) and motorized recreationists (snowmobilers). We hypothesized that persistent recreation conflict reported by non-motorized recreationists was the result of recreation occurring in areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use, mostly along groomed routes. We performed a geospatial analysis of recreation [from Global Positioning System (GPS) points, n = 1,233,449] in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area to identify areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use. We then surveyed non-motorized recreationists ( n = 199) to test whether reported conflict is higher for respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with respondents traveling outside areas of mixed-use. Results from the geospatial analysis showed that only 0.7 % of the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area contained recreation from both groups, however that area contained 14.8 % of all non-motorized recreation and 49.1 % of all motorized recreation. Survey analysis results showed higher interpersonal conflict for all five standard conflict variables among non-motorized respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with those traveling outside mixed-use areas. Management implications and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of zoning are provided.

  7. Weather Support for the 2002 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horel, J.; Potter, T.; Dunn, L.; Steenburgh, W. J.; Eubank, M.; Splitt, M.; Onton, D. J.

    2002-02-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games will be hosted by Salt Lake City, Utah, during February-March 2002. Adverse weather during this period may delay sporting events, while snow and ice-covered streets and highways may impede access by the athletes and spectators to the venues. While winter snowstorms and other large-scale weather systems typically have widespread impacts throughout northern Utah, hazardous winter weather is often related to local terrain features (the Wasatch Mountains and Great Salt Lake are the most prominent ones). Examples of such hazardous weather include lake-effect snowstorms, ice fog, gap winds, downslope windstorms, and low visibility over mountain passes.A weather support system has been developed to provide weather information to the athletes, games officials, spectators, and the interested public around the world. This system is managed by the Salt Lake Olympic Committee and relies upon meteorologists from the public, private, and academic sectors of the atmospheric science community. Weather forecasting duties will be led by National Weather Service forecasters and a team of private, weather forecasters organized by KSL, the Salt Lake City NBC television affiliate. Other government agencies, commercial firms, and the University of Utah are providing specialized forecasts and support services for the Olympics. The weather support system developed for the 2002 Winter Olympics is expected to provide long-term benefits to the public through improved understanding,monitoring, and prediction of winter weather in the Intermountain West.

  8. Winter School Les Houches

    CERN Document Server

    Lannoo, Michel; Bastard, Gérald; Voos, Michel; Boccara, Nino

    1986-01-01

    The Winter School held in Les Houches on March 12-21, 1985 was devoted to Semiconductor Heterojunctions and Superlattices, a topic which is recognized as being now one of the most interesting and active fields in semiconductor physics. In fact, following the pioneering work of Esaki and Tsu in 1970, the study of these two-dimensional semiconductor heterostructures has developed rapidly, both from the point of view of basic physics and of applications. For instance, modulation-doped heterojunctions are nowadays currently used to investigate the quantum Hall effect and to make very fast transistors. This book contains the lectures presented at this Winter School, showing in particular that many aspects of semiconductor heterojunctions and super­ lattices were treated, extending from the fabrication of these two-dimensional systems to their basic properties and applications in micro-and opto-electron­ ics. Among the subjects which were covered, one can quote as examples: molecular beam epitaxy and metallorgani...

  9. Wintering Golden Eagles on the coastal plain of South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukovich, Mark [USDA Forest Service-Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Turner, Kelsey L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab. (SREL); Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States); Grazia, Tracy E. [USDA Forest Service, New Ellenton, SC (United States). Savannah River; Mims, Thiomas [USDA Forest Service, New Ellenton, SC (United States). Savannah River; Beasley, James C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab. (SREL); Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States); Kilgo, John C. [USDA Forest Service-Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) are rare winter residents in eastern North America, with most found along the Appalachian Mountains and few reported on the coastal plain of the Carolinas. We used remote cameras baited with wild pig (Sus scrofa) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) carcasses to detect, age, and individually identify Golden Eagles on the U.S. Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site on the coastal plain of South Carolina. We identified eight individual Golden Eagles during the winters of 2013–2014 and 2014–2015, with one detected during both winters. We detected eagles for 19 and 66 calendar days during the winters of 2013–2014 and 2014–2015, respectively, with two adult eagles detected for 30 and 31 calendar days in 2014–2015. Eagles typically scavenged on carcasses for a few days, left, and then returned when cameras were baited with another carcass, suggesting they had remained in the area. These observations suggest that large tracts of forests on the coastal plain may be important wintering areas for some Golden Eagles and, further, that other areas in the coastal plain of the southeastern United States may also harbor wintering eagles. Identification of wintering areas of Golden Eagles in the east will be an important step in the conservation of this protected species, and camera traps baited with carcasses can be an effective tool for such work.

  10. THE SPORT MARKETING MANAGEMENT MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Lucian MIHAI

    2015-01-01

    Sport marketing involves marketing fundamentals applied in one industry, the sport business industry. The development of sport marketing fundamentals is therefore based on basic marketing principles. The practice and activities of sport marketing are also based on basic marketing activities, but are modified and adapted to the sport business industry. Therefore, sport marketing is based on its primary and parent discipline - marketing. Sport marketing is one of the most important function...

  11. SPORTS MARKETING AS A BUSINESS FUNCTION IN MODERN SPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Aćimović

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing, belongs to the newer type of the marketing. It appeared in time of increasing activity and significance of sport in the world. Huge human potential, with which sport as an activity disposes, implied the need to organize more properly and use it purposefully. “Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represents primarily an economical process of connecting production (sport organizations with sportsmen and coaches and consumption (sport and other public. It can be seen in the fact besides promoting sport it conducts certain (limited productive activity (exchange of sport equipment, exchange of sport requisites and material goods that create sport clubs through competitions.

  12. Sport supporting act: terminology issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Vlček

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The text deals with terminology issues from an interdisciplinary point of view. It is based on two different disciplines, law and kinanthropology, in an area of their overlap. AIM: The aim of the author is to point out some possible legislative problems, which could arise due to the current reading of the sport supporting act (Act no. 115/2001. The second aim of the author is to contribute to the discussion of kinantropologists (possibly also the educational researchers and lawyers and to stress the importance of the systematic approach to terminology formulation. METHODS: The author uses the method of language interpretation. We also use the basic analytical methods, induction and deduction, while we stress the systematic approach to the term formulation. RESULTS: The analysis of the sport supporting act terminology shows some specific legislative problems, which could arise due to the definition of sport in the sport supporting act. The author discusses a possible alternative solution. CONCLUSION: According to the opinion of the author, clear, obvious and unified terminology of kinantropologists as specialists in their discipline should represent a source, from which other sciences could derive their terminology. Defined and inexpert terminology used in other disciplines should not be used as an argument for its adopting in kinanthropology.

  13. [Sports and athletes deserve doping hunting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremion, G; Saugy, M

    2013-07-17

    This article reviews the evidence-based ergogenic potential adverse effects of the most common products in use by recreational and elite athletes today. This is an aggressively marketed and controversial area of sports medicine wordwide. It is therefore important for the scientific societies, clinicians, dieticians sports federations to be well versed in the more popular supplements and drugs in order to have an important role in information and prevention attitudes that can lead to health risks or addictions!

  14. AOSSM Early Sport Specialization Consensus Statement

    OpenAIRE

    LaPrade, Robert F.; Agel, Julie; Baker, Joseph; Brenner, Joel S.; Cordasco, Frank A.; Côté, Jean; Engebretsen, Lars; Feeley, Brian T.; Gould, Daniel; Hainline, Brian; Hewett, Timothy E.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Kocher, Mininder S.; Myer, Gregory D.; Nissen, Carl W.

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 The Author(s). This is an Open Access article. Background: Early sport specialization is not a requirement for success at the highest levels of competition and is believed to be unhealthy physically and mentally for young athletes. It also discourages unstructured free play, which has many benefits. Purpose: To review the available evidence on early sports specialization and identify areas where scientific data are lacking. Study Design: Think tank, roundtable discussion...

  15. Traveling to Canada for the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggie, Travis W

    2009-07-01

    The 21st Winter Olympic Games will be held in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada from February 12 to 28, 2010. Following the Winter Olympic Games, the Winter Paralympic Games will be held from March 12 to 21, 2010. There will be 86 winter sporting events hosted in Vancouver with 5500 athletes staying in two Olympic Villages. Another 2800 members of the media, 25,000 volunteers, and 1 million spectators are expected in attendance. This paper reviews health and safety issues for all travelers to Canada for the 2010 Vancouver Winter Olympic Games with a specific focus on pre-travel planning, road and transportation safety in British Columbia, natural and environmental hazards, Olympic medical facilities, safety and security, and infectious disease.

  16. Use of geolocators reveals previously unknown Chinese and Korean scaly-sided merganser wintering sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soloveyva, Diana; Afanasiev, Vsevolod; Fox, James W.

    2012-01-01

    on freshwater habitats throughout mainland China, straddling an area 830 km E−W and 1100 km N−S. Most wintered in discrete mountainous areas with extensive timber cover, large rivers and low human population density. Three birds tracked in more than one season returned to within 25−150 km of previous wintering...... and recaptured on nests along a 40-km stretch of the Kievka River. Mean positions for brood-rearing females during the summer were on average within 61.9 km of the nest site, suggesting reasonable device accuracy for subsequent location of winter quarters. Geolocation data showed that most birds wintered...... areas in successive years, suggesting winter fidelity to catchments if not specific sites. A single female from the adjacent Avvakumovka catchment wintered on saltwater in Korea, at least 1300 km east of Chinese wintering birds. Most sea duck species (Tribe Mergini) form pairs away from breeding areas...

  17. Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus winter mortality in The Netherlands : The effect of severe weather and food supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camphuysen, CJ; Ens, B.J.; Heg, Dierik; Hulscher, JB; VanderMeer, J; Smit, CJ

    1996-01-01

    Wintering Oystercatchers in The Netherlands are concentrated in the Wadden Sea (c. 200 000), with substantial numbers in the Delta area (c. 90 000). Only 1% of the total wintering population is normally found along the North Sea coast. Cold-rushes under severe winter conditions lead to a reduction

  18. American Medical Society for Sports Medicine recommended sports ultrasound curriculum for sports medicine fellowships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnoff, Jonathan T; Berkoff, David; Brennan, Fred; DiFiori, John; Hall, Mederic M; Harmon, Kimberly; Lavallee, Mark; Martin, Sean; Smith, Jay; Stovak, Mark

    2015-02-01

    The American Medical Society for Sports Medicine (AMSSM) developed a musculoskeletal ultrasound curriculum for sports medicine fellowships in 2010. As the use of diagnostic and interventional ultrasound in sports medicine has evolved, it became clear that the curriculum needed to be updated. Furthermore, the name 'musculoskeletal ultrasound' was changed to 'sports ultrasound' (SPORTS US) to reflect the broad range of diagnostic and interventional applications of ultrasound in sports medicine. This document was created to outline the core competencies of SPORTS US and to provide sports medicine fellowship directors and others interested in SPORTS US education with a guide to create a SPORTS US curriculum. By completing this SPORTS US curriculum, sports medicine fellows and physicians can attain proficiency in the core competencies of SPORTS US required for the practice of sports medicine. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Developing Sport Psychology in a girls' sport academy curriculum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    similar Sport Psychology curricula. Keywords: adolescent girls; curriculum; Life Orientation; life skills; sport; sport academy; sport psychology. Introduction. The Academy for Girls' Leadership and ..... context by means of age-appropriate stories and metaphors according to the Sport. Psychology principle of visualisation (cf.

  20. Comparison of eSports and Traditional Sports Consumption Motives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghun; Schoenstedt, Linda J.

    2011-01-01

    With recognition of the need for studying eSports in this interactive digital communication era, this study explored 14 motivational factors affecting the time spent on eSports gaming. Using a sample of 515 college students and athletic event attendees, we further compared eSports game patterns to their non-eSport or traditional sport involvements…

  1. Junior Sport and the Evolution of Sport Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedentop, Daryl

    2002-01-01

    Addresses junior sport and sport culture in New Zealand, recommending that it receive serious consideration for its crucial role in the future of New Zealand's sport culture. The paper presents three goals for junior sport programs (educative, public health, and elite development), describes characteristics of junior sport (e.g., youth want to…

  2. Measurements for winter road maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Riehm, Mats

    2012-01-01

    Winter road maintenance activities are crucial for maintaining the accessibility and traffic safety of the road network at northerly latitudes during winter. Common winter road maintenance activities include snow ploughing and the use of anti-icing agents (e.g. road salt, NaCl). Since the local weather is decisive in creating an increased risk of slippery conditions, understanding the link between local weather and conditions at the road surface is critically important. Sensors are commonly i...

  3. [Sport and rheumatoid arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proschek, D; Rehart, S

    2014-06-01

    Sport is becoming increasingly more important in our society. Due to the changing age spectrum with a greater number of elderly and substantially more active people, an increasing number of people with underlying orthopedic diseases are becoming interested in participating in sport. This article deals with the possibilities and effects of sporting activities for people with rheumatoid arthritis within the framework of a conservative therapy. A literature search was carried out using medical search engines, in particular PubMed, and also via the recommendations of specialist societies and patient help groups. The quality of life of patients with rheumatoid arthritis consists of physical, mental and social components. Sport as a means of rehabilitation influences all of these components. Sport should be comprehended as a form of therapy and be adapted to the needs of the individual patient. The willingness to actively participate in sport should always be highly rated and encouraged. Sport is therefore an important pillar of therapy in a conservative total concept. The main aspects of sport therapeutic activities are functional, pedagogical and experience-oriented aspects. The clinical symptoms, extent of damage and physical impairment must, however, be evaluated and taken into consideration for the therapeutic concept. The amount of data on the complex topic of sport and rheumatoid arthritis is low and is mainly dealt with as retrospective reviews. A prospective randomized study basis is lacking. The aim must therefore be to confirm the currently available recommendations for various types of sport in controlled studies.

  4. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-29

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the United States and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. 27 figs, 12 tabs.

  5. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-17

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide consise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: Distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; Natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s as well as selected National average prices; Residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; Crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and A 6-10 Day and 30-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree days by city.

  6. Winter fuels report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD's I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD's, as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 day, 30-Day, and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city

  7. Stamena winter wheat variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišić Todor

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Stamena is a winter wheat variety developed at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad, Yugoslavia. It was released by the Federal Commission for varietals Approval in 1999. Stamena was developed by crossing genetically divergent and highly productive parents Lasta and Rodna (Breeders: T. Mišić. N. Mladenov, Z. Jerković and R. Jevtić. Spike is white, smooth, awn less, medium compact with 18-21 spike lets. The grain is vitreous and dark red (Triticum aestivum L. ssp. vulgar e var. lutescens. Stamena is a medium early variety, 1 day earlier than Partizanka and 3 days earlier than Jugoslavija (Table 4. It has excellent resistance to winterkilling, as in very winter hardy Partizanka. The average stem height is 78 cm, with a good resistance to lodging. Stamena has field resistance to leaf rust (Pucce, recondita tritict, horizontal resistance, which is the type of resistance that modern wheat breeding is interested in. The resistance to stem rust (Pucce, graminis tritict is good and to powdery mildew (Erysiphegraminis tritici very good. The 1000 grain mass is about 32 g and volume grain mass 81.3 kg/hi. (Table 2. Stamena is classified in the subgroup A-l. It has excellent milling and baking quality and it belong to the 1st technological group (quality enhancer. The quantity of dry gluten is about 9%. The variety Stamena is a very productive, with the genetic potential for grain above 11 t/ha suitable for growing on fertile and less fertile soils. It has started to be grown commercially in 2000.

  8. Refleksiv Sports Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, Billy

    2013-01-01

    Sports management and its development is closely linked to the development of modern society and modern rationality. This article applies sociological theories and practical management philosophy to shed light on how sports management and its rationality in Denmark (Europe) and the United States...... have changed and undergone different phases for more than a century, and to show that, in late modernity, they are entering a new phase in which they seem to be more reflexive and communicative. This trend is evident in American sports management and will also soon be reflected in Danish sports...... management. My analysis of this development will also be based on a specific case study from the American world of sports, namely the story of Oakland Athletics baseball club’s reorganisation in the 1990s, because it both provides a rare insight into a modern sports organisation and demonstrates...

