WorldWideScience

Sample records for winter snow balances

  1. Storing snow for the next winter: Two case studies on the application of snow farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünewald, Thomas; Wolfsperger, Fabian

    2016-04-01

    Snow farming is the conservation of snow during the warm half-year. This means that large piles of snow are formed in spring in order to be conserved over the summer season. Well-insulating materials such as chipped wood are added as surface cover to reduce melting. The aim of snow farming is to provide a "snow guaranty" for autumn or early winter - this means that a specific amount of snow will definitively be available, independent of the weather conditions. The conserved snow can then be used as basis for the preparation of winter sports grounds such as cross-country tracks or ski runs. This helps in the organization of early winter season sport events such as World Cup races or to provide appropriate training conditions for athletes. We present a study on two snow farming projects, one in Davos (Switzerland) and one in the Martell valley of South Tyrol. At both places snow farming has been used for several years. For the summer season 2015, we monitored both snow piles in order to assess the amount of snow conserved. High resolution terrestrial laser scanning was performed to measure snow volumes of the piles at the beginning and at the end of the summer period. Results showed that only 20% to 30 % of the snow mass was lost due to ablation. This mass loss was surprisingly low considering the extremely warm and dry summer. In order to identify the most relevant drivers of snow melt we also present simulations with the sophisticated snow cover models SNOWPACK and Alpine3D. The simulations are driven by meteorological input data recorded in the vicinity of the piles and enable a detailed analysis of the relevant processes controlling the energy balance. The models can be applied to optimize settings for snow farming and to examine the suitability of new locations, configurations or cover material for future snow farming projects.

  2. Surface energy balance of seasonal snow cover for snow-melt ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This study describes time series analysis of snow-melt, radiation data and energy balance for a seasonal snow cover at Dhundi field station of SASE, which lies in Pir Panjal range of the. N–W Himalaya, for a winter season from 13 January to 12 April 2005. The analysis shows that mean snow surface temperature remains ...

  3. Winter survival of Scots pine seedlings under different snow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domisch, Timo; Martz, Françoise; Repo, Tapani; Rautio, Pasi

    2018-04-01

    Future climate scenarios predict increased air temperatures and precipitation, particularly at high latitudes, and especially so during winter. Soil temperatures, however, are more difficult to predict, since they depend strongly on the fate of the insulating snow cover. 'Rain-on-snow' events and warm spells during winter can lead to thaw-freeze cycles, compacted snow and ice encasement, as well as local flooding. These adverse conditions could counteract the otherwise positive effects of climatic changes on forest seedling growth. In order to study the effects of different winter and snow conditions on young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings, we conducted a laboratory experiment in which 80 1-year-old Scots pine seedlings were distributed between four winter treatments in dasotrons: ambient snow cover (SNOW), compressed snow and ice encasement (ICE), flooded and frozen soil (FLOOD) and no snow (NO SNOW). During the winter treatment period and a 1.5-month simulated spring/early summer phase, we monitored the needle, stem and root biomass of the seedlings, and determined their starch and soluble sugar concentrations. In addition, we assessed the stress experienced by the seedlings by measuring chlorophyll fluorescence, electric impedance and photosynthesis of the previous-year needles. Compared with the SNOW treatment, carbohydrate concentrations were lower in the FLOOD and NO SNOW treatments where the seedlings had almost died before the end of the experiment, presumably due to frost desiccation of aboveground parts during the winter treatments. The seedlings of the ICE treatment showed dead needles and stems only above the snow and ice cover. The results emphasize the importance of an insulating and protecting snow cover for small forest tree seedlings, and that future winters with changed snow patterns might affect the survival of tree seedlings and thus forest productivity.

  4. SNOW CLEARING SERVICE WINTER 2001-2002

    CERN Multimedia

    ST-HM Group; Tel. 72202

    2001-01-01

    As usual at this time of the year, the snowing clearing service, which comes under the control of the Transport Group (ST-HM), is preparing for the start of snow-clearing operations (timetable, stand-by service, personnel responsible for driving vehicles and machines, preparation of useful and necessary equipment, work instructions, etc.) in collaboration with the Cleaning Service (ST-TFM) and the Fire Brigade (TIS-FB). The main difficulty for the snow-clearing service is the car parks, which cannot be properly cleared because of the presence of CERN and private vehicles parked there overnight in different parts of the parking areas. The ST-HM Transport Group would therefore like to invite you to park vehicles together in order to facilitate the access of the snow ploughs, thus allowing the car parks to be cleared more efficiently before the personnel arrives for work in the mornings.

  5. Relationship of deer and moose populations to previous winters' snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; McRoberts, R.E.; Peterson, R.O.; Page, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    (1) Linear regression was used to relate snow accumulation during single and consecutive winters with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn:doe ratios, mosse (Alces alces) twinning rates and calf:cow ratios, and annual changes in deer and moose populations. Significant relationships were found between snow accumulation during individual winters and these dependent variables during the following year. However, the strongest relationships were between the dependent variables and the sums of the snow accumulations over the previous three winters. The percentage of the variability explained was 36 to 51. (2) Significant relationships were also found between winter vulnerability of moose calves and the sum of the snow accumulations in the current, and up to seven previous, winters, with about 49% of the variability explained. (3) No relationship was found between wolf numbers and the above dependent variables. (4) These relationships imply that winter influences on maternal nutrition can accumulate for several years and that this cumulative effect strongly determines fecundity and/or calf and fawn survivability. Although wolf (Canis lupus L.) predation is the main direct mortality agent on fawns and calves, wolf density itself appears to be secondary to winter weather in influencing the deer and moose populations.

  6. Monitoring Forsmark. Snow depth, snow water content and ice cover during the winter 2010/2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wass, Eva

    2011-07-01

    Snow depth and ice cover have been measured and observed during the winter 2010/2011. This type of measurements started in the winter 2002/2003 and has been ongoing since then. In addition to these parameters, the water content of the snow was calculated at each measurement occasion from the weight of a snow sample. Measurements and observations were conducted on a regular basis from the beginning of November 2010 until the middle of April 2011. A persistent snow cover was established in the end of November 2010 and remained until the beginning of April 2011 at the station with longest snow cover duration. The period of ice cover was 160 days in Lake Eckarfjaerden, whereas the sea bay at SFR was ice covered for 135 days

  7. The effects of changes in snow depth on winter recreation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zahradníček, Pavel; Rožnovský, J.; Štěpánek, Petr; Farda, Aleš; Brzezina, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2016), s. 44-54 ISSN 1804-2821 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA ČR GA13-04291S; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12262S Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : new snow * total snow depth * climate change * climate models * winter recreations Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  8. Analysis of the snow-atmosphere energy balance during wet-snow instabilities and implications for avalanche prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mitterer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Wet-snow avalanches are notoriously difficult to predict; their formation mechanism is poorly understood since in situ measurements representing the thermal and mechanical evolution are difficult to perform. Instead, air temperature is commonly used as a predictor variable for days with high wet-snow avalanche danger – often with limited success. As melt water is a major driver of wet-snow instability and snow melt depends on the energy input into the snow cover, we computed the energy balance for predicting periods with high wet-snow avalanche activity. The energy balance was partly measured and partly modelled for virtual slopes at different elevations for the aspects south and north using the 1-D snow cover model SNOWPACK. We used measured meteorological variables and computed energy balance and its components to compare wet-snow avalanche days to non-avalanche days for four consecutive winter seasons in the surroundings of Davos, Switzerland. Air temperature, the net shortwave radiation and the energy input integrated over 3 or 5 days showed best results in discriminating event from non-event days. Multivariate statistics, however, revealed that for better predicting avalanche days, information on the cold content of the snowpack is necessary. Wet-snow avalanche activity was closely related to periods when large parts of the snowpack reached an isothermal state (0 °C and energy input exceeded a maximum value of 200 kJ m−2 in one day, or the 3-day sum of positive energy input was larger than 1.2 MJ m−2. Prediction accuracy with measured meteorological variables was as good as with computed energy balance parameters, but simulated energy balance variables accounted better for different aspects, slopes and elevations than meteorological data.

  9. On the importance of sublimation to an alpine snow mass balance in the Canadian Rocky Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. MacDonald

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A modelling study was undertaken to evaluate the contribution of sublimation to an alpine snow mass balance in the Canadian Rocky Mountains. Snow redistribution and sublimation by wind, snowpack sublimation and snowmelt were simulated for two winters over an alpine ridge transect located in the Canada Rocky Mountains. The resulting snowcover regimes were compared to those from manual snow surveys. Simulations were performed using physically based blowing snow (PBSM and snowpack ablation (SNOBAL models. A hydrological response unit (HRU-based spatial discretization was used rather than a more computationally expensive fully-distributed one. The HRUs were set up to follow an aerodynamic sequence, whereby eroded snow was transported from windswept, upwind HRUs to drift accumulating, downwind HRUs. That snow redistribution by wind can be adequately simulated in computationally efficient HRUs over this ridge has important implications for representing snow transport in large-scale hydrology models and land surface schemes. Alpine snow sublimation losses, in particular blowing snow sublimation losses, were significant. Snow mass losses to sublimation as a percentage of cumulative snowfall were estimated to be 20–32% with the blowing snow sublimation loss amounting to 17–19% of cumulative snowfall. This estimate is considered to be a conservative estimate of the blowing snow sublimation loss in the Canadian Rocky Mountains because the study transect is located in the low alpine zone where the topography is more moderate than the high alpine zone and windflow separation was not observed. An examination of the suitability of PBSM's sublimation estimates in this environment and of the importance of estimating blowing snow sublimation on the simulated snow accumulation regime was conducted by omitting sublimation calculations. Snow accumulation in HRUs was overestimated by 30% when neglecting blowing snow sublimation calculations.

  10. Variability of snow line elevation, snow cover area and depletion in the main Slovak basins in winters 2001–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krajčí Pavel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal variability of snow line (SL elevation, snow cover area (SCA and depletion (SCD in winters 2001–2014 is investigated in ten main Slovak river basins (the Western Carpathians. Daily satellite snow cover maps from MODIS Terra (MOD10A1, V005 and Aqua (MYD10A1, V005 with resolution 500 m are used.

  11. Spatiotemporal variability in surface energy balance across tundra, snow and ice in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Magnus; Stiegler, Christian; Abermann, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    The surface energy balance (SEB) is essential for understanding the coupled cryosphere–atmosphere system in the Arctic. In this study, we investigate the spatiotemporal variability in SEB across tundra, snow and ice. During the snow-free period, the main energy sink for ice sites is surface melt....... For tundra, energy is used for sensible and latent heat flux and soil heat flux leading to permafrost thaw. Longer snow-free period increases melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet and glaciers and may promote tundra permafrost thaw. During winter, clouds have a warming effect across surface types whereas during...

  12. Winter precipitation and snow accumulation drive the methane sink or source strength of Arctic tussock tundra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc-Betes, Elena; Welker, Jeffrey M; Sturchio, Neil C; Chanton, Jeffrey P; Gonzalez-Meler, Miquel A

    2016-08-01

    Arctic winter precipitation is projected to increase with global warming, but some areas will experience decreases in snow accumulation. Although Arctic CH4 emissions may represent a significant climate forcing feedback, long-term impacts of changes in snow accumulation on CH4 fluxes remain uncertain. We measured ecosystem CH4 fluxes and soil CH4 and CO2 concentrations and (13) C composition to investigate the metabolic pathways and transport mechanisms driving moist acidic tundra CH4 flux over the growing season (Jun-Aug) after 18 years of experimental snow depth increases and decreases. Deeper snow increased soil wetness and warming, reducing soil %O2 levels and increasing thaw depth. Soil moisture, through changes in soil %O2 saturation, determined predominance of methanotrophy or methanogenesis, with soil temperature regulating the ecosystem CH4 sink or source strength. Reduced snow (RS) increased the fraction of oxidized CH4 (Fox) by 75-120% compared to Ambient, switching the system from a small source to a net CH4 sink (21 ± 2 and -31 ± 1 mg CH4  m(-2)  season(-1) at Ambient and RS). Deeper snow reduced Fox by 35-40% and 90-100% in medium- (MS) and high- (HS) snow additions relative to Ambient, contributing to increasing the CH4 source strength of moist acidic tundra (464 ± 15 and 3561 ± 97 mg CH4  m(-2)  season(-1) at MS and HS). Decreases in Fox with deeper snow were partly due to increases in plant-mediated CH4 transport associated with the expansion of tall graminoids. Deeper snow enhanced CH4 production within newly thawed soils, responding mainly to soil warming rather than to increases in acetate fermentation expected from thaw-induced increases in SOC availability. Our results suggest that increased winter precipitation will increase the CH4 source strength of Arctic tundra, but the resulting positive feedback on climate change will depend on the balance between areas with more or less snow accumulation than they are currently

  13. Mass balance re-analysis of Findelengletscher, Switzerland; benefits of extensive snow accumulation measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo eSold

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A re-analysis is presented here of a 10-year mass balance series at Findelengletscher, a temperate mountain glacier in Switzerland. Calculating glacier-wide mass balance from the set of glaciological point balance observations using conventional approaches, such as the profile or contour method, resulted in significant deviations from the reference value given by the geodetic mass change over a five-year period. This is attributed to the sparsity of observations at high elevations and to the inability of the evaluation schemes to adequately estimate accumulation in unmeasured areas. However, measurements of winter mass balance were available for large parts of the study period from snow probings and density pits. Complementary surveys by helicopter-borne ground-penetrating radar (GPR were conducted in three consecutive years. The complete set of seasonal observations was assimilated using a distributed mass balance model. This model-based extrapolation revealed a substantial mass loss at Findelengletscher of -0.43m w.e. a^-1 between 2004 and 2014, while the loss was less pronounced for its former tributary, Adlergletscher (-0.30m w.e. a^-1. For both glaciers, the resulting time series were within the uncertainty bounds of the geodetic mass change. We show that the model benefited strongly from the ability to integrate seasonal observations. If no winter mass balance measurements were available and snow cover was represented by a linear precipitation gradient, the geodetic mass balance was not matched. If winter balance measurements by snow probings and snow density pits were taken into account, the model performance was substantially improved but still showed a significant bias relative to the geodetic mass change. Thus the excellent agreement of the model-based extrapolation with the geodetic mass change was owed to an adequate representation of winter accumulation distribution by means of extensive GPR measurements.

  14. Retrospective forecasts of the upcoming winter season snow accumulation in the Inn headwaters (European Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Kristian; Hanzer, Florian; Stoll, Elena; Scaife, Adam A.; MacLachlan, Craig; Schöber, Johannes; Huttenlau, Matthias; Achleitner, Stefan; Strasser, Ulrich

    2018-02-01

    This article presents analyses of retrospective seasonal forecasts of snow accumulation. Re-forecasts with 4 months' lead time from two coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (NCEP CFSv2 and MetOffice GloSea5) drive the Alpine Water balance and Runoff Estimation model (AWARE) in order to predict mid-winter snow accumulation in the Inn headwaters. As snowpack is hydrological storage that evolves during the winter season, it is strongly dependent on precipitation totals of the previous months. Climate model (CM) predictions of precipitation totals integrated from November to February (NDJF) compare reasonably well with observations. Even though predictions for precipitation may not be significantly more skilful than for temperature, the predictive skill achieved for precipitation is retained in subsequent water balance simulations when snow water equivalent (SWE) in February is considered. Given the AWARE simulations driven by observed meteorological fields as a benchmark for SWE analyses, the correlation achieved using GloSea5-AWARE SWE predictions is r = 0.57. The tendency of SWE anomalies (i.e. the sign of anomalies) is correctly predicted in 11 of 13 years. For CFSv2-AWARE, the corresponding values are r = 0.28 and 7 of 13 years. The results suggest that some seasonal prediction of hydrological model storage tendencies in parts of Europe is possible.

  15. Retrospective forecasts of the upcoming winter season snow accumulation in the Inn headwaters (European Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Förster

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents analyses of retrospective seasonal forecasts of snow accumulation. Re-forecasts with 4 months' lead time from two coupled atmosphere–ocean general circulation models (NCEP CFSv2 and MetOffice GloSea5 drive the Alpine Water balance and Runoff Estimation model (AWARE in order to predict mid-winter snow accumulation in the Inn headwaters. As snowpack is hydrological storage that evolves during the winter season, it is strongly dependent on precipitation totals of the previous months. Climate model (CM predictions of precipitation totals integrated from November to February (NDJF compare reasonably well with observations. Even though predictions for precipitation may not be significantly more skilful than for temperature, the predictive skill achieved for precipitation is retained in subsequent water balance simulations when snow water equivalent (SWE in February is considered. Given the AWARE simulations driven by observed meteorological fields as a benchmark for SWE analyses, the correlation achieved using GloSea5-AWARE SWE predictions is r  =  0.57. The tendency of SWE anomalies (i.e. the sign of anomalies is correctly predicted in 11 of 13 years. For CFSv2-AWARE, the corresponding values are r  =  0.28 and 7 of 13 years. The results suggest that some seasonal prediction of hydrological model storage tendencies in parts of Europe is possible.

  16. Quantifying the impacts of snow on surface energy balance through assimilating snow cover fraction and snow depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Chunlei

    2017-10-01

    Seasonal snow plays an important part in Earth's climate system. Snow cover regulates the land surface energy balance through altering the albedo of the land surface. To utilize the satellite-retrieved snow cover fraction (SCF) and snow depth (SD) data sufficiently and avoid inconsistency, this paper developed a very simple but robust quality control method to assimilate Fengyun satellite-retrieved SCF and SD simultaneously. The results show that the assimilation method which this paper implemented can not only utilize the satellite-retrieved SCF and SD data sufficiently but also avoid the inconsistency of them. Two experiments were designed and performed to quantify the impacts of snow on land surface energy balance using the integrated urban land model. With the increase of the SCF and SD, the net radiation decreased significantly during the day and increased a little at night; the sensible heat flux decreased significantly during the day; the evapotranspiration and ground heat flux decreased during the day too.

  17. Consequences of declining snow accumulation for water balance of mid-latitude dry regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Lauenroth, William K.; Bradford, John B.

    2012-01-01

    Widespread documentation of positive winter temperature anomalies, declining snowpack and earlier snow melt in the Northern Hemisphere have raised concerns about the consequences for regional water resources as well as wildfire. A topic that has not been addressed with respect to declining snowpack is effects on ecosystem water balance. Changes in water balance dynamics will be particularly pronounced at low elevations of mid-latitude dry regions because these areas will be the first to be affected by declining snow as a result of rising temperatures. As a model system, we used simulation experiments to investigate big sagebrush ecosystems that dominate a large fraction of the semiarid western United States. Our results suggest that effects on future ecosystem water balance will increase along a climatic gradient from dry, warm and snow-poor to wet, cold and snow-rich. Beyond a threshold within this climatic gradient, predicted consequences for vegetation switched from no change to increasing transpiration. Responses were sensitive to uncertainties in climatic prediction; particularly, a shift of precipitation to the colder season could reduce impacts of a warmer and snow-poorer future, depending on the degree to which ecosystem phenology tracks precipitation changes. Our results suggest that big sagebrush and other similar semiarid ecosystems could decrease in viability or disappear in dry to medium areas and likely increase only in the snow-richest areas, i.e. higher elevations and higher latitudes. Unlike cold locations at high elevations or in the arctic, ecosystems at low elevations respond in a different and complex way to future conditions because of opposing effects of increasing water-limitation and a longer snow-free season. Outcomes of such nonlinear interactions for future ecosystems will likely include changes in plant composition and productivity, dynamics of water balance, and availability of water resources.

  18. Spatiotemporal variability in surface energy balance across tundra, snow and ice in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Magnus; Stiegler, Christian; Abermann, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    The surface energy balance (SEB) is essential for understanding the coupled cryosphere–atmosphere system in the Arctic. In this study, we investigate the spatiotemporal variability in SEB across tundra, snow and ice. During the snow-free period, the main energy sink for ice sites is surface melt....... For tundra, energy is used for sensible and latent heat flux and soil heat flux leading to permafrost thaw. Longer snow-free period increases melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet and glaciers and may promote tundra permafrost thaw. During winter, clouds have a warming effect across surface types whereas during...... summer clouds have a cooling effect over tundra and a warming effect over ice, reflecting the spatial variation in albedo. The complex interactions between factors affecting SEB across surface types remain a challenge for understanding current and future conditions. Extended monitoring activities coupled...

  19. Evolution of snow and ice temperature, thickness and energy balance in Lake Orajärvi, northern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Cheng

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal evolution of snow and ice on Lake Orajärvi, northern Finland, was investigated for three consecutive winter seasons. Material consisting of numerical weather prediction model (HIRLAM output, weather station observations, manual snow and ice observations, high spatial resolution snow and ice temperatures from ice mass balance buoys (SIMB, and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS lake ice surface temperature observations was gathered. A snow/ice model (HIGHTSI was applied to simulate the evolution of the snow and ice surface energy balance, temperature profiles and thickness. The weather conditions in early winter were found critical in determining the seasonal evolution of the thickness of lake ice and snow. During the winter season (Nov.–Apr., precipitation, longwave radiative flux and air temperature showed large inter-annual variations. The uncertainty in snow/ice model simulations originating from precipitation was investigated. The contribution of snow to ice transformation was vital for the total lake ice thickness. At the seasonal time scale, the ice bottom growth was 50–70% of the total ice growth. The SIMB is suitable for monitoring snow and ice temperatures and thicknesses. The Mean Bias Error (MBE between the SIMB and borehole measurements was −0.7 cm for snow thicknesses and 1.7 cm for ice thickness. The temporal evolution of MODIS surface temperature (three seasons agrees well with SIMB and HIGHTSI results (correlation coefficient, R=0.81. The HIGHTSI surface temperatures were, however, higher (2.8°C≤MBE≤3.9°C than the MODIS observations. The development of HIRLAM by increasing its horizontal and vertical resolution and including a lake parameterisation scheme improved the atmospheric forcing for HIGHTSI, especially the relative humidity and solar radiation. Challenges remain in accurate simulation of snowfall events and total precipitation.

  20. The surface energy balance of a polygonal tundra site in northern Siberia – Part 2: Winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Boike

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present the winter time surface energy balance at a polygonal tundra site in northern Siberia based on independent measurements of the net radiation, the sensible heat flux and the ground heat flux from two winter seasons. The latent heat flux is inferred from measurements of the atmospheric turbulence characteristics and a model approach. The long-wave radiation is found to be the dominant factor in the surface energy balance. The radiative losses are balanced to about 60 % by the ground heat flux and almost 40 % by the sensible heat fluxes, whereas the contribution of the latent heat flux is small. The main controlling factors of the surface energy budget are the snow cover, the cloudiness and the soil temperature gradient. Large spatial differences in the surface energy balance are observed between tundra soils and a small pond. The ground heat flux released at a freezing pond is by a factor of two higher compared to the freezing soil, whereas large differences in net radiation between the pond and soil are only observed at the end of the winter period. Differences in the surface energy balance between the two winter seasons are found to be related to differences in snow depth and cloud cover which strongly affect the temperature evolution and the freeze-up at the investigated pond.

  1. Wind drifted snow influence on the water and mass balance in the mountainous catchment "Modry potok", the Giant Mountains, Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, I. J.; Fottova, D.; Tesar, M.; Kocianova, M.; Harcarik, J.

    2009-04-01

    There are very specific components of the water balance in the mountain headwater regions. Beside the point of cloud- and fog-water deposition it is mainly accumulation of water in the snow cover drifted into the watershed by the wind. Uneven distribution of the snow cover over the mountainous terrain is a well known phenomenon in all alpine and arctic areas. The result of this uneveness is a mosaic of microhabitats with various snow depths, different melting dates and snow free periods. Wire probes can be reliably used up to snow depths of 3 m only. To get more realistic data, two digital models using kinematic carrier phase-based GPS measurements were developed: (1) a model for snow surface data, applied at the end of winter seasons from 2000 to 2008, and (2) a model for the underlying snow free ground surface, applied after the snow melting in August 2000. These two models, overlaid in the GIS environment, have identified snow depths. For the creation of digital elevation models (DEMs), the TOPOGRID command in ArcInfo was used, which generated a grid of elevations from 3-D point, line, and polygon data. The snow depths were obtained and snow maps constructed accordingly. These "snow" results can be used for more realistic estimation of water content of snow in the watershed, distribution of snow depth during the winter seasons and define the water and mass balance more precisely. The objectives of this study were to highlight water storage in the snow-beds and show the GPS kinematic measurements as a contribution to understand more the snow accumulating and melting processes in the Modry potok catchment (2,62 km2, 1010 - 1554 m a.s.l.) in the Giant Mts. The research is supported by the Ministry of the Environment of the Czech Republic (SP/1a6/151/07) and by the Krkonose National Park Administration in Vrchlabi.

  2. Establishing Winter Origins of Migrating Lesser Snow Geese Using Stable Isotopes

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    Viviane Hénaux

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Increases in Snow Goose (Chen caerulescens populations and large-scale habitat changes in North America have contributed to the concentration of migratory waterfowl on fewer wetlands, reducing resource availability, and enhancing risks of disease transmission. Predicting wintering locations of migratory individuals is critical to guide wildlife population management and habitat restoration. We used stable carbon (δ13C, nitrogen (δ15N, and hydrogen (δ2H isotope ratios in muscle tissue of wintering Snow Geese to discriminate four major wintering areas, the Playa Lake Region, Texas Gulf Coast, Louisiana Gulf Coast, and Arkansas, and infer the wintering locations of individuals collected later during the 2007 and 2008 spring migrations in the Rainwater Basin (RWB of Nebraska. We predicted the wintering ground derivation of migrating Snow Geese using a likelihood-based approach. Our three-isotope analysis provided an efficient discrimination of the four wintering areas. The assignment model predicted that 53% [95% CI: 37-69] of our sample of Snow Geese from the RWB in 2007 had most likely originated in Louisiana, 38% [23-54] had wintered on Texas Gulf Coast, and 9% [0-20] in Arkansas; the assessment suggested that 89% [73-100] of our 2008 sample had most likely come from Texas Gulf Coast, 9% [0-27] from Louisiana Gulf Coast, and 2% [0-9] from Arkansas. Further segregation of wintering grounds and additional sampling of spring migrating Snow Geese would refine overall assignment and help explain interannual variations in migratory connectivity. The ability to distinguish origins of northbound geese can support the development of spatially-adaptive management strategies for the midcontinent Snow Goose population. Establishing migratory connectivity using isotope assignment techniques can be extended to other waterfowl species to determine critical habitat, evaluate population energy requirements, and inform waterfowl conservation and management

  3. Long-term variability in Northern Hemisphere snow cover and associations with warmer winters

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Gregory J.; Wolock, David M.

    2010-01-01

    A monthly snow accumulation and melt model is used with gridded monthly temperature and precipitation data for the Northern Hemisphere to generate time series of March snow-covered area (SCA) for the period 1905 through 2002. The time series of estimated SCA for March is verified by comparison with previously published time series of SCA for the Northern Hemisphere. The time series of estimated Northern Hemisphere March SCA shows a substantial decrease since about 1970, and this decrease corresponds to an increase in mean winter Northern Hemisphere temperature. The increase in winter temperature has caused a decrease in the fraction of precipitation that occurs as snow and an increase in snowmelt for some parts of the Northern Hemisphere, particularly the mid-latitudes, thus reducing snow packs and March SCA. In addition, the increase in winter temperature and the decreases in SCA appear to be associated with a contraction of the circumpolar vortex and a poleward movement of storm tracks, resulting in decreased precipitation (and snow) in the low- to mid-latitudes and an increase in precipitation (and snow) in high latitudes. If Northern Hemisphere winter temperatures continue to warm as they have since the 1970s, then March SCA will likely continue to decrease.

  4. Effects of sowing time on pink snow mould, leaf rust and winter damage in winter rye varieties in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SERENIUS

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Disease infection in relation to sowing time of winter rye (Secale cereale was studied in southern Finland in order to compare overwintering capacity of modern rye varieties and to give recommendations for rye cultivation. This was done by using three sowing times and four rye varieties in field trials conducted at three locations in 1999–2001. The early sown rye (beginning of August was severely affected by diseases caused by Puccinia recondita and Microdochium nivale, whereas postponing sowing for two weeks after the recommended sowing time resulted in considerably less infection. The infection levels of diseases differed among rye varieties. Finnish rye varieties Anna and Bor 7068 were more resistant to snow mould and more winter hardy than the Polish variety Amilo, or the German hybrid varieties Picasso and Esprit. However, Amilo was the most resistant to leaf rust. In the first year snow mould appeared to be the primary cause of winter damage, but in the second year the winter damage was positively correlated with leaf rust. No significant correlation between frit fly infestation and winter damage or disease incidence of snow mould or leaf rust was established. The late sowing of rye (in the beginning of September is recommended in Finland, particularly with hybrid varieties, to minimize the need for chemical plant protection in autumn.;

  5. Disentangling the mechanisms behind winter snow impact on vegetation activity in northern ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyi; Wang, Tao; Guo, Hui; Liu, Dan; Zhao, Yutong; Zhang, Taotao; Liu, Qiang; Piao, Shilong

    2018-04-01

    Although seasonal snow is recognized as an important component in the global climate system, the ability of snow to affect plant production remains an important unknown for assessing climate change impacts on vegetation dynamics at high-latitude ecosystems. Here, we compile data on satellite observation of vegetation greenness and spring onset date, satellite-based soil moisture, passive microwave snow water equivalent (SWE) and climate data to show that winter SWE can significantly influence vegetation greenness during the early growing season (the period between spring onset date and peak photosynthesis timing) over nearly one-fifth of the land surface in the region north of 30 degrees, but the magnitude and sign of correlation exhibits large spatial heterogeneity. We then apply an assembled path model to disentangle the two main processes (via changing early growing-season soil moisture, and via changing the growth period) in controlling the impact of winter SWE on vegetation greenness, and suggest that the "moisture" and "growth period" effect, to a larger extent, result in positive and negative snow-productivity associations, respectively. The magnitude and sign of snow-productivity association is then dependent upon the relative dominance of these two processes, with the "moisture" effect and positive association predominating in Central, western North America and Greater Himalaya, and the "growth period" effect and negative association in Central Europe. We also indicate that current state-of-the-art models in general reproduce satellite-based snow-productivity relationship in the region north of 30 degrees, and do a relatively better job of capturing the "moisture" effect than the "growth period" effect. Our results therefore work towards an improved understanding of winter snow impact on vegetation greenness in northern ecosystems, and provide a mechanistic basis for more realistic terrestrial carbon cycle models that consider the impacts of winter snow

  6. Winter fidelity and apparent survival of lesser snow goose populations in the Pacific flyway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C.K.; Samuel, M.D.; Baranyuk, Vasily V.; Cooch, E.G.; Kraege, Donald K.

    2008-01-01

    The Beringia region of the Arctic contains 2 colonies of lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) breeding on Wrangel Island, Russia, and Banks Island, Canada, and wintering in North America. The Wrangel Island population is composed of 2 subpopulations from a sympatric breeding colony but separate wintering areas, whereas the Banks Island population shares a sympatric wintering area in California, USA, with one of the Wrangel Island subpopulations. The Wrangel Island colony represents the last major snow goose population in Russia and has fluctuated considerably since 1970, whereas the Banks Island population has more than doubled. The reasons for these changes are unclear, but hypotheses include independent population demographics (survival and recruitment) and immigration and emigration among breeding or wintering populations. These demographic and movement patterns have important ecological and management implications for understanding goose population structure, harvest of admixed populations, and gene flow among populations with separate breeding or wintering areas. From 1993 to 1996, we neckbanded molting birds at their breeding colonies and resighted birds on the wintering grounds. We used multistate mark-recapture models to evaluate apparent survival rates, resighting rates, winter fidelity, and potential exchange among these populations. We also compared the utility of face stain in Wrangel Island breeding geese as a predictor of their wintering area. Our results showed similar apparent survival rates between subpopulations of Wrangel Island snow geese and lower apparent survival, but higher emigration, for the Banks Island birds. Males had lower apparent survival than females, most likely due to differences in neckband loss. Transition between wintering areas was low (<3%), with equal movement between northern and southern wintering areas for Wrangel Island birds and little evidence of exchange between the Banks and northern Wrangel Island

  7. Frost flower chemical signature in winter snow on Vestfonna ice cap, Nordaustlandet, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Beaudon

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The chemistry of snow and ice cores from Svalbard is influenced by variations in local sea ice margin and distance to open water. Snow pits sampled at two summits of Vestfonna ice cap (Nordaustlandet, Svalbard, exhibit spatially heterogeneous soluble ions concentrations despite similar accumulation rates, reflecting the importance of small-scale weather patterns on this island ice cap. The snow pack on the western summit shows higher average values of marine ions and a winter snow layer that is relatively depleted in sulphate. One part of the winter snow pack exhibits a [SO42-/Na+] ratio reduced by two thirds compared with its ratio in sea water. This low sulphate content in winter snow is interpreted as the signature of frost flowers, which are formed on young sea ice when offshore winds predominate. Frost flowers have been described as the dominant source of sea salt to aerosol and precipitation in ice cores in coastal Antarctica but this is the first time their chemical signal has been described in the Arctic. The eastern summit does not show any frost flower signature and we interpret the unusually dynamic ice transport and rapid formation of thin ice on the Hinlopen Strait as the source of the frost flowers.

  8. Snow line analysis in the Romanian Carpathians under the influence of winter warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micu, Dana; Cosmin Sandric, Ionut

    2013-04-01

    The Romanian Carpathians are subject to winter warming as statistically proved by station measurements over a 47 year period (1961-2007). Herein, the snow season is considered to last from the 1st of November to the 30th of April, when snowpack usually reaches the highest stability and thickness. This paper investigates the signals of winter temperature and precipitation change at 17 mountain station located above 1,000 m, as being considered the main triggering factors of large fluctuations in snow amount and duration in these mountains. Fewer snowfalls were recorded all over the Romanian Carpathians after the mid 80s and over large mountain areas (including the alpine ones) the frequency of positive temperature extremes became higher (e.g. winter heat waves). Late Fall snowfalls and snowpack onsets (mainly in mid elevation areas, located below 1,700 m) and particularly the shifts towards early Spring snowmelts (at all the sites) were statistically proved to explain the decline of snow cover duration across the Carpathians. However, the sensitivity of snow cover duration to recent winter warming is still blurred in the high elevation areas (above 2,000 m). The trends in winter climate variability observed in the Romanian Carpathians beyond 1,000 m altitude are fairly comparable to those estimated in other European mountain ranges from observational data (e.g. the Swiss Alps, the French Alps and the Tatra Mts.). In relation to the climate change signals derived from observational data provided by low density mountain meteorological network (of about 3.3 stations per km2 in the areas above 1,000 m), the paper analysis the spatial probability and evolution trends of snow line in each winter season across the Romanian Carpathians, based on Landsat satellite data (MSS, TM and ETM+), with sufficiently high spatial (30 to 60 m) and temporal resolutions (850 images), over the 1973-2011 period. The Landsat coverage was considered suitable enough to enable an objective

  9. Winter fidelity and apparent survival of lesser snow goose populations in the Pacific flyway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C.K.; Samuel, M.D.; Baranyuk, Vasily V.; Cooch, E.G.; Kraege, Donald K.

    2008-01-01

    The Beringia region of the Arctic contains 2 colonies of lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) breeding on Wrangel Island, Russia, and Banks Island, Canada, and wintering in North America. The Wrangel Island population is composed of 2 subpopulations from a sympatric breeding colony but separate wintering areas, whereas the Banks Island population shares a sympatric wintering area in California, USA, with one of the Wrangel Island subpopulations. The Wrangel Island colony represents the last major snow goose population in Russia and has fluctuated considerably since 1970, whereas the Banks Island population has more than doubled. The reasons for these changes are unclear, but hypotheses include independent population demographics (survival and recruitment) and immigration and emigration among breeding or wintering populations. These demographic and movement patterns have important ecological and management implications for understanding goose population structure, harvest of admixed populations, and gene flow among populations with separate breeding or wintering areas. From 1993 to 1996, we neckbanded molting birds at their breeding colonies and resighted birds on the wintering grounds. We used multistate mark-recapture models to evaluate apparent survival rates, resighting rates, winter fidelity, and potential exchange among these populations. We also compared the utility of face stain in Wrangel Island breeding geese as a predictor of their wintering area. Our results showed similar apparent survival rates between subpopulations of Wrangel Island snow geese and lower apparent survival, but higher emigration, for the Banks Island birds. Males had lower apparent survival than females, most likely due to differences in neckband loss. Transition between wintering areas was low (exchange between the Banks and northern Wrangel Island populations. Face staining was an unreliable indicator of wintering area. Our findings suggest that northern and southern

  10. How autumn Eurasian snow anomalies affect east asian winter monsoon: a numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiao; Wang, Bin

    2018-03-01

    Previous studies have found that snow Eurasian anomalies in autumn can affect East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM), but the mechanisms remain controversial and not well understood. The possible mechanisms by which Eurasian autumn snow anomalies affect EAWM are investigated by numerical experiments with a coupled general circulation model and its atmospheric general circulation model component. The leading empirical orthogonal function mode of the October-November mean Eurasian snow cover is characterized by a uniform anomaly over a broad region of central Eurasia (40°N-65°N, 60°E-140°E). However, the results from a 150-ensemble mean simulation with snow depth anomaly specified in October and November reveal that the Mongolian Plateau and Vicinity (MPV, 40°-55°N, 80°-120°E) is the key region for autumn snow anomalies to affect EAWM. The excessive snow forcing can significantly enhance EAWM and the snowfall over the northwestern China and along the EAWM front zone stretching from the southeast China to Japan. The physical process involves a snow-monsoon feedback mechanism. The excessive autumn snow anomalies over the MPV region can persist into the following winter, and significantly enhance winter snow anomalies, which increase surface albedo, reduce incoming solar radiation and cool the boundary layer air, leading to an enhanced Mongolian High and a deepened East Asian trough. The latter, in turn, strengthen surface northwesterly winds, cooling East Asia and increasing snow accumulation over the MPV region and the southeastern China. The increased snow covers feedback to EAWM system through changing albedo, extending its influence southeastward. It is also found that the atmosphere-ocean coupling process can amplify the delayed influence of Eurasian snow mass anomaly on EAWM. The autumn surface albedo anomalies, however, do not have a lasting "memory" effect. Only if the albedo anomalies are artificially extended into December and January, will the EAWM be

  11. Snow Based Winter Tourism and Kinds of Adaptations to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiling, M.

    2009-04-01

    Austria is the most intensive winter tourism country in the world with some 4% contribution in the national GNP. Snow based winter tourism became the lead economy of mountain areas, covering two thirds of the country and is by far economically more important than agriculture and forestry. While natural snow was the precondition for the establishment of winter tourism, artificial snow is nowadays the precondition to maintain winter tourism in the current economic intensity. Skiing originally low tech, is developing increasingly into high tech. While skiing was comparatively cheap in previous days due to natural snow, skiing is getting more expensive and exclusive for a higher income class due to the relative high production costs. Measures to adapt to a warmer climate can be divided into three principle types: physical adaptation, technical adaptation - where artificial snow production plays a major role - and social adaptation. It will be discussed under which conditions each adaptation type seems feasible in dependence of the level of warming. In particular physical and technical adaptations are related to major investments. Practically every ski resort has to decide about what is an appropriate, economically cost efficient level of adaptation. Adapting too much reduces profits. Adapting too little does not bring enough income. The optimal level is often not clear. In many cases public subsidies help to collect funds for adaptation and to keep skiing profitable. The possibility to adapt on local, regional or on national scales will depend on the degree of warming, the future price of artificial snow production and the public means foreseen to support the winter tourism industry.

  12. Assessing the controls of the snow energy balance and water available for runoff in a rain-an-snow environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam B. Mazurkiewicz; David G. Callery; Jeffrey J. McDonnell

    2008-01-01

    Rain-on-snow (ROS) melt production and its contribution to water available for runoff is poorly understood. In the Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the USA, ROS drives many runoff events with turbulent energy exchanges dominating the snow energy balance (EB). While previous experimental work in the PNW (most notably the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest (HJA» has quantified...

  13. Effects of Planting of Calluna Vulgaris for Stable Snow Accumulation in Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibuki, R.; Harada, K.

    2017-12-01

    Recent year climate of the winter season is changing and the period of snow accumulation is reduced compared with before. It affects the management of the ski resort. Snowfall had occurred in December 2016, but the snow accumulated after January 2017 at the ski resort located in the Pacific Ocean side of the Northeast region of Japan. This situation is thought to be originated from two reasons, one is snow thawing, another is to be blown away by the strong monsoon wind. We are considering utilizing planting to stabilize snow accumulation. Currently building rock gardens with shrubs, mainly Calluna Vulgaris in the ski resort for attracting customers in the summer. These are difficult to raise in the lowlands of Japan because they are too hot, but because of their good growth in relatively low-temperature highlands, it is rare for local residents to appreciate the value of these. In addition, it is excellent in low temperature resistance, and it will not die even under the snow. We investigated the pressure resistance performance due to snowfall and the appropriateness of growth under the weather conditions of the area. Regarding Calluna Vulgaris, Firefly, the plants were not damaged even under snow more than 1 m. In addition, three years have passed since planting, relatively good growth is shown, and the stock has been growing every year. Based on these results, we plan to stabilize the snow accumulation by carrying out planting of Calluna vulgaris inside the slope. The growth of the Calluna species is gentle and the tree height grows only about 50 cm even if 15 years have passed since planting. Therefore, it is considered that the plant body is hard to put out their head on the snow surface during the ski season. Next season will monitor the snow accumulation around the planting area through the snow season.

  14. Relating C-band Microwave and Optical Satellite Observations as A Function of Snow Thickness on First-Year Sea Ice during the Winter to Summer Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, J.; Yackel, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic sea ice and its snow cover have a direct impact on both the Arctic and global climate system through their ability to moderate heat exchange across the ocean-sea ice-atmosphere (OSA) interface. Snow cover plays a key role in the OSA interface radiation and energy exchange, as it controls the growth and decay of first-year sea ice (FYI). However, meteoric accumulation and redistribution of snow on FYI is highly stochastic over space and time, which makes it poorly understood. Previous studies have estimated local-scale snow thickness distributions using in-situ technique and modelling but it is spatially limited and challenging due to logistic difficulties. Moreover, snow albedo is also critical for determining the surface energy balance of the OSA during the critical summer ablation season. Even then, due to persistent and widespread cloud cover in the Arctic at various spatio-temporal scales, it is difficult and unreliable to remotely measure albedo of snow cover on FYI in the optical spectrum. Previous studies demonstrate that only large-scale sea ice albedo was successfully estimated using optical-satellite sensors. However, space-borne microwave sensors, with their capability of all-weather and 24-hour imaging, can provide enhanced information about snow cover on FYI. Daily spaceborne C-band scatterometer data (ASCAT) and MODIS data are used to investigate the the seasonal co-evolution of the microwave backscatter coefficient and optical albedo as a function of snow thickness on smooth FYI. The research focuses on snow-covered FYI near Cambridge Bay, Nunavut (Fig.1) during the winter to advanced-melt period (April-June, 2014). The ACSAT time series (Fig.2) show distinct increase in scattering at melt onset indicating the first occurrence of melt water in the snow cover. The corresponding albedo exhibits no decrease at this stage. We show how the standard deviation of ASCAT backscatter on FYI during winter can be used as a proxy for surface roughness

  15. Slip resistance of winter footwear on snow and ice measured using maximum achievable incline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jennifer; Shaw, Robert; Novak, Alison; Li, Yue; Ormerod, Marcus; Newton, Rita; Dutta, Tilak; Fernie, Geoff

    2016-05-01

    Protective footwear is necessary for preventing injurious slips and falls in winter conditions. Valid methods for assessing footwear slip resistance on winter surfaces are needed in order to evaluate footwear and outsole designs. The purpose of this study was to utilise a method of testing winter footwear that was ecologically valid in terms of involving actual human testers walking on realistic winter surfaces to produce objective measures of slip resistance. During the experiment, eight participants tested six styles of footwear on wet ice, on dry ice, and on dry ice after walking over soft snow. Slip resistance was measured by determining the maximum incline angles participants were able to walk up and down in each footwear-surface combination. The results indicated that testing on a variety of surfaces is necessary for establishing winter footwear performance and that standard mechanical bench tests for footwear slip resistance do not adequately reflect actual performance. Practitioner Summary: Existing standardised methods for measuring footwear slip resistance lack validation on winter surfaces. By determining the maximum inclines participants could walk up and down slopes of wet ice, dry ice, and ice with snow, in a range of footwear, an ecologically valid test for measuring winter footwear performance was established.

  16. Snow cover and extreme winter warming events control flower abundance of some, but not all species in high arctic Svalbard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semenchuk, Philipp R.; Elberling, Bo; Cooper, Elisabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    frequent extreme winter warming events. Flower production of many Arctic plants is dependent on melt out timing, since season length determines resource availability for flower preformation. We erected snow fences to increase snow depth and shorten growing season, and counted flowers of six species over 5......years, during which we experienced two extreme winter warming events. Most species were resistant to snow cover increase, but two species reduced flower abundance due to shortened growing seasons. Cassiope tetragona responded strongly with fewer flowers in deep snow regimes during years without extreme...... events, while Stellaria crassipes responded partly. Snow pack thickness determined whether winter warming events had an effect on flower abundance of some species. Warming events clearly reduced flower abundance in shallow but not in deep snow regimes of Cassiope tetragona, but only marginally for Dryas...

  17. Winter climate extremes and their role for priming SOM decomposition under the snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavazov, Konstantin; Bahn, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The central research question of this project is how soil respiration and soil microbial community composition and activity of subalpine grasslands are affected by extreme winter climate events, such as mid-winter snowmelt and subsequent advanced growing season date. In the scope of this talk, focus will be laid on the assumptions that (1) reduced snow cover leads to intensive freeze-thaw cycles in the soil with larger amplitudes of microbial biomass, DOC and soil CO2 production and efflux over the course of winter, and shifts peak microbial activity to deeper soil layers with limited and recalcitrant substrate; (2) causes a shift in microbial community composition towards decreased fungal/bacterial ratios; and (3) results in a stronger incorporation of labile C in microbial biomass and more pronounced priming effects of soil organic matter turnover. Our findings indicate that snow removal, induces a strong and immediate negative effect on the physiology of soil microbes, impairing them in their capacity for turnover of SOM in the presence of labile substances (priming). This effect however is transient and soil microbes recover within the same winter. The reason for that is that snow removal did not produce any measurable (PLFA) changes in soil microbial community composition. The advanced start of the growing season, as a result of snow removal in mid-winter, granted the bacterial part of the microbial community more active in the uptake of labile substrates and the turnover of SOM than the fungal one. This finding is in line with the concept for a seasonal shift towards bacterial-dominated summer microbial community composition and could bring about implications for the plant-microbe competition for resources at the onset of the growing season.

  18. Winter stream temperature in the rain-on-snow zone of the Pacific Northwest: influences of hillslope runoff and transient snow cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Leach

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Stream temperature dynamics during winter are less well studied than summer thermal regimes, but the winter season thermal regime can be critical for fish growth and development in coastal catchments. The winter thermal regimes of Pacific Northwest headwater streams, which provide vital winter habitat for salmonids and their food sources, may be particularly sensitive to changes in climate because they can remain ice-free throughout the year and are often located in rain-on-snow zones. This study examined winter stream temperature patterns and controls in small headwater catchments within the rain-on-snow zone at the Malcolm Knapp Research Forest, near Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Two hypotheses were addressed by this study: (1 winter stream temperatures are primarily controlled by advective fluxes associated with runoff processes and (2 stream temperatures should be depressed during rain-on-snow events, compared to rain-on-bare-ground events, due to the cooling effect of rain passing through the snowpack prior to infiltrating the soil or being delivered to the stream as saturation-excess overland flow. A reach-scale energy budget analysis of two winter seasons revealed that the advective energy input associated with hillslope runoff overwhelms vertical energy exchanges (net radiation, sensible and latent heat fluxes, bed heat conduction, and stream friction and hyporheic energy fluxes during rain and rain-on-snow events. Historical stream temperature data and modelled snowpack dynamics were used to explore the influence of transient snow cover on stream temperature over 13 winters. When snow was not present, daily stream temperature during winter rain events tended to increase with increasing air temperature. However, when snow was present, stream temperature was capped at about 5 °C, regardless of air temperature. The stream energy budget modelling and historical analysis support both of our hypotheses. A key implication is that

  19. The changing impact of snow conditions and refreezing on the mass balance of an idealized Svalbard glacier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Van Pelt

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Glacier surface melt and runoff depend strongly on seasonal and perennial snow (firn conditions. Not only does the presence of snow and firn directly affect melt rates by reflecting solar radiation, it may also act as a buffer against mass loss by storing melt water in refrozen or liquid form. In Svalbard, ongoing and projected amplified climate change with respect to the global mean change has severe implications for the state of snow and firn and its impact on glacier mass loss. Model experiments with a coupled surface energy balance - firn model were done to investigate the surface mass balance and the changing role of snow and firn conditions for an idealized Svalbard glacier. A climate forcing for the past, present and future (1984-2104 is constructed, based on observational data from Svalbard Airport and a seasonally dependent projection scenario. Results illustrate ongoing and future firn degradation in response to an elevational retreat of the equilibrium line altitude (ELA of 31 m decade−1. The temperate firn zone is found to retreat and expand, while cold ice in the ablation zone warms considerably. In response to pronounced winter warming and an associated increase in winter rainfall, the current prevalence of refreezing during the melt season gradually shifts to the winter season in a future climate. Sensitivity tests reveal that in a present and future climate the density and thermodynamic structure of Svalbard glaciers are heavily influenced by refreezing. Refreezing acts as a net buffer against mass loss. However, the net mass balance change after refreezing is substantially smaller than the amount of refreezing itself, which can be ascribed to melt-enhancing effects after refreezing, which partly offset the primary mass-retaining effect of refreezing.

  20. Changes of snow cover, temperature, and radiative heat balance over the Northern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groisman, Pavel YA.; Karl, Thomas R.; Knight, Richard W.; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.

    1994-01-01

    Contemporary large-scale changes in satellite-derived snow cover were examined over the Northern Hemisphere extratropical land (NEL) areas. These areas encompass 55% of the land in the Northern Hemisphere. Snow cover (S) transient regions, the 'centers of action' relative to interannual variations of snow cover, were identified for the years 1972-1992. During these years a global retreat in snow cover extent (SE) occurred in the second half of the hydrologic year (April-September). Mean annual SE has decreased by 10% (2.3 x 10(exp 6) sq km). Negative trends account for one-third to one-half of the interannual continental variance of SE. The historical influence of S on the planetary albedo and outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) is investigated. The mean annual response of the S feedback on the radiative balance (RB) is negative and suggests a largescale heat redistribution. During autumn and early winter (up to January), however, the feedback of S on the planetary RB may be positive. Only by February does the cooling effect of S (due to albedo increase) dominate the planetary warming due to reduced OLR over the S. Despite a wintertime maximum in SE, the feedback in spring has the greatest magnitude. The global retreat of spring SE should lead to a positive feedback on temperature. Based on observed records of S, changes in RB are calculated that parallel an observed increase of spring temperature during the past 20 years. The results provide a partial explanation of the significant increase in spring surface air temperature observed over the land areas of the Northern Hemisphere during the past century. The mean SE in years with an El Nino and La Nina were also evaluated. El Nino events are generally accompanied by increased SE over the NEL during the first half of the hydrological year. In the second half of the hydrologic year (spring and summer), the El Nino events are accompanied by a global retreat of SE.

  1. A technigue exploitation about anti-slide tire polyploid on ice-snow road in winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaojie, Qi; Qiang, Wang; Zhao, Yang; Yunlong, Wang; Guotian, Wang; Degang, Lv

    2017-04-01

    Present studies focus on improving anti-slide property of tyes on ice-snow road by changing material modification of tyre tread and designing groove. However, the basic reason causing starting slide, long braking distance, turning slide slip and so on of tyres used in winter is that tyre tread materials are unitary and homogenous rubber composite which can’t coordinate driving demands of tyres in winter under muti-work condition, and can’t exert their best property when starting, braking and sliding slip. In order to improve comprehensive anti-slide property of tyres, this paper discusses about changing structure, shape and distribution proportion among haploid materials of tyre tread rubber. Polyploid bubber tyre tread technique based on artificial neural network which is in favor of starting, braking and anti-slide slip is optimized and combined. Friction feature and anti-slide mechanism on ice-snow road of polyploid rubber tyre tread are studied using testing technique of low-temperature cabin and computer simulation. A set high anti-slide theories and realizing method systems of polyploid rubber composite formed from basic theory, models and technique method are developped which will be applied into solving anti-slide problem of winter tyres, provide theory instruction for studies on high anti-slide winter tyres, and promote development of application and usage safety of winter tyres.

  2. Optimizing winter/snow removal operations in MoDOT St. Louis district : includes outcome based evaluation of operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this project was to develop fleet location, route decision, material selection, and treatment procedures for winter snow removal operations to improve MoDOTs services and lower costs. This work uses a systematic, heuristic-based o...

  3. Influence of snow cover changes on surface radiation and heat balance based on the WRF model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lingxue; Liu, Tingxiang; Bu, Kun; Yang, Jiuchun; Chang, Liping; Zhang, Shuwen

    2017-10-01

    The snow cover extent in mid-high latitude areas of the Northern Hemisphere has significantly declined corresponding to the global warming, especially since the 1970s. Snow-climate feedbacks play a critical role in regulating the global radiation balance and influencing surface heat flux exchange. However, the degree to which snow cover changes affect the radiation budget and energy balance on a regional scale and the difference between snow-climate and land use/cover change (LUCC)-climate feedbacks have been rarely studied. In this paper, we selected Heilongjiang Basin, where the snow cover has changed obviously, as our study area and used the WRF model to simulate the influences of snow cover changes on the surface radiation budget and heat balance. In the scenario simulation, the localized surface parameter data improved the accuracy by 10 % compared with the control group. The spatial and temporal analysis of the surface variables showed that the net surface radiation, sensible heat flux, Bowen ratio, temperature and percentage of snow cover were negatively correlated and that the ground heat flux and latent heat flux were positively correlated with the percentage of snow cover. The spatial analysis also showed that a significant relationship existed between the surface variables and land cover types, which was not obviously as that for snow cover changes. Finally, six typical study areas were selected to quantitatively analyse the influence of land cover types beneath the snow cover on heat absorption and transfer, which showed that when the land was snow covered, the conversion of forest to farmland can dramatically influence the net radiation and other surface variables, whereas the snow-free land showed significantly reduced influence. Furthermore, compared with typical land cover changes, e.g., the conversion of forest into farmland, the influence of snow cover changes on net radiation and sensible heat flux were 60 % higher than that of land cover changes

  4. Biogeochemical Impact of Snow Cover and Cyclonic Intrusions on the Winter Weddell Sea Ice Pack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tison, J.-L.; Schwegmann, S.; Dieckmann, G.; Rintala, J.-M.; Meyer, H.; Moreau, S.; Vancoppenolle, M.; Nomura, D.; Engberg, S.; Blomster, L. J.; Hendrickx, S.; Uhlig, C.; Luhtanen, A.-M.; de Jong, J.; Janssens, J.; Carnat, G.; Zhou, J.; Delille, B.

    2017-12-01

    Sea ice is a dynamic biogeochemical reactor and a double interface actively interacting with both the atmosphere and the ocean. However, proper understanding of its annual impact on exchanges, and therefore potentially on the climate, notably suffer from the paucity of autumnal and winter data sets. Here we present the results of physical and biogeochemical investigations on winter Antarctic pack ice in the Weddell Sea (R. V. Polarstern AWECS cruise, June-August 2013) which are compared with those from two similar studies conducted in the area in 1986 and 1992. The winter 2013 was characterized by a warm sea ice cover due to the combined effects of deep snow and frequent warm cyclones events penetrating southward from the open Southern Ocean. These conditions were favorable to high ice permeability and cyclic events of brine movements within the sea ice cover (brine tubes), favoring relatively high chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentrations. We discuss the timing of this algal activity showing that arguments can be presented in favor of continued activity during the winter due to the specific physical conditions. Large-scale sea ice model simulations also suggest a context of increasingly deep snow, warm ice, and large brine fractions across the three observational years, despite the fact that the model is forced with a snowfall climatology. This lends support to the claim that more severe Antarctic sea ice conditions, characterized by a longer ice season, thicker, and more concentrated ice are sufficient to increase the snow depth and, somehow counterintuitively, to warm the ice.

  5. Winter mass balance of Drangajökull ice cap (NW Iceland derived from satellite sub-meter stereo images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. C. Belart

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sub-meter resolution, stereoscopic satellite images allow for the generation of accurate and high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs over glaciers and ice caps. Here, repeated stereo images of Drangajökull ice cap (NW Iceland from Pléiades and WorldView2 (WV2 are combined with in situ estimates of snow density and densification of firn and fresh snow to provide the first estimates of the glacier-wide geodetic winter mass balance obtained from satellite imagery. Statistics in snow- and ice-free areas reveal similar vertical relative accuracy ( <  0.5 m with and without ground control points (GCPs, demonstrating the capability for measuring seasonal snow accumulation. The calculated winter (14 October 2014 to 22 May 2015 mass balance of Drangajökull was 3.33 ± 0.23 m w.e. (meter water equivalent, with ∼ 60 % of the accumulation occurring by February, which is in good agreement with nearby ground observations. On average, the repeated DEMs yield 22 % less elevation change than the length of eight winter snow cores due to (1 the time difference between in situ and satellite observations, (2 firn densification and (3 elevation changes due to ice dynamics. The contributions of these three factors were of similar magnitude. This study demonstrates that seasonal geodetic mass balance can, in many areas, be estimated from sub-meter resolution satellite stereo images.

  6. IOD influence on the early winter tibetan plateau snow cover: diagnostic analyses and an AGCM simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Chaoxia; Tozuka, Tomoki; Yamagata, Toshio [The University of Tokyo, Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Graduate School of Science, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-10-15

    Using diagnostic analyses and an AGCM simulation, the detailed mechanism of Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) influence on the early winter Tibetan Plateau snow cover (EWTPSC) is clarified. In early winter of pure positive IOD years with no co-occurrence of El Nino, the anomalous dipole diabatic heating over the tropical Indian Ocean excites the baroclinic response in the tropics. Since both baroclinic and barotropic components of the basic zonal wind over the Arabian Peninsula increase dramatically in early winter due to the equatorward retreat of the westerly jet, the baroclinic mode excites the barotropic Rossby wave that propagates northeastward and induces a barotropic cyclonic anomaly north of India. This enables the moisture transport cyclonically from the northern Indian Ocean toward the Tibetan Plateau. The convergence of moisture over the plateau explains the positive influence of IOD on the EWTPSC. In contrast, the basic zonal wind over the Arabian Peninsula is weak in autumn. This is not favorable for excitation of the barotropic Rossby wave and teleconnection, even though the IOD-related diabatic heating anomaly in autumn similar to that in early winter exists. This result explains the insignificant (significant positive) partial correlation between IOD and the autumn (early winter) Tibetan Plateau snow cover after excluding the influence of ENSO. The sensitivity experiment forced by the IOD-related SST anomaly within the tropical Indian Ocean well reproduces the baroclinic response in the tropics, the teleconnection from the Arabian Peninsula, and the increased moisture supply to the Tibetan Plateau. Also, the seasonality of the atmospheric response to the IOD is simulated. (orig.)

  7. Lessons learned from the snow emergency management of winter season 2008-2009 in Piemonte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovo, Dr.; Pelosini, Dr.; Cordola, Dr.

    2009-09-01

    The winter season 2008-2009 has been characterized by heavy snowfalls over the whole Piemonte, in the Western Alps region. The snowfalls have been exceptional because of their earliness, persistence and intensity. The impact on the regional environment and territory has been relevant, also from the economical point of view, as well as the effort of the people involved in the forecasting, prevention and fighting actions. The environmental induced effects have been shown until late spring. The main critical situations have been arisen from the snowfalls earliness in season, the several snow precipitation events over the plains, the big amount of snow accumulation on the ground, as well as the anomaly with respect to the last 30 years climatic trend of snow conditions in Piemonte. The damage costs to the public property caused by the snowfalls have been estimated by the Regione Piemonte to be 470 million euros, giving evidence of the real emergency dimension of the event, never occurred during the last 20 years. The technical support from the Regional Agency for Environmental Protection of Regione Piemonte (Arpa Piemonte) to the emergency management allowed to analyse and highlight the direct and induced effects of the heavy snowfalls, outlining risk scenarios characterized by different space and time scales. The risk scenarios deployment provided a prompt recommendation list, both for the emergency management and for the natural phenomena evolution surveillance planning to assure the people and property safety. The risk scenarios related to the snow emergency are different according to the geographical and anthropic territory aspects. In the mountains, several natural avalanche releases, characterized frequently by a large size, may affect villages, but they may also interrupt the main and secondary roads both down in the valleys and small villages road access, requiring a long time for the complete and safe snow removal and road re-opening. The avalanches often

  8. Snow cover dynamics and water balance in complex high alpine terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warscher, Michael; Kraller, Gabriele; Kunstmann, Harald; Strasser, Ulrich; Franz, Helmut

    2010-05-01

    The water balance in high alpine regions in its full complexity is so far insufficiently understood. High altitudinal gradients, a strong variability of meteorological variables in time and space, complex hydrogeological situations, unquantified lateral snow transport processes and heterogenous snow cover dynamics result in high uncertainties in the quantification of the water balance. To achieve interpretable modeling results we have complemented the deterministic hydrological model WaSiM-ETH with the high-alpine specific snow model AMUNDSEN. The integration of the new snow module was done to improve the modeling of water fluxes influenced by the dynamics of the snow cover, which greatly affect the water cycle in high alpine regions. To enhance the reproduction of snow deposition and ablation processes, the new approach calculates the energy balance of the snow cover considering the terrain-dependent radiation fluxes, the interaction between tree canopy and snow cover as well as lateral snow transport processes. The test site for our study is the Berchtesgaden National Park which is characterized by an extreme topography with mountain ranges covering an altitude from 607 to 2713 m.a.s.l. About one quarter of the investigated catchment area, which comprises 433 km² in total, is terrain steeper than 35°. Due to water soluble limestone being predominant in the region, a high number of subsurface water pathways (karst) exist. The results of several tracer experiments and extensive data of spring observations provide additional information to meet the challenge of modeling the unknown subsurface pathways and the complex groundwater system of the region. The validation of the new snow module is based on a dense network of meteorological stations which have been adapted to measure physical properties of the snow cover like snow water equivalent and liquid water content. We will present first results which show that the integration of the new snow module generates a

  9. Thermal balance of cattle grazing winter range: model application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren, E N; Olson, B E

    2006-05-01

    Beef cattle grazing semiarid foothill rangeland of the Northern Rockies during winter may be exposed to cold temperatures and high winds while grazing pastures with low nutritional value. Cattle can physiologically and behaviorally respond to the changing environment to lower their metabolic requirements and reduce the effects of cold exposure. Requirements of grazing cattle may be overpredicted with models developed in controlled settings that do not account for energy-conserving behaviors. We refined a simple thermal balance equation to model heat exchange of free-ranging cattle. We accounted for the complex interactions between animal behavior and the changing natural environment by applying the insulation characteristics of the cattle's tissue and coat to a simple geometric shape of an asymmetric ellipsoid at different orientations to the sun and wind. We compared the model predictions with heat production measured in 3 studies, and in all cases the model predictions were similar to those reported. Model simulations indicate behaviors, such as lying and orientation to the sun, mitigated the effects of extreme weather. For many combinations of winter weather variables, metabolic requirements increased only slightly due to cold exposure of mature beef cattle in a near-maintenance state. The results indicate that solar radiation contributes strongly to the thermal balance of a cow. Thus, previous models that do not account for the irradiative environment may overestimate metabolic requirements of cattle acclimated to grazing winter range.