  9. Sport-related concussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Natuline Ianof

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a major cause of lifelong disability and death worldwide. Sport-related traumatic brain injury is an important public health concern. The purpose of this review was to highlight the importance of sport-related concussions. Concussion refers to a transient alteration in consciousness induced by external biomechanical forces transmitted directly or indirectly to the brain. It is a common, although most likely underreported, condition. Contact sports such as American football, rugby, soccer, boxing, basketball and hockey are associated with a relatively high prevalence of concussion. Various factors may be associated with a greater risk of sport-related concussion, such as age, sex, sport played, level of sport played and equipment used. Physical complaints (headache, fatigue, dizziness, behavioral changes (depression, anxiety, irritability and cognitive impairment are very common after a concussion. The risk of premature return to activities includes the prolongation of post-concussive symptoms and increased risk of concussion recurrence.

  10. NANOTECHNOLOGY AND SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Mašić

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We can say that sports are continuously evolving. To improve the quality of this work, changes are being made in all of these segments: development and selection of athletes, the improvement of technology for preparation and performance tactics, training methods for relaxation. On the other hand these are followed by rule changes, modern sports facilities, as well as legal regulations. One direction in the improvement of sports results is an attempt at rational spending of existing resources for athletes, regardless of whether in team or individual sports. Nanotechnology is also contributioning toward this direction. This paper points out the appearance of nanotechnology, its essence, i.e., the way it may effect the development of sports. Of course, it also points to the potential risk of applying nanotechnology to sports.

  11. SPORTS ACTIVITIES SPONSORSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DURBĂCEA - BOLOVAN MARIAN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sports and economy have discovered each other, hoping to serve common interests. In view of transferring in a more efficient way the information about their products or services to consumers, the business operator finances sports activities for advertising purposes. A company involved in sports sponsorship can instantly transmit the message about its products to millions of potential buyers, thus increasing the market share and hence the profit that it generates. By sponsoring sport it is meant any agreement / convention, under which one party the sponsor makes available to the beneficiary the material resources, financial and / or other benefits in exchange for its association with a sport or sportsman and especially the promise to use this association with sport or sportsman for the purpose of advertising, especially TV advertising. The growing use of athletes as spokespersons for a product is largely due to the ability of athletes to attract public attention and the credibility they enjoy.

  12. Current Concepts in Sports Injury Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Himmat; Dhilllon, Sidak; Dhillon, Mandeep S

    2017-01-01

    In the modern era, rehabilitation after sports injury has become a domain for specialists, and its evolution has necessarily brought together the sports physiotherapist, the sports physician, and the orthopedic surgeon. The changing profile of sports related injury, as well as limited availability of facilities for rehabilitation in many areas of India, is a matter of concern. Elite sportspersons have some protection, but the average athlete is often left to fend for himself. Key factors in successful sports injury rehabilitation protocols are the application of modern rehabilitation protocols under appropriate supervision, appropriate and well timed surgical interventions, and judicious and need based use of pharmaceutical agents. Modern rehabilitation protocols emphasize teamwork and proper rehabilitation planning, and the rehabilitation team has to be lead by a trained sports physiotherapist, with an understanding of the protocols and interventions required at various stages. Injury specific rehabilitation protocols are being practiced worldwide but need to be introduced according to the nature of the sport as well as available facilities. Even in India, sports physicians are increasingly joining specialist rehabilitation teams, and they can help with medication, nutritional supplements, and specialized tests that could improve injury understanding. Inputs from surgeons are mandatory if surgical interventions have been performed. What is often missing in the underdeveloped world is psychological support and a clear understanding by the athlete of his/her rehabilitation protocols. World over, the primary aims are safe return to sports and minimizing reinjury on return to sport; this involves rehabilitation in stages, and current methodology clearly demarcates acute and chronic phases of injury. Close coordination with trainers and coaches is mandatory, and all need to understand that the reconditioning phase is crucial; skill assessment before progression has now

  13. Current Concepts in Sports Injury Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Himmat; Dhilllon, Sidak; Dhillon, Mandeep S

    2017-01-01

    In the modern era, rehabilitation after sports injury has become a domain for specialists, and its evolution has necessarily brought together the sports physiotherapist, the sports physician, and the orthopedic surgeon. The changing profile of sports related injury, as well as limited availability of facilities for rehabilitation in many areas of India, is a matter of concern. Elite sportspersons have some protection, but the average athlete is often left to fend for himself. Key factors in successful sports injury rehabilitation protocols are the application of modern rehabilitation protocols under appropriate supervision, appropriate and well timed surgical interventions, and judicious and need based use of pharmaceutical agents. Modern rehabilitation protocols emphasize teamwork and proper rehabilitation planning, and the rehabilitation team has to be lead by a trained sports physiotherapist, with an understanding of the protocols and interventions required at various stages. Injury specific rehabilitation protocols are being practiced worldwide but need to be introduced according to the nature of the sport as well as available facilities. Even in India, sports physicians are increasingly joining specialist rehabilitation teams, and they can help with medication, nutritional supplements, and specialized tests that could improve injury understanding. Inputs from surgeons are mandatory if surgical interventions have been performed. What is often missing in the underdeveloped world is psychological support and a clear understanding by the athlete of his/her rehabilitation protocols. World over, the primary aims are safe return to sports and minimizing reinjury on return to sport; this involves rehabilitation in stages, and current methodology clearly demarcates acute and chronic phases of injury. Close coordination with trainers and coaches is mandatory, and all need to understand that the reconditioning phase is crucial; skill assessment before progression has now

  14. Current concepts in sports injury rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himmat Dhillon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the modern era, rehabilitation after sports injury has become a domain for specialists, and its evolution has necessarily brought together the sports physiotherapist, the sports physician, and the orthopedic surgeon. The changing profile of sports related injury, as well as limited availability of facilities for rehabilitation in many areas of India, is a matter of concern. Elite sportspersons have some protection, but the average athlete is often left to fend for himself. Key factors in successful sports injury rehabilitation protocols are the application of modern rehabilitation protocols under appropriate supervision, appropriate and well timed surgical interventions, and judicious and need based use of pharmaceutical agents. Modern rehabilitation protocols emphasize teamwork and proper rehabilitation planning, and the rehabilitation team has to be lead by a trained sports physiotherapist, with an understanding of the protocols and interventions required at various stages. Injury specific rehabilitation protocols are being practiced worldwide but need to be introduced according to the nature of the sport as well as available facilities. Even in India, sports physicians are increasingly joining specialist rehabilitation teams, and they can help with medication, nutritional supplements, and specialized tests that could improve injury understanding. Inputs from surgeons are mandatory if surgical interventions have been performed. What is often missing in the underdeveloped world is psychological support and a clear understanding by the athlete of his/her rehabilitation protocols. World over, the primary aims are safe return to sports and minimizing reinjury on return to sport; this involves rehabilitation in stages, and current methodology clearly demarcates acute and chronic phases of injury. Close coordination with trainers and coaches is mandatory, and all need to understand that the reconditioning phase is crucial; skill assessment before

  15. Sport accidents in childhood.

    OpenAIRE

    Sahlin, Y

    1990-01-01

    Injuries among children during sporting activities are common. This study is a one year study including children between five and fourteen years of age who sustained their injuries during sporting activities and were treated at Trondheim Regional and University Hospital. Sport accidents account for 27 per cent of all childhood accidents in this age group. Fifty-three per cent of the injured were boys, and 47 per cent were girls. The boys sustained more severe injuries than the girls. Soccer c...

  16. Sports Specialization, Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; DiFiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Many coaches, parents, and children believe that the best way to develop elite athletes is for them to participate in only 1 sport from an early age and to play it year-round. However, emerging evidence to the contrary indicates that efforts to specialize in 1 sport may reduce opportunities for all children to participate in a diverse year-round sports season and can lead to lost development of lifetime sports skills. Early sports specialization may also reduce motor skill development and ongoing participation in games and sports as a lifestyle choice. The purpose of this review is to employ the current literature to provide evidence-based alternative strategies that may help to optimize opportunities for all aspiring young athletes to maximize their health, fitness, and sports performance. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review with critical appraisal of existing literature. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Based on the current evidence, parents and educators should help provide opportunities for free unstructured play to improve motor skill development and youth should be encouraged to participate in a variety of sports during their growing years to influence the development of diverse motor skills. For those children who do choose to specialize in a single sport, periods of intense training and specialized sport activities should be closely monitored for indicators of burnout, overuse injury, or potential decrements in performance due to overtraining. Last, the evidence indicates that all youth should be involved in periodized strength and conditioning (eg, integrative neuromuscular training) to help them prepare for the demands of competitive sport participation, and youth who specialize in a single sport should plan periods of isolated and focused integrative neuromuscular training to enhance diverse motor skill development and reduce injury risk factors. Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): B. PMID

  17. SPORT MARKETING MIX STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Lucian MIHAI

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of a significant element of the sport marketing management model called the marketing mix. The marketing mix is crucial because it defines the sport business, and much of the sport marketer’s time is spent on various functions within the marketing mix. The marketing mix is the strategic combination of the product, price, place and promotion elements. These elements are typically called the four Ps of marketing. Decisions and strategies for each are importa...

  18. SportOn

    OpenAIRE

    Lynghøj, Jesper Ebbesen; Holm, Emil Broo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract More than ever, it is possible for individuals to create or get involved in some kind of public debate on digital platforms. Whether it involves politics or sport events, people have the opportunity to comment on these events via social media platforms. Our thesis focus on creating a concept, where both journalists and users of sports journalistic can participate online, and share the sports stories they are passionated about. We look at the possibilities of making a sportssite, w...

  19. Sport-related concussions

    OpenAIRE

    Ianof, Jéssica Natuline; Freire, Fabio Rios; Calado, Vanessa Tomé Gonçalves; Lacerda, Juliana Rhein; Coelho, Fernanda; Veitzman, Silvia; Schmidt, Magali Taino; Machado, Sergio; Velasques, Bruna; Ribeiro, Pedro; Basile, Luis Fernando Hindi; Paiva, Wellingson Silva; Amorim, Robson; Anghinah, Renato

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of lifelong disability and death worldwide. Sport-related traumatic brain injury is an important public health concern. The purpose of this review was to highlight the importance of sport-related concussions. Concussion refers to a transient alteration in consciousness induced by external biomechanical forces transmitted directly or indirectly to the brain. It is a common, although most likely underreported, condition. Contact sports such...

  20. Measuring Transpiration to Regulate Winter Irrigation Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelson, Lisa [Auburn University

    2006-11-08

    Periodic transpiration (monthly sums) in a young loblolly pine plantation between ages 3 and 6 was measured using thermal dissipation probes. Fertilization and fertilization with irrigation were better than irrigation alone in increasing transpiration of young loblolly pines during winter months, apparently because of increased leaf area in fertilized trees. Irrigation alone did not significantly increase transpiration compared with the non-fertilized and non-irrigated control plots.

  1. Spinal injury in sport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barile, Antonio [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)]. E-mail: antonio.barile@cc.univaq.it; Limbucci, Nicola [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Splendiani, Alessandra [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Gallucci, Massimo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Masciocchi, Carlo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)

    2007-04-15

    Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding.

  2. Sports Diplomacy of Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobierecki Michał Marcin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Norway is perceived as a country with a clear international identity. The aim of the article is to investigate the sports diplomacy of Norway and to examine its influence on the international brand of this country. The author will define the term “sports diplomacy” and attempt to outline the strategy of Norway’s public diplomacy; an analysis of the methods used in Norwegian sports diplomacy will follow. The main hypothesis of this paper is that sports diplomacy only plays a subsidiary role in Norwegian nation branding.

  3. Spinal injury in sport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barile, Antonio; Limbucci, Nicola; Splendiani, Alessandra; Gallucci, Massimo; Masciocchi, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding

  4. Analysis of combat sports players’ injuries according to playing style for sports physiotherapy research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Ji-Woong; Park, Byoung-Sun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Yang, Seung-Min; Lee, Won-Deok; Shin, Yong-Sub; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Park, Jaehong; Kim, Junghwan

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study describes the characteristics of injuries in strike and non-strike combat sports, and the results are intended for use in the area of sports physiotherapy research. [Subjects and Methods] The study was conducted on 159 athletes involved in a variety of combat sports. The participants included elite college players of the following sports: judo (47), ssireum (19), wrestling (13), kendo (30), boxing (16), and taekwondo (34). Of the participants, 133 were male and 26 were female. In the case of ssireum and boxing, all of the athletes were male. [Results] In the case of the combat sports, the types of injury and injured regions differed according to playing style. Dislocation and injuries to the neck, shoulders, and elbows were more frequent in the non-strike sports, while injuries to the wrists and hands were more frequent in the strike sports. There was a high incidence of sprains, strains, bruises, and injuries to the lower limbs in both groups. [Conclusion] We suggest that the characteristics of injuries in combat sports differ according to playing style, and our study will therefore provide physical therapists and researchers with information that can be used to prevent injury. PMID:26357420

  5. Twenty-five years of sport performance research in the Journal of Sports Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevill, Alan; Atkinson, Greg; Hughes, Mike

    2008-02-15

    In this historical review covering the past 25 years, we reflect on the content of manuscripts relevant to the Sport Performance section of the Journal of Sports Sciences. Due to the wide diversity of sport performance research, the remit of the Sport Performance section has been broad and includes mathematical and statistical evaluation of competitive sports performances, match- and notation-analysis, talent identification, training and selection or team organization. In addition, due to the academic interests of its section editors, they adopted a quality-assurance role for the Sport Performance section, invariably communicated through key editorials that subsequently shaped the editorial policy of the Journal. Key high-impact manuscripts are discussed, providing readers with some insight into what might lead an article to become a citation "classic". Finally, landmark articles in the areas of "science and football" and "notation analysis" are highlighted, providing further insight into how such articles have contributed to the development of sport performance research in general and the Journal of Sports Sciences in particular.

  6. Optimal Cross Hedging Winter Canola

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seon-Woong; Brorsen, B. Wade; Yoon, Byung-Sam

    2014-01-01

    Winter canola in the southern Great Plains has shown large price fluctuations and there have been questions about which futures market could be used to reduce price risk. Our results indicate that the optimal futures contract to cross hedge winter canola is soybean oil futures.

  7. Compressive Review of Organizational Effectiveness in Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EYDI HOSSEIN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Organizational effectiveness continues to be a popular topic in management settings, seminars, and research projects. Similar levels of attention prevail in area of sport management. This construct has been contested by theorists and researchers for many years. As the study of organizational effectiveness in profit organizations is complex and confused, studying the construct in nonprofit organizations like sporting organizations maybe even more troublesome due to their distinctive nature. This article draws from the general literature on organizational effectiveness and the specialized. Literature on organizational effectiveness in sport and nonprofit organizations (NPOs. Five major approaches to measuring organizational effectiveness, i.e., Goal attainment, systems of resources, internal procedure, multiple constituency and competing values framework have been reported in the literature. Review of literature showed that two approach of multiple constituency and competing values framework as a multi dimensionality had a most usage in sport environment.

  8. Sports dentistry: a perspective for the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Vinícius Soares

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sports Dentistry (SD acts in the prevention, maintenance and treatment of oral and facial injuries, as well as the collection and dissemination of information on dental trauma, beyond stimulus to research. Establishes as a duty for the dentist detect problems related to the athlete’s stomatognathic system. This essay is based on the provided data from the literature related to SD, including definition, practice areas and research fields. To discuss the data, six areas were categorized: shares in sports dentistry; oral health of athlete; sports-related dental implications; dental-facial trauma; face shields; and mouthguards. The analyzed data show that the SD is still an underexplored field of action by dentists, but it is expanding, despite not being recognized specialty by the Federal Council of Dentistry, but the Brazilian Academy of Sports Dentistry has been created with a mission to show the real importance of Dentistry in sport. The dentist should be part of the group of professionals associated with the athlete to perform periodic checks in order to ensure oral health which may contribute to athletes´performance. When impact occurs, however, it would be possible reduce the severity of the impact related to injuries, by using helmets, masks, goggles, face shields and mouthguard. Additionally, it is imperative that dentists, sports coaching, athletes, and professional who work with athletes be aware of the benefits of incorporating SD as an important academic and professional subject.

  9. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sports than chowing down on carbs or chugging sports drinks. The good news is that eating to reach ... in sweat can usually be made up with sports drinks or food eaten after exercise. Ditch Dehydration Speaking ...

  10. Treating and Preventing Sports Hernias

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Close ‹ Back to Healthy Living Treating and Preventing Sports Hernias If you play ice hockey, tennis or ... for the most commonly misdiagnosed groin pain—a sports hernia. A sports hernia often results from overuse ...

  11. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Nutrition & Fitness Center Sports Physicals Figuring Out Fat and Calories Sports Center Vitamins and Minerals Sports Supplements Female Athlete Triad Contact ...

  12. Sport Marketing and Sponsorship: Case of Turkish Airlines Corporation

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet SARITAS

    2017-01-01

    In previous decades, sport activities were hold only in local and regional areas and they used to attract only a small group of people. These activities were mostly far from professionalism and mainly amateurish. Reaching many people took too much time. After the developments in technology and especially in mass communication systems, all sportive branches have started to reach much more people. Today, sport activities are followed by many people. The sport activities today are not only a spo...

  13. Professional Sports Facilities, Franchises and Urban Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis Coates; Brad R. Humphreys

    2003-01-01

    Local political and community leaders and the owners of professional sports teams frequently claim that professional sports facilities and franchises are important engines of economic development in urban areas. These structures and teams allegedly contribute millions of dollars of net new spending annually and create hundreds of new jobs, and provide justification for hundreds of millions of dollars of public subsidies for the construction of many new professional sports facilities in the Un...

  14. Sport and male sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgrò, P; Di Luigi, L

    2017-09-01

    The relationships between sport and sexuality in males are of great social and clinical interest, because of sports and motor activities that highly promote social and sexual relationships. Even if few literature exist, two main questions should be taken into account: whether and how physical exercise and sport positively or negatively influence sexual health and behavior and/or whether and how sexual behavior may affect a sub-sequent sport performance. Physical exercise and sport per se can influence, positively or negatively, the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis function and, consequently, the individual's reproductive and/or sexual health. This depends on individual factors such as genetic and epigenetic ones and on different variables involved in the practice of sport activities (type of sport, intensity and duration of training, doping and drug use and abuse, nutrition, supplements, psychological stress, allostatic load, etc.). If well conducted, motor and sport activities could have beneficial effects on sexual health in males. Among different lifestyle changes, influencing sexual health, regular physical activity is fundamental to antagonize the onset of erectile dysfunction (ED). However, competitive sport can lead both reproductive and/or sexual tract damages and dysfunctions, transient (genital pain, hypoesthesia of the genitalia, hypogonadism, DE, altered sexual drive, etc.) or permanent (hypogonadism, DE, etc.), by acting directly (traumas of the external genitalia, saddle-related disorders in cyclists, etc.) or indirectly (exercise-related hypogonadism, drug abuse, doping, stress, etc.). Sexual activities shortly performed before a sport competition could differently influence sport performance. Due to the few existing data, it is advisable to avoid an absolute pre-competition sexual abstinence.

  15. Sport Law. NOLPE Monograph Series, No. 40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Linda A.

    Three primary areas of concern for those who confront sport law matters in public school or collegiate settings are the focus of this monograph. The first chapter presents tort issues, primarily negligence. A brief overview of fundamental negligence concepts is followed by discussions of major risk areas: supervision, conduct of the activity, and…

  16. Sage-grouse habitat selection during winter in Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Jennifer L.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Boyce, Mark S.

    2010-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) are dependent on sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) for food and shelter during winter, yet few studies have assessed winter habitat selection, particularly at scales applicable to conservation planning. Small changes to availability of winter habitats have caused drastic reductions in some sage-grouse populations. We modeled winter habitat selection by sage-grouse in Alberta, Canada, by using a resource selection function. Our purpose was to 1) generate a robust winter habitat-selection model for Alberta sage-grouse; 2) spatially depict habitat suitability in a Geographic Information System to identify areas with a high probability of selection and thus, conservation importance; and 3) assess the relative influence of human development, including oil and gas wells, in landscape models of winter habitat selection. Terrain and vegetation characteristics, sagebrush cover, anthropogenic landscape features, and energy development were important in top Akaike's Information Criterionselected models. During winter, sage-grouse selected dense sagebrush cover and homogenous less rugged areas, and avoided energy development and 2-track truck trails. Sage-grouse avoidance of energy development highlights the need for comprehensive management strategies that maintain suitable habitats across all seasons. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  17. Sports medicine in New Zealand.

    OpenAIRE

    Milne, C J

    1992-01-01

    Sports medicine in New Zealand is characterized by a team approach. Experienced professionals work together to the benefit of athletes, be they elite performers or those in sport for purely recreational purposes. A no-fault accident compensation scheme is used to provide speedy access to treatment services for those injured in sport and also for advice on accident prevention. Recent initiatives include a task force on drugs in sport and the creation of regional sports foundations. Sports medi...

  18. Sports Specialization in Young Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Jayanthi, Neeru; Pinkham, Courtney; Dugas, Lara; Patrick, Brittany; LaBella, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Context: Sports specialization is intense training in 1 sport while excluding others. Sports specialization in early to middle childhood has become increasingly common. While most experts agree that some degree of sports specialization is necessary to achieve elite levels, there is some debate as to whether such intense practice time must begin during early childhood and to the exclusion of other sports to maximize potential for success. There is a concern that sports specialization before ad...

  19. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-04

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition, underground storage, and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. This report will be published weekly by the EIA starting the first week in October 1990 and will continue until the first week in April 1991. The data will also be available electronically after 5:00 p.m. on Thursday during the heating season through the EIA Electronic Publication System (EPUB). 12 tabs.

  20. Klaus Winter (1930 - 2015)

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    We learned with great sadness that Klaus Winter passed away on 9 February 2015, after a long illness.   Klaus was born in 1930 in Hamburg, where he obtained his diploma in physics in 1955. From 1955 to 1958 he held a scholarship at the Collège de France, where he received his doctorate in nuclear physics under the guidance of Francis Perrin. Klaus joined CERN in 1958, where he first participated in experiments on π+ and K0 decay properties at the PS, and later became the spokesperson of the CHOV Collaboration at the ISR. Starting in 1976, his work focused on experiments with the SPS neutrino beam. In 1984 he joined Ugo Amaldi to head the CHARM experiment, designed for detailed studies of the neutral current interactions of high-energy neutrinos, which had been discovered in 1973 using the Gargamelle bubble chamber at the PS. The unique feature of the detector was its target calorimeter, which used large Carrara marble plates as an absorber material. From 1984 to 1991, Klau...

  1. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-13

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD`s I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s, as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 day, 30-Day, and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city.

  2. Olympic Information in the SPORT Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belna, Alison M.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Profiles the SPORT database, produced by Sport Information Resource Centre, Ottawa, Ontario, which provides extensive coverage of individual sports including practice, training and equipment, recreation, sports medicine, physical education, sport facilities, and international sport history. Olympic coverage in SPORT, sports sciences, online…

  3. The rodeo athlete: sport science: part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Michael C; Laurent, C Matthew

    2010-05-01

    , remains to be determined and is an area for future study. Rodeo performance, as with all sports, is based on a multifactorial array of variables and, therefore, interdisciplinary efforts encompassing expertise across medicine, science and coaching are encouraged. Taking a comprehensive approach in the assessment of athletes, as well as the development and quantification of event-specific training protocols, may ultimately enhance athletic potential, minimize opportunity for injury and possibly provide information to coaches and allied health professionals for the appropriate development and optimal medical care of these athletes.

  4. Youth Sports Safety Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hemecourt P, Collins C, Comstock RD. Assessment and management of sport-related concussions in United States high schools. Am ... KE, Xu L, McGuire LC, Coronado VG. Nonfatal sports and recreation related traumatic brain injuries ... NT. Diagnosis and management of exercise-induced asthma. Physician Sportsmed. 1996;24( ...

  5. Subarachnoid Haemorrhage and Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa Nanji, Liliana; Melo, Teresa P; Canhão, Patrícia; Fonseca, Ana Catarina; Ferro, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Some cases of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) have been associated with vigorous physical activity, including sports. Our research aimed to describe the association between SAH and sports and to identify the types of sports that were more frequently found as precipitating factors in a tertiary single-centre SAH register. We retrieved information from a prospectively collected SAH registry and reviewed discharge notes of acute SAH patients admitted to the Stroke Unit of Hospital de Santa Maria, Lisbon, between 1995 and 2014. Out of 738 patients included in the analysis, 424 (57.5%) cases of SAH were preceded by physical activity. Nine cases (1.2%) were associated with sports, namely running (2 cases), aerobics (2 cases), cycling, body balance, dance, surf and windsurf. Patients with SAH while practicing sports were younger than controls (average age 43.1 vs. 57.0 years; p = 0.007). In 1 patient, there was a report of trauma to the neck. Patients in the sports group only had Hunt and Hess scale grades 1 (11.1%) or 2 (88.9%) at admission, while patients in the control group had a wider distribution in severity. Our findings indicate that SAH precipitated by sports is not very frequent and is uncommonly related to trauma. Patients who suffered SAH associated with sports were younger and apparently had a milder clinical presentation.

  6. Sports: Art or Violence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intercom, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The lesson plan for grades six through nine demonstrates an innovative way of analyzing student ideas and attitudes about sports activity. It includes readings, photographs, and teacher suggestions designed to generate ideas and reactions to personal and social aspects of sports. (Author/DB)

  7. Prevent Children's Sports Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheli, Lyle J.

    1983-01-01

    Children who actively take part in sports are susceptible to special injury risks because their bodies are still growing. Parents should keep both the child's individual physical and emotional makeup and the demands of the sport in mind when selecting an activity. Proper training methods and equipment are discussed. (PP)

  8. Back pain and sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and a sense of well-being. Almost any sport places some stress on your spine. That is why it's important to keep the muscles and ligaments that support your spine flexible ... many sports injuries. Getting these muscles to the point where ...

  9. Listening to Sports Idioms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirkus, Tom; Bohlken, Bob

    In the book, "Talking from 9 to 5," Deborah Tannen suggests that females have difficulty listening to males in the workplace because of the masculine inclination to talk sports the majority of the time. Men use sports idioms, metaphors, and cliches, making business a "peculiar language" which excludes "naive"…

  10. Sport, Religion and Charisma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Verner

    2017-01-01

    Since the end of the Second World War, the popularity of modern elite sport has grown immensely and so has the economical interests in sport. Athletes have become attractive advertising partners. Much money is at stake so it is understandable that companies are alarmed when their poster boys or g...

  11. Concussion in Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ACSM Information On… Concussion in Sports A concussion is an injury to the brain where force causes the brain to move within the skull. A person does ... deceleration force, and concussions occur in many different sports. While an athlete does not need to hit ...

  12. Sports Dehydration Safety Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sports Dehydration Safety Tips Everything you need to know to keep your kids safe from dehydration when playing sports. To keep kids in top ... to stay hydrated by drinking plenty of fluids. Dehydration occurs when a body loses more water than ...

  13. Somatotypes in Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tóth Teodor

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The submitted article deals with the evaluation of the somatotype of persons and determination of a suitable somatotype for selected sports. In the introduction the method for determining and evaluating a somatotype according to Carter and Heath is characterised. The processes used for calculating the individual components - endomorphy, mesomorphy, ectomorphy - are presented as well as a description of these elements. The calculated components are subsequently put into a somatograph. The evaluation of a somatotype is of great benefit and offers a guideline with the selection of sporting activities; it subsequently helps assign athletes into a suitable position where they will be able to best develop their talents in view of their bodily construction. In this work two types of sports are evaluated - basketball and bodybuilding. With each sport the measurements which give the prerequisites for the given sport are presented. The selection of the presented sports was made with regard to the different requirements and demands in the scope of bodily constitution. The aim of the presented paper is to assess physical parameters of subjects groups in relation to selected sports (basketball and bodybuilding. Based on the body constitution to determine the conditions for developing the physical condition and success in the appointed sports. Another objective is to compare the rating form and equation methods for somatotype determination. The sample consist 32 subjects with age between 22-28 years of both sexes, who are dedicated to basketball, or bodybuilding at amateur level.

  14. Computer vision for sports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Graham; Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2017-01-01

    The world of sports intrinsically involves fast and accurate motion that is not only challenging for competitors to master, but can be difficult for coaches and trainers to analyze, and for audiences to follow. The nature of most sports means that monitoring by the use of sensors or other devices...

  15. Sports Subsidies Soar. Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, J. Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Doug Lederman's article, "Sports Subsidies Soar," discusses the issue on institutional subsidies for sports program. His article invites an obvious question: why are so many universities willing to subsidize athletics through either a direct transfer of institutional funds, assessing a dedicated student fee, or a combination of these? This…

  16. Eating Disorders and Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Dick; Moriarty, Mary

    Since sports can sometimes lend themselves to eating disorders, coaches and sports administrators must get involved in the detection and treatment of this problem. While no reliable studies or statistics exist on the incidence of anorexia nervosa and/or bulimia among athletes, some research suggests that such disorders occur frequently among…

  17. Sport, mindfulness en boeddhisme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jan de Leeuw

    2016-01-01

    Binnenkort gaat in Nederland een Academie voor Mindfulness in Sport (AMS) van start. Dat is een techniek die ingezet wordt voor bewustwording van eigen gevoelens en gedachten van het moment, zonder daar op te reageren. Een beroemdheid uit de wereld van de sport die zweert bij mindfulness is Phil

  18. Christianity and sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gojković Goran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will demonstrate, relying on theology, that Christianity, i.e. ascetic experience of the Church and sport are two sides of the same coin which is reflected in community or, rather, communion (When Christianity is concerned, or team work towards the goal when it comes to sport.

  19. Mathematics and Sports

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    nal stereotype of a mathematician is a highly nonathletic, myopic individual with his head buried in books. Reality, of course, is other- wise. One finds many who are proficient in both mathematics and sports, but even so, rarely there's someone who combines the two. Mathematics in sports? Certainly. Tendulkar does not ...

  20. Sports-related concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conder, Robert L; Conder, Alanna A

    2015-04-01

    Concussions are an inherent part of collision sports such as football and soccer. As a subset of traumatic brain injury, concussions are neurometabolic events that cause transient neurologic dysfunction. Following a concussion, some athletes require longer neurologic recovery than others. Education and intervention aimed at prevention and management can minimize the long-term sequelae of sports-related concussions.

  1. [ORGANIZATION OF THE QUALITY CONTROL OF PLACEMENT AND ACCOMMODATION OF PARTICIPANTS ATTENDANTS AND GUESTS OF THE XXII OLYMPIC WINTER GAMES AND XI PARALYMPIC WINTER GAMES OF 2014 IN THE RESORT CITY OF SOCHI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorskiĭ, A A; Gus'kov, A S; Pochtareva, E S; Klindukhov, V P; Nikolaevich, P N; Grechanaia, T V; Vechemyaia, E A; Biriukov, V A; Bozhko, I I; Kulichenko, A N; Taran, T V; Zaĭtsev, A A; Tushina, O V

    2015-01-01

    There is presented the analysis of activities of the Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights protection and Human Welfare to ensure adequate conditions of accommodation of the participants, attendants and guests of the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games of 2014 in the Resort city of Sochi according to regulated requirements. There were detected ways of the strengthening the supervision for the quality of the accommodation during mass sports activities for the assurance of the rights for consumers.

  2. Sochi 2014 – Potential for conflict around the XXIIth Winter Olympics. eco.mont (Journal on Protected Mountain Areas Research)|eco.mont Vol. 3 No. 2 3 2|

    OpenAIRE

    Scharr, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    Our paper starts by sketching the historical and cultural background as well as characteristic features of the landscape around the venue of the 2014 Winter Olympics. It continues by pointing out spatial aspects of ecology, economy, demography and culture in the run-up to the olympics as well as the social tensions that have already emerged in this context and the potential for future conflict. Greater Sochi has a tradition as a spa and holiday destination that goes back to the foundation of ...

  3. Sports: The Infectious Hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minooee, Arezou; Wang, Jeff; Gupta, Geeta K

    2015-10-01

    Although the medical complications of sports are usually traumatic in nature, infectious hazards also arise. While blood-borne pathogens such as HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C, cause significant illness, the risk of acquiring these agents during sporting activities is minimal. Skin infections are more commonplace, arising from a variety of microbial agents including bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens. Sports involving water contact can lead to enteric infections, eye infections, or disseminated infections such as leptospirosis. Mumps, measles, and influenza are vaccine-preventable diseases that have been transmitted during sporting events, both in players and in spectators. Prevention is the key to many of these infections. Players should be vaccinated and should not participate in sports if their infection can be spread by contact, airborne, or droplet transmission.