  10. Impact of errors in the downwelling irradiances on simulations of snow water equivalent, snow surface temperature, and the snow energy balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapo, Karl E.; Hinkelman, Laura M.; Raleigh, Mark S.; Lundquist, Jessica D.

    2015-03-01

    The forcing irradiances (downwelling shortwave and longwave irradiances) are the primary drivers of snowmelt; however, in complex terrain, few observations, the use of estimated irradiances, and the influence of topography and elevation all lead to uncertainties in these radiative fluxes. The impact of uncertainties in the forcing irradiances on simulations of snow is evaluated in idealized modeling experiments. Two snow models of contrasting complexity, the Utah Energy Balance Model (UEB) and the Snow Thermal Model (SNTHERM), are forced with irradiances with prescribed errors of the structure and magnitude representative of those found in methods for estimating the downwelling irradiances. Relatively modest biases have substantial impacts on simulated snow water equivalent (SWE) and surface temperature (Ts) across a range of climates, whereas random noise at the daily scale has a negligible effect on modeled SWE and Ts. Shortwave biases have a smaller SWE impact, due to the influence of albedo, and Ts impact, due to their diurnal cycle, compared to equivalent longwave biases. Warmer sites exhibit greater sensitivity to errors when evaluated using SWE, while colder sites exhibit more sensitivity as evaluated using Ts. The two models displayed different sensitivity and responses to biases. The stability feedback in the turbulent fluxes explains differences in Ts between models in the negative longwave bias scenarios. When the models diverge during melt events, differences in the turbulent fluxes and internal energy change of the snow are found to be responsible. From this analysis, we suggest model evaluations use Ts in addition to SWE.

  11. Isotope composition of winter precipitation and snow cover in the foothills of the Altai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Malygina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades, several general circulation models of the atmosphere and ocean (atmospheric and oceanic general circulation models  – GCMs have been improved by modeling the hydrological cycle with the use of isotopologues (isotopes of water HDO and H2 18O. Input parameters for the GCM models taking into account changes in the isotope composition of atmospheric precipitation were, above all, the results obtained by the network GNIP – Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation. At different times, on the vast territory of Russia there were only about 40 simultaneously functioning stations where the sampling of atmospheric precipitation was performed. In this study we present the results of the isotope composition of samples taken on the foothills of the Altai during two winter seasons of 2014/15 and 2015/16. Values of the isotope composition of precipitation changed in a wide range and their maximum fluctuations were 25, 202 and 18‰ for δ18О, dexc and δD, respectively. The weighted-mean values of δ18О and δD of the precipitation analyzed for the above two seasons were close to each other (−21.1 and −158.1‰ for the first season and −21.1 and −161.9‰ for the second one, while dexc values differed significantly. The comparison of the results of isotope analysis of the snow cover integral samples with the corresponding in the time interval the weighted-mean values of precipitation showed high consistency. However, despite the similarity of values of δ18О and δD, calculated for precipitation and snow cover, and the results, interpolated in IsoMAP (from data of the GNIP stations for 1960–2010, the dexc values were close to mean annual values of IsoMAP for only the second winter season. According to the trajectory analysis (the HYSPLIT model, the revealed differences between both, the seasons, and the long-term average values of IsoMAP, were associated with a change of main regions where the air masses

  12. Surface energy balance of seasonal snow cover for snow-melt ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... surface at this station received a mean short wave radiation of 430 W m−2, out of which 298 W m−2 was re flected back by the snow surface with mean albedo value of 0.70. The high average temperature and more absorption of solar radiation resulted in higher thermal state of the snowpack which was further responsible ...

  13. Estimating Snow and Glacier Melt in a Himalayan Watershed Using an Energy Balance Snow and Glacier Melt Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen Gupta, A.; Tarboton, D. G.; Racoviteanu, A.; Brown, M. E.; Habib, S.

    2014-12-01

    This study enhances an energy balance snowmelt model (Utah Energy Balance, UEB) to include the capability to quantify glacier melt. To account for clean and debris covered glaciers, substrate albedo and glacier outlines determined from remote sensing, are taken as inputs. The model uses the surface energy balance to compute the melting of seasonal snow and glacier substrate once the seasonal snow has melted. In this application the model was run over a 360 km2 glacierized watershed, Langtang Khola, in the Nepal Himalaya for a 10-year simulation period starting in water year 2003. The model was run on a distributed mesh of grid cells providing the capability to quantify both timing and spatial variability in snow and glacier melt. The distributed UEB melt model has a relatively high data demand, while the Hindu-Kush Himalayan region is a data-scarce region, a limitation that affects most water resources impact studies in this region. In this study, we determined model inputs from the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) and Southern Asia Daily Rainfall Estimate (RFE2) data products. The model estimates that roughly 57% of total surface water input is generated from glacier melt, while snowmelt and rain contribute 34% and 9%, respectively over the simulation period. The melt model provided input to the USGS Geospatial Stream Flow Model (GeoSFM) for the computation of streamflow and produced reasonable streamflow simulations at daily scale with some discrepancies, while monthly and annual scale comparisons resulted in better agreement. The result suggests that this approach is of interest for water resources applications where monthly or longer scale streamflow estimates are needed. Mean annual streamflow was positively correlated with the total annual surface water input. However, mean annual streamflow was not correlated with total annual precipitation, highlighting the importance of energy balance melt calculation, in comparison

  14. Combined Study of Snow Depth Determination and Winter Leaf Area Index Retrieval by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendzioch, Theodora; Langhammer, Jakub; Jenicek, Michal

    2017-04-01

    A rapid and robust approach using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) digital photogrammetry was performed for evaluating snow accumulation over different small localities (e.g. disturbed forest and open area) and for indirect field measurements of Leaf Area Index (LAI) of coniferous forest within the Šumava National Park, Czech Republic. The approach was used to reveal impacts related to changes in forest and snowpack and to determine winter effective LAI for monitoring the impact of forest canopy metrics on snow accumulation. Due to the advancement of the technique, snow depth and volumetric changes of snow depth over these selected study areas were estimated at high spatial resolution (1 cm) by subtracting a snow-free digital elevation model (DEM) from a snow-covered DEM. Both, downward-looking UAV images and upward-looking digital hemispherical photography (DHP), and additional widely used LAI-2200 canopy analyser measurements were applied to determine the winter LAI, controlling interception and transmitting radiation. For the performance of downward-looking UAV images the snow background instead of the sky fraction was used. The reliability of UAV-based LAI retrieval was tested by taking an independent data set during the snow cover mapping campaigns. The results showed the potential of digital photogrammetry for snow depth mapping and LAI determination by UAV techniques. The average difference obtained between ground-based and UAV-based measurements of snow depth was 7.1 cm with higher values obtained by UAV. The SD of 22 cm for the open area seemed competitive with the typical precision of point measurements. In contrast, the average difference in disturbed forest area was 25 cm with lower values obtained by UAV and a SD of 36 cm, which is in agreement with other studies. The UAV-based LAI measurements revealed the lowest effective LAI values and the plant canopy analyser LAI-2200 the highest effective LAI values. The biggest bias of effective LAI was observed

  15. Hourly mass and snow energy balance measurements from Mammoth Mountain, CA USA, 2011-2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, Edward H.; Davis, Robert E.; Dozier, Jeff

    2018-03-01

    The mass and energy balance of the snowpack govern its evolution. Direct measurement of these fluxes is essential for modeling the snowpack, yet there are few sites where all the relevant measurements are taken. Mammoth Mountain, CA USA, is home to the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory and University of California - Santa Barbara Energy Site (CUES), one of five energy balance monitoring sites in the western US. There is a ski patrol study site on Mammoth Mountain, called the Sesame Street Snow Study Plot, with automated snow and meteorological instruments where new snow is hand-weighed to measure its water content. There is also a site at Mammoth Pass with automated precipitation instruments. For this dataset, we present a clean and continuous hourly record of selected measurements from the three sites covering the 2011-2017 water years. Then, we model the snow mass balance at CUES and compare model runs to snow pillow measurements. The 2011-2017 period was marked by exceptional variability in precipitation, even for an area that has high year-to-year variability. The driest year on record, and one of the wettest years, occurred during this time period, making it ideal for studying climatic extremes. This dataset complements a previously published dataset from CUES containing a smaller subset of daily measurements. In addition to the hand-weighed SWE, novel measurements include hourly broadband snow albedo corrected for terrain and other measurement biases. This dataset is available with a digital object identifier: https://doi.org/10.21424/R4159Q" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.21424/R4159Q.

  16. Energy balance of a sparse coniferous high-latitude forest under winter conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gryning, S.E.; Batchvarova, E.; DeBruin, H.A.R.

    2001-01-01

    Measurements carried out in Northern Finland on radiation and turbulent fluxes over a sparse, sub-arctic boreal forest with snow covered ground were analysed. The measurements represent late winter conditions characterised by low solar elevation angles. During the experiment (12-24 March 1997) day

  17. Indicative properties on snow cover based on the results of experimental studies in the winter 2011/12 in the central part of the East European Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Kitaev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Local and regional differences in the snow formation were studied in different landscapes of the central part of the East European Plain – within reserves in the Moscow and Tver’ regions (south-north direction; the study period is the winter 2011/12. The observed increase of snow storage in 1.3–1.5 times in the direction south-north is connected, apparently. The difference in the five-day appearance of snow cover maximum is related to differences in regional winter air temperature. Throughout the snow depth and snow storage in spruce are smaller than in deciduous forest – in the ratio of 0.81 in south area and 0.93 in north area; in spruce the large part of solid precipitation is intercepted by the crowns pine trees. Snow stratigraphy at south areas has four layers, six layers at the north area are more variable in snow density and snow storage. Perhaps, gravitational conversion is more noticeable due to larger snow depth. Snow density and snow storage at the open areas are more heterogeneous than in the forest. This is due to sharp fluctuations in air temperature, wind transport and compaction of snow, evaporation from the snow surface. The stratigraphy of snow also reflects the history of winter changes of air temperature and snow accumulation. Common feature for reserves at south and north is the availability of layers with maximum snow storage in the middle of the snow thickness, which were formed during the air temperature drops to the lowest seasonal values in period with increase of snow depth to maximum. Formation of depth hoar in snow thickness are touched everywhere the bottom and middle layers, respectively, it was formed both before and during the period with minimal air temperature. Thus, the results of experimental studies confirm the significance of the differences of individual components of the landscape setting. Analytical conclusions are largely qualitative in nature due to the lack to date of initial information, and

  18. Energy balance of a sparse coniferous high-latitude forest under winter conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Batchvarova, E.; Bruin, H.A.R. de

    2001-01-01

    and night were about equally long. At low solar elevation angles the forest shades most of the snow surface. Therefore an important part of the radiation never reaches the snow surface but is absorbed by the forest. The sensible heat flux above the forest was fairly large, reaching more than 100 W m(-2......). The measurements of sensible heat flux within and above the forest revealed that the sensible heat flux from the snow surface is negligible and the sensible heat flux above the forest stems from warming of the trees. A simple model for the surface energy balance of a sparse forest is presented. The model treats...

  19. Is snow-ice now a major contributor to sea ice mass balance in the western Transpolar Drift region?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, R. M.; Merkouriadi, I.; Cheng, B.; Rösel, A.; Granskog, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    During the Norwegian young sea ICE (N-ICE2015) campaign, which took place in the first half of 2015 north of Svalbard, a deep winter snow pack (50 cm) on sea ice was observed, that was 50% thicker than earlier climatological studies suggested for this region. Moreover, a significant fraction of snow contributed to the total ice mass in second-year ice (SYI) (9% on average). Interestingly, very little snow (3% snow by mass) was present in first-year ice (FYI). The combination of sea ice thinning and increased precipitation north of Svalbard is expected to promote the formation of snow-ice. Here we use the 1-D snow/ice thermodynamic model HIGHTSI forced with reanalysis data, to show that for the case study of N-ICE2015, snow-ice would even form over SYI with an initial thickness of 2 m. In current conditions north of Svalbard, snow-ice is ubiquitous and contributes to the thickness growth up to 30%. This contribution is important, especially in the absence of any bottom thermodynamic growth due to the thick insulating snow cover. Growth of FYI north of Svalbard is mainly controlled by the timing of growth onset relative to snow precipitation events and cold spells. These usually short-lived conditions are largely determined by the frequency of storms entering the Arctic from the Atlantic Ocean. In our case, a later freeze onset was favorable for FYI growth due to less snow accumulation in early autumn. This limited snow-ice formation but promoted bottom thermodynamic growth. We surmise these findings are related to a regional phenomenon in the Atlantic sector of the Arctic, with frequent storm events which bring increasing amounts of precipitation in autumn and winter, and also affect the duration of cold temperatures required for ice growth in winter. We discuss the implications for the importance of snow-ice in the future Arctic, formerly believed to be non-existent in the central Arctic due to thick perennial ice.

  20. Temperate forest impacts on maritime snowpacks across an elevation gradient: An assessment of the snow surface energy balance and airborne lidar derived forest structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, T. R.; Nolin, A. W.

    2016-12-01

    Temperate forests modify snow evolution patterns both spatially and temporally relative to open areas. Dense, warm forests both impede snow accumulation through increased canopy snow interception and increase sub-canopy longwave energy inputs onto the snow surface. These process modifications vary in magnitude and duration depending on climatic, topographic and forest characteristics. Here we present results from a four year study of paired forested and open sites at three elevations, Low - 1150 m, Mid - 1325 m and High - 1465 m. Snowpacks are deeper and last up to 3-4 weeks longer at the Low and Mid elevation Open sites relative to the adjacent Forest sites. Conversely, at the High Forest site, snow is retained 2-4 weeks longer than the Open site. This change in snowpack depth and persistence is attributed to deposition patterns at higher elevations and forest structure differences that alter the canopy interception efficiency and the sub-canopy energy balance. Canopy interception efficiency (CIE) in the Low and Mid Forest sites, over the duration of the study were 79% and 76% of the total event snowfall, whereas CIE was 31% at the High Forest site. Longwave radiation in forested environments is the primary energy component across each elevation band due to the warm winter environment and forest presence, accounting for 82%, 88%, and 59% of the energy balance at the Low, Mid, and High Forest sites, respectively. High wind speeds in the High elevation Open site significantly increases the turbulent energy and creates preferential snowfall deposition in the nearby Forest site. These results show the importance of understanding the effects of forest cover on sub-canopy snowpack evolution and highlight the need for improved forest cover model representation to accurately predict water resources in maritime forests.

  1. Improving Surface Mass Balance Over Ice Sheets and Snow Depth on Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Lora Suzanne; Box, Jason; Kurtz, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    Surface mass balance (SMB) over ice sheets and snow on sea ice (SOSI) are important components of the cryosphere. Large knowledge gaps remain in scientists' abilities to monitor SMB and SOSI, including insufficient measurements and difficulties with satellite retrievals. On ice sheets, snow accumulation is the sole mass gain to SMB, and meltwater runoff can be the dominant single loss factor in extremely warm years such as 2012. SOSI affects the growth and melt cycle of the Earth's polar sea ice cover. The summer of 2012 saw the largest satellite-recorded melt area over the Greenland ice sheet and the smallest satellite-recorded Arctic sea ice extent, making this meeting both timely and relevant.

  2. Changing snow cover in tundra ecosystems tips the Arctic carbon balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zona, D.; Hufkens, K.; Gioli, B.; Kalhori, A. A. M.; Oechel, W. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Arctic environment has witnessed important changes due to global warming, resulting in increased surface air temperatures and rain events which both exacerbate snow cover deterioration (Semmens et al, 2013; Rennert et al, 2009; White et al, 2007; Min et al, 2008; Sharp et al, 2013; Schaeffer et al, 2013). Snow cover duration is declining by almost 20% per decade, a far higher rate than model estimates (Derksen and Brown, 2012). Concomitant with increasing temperatures and decreasing snow cover duration, the length of the arctic growing season is reported to have increased by 1.1 - 4.9 days per decade since 1951 (Menzel et al, 2006), and, plant productivity and CO2 uptake from arctic vegetation are strongly influenced by changes in growing season length (Myneni et al., 1997; Schaefer et al., 2005; Euskirchen et al., 2006). Based on more than a decade of eddy flux measurements in Arctic tundra ecosystems across the North slope of Alaska, and remotely sensed snow cover data, we show that earlier snow melt in the spring increase C uptake while an extended snow free period in autumn is associated with a higher C loss. Here we present the impacts of changes in snow cover dynamics between spring and autumn in arctic tundra ecosystems on the carbon dynamics and net C balance of the Alaskan Arctic. ReferencesDerksen, C., Brown R. (2012) Geophys. Res. Lett., doi:10.1029/2012GL053387 Euskirchen, E.S., et al. (2006) Glob. Change Biol., 12, 731-750. Menzel, A., et al. 2006. Glob. Change Biol., 12, 1969-1976. Min SK, Zhang X, Zweirs F (2008) Science 320: 518-520. Rennert K J, Roe G, Putkonen J and Bitz C M (2009) J. Clim. 22 2302-15. Schaefer, K., Denning A.S., Leonard O. (2005) Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 19, GB3017. Schaeffer, S. M., Sharp, E., Schimel, J. P. & Welker, J. M. (2013). Soil- plant N processes in a High Arctic ecosystem, NW Greenland are altered by long-term experimental warming and higher rainfall. Glob. Change Biol., 11, 3529-39. doi: 10.1111/gcb.12318

  3. Deepened winter snow increases stem growth and alters stem δ13C and δ15N in evergreen dwarf shrub Cassiope tetragona in high-arctic Svalbard tundra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blok, Daan; Michelsen, Anders; Elberling, Bo; Weijers, Stef; Löffler, Jörg; Welker, Jeffrey M; Cooper, Elisabeth J

    2015-01-01

    Deeper winter snow is hypothesized to favor shrub growth and may partly explain the shrub expansion observed in many parts of the arctic during the last decades, potentially triggering biophysical feedbacks including regional warming and permafrost thawing. We experimentally tested the effects of winter snow depth on shrub growth and ecophysiology by measuring stem length and stem hydrogen (δ 2 H), carbon (δ 13 C), nitrogen (δ 15 N) and oxygen (δ 18 O) isotopic composition of the circumarctic evergreen dwarf shrub Cassiope tetragona growing in high-arctic Svalbard, Norway. Measurements were carried out on C. tetragona individuals sampled from three tundra sites, each representing a distinct moisture regime (dry heath, meadow, moist meadow). Individuals were sampled along gradients of experimentally manipulated winter snow depths in a six-year old snow fence experiment: in ambient (c. 20 cm), medium (c. 100 cm), and deep snow (c. 150 cm) plots. The deep-snow treatment consistently and significantly increased C. tetragona growth during the 2008–2011 manipulation period compared to growth in ambient-snow plots. Stem δ 15 N and stem N concentration values were significantly higher in deep-snow individuals compared to individuals growing in ambient-snow plots during the course of the experiment, suggesting that soil N-availability was increased in deep-snow plots as a result of increased soil winter N mineralization. Although inter-annual growing season-precipitation δ 2 H and stem δ 2 H records closely matched, snow depth did not change stem δ 2 H or δ 18 O, suggesting that water source usage by C. tetragona was unaltered. Instead, the deep insulating snowpack may have protected C. tetragona shrubs against frost damage, potentially compensating the detrimental effects of a shortened growing season and associated phenological delay on growth. Our findings suggest that an increase in winter precipitation in the High Arctic, as predicted by climate models, has

  4. Assessment of the Performance of Several Roadway Mixes under Rain, Snow, and Winter Maintenance Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Flintsch, Gerardo W.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relative functional performance, including skid resistance and splash and spray, of five hot-mix-asphalt (HMA) surfaces and a tinned portland cement concrete highway surface during controlled wet and wintry weather events. The study compared the way that these surfaces respond to various deicing and anti-icing snow removal and ice control techniques under artificial wintry conditions. In addition, the splash and spray characteristics of the surfaces...

  5. Partial least regression approach to forecast the East Asian winter monsoon using Eurasian snow cover and sea surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lulu; Wu, Zhiwei; Zhang, Renhe; Yang, Xin

    2017-06-01

    Seasonal prediction of the East Asian (EA) winter monsoon (EAWM) is of great significance yet a challenging issue. In this study, three statistical seasonal prediction models for the EAWM are established using three leading modes of the Eurasian snow cover (ESC), the first leading mode of sea surface temperature (SST) and the four leading modes of the combination of the ESC and SST in preceding autumn, respectively. These leading modes are identified by the partial-least square (PLS) regression. The first PLS (PLS1) mode for the ESC features significantly anomalous snow cover in Siberia and Tibetan Plateau regions. The ESC second PLS (PLS2) mode corresponds to large areas of snow cover anomalies in the central Siberia, whereas the third PLS (PLS3) mode a meridional seesaw pattern of ESC. The SST PLS1 mode basically exhibits an El Niño-Southern Oscillation developing phase in equatorial eastern Pacific and significant SST anomalies in North Atlantic. A strong EAWM tends to emerge in a La Niña year concurrent with cold SST anomalies in the North Atlantic, and vice versa. After a 35-year training period (1967-2001), three PLS seasonal prediction models are constructed and the 11-year hindcast is performed for the period of 2002-2012, respectively. The PLS model based on combination of the autumn ESC and SST exhibits the best hindcast skill among the three models, its correlation coefficient between the observation and the hindcast reaching 0.86. This indicates that this physical-based PLS model may provide another practical tool for the EAWM. In addition, the relative contribution of the ESC and SST is also examined by assessing the hindcast skills of the other two PLS models constructed solely by the ESC or SST. Possible physical mechanisms are also discussed.

  6. Arctic Sea Ice, Eurasia Snow, and Extreme Winter Haze in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Y.; Wang, Y.; Xie, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Koo, J. H.

    2017-12-01

    Eastern China is experiencing more severe haze pollution in winter during recent years. Though the environmental deterioration in this region is usually attributed to the high intensity of anthropogenic emissions and large contributions from secondary aerosol formation, the impact of climate variability is also indispensable given its significant influence on regional weather systems and pollution ventilation. Here we analyzed the air quality related winter meteorological conditions over Eastern China in the last four decades and showed a worsening trend in poor regional air pollutant ventilation. Such variations increased the probability of extreme air pollution events, which is in good agreement with aerosol observations of recent years. We further identified the key circulation pattern that is conducive to the weakening ventilation and investigated the relationship between synoptic circulation changes and multiple climate forcing variables. Both statistical analysis and numerical sensitivity experiments suggested that the poor ventilation condition is linked to boreal cryosphere changes including Arctic sea ice in preceding autumn and Eurasia snowfall in earlier winter. We conducted comprehensive dynamic diagnosis and proposed a physical mechanism to explain the observed and simulated circulation changes. At last, we examined future projections of winter extreme stagnation events based on the CMIP5 projection data.

  7. Retrieval of the ultraviolet effective snow albedo during 1998 winter campaign in the French Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolskaia, Irina; Masserot, Dominique; Lenoble, Jacqueline; Brogniez, Colette; de la Casinière, Alain

    2003-03-20

    A measurement campaign was carried out in February 1998 at Briançon Station, French Alps (44.9 degrees N, 6.65 degrees E, 1,310 m above sea level) in order to determine the UV effective snow albedo that was retrieved for both erythemal and UV-A irradiances from measurements and modeling enhancement factors. The results are presented for 15 cloudless days with very variable snow cover and a small snowfall in the middle of the campaign. Erythemal irradiance enhancement due to the surface albedo was found to decrease from approximately +15% to +5% with a jump to +22% after the snowfall, whereas UV-A irradiance enhancement decreased from 7% to 5% and increased to 15% after the snowfall. Thesevalues fit to effective surface albedos of 0.4, 0.1, and 0.5 for erythemal, and to effective albedos of 0.25, 0.1, and 0.4 for UV-A irradiances, respectively. An unexpected difference between the effective albedos retrieved in the two wavelength regions can be explained by the difference of the environment contribution.

  8. Effects of winter military training on energy balance, whole-body protein balance, muscle damage, soreness, and physical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Lee M; Murphy, Nancy E; Martini, Svein; Spitz, Marissa G; Thrane, Ingjerd; McGraw, Susan M; Blatny, Janet-Martha; Castellani, John W; Rood, Jennifer C; Young, Andrew J; Montain, Scott J; Gundersen, Yngvar; Pasiakos, Stefan M

    2014-12-01

    Physiological consequences of winter military operations are not well described. This study examined Norwegian soldiers (n = 21 males) participating in a physically demanding winter training program to evaluate whether short-term military training alters energy and whole-body protein balance, muscle damage, soreness, and performance. Energy expenditure (D2(18)O) and intake were measured daily, and postabsorptive whole-body protein turnover ([(15)N]-glycine), muscle damage, soreness, and performance (vertical jump) were assessed at baseline, following a 4-day, military task training phase (MTT) and after a 3-day, 54-km ski march (SKI). Energy intake (kcal·day(-1)) increased (P soreness increased and performance decreased progressively (P < 0.05). The physiological consequences observed during short-term winter military training provide the basis for future studies to evaluate nutritional strategies that attenuate protein loss and sustain performance during severe energy deficits.

  9. A statistical adjustment approach for climate projections of snow conditions in mountain regions using energy balance land surface models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verfaillie, Deborah; Déqué, Michel; Morin, Samuel; Lafaysse, Matthieu

    2017-04-01

    Projections of future climate change have been increasingly called for lately, as the reality of climate change has been gradually accepted and societies and governments have started to plan upcoming mitigation and adaptation policies. In mountain regions such as the Alps or the Pyrenees, where winter tourism and hydropower production are large contributors to the regional revenue, particular attention is brought to current and future snow availability. The question of the vulnerability of mountain ecosystems as well as the occurrence of climate-related hazards such as avalanches and debris-flows is also under consideration. In order to generate projections of snow conditions, however, downscaling global climate models (GCMs) by using regional climate models (RCMs) is not sufficient to capture the fine-scale processes and thresholds at play. In particular, the altitudinal resolution matters, since the phase of precipitation is mainly controlled by the temperature which is altitude-dependent. Simulations from GCMs and RCMs moreover suffer from biases compared to local observations, due to their rather coarse spatial and altitudinal resolution, and often provide outputs at too coarse time resolution to drive impact models. RCM simulations must therefore be adjusted using empirical-statistical downscaling and error correction methods, before they can be used to drive specific models such as energy balance land surface models. In this study, time series of hourly temperature, precipitation, wind speed, humidity, and short- and longwave radiation were generated over the Pyrenees and the French Alps for the period 1950-2100, by using a new approach (named ADAMONT for ADjustment of RCM outputs to MOuNTain regions) based on quantile mapping applied to daily data, followed by time disaggregation accounting for weather patterns selection. We first introduce a thorough evaluation of the method using using model runs from the ALADIN RCM driven by a global reanalysis over the

  10. Recharge of an Unconfined Pumice Aquifer: Winter Rainfall Versus Snow Pack, South-central Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, M. L.; Weatherford, J. M.; Eibert, D.

    2015-12-01

    Walker Rim study area, an uplifted fault block east of the Cascade Range, south-central Oregon, exceeds 1580 m elevation and includes Round Meadow-Sellers Marsh closed basin, and headwaters of Upper Klamath Basin, Deschutes Basin, and Christmas Lake Valley in the Great Basin. The water-bearing unit is 2.8 to 3.0 m thick Plinian pumice fall from the Holocene eruption of Mount Mazama, Cascade Range. The perched pumice aquifer is underlain by low permeability regolith and bedrock. Disruption of the internal continuity of the Plinian pumice fall by fluvial and lacustrine processes resulted in hydrogeologic environments that include fens, wet meadows, and areas of shallow water table. Slopes are low and surface and groundwater pathways follow patterns inherited from the pre-eruption landscape. Discharge for streams and springs and depth to water table measured in open-ended piezometers slotted in the pumice aquifer have been measured between March and October, WY 2011 through WY2015. Yearly occupation on same date has been conducted for middle April, June 1st, and end of October. WY2011 and WY2012 received more precipitation than the 30 year average while WY2014 was the third driest year in 30 years of record. WY2014 and WY2015 provide an interesting contrast. Drought conditions dominated WY2014 while WY2015 was distinct in that the normal cold-season snow pack was replaced by rainfall. Cumulative precipitation exceeded the 30-year average between October and March. The pumice aquifer of wet meadows and areas of shallow water table experienced little recharge in WY2015. Persistence of widespread diffuse discharge from fens declined by middle summer as potentiometric surfaces lowered into confining peat layers or in some settings into the pumice aquifer. Recharge of the perched pumice aquifer in rain-dominated WY2015 was similar to or less than in the snow-dominated drought of WY2014. Rain falling on frozen ground drove runoff rather than aquifer recharge.

  11. A reassessment of North American river basin water balances in light of new estimates of mountain snow accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzesien, M.; Durand, M. T.; Pavelsky, T.

    2017-12-01

    The hydrologic cycle is a key component of many aspects of daily life, yet not all water cycle processes are fully understood. In particular, water storage in mountain snowpacks remains largely unknown. Previous work with a high resolution regional climate model suggests that global and continental models underestimate mountain snow accumulation, perhaps by as much as 50%. Therefore, we hypothesize that since snow water equivalent (one aspect of the water balance) is underestimated, accepted water balances for major river basins are likely wrong, particularly for mountainous river basins. Here we examine water balances for four major high latitude North American watersheds - the Columbia, Mackenzie, Nelson, and Yukon. The mountainous percentage of each basin ranges, which allows us to consider whether a bias in the water balance is affected by mountain area percentage within the watershed. For our water balance evaluation, we especially consider precipitation estimates from a variety of datasets, including models, such as WRF and MERRA, and observation-based, such as CRU and GPCP. We ask whether the precipitation datasets provide enough moisture for seasonal snow to accumulate within the basin and whether we see differences in the variability of annual and seasonal precipitation from each dataset. From our reassessment of high-latitude water balances, we aim to determine whether the current understanding is sufficient to describe all processes within the hydrologic cycle or whether datasets appear to be biased, particularly in high-elevation precipitation. Should currently-available datasets appear to be similarly biased in precipitation, as we have seen in mountain snow accumulation, we discuss the implications for the continental water budget.

  12. Winter QPF Sensitivities to Snow Parameterizations and Comparisons to NASA CloudSat Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molthan, Andrew; Haynes, John M.; Jedlovec, Gary J.; Lapenta, William M.

    2009-01-01

    Steady increases in computing power have allowed for numerical weather prediction models to be initialized and run at high spatial resolution, permitting a transition from larger scale parameterizations of the effects of clouds and precipitation to the simulation of specific microphysical processes and hydrometeor size distributions. Although still relatively coarse in comparison to true cloud resolving models, these high resolution forecasts (on the order of 4 km or less) have demonstrated value in the prediction of severe storm mode and evolution and are being explored for use in winter weather events . Several single-moment bulk water microphysics schemes are available within the latest release of the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model suite, including the NASA Goddard Cumulus Ensemble, which incorporate some assumptions in the size distribution of a small number of hydrometeor classes in order to predict their evolution, advection and precipitation within the forecast domain. Although many of these schemes produce similar forecasts of events on the synoptic scale, there are often significant details regarding precipitation and cloud cover, as well as the distribution of water mass among the constituent hydrometeor classes. Unfortunately, validating data for cloud resolving model simulations are sparse. Field campaigns require in-cloud measurements of hydrometeors from aircraft in coordination with extensive and coincident ground based measurements. Radar remote sensing is utilized to detect the spatial coverage and structure of precipitation. Here, two radar systems characterize the structure of winter precipitation for comparison to equivalent features within a forecast model: a 3 GHz, Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) based in Omaha, Nebraska, and the 94 GHz NASA CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar, a spaceborne instrument and member of the afternoon or "A-Train" of polar orbiting satellites tasked with cataloguing global cloud

  13. How Well Are We Measuring Snow? The NOAA/FAA/NCAR Winter Precipitation Test Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, B.; Rasmussen, R.; Kochendorfer, J.; Meyers, T.; Nitu, R.; Paul, J.; Smith, C.; Yang, D.

    2012-04-01

    Precipitation is one of the most important atmospheric variables for ecosystems, hydrologic systems, climate, and weather forecasting. Despite its importance, accurate measurement remains challenging, and the lack of recent and complete inter-comparisons leads researchers to discount the importance and severity of measurement errors. These errors are exacerbated for the automated measurement of solid precipitation and underestimates of 20-50% are common. While solid precipitation measurements have been the subject of many studies, there have been only a limited number of coordinated assessments on the accuracy, reliability, and repeatability of automatic precipitation measurements. The most recent comprehensive study, the "WMO Solid Precipitation Measurement Inter-comparison" focused on manual techniques of solid precipitation measurement. Precipitation gauge technology has changed considerably in the last 12 years and the focus has shifted to automated techniques. Given the strong need for automated solid precipitation data from both the climate and weather communities, and the widely varying catch efficiencies of the various instruments, inter-comparison studies are needed. The World Meteorological Organization Committee on Meteorological Instruments and Observations (WMO-CIMO) is organizing a Solid Precipitation Inter-comparison Experiment (WMO-SPICE) focused on automatic precipitation gauges and their configurations, in various climate conditions, building on the significant efforts currently underway in many countries. The inter-comparison will aim at understanding and improving our ability to reliably measure solid precipitation using automatic gauges. The study will take place starting in 2012 at sites around the world including the US, Norway, China, Canada, Japan, Switzerland, Russia, Finland and New Zealand. The NOAA /FAA/NCAR precipitation test bed in Marshall, CO. in partnership with Environment Canada will collect data during the winter of 2011/2012 to

  14. Long-range atmospheric transport of terrestrial biomarkers by the Asian winter monsoon: Evidence from fresh snow from Sapporo, northern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shinya; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Seki, Osamu

    2011-07-01

    Molecular distributions of terrestrial biomarkers were investigated in fresh snow samples from Sapporo, northern Japan, to better understand the long-range atmospheric transport of terrestrial organic matter by the Asian winter monsoon. Stable carbon (δ 13C) and hydrogen (δD) isotope ratios of C 22-C 28n-alkanoic acids were also measured to decipher their source regions. The snow samples are found to contain higher plant-derived n-alkanes, n-alkanols and n-alkanoic acids as major components. Relative abundances of these three biomarker classes suggest that they are likely derived from higher plants in the Asian continent. The C 27/C 31 ratios of terrestrial n-alkanes in the snow samples range from 1.3 to 5.5, being similar to those of the plants growing in the latitudes >40°N of East Asia. The δ 13C values of the n-alkanoic acids in the snow samples (-33.4 to -27.6‰) are similar to those of typical C 3 gymnosperm from Sapporo (-34.9 to -29.3‰). However, the δD values of the n-alkanoic acids (-208 to -148‰) are found to be significantly depleted with deuterium (by ˜72‰) than those of plant leaves from Sapporo. Such depletion can be most likely interpreted by the long-range atmospheric transport of the n-alkanoic acids from vegetation in the latitudes further north of Sapporo because the δD values of terrestrial higher plants tend to decrease northward in East Asia reflecting the δD of precipitation. Together with the results of backward trajectory analyses, this study suggests that the terrestrial biomarkers in the Sapporo snow samples are likely transported from Siberia, Russian Far East and northeast China to northern Japan by the Asian winter monsoon.

  15. Regional variation in the chemical composition of winter snow pack and terricolous lichens in relation to sources of acid emissions in the Usa river basin, northeast European Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, T.R.; Crittenden, P.D.; Young, S.D.

    2003-01-01

    The chemistry of winter snow pack and terricolous lichens indicate pollution distribution in Arctic Russia. - The chemical composition of snow and terricolous lichens was determined along transects through the Subarctic towns of Vorkuta (130 km west-east), Inta (240 km south-north) and Usinsk (140 km, southwest-northeast) in the Usa river basin, northeast European Russia. Evidence of pollution gradients was found on two spatial scales. First, on the Inta transect, northward decreases in concentrations of N in the lichen Cladonia stellaris (from 0.57 mmol N g -1 at 90 km south to 0.43 mmol N g -1 at 130 km north of Inta) and winter deposition of non-sea salt sulphate (from 29.3 to 12.8 mol ha -1 at 90 km south and 110 km north of Inta, respectively) were attributed to long range transport of N and S from lower latitudes. Second, increased ionic content (SO 4 2- , Ca 2+ , K + ) and pH of snow, and modified N concentration and the concentration ratios K + :Mg 2+ and K + : (Mg 2+ +Ca 2+ ) in lichens (Cladonia arbuscula and Flavocetraria cucullata) within ca. 25-40 km of Vorkuta and Inta were largely attributed to local deposition of alkaline coal ash. Total sulphate concentrations in snow varied from ca. 5 μmol l -1 at remote sites to ca. 19 μmol l -1 near Vorkuta. Nitrate concentration in snow (typically ca. 9 μmol l -1 ) did not vary with proximity to perceived pollution sources

  16. Coupling of a Detailed Snow Model to WRF-Hydro for Glacier Mass Balance and Glacier Runoff Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidhammer, T.; Gochis, D.; Barlage, M. J.; Rasmussen, R.

    2017-12-01

    Studies of mass balance in glaciers in complex terrain show that elevation gradients and complex topography in many glaciated regions lead to large variations in temperature, precipitation, winds (and thereby wind deflection, transport and deposition of dry snow during the accumulation season) and net radiative exchange across the glacier. Therefore, proper simulation of the non-homogenous, non-stationary, evolution of a glacier requires much finer resolution of atmospheric processes than typical global or regional climate models can provide. Furthermore, regional `atmosphere-only' models typically do not have the detailed information about runoff routing processes, which are important components in the hydrological cycle. Glacier melt contributes to discharge especially during summer when the magnitude of the summer peak river flow depends greatly on the contribution of melt water from snow and ice to the total river flow. This contribution from glaciers to total flow plays a key role in the glacier-fed rivers in populated regions where summer flows are crucial for irrigation, human consumption and energy production. We have incorporated the detailed Crocus snow model, as a glacier mass balance model, into the Noah-MP land model, within the Weather and Research Forecasting - Hydro (WRF-Hydro) modelling system. By linking a surface mass balance glacier model to the WRF-Hydro system (WRF-HydroGlac), the interactions between the energy, water and mass balance budgets over glaciated river basins can be better depicted and projected future impacts, better understood. We will demonstrate the WRF-HydroGlac model with a mass balance and snowpack/glacier runoff study of a highly observed Norwegian glacier (Hardangerjokulen).

  17. Hibernating black bears (Ursus americanus) experience skeletal muscle protein balance during winter anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohuis, T D; Harlow, H J; Beck, T D I

    2007-05-01

    Black bears spend four to seven months every winter confined to their den and anorexic. Despite potential for skeletal muscle atrophy and protein loss, bears appear to retain muscle integrity throughout winter dormancy. Other authors have suggested that bears are capable of net protein anabolism during this time. The present study was performed to test this hypothesis by directly measuring skeletal muscle protein metabolism during the summer, as well as early and late hibernation periods. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis of six free-ranging bears in the summer, and from six others early in hibernation and again in late winter. Protein synthesis and breakdown were measured on biopsies using (14)C-phenylalanine as a tracer. Muscle protein, nitrogen, and nucleic acid content, as well as nitrogen stable isotope enrichment, were also measured. Protein synthesis was greater than breakdown in summer bears, suggesting that they accumulate muscle protein during periods of seasonal food availability. Protein synthesis and breakdown were both lower in winter compared to summer but were equal during both early and late denning, indicating that bears are in protein balance during hibernation. Protein and nitrogen content, nucleic acid, and stable isotope enrichment measurements of the biopsies support this conclusion.

  18. Application and Evaluation of a Snow Energy and Mass Balance Distributed Model in the Merced and Tuolumne River Watersheds of the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, J. W.; Rice, R.; Marks, D. G.

    2015-12-01

    Characterization of snow accumulation and melt in forested environments is a key component of the hydrological cycle in mountainous regions, yet is often over-simplified in hydroecological watershed modeling due to computational limits and paucity of input data. A key first step in addressing this deficiency is to assess potential improvements in predicting snow water equivalent using a land surface model (full energy and mass balance of snow pack) over a sufficiently large geographic area to address societal questions centered on forest change and water yield of river basins. The snow energy and mass balance model ISNOBAL was applied over a 14,300 km2 region encompassing the Merced and Tuolumne River watersheds in the Sierra Nevada at a 1-hour time step and 100-meter spatial resolution for water years 2010-2014. Results show a bias toward a slight over-estimation of snow water equivalent when compared to manual snow course measurements, though cumulative melt was consistent with summed river gage data and independent estimates of evapotranspiration. Ratios of gaged runoff to water available for runoff from the base of the snowpack ranged from 0.45 to 0.59 for three different gages. Modeled results were compared to independently-derived estimates of snow water equivalent from MODIS Snow Covered Area reconstruction and airborne LiDAR estimates of snow depth, highlighting potential deficiency in SCA reconstructions, and the use of LiDAR derived snow surface maps providing snow distribution patterns in physically based models. Further, ISNOBAL highlighted trends in snow distribution patterns and snowmelt timing in an average (2010), above average (2011), and below average (2014) year.

  19. Analysis of the electricity supply-demand balance for the winter period 2009-2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-10-01

    Every year, RTE conducts a prospective study of the balance between supply and demand for electricity for the coming winter period, covering the whole of mainland France. This period of the year is looked at closely, primarily due to the high levels of electricity demand seen during cold snaps. The study by RTE is used to identify periods where the supply-demand balance comes under strain; it explores the measures that can be taken by electricity market players and RTE to avoid any interruption in supply during peak demand periods in France. RTE is responsible for managing the balance between supply and demand for electricity in mainland France, in real time. To do this, it anticipates potential risks that may supply may come under strain - well in advance - and informs market players. If periods are identified where the supply-demand balance comes under strain, RTE works with the electricity generators to look at possible ways of altering the schedules for shutting down generating units, and takes account of the possibilities for demand response (load reduction) reported by suppliers. As a last resort, if these preemptive measures prove insufficient and the situation becomes critical, RTE alerts the government of the risk that supply will be interrupted, and takes action in real time to limit the impact on the power system. For temperatures close to seasonal norms, the forecast outlook for the electricity supply-demand balance appears significantly less favourable than last winter until the end of January. Imports could be required between mid-November 2009 and the end of January 2010, to cover electricity demand in France and satisfy the technical security margin stipulated by RTE. To do this, suppliers would have to look to the European markets, in addition to activating demand response (load reduction) possibilities with their customer portfolios. In the event of an intense and sustained spell of cold weather, the technical limit for imports into the French

  20. Fertilizers nitrogen balance under maizl and winter rye in lysimentric experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionova, O.N.

    1979-01-01

    The balance of the labelled 15 N nitrogen fertilizers in lysimentric experiment carried oUt in the turf-podsolic medium loamy soil has been studied. The results of two year experiment (1976-1977) have shown that depending on the doses and time of introduction the use of fertilizer nitrogen by maize varied from 51 to 58 % and by winter rye from 52 to 59 %. Consolidation in the organic substance of soil constituted 18-26 and 17-33 %, respectively. The losses of fertilizer nitrogen varied (14-29 % under maize and 9-23 % under winter rye). Nitrogen losses as a result of atmospheric precipitation infiltration both under maize and winter rye occured mainly at the expense of nitrogen of soil and reached considerable dimensions (31 kg) only under conditions of exceeding moistening of 1976. The losses of fertilizer nitrogen caused by washing out do not exceed 1 % for two years. The main losses of fertilizer nitrogen occurred in the form of gaseous nitrogen compounds

  1. Building a Cloud-based Global Snow Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Coll, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Snow covers some 40 percent of Earth's land masses year in and year out and constitutes a vitally important variable for the planet's climate, hydrology, and biosphere due to its high albedo and insulation. It affects atmospheric circulation patterns, permafrost, glacier mass balance, river discharge, and groundwater recharge (Dietz et al. 2015). Snow is also nature's igloo where species from microscopic fungi to 800-pound moose survive the winter each in its own way (Pauli et al. 2013; Petty et al. 2015). Many studies have found that snow in high elevation regions is particularly sensitive to global climate change and is considered as sentinel of change. For human beings, about one-sixth of the world's population depends on seasonal snow and glaciers for their water supply (Barnett et al. 2005) and more than 50% of mountainous areas have an essential or supportive role for downstream regions (Viviroli et al. 2007). Large snowstorms also have a major impact on society in terms of human life, economic loss, and disruption (Squires et al. 2014). Remote sensing provides a practical approach of monitoring global snow and ice cover change. Based on our comprehensive validation and assessment on MODIS snow products, we build a cloud-based Global Snow Observatory (GSO) using Google Earth Engine (GEE) to serve as a platform for global researchers and the general public to access, visualize, and analyze snow data and to build snowmelt runoff models for mountain watersheds. Specifically, we build the GSO to serve global MODIS daily snow cover data and their analyses through GEE on Google App Engine. The GSO provides users the functions of accessing and extracting cloud-gap-filled snow data and interactive snow cover change exploration. In addition to snow cover frequency (SCF), we also plan to develop several other snow cover parameters, including snow cover duration/days, snow cover onset dates, and snow cover melting dates, and to study the shift and trend of global snow

  2. The Contribution to High Asia Runoff from Ice and Snow (CHARIS): Understanding the source and trends of cryospheric contributions to the water balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittger, K.; Armstrong, R. L.; Bair, N.; Racoviteanu, A.; Brodzik, M. J.; Hill, A. F.; Wilson, A. M.; Khan, A. L.; Ramage, J. M.; Khalsa, S. J. S.; Barrett, A. P.; Raup, B. H.; Painter, T. H.

    2017-12-01

    The Contribution to High Asia Runoff from Ice and Snow, or CHARIS, project is systematically assessing the role that glaciers and seasonal snow play in the freshwater resources of Central and South Asia. The study area encompasses roughly 3 million square kilometers of the Himalaya, Karakoram, Hindu Kush, Pamir and Tien Shan mountain ranges that drain to five major rivers: the Ganges, Brahmaputra, Indus, Amu Darya and Syr Darya. We estimate daily snow and glacier ice contributions to the water balance. Our automated partitioning method generates daily maps of 1) snow over ice (SOI), 2) exposed glacier ice (EGI), 3) debris covered glacier ice (DGI) and 4) snow over land (SOL) using fractional snow cover, snow grain size, and annual minimum ice and snow from the 500 m MODIS-derived MODSCAG and MODICE products. Maps of snow and ice cover are validated using high-resolution (30 m) maps of snow, ice, and debris cover from Landsat. The probability of detection is 0.91 and precision is 0.85 for MODICE. We examine trends in annual and monthly snow and ice maps and use daily maps as inputs to a calibrated temperature-index model and an uncalibrated energy balance model, ParBal. Melt model results and measurements of isotopes and specific ions used as an independent validation of melt modeling indicate a sharp geographic contrast in the role of snow and ice melt to downstream water supplies between the arid Tien Shan and Pamir ranges of Central Asia, where melt water dominates dry season flows, and the monsoon influenced central and eastern Himalaya where rain controls runoff. We also compare melt onset and duration from the melt models to the Calibrated, Enhanced Resolution Passive Microwave Brightness Temperature Earth Science Data Record. Trend analysis of annual and monthly area of permanent snow and ice (the union of SOI and EGI) for 2000 to 2016 shows statistically significant negative trends in the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins. There are no statistically significant

  3. Greenland Ice Sheet Mass Balance Reconstruction. Part I: Net Snow Accumulation (1600–2009)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Box, J.E.; Cressie, N.; Bromwich, D.H.; Jung, J.-H.; van den Broeke, M.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073765643; van Angelen, J.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325922470; Forster, R.R.; Miège, C.; Mosley-Thompson, E.; Vinther, B.; McConnell, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    Ice core data are combined with Regional Atmospheric Climate Model version 2 (RACMO2) output (1958–2010) to develop a reconstruction of Greenland ice sheet net snow accumulation rate, ^At(G), spanning the years 1600–2009. Regression parameters from regional climate model (RCM) output regressed on 86

  4. Distribution of VOCs between air and snow at the Jungfraujoch high alpine research station, Switzerland, during CLACE 5 (winter 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Starokozhev

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs were analyzed in air and snow samples at the Jungfraujoch high alpine research station in Switzerland as part of CLACE 5 (CLoud and Aerosol Characterization Experiment during February/March 2006. The fluxes of individual compounds in ambient air were calculated from gas phase concentrations and wind speed. The highest concentrations and flux values were observed for the aromatic hydrocarbons benzene (14.3 μg.m−2 s−1, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (5.27 μg.m−2 s−1, toluene (4.40 μg.m−2 −1, and the aliphatic hydrocarbons i-butane (7.87 μg.m−2 s−1, i-pentane (3.61 μg.m−2 s−1 and n-butane (3.23 μg.m−2 s−1. The measured concentrations and fluxes were used to calculate the efficiency of removal of VOCs by snow, which is defined as difference between the initial and final concentration/flux values of compounds before and after wet deposition. The removal efficiency was calculated at −24°C (−13.7°C and ranged from 37% (35% for o-xylene to 93% (63% for i-pentane. The distribution coefficients of VOCs between the air and snow phases were derived from published poly-parameter linear free energy relationship (pp-LFER data, and compared with distribution coefficients obtained from the simultaneous measurements of VOC concentrations in air and snow at Jungfraujoch. The coefficients calculated from pp-LFER exceeded those values measured in the present study, which indicates more efficient snow scavenging of the VOCs investigated than suggested by theoretical predictions.

  5. Snow sublimation in mountain environments and its sensitivity to forest disturbance and climate warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexstone, Graham A.; Clow, David W.; Fassnacht, Steven R.; Liston, Glen E.; Hiemstra, Christopher A.; Knowles, John F.; Penn, Colin A.

    2018-01-01

    Snow sublimation is an important component of the snow mass balance, but the spatial and temporal variability of this process is not well understood in mountain environments. This study combines a process‐based snow model (SnowModel) with eddy covariance (EC) measurements to investigate (1) the spatio‐temporal variability of simulated snow sublimation with respect to station observations, (2) the contribution of snow sublimation to the ablation of the snowpack, and (3) the sensitivity and response of snow sublimation to bark beetle‐induced forest mortality and climate warming across the north‐central Colorado Rocky Mountains. EC‐based observations of snow sublimation compared well with simulated snow sublimation at stations dominated by surface and canopy sublimation, but blowing snow sublimation in alpine areas was not well captured by the EC instrumentation. Water balance calculations provided an important validation of simulated sublimation at the watershed scale. Simulated snow sublimation across the study area was equivalent to 28% of winter precipitation on average, and the highest relative snow sublimation fluxes occurred during the lowest snow years. Snow sublimation from forested areas accounted for the majority of sublimation fluxes, highlighting the importance of canopy and sub‐canopy surface sublimation in this region. Simulations incorporating the effects of tree mortality due to bark‐beetle disturbance resulted in a 4% reduction in snow sublimation from forested areas. Snow sublimation rates corresponding to climate warming simulations remained unchanged or slightly increased, but total sublimation losses decreased by up to 6% because of a reduction in snow covered area and duration.

  6. Dust radiative forcing in snow of the Upper Colorado River Basin: 1. A 6 year record of energy balance, radiation, and dust concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Thomas H.; Skiles, S. Mckenzie; Deems, Jeffrey S.; Bryant, Ann C.; Landry, Christopher C.

    2012-07-01

    Dust in snow accelerates snowmelt through its direct reduction of snow albedo and its further indirect reduction of albedo by accelerating the growth of snow grains. Since the westward expansion of the United States that began in the mid-19th century, the mountain snow cover of the Colorado River Basin has been subject to five-fold greater dust loading, largely from the Colorado Plateau and Great Basin. Radiative forcing of snowmelt by dust is not captured by conventional micrometeorological measurements, and must be monitored by a more comprehensive suite of radiation instruments. Here we present a 6 year record of energy balance and detailed radiation measurements in the Senator Beck Basin Study Area, San Juan Mountains, Colorado, USA. Data include broadband irradiance, filtered irradiance, broadband reflected flux, filtered reflected flux, broadband and visible albedo, longwave irradiance, wind speed, relative humidity, and air temperatures. The gradient of the snow surface is monitored weekly and used to correct albedo measurements for geometric effects. The snow is sampled weekly for dust concentrations in plots immediately adjacent to each tower over the melt season. Broadband albedo in the last weeks of snow cover ranged from 0.33 to 0.55 across the 6 years and two sites. Total end of year dust concentration in the top 3 cm of the snow column ranged from 0.23 mg g-1 to 4.16 mg g-1. These measurements enable monitoring and modeling of dust and climate-driven snowmelt forcings in the Upper Colorado River Basin.

  7. Blowing snow detection from ground-based ceilometers: application to East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossart, Alexandra; Souverijns, Niels; Gorodetskaya, Irina V.; Lhermitte, Stef; Lenaerts, Jan T. M.; Schween, Jan H.; Mangold, Alexander; Laffineur, Quentin; van Lipzig, Nicole P. M.

    2017-12-01

    Blowing snow impacts Antarctic ice sheet surface mass balance by snow redistribution and sublimation. However, numerical models poorly represent blowing snow processes, while direct observations are limited in space and time. Satellite retrieval of blowing snow is hindered by clouds and only the strongest events are considered. Here, we develop a blowing snow detection (BSD) algorithm for ground-based remote-sensing ceilometers in polar regions and apply it to ceilometers at Neumayer III and Princess Elisabeth (PE) stations, East Antarctica. The algorithm is able to detect (heavy) blowing snow layers reaching 30 m height. Results show that 78 % of the detected events are in agreement with visual observations at Neumayer III station. The BSD algorithm detects heavy blowing snow 36 % of the time at Neumayer (2011-2015) and 13 % at PE station (2010-2016). Blowing snow occurrence peaks during the austral winter and shows around 5 % interannual variability. The BSD algorithm is capable of detecting blowing snow both lifted from the ground and occurring during precipitation, which is an added value since results indicate that 92 % of the blowing snow is during synoptic events, often combined with precipitation. Analysis of atmospheric meteorological variables shows that blowing snow occurrence strongly depends on fresh snow availability in addition to wind speed. This finding challenges the commonly used parametrizations, where the threshold for snow particles to be lifted is a function of wind speed only. Blowing snow occurs predominantly during storms and overcast conditions, shortly after precipitation events, and can reach up to 1300 m a. g. l. in the case of heavy mixed events (precipitation and blowing snow together). These results suggest that synoptic conditions play an important role in generating blowing snow events and that fresh snow availability should be considered in determining the blowing snow onset.

  8. Blowing snow detection from ground-based ceilometers: application to East Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gossart

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Blowing snow impacts Antarctic ice sheet surface mass balance by snow redistribution and sublimation. However, numerical models poorly represent blowing snow processes, while direct observations are limited in space and time. Satellite retrieval of blowing snow is hindered by clouds and only the strongest events are considered. Here, we develop a blowing snow detection (BSD algorithm for ground-based remote-sensing ceilometers in polar regions and apply it to ceilometers at Neumayer III and Princess Elisabeth (PE stations, East Antarctica. The algorithm is able to detect (heavy blowing snow layers reaching 30 m height. Results show that 78 % of the detected events are in agreement with visual observations at Neumayer III station. The BSD algorithm detects heavy blowing snow 36 % of the time at Neumayer (2011–2015 and 13 % at PE station (2010–2016. Blowing snow occurrence peaks during the austral winter and shows around 5 % interannual variability. The BSD algorithm is capable of detecting blowing snow both lifted from the ground and occurring during precipitation, which is an added value since results indicate that 92 % of the blowing snow is during synoptic events, often combined with precipitation. Analysis of atmospheric meteorological variables shows that blowing snow occurrence strongly depends on fresh snow availability in addition to wind speed. This finding challenges the commonly used parametrizations, where the threshold for snow particles to be lifted is a function of wind speed only. Blowing snow occurs predominantly during storms and overcast conditions, shortly after precipitation events, and can reach up to 1300 m a. g. l.  in the case of heavy mixed events (precipitation and blowing snow together. These results suggest that synoptic conditions play an important role in generating blowing snow events and that fresh snow availability should be considered in determining the blowing snow onset.

  9. Properties of the surface snow in Princess Elizabeth Land, East Antarctica - climate and non-climate dependent variability of the surface mass balance and stable water isotopic composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirova, D.; Ekaykin, A.; Lipenkov, V.; Popov, S. V.; Petit, J. R.; Masson-Delmotte, V.

    2017-12-01

    Glaciological and meteorological observations conducted during the past four decades in Princess Elizabeth Land, East Antarctica, are compiled. The database is used to investigate spatial patterns of surface snow isotopic composition and surface mass balance, including detailed information near subglacial lake Vostok. We show diverse relationships between snow isotopic composition and surface temperature. In the most inland part (elevation 3200-3400 m a.s.l.), surface snow isotopic composition varies independently from surface temperature, and is closely related to the distance to the open water source (with a slope of 0.98±0.17 ‰ per 100 km). Surface mass balance values are higher along the ice sheet slope, and relatively evenly distributed inland. The minimum values of snow isotopic composition and surface mass balance are identified in an area XX km southwestward from Vostok station. The spatial distribution of deuterium excess delineates regions influenced by the Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean air masses, with Vostok area being situated close to their boundary. Anomalously high deuterium excess values are observed near Dome A, suggesting high kinetic fractionation for its moisture source, or specifically high post-deposition artifacts. The dataset is available for further studies such as the assessment of skills of general circulation or regional atmospheric models, and the search for the oldest ice.

  10. Effect of summer throughfall exclusion, summer drought, and winter snow cover on methane fluxes in a temperate forest soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borken, W.; Davidson, E.A.; Savage, K.; Sundquist, E.T.; Steudler, P.

    2006-01-01

    Soil moisture strongly controls the uptake of atmospheric methane by limiting the diffusion of methane into the soil, resulting in a negative correlation between soil moisture and methane uptake rates under most non-drought conditions. However, little is known about the effect of water stress on methane uptake in temperate forests during severe droughts. We simulated extreme summer droughts by exclusion of 168 mm (2001) and 344 mm (2002) throughfall using three translucent roofs in a mixed deciduous forest at the Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, USA. The treatment significantly increased CH4 uptake during the first weeks of throughfall exclusion in 2001 and during most of the 2002 treatment period. Low summertime CH4 uptake rates were found only briefly in both control and exclusion plots during a natural late summer drought, when water contents below 0.15 g cm-3 may have caused water stress of methanotrophs in the A horizon. Because these soils are well drained, the exclusion treatment had little effect on A horizon water content between wetting events, and the effect of water stress was smaller and more brief than was the overall treatment effect on methane diffusion. Methane consumption rates were highest in the A horizon and showed a parabolic relationship between gravimetric water content and CH4 consumption, with maximum rate at 0.23 g H2O g-1 soil. On average, about 74% of atmospheric CH4 was consumed in the top 4-5 cm of the mineral soil. By contrast, little or no CH4 consumption occurred in the O horizon. Snow cover significantly reduced the uptake rate from December to March. Removal of snow enhanced CH4 uptake by about 700-1000%, resulting in uptake rates similar to those measured during the growing season. Soil temperatures had little effect on CH4 uptake as long as the mineral soil was not frozen, indicating strong substrate limitation of methanotrophs throughout the year. Our results suggest that the extension of snow periods may affect the annual rate

  11. A mass balance approach to the fate of viruses in a municipal wastewater treatment plant during summer and winter seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbricht, Katharina; Selinka, Hans-Christoph; Wolter, Stefanie; Rosenwinkel, Karl-Heinz; Nogueira, Regina

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to previous discussion on general virus removal efficiency and identifying surrogates for human pathogenic viruses, this study focuses on virus retention within each step of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Additionally, the influence of weather conditions on virus removal was addressed. To account for the virus retention, this study describes a mass balance of somatic coliphages (bacterial viruses) in a municipal WWTP, performed in the winter and summer seasons of 2011. In the winter season, the concentration of coliphages entering the WWTP was about 1 log lower than in summer. The mass balance in winter revealed a virus inactivation of 85.12 ± 13.97%. During the summer season, virus inactivation was significantly higher (95.25 ± 3.69%, p-value virus removal in the secondary clarifier by insolation. Thus, a total removal of coliphages of about 2.78 log units was obtained in summer compared to 1.95 log units in winter. Rainfall events did not statistically correlate with the concentrations of coliphages entering the WWTP in summer.

  12. Unexpected Patterns in Snow and Dirt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerson, Bruce J.

    2018-01-01

    For more than 30 years, Albert A. Bartlett published "Thermal patterns in the snow" in this journal. These are patterns produced by heat sources underneath the snow. Bartlett's articles encouraged me to pay attention to patterns in snow and to understanding them. At winter's end the last snow becomes dirty and is heaped into piles. This…

  13. Validation of MODIS snow cover images over Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Parajka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS snow cover product over the territory of Austria. The aims are (a to analyse the spatial and temporal variability of the MODIS snow product classes, (b to examine the accuracy of the MODIS snow product against in situ snow depth data, and (c to identify the main factors that may influence the MODIS classification accuracy. We use daily MODIS grid maps (version 4 and daily snow depth measurements at 754 climate stations in the period from February 2000 to December 2005. The results indicate that, on average, clouds obscured 63% of Austria, which may significantly restrict the applicability of the MODIS snow cover images to hydrological modelling. On cloud-free days, however, the classification accuracy is very good with an average of 95%. There is no consistent relationship between the classification errors and dominant land cover type and local topographical variability but there are clear seasonal patterns to the errors. In December and January the errors are around 15% while in summer they are less than 1%. This seasonal pattern is related to the overall percentage of snow cover in Austria, although in spring, when there is a well developed snow pack, errors tend to be smaller than they are in early winter for the same overall percent snow cover. Overestimation and underestimation errors balance during most of the year which indicates little bias. In November and December, however, there appears to exist a tendency for overestimation. Part of the errors may be related to the temporal shift between the in situ snow depth measurements (07:00 a.m. and the MODIS acquisition time (early afternoon. The comparison of daily air temperature maps with MODIS snow cover images indicates that almost all MODIS overestimation errors are caused by the misclassification of cirrus clouds as snow.