  4. Policy, Sport and Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Sine; Sørensen, Jan Kahr

    2010-01-01

    in sport, although sports clubs do get economic support and are seen as having the potential to solve crucial social issues. The purpose of this article is to analyse and discuss the ways in which the political assumption that sport can enhance social integration is reflected in the practical governance......Increased public funding, more governmental involvement and an emphasis on the instrumental values of physical activities have in general become characteristic of Western nations’ policies towards sport. Denmark is, however, a little different in that there is still little political intervention...... of integration issues in particular in sports clubs. The article is based on a local field study in which we interviewed 10 talented football players with ethnic minority backgrounds and eight coaches and club leaders from six different football clubs. Distinguishing between integration and assimilation...

  5. Winter Safety Tips for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter Safety Tips for Older Adults Expert Information from Healthcare Professionals Who Specialize in the Care of ... thick clothing. Think about getting your thermals! –Essential winter wears: hats, gloves or preferably mittens, winter coat, ...

  6. Sports hernias: experience in a sports medicine center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santilli, O L; Nardelli, N; Santilli, H A; Tripoloni, D E

    2016-02-01

    Chronic pain of the inguino-crural region or "pubalgia" explains the 0.5-6.2% of the consultations by athletes. Recently, areas of weakness in the posterior wall called "sports hernias," have been identified in some of these patients, capable of producing long-standing pain. Several authors use different image methods (CT, MRI, ultrasound) to identify the lesion and various techniques of repair, by open or laparoscopic approaches, have been proposed but there is no evidence about the superiority of one over others due to the difficulty for randomizing these patients. In our experience, diagnosis was based on clinical and ultrasound findings followed by laparoscopic exploration to confirm and repair the injury. The present study aims to assess the performance of our diagnostic and therapeutic management in a series of athletes affected by "pubalgia". 1450 athletes coming from the orthopedic office of a sport medicine center were evaluated. In 590 of them (414 amateur and 176 professionals) sports hernias were diagnosed through physical examination and ultrasound. We performed laparoscopic "TAPP" repair and, thirty days after, an assessment was performed to determine the evolution of pain and the degree of physical activity as a sign of the functional outcome. We used the U Mann-Whitney test for continuous scale variables and the chi-square test for dichotomous variables with p pubalgia". "Sports hernias" are often associated with adductor muscle strains and other injuries of the groin allowing speculate that these respond to a common mechanism of production. We believe that, considering the difficulty to design randomized trials, only a high coincidence among the diagnostic and therapeutic instances can ensure a rational health care.

  7. Restricting unhealthy food sponsorship: attitudes of the sporting community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bridget; Baur, Louise A; Bauman, Adrian E; King, Lesley; Chapman, Kathy; Smith, Ben J

    2012-03-01

    Sponsorship is recognised as a significant marketing tool and restricting unhealthy food sponsorship of children's sport has been recommended by leading health agencies as a contribution towards preventing childhood obesity. This study aimed to determine the junior sporting community's support for policy interventions to restrict unhealthy food sponsorship. Sports clubs known to have food sponsors and representing the most popular sports for Australian children across a range of demographic areas were recruited. Interview-based questionnaires were conducted at clubs with parents (n=200) and officials (n=20), and with governing sporting associations (n=20). Questionnaires measured respondents' attitudes towards sponsorship and support for sponsorship regulations. Many officials and parents perceived children to be 'very' influenced by elite sport sponsorship (65% of association officials, 53% of parents and 45% of club officials). Children were thought to be less influenced by sponsorship of their own sporting clubs (10%, 11% and 10%, respectively). However, 50% of officials and 70% of parents supported restrictions to children's sport sponsorship. Respondents were most supportive of restricting the use of unhealthy food logos on children's uniforms. Restricting unhealthy food sponsorship is supported by the sporting community and policy change is needed to reduce the perceived impact of this marketing. Alternative funding mechanisms have the potential to maintain sport funding whilst reducing promotional opportunities for unhealthy food. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 76 FR 44155 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Catch Sharing Plan for Guided Sport and Commercial Fisheries in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... Halibut Fisheries II. History of Management in the Guided Sport Halibut Fisheries III. Proposed Catch... this additional management measure in the Area 2C charter fishery to limit guided sport halibut harvest... comprehensive management program for the guided sport halibut fisheries in Area 2C and Area 3A. If approved, the...

  9. Sport tourist expectations of a world championship sporting event ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sport tourists have preconceived expectations of the type and quality of services to be offered at a particular event. The extent to which these expectations are met will determine sport tourism satisfaction. For the purpose of this study the definition of a sport tourist was taken as any individual that facilitates or organise a sport ...

  10. Developing Sport Psychology in a Girls' Sport Academy Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the initial steps in developing and presenting Sport Psychology in a leadership and sport curriculum at Stellenbosch University's (SU) Centre for Human Performance Sciences' (CHPS) Academy for Girls' Leadership and Sport Development. Sport Psychology does not feature within the South African school curriculum specifically,…

  11. Sports facilities: a problem of school sports in Nigeria | Olajide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Facilities are very central to meaningful sports participation whether in School sports, amateur, recreational or competitive status. They are as important to the athletes as the laboratories are to the scientists. Without facilities sports cannot take place. This does not however imply that sports facility is the only variable that is ...

  12. Some Sports Managers' Views about Values Education through Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Velittin; Erdeveciler, Övünç

    2017-01-01

    The indirect aim of this study is to ensure that sports and participation in sports are seen as new tools for values education. From this indirect goal, it was aimed to analyse the views of some Amateur Sports Club managers and supporters who were supposed to directly contribute to sports and the athletes about values education. The study was…

  13. Superstitious behavior in sport: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dömötör, Zsuzsanna; Ruíz-Barquín, Roberto; Szabo, Attila

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this first literature review, in this area, is to unveil the current status of knowledge on superstition in sport. Its outcome reveals that superstitious behaviors vary with the type of sport, athletic level, as well as athletic role. In agreement with past theories, they increase with the level of challenge, as reflected by the importance of the competition, as well as with the level of uncertainty. Cultural factors, in conjunction with the education level, as well as gender, have a strong influence on superstitious behaviors in sports. Based on current thoughts, religiosity and superstition are different psychological constructs used as psychological aids by several athletes. Personality factors appear to mediate the manifestation of the behavior. Elite athletes are clearly more superstitious than non-elite athletes, An interaction between athletic skill and task-difficulty emerges to be another strong predictor of superstition in sport. It is evident that a set of complex personal and situational factors interact in the manifestation of superstitious behavior in sport that is used for the regulation of emotions in a quest for optimal performance. It is concluded that the objective benefits (i.e., success) of superstition in sport may be ascribed to the placebo effect that yields an increased sense of control and mental reassurance in unpredictable contest situations. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. CONSIDERATIONS ON MANAGERIAL ETHICS IN SPORTS ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Constantin Razvan BARBU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The scholarly literature in the ethics field approaches the ethical management issue in different areas such as accounting, retail, banking, public institutions or private companies. The subject of sports managers’ ethics is not very well highlighted in the national literature, as "sports industry" is constantly evolving. Sports have a strong impact on the national culture, influencing the values of millions of spectators and participants. The definition of sports given by the Council of Europe is "all forms of physical activity which, through more or less organized participation, aim at expressing or improving physical and psychological condition, the development of social relationships or obtaining positive results in all levels competitions". In this paper we conducted a study on managerial ethics tools within sports clubs. The used methodology involved the intersection of the main current stage of knowledge and the formulation of new judgments. The study identified and highlighted the major role of the manager of sports clubs in providing the framework for the manifestation of ethical behaviors.

  15. Team Physicians, Sports Medicine, and the Law: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Dionne L

    2016-04-01

    The recognition of sports medicine and promulgation of practice guidelines for team physicians will push general medical malpractice standards to evolve into a more specialized standard of care for those who practice in this area. To the extent that practicing medicine in the sports context involves calculations that do not arise in typical medical practice, the sports medicine community can help elucidate those issues and create appropriate guidelines that can serve to inform athlete-patients and educate courts. Doing so will help best set the terms by which those who practice sports medicine are judged. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A Volunteer program guidebook for sport managers organizing large scale ice hockey tournaments

    OpenAIRE

    Frison, Logan

    2010-01-01

    The guidebook is a tool to assist the tournament coordinator when recruting, training, and leading the best possible team of ice hockey volunteers to work at International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF) tournaments and within the Sport Function - Ice Hockey events at Olympic Winter Games. The select volunteers are termed the ‘Ice Hockey Volunteers’ and consist of the six crews that make up the ‘Sport Team’ which work closely with the National Teams (athletes and team staff) and Officials (re...

  17. Sport Nutritionist: A New Sport Education Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Matthew R.; Zimmerman, Ryan; Ciotto, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Considering the challenges associated with adolescent obesity and the need for innovative and meaningful physical education curricula, the authors of this article decided to create a new sport education role to help students learn about the fundamental nutritional concepts and practices that contribute to a healthy and active lifestyle. The new…

  18. Herbs in exercise and sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chee

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of herbs as ergogenic aids in exercise and sport is not novel. Ginseng, caffeine, ma huang (also called 'Chinese ephedra', ephedrine and a combination of both caffeine and ephedrine are the most popular herbs used in exercise and sports. It is believed that these herbs have an ergogenic effect and thus help to improve physical performance. Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of these herbs on exercise performance. Recently, researchers have also investigated the effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack on endurance cycling and running performance. These investigators have reported no significant improvement in either cycling or running endurance after supplementation with this herb. As the number of studies in this area is still small, more studies should be conducted to evaluate and substantiate the effects of this herb on sports and exercise performance. For instance, future research on any herbs should take the following factors into consideration: dosage, supplementation period and a larger sample size.

  19. Measuring training load in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Michael Ian; Borresen, Jill

    2010-09-01

    The principle of training can be reduced to a simple "dose-response" relationship. The "response" in this relationship can be measured as a change in performance or the adaptation of a physiological system. The "dose" of training, or physiological stress associated with the training load, is more difficult to measure as there is no absolute "gold standard" which can be used in the field, making it difficult to validate procedures. Attempts have been made to use heart rate as a marker of intensity during training, but the theoretical attractiveness of this method is not supported by the accuracy and the practicality of using this method during training or competition. The session RPE, based on the product of training duration and perceived intensity is more practical and can be used in a variety of sports. However, the score depends on a subjective assessment, and the intersubject comparisons may be inaccurate. The demands of different sports vary and therefore the methods of assessing training need to vary accordingly. The time has come to reach consensus on assessing training accurately in different sports. There is a precedent for this consensus approach with scientists having already done so for the assessment of physical activity, and for defining injuries in rugby, football and cricket. Standardizing these methods has resulted in the quality of research in these areas increasing exponentially.

  20. Winter/Summer Monsoon Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Winter/Summer Monsoon Experiment (MONEX) was conducted during the First Global GARP (Global Atmospheric Research Program) Experiment (FGGE). An international...

  1. Ecological Validity in Understanding Sport Performance: Some Problems of Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Keith

    1988-01-01

    The article attempts to identify and define some of the most important criteria underpinning ecologically valid research in sport psychology. Vision and sport performance is used as an exemplary area for examination of issues. It is concluded that more debate must be stimulated concerning this important methodological principle. (Author/CB)

  2. The Status of Sport Psychology: A National Survey of Coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, John M., III

    1984-01-01

    Sport psychology has made significant advances in organization and research technology while creating an instrumental and influential subdiscipline of physical education. A survey of high school and college coaches was performed to discover specific areas of sport psychology found to be important and how coaches would like to integrate sport…

  3. A School Psychologist's Self-Study Guide to Sport Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesyk, Jack J.

    2005-01-01

    School psychologists may find the field of sport psychology beneficial to them in extending their skills and effectiveness. As trained psychologists, they are likely to already have some of the knowledge and skills necessary for working in the area of sport psychology. However, without additional training, this may not be sufficient for ethical…

  4. How Should We Measure Psychological Resilience in Sport Performers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Mustafa; Fletcher, David

    2013-01-01

    Psychological resilience is important in sport because athletes must constantly withstand a wide range of pressures to attain and sustain high performance. To advance psychologists' understanding of this area, there exists an urgent need to develop a sport-specific measure of resilience. The purpose of this article is to review psychometric…

  5. Perceptions of sport science relevance and application among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Almost 82% of coaches and 88% of athletes found sport science either “useful” or “very useful” in athletic training and performance. Coaches and athletes demonstrated similar views in areas of sport performance. Athletes considered scientific results/process less useful than coaches to their mental preparation or improving ...

  6. Terminology and nomenclature in sport and exercise medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    well-defined terminology, the results of studies can be compared and the knowledge in that area develops at a more rapid rate. There are many examples in sport and exercise medicine research where this has happened. Consider cricket research, where the lack of consistent definitions for injury in the sport resulted in the ...

  7. Genetics & sport: bioethical concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Andy

    2012-12-01

    This paper provides an overview of the ethical issues pertaining to the use of genetic insights and techniques in sport. Initially, it considers a range of scientific findings that have stimulated debate about the ethical issues associated with genetics applied to sport. It also outlines some of the early policy responses to these discoveries from world leading sports organizations, along with knowledge about actual use of gene technologies in sport. Subsequently, it considers the challenges with distinguishing between therapeutic use and human enhancement within genetic science, which is a particularly important issue for the world of sport. Next, particular attention is given to the use of genetic information, which raises questions about the legitimacy and reliability of genetic tests, along with the potential public value of having DNA databanks to economize in health care. Finally, the ethics of gene transfer are considered, inviting questions into the values of sport and humanity. It argues that, while gene modification may seem conceptually similar to other forms of doping, the requirements upon athletes are such that new forms of enhancement become increasingly necessary to discover. Insofar as genetic science is able to create safer, more effective techniques of human modification, then it may be an appealing route through which to modify athletes to safeguard the future of elite sports as enterprises of human excellence.

  8. MANAGEMENT OF SPORT COMPLEXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian STAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The actuality of the investigated theme. Nowadays, human evolution, including his intellectual development, proves the fact that especially the creation manpower and the employment was the solution of all life’s ambitions in society. So, the fact is that in reality, man is the most important capital of the society. Also, in an individual’s life, the practice of sport plays a significant role and that’s why the initiation, the launch and the management of sports complexes activity reveal the existence of specific management features that we will identify and explain in the current study. The aim of the research refers to the elaboration of a theoretical base of the management of the sport complexes, to the pointing of the factors that influence the efficient existence and function of a sport complex in our country and to the determination of the responsibilities that have a manager who directs successfully the activity of the sport complexes. The investigation is based on theoretical methods, such as: scientific documentation, analysis, synthesis, comparison and on empirical research methods, like: study of researched literature and observation. The results of the research indicate the fact that the profitability of a sport complex must assure a particular structure to avoid the bankruptcy risk and also, that the administration of the sport complexes activity must keep in view the reliable functions of the contemporaneous management.

  9. Exercise — Exploring Mutuality and Discordance(s Between Sport and Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eling D. de Bruin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sports is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that revolves around the interdisciplinary area of exercise sciences applied in sport and public health. The intention of Sports is to link several scientific disciplines in an integrated fashion in order to address critical issues related to exercise science, sports and public health. As the first Editor-in-Chief of Sports, I would like to share a few comments about this interdisciplinary field of research by discussing the mutuality and discordances between exercise as it is applied in sports and public health.

  10. The meaning of nuclear winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper the author reviews the history and origins of the basic ideas underlying nuclear winter; and findings and predictions of several groups regarding this topic. The author reviews some of the further developments and scientific analyses regarding nuclear winter since the initial announcements of 1983, touching on some of the revisions and controversies and trying to indicate the current status of the field

  11. Study on GIS-based sport-games information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hongzhi; Yang, Lingbin; Deng, Meirong; Han, Yongshun

    2008-10-01

    With the development of internet and such info-technologies as, Information Superhighway, Computer Technology, Remote Sensing(RS), Global Positioning System(GPS), Digital Communication and National Information Network(NIN),etc. Geographic Information System (GIS) becomes more and more popular in fields of science and industries. It is not only feasible but also necessary to apply GIS to large-scale sport games. This paper firstly discussed GIS technology and its application, then elaborated on the frame and content of Sport-Games Geography Information System(SG-GIS) with the function of gathering, storing, processing, sharing, exchanging and utilizing all kind of spatial-temporal information about sport games, and lastly designed and developed a public service GIS for the 6th Asian Winter Games in Changchun, China(CAWGIS). The application of CAWGIS showed that the established SG-GIS was feasible and GIS-based sport games information system was able to effectively process a large amount of sport-games information and provide the real-time sport games service for governors, athletes and the public.