  14. Daily gridded datasets of snow depth and snow water equivalent for the Iberian Peninsula from 1980 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-González, Esteban; López-Moreno, J. Ignacio; Gascoin, Simon; García-Valdecasas Ojeda, Matilde; Sanmiguel-Vallelado, Alba; Navarro-Serrano, Francisco; Revuelto, Jesús; Ceballos, Antonio; Jesús Esteban-Parra, María; Essery, Richard

    2018-02-01

    We present snow observations and a validated daily gridded snowpack dataset that was simulated from downscaled reanalysis of data for the Iberian Peninsula. The Iberian Peninsula has long-lasting seasonal snowpacks in its different mountain ranges, and winter snowfall occurs in most of its area. However, there are only limited direct observations of snow depth (SD) and snow water equivalent (SWE), making it difficult to analyze snow dynamics and the spatiotemporal patterns of snowfall. We used meteorological data from downscaled reanalyses as input of a physically based snow energy balance model to simulate SWE and SD over the Iberian Peninsula from 1980 to 2014. More specifically, the ERA-Interim reanalysis was downscaled to 10 km × 10 km resolution using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The WRF outputs were used directly, or as input to other submodels, to obtain data needed to drive the Factorial Snow Model (FSM). We used lapse rate coefficients and hygrobarometric adjustments to simulate snow series at 100 m elevations bands for each 10 km × 10 km grid cell in the Iberian Peninsula. The snow series were validated using data from MODIS satellite sensor and ground observations. The overall simulated snow series accurately reproduced the interannual variability of snowpack and the spatial variability of snow accumulation and melting, even in very complex topographic terrains. Thus, the presented dataset may be useful for many applications, including land management, hydrometeorological studies, phenology of flora and fauna, winter tourism, and risk management. The data presented here are freely available for download from Zenodo (https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.854618" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.854618). This paper fully describes the work flow, data validation, uncertainty assessment, and possible applications and limitations of the database.

  15. Development of a land surface model with coupled snow and frozen soil physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Zhou, Jing; Qi, Jia; Sun, Litao; Yang, Kun; Tian, Lide; Lin, Yanluan; Liu, Wenbin; Shrestha, Maheswor; Xue, Yongkang; Koike, Toshio; Ma, Yaoming; Li, Xiuping; Chen, Yingying; Chen, Deliang; Piao, Shilong; Lu, Hui

    2017-06-01

    Snow and frozen soil are important factors that influence terrestrial water and energy balances through snowpack accumulation and melt and soil freeze-thaw. In this study, a new land surface model (LSM) with coupled snow and frozen soil physics was developed based on a hydrologically improved LSM (HydroSiB2). First, an energy-balance-based three-layer snow model was incorporated into HydroSiB2 (hereafter HydroSiB2-S) to provide an improved description of the internal processes of the snow pack. Second, a universal and simplified soil model was coupled with HydroSiB2-S to depict soil water freezing and thawing (hereafter HydroSiB2-SF). In order to avoid the instability caused by the uncertainty in estimating water phase changes, enthalpy was adopted as a prognostic variable instead of snow/soil temperature in the energy balance equation of the snow/frozen soil module. The newly developed models were then carefully evaluated at two typical sites of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) (one snow covered and the other snow free, both with underlying frozen soil). At the snow-covered site in northeastern TP (DY), HydroSiB2-SF demonstrated significant improvements over HydroSiB2-F (same as HydroSiB2-SF but using the original single-layer snow module of HydroSiB2), showing the importance of snow internal processes in three-layer snow parameterization. At the snow-free site in southwestern TP (Ngari), HydroSiB2-SF reasonably simulated soil water phase changes while HydroSiB2-S did not, indicating the crucial role of frozen soil parameterization in depicting the soil thermal and water dynamics. Finally, HydroSiB2-SF proved to be capable of simulating upward moisture fluxes toward the freezing front from the underlying soil layers in winter.

  16. Snow Fun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, Joy

    1988-01-01

    Describes several learning activities that can be done with children in the snow. Includes shake paintings, snow sculpture, snow "snakes," snow-ball contests, an igloo experience, and how to make snowshoes. (TW)

  17. Snow multivariable data assimilation for hydrological predictions in Alpine sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazzi, Gaia; Thirel, Guillaume; Campo, Lorenzo; Gabellani, Simone; Stevenin, Hervè

    2017-04-01

    Snowpack dynamics (snow accumulation and ablation) strongly impacts on hydrological processes in Alpine areas. During the winter season the presence of snow cover (snow accumulation) reduces the drainage in the basin with a resulting lower watershed time of concentration in case of possible rainfall events. Moreover, the release of the significant water volume stored in winter (snowmelt) considerably contributes to the total discharge during the melting period. Therefore when modeling hydrological processes in snow-dominated catchments the quality of predictions deeply depends on how the model succeeds in catching snowpack dynamics. The integration of a hydrological model with a snow module allows improving predictions of river discharges. Besides the well-known modeling limitations (uncertainty in parameterizations; possible errors affecting both meteorological forcing data and initial conditions; approximations in boundary conditions), there are physical factors that make an exhaustive reconstruction of snow dynamics complicated: snow intermittence in space and time, stratification and slow phenomena like metamorphism processes, uncertainty in snowfall evaluation, wind transportation, etc. Data Assimilation (DA) techniques provide an objective methodology to combine several independent snow-related data sources (model simulations, ground-based measurements and remote sensed observations) in order to obtain the most likely estimate of snowpack state. This study presents SMASH (Snow Multidata Assimilation System for Hydrology), a multi-layer snow dynamic model strengthened by a multivariable DA framework for hydrological purposes. The model is physically based on mass and energy balances and can be used to reproduce the main physical processes occurring within the snowpack: accumulation, density dynamics, melting, sublimation, radiative balance, heat and mass exchanges. The model is driven by observed forcing meteorological data (air temperature, wind velocity

  18. After the Earthquake: Impacts of Seismic Snow and Ice Redistribution in Langtang Valley, Nepal, on Glacier Mass Balances and Hydrological Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, J. M.; Ragettli, S.; Immerzeel, W.; Pellicciotti, F.; Miles, E. S.; Steiner, J. F.; Buri, P.; Kraaijenbrink, P. D. A.

    2015-12-01

    The magnitude 7.8 Gorkha Earthquake that struck Nepal on 25 April 2015 resulted in a catastrophic loss of life and property, and had major impacts in high mountain areas. The earthquake resulted in a number of massive ice avalanches in Langtang Valley that destroyed entire villages and killed over 300 people. We first conduct a remote sensing analysis of the entire catchment, and attempt to quantify the volumes of snow and ice redistributed through high-resolution optical imagery, thermal imagery, and DEM differencing. Where data are available we examine the impact on the surface mass balances of four major glaciers (Lirung, Shalbachaum, Langtang and Langshisha). Finally, we use the physically-based and fully distributed TOPKAPI model to simulate the impacts of the co-seismic snow and ice redistribution on the hydrology of the Langtang River.

  19. Foraging patch selection in winter: a balance between predation risk and thermoregulation benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villén-Pérez, Sara; Carrascal, Luis M; Seoane, Javier

    2013-01-01

    In winter, foraging activity is intended to optimize food search while minimizing both thermoregulation costs and predation risk. Here we quantify the relative importance of thermoregulation and predation in foraging patch selection of woodland birds wintering in a Mediterranean montane forest. Specifically, we account for thermoregulation benefits related to temperature, and predation risk associated with both illumination of the feeding patch and distance to the nearest refuge provided by vegetation. We measured the amount of time that 38 marked individual birds belonging to five small passerine species spent foraging at artificial feeders. Feeders were located in forest patches that vary in distance to protective cover and exposure to sun radiation; temperature and illumination were registered locally by data loggers. Our results support the influence of both thermoregulation benefits and predation costs on feeding patch choice. The influence of distance to refuge (negative relationship) was nearly three times higher than that of temperature (positive relationship) in determining total foraging time spent at a patch. Light intensity had a negligible and no significant effect. This pattern was generalizable among species and individuals within species, and highlights the preponderance of latent predation risk over thermoregulation benefits on foraging decisions of birds wintering in temperate Mediterranean forests.

  20. Foraging patch selection in winter: a balance between predation risk and thermoregulation benefit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Villén-Pérez

    Full Text Available In winter, foraging activity is intended to optimize food search while minimizing both thermoregulation costs and predation risk. Here we quantify the relative importance of thermoregulation and predation in foraging patch selection of woodland birds wintering in a Mediterranean montane forest. Specifically, we account for thermoregulation benefits related to temperature, and predation risk associated with both illumination of the feeding patch and distance to the nearest refuge provided by vegetation. We measured the amount of time that 38 marked individual birds belonging to five small passerine species spent foraging at artificial feeders. Feeders were located in forest patches that vary in distance to protective cover and exposure to sun radiation; temperature and illumination were registered locally by data loggers. Our results support the influence of both thermoregulation benefits and predation costs on feeding patch choice. The influence of distance to refuge (negative relationship was nearly three times higher than that of temperature (positive relationship in determining total foraging time spent at a patch. Light intensity had a negligible and no significant effect. This pattern was generalizable among species and individuals within species, and highlights the preponderance of latent predation risk over thermoregulation benefits on foraging decisions of birds wintering in temperate Mediterranean forests.

  1. Snow Cover Monitoring Using MODIS Data in Liaoning Province, Northeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of snow cover monitoring studies in Liaoning Province, northeastern China, using MODIS data. Snow cover plays an important role in both the regional water balance and soil moisture properties during the early spring in northeastern China. In addition, heavy snowfalls commonly trigger hazards such as flooding, caused by rapid snow melt, or crop failure, resulting from fluctuations in soil temperature associated with changes in the snow cover. The latter is a function of both regional, or global, climatic changes, as well as fluctuations in the albedo resulting from variations in the Snow Covered Area (SCA. These impacts are crucial to human activities, especially to those living in middle-latitude areas such as Liaoning Province. Thus, SCA monitoring is currently an important tool in studies of global climate change, particularly because satellite remote sensing data provide timely and efficient snow cover information for large areas. In this study, MODIS L1B data, MODIS Daily Snow Products (MOD10A1 and MODIS 8-day Snow Products (MOD10A2 were used to monitor the SCA of Liaoning Province over the winter months of November–April, 2006–2008. The effects of cloud masking and forest masking on the snow monitoring results were also assessed. The results show that the SCA percentage derived from MODIS L1B data is relatively consistent, but slightly higher than that obtained from MODIS Snow Products. In situ data from 25 snow stations were used to assess the accuracy of snow cover monitoring from the SCA compared to the results from MODIS Snow Products. The studies found that the SCA results were more reliable than MODIS Snow Products in the study area.

  2. Evaluation of snow and frozen soil parameterization in a cryosphere land surface modeling framework in the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J.

    2017-12-01

    Snow and frozen soil are important components in the Tibetan Plateau, and influence the water cycle and energy balances through snowpack accumulation and melt and soil freeze-thaw. In this study, a new cryosphere land surface model (LSM) with coupled snow and frozen soil parameterization was developed based on a hydrologically improved LSM (HydroSiB2). First, an energy-balance-based three-layer snow model was incorporated into HydroSiB2 (hereafter HydroSiB2-S) to provide an improved description of the internal processes of the snow pack. Second, a universal and simplified soil model was coupled with HydroSiB2-S to depict soil water freezing and thawing (hereafter HydroSiB2-SF). In order to avoid the instability caused by the uncertainty in estimating water phase changes, enthalpy was adopted as a prognostic variable instead of snow/soil temperature in the energy balance equation of the snow/frozen soil module. The newly developed models were then carefully evaluated at two typical sites of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) (one snow covered and the other snow free, both with underlying frozen soil). At the snow-covered site in northeastern TP (DY), HydroSiB2-SF demonstrated significant improvements over HydroSiB2-F (same as HydroSiB2-SF but using the original single-layer snow module of HydroSiB2), showing the importance of snow internal processes in three-layer snow parameterization. At the snow-free site in southwestern TP (Ngari), HydroSiB2-SF reasonably simulated soil water phase changes while HydroSiB2-S did not, indicating the crucial role of frozen soil parameterization in depicting the soil thermal and water dynamics. Finally, HydroSiB2-SF proved to be capable of simulating upward moisture fluxes toward the freezing front from the underlying soil layers in winter.

  3. Evaluation of forest snow processes models (SnowMKIP2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nick Rutter; Richard Essery; John Pomeroy; Nuria Altimir; Kostas Andreadis; Ian Baker; Alan Barr; Paul Bartlett; Aaron Boone; Huiping Deng; Herve Douville; Emanuel Dutra; Kelly Elder; others

    2009-01-01

    Thirty-three snowpack models of varying complexity and purpose were evaluated across a wide range of hydrometeorological and forest canopy conditions at five Northern Hemisphere locations, for up to two winter snow seasons. Modeled estimates of snow water equivalent (SWE) or depth were compared to observations at forest and open sites at each location. Precipitation...

  4. Balance sheet method assessment for nitrogen fertilization in winter wheat: II. alternative strategies using the CropSyst simulation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Corbellini

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available It is important, both for farmer profit and for the environment, to correctly dose fertilizer nitrogen (N for winter wheat growth. Balance-sheet methods are often used to calculate the recommended dose of N fertilizer. Other methods are based on the dynamic simulation of cropping systems. Aim of the work was to evaluate the balance-sheet method set up by the Region Emilia-Romagna (DPI, by comparing it with the cropping systems simulation model CropSyst (CS, and with an approach based on fixed supplies of N (T. A 3-year trial was structured as a series of N fertility regimes at 3 sites (Papiano di Marsciano, Ravenna, San Pancrazio. The N-regimes were generated at each site-year as separate trials in which 3 N rates were applied: N1 (DPI, N2 (DPI+50 kg ha-1 N at spike initiation, N3 (DPI + 50 kg ha-1 N at early booting. Above ground biomass and soil data (NO3-N and water were sampled and used to calibrate CS. Doses of fertilizer N were calculated by both DPI and CS for winter wheat included in three typical rotations for Central and Northern Italy. Both these methods and method T were simulated at each site over 50 years, by using daily generated weather data. The long-term simulation allowed evaluating such alternative fertilization strategies. DPI and CS estimated comparable crop yields and N leached amounts, and both resulted better than T. Minor risk of leaching emerged for all N doses. The N2 and N3 rates allowed slightly higher crop yields than N1.

  5. Hydrological Implications of Covering Wind-Blown Snow Accumulations with Geotextiles on Mount Aragats, Armenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Nestler

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Snow is an excellent water reservoir, naturally storing large quantities of water at time scales from a few days to several months. In summer-dry countries, like Armenia, runoff due to snow melt from mountain regions is highly important for a sustained water supply (irrigation, hydropower. Snow fields on Mount Aragats, Armenia’s highest peak, often persist until July, providing vital amounts of melt water. Artificially managing these wind-driven snow accumulations as a natural water reservoir might have considerable potential. In the context of the Swiss-Armenian joint venture, Freezwater, snow fields are covered with geotextiles in order to delay snow melt long enough to provide additional melt water in the dry season of the year. In this study, we analyze the hydrological effectiveness of the artificial management of the natural snow cover on Mount Aragats based on various field measurements acquired over a three-year period and numerical modeling. Over the winter season, partly more than five meter-thick snow deposits are formed supported by snow redistribution by strong wind. Repeated mappings of snow fields indicate that snow cover patterns remain highly consistent over time. Measurements of ablation below manually applied geotextiles show a considerable reduction of melt rates by more than 50%. Simulations with an energy-balance model and a distributed temperature-index model allow assessing the hydrological effect of artificial snow management for different initial snow depths and elevations and suggest that coverage is needed at a large scale in order to generate a significant impact on discharge.

  6. A Comparison of the SNICAR Radiative Transfer Model to In Situ Snow Characterization Measurements at Sites in New England, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, A. C.; Albert, M. R.; Dibb, J. E.; Lazarcik, J.; Amante, J.

    2016-12-01

    As a highly reflective material, snow serves as an important control on surface energy balance. Given the current changes in climate and the sensitivity of snow cover to rising temperatures, it is critical that we understand the role of snow and its associated feedbacks in the climate system. Much of snow albedo research has focused on polar or high altitude snow packs, but rapid changes are also occurring in temperate regions; in the northeastern United States of America, changing climate has resulted in shallower snow packs and fewer days of snow cover. As these changes occur and we seek to understand the associated implications for snow albedo within climate dynamics, it is imperative that we are able to accurately represent snow in models. The SNow, ICe, and Aerosol Radiation model (SNICAR), developed by Flanner and Zender (2005) and used in the IPCC assessments, provides upward and downward radiative fluxes of one or many snow layers based on the following inputs: snow depth, density, grain size, and impurity content; solar zenith angle; lighting conditions; and albedo of the surface beneath the snowpack. To our knowledge, the SNICAR model has not been validated with data from a mid-latitude temperate region. Through a measurement campaign that occurred from winter 2013-2016, we have collected over 400 independent observations of a suite of snow characterization measurements and spectral snow albedo from three different sites in New Hampshire, USA. Comparison of our spectral albedo measurements to the SNICAR albedo derived from measured snow properties and illumination conditions will allow for validation of the model or recommendations for improvement based on the sensitivities found in the data.

  7. Improving snow albedo processes in WRF/SSiB regional climate model to assess impact of dust and black carbon in snow on surface energy balance and hydrology over western U.S.

    OpenAIRE

    Oaida, CM; Xue, Y; Flanner, MG; Skiles, SMK; De Sales, F; Painter, TH

    2015-01-01

    © 2015. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Two important factors that control snow albedo are snow grain growth and presence of light-absorbing impurities (aerosols) in snow. However, current regional climate models do not include such processes in a physically based manner in their land surface models. We improve snow albedo calculations in the Simplified Simple Biosphere (SSiB) land surface model coupled with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) regional climate model (R...

  8. Response of winter chemical defense in Alaska paper birch and green alder to manipulation of plant carbon/nutrient balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, J P; Chapin, F S; Reichardt, P B; Clausen, T P

    1987-07-01

    Plant carbon/nutrient balance has been implicated as an important factor in plant defensive chemistry and palatability to herbivores. We tested this hypothesis by fertilizing juvenile growth form Alaska paper birch and green alder with N, P and N-plus-P in a balanced 2x2 factorial experiment. Additionally, we shaded unfertilized plants of both species. Fertilization with N and N-plus-P increased growth of Alaska paper birch, reduced the concentration of papyriferic acid in internodes and increased the palatability of birch twigs to snowshoe hares. Shading decreased birch growth, decreased the concentration of papyriferic acid in internodes and increased twig palatability. These results indicate that the defensive chemistry and palatability of winter-dormant juvenile Alaska paper birch are sensitive to soil fertility and shade. Conversely the defensive chemistry and palatability of green alder twigs to snowshoe hares were not significantly affected by soil fertility or shade. The greater sensitivity of Alaska paper birch defensive chemistry and palatability to snowshoe hares in comparison to green alder is in agreement with the hypothesis that early successional woody plants that are adapted to high resource availability are more plastic in their chemical responses to the physical environment than are species from less favorable environments.

  9. Ostertagia ostertagi in calves: growth, nitrogen balance and digestibility studies conducted during winter feeding following different fenbendazole therapy programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkins, J J; Bairden, K; Armour, J

    1982-01-01

    Observations of growth, nitrogen (N) balance and digestibility were made during the first winter housing period upon three groups of calves which had previously been naturally infected with Ostertagia ostertagi and which were left either untreated (A) or treated with fenbendazole on three occasions (B) or every two weeks during the entire grazing season (C). The diet given contained sufficient metabolisable energy but only about 60 per cent of the recommended crude protein to sustain a daily growth rate of 0.5 kg. Growth rates were only 50 per cent of that expected on a basis of metabolisable energy input with untreated calves A being poorest. Water intake and output was greatest in group A. There were no significant differences in digestibility between groups although group A had the lowest apparent crude protein digestibility. N balance was always lowest in group A and highest in group C but group B demonstrated a marked increase in N retention with time after housing. Differences in N retention were mainly accounted for by increased urinary N excretion. It is concluded that, under conditions of suboptimal protein intake, nematode infection in the growing calf can markedly affect production even after efficient anthelmintic treatment.

  10. Recent research in snow hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, Jeff

    1987-01-01

    Recent work on snow-pack energy exchange has involved detailed investigations on snow albedo and attempts to integrate energy-balance calculations over drainage basins. Along with a better understanding of the EM properties of snow, research in remote sensing has become more focused toward estimation of snow-pack properties. In snow metamorphism, analyses of the physical processes must now be coupled to better descriptions of the geometry of the snow microstructure. The dilution method now appears to be the best direct technique for measuring the liquid water content of snow; work on EM methods continues. Increasing attention to the chemistry of the snow pack has come with the general focus on acid precipitation in hydrology.

  11. Origin of elemental carbon in snow from western Siberia and northwestern European Russia during winter-spring 2014, 2015 and 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Shevchenko, Vladimir P.; Espen Yttri, Karl; Eckhardt, Sabine; Sollum, Espen; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Kobelev, Vasily O.; Korobov, Vladimir B.; Lobanov, Andrey A.; Starodymova, Dina P.; Vorobiev, Sergey N.; Thompson, Rona L.; Stohl, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Short-lived climate forcers have been proven important both for the climate and human health. In particular, black carbon (BC) is an important climate forcer both as an aerosol and when deposited on snow and ice surface because of its strong light absorption. This paper presents measurements of elemental carbon (EC; a measurement-based definition of BC) in snow collected from western Siberia and northwestern European Russia during 2014, 2015 and 2016. The Russian Arctic is of great interest to the scientific community due to the large uncertainty of emission sources there. We have determined the major contributing sources of BC in snow in western Siberia and northwestern European Russia using a Lagrangian atmospheric transport model. For the first time, we use a recently developed feature that calculates deposition in backward (so-called retroplume) simulations allowing estimation of the specific locations of sources that contribute to the deposited mass. EC concentrations in snow from western Siberia and northwestern European Russia were highly variable depending on the sampling location. Modelled BC and measured EC were moderately correlated (R = 0.53-0.83) and a systematic region-specific model underestimation was found. The model underestimated observations by 42 % (RMSE = 49 ng g-1) in 2014, 48 % (RMSE = 37 ng g-1) in 2015 and 27 % (RMSE = 43 ng g-1) in 2016. For EC sampled in northwestern European Russia the underestimation by the model was smaller (fractional bias, FB > -100 %). In this region, the major sources were transportation activities and domestic combustion in Finland. When sampling shifted to western Siberia, the model underestimation was more significant (FB model calculations was also evaluated using two independent datasets of BC measurements in snow covering the entire Arctic. The model underestimated BC concentrations in snow especially for samples collected in springtime.

  12. The nitrogen fertilizer utilization and nitrogen balance by winter wheat in sandy soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kou Changlin; Wang Hengyu

    2003-01-01

    The effects of different fertilization stage on wheat yield, nitrogen uptake, utilization, residue, distribution and nitrogen balance were studied by potted plant experiment. The results showed that the highest yield obtained appeared in the treatment of topdressing on shooting age when 1/2 nitrogen fertilizer applied as base fertilizer. Topdressing on earning stage reached higher yield than that on regreening stage on the case of lower nitrogen applied. There was no difference between these two treatment if higher nitrogen applied. Nitrogen plant uptake in 1/2 nitrogen as topdressing treatment was significantly higher than that of all as base fertilizer, which mainly because of improved efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer. 31.7%-66.8% of residue nitrogen in soil was distributed in 0-40 cm soil layer after harvest and proportion of residue nitrogen in this layer was increased when nitrogen fertilizer applied later. However, in the treatment of all nitrogen applied as base fertilizer and topdressing on regreening stage, proportion of residue nitrogen in the subsoil was higher than topdressing in later state, which in 80-100 cm depth was even exceeded that in the topsoil

  13. N balance of different N application rate of winter wheat under water-saving condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shijuan; Zhu Yeping; Sun Kaimeng; E Yue

    2003-01-01

    N uptake and N balance of different N rate applied to wheat under water-saving condition were investigated with 15 N tracer technique and the dynamic N uptake of economic N treatment under two irrigation conditions was compared. The results showed that (1) compared with conventional n treatment, the N loss of economic N treatment reduced while NUE and N residue in soil improved under water-saving condition; (2) Use efficiency of fertilizer applied as basal fertilizer was higher than that as top-dressing fertilizer under water-saving condition; (3) The fertilizer N residue rate was from 29% to 41%, and 60% of N residue, which distributed in 1 m depth soil concentrated in 0-20 cm surface layer; (4) In whole growing stage of wheat, fertilizer N hadn't leach to 130 cm depth; (5) NUE of economic N treatment under conventional irrigation decreased by 16.6% compared with the same n treatment under water-saving condition

  14. Snow sublimation on a high-altitude Himalayan glacier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigter, E.; Litt, M.; Steiner, J. F.; Bonekamp, P. N. J.; Bierkens, M. F.; Shea, J.; Immerzeel, W. W.

    2017-12-01

    Snow sublimation is a loss of water from a snowpack to the atmosphere due to direct phase transition of snow to water vapour. Conditions at high elevations in the Himalaya favour sublimation, i.e. low atmospheric pressure, high wind speed, dry air and high incoming solar radiation. Snow sublimation is a potential important component of the high-altitude water and glacier mass balance, but measurements are non-existent in the Himalaya and models generally ignore this process. Hence, we measured surface latent heat fluxes with an eddy covariance system on Yala Glacier (5350 m a.s.l) in the Nepalese Himalaya to quantify the role snow sublimation plays in the water budget. A one-month data set from October to November 2016 reveals that cumulative sublimation is substantial relative to the dry season precipitation (31 mm for a 32-day period). Sublimation parameterizations of different complexity were subsequently tested against our field measurements to quantify sublimation patterns in space and over longer periods based on nominal meteorological measurements. Results show that a multiple linear regression on wind speed and humidity performed best and this is used to simulate snow sublimation spatially distributed on Yala Glacier for the winter season 2016-2017. Averaged over an entire winter and over the entire glacier surface, sublimation plays a crucial role in the high altitude water balance and in the mass balance of glaciers. Future research should focus on quantifying the role of sublimation at the catchment scale, the development of larger scale parametrizations and efficient measurement strategies to validate the results.

  15. New Perspectives on Blowing Snow Transport, Sublimation, and Layer Thermodynamic Structure over Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, S. P.; Yang, Y.; Kayetha, V.; Pauly, R.

    2017-12-01

    Blowing snow over Antarctica is a widespread and frequent event. Satellite remote sensing using lidar has shown that blowing snow occurs over 70% of the time over large areas of Antarctica in winter. The transport and sublimation of blowing snow are important terms in the ice sheet mass balance equation and the latter is also an important part of the hydrological cycle. Until now the only way to estimate the magnitude of these processes was through model parameterization. We present a technique that uses direct satellite observations of blowing snow and model (MERRA-2) temperature and humidity fields to compute both transport and sublimation of blowing snow over Antarctica for the period 2006 to 2016. The results show a larger annual continent-wide integrated sublimation than current published estimates and a significant transport of snow from continent to ocean. The talk will also include the lidar backscatter structure of blowing snow layers that often reach heights of 200 to 300 m as well as the first dropsonde measurements of temperature, moisture and wind through blowing snow layers.

  16. New Perspectives on Blowing Snow Transport, Sublimation, and Layer Thermodynamic Structure over Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Steve; Kayetha, Vinay; Yang, Yuekui; Pauly, Rebecca M.

    2017-01-01

    Blowing snow over Antarctica is a widespread and frequent event. Satellite remote sensing using lidar has shown that blowing snow occurs over 70% of the time over large areas of Antarctica in winter. The transport and sublimation of blowing snow are important terms in the ice sheet mass balance equation and the latter is also an important part of the hydrological cycle. Until now the only way to estimate the magnitude of these processes was through model parameterization. We present a technique that uses direct satellite observations of blowing snow and model (MERRA-2) temperature and humidity fields to compute both transport and sublimation of blowing snow over Antarctica for the period 2006 to 2016. The results show a larger annual continent-wide integrated sublimation than current published estimates and a significant transport of snow from continent to ocean. The talk will also include the lidar backscatter structure of blowing snow layers that often reach heights of 200 to 300 m as well as the first dropsonde measurements of temperature, moisture and wind through blowing snow layers.

  17. Spatiotemporal variability of snow depth across the Eurasian continent from 1966 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xinyue; Zhang, Tingjun; Kang, Shichang; Wang, Kang; Zheng, Lei; Hu, Yuantao; Wang, Huijuan

    2018-01-01

    Snow depth is one of the key physical parameters for understanding land surface energy balance, soil thermal regime, water cycle, and assessing water resources from local community to regional industrial water supply. Previous studies by using in situ data are mostly site specific; data from satellite remote sensing may cover a large area or global scale, but uncertainties remain large. The primary objective of this study is to investigate spatial variability and temporal change in snow depth across the Eurasian continent. Data used include long-term (1966-2012) ground-based measurements from 1814 stations. Spatially, long-term (1971-2000) mean annual snow depths of >20 cm were recorded in northeastern European Russia, the Yenisei River basin, Kamchatka Peninsula, and Sakhalin. Annual mean and maximum snow depth increased by 0.2 and 0.6 cm decade-1 from 1966 through 2012. Seasonally, monthly mean snow depth decreased in autumn and increased in winter and spring over the study period. Regionally, snow depth significantly increased in areas north of 50° N. Compared with air temperature, snowfall had greater influence on snow depth during November through March across the former Soviet Union. This study provides a baseline for snow depth climatology and changes across the Eurasian continent, which would significantly help to better understanding climate system and climate changes on regional, hemispheric, or even global scales.

  18. Regime shift of snow days in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Christoph

    2008-06-01

    The number of days with a snow depth above a certain threshold is the key factor for winter tourism in an Alpine country like Switzerland. An investigation of 34 long-term stations between 200 and 1800 m asl (above sea level) going back for at least the last 60 years (1948-2007) shows an unprecedented series of low snow winters in the last 20 years. The signal is uniform despite high regional differences. A shift detection analysis revealed a significant step-like decrease in snow days at the end of the 1980's with no clear trend since then. This abrupt change resulted in a loss of 20% to 60% of the total snow days. The stepwise increase of the mean winter temperature at the end of the 1980's and its close correlation with the snow day anomalies corroborate the sensitivity of the mid-latitude winter to the climate change induced temperature increase.

  19. The value of snow cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokratov, S. A.

    2009-04-01

    Snow is the natural resource, like soil and water. It has specific properties which allow its use not just for skiing but also for houses cooling in summer (Swedish experience), for air fields construction (Arctic and Antarctic), for dams (north of Russia), for buildings (not only snow-houses of some Polar peoples but artistic hotel attracting tourists in Sweden), and as art material (Sapporo snow festival, Finnish events), etc. "Adjustment" of snow distribution and amount is not only rather common practice (avalanche-protection constructions keeping snow on slopes) but also the practice with long history. So-called "snow irrigation" was used in Russia since XIX century to protect winter crop. What is now named "artificial snow production", is part of much larger pattern. What makes it special—it is unavoidable in present climate and economy situation. 5% of national income in Austria is winter tourism. 50% of the economy in Savoy relay on winter tourism. In terms of money this can be less, but in terms of jobs and income involved this would be even more considerable in Switzerland. As an example—the population of Davos is 14000 in Summer and 50000 in Winter. Skiing is growing business. In present time you can find ski slopes in Turkey and Lebanon. To keep a cite suitable for attracting tourists you need certain amount of sunny days and certain amount of snow. The snow cannons are often the only way to keep a place running. On the other hand, more artificial snow does not necessary attract more tourists, while heavy natural snowfall does attract them. Artificial snow making is costly and requires infrastructure (ponds and electric lines) with very narrow range of weather conditions. Related companies are searching for alternatives and one of them can be "weather regulation" by distribution of some chemical components in clouds. It did not happen yet, but can happen soon. The consequences of such interference in Nature is hardly known. The ski tourism is not the

  20. Snow Leopard

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the Central Asian mountains and the Indian Himalayan re- gion. Owing to their ... ographical range and associated ecological, social, and cultural ... Central Asia. Snow Leopard: Morphology. The ability of snow leopards to camouflage with the surrounding landscape of rocks, sparse low vegetation, and snow is crucial for.

  1. Decontamination and winter conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quenild, C.; Tveten, U.

    1984-12-01

    The report deals with two decontamonation experiments under winter conditions. A snow-covered parking lot was contaminated, and the snow was subsequently removed using standard snow-moving equipment. The snow left behind was collected and the content of contaminant was determined. A non-radioactive contaminant was used. A decontamination factor exceeding 100 was obtained. Although the eksperimental conditions were close to ideal, it is reason to believe that extremely efficient removal of deposited materials on a snow surface is achivable. In another investigation, run-off from agricultural surface, contaminated while covered with snow, was measured A lycimeter was used in this experiment. A stable layer of ice and snow was allowed to form before contamination. The run-off water was collected at each thaw period until all snow and ice was gone. Cs-134 was used as contaminant. Roughly 30% of the Cs-134 with which the area was contaminated ran off with the melt water. Following a reactor accident situation, this would have given a corresponding reduction in the long term doses. Both of these experiments show that consequence calculation assumptions, as they are currently applied to large accident assessment, tend to overestimate the consequences resulting from accidents taking place under winter conditions

  2. Snow chemistry of high altitude glaciers in the French Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupetit, François; Delmas, Robert J.

    1994-09-01

    Snow samples were collected as snowcores in the accumulation zone of four high altitude glaciers (2980 3540m.a.s.l.) from each of the 4 highest mountain areas of the French Alps, during 3 consecutive years: 1989, 1990 and 1991. Sampling was performed in spring (˜ May), before the onset of late spring summer percolation. The accumulated snow therefore reflects winter and spring conditions. A complementary sampling of fresh-snow was performed on an event basis, on one of the studied glaciers, in 1990 and 1991. All samples were analysed for major ions (but also for total formate and acetate in fresh-snow samples) using ion chromatography. The acidity-alkalinity was accurately determined with a titration technique. The ion balance of alpine snow has been achieved from those analyses. High alpine snow is slightly acid (H+ 3 20 μeq 11), but is episodically affected by alkaline saharan dust events. The different sources (pollution, seasalt and soil dust) affecting the impurity content of snow were identified using principal component analysis. The measured free acidity, mainly from anthropogenic origin, originates from nitric acid scavenging while sulfuric acidity is partially neutralized by atmospheric ammonia and by alkaline soil dust derived species, the contribution of hydrochloric acid being negligible. All ions exhibit higher concentrations in spring than in winter snow, indicating most likely the influence of increased vertical transport from the lower troposphere at this time. The transport of saharan dust is described through three major events reaching the Alps during March 1990 and 1991. Very high concentrations of Ca2+ and HCO3 were measured in corresponding samples, indicating that the solubilisation of CaCO3 represents the major influence of saharan dust on the impurity content of alpine snow, shifting the pH from acid towards alkaline values. Chemical analysis suggests that during their transport, mineral alkaline particles can react through acid

  3. Effect assessment of Future Climate Change on Water Resource and Snow Quality in cold snowy regions in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Y.; Nakatsugawa, M.; Kudo, K.

    2017-12-01

    It is predicted that the effects of global warming on everyday life will be clearly seen in cold, snowy regions such as Hokkaido. In relation to climate change, there is the concern that the warmer climate will affect not only water resources, but also local economies, in snowy areas, when air temperature increases and snowfall decreases become more marked in the future. Communities whose economies are greatly dependent on snow as a tourism resource, such as for winter sports and snow events, will lose large numbers of visitors because of the shortened winter season. This study was done as a basic study to provide basic ideas for planning adaptation strategies against climate change based on the local characteristics of a cold, snowy region. By taking dam catchment basins in Hokkaido as the subject areas and by using the climate change prediction data that correspond to IPCCAR5, the local-level influence of future climate change on snowfall and snow quality in relation to water resources and winter sports was quantitatively assessed. The water budget was examined for a dam catchment basin in Hokkaido under the present climate (September 1984 to August 2004) and under the future climate (September 2080 to August 2100) by using rainfall, snowfall and evapotranspiration estimated by the LoHAS heat and water balance analysis model.The examination found that, under the future climate, the net annual precipitation will decrease by up to 200 mm because of decreases in precipitation and in runoff height that will result from increased evapotranspiration. The predicted decrease in annual hydro potential of snowfall was considered to greatly affect the dam reservoir operation during the snowmelt season. The snow quality analysis by SNOWPACK revealed that the future snow would become granular earlier than it does at present. Most skiers' snow preferences, from best to worst, are light dry snow (i.e., fresh snow), lightly compacted snow, compacted snow and, finally, granular

  4. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus and climate change: Importance of winter forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thrine Moen Heggberget

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of increasing greenhouse gas concentrations, climate change is predicted to be particularly pronounced, although regionally variable, in the vast arctic, sub-arctic and alpine tundra areas of the northern hemisphere. Here, we review winter foraging conditions for reindeer and caribou (Rangifer tarandus living in these areas, and consider diet, forage quality and distribution, accessibility due to snow variation, and effects of snow condition on reindeer and caribou populations. Finally, we hypothesise how global warming may affect wild mountain reindeer herds in South Norway. Energy-rich lichens often dominate reindeer and caribou diets. The animals also prefer lichens, and their productivity has been shown to be higher on lichen-rich than on lichen-poor ranges. Nevertheless, this energy source appears to be neither sufficient as winter diet for reindeer or caribou (at least for pregnant females nor necessary. Some reindeer and caribou populations seem to be better adapted to a non-lichen winter diet, e.g. by a larger alimentary tract. Shrubs appear to be the most common alternative winter forage, while some grasses appear to represent a good, nutritionally-balanced winter diet. Reindeer/caribou make good use of a wide variety of plants in winter, including dead and dry parts that are digested more than expected based on their fibre content. The diversity of winter forage is probably important for the mineral content of the diet. A lichen-dominated winter diet may be deficient in essential dietary elements, e.g. minerals. Sodium in particular may be marginal in inland winter ranges. Our review indicates that most Rangifer populations with lichen-dominated winter diets are either periodically or continuously heavily harvested by humans or predators. However, when population size is mainly limited by food, accessible lichen resources are often depleted. Plant studies simulating climatic change indicate that a warmer, wetter

  5. Some relationships among air, snow, and soil temperatures and soil frost

    Science.gov (United States)

    George Hart; Howard W. Lull

    1963-01-01

    Each winter gives examples of the insulating properties of snow cover. Seeds and soil fauna are protected from the cold by snow. Underground water pipes are less likely to freeze under snow cover. And, according to many observers, the occurrence, penetration, and thaw of soil frost are affected by snow cover. The depth of snow necessary to protect soil from freezing...

  6. Sensitivity Analysis of Snow Patterns in Swiss Ski Resorts to Shifts in Temperature, Precipitation and Humidity Under Condition of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlmann, B.; Goyette, S.; Beniston, M.

    2008-12-01

    The value of snow as a resource has considerably increased in Swiss mountain regions, in particular in the context of winter tourism. In the perspective of a warming climate, it is thus important to quantify the potential changes in snow amount and duration that could have large repercussions on the economy of ski resorts. Because of the fine spatial variability of snow, the use of a Surface Energy Balance Model (SEBM) is adequate to simulate local snow cover evolution. A perturbation method has been developed to generate plausible future meteorological input data required for SEBM simulations in order to assess the changes in snow cover patterns. Current and future snow depths have also been simulated within the ski areas themselves. The results show a large decrease of the snow depths and duration, even at high elevation in a warmer climate and emphasize the sensitivity of snow to topographical characteristics of the resorts. The study highlights the fact that not only the altitude of a domain but also its exposure, localization inland and slope gradients need to be taken into account when evaluating current and future snow depths. This method enables a precise assessment of the snow pattern over a small area.

  7. Unexpected Patterns in Snow and Dirt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerson, Bruce J.

    2018-01-01

    For more than 30 years, Albert A. Bartlett published "Thermal patterns in the snow" in this journal. These are patterns produced by heat sources underneath the snow. Bartlett's articles encouraged me to pay attention to patterns in snow and to understanding them. At winter's end the last snow becomes dirty and is heaped into piles. This snow comes from the final clearing of sidewalks and driveways. The patterns observed in these piles defied my intuition. This melting snow develops edges where dirt accumulates, in contrast to ice cubes, which lose sharp edges and become more spherical upon melting. Furthermore, dirt absorbs more radiation than snow and yet doesn't melt and round the sharp edges of snow, where dirt accumulates.

  8. Cold truths: how winter drives responses of terrestrial organisms to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Caroline M; Henry, Hugh A L; Sinclair, Brent J

    2015-02-01

    Winter is a key driver of individual performance, community composition, and ecological interactions in terrestrial habitats. Although climate change research tends to focus on performance in the growing season, climate change is also modifying winter conditions rapidly. Changes to winter temperatures, the variability of winter conditions, and winter snow cover can interact to induce cold injury, alter energy and water balance, advance or retard phenology, and modify community interactions. Species vary in their susceptibility to these winter drivers, hampering efforts to predict biological responses to climate change. Existing frameworks for predicting the impacts of climate change do not incorporate the complexity of organismal responses to winter. Here, we synthesise organismal responses to winter climate change, and use this synthesis to build a framework to predict exposure and sensitivity to negative impacts. This framework can be used to estimate the vulnerability of species to winter climate change. We describe the importance of relationships between winter conditions and performance during the growing season in determining fitness, and demonstrate how summer and winter processes are linked. Incorporating winter into current models will require concerted effort from theoreticians and empiricists, and the expansion of current growing-season studies to incorporate winter. © 2014 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  9. Development of a Cryosphere Land Surface Model with Coupled Snow and Frozen Soil Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Sun, L.; Yang, K.; Tian, L.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a land surface model with coupled snow and frozen soil physics has been developed by improving the formulations of snow and frozen soil for a hydrologically-improved land surface model (HydroSiB2). First, an energy-balance based 3-layer snow model has been incorporated into the HydroSiB2 (hereafter HydroSiB2-S) for an improved description of internal processes of snow pack. Second, a universal and simplified soil model has been coupled with HydroSiB2-S to enable the calculation of soil water freezing and thawing (hereafter HydroSiB2-SF). In order to avoid the instability caused by the uncertainty in estimating water phase changes, enthalpy is adopted as a prognostic variable instead of snow/soil temperature in the energy balance equation of the snow/frozen soil module. The newly developed models were then rigorously evaluated at two typical sites over Tibetan Plateau (one snowy and the other non-snowy, with both underlying frozen soil). At the snowy site in northeast TP (DY in the upper Hei River), HydroSiB2-SF demonstrated significant improvements over HydroSiB2-F (that is the model same as HydroSiB2-SF but using the original single-layer snow module of HydroSiB2), showing the importance of snow internal processes described by 3-layer snow parameterization. At the non-snowy site in southwest TP (Ngari, extremely dry), HydroSiB2-SF gave reasonable simulations of soil water phase changes while HydroSiB2-S did not, indicating the crucial role of frozen soil module in depicting the soil thermal and water dynamics. Finally, HydroSiB2-SF was proved capable of simulating upward moisture fluxes towards freezing front from the unfrozen soil layers below in winter.

  10. Blowing snow detection in Antarctica, from space borne and ground-based remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossart, A.; Souverijns, N.; Lhermitte, S.; Lenaerts, J.; Gorodetskaya, I.; Schween, J. H.; Van Lipzig, N. P. M.

    2017-12-01

    Surface mass balance (SMB) strongly controls spatial and temporal variations in the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS) mass balance and its contribution to sea level rise. Currently, the scarcity of observational data and the challenges of climate modelling over the ice sheet limit our understanding of the processes controlling AIS SMB. Particularly, the impact of blowing snow on local SMB is not yet constrained and is subject to large uncertainties. To assess the impact of blowing snow on local SMB, we investigate the attenuated backscatter profiles from ceilometers at two East Antarctic locations in Dronning Maud Land. Ceilometers are robust ground-based remote sensing instruments that yield information on cloud base height and vertical structure, but also provide information on the particles present in the boundary layer. We developed a new algorithm to detect blowing snow (snow particles lifted by the wind from the surface to substantial height) from the ceilometer attenuated backscatter. The algorithm successfully allows to detect strong blowing snow signal from layers thicker than 15 m at the Princess Elisabeth (PE, (72°S, 23°E)) and Neumayer (70°S, 8° W) stations. Applying the algorithm to PE, we retrieve the frequency and annual cycle of blowing snow as well as discriminate between clear sky and overcast conditions during blowing snow. We further apply the blowing snow algorithm at PE to evaluate the blowing snow events detection by satellite imagery (Palm et al., 2011): the near-surface blowing snow layers are apparent in lidar backscatter profiles and enable snowdrift events detection (spatial and temporal frequency, height and optical depth). These data are processed from CALIPSO, at a high resolution (1x1 km digital elevation model). However, the remote sensing detection of blowing snow events by satellite is limited to layers of a minimal thickness of 20-30 m. In addition, thick clouds, mostly occurring during winter storms, can impede drifting snow

  11. Snow Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Jensen, Martin Trandberg

    2018-01-01

    attribute of high altitude mountain destinations. Hitherto, researchers mostly engaged with snowclad landscapes as a backstage; trying to deconstruct the complex symbolism and representational qualities of this elusive substance. Despite snow being a strategically crucial condition for tourism in the Alps......This chapter explores the performative potential of snow for Alpine tourism, by drawing attention to its material and nonrepresentational significance for tourism practices. European imagination has been preoccupied with snow since medieval times and even today, snow features as the sine que non...

  12. Assimilation of snow cover and snow depth into a snow model to estimate snow water equivalent and snowmelt runoff in a Himalayan catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Stigter

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Snow is an important component of water storage in the Himalayas. Previous snowmelt studies in the Himalayas have predominantly relied on remotely sensed snow cover. However, snow cover data provide no direct information on the actual amount of water stored in a snowpack, i.e., the snow water equivalent (SWE. Therefore, in this study remotely sensed snow cover was combined with in situ observations and a modified version of the seNorge snow model to estimate (climate sensitivity of SWE and snowmelt runoff in the Langtang catchment in Nepal. Snow cover data from Landsat 8 and the MOD10A2 snow cover product were validated with in situ snow cover observations provided by surface temperature and snow depth measurements resulting in classification accuracies of 85.7 and 83.1 % respectively. Optimal model parameter values were obtained through data assimilation of MOD10A2 snow maps and snow depth measurements using an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF. Independent validations of simulated snow depth and snow cover with observations show improvement after data assimilation compared to simulations without data assimilation. The approach of modeling snow depth in a Kalman filter framework allows for data-constrained estimation of snow depth rather than snow cover alone, and this has great potential for future studies in complex terrain, especially in the Himalayas. Climate sensitivity tests with the optimized snow model revealed that snowmelt runoff increases in winter and the early melt season (December to May and decreases during the late melt season (June to September as a result of the earlier onset of snowmelt due to increasing temperature. At high elevation a decrease in SWE due to higher air temperature is (partly compensated by an increase in precipitation, which emphasizes the need for accurate predictions on the changes in the spatial distribution of precipitation along with changes in temperature.

  13. BALANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, H.

    1953-01-01

    A torsional-type analytical balance designed to arrive at its equilibrium point more quickly than previous balances is described. In order to prevent external heat sources creating air currents inside the balance casing that would reiard the attainment of equilibrium conditions, a relatively thick casing shaped as an inverted U is placed over the load support arms and the balance beam. This casing is of a metal of good thernnal conductivity characteristics, such as copper or aluminum, in order that heat applied to one portion of the balance is quickly conducted to all other sensitive areas, thus effectively preventing the fornnation of air currents caused by unequal heating of the balance.

  14. Snow Leopard

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Owing to their secretive nature and inaccessible habitat,little is known about its ecology and distribution. Due toits endangered status and high aesthetic value, the snow leopardis considered as an 'umbrella species' for wildlife conservationin the Indian Himalayas. This article summarizes thecurrent knowledge on snow ...

  15. Snow Leopard

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 22; Issue 7. Snow Leopard: Ecology and Conservation Issues in India. Abhishek Ghoshal. General Article Volume 22 Issue 7 July 2017 pp 677- ... Keywords. Ecology, carnivore, conservation, Himalayas, mammal, snow leopard, Panthera uncia, wildlife.

  16. Field-scale water balance closure in seasonally frozen conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Pan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological water balance closure is a simple concept, yet in practice it is uncommon to measure every significant term independently in the field. Here we demonstrate the degree to which the field-scale water balance can be closed using only routine field observations in a seasonally frozen prairie pasture field site in Saskatchewan, Canada. Arrays of snow and soil moisture measurements were combined with a precipitation gauge and flux tower evapotranspiration estimates. We consider three hydrologically distinct periods: the snow accumulation period over the winter, the snowmelt period in spring, and the summer growing season. In each period, we attempt to quantify the residual between net precipitation (precipitation minus evaporation and the change in field-scale storage (snow and soil moisture, while accounting for measurement uncertainties. When the residual is negligible, a simple 1-D water balance with no net drainage is adequate. When the residual is non-negligible, we must find additional processes to explain the result. We identify the hydrological fluxes which confound the 1-D water balance assumptions during different periods of the year, notably blowing snow and frozen soil moisture redistribution during the snow accumulation period, and snowmelt runoff and soil drainage during the melt period. Challenges associated with quantifying these processes, as well as uncertainties in the measurable quantities, caution against the common use of water balance residuals to estimate fluxes and constrain models in such a complex environment.

  17. Differential ecophysiological response of deciduous shrubs and a graminoid to long-term experimental snow reductions and additions in moist acidic tundra, northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert R. Pattison; Jeffrey M. Welker

    2014-01-01

    Changes in winter precipitation that include both decreases and increases in winter snow are underway across the Arctic. In this study, we used a 14-year experiment that has increased and decreased winter snow in the moist acidic tussock tundra of northern Alaska to understand impacts of variation in winter snow depth on summer leaf-level ecophysiology of two deciduous...

  18. Antarctic snow and global climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granberg, H.B.

    2001-01-01

    Global circulation models (GCM) indicate that global warming will be most pronounced at polar regions and high latitudes, causing concern about the stability of the Antarctic ice cap. A project entitled the Seasonal Snow in Antarctica examined the properties of the near surface snow to determine the current conditions that influence snow cover development. The goal was to assess the response of the snow cover in Queen Maud Land (QML) to an increased atmospheric carbon dioxide content. The Antarctic snow cover in QML was examined as part of the FINNARP expeditions in 1999 and 2000 which examined the processes that influence the snow cover. Its energy and mass balance were also assessed by examining the near surface snow strata in shallow (1-2 m) pits and by taking measurements of environmental variables. This made it possible to determine if the glacier is in danger of melting at this northerly location in the Antarctic. The study also made it possible to determine which variables need to change and by how much, for significant melting to occur. It was shown that the Antarctic anticyclone creates particular conditions that protect the snow cover from melting. The anticyclone brings dry air from the stratosphere during most of the year and is exempt from the water vapour feedback. It was concluded that even a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide will not produce major snow melt runoff. 8 refs

  19. Estimation of the condition of snow cover in Voronezh according to the chemical analysis of water from melted snow

    OpenAIRE

    Prozhorina Tatyana Ivanovna; Bespalova Elena Vladimirovna; Yakunina Nadezhda

    2014-01-01

    Snow cover possesses high sorption ability and represents informative object to identify technogenic pollution of an urban environment. In this article the investigation data of a chemical composition of snow fallen in Voronezh during the winter period of 2014 are given. Relationships between existence of pollutants in snow and the level of technogenic effect are analyzed.

  20. Photovoltaic cell electrical heating system for removing snow on panel including verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Agnes; Weiss, Helmut

    2017-11-16

    Small photovoltaic plants in private ownership are typically rated at 5 kW (peak). The panels are mounted on roofs at a decline angle of 20° to 45°. In winter time, a dense layer of snow at a width of e.g., 10 cm keeps off solar radiation from the photovoltaic cells for weeks under continental climate conditions. Practically, no energy is produced over the time of snow coverage. Only until outside air temperature has risen high enough for a rather long-time interval to allow partial melting of snow; the snow layer rushes down in an avalanche. Following this proposal, snow removal can be arranged electrically at an extremely positive energy balance in a fast way. A photovoltaic cell is a large junction area diode inside with a threshold voltage of about 0.6 to 0.7 V (depending on temperature). This forward voltage drop created by an externally driven current through the modules can be efficiently used to provide well-distributed heat dissipation at the cell and further on at the glass surface of the whole panel. The adhesion of snow on glass is widely reduced through this heating in case a thin water film can be produced by this external short time heating. Laboratory experiments provided a temperature increase through rated panel current of more than 10 °C within about 10 min. This heating can initiate the avalanche for snow removal on intention as described before provided the clamping effect on snow at the edge of the panel frame is overcome by an additional heating foil. Basics of internal cell heat production, heating thermal effects in time course, thermographic measurements on temperature distribution, power circuit opportunities including battery storage elements and snow-removal under practical conditions are described.

  1. Spatial and temporal variability in seasonal snow density

    KAUST Repository

    Bormann, Kathryn J.

    2013-03-01

    Snow density is a fundamental physical property of snowpacks used in many aspects of snow research. As an integral component in the remote sensing of snow water equivalent and parameterisation of snow models, snow density may be used to describe many important features of snowpack behaviour. The present study draws on a significant dataset of snow density and climate observations from the United States, Australia and the former Soviet Union and uses regression-based techniques to identify the dominant climatological drivers for snow densification rates, characterise densification rate variability and estimate spring snow densities from more readily available climate data. Total winter precipitation was shown to be the most prominent driver of snow densification rates, with mean air temperature and melt-refreeze events also found to be locally significant. Densification rate variance is very high at Australian sites, very low throughout the former Soviet Union and between these extremes throughout much of the US. Spring snow densities were estimated using a statistical model with climate variable inputs and best results were achieved when snow types were treated differently. Given the importance of snow density information in many snow-related research disciplines, this work has implications for current methods of converting snow depths to snow water equivalent, the representation of snow dynamics in snow models and remote sensing applications globally. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  2. Past and future of the Austrian snow cover - results from the CC-Snow project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Ulrich; Marke, Thomas; Hanzer, Florian; Ragg, Hansjörg; Kleindienst, Hannes; Wilcke, Renate; Gobiet, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    This study has the goal to simulate the evolution of the Austrian snow cover from 1971 to 2050 by means of a coupled modelling scheme, and to estimate the effect of climate change on the evolution of the natural snow cover. The model outcomes are interepreted with focus on both the future natural snow conditions, and the effects on winter skiing tourism. Therefore the regional temperature-index snow model SNOWREG is applied, providing snow maps with a spatial resolution of 250 m. The model is trained by means of assimilating local measurements and observed natural snow cover patterns. Meteorological forcing consists of the output of four realizations of the ENSEMBLES project for the A1B emission scenario. The meteorological variables are downscaled and error corrected with a quantile based empirical-statistical method on a daily time basis. The control simulation is 1971-2000, and the scenario simulation 2021-2050. Spatial interpolation is performed on the basis of parameter-elevation relations. We compare the four different global/regional climate model combinations and their effect on the snow modelling, and we explain the patterns of the resulting snow cover by means of regional climatological characteristics. The provinces Tirol and Styria serve as test regions, being typical examples for the two climatic subregions of Austria. To support the interpretation of the simulation results we apply indicators which enable to define meaningful measures for the comparison of the different periods and regions. Results show that the mean duration of the snow cover will decrease by 15 to 30 days per winter season, mostly in elevations between 2000 and 2500 m. Above 3000 m the higher winter precipitation can compensate this effect, and mean snow cover duration may even slightly increase. We also investigate the local scale by application of the physically based mountain snow model AMUNDSEN. This model is capable of producing 50 m resolution output maps for indicators

  3. Measurements for winter road maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Riehm, Mats

    2012-01-01

    Winter road maintenance activities are crucial for maintaining the accessibility and traffic safety of the road network at northerly latitudes during winter. Common winter road maintenance activities include snow ploughing and the use of anti-icing agents (e.g. road salt, NaCl). Since the local weather is decisive in creating an increased risk of slippery conditions, understanding the link between local weather and conditions at the road surface is critically important. Sensors are commonly i...

  4. Mass balance, meteorology, area altitude distribution, glacier-surface altitude, ice motion, terminus position, and runoff at Gulkana Glacier, Alaska, 1996 balance year

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Rod S.

    2003-01-01

    The 1996 measured winter snow, maximum winter snow, net, and annual balances in the Gulkana Glacier Basin were evaluated on the basis of meteorological, hydrological, and glaciological data. Averaged over the glacier, the measured winter snow balance was 0.87 meter on April 18, 1996, 1.1 standard deviation below the long-term average; the maximum winter snow balance, 1.06 meters, was reached on May 28, 1996; and the net balance (from August 30, 1995, to August 24, 1996) was -0.53 meter, 0.53 standard deviation below the long-term average. The annual balance (October 1, 1995, to September 30, 1996) was -0.37 meter. Area-averaged balances were reported using both the 1967 and 1993 area altitude distributions (the numbers previously given in this abstract use the 1993 area altitude distribution). Net balance was about 25 percent less negative using the 1993 area altitude distribution than the 1967 distribution. Annual average air temperature was 0.9 degree Celsius warmer than that recorded with the analog sensor used since 1966. Total precipitation catch for the year was 0.78 meter, 0.8 standard deviations below normal. The annual average wind speed was 3.5 meters per second in the first year of measuring wind speed. Annual runoff averaged 1.50 meters over the basin, 1.0 standard deviation below the long-term average. Glacier-surface altitude and ice-motion changes measured at three index sites document seasonal ice-speed and glacier-thickness changes. Both showed a continuation of a slowing and thinning trend present in the 1990s. The glacier terminus and lower ablation area were defined for 1996 with a handheld Global Positioning System survey of 126 locations spread out over about 4 kilometers on the lower glacier margin. From 1949 to 1996, the terminus retreated about 1,650 meters for an average retreat rate of 35 meters per year.

  5. Winter is losing its cool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, S.

    2017-12-01

    Winter seasons have significant societal impacts across all sectors ranging from direct human health to ecosystems, transportation, and recreation. This study quantifies the severity of winter and its spatial-temporal variations using a newly developed winter severity index and daily temperature, snowfall and snow depth. The winter severity and the number of extreme winter days are decreasing across the global terrestrial areas during 1901-2015 except the southeast United States and isolated regions in the Southern Hemisphere. These changes are dominated by winter warming, while the changes in daily snowfall and snow depth played a secondary role. The simulations of multiple CMIP5 climate models can well capture the spatial and temporal variations of the observed changes in winter severity and extremes during 1951-2005. The models are consistent in projecting a future milder winter under various scenarios. The winter severity is projected to decrease 60-80% in the middle-latitude Northern Hemisphere under the business-as-usual scenario. The winter arrives later, ends earlier and the length of winter season will be notably shorter. The changes in harsh winter in the polar regions are weak, mainly because the warming leads to more snowfall in the high latitudes.

  6. The Snow Must Go On: Ground Ice Encasement, Snow Compaction and Absence of Snow Differently Cause Soil Hypoxia, CO2 Accumulation and Tree Seedling Damage in Boreal Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Martz

    Full Text Available At high latitudes, the climate has warmed at twice the rate of the global average with most changes observed in autumn, winter and spring. Increasing winter temperatures and wide temperature fluctuations are leading to more frequent rain-on-snow events and freeze-thaw cycles causing snow compaction and formation of ice layers in the snowpack, thus creating ice encasement (IE. By decreasing the snowpack insulation capacity and restricting soil-atmosphere gas exchange, modification of the snow properties may lead to colder soil but also to hypoxia and accumulation of trace gases in the subnivean environment. To test the effects of these overwintering conditions changes on plant winter survival and growth, we established a snow manipulation experiment in a coniferous forest in Northern Finland with Norway spruce and Scots pine seedlings. In addition to ambient conditions and prevention of IE, we applied three snow manipulation levels: IE created by artificial rain-on-snow events, snow compaction and complete snow removal. Snow removal led to deeper soil frost during winter, but no clear effect of IE or snow compaction done in early winter was observed on soil temperature. Hypoxia and accumulation of CO2 were highest in the IE plots but, more importantly, the duration of CO2 concentration above 5% was 17 days in IE plots compared to 0 days in ambient plots. IE was the most damaging winter condition for both species, decreasing the proportion of healthy seedlings by 47% for spruce and 76% for pine compared to ambient conditions. Seedlings in all three treatments tended to grow less than seedlings in ambient conditions but only IE had a significant effect on spruce growth. Our results demonstrate a negative impact of winter climate change on boreal forest regeneration and productivity. Changing snow conditions may thus partially mitigate the positive effect of increasing growing season temperatures on boreal forest productivity.

  7. Winter radiation extinction and reflection in a boreal pine canopy: measurements and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomeroy, J.W.; Dion, K.

    1996-01-01

    Predicting the rate of snow melt and intercepted snow sublimation in boreal forests requires an understanding of the effects of snow-covered conifers on the exchange of radiant energy. This study examined the amount of intercepted snow on a jack pine canopy in the boreal forest of central Saskatchewan and the shortwave and net radiation exchange with this canopy, to determine the effect of intercepted snow and canopy structure on shortwave radiation reflection and extinction and net radiation attenuation in a boreal forest. The study focused on clear sky conditions, which are common during winter in the continental boreal forest. Intercepted snow was found to have no influence on the clear-sky albedo of the canopy, the extinction of short wave radiation by the canopy or ratio of net radiation at the canopy top to that at the surface snow cover. Because of the low albedo of the snow-covered canopy, net radiation at the canopy top remains positive and a large potential source of energy for sublimation. The canopy albedo declines somewhat as the extinction efficiency of the underlying canopy increases. The extinction efficiency of short wave radiation in the canopy depends on solar angle because of the approximately horizontal orientation of pine branches. For low solar angles above the horizon, the extinction efficiency is quite low and short wave transmissivity through the canopy is relatively high. As the solar angle increases, extinction increases up to angles of about 50°, and then declines. Extinction of short wave radiation in the canopy strongly influences the attenuation of net radiation by the canopy. Short wave radiation that is extinguished by branches is radiated as long wave, partly downwards to the snow cover. The ratio of net radiation at the canopy top to that at the snow cover surface increases with the extinction of short wave radiation and is negative for low extinction efficiencies. For the pine canopy examined, the daily mean net radiation at

  8. Genetic analysis of resistance to septoria tritici blotch in the French winter wheat cultivars Balance and Apache

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabib Ghaffary, M.S.; Robert, O.; Laurent, V.; Lonnet, P.; Margalé, E.; Lee, van der T.A.J.; Visser, R.G.F.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    The ascomycete Mycosphaerella graminicola is the causal agent of septoria tritici blotch (STB), one of the most destructive foliar diseases of bread and durum wheat globally, particularly in temperate humid areas. A screening of the French bread wheat cultivars Apache and Balance with 30 M.

  9. Snow farming: conserving snow over the summer season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünewald, Thomas; Wolfsperger, Fabian; Lehning, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Summer storage of snow for tourism has seen an increasing interest in the last years. Covering large snow piles with materials such as sawdust enables more than two-thirds of the initial snow volume to be conserved. We present detailed mass balance measurements of two sawdust-covered snow piles obtained by terrestrial laser scanning during summer 2015. Results indicate that 74 and 63 % of the snow volume remained over the summer for piles in Davos, Switzerland and Martell, Italy. If snow mass is considered instead of volume, the values increase to 83 and 72 %. The difference is attributed to settling and densification of the snow. Additionally, we adapted the one-dimensional, physically based snow cover model SNOWPACK to perform simulations of the sawdust-covered snow piles. Model results and measurements agreed extremely well at the point scale. Moreover, we analysed the contribution of the different terms of the surface energy balance to snow ablation for a pile covered with a 40 cm thick sawdust layer and a pile without insulation. Short-wave radiation was the dominant source of energy for both scenarios, but the moist sawdust caused strong cooling by long-wave emission and negative sensible and latent heat fluxes. This cooling effect reduces the energy available for melt by up to a factor of 12. As a result only 9 % of the net short-wave energy remained available for melt. Finally, sensitivity studies of the parameters thickness of the sawdust layer, air temperature, precipitation and wind speed were performed. We show that sawdust thickness has a tremendous effect on snow loss. Higher air temperatures and wind speeds increase snow ablation but less significantly. No significant effect of additional precipitation could be found as the sawdust remained wet during the entire summer with the measured quantity of rain. Setting precipitation amounts to zero, however, strongly increased melt. Overall, the 40 cm sawdust provides sufficient protection for mid

  10. Snow farming: conserving snow over the summer season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Grünewald

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Summer storage of snow for tourism has seen an increasing interest in the last years. Covering large snow piles with materials such as sawdust enables more than two-thirds of the initial snow volume to be conserved. We present detailed mass balance measurements of two sawdust-covered snow piles obtained by terrestrial laser scanning during summer 2015. Results indicate that 74 and 63 % of the snow volume remained over the summer for piles in Davos, Switzerland and Martell, Italy. If snow mass is considered instead of volume, the values increase to 83 and 72 %. The difference is attributed to settling and densification of the snow. Additionally, we adapted the one-dimensional, physically based snow cover model SNOWPACK to perform simulations of the sawdust-covered snow piles. Model results and measurements agreed extremely well at the point scale. Moreover, we analysed the contribution of the different terms of the surface energy balance to snow ablation for a pile covered with a 40 cm thick sawdust layer and a pile without insulation. Short-wave radiation was the dominant source of energy for both scenarios, but the moist sawdust caused strong cooling by long-wave emission and negative sensible and latent heat fluxes. This cooling effect reduces the energy available for melt by up to a factor of 12. As a result only 9 % of the net short-wave energy remained available for melt. Finally, sensitivity studies of the parameters thickness of the sawdust layer, air temperature, precipitation and wind speed were performed. We show that sawdust thickness has a tremendous effect on snow loss. Higher air temperatures and wind speeds increase snow ablation but less significantly. No significant effect of additional precipitation could be found as the sawdust remained wet during the entire summer with the measured quantity of rain. Setting precipitation amounts to zero, however, strongly increased melt. Overall, the 40 cm sawdust provides

  11. Snow clearance

    CERN Multimedia

    Mauro Nonis

    2005-01-01

    In reply to the numerous questions received, we should like to inform you of the actions and measures taken in an effort to maintain the movements of vehicles and pedestrians since the heavy snow fall on Sunday 23 January. Our contractor's employees began clearing the snow during the morning of Sunday 23 January on the main CERN sites (Meyrin, Prévessin), but an accident prevented them from continuing. The vehicle in question was repaired by Monday morning when two other vehicles joined it to resume snow clearing; priority was given to access points to the main sites and the LHC sites, as well as to the main roads inside the sites. The salt sprinklers were also brought into action that same day; the very low temperature during the night from Monday to Tuesday prevented the snow from melting and compacted the ice; the continuing cold during the day on Tuesday (-6°C at 10:00 on the Meyrin site) meant that all efforts to remove the ice were doomed to failure. In order to ensure more efficie...

  12. Snow Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Jensen, Martin Trandberg

    2018-01-01

    attribute of high altitude mountain destinations. Hitherto, researchers mostly engaged with snowclad landscapes as a backstage; trying to deconstruct the complex symbolism and representational qualities of this elusive substance. Despite snow being a strategically crucial condition for tourism in the Alps...

  13. Snow Leopard

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    around the same time in Kinnaur district. Studies on snow leop- ard habitats over the past two decades show that the economy of the region has rapidly shifted from traditional agro-pastoralism to market-driven agriculture. Consequently, human population growth, agricultural expanse, and excessive livestock grazing (Fig-.

  14. Water losses during technical snow production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünewald, Thomas; Wolfsperger, Fabian

    2017-04-01

    These days, the production of technical snow can be seen as a prerequisite for winter tourism. Huge amounts of water are used for technical snow production by ski resorts, especially in the beginning of the winter season. The aim is to guarantee an appropriate amount of snow to reliably provide optimal ski runs until the date of season opening in early December. Technical snow is generated by pumping pressurized water through the nozzles of a snow machine and dispersing the resulting spray of small water droplets which freeze during their travel to the ground. Cooling and freezing of the droplets can only happen if energy is emitted to the air mass surrounding the droplets. This heat transfer is happening through convective cooling and though evaporation and sublimation of water droplets and ice particles. This means that also mass is lost from the droplets and added in form of vapor to the air. It is important to note that not all water that is pumped through the snow machine is converted to snow distributed on the ground. Significant amounts of water are lost due to wind drift, sublimation and evaporation while droplets are traveling through the air or to draining of water which is not fully frozen when arriving at the ground. Studies addressing this question are sparse and the quantity of the water losses is still unclear. In order to assess this question in more detail, we obtained several systematic field observations at a test site near Davos, Switzerland. About a dozen of snow making tests had been performed during the last winter seasons. We compare the amount of water measured at the intake of the snow machine with the amount of snow accumulating at the ground during a night of snow production. The snow mass was calculated from highly detailed repeated terrestrial laser scanning measurements in combination with manually gathered snow densities. In addition a meteorological station had been set up in the vicinity observing all relevant meteorological

  15. A triple-moment blowing snow-atmospheric model and its application in computing the seasonal wintertime snow mass budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Yang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Many field studies have shown that surface sublimation and blowing snow transport and sublimation have significant influences on the snow mass budget in many high latitude regions. We developed a coupled triple-moment blowing snow-atmospheric modeling system to study the influence of these processes on a seasonal time scale over the Northern Hemisphere. Two simulations were performed. The first is a 5 month simulation for comparison with snow survey measurements over a Saskatchewan site to validate the modeling system. The second simulation covers the 2006/2007 winter period to study the snow mass budget over the Northern Hemisphere. The results show that surface sublimation is significant in Eurasian Continent and the eastern region of North America, reaching a maximum value of 200 mm SWE (Snow Water Equivalent. Over the Arctic Ocean and Northern Canada, surface deposition with an average value of 30 mm SWE was simulated. Blowing snow sublimation was found to return up to 50 mm SWE back to the atmosphere over the Arctic Ocean, while the divergence of blowing snow transport contributes only a few mm SWE to the change in snow mass budget. The results were further stratified in 10 degree latitudinal bands. The results show that surface sublimation decreases with an increase in latitude while blowing snow sublimation increases with latitude. Taken together, the surface sublimation and blowing snow processes was found to distribute 23% to 52% of winter precipitation over the three month winter season.

  16. Improvement of a snow albedo parameterization in the Snow-Atmosphere-Soil Transfer model: evaluation of impacts of aerosol on seasonal snow cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Efang; Li, Qian; Sun, Shufen; Chen, Wen; Chen, Shangfeng; Nath, Debashis

    2017-11-01

    The presence of light-absorbing aerosols (LAA) in snow profoundly influence the surface energy balance and water budget. However, most snow-process schemes in land-surface and climate models currently do not take this into consideration. To better represent the snow process and to evaluate the impacts of LAA on snow, this study presents an improved snow albedo parameterization in the Snow-Atmosphere-Soil Transfer (SAST) model, which includes the impacts of LAA on snow. Specifically, the Snow, Ice and Aerosol Radiation (SNICAR) model is incorporated into the SAST model with an LAA mass stratigraphy scheme. The new coupled model is validated against in-situ measurements at the Swamp Angel Study Plot (SASP), Colorado, USA. Results show that the snow albedo and snow depth are better reproduced than those in the original SAST, particularly during the period of snow ablation. Furthermore, the impacts of LAA on snow are estimated in the coupled model through case comparisons of the snowpack, with or without LAA. The LAA particles directly absorb extra solar radiation, which accelerates the growth rate of the snow grain size. Meanwhile, these larger snow particles favor more radiative absorption. The average total radiative forcing of the LAA at the SASP is 47.5 W m-2. This extra radiative absorption enhances the snowmelt rate. As a result, the peak runoff time and "snow all gone" day have shifted 18 and 19.5 days earlier, respectively, which could further impose substantial impacts on the hydrologic cycle and atmospheric processes.

  17. Sensitivity Analysis of Snow Cover to Climate Change Scenarios and Their Impact on Plant Habitats in Alpine Terrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, F.; Goyette, S.; Beniston, M. [Department of Geosciences, Geography, Fribourg (Switzerland)

    2005-10-01

    In high altitude areas snow cover duration largely determines the length of the growing season of the vegetation. A sensitivity study of snow cover to various scenarios of temperature and precipitation has been conducted to assess how snow cover and vegetation may respond for a very localized area of the high Swiss Alps (2050-2500 m above sea level). A surface energy balance model has been upgraded to compute snow depth and duration, taking into account solar radiation geometry over complex topography. Plant habitat zones have been defined and 23 species, whose photoperiodic preferences were documented in an earlier study, were grouped into each zone. The sensitivity of snowmelt to a change in mean, minimum and maximum temperature alone and a change in mean temperature combined with a precipitation change of +10% in winter and -10% in summer is investigated. A seasonal increase in the mean temperature of 3 to 5 K reduces snow cover depth and duration by more than a month on average. Snow melts two months earlier in the rock habitat zone with the mean temperature scenario than under current climate conditions. This allows the species in this habitat to flower earlier in a warmer climate, but not all plants are able to adapt to such changes.

  18. Water and life from snow: A trillion dollar science question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Matthew; Goldstein, Michael A.; Parr, Charles

    2017-05-01

    Snow provides essential resources/services in the form of water for human use, and climate regulation in the form of enhanced cooling of the Earth. In addition, it supports a thriving winter outdoor recreation industry. To date, the financial evaluation of the importance of snow is incomplete and hence the need for accelerated snow research is not as clear as it could be. With snow cover changing worldwide in several worrisome ways, there is pressing need to determine global, regional, and local rates of snow cover change, and to link these to financial analyses that allow for rational decision making, as risks related to those decisions involve trillions of dollars.

  19. Hormones and hibernation: possible links between hormone systems, winter energy balance and white-nose syndrome in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Craig K R; Wilcox, Alana

    2014-06-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Energy Balance". Hibernation allows mammals to survive in cold climates and during times of reduced food availability. Drastic physiological changes are required to maintain the energy savings that characterize hibernation. These changes presumably enable adjustments in endocrine activity that control metabolism and body temperature, and ultimately influence expression of torpor and periodic arousals. Despite challenges that exist when examining hormonal pathways in small-bodied hibernators, bats represent a potential model taxon for comparative neuroendocrinological studies of hibernation due to their diversity of species and the reliance of many species on heterothermy. Understanding physiological mechanisms underlying hibernation in bats is also important from a conservation physiology perspective due to white-nose syndrome, an emerging infectious disease causing catastrophic mortality among hibernating bats in eastern North America. Here we review the potential influence of three key hormonal mechanisms--leptin, melatonin and glucocorticoids--on hibernation in mammals with an emphasis on bats. We propose testable hypotheses about potential effects of WNS on these systems and their evolution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Performance Evaluation of FAO Model for Prediction of Yield Production, Soil Water and Solute Balance under Environmental Stresses (Case Study Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rezaverdinejad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the FAO agro-hydrological model was investigated and evaluated to predict of yield production, soil water and solute balance by winter wheat field data under water and salt stresses. For this purpose, a field experimental was conducted with three salinity levels of irrigation water include: S1, S2 and S3 corresponding to 1.4, 4.5 and 9.6 dS/m, respectively, and four irrigation depth levels include: I1, I2, I3 and I4 corresponding to 50, 75, 100 and 125% of crop water requirement, respectively, for two varieties of winter wheat: Roshan and Ghods, with three replications in an experimental farm of Birjand University for 1384-85 period. Based on results, the mean relative error of the model in yield prediction for Roshan and Ghods were obtained 9.2 and 26.1%, respectively. The maximum error of yield prediction in both of the Roshan and Ghods varieties, were obtained for S1I1, S2I1 and S3I1 treatments. The relative error of Roshan yield prediction for S1I1, S2I1 and S3I1 were calculated 20.0, 28.1 and 26.6%, respectively and for Ghods variety were calculated 61, 94.5 and 99.9%, respectively, that indicated a significant over estimate error under higher water stress. The mean relative error of model for all treatments, in prediction of soil water depletion and electrical conductivity of soil saturation extract, were calculated 7.1 and 5.8%, respectively, that indicated proper accuracy of model in prediction of soil water content and soil salinity.

  1. Uncertainty analysis of impacts of climate change on snow processes: Case study of interactions of GCM uncertainty and an impact model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Ryoji; Yoshida, Takeo; Masumoto, Takao

    2017-05-01

    The impact of climate change on snow water equivalent (SWE) and its uncertainty were investigated in snowy areas of subarctic and temperate climate zones in Japan by using a snow process model and climate projections derived from general circulation models (GCMs). In particular, we examined how the uncertainty due to GCMs propagated through the snow model, which contained nonlinear processes defined by thresholds, as an example of the uncertainty caused by interactions among multiple sources of uncertainty. An assessment based on the climate projections in Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 indicated that heavy-snowfall areas in the temperate zone (especially in low-elevation areas) were markedly vulnerable to temperature change, showing a large SWE reduction even under slight changes in winter temperature. The uncertainty analysis demonstrated that the uncertainty associated with snow processes (1) can be accounted for mainly by the interactions between GCM uncertainty (in particular, the differences of projected temperature changes between GCMs) and the nonlinear responses of the snow model and (2) depends on the balance between the magnitude of projected temperature changes and present climates dominated largely by climate zones and elevation. Specifically, when the peaks of the distributions of daily mean temperature projected by GCMs cross the key thresholds set in the model, the GCM uncertainty, even if tiny, can be amplified by the nonlinear propagation through the snow process model. This amplification results in large uncertainty in projections of CC impact on snow processes.

  2. Quantifying small-scale spatio-temporal variability of snow stratigraphy in forests based on high-resolution snow penetrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teich, M.; Hagenmuller, P.; Bebi, P.; Jenkins, M. J.; Giunta, A. D.; Schneebeli, M.

    2017-12-01

    Snow stratigraphy, the characteristic layering within a seasonal snowpack, has important implications for snow remote sensing, hydrology and avalanches. Forests modify snowpack properties through interception, wind speed reduction, and changes to the energy balance. The lack of snowpack observations in forests limits our ability to understand the evolution of snow stratigraphy and its spatio-temporal variability as a function of forest structure and to observe snowpack response to changes in forest cover. We examined the snowpack under canopies of a spruce forest in the central Rocky Mountains, USA, using the SnowMicroPen (SMP), a high resolution digital penetrometer. Weekly-repeated penetration force measurements were recorded along 10 m transects every 0.3 m in winter 2015 and bi-weekly along 20 m transects every 0.5 m in 2016 in three study plots beneath canopies of undisturbed, bark beetle-disturbed and harvested forest stands, and an open meadow. To disentangle information about layer hardness and depth variabilities, and to quantitatively compare the different SMP profiles, we applied a matching algorithm to our dataset, which combines several profiles by automatically adjusting their layer thicknesses. We linked spatial and temporal variabilities of penetration force and depth, and thus snow stratigraphy to forest and meteorological conditions. Throughout the season, snow stratigraphy was more heterogeneous in undisturbed but also beneath bark beetle-disturbed forests. In contrast, and despite remaining small diameter trees and woody debris, snow stratigraphy was rather homogenous at the harvested plot. As expected, layering at the non-forested plot varied only slightly over the small spatial extent sampled. At the open and harvested plots, persistent crusts and ice lenses were clearly present in the snowpack, while such hard layers barely occurred beneath undisturbed and disturbed canopies. Due to settling, hardness significantly increased with depth at

  3. Analysis of the Lake Superior Watershed Seasonal Snow Cover

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daly, Steven F; Baldwin, Timothy B; Weyrick, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Daily estimates of the snow water equivalent (SWE) distribution for the period from 1 December through 30 April for each winter season from 1979 80 through 2002 03 were calculated for the entire Lake Superior watershed...

  4. Particulate carbonate matter in snow from selected sites in south-central Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Clow; George P. Ingersoll

    1994-01-01

    Trends in snow acidity reflect the balance between strong acid inputs and reactions with neutralizing materials. Carbonate dust can be an important contributor of buffering capacity to snow; however, its concentration in snow is difficult to quantify because it dissolves rapidly in snowmelt. In snow with neutral or acidic pH, most calcite would dissolve during sample...

  5. Blowing snow detection from ground-based ceilometers : Application to East Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gossart, Alexandra; Souverijns, Niels; Gorodetskaya, Irina V.; Lhermitte, S.L.M.; Lenaerts, Jan T M; Schween, Jan H.; Mangold, Alexander; Laffineur, Quentin; van Lipzig, Nicole P. M.

    2017-01-01

    Blowing snow impacts Antarctic ice sheet surface mass balance by snow redistribution and sublimation. However, numerical models poorly represent blowing snow processes, while direct observations are limited in space and time. Satellite retrieval of blowing snow is hindered by clouds and only the

  6. Consistent seasonal snow cover depth and duration variability over ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Decline in consistent seasonal snow cover depth, duration and changing snow cover build- up pattern over the WH in recent decades indicate that WH has undergone considerable climate change and winter weather patterns are changing in the WH. 1. Introduction. Mountainous regions around the globe are storehouses.

  7. Identification of mineral dust layers in high alpine snow packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greilinger, Marion; Kau, Daniela; Schauer, Gerhard; Kasper-Giebl, Anne

    2017-04-01

    Deserts serve as a major source for aerosols in the atmosphere with mineral dust as a main contributor to primary aerosol mass. Especially the Sahara, the largest desert in the world, contributes roughly half of the primarily emitted aerosol mass found in the atmosphere [1]. The eroded Saharan dust is episodically transported over thousands of kilometers with synoptic wind patterns towards Europe [2] and reaches Austria about 20 to 30 days per year. Once the Saharan dust is removed from the atmosphere via dry or wet deposition processes, the chemical composition of the precipitation or the affected environment is significantly changed. Saharan dust serves on the one hand as high ionic input leading to an increase of ionic species such as calcium, magnesium or sulfate. On the other hand Saharan dust provides a high alkaline input neutralizing acidic components and causing the pH to increase [3]. Based on these changes in the ion composition, the pH and cross plots of the ion and conductivity balance [4] we tried to develop a method to identify Saharan dust layers in high alpine snow packs. We investigated seasonal snow packs of two high alpine sampling sites situated on the surrounding glaciers of the meteorological Sonnblick observatory serving as a global GAW (Global Atmospheric Watch) station located in the National Park Hohe Tauern in the Austrian Alps. Samples with 10 cm resolution representing the whole winter accumulation period were taken just prior to the start of snow melt at the end of April 2016. In both snow packs two layers with clearly different chemical behavior were observed. In comparison with the aerosol data from the Sonnblick observatory, these layers could be clearly identified as Saharan dust layers. Identified Saharan dust layers in the snow pack allow calculations of the ecological impact of deposited ions, with and without Saharan dust, during snow melt. Furthermore the chemical characteristics for the identification of Saharan dust layers

  8. Winter Radiation Extinction and Reflection in a Boreal Pine Canopy: Measurements and Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, J. W.; Dion, K.

    1996-12-01

    Predicting the rate of snowmelt and intercepted snow sublimation in boreal forests requires an understanding of the effects of snow-covered conifers on the exchange of radiant energy. This study examined the amount of intercepted snow on a jack pine canopy in the boreal forest of central Saskatchewan and the shortwave and net radiation exchange with this canopy, to determine the effect of intercepted snow and canopy structure on shortwave radiation reflection and extinction and net radiation attenuation in a boreal forest. The study focused on clear sky conditions, which are common during winter in the continental boreal forest. Intercepted snow was found to have no influence on the clear-sky albedo of the canopy, the extinction of short wave radiation by the canopy or ratio of net radiation at the canopy top to that at the surface snow cover. Because of the low albedo of the snow-covered canopy, net radiation at the canopy top remains positive and a large potential source of energy for sublimation. The canopy albedo declines somewhat as the extinction efficiency of the underlying canopy increases. The extinction efficiency of short wave radiation in the canopy depends on solar angle because of the approximately horizontal orientation of pine branches. For low solar angles above the horizon, the extinction efficiency is quite low and short wave transmissivity through the canopy is relatively high. As the solar angle increases, extinction increases up to angles of about 50̂, and then declines. Extinction of short wave radiation in the canopy strongly influences the attenuation of net radiation by the canopy. Short wave radiation that is extinguished by branches is radiated as long wave, partly downwards to the snow cover. The ratio of net radiation at the canopy top to that at the snow cover surface increases with the extinction of short wave radiation and is negative for low extinction efficiencies. For the pine canopy examined, the daily mean net radiation at the

  9. Dominance of grain size impacts on seasonal snow albedo at open sites in New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Alden C.; Albert, Mary R.; Lazarcik, James; Dibb, Jack E.; Amante, Jacqueline M.; Price, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Snow cover serves as a major control on the surface energy budget in temperate regions due to its high reflectivity compared to underlying surfaces. Winter in the northeastern United States has changed over the last several decades, resulting in shallower snowpacks, fewer days of snow cover, and increasing precipitation falling as rain in the winter. As these climatic changes occur, it is imperative that we understand current controls on the evolution of seasonal snow albedo in the region. Over three winter seasons between 2013 and 2015, snow characterization measurements were made at three open sites across New Hampshire. These near-daily measurements include spectral albedo, snow optical grain size determined through contact spectroscopy, snow depth, snow density, black carbon content, local meteorological parameters, and analysis of storm trajectories using the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model. Using analysis of variance, we determine that land-based winter storms result in marginally higher albedo than coastal storms or storms from the Atlantic Ocean. Through multiple regression analysis, we determine that snow grain size is significantly more important in albedo reduction than black carbon content or snow density. And finally, we present a parameterization of albedo based on days since snowfall and temperature that accounts for 52% of variance in albedo over all three sites and years. Our improved understanding of current controls on snow albedo in the region will allow for better assessment of potential response of seasonal snow albedo and snow cover to changing climate.

  10. Design, Development and Testing of Web Services for Multi-Sensor Snow Cover Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadlec, Jiri

    This dissertation presents the design, development and validation of new data integration methods for mapping the extent of snow cover based on open access ground station measurements, remote sensing images, volunteer observer snow reports, and cross country ski track recordings from location-enabled mobile devices. The first step of the data integration procedure includes data discovery, data retrieval, and data quality control of snow observations at ground stations. The WaterML R package developed in this work enables hydrologists to retrieve and analyze data from multiple organizations that are listed in the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Sciences Inc (CUAHSI) Water Data Center catalog directly within the R statistical software environment. Using the WaterML R package is demonstrated by running an energy balance snowpack model in R with data inputs from CUAHSI, and by automating uploads of real time sensor observations to CUAHSI HydroServer. The second step of the procedure requires efficient access to multi-temporal remote sensing snow images. The Snow Inspector web application developed in this research enables the users to retrieve a time series of fractional snow cover from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for any point on Earth. The time series retrieval method is based on automated data extraction from tile images provided by a Web Map Tile Service (WMTS). The average required time for retrieving 100 days of data using this technique is 5.4 seconds, which is significantly faster than other methods that require the download of large satellite image files. The presented data extraction technique and space-time visualization user interface can be used as a model for working with other multi-temporal hydrologic or climate data WMTS services. The third, final step of the data integration procedure is generating continuous daily snow cover maps. A custom inverse distance weighting method has been developed

  11. Snow cover - characteristics and trends for the meteorological mountain stations in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manea, A.; Ralita, I.; Dumitrescu, Al.; Boroneant, C.

    2009-04-01

    Snow cover represents an important climatological parameter for the specialized analysis because it can provide useful information regarding the climatological evolution of one region, taking into account the variability of the climate. The latest years brought milder winters for Romania. The number of days with snow cover and the depth of snow cover are very important factors for the mountain tourism and the winter sports. This paper presents the trends of the number of days with snow cover and the snow depth over the 1961-2007 period for 18 mountain meteorological stations in Romania. In this case, "mountain station" refers to a station located at an altitude higher than 1000 m.

  12. ALBEDO MODELS FOR SNOW AND ICE ON A FRESHWATER LAKE. (R824801)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractSnow and ice albedo measurements were taken over a freshwater lake in Minnesota for three months during the winter of 1996¯1997 for use in a winter lake water quality model. The mean albedo of new snow was measured as 0.83±0.028, while the...

  13. Snow and ice control at extreme temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    As expected, most state and provincial DOTs that we spoke with are using traditional methods to prevent and : remove snow and ice at very low temperatures. In addition to a review of current research, we spoke with six winter : maintenance profession...

  14. Evaluation of alternative snow plow cutting edges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    With approximately 450 snow plow trucks, the Maine Department of Transportation (MaineDOT) uses in : excess of 10,000 linear feet of plow cutting edges each winter season. Using the 2008-2009 cost per linear : foot of $48.32, the Departments total co...

  15. Snow as an accumulator of air pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert T. Brown

    1976-01-01

    Using simple analytical techniques, the amounts of air pollutants accumulated in winter snow were determined and the results correlated with lichen survival on trees. Pollutants measured were particulate matter, sulfate, and chloride. An inverse relationship was found between amounts of each of these pollutants and the abundance of various lichens.

  16. Snow specific surface area simulation using the one-layer snow model in the Canadian LAnd Surface Scheme (CLASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Roy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Snow grain size is a key parameter for modeling microwave snow emission properties and the surface energy balance because of its influence on the snow albedo, thermal conductivity and diffusivity. A model of the specific surface area (SSA of snow was implemented in the one-layer snow model in the Canadian LAnd Surface Scheme (CLASS version 3.4. This offline multilayer model (CLASS-SSA simulates the decrease of SSA based on snow age, snow temperature and the temperature gradient under dry snow conditions, while it considers the liquid water content of the snowpack for wet snow metamorphism. We compare the model with ground-based measurements from several sites (alpine, arctic and subarctic with different types of snow. The model provides simulated SSA in good agreement with measurements with an overall point-to-point comparison RMSE of 8.0 m2 kg–1, and a root mean square error (RMSE of 5.1 m2 kg–1 for the snowpack average SSA. The model, however, is limited under wet conditions due to the single-layer nature of the CLASS model, leading to a single liquid water content value for the whole snowpack. The SSA simulations are of great interest for satellite passive microwave brightness temperature assimilations, snow mass balance retrievals and surface energy balance calculations with associated climate feedbacks.

  17. Velocity distribution in snow avalanches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, K.; Ito, Y.

    1997-12-01

    In order to investigate the detailed structure of snow avalanches, we have made snow flow experiments at the Miyanomori ski jump in Sapporo and systematic observations in the Shiai-dani, Kurobe Canyon. In the winter of 1995-1996, a new device to measure static pressures was used to estimate velocities in the snow cloud that develops above the flowing layer of avalanches. Measurements during a large avalanche in the Shiai-dani which damaged and destroyed some instruments indicate velocities increased rapidly to more than 50 m/s soon after the front. Velocities decreased gradually in the following 10 s. Velocities of the lower flowing layer were also calculated by differencing measurement of impact pressure. Both recordings in the snow cloud and in the flowing layer changed with a similar trend and suggest a close interaction between the two layers. In addition, the velocity showed a periodic change. Power spectrum analysis of the impact pressure and the static pressure depression showed a strong peak at a frequency between 4 and 6 Hz, which might imply the existence of either ordered structure or a series of surges in the flow.

  18. Spatiotemporal variability of snow cover and snow water equivalent in the last three decades over Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yinsheng; Ma, Ning

    2018-04-01

    Changes in the extent and amount of snow cover in Eurasia are of great interest because of their vital impacts on the global climate system and regional water resource management. This study investigated the spatial and temporal variability of the snow cover extent (SCE) and snow water equivalent (SWE) of the continental Eurasia using the Northern Hemisphere Equal-Area Scalable Earth Grid (EASE-Grid) Weekly SCE data for 1972-2006 and the Global Monthly EASE-Grid SWE data for 1979-2004. The results indicated that, in general, the spatial extent of snow cover significantly decreased during spring and summer, but varied little during autumn and winter over Eurasia in the study period. The date at which snow cover began to disappear in spring has significantly advanced, whereas the timing of snow cover onset in autumn did not vary significantly during 1972-2006. The snow cover persistence period declined significantly in the western Tibetan Plateau as well as partial area of Central Asia and northwestern Russia, but varied little in other parts of Eurasia. "Snow-free breaks" (SFBs) with intermittent snow cover in the cold season were principally observed in the Tibetan Plateau and Central Asia, causing a low sensitivity of snow cover persistence period to the timings of snow cover onset and disappearance over the areas with shallow snow. The averaged SFBs were 1-14 weeks during the study period and the maximum intermittence could even reach 25 weeks in certain years. At a seasonal scale, SWE usually peaked in February or March, but fell gradually since April across Eurasia. Both annual mean and annual maximum SWE decreased significantly during 1979-2004 in most parts of Eurasia except for eastern Siberia as well as northwestern and northeastern China. The possible cross-platform inconsistencies between two passive microwave radiometers may cause uncertainties in the detected trends of SWE here, suggesting an urgent need of producing a long-term, more homogeneous SWE

  19. Deepened winter snow increases stem growth and alters stem δ13C and δ15N in evergreen dwarf shrub Cassiope tetragona in high-arctic Svalbard tundra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Daan; Weijers, Stef; Welker, Jeffrey M

    2015-01-01

    closely matched, snow depth did not change stem δ 2 H or δ 18 O, suggesting that water source usage by C. tetragona was unaltered. Instead, the deep insulating snowpack may have protected C. tetragona shrubs against frost damage, potentially compensating the detrimental effects of a shortened growing...

  20. Snow thickness profiling on Antarctic sea ice with GPR—Rapid and accurate measurements with the potential to upscale needles to a haystack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaffhuber, Andreas A.; Lieser, Jan L.; Haas, Christian

    2017-08-01

    Snow thickness on sea ice is a largely undersampled parameter yet of importance for the sea ice mass balance and for satellite-based sea ice thickness estimates and thus our general understanding of global ice volume change. Traditional direct thickness measurements with meter sticks can provide accurate but only spot information, referred to as "needles" due to their pinpoint focus and information, while airborne and satellite remote sensing snow products, referred to as "the haystack," have large uncertainties due to their scale. We demonstrate the remarkable accuracy and applicability of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) snow thickness measurements by comparing them with in situ meter stick data from two field campaigns to Antarctica in late winter/early spring. The efficiency and millimeter-to-centimeter accuracy of GPR enables practitioners to acquire extensive, semiregional data with the potential to upscale needles to the haystack and to potentially calibrate satellite remote sensing products that we confirm to derive roughly 30% of the in situ thickness. We find the radar wave propagation velocity in snow to be rather constant (± 6%), encouraging regional snow thickness surveys. Snow thinner than 10 cm is under the detection limit with the off-the-shelf GPR setup utilized in our study.

  1. Study on Assessment Model of Classification for Snow Disasters in Tibet Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, L., Sr.; Xiao, T.; Wang, C.; Du, J.; Chen, D.; Zhou, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Based on Tibetan Plateau snow observation data from 39 meteorological stations during 1979-2013, we found 4 indexes for assessment model, as snow depth, the max snow depth, snow cover areas and snow duration respectively. The recurrence period of snow disasters and event distance function were calculated by normal probability density function. And the assessment model classification for snow disasters was also studied. The main contents of this research are summarized as follows: (1) The assessment model of classification for Snow Disasters was build. The snow depth, the max snow depth, snow cover areas and snow duration were selected as indexes for model, and the standard of Classification was found. The four indexes form the evaluation vector, thus euclidean distance was calculated to classify the snow disasters form the first to fifth class snow disaster. (2) The assessment of snow disasters was studied. In 370 cases of heavy snowfall in four seasons, the first class snow disaster occurred 257 times, and 69.46% of the whole cases. The second to fourth class snow disaster occurred 22.44%, 4.05% respectively. The probability of snow disaster is highest in spring, and the probability is similar in autumn and winter. (3) The average of snow depth in the fourth class snow disaster was 2.56cm, the max of snow depth is 7.45cm, the snow cover areas is 0.17 and snow duration is 57.2d. There are 4, 7, 4 times of the fourth class snow disaster in 1980s, 1990s, 2000s respectively, and 9 times occurred in winter. In December 1981, there was the fourth class snow disaster lasted for three months. During 2006-2013, up to the third class snow disaster were occurred every year, and the fourth class snow disaster occurred 4 times. In 21st century, although the times of the class snow disaster was descend, but it still has hugely damages at plateau areas. Key words: Snow Disasters; Tibet plateau; Classification; Assessment Model Acknowledgements: This study was supported by

  2. Debris-covered glacier anomaly? Morphological factors controlling changes in the mass balance, surface area, terminus position, and snow line altitude of Himalayan glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Franco; Thakuri, Sudeep; Tartari, Gianni; Nuimura, Takayuki; Sunako, Sojiro; Sakai, Akiko; Fujita, Koji

    2017-08-01

    What are the main morphological factors that control the heterogeneous responses of debris-covered glaciers to climate change in the southern central Himalaya? A debate is open whether thinning rates on debris-covered glaciers are comparable to those of debris-free ones. Previous studies have adopted a deterministic approach, which is indispensable, but is also limiting in that only a few glaciers can be monitored. In this context, we propose a statistical analysis based on a wider glacier population as a complement to these deterministic studies. We analysed 28 glaciers situated on the southern slopes of Mt. Everest in the central southern Himalaya during the period 1992-2008. This study combined data compiled by three distinct studies for a common period and population of glaciers for use in a robust statistical analysis. Generally, surface gradient was the main morphological factor controlling the features and responses of the glaciers to climate change. In particular, the key points that emerged are as follows. 1) Reduced downstream surface gradient is responsible for increased glacier thinning. 2) The development of supraglacial ponds is a further controlling factor of glacier thinning: where supraglacial ponds develop, the glaciers register further surface lowering. 3) Debris coverage and thickness index were not found to be significantly responsible for the development of supraglacial ponds, changes in elevation, or shifts in snow line altitude.

  3. How to determine wet-snow instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiweger, Ingrid; Mitterer, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    Processes leading to wet-snow instability are very complex and highly non-linear in time and space. Infiltrating water changes wet-snow strength and other mechanical properties. A high liquid water content presumably favors fracture propagation, which consequently has an influence on the formation of wet slab avalanches. The weakening of snow due to liquid water within the snowpack might be gradual (melt event) or sudden (rain-on-snow event). There are several feedback mechanisms between liquid water and snow stratigraphy, making the weakening process complex. We used modelled stability indices to determine periods with high wet-snow instability. These indices were either based on energy and mass balances indicating critical amounts of water within the snowpack or on simple hydro-mechanical relationships. In addition to the modelled indices, preliminary field studies investigated the fracture initiation and fracture propagation propensity within wet snowpacks. We therefore performed Rutschblock and propagation saw tests in faceted weak layers with different volumetric liquid water contents. Results of simulations and field experiments showed that a critical amount of liquid water combined with a pre-critical snow stratigraphy were relevant for wet-snow instability. The critical amount of water was assumed to drive both failure initiation and fracture propagation. The simulated indices and observed stability tests indicated a high wet-snow instability when the volumetric liquid water content within faceted weak layers exceeded 3. Within our propagation saw test measurements crack propagation propensity even slightly decreased at very low liquid water contents compared to completely dry conditions, presumably due to capillary forces. For liquid water contents higher than 3-4%, however, crack propagation propensity strongly increased, which we assume was due to the weakening of bonds between grains within the increasingly wet weak snow layer. Our results could be used

  4. Estimating winter survival of winter wheat by simulations of plant frost tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergjord Olsen, A.K.; Persson, T.; Wit, de A.; Nkurunziza, L.; Sindhøj, E.; Eckersten, H.

    2018-01-01

    Based on soil temperature, snow depth and the grown cultivar's maximum attainable level of frost tolerance (LT50c), the FROSTOL model simulates development of frost tolerance (LT50) and winter damage, thereby enabling risk calculations for winter wheat survival. To explore the accuracy of this

  5. Seasonal changes in the radiation balance of subarctic forest and tundra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafleur, P.M.; Renzetti, A.V.; Bello, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the seasonal behavior of the components of the radiation budget of subarctic tundra and open forest near Churchill, Manitoba. Data were collected between late February and August 1990. The presence of the winter snowpack is the most important factor which affects the difference in radiation balances of tundra and forest. Overall, net radiation was about four to five times larger over the forest when snow covered the ground. Albedo differences were primarily responsible for this difference in net radiation; however, somewhat smaller net longwave losses were experienced at the tundra site. The step decrease in albedo from winter to summer (i.e. snow-covered to snow-free conditions) was significant at both sites. The forest albedo decreased by about three-fold while the tundra experienced a seven-fold decrease. Net radiation at both sites increased in direct response to the albedo change. Transmissivity of the atmosphere near Churchill also appeared to change at about the same time as the loss of the snow cover and may be related to changing air masses which bring about the final snow melt

  6. Winter Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education Centers Harwood Training Grants Videos E-Tools Winter Storms Plan. Equip. Train To prevent injuries, illnesses and Fatalities during winter storms. This page requires that javascript be enabled ...

  7. Carboxylic acids in high elevation Alpine glacier snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupetit, FrançOis; Delmas, Robert J.

    1994-08-01

    Fresh-snow samples were collected on an event basis on the Glacier de la Girose (3360 m above sea level (asl)) in the southern French Alps, during winters and early springs 1990 and 1991. In addition, a 13-m firn core was recovered in 1991 at the Col du Dôme (4250 m asl), a cold glacier in the northern French Alps, offering the complete seasonal record of alpine precipitation during 3.5 years. All samples were analyzed for total formate and acetate and for major ions using ion chromatography. The acidity-alkalinity was accurately measured using a titration technique. An almost perfect ion balance was achieved for this data set. In absence of Saharan dust transport, the high alpine snow is slightly acid (H+ ˜ 2-20 μEq L-1). HCOOT and CH3COOT are generally present in alpine acid snow at very low concentrations: 0.3-0.6 μEq L-1 in winter (January to February) and 0.6-2 μEq L-1 in early spring (March to April). At Col du Dôme, total acetate concentrations of ˜1 μEq L-1 are observed in summer. It remains unclear from our results what the major sources of carboxylic acids are, and in particular of acetic acid, in the wintertime continental free troposphere, while it appears that formic and acetic acids are presumably mainly derived from natural sources in spring and summer. The total contribution of formic and acetic acids to free acidity is, on average, less than 15-20%. Contrary to major ions which are present in wider concentration ranges and show large variations from one snowfall to the other, HCOOT and CH3COOT are surprisingly stable in acid alpine snow. The only significant deviation of HCOOT and CH3COOT from their mean values (up to 9 and 5 μEq L-1, respectively) are observed in case of Saharan dust transport, when precipitation pH is shifted from acid toward alkaline conditions. These observations suggest a pH partitioning effect between the aqueous and gas phases, formic and acetic acids being dissolved and neutralized as salts in alkaline cloudwater

  8. ESA GlobSnow Snow Water Equivalent (SWE)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The European Space Agency (ESA) Global Snow Monitoring for Climate Research (GlobSnow) snow water equivalent (SWE) v2.0 data record contains snow information derived...

  9. The significance of vertical moisture diffusion on drifting snow sublimation near snow surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ning; Shi, Guanglei

    2017-12-01

    Sublimation of blowing snow is an important parameter not only for the study of polar ice sheets and glaciers, but also for maintaining the ecology of arid and semi-arid lands. However, sublimation of near-surface blowing snow has often been ignored in previous studies. To study sublimation of near-surface blowing snow, we established a sublimation of blowing snow model containing both a vertical moisture diffusion equation and a heat balance equation. The results showed that although sublimation of near-surface blowing snow was strongly reduced by a negative feedback effect, due to vertical moisture diffusion, the relative humidity near the surface does not reach 100 %. Therefore, the sublimation of near-surface blowing snow does not stop. In addition, the sublimation rate near the surface is 3-4 orders of magnitude higher than that at 10 m above the surface and the mass of snow sublimation near the surface accounts for more than half of the total snow sublimation when the friction wind velocity is less than about 0.55 m s-1. Therefore, the sublimation of near-surface blowing snow should not be neglected.

  10. Winter MVC

    OpenAIRE

    Castellón Gadea, Pasqual

    2013-01-01

    Winter MVC és un framework de presentació basat en Spring MVC que simplifica la metodologia de configuracions. Winter MVC es un framework de presentación basado en Spring MVC que simplifica la metodología de configuraciones. Winter MVC is a presentation framework that simplifies Spring MVC configuration methodology.

  11. Frontal Dynamics of Powder Snow Avalanches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louge, M. Y.; Carroll, C. S.; Turnbull, B.

    2012-04-01

    We model the dynamics of the head of dilute powder snow avalanches sustained by a massive frontal blow-out, arising as a weakly cohesive snow cover is fluidized by the very pore pressure gradients that the avalanche induces within the snow pack. Such material eruption just behind the front acts as a source of denser fluid thrust into a uniform ambient air flow at high Reynolds number. In such "eruption current", fluidization depth is inversely proportional to a bulk Richardson number representing avalanche height. By excluding situations in which the snow cover is not fluidized up to its free surface, we derive a criterion combining snow pack friction and density indicating which avalanches can produce a sustainable powder cloud. A mass balance involving snow cover and powder cloud sets avalanche height and mean density. By determining which solution of the mass balance is stable, we find that avalanches reach constant growth and acceleration rates for fixed slope and avalanche width. Under these conditions, we calculate the fraction of the fluidized cover that is actually scoured and blown-out into the cloud, and deduce from a momentum balance on the head that the avalanche accelerates at a rate only 14% of the gravitational component along the flow. We also calculate how far a powder cloud travels until its mean density becomes constant. Finally, we show that the dynamics of powder snow avalanches are crucially affected by the rate of change of their width, for example by reaching an apparent steady speed as their channel widens. If such widening is rapid, or if slope inclination vanishes, we calculate where and how powder clouds collapse. Predictions agree well with observations of powder snow avalanches carried out at the Vallee de la Sionne (Switzerland).

  12. Snow reliability in ski resorts considering artificial snowmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstätter, M.; Formayer, H.; Haas, P.

    2009-04-01

    Snow reliability is the key factor to make skiing on slopes possible and to ensure added value in winter tourism. In this context snow reliability is defined by the duration of a snowpack on the ski runs of at least 50 mm snow water equivalent (SWE), within the main season (Dec-Mar). Furthermore the snowpack should form every winter and be existent early enough in season. In our work we investigate the snow reliability of six Austrian ski resorts. Because nearly all Austrian resorts rely on artificial snowmaking it is of big importance to consider man made snow in the snowpack accumulation and ablation in addition to natural snow. For each study region observed weather data including temperature, precipitation and snow height are used. In addition we differentiate up to three elevations on each site (valley, intermediate, mountain top), being aware of the typical local winter inversion height. Time periods suitable for artificial snow production, for several temperature threshold (-6,-4 or -1 degree Celsius) are calculated on an hourly base. Depending on the actual snowpack height, man made snow can be added in the model with different defined capacities, considering different technologies or the usage of additives. To simulate natural snowpack accumulation and ablation we a simple snow model, based on daily precipitation and temperature. This snow model is optimized at each site separately through certain parameterization factors. Based on the local observations and the monthly climate change signals from the climate model REMO-UBA, we generate long term time series of temperature and precipitation, using the weather generator LARS. Thereby we are not only able to simulate the snow reliability under current, but also under future climate conditions. Our results show significant changes in snow reliability, like an increase of days with insufficient snow heights, especially at mid and low altitudes under natural snow conditions. Artificial snowmaking can partly

  13. A distributed snow-evolution modeling system (SnowModel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glen E. Liston; Kelly. Elder

    2006-01-01

    SnowModel is a spatially distributed snow-evolution modeling system designed for application in landscapes, climates, and conditions where snow occurs. It is an aggregation of four submodels: MicroMet defines meteorological forcing conditions, EnBal calculates surface energy exchanges, SnowPack simulates snow depth and water-equivalent evolution, and SnowTran-3D...

  14. Seasonal Evolution of Thermal Conductivity of Snow and its Impact on Surface Temperature Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeev, V. A.; Kholodov, A. L.

    2017-12-01

    Snow acts as an insulating blanket for permafrost in the winter. Thermal conductivity properties of snowpack in the winter will greatly impact the temperature regimes of the underlaying permafrost. Fourier analysis and other techniques are applied to data obtained from a set of observational sites in Fairbanks, AK with temperature and moisture measured within the snowpack throughout the entire winter in order to estimate thermal conductivity of snow and fluxes through the snow. These data are analyzed in order to understand the variations of soil temperature as a function of snow properties and weather conditions. Thermal diffusion coefficients, snow depth and density data are compared with other available sources. Results obtained will be used for further development of a snow-permafrost model.

  15. Modelling of snow exceedances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordanova, Pavlina K.; Sadovský, Zoltán; Stehlík, Milan

    2017-07-01

    Modelling of snow exceedances is of great importance and interest for ecology, civil engineering and general public. We suggest the favorable fit for exceedances related to the exceptional snow loads from Slovakia, assuming that the data is driven by Generalised Pareto Distribution or Generalized Extreme Value Distribution. Further, the statistical dependence between the maximal snow loads and the corresponding altitudes is studied.

  16. Snow snake performance monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    A recent study, Three-Dimensional Roughness Elements for Snow Retention (FHWA-WY-06/04F) (Tabler 2006), demonstrated : positive evidence for the effectiveness of Snow Snakes, a new type of snow fence suitable for use within the highway right-of...

  17. Commodifying snow, taming the waters. Socio-ecological niche construction in an Alpine village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Robert; Winiwarter, Verena

    White belts of snow clad mountains all over the world each winter. Even if there is no snow, the tourism industry is able to produce the white finery at the push of the button, thereby consuming large amounts of water. Studying Damüls, a well-known ski resort in Austria's westernmost province Vorarlberg, we can show that the development of a service sector within agro-pastoral landscapes was connected with novel water uses and massive interventions into Alpine landscapes. Human niche construction theory offers a unique avenue for studying the development of Alpine communities, but also highlights side effects accompanying the change from agrarian to tourism livelihoods. One aim of this paper is to broaden the scope of human niche construction theory. Inceptive, counteractive and relocational niche construction activities were coupled to the differentiation of actor groups. To incorporate social dynamics, indispensable for studies in environmental history, we propose the concept of socio-ecological niche construction. The paper investigates how villagers balanced resource limitations typical for an agrarian society with the differentiation of sub-niches, mediating selective forces on the population. When the valleys were industrialized, Damüls was almost given up as a permanent settlement. Then, tourists entered the stage, by and by turning the wheel of local development into a different direction. A tourism niche based on natural snow evolved from the 1930s onwards. While the socio-ecological niches of agriculture and tourism coexisted in the interwar years, this changed when ski lifts were built, embedded into a debt-based economy that made the tourism niche vulnerable to snow availability. Snow-dependency became a powerful selective force. It was mediated by the ski lift companies through a range of niche construction activities that turned water into an important resource of snowmaking systems.

  18. Drought and Snow: Analysis of Drivers, Processes and Impacts of Streamflow Droughts in Snow-Dominated Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loon, Anne; Laaha, Gregor; Van Lanen, Henny; Parajka, Juraj; Fleig, Anne; Ploum, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Around the world, drought events with severe socio-economic impacts seem to have a link with winter snowpack. That is the case for the current California drought, but analysing historical archives and drought impact databases for the US and Europe we found many impacts that can be attributed to snowpack anomalies. Agriculture and electricity production (hydropower) were found to be the sectors that are most affected by drought related to snow. In this study, we investigated the processes underlying hydrological drought in snow-dominated regions. We found that drought drivers are different in different regions. In Norway, more than 90% of spring streamflow droughts were preceded by below-average winter precipitation, while both winter air temperature and spring weather were indifferent. In Austria, however, spring streamflow droughts could only be explained by a combination of factors. For most events, winter and spring air temperatures were above average (70% and 65% of events, respectively), and winter and spring precipitation was below average (75% and 80%). Because snow storage results from complex interactions between precipitation and temperature and these variables vary strongly with altitude, snow-related drought drivers have a large spatial variability. The weather input is subsequently modified by land properties. Multiple linear regression between drought severity variables and a large number of catchment characteristics for 44 catchments in Austria showed that storage influences both drought duration and deficit volume. The seasonal storage of water in snow and glaciers was found to be a statistically important variable explaining streamflow drought deficit. Our drought impact analysis in Europe also showed that 40% of the selected drought impacts was caused by a combination of snow-related and other drought types. For example, the combination of a winter drought with a preceding or subsequent summer drought was reported to have a large effect on

  19. Linking snowfall and snow accumulation to generate spatial maps of SWE and snow depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broxton, Patrick D.; Dawson, Nicholas; Zeng, Xubin

    2016-06-01

    It is critically important but challenging to estimate the amount of snow on the ground over large areas due to its strong spatial variability. Point snow data are used to generate or improve (i.e., blend with) gridded estimates of snow water equivalent (SWE) by using various forms of interpolation; however, the interpolation methodologies often overlook the physical mechanisms for the snow being there in the first place. Using data from the Snow Telemetry and Cooperative Observer networks in the western United States, we show that four methods for the spatial interpolation of peak of winter snow water equivalent (SWE) and snow depth based on distance and elevation can result in large errors. These errors are reduced substantially by our new method, i.e., the spatial interpolation of these quantities normalized by accumulated snowfall from the current or previous water years. Our method results in significant improvement in SWE estimates over interpolation techniques that do not consider snowfall, regardless of the number of stations used for the interpolation. Furthermore, it can be used along with gridded precipitation and temperature data to produce daily maps of SWE over the western United States that are comparable to existing estimates (which are based on the assimilation of much more data). Our results also show that not honoring the constraint between SWE and snowfall when blending in situ data with gridded data can lead to the development and propagation of unrealistic errors.

  20. Integration of snow management practices into a detailed snow pack model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spandre, Pierre; Morin, Samuel; Lafaysse, Matthieu; Lejeune, Yves; François, Hugues; George-Marcelpoil, Emmanuelle

    2016-04-01

    The management of snow on ski slopes is a key socio-economic and environmental issue in mountain regions. Indeed the winter sports industry has become a very competitive global market although this economy remains particularly sensitive to weather and snow conditions. The understanding and implementation of snow management in detailed snowpack models is a major step towards a more realistic assessment of the evolution of snow conditions in ski resorts concerning past, present and future climate conditions. Here we describe in a detailed manner the integration of snow management processes (grooming, snowmaking) into the snowpack model Crocus (Spandre et al., Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., in press). The effect of the tiller is explicitly taken into account and its effects on snow properties (density, snow microstructure) are simulated in addition to the compaction induced by the weight of the grooming machine. The production of snow in Crocus is carried out with respect to specific rules and current meteorological conditions. Model configurations and results are described in detail through sensitivity tests of the model of all parameters related to snow management processes. In-situ observations were carried out in four resorts in the French Alps during the 2014-2015 winter season considering for each resort natural, groomed only and groomed plus snowmaking conditions. The model provides realistic simulations of the snowpack properties with respect to these observations. The main uncertainty pertains to the efficiency of the snowmaking process. The observed ratio between the mass of machine-made snow on ski slopes and the water mass used for production was found to be lower than was expected from the literature, in every resort. The model now referred to as "Crocus-Resort" has been proven to provide realistic simulations of snow conditions on ski slopes and may be used for further investigations. Spandre, P., S. Morin, M. Lafaysse, Y. Lejeune, H. François and E. George

  1. Snow management practices in French ski resorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spandre, Pierre; Francois, Hugues; George-Marcelpoil, Emmanuelle; Morin, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    Winter tourism plays a fundamental role in the economy of French mountain regions but also in other countries such as Austria, USA or Canada. Ski operators originally developed grooming methods to provide comfortable and safe skiing conditions. The interannual variability of snow conditions and the competition with international destinations and alternative tourism activities encouraged ski resorts to mitigate their dependency to weather conditions through snowmaking facilities. However some regions may not be able to produce machine made snow due to inadequate conditions and low altitude resorts are still negatively impacted by low snow seasons. In the meantime, even though the operations of high altitude resorts do not show any dependency to the snow conditions they invest in snowmaking facilities. Such developments of snowmaking facilities may be related to a confused and contradictory perception of climate change resulting in individualistic evolutions of snowmaking facilities, also depending on ski resorts main features such as their altitude and size. Concurrently with the expansion of snowmaking facilities, a large range of indicators have been used to discuss the vulnerability of ski resorts such as the so-called "100 days rule" which was widely used with specific thresholds (i.e. minimum snow depth, dates) and constraints (i.e. snowmaking capacity). The present study aims to provide a detailed description of snow management practices and major priorities in French ski resorts with respect to their characteristics. We set up a survey in autumn 2014, collecting data from 56 French ski operators. We identify the priorities of ski operators and describe their snowmaking and grooming practices and facilities. The operators also provided their perception of the ski resort vulnerability to snow and economic challenges which we could compare with the actual snow conditions and ski lift tickets sales during the period from 2001 to 2012.

  2. The Impact Of Snow Melt On Surface Runoff Of Sava River In Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvat, A.; Brilly, M.; Vidmar, A.; Kobold, M.

    2009-04-01

    Snow is a type of precipitation in the form of crystalline water ice, consisting of a multitude of snowflakes that fall from clouds. Snow remains on the ground until it melts or sublimates. Spring snow melt is a major source of water supply to areas in temperate zones near mountains that catch and hold winter snow, especially those with a prolonged dry summer. In such places, water equivalent is of great interest to water managers wishing to predict spring runoff and the water supply of cities downstream. In temperate zone like in Slovenia the snow melts in the spring and contributes certain amount of water to surface flow. This amount of water can be great and can cause serious floods in case of fast snow melt. For this reason we tried to determine the influence of snow melt on the largest river basin in Slovenia - Sava River basin, on surface runoff. We would like to find out if snow melt in Slovenian Alps can cause spring floods and how serious it can be. First of all we studied the caracteristics of Sava River basin - geology, hydrology, clima, relief and snow conditions in details for each subbasin. Furtermore we focused on snow and described the snow phenomenom in Slovenia, detailed on Sava River basin. We collected all available data on snow - snow water equivalent and snow depth. Snow water equivalent is a much more useful measurement to hydrologists than snow depth, as the density of cool freshly fallen snow widely varies. New snow commonly has a density of between 5% and 15% of water. But unfortunately there is not a lot of available data of SWE available for Slovenia. Later on we compared the data of snow depth and river runoff for some of the 40 winter seasons. Finally we analyzed the use of satellite images for Slovenia to determine the snow cover for hydrology reason. We concluded that snow melt in Slovenia does not have a greater influence on Sava River flow. The snow cover in Alps can melt fast due to higher temperatures but the water distributes

  3. Impact of climate change in Switzerland on socioeconomic snow indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmucki, Edgar; Marty, Christoph; Fierz, Charles; Weingartner, Rolf; Lehning, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Snow is a key element for many socioeconomic activities in mountainous regions. Due to the sensitivity of the snow cover to variations of temperature and precipitation, major changes caused by climate change are expected to happen. We analyze the evolution of some key snow indices under future climatic conditions. Ten downscaled and postprocessed climate scenarios from the ENSEMBLES database have been used to feed the physics-based snow model SNOWPACK. The projected snow cover has been calculated for 11 stations representing the diverse climates found in Switzerland. For the first time, such a setup is used to reveal changes in frequently applied snow indices and their implications on various socioeconomic sectors. Toward the end of the twenty-first century, a continuous snow cover is likely only guaranteed at high elevations above 2000 m a.s.l., whereas at mid elevations (1000-1700 m a.s.l.), roughly 50 % of all winters might be characterized by an ephemeral snow cover. Low elevations (below 500 m a.s.l.) are projected to experience only 2 days with snowfall per year and show the strongest relative reductions in mean winter snow depth of around 90 %. The range of the mean relative reductions of the snow indices is dominated by uncertainties from different GCM-RCM projections and amounts to approximately 30 %. Despite these uncertainties, all snow indices show a clear decrease in all scenario periods and the relative reductions increase toward lower elevations. These strong reductions can serve as a basis for policy makers in the fields of tourism, ecology, and hydropower.

  4. Quantification of uncertainties in snow accumulation, snowmelt, and snow disappearance dates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raleigh, Mark S.

    high resolution (15m) remote sensing, and then used to test daily 500 m canopy-adjusted MODIS snow cover data. Relative to the ground sensors, MODIS underestimated snow cover by 10-20% in meadows and 10-40% in forests, and showed snow disappearing 12 to 30 days too early in the forested sites. These errors were not detected with operational snow sensors, which have seen frequent use in MODIS validation studies. The link between model forcing and snow model uncertainty is assessed in two studies using measurements at energy balance stations in different snow climates. First, representation of snow surface temperature (T s) with temperature and humidity is examined because Ts tracks variations in the snowmelt energy balance. At all sites analyzed, the dew point temperature (Td) represented Ts with lower bias than the dry and wet-bulb temperatures. The potential usefulness of this approximation was demonstrated in a case study where detection of model bias was achieved by comparing daily Tdand modeled Ts. Second, the impact of forcing data availability and empirical data estimation is addressed to understand which types of data most impact physically-based snow modeling and need improved representation. An experiment is conducted at four well-instrumented sites with a series of hypothetical weather stations to determine which measurements (beyond temperature and precipitation) most impact snow model behavior. Radiative forcings had the largest impact on model behavior, but these are typically the least often measured.

  5. The bright side of snow cover effects on PV production - How to lower the seasonal mismatch between electricity supply and demand in a fully renewable Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Annelen; Dujardin, Jérôme; Dupuis, Sonia; Lehning, Michael

    2017-04-01

    One of the major problems with solar PV in the context of a fully renewable electricity production at mid-latitudes is the trend of higher production in summer and lower production in winter. This trend is most often exactly opposite to demand patterns, causing a seasonal mismatch that requires extensive balancing power from other production sources or large storage capacities. Which possibilities do we have to bring PV production into closer correlation with demand? This question motivated our research and in response we investigated the effects of placing PV panels at different tilt angles in regions with extensive snow cover to increase winter production from ground reflected short wave radiation. The aim of this project is therefore to quantify the effect of varying snow cover duration (SCD) and of panel tilt angle on the annual total production and on production during winter months when electricity is most needed. We chose Switzerland as ideal test site, because it has a wide range of snow cover conditions and a high potential for renewable electricity production. But methods can be applied to other regions of comparable conditions for snow cover and irradiance. Our analysis can be separated into two steps: 1. A systematic, GIS and satellite-based analysis for all of Switzerland: We use time series of satellite-derived irradiance, and snow cover characteristics together with land surface cover types and elevation information to quantify the environmental conditions and to estimate potential production and ideal tilt angles. 2. A scenario-based analysis that contrasts the production patterns of different placement scenarios for PV panels in urban, rural and mountainous areas. We invoke a model of a fully renewable electricity system (including Switzerland's large hydropower system) at national level to compute the electricity import and storage capacity that will be required to balance the remaining mismatch between production and demand to further illuminate

  6. Modeling drifting snow in Antarctica with a regional climate model: 2. Results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenaerts, J.T.M.; van den Broeke, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a model study of the impact of drifting snow on the lower atmosphere, surface snow characteristics, and surface mass balance of Antarctica. We use the regional atmospheric climate model RACMO2.1/ANT with a high horizontal resolution (27 km), equipped with a drifting snow routine

  7. Snow observations in Mount Lebanon (2011–2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fayad

    2017-08-01

    the investigation of snow dynamics and for the forcing and validation of energy balance models. Therefore, this dataset bears the potential to greatly improve the quantification of snowmelt and mountain hydrometeorological processes in this data-scarce region of the eastern Mediterranean. The DOI for the data is https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.583733.

  8. Distributed calibrating snow models using remotely sensed snow cover information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.

    2015-12-01

    Distributed calibrating snow models using remotely sensed snow cover information Hongyi Li1, Tao Che1, Xin Li1, Jian Wang11. Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China For improving the simulation accuracy of snow model, remotely sensed snow cover data are used to calibrate spatial parameters of snow model. A physically based snow model is developed and snow parameters including snow surface roughness, new snow density and critical threshold temperature distinguishing snowfall from precipitation, are spatially calibrated in this study. The study region, Babaohe basin, located in northwestern China, have seasonal snow cover and with complex terrain. The results indicates that the spatially calibration of snow model parameters make the simulation results more reasonable, and the simulated snow accumulation days, plot-scale snow depth are more better than lumped calibration.

  9. Combining snow depth and innovative skier flow measurements in order to improve snow grooming techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmagnola, Carlo Maria; Albrecht, Stéphane; Hargoaa, Olivier

    2017-04-01

    In the last decades, ski resort managers have massively improved their snow management practices, in order to adapt their strategies to the inter-annual variability in snow conditions and to the effects of climate change. New real-time informations, such as snow depth measurements carried out on the ski slopes by grooming machines during their daily operations, have become available, allowing high saving, efficiency and optimization gains (reducing for instance the groomer fuel consumption and operation time and the need for machine-made snow production). In order to take a step forward in improving the grooming techniques, it would be necessary to keep into account also the snow erosion by skiers, which depends mostly on the snow surface properties and on the skier attendance. Today, however, most ski resort managers have only a vague idea of the evolution of the skier flows on each slope during the winter season. In this context, we have developed a new sensor (named Skiflux) able to measure the skier attendance using an infrared beam crossing the slopes. Ten Skiflux sensors have been deployed during the 2016/17 winter season at Val Thorens ski area (French Alps), covering a whole sector of the resort. A dedicated software showing the number of skier passages in real time as been developed as well. Combining this new Skiflux dataset with the snow depth measurements from grooming machines (Snowsat System) and the snow and meteorological conditions measured in-situ (Liberty System from Technoalpin), we were able to create a "real-time skiability index" accounting for the quality of the surface snow and its evolution during the day. Moreover, this new framework allowed us to improve the preparation of ski slopes, suggesting new strategies for adapting the grooming working schedule to the snow quality and the skier attendance. In the near future, this work will benefit from the advances made within the H2020 PROSNOW project ("Provision of a prediction system allowing

  10. Effect of snow cover on soil frost penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rožnovský, Jaroslav; Brzezina, Jáchym

    2017-12-01

    Snow cover occurrence affects wintering and lives of organisms because it has a significant effect on soil frost penetration. An analysis of the dependence of soil frost penetration and snow depth between November and March was performed using data from 12 automated climatological stations located in Southern Moravia, with a minimum period of measurement of 5 years since 2001, which belong to the Czech Hydrometeorological institute. The soil temperatures at 5 cm depth fluctuate much less in the presence of snow cover. In contrast, the effect of snow cover on the air temperature at 2 m height is only very small. During clear sky conditions and no snow cover, soil can warm up substantially and the soil temperature range can be even higher than the range of air temperature at 2 m height. The actual height of snow is also important - increased snow depth means lower soil temperature range. However, even just 1 cm snow depth substantially lowers the soil temperature range and it can therefore be clearly seen that snow acts as an insulator and has a major effect on soil frost penetration and soil temperature range.

  11. Scales of snow depth variability in high elevation rangeland sagebrush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesche, Molly E.; Fassnacht, Steven R.; Meiman, Paul J.