  12. Aleatorism and Sporting Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosiewicz Jerzy

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A sporting spectacle is an important cultural event, essentially influencing social and individual lives. In spite of this, there does not yet exist a monograph that analyzes, describes, and explains sporting performance from the point of view of aleatorism as part of the theory of sport and physical culture. Unfortunately, no monograph has developed this issue in a multi-aspectual, holistic, culturological, and philosophical way, dealing with its axiological values (aesthetic and praxeological. This applies to the relations between this phenomenon and the mechanisms that bring about the development and growth of interest in the social dimension.

  13. Athletic pubalgia (sports hernia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Demetrius E M; Sneider, Erica B; McEnaney, Patrick M; Busconi, Brian D

    2011-04-01

    Athletic pubalgia or sports hernia is a syndrome of chronic lower abdomen and groin pain that may occur in athletes and nonathletes. Because the differential diagnosis of chronic lower abdomen and groin pain is so broad, only a small number of patients with chronic lower abdomen and groin pain fulfill the diagnostic criteria of athletic pubalgia (sports hernia). The literature published to date regarding the cause, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of sports hernias is confusing. This article summarizes the current information and our present approach to this chronic lower abdomen and groin pain syndrome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Development of Sports Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, Ivan

    1996-01-01

    The development of sports medicine was influenced by medicalization and increasing competitiveness in modern sport, with sports physicians helping to develop performance enhancing drugs and techniques. This paper discusses sports medicine and drug use in Eastern European countries, early development of anabolic steroids in the United States, and…

  15. Sport in the Netherlands 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Koen Breedveld

    2009-01-01

    Sport is a popular pastime in the Netherlands; More than 10 million people take part in at least one sport. To do this, they can choose from more than 27,000 non-profit sports clubs, or more than 7,200 commercial providers such as fitness centres or riding stables. Among the most popular sports

  16. Elementary School Students and Sports Participation: An Analysis of the Factors That Contribute to Students Continuing Participation in Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balboni, Daniel C.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have conducted both theoretical and empirical research on the participation of youth in sports to understand the motivation to continue involvement. Researchers have further examined the positive effects of sports on youth who participate. Although information has been gathered in these areas regarding keeping middle school and high…

  17. Exceptional Arctic warmth of early winter 2016 and attribution to global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oldenborgh, Geert Jan; Macias-Fauria, Marc; King, Andrew; Uhe, Peter; Philip, Sjoukje; Kew, Sarah; Karoly, David; Otto, Friederike; Allen, Myles; Cullen, Heidi

    2017-04-01

    The dark polar winters usually sport the coldest extremes on Earth, however this winter, the North Pole and the surrounding Arctic region have experienced record high temperatures in November and December, with daily means reaching 15 °C (27 °F) above normal and a November monthly mean that was 13 °C (23 °F) above normal on the pole. November also saw a brief retreat of sea-ice that was virtually unprecedented in nearly 40 years of satellite records, followed by a record low in November sea ice area since 1850. Unlike the Antarctic, Arctic lands are inhabited and their socio-economic systems are greatly affected by the impacts of extreme and unprecedented sea ice dynamics and temperatures, such as for example, the timing of marine mammal migrations, and refreezing rain on snow that prevents reindeer from feeding. Here we report on our multi-method rapid attribution analysis of North Pole November-December temperatures. To quantify the rarity of the event, we computed the November-December averaged temperature around the North Pole (80-90 °N) in the (short but North-pole covering) ERA-interim reanalysis. To put the event in context of natural variability, we use a longer and closely related time series based on the northern most meteorological observations on land (70-80 °N). This allows for a reconstruction of Arctic temperatures back to about 1900. We also perform a multi-method analysis of North Pole temperatures with two sets of climate models: the CMIP5 multi-model ensemble, and a large ensemble of model runs in the so-called Weather@Home project. Physical mechanisms that are responsible for temperature and sea ice variability in the North Pole region are also discussed. The observations and the bias-corrected CMIP5 ensemble point to a return period of about 50 to 200 years in the present climate, i.e., the probability of such an extreme is about 0.5% to 2% every year, with a large uncertainty. The observations show that November-December temperatures

  18. MDCT findings in sports and recreational accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensch, Frank V; Koivikko, Mika P; Koskinen, Seppo K (Dept. of Radiology, Toeoeloe Hospital, Helsinki (Finland)), email: frank.bensch@hus.fi

    2011-12-15

    Background. Sports and recreational accidents involving critical areas of the body occur commonly in the general population. Reports on their demographics and recommendations for screening procedures are, however, few. Purpose. To assess injuries of the craniofacial area, spine, and torso resulting from sports and recreational accidents with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) as primary imaging method in a Level I trauma center. Material and Methods. All emergency room CT requests over a time span of 105 months were reviewed retrospectively for trauma mechanism and injury. Patients were identified using an electronic picture archiving and communications system (PACS), and MDCT studies interpreted by two radiologists independently. Results. Of a total of 5898 patients, 492 patients (301 boys/men, 191 girls/women, age range 2-76 years, mean 33.5 years, median 29.5 years) with sports or recreational accidents emerged. A total of 102 traumatic findings were diagnosed, thereof 72 (71%) serious. The three most commonly encountered serious injuries were intracranial injury, fractures of facial bones, and vertebral injuries. The three most common injury mechanisms were bicycling, horseback riding, and team ball sports. Patients from recreational activities were on average significantly younger (29.2 years) than those from sports accidents (36.9 years; P < 0.001). Only age groups <21 years and 41-50 years differed in injury severity from the other age groups (P = 0.004 and P = 0.063, respectively). Of all trauma mechanisms, only bicycling had a significantly increased risk of injury (P < 0.001). Conclusion. Injuries in sports and recreational accidents presented with an overall incidence of 21%, of which 71% are serious. The most common mechanisms of injury were bicycling, horseback riding, and team ball sports. The largest incidence of serious injury involved bicycling. Because of the high probability of a serious injury and the high energies that are often involved

  19. MDCT findings in sports and recreational accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensch, Frank V; Koivikko, Mika P; Koskinen, Seppo K

    2011-01-01

    Background. Sports and recreational accidents involving critical areas of the body occur commonly in the general population. Reports on their demographics and recommendations for screening procedures are, however, few. Purpose. To assess injuries of the craniofacial area, spine, and torso resulting from sports and recreational accidents with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) as primary imaging method in a Level I trauma center. Material and Methods. All emergency room CT requests over a time span of 105 months were reviewed retrospectively for trauma mechanism and injury. Patients were identified using an electronic picture archiving and communications system (PACS), and MDCT studies interpreted by two radiologists independently. Results. Of a total of 5898 patients, 492 patients (301 boys/men, 191 girls/women, age range 2-76 years, mean 33.5 years, median 29.5 years) with sports or recreational accidents emerged. A total of 102 traumatic findings were diagnosed, thereof 72 (71%) serious. The three most commonly encountered serious injuries were intracranial injury, fractures of facial bones, and vertebral injuries. The three most common injury mechanisms were bicycling, horseback riding, and team ball sports. Patients from recreational activities were on average significantly younger (29.2 years) than those from sports accidents (36.9 years; P < 0.001). Only age groups <21 years and 41-50 years differed in injury severity from the other age groups (P = 0.004 and P = 0.063, respectively). Of all trauma mechanisms, only bicycling had a significantly increased risk of injury (P < 0.001). Conclusion. Injuries in sports and recreational accidents presented with an overall incidence of 21%, of which 71% are serious. The most common mechanisms of injury were bicycling, horseback riding, and team ball sports. The largest incidence of serious injury involved bicycling. Because of the high probability of a serious injury and the high energies that are often involved

  20. Winter chilling speeds spring development of temperate butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stålhandske, Sandra; Gotthard, Karl; Leimar, Olof

    2017-07-01

    Understanding and predicting phenology has become more important with ongoing climate change and has brought about great research efforts in the recent decades. The majority of studies examining spring phenology of insects have focussed on the effects of spring temperatures alone. Here we use citizen-collected observation data to show that winter cold duration, in addition to spring temperature, can affect the spring emergence of butterflies. Using spatial mixed models, we disentangle the effects of climate variables and reveal impacts of both spring and winter conditions for five butterfly species that overwinter as pupae across the UK, with data from 1976 to 2013 and one butterfly species in Sweden, with data from 2001 to 2013. Warmer springs lead to earlier emergence in all species and milder winters lead to statistically significant delays in three of the five investigated species. We also find that the delaying effect of winter warmth has become more pronounced in the last decade, during which time winter durations have become shorter. For one of the studied species, Anthocharis cardamines (orange tip butterfly), we also make use of parameters determined from previous experiments on pupal development to model the spring phenology. Using daily temperatures in the UK and Sweden, we show that recent variation in spring temperature corresponds to 10-15 day changes in emergence time over UK and Sweden, whereas variation in winter duration corresponds to 20 days variation in the south of the UK versus only 3 days in the south of Sweden. In summary, we show that short winters delay phenology. The effect is most prominent in areas with particularly mild winters, emphasising the importance of winter for the response of ectothermic animals to climate change. With climate change, these effects may become even stronger and apply also at higher latitudes. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.

  1. Physical Fitness & Sports Medicine. Specialized Bibliography Series No. 1988-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrias, Karen, Comp.; And Others

    The subjects covered in this bibliogaphy (1,406 citations) include the history of sports and sports medicine, sports injuries, physical fitness throughout various stages of life, and the current status of physical fitness in the United States. The first section includes journal articles, book chapters, and conference papers in three areas: history…

  2. "A Game for All Shapes and Sizes": Safeguarding Children from Sporting Mismatches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Sport is an increasingly important area of society both inside and outside of the school environment although this has not always been the case. Greater interest in sports policy is also emerging at both a European and International level with the prospective of a "Rights" based approach developing. The safety of those playing sport is…

  3. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus and climate change: Importance of winter forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thrine Moen Heggberget

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of increasing greenhouse gas concentrations, climate change is predicted to be particularly pronounced, although regionally variable, in the vast arctic, sub-arctic and alpine tundra areas of the northern hemisphere. Here, we review winter foraging conditions for reindeer and caribou (Rangifer tarandus living in these areas, and consider diet, forage quality and distribution, accessibility due to snow variation, and effects of snow condition on reindeer and caribou populations. Finally, we hypothesise how global warming may affect wild mountain reindeer herds in South Norway. Energy-rich lichens often dominate reindeer and caribou diets. The animals also prefer lichens, and their productivity has been shown to be higher on lichen-rich than on lichen-poor ranges. Nevertheless, this energy source appears to be neither sufficient as winter diet for reindeer or caribou (at least for pregnant females nor necessary. Some reindeer and caribou populations seem to be better adapted to a non-lichen winter diet, e.g. by a larger alimentary tract. Shrubs appear to be the most common alternative winter forage, while some grasses appear to represent a good, nutritionally-balanced winter diet. Reindeer/caribou make good use of a wide variety of plants in winter, including dead and dry parts that are digested more than expected based on their fibre content. The diversity of winter forage is probably important for the mineral content of the diet. A lichen-dominated winter diet may be deficient in essential dietary elements, e.g. minerals. Sodium in particular may be marginal in inland winter ranges. Our review indicates that most Rangifer populations with lichen-dominated winter diets are either periodically or continuously heavily harvested by humans or predators. However, when population size is mainly limited by food, accessible lichen resources are often depleted. Plant studies simulating climatic change indicate that a warmer, wetter

  4. Photobiomodulation on sports injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Timon C.; Jiao, Jian-Ling; Li, Cheng-Zhang; Xu, Xiao-Yang

    2003-12-01

    Sports injuries healing has long been an important field in sports medicine. The stimulatory effects of Low intensity laser (LIL) irradiation have been investigated in several medical fields, such as cultured cell response, wound healing, hormonal or neural stimulation, pain relief and others. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether LIL irradiation can accelerate sports injuries healing. Some experimental and clinical studies have shown the laser stimulation effects on soft tissues and cartilage, however, controversy still exists regarding the role of LIL when used as a therapeutic device. Summarizing the data of cell studies and animal experiments and clinic trials by using the biological information model of photobiomodulation, we conclude that LIL irradiation is a valuable treatment for superficial and localized sports injuries and that the injuries healing effects of the therapy depend on the dosage of LIL irradiation.

  5. Doping control in sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overbye, Marie Birch

    2016-01-01

    Doping testing is a key component enforced by anti-doping authorities to detect and deter doping in sport. Policy is developed to protect athletes' right to participate in doping-free sport; and testing is a key tool to secure this right. Accordingly, athletes' responses to anti-doping efforts.......e., the efforts of stakeholders involved in testing) in their own sport both nationally and worldwide. Moreover, it seeks to identify whether specific factors such as previous experience of testing and perceived proximity of doping have an impact on athletes' perceptions of the testing system. The study comprises...... a web-based questionnaire (N = 645; response rate 43%) and uses qualitative findings to elaborate on and explain quantitative results. Results showed that two-thirds of the athletes reported the national testing programme in their sport to be appropriate. A majority of the athletes who had an opinion...

  6. Ocular Injuries In Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur İNAM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sports related ocular injury is one of the most important reasons of morbidity, blindness and labor loss. Especially children and those who play paintball, basketball and ice hockey are at high risk. Sports can be classified as high risk group, moderate risk group and low risk group according to the risk of these injuries. The extent of the trauma to the eye depends on the shape, velocity and rigidity of the trauma object. Physician can have an opinion about the severity of the trauma by having a carefully taken anamnesis and physical examination. In this manner, sports physicians should do the first aid procedures to the injury and should know in which cases decide not to continue the game. The most important feature of sports-related ocular injury is 90% of these injuries can be preventable in nature. Protective eyeglasses usage and taking simple precautions substantially protects player from serious ocular injuries.

  7. SPORT MARKETING MIX STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Lucian MIHAI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a brief overview of a significant element of the sport marketing management model called the marketing mix. The marketing mix is crucial because it defines the sport business, and much of the sport marketer’s time is spent on various functions within the marketing mix. The marketing mix is the strategic combination of the product, price, place and promotion elements. These elements are typically called the four Ps of marketing. Decisions and strategies for each are important for the marketer. Information for making educated decisions involving the four Ps comes from the marketing research involving primarily the four Cs - consumer, competitor, company and climate. A critical decision and one of the greatest challenges for the sport business is how to strategically combine the four Ps to best satisfy the consumer, meet company objectives, enhance market position, and enhance competitive advantages.

  8. Rethinking enhancement in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Andy

    2006-12-01

    This article explores the arguments surrounding the use of human enhancement technologies in sport, arguing for a reconceptualization of the doping debate. First, it develops an overview and critique of the legislative structures on enhancement. Subsequently, a conceptual framework for understanding the role of technological effects in sport is advanced. Finally, two case studies (hypoxic chambers and gene transfer) receive specific attention, through which it is argued that human enhancement technologies can enrich the practice of elite sports rather than diminish them. In conclusion, it is argued that elite sports are at a pivotal moment in their history as an increasing range of enhancements makes less relevant the protection of the natural human through anti-doping.

  9. Sport injuries in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Habelt

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the wide range of injuries in adolescents during sports activities, there are only a few studies investigating the type and frequency of sport injuries in puberty. However, this information may help to prevent, diagnose and treat sports injuries among teens. 4468 injuries in adolescent patients were treated over a ten year period of time: 66,97% were boys and 32.88% girls. The most frequent sports injuries were football (31.13% followed by handball (8.89% and sports during school (8.77%. The lower extremity was involved in 68.71% of the cases. Knee problems were seen in 29.79% of the patients; 2.57% spine and 1.99% head injuries. Injuries consisted primarily of distortions (35.34% and ligament tears (18.76%; 9,00% of all injuries were fractures. We found more skin wounds (6:1 and fractures (7:2 in male patients compared to females. The risk of ligament tears was highest during skiing. Three of four ski injuries led to knee problems. Spine injuries were observed most often during horse riding (1:6. Head injuries were seen in bicycle accidents (1:3. Head injuries were seen in male patients much more often then in female patients (21:1. Fractures were noted during football (1:9, skiing (1:9, inline (2:3, and during school sports (1:11. Many adolescents participate in various sports. Notwithstanding the methodological problems with epidemiological data, there is no doubt about the large number of athletes sustain musculoskeletal injuries, sometimes serious. In most instances, the accident does not happened during professional sports and training. Therefore, school teachers and low league trainer play an important role preventing further accidence based on knowledge of individual risk patterns of different sports. It is imperative to provide preventive medical check-ups, to monitor the sport-specific needs for each individual sports, to observe the training skills as well as physical fitness needed and to evaluation coaches education.

  10. Sport injuries in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habelt, Susanne; Hasler, Carol Claudius; Steinbrück, Klaus; Majewski, Martin

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the wide range of injuries in adolescents during sports activities, there are only a few studies investigating the type and frequency of sport injuries in puberty. However, this information may help to prevent, diagnose and treat sports injuries among teens. 4468 injuries in adolescent patients were treated over a ten year period of time: 66,97% were boys and 32.88% girls. The most frequent sports injuries were football (31.13%) followed by handball (8.89%) and sports during school (8.77%). The lower extremity was involved in 68.71% of the cases. Knee problems were seen in 29.79% of the patients; 2.57% spine and 1.99% head injuries. Injuries consisted primarily of distortions (35.34%) and ligament tears (18.76%); 9,00% of all injuries were fractures. We found more skin wounds (6:1) and fractures (7:2) in male patients compared to females. The risk of ligament tears was highest during skiing. Three of four ski injuries led to knee problems. Spine injuries were observed most often during horse riding (1:6). Head injuries were seen in bicycle accidents (1:3). Head injuries were seen in male patients much more often then in female patients (21:1). Fractures were noted during football (1:9), skiing (1:9), inline (2:3), and during school sports (1:11). Many adolescents participate in various sports. Notwithstanding the methodological problems with epidemiological data, there is no doubt about the large number of athletes sustain musculoskeletal injuries, sometimes serious. In most instances, the accident does not happened during professional sports and training. Therefore, school teachers and low league trainer play an important role preventing further accidence based on knowledge of individual risk patterns of different sports. It is imperative to provide preventive medical check-ups, to monitor the sport-specific needs for each individual sports, to observe the training skills as well as physical fitness needed and to evaluation coaches education. PMID

  11. Sports: Ice -Doping Time

    OpenAIRE

    Barys Tasman

    2013-01-01

    In 2013 the systematic degradation of Belarusian sports continued, which was most vivid in the mass and most popular kinds of sports – soccer, hockey, track and field athletics, and also in the traditional Olympic disciplines – cycling, boxing, weight-lifting. The national ice hockey team lost the qualification tournament and failed to get to the Olympic Games in Sochi. The football national team took the last place in the qualifying group tournament at the 2014 World Cup. At the World Forum ...

  12. Western Sport and Spiritualism

    OpenAIRE

    Kosiewicz Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Sport activity of achievement-oriented (professional, Olympic, spectacular character) is first of all exposition of rivalry and striving for variously understood sports success (resulting from measurable or discretionary criteria). It refers to winning a competition or taking another expected place as well as to other forms of satisfaction, such as financial gratification or social (political, ethnic, professional) recognition. Spirituality is here neither an aim, nor an expected value - it c...

  13. SPORT I POLITIKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mensur Memić

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Sport and politic are two big appearance and human activities which have as difference so the same segments. New society, democratic society necessity cultivate realization of sport-politic.We could say they are dominates phenomens of modern society. Like this they are manifestationed on the different necessity ways and have different roles. They are sa different as same. Everybody who take part in one or other sphere know from society from sociolog aspect how are two society components connected and reservationed beetwen. Why I am telling it: because the future of sportsmen depend from the future of politics will. Its needed to show how politic manage or give s the hope for development and animate possibility that young people during their evolution can do sport. Politic also depend from sports instutitions on creation mood of young people that their cadres got general and society dope. These two concepts can be near define. Sport as activity and as a appeal represent specific sights orientation of young people in aim curing knight games and evervthing in aim of health formation and effort of results, but they are not only meanings, through the sport can progress and big number acquaintance, friendship and intimacy, through sport ali cultural heredity can be keeping and the lands vvhich belong. Sport sociological looking is important element society life people. Second concept-politic, according to the famous politicians we can definite as a action that direct with another activities and business. Politic is substance, process of manifestation, manner, and it mean that politic has its subject activities vvhich is consist on behavour other social groups.

  14. MANAGEMENT AND SPORTING ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MONICA DELIA BÎCĂ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available “Using applied science in sport management as creates opportunities for rationalization and systematization of sports activity, relying on the knowledge and application of the laws that control the dynamics and phenomena. Management is on the border between art and science. Arts management is manifested by "science" as opposed to use and harness the creative compromise that can produce increased efficiency and effectiveness.”

  15. Sport Spaces for All

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Anne Margrethe

    2010-01-01

    Præsentation af det digitale værktøj "Idrætsrum for alle" ved konferencen Sport-Architektur-Form i Dresden den 29-30. oktober 2010......Præsentation af det digitale værktøj "Idrætsrum for alle" ved konferencen Sport-Architektur-Form i Dresden den 29-30. oktober 2010...

  16. HYDROSOLUBLE VITAMINS AND SPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Vladmila Bojanić; Jelena Radović; Zoran Bojanić; Marko Lazović

    2011-01-01

    Vitamins are organic substances needed for normal cell functioning in the human body, and therefore human health. People who train sports require an optimal psychophysical performance in order to achieve the best sports results. Athletes’ needs for vitamins may be higher than in general population, also they are taking vitamin supplements more often than other people. Thus, it is very important for them to be familiar with the vitamins’ roles and recommended intake levels.Hydrosoluble vitamin...

  17. Sports during a crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Barys Tasman

    2016-01-01

    The crisis in the economy immediately affected the sports industry, one of the largest expense items of the Belarusian budget. Investments in youth and mass sports, as well as in football declined significantly. The situation is aggravated by corruption, doping and other scandals and managerial confusion. The most positive outcomes are associated with the global leadership of Belarusian rowing and canoeing and a recovering athletics sector. Trends: • Organizational changes in athletics; • Deg...

  18. Caffeine and sports performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Louise M

    2008-12-01

    Athletes are among the groups of people who are interested in the effects of caffeine on endurance and exercise capacity. Although many studies have investigated the effect of caffeine ingestion on exercise, not all are suited to draw conclusions regarding caffeine and sports performance. Characteristics of studies that can better explore the issues of athletes include the use of well-trained subjects, conditions that reflect actual practices in sport, and exercise protocols that simulate real-life events. There is a scarcity of field-based studies and investigations involving elite performers. Researchers are encouraged to use statistical analyses that consider the magnitude of changes, and to establish whether these are meaningful to the outcome of sport. The available literature that follows such guidelines suggests that performance benefits can be seen with moderate amounts (~3 mg.kg-1 body mass) of caffeine. Furthermore, these benefits are likely to occur across a range of sports, including endurance events, stop-and-go events (e.g., team and racquet sports), and sports involving sustained high-intensity activity lasting from 1-60 min (e.g., swimming, rowing, and middle and distance running races). The direct effects on single events involving strength and power, such as lifts, throws, and sprints, are unclear. Further studies are needed to better elucidate the range of protocols (timing and amount of doses) that produce benefits and the range of sports to which these may apply. Individual responses, the politics of sport, and the effects of caffeine on other goals, such as sleep, hydration, and refuelling, also need to be considered.

  19. Sex and sport: chlamydia screening in rural sporting clubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Marcus Y

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common notifiable disease in Australia, mainly affecting those aged 15 to 29 years. Testing rates are low in Australia and considerably lower in rural areas, with access and confidentiality of sexual health services being problematic in rural and regional areas. This study aimed to determine the feasibility of establishing a pilot chlamydia testing outreach program among 16–25 year old males and females in rural Victoria (Australia undertaken at local sporting clubs and to determine the prevalence of chlamydia and acceptability of the program in this population. Methods We aimed to recruit young people from the Loddon Mallee region of Victoria, Australia between May and September 2007. After a night of sporting practice, participants provided a first pass urine sample, completed a brief questionnaire regarding risk taking behaviour and were then provided with condoms and health promotion materials about sexually transmitted infections (STIs. Those positive for chlamydia were managed by telephone consultation with a practitioner from Melbourne Sexual Health Centre. Results A total of 709 young people participated (77% male, 23% female, 77% being sexually active. All provided a urine sample and completed the questionnaire. Participation rate on recruitment nights was over 95%. Overall chlamydia prevalence in those sexually active was 5.1% (95%CI: 3.4–7.3, 7.4% in females (95%CI: 3.5–13.6 and 4.5% in males (95%CI: 2.7–6.9. Conclusion Sporting clubs represent a feasible, acceptable and innovative community based setting to screen, treat and educate young people in a rural and regional setting, especially for males.

  20. Winter home-range characteristics of American Marten (Martes americana) in Northern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph B. Dumyahn; Patrick A. Zollner

    2007-01-01

    We estimated home-range size for American marten (Martes americana) in northern Wisconsin during the winter months of 2001-2004, and compared the proportion of cover-type selection categories (highly used, neutral and avoided) among home-ranges (95% fixed-kernel), core areas (50% fixed-kernel) and the study area. Average winter homerange size was 3....

  1. Sports related to drowning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpilman, David; Orlowski, James P

    2016-09-01

    Aquatic sports are included in the top list of risky practices as the environment per se carries a possibility of death by drowning if not rescued in time. Not only are aquatic sports related to a high risk of death, but also all sports practiced on the water, over the water and on ice. Whatever the reason a person is in the water, drowning carries a higher possibility of death if the individual is unable to cope with the water situation, which may simply be caused by an inability to stay afloat and get out of the water or by an injury or disease that may lead to physical inability or unconsciousness. The competitive nature of sports is a common pathway that leads the sports person to exceed their ability to cope with the environment or simply misjudge their physical capability. Drowning involves some principles and medical interventions that are rarely found in other medical situations as it occurs in a deceptively hostile environment that may not seem dangerous. Therefore, it is essential that health professionals are aware of the complete sequence of action in drowning. This article focuses on the pulmonary injury in sports and recreational activities where drowning plays the major role. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  2. A Basic Study on Leadership of the Coaches in the College Sports Teams

    OpenAIRE

    畑, 攻; 柴田, 雅貴; 塚本, 正仁; 杉山, 歌奈子

    2004-01-01

    Leadership is one of the most important elements for team sports management, and concerning to members morale, team morale, maturity, and performance. In sports science area, it is expected that sports leadership would be defined and clarified to attain their objective. The purpose of the study was to identify sports leaders' behavior and function concerning with members' satisfaction. This study employed a specially designed questionnaire which were consisted of general demographics, academi...

  3. Professional Sports and Urban Development: A Brief Review of Issues and Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison S. Campbell, Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between professional sports and cities is an important public policy issue that has received growing attention in the academic literature. Investment in sports facilities is frequently rationalized on the basis of economic impact and positive spillover effects to cities and regions, yet there is mounting suspicion that professional sports have only a marginal impact on their surrounding area. Why are professional sports so important? What factors help explain the recent stadi...

  4. INFLUENCE OF AEROSPACE MEDICINE ACHIEVEMENTS ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF SPORT MEDICINE METHODOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R Yashina, E R; Kurashvili, V A; Turzin, P S

    Modern technologies of aerospace medicine develop at rapid pace pulling on its orbit all spheres of the human activity, including sport. Innovations play a major role in the progress of sport medicine areas related to the biomedical support of precontest training. Overview of the most important aerospace medicine achievements and their methodical implications for sport medicine is presented. Discussion is devoted to how the aerospace medicine technologies can raise effectiveness of the biomedical support to different sectors of sport and fitness.

  5. Amputees and sports : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bragaru, Mihail; Dekker, Rienk; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.

    2011-01-01

    Amputation of a limb may have a negative impact on the psychological and physical well-being, mobility and social life of individuals with limb amputations. Participation in sports and/or regular physical activity has a positive effect on the above mentioned areas in able-bodied individuals. Data

  6. Sport Law. NOLPE Monograph Series, No. 40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Linda A.

    The first chapter of this monograph on sport law presents tort issues, primarily negligence. A discussion of some fundamental negligence concepts is followed by three sections devoted to the prime risk areas in school and collegiate settings. A review of the principles of risk management is included. The second chapter focuses on contractual…

  7. Supporting the paralympic athlete: focus on wheeled sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria

    2010-01-01

    The complexity of wheelchair sports provides the scientist with a unique challenge. There are two major components that contribute towards 'wheeled sports' performance: the athlete and the chair. It is the interaction of these two components that enable wheelchair propulsion and the sporting movements required within a given sport. This article will describe three discrete case studies on how sport scientists have worked with Great Britain coaches and practitioners to help optimise training leading to a major competition through evidence base practise. A fourth area will describe on-going work designed to address the optimisation of wheelchair configurations for wheelchair court sports. It will focus on four sports: wheelchair racing, wheelchair tennis, wheelchair basketball and wheelchair rugby. The first topic will discuss the concept of pushing economy and mechanical efficiency of wheelchair propulsion. The second topic will show how technology assists the coaching process. The third topic will illustrate the concept of sports classification, and show how training volume 'in terms of basketball shooting' may need to be individually assigned and finally future research within wheelchair team sports and chair configurations will be examined.

  8. Common Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adults can experience a similar condition, called ulnar collateral ligament injury. Symptoms are pain of the inside ... winter. This kind of variety can eliminate the risk of putting stress on the same joints week ...

  9. State of development of sport and technical and applied sports in the sports organizations of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Tikhonova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : the study of the development of sport and technical and applied sports in the sports organizations of Ukraine. Material : the results of analysis of scientific and methodical literature, statistical reports of the Ministry of Youth and Sports, controls for Physical Culture and Sport, the governing bodies of education and science, society websites promoting Defence of Ukraine, the Sports Committee of Ukraine. Results : technical sports solve complex health and educational problems, promote patriotic education of children. In Ukraine today gaining popularity of sports-technical and applied sports. According to statistics the number of students enrolled in 2013 increased by 6% (1720 people in relation to 2012. Total 30484 person. The most popular among children and adolescents are: military-sport all-around (amount involved is 23.9% of the total number of pupils, fire-applied sports (8.8%, parachute (8.7%, automotive (8.1 %, model aircraft (7.8%, underwater (5.8%, radio sport (7.1%. The most abundant component in the number of sports clubs have engaged in occupations which covered 18264 children and adolescents. Conclusions : Implementation of measures for further development of sports engineering, aviation and military applied sports will foster a versatile development, hardened physically, technically trained people. As the formation of the younger generation of sustained interest and needs in the classroom technical creativity, provide training for young people for military service and active labor.

  10. Incidence of injury based on sports participation in high school athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlenberg, Cynthia A; Nair, Rueben; Monroe, Emily; Terry, Michael A; Edwards, Sara L

    2016-09-01

    Youth participation in competitive athletics has significantly increased in the past two decades. There has also been a recent rise in the number of sports injuries that physicians are seeing in young athletes. The objective of this study was to assess the likelihood of sports injuries based on several risk factors in a general sample of athletes at a suburban-area high school. This was a cross-sectional study. An online survey was distributed to 2,200 student-athletes at a local high school with a mean age of 15.9 years. Four hundred eighty four (22%) complete responses were received. Data collected in the survey included demographics, frequency of sports participation, level of participation, types of sports played, participation in cross-training, injuries incurred, use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and treatment for sports injuries. Athletes played an average of 1.6 different sports. The average number of hours of participation in sports annually was 504.3 ± 371.6 hours. The average total number of sports injuries experienced by athletes in our study was 1.7 per participant. 80.8% of respondents reported having sustained at least one sports injury. A higher total number of hours per year of sports participation and playing a contact sport were significantly associated with more reported lifetime sports injuries. Older age, playing a contact sport, and playing on a travel/club team were associated with students using NSAIDs for sports injuries. Older age, playing a contact sport, and doing cross training are also associated with having had surgery for a sports injury. Although more hours of participation and playing a contact sport may lead to an increased number of injuries, this risk must be weighed against the myriad of benefits that sports provide for young athletes.

  11. A profile of sports science research (1983-2003).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Stephen John; Kendall, Lawrence R

    2007-08-01

    A majority of sports science research is undertaken in universities and dedicated research centres, such as institutes of sport. Reviews of literature analysing and categorising research have been carried out, but categories identified have been limited to research design and data gathering techniques. Hence there is a need to include categories such as discipline, subjects and targeted sport. A study was conducted using document analysis method to gather data that described and categorised performance-based sports science research projects in Australian universities and institutes of sport. An instrument was designed that could be used by researchers to analyse and profile research in the area of sports science. The instrument contained six categories: targeted sport, primary study area, participant type, research setting, methodology and data gathering techniques. Research documents analysed consisted of 725 original unpublished research reports/theses. Results showed that over two-thirds of research projects were targeted to specific sports and, of this group, nearly half involved four sports: cycling, rowing, athletics and swimming. Overall, physiology was the most researched scientific discipline. The most frequently used research method was experimental design, and the most frequently used data gathering technique was physiological (performance) measures. Two-thirds of research was conducted in laboratory settings, and nearly half of the research was conducted with elite or sub-elite athletes as participants/subjects. The findings of this study provide an overall synopsis of performance-based sports science research conducted in Australia over the last 20 years, and should be of considerable importance in the ongoing development of sports science research policy in Australia.