    2017-09-01

    In high elevation semi-arid rangelands, sagebrush and other shrubs can affect transport and deposition of wind-blown snow, enabling the formation of snowdrifts. Datasets from three field experiments were used to investigate the scales of spatial variability of snow depth around big mountain sagebrush ( Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) at a high elevation plateau rangeland in North Park, Colorado, during the winters of 2002, 2003, and 2008. Data were collected at multiple resolutions (0.05 to 25 m) and extents (2 to 1000 m). Finer scale data were collected specifically for this study to examine the correlation between snow depth, sagebrush microtopography, the ground surface, and the snow surface, as well as the temporal consistency of snow depth patterns. Variograms were used to identify the spatial structure and the Moran's I statistic was used to determine the spatial correlation. Results show some temporal consistency in snow depth at several scales. Plot scale snow depth variability is partly a function of the nature of individual shrubs, as there is some correlation between the spatial structure of snow depth and sagebrush, as well as between the ground and snow depth. The optimal sampling resolution appears to be 25-cm, but over a large area, this would require a multitude of samples, and thus a random stratified approach is recommended with a fine measurement resolution of 5-cm.

  12. Assessment of Northern Hemisphere Snow Water Equivalent Datasets in ESA SnowPEx project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luojus, Kari; Pulliainen, Jouni; Cohen, Juval; Ikonen, Jaakko; Derksen, Chris; Mudryk, Lawrence; Nagler, Thomas; Bojkov, Bojan

    2016-04-01

    Reliable information on snow cover across the Northern Hemisphere and Arctic and sub-Arctic regions is needed for climate monitoring, for understanding the Arctic climate system, and for the evaluation of the role of snow cover and its feedback in climate models. In addition to being of significant interest for climatological investigations, reliable information on snow cover is of high value for the purpose of hydrological forecasting and numerical weather prediction. Terrestrial snow covers up to 50 million km² of the Northern Hemisphere in winter and is characterized by high spatial and temporal variability. Therefore satellite observations provide the best means for timely and complete observations of the global snow cover. There are a number of independent SWE products available that describe the snow conditions on multi-decadal and global scales. Some products are derived using satellite-based information while others rely on meteorological observations and modelling. What is common to practically all the existing hemispheric SWE products, is that their retrieval performance on hemispherical and multi-decadal scales are not accurately known. The purpose of the ESA funded SnowPEx project is to obtain a quantitative understanding of the uncertainty in satellite- as well as model-based SWE products through an internationally coordinated and consistent evaluation exercise. The currently available Northern Hemisphere wide satellite-based SWE datasets which were assessed include 1) the GlobSnow SWE, 2) the NASA Standard SWE, 3) NASA prototype and 4) NSIDC-SSM/I SWE products. The model-based datasets include: 5) the Global Land Data Assimilation System Version 2 (GLDAS-2) product 6) the European Centre for Medium-Range Forecasts Interim Land Reanalysis (ERA-I-Land) which uses a simple snow scheme 7) the Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) which uses an intermediate complexity snow scheme; and 8) SWE from the Crocus snow scheme, a

  13. Snow bedforms: A review, new data, and a formation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filhol, Simon; Sturm, Matthew

    2015-09-01

    Snow bedforms, like sand bedforms, consist of various shapes that form under the action of wind on mobile particles. Throughout a year, they can cover up to 11% of the Earth surface, concentrated toward the poles. These forms impact the local surface energy balance and the distribution of precipitation. Only a few studies have concentrated on their genesis. Their size ranges from 2 cm (ripple marks) to 2.5 m tall (whaleback dunes). We counted a total of seven forms that are widely recognized. Among them sastrugi, an erosional shape, is the most widespread. From laser scans, we compared scaling of snow versus sand barchan morphology. We found that both have proportionally the same footprint, but snow barchans are flatter. The key difference is that snow can sinter, immobilizing the bedform and creating an erodible material. Using a model, we investigated the effect of sintering on snow dune dynamics. We found that sintering limits their size because it progressively hardens the snow and requires an ever-increasing wind speed to maintain snow transport. From the literature and results from this model, we have reclassified snow bedforms based on two parameters: wind speed and snow surface conditions. The new data show that snow dune behavior mirrors that of sand dunes, with merging, calving, and collision. However, isolated snow barchans are rare, with most of the snow surfaces encountered in the field consisting of several superimposed bedforms formed sequentially during multiple weather events. Spatially variable snow properties and geometry can explain qualitatively these widespread compound snow surfaces.

  14. Observations of atmospheric chemical deposition to high Arctic snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Katrina M.; Sharma, Sangeeta; Toom, Desiree; Chivulescu, Alina; Hanna, Sarah; Bertram, Allan K.; Platt, Andrew; Elsasser, Mike; Huang, Lin; Tarasick, David; Chellman, Nathan; McConnell, Joseph R.; Bozem, Heiko; Kunkel, Daniel; Duan Lei, Ying; Evans, Greg J.; Abbatt, Jonathan P. D.

    2017-05-01

    Rapidly rising temperatures and loss of snow and ice cover have demonstrated the unique vulnerability of the high Arctic to climate change. There are major uncertainties in modelling the chemical depositional and scavenging processes of Arctic snow. To that end, fresh snow samples collected on average every 4 days at Alert, Nunavut, from September 2014 to June 2015 were analyzed for black carbon, major ions, and metals, and their concentrations and fluxes were reported. Comparison with simultaneous measurements of atmospheric aerosol mass loadings yields effective deposition velocities that encompass all processes by which the atmospheric species are transferred to the snow. It is inferred from these values that dry deposition is the dominant removal mechanism for several compounds over the winter while wet deposition increased in importance in the fall and spring, possibly due to enhanced scavenging by mixed-phase clouds. Black carbon aerosol was the least efficiently deposited species to the snow.

  15. The Infrared Sensor Suite for SnowEx 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, D. K.; Chickadel, C. C.; Crawford, C. J.; DeMarco, E. L.; Jennings, D. E.; Jhabvala, M. D.; Kim, E. J.; Lundquist, J. D.; Lunsford, A. W.

    2017-01-01

    SnowEx is a winter airborne and field campaign designed to measure snow-water equivalent in forested landscapes. A major focus of Year 1 (2016-17) of NASA's SnowEx campaign will be an extensive field program involving dozens of participants from U.S. government agencies and from many universities and institutions, both domestic and foreign. Along with other instruments, two infrared (IR) sensors will be flown on a Naval Research Laboratory P-3 aircraft. Surface temperature is a critical input to hydrologic models and will be measured during the SnowEx mission. A Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) IR imaging camera system will be flown along with a KT-15 remote thermometer to aid in the calibration of the IR image data. Together, these instruments will measure surface temperature of snow and ice targets to an expected accuracy of less than 1C.

  16. Snow chemistry of high altitude glaciers in the French Alps

    OpenAIRE

    MAUPETIT, FRANÇOIS; DELMAS, ROBERT J.

    2011-01-01

    Snow samples were collected as snowcores in the accumulation zone of four high altitude glaciers (2980–3540 m.a.s.l.) from each of the 4 highest mountain areas of the French Alps, during 3 consecutive years: 1989, 1990 and 1991. Sampling was performed in spring (∼ May), before the onset of late spring–summer percolation. The accumulated snow therefore reflects winter and spring conditions. A complementary sampling of fresh-snow was performed on an event basis, on one of the studied glaciers, ...

  17. Snow Cover Monitoring Using MODIS Data in Liaoning Province, Northeastern China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang; Yan; Lu

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of snow cover monitoring studies in Liaoning Province, northeastern China, using MODIS data. Snow cover plays an important role in both the regional water balance and soil moisture properties during the early spring in northeastern China. In addition, heavy snowfalls commonly trigger hazards such as flooding, caused by rapid snow melt, or crop failure, resulting from fluctuations in soil temperature associated with changes in the snow cover. The latter is a fun...

  18. Snow model design for operational purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolberg, Sjur

    2017-04-01

    A parsimonious distributed energy balance snow model intended for operational use is evaluated using discharge, snow covered area and grain size; the latter two as observed from the MODIS sensor. The snow model is an improvement of the existing GamSnow model, which is a part of the Enki modelling framework. Core requirements for the new version have been: 1. Reduction of calibration freedom, motivated by previous experience of non-identifiable parameters in the existing version 2. Improvement of process representation based on recent advances in physically based snow modelling 3. Limiting the sensitivity to forcing data which are poorly known over the spatial domain of interest (often in mountainous areas) 4. Preference for observable states, and the ability to improve from updates. The albedo calculation is completely revised, now based on grain size through an emulation of the SNICAR model (Flanner and Zender, 2006; Gardener and Sharp, 2010). The number of calibration parameters in the albedo model is reduced from 6 to 2. The wind function governing turbulent energy fluxes has been reduced from 2 to 1 parameter. Following Raleigh et al (2011), snow surface radiant temperature is split from the top layer thermodynamic temperature, using bias-corrected wet-bulb temperature to model the former. Analyses are ongoing, and the poster will bring evaluation results from 16 years of MODIS observations and more than 25 catchments in southern Norway.

  19. Influence of snow-cover properties on avalanche dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkogler, W.; Sovilla, B.; Lehning, M.

    2012-04-01

    Snow avalanches with the potential of reaching traffic routes and settlements are a permanent winter threat for many mountain communities. Snow safety officers have to take the decision whether to close a road, a railway line or a ski slope. Those decisions are often very difficult as they demand the ability to interpret weather forecasts, to establish their implication for the stability and the structure of the snow cover and to evaluate the influence of the snow cover on avalanche run-out distances. In the operational programme 'Italy-Switzerland, project STRADA' we focus on the effects of snow cover on avalanche dynamics, and thus run-out distance, with the aim to provide a better understanding of this influence and to ultimately develop tools to support snow safety officers in their decision process. We selected five avalanches, measured at the Vallée de la Sionne field site, with similar initial mass and topography but different flow dynamics and run-out distances. Significant differences amongst the individual avalanches could be observed for front and internal velocities, impact pressures, flow regimes, deposition volumes and run-out distances. For each of these avalanches, the prevailing snow conditions at release were reconstructed using field data from local snowpits or were modeled with SNOWPACK. Combining flow dynamical data with snow cover properties shows that erodible snow depth, snow density and snow temperature in the snow pack along the avalanche track are among the decisive variables that appear to explain the observed differences. It is further discussed, how these influencing factors can be quantified and used for improved predictions of site and time specific avalanche hazard.

  20. Snow-atmosphere coupling and its impact on temperature variability and extremes over North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diro, G. T.; Sushama, L.; Huziy, O.

    2017-07-01

    The impact of snow-atmosphere coupling on climate variability and extremes over North America is investigated using modeling experiments with the fifth generation Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5). To this end, two CRCM5 simulations driven by ERA-Interim reanalysis for the 1981-2010 period are performed, where snow cover and depth are prescribed (uncoupled) in one simulation while they evolve interactively (coupled) during model integration in the second one. Results indicate systematic influence of snow cover and snow depth variability on the inter-annual variability of soil and air temperatures during winter and spring seasons. Inter-annual variability of air temperature is larger in the coupled simulation, with snow cover and depth variability accounting for 40-60% of winter temperature variability over the Mid-west, Northern Great Plains and over the Canadian Prairies. The contribution of snow variability reaches even more than 70% during spring and the regions of high snow-temperature coupling extend north of the boreal forests. The dominant process contributing to the snow-atmosphere coupling is the albedo effect in winter, while the hydrological effect controls the coupling in spring. Snow cover/depth variability at different locations is also found to affect extremes. For instance, variability of cold-spell characteristics is sensitive to snow cover/depth variation over the Mid-west and Northern Great Plains, whereas, warm-spell variability is sensitive to snow variation primarily in regions with climatologically extensive snow cover such as northeast Canada and the Rockies. Furthermore, snow-atmosphere interactions appear to have contributed to enhancing the number of cold spell days during the 2002 spring, which is the coldest recorded during the study period, by over 50%, over western North America. Additional results also provide useful information on the importance of the interactions of snow with large-scale mode of variability in modulating

  1. Snow-atmosphere coupling and its impact on temperature variability and extremes over North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diro, G. T.; Sushama, L.; Huziy, O.

    2018-04-01

    The impact of snow-atmosphere coupling on climate variability and extremes over North America is investigated using modeling experiments with the fifth generation Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5). To this end, two CRCM5 simulations driven by ERA-Interim reanalysis for the 1981-2010 period are performed, where snow cover and depth are prescribed (uncoupled) in one simulation while they evolve interactively (coupled) during model integration in the second one. Results indicate systematic influence of snow cover and snow depth variability on the inter-annual variability of soil and air temperatures during winter and spring seasons. Inter-annual variability of air temperature is larger in the coupled simulation, with snow cover and depth variability accounting for 40-60% of winter temperature variability over the Mid-west, Northern Great Plains and over the Canadian Prairies. The contribution of snow variability reaches even more than 70% during spring and the regions of high snow-temperature coupling extend north of the boreal forests. The dominant process contributing to the snow-atmosphere coupling is the albedo effect in winter, while the hydrological effect controls the coupling in spring. Snow cover/depth variability at different locations is also found to affect extremes. For instance, variability of cold-spell characteristics is sensitive to snow cover/depth variation over the Mid-west and Northern Great Plains, whereas, warm-spell variability is sensitive to snow variation primarily in regions with climatologically extensive snow cover such as northeast Canada and the Rockies. Furthermore, snow-atmosphere interactions appear to have contributed to enhancing the number of cold spell days during the 2002 spring, which is the coldest recorded during the study period, by over 50%, over western North America. Additional results also provide useful information on the importance of the interactions of snow with large-scale mode of variability in modulating

  2. Basic Snow Pressure Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Shouzhi; Su, Jian

    2018-03-01

    As extreme weather rising in recent years, the damage of large steel structures caused by weather is frequent in China. How to consider the effect of wind and snow loads on the structure in structural design has become the focus of attention in engineering field. In this paper, based on the serious snow disasters in recent years and comparative analysis of some scholars, influence factors and the value of the snow load, the probability model are described.

  3. Spatiotemporal Variability of Snow Depth across Eurasian Continent from 1966 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, X.; Zhang, T.; Wang, K.

    2013-12-01

    Snow depth is one of the important parameters of snow cover, and it affects the surface energy balance, assessment of snow water equivalent, ecosystem, soil temperatures, and water cycle as a whole. In this study, the long-term observed snow depth from 1972 meteorological stations and snow course sites were used to investigate snow depth climatology and its spatiotemporal variations over Eurasian Continent from 1966 to 2008. Preliminary results showed that snow depth was affected by latitude, which in general snow depth increased with the increasing latitude. The higher values of snow depth were found in the northeastern European Russia, the east of western Siberia, the west of central Siberia, Kamchatka Peninsula, and some areas of Sakhalin. While the lower snow accumulation occurred in most areas of China except for the north of Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China, Northeast China, and some regions of the southwestern Tibet. Both of the trends in inter-annual variability of annual mean snow depth and annual maximum snow depth were not significant. However, the long-term monthly mean snow depth had obvious increasing trends from February to May. There were similar spatial distributions of linear trend coefficients of annual mean snow depth and annual maximum snow depth across the former Soviet Union (USSR). The most significant trends of changes in annual mean snow depth and annual maximum snow depth were found between 40° to 70°N. The obvious trends of variability in monthly mean snow depth appeared in the areas between 50° to 60°N. The significant decreasing trends in monthly mean snow depth were observed in most areas of China from February to March. This may be largely influenced by climate change, which leads to an advancing of the end date of snow cover.

  4. Modelling technical snow production for skiing areas in the Austrian Alps with the physically based snow model AMUNDSEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzer, F.; Marke, T.; Steiger, R.; Strasser, U.

    2012-04-01

    Tourism and particularly winter tourism is a key factor for the Austrian economy. Judging from currently available climate simulations, the Austrian Alps show a particularly high vulnerability to climatic changes. To reduce the exposure of ski areas towards changes in natural snow conditions as well as to generally enhance snow conditions at skiing sites, technical snowmaking is widely utilized across Austrian ski areas. While such measures result in better snow conditions at the skiing sites and are important for the local skiing industry, its economic efficiency has also to be taken into account. The current work emerges from the project CC-Snow II, where improved future climate scenario simulations are used to determine future natural and artificial snow conditions and their effects on tourism and economy in the Austrian Alps. In a first step, a simple technical snowmaking approach is incorporated into the process based snow model AMUNDSEN, which operates at a spatial resolution of 10-50 m and a temporal resolution of 1-3 hours. Locations of skiing slopes within a ski area in Styria, Austria, were digitized and imported into the model environment. During a predefined time frame in the beginning of the ski season, the model produces a maximum possible amount of technical snow and distributes the associated snow on the slopes, whereas afterwards, until to the end of the ski season, the model tries to maintain a certain snow depth threshold value on the slopes. Due to only few required input parameters, this approach is easily transferable to other ski areas. In our poster contribution, we present first results of this snowmaking approach and give an overview of the data and methodology applied. In a further step in CC-Snow, this simple bulk approach will be extended to consider actual snow cannon locations and technical specifications, which will allow a more detailed description of technical snow production as well as cannon-based recordings of water and energy

  5. Small scale variability of snow properties on Antarctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wever, Nander; Leonard, Katherine; Paul, Stephan; Jacobi, Hans-Werner; Proksch, Martin; Lehning, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Snow on sea ice plays an important role in air-ice-sea interactions, as snow accumulation may for example increase the albedo. Snow is also able to smooth the ice surface, thereby reducing the surface roughness, while at the same time it may generate new roughness elements by interactions with the wind. Snow density is a key property in many processes, for example by influencing the thermal conductivity of the snow layer, radiative transfer inside the snow as well as the effects of aerodynamic forcing on the snowpack. By comparing snow density and grain size from snow pits and snow micro penetrometer (SMP) measurements, highly resolved density and grain size profiles were acquired during two subsequent cruises of the RV Polarstern in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica, between June and October 2013. During the first cruise, SMP measurements were done along two approximately 40 m transects with a horizontal resolution of approximately 30 cm. During the second cruise, one transect was made with approximately 7.5 m resolution over a distance of 500 m. Average snow densities are about 300 kg/m3, but the analysis also reveals a high spatial variability in snow density on sea ice in both horizontal and vertical direction, ranging from roughly 180 to 360 kg/m3. This variability is expressed by coherent snow structures over several meters. On the first cruise, the measurements were accompanied by terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) on an area of 50x50 m2. The comparison with the TLS data indicates that the spatial variability is exhibiting similar spatial patterns as deviations in surface topology. This suggests a strong influence from surface processes, for example wind, on the temporal development of density or grain size profiles. The fundamental relationship between variations in snow properties, surface roughness and changes therein as investigated in this study is interpreted with respect to large-scale ice movement and the mass balance.

  6. A simulation study of the effect of soil water balance andwater stress on winter wheat production under different climate change scenarios

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eitzinger, J.; Šťastná, M.; Žalud, Z.; Dubrovský, Martin

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 61, - (2003), s. 195-217 ISSN 0378-3774 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/99/D040 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3042911 Keywords : water stress effect * soil water balance * DSSAT crop model Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 0.865, year: 2003

  7. Improving automated disturbance maps using snow-covered landsat time series stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk M. Stueve; Ian W. Housman; Patrick L. Zimmerman; Mark D. Nelson; Jeremy Webb; Charles H. Perry; Robert A. Chastain; Dale D. Gormanson; Chengquan Huang; Sean P. Healey; Warren B. Cohen

    2012-01-01

    Snow-covered winter Landsat time series stacks are used to develop a nonforest mask to enhance automated disturbance maps produced by the Vegetation Change Tracker (VCT). This method exploits the enhanced spectral separability between forested and nonforested areas that occurs with sufficient snow cover. This method resulted in significant improvements in Vegetation...

  8. Famine Winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, James Willard; Reyhner, Jon Allan, Ed.

    Written for the students at Heart Butte School on the Blackfeet Reservation, the booklet tells a story about Old Sun, a Blackfeet medicine man, and how terribly unkind the country of the far north can be. Old Sun had a dream of a bear with long, soft fur and white as snow. He was advised by his secret helper to get the bear's skin for a sacrifice…

  9. Occurrence of blowing snow events at an alpine site over a 10-year period: Observations and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vionnet, V.; Guyomarc'h, G.; Naaim Bouvet, F.; Martin, E.; Durand, Y.; Bellot, H.; Bel, C.; Puglièse, P.

    2013-05-01

    Blowing snow events control the evolution of the snow pack in mountainous areas and cause inhomogeneous snow distribution. The goal of this study is to identify the main features of blowing snow events at an alpine site and assess the ability of the detailed snowpack model Crocus to reproduce the occurrence of these events in a 1D configuration. We created a database of blowing snow events observed over 10 years at our experimental site. Occurrences of blowing snow events were divided into cases with and without concurrent falling snow. Overall, snow transport is observed during 10.5% of the time in winter and occurs with concurrent falling snow 37.3% of the time. Wind speed and snow age control the frequency of occurrence. Model results illustrate the necessity of taking the wind-dependence of falling snow grain characteristics into account to simulate periods of snow transport and mass fluxes satisfactorily during those periods. The high rate of false alarms produced by the model is investigated in detail for winter 2010/2011 using measurements from snow particle counters.

  10. Loropetalum chinense 'Snow Panda'

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new Loropetalum chinense, ‘Snow Panda’, developed at the U.S. National Arboretum is described. ‘Snow Panda’ (NA75507, PI660659) originated from seeds collected near Yan Chi He, Hubei, China in 1994 by the North America-China Plant Exploration Consortium (NACPEC). Several seedlings from this trip w...

  11. Gulkana Glacier, Alaska-Mass balance, meteorology, and water measurements, 1997-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Rod S.; O'Neel, Shad

    2011-01-01

    The measured winter snow, maximum winter snow, net, and annual balances for 1997-2001 in the Gulkana Glacier basin are determined at specific points and over the entire glacier area using the meteorological, hydrological, and glaciological data. We provide descriptions of glacier geometry to aid in estimation of conventional and reference surface mass balances and descriptions of ice motion to aid in the understanding of the glacier's response to its changing geometry. These data provide annual estimates for area altitude distribution, equilibrium line altitude, and accumulation area ratio during the study interval. New determinations of historical area altitude distributions are given for 1900 and annually from 1966 to 2001. As original weather instrumentation is nearing the end of its deployment lifespan, we provide new estimates of overlap comparisons and precipitation catch efficiency. During 1997-2001, Gulkana Glacier showed a continued and accelerated negative mass balance trend, especially below the equilibrium line altitude where thinning was pronounced. Ice motion also slowed, which combined with the negative mass balance, resulted in glacier retreat under a warming climate. Average annual runoff augmentation by glacier shrinkage for 1997-2001 was 25 percent compared to the previous average of 13 percent, in accordance with the measured glacier volume reductions.

  12. Research of Snow-Melt Process on a Heated Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilyev Gregory P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article has shown the results of experimental researches of the snow-melt on a heated platform-near building heat-pump snow-melt platform. The near-building (yard heat pump platforms for snow melt with the area up to 10-15 m2 are a basis of the new ideology of organization of the street cleaning of Moscow from snow in the winter period which supposes the creation in the megalopolis of the «distributed snow-melt system» (DSMS using non-traditional energy sources. The results of natural experimental researches are presented for the estimation of efficiency of application in the climatic conditions of Moscow of heat pumps in the snow-melt systems. The researches were conducted on a model sample of the near-building heat-pump platform which uses the low-potential thermal energy of atmospheric air. The conducted researches have confirmed experimentally in the natural conditions the possibility and efficiency of using of atmospheric air as a source of low-potential thermal energy for evaporation of the snow-melt heat pump systems in the climatic conditions of Moscow. The results of laboratory researches of snow-melt process on a heated horizontal platform are presented. The researches have revealed a considerable dependence of efficiency of the snow-melt process on its piling mode (form-building and the organization of the process of its piling mode (form-building and the organization of the process of its (snow mass heat exchange with the surface of the heated platform. In the process of researches the effect of formation of an «ice dome» under the melting snow mass called by the fact that in case of the thickness of snow loaded on the platform more than 10 cm the water formed from the melting snow while the contact with the heating surface don’t spread on it, but soaks into the snow, wets it due to capillary effect and freezes. The formation of «ice dome» leads to a sharp increase of snow-melt period and decreases the operating

  13. The engineering approach to winter sports

    CERN Document Server

    Cheli, Federico; Maldifassi, Stefano; Melzi, Stefano; Sabbioni, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    The Engineering Approach to Winter Sports presents the state-of-the-art research in the field of winter sports in a harmonized and comprehensive way for a diverse audience of engineers, equipment and facilities designers, and materials scientists. The book examines the physics and chemistry of snow and ice with particular focus on the interaction (friction) between sports equipment and snow/ice, how it is influenced by environmental factors, such as temperature and pressure, as well as by contaminants and how it can be modified through the use of ski waxes or the microtextures of blades or ski soles. The authors also cover, in turn, the different disciplines in winter sports:  skiing (both alpine and cross country), skating and jumping, bob sledding and skeleton, hockey and curling, with attention given to both equipment design and on the simulation of gesture and  track optimization.

  14. Evaluation and Economic Value of Winter Weather Forecasts

    OpenAIRE

    Snyder, Derrick William

    2014-01-01

    State and local highway agencies spend millions of dollars each year to deploy winter operation teams to plow snow and de-ice roadways. Accurate and timely weather forecast information is critical for effective decision making. Students from Purdue University partnered with the Indiana Department of Transportation to create an experimental winter weather forecast service for the 2012-2013 winter season in Indiana to assist in achieving these goals. One forecast product, an hourly timeline of ...

  15. Researches on snow distribution Correlation Based on Arctic Oscillation and over Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, T.; Wang, C.; Jia, L.; Du, J.; Chen, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Based on Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau observation data and reanalysis data, the characteristics of snow cover days and depth were analyzed. The relationship between Arctic Oscillation and Qinghai-Tibet Plateau snow cover and its reasons were analyzed. The relationship between Arctic Oscillation and warm and cold climate's temperature and snow cover were also analyzed. And last, the influence of Arctic Oscillation and El Nino Southern Oscillation on the distribution of snow cover days in the Tibetan Plateau was also analyzed. The main contents of this paper are summarized as follows: (1) The interdecadal change of annual snow depth and cover days had a "less-more-less" trend, and both the abrupt change year was 1998. The significant cycle of snow depth is 2 3 years, and snow cover days is 1 3 years. The distribution of large value both snow depths and cover day were same. (2) The Arctic oscillation is significantly related to the number of snow cover days and temperatures in the Tibetan Plateau, but the relationship between AO and the snow cover depth is not significant. The Arctic Oscillation can affect the temperature in Tibetan Plateau by the atmospheric circulation field, thus affecting the Tibetan Plateau snow days in winter. (3). In the past 35 years, warm winter events increased, and cold winter events decreased, and the warming effect of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is significant. When the Arctic oscillation index is positive, the plateau is prone to regional cold winter events, and the temperature is less, then the snow cover days increase. The snow cover day also has the relationship with ENSO. When Nino3 index is positive, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau snow days seem to increase, when the Nino3 index is negative, most of the snow days reduced. Key words: Arctic Oscillation Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau; Snow distribution; Cold and Warm Winter. ENSO Acknowledgements. This study was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China Fund Project (91337215

  16. Snow cover dynamics in Andean watersheds of Chile (32.0-39.5° S) during the years 2000-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehr, Alejandra; Aguayo, Mauricio

    2017-10-01

    Andean watersheds present important snowfall accumulation mainly during the winter, which melts during the spring and part of the summer. The effect of snowmelt on the water balance can be critical to sustain agriculture activities, hydropower generation, urban water supplies and wildlife. In Chile, 25 % of the territory between the region of Valparaiso and Araucanía comprises areas where snow precipitation occurs. As in many other difficult-to-access regions of the world, there is a lack of hydrological data of the Chilean Andes related to discharge, snow courses, and snow depths, which complicates the analysis of important hydrological processes (e.g. water availability). Remote sensing provides a promising opportunity to enhance the assessment and monitoring of the spatial and temporal variability of snow characteristics, such as the snow cover area (SCA) and snow cover dynamic (SCD). With regards to the foregoing questions, the objective of the study is to evaluate the spatiotemporal dynamics of the SCA at five watersheds (Aconcagua, Rapel, Maule, Biobío and Toltén) located in the Chilean Andes, between latitude 32.0 and 39.5° S, and to analyse its relationship with the precipitation regime/pattern and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. Those watersheds were chosen because of their importance in terms of their number of inhabitants, and economic activities depending on water resources. The SCA area was obtained from MOD10A2 for the period 2000-2016, and the SCD was analysed through a number of statistical tests to explore observed trends. In order to verify the SCA for trend analysis, a validation of the MOD10A2 product was done, consisting of the comparison of snow presence predicted by MODIS with ground observations. Results indicate that there is an overall agreement of 81 to 98 % between SCA determined from ground observations and MOD10A2, showing that the MODIS snow product can be taken as a feasible remote sensing tool for SCA estimation in

  17. Small scale variability of snow density on Antarctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wever, N.; Leonard, K. C.; Paul, S.; Jacobi, H. W.; Proksch, M.; Lehning, M.

    2016-12-01

    Snow on sea ice plays an important role in air-ice-sea interactions. For example, snow may smooth the ice surface when snow drift is occurring, while at the same time it may also generate roughness elements by interactions with the wind. Snow density is a key property in many processes, for example by influencing the thermal conductivity of the snow layer, radiative transfer inside the snow as well as the effects of aerodynamic forcing on the snowpack. We present data from an in-situ measurement campaign in the Weddell Sea during two subsequent cruises of RV Polarstern. By comparing snow density from snow pits and snow micro penetrometer (SMP) measurements, augmented by terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) on an area of 50x50 m2, highly resolved density profiles and surface topology were acquired at a horizontal resolution of approximately 30 cm. Average snow densities are about 280 kg/m3, but the analysis also reveals a high spatial variability in snow density on sea ice in both horizontal and vertical direction, ranging from roughly 170 to 360 kg/m3. This variability is expressed by coherent snow structures over several meters, which disappear over larger distances. A comparison with TLS data indicates that the spatial variability is related to deviations in surface topology. This suggests a strong influence from surface processes, for example wind, on the temporal development of density profiles. The fundamental relationship between density variations, surface roughness and changes therein as investigated in this study are interpreted with respect to larger-scale ice-movement and the ice mass balance.

  18. Impacts of +2 °C global warming on winter tourism demand in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, Andrea; Greuell, Wouter; Landgren, Oskar; Prettenthaler, Franz

    2017-01-01

    Increasing temperatures and snow scarce winter seasons challenge the winter tourism industry. In this study the impacts of +2 °C global warming on winter tourism demand in Europe's ski tourism related NUTS-3 regions are quantified. Using time series regression models, the relationship between

  19. Snow impact on groundwater recharge in Table Mountain Group ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Snowmelt in the mountainous areas of the Table Mountain Group (TMG) in South Africa is believed to be one of sources of groundwater recharge in some winter seasons. This paper provides a scientific assessment of snow impact on groundwater recharge in Table Mountain Group Aquifer Systems for the first time.

  20. Modelling of stream flow in snow dominated Budhigandaki ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    60

    at the downstream part of the basin. The catchment area experiences short winter monsoon between. Nov-Feb. Relative humidity reaches maximum during the monsoon season. The Himalayan zone contributes to the stream flow in the dry season by snow and ice melt. The Central Mahabharata zone, which account for the ...

  1. Analyses of newly digitised and reconstructed snow series over the last 100+ years in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, S. C.; Wüthrich, C.; Croci-Maspoli, M.; Appenzeller, C.

    2010-09-01

    Snow is an important socio-economic factor in the Swiss Alpine region (tourism, hydro-electricity, drinking water) and responsible for considerable natural hazards such as avalanches. In addition, high-quality long-term snow series can be used as an excellent indicator of climate change. The objectives of this study are threefold. First, suitable long-term snow series from different altitudes and regions in Switzerland have been selected, missing data digitized and the entire series quality checked. Second, the long-term snow series have been used for trend analyses over a time period >100 years. Third, snow depth series have been reconstructed using daily new snow, temperature and precipitation as input variables. This made it possible to analyse snow depth related variables such as days with snow pack. Results show that the snow cover is varying substantially on seasonal and decadal time scales. The analyses of the decadal new snow trends during the last 100 years shows unprecedented low new snow sums in the winter seasons (DJF) of the 1990s. The 100 year trend of days with snow pack reveals a significant decrease for stations below 800 m asl in the winter season (DJF) and for stations around 1800 m asl in spring (MAM). Similar results were found for seasonal new snow sums. The results of the trend analyses are also discussed with respect to temperature and precipitation trends. Finally we will also shortly discuss how especially "precious" snow measurements have been identified and incorporated in a National Basic Climatological Network (NBCN) as well as in the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS).

  2. Improving the snow physics of WEB-DHM and its point evaluation at the SnowMIP sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shrestha

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the snow physics of a distributed biosphere hydrological model, referred to as the Water and Energy Budget based Distributed Hydrological Model (WEB-DHM is significantly improved by incorporating the three-layer physically based energy balance snowmelt model of Simplified Simple Biosphere 3 (SSiB3 and the Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS albedo scheme. WEB-DHM with improved snow physics is hereafter termed WEB-DHM-S. Since the in-situ observations of spatially-distributed snow variables with high resolution are currently not available over large regions, the new distributed system (WEB-DHM-S is at first rigorously tested with comprehensive point measurements. The stations used for evaluation comprise the four open sites of the Snow Model Intercomparison Project (SnowMIP phase 1 with different climate characteristics (Col de Porte in France, Weissfluhjoch in Switzerland, Goose Bay in Canada and Sleepers River in USA and one open/forest site of the SnowMIP phase 2 (Hitsujigaoka in Japan. The comparisons of the snow depth, snow water equivalent, surface temperature, snow albedo and snowmelt runoff at the SnowMIP1 sites reveal that WEB-DHM-S, in general, is capable of simulating the internal snow process better than the original WEB-DHM. Sensitivity tests (through incremental addition of model processes are performed to illustrate the necessity of improvements over WEB-DHM and indicate that both the 3-layer snow module and the new albedo scheme are essential. The canopy effects on snow processes are studied at the Hitsujigaoka site of the SnowMIP2 showing that the snow holding capacity of the canopy plays a vital role in simulating the snow depth on ground. Through these point evaluations and sensitivity studies, WEB-DHM-S has demonstrated the potential to address basin-scale snow processes (e.g., the snowmelt runoff, since it inherits the distributed hydrological framework from the WEB-DHM (e.g., the slope-driven runoff

  3. A Comparison of Sea Ice Type, Sea Ice Temperature, and Snow Thickness Distributions in the Arctic Seasonal Ice Zones with the DMSP SSM/I

    Science.gov (United States)

    St.Germain, Karen; Cavalieri, Donald J.; Markus, Thorsten

    1997-01-01

    Global climate studies have shown that sea ice is a critical component in the global climate system through its effect on the ocean and atmosphere, and on the earth's radiation balance. Polar energy studies have further shown that the distribution of thin ice and open water largely controls the distribution of surface heat exchange between the ocean and atmosphere within the winter Arctic ice pack. The thickness of the ice, the depth of snow on the ice, and the temperature profile of the snow/ice composite are all important parameters in calculating surface heat fluxes. In recent years, researchers have used various combinations of DMSP SSMI channels to independently estimate the thin ice type (which is related to ice thickness), the thin ice temperature, and the depth of snow on the ice. In each case validation efforts provided encouraging results, but taken individually each algorithm gives only one piece of the information necessary to compute the energy fluxes through the ice and snow. In this paper we present a comparison of the results from each of these algorithms to provide a more comprehensive picture of the seasonal ice zone using passive microwave observations.

  4. Application of the MODIS “snow cover” product for identification of the snow cover pattern in Gis-Baikal region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Istomina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Validation of remote sensing data MODIS «snow cover» in the period from September to May 2000/01, 2007/08, 2008/09 is realized on the base of weather stations data. Good repeatability of weather stations data and snow cover data is shown (more than 80% when snow depth is exceeds 2 cm. The minimum accuracy is in May and October for the variety of snowfall winters. Remote sensing data give possibility to extend the dot information of hydrometeorological stations network on the spatial snow distribution to the mountainous area of Predbajkalje where ground-based observations are absent. According to remote sensing earlier appearance and later melting of snow in mountain areas were identified. The plains and basins areas are characterized by later appearance and earlier melting of snow.

  5. Winter Wonderlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Listening to people complain about the hardships of winter and the dreariness of the nearly constant gray sky prompted the author to help her sixth graders recognize and appreciate the beauty that surrounds them for nearly five months of the year in western New York. The author opines that if students could see things more artistically, the winter…

  6. Sustainability of winter tourism in a changing climate over Kashmir Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Reyaz Ahmad; Rashid, Irfan; Romshoo, Shakil Ahmad; Marazi, Asif

    2014-04-01

    Mountain areas are sensitive to climate change. Implications of climate change can be seen in less snow, receding glaciers, increasing temperatures, and decreasing precipitation. Climate change is also a severe threat to snow-related winter sports such as skiing, snowboarding, and cross-country skiing. The change in climate will put further pressure on the sensitive environment of high mountains. Therefore, in this study, an attempt has been made to know the impact of climate change on the snow precipitation, water resources, and winter tourism in the two famous tourist resorts of the Kashmir Valley. Our findings show that winters are getting prolonged with little snow falls on account of climate change. The average minimum and maximum temperatures are showing statistically significant increasing trends for winter months. The precipitation is showing decreasing trends in both the regions. A considerable area in these regions remains under the snow and glacier cover throughout the year especially during the winter and spring seasons. However, time series analysis of LandSat MODIS images using Normalized Difference Snow Index shows a decreasing trend in snow cover in both the regions from past few years. Similarly, the stream discharge, comprising predominantly of snow- and glacier-melt, is showing a statistically significant declining trend despite the melting of these glaciers. The predicted futuristic trends of temperature from Predicting Regional Climates for Impact Studies regional climate model are showing an increase which may enhance snow-melting in the near future posing a serious threat to the sustainability of winter tourism in the region. Hence, it becomes essential to monitor the changes in temperature and snow cover depletion in these basins in order to evaluate their effect on the winter tourism and water resources in the region.

  7. Sound absorption of snow

    OpenAIRE

    Maysenhölder, W.; Schneebeli, M.; Zhou, X.; Zhang, T.; Heggli, M.

    2008-01-01

    Recently fallen snow possesses good sound-absorbing properties. This fact is well-known and confirmed by measurements. Is the filigree structure of snowflakes decisive? In principle we know that the sound-absorbing capacity of a porous material is dependent on its structure. But until now the question as to which structural characteristics are significant has been insufficiently answered. Detailed investigations of snow are to explain this fact by precise measurements of the sound absorption,...

  8. Transformations of snow chemistry in the boreal forest: Accumulation and volatilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, J.W.; Davies, T.D.; Jones, H.G.; Marsh, P.; Peters, N.E.; Tranter, M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the processes and dynamics of ecologically-important inorganic chemical (primarily NO3-N) accumulation and loss in boreal forest snow during the cold winter period at a northern and southern location in the boreal forest of western Canada. Field observations from Inuvik, Northwest Territories and Waskesiu, Saskatchewan, Canada were used to link chemical transformations and physical processes in boreal forest snow. Data on the disposition and overwinter transformation of snow water equivalent, NO3-, SO42- and other major ions were examined. No evidence of enhanced dry deposition of chemical species to intercepted snow was found at either site except where high atmospheric aerosol concentrations prevailed. At Inuvik, concentrations of SO42- and Cl- were five to six times higher in intercepted snow than in surface snow away from the trees. SO4-S and Cl loads at Inuvik were correspondingly enhanced three-fold within the nearest 0.5 m to individual tree stems. Measurements of snow affected by canopy interception without rapid sublimation provided no evidence of ion volatilization from intercepted snow. Where intercepted snow sublimation rates were significant, ion loads in sub-canopy snow suggested that NO3- volatized with an efficiency of about 62% per snow mass sublimated. Extrapolating this measurement from Waskesiu to sublimation losses observed in other southern boreal environments suggests that 19-25% of snow inputs of NO3- can be lost during intercepted snow sublimation. The amount of N lost during sublimation may be large in high-snowfall, high N load southern boreal forests (Quebec) where 0.42 kg NO3-N ha-1 is estimated as a possible seasonal NO3- volatilization. The sensitivity of the N fluxes to climate and forest canopy variation and implications of the winter N losses for N budgets in the boreal forest are discussed.This paper examines the processes and dynamics of ecologically-important inorganic chemical (primarily NO3-N) accumulation

  9. Snow hydrology in Mediterranean mountain regions: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayad, Abbas; Gascoin, Simon; Faour, Ghaleb; López-Moreno, Juan Ignacio; Drapeau, Laurent; Page, Michel Le; Escadafal, Richard

    2017-08-01

    is suitable for hydrological applications. Further advances in our understanding of the snow processes in Mediterranean snow-dominated basins will be achieved by finer and more accurate representation of the climate forcing. While the theory on the snowpack energy and mass balance is now well established, the connections between the snow cover and the water resources involve complex interactions with the sub-surface processes, which demand future investigation.

  10. Using Snow Fences to Augument Fresh Water Supplies in Shallow Arctic Lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuefer, Svetlana

    2013-03-31

    This project was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to address environmental research questions specifically related to Alaska's oil and gas natural resources development. The focus of this project was on the environmental issues associated with allocation of water resources for construction of ice roads and ice pads. Earlier NETL projects showed that oil and gas exploration activities in the U.S. Arctic require large amounts of water for ice road and ice pad construction. Traditionally, lakes have been the source of freshwater for this purpose. The distinctive hydrological regime of northern lakes, caused by the presence of ice cover and permafrost, exerts influence on lake water availability in winter. Lakes are covered with ice from October to June, and there is often no water recharge of lakes until snowmelt in early June. After snowmelt, water volumes in the lakes decrease throughout the summer, when water loss due to evaporation is considerably greater than water gained from rainfall. This balance switches in August, when air temperature drops, evaporation decreases, and rain (or snow) is more likely to occur. Some of the summer surface storage deficit in the active layer and surface water bodies (lakes, ponds, wetlands) is recharged during this time. However, if the surface storage deficit is not replenished (for example, precipitation in the fall is low and near‐surface soils are dry), lake recharge is directly affected, and water availability for the following winter is reduced. In this study, we used snow fences to augment fresh water supplies in shallow arctic lakes despite unfavorable natural conditions. We implemented snow‐control practices to enhance snowdrift accumulation (greater snow water equivalent), which led to increased meltwater production and an extended melting season that resulted in lake recharge despite low precipitation during the years of the experiment. For three years (2009

  11. High Resolution Insights into Snow Distribution Provided by Drone Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redpath, T.; Sirguey, P. J.; Cullen, N. J.; Fitzsimons, S.

    2017-12-01

    Dynamic in time and space, New Zealand's seasonal snow is largely confined to remote alpine areas, complicating ongoing in situ measurement and characterisation. Improved understanding and modeling of the seasonal snowpack requires fine scale resolution of snow distribution and spatial variability. The potential of remotely piloted aircraft system (RPAS) photogrammetry to resolve spatial and temporal variability of snow depth and water equivalent in a New Zealand alpine catchment is assessed in the Pisa Range, Central Otago. This approach yielded orthophotomosaics and digital surface models (DSM) at 0.05 and 0.15 m spatial resolution, respectively. An autumn reference DSM allowed mapping of winter (02/08/2016) and spring (10/09/2016) snow depth at 0.15 m spatial resolution, via DSM differencing. The consistency and accuracy of the RPAS-derived surface was assessed by comparison of snow-free regions of the spring and autumn DSMs, while accuracy of RPAS retrieved snow depth was assessed with 86 in situ snow probe measurements. Results show a mean vertical residual of 0.024 m between DSMs acquired in autumn and spring. This residual approximated a Laplace distribution, reflecting the influence of large outliers on the small overall bias. Propagation of errors associated with successive DSMs saw snow depth mapped with an accuracy of ± 0.09 m (95% c.l.). Comparing RPAS and in situ snow depth measurements revealed the influence of geo-location uncertainty and interactions between vegetation and the snowpack on snow depth uncertainty and bias. Semi-variogram analysis revealed that the RPAS outperformed systematic in situ measurements in resolving fine scale spatial variability. Despite limitations accompanying RPAS photogrammetry, this study demonstrates a repeatable means of accurately mapping snow depth for an entire, yet relatively small, hydrological basin ( 0.5 km2), at high resolution. Resolving snowpack features associated with re-distribution and preferential

  12. Investigation of some regularities of the contamination of the surface snow in the ChAPP region in January-February 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazunov, V.O.; Amosov, M.M.; Eldashev, V.V.; Draj, O.N.; Pashevich, V.I.

    1989-01-01

    The data on the surface snow radioactivity inspection obtained in winter 1987 are analyzed. A share of individual radionuclides in the general pollution of surface snow is considered. Changes in general and individual nuclide contamination dependent of the azimuth and distance are presented. A disperse content of contaminants in the surface snow is analyzed. The sampling techniques and snow sample preparation for γ-spectrometry are reported. 5 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs

  13. Mapping snow depth within a tundra ecosystem using multiscale observations and Bayesian methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, Haruko M.; Liljedahl, Anna K.; Dafflon, Baptiste; Ulrich, Craig; Peterson, John E.; Gusmeroli, Alessio; Hubbard, Susan S.

    2017-04-01

    This paper compares and integrates different strategies to characterize the variability of end-of-winter snow depth and its relationship to topography in ice-wedge polygon tundra of Arctic Alaska. Snow depth was measured using in situ snow depth probes and estimated using ground-penetrating radar (GPR) surveys and the photogrammetric detection and ranging (phodar) technique with an unmanned aerial system (UAS). We found that GPR data provided high-precision estimates of snow depth (RMSE = 2.9 cm), with a spatial sampling of 10 cm along transects. Phodar-based approaches provided snow depth estimates in a less laborious manner compared to GPR and probing, while yielding a high precision (RMSE = 6.0 cm) and a fine spatial sampling (4 cm × 4 cm). We then investigated the spatial variability of snow depth and its correlation to micro- and macrotopography using the snow-free lidar digital elevation map (DEM) and the wavelet approach. We found that the end-of-winter snow depth was highly variable over short (several meter) distances, and the variability was correlated with microtopography. Microtopographic lows (i.e., troughs and centers of low-centered polygons) were filled in with snow, which resulted in a smooth and even snow surface following macrotopography. We developed and implemented a Bayesian approach to integrate the snow-free lidar DEM and multiscale measurements (probe and GPR) as well as the topographic correlation for estimating snow depth over the landscape. Our approach led to high-precision estimates of snow depth (RMSE = 6.0 cm), at 0.5 m resolution and over the lidar domain (750 m × 700 m).

  14. Spatial and temporal variation in snow accumulation in the Central Spanish Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Moreno, I.; Beguería, S.; García-Ruiz, J. M.

    2003-04-01

    Water stored in winter snowpack represents a valuable resource in mountainous regions. The distribution of the snow determines the availability of water resources during snowmelt period, as well as the development of the economy based on winter sports. This work analyses the main factors that explain the variation in snow accumulation in the Central Spanish Pyrenees. Data about evolution of snowpack is provided by the measurement of 106 sticks installed in the study area from 1985. The snow depth is measured in two moments of the year, at the beginning of March and at the end of April or beginning of May. Snow depth, of both measurements moments, has been mapped using linear regression between snow depth and different topographic and geographic variables derived from the digital terrain model. In order to improve the estimation interpolated residuals values have been subtracted. The variability of the interannual snow distribution has been analysed with a factorial analysis in order to obtain different annual patterns of snowpack distribution. Relation between the dominant winter weather-type and the different patterns, provided by the factorial analysis, has been studied. The weather-type classification has been obtained using the Jenkinson and Collison system based on daily series of sea level atmospheric pressure measured around the Iberian Peninsula with a 5º x 10º scale. Thus, it is possible to know the influence of the prevailing winter synoptic situations in the snowpack distribution. The results show that topographic and geographic variables have a high capacity to explain the spatial distribution of the average snow cover during the study period. Nevertheless, the annual snow accumulation is the result of the arrival of frontal disturbances that come from different directions. By that, it is complex to relate the different snow distribution patterns to the main winter synoptic conditions of each year.

  15. Prevalence of Pure Versus Mixed Snow Cover Pixels across Spatial Resolutions in Alpine Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Selkowitz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing of snow-covered area (SCA can be binary (indicating the presence/absence of snow cover at each pixel or fractional (indicating the fraction of each pixel covered by snow. Fractional SCA mapping provides more information than binary SCA, but is more difficult to implement and may not be feasible with all types of remote sensing data. The utility of fractional SCA mapping relative to binary SCA mapping varies with the intended application as well as by spatial resolution, temporal resolution and period of interest, and climate. We quantified the frequency of occurrence of partially snow-covered (mixed pixels at spatial resolutions between 1 m and 500 m over five dates at two study areas in the western U.S., using 0.5 m binary SCA maps derived from high spatial resolution imagery aggregated to fractional SCA at coarser spatial resolutions. In addition, we used in situ monitoring to estimate the frequency of partially snow-covered conditions for the period September 2013–August 2014 at 10 60-m grid cell footprints at two study areas with continental snow climates. Results from the image analysis indicate that at 40 m, slightly above the nominal spatial resolution of Landsat, mixed pixels accounted for 25%–93% of total pixels, while at 500 m, the nominal spatial resolution of MODIS bands used for snow cover mapping, mixed pixels accounted for 67%–100% of total pixels. Mixed pixels occurred more commonly at the continental snow climate site than at the maritime snow climate site. The in situ data indicate that some snow cover was present between 186 and 303 days, and partial snow cover conditions occurred on 10%–98% of days with snow cover. Four sites remained partially snow-free throughout most of the winter and spring, while six sites were entirely snow covered throughout most or all of the winter and spring. Within 60 m grid cells, the late spring/summer transition from snow-covered to snow-free conditions lasted 17–56 days

  16. MODIS Snow Cover Recovery Using Variational Interpolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, H.; Nguyen, P.; Hsu, K. L.; Sorooshian, S.

    2017-12-01

    Cloud obscuration is one of the major problems that limit the usages of satellite images in general and in NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) global Snow-Covered Area (SCA) products in particular. Among the approaches to resolve the problem, the Variational Interpolation (VI) algorithm method, proposed by Xia et al., 2012, obtains cloud-free dynamic SCA images from MODIS. This method is automatic and robust. However, computational deficiency is a main drawback that degrades applying the method for larger scales (i.e., spatial and temporal scales). To overcome this difficulty, this study introduces an improved version of the original VI. The modified VI algorithm integrates the MINimum RESidual (MINRES) iteration (Paige and Saunders., 1975) to prevent the system from breaking up when applied to much broader scales. An experiment was done to demonstrate the crash-proof ability of the new algorithm in comparison with the original VI method, an ability that is obtained when maintaining the distribution of the weights set after solving the linear system. After that, the new VI algorithm was applied to the whole Contiguous United States (CONUS) over four winter months of 2016 and 2017, and validated using the snow station network (SNOTEL). The resulting cloud free images have high accuracy in capturing the dynamical changes of snow in contrast with the MODIS snow cover maps. Lastly, the algorithm was applied to create a Cloud free images dataset from March 10, 2000 to February 28, 2017, which is able to provide an overview of snow trends over CONUS for nearly two decades. ACKNOWLEDGMENTSWe would like to acknowledge NASA, NOAA Office of Hydrologic Development (OHD) National Weather Service (NWS), Cooperative Institute for Climate and Satellites (CICS), Army Research Office (ARO), ICIWaRM, and UNESCO for supporting this research.

  17. Climate change threatens archaeologically significant ice patches: insights into their age, internal structure, mass balance and climate sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand Ødegård, Rune; Nesje, Atle; Isaksen, Ketil; Andreassen, Liss Marie; Eiken, Trond; Schwikowski, Margit; Uglietti, Chiara

    2017-04-01

    Despite numerous spectacular archaeological discoveries worldwide related to melting ice patches and the emerging field of glacial archaeology, governing processes related to ice patch development during the Holocene and their sensitivity to climate change are still largely unexplored. Here we present new results from an extensive 6-year (2009-2015) field experiment at the Juvfonne ice patch in Jotunheimen in central southern Norway. Our results show that the ice patch has existed continuously since the late Mesolithic period. Organic-rich layers and carbonaceous aerosols embedded in clear ice show ages spanning from modern at the surface to ca. 7600 cal years BP at the bottom. This is the oldest dating of ice in mainland Norway. The expanding ice patch covered moss mats appearing along the margin of Juvfonne about 2000 years ago. During the study period, the mass balance record showed a strong negative balance, and the annual balance is highly asymmetric over short distances. Snow accumulation is poorly correlated with estimated winter precipitation, and single storm events may contribute significantly to the total winter balance. Snow accumulation is approx. 20% higher in the frontal area compared to the upper central part of the ice patch. There is sufficient meltwater to bring the permeable snowpack to an isothermal state within a few weeks in early summer. Below the seasonal snowpack, ice temperatures are between -2 and -4 °C. Juvfonne has clear ice stratification of isochronic origin. Reference: The Cryosphere, 11, 17-32, 2017.

  18. [Research on the Thermal Infrared Polarization Properties of Fresh Snow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting-ting; Li, Zhao-liang; Tang, Bo-hui; Sun, Wei-qi; Zhao, Yun-sheng

    2015-07-01

    Snow can directly affect the surface energy balance and climate change and has a significant impact on human life and production. It is therefore of great significance to study the fresh snow emission spectroscopy properties by using the thermal infrared Polarization technique. This can provide a basis for quantitative thermal infrared remote sensing monitoring of snow as well as a deeper understanding of global warming and appropriate countermeasures. This paper focuses on the investigation of the thermal infrared polarization properties of the fresh snow. The results show that the thermal emissive polarization properties of fresh snow depend significantly on the wavelengths (channels) and view angles used to measure them. Four channels are considered in this study, their spectral response ranges are 8-14 microm for channel 1 (CH1), 11.5-12.5 microm for channel 2 (CH2), 10.3-11.5 microm for channel 3 (CH) and 8.2-9.2 microm for channel 4 (CH4). The snow polarized radiance (L) and its polarized brightness temperature (T) manifest as L(CH1) >L(CH3) > L(CH4) > L(CH2) and T(CH4) > T(CH1) > T(CH2) > TCH3, respectively, while the degree of polarization (P) manifests as P0 > P30 > P40 > P20 > P0 > P50 where the subscript of P denotes the view angle. The maximum of both L and T occurs at the view angle of 50 degree and polarization angle of 90 degree while their minimum appears at the view angle of 30 degree and polarization angle of 75 degree for each channel. In addition, the results show that: CH3 is more appropriate for better investigation of the emissive polarization properties of snow. Linear relationship is found between the fresh snow polarized T and the polarization angle with the coefficient of determination larger than 0.77 for all four channels. The polarized brightness temperature of the fresh snow is found to be increased about 0.003 K per polarization angle within 0-135 degree. The degree of polarization of snow is almost independent of the channels we

  19. Snow and albedo climate change impacts across the United States Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassnacht, S. R.; Cherry, M. L.; Venable, N. B. H.; Saavedra, F.

    2016-02-01

    In areas with a seasonal snowpack, a warmer climate could cause less snowfall, a shallower snowpack, and a change in the timing of snowmelt, all which could reduce the winter albedo and yield an increase in net short-wave radiation. Trends in temperature, precipitation (total and as snow), days with precipitation and snow, and winter albedo were investigated over the 60-year period from 1951 to 2010 for 20 meteorological stations across the Northern Great Plains. This is an area where snow accumulation is shallow but persistent for most of the winter (November to March). The most consistent trends were minimum temperature and days with precipitation, both of which increased at a majority of the stations. Among the stations included, a decrease in the modelled winter albedo was more prevalent than an increase. There was substantial spatial variability in the climate trends. For most variables, the period of record used influenced the magnitude and sign of the significant trends.

  20. Use of Sentinels to aid the global monitoring of snow cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulliainen, Jouni; Salminen, Miia; Luojus, Kari; Metsämäki, Sari; Lemmetyinen, Juha; Takala, Matias; Cohen, Juval; Böttcher, Kristine

    2014-05-01

    data that enable the improvement of snow monitoring algorithms for hydrological and NWP applications. On the other hand, Sentinel observations can be applied to enhance snow processes considerations in hydrological, climate and weather prediction models. In general, synergistic techniques that apply data from different sensors (active-passive, optical-microwave, moderate-coarse resolution) are feasible to numerous cryospheric research and end-use applications. For example, MSI of Sentinel 2 and Sentinel 1 SAR can be synergistically used to provide information on snow melt at the scale of sub-drainage basins for hydrological river discharge forecasting independently on cloud conditions. The snow melt monitoring information has also been shown to be relevant for the mapping of the start of the growing season at the conifer forests of the boreal forest zone, which is highly relevant for the global mapping of annual carbon balance.

  1. Guidelines to Facilitate the Evaluation of Brines for Winter Roadway Maintenance Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-19

    This document presents guidelines to facilitate the evaluation of brines for winter weather roadway maintenance applications in Texas. Brines are used in anti-icing applications which typically consist of placing liquid snow and ice control chemicals...

  2. Tow plows could help Michigan save time and money on winter maintenance : research spotlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    As winter maintenance costs rise, MDOT is looking into innovative approaches to increase snow removal efficiency. As part of this effort, the department recently estimated the costs and benefits of incorporating tow plows into its equipment fleet. Re...

  3. Application of radar polarimetry techniques for retrieval snow and rain characteristics in remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Darvishi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of snow cover has significant impacts on the both global and regional climate and water balance on earth. The accurate estimation of snow cover area can be used for forecasting runoff due to snow melt and output of hydroelectric power. With development of remote sensing techniques at different scopes in earth science, enormous algorithms for retrieval hydrometeor parameters have been developed. Some of these algorithms are used to provide snow cover map such as NLR with AVHRR/MODIS sensor for Norway, Finnish with AVHRR sensor for Finland and NASA with MODIS sensor for global maps. Monitoring snow cover at different parts of spectral electromagnetic is detectable (visible, near and thermal infrared, passive and active microwave. Recently, specific capabilities of active microwave remote sensing such as snow extent map, snow depth, snow water equivalent (SWE, snow state (wet/dry and discrimination between rain and snow region were given a strong impetus for using this technology in snow monitoring, hydrology, climatology, avalanche research and etc. This paper evaluates the potentials and feasibility of polarimetric ground microwave measurements of snow in active remote sensing field. We will consider the behavior co- and cross-polarized backscattering coefficients of snowpack response with polarimetric scatterometer in Ku and L band at the different incident angles. Then we will show how to retrieve snow cover depth, snow permittivity and density parameters at the local scale with ground-based SAR (GB-SAR. Finally, for the sake of remarkable significant the transition region between rain and snow; the variables role of horizontal reflectivity (ZHH and differential reflectivity (ZDR in delineation boundary between snow and rain and some others important variables at polarimetric weather radar are presented.

  4. Application of radar polarimetry techniques for retrieval snow and rain characteristics in remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvishi, M.; Ahmadi, Gh. R.

    2013-09-01

    The presence of snow cover has significant impacts on the both global and regional climate and water balance on earth. The accurate estimation of snow cover area can be used for forecasting runoff due to snow melt and output of hydroelectric power. With development of remote sensing techniques at different scopes in earth science, enormous algorithms for retrieval hydrometeor parameters have been developed. Some of these algorithms are used to provide snow cover map such as NLR with AVHRR/MODIS sensor for Norway, Finnish with AVHRR sensor for Finland and NASA with MODIS sensor for global maps. Monitoring snow cover at different parts of spectral electromagnetic is detectable (visible, near and thermal infrared, passive and active microwave). Recently, specific capabilities of active microwave remote sensing such as snow extent map, snow depth, snow water equivalent (SWE), snow state (wet/dry) and discrimination between rain and snow region were given a strong impetus for using this technology in snow monitoring, hydrology, climatology, avalanche research and etc. This paper evaluates the potentials and feasibility of polarimetric ground microwave measurements of snow in active remote sensing field. We will consider the behavior co- and cross-polarized backscattering coefficients of snowpack response with polarimetric scatterometer in Ku and L band at the different incident angles. Then we will show how to retrieve snow cover depth, snow permittivity and density parameters at the local scale with ground-based SAR (GB-SAR). Finally, for the sake of remarkable significant the transition region between rain and snow; the variables role of horizontal reflectivity (ZHH) and differential reflectivity (ZDR) in delineation boundary between snow and rain and some others important variables at polarimetric weather radar are presented.

  5. Spectral Profiler Probe for In Situ Snow Grain Size and Composition Stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berisford, Daniel F.; Molotch, Noah P.; Painter, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    An ultimate goal of the climate change, snow science, and hydrology communities is to measure snow water equivalent (SWE) from satellite measurements. Seasonal SWE is highly sensitive to climate change and provides fresh water for much of the world population. Snowmelt from mountainous regions represents the dominant water source for 60 million people in the United States and over one billion people globally. Determination of snow grain sizes comprising mountain snowpack is critical for predicting snow meltwater runoff, understanding physical properties and radiation balance, and providing necessary input for interpreting satellite measurements. Both microwave emission and radar backscatter from the snow are dominated by the snow grain size stratigraphy. As a result, retrieval algorithms for measuring snow water equivalents from orbiting satellites is largely hindered by inadequate knowledge of grain size.

  6. Measurement of snow interception and canopy effects on snow accumulation and melt in a mountainous maritime climate, Oregon, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storck, Pascal; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; Bolton, Susan M.

    2002-11-01

    The results of a 3 year field study to observe the processes controlling snow interception by forest canopies and under canopy snow accumulation and ablation in mountain maritime climates are reported. The field study was further intended to provide data to develop and test models of forest canopy effects on beneath-canopy snowpack accumulation and melt and the plot and stand scales. Weighing lysimeters, cut-tree experiments, and manual snow surveys were deployed at a site in the Umpqua National Forest, Oregon (elevation 1200 m). A unique design for a weighing lysimeter was employed that allowed continuous measurements of snowpack evolution beneath a forest canopy to be taken at a scale unaffected by variability in canopy throughfall. Continuous observations of snowpack evolution in large clearings were made coincidentally with the canopy measurements. Large differences in snow accumulation and ablation were observed at sites beneath the forest canopy and in large clearings. These differences were not well described by simple relationships between the sites. Over the study period, approximately 60% of snowfall was intercepted by the canopy (up to a maximum of about 40 mm water equivalent). Instantaneous sublimation rates exceeded 0.5 mm per hour for short periods. However, apparent average sublimation from the intercepted snow was less than 1 mm per day and totaled approximately 100 mm per winter season. Approximately 72 and 28% of the remaining intercepted snow was removed as meltwater drip and large snow masses, respectively. Observed differences in snow interception rate and maximum snow interception capacity between Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), white fir (Abies concolor), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) were minimal.

  7. Estimating Snow Water Equivalent with Backscattering at X and Ku Band Based on Absorption Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurong Cui

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Snow water equivalent (SWE is a key parameter in the Earth’s energy budget and water cycle. It has been demonstrated that SWE can be retrieved using active microwave remote sensing from space. This necessitates the development of forward models that are capable of simulating the interactions of microwaves and the snow medium. Several proposed models have described snow as a collection of sphere- or ellipsoid-shaped ice particles embedded in air, while the microstructure of snow is, in reality, more complex. Natural snow usually forms a sintered structure following mechanical and thermal metamorphism processes. In this research, the bi-continuous vector radiative transfer (bi-continuous-VRT model, which firstly constructs snow microstructure more similar to real snow and then simulates the snow backscattering signal, is used as the forward model for SWE estimation. Based on this forward model, a parameterization scheme of snow volume backscattering is proposed. A relationship between snow optical thickness and single scattering albedo at X and Ku bands is established by analyzing the database generated from the bi-continuous-VRT model. A cost function with constraints is used to solve effective albedo and optical thickness, while the absorption part of optical thickness is obtained from these two parameters. SWE is estimated after a correction for physical temperature. The estimated SWE is correlated with the measured SWE with an acceptable accuracy. Validation against two-year measurements, using the SnowScat instrument from the Nordic Snow Radar Experiment (NoSREx, shows that the estimated SWE using the presented algorithm has a root mean square error (RMSE of 16.59 mm for the winter of 2009–2010 and 19.70 mm for the winter of 2010–2011.

  8. Decadal variability in snow depth anomaly over Eurasia and its association with all India summer monsoon rainfall and seasonal circulations

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, G P

    2003-01-01

    The Historical Soviet Daily Snow Depth (HSDSD) version II data set has been used in the computation of winter and spring snow depth anomalies over west (25 deg. E to 70 deg. E, 35 deg. N to 65 deg. N) and east (70 deg. E to 160 deg. E, 35 deg. N to 65 deg. N) Eurasia. It is noticed that winter snow depth anomaly over east Eurasia is positively correlated while west Eurasia is negatively correlated with subsequent Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR). The DJF snow depth anomaly shows highest and inverse correlation coefficient (CC) with ISMR over a large area of west Eurasia in a recent period of study i.e. 1975-1995. On the basis of standardised winter (mean of December, January and February) snow depth anomaly over west Eurasia, the years 1966, 1968, 1979 and 1986 are identified as high snow years and the years 1961 and 1975 as low snow years. The characteristics of seasonal monsoon circulation features have been studied in detail during contrasting years of less (more) snow depth in winter/spring seasons f...

  9. An ensemble-based subgrid snow data assimilation framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalstad, K.; Westermann, S.; Bertino, L.

    2016-12-01

    Snow, with high albedo, low thermal conductivity and large water storing capacity strongly modulates the surface energy and water balance. At the same time, the estimation of the seasonal snow cycle at the kilometer scale is a major hydrometeorological challenge and thus represents a significant source of uncertainty in land surface schemes. To constrain this uncertainty we are developing a modular ensemble-based subgrid snow data assimilation framework (ESSDA) for satellite-era snow distribution (SD) reanalyses. ESSDA makes use of an ensemble Kalman smoother (EnKS) approach to assimilate MODIS and LandSat retrievals of snow cover fraction into the subgrid snow distribution submodel (SSNOWD). Our problem is particularly challenging as snow cover is doubly bounded in physical space, which violates the Gaussian error assumption in the EnKS and thus compromises the performance of the reanalysis. In an attempt to alleviate this issue we make use of the technique of analytical Gaussian anamorphosis (GA) and apply the EnKS in a transformed space. The potential of the framework is presented through both synthetic (twin) and real experiments. The latter are carried out for the Bayelva catchment near Ny Ålelsund (79°N, Svalbard, Norway) where independent and accurate ground-based observations of snow cover and snow depth distributions are available. Our ensuing evaluation demonstrates that ESSDA provides robust estimates of the evolution of the SD over almost a decade long validation period. The use of GA, and our emphasis on the subgrid SD, is what sets ESSDA apart from previously proposed snow reanalysis frameworks. ESSDA has been developed to aid in satellite-based permafrost mapping efforts. Nonetheless, being modular and given the improved error treatment through GA, the ESSDA approach may also prove valuable for broader hydrometeorological reanalysis and forecast initialization efforts.

  10. SWEAT: Snow Water Equivalent with AlTimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agten, Dries; Benninga, Harm-Jan; Diaz Schümmer, Carlos; Donnerer, Julia; Fischer, Georg; Henriksen, Marie; Hippert Ferrer, Alexandre; Jamali, Maryam; Marinaci, Stefano; Mould, Toby JD; Phelan, Liam; Rosker, Stephanie; Schrenker, Caroline; Schulze, Kerstin; Emanuel Telo Bordalo Monteiro, Jorge

    2017-04-01

    To study how the water cycle changes over time, satellite and airborne remote sensing missions are typically employed. Over the last 40 years of satellite missions, the measurement of true water inventories stored in sea and land ice within the cryosphere have been significantly hindered by uncertainties introduced by snow cover. Being able to determine the thickness of this snow cover would act to reduce such error, improving current estimations of hydrological and climate models, Earth's energy balance (albedo) calculations and flood predictions. Therefore, the target of the SWEAT (Snow Water Equivalent with AlTimetry) mission is to directly measure the surface Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) on sea and land ice within the polar regions above 60°and below -60° latitude. There are no other satellite missions currently capable of directly measuring SWE. In order to achieve this, the proposed mission will implement a novel combination of Ka- and Ku-band radioaltimeters (active microwave sensors), capable of penetrating into the snow microstructure. The Ka-band altimeter (λ ≈ 0.8 cm) provides a low maximum snow pack penetration depth of up to 20 cm for dry snow at 37 GHz, since the volume scattering of snow dominates over the scattering caused by the underlying ice surface. In contrast, the Ku-band altimeter (λ ≈ 2 cm) provides a high maximum snowpack penetration depth of up to 15 m in high latitudes regions with dry snow, as volume scattering is decreased by a factor of 55. The combined difference in Ka- and Ku-band signal penetration results will provide more accurate and direct determination of SWE. Therefore, the SWEAT mission aims to improve estimations of global SWE interpreted from passive microwave products, and improve the reliability of numerical snow and climate models.

  11. Seedling establishment at the alpine tree line - Can there be too much winter protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lett, S.; Wardle, D.; Nilsson, M. C.; Dorrepaal, E.

    2014-12-01

    Alpine and arctic tree line expansion relies on tree seedling survival above the tree line, where the environment is harsh and protection by snow during winter is essential. Above the tree line, bryophytes are dominant; they may act as thermal insulators but their insulating ability differs between species. Apart from these positive effects, both snow and bryophytes may have negative effects on seedlings via shortening of the growing season or competition, respectively. Snow depth and duration are expected to change due to climate change, leading in some places to more snow and in others to less. What is the role of bryophytes insulating properties for seedling establishment under changing winter conditions at the alpine tree line? We hypothesized that protecting effects of snow and bryophytes would be more important for seedling survival in harsh climate (high elevation) than in milder climate (low elevation) (interactions: bryophyte*elevation and snow*elevation) and that negative effects of less snow would be ameliorated by well-insulating bryophytes (interaction: bryophyte*snow). To test this, we transplanted cores of three bryophyte species of differing insulation capacity and bare soil (control) from the subarctic tree line (~600m asl.) to 700 and 350 m asl. We transplanted 10 seedlings of two common tree line tree species (Betula pubescens and Pinus sylvestris) into each core in late summer. Cores were subjected to one of three snow treatments: autumn and spring snow removal or addition, or no manipulation. After the winter we scored seedling survival. The snow treatments had different effects at the two elevations (elevation* snow: Pbryophytes did not (elevation*bryophyte: n.s). In the harsh climate, snow addition generally enhanced seedling survival. In contrast, at the milder climate site, snow addition only increased survival in the bare soil treatment but decreased survival of seedlings in the bryophyte cores (bryophyte*snow: P=0.053). Our data show that

  12. Early results from NASA's SnowEx campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Edward; Gatebe, Charles; Hall, Dorothy; Misakonis, Amy; Elder, Kelly; Marshall, Hans Peter; Hiemstra, Chris; Brucker, Ludovic; Crawford, Chris; Kang, Do Hyuk; De Marco, Eugenia; Beckley, Matt; Entin, Jared

    2017-04-01

    SnowEx is a multi-year airborne snow campaign with the primary goal of addressing the question: How much water is stored in Earth's terrestrial snow-covered regions? Year 1 (2016-17) focuses on the distribution of snow-water equivalent (SWE) and the snow energy balance in a forested environment. The year 1 primary site is Grand Mesa and the secondary site is the Senator Beck Basin, both in western, Colorado, USA. Ten core sensors on four core aircraft will make observations using a broad suite of airborne sensors including active and passive microwave, and active and passive optical/infrared sensing techniques to determine the sensitivity and accuracy of these potential satellite remote sensing techniques, along with models, to measure snow under a range of forest conditions. SnowEx also includes an extensive range of ground truth measurements—in-situ samples, snow pits, ground based remote sensing measurements, and sophisticated new techniques. A detailed description of the data collected will be given and some early results will be presented. Seasonal snow cover is the largest single component of the cryosphere in areal extent (covering an average of 46M km2 of Earth's surface (31 % of land areas) each year). This seasonal snow has major societal impacts in the areas of water resources, natural hazards (floods and droughts), water security, and weather and climate. The only practical way to estimate the quantity of snow on a consistent global basis is through satellites. Yet, current space-based techniques underestimate storage of snow water equivalent (SWE) by as much as 50%, and model-based estimates can differ greatly vs. estimates based on remotely-sensed observations. At peak coverage, as much as half of snow-covered terrestrial areas involve forested areas, so quantifying the challenge represented by forests is important to plan any future snow mission. Single-sensor approaches may work for certain snow types and certain conditions, but not for others

  13. Experimental investigation of ice and snow melting process on pavement utilizing geothermal tail water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huajun; Zhao Jun; Chen Zhihao

    2008-01-01

    Road ice and snow melting based on low temperature geothermal tail water is of significance to realize energy cascading utilization. A small scale ice and snow melting system is built in this work. Experiments of dynamic melting processes of crushed ice, solid ice, artificial snow and natural snow are conducted on concrete pavement. The results show that the melting process of ice and snow includes three phases: a starting period, a linear period and an accelerated period. The critical value of the snow free area ratio between the linear period and the accelerated period is about 0.6. The physical properties of ice and snow, linked with ambient conditions, have an obvious effect on the melting process. The difference of melting velocity and melting time between ice and snow is compared. To reduce energy consumption, the formation of ice on roads should be avoided if possible. The idling process is an effective pathway to improve the performance of melting systems. It is feasible to utilize geothermal tail water of about 40 deg. C for melting ice and snow on winter roads, and it is unnecessary to keep too high fluid temperatures during the practical design and applications. Besides, with the exception of solid ice, the density and porosity of snow and ice tend to be decreasing and increasing, respectively, as the ambient temperature decreases

  14. Long-term increases in snow pack elevate leaf N and photosynthesis in Salix arctica: responses to a snow fence experiment in the High Arctic of NW Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffler, A. Joshua; Welker, Jeffery M.

    2013-06-01

    We examine the influence of altered winter precipitation on a High Arctic landscape with continuous permafrost. Gas exchange, leaf tissue element and isotopic composition (N, δ13C, δ15N), and plant water sources derived from stem and soil water δ18O were examined in Salix arctica (arctic willow) following a decade of snow-fence-enhanced snow pack in NW Greenland. Study plots in ambient and +snow conditions were sampled in summer 2012. Plants experiencing enhanced snow conditions for 10 years had higher leaf [N], photosynthetic rate, and more enriched leaf δ15N. Enhanced snow did not influence stomatal conductance or depth of plant water use. We attribute the higher photosynthetic rate in S. arctica exposed to deeper snow pack to altered biogeochemical cycles which yielded higher leaf [N] rather than to enhanced water availability. These data demonstrate the complexity of High Arctic plant responses to changes in winter conditions. Furthermore, our data depict the intricate linkages between winter and summer conditions as they regulate processes such as leaf gas exchange that may control water vapor and CO2 feedbacks between arctic tundra and the surrounding atmosphere.

  15. A local scale assessment of the climate change sensitivity of snow in Pyrenean ski resorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesado, Cristina; Pons, Marc; Vilella, Marc; López-Moreno, Juan Ignacio

    2016-04-01

    The Pyrenees host one of the largest ski area in Europe after the Alps that encompasses the mountain area of the south of France, the north of Spain and the small country of Andorra. In this region, winter tourism is one of the main source of income and driving force of local development on these mountain communities. However, this activity was identified as one of the most vulnerable to a future climate change due to the projected decrease of natural snow and snowmaking capacity. However, within the same ski resorts different areas showed to have a very different vulnerability within the same resort based on the geographic features of the area and the technical management of the slopes. Different areas inside a same ski resort could have very different vulnerability to future climate change based on aspect, steepness or elevation. Furthermore, the technical management of ski resorts, such as snowmaking and grooming were identified to have a significant impact on the response of the snowpack in a warmer climate. In this line, two different ski resorts were deeply analyzed taken into account both local geographical features as well as the effect of the technical management of the runs. Principal Component Analysis was used to classify the main areas of the resort based on the geographic features (elevation, aspect and steepness) and identify the main representative areas with different local features. Snow energy and mass balance was simulated in the different representative areas using the Cold Regions Hydrological Model (CRHM) assuming different magnitudes of climate warming (increases of 2°C and 4°C in the mean winter temperature) both in natural conditions and assuming technical management of the slopes. Theses first results showed the different sensitivity and vulnerability to climate changes based on the local geography of the resort and the management of the ski runs, showing the importance to include these variables when analyzing the local vulnerability

  16. One decade of scientific studies of snow management on Austria's glacier ski resorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Andrea; Helfricht, Kay

    2016-04-01

    After the extremely warm summer of 2003, when melt affected Austria's glaciers up to the highest elevations, a scientific study on artificial modification of mass balance was initiated. It examined the effects of glacier covers and water injection, but also various grooming methods and snow accumulations based on monitoring and modelling of snow and energy balance. The results showed that covering the glacier was the most effective and cheapest method, saving about 70% of glacier melt in places. But covers are restricted to a small portion of the area, as they require high maintenance. In recent years, snow production and snow accumulation by wind drift have gained more and more importance, not only modifying glacier mass balance, but also guaranteeing an early season start. Initially about 35 ha of the glacier area (resort area and less than one per mille of the total glacier area in Austria) were covered and later the area was reduced as snow production possibilities increased. Snow depots are often used as fun parks for snow boarders. Glacier covers are not primarily used for keeping snow for early season start on ski tracks, but to maintain the surface, especially close to cable car infrastructure, at a constant elevation and slope. Despite glacier dynamics, glacier surfaces with snow management show reduced decrease of surface elevation , both on piste and along lift tracks.

  17. Snow, ice and solar radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers Munneke, P.

    2009-01-01

    The snow-covered ice sheets of Antarctica and Greenland reflect most of the incoming solar radiation. The reflectivity, commonly called the albedo, of snow on these ice sheets has been observed to vary in space and time. In this thesis, temporal and spatial changes in snow albedo is found to depend

  18. A comparison study of two snow models using data from different Alpine sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazzi, Gaia; Riboust, Philippe; Campo, Lorenzo; Cremonese, Edoardo; Gabellani, Simone; Le Moine, Nicolas; Morra di Cella, Umberto; Ribstein, Pierre; Thirel, Guillaume

    2017-04-01

    The hydrological balance of an Alpine catchment is strongly affected by snowpack dynamics. Melt-water supplies a significant component of the annual water budget, both in terms of soil moisture and runoff, which play a critical role in floods generation and impact water resource management in snow-dominated basins. Several snow models have been developed with variable degrees of complexity, mainly depending on their target application and the availability of computational resources and data. According to the level of detail, snow models range from statistical snowmelt-runoff and degree-day methods using composite snow-soil or explicit snow layer(s), to physically-based and energy balance snow models, consisting of detailed internal snow-process schemes. Intermediate-complexity approaches have been widely developed resulting in simplified versions of the physical parameterization schemes with a reduced snowpack layering. Nevertheless, an increasing model complexity does not necessarily entail improved model simulations. This study presents a comparison analysis between two snow models designed for hydrological purposes. The snow module developed at UPMC and IRSTEA is a mono-layer energy balance model analytically resolving heat and phase change equations into the snowpack. Vertical mass exchange into the snowpack is also analytically resolved. The model is intended to be used for hydrological studies but also to give a realistic estimation of the snowpack state at watershed scale (SWE and snow depth). The structure of the model allows it to be easily calibrated using snow observation. This model is further presented in EGU2017-7492. The snow module of SMASH (Snow Multidata Assimilation System for Hydrology) consists in a multi-layer snow dynamic scheme. It is physically based on mass and energy balances and it reproduces the main physical processes occurring within the snowpack: accumulation, density dynamics, melting, sublimation, radiative balance, heat and mass

  19. Erosion dynamics of powder snow avalanches - model of frontal entrainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louge, Michel; Sovilla, Betty

    2013-04-01

    We analyze entrainment at the head of powder snow avalanches (PSA) behaving as an eruption current. Instead of invoking an erosion model or other fitted parameters, the analysis assumes that erosion is sustained by a massive blow-out arising as the snow cover is fluidized by the very pore pressure gradients that the avalanche induces within the snow pack. The stability of a mass balance involving snow cover and flow in the PSA's head region then sets frontal speed, height, mixed-mean density, snowpack fluidization depth, frontal impact pressure and static pressure. We show that acceleration of the front is insensitive to local slope, but effectively depends on the rate of change in cloud width. We compare predictions with data collected at the Vallee de la Sionne.

  20. Detection of snow melt and freezing in Himalaya using OSCAT data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    largest reserve of ice and snow outside polar regions. The analysis ... Earth's land and ocean surfaces. It is the key fac- tor in the Earth's energy balance, a major source of fresh water, and affects climate and environment. It is extremely sensitive to changes in temperature. Melting snow decreases the albedo, increases the.

  1. A Bayesian spatial assimilation scheme for snow coverage observations in a gridded snow model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kolberg

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for assimilating remotely sensed snow covered area (SCA into the snow subroutine of a grid distributed precipitation-runoff model (PRM is presented. The PRM is assumed to simulate the snow state in each grid cell by a snow depletion curve (SDC, which relates that cell's SCA to its snow cover mass balance. The assimilation is based on Bayes' theorem, which requires a joint prior distribution of the SDC variables in all the grid cells. In this paper we propose a spatial model for this prior distribution, and include similarities and dependencies among the grid cells. Used to represent the PRM simulated snow cover state, our joint prior model regards two elevation gradients and a degree-day factor as global variables, rather than describing their effect separately for each cell. This transformation results in smooth normalised surfaces for the two related mass balance variables, supporting a strong inter-cell dependency in their joint prior model. The global features and spatial interdependency in the prior model cause each SCA observation to provide information for many grid cells. The spatial approach similarly facilitates the utilisation of observed discharge. Assimilation of SCA data using the proposed spatial model is evaluated in a 2400 km2 mountainous region in central Norway (61° N, 9° E, based on two Landsat 7 ETM+ images generalized to 1 km2 resolution. An image acquired on 11 May, a week before the peak flood, removes 78% of the variance in the remaining snow storage. Even an image from 4 May, less than a week after the melt onset, reduces this variance by 53%. These results are largely improved compared to a cell-by-cell independent assimilation routine previously reported. Including observed discharge in the updating information improves the 4 May results, but has weak effect on 11 May. Estimated elevation gradients are shown to be sensitive to informational deficits occurring at high altitude, where snowmelt has not started

  2. Interannual changes in snow cover and its impact on ground surface temperatures in Livingston Island (Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwendam, Alexandre; Ramos, Miguel; Vieira, Gonçalo

    2015-04-01

    In permafrost areas the seasonal snow cover is an important factor on the ground thermal regime. Snow depth and timing are important in ground insulation from the atmosphere, creating different snow patterns and resulting in spatially variable ground temperatures. The aim of this work is to characterize the interactions between ground thermal regimes and snow cover and the influence on permafrost spatial distribution. The study area is the ice-free terrains of northwestern Hurd Peninsula in the vicinity of the Spanish Antarctic Station "Juan Carlos I" and Bulgarian Antarctic Station "St. Kliment Ohridski". Air and ground temperatures and snow thickness data where analysed from 4 sites along an altitudinal transect in Hurd Peninsula from 2007 to 2012: Nuevo Incinerador (25 m asl), Collado Ramos (110 m), Ohridski (140 m) and Reina Sofia Peak (275 m). The data covers 6 cold seasons showing different conditions: i) very cold with thin snow cover; ii) cold with a gradual increase of snow cover; iii) warm with thick snow cover. The data shows three types of periods regarding the ground surface thermal regime and the thickness of snow cover: a) thin snow cover and short-term fluctuation of ground temperatures; b) thick snow cover and stable ground temperatures; c) very thick snow cover and ground temperatures nearly constant at 0°C. a) Thin snow cover periods: Collado Ramos and Ohridski sites show frequent temperature variations, alternating between short-term fluctuations and stable ground temperatures. Nuevo Incinerador displays during most of the winter stable ground temperatures; b) Cold winters with a gradual increase of the snow cover: Nuevo Incinerador, Collado Ramos and Ohridski sites show similar behavior, with a long period of stable ground temperatures; c) Thick snow cover periods: Collado Ramos and Ohridski show long periods of stable ground, while Nuevo Incinerador shows temperatures close to 0°C since the beginning of the winter, due to early snow cover

  3. Simulation of wind-induced snow transport and sublimation in alpine terrain using a fully coupled snowpack/atmosphere model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vionnet, V.; Martin, E.; Masson, V.; Guyomarc'h, G.; Naaim-Bouvet, F.; Prokop, A.; Durand, Y.; Lac, C.

    2014-03-01

    In alpine regions, wind-induced snow transport strongly influences the spatio-temporal evolution of the snow cover throughout the winter season. To gain understanding on the complex processes that drive the redistribution of snow, a new numerical model is developed. It directly couples the detailed snowpack model Crocus with the atmospheric model Meso-NH. Meso-NH/Crocus simulates snow transport in saltation and in turbulent suspension and includes the sublimation of suspended snow particles. The coupled model is evaluated against data collected around the experimental site of Col du Lac Blanc (2720 m a.s.l., French Alps). First, 1-D simulations show that a detailed representation of the first metres of the atmosphere is required to reproduce strong gradients of blowing snow concentration and compute mass exchange between the snowpack and the atmosphere. Secondly, 3-D simulations of a blowing snow event without concurrent snowfall have been carried out. Results show that the model captures the main structures of atmospheric flow in alpine terrain. However, at 50 m grid spacing, the model reproduces only the patterns of snow erosion and deposition at the ridge scale and misses smaller scale patterns observed by terrestrial laser scanning. When activated, the sublimation of suspended snow particles causes a reduction of deposited snow mass of 5.3% over the calculation domain. Total sublimation (surface + blowing snow) is three times higher than surface sublimation in a simulation neglecting blowing snow sublimation.

  4. Characteristics of snow cover duration across the northeast United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leathers, Daniel J.; Luff, Barbara L.

    1997-11-01

    The presence or absence of a snow cover affects a myriad of environmental and societal systems through its modification of the surface radiation balance and its ultimate impact on near-surface air temperatures. Daily snow cover data were collected for a network of 91 stations covering the northeast USA from Maine, south through to West Virginia. The snow cover data along with ancillary temperature, snowfall and precipitation data were used to investigate the characteristics of snow cover duration in this region and the effects of the snow cover on boundary layer climate variables for the snow cover seasons 1948-1949 through to 1987-1988.Results indicate that snow cover duration is variable in both space and time. The duration of a snow cover of 2.5 cm or greater varies from greater than 100 days in northern New England to less than 20 days across areas of Delaware, Maryland and West Virginia. Temporally, snow cover duration for the region as a whole was very short from the late 1940s through to the mid-1950s. From the late 1950s to the end of the period snow cover duration has varied around a consistent mean value. No long-term trends in snow cover duration are apparent in the record for the northeast USA.Principal components analysis and clustering techniques were utilized to isolate spatially coherent regions in which snow cover duration has varied similarly over the period of record. This analysis resulted in the identification of four snow-cover-duration regions across the northeast USA: including (i) the West Virginia area, (ii) the mid-Atlantic from southern New England through to western Pennsylvania, (iii) western and central New York and (iv) northern New England. Snow cover duration is shown to be highly associated with snowfall and temperature but not strongly related to total liquid precipitation. The intra-annual variability of snow cover duration is also investigated for each region.

  5. SWANN: The Snow Water Artificial Neural Network Modelling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broxton, P. D.; van Leeuwen, W.; Biederman, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Snowmelt from mountain forests is important for water supply and ecosystem health. Along Arizona's Mogollon Rim, snowmelt contributes to rivers and streams that provide a significant water supply for hydro-electric power generation, agriculture, and human consumption in central Arizona. In this project, we are building a snow monitoring system for the Salt River Project (SRP), which supplies water and power to millions of customers in the Phoenix metropolitan area. We are using process-based hydrological models and artificial neural networks (ANNs) to generate information about both snow water equivalent (SWE) and snow cover. The snow-cover data is generated with ANNs that are applied to Landsat and MODIS satellite reflectance data. The SWE data is generated using a combination of gridded SWE estimates generated by process-based snow models and ANNs that account for variations in topography, forest cover, and solar radiation. The models are trained and evaluated with snow data from SNOTEL stations as well as from aerial LiDAR and field data that we collected this past winter in northern Arizona, as well as with similar data from other sites in the Southwest US. These snow data are produced in near-real time, and we have built a prototype decision support tool to deliver them to SRP. This tool is designed to provide daily-to annual operational monitoring of spatial and temporal changes in SWE and snow cover conditions over the entire Salt River Watershed (covering 17,000 km2), and features advanced web mapping capabilities and watershed analytics displayed as graphical data.

  6. Simulation of snow accumulation and melt in needleleaf forest environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Ellis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Drawing upon numerous field studies and modelling exercises of snow processes, the Cold Regions Hydrological Model (CRHM was developed to simulate the four season hydrological cycle in cold regions. CRHM includes modules describing radiative, turbulent and conductive energy exchanges to snow in open and forest environments, as well as account for losses from canopy snow sublimation and rain evaporation. Due to the physical-basis and rigorous testing of each module, there is a minimal need for model calibration. To evaluate CRHM, simulations of snow accumulation and melt were compared to observations collected at paired forest and clearing sites of varying latitude, elevation, forest cover density, and climate. Overall, results show that CRHM is capable of characterising the variation in snow accumulation between forest and clearing sites, achieving a model efficiency of 0.51 for simulations at individual sites. Simulations of canopy sublimation losses slightly overestimated observed losses from a weighed cut tree, having a model efficiency of 0.41 for daily losses. Good model performance was demonstrated in simulating energy fluxes to snow at the clearings, but results were degraded from this under forest cover due to errors in simulating sub-canopy net longwave radiation. However, expressed as cumulative energy to snow over the winter, simulated values were 96% and 98% of that observed at the forest and clearing sites, respectively. Overall, the good representation of the substantial variations in mass and energy between forest and clearing sites suggests that CRHM may be useful as an analytical or predictive tool for snow processes in needleleaf forest environments.

  7. Annual and Seasonal Glacier-Wide Surface Mass Balance Quantified from Changes in Glacier Surface State: A Review on Existing Methods Using Optical Satellite Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Rabatel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Glaciers are one of the terrestrial essential climate variables (ECVs as they respond very sensitively to climate change. A key driver of their response is the glacier surface mass balance that is typically derived from field measurements. It deserves to be quantified over long time scales to better understand the accumulation and ablation processes at the glacier surface and their relationships with inter-annual changes in meteorological conditions and long-term climate changes. Glaciers with in situ monitoring of surface mass balance are scarce at the global scale, and satellite remote sensing provides a powerful tool to increase the number of monitored glaciers. In this study, we present a review of three optical remote sensing methods developed to quantify seasonal and annual glacier surface mass balances. These methodologies rely on the multitemporal monitoring of the end-of-summer snow line for the equilibrium-line altitude (ELA method, the annual cycle of glacier surface albedo for the albedo method and the mapping of the regional snow cover at the seasonal scale for the snow-map method. Together with a presentation of each method, an application is illustrated. The ELA method shows promising results to quantify annual surface mass balance and to reconstruct multi-decadal time series. The other two methods currently need a calibration on the basis of existing in situ data; however, a generalization of these methods (without calibration could be achieved. The two latter methods show satisfying results at the annual and seasonal scales, particularly for the summer surface mass balance in the case of the albedo method and for the winter surface mass balance in the case of the snow-map method. The limits of each method (e.g., cloud coverage, debris-covered glaciers, monsoon-regime and cold glaciers, their complementarities and the future challenges (e.g., automating of the satellite images processing, generalization of the methods needing

  8. Forcing the snow-cover model SNOWPACK with forecasted weather data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bellaire

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Avalanche danger is often estimated based on snow cover stratigraphy and snow stability data. In Canada, single forecasting regions are very large (>50 000 km2 and snow cover data are often not available. To provide additional information on the snow cover and its seasonal evolution the Swiss snow cover model SNOWPACK was therefore coupled with a regional weather forecasting model GEM15. The output of GEM15 was compared to meteorological as well as snow cover data from Mt. Fidelity, British Columbia, Canada, for five winters between 2005 and 2010. Precipitation amounts are most difficult to predict for weather forecasting models. Therefore, we first assess the capability of the model chain to forecast new snow amounts and consequently snow depth. Forecasted precipitation amounts were generally over-estimated. The forecasted data were therefore filtered and used as input for the snow cover model. Comparison between the model output and manual observations showed that after pre-processing the input data the snow depth and new snow events were well modelled. In a case study two key factors of snow cover instability, i.e. surface hoar formation and crust formation were investigated at a single point. Over half of the relevant critical layers were reproduced. Overall, the model chain shows promising potential as a future forecasting tool for avalanche warning services in Canadian data sparse areas and could thus well be applied to similarly large regions elsewhere. However, a more detailed analysis of the simulated snow cover structure is still required.

  9. WINTER SAECULUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Mihalina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Accumulated imbalances in the economy and on the markets cause specific financial market dynamics that have formed characteristic patterns kept throughout long financial history. In 2008 Authors presented their expectations of key macroeconomic and selected asset class markets developments for period ahead based on Saeculum theory. Use of term Secular describes a specific valuation environment during prolonged period. If valuations as well as selected macro variables are considered as a tool for understanding business cycles then market cycles become much more obvious and easily understandable. Therefore over the long run, certain asset classes do better in terms of risk reward profile than others. Further on, there is no need for frequent portfolio rebalancing and timing of specific investment positions within a particular asset class market. Current stage in cycle development suggests a need for reassessment of trends and prevailing phenomena due to cyclical nture of long lasting Saeculums. Paper reviews developments in recognizable patterns of selected metrics in current Winter Saeculum dominated with prevailing forces of delivering, deflation and decrease in velocity of money.

  10. Snow route optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Route optimization is a method of creating a set of winter highway treatment routes to meet a range of targets, including : service level improvements, resource reallocation and changes to overriding constraints. These routes will allow the : operato...

  11. Studies of diffuse and direct solar radiation over snow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesely, M.L.; Everett, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    Two interesting questions can be addressed by examination of solar radiation records obtained while the surface is covered with snow. One concerns the extent to which airborne particulate matter affects solar radiation received at the surface during winter conditions that are typical of those in the northeastern quarter of the United States. The other relates to the importance of complicated light scatterng in the earth-atmosphere system when the surface albedo is large. With the snow surface reflecting 50% or more of the incident radiation, it is likely that a significant addition to diffuse radiation would result from light that is reflected from the surface and then scattered back to the earth by the atmosphere. Preliminary data from measurements made during the winter of 1975 to 1976 are reported

  12. The ringed seal's last refuge and the importance of snow cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, B. P.; Bitz, C. M.

    2010-12-01

    Ringed seals are strongly adapted to inhabiting seasonal ice cover throughout the Arctic Ocean, marginal seas, and some freshwater lakes. Their distribution has expanded and contracted with northern hemisphere ice cover and is expected to mirror declining ice cover in coming decades. Ringed seals require snow cover to provide shelter from extreme cold and from predators, and the southern extent of their range corresponds to the latitudes to which snow cover—sufficient to form and maintain subnivean lairs—extends. The lairs are especially critical to the survival of pups born and nursed under the snow in late March through May. Snow drifts 50 cm or deeper are necessary for lair occupation, and field measurements indicate that such drifting occurs only where average snow depths (on flat ice) exceed 20 cm. When snow depths are less, ringed seal pups freeze in their lairs and are vulnerable to predation by carnivores and birds. As the climate warms, winter precipitation is expected to increase in the Arctic Ocean, potentially favoring formation and occupation of lairs. At the same time, increasingly late ice formation is expected to decrease the overall accumulation of snow, an effect exacerbated by the high fraction of annual snow fall that occurs in autumn. Early snow melts also contribute to pup mortality and are likely to increase as the climate warms. We forecast April snow depths on Arctic sea ice through the year 2100 in seven runs of CCSM3. Despite predicted increases in winter precipitation in the Arctic, the model forecasted that the accumulation of snow on sea ice will decrease by almost 50% in this century. The timing of the onset of snow melt changes little in the projections, but the shallower snow pack will melt more quickly in the warmer climate. In almost all portions of the range, average snow depths are expected to be less than 20 cm and inadequate for successful rearing of ringed seal young by the end of the century and—in many locations

  13. Run-off of strontium with melting snow in spring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quenild, C.; Tveten, U.

    1986-09-01

    When assessing the consequences of atmospheric releases caused by a large reactor accident, one usually finds that the major contributions to the dose are via nutrition and from exposure to radiation from radioactive materials deposited on ground. The experiment described is concerned with run-off from agricultural surface which has been contaminated with strontiom while covered with snow. Migration experiments show a significant difference between summer and winter conditions. Roughly 54% of the strontium with which the experimental area was contaminated, ran off with the melt-water. Under winter conditions, portions of the contaminant will flow with the melt-water without coming in contact with the soil

  14. Increasing the efficiency of the process of snow mass utilization from the urban infrastructure and reducing the negative impact on the environment through the introduction of an installation for the utilization of snow mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovbysh, V. O.; Burakova, L. N.; Burakova, A. D.

    2018-01-01

    The article raises the problem of the maintenance of the urban area in winter, namely, the problem of disposal of snow masses from the urban area. The article describes the main disadvantages of the existing snow-melting systems for the utilization of city snow mass and are encouraged to develop an installation for melting of snow, functioning at the expense of power consumption. The developed installation allows to reduce the noise level during its operation, to exclude the influence of exhaust gases on the environment, therefore, to improve the environmental safety of the urban infrastructure.

  15. The performance of a simple degree-day estimate of snow accumulation to an alpine watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. A. Sommerfeld; R. C. Musselman; G. L. Wooldridge; M. A. Conrad

    1991-01-01

    We estimated the yearly snow accumulation to the Glacier Lakes Ecosystems Experiments Site (GLEES) for the winters of 1987-88, 1988-89, and 1989-90, using a simple degree-day model developed by J. Martinec and A. Rango. Comparisons with other data indicate that the estimates are accurate. In particular, a calibration with an intensive snow core-probe survey in 1989-90...

  16. Identification and evaluation of slip and fall risk on ice and snow

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Chuansi

    2001-01-01

    Roads and pavements covered with ice and snow during winter in the Nordic and other cold regions are slippery, which result in the prevalence of slip and fall accidents among not only the public, but also outdoor workers. Literature and injury statistics revealed that the most frequently specified contributory factor for occupational slip, trip and fall accidents in Sweden is snow and ice. Road accident research showed that the largest numbers of traffic casualties occurred during walking, fo...

  17. NASA Airborne Snow Observatory: Measuring Spatial Distribution of Snow Water Equivalent and Snow Albedo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, M.; Painter, T. H.; Bormann, K. J.; Berisford, D. F.; Lai-Norling, J.

    2017-12-01

    The two most critical properties for understanding snowmelt runoff and timing are the spatial and temporal distributions of snow water equivalent (SWE) and snow albedo. Despite their importance in controlling volume and timing of runoff, snowpack albedo and SWE are still largely unquantified in the US and not at all in most of the globe, leaving runoff models poorly constrained. NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, in partnership with the California Department of Water Resources, has developed the Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO), an imaging spectrometer and scanning LiDAR system, to quantify SWE and snow albedo, generate unprecedented knowledge of snow properties for cutting edge cryospheric science, and provide complete, robust inputs to water management models and systems of the future. This poster will describe the NASA Airborne Snow Observatory, its outputs and their uses and applications, along with recent advancements to the system and plans for the project's future. Specifically, we will look at how ASO uses its imaging spectrometer to quantify spectral albedo, broadband albedo, and radiative forcing by dust and black carbon in snow. Additionally, we'll see how the scanning LiDAR is used to determine snow depth against snow-free acquisitions and to quantify snow water equivalent when combined with in-situ constrained modeling of snow density.

  18. Winter Weather: Frostbite

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety During Fire Cleanup Wildfires PSAs Related Links Winter Weather About Winter Weather Before a Storm Prepare Your Home Prepare Your Car Winter Weather Checklists During a Storm Indoor Safety During ...

  19. Drones application on snow and ice surveys in alpine areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rocca, Leonardo; Bonetti, Luigi; Fioletti, Matteo; Peretti, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    scientific point of view. All flight was performed by remote controlled aero models with high resolution camera. Aero models were able to take off and to ground on snow covered or icy surfaces since the specific aerodynamic configuration and specific engine used to. All winter surveys were executed flying low to obtain a tridimensional reconstruction of an High resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of snow cover and ice cover and on summer as been developed the DEM were snow amass in the maximum avalanche risk period. The difference between winter and summer DEM (difference between two point clouds) let to individuate the snow depth, and it was used as input data for the snow avalanche model for the Aprica site (Bergamo - Italy).

  20. Aerosol optical depth retrieval over snow using AATSR data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mei, L.; Xue, Y.; Kokhanovsky, A.A.; Hoyningen-Huene, W. von; Istomina, L.; Leeuw, G. de; Burrows, J.P.; Guang, J.; Jing, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Aerosol observations over the Arctic are important because of the effects of aerosols on Arctic climate, such as their direct and indirect effects on the Earth's radiation balance and on snow albedo. Although information on aerosol properties is available from ground-based measurements, passive

  1. Travel in adverse winter weather conditions by blind pedestrians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-31

    Winter weather creates many orientation and mobility (O&M) challenges for people who are visually impaired. Getting the cane tip stuck is one of the noticeable challenges when traveling in snow, particularly when the walking surface is covered in dee...

  2. Evaluation of NVE's snow station network; Subreport in R et D project 302H15 Good snow data; Evaluering av NVE sitt snoestasjonsnettverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ree, Bjoerg Lirhus; Landroe, Hilde; Trondsen, Elise; Moeen, Knut M.

    2011-03-15

    NVE has measured snow water equivalent of snow pillow in forty years. Our snow station network has risen since 1997 from 6 to 25 stations. It was therefore absolutely necessary to do a review and quality assurance of NVE's snow data. This report discusses the snow data measured continuously - snow water equivalent and snow depth. Each station and the parameters it measures are described and evaluated. It is concluded in relation to whether stations should be continued or not. Stations technical solutions are well described, both of NVE's standard stations and the two test stations, Filefjell and Svarttjoernbekken. It has been o importance to bring out what problems the instruments have or may have and provide suggestions for solutions to them. Problems related to measure the water equivalent under Norwegian conditions, with the challenges and winter rain and re-freezing provides, is also reviewed. Alternatives to water equivalent measurements with a snow pillow, which is the traditional way in this country, are presented. Some of the alternative methods NVE tests out, for the others only description and our opinion is given. (Author)

  3. Introduction to snow rheology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montmollin, Vincent de

    1978-01-01

    The tests described in the thesis are rotating shearing tests, with rotational constant speed ranging between 0.00075 rpm and 0.75 rpm. The results obtained are similar to those observed with compression tests at constant speed, except that shearing tests are carried out with densities nearly constant. So, we show three different domains when the rotation speed increases: 1) viscous (without failure) 2) brittle of first type (cycles of brittle failures) and 3) brittle of second type (only one brittle failure and solid friction). These results show clearly that the fundamental mechanism that rules the mechanisms of snow, is fast metamorphosis of bonds, binding ice grains: this metamorphosis is important when solicitation speeds are low (permanent rate of shearing in viscous domain, regeneration of the failure surfaces in the brittle domain of the first type) and this metamorphosis does not exist when speed increases (only one failure and solid friction in the brittle domain of second type). It is also included an important bibliographic analysis of the snow mechanics, and an experimental and theoretical study about shock wave propagation in natural snow covers. (author) [fr

  4. Meteorological and snow distribution data in the Izas Experimental Catchment (Spanish Pyrenees) from 2011 to 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revuelto, Jesús; Azorin-Molina, Cesar; Alonso-González, Esteban; Sanmiguel-Vallelado, Alba; Navarro-Serrano, Francisco; Rico, Ibai; López-Moreno, Juan Ignacio

    2017-12-01

    This work describes the snow and meteorological data set available for the Izas Experimental Catchment in the Central Spanish Pyrenees, from the 2011 to 2017 snow seasons. The experimental site is located on the southern side of the Pyrenees between 2000 and 2300 m above sea level, covering an area of 55 ha. The site is a good example of a subalpine environment in which the evolution of snow accumulation and melt are of major importance in many mountain processes. The climatic data set consists of (i) continuous meteorological variables acquired from an automatic weather station (AWS), (ii) detailed information on snow depth distribution collected with a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS, lidar technology) for certain dates across the snow season (between three and six TLS surveys per snow season) and (iii) time-lapse images showing the evolution of the snow-covered area (SCA). The meteorological variables acquired at the AWS are precipitation, air temperature, incoming and reflected solar radiation, infrared surface temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, atmospheric air pressure, surface temperature (snow or soil surface), and soil temperature; all were taken at 10 min intervals. Snow depth distribution was measured during 23 field campaigns using a TLS, and daily information on the SCA was also retrieved from time-lapse photography. The data set (https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.848277" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.848277) is valuable since it provides high-spatial-resolution information on the snow depth and snow cover, which is particularly useful when combined with meteorological variables to simulate snow energy and mass balance. This information has already been analyzed in various scientific studies on snow pack dynamics and its interaction with the local climatology or topographical characteristics. However, the database generated has great potential for understanding other environmental processes from a hydrometeorological

  5. Modeled and measured glacier change and related glaciological, hydrological, and meteorological conditions at South Cascade Glacier, Washington, balance and water years 2006 and 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidlake, William R.; Josberger, Edward G.; Savoca, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    Winter snow accumulation and summer snow and ice ablation were measured at South Cascade Glacier, Washington, to estimate glacier mass balance quantities for balance years 2006 and 2007. Mass balances were computed with assistance from a new model that was based on the works of other glacier researchers. The model, which was developed for mass balance practitioners, coupled selected meteorological and glaciological data to systematically estimate daily mass balance at selected glacier sites. The North Cascade Range in the vicinity of South Cascade Glacier accumulated approximately average to above average winter snow packs during 2006 and 2007. Correspondingly, the balance years 2006 and 2007 maximum winter snow mass balances of South Cascade Glacier, 2.61 and 3.41 meters water equivalent, respectively, were approximately equal to or more positive (larger) than the average of such balances since 1959. The 2006 glacier summer balance, -4.20 meters water equivalent, was among the four most negative since 1959. The 2007 glacier summer balance, -3.63 meters water equivalent, was among the 14 most negative since 1959. The glacier continued to lose mass during 2006 and 2007, as it commonly has since 1953, but the loss was much smaller during 2007 than during 2006. The 2006 glacier net balance, -1.59 meters water equivalent, was 1.02 meters water equivalent more negative (smaller) than the average during 1953-2005. The 2007 glacier net balance, -0.22 meters water equivalent, was 0.37 meters water equivalent less negative (larger) than the average during 1953-2006. The 2006 accumulation area ratio was less than 0.10, owing to isolated patches of accumulated snow that endured the 2006 summer season. The 2006 equilibrium line altitude was higher than the glacier. The 2007 accumulation area ratio and equilibrium line altitude were 0.60 and 1,880 meters, respectively. Accompanying the glacier mass losses were retreat of the terminus and reduction of total glacier area. The

  6. Surviving winter: Food, but not habitat structure, prevents crashes in cyclic vole populations

    OpenAIRE

    Johnsen, Kaja; Boonstra, Rudy; Boutin, Stan; Devineau, Olivier; Krebs, Charles J.; Andreassen, Harry Peter

    2016-01-01

    Vole population cycles are a major force driving boreal ecosystem dynamics in north - western Eurasia. However, our understanding of the impact of winter on these cycles is increasingly uncertain, especially because climate change is affecting snow predict - ability, quality, and abundance. We examined the role of winter weathe...

  7. Characteristics of black carbon in snow from Laohugou No. 12 glacier on the northern Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yulan; Kang, Shichang; Li, Chaoliu; Gao, Tanguang; Cong, Zhiyuan; Sprenger, Michael; Liu, Yajun; Li, Xiaofei; Guo, Junming; Sillanpää, Mika; Wang, Kun; Chen, Jizu; Li, Yang; Sun, Shiwei

    2017-12-31

    Black carbon (BC) emitted from the incomplete combustion of biomass and fossil fuel impacts the climate system, cryospheric change, and human health. This study documents black carbon deposition in snow from a benchmark glacier on the northern Tibetan Plateau. Significant seasonality of BC concentrations indicates different input or post-depositional processes. BC particles deposited in snow had a mass volume median diameter slightly larger than that of black carbon particles typically found in the atmosphere. Also, unlike black carbon particles in the atmosphere, the particles deposited in snow did not exhibit highly fractal morphology by Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope. Footprint analysis indicated BC deposited on the glacier in summer originated mainly from Central Asia; in winter, the depositing air masses generally originated from Central Asia and Pakistan. Anthropogenic emissions play an important role on black carbon deposition in glacial snow, especially in winter. The mass absorption efficiency of BC in snow at 632nm exhibited significantly seasonality, with higher values in summer and lower values in winter. The information on black carbon deposition in glacial snow provided in this study could be used to help mitigate the impacts of BC on glacier melting on the northern Tibetan Plateau. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Alpine snow cover in a changing climate: a regional climate model perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steger, Christian; Kotlarski, Sven; Jonas, Tobias; Schär, Christoph

    2013-08-01

    An analysis is presented of an ensemble of regional climate model (RCM) experiments from the ENSEMBLES project in terms of mean winter snow water equivalent (SWE), the seasonal evolution of snow cover, and the duration of the continuous snow cover season in the European Alps. Two sets of simulations are considered, one driven by GCMs assuming the SRES A1B greenhouse gas scenario for the period 1951-2099, and the other by the ERA-40 reanalysis for the recent past. The simulated SWE for Switzerland for the winters 1971-2000 is validated against an observational data set derived from daily snow depth measurements. Model validation shows that the RCMs are capable of simulating the general spatial and seasonal variability of Alpine snow cover, but generally underestimate snow at elevations below 1,000 m and overestimate snow above 1,500 m. Model biases in snow cover can partly be related to biases in the atmospheric forcing. The analysis of climate projections for the twenty first century reveals high inter-model agreement on the following points: The strongest relative reduction in winter mean SWE is found below 1,500 m, amounting to 40-80 % by mid century relative to 1971-2000 and depending upon the model considered. At these elevations, mean winter temperatures are close to the melting point. At higher elevations the decrease of mean winter SWE is less pronounced but still a robust feature. For instance, at elevations of 2,000-2,500 m, SWE reductions amount to 10-60 % by mid century and to 30-80 % by the end of the century. The duration of the continuous snow cover season shows an asymmetric reduction with strongest shortening in springtime when ablation is the dominant factor for changes in SWE. We also find a substantial ensemble-mean reduction of snow reliability relevant to winter tourism at elevations below about 1,800 m by mid century, and at elevations below about 2,000 m by the end of the century.

  9. Characteristics of Heavy Snowfall and Snow Crystal Habits in the ESSAY (Experiment on Snow Storms At Yeongdong) Campaign in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, D.

    2016-12-01

    The Yeongdong region in Korea has frequent heavy snowfall in winter, which usually results in societal and economic damages such as collapses of the greenhouse and the temporary building due to heavy snowfall weights and traffic accidents due to snow-slippery road condition. Therefore we have conducted an intensive measurement campaign of `Experiment on Snow Storms At Yeongdong (ESSAY)' using radiosonde soundings, several remote sensors and a digital camera with a magnifier for taking a photograph of snowfall crystals in the region. The analysis period is mainly limited to every winter from 2014 to 2016The typical synoptic situation for the heavy snowfall is Low pressure system passing by the far South of the Korean peninsula along with the Siberian High extending to northern Japan, leading to the northeasterly or easterly flows frequently accompanied by the long-lasting snowfall in the Yeongdong region. The snow crystal habits observed in the ESSAY campaign are mainly dendrite, consisting of about 70% of the entire habits, indicative of relatively warmer East Sea effect. Meanwhile, the rimed habits are frequently captured specifically when two-layered clouds are observed. The homogeneous habit such as dendrite is shown in case of shallow clouds with its thickness below 500 m, whereas various habits are captured such as graupel, dendrites, rimed dendrites, etc in the thicker cloud with its thickness greater than 1.5 km. The association of snow crystal habits with temperature and supersaturation in the cloud will be more discussed.

  10. Simulation of wind-induced snow transport in alpine terrain using a fully coupled snowpack/atmosphere model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vionnet, V.; Martin, E.; Masson, V.; Guyomarc'h, G.; Naaim-Bouvet, F.; Prokop, A.; Durand, Y.; Lac, C.

    2013-06-01

    In alpine regions, wind-induced snow transport strongly influences the spatio-temporal evolution of the snow cover throughout the winter season. To gain understanding on the complex processes that drive the redistribution of snow, a new numerical model is developed. It couples directly the detailed snowpack model Crocus with the atmospheric model Meso-NH. Meso-NH/Crocus simulates snow transport in saltation and in turbulent suspension and includes the sublimation of suspended snow particles. A detailed representation of the first meters of the atmosphere allows a fine reproduction of the erosion and deposition process. The coupled model is evaluated against data collected around the experimental site of Col du Lac Blanc (2720 m a.s.l., French Alps). For this purpose, a blowing snow event without concurrent snowfall has been selected and simulated. Results show that the model captures the main structures of atmospheric flow in alpine terrain, the vertical profile of wind speed and the snow particles fluxes near the surface. However, the horizontal resolution of 50 m is found to be insufficient to simulate the location of areas of snow erosion and deposition observed by terrestrial laser scanning. When activated, the sublimation of suspended snow particles causes a reduction in deposition of 5.3%. Total sublimation (surface + blowing snow) is three times higher than surface sublimation in a simulation neglecting blowing snow sublimation.

  11. Technical snow production in skiing areas: conditions, practice, monitoring and modelling. A case study in Mayrhofen/Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Ulrich; Hanzer, Florian; Marke, Thomas; Rothleitner, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The production of technical snow today is a self-evident feature of modern alpine skiing resort management. Millions of Euros are invested every year for the technical infrastructure and its operation to produce a homogeneous and continuing snow cover on the skiing slopes for the winter season in almost every larger destination in the Alps. In Austria, skiing tourism is a significant factor of the national economic structure. We present the framing conditions of technical snow production in the mid-size skiing resort of Mayrhofen (Zillertal Alps/Austria, 136 km slopes, elevation range 630 - 2.500 m a.s.l.). Production conditions are defined by the availability of water, the planned date for the season opening, and the climatic conditions in the weeks before. By means of an adapted snow production strategy an attempt is made to ecologically and economically optimize the use of water and energy resources. Monitoring of the snow cover is supported by a network of low-cost sensors and mobile snow depth recordings. Finally, technical snow production is simulated with the spatially distributed, physically based hydroclimatological model AMUNDSEN. The model explicitly considers individual snow guns and distributes the produced snow along the slopes. The amount of simulated snow produced by each device is a function of its type, of actual wet-bulb temperature at the location, of ski area infrastructure (in terms of water supply and pumping capacity), and of snow demand.

  12. Food, energy, and water in an era of disappearing snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mote, P.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Li, S.; Xiao, M.

    2017-12-01

    Mountain snowpack stores a significant quantity of water in the western US, accumulating during the wet season and melting during the dry summers and supplying more than 65% of the water used for irrigated agriculture, energy production (both hydropower and thermal), and municipal and industrial uses. The importance of snow to western agriculture is demonstrated by the fact that most snow monitoring is performed by the US Department of Agriculture. In a paper published in 2005, we showed that roughly 70% of monitoring sites showed decreasing trends through 2002. Now, with 14 additional years of data, over 90% of snow monitoring sites with long records across the western US show declines through 2016, of which 33% are significant (vs 5% expected by chance) and 2% are significant and positive (vs 5% expected by chance). Declining trends are observed across all months, states, and climates, but are largest in spring, in the Pacific states, and in locations with mild winter climate. We corroborate and extend these observations using a gridded hydrology model, which also allows a robust estimate of total western snowpack and its decline. Averaged across the western US, the decline in total April 1 snow water equivalent since mid-century is roughly 15-30% or 25-50 km3, comparable in volume to the West's largest man-made reservoir, Lake Mead. In the absence of rapid reductions in emissions of greenhouse gases, these losses will accelerate; snow losses on this scale demonstrate the necessity of rethinking water storage, policy, and usage.

  13. Cartographic modelling of aerotechnogenic pollution in snow cover in the landscapes of the Kola Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratkin, N E; Asming, V E; Koshkin, V V

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this work was to develop computational techniques for sulphates, nickel and copper accumulation in the snow in the local pollution zone. The main task was to reveal the peculiarities of formation and pollution of snow cover on the region with complex cross-relief. A digital cartographic model of aerotechnogenic pollution of snow cover in the landscapes of the local zone has been developed, based on five-year experimental data. Data regarding annual emissions from the industrial complex, information about distribution of wind and the sum of precipitation from meteostation "Nikel" for the winter period, allowed the model to ensure: * material presentation in the form of maps of water capacity and accumulation of sulphates, nickel and copper in the snow over any winter period in retrospective; * calculation of water capacity and accumulation of pollutants for watersheds and other natural-territorial complexes; * solution of the opposite problem about the determination of the emissions of sulphates, nickel and copper from the enterprise by measuring snow pollution in datum points. The model can be used in other northern regions of the Russian Federation with similar physical-geographical and climatic conditions. The relationships between the sum of precipitation and water capacity in the landscapes of the same type and also the relationships between pollution content in snow and relief, pollution content in snow and distance from the source of emissions, were used as the basis for the model.

  14. Experimental study of snow friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Caroline; Canale, Luca; Siria, Alessandro; Quere, David; Bocquet, Lyderic; Clanet, Christophe

    2017-11-01

    Snow friction results from the interplay of different physical processes: solid friction of granular material, phase change and lubrication, heat transport, capillarity, elasticity and plasticity. The multiple conditions of temperature, humidity and density of the snow result in different regimes of friction. In particular, there is an optimal amount of melted water to lubricate the contact between the ski sole and the snow grains. The thickness of the water layer depends on temperature, speed... A huge variety of waxes have been empirically developed to adapt the amount of water to the conditions of skiing, but remain mysterious. In these study, we investigate experimentally the mechanisms of snow friction at different scales: first, the friction of a ski on snow is measured on a test bench, depending on the snow characteristics and for different waxes. Then microscopic experiments are led in order to understand the friction at the ice crystals scale.

  15. Influence of climate change predictions on snow in Sierra Nevada Mountains (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Pérez-Palazón, María; Pimentel, Rafael; Herrero, Javier; María Perales, José; José Polo, María

    2015-04-01

    Snow is a basic component in Earth's surface energy balance. Its importance is greater in mountainous areas and therefore, its study is crucial to obtain conclusion about water resources over these areas. Moreover these regions are more vulnerable to climate variations. Sierra Nevada National Park (Southern Spain), with altitudes range from 2000 to 3500 m.a.s.l., is part of the global climate change observatories network and a clear example of snow regions in a semiarid environment. This work estimates the impact of climate change on snow dynamics and its influence on mountain hydrology in this area. Precipitation and temperature datasets from three different scenarios (A1B, A2, B1) proposed by the Fifth Assessment Report of IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) were used as forcing meteorological sequences to simulate selected snow variables (snow water equivalent, daily snow cover area, annual number of days with snow and annual snowmelt and evaporation volumes). The associated results were compared for each scenario, and the snow behavior and evolution over the 2046-2100 periods were assessed. The results point to a higher decrease on snow cover extension, than those estimated for other snow variables. As expected, this variation is greater from the worst of the scenarios analyzed (A2). Furthermore, the comparison of the driving meteorological datasets throughout the reference period (1960-2000) with the real observations has allowed the introduction of another term of uncertainty in the estimations, not considered in a simple scenario analysis.

  16. The Importance of Snow Albedo for Ice Sheet Evolution over the Last Glacial Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganopolski, A.; Willeit, M.

    2017-12-01

    The surface energy and mass balance of ice sheets strongly depends on the amount of solar radiation absorbed at the surface, which is mainly controlled by the albedo of snow and ice. Here, using an Earth system model of intermediate complexity, we explore the role played by surface albedo for the simulation of glacial cycles. We show that the evolution of the Northern Hemisphere ice sheets over the last glacial cycle is very sensitive to the representation of snow albedo in the model. It is well known that the albedo of snow depends strongly on the snow grain size and the content of light absorbing impurities. Excluding either the snow aging effect or the dust darkening effect on snow albedo leads to an excessive ice build-up during glacial times and consequently to a failure in simulating deglaciation. While the effect of snow grain growth on snow albedo is well constrained, the albedo reduction due to the presence of dust in snow is much more uncertain, because the light absorbing properties of dust vary widely as a function of dust composition. We also show that assuming slightly different optical properties of dust leads to very different ice sheet and climate evolutions in the model. Conversely, ice sheet evolution is less sensitive to the choice of ice albedo in the model. We conclude that a proper representation of snow albedo is a fundamental prerequisite for a successful simulation of glacial cycles.

  17. Scaling precipitation input to spatially distributed hydrological models by measured snow distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Vögeli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate knowledge on snow distribution in alpine terrain is crucial for various applicationssuch as flood risk assessment, avalanche warning or managing water supply and hydro-power.To simulate the seasonal snow cover development in alpine terrain, the spatially distributed,physics-based model Alpine3D is suitable. The model is typically driven by spatial interpolationsof observations from automatic weather stations (AWS, leading to errors in the spatial distributionof atmospheric forcing. With recent advances in remote sensing techniques, maps of snowdepth can be acquired with high spatial resolution and accuracy. In this work, maps of the snowdepth distribution, calculated from summer and winter digital surface models based on AirborneDigital Sensors (ADS, are used to scale precipitation input data, with the aim to improve theaccuracy of simulation of the spatial distribution of snow with Alpine3D. A simple method toscale and redistribute precipitation is presented and the performance is analysed. The scalingmethod is only applied if it is snowing. For rainfall the precipitation is distributed by interpolation,with a simple air temperature threshold used for the determination of the precipitation phase.It was found that the accuracy of spatial snow distribution could be improved significantly forthe simulated domain. The standard deviation of absolute snow depth error is reduced up toa factor 3.4 to less than 20 cm. The mean absolute error in snow distribution was reducedwhen using representative input sources for the simulation domain. For inter-annual scaling, themodel performance could also be improved, even when using a remote sensing dataset from adifferent winter. In conclusion, using remote sensing data to process precipitation input, complexprocesses such as preferential snow deposition and snow relocation due to wind or avalanches,can be substituted and modelling performance of spatial snow distribution is improved.

  18. Canadian snow and sea ice: historical trends and projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudryk, Lawrence R.; Derksen, Chris; Howell, Stephen; Laliberté, Fred; Thackeray, Chad; Sospedra-Alfonso, Reinel; Vionnet, Vincent; Kushner, Paul J.; Brown, Ross

    2018-04-01

    The Canadian Sea Ice and Snow Evolution (CanSISE) Network is a climate research network focused on developing and applying state of the art observational data to advance dynamical prediction, projections, and understanding of seasonal snow cover and sea ice in Canada and the circumpolar Arctic. Here, we present an assessment from the CanSISE Network on trends in the historical record of snow cover (fraction, water equivalent) and sea ice (area, concentration, type, and thickness) across Canada. We also assess projected changes in snow cover and sea ice likely to occur by mid-century, as simulated by the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) suite of Earth system models. The historical datasets show that the fraction of Canadian land and marine areas covered by snow and ice is decreasing over time, with seasonal and regional variability in the trends consistent with regional differences in surface temperature trends. In particular, summer sea ice cover has decreased significantly across nearly all Canadian marine regions, and the rate of multi-year ice loss in the Beaufort Sea and Canadian Arctic Archipelago has nearly doubled over the last 8 years. The multi-model consensus over the 2020-2050 period shows reductions in fall and spring snow cover fraction and sea ice concentration of 5-10 % per decade (or 15-30 % in total), with similar reductions in winter sea ice concentration in both Hudson Bay and eastern Canadian waters. Peak pre-melt terrestrial snow water equivalent reductions of up to 10 % per decade (30 % in total) are projected across southern Canada.

  19. MODIS Snow-Cover Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Riggs, George A.; Salomonson, Vincent V.; DiGirolamo, Nicole E.; Bayr, Klaus J.; Houser, Paul R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    On December 18, 1999, the Terra satellite was launched with a complement of five instruments including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Many geophysical products are derived from MODIS data including global snow-cover products. MODIS snow and ice products have been available through the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) since September 13, 2000. MODIS snow-cover products represent potential improvement to or enhancement of the currently-available operational products mainly because the MODIS products are global and 500-m resolution, and have the capability to separate most snow and clouds. Also the snow-mapping algorithms are automated which means that a consistent data set may be generated for long-term climate studies that require snow-cover information. Extensive quality assurance (QA) information is stored with the products. The MODIS snow product suite begins with a 500-m resolution, 2330-km swath snow-cover map which is then gridded to an integerized sinusoidal grid to produce daily and 8-day composite tile products. The sequence proceeds to a climate-modeling grid (CMG) product at about 5.6-km spatial resolution, with both daily and 8-day composite products. Each pixel of the CMG contains fraction of snow cover from 40 - 100%. Measured errors of commission in the CMG are low, for example, on the continent of Australia in the spring, they vary from 0.02 - 0.10%. Near-term enhancements include daily snow albedo and fractional snow cover. A case study from March 6, 2000, involving MODIS data and field and aircraft measurements, is presented to show some early validation work.

  20. Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study/FFC-Winter (BOREAS) Campaign MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) Level-1B Data Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study/FFC-Winter (BOREAS) campaign was to study Snow and Ice Detection over Glacier National Park in Montana and...

  1. Snow cover monitoring in the Kyrgyz Republic through MODIS time series (2000-2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedieu, J.-P.; Doutreleau, V.; Lessard-Fontaine, A.; Shalpykova, G.