  12. Conflicts of Interest in Sports Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Andrew M

    2016-04-01

    Conflict of interest is common in the practice of medicine, and likely more so in the practice of sports medicine at the highest levels of competition. Two areas where conflict of interest frequently manifest in sports medicine are confidentiality and clinical decision making. Confidentiality can be challenging by the team physician's dual responsibilities to the player-patient and the team. Clinical decision making, traditionally associated with a patient's long term health interests, can be complicated by short term interests rooted in pursuit of winning. These issues are reviewed, hopefully to increase awareness in clinicians who find themselves in these unique situations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Ethics of Sports Medicine Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Robert J; Reider, Bruce

    2016-04-01

    This article explores the background and foundations of ethics in research. Some important documents and codes are mentioned, such as The Belmont Report and the International Conference of Harmonisation. Some influential historical events involving research ethics are recounted. The article provides a detailed discussion of the Declaration of Helsinki, which is considered the international standard for guidelines in medical research ethics. The most salient features of the Declaration are described and related to orthopaedic surgery and sports medicine. Some of the most controversial aspects of the Declaration are discussed, which helps examine contentious areas of research in sports medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sport Psychology: some new proposals being developed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Ortin-Montero

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This introduction should serve as a framework for the following monograph. While it is true that other authors have examined the discipline of sport psychology, the majority of them have done so from a very generalist perspective. For possibly the first time, there has been an attempt to rely on specialists who, from a very precise proposal, have offered us unique approaches with a wide scientific foundation applied to this area of study. A theoretical framework that adequately delimits the structure of this proposal regarding sport psychology is presented.

  15. Sports Specialization in Young Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanthi, Neeru; Pinkham, Courtney; Dugas, Lara; Patrick, Brittany; LaBella, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Context: Sports specialization is intense training in 1 sport while excluding others. Sports specialization in early to middle childhood has become increasingly common. While most experts agree that some degree of sports specialization is necessary to achieve elite levels, there is some debate as to whether such intense practice time must begin during early childhood and to the exclusion of other sports to maximize potential for success. There is a concern that sports specialization before adolescence may be deleterious to a young athlete. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed and OVID were searched for English-language articles from 1990 to 2011 discussing sports specialization, expert athletes, or elite versus novice athletes, including original research articles, consensus opinions, and position statements. Results: For most sports, there is no evidence that intense training and specialization before puberty are necessary to achieve elite status. Risks of early sports specialization include higher rates of injury, increased psychological stress, and quitting sports at a young age. Sports specialization occurs along a continuum. Survey tools are being developed to identify where athletes fall along the spectrum of specialization. Conclusion: Some degree of sports specialization is necessary to develop elite-level skill development. However, for most sports, such intense training in a single sport to the exclusion of others should be delayed until late adolescence to optimize success while minimizing injury, psychological stress, and burnout. PMID:24427397

  16. Epilepsy and sports participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Gregory M; Radloff, Monika; Sevier, Thomas L

    2004-02-01

    Epilepsy is a common disease found in 2% of the population, affecting both young and old. Unfortunately, epileptics have previously been discouraged from participation in physical activity and sports for fear of inducing seizures or increasing seizure frequency. Despite a shift in medical recommendations toward encouraging rather than restricting participation, the stigma remains and epileptics continue to be less active than the general population. This results in increased body mass index, decreased aerobic endurance, poorer self-esteem, and higher levels of anxiety and depression. Although there are rare cases of exercise-induced seizures, studies have shown that physical activity can decrease seizure frequency, as well as lead to improved cardiovascular and psychologic health. The majority of sports are safe for epileptics to participate in with special attention to adequate seizure control, close monitoring of medications, and preparation of family, coaches, or trainers. Contact sports including football, hockey, and soccer have not been shown to induce seizures, and epileptics should not be precluded from participation. Water sports and swimming are felt to be safe if seizures are well controlled and direct supervision is present. Additional care must be taken in sports involving heights such as gymnastics, harnessed rock climbing, or horseback riding. Sports such as hang-gliding, scuba diving, or free climbing are not recommended, given the risk of severe injury or death, if a seizure were to occur during the activity. This article reviews the risks and benefits of physical activity in epileptics, discusses sports in which epileptics may participate, and addresses how to decrease possible risks for injury.

  17. 2nd International Colloquium on Sports Science, Exercise, Engineering and Technology 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Sulaiman, Norasrudin; Adnan, Rahmat

    2016-01-01

    The proceeding is a collection of research papers presented at the 2nd International Colloquium on Sports Science, Exercise, Engineering and Technology (ICoSSEET2015), a conference dedicated to address the challenges in the areas of sports science, exercise, sports engineering and technology including other areas of sports, thereby presenting a consolidated view to the interested researchers in the aforesaid fields. The goal of this conference was to bring together researchers and practitioners from academia and industry to focus on the scope of the conference and establishing new collaborations in these areas. The topics of interest are in mainly (1) Sports and Exercise Science (2) Sports Engineering and Technology Application (3) Sports Industry and Management.

  18. Physiological responses of Yellowstone bison to winter nutritional deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelGiudice, Glenn D.; Singer, Francis J.; Seal, Ulysses S.; Bowser, Gillian

    1994-01-01

    Because nutrition is critically related to other aspects of bison (Bison bison) ecology, and the winter ranges inhabited by bison in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) are ecologically diverse, it was important to determine if nutritional deprivation differences occurred among winter ranges. We used chemistry profiles of urine suspended in snow to compare nutritional deprivation of bison from January to April 1988 on 4 sampling areas of 3 winter ranges in YNP. Declining (P creatinine ratios in bison on all 4 sampling areas indicated progressive nutritional deprivation through late March. Concurrent increases (P ≤ 0.001) in mean urea nitrogen: creatinine ratios from late February through late march in 3 of 4 areas suggested that increased net catabolism was occurring. Diminished creatinine ratios of sodium and phosphorus reflected low dietary intake of these minerals throughout winter. Mean values and trends of urinary characteristics indicated nutritional deprivation varied among 3 winter ranges in YNP. Continued physiological monitoring of nutritional deprivation, along with detailed examination of other aspects of the bison's ecology, will provide greater insight into the role of ungulate nutrition in the dynamics of such a complex system and improve management.

  19. South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Prof Hanlie Moss Editor Physical Activity, Sport and Recreation Research Focus Area North-West University, Potchefstroom South Africa Phone: +27 (0)18 299-1821. Email: sajrsper@nwu.ac.za ...

  20. Hybrid IP/CP Methods for Solving Sports Scheduling Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus Vinther

    2006-01-01

    The field of sports scheduling comprises a challenging research areawith a great variety of hard combinatorial optimization problems andchallenging practical applications. This dissertation gives acomprehensive survey of the area and a number of new contributionsare presented. First a general sol...

  1. Winter Atomiades 2014: CERN skiers win 31 medals!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2014-01-01

    The 12th Winter Atomiades took place at Flachau, Austria, from 8 to 15 March 2014. The event, organised by the Association of the Sports Communities of the European Research Institutes (see here), brought together 18 research centres, including CERN, AIT, ESRF, PSI and many others, with a total of about 280 participants.   Lots of fun and a great result for the 13 CERN skiers at the 2014 Winter Atomiades in Flachau, Austria. From left to right and from bottom to top: Lennart Jirden (PH), Anna Lipniacka (PH), Guillaume Michet (DGS), Vera Chetvertkova (TE), Thierry Boileau (external), Jean-Louis Grenard (EN), Clement Bovet (EN), Marc Tavlet (BE), Rob Knoops (PH), Giuseppe Lo Presti (IT), Simone Campana (IT), Sylviane Gander (external) and Javier Pablos (TE).   The team of 13 athletes from six different CERN departments won 31 medals across all disciplines, in a spirit of fun and fair play. CERN came second in the general ranking of all participating institutes! The next Winter Atomiades...

  2. The Physics of Sports: A Physicist's View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, James

    2006-10-01

    In this talk, I will present a physicist's way of looking at various aspects of sports. In particular, I will focus the discussion on how one might improve or enhance performance by thinking as a physicist about the processes involved. Examples that will be discussed will range from why hockey sticks are (today) curved to why good (basketball) dribbling should be ``heard.'' I will present several examples of the benefits of effecting efficiency in motion. This talk will draw on portions of presentations that I have given in the Boulder-Denver area during the past 30 years on the physics of sports. In all these presentations, my purpose was to teach and develop student interest in physics while talking about -- and showing the relevance of physics to -- sports.

  3. A review of research in sports physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakeman, P M; Winter, E M; Doust, J

    1994-02-01

    The physiology of sport encompasses a wide and diverse range of scientific interests. The intention, and major challenge of the review, is to collate the most pertinent of these interests into a coherent strategy for future research in sports physiology. The unifying concept of this review is the potential contribution of future research in sports physiology to the development of the elite competitor. The review promotes this theme through an indepth appraisal of current knowledge and identification of key areas of research that would most profitably advance the understanding and application of sports physiology. Central to this theme are the physiological limitations to exercise performance of the elite competitor and the adaptation of these physiological systems to further training, possibly leading to overtraining. Indeed, the potential to adapt to, or recover from, the ever increasing demands of training and competition is considered in sections on the development of strength and power, the child athlete and the limitations to performance in multiple sprint activities such as hockey and football. Throughout the review it is recognized that sports physiology is increasingly reliant upon advances in analytical techniques and quantitative measurement. Physiological measurement, the validity and accuracy of present and future procedures, and the correct interpretation of these data are therefore considered in detail in the final section of the review.

  4. Nutrition in team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujika, Iñigo; Burke, Louise M

    2010-01-01

    Team sports are based on intermittent high-intensity activity patterns, but the exact characteristics vary between and within codes, and from one game to the next. Despite the challenge of predicting exact game demands, performance in team sports is often dependent on nutritional factors. Chronic issues include achieving ideal levels of muscle mass and body fat, and supporting the nutrient needs of the training program. Acute issues, both for training and in games, include strategies that allow the player to be well fuelled and hydrated over the duration of exercise. Each player should develop a plan of consuming fluid and carbohydrate according to the needs of their activity patterns, within the breaks that are provided in their sport. In seasonal fixtures, competition varies from a weekly game in some codes to 2-3 games over a weekend road trip in others, and a tournament fixture usually involves 1-3 days between matches. Recovery between events is a major priority, involving rehydration, refuelling and repair/adaptation activities. Some sports supplements may be of value to the team athlete. Sports drinks, gels and liquid meals may be valuable in allowing nutritional goals to be met, while caffeine, creatine and buffering agents may directly enhance performance. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Sports in postmodern era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Miron

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study tries to make a resume from a socio-cultural point of view of the sportiv peisage analized in the evolutionof society trying to answer some questions such as: What is the place of sports in our modern society? How does sportinfluence social and cultural evolutions? What are the cultural tendencies which can be distinguished in the sports practice?These are a few questions which could lead to establishing raports between sports, culture and society. Sport is more andmore amrked by the charactersitics of postmoderinsm. New social values are being vehiclated by current generations whichinfluence sportive behaviours. The popularity of sports has a big influence in the process of globalisation of politics,economics and culture. In our days we observe the fact that some contradictions are being manifested: globalisation andindividualisation, „sportivisation” and „desportivisation”, a culture of health and a culture of amusement and finally,spontaneity and fragmentation compared to the security and autentification of the individual.

  6. Amputees and sports: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragaru, Mihail; Dekker, Rienk; Geertzen, Jan H B; Dijkstra, Pieter U

    2011-09-01

    Amputation of a limb may have a negative impact on the psychological and physical well-being, mobility and social life of individuals with limb amputations. Participation in sports and/or regular physical activity has a positive effect on the above mentioned areas in able-bodied individuals. Data concerning participation in sports or regular physical activity together with its benefits and risks for individuals with limb amputations are scarce. No systematic review exists that addresses a wide range of outcomes such as biomechanics, cardiopulmonary function, psychology, sport participation and sport injuries. Therefore, the aim of this article is to systematically review the literature about individuals with limb amputations and sport participation. MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, CINAHL® and SportDiscus® were searched without time or language restrictions using free text words and MeSH terms. The last search date was 31 March 2010. Books, internet sites and references of included papers were checked for papers relevant to the topic under review. Papers were included if the research topic concerned sports and a minimum of ten individuals with limb amputations were part of the study population. Papers were excluded if they included individuals with amputations of body parts other than upper or lower limbs or more distal than the wrist or ankle, or if they consisted of case reports, narrative reviews, books, notes or letters to the editor. Title, abstract and full-text assessments were performed by two independent observers following a list of preset criteria. Of the 3689 papers originally identified, 47 were included in the review. Most of the included studies were older than 10 years and had cross-sectional designs. Study participants were generally younger and often had more traumatic amputations than the general population of individuals with limb amputations. Heterogeneity in population characteristics, intervention types and main outcomes made data pooling

  7. Sports Medicine: What is a Sports Medicine Specialist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    What is a Sports Medicine Specialist? A physician with significant specialized training in both the treatment and prevention of illness and injury. The Sports Medicine Specialist helps patients maximize function and minimize ...

  8. Design sensitivities for interactive sport-training games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Møller; Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegård; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2014-01-01

    and reflected upon. Based on the experiences gained from the design and development process, as well as examples from the existing field and skill acquisition theory, we present three areas of interest to consider for interactive sport-training game designers: Context Characteristics, Movement Patterns...... and Perceptual Reaction. From a discussion of these areas, we derive eight design sensitivities that emphasize issues, challenges and opportunities, important for the design, development and analysis of interactive sport-training games in general....

  9. South African Journal of Sports Medicine - Vol 28, No 1 (2016)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Sports Medicine. ... The medial tibial stress syndrome score: Item generation for a new patient reported outcome measure · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. M Winters, M Franklyn, MH Moen, A Weir, FJG Back, EWP Bakker, 11- ...

  10. The Economics of professional team sports: content, trends and future developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VASSILIKI AVGERINOU

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present the prevailing content, trends and future developments of professional team sports economics. The purpose of this paper is not to provide a full record of all professional team sports related research with an economic content, but rather to point out the main issues that sports economics tackle since their birth and track the evolution of these issues as a response to the changing environment of team sports. League market structure, team objectives, demand, financing, labour markets and sports broadcasting are the most prominent areas of interest in professional team sports economics. Differences in organizational structure of professional team sports in Europe and U.S.A. shape the research agenda on the two sides of the Atlantic accordingly. Future developments should capture both economic and social aspects of contemporary professional team sports.

  11. Content Analyses of Scientific Articles from All Issues Published in Sport Mont Journal in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Dragutunovic

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sport Mont Journal is a print and electronic scientific journal aims to present easy access to the scientific knowledge for sport-conscious individuals using contemporary methods. As one of the most prestigious scientific journals in Montenegro, is published three times a year. The aim of this paper was to classify the articles published in the 2009 journal, by scientific disciplines. On that occasion, we used the method of content analysis. During this period, 95 titles were published, which are classified according to the fields of sports science - biomechanics, physiology, sports medicine, anthropology, methodology, methodology, pedagogy, sociopsychology, anthropomotorics, anthropometry, research in sports and others. It has been found that the most numerous scientific research papers in sport and socio-psychology of sports (30, sport anthropology (25 and sports techniques (13. They show us that in this period a lot of attention was devoted to research in sport and sociopsychology of sports, where personalities, attitudes and characteristics were examined as important determinants of success in sports. In addition to these, there were still many scientific papers from other fields, which cover from social, humanistic and natural sciences. The integration of papers in all areas of sports science is not a simple task, even if we consider this one of the most prestigious journals in this region, the quality of the work itself is crucial.