    2012-04-01

    The Kyrgyz Republic is located at the convergence of two mountain systems (Tien Shan and Pamirs) in Central Asia. The region is of great interest all of Central Asia because of its consequent capital in water resources. Theses resources are of importance for electricity production (~15 TWH/year) and irrigation of agricultural land. Over 50% of the 52 km3 of Kyrgyz runoff water irrigates the Syr Darya River which flows over 2200 km from the confluence of Naryn and Kara Darya rivers to the Aral Sea. Around 40% of the Kyrgyz territory lies above 3000m; part of the water resource is cumulated as snow during large periods of the year. Snow cover is thus an important part of the Kyrgyz hydrological cycle. In this already water-stressed region, both climate change and irrigation expansion could trigger a greater scarcity of the resource in the future. One of the major impact could be a modification of the melting season period and the snow melt behavior. The use of passive optical remote sensing data could provide helpful complementary information for hydrological modeling of these effects, but currently, very few scientific publications concerning the Syr Darya headwaters in Kyrgyztan exist. Integrated in the EU-FP7 ACQWA Project (www.acqwa.ch), this study proposes 11 years of snow cover analysis using MODIS snow cover product data. The following parameters are retrieved from MODIS data: Snow Cover Area (SCA), Snow Fraction (FRA), snow cover duration and depletion maps. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM) from the NASA-SRTM database is used to better understand the topographic influence on snow melt behavior and a Land Use database (GlobCover 2009) for the environmental context of snow cover evolution. A statistical analysis of snow cover dynamics is performed on a 2000-2010 8-days temporal resolution dataset. Yearly mean snow cover is 40 ± 5 % and melting runs with 5%.8j-1 average velocity. We observe a greater variation of the inter-annual snow cover extent in winter

  2. Snow and SMOW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    In the midst of Vienna's hottest weather spell this year, members of the Agency's headquarters laboratory staff found themselves unpacking a consignment of fresh snow from the Antarctic. It had been sent by air through Los Angeles, not for cooling purposes, but to assist in making more accurate measurements as part of the study of the world's water distribution and movement. The same research also involves SMOW (Standard Mean Ocean Water) and samples of water from the mid-Pacific will also soon arrive for scientific examination

  3. 'Snow White' in Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This color image taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows the trench dubbed 'Snow White,' after further digging on the 25th Martian day, or sol, of the mission (June 19, 2008). The lander's solar panel is casting a shadow over a portion of the trench. The trench is about 5 centimeters (2 inches) deep and 30 centimeters (12 inches) long. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. Quantifying forest mortality with the remote sensing of snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Emily Hewitt

    Greenhouse gas emissions have altered global climate significantly, increasing the frequency of drought, fire, and pest-related mortality in forests across the western United States, with increasing area affected each year. Associated changes in forests are of great concern for the public, land managers, and the broader scientific community. These increased stresses have resulted in a widespread, spatially heterogeneous decline of forest canopies, which in turn exerts strong controls on the accumulation and melt of the snowpack, and changes forest-atmosphere exchanges of carbon, water, and energy. Most satellite-based retrievals of summer-season forest data are insufficient to quantify canopy, as opposed to the combination of canopy and undergrowth, since the signals of the two types of vegetation greenness have proven persistently difficult to distinguish. To overcome this issue, this research develops a method to quantify forest canopy cover using winter-season fractional snow covered area (FSCA) data from NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow covered area and grain size (MODSCAG) algorithm. In areas where the ground surface and undergrowth are completely snow-covered, a pixel comprises only forest canopy and snow. Following a snowfall event, FSCA initially rises, as snow is intercepted in the canopy, and then falls, as snow unloads. A select set of local minima in a winter F SCA timeseries form a threshold where canopy is snow-free, but forest understory is snow-covered. This serves as a spatially-explicit measurement of forest canopy, and viewable gap fraction (VGF) on a yearly basis. Using this method, we determine that MODIS-observed VGF is significantly correlated with an independent product of yearly crown mortality derived from spectral analysis of Landsat imagery at 25 high-mortality sites in northern Colorado. (r =0.96 +/-0.03, p =0.03). Additionally, we determine the lag timing between green-stage tree mortality and

  5. SnowClim: Snow climate monitoring for Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissolli, P.; Maier, U.

    2009-09-01

    Snow cover, particularly its depth and its frequency, is a very essential climate element. It influences the earth's surface radiation budget considerably due to its reflectivity properties and also it has large impact on economy and daily life (e.g. traffic, tourism). Although a lot of research and many national activities of snow monitoring have been done, there are very few products describing an integrated snow monitoring for whole Europe. In the light of a foreseen future Regional Climate Centre on Climate Monitoring (RCC-CM), the German Meteorological Service (Deutscher Wetterdienst, DWD) has established some first operational snow climate monitoring activities for the WMO Region VI (Europe and the Middle East). First selected key elements are the number of snowdays with a snow cover > 1 cm, the mean and the maximum snow depth per month. Results are presented in form of monthly and climatological maps, tables and diagrams of time series starting in 1981. Data presently are taken from observations at synoptical stations, received by the Global Telecommunication System. A first quality control based on threshold tests has been developed. The snow climate monitoring products are currently under further development. New evaluations will be carried out also on a daily data basis, additional satellite data, and also the quality control procedure will be extended. Some operational SnowClim products are available on the DWD web site: www.dwd.de/snowclim

  6. Addressing challenges for youths with mobility devices in winter conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Ernesto; Lindsay, Sally; Edwards, Geoffrey; Howell, Lori; Vincent, Claude; Yantzi, Nicole; Gauthier, Véronique

    2018-01-01

    Winter-related research about the experience of navigating in the urban context has mostly focused on the elderly population with physical disabilities. The aim of this project was to explore potential design solutions to enhance young people's mobility devices and the built environment to improve accessibility and participation in winter. A multi-method qualitative design process included the following steps: (1) in-depth interviews; (2) photo elicitation; (3) individual co-design sessions; and (4) group co-design sessions (i.e., focus group). The participants were 13 youths (nine males and four females), aged 12-21, who used a wheelchair (12 power chair users and one manual wheelchair), for some with their parents, others without their parents, according to the parents' willingness to participate or not in the study (n = 13). The first two authors conducted group co-design sessions with mechanical engineers and therapists/clinicians in two Canadian cities to discuss the feasibility of the designs. Results (findings): The youths and their parents reported different winter-related challenges and proposed specific design solutions to enhance their participation and inclusion in winter activities. Seven of these designs were presented at two group co-design sessions of therapists/clinicians and engineers. Two designs were found to be feasible: (1) a traction device for wheelchairs in snow and (2) a mat made of rollers to clean snow and dirt from tires. The results of this research highlight the frustrations and challenges youths who use wheelchairs encounter in winter and a need for new solutions to ensure greater accessibility in winter. Therapists/clinicians and designers should address winter-related accessibility problems in areas with abundant snow. Implications for Rehabilitation Several studies show that current urban contexts do not necessarily respond accurately to the needs of individuals with limited mobility. Winter-related research about the

  7. Sampling in the Snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Eric; Burakowski, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    For much of the northern United States, the months surrounding the winter solstice are a time of increased darkness, low temperatures, and frozen landscapes. Each year, the ubiquitous white ice crystals that blanket regions of the north go uninvestigated. Instead of hunkering down indoors with their classes, however, teachers can take advantage of…

  8. Aerial view of CERN under the snow

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1963-01-01

    In this photograph taken in the winter of 1963, CERN still looks quite bare under its mantle of snow. The Proton Synchrotron (PS), resembling a bicycle wheel in shape, had been in operation since the summer of 1959. A proposal had just been made for the site of CERN's second large project, the Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR): France was to house the world's first proton-proton collider. In September 1965, the French authorities signed an agreement making more than 40 hectares of land available for the extension of the CERN site established in Switzerland into French territory. The ISR project received final approval from the CERN Council in December 1965. The civil engineering work on the French part began in November 196

  9. Snow Plow Activity (2015-2016)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Snow Plow data from the the City of Pittsburgh's Snow Plow Tracker. These data are collected from the Snow Plow Tracker's Fusion Table and converted to geoJSON....

  10. Vancouver winters: Environmental influences on inpatient adult orthopaedic trauma demographics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noordin, S.; Masri, B. A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare the pattern of adult inpatient orthopaedic injuries admitted at three Vancouver hospitals following one of the worst winter snowstorms in the region with the preceding control winter period. Methods: The surveillance study was conducted at the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada, 2007 to 2010. Inpatient adult admissions for orthopaedic injuries at three hospitals were recorded, including age, gender, anatomic location of injury, type of fracture (open or closed), fixation method (internal versus external fixation), and length of acute care hospital stay. Comparisons between admissions during this weather pattern and admission during a previous winter with minimal snow were made. SPSS 19 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the 511 patients admitted under Orthopaedic trauma service during the significant winter snowstorms of December 2008 - January 2009, 100 (19.6%) (CI: 16.2%-23.2%) were due to ice and snow, whereas in the preceding mild winter only 18 of 415 (4.3%) (CI: 2.5%-6.8%) cases were related to snow (p<0.05). Ankle and wrist fractures were the most frequent injuries during the index snow storm period (p<0.05). At all the three institutions, 97 (96.5%) fractures were closed during the snowstorm as opposed to 17 (95%) during the control winter period. Internal fixation in 06 (89%) fractures as opposed to external fixation in 12 (11%) patients was the predominant mode of fixation across the board during both time periods. Conclusion: The study demonstrated a significantly higher inpatient orthopaedic trauma volume during the snowstorm more rigorous prospective studies need to be designed to gain further insight to solving these problems from a public health perspective. (author)

  11. A new, high-resolution surface mass balance map of Antarctica (1979-2010) based on regional atmospheric climate modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenaerts, J. T. M.; van den Broeke, M. R.; van de Berg, W. J.; van Meijgaard, E.; Kuipers Munneke, P.

    2012-02-01

    A new, high resolution (27 km) surface mass balance (SMB) map of the Antarctic ice sheet is presented, based on output of a regional atmospheric climate model that includes snowdrift physics and is forced by the most recent reanalysis data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), ERA-Interim (1979-2010). The SMB map confirms high accumulation zones in the western Antarctic Peninsula (>1500 mm y-1) and coastal West Antarctica (>1000 mm y-1), and shows low SMB values in large parts of the interior ice sheet (181 Gt y-1. Snowfall shows modest interannual variability (σ = 114 Gt y-1), but a pronounced seasonal cycle (σ = 30 Gt mo-1), with a winter maximum. The main ablation process is drifting snow sublimation, which also peaks in winter but with little interannual variability (σ = 9 Gt y-1).

  12. Characteristics of Heavy Snowfall and Snow Crystal Habits in the ESSAY (Experiment on Snow Storms At Yeongdong) Campaign in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, D. K.; Seok, S. W.; Eun, S. H.; Kim, B. G.; Reum, K. A.; Lee, K. M.; Jeon, H. R.; Byoung Choel, C.; Park, Y. S.

    2015-12-01

    Characteristics of heavy snowfall and snow crystal habits have been investigated in the campaign of Experiment on Snow Storms At Yeongdong (ESSAY) using radiosonde soundings, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and a digital camera with a magnifier for taking a photograph of snowfall crystals. The analysis period is mainly both winters of 2014 and 2015. The synoptic situations are similar to those of the previous studies such as the Low pressure system passing by the far South of the Korean peninsula along with the Siberian High extending to northern Japan, which eventually results in the northeasterly or easterly flows and the long-lasting snowfall episodes in the Yeongdong region. The snow crystal habits observed in the ESSAY campaign were mainly dendrite, consisting of 70% of the entire habits. The rimed habits were frequently captured when two-layered clouds were observed, probably through the process of freezing of super-cooled droplets on the ice particles. The homogeneous habit such as dendrite was shown in case of shallow clouds with its thickness of below 500 m whereas various habits were captured such as graupel, dendrites, rimed dendrites, aggregates of dendrites, plates, rimed plates, etc in the thick cloud with its thickness greater than 1.5 km. The dendrites appeared to be dominant in the condition of cloud top temperature specifically ranging -12~-16℃. Interestingly temporal evolutions of snow crystal habits were consistently shown for several snowfall events such as changes from rimed particles to dendrites(or aggregated dendrites). The association of snow crystal habits with temperature and super-saturation in the cloud will be in detail examined. However, better understandings of characteristics of snow crystal habits would contribute to preventing breakdown accidents such as a greenhouse destruction and collapse of a temporary building due to heavy snowfall, and traffic accidents due to snow-slippery road condition, providing a higher

  13. Rainwater propagation through snowpack during rain-on-snow sprinkling experiments under different snow conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Juras

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of rainwater propagation and runoff generation during rain-on-snow (ROS events are still insufficiently known. Understanding storage and transport of liquid water in natural snowpacks is crucial, especially for forecasting of natural hazards such as floods and wet snow avalanches. In this study, propagation of rainwater through snow was investigated by sprinkling experiments with deuterium-enriched water and applying an alternative hydrograph separation technique on samples collected from the snowpack runoff. This allowed us to quantify the contribution of rainwater, snowmelt and initial liquid water released from the snowpack. Four field experiments were carried out during winter 2015 in the vicinity of Davos, Switzerland. Blocks of natural snow were isolated from the surrounding snowpack to inhibit lateral exchange of water and were exposed to artificial rainfall using deuterium-enriched water. The experiments were composed of four 30 min periods of sprinkling, separated by three 30 min breaks. The snowpack runoff was continuously gauged and sampled periodically for the deuterium signature. At the onset of each experiment antecedent liquid water was first pushed out by the sprinkling water. Hydrographs showed four pronounced peaks corresponding to the four sprinkling bursts. The contribution of rainwater to snowpack runoff consistently increased over the course of the experiment but never exceeded 86 %. An experiment conducted on a non-ripe snowpack suggested the development of preferential flow paths that allowed rainwater to efficiently propagate through the snowpack limiting the time for mass exchange processes to take effect. In contrast, experiments conducted on ripe isothermal snowpack showed a slower response behaviour and resulted in a total runoff volume which consisted of less than 50 % of the rain input.

  14. Persistent reduction of segment growth and photosynthesis in a widespread and important sub-Arctic moss species after cessation of three years of experimental winter warming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bjerke, J.W.; Bokhorst, S.F.; Callaghan, T.V.; Phoenix, G.K.

    2017-01-01

    Winter is a period of dormancy for plants of cold environments. However, winter climate is changing, leading to an increasing frequency of stochastic warm periods (winter warming events) and concomitant reductions in snow cover. These conditions can break dormancy for some plants and expose them to

  15. Spatial and temporal variations of total mercury in Antarctic snow along the transect from Zhongshan Station to Dome A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanjin Li

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the concentrations of total mercury (THg and ions deposited in the surface snow and snow pits in the eastern Antarctic along the 29th inland route of the Chinese National Antarctic Research Expedition were analysed. The THg concentrations in the surface snow ranged from 0.22 to 8.29 ng/L and elevated concentrations were detected in the inland regions of higher altitudes (3000–4000 m. The spatial distribution of the THg in the snow pits showed greater inland concentrations with mean concentrations of <0.2–1.33 ng/L. The THg concentrations in the coastal snow pit (29-A showed higher concentrations in the summer snow layers than in the winter snow layers. The THg records from the two inland snow pits (29-K and 29-L spanned decades and indicated elevated THg concentrations between the late 1970s and early 1980s and during the mid-1990s. The temporal variations of THg in the Antarctic snow layers were consistent with anthropogenic emissions around the world. In addition, the Pinatubo volcanic eruption was the primary contributor to the 1992 THg peak that was observed in the inland snow pits.

  16. Investigating the effect and uncertainties of light absorbing impurities in snow and ice on snow melt and discharge generation using a hydrologic catchment model and satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt, Felix; Burkhart, John F.

    2017-04-01

    Light absorbing impurities in snow and ice (LAISI) originating from atmospheric deposition enhance snow melt by increasing the absorption of short wave radiation. The consequences are a shortening of the snow cover duration due to increased snow melt and, with respect to hydrologic processes, a temporal shift in the discharge generation. However, the magnitude of these effects as simulated in numerical models have large uncertainties, originating mainly from uncertainties in the wet and dry deposition of light absorbing aerosols, limitations in the model representation of the snowpack, and the lack of observable variables required to estimate model parameters and evaluate the simulated variables connected with the representation of LAISI. This leads to high uncertainties in the additional energy absorbed by the snow due to the presence of LAISI, a key variable in understanding snowpack energy-balance dynamics. In this study, we assess the effect of LAISI on snow melt and discharge generation and the involved uncertainties in a high mountain catchment located in the western Himalayas by using a distributed hydrological catchment model with focus on the representation of the seasonal snow pack. The snow albedo is hereby calculated from a radiative transfer model for snow, taking the increased absorption of short wave radiation by LAISI into account. Meteorological forcing data is generated from an assimilation of observations and high resolution WRF simulations, and LAISI mixing ratios from deposition rates of Black Carbon simulated with the FLEXPART model. To asses the quality of our simulations and the related uncertainties, we compare the simulated additional energy absorbed by the snow due to the presence of LAISI to the MODIS Dust Radiative Forcing in Snow (MODDRFS) algorithm satellite product.

  17. Glaciological measurements and mass balances from Sperry Glacier, Montana, USA, years 2005–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Adam; Fagre, Daniel B.; Peitzsch, Erich H.; Reardon, Blase A.; Harper, Joel T.

    2017-01-01

    Glacier mass balance measurements help to provide an understanding of the behavior of glaciers and their response to local and regional climate. In 2005 the United States Geological Survey established a surface mass balance monitoring program on Sperry Glacier, Montana, USA. This project is the first quantitative study of mass changes of a glacier in the US northern Rocky Mountains and continues to the present. The following paper describes the methods used during the first 11 years of measurements and reports the associated results. From 2005 to 2015, Sperry Glacier had a cumulative mean mass balance loss of 4.37 m w.e. (water equivalent). The mean winter, summer, and annual glacier-wide mass balances were 2.92, −3.41, and −0.40 m w.e. yr−1 respectively. We derive these cumulative and mean results from an expansive data set of snow depth, snow density, and ablation measurements taken at selected points on the glacier. These data allow for the determination of mass balance point values and a time series of seasonal and annual glacier-wide mass balances for all 11 measurement years. We also provide measurements of glacier extent and accumulation areas for select years. All data have been submitted to the World Glacier Monitoring Service and are available at doi:10.5904/wgms-fog-2016-08. This foundational work provides valuable insight about Sperry Glacier and supplies additional data to the worldwide record of glaciers measured using the glaciological method. Future research will focus on the processes that control accumulation and ablation patterns across the glacier. Also we plan to examine the uncertainties related to our methods and eventually quantify a more robust estimate of error associated with our results.

  18. Glaciological measurements and mass balances from Sperry Glacier, Montana, USA, years 2005-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Adam M.; Fagre, Daniel B.; Peitzsch, Erich H.; Reardon, Blase A.; Harper, Joel T.

    2017-01-01

    Glacier mass balance measurements help to provide an understanding of the behavior of glaciers and their response to local and regional climate. In 2005 the United States Geological Survey established a surface mass balance monitoring program on Sperry Glacier, Montana, USA. This project is the first quantitative study of mass changes of a glacier in the US northern Rocky Mountains and continues to the present. The following paper describes the methods used during the first 11 years of measurements and reports the associated results. From 2005 to 2015, Sperry Glacier had a cumulative mean mass balance loss of 4.37 m w.e. (water equivalent). The mean winter, summer, and annual glacier-wide mass balances were 2.92, -3.41, and -0.40 m w.e. yr-1 respectively. We derive these cumulative and mean results from an expansive data set of snow depth, snow density, and ablation measurements taken at selected points on the glacier. These data allow for the determination of mass balance point values and a time series of seasonal and annual glacier-wide mass balances for all 11 measurement years. We also provide measurements of glacier extent and accumulation areas for select years. All data have been submitted to the World Glacier Monitoring Service and are available at fog-2016-08" target="_blank">doi:10.5904/wgms-fog-2016-08. This foundational work provides valuable insight about Sperry Glacier and supplies additional data to the worldwide record of glaciers measured using the glaciological method. Future research will focus on the processes that control accumulation and ablation patterns across the glacier. Also we plan to examine the uncertainties related to our methods and eventually quantify a more robust estimate of error associated with our results.

  19. "no snow - no skiing excursion - consequences of climatic change?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neunzig, Thilo

    2014-05-01

    Climatology and climate change have become central topics in Geography at our school. Because of that we set up a climatological station at our school. The data are an important basis to observe sudden changes in the weather. The present winter (2013/2014) shows the importance of climate change in Alzey / Germany. In winter many students think of the yearly skiing trip to Schwaz / Austria which is part of our school programme. Due to that the following questions arise: Will skiing still be possible if climate change accelerates? How are the skiing regions in the Alpes going to change? What will happen in about 20 years? How does artificial snow change the landscape and the skiing sport? Students have to be aware of the ecological damage of skiing trips. Each class has to come up with a concept how these trips can be as environmentally friendly as possible. - the trip is for a restricted number of students only (year 8 only) - a small skiing region is chosen which is not overcrowded - snow has to be guaranteed in the ski area to avoid the production of artificial snow (avoidance of high water consumption) - the bus arrives with a class and returns with the one that had been there before These are but a few ideas of students in order to make their trip as environmentally friendly as possible. What is missing is only what is going to happen in the future. What will be the effect of climate change for skiing regions in the secondary mountains? How is the average temperature for winter going to develop? Are there possibilities for summer tourism (e.g. hiking) instead of skiing in winter? The students are going to try to find answers to these questions which are going to be presented on a poster on the GIFT-Workshop in Vienna.

  20. Snow and ice on Bear Lake (Alaska – sensitivity experiments with two lake ice models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tido Semmler

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Snow and ice thermodynamics of Bear Lake (Alaska are investigated with a simple freshwater lake model (FLake and a more complex snow and ice thermodynamic model (HIGHTSI. A number of sensitivity experiments have been carried out to investigate the influence of snow and ice parameters and of different complexity on the results. Simulation results are compared with observations from the Alaska Lake Ice and Snow Observatory Network. Adaptations of snow thermal and optical properties in FLake can largely improve accuracy of the results. Snow-to-ice transformation is important for HIGHTSI to calculate the total ice mass balance. The seasonal maximum ice depth is simulated in FLake with a bias of −0.04 m and in HIGHTSI with no bias. Correlation coefficients between ice depth measurements and simulations are high (0.74 for FLake and 0.9 for HIGHTSI. The snow depth simulation can be improved by taking into account a variable snow density. Correlation coefficients for surface temperature are 0.72 for FLake and 0.81 for HIGHTSI. Overall, HIGHTSI gives slightly more accurate surface temperature than FLake probably due to the consideration of multiple snow and ice layers and the expensive iteration calculation procedure.

  1. Realism versus simplicity in the snow routine of the HBV model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girons Lopez, Marc; Vis, Marc; Seibert, Jan

    2017-04-01

    The HBV model still enjoys great popularity, in part because of its simplicity. Depicting the hydrological processes in a catchment in a simple way reduces data requirements and minimises parameter uncertainty. However, the representation of some processes might benefit from an increased model complexity. This is, for instance, the case of snow routine in the HBV-light version of the HBV model. HBV-light uses a degree-day method with a single threshold parameter to distinguish between rain and snow and simulate snow melt. Recent research has shown that hydrological models with a more realistic representation of snow processes might be more successful in estimating runoff. In this study we explore and test different improvements to the HBV-light snow routine design by considering different threshold temperature values for rain and snow distinction as well as for the beginning of snow melt, and introducing gradual transitions instead of the current sharp threshold. The use of radiation data, which recently became available as gridded data product in Switzerland, is an additional possibility. These modifications would allow for a more realistic depiction of important hydrological processes in alpine and other snow-covered areas while preserving the characteristic simplicity of HBV. Furthermore, in this contribution we evaluate the balance between introducing more realism into the snow routine of the HBV model and keeping the number of parameters as low as possible.

  2. The magnitude of the snow-sourced reactive nitrogen flux to the boundary layer in the Uintah Basin, Utah, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zatko

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Reactive nitrogen (Nr  =  NO, NO2, HONO and volatile organic carbon emissions from oil and gas extraction activities play a major role in wintertime ground-level ozone exceedance events of up to 140 ppb in the Uintah Basin in eastern Utah. Such events occur only when the ground is snow covered, due to the impacts of snow on the stability and depth of the boundary layer and ultraviolet actinic flux at the surface. Recycling of reactive nitrogen from the photolysis of snow nitrate has been observed in polar and mid-latitude snow, but snow-sourced reactive nitrogen fluxes in mid-latitude regions have not yet been quantified in the field. Here we present vertical profiles of snow nitrate concentration and nitrogen isotopes (δ15N collected during the Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Study 2014 (UBWOS 2014, along with observations of insoluble light-absorbing impurities, radiation equivalent mean ice grain radii, and snow density that determine snow optical properties. We use the snow optical properties and nitrate concentrations to calculate ultraviolet actinic flux in snow and the production of Nr from the photolysis of snow nitrate. The observed δ15N(NO3− is used to constrain modeled fractional loss of snow nitrate in a snow chemistry column model, and thus the source of Nr to the overlying boundary layer. Snow-surface δ15N(NO3− measurements range from −5 to 10 ‰ and suggest that the local nitrate burden in the Uintah Basin is dominated by primary emissions from anthropogenic sources, except during fresh snowfall events, where remote NOx sources from beyond the basin are dominant. Modeled daily averaged snow-sourced Nr fluxes range from 5.6 to 71  ×  107 molec cm−2 s−1 over the course of the field campaign, with a maximum noontime value of 3.1  ×  109 molec cm−2 s−1. The top-down emission estimate of primary, anthropogenic NOx in Uintah and Duchesne counties is at least 300 times higher than

  3. Rain or snow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    It's easy to look out the window and decide whether it's raining, snowing, or hailing, right? Well, not always—especially when the region of interest isn't directly outside your window. To help discern the difference, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has developed a laser beam device that differentiates between the precipitation types.The laser weather identifier produces different signals when raindrops, snowflakes, or hailstones pass through the laser's beam, according to Ting-i Wang—until recently a scientist at NOAA's Environmental Research Laboratories in Boulder, Colo. These signature signals can be read by computer and integrated into present weather networks. ‘It can eliminate human error or negligence, and can be cost effective by constantly observing and monitoring the weather,’ Wang noted. Wang and his colleagues are developing several of the laser instruments for evaluation by NOAA's National Weather Service. The first of these is scheduled to be installed in 1984.

  4. Influence of snowpack internal structure on snow metamorphism and melting intensity on Hansbreen, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laska Michał

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a detailed study of melting processes conducted on Hansbreen – a tidewater glacier terminating in the Hornsund fjord, Spitsbergen. The fieldwork was carried out from April to July 2010. The study included observations of meltwater distribution within snow profiles in different locations and determination of its penetration time to the glacier ice surface. In addition, the variability of the snow temperature and heat transfer within the snow cover were measured. The main objective concerns the impact of meltwater on the diversity of physical characteristics of the snow cover and its melting dynamics. The obtained results indicate a time delay between the beginning of the melting processes and meltwater reaching the ice surface. The time necessary for meltwater to percolate through the entire snowpack in both, the ablation zone and the equilibrium line zone amounted to c. 12 days, despite a much greater snow depth at the upper site. An elongated retention of meltwater in the lower part of the glacier was caused by a higher amount of icy layers (ice formations and melt-freeze crusts, resulting from winter thaws, which delayed water penetration. For this reason, a reconstruction of rain-on-snow events was carried out. Such results give new insight into the processes of the reactivation of the glacier drainage system and the release of freshwater into the sea after the winter period.

  5. Wet meadow ecosystems contribute the majority of overwinter soil respiration from snow-scoured alpine tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, John F.; Blanken, Peter D.; Williams, Mark W.

    2016-04-01

    We measured soil respiration across a soil moisture gradient ranging from dry to wet snow-scoured alpine tundra soils throughout three winters and two summers. In the absence of snow accumulation, soil moisture variability was principally determined by the combination of mesotopographical hydrological focusing and shallow subsurface permeability, which resulted in a patchwork of comingled ecosystem types along a single alpine ridge. To constrain the subsequent carbon cycling variability, we compared three measures of effective diffusivity and three methods to calculate gradient method soil respiration from four typical vegetation communities. Overwinter soil respiration was primarily restricted to wet meadow locations, and a conservative estimate of the rate of overwinter soil respiration from snow-scoured wet meadow tundra was 69-90% of the maximum carbon dioxide (CO2) respired by seasonally snow-covered soils within this same catchment. This was attributed to higher overwinter soil temperatures at wet meadow locations relative to fellfield, dry meadow, and moist meadow communities, which supported liquid water and heterotrophic respiration throughout the winter. These results were corroborated by eddy covariance-based measurements that demonstrated an average of 272 g C m-2 overwinter carbon loss during the study period. As a result, we updated a conceptual model of soil respiration versus snow cover to express the potential for soil respiration variability from snow-scoured alpine tundra.

  6. Influence of Dust and Black Carbon on the Snow Albedo in the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System Version 5 Land Surface Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunari, Teppei J.; Koster, Randal D.; Lau, K. M.; Aoki, Teruo; Sud, Yogesh C.; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Motoyoshi, Hiroki; Kodama, Yuji

    2011-01-01

    Present-day land surface models rarely account for the influence of both black carbon and dust in the snow on the snow albedo. Snow impurities increase the absorption of incoming shortwave radiation (particularly in the visible bands), whereby they have major consequences for the evolution of snowmelt and life cycles of snowpack. A new parameterization of these snow impurities was included in the catchment-based land surface model used in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Earth Observing System version 5. Validation tests against in situ observed data were performed for the winter of 2003.2004 in Sapporo, Japan, for both the new snow albedo parameterization (which explicitly accounts for snow impurities) and the preexisting baseline albedo parameterization (which does not). Validation tests reveal that daily variations of snow depth and snow surface albedo are more realistically simulated with the new parameterization. Reasonable perturbations in the assigned snow impurity concentrations, as inferred from the observational data, produce significant changes in snowpack depth and radiative flux interactions. These findings illustrate the importance of parameterizing the influence of snow impurities on the snow surface albedo for proper simulation of the life cycle of snow cover.

  7. Simulation of Wind-Driven Snow Redistribution at a High-Elevation Alpine Site Using a Meso-Scale Atmospheric Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vionnet, V.; Martin, E.; Masson, V.; Guyomarc'h, G.; Naaim-Bouvet, F.; Prokop, A.; Durand, Y.; Lac, C.

    2012-12-01

    In alpine regions, blowing snow events strongly influence the temporal and spatial evolution of the snow depth distribution throughout the winter season. We recently developed a new simulation system to gain understanding on the complex processes that drive the redistribution of snow by the wind in complex terrain. This new system couples directly the detailed snow-pack model Crocus with the meso-scale atmospheric model Meso-NH. A blowing snow scheme allows Meso-NH to simulate the transport of snow particles in the atmosphere. We used the coupled system to study a blowing snow event with snowfall that occurred in February 2011 in the Grandes Rousses range (French Alps). Three nested domains at an horizontal resolution of 450, 150 and 50 m allow the model to simulate the complex 3D precipitation and wind fields around our experimental site (2720 m a.s.l.) during this 22-hour event. Wind-induced snow transport is activated over the domains of higher resolution (150 and 50 m). We firstly assessed the ability of the model to reproduce atmospheric flows at high resolution in alpine terrain using a large dataset of observations (meteorological data, vertical profile of wind speed). Simulated blowing snow fluxes are then compared with measurements from SPC and mechanical snow traps. Finally a map of snow erosion and accumulation produced by Terrestrial Laser measurements allows to evaluate the quality of the simulated snow depth redistribution.

  8. Blowing snow sublimation and transport over Antarctica from 11 years of CALIPSO observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Stephen P.; Kayetha, Vinay; Yang, Yuekui; Pauly, Rebecca

    2017-11-01

    Blowing snow processes commonly occur over the earth's ice sheets when the 10 m wind speed exceeds a threshold value. These processes play a key role in the sublimation and redistribution of snow thereby influencing the surface mass balance. Prior field studies and modeling results have shown the importance of blowing snow sublimation and transport on the surface mass budget and hydrological cycle of high-latitude regions. For the first time, we present continent-wide estimates of blowing snow sublimation and transport over Antarctica for the period 2006-2016 based on direct observation of blowing snow events. We use an improved version of the blowing snow detection algorithm developed for previous work that uses atmospheric backscatter measurements obtained from the CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) lidar aboard the CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) satellite. The blowing snow events identified by CALIPSO and meteorological fields from MERRA-2 are used to compute the blowing snow sublimation and transport rates. Our results show that maximum sublimation occurs along and slightly inland of the coastline. This is contrary to the observed maximum blowing snow frequency which occurs over the interior. The associated temperature and moisture reanalysis fields likely contribute to the spatial distribution of the maximum sublimation values. However, the spatial pattern of the sublimation rate over Antarctica is consistent with modeling studies and precipitation estimates. Overall, our results show that the 2006-2016 Antarctica average integrated blowing snow sublimation is about 393 ± 196 Gt yr-1, which is considerably larger than previous model-derived estimates. We find maximum blowing snow transport amount of 5 Mt km-1 yr-1 over parts of East Antarctica and estimate that the average snow transport from continent to ocean is about 3.7 Gt yr-1. These continent-wide estimates are the first of their kind

  9. Snow cover, freeze-thaw, and the retention of nutrients in an oceanic mountain ecosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wipf, Sonja; Sommerkorn, Martin; Stutter, Marc I.; Wubs, E. R. Jasper; van der Wal, René

    2015-01-01

    As the climate warms, winters with less snow and therefore more soil freeze-thaw cycles are likely to become more frequent in oceanic mountain areas. It is a concern that this might impair the soil's ability to store carbon and nutrients, and lead to increased leaching losses of dissolved C and

  10. Winter Weather Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health ... Although there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect ...

  11. Winter maintenance performance measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Winter Performance Index is a method of quantifying winter storm events and the DOTs response to them. : It is a valuable tool for evaluating the States maintenance practices, performing post-storm analysis, training : maintenance personnel...

  12. Winter weather demand considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Winter weather has varied effects on travel behavior. Using 418 survey responses from the Northern Virginia : commuting area of Washington, D.C. and binary logit models, this study examines travel related changes under : different types of winter wea...

  13. Impacts of Satellite-Based Snow Albedo Assimilation on Offline and Coupled Land Surface Model Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Peng, Shushi; Krinner, Gerhard; Ryder, James; Li, Yue; Dantec-Nédélec, Sarah; Ottlé, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal snow cover in the Northern Hemisphere is the largest component of the terrestrial cryosphere and plays a major role in the climate system through strong positive feedbacks related to albedo. The snow-albedo feedback is invoked as an important cause for the polar amplification of ongoing and projected climate change, and its parameterization across models is an important source of uncertainty in climate simulations. Here, instead of developing a physical snow albedo scheme, we use a direct insertion approach to assimilate satellite-based surface albedo during the snow season (hereafter as snow albedo assimilation) into the land surface model ORCHIDEE (ORganizing Carbon and Hydrology In Dynamic EcosystEms) and assess the influences of such assimilation on offline and coupled simulations. Our results have shown that snow albedo assimilation in both ORCHIDEE and ORCHIDEE-LMDZ (a general circulation model of Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique) improve the simulation accuracy of mean seasonal (October throughout May) snow water equivalent over the region north of 40 degrees. The sensitivity of snow water equivalent to snow albedo assimilation is more pronounced in the coupled simulation than the offline simulation since the feedback of albedo on air temperature is allowed in ORCHIDEE-LMDZ. We have also shown that simulations of air temperature at 2 meters in ORCHIDEE-LMDZ due to snow albedo assimilation are significantly improved during the spring in particular over the eastern Siberia region. This is a result of the fact that high amounts of shortwave radiation during the spring can maximize its snow albedo feedback, which is also supported by the finding that the spatial sensitivity of temperature change to albedo change is much larger during the spring than during the autumn and winter. In addition, the radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere induced by snow albedo assimilation during the spring is estimated to be -2.50 W m-2, the magnitude of

  14. Impacts of Satellite-Based Snow Albedo Assimilation on Offline and Coupled Land Surface Model Simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    Full Text Available Seasonal snow cover in the Northern Hemisphere is the largest component of the terrestrial cryosphere and plays a major role in the climate system through strong positive feedbacks related to albedo. The snow-albedo feedback is invoked as an important cause for the polar amplification of ongoing and projected climate change, and its parameterization across models is an important source of uncertainty in climate simulations. Here, instead of developing a physical snow albedo scheme, we use a direct insertion approach to assimilate satellite-based surface albedo during the snow season (hereafter as snow albedo assimilation into the land surface model ORCHIDEE (ORganizing Carbon and Hydrology In Dynamic EcosystEms and assess the influences of such assimilation on offline and coupled simulations. Our results have shown that snow albedo assimilation in both ORCHIDEE and ORCHIDEE-LMDZ (a general circulation model of Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique improve the simulation accuracy of mean seasonal (October throughout May snow water equivalent over the region north of 40 degrees. The sensitivity of snow water equivalent to snow albedo assimilation is more pronounced in the coupled simulation than the offline simulation since the feedback of albedo on air temperature is allowed in ORCHIDEE-LMDZ. We have also shown that simulations of air temperature at 2 meters in ORCHIDEE-LMDZ due to snow albedo assimilation are significantly improved during the spring in particular over the eastern Siberia region. This is a result of the fact that high amounts of shortwave radiation during the spring can maximize its snow albedo feedback, which is also supported by the finding that the spatial sensitivity of temperature change to albedo change is much larger during the spring than during the autumn and winter. In addition, the radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere induced by snow albedo assimilation during the spring is estimated to be -2.50 W m-2, the

  15. Snow measurement Using P-Band Signals of Opportunity Reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, R.; Yueh, S. H.; Xu, X.; Elder, K.

    2017-12-01

    Snow water storage in land is a critical parameter of the water cycle. In this study, we develop methods for estimating reflectance from bistatic scattering of digital communication Signals of Opportunity (SoOp) across the available microwave spectrum from VHF to Ka band and show results from proof-of-concept experiments at the Fraser Experimental Forest, Colorado to acquire measurements to relate the SoOp phase and reflectivity to a snow-covered soil surface. The forward modeling of this scenario will be presented and multiple sensitivities were conducted. Available SoOp receiver data along with a network of in situ sensor measurements collected since January 2016 will be used to validate theoretical modeling results. In the winter season of 2016 and 2017, we conducted a field experiment using VHF/UHF-band illuminating sources to detect SWE and surface reflectivity. The amplitude of the reflectivity showed sensitivity to the wetness of snow pack and ground reflectivity while the phase showed sensitivity to SWE. This use of this concept can be helpful to measure the snow water storage in land globally.

  16. Modeling winter ozone episodes near oil and natural gas fields in Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuling; Rappenglück, Bernhard; Pour-Biazar, Arastoo; Field, Robert A.; Soltis, Jeff

    2017-04-01

    Wintertime ozone episodes have been reported in the oil and natural gas (O&NG) producing fields in Uintah Basin, Utah and the Upper Green River Basin (UGRB) in Wyoming in recent years. High concentrations of ozone precursors facilitated by favorable meteorological conditions, including low wind and shallow boundary layer (BL), were found in these episodes, although the exact roles of these precursor species in different O&NG fields are to be determined. Meanwhile, snow cover is also found to play an important role in these winter ozone episodes as the cold snow covered surface enhances the inversion, further limits the BL and the high snow albedo greatly boosts photolysis reactions that are closely related to ozone chemistry. In this study, we utilize model simulation to explore the role of chemical compositions, in terms of different VOC groups and NOx, and that of the enhanced photolysis due to snow cover in the UGRB ozone episodes in the late winter of 2011.

  17. Keep your balance!

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    “In winter more injuries are sustained as a result of falls than road accidents.”   You may already have seen this little piece of information on the factsheet published by the Swiss non-profit insurance company SUVA, which the HSE Unit decided to make available at various distribution points around CERN this winter. Winter inevitably means snow and ice, which are often the cause of serious accidents. But if you take a few basic precautions, you can make your life much easier during the winter and avoid unnecessary accidents. The HSE Unit is distributing SUVA’s free information pack entitled “Chutes en hiver” (in French only). You'll also find postcards together with a flyer entitled “8 conseils pour éviter de tomber en hiver” (in French only) at CERN's three restaurants as well as in Buildings 33 and 55 (the Reception and Registration buildings), in the Library and at the various catering points....

  18. Impact of warm winters on microbial growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgander, Johanna; Rousk, Johannes; Axel Olsson, Pål

    2014-05-01

    temperature relationships of the bacterial community from winter-warmed plots and plots with ambient soil temperatures were compared. No change in optimum temperature for growth could be detected, indicating that the microbial community has not been warm-adapted. This fits with what was seen also in the laboratory experiment where no changes in temperature response occurred when exposing bacteria to temperatures below 10 °C within two months. The increase in activity measured during winter should thereby be due to changes in environmental factors, which will be further investigated. One big difference between heated and control plots was that heated plots were snow free during the entire winter, while control plots were covered by a 10 cm snow cover. The plant community composition and flowering time also differed in the warmed and ambient plot.

  19. Heavy snow loads in Finnish forests respond regionally asymmetrically to projected climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Lehtonen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the impacts of projected climate change on heavy snow loads on Finnish forests, where snow-induced forest damage occurs frequently. For snow-load calculations, we used daily data from five global climate models under representative concentration pathway (RCP scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, statistically downscaled onto a high-resolution grid using a quantile-mapping method. Our results suggest that projected climate warming results in regionally asymmetric response on heavy snow loads in Finnish forests. In eastern and northern Finland, the annual maximum snow loads on tree crowns were projected to increase during the present century, as opposed to southern and western parts of the country. The change was rather similar both for heavy rime loads and wet snow loads, as well as for frozen snow loads. Only the heaviest dry snow loads were projected to decrease over almost the whole of Finland. Our results are aligned with previous snowfall projections, typically indicating increasing heavy snowfalls over the areas with mean temperature below −8 °C. In spite of some uncertainties related to our results, we conclude that the risk for snow-induced forest damage is likely to increase in the future in the eastern and northern parts of Finland, i.e. in the areas experiencing the coldest winters in the country. The increase is partly due to the increase in wet snow hazards but also due to more favourable conditions for rime accumulation in a future climate that is more humid but still cold enough.

  20. Modeling Road Vulnerability to Snow Using Mixed Integer Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Tony K [ORNL; Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Ostrowski, James A [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    As the number and severity of snowfall events continue to grow, the need to intelligently direct road maintenance during these snowfall events will also grow. In several locations, local governments lack the resources to completely treat all roadways during snow events. Furthermore, some governments utilize only traffic data to determine which roads should be treated. As a result, many schools, businesses, and government offices must be unnecessarily closed, which directly impacts the social, educational, and economic well-being of citizens and institutions. In this work, we propose a mixed integer programming formulation to optimally allocate resources to manage snowfall on roads using meteorological, geographical, and environmental parameters. Additionally, we evaluate the impacts of an increase in budget for winter road maintenance on snow control resources.

  1. Winter-to-winter variations in indoor radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mose, D.G.; Mushrush, G.W.; Kline, S.W.

    1989-01-01

    Indoor radon concentrations in northern Virginia and central Maryland show a strong dependence on weather. Winter tends to be associated with higher than average indoor radon, and summer with lower than average. However, compared to the winter of 1986-1987, the winter of 1987-1988 was warmer and drier. Consequently, winter-to-winter indoor radon decreased by about 25%. This winter-to-winter decrease is unexpectedly large, and simulates winter-to-summer variations that have been reported

  2. Snow density climatology across the former USSR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, X.; Zhang, T.; Wang, K.

    2014-04-01

    Snow density is one of the basic properties used to describe snow cover characteristics, and it is a key factor for linking snow depth and snow water equivalent, which are critical for water resources assessment and modeling inputs. In this study, we used long-term data from ground-based measurements to investigate snow density (bulk density) climatology and its spatiotemporal variations across the former Soviet Union (USSR) from 1966 to 2008. The results showed that the long-term monthly mean snow density was approximately 0.22 ± 0.05 g cm-3 over the study area. The maximum and minimum monthly mean snow density was about 0.33 g cm-3 in June, and 0.14 g cm-3 in October, respectively. Maritime and ephemeral snow had the highest monthly mean snow density, while taiga snow had the lowest. The higher values of monthly snow density were mainly located in the European regions of the former USSR, on the coast of Arctic Russia, and the Kamchatka Peninsula, while the lower snow density occurred in central Siberia. Significant increasing trends of snow density from September through June of the next year were observed, however, the rate of the increase varied with different snow classes. The long-term (1966-2008) monthly and annual mean snow densities had significant decreasing trends, especially during the autumn months. Spatially, significant positive trends in monthly mean snow density lay in the southwestern areas of the former USSR in November and December and gradually expanded in Russia from February through April. Significant negative trends mainly lay in the European Russia and the southern Russia. There was a high correlation of snow density with elevation for tundra snow and snow density was highly correlated with latitude for prairie snow.

  3. Evaluating controls on snow distribution in the eastern Chugach Mountains, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolken, G. J.; Wikstrom Jones, K.

    2017-12-01

    A detailed understanding of the spatial and temporal variability of alpine snow depth is important because of its strong influence on water resources, regional economies, and public safety. However, in complex terrain, strong orographic gradients and complicated topography-influenced wind fields produce complex accumulation patterns that are difficult to accurately quantify using traditional in situ and satellite-based approaches, and are challenging to model. In this study, we use repeat airborne photogrammetry, Structure from Motion (SfM) processing methods, and field-based measurements to produce continuous and accurate maps of end-of-winter snow depth and snow water equivalence (SWE) in the eastern Chugach Mountains, Alaska, during the period 2015-2017. We validate photogrammetry-derived snow depth maps using simultaneously acquired snow depth measurements recorded by project and citizen scientists. Patterns of snow distribution in the study area are largely controlled by orographic forcing, however, these patterns are strongly modulated by persistent synoptic weather systems that serve to weaken the climatological snow distribution pattern.

  4. The origin of sea salt in snow on Arctic sea ice and in coastal regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Domine

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Snow, through its trace constituents, can have a major impact on lower tropospheric chemistry, as evidenced by ozone depletion events (ODEs in oceanic polar areas. These ODEs are caused by the chemistry of bromine compounds that originate from sea salt bromide. Bromide may be supplied to the snow surface by upward migration from sea ice, by frost flowers being wind-blown to the snow surface, or by wind-transported aerosol generated by sea spray. We investigate here the relative importance of these processes by analyzing ions in snow near Alert and Ny-Ålesund (Canadian and European high Arctic in winter and spring. Vertical ionic profiles in the snowpack on sea ice are measured to test upward migration of sea salt ions and to seek evidence for ion fractionation processes. Time series of the ionic composition of surface snow layers are investigated to quantify wind-transported ions. Upward migration of unfractionated sea salt to heights of at least 17cm was observed in winter snow, leading to Cl- concentration of several hundred µM. Upward migration thus has the potential to supply ions to surface snow layers. Time series show that wind can deposit aerosols to the top few cm of the snow, leading also to Cl- concentrations of several hundred µM, so that both diffusion from sea ice and wind transport can significantly contribute ions to snow. At Ny-Ålesund, sea salt transported by wind was unfractionated, implying that it comes from sea spray rather than frost flowers. Estimations based on our results suggest that the marine snowpack contains about 10 times more Na+ than the frost flowers, so that both the marine snowpack and frost flowers need to be considered as sea salt sources. Our data suggest that ozone depletion chemistry can significantly enhance the Br- content of snow. We speculate that this can also take place in coastal regions and contribute to propagate ODEs inland. Finally, we stress the need to measure snow physical parameters

  5. Modelling snow accumulation on Greenland in Eemian, glacial inception, and modern climates in a GCM

    OpenAIRE

    Punge, H. J.; Gallée, H.; Kageyama, M.; Krinner, G.

    2012-01-01

    Changing climate conditions on Greenland influence the snow accumulation rate and surface mass balance (SMB) on the ice sheet and, ultimately, its shape. This can in turn affect local climate via orography and albedo variations and, potentially, remote areas via changes in ocean circulation triggered by melt water or calving from the ice sheet. Examining these interactions in the IPSL global model requires improving the representation of snow at the ice sheet ...

  6. MODIS Snow Cover Mapping Decision Tree Technique: Snow and Cloud Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, George A.; Hall, Dorothy K.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate mapping of snow cover continues to challenge cryospheric scientists and modelers. The Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow data products have been used since 2000 by many investigators to map and monitor snow cover extent for various applications. Users have reported on the utility of the products and also on problems encountered. Three problems or hindrances in the use of the MODIS snow data products that have been reported in the literature are: cloud obscuration, snow/cloud confusion, and snow omission errors in thin or sparse snow cover conditions. Implementation of the MODIS snow algorithm in a decision tree technique using surface reflectance input to mitigate those problems is being investigated. The objective of this work is to use a decision tree structure for the snow algorithm. This should alleviate snow/cloud confusion and omission errors and provide a snow map with classes that convey information on how snow was detected, e.g. snow under clear sky, snow tinder cloud, to enable users' flexibility in interpreting and deriving a snow map. Results of a snow cover decision tree algorithm are compared to the standard MODIS snow map and found to exhibit improved ability to alleviate snow/cloud confusion in some situations allowing up to about 5% increase in mapped snow cover extent, thus accuracy, in some scenes.

  7. Energy and dissipated work in snow avalanches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelt, P.; Buser, O.

    2004-12-01

    Using the results of large scale avalanche experiments at the Swiss Vallée de la Sionne test site, the energy balance of several snow avalanches is determined. Avalanches convert approximately one-seventh of their potential energy into kinetic energy. The total potential energy depends strongly on the entrained snowcover, indicating that entrainment processes cannot be ignored when predicting terminal velocities and runout distances. We find energy dissipation rates on the order of 1 GW. Fluidization of the fracture slab can be identified in the experiments as an increase in dissipation rate, thereby explaining the initial and rapid acceleration of avalanches after release. Interestingly, the dissipation rates appear to be constant along the track, although large fluctuations in internal velocity exist. Thus, we can demonstrate within the context of non-equilibrium thermodynamics that -- in space -- granular snow avalanches are irreversible, dissipative systems that minimize entropy production because they appear to reach a steady-state non-equilibrium. A thermodynamic analysis reveals that fluctuations in velocity depend on the roughness of the flow surface and viscosity of the granular system. We speculate that this property explains the transition from flowing avalanches to powder avalanches.

  8. Precipitation type transition regions in winter storms over southern Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Ronald E.; King, Patrick

    1990-12-01

    Two winter storms passed through the Toronto area during November and December 1987. Information from radar, rawinsonde, and surface observations was analyzed in order to determine the kinematic flow fields and thermodynamic environment in the vicinity of the transition at the surface between snow and rain. This region was also linked to heavy precipitation and thunder. Updrafts preferentially occurred over the snow region, and deep near-0°C layers occurred in the transition region. Observations are consistent with a mesoscale circulation initiated by melting snow and possibly with the occurrence of symmetric instability. It is further suggested that large, possibly wet, snowflakes being formed within such deep near-0°C layers would contribute to the radar detection of precipitation bands near the precipitation transition region.

  9. The History of Winter: teachers as scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, L.; Courville, Z.; Wasilewski, P. J.; Gow, T.; Bender, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    The History of Winter (HOW) is a NASA Goddard Space Flight Center-funded teacher enrichment program that was started by Dr. Peter Wasilewski (NASA), Dr. Robert Gabrys (NASA) and Dr. Tony Gow (Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, or CRREL) in 2001 and continues with support and involvement of scientists from both the NASA Cryospheric Sciences Laboratory and CREEL. The program brings educators mostly from middle and high schools but also from state parks, community colleges and other institutions from across the US to the Northwood School (a small, private boarding school) in Lake Placid, NY for one week to learn about several facets of winter, polar, and snow research, including the science and history of polar ice core research, lake ice formation and structure, snow pack science, winter ecology, and remote sensing including current and future NASA cryospheric missions. The program receives support from the Northwood School staff to facilitate the program. The goal of the program is to create 'teachers as scientists' which is achieved through several hands-on field experiences in which the teachers have the opportunity to work with polar researchers from NASA, CRREL and partner Universities to dig and sample snow pits, make ice thin sections from lake ice, make snow shelters, and observe under-ice lake ecology. The hands-on work allows the teachers to use the same tools and techniques used in polar research while simultaneously introducing science concepts and activities to support their classroom work. The ultimate goal of the program is to provide the classroom teachers with the opportunity to learn about current and timely cryospheric research as well as to engage in real fieldwork experiences. The enthusiasm generated during the week-long program is translated into classroom activities with guidance from scientists, teachers and educational professionals. The opportunity to engage with polar researchers, both young investigators and renowned

  10. Snow mould prevalence on perennial ryegrass (Lolim perenne L. in relation to the light conditions and intensity of turf maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Prończuk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Effect of shade, nutrition, height of mowing and density of turf on snow mould (Microdochium nivale prevalence on Lolium perenne under turf maintenance were studied in 2000-2004 at Radzików (central Poland. The materials for studies were cultivars of L. perenne originated from Poland and abroad. The turf experiments were performed in three series of trials where each factor were analysed independently. The cultivars were assessed for: density of turf, the first symptom of disease and snow mould injury in spring. The investigations revealed that shade as well as high nutrition applied in autumn and high mowing of grass influenced significantly snow mould prevalence on L. perenne. The cultivars expressed a wide range of susceptibility to snow mould. The cultivars with high density of turf were the most injured by snow mould. Disease occurred at different periods of autumn and winter, usually before snow fall. Winter weather conditions had a slight effect on changes in snow mould injury of L. perenne in subsequent years.

  11. Cloud-based Computing and Applications of New Snow Metrics for Societal Benefit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolin, A. W.; Sproles, E. A.; Crumley, R. L.; Wilson, A.; Mar, E.; van de Kerk, M.; Prugh, L.

    2017-12-01

    Seasonal and interannual variability in snow cover affects socio-environmental systems including water resources, forest ecology, freshwater and terrestrial habitat, and winter recreation. We have developed two new seasonal snow metrics: snow cover frequency (SCF) and snow disappearance date (SDD). These metrics are calculated at 500-m resolution using NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow cover data (MOD10A1). SCF is the number of times snow is observed in a pixel over the user-defined observation period. SDD is the last date of observed snow in a water year. These pixel-level metrics are calculated rapidly and globally in the Google Earth Engine cloud-based environment. SCF and SDD can be interactively visualized in a map-based interface, allowing users to explore spatial and temporal snowcover patterns from 2000-present. These metrics are especially valuable in regions where snow data are sparse or non-existent. We have used these metrics in several ongoing projects. When SCF was linked with a simple hydrologic model in the La Laguna watershed in northern Chile, it successfully predicted summer low flows with a Nash-Sutcliffe value of 0.86. SCF has also been used to help explain changes in Dall sheep populations in Alaska where sheep populations are negatively impacted by late snow cover and low snowline elevation during the spring lambing season. In forest management, SCF and SDD appear to be valuable predictors of post-wildfire vegetation growth. We see a positive relationship between winter SCF and subsequent summer greening for several years post-fire. For western US winter recreation, we are exploring trends in SDD and SCF for regions where snow sports are economically important. In a world with declining snowpacks and increasing uncertainty, these metrics extend across elevations and fill data gaps to provide valuable information for decision-making. SCF and SDD are being produced so that anyone with Internet access and a Google

  12. Impacts of extreme winter warming events on plant physiology in a sub-Arctic heath community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhorst, Stef; Bjerke, Jarle W; Davey, Matthew P; Taulavuori, Kari; Taulavuori, Erja; Laine, Kari; Callaghan, Terry V; Phoenix, Gareth K

    2010-10-01

    Insulation provided by snow cover and tolerance of freezing by physiological acclimation allows Arctic plants to survive cold winter temperatures. However, both the protection mechanisms may be lost with winter climate change, especially during extreme winter warming events where loss of snow cover from snow melt results in exposure of plants to warm temperatures and then returning extreme cold in the absence of insulating snow. These events cause considerable damage to Arctic plants, but physiological responses behind such damage remain unknown. Here, we report simulations of extreme winter warming events using infrared heating lamps and soil warming cables in a sub-Arctic heathland. During these events, we measured maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII), photosynthesis, respiration, bud swelling and associated bud carbohydrate changes and lipid peroxidation to identify physiological responses during and after the winter warming events in three dwarf shrub species: Empetrum hermaphroditum, Vaccinium vitis-idaea and Vaccinium myrtillus. Winter warming increased maximum quantum yield of PSII, and photosynthesis was initiated for E. hermaphroditum and V. vitis-idaea. Bud swelling, bud carbohydrate decreases and lipid peroxidation were largest for E. hermaphroditum, whereas V. myrtillus and V. vitis-idaea showed no or less strong responses. Increased physiological activity and bud swelling suggest that sub-Arctic plants can initiate spring-like development in response to a short winter warming event. Lipid peroxidation suggests that plants experience increased winter stress. The observed differences between species in physiological responses are broadly consistent with interspecific differences in damage seen in previous studies, with E. hermaphroditum and V. myrtillus tending to be most sensitive. This suggests that initiation of spring-like development may be a major driver in the damage caused by winter warming events that are predicted to become more

  13. Limited dietary overlap amongst resident Arctic herbivores in winter: complementary insights from complementary methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Niels M; Mosbacher, Jesper B; Vesterinen, Eero J; Roslin, Tomas; Michelsen, Anders

    2018-04-26

    Snow may prevent Arctic herbivores from accessing their forage in winter, forcing them to aggregate in the few patches with limited snow. In High Arctic Greenland, Arctic hare and rock ptarmigan often forage in muskox feeding craters. We therefore hypothesized that due to limited availability of forage, the dietary niches of these resident herbivores overlap considerably, and that the overlap increases as winter progresses. To test this, we analyzed fecal samples collected in early and late winter. We used molecular analysis to identify the plant taxa consumed, and stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen to quantify the dietary niche breadth and dietary overlap. The plant taxa found indicated only limited dietary differentiation between the herbivores. As expected, dietary niches exhibited a strong contraction from early to late winter, especially for rock ptarmigan. This may indicate increasing reliance on particular plant resources as winter progresses. In early winter, the diet of rock ptarmigan overlapped slightly with that of muskox and Arctic hare. Contrary to our expectations, no inter-specific dietary niche overlap was observed in late winter. This overall pattern was specifically revealed by combined analysis of molecular data and stable isotope contents. Hence, despite foraging in the same areas and generally feeding on the same plant taxa, the quantitative dietary overlap between the three herbivores was limited. This may be attributable to species-specific consumption rates of plant taxa. Yet, Arctic hare and rock ptarmigan may benefit from muskox opening up the snow pack, thereby allowing them to access the plants.

  14. Physiochemical characterization of insoluble residues in California Sierra Nevada snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamean, Jessie; Axson, Jessica; Bondy, Amy; Craig, Rebecca; May, Nathaniel; Shen, Hongru; Weber, Michael; Warner, Katy; Pratt, Kerri; Ault, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    The effects atmospheric aerosols have on cloud particle formation are dependent on both the aerosol physical and chemical characteristics. For instance, larger, irregular-shaped mineral dusts efficiently form cloud ice crystals, enhancing precipitation, whereas small, spherical pollution aerosols have the potential to form small cloud droplets that delay the autoconversion of cloudwater to precipitation. Thus, it is important to understand the physiochemical properties and sources of aerosols that influence cloud and precipitation formation. We present an in-depth analysis of the size, chemistry, and sources of soluble and insoluble residues found in snow collected at three locations in the California Sierra Nevada Mountains during the 2012/2013 winter season. For all sites, February snow samples contained high concentrations of regional pollutants such as ammonium nitrate and biomass burning species, while March snow samples were influenced by mineral dust. The snow at the lower elevation sites in closer proximity to the Central Valley of California were heavily influenced by agricultural and industrial emissions, whereas the highest elevation site was exposed to a mixture of Central Valley pollutants in addition to long-range transported dust from Asia and Africa. Further, air masses likely containing transported dust typically traveled over cloud top heights at the low elevation sites, but were incorporated into the cold (-28°C, on average) cloud tops more often at the highest elevation site, particularly in March, which we hypothesize led to enhanced ice crystal formation and thus the observation of dust in the snow collected at the ground. Overall, understanding the spatial and temporal dependence of aerosol sources is important for remote mountainous regions such as the Sierra Nevada where snowpack provides a steady, vital supply of water.

  15. User Oriented Climatic Information for Planning a Snow Removal Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Stewart J.

    1981-12-01

    Many activities associated with the transportation sector are weather sensitive. This study is concerned with highway maintenance activities, specifically snow removal, and the budgeting of same by the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT). During the 1978-79 winter, IDOT's snow removal budget was exhausted by the end of January, thereby necessitating the procurement of emergency funds. The following year, the Illinois State Water Survey (ISWS) was asked to provide specialized climatic design information that could be used to assist IDOT in its budget planning for snow removal.Snow removal is often accomplished by spreading road salt over snow- and ice-covered roads, thus improving traction and reducing the risk of vehicles skidding along slippery surfaces. This study demonstrates the computation of `salt days,' a user-oriented climatic variable that indicates the number of days when road salt is required. This variable is defined using certain temperature and snowfall criteria. Results of a pilot study indicate that it is possible to provide statistical outlooks for salt days two months in advance, using correlation analysis. The analysis for several Illinois stations indicates that at various intervals in the data records, November and December temperatures are significantly correlated with February salt days if short periods of record (5-20 years) are used.IDOT originally requested a `2- to 3-month projection.' However, it became clear that only projections of 12 months or longer could benefit annual budget preparation. Confusion existed between the user and the supplier of climatic information regarding the user's needs, and the applicability of the supplier's `climate products' to the user's budget planning procedure. This demonstrates the need for a prolonged effort by the supplier to fully acquaint the user with the various forms of climatic information available. This gap in communication must be overcome so that applied climatology can be integrated

  16. A Framework for Thinking about the Spatial Variability of Snow across Multiple Scales and Climate Zones (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, M.

    2010-12-01

    It is well known that snow on the ground (or on lake and sea ice) varies at a myriad of scales ranging from millimeters to hundreds of kilometers. Many studies have focused directly, or in part, on snow heterogeneity at one or more of these scales, but a consistent broad framework within which these studies can be placed has yet to be developed. Consequently, the overall approach to scaling issues and snow variability is disjoint and inefficient. Nevertheless, strong common threads unite these issues. At the finest scale within-layer variations always arise from vapor transport and snow metamorphism. Layer properties vary based on weather during deposition and following snowfall (winter history). At plot to landscape scales, micro and macro topography and vegetation interact with wind, solar irradience, melt water percolation, and gravity to produce lateral variations in depth and snow water equivalent. At the coarsest scales, synoptic and climate gradients produce facies changes in both layers and bulk snow cover characteristics that vary in predictable ways. Here a preliminary multi-scale framework for snow variations is suggested and its utility discussed. At the largest scale, the framework uses the snow climate classification as a first discriminator. These classes are divided into wind-affected vs. non-wind-affected snow. Landscape and local variations in topography are then superimposed on these coarser-scale variations. Because vegetation varies with both climate and topography, it correlates with, as well as drives variations snow property variations; it becomes the third discriminator. Using these discriminators, similarities in snow variations and critical inherent length scales of several types of snow covers are explored.