  12. School sport and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, John; Keane, Francis; Crawford, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Physical Education and School Sport (PESS) is an integral part of the school curriculum in Ireland. Historically the "Healthy Body, Healthy Mind" philosophy has promoted the inclusion of PESS alongside more cognitive school subjects. Research suggests that PESS can promote cognitive function and provide educational benefits. However, there is little research on how the choice of school sport influences academic achievement. This study investigated how participation in school sport influences the Leaving Certificate points score in an Irish secondary school. In particular, the study will investigate how the particular sport chosen by students participating in school sport during their Leaving Certificate years influences their Leaving Certificate results. We recorded the Leaving Certificate scores and sports participation from 402 boys graduating from a secondary school in the Ireland during 2008-2011. Sports participation was assigned 1 of 4 categories: rugby, rowing, soccer, and no sport. Participation in sports during the Leaving Certificate years conferred a 25.4-point benefit to the final Leaving Certificate score. However, participation in rowing, the only individual sport available in the study, resulted in significantly higher Leaving Certificate scores than rugby, soccer and no sport (p benefit over the next highest group, rugby. Promoting participation in school sport and providing access to a range of team and individual sports throughout the secondary school years may be a beneficial way to improve students' Leaving Certificate results. © 2013, American School Health Association.

  13. Sport's offer as an instrument of sports marketing mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašović Milan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking logical postulate that a product is all what can be offered on the market in order to satisfy needs, demands or wants of customer, regarding the core of sport's offer (product, marketing experts must give answers to three key questions: What can sports companies, teams or individuals offer to consumer? What needs can sports companies, teams or individuals satisfy? What instruments (techniques and methods should use marketing experts in sports organizations in order to satisfy identified customer needs? .

  14. Sporting embodiment: sports studies and the (continuing) promise of phenomenology

    OpenAIRE

    Allen-Collinson, Jacquelyn

    2009-01-01

    Whilst in recent years sports studies have addressed the calls ‘to bring the body back in’ to theorisations of sport and physical activity, the ‘promise of phenomenology’ remains largely under-realised with regard to sporting embodiment. Relatively few accounts are grounded in the ‘flesh’ of the lived sporting body, and phenomenology offers a powerful framework for such analysis. A wide-ranging, multi-stranded, and interpretatively contested perspective, phenomenology in general has been take...

  15. The impact of winter heating on air pollution in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qingyang; Ma, Zongwei; Li, Shenshen; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Fossil-fuel combustion related winter heating has become a major air quality and public health concern in northern China recently. We analyzed the impact of winter heating on aerosol loadings over China using the MODIS-Aqua Collection 6 aerosol product from 2004-2012. Absolute humidity (AH) and planetary boundary layer height (PBL) -adjusted aerosol optical depth (AOD*) was constructed to reflect ground-level PM2.5 concentrations. GIS analysis, standard statistical tests, and statistical modeling indicate that winter heating is an important factor causing increased PM2.5 levels in more than three-quarters of central and eastern China. The heating season AOD* was more than five times higher as the non-heating season AOD*, and the increase in AOD* in the heating areas was greater than in the non-heating areas. Finally, central heating tend to contribute less to air pollution relative to other means of household heating.

  16. The Impact of Winter Heating on Air Pollution in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qingyang; Ma, Zongwei; Li, Shenshen; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Fossil-fuel combustion related winter heating has become a major air quality and public health concern in northern China recently. We analyzed the impact of winter heating on aerosol loadings over China using the MODIS-Aqua Collection 6 aerosol product from 2004–2012. Absolute humidity (AH) and planetary boundary layer height (PBL) -adjusted aerosol optical depth (AOD*) was constructed to reflect ground-level PM2.5 concentrations. GIS analysis, standard statistical tests, and statistical modeling indicate that winter heating is an important factor causing increased PM2.5 levels in more than three-quarters of central and eastern China. The heating season AOD* was more than five times higher as the non-heating season AOD*, and the increase in AOD* in the heating areas was greater than in the non-heating areas. Finally, central heating tend to contribute less to air pollution relative to other means of household heating. PMID:25629878

  17. IDRC Bulletin — Winter 2017

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-01-16

    Jan 16, 2018 ... In this issue, read the research results from our Safe and Inclusive Cities program and don't forget that the Joint Canada-Israel Health Research Program 2018 call is now open. IDRC Bulletin logo IDRC Bulletin — Winter 2017. Featured this month. View of Port-au-Prince in Haiti, March 30, 2016. Safe and ...

  18. Learning through a Winter's Tale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidotto, Kristie

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experience during the final semester of Year 11 Theatre Studies when she performed a monologue about Hermione from "The Winter's Tale". This experience was extremely significant to her because it nearly made her lose faith in one of the most important parts of her life, drama. She believes this…

  19. Winter School on Coding Theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 8. Winter School on Coding Theory. Information and Announcements Volume 8 Issue 8 August 2003 pp 111-111. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/008/08/0111-0111. Resonance ...

  20. Nuclear Winter: The Continuing Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-23

    prospect of human annihilation. Speculation about the environmental results of a ’long darkness’ were considered by Paul Ehrlich .10 The term nuclear winter...Washington D.C., 1983 The Cold and the Dark: The World after Nuclear War, by Paul Ehrlich , et al. New York: Norton, 1984. (QH545 N83 C66 1983k Caldicott

  1. Western Sport and Spiritualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosiewicz Jerzy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sport activity of achievement-oriented (professional, Olympic, spectacular character is first of all exposition of rivalry and striving for variously understood sports success (resulting from measurable or discretionary criteria. It refers to winning a competition or taking another expected place as well as to other forms of satisfaction, such as financial gratification or social (political, ethnic, professional recognition. Spirituality is here neither an aim, nor an expected value - it constitutes rather an additional or redundant quality. A competitor focuses his/her attention first of all on the main aim assumed in planned or current rivalry. Emotional sensations which are experienced by athletes before, during or after competitions testify to mental and emotional stress which accompanies sports combat.

  2. SPORT PROMOTION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Lucian MIHAI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In sport marketing, the word promotion covers a range of interrelated activities. All of these activities are designed to attract attention, stimulate the interest and awareness of consumers, and of course, encourage them to purchase a sport product. Promotion is about communicating with and educating consumers. The purpose of a sport promotional strategy is to build brand loyalty and product credibility, develop image, and position the brand. A promotional strategy is similar to a marketing strategy, but the promotional strategy seeks short-term objectives, both direct and indirect. Promotional objectives usually include increased sales, stimulate impulse buying, raise customer traffic, and present and reinforce image. It also provides information about products and services, publicizes new stores or websites, and creates and enhances customer satisfaction.

  3. Commuting, Exercise and Sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jonas

    2018-01-01

    The uniqueness of this article is that it deals with long-distance bike commuting in pro-cycling Copenhagen and its environs. Informed by practice theory and sensuous studies of urban and sport practices, I discuss the ‘things and environments’, ‘meanings’ and ‘competences and biological bodies......’ that typify long-distance commuter cycling. This article develops cycling literature and the ‘mobilities paradigm’ in the following ways: by outlining a practice approach to cycling; challenging the idea that commuter cycling is only for short distances; undermining the distinction between utility and sport...... cycling; and lastly by connecting the ‘mobilities paradigm’ with literature on active travel and sport studies....

  4. TRAVEL PLANNING PROPOSALS SKI AREA IN NORTH OLTENIA TO INCREASE VISIBILITY AT NATIONAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSTANŢA ENEA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mountain tourism potential is complex and varied in structure, size and spatial distribution, which is related to massive expansion, differentiation altitude, geological composition, configuration and specific geological landforms, fragmentation, vegetation cover and peculiarities of the river system, etc. Therefore under the mountain in northern Oltenia highlights some differences in the regions in terms of structure, volume, value, capitalizing on opportunities in tourism mountain tourism potential. Mountain tourism is one of the traditional forms of tourism in affirming Romanian tourism internationally, both through natural potential available by the low level of degradation of landscapes and through investment efforts that were made in the specific offer. European alpine countries (France, Switzerland, Austria, Italy, etc. attaches great importance to the potential of mountain tourism available and submitted in this regard, special efforts for the development of mountain resorts attract millions of tourists annually amateur ski of sports winter mountain in general. Romania has a great value ski area that can compete successfully with the ski areas of central and Western Europe. What are the strengths and weaknesses of Romanian mountain tourism potential in comparability with famous country ski area for winter sports will see throughout this paper.

  5. The importance of sport psychology in school sport | le Roux ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary aim of this investigation was to determine whether the application of Sport Psychology in the coaching of school sport is a necessity or a luxury. The study revealed that school athletes desire further information about Sport Psychology and want the services to be more available. Teacher coaches need some ...

  6. Sport tourist expectations of a world championship sporting event ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... on the economic and psychic income potential of the event. Sport event organisers should pursue multiple goals when designing the product and service parameters of a particular event. Keywords: Sport tourist, Expectations, Service experience, Satisfaction South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education ...

  7. Sport Psychology: Myths in Sport Education and Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Joy

    2008-01-01

    From a sport and exercise psychology viewpoint, this article describes the increasing professionalization of youth sport and how many well-intentioned people are using misconceptions or myths to organize and administer youth sport programs. For example, professionalization has led to specialization and year-round training, while playing multiple…

  8. STRESS FRACTURES IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đivo Ban

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Children and adolescents today, all before starting with regular sports activities and involvement in semi-professional and top professional sport, so it increases the num- ber of discovered stress fractures in this age. This type of injury can occur as a consequence of action one strong force, or the many repeated small force strength, to be exact, when the load (stress transcend ability reparations bones. Stress fractures are recorded and described up to the lower limbs. Research has been confirmed that the bones of lower leg are mostly made in injury, and with the el- derly and with the population of children and young adolescents. Occur in many sports, something to them is greater when the frequency of running and often are present in the female population. According to the results of numerous investigations, mistakes in the training are the most common cause of the emergence of stress fracture. In a direct comparison with complemented these injuries is the condition of muscles, so it is important that at the sa- me time carry out exercises strengthen muscles and stretching. Typical clinical signs of stress fractures are localized painful sensitivity to palpa- tion and runoff in a small number of cases. The basic diagnostic procedure is a medical check, it is the small, radiology and scintigraphyc diagnostics (most accurate and mag- netic resonance imaging. Treatment is usually without surgery and conservative, with rest and reducing stress, and its activity athlete breaks mainly between four and eight weeks. Only the very need surgical treatment The most important thing is that attention is focused on the proper prevention and to take all that it ever occurred to stress fractures that athletes ramble of the courts and the competition (better education of sports workers, separation of groups with increa- sed risk of the formation of an injury, adaptation activities age and abilities of athletes, adequate sports equipment, high-quality sports

  9. Testing applied in Brazilian studies in sport psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Melina Becker da Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sport Psychology is one of the areas of the expertise of psychologists that makes use assessment tools. Therefore depends on the construction and validation of instruments for this population. Examine the instruments cited in this literature can help in this process. This study examined the instruments validated for the Brazilian population, cited in national articles on Sport Psychology, from 2002 to 2012. The descriptors "validation", "test", "sport", and "Psychophysiology", were crossed with descriptors "anxiety", "stress", "depression", "motivation", "leadership", "aggression," "imagination," "humor," "self-esteem", and "self-efficacy" - on the electronic bases Periódicos/CAPES, SciELO-Brazil and PubMed, in January 2013. For 38 sports and other non-competitive, six instruments translated and validated in Brazil were found, but not yet assessed / approved by the Federal Council of Psychology. The inclusion of the psychophysiological measures in the evaluation process and the validation of the instruments applied to Sport Psychology are discusses.

  10. Sports Medicine: A Functional Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegerreis, Sam

    1981-01-01

    Sports medicine represents a specific body of knowledge which can be practiced as a subspecialty by numerous members of medical society. Professional and sandlot athletes are equally deserving of competent and expedient sports medical care. (JN)

  11. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... down on carbs or chugging sports drinks. The good news is that eating to reach your peak ... should provide the vitamins and minerals needed for good health and sports performance. Protein Power Athletes may ...

  12. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Out Fat and Calories Sports Center Vitamins and Minerals Sports Supplements Female ... Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for educational purposes only. ...

  13. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying ... than chowing down on carbs or chugging sports drinks. The good news is that eating to reach ...

  14. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español A Guide to Eating for Sports KidsHealth / ...

  15. Grebet af sport?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tem Frank

    2017-01-01

    I sommeren 1936 blev de Olympiske Lege gennemført i Tyskland. Mediehistorisk var det en begivenhed, fordi det var de første tv-transmitterede Olympiske Lege. Selvom transmissionen kun nåede ud til små biografteatre i de tyske storbyer, så var det noget af en præstation. Over 70 timers sport med de...... fleste af de discipliner, vi kender fra Legene. (...) Uanset hvornår vi daterer sportens begyndelse, så har den haft en dobbelthed. Sport er ikke kun for dem på banen, men også dem på sidelinjerne....

  16. Nuclear medicine in sports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Anshu Rajnish

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear medicine can synergistically contribute to the sports medicine field, in the management of sports-related stress injures. Bone scintigraphy is commonly requested for evaluation of athletes with pain. Three-Phase 99m Tc MDP Bone Scan has emerged as the imaging reference standard for diagnosing such injuries. The inherently high-contrast resolution of the bone scan allows early detection of bone trauma and becomes positive within six to seventy-two hours after the onset of symptoms. The bone scan is able to demonstrate stress injuries days to weeks before the radiograph

  17. Sports and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The role of curricular activities for the formation of education, health and behavioural outcomes has been widely studied. Yet, the role of extra-curricular activities has received little attention. This study analyzes the effect of participation in sports clubs—one of the most popular extra-curricular activities among children. We use alternative datasets and flexible semi-parametric estimation methods with a specific way to use the panel dimension of the data to address selection into sports. We find positive and robust effects on children’s school performance and peer relations. Crowding out of passive leisure activities can partially explain the effects. PMID:27144474

  18. Suitability of Starch Syrups for Winter Feeding of Honeybee Colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semkiw Piotr

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Three different starch syrups available on the Polish market for winter feeding of bees were evaluated for two consecutive beekeeping seasons (2012/2013 and 2013/2014. Sugar syrup and inverted sucrose syrup were used as the control. Winter feeding was conducted at two times: earlier and later in the season. After supplementation of winter feeding was stopped, we measured colony strength (number of combs covered by bees and brood area. After overwintering (spring 2013 and 2014, we estimated the influence of these foods on: bee mortality during overwintering (number of dead bees in winter debris, food consumption, colony strength and brood area in spring (two measurements in three-week intervals, development dynamics and honey yield from spring flow. An analysis of the results for the parameters assessed before overwintering, after its end and during spring development did not show significant differences between bee colonies fed with different types of food. No relevant difficulties concerning food crystallisation were encountered. The analysed syrups turned out to be as suitable for winter feeding of bees as sugar and inverted sucrose syrups.

  19. MARKETING STRATEGY IN SPORTS SPONSORSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srećko Novaković

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sponsorship, as a very successful form of marketing, is quite common in sports. Thanks to the financial means which come from sponsorship, sports teams and individuals achieve top results. In return for that, sponsors take advantage by enhancing their brand and image for longer period. An extensive influence of sponsorship over sports development has been achieved through properly selected elements of sports strateg.y

  20. Winter: Public Enemy #1 for Accessibility EXPLORING NEW SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Morales

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Winter is expensive. For countries situated in the northern hemisphere, closer to the north pole, such as Canada, Russia and Scandinavia, winter requires the acquisition of special clothing, car tires, and sports equipment, snow removal or plowing from the streets, and is associated with the presence of ice patches, along with accidents and illnesses associated with cold weather. Fall-related injuries due to winter conditions have been estimated to cost the Canadian health care system $ 2.8 billion a year. However, the greatest cost snow entails every year is the social isolation of seniors as well as wheelchair and walker users. This results from the lack of accessibility, as it is difficult to circulate on snow-covered streets even for the able-bodied. Social isolation has been associated with other negative consequences such as depression and even suicide. This exploratory pilot study aimed at finding possible and feasible design solutions for improving the accessibility of sidewalks during winter conditions. For this project we used a Co-Design methodology. Stakeholders (City of Quebec representatives, designers, urban planners, occupational therapists, and adults with motor, visual and aural disabilities were invited to participate in the design process. In order to meet the objectives, two main steps were carried out: 1. Conception of the design solutions (through Co-design sessions in a Focus-group format with seniors, designers and researchers; and 2. Validation of the design solutions (consultation with experts and stakeholders. The results are a wide variety of possible and feasible solutions, including the reorganisation of the snow-removal procedure and the development of heated curb cuts. This project was funded by the City of Quebec in partnership with the Centre interdisciplinaire de recherche en réadaptation et intégration sociale (CIRRIS. Ultimately, the project sought to explore possible solutions to be implemented