  17. Politics of Snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burko, D.

    2012-12-01

    In a 2010 catalog introduction for my exhibition titled: POLITICS OF SNOW, Eileen Claussen, President of the Pew Center on Global Climate Change wrote the following: "Climate change has been taken over by politics…We are awash in talking points, briefing papers, scientific studies, and communiqués from national governments… Diane Burko's paintings remind us that all these words can often obscure or even obstruct our view of what is truly happening …..There is only so much you can do with words. People need to see that the world is changing before our eyes. When we look at Diane's images of the effects of climate change, we connect to something much deeper and more profound (and more moving) than the latest political pitch from one side or another in this debate…These paintings also connect us to something else. Even as Diane documents how things are changing, she also reminds us of the stunning beauty of nature - and, in turn, the urgency of doing everything in our power to protect it." The creation of this body of work was made possible because of the collaboration of many glacial geologists and scientists who continually share their visual data with me. Since 2006 I've been gathering repeats from people like Bruce Molnia (USGS) and Tad Pfeffer of Alaskan glaciers, from Daniel Fagre (USGS) of Glacier National Park and Lonnie Thompson and Jason Box (Ohio University's Byrd Polar Center) about Kilimanjaro, Qori Kalis and Petermann glaciers as well as from photographer David Breashears on the disappearing Himalayan glaciers. In my practice, I acknowledge the photographers, or archive agencies, such as USGS, NASA or Snow and Ice Center, in the title and all printed material. As a landscape painter and photographer my intent is to not reproduce those images but rather use them as inspiration. At first I used the documentary evidence in sets of diptychs or triptychs. Since 2010 I have incorporated geological charts of recessional lines, graphs, symbols and

  18. Black carbon aerosol size in snow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, J P; Gao, R S; Perring, A E; Spackman, J R; Fahey, D W

    2013-01-01

    The effect of anthropogenic black carbon (BC) aerosol on snow is of enduring interest due to its consequences for climate forcing. Until now, too little attention has been focused on BC's size in snow, an important parameter affecting BC light absorption in snow. Here we present first observations of this parameter, revealing that BC can be shifted to larger sizes in snow than are typically seen in the atmosphere, in part due to the processes associated with BC removal from the atmosphere. Mie theory analysis indicates a corresponding reduction in BC absorption in snow of 40%, making BC size in snow the dominant source of uncertainty in BC's absorption properties for calculations of BC's snow albedo climate forcing. The shift reduces estimated BC global mean snow forcing by 30%, and has scientific implications for our understanding of snow albedo and the processing of atmospheric BC aerosol in snowfall.

  19. Winter: Public Enemy #1 for Accessibility EXPLORING NEW SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Morales

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Winter is expensive. For countries situated in the northern hemisphere, closer to the north pole, such as Canada, Russia and Scandinavia, winter requires the acquisition of special clothing, car tires, and sports equipment, snow removal or plowing from the streets, and is associated with the presence of ice patches, along with accidents and illnesses associated with cold weather. Fall-related injuries due to winter conditions have been estimated to cost the Canadian health care system $ 2.8 billion a year. However, the greatest cost snow entails every year is the social isolation of seniors as well as wheelchair and walker users. This results from the lack of accessibility, as it is difficult to circulate on snow-covered streets even for the able-bodied. Social isolation has been associated with other negative consequences such as depression and even suicide. This exploratory pilot study aimed at finding possible and feasible design solutions for improving the accessibility of sidewalks during winter conditions. For this project we used a Co-Design methodology. Stakeholders (City of Quebec representatives, designers, urban planners, occupational therapists, and adults with motor, visual and aural disabilities were invited to participate in the design process. In order to meet the objectives, two main steps were carried out: 1. Conception of the design solutions (through Co-design sessions in a Focus-group format with seniors, designers and researchers; and 2. Validation of the design solutions (consultation with experts and stakeholders. The results are a wide variety of possible and feasible solutions, including the reorganisation of the snow-removal procedure and the development of heated curb cuts. This project was funded by the City of Quebec in partnership with the Centre interdisciplinaire de recherche en réadaptation et intégration sociale (CIRRIS. Ultimately, the project sought to explore possible solutions to be implemented

  20. Winter climate change effects on soil C and N cycles in urban grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Jorge; Rodríguez, Alexandra; Morse, Jennifer L; Groffman, Peter M

    2013-09-01

    Despite growing recognition of the role that cities have in global biogeochemical cycles, urban systems are among the least understood of all ecosystems. Urban grasslands are expanding rapidly along with urbanization, which is expected to increase at unprecedented rates in upcoming decades. The large and increasing area of urban grasslands and their impact on water and air quality justify the need for a better understanding of their biogeochemical cycles. There is also great uncertainty about the effect that climate change, especially changes in winter snow cover, will have on nutrient cycles in urban grasslands. We aimed to evaluate how reduced snow accumulation directly affects winter soil frost dynamics, and indirectly greenhouse gas fluxes and the processing of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) during the subsequent growing season in northern urban grasslands. Both artificial and natural snow reduction increased winter soil frost, affecting winter microbial C and N processing, accelerating C and N cycles and increasing soil : atmosphere greenhouse gas exchange during the subsequent growing season. With lower snow accumulations that are predicted with climate change, we found decreases in N retention in these ecosystems, and increases in N2 O and CO2 flux to the atmosphere, significantly increasing the global warming potential of urban grasslands. Our results suggest that the environmental impacts of these rapidly expanding ecosystems are likely to increase as climate change brings milder winters and more extensive soil frost. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Winter Arctic sea ice growth: current variability and projections for the coming decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, A.; Boisvert, L.; Webster, M.; Holland, M. M.; Bailey, D. A.; Kurtz, N. T.; Markus, T.

    2017-12-01

    Arctic sea ice increases in both extent and thickness during the cold winter months ( October to May). Winter sea ice growth is an important factor controlling ocean ventilation and winter water/deep water formation, as well as determining the state and vulnerability of the sea ice pack before the melt season begins. Key questions for the Arctic community thus include: (i) what is the current magnitude and variability of winter Arctic sea ice growth and (ii) how might this change in a warming Arctic climate? To address (i), our current best guess of pan-Arctic sea ice thickness, and thus volume, comes from satellite altimetry observations, e.g. from ESA's CryoSat-2 satellite. A significant source of uncertainty in these data come from poor knowledge of the overlying snow depth. Here we present new estimates of winter sea ice thickness from CryoSat-2 using snow depths from a simple snow model forced by reanalyses and satellite-derived ice drift estimates, combined with snow depth estimates from NASA's Operation IceBridge. To address (ii), we use data from the Community Earth System Model's Large Ensemble Project, to explore sea ice volume and growth variability, and how this variability might change over the coming decades. We compare and contrast the model simulations to observations and the PIOMAS ice-ocean model (over recent years/decades). The combination of model and observational analysis provide novel insight into Arctic sea ice volume variability.

  2. Differences in the energy and mass balance between a low- and a high-altitude glacial site in the Ortles-Cevedale (Italy), during the warm summer 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carturan, Luca; Avvenuti, Marco; Cazorzi, Federico; Dalla Fontana, Giancarlo; Dinale, Roberto; Gabrielli, Paolo; Mair, Volkmar; Seppi, Roberto; Zanoner, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Like in most of the European Alps, the glaciers of the Ortles-Cevedale (Eastern Italian Alps) are rapidly shrinking under the current warm climatic conditions. Different glaciers of this mountain group were found to react in different ways. The main control of their individual response appears to be the hypsometric distribution of area vs. altitude. In fact, the elevation affects the spatial distribution of the energy and mass balance through the atmospheric temperature and precipitation lapse rates, that determine the amount and frequency of ablation and accumulation. However, other processes and feedbacks take place during periods of rapid climatic change, which still need to be investigated and fully understood, in particular at high elevation. Two Automatic Weather Stations (AWS), operating on glacial sites at different altitudes in the Ortles-Cevedale, enabled a first comparative analysis for the warm summer of 2012. The lower AWS was placed in the ablation area of La Mare glacier, at 2970 m a.s.l., on temperate ice. The upper AWS worked on the high-altitude accumulation area of Alto dell'Ortles glacier, at 3840 m a.s.l., over temperate firn overlying cold ice. The two AWSs, located 10 km away from each other, monitor air temperature and relative humidity, wind speed and direction, incoming and outgoing shortwave and longwave radiation, surface temperature and snow height, and record mean values at time intervals of 15 minutes. The upper AWS also measures the temperature profile below the surface to a depth of 15 m. Direct mass balance measurements were carried out in the proximity of the two AWSs at the end of the accumulation and ablation seasons, by means of snow depth soundings, density measurements into snow pits and ablation measurements through ablation stakes. A strongly negative mass balance was measured in 2012 at the lowest AWS, which lost early in the summer the 110 cm thick snowpack accumulated during winter and underwent a net ablation of 350 cm

  3. Evaluation of gridded snow water equivalent and satellite snow cover products for mountain basins in a hydrologic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, K.A.; Leavesley, G.H.; Bales, R.C.; Fassnacht, S.R.

    2006-01-01

    The USGS precipitation-runoff modelling system (PRMS) hydrologic model was used to evaluate experimental, gridded, 1 km2 snow-covered area (SCA) and snow water equivalent (SWE) products for two headwater basins within the Rio Grande (i.e. upper Rio Grande River basin) and Salt River (i.e. Black River basin) drainages in the southwestern USA. The SCA product was the fraction of each 1 km2 pixel covered by snow and was derived from NOAA advanced very high-resolution radiometer imagery. The SWE product was developed by multiplying the SCA product by SWE estimates interpolated from National Resources Conservation Service snow telemetry point measurements for a 6 year period (1995-2000). Measured SCA and SWE estimates were consistently lower than values estimated from temperature and precipitation within PRMS. The greatest differences occurred in the relatively complex terrain of the Rio Grande basin, as opposed to the relatively homogeneous terrain of the Black River basin, where differences were small. Differences between modelled and measured snow were different for the accumulation period versus the ablation period and had an elevational trend. Assimilating the measured snowfields into a version of PRMS calibrated to achieve water balance without assimilation led to reduced performance in estimating streamflow for the Rio Grande and increased performance in estimating streamflow for the Black River basin. Correcting the measured SCA and SWE for canopy effects improved simulations by adding snow mostly in the mid-to-high elevations, where satellite estimates of SCA are lower than model estimates. Copyright ?? 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Snow melting system with electric heating using photovoltaic power generation; Solar yusetsuko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, M.; Fujita, S.; Kaga, T.; Koyama, N. [Hachinohe Institute of Technology, Aomori (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    This paper clarifies the solar characteristics in Hachinohe district, to investigate a possibility of the snow melting system with electric heating using solar energy. Power demand for snow melting, power generated by the photovoltaic (PV) array, area of PV array, and working conditions of the system, as to temperature, precipitation and snowfall, were investigated. The percentage of sunshine is 44% in Hachinohe district, which has more fortunate natural condition for utilizing solar radiation compared with that of 20% in Aomori prefecture. The intensity of solar radiation in winter from December to March is around 500 W/m{sup 2} in average, which is equivalent to the quantity of solar radiation, around 2 kWh/m{sup 2} a day. When assuming that snow on the road surface is frozen at the snowfall under the air temperature below -3{degree}C, the occurrence frequency is 50% during January and February in Hachinohe district, which means one frozen day for two days and is equivalent to the occurrence frequency of frozen days, 34% in average during winter. The electric application ratio is 0.34 at the maximum in winter. That is, days of 34% for one month are required for snow melting. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. C-Band SAR Imagery for Snow-Cover Monitoring at Treeline, Churchill, Manitoba, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérique C. Pivot

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available RADARSAT and ERS-2 data collected at multiple incidence angles are used to characterize the seasonal variations in the backscatter of snow-covered landscapes in the northern Hudson Bay Lowlands during the winters of 1997/98 and 1998/99. The study evaluates the usefulness of C-band SAR systems for retrieving the snow water equivalent under dry snow conditions in the forest–tundra ecotone. The backscatter values are compared against ground measurements at six sampling sites, which are taken to be representative of the land-cover types found in the region. The contribution of dry snow to the radar return is evident when frost penetrates the first 20 cm of soil. Only then does the backscatter respond positively to changes in snow water equivalent, at least in the open and forested areas near the coast, where 1-dB increases in backscatter for each approximate 5–10 mm of accumulated water equivalent are observed at 20–31° incidence angles. Further inland, the backscatter shows either no change or a negative change with snow accumulation, which suggests that the radar signal there is dominated by ground surface scattering (e.g., fen when not attenuated by vegetation (e.g., forested and transition. With high-frequency ground-penetrating radar, we demonstrate the presence of a 10–20-cm layer of black ice underneath the snow cover, which causes the reduced radar returns (−15 dB and less observed in the inland fen. A correlation between the backscattering and the snow water equivalent cannot be determined due to insufficient observations at similar incidence angles. To establish a relationship between the snow water equivalent and the backscatter, only images acquired with similar incidence angles should be used, and they must be corrected for both vegetation and ground effects.

  6. Assessing the efficiency of machine made snow production using observations in ski resorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spandre, Pierre; Francois, Hugues; Thibert, Emmanuel; Morin, Samuel; George-Marcelpoil, Emmanuelle

    2016-04-01

    The interannual variability of snow conditions has encouraged ski resorts to mitigate their dependency to weather conditions through snowmaking facilities. However the efficiency of the method i.e. the ratio of water actually converted into snow on ski fields to the water used for production may highly differ depending on meteorological conditions and is still poorly known. Previous investigations of water losses accounting for sublimation and evaporation estimated that 5 to 10% of the water was lost during the snowmaking process. A recent study consisting in a field campaign on four distinct sites (2014-2015 winter season) estimated that water losses may exceed 50% and speculated this to be due to a combination of wind effects (suspension, further sublimation and transport beyond ski slopes limits) and trapping by the vegetation. The present study introduces a method we set up to assess water losses during the snowmaking process by using differential GPS measurements on machine made snow piles: snow depth observations are interpolated on a regular spatial grid from the originally variable grid. Snow and water volumes are deduced thanks to complementary density measurements. The uncertainty of the interpolation method was assessed using a high-resolution laser scanner of a given snow pile and with respect to a digital terrain. Uncertainties on snow depth, snow density and the resulting water equivalent volume are presented and discussed. The method provided relevant measurements of water volumes within a 20 to 30 m distance to the snowgun. Beyond this distance, the relative error due to increasing interpolation error and decreasing snow depth highlighted the limits of the method. However water volumes were derived in several occasions during the season and confirmed that a significant ratio of the water volume either falls beyond a 30 m distance to the snowgun or is lost due to sublimation and evaporation.

  7. Snow Leopard and Himalayan Wolf: Food Habits and Prey Selection in the Central Himalayas, Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu Chetri

    Full Text Available Top carnivores play an important role in maintaining energy flow and functioning of the ecosystem, and a clear understanding of their diets and foraging strategies is essential for developing effective conservation strategies. In this paper, we compared diets and prey selection of snow leopards and wolves based on analyses of genotyped scats (snow leopards n = 182, wolves n = 57, collected within 26 sampling grid cells (5×5 km that were distributed across a vast landscape of ca 5000 km2 in the Central Himalayas, Nepal. Within the grid cells, we sampled prey abundances using the double observer method. We found that interspecific differences in diet composition and prey selection reflected their respective habitat preferences, i.e. snow leopards significantly preferred cliff-dwelling wild ungulates (mainly bharal, 57% of identified material in scat samples, whereas wolves preferred typically plain-dwellers (Tibetan gazelle, kiang and argali, 31%. Livestock was consumed less frequently than their proportional availability by both predators (snow leopard = 27%; wolf = 24%, but significant avoidance was only detected among snow leopards. Among livestock species, snow leopards significantly preferred horses and goats, avoided yaks, and used sheep as available. We identified factors influencing diet composition using Generalized Linear Mixed Models. Wolves showed seasonal differences in the occurrence of small mammals/birds, probably due to the winter hibernation of an important prey, marmots. For snow leopard, occurrence of both wild ungulates and livestock in scats depended on sex and latitude. Wild ungulates occurrence increased while livestock decreased from south to north, probably due to a latitudinal gradient in prey availability. Livestock occurred more frequently in scats from male snow leopards (males: 47%, females: 21%, and wild ungulates more frequently in scats from females (males: 48%, females: 70%. The sexual difference agrees with

  8. Aerotechnogenic Monitoring of Urban Environment on Snow Cover Pollution (on the Example of Voronezh City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prozhorina Tatyana Ivanovna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Snow cover is characterized by high sorption ability and represents an informative object in the process of identifying the technogenic pollution of urban environment. The article contains the results of the research on the chemical composition of the snow which fell in Voronezh in the winter period of 2013–2014. The coefficients of chemical elements concentration were calculated to provide objective characteristics of snow cover pollution. The authors analyze the connection between the presence of pollutants in snow and the level of technogenic impact. The obtained ranges of anomaly coefficients among anions reflect the composition of technogenic emissions. The mineralization of snow water reliably characterizes the intensity of anthropogenic impact on the urban environment, and the value of mineralization snow samples ranges from 62,6 (background to 183,9 mg/l. Maximum values of mineralization (more than 150 mg/l are typical for samples taken in transport area. High values of salinity (more than 120 mg/l are observed in snow samples taken in the industrial area, which confirms the high “technogenic pressure” on the urban environment in zones of industrial and transport potential of the city. The investigated functional areas can be arranged in the following series by descending level of contamination: transport area > industrial zone > residential and recreational areas > background territory. The study of the chemical composition of snow cover in the various functional areas of Voronezh allows to conclude that the pH level, mineralization and the content of suspended solids in snow waters characterize the intensity of anthropogenic pressure on the urban environment, and the composition of melt waters indicates the nature of its pollution.

  9. Surviving winter: Food, but not habitat structure, prevents crashes in cyclic vole populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Kaja; Boonstra, Rudy; Boutin, Stan; Devineau, Olivier; Krebs, Charles J; Andreassen, Harry P

    2017-01-01

    Vole population cycles are a major force driving boreal ecosystem dynamics in northwestern Eurasia. However, our understanding of the impact of winter on these cycles is increasingly uncertain, especially because climate change is affecting snow predictability, quality, and abundance. We examined the role of winter weather and snow conditions, the lack of suitable habitat structure during freeze-thaw periods, and the lack of sufficient food as potential causes for winter population crashes. We live-trapped bank voles Myodes glareolus on 26 plots (0.36 ha each) at two different elevations (representing different winter conditions) in southeast Norway in the winters 2013/2014 and 2014/2015. We carried out two manipulations: supplementing six plots with food to eliminate food limitation and six plots with straw to improve habitat structure and limit the effect of icing in the subnivean space. In the first winter, all bank voles survived well on all plots, whereas in the second winter voles on almost all plots went extinct except for those receiving supplemental food. Survival was highest on the feeding treatment in both winters, whereas improving habitat structure had no effect. We conclude that food limitation was a key factor in causing winter population crashes.

  10. Retrieval of Effective Correlation Length and Snow Water Equivalent from Radar and Passive Microwave Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Lemmetyinen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Current methods for retrieving SWE (snow water equivalent from space rely on passive microwave sensors. Observations are limited by poor spatial resolution, ambiguities related to separation of snow microstructural properties from the total snow mass, and signal saturation when snow is deep (~>80 cm. The use of SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar at suitable frequencies has been suggested as a potential observation method to overcome the coarse resolution of passive microwave sensors. Nevertheless, suitable sensors operating from space are, up to now, unavailable. Active microwave retrievals suffer, however, from the same difficulties as the passive case in separating impacts of scattering efficiency from those of snow mass. In this study, we explore the potential of applying active (radar and passive (radiometer microwave observations in tandem, by using a dataset of co-incident tower-based active and passive microwave observations and detailed in situ data from a test site in Northern Finland. The dataset spans four winter seasons with daily coverage. In order to quantify the temporal variability of snow microstructure, we derive an effective correlation length for the snowpack (treated as a single layer, which matches the simulated microwave response of a semi-empirical radiative transfer model to observations. This effective parameter is derived from radiometer and radar observations at different frequencies and frequency combinations (10.2, 13.3 and 16.7 GHz for radar; 10.65, 18.7 and 37 GHz for radiometer. Under dry snow conditions, correlations are found between the effective correlation length retrieved from active and passive measurements. Consequently, the derived effective correlation length from passive microwave observations is applied to parameterize the retrieval of SWE using radar, improving retrieval skill compared to a case with no prior knowledge of snow-scattering efficiency. The same concept can be applied to future radar

  11. CREST-SAFE: Snow LST validation, wetness profiler creation, and depth/SWE product development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Diaz, C. L.; Lakhankar, T.; Romanov, P.; Khanbilvardi, R.; Munoz Barreto, J.; Yu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    CREST-SAFE: Snow LST validation, wetness profiler creation, and depth/SWE product development The Field Snow Research Station (also referred to as Snow Analysis and Field Experiment, SAFE) is operated by the NOAA Center for Earth System Sciences and Remote Sensing Technologies (CREST) in the City University of New York (CUNY). The field station is located within the premises of the Caribou Municipal Airport (46°52'59'' N, 68°01'07'' W) and in close proximity to the National Weather Service (NWS) Regional Forecast Office. The station was established in 2010 to support studies in snow physics and snow remote sensing. The Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Land Surface Temperature (LST) Environmental Data Record (EDR) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LST product (provided by the Terra and Aqua Earth Observing System satellites) were validated using in situ LST (T-skin) and near-surface air temperature (T-air) observations recorded at CREST-SAFE for the winters of 2013 and 2014. Results indicate that T-air correlates better than T-skin with VIIRS LST data and that the accuracy of nighttime LST retrievals is considerably better than that of daytime. Several trends in the MODIS LST data were observed, including the underestimation of daytime values and night-time values. Results indicate that, although all the data sets showed high correlation with ground measurements, day values yielded slightly higher accuracy ( 1°C). Additionally, we created a liquid water content (LWC)-profiling instrument using time-domain reflectometry (TDR) at CREST-SAFE and tested it during the snow melt period (February-April) immediately after installation in 2014. Results displayed high agreement when compared to LWC estimates obtained using empirical formulas developed in previous studies, and minor improvement over wet snow LWC estimates. Lastly, to improve on global snow cover mapping, a snow product capable of estimating snow depth and snow water

  12. Simulating the Dependence of Aspen on Redistributed Snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderquist, B.; Kavanagh, K.; Link, T. E.; Seyfried, M. S.; Winstral, A. H.

    2013-12-01

    In mountainous regions across the western USA, the distribution of aspen (Populus tremuloides) is often directly related to heterogeneous soil moisture subsidies resulting from redistributed snow. With decades of climate and precipitation data across elevational and precipitation gradients, the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed (RCEW) in southwest Idaho provides a unique opportunity to study the relationship between aspen and redistributed snow. Within the RCEW, the total amount of precipitation has not changed in the past 50 years, but there are sharp declines in the percentage of the precipitation falling as snow. As shifts in the distribution of available moisture continue, future trends in aspen net primary productivity (NPP) remain uncertain. In order to assess the importance of snowdrift subsidies, NPP of three aspen stands was simulated at sites spanning elevational and precipitation gradients using the biogeochemical process model BIOME-BGC. At the aspen site experiencing the driest climate and lowest amount of precipitation from snow, approximately 400 mm of total precipitation was measured from November to March of 2008. However, peak measured snow water equivalent (SWE) held in drifts directly upslope of this stand was approximately 2100 mm, 5 times more moisture than the uniform winter precipitation layer initially assumed by BIOME-BGC. BIOME-BGC simulations in dry years forced by adjusted precipitation data resulted in NPP values approximately 30% higher than simulations assuming a uniform precipitation layer. Using BIOME-BGC and climate data from 1985-2011, the relationship between simulated NPP and measured basal area increments (BAI) improved after accounting for redistributed snow, indicating increased simulation representation. In addition to improved simulation capabilities, soil moisture data, diurnal branch water potential, and stomatal conductance observations at each site detail the use of soil moisture in the rooting zone and the onset

  13. Analysis of Light Absorbing Aerosols in Northern Pakistan: Concentration on Snow/Ice, their Source Regions and Impacts on Snow Albedo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, C.; Praveen, P. S.; Shichang, K.; Adhikary, B.; Zhang, Y.; Ali, S.

    2016-12-01

    Elemental carbon (EC) and light absorbing organic carbon (OC) are important particulate impurities in snow and ice which significantly reduce the albedo of glaciers and accelerate their melting. Snow and ice samples were collected from Karakorum-Himalayan region of North Pakistan during the summer campaign (May-Jun) 2015 and only snow samples were collected during winter (Dec 2015- Jan 2016). Total 41 surface snow/ice samples were collected during summer campaign along different elevation ranges (2569 to 3895 a.m.s.l) from six glaciers: Sachin, Henarche, Barpu, Mear, Gulkin and Passu. Similarly 18 snow samples were collected from Sust, Hoper, Tawas, Astore, Shangla, and Kalam regions during the winter campaign. Quartz filters were used for filtering of melted snow and ice samples which were then analyzed by thermal optical reflectance (TOR) method to determine the concentration of EC and OC. The average concentration of EC (ng/g), OC (ng/g) and dust (ppm) were found as follows: Passu (249.5, 536.8, 475), Barpu (1190, 397.6, 1288), Gulkin (412, 793, 761), Sachin (911, 2130, 358), Mear (678, 2067, 83) and Henarche (755, 1868, 241) respectively during summer campaign. Similarly, average concentration of EC (ng/g), OC (ng/g) and dust (ppm) was found in the samples of Sust (2506, 1039, 131), Hoper (646, 1153, 76), Tawas (650, 1320, 16), Astore (1305, 2161, 97), Shangla (739, 2079, 31) and Kalam (107, 347, 5) respectively during winter campaign. Two methods were adopted to identify the source regions: one coupled emissions inventory with back trajectories, second with a simple region tagged chemical transport modeling analysis. In addition, CALIPSO subtype aerosol composition indicated that frequency of smoke in the atmosphere over the region was highest followed by dust and then polluted dust. SNICAR model was used to estimate the snow albedo reduction from our in-situ measurements. Snow albedo reduction was observed to be 0.3% to 27.6%. The derived results were used

  14. Concentrations and source regions of light-absorbing particles in snow/ice in northern Pakistan and their impact on snow albedo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Chaman; Praveen Puppala, Siva; Kang, Shichang; Adhikary, Bhupesh; Zhang, Yulan; Ali, Shaukat; Li, Yang; Li, Xiaofei

    2018-04-01

    Black carbon (BC), water-insoluble organic carbon (OC), and mineral dust are important particles in snow and ice which significantly reduce albedo and accelerate melting. Surface snow and ice samples were collected from the Karakoram-Himalayan region of northern Pakistan during 2015 and 2016 in summer (six glaciers), autumn (two glaciers), and winter (six mountain valleys). The average BC concentration overall was 2130 ± 1560 ng g-1 in summer samples, 2883 ± 3439 ng g-1 in autumn samples, and 992 ± 883 ng g-1 in winter samples. The average water-insoluble OC concentration overall was 1839 ± 1108 ng g-1 in summer samples, 1423 ± 208 ng g-1 in autumn samples, and 1342 ± 672 ng g-1 in winter samples. The overall concentration of BC, OC, and dust in aged snow samples collected during the summer campaign was higher than the concentration in ice samples. The values are relatively high compared to reports by others for the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau. This is probably the result of taking more representative samples at lower elevation where deposition is higher and the effects of ageing and enrichment are more marked. A reduction in snow albedo of 0.1-8.3 % for fresh snow and 0.9-32.5 % for aged snow was calculated for selected solar zenith angles during daytime using the Snow, Ice, and Aerosol Radiation (SNICAR) model. The daily mean albedo was reduced by 0.07-12.0 %. The calculated radiative forcing ranged from 0.16 to 43.45 W m-2 depending on snow type, solar zenith angle, and location. The potential source regions of the deposited pollutants were identified using spatial variance in wind vector maps, emission inventories coupled with backward air trajectories, and simple region-tagged chemical transport modeling. Central, south, and west Asia were the major sources of pollutants during the sampling months, with only a small contribution from east Asia. Analysis based on the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-STEM) chemical transport model identified a

  15. ULUDAĞ WINTER TOURISM and ITS IMPORTANCE IN THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema AY

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Tourism that is a regional means of development is closely related with the local economic development. Winter tourism is a set of activities and relationships composed of trips made to the regions which are located in the heart of ski sports and accordingly with slopes and snow, accommodations and other services. Since winter tourism mainly consists of a number of activities depending on snowy environments, it requires locations with certain height and slope which will also allow the execution of other nature sports such as walking, climbing etc. besides skiing and snowboarding. Uludağ, the most popular winter sports center that is 30 km away from the Bursa city center has significant natural advantages in terms of winter tourism. However, with the recently changing tourism demands in winter tourism, developments have been taking place in the types of tourism. Uludağ having natural advantages have not been able to sufficiently benefit from these advantages and cannot make use of its existing potential. Besides the countries having sucessful snow resorts of Europe such as Austria, France, Switzerland, Italy and Andorra, Romania and Bulgaria are also increasing their competitiveness in the international markets in recent years with ambitious investments. When Uludağ that is in the location of the largest snow resort in Turkey is compared with these resorts, it is thought that there is a way to go in the field of winter tourism. Starting from this idea, in the research, it is aimed to identify the contribution of Uludağ to the local economic development and the potentials for increasing this contribution. Towards the mentioned aim, the study will be carried out based on field research. In the conclusion of the study, it is planned to submit the proposals focused on policy and strategy to be followed in terms of having Uludağ use its potential in the most efficient way and provide more contribution to the local economy. In addition, its

  16. Forest Fires Darken Snow for Years following Disturbance: Magnitude, Duration, and Composition of Light Absorbing Impurities in Seasonal Snow across a Chronosequence of Burned Forests in the Colorado River Headwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, K. E.; Arienzo, M. M.; Chellman, N.; McConnell, J.

    2017-12-01

    Charred forests shed black carbon and burned debris, which accumulates and concentrates on winter snowpack, reducing snow surface albedo, and subsequently increasing snowmelt rates, and advancing the date of snow disappearance. Forest fires have occurred across vast areas of the seasonal snow zone in recent decades, however we do not understand the long-term implications of burned forests in montane headwaters to snow hydrology and downstream water resources. Across a chronosequence of nine burned forests in the Colorado River Headwaters, we sampled snow throughout the complete snowpack profile to conserve the composition, properties, and vertical stratigraphy of impurities in the snowpack during maximum snow accumulation. Using state-of-the-art geochemical analyses, we determined the magnitude, composition, and particle size distribution of black carbon, dust, and other impurities in the snowpack relative to years-since fire. Forest fires continue to darken snow for many years following fire, however the magnitude, composition, and particle size distribution of impurities change through time, altering the post-fire radiative forcing on snow as a burned forest ages.

  17. Coupling of snow and permafrost processes using the Basic Modeling Interface (BMI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K.; Overeem, I.; Jafarov, E. E.; Piper, M.; Stewart, S.; Clow, G. D.; Schaefer, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    We developed a permafrost modeling tool based by implementing the Kudryavtsev empirical permafrost active layer depth model (the so-called "Ku" component). The model is specifically set up to have a basic model interface (BMI), which enhances the potential coupling to other earth surface processes model components. This model is accessible through the Web Modeling Tool in Community Surface Dynamics Modeling System (CSDMS). The Kudryavtsev model has been applied for entire Alaska to model permafrost distribution at high spatial resolution and model predictions have been verified by Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) in-situ observations. The Ku component uses monthly meteorological forcing, including air temperature, snow depth, and snow density, and predicts active layer thickness (ALT) and temperature on the top of permafrost (TTOP), which are important factors in snow-hydrological processes. BMI provides an easy approach to couple the models with each other. Here, we provide a case of coupling the Ku component to snow process components, including the Snow-Degree-Day (SDD) method and Snow-Energy-Balance (SEB) method, which are existing components in the hydrological model TOPOFLOW. The work flow is (1) get variables from meteorology component, set the values to snow process component, and advance the snow process component, (2) get variables from meteorology and snow component, provide these to the Ku component and advance, (3) get variables from snow process component, set the values to meteorology component, and advance the meteorology component. The next phase is to couple the permafrost component with fully BMI-compliant TOPOFLOW hydrological model, which could provide a useful tool to investigate the permafrost hydrological effect.

  18. Analysis of snow-cap pollution for air quality assessment in the vicinity of an oil refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krastinyte, Viktorija; Baltrenaite, Edita; Lietuvninkas, Arvydas

    2013-01-01

    Snow-cap can be used as a simple and effective indicator of industrial air pollution. In this study snow-cap samples were collected from 11 sites located in the vicinity of an oil refinery in Mazeikiai, a region in the north-west of Lithuania, in the winter of 2011. Analysis of snowmelt water and snow-dust was used to determine anthropogenic pollutants such as: sulphates and chlorides, nitrites, nitrates, ammonium nitrogen, total carbon, total nitrogen; heavy metals: lead (Pb), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd). Concentrations of heavy metals in snow-dust were detected thousands of times higher than those in the snowmelt water. In this study, analysis of heavy metal concentration was conducted considering different distances and the wind direction within the impact zone of the oil refinery. The sequence of heavy metals according to their mean concentrations in the snow-dust samples was the following: Pb > Cr > Cu > Cd. Heavy metals highly correlated among each other. The load of snow-dust was evaluated to determine the pollution level in the study area. The highest daily load of snow-dust was 45.81 +/- 12.35 mg/m2 in the north-western direction from the oil refinery. According to classification of the daily load of snow-dust a lower than medium-risk level of pollution was determined in the vicinity of the oil refinery.

  19. Correlation and prediction of snow water equivalent from snow sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce J. McGurk; David L. Azuma

    1992-01-01

    Since 1982, under an agreement between the California Department of Water Resources and the USDA Forest Service, snow sensors have been installed and operated in Forest Service-administered wilderness areas in the Sierra Nevada of California. The sensors are to be removed by 2005 because of the premise that sufficient data will have been collected to allow "...

  20. Estimation of climate change impact on water resources by using Bilan water balance model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horacek, Stanislav; Kasparek, Ladislav; Novicky, Oldrich

    2008-01-01

    Modelling of water balance under changed climate conditions has been carried out by T. G. Masaryk Water Research Institute in Prague for basins in the Czech Republic since 1990. The studies presently use climate change scenarios derived from simulations by regional climate models. Climate change scenarios are reflected in meteorological time-series for given catchment and subsequently used for simulation of water cycle components by using Bilan water balance model. Results of Bilan model simulations for input meteorological series not affected and affected by climate change scenarios give information for assessing the climate change impacts on output series of the model. The results of the studies generally show that annual runoff could largely decrease. The increased winter temperature could cause an increase in winter flows and a decrease in snow storage, and consequently, spring and summer outflows will decrease significantly, even to their current minimum values. The groundwater storage and base flow could also be highly reduced. The described method has been used in a number of research projects and operational applications. Its typical application is aimed at assessing possible impacts of climate change on surface water resources, whose availability can subsequently be analysed by using water management models of the individual basins. The Bilan model, particularly in combination with Modflow model, can also suitably be used for simulation and assessments of groundwater resources.

  1. Snow melt water use and tundra plant gas exchange: An ecohydrological perspective on vegetation changes in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jespersen, R. G.; Leffler, A. J.; Welker, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the ecohydrological effects of changing snow cover in the arctic is particularly important as it may be a driver of arctic shrub expansion. Previous studies have focused mostly on relationships between snow cover and biogeochemical processes, with less attention given to plant and soil water relations and the ecophysiology of tundra plant life forms. Here we examined the ecophysiological consequences of different snow depth regimes in moist acidic tundra in the Alaskan Arctic, with a particular focus on the role of snowmelt water in plant ecophysiological processes. Using a 20+ year snowfence experiment featuring shallow, control, and deep winter snow conditions, we combined leaf-level gas exchange measurements with isotopic characterization of soil water, stem water, and leaves to clarify water use patterns in the four dominant plant species. Thus far, our leaf-level data reveal striking differences in how species respond to deep or shallow snow scenarios. In the deep snow zone, Salix pulchra, Betula nana, and Eriophorum vaginatum have all demonstrated at least 20% increases in maximum net photosynthesis (Amax) and stomatal conductance (gs) relative to the control and shallow snow zones throughout the early and mid-summer, with the strongest response to deep snow being seen in Salix (>50% increase in both Amax and gs). Both Betula and Eriophorum also demonstrated at least 25% reductions in Amax and gs in the shallow snow zone relative to control conditions during one of the early or mid-summer measurement periods. In contrast, Ledum palustre has responded haphazardly to changes in winter snow depth, with no consistent directional changes in Amax or gs across snow depths. We anticipate that accompanying isotopic data will reveal differences among species in the timing of water use from particular depths and sources. Thus far, our data suggest that Salix pulchra, Betula nana, and Eriophorum vaginatum are physiologically capable of exploiting the

  2. [Snow cover pollution monitoring in Ufa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daukaev, R A; Suleĭmanov, R A

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the results of examining the snow cover polluted with heavy metals in the large industrial town of Ufa. The level of man-caused burden on the snow cover of the conventional parts of the town was estimated and compared upon exposure to a wide range of snow cover pollutants. The priority snow cover pollutants were identified among the test heavy metals.

  3. Snow cover dynamics and hydrological regime of the Hunza River basin, Karakoram Range, Northern Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Tahir

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A major proportion of flow in the Indus River is contributed by its snow- and glacier-fed river catchments situated in the Himalaya, Karakoram and Hindukush ranges. It is therefore essential to understand the cryosphere dynamics in this area for water resource management. The MODIS MOD10A2 remote-sensing database of snow cover products from March 2000 to December 2009 was selected to analyse the snow cover changes in the Hunza River basin (the snow- and glacier-fed sub-catchment of the Indus River. A database of daily flows for the Hunza River at Dainyor Bridge over a period of 40 yr and climate data (precipitation and temperature for 10 yr from three meteorological stations within the catchment was made available to investigate the hydrological regime in the area. Analysis of remotely sensed cryosphere (snow and ice cover data during the last decade (2000–2009 suggest a rather slight expansion of cryosphere in the area in contrast to most of the regions in the world where glaciers are melting rapidly. This increase in snow cover may be the result of an increase in winter precipitation caused by westerly circulation. The impact of global warming is not effective because a large part of the basin area lies under high altitudes where the temperature remains negative throughout most of the year.

  4. First Satellite-detected Perturbations of Outgoing Longwave Radiation Associated with Blowing Snow Events over Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuekui; Palm, Stephen P.; Marshak, Alexander; Wu, Dong L.; Yu, Hongbin; Fu, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    We present the first satellite-detected perturbations of the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) associated with blowing snow events over the Antarctic ice sheet using data from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization and Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System. Significant cloud-free OLR differences are observed between the clear and blowing snow sky, with the sign andmagnitude depending on season and time of the day. During nighttime, OLRs are usually larger when blowing snow is present; the average difference in OLRs between without and with blowing snow over the East Antarctic Ice Sheet is about 5.2 W/m2 for the winter months of 2009. During daytime, in contrast, the OLR perturbation is usually smaller or even has the opposite sign. The observed seasonal variations and day-night differences in the OLR perturbation are consistent with theoretical calculations of the influence of blowing snow on OLR. Detailed atmospheric profiles are needed to quantify the radiative effect of blowing snow from the satellite observations.

  5. A Refined Methodology for Modelling Climate Change Impacts on Snow Sports Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiroglu, O. Cenk; Turp, M. Tufan; Ozturk, Tugba; An, Nazan; Kurnaz, M. Levent

    2015-04-01

    Nature-based tourism is one of the most vulnerable sectors of the economy against climate change. Among its types, winter tourism stands out as the most critical due to the relatively high exposure and sensitivity of snow cover to the anthropogenic warming trends. In this study, we aim at improving previous works by Ozturk et al. where snow reliability of ski resorts have been examined through projections based on regional climate model outputs downscaled from various GCMs. Major improvements to these studies will be related to increasing the resolution, obtaining snow depth values from snow-water equivalent outputs, and hourly, instead of the daily, calculations of wet bulb temperatures. Daily snow depth values will be utilized for 100-days rule that looks for at least 100 days of snow cover at a minimum of 30 cm in order for a ski resort to be viable, whereas the wet bulb temperatures below -7 oC will indicate the snowmaking capacity. The domain of analysis will be the Balkans, the Middle East and the Caucasus. Therefore the spatial gap in the mostly Euro- and Amero-centric literature will also be improved. The domain will be modelled through RegCM 4.4.2 of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics basing its resolution on MPI-ESM-MR of Max Planck Institut für Meteorologie and the concentration scenario RCP 4.5 for a realistic tourism development future of 2020-2050.

  6. THEORY AND PRACTICE OF INDIVIDUAL SNOW AVALANCHE RISK ASSESSMENT IN THE RUSSIAN ARCTIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Shnyparkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the Government of the Russian Federation considerably increased attention to the exploitation of the Russian Arctic territories. Simultaneously, the evaluation of snow avalanches danger was enhanced with the aim to decrease fatalities and reduce economic losses. However, it turned out that solely reporting the degree of avalanche danger is not sufficient. Instead, quantitative information on probabilistic parameters of natural hazards, the characteristics of their effects on the environment and possibly resulting losses is increasingly needed. Such information allows for the estimation of risk, including risk related to snow avalanches. Here, snow avalanche risk is quantified for the Khibiny Mountains, one of the most industrialized parts of the Russian Arctic: Major parts of the territory have an acceptable degree of individual snow avalanche risk (<1×10-6. The territories with an admissible (10-4–10-6 or unacceptable (>1×10-4 degree of individual snow avalanche risk (0.5 and 2% of the total area correspond to the Southeast of the Khibiny Mountains where settlements and mining industries are situated. Moreover, due to an increase in winter tourism, some traffic infrastructure is located in valleys with an admissible or unacceptable degree of individual snow avalanches risk.

  7. Sensing winter soil respiration dynamics in near-real time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contosta, A.; Burakowski, E. A.; Varner, R. K.; Frey, S. D.

    2014-12-01

    Some of the largest reductions in seasonal snow cover are projected to occur in temperate latitudes. Limited measurements from these ecosystems indicate that winter soil respiration releases as much as 30% of carbon fixed during the previous growing season. This respiration is possible with a snowpack that insulates soil from ambient fluctuations in climate. However, relationships among snowpack, soil temperature, soil moisture, and winter soil respiration in temperate regions are not well-understood. Most studies have infrequently sampled soil respiration and its drivers, and most measurements have been limited to the soil surface. We made near-real time, continuous measurements of temperature, moisture, and CO2 fluxes from the soil profile, through the snowpack, and into the atmosphere in a deciduous forest of New Hampshire, USA. We coupled these data with daily sampling of snow depth and snow water equivalent (SWE). Our objectives were to continuously measure soil CO2 production (Psoil) and CO2 flux through the snowpack (Fsnow) and to compare Fsnow and Psoil with environmental drivers. We found that Fsnow was more dynamic than Psoil, changing as much as 30% over several days with shifting environmental conditions. Multiple regression indicated that SWE, air temperature, surface soil temperature, surface soil CO2 concentrations, and soil moisture at 15 cm were significant predictors of Fsnow. The transition of surface temperature from below to above 0°C was particularly important as it represented a phase change from ice to liquid water. Only air temperature and soil moisture at 15 cm were significant drivers of Psoil, where higher moisture at 15 cm resulted in lower Psoil rates. Time series analysis showed that Fsnow lagged 40 days behind Psoil. This lag may be due to slow CO2 diffusion through soil to overlying snow under high moisture conditions. Our results suggest that surface soil CO2 losses are driven by rapid changes in snow cover, surface temperature

  8. Validation of NOAA-Interactive Multisensor Snow and Ice Mapping System (IMS by Comparison with Ground-Based Measurements over Continental United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Khanbilvardi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, daily maps of snow cover distribution and sea ice extent produced by NOAA’s interactive multisensor snow and ice mapping system (IMS were validated using in situ snow depth data from observing stations obtained from NOAA’s National Climatic Data Center (NCDC for calendar years 2006 to 2010. IMS provides daily maps of snow and sea ice extent within the Northern Hemisphere using data from combination of geostationary and polar orbiting satellites in visible, infrared and microwave spectrums. Statistical correspondence between the IMS and in situ point measurements has been evaluated assuming that ground measurements are discrete and continuously distributed over a 4 km IMS snow cover maps. Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR land and snow classification data are supplemental datasets used in the further analysis of correspondence between the IMS product and in situ measurements. The comparison of IMS maps with in situ snow observations conducted over a period of four years has demonstrated a good correspondence of the data sets. The daily rate of agreement between the products mostly ranges between 80% and 90% during the Northern Hemisphere through the winter seasons when about a quarter to one third of the territory of continental US is covered with snow. Further, better agreement was observed for stations recording higher snow depth. The uncertainties in validation of IMS snow product with stationed NCDC data were discussed.

  9. New life style in snowy country. Why, had we forgotten the snow utilization; Yuki to tsukiau. Naze, yuki ga shigen de arukoto wo wasurete iatanoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobiyama, M. [Muroran Inst. of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-02-20

    Electric power has a merit to easily use for many purposes, snow has a merit to be economical for the purpose of space cooling. Snow falls in mountains and flatland, if 76% of the snow would be stored and used, most of the energy for space cooling necessary in one year in Japan would be supplied. In this paper, a concept and the economy of a space cooling system using snow were introduced. The system introduced in this paper is that cooling of the outside gas and the circulating gas was carried out by directly contacting with snow through a hole made in snow, and temperature and humidity of the blasted cooling wind were controlled by two dampers. Then, snow in winter had been stored till summer, the amount of the equivalent energy to a space cooling system for space cooling using snow was calculated. As a result, it was shown that 20% of the amount of the equivalent crude petroleum 15.34 million kl of a new energy expected in 2000 can be supplied by storage and use of 0.19% snow in the total amount of snow. 6 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  10. What Does a Multilayer Canopy Model Tell Us About Our Current Understanding of Snow-Canopy Unloading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, L. E.; Paw U, K. T.; Dahlke, H. E.

    2017-12-01

    In the Western U.S., future water resources depend on the forested mountain snowpack. The variations in and estimates of forest mountain snow volume are vital to projecting annual water availability; yet, snow forest processes are not fully known. Most snow models calculate snow-canopy unloading based on time, temperature, Leaf Area Index (LAI), and/or wind speed. While models crudely consider the canopy shape via LAI, current models typically do not consider the vertical canopy structure or varied energetics within multiple canopy layers. Vertical canopy structure influences the spatiotemporal distribution of snow, and therefore ultimately determines the degree and extent by which snow alters both the surface energy balance and water availability. Within the canopy both the snowpack and energetic exposures to the snowpack (wind, shortwave and longwave radiation, turbulent heat fluxes etc.) vary widely in the vertical. The water and energy balance in each layer is dependent on all other layers. For example, increased snow canopy content in the top of the canopy will reduce available shortwave radiation at the bottom and snow unloading in a mid-layer can cascade and remove snow from all the lower layers. We examined vertical interactions and structures of the forest canopy on the impact of unloading utilizing the Advanced Canopy-Atmosphere-Soil-Algorithm (ACASA), a multilayer soil-vegetation-atmosphere numerical model based on higher-order closure of turbulence equations. Our results demonstrate how a multilayer model can be used to elucidate the physical processes of snow unloading, and could help researchers better parameterize unloading in snow-hydrology models.

  11. Winters fuels report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The outlook for distillate fuel oil this winter is for increased demand and a return to normal inventory patterns, assuming a resumption of normal, cooler weather than last winter. With industrial production expected to grow slightly from last winter's pace, overall consumption is projected to increase 3 percent from last winter, to 3.4 million barrels per day during the heating season (October 1, 1995-March 31, 1996). Much of the supply win come from stock drawdowns and refinery production. Estimates for the winter are from the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) 4th Quarter 1995 Short-Tenn Energy Outlook (STEO) Mid-World Oil Price Case forecast. Inventories in place on September 30, 1995, of 132 million barrels were 9 percent below the unusually high year-earlier level. Inventories of high-sulfur distillate fuel oil, the principal type used for heating, were 13 percent lower than a year earlier. Supply problems are not anticipated because refinery production and the ready availability of imports should be adequate to meet demand. Residential heating off prices are expected to be somewhat higher than last winter's, as the effects of lower crude oil prices are offset by lower distillate inventories. Heating oil is forecast to average $0.92 per gallon, the highest price since the winter of 1992-93. Diesel fuel (including tax) is predicted to be slightly higher than last year at $1.13 per gallon. This article focuses on the winter assessment for distillate fuel oil, how well last year's STEO winter outlook compared to actual events, and expectations for the coming winter. Additional analyses include regional low-sulfur and high-sulfur distillate supply, demand, and prices, and recent trends in distillate fuel oil inventories

  12. Performance of complex snow cover descriptions in a distributed hydrological model system: A case study for the high Alpine terrain of the Berchtesgaden Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warscher, M; Strasser, U; Kraller, G; Marke, T; Franz, H; Kunstmann, H

    2013-05-01

    [1] Runoff generation in Alpine regions is typically affected by snow processes. Snow accumulation, storage, redistribution, and ablation control the availability of water. In this study, several robust parameterizations describing snow processes in Alpine environments were implemented in a fully distributed, physically based hydrological model. Snow cover development is simulated using different methods from a simple temperature index approach, followed by an energy balance scheme, to additionally accounting for gravitational and wind-driven lateral snow redistribution. Test site for the study is the Berchtesgaden National Park (Bavarian Alps, Germany) which is characterized by extreme topography and climate conditions. The performance of the model system in reproducing snow cover dynamics and resulting discharge generation is analyzed and validated via measurements of snow water equivalent and snow depth, satellite-based remote sensing data, and runoff gauge data. Model efficiency (the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient) for simulated runoff increases from 0.57 to 0.68 in a high Alpine headwater catchment and from 0.62 to 0.64 in total with increasing snow model complexity. In particular, the results show that the introduction of the energy balance scheme reproduces daily fluctuations in the snowmelt rates that trace down to the channel stream. These daily cycles measured in snowmelt and resulting runoff rates could not be reproduced by using the temperature index approach. In addition, accounting for lateral snow transport changes the seasonal distribution of modeled snowmelt amounts, which leads to a higher accuracy in modeling runoff characteristics.

  13. Utilizing Multiple Datasets for Snow Cover Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Andrew B.; Hall, Dorothy K.; Foster, James L.; Armstrong, Richard L.

    1999-01-01

    Snow-cover maps generated from surface data are based on direct measurements, however they are prone to interpolation errors where climate stations are sparsely distributed. Snow cover is clearly discernable using satellite-attained optical data because of the high albedo of snow, yet the surface is often obscured by cloud cover. Passive microwave (PM) data is unaffected by clouds, however, the snow-cover signature is significantly affected by melting snow and the microwaves may be transparent to thin snow (less than 3cm). Both optical and microwave sensors have problems discerning snow beneath forest canopies. This paper describes a method that combines ground and satellite data to produce a Multiple-Dataset Snow-Cover Product (MDSCP). Comparisons with current snow-cover products show that the MDSCP draws together the advantages of each of its component products while minimizing their potential errors. Improved estimates of the snow-covered area are derived through the addition of two snow-cover classes ("thin or patchy" and "high elevation" snow cover) and from the analysis of the climate station data within each class. The compatibility of this method for use with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, which will be available in 2000, is also discussed. With the assimilation of these data, the resolution of the MDSCP would be improved both spatially and temporally and the analysis would become completely automated.

  14. Performance evaluation of snow and ice plows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Removal of ice and snow from road surfaces is a critical task in the northern tier of the United States, : including Illinois. Highways with high levels of traffic are expected to be cleared of snow and ice quickly : after each snow storm. This is ne...

  15. Using geostatistical methods to estimate snow water equivalence distribution in a mountain watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balk, B.; Elder, K.; Baron, Jill S.

    1998-01-01

    Knowledge of the spatial distribution of snow water equivalence (SWE) is necessary to adequately forecast the volume and timing of snowmelt runoff.  In April 1997, peak accumulation snow depth and density measurements were independently taken in the Loch Vale watershed (6.6 km2), Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado.  Geostatistics and classical statistics were used to estimate SWE distribution across the watershed.  Snow depths were spatially distributed across the watershed through kriging interpolation methods which provide unbiased estimates that have minimum variances.  Snow densities were spatially modeled through regression analysis.  Combining the modeled depth and density with snow-covered area (SCA produced an estimate of the spatial distribution of SWE.  The kriged estimates of snow depth explained 37-68% of the observed variance in the measured depths.  Steep slopes, variably strong winds, and complex energy balance in the watershed contribute to a large degree of heterogeneity in snow depth.

  16. Retention and radiative forcing of black carbon in eastern Sierra Nevada snow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Sterle

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available When contaminated by absorbing particles, such as refractory black carbon (rBC and continental dust, snow's albedo decreases and thus its absorption of solar radiation increases, thereby hastening snowmelt. For this reason, an understanding of rBC's affect on snow albedo, melt processes, and radiation balance is critical for water management, especially in a changing climate. Measurements of rBC in a sequence of snow pits and surface snow samples in the eastern Sierra Nevada of California during the snow accumulation and ablation seasons of 2009 show that concentrations of rBC were enhanced sevenfold in surface snow (~25 ng g–1 compared to bulk values in the snowpack (~3 ng g–1. Unlike major ions, which were preferentially released during the initial melt, rBC and continental dust were retained in the snow, enhancing concentrations well into late spring, until a final flush occurred during the ablation period. We estimate a combined rBC and continental dust surface radiative forcing of 20 to 40 W m−2 during April and May, with dust likely contributing a greater share of the forcing.

  17. Accounting for anthropic energy flux of traffic in winter urban road surface temperature simulations with the TEB model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, A.; Marchetti, M.; Bouilloud, L.; Martin, E.; Bues, M.; Chancibaut, K.

    2016-02-01

    Snowfall forecasts help winter maintenance of road networks, ensure better coordination between services, cost control, and a reduction in environmental impacts caused by an inappropriate use of de-icers. In order to determine the possible accumulation of snow on pavements, forecasting the road surface temperature (RST) is mandatory. Weather outstations are used along these networks to identify changes in pavement status, and to make forecasts by analyzing the data they provide. Physical numerical models provide such forecasts, and require an accurate description of the infrastructure along with meteorological parameters. The objective of this study was to build a reliable urban RST forecast with a detailed integration of traffic in the Town Energy Balance (TEB) numerical model for winter maintenance. The study first consisted in generating a physical and consistent description of traffic in the model with two approaches to evaluate traffic incidence on RST. Experiments were then conducted to measure the effect of traffic on RST increase with respect to non-circulated areas. These field data were then used for comparison with the forecast provided by this traffic-implemented TEB version.

  18. Accounting for anthropic energy flux of traffic in winter urban road surface temperature simulations with TEB model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, A.; Marchetti, M.; Bouilloud, L.; Martin, E.; Bues, M.; Chancibaut, K.

    2015-06-01

    A forecast of the snowfall helps winter coordination operating services, reducing the cost of the maintenance actions, and the environmental impacts caused by an inappropriate use of de-icing. In order to determine the possible accumulation of snow on pavement, the forecast of the road surface temperature (RST) is mandatory. Physical numerical models provide such forecast, and do need an accurate description of the infrastructure along with meteorological parameters. The objective of this study was to build a reliable urban RST forecast with a detailed integration of traffic in the Town Energy Balance (TEB) numerical model for winter maintenance. The study first consisted in generating a physical and consistent description of traffic in the model with all the energy interactions, with two approaches to evaluate the traffic incidence on RST. Experiments were then conducted to measure the traffic effect on RST increase with respect to non circulated areas. These field data were then used for comparison with forecast provided by this traffic-implemented TEB version.

  19. Photopolarimetric Retrievals of Snow Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottaviani, M.; van Diedenhoven, B.; Cairns, B.

    2015-01-01

    Polarimetric observations of snow surfaces, obtained in the 410-2264 nm range with the Research Scanning Polarimeter onboard the NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft, are analyzed and presented. These novel measurements are of interest to the remote sensing community because the overwhelming brightness of snow plagues aerosol and cloud retrievals based on airborne and spaceborne total reflection measurements. The spectral signatures of the polarized reflectance of snow are therefore worthwhile investigating in order to provide guidance for the adaptation of algorithms currently employed for the retrieval of aerosol properties over soil and vegetated surfaces. At the same time, the increased information content of polarimetric measurements allows for a meaningful characterization of the snow medium. In our case, the grains are modeled as hexagonal prisms of variable aspect ratios and microscale roughness, yielding retrievals of the grains' scattering asymmetry parameter, shape and size. The results agree with our previous findings based on a more limited data set, with the majority of retrievals leading to moderately rough crystals of extreme aspect ratios, for each scene corresponding to a single value of the asymmetry parameter.

  20. Assessment of Consistencies and Uncertainties between the NASA MODIS and VIIRS Snow-Cover Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, D. K.; Riggs, G. A., Jr.; DiGirolamo, N. E.; Roman, M. O.

    2017-12-01

    Snow cover has great climatic and economic importance in part due to its high albedo and low thermal conductivity and large areal extent in the Northern Hemisphere winter, and its role as a freshwater source for about one-sixth of the world's population. The Rutgers University Global Snow Lab's 50-year climate-data record (CDR) of Northern Hemisphere snow cover is invaluable for climate studies, but, at 25-km resolution, the spatial resolution is too coarse to provide accurate snow information at the basin scale. Since 2000, global snow-cover maps have been produced from the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra and Aqua satellites at 500-m resolution, and from the Suomi-National Polar Program (S-NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) since 2011 at 375-m resolution. Development of a moderate-resolution (375 - 500 m) earth system data record (ESDR) that utilizes both MODIS and VIIRS snow maps is underway. There is a 6-year overlap between the data records. In late 2017 the second in a series of VIIRS sensors will be launched on the Joint Polar Satellite System-1 (JPSS-1), with the JPSS-2 satellite scheduled for launch in 2021, providing the potential to extend NASA's snow-cover ESDR for decades into the future and to create a CDR. Therefore it is important to investigate the continuity between the MODIS and VIIRS NASA snow-cover data products and evaluate whether there are any inconsistencies and biases that would affect their value as CDR. Time series of daily normalized-difference snow index (NDSI) Terra and Aqua MODIS Collection 6 (C6) and NASA VIIRS Collection 1 (C1) snow-cover tile maps (MOD10A1 and VNP10A1) are studied for North America to identify NDSI differences and possible biases between the datasets. Developing a CDR using the MODIS and VIIRS records is challenging. Though the instruments and orbits are similar, differences in bands, viewing geometry, spatial resolution, and cloud- and snow-mapping algorithms

  1. Changes in Snow Albedo Resulting from Snow Darkening Caused by Black Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, J.; Kloster, S.; Bourgeois, Q.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the potential impact of snow darkening caused by pre-industrial and present-day black carbon (BC) emissions on snow albedo and subsequently climate. To assess this impact, we implemented the effect of snow darkening caused by BC emitted from natural as well as anthropogenic sources into the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology Earth System Model (MPI-M ESM). Considerable amounts of BC are emitted e.g. from fires and are transported through the atmosphere for several days before being removed by rain or snow precipitation in snow covered regions. Already very small quantities of BC reduce the snow reflectance significantly, with consequences for snow melting and snow spatial coverage. We implemented the snow albedo reduction caused by BC contamination and snow aging in the one layer land surface component (JSBACH) of the atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM6, developed at MPI-M. For this we used the single-layer simulator of the SNow, Ice, and Aerosol Radiation (SNICAR-Online (Flanner et al., 2007); http://snow.engin.umich.edu) model to derive snow albedo values for BC in snow concentrations ranging between 0 and 1500 ng(BC)/g(snow) for different snow grain sizes for the visible (0.3 - 0.7 μm) and near infrared range (0.7 - 1.5 μm). As snow grains grow over time, we assign different snow ages to different snow grain sizes (50, 150, 500, and 1000 μm). Here, a radius of 50 μm corresponds to new snow, whereas a radius of 1000 μm corresponds to old snow. The deposition rates of BC on snow are prescribed from previous ECHAM6-HAM simulations for two time periods, pre-industrial (1880-1889) and present-day (2000-2009), respectively. We perform a sensitivity study regarding the scavenging of BC by snow melt. To evaluate the newly implemented albedo scheme we will compare the modeled black carbon in snow concentrations to observed ones. Moreover, we will show the impact of the BC contamination and snow aging on the simulated snow albedo. The

  2. One-dimensional simulation of lake and ice dynamics during winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Oveisy

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An ice formation model, based on the solution of the heat conduction equation across blue ice, white ice and snow cover, is integrated into the Dynamic Reservoir Simulation Model (DYRESM to allow for one-dimensional (vertical winter simulation of lake dynamics during periods of ice cover. This is an extension of a previous three-layer snow and ice model to include two-way coupling between the ice and the water column. The process-based ice formation is suitable for application to mid-latitude regions and includes: snowmelt due to rain; formation of white ice; and variability in snow density, snow conductivity, and ice and snow albedo. The model was validated against published observations from Harmon lake, British Columbia, and new observations from Eagle lake, Ontario. The ice thickness and water column temperature profile beneath the ice were predicted with Root Mean Square Deviations (RMSD of 1 cm and 0.38°C, respectively, during the winter of 1990-91in Harmon lake. In Eagle lake the 2011-12 year-round water column temperature profile was predicted with an RMSD of 1.8°C. Improved prediction of under-ice lake temperature, relative to published results from simpler models, demonstrates the need for models that accurately capture ice-formation processes, including ice to water column coupling, formation of both blue and white ice layers, and process-based ice and snow parameters (density, conductivity and albedo.

  3. Regional Antarctic snow accumulation over the past 1000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Elizabeth R.; Melchior van Wessem, J.; Roberts, Jason; Isaksson, Elisabeth; Schlosser, Elisabeth; Fudge, Tyler J.; Vallelonga, Paul; Medley, Brooke; Lenaerts, Jan; Bertler, Nancy; van den Broeke, Michiel R.; Dixon, Daniel A.; Frezzotti, Massimo; Stenni, Barbara; Curran, Mark; Ekaykin, Alexey A.

    2017-11-01

    Here we present Antarctic snow accumulation variability at the regional scale over the past 1000 years. A total of 79 ice core snow accumulation records were gathered and assigned to seven geographical regions, separating the high-accumulation coastal zones below 2000 m of elevation from the dry central Antarctic Plateau. The regional composites of annual snow accumulation were evaluated against modelled surface mass balance (SMB) from RACMO2.3p2 and precipitation from ERA-Interim reanalysis. With the exception of the Weddell Sea coast, the low-elevation composites capture the regional precipitation and SMB variability as defined by the models. The central Antarctic sites lack coherency and either do not represent regional precipitation or indicate the model inability to capture relevant precipitation processes in the cold, dry central plateau. Our results show that SMB for the total Antarctic Ice Sheet (including ice shelves) has increased at a rate of 7 ± 0.13 Gt decade-1 since 1800 AD, representing a net reduction in sea level of ˜ 0.02 mm decade-1 since 1800 and ˜ 0.04 mm decade-1 since 1900 AD. The largest contribution is from the Antarctic Peninsula (˜ 75 %) where the annual average SMB during the most recent decade (2001-2010) is 123 ± 44 Gt yr-1 higher than the annual average during the first decade of the 19th century. Only four ice core records cover the full 1000 years, and they suggest a decrease in snow accumulation during this period. However, our study emphasizes the importance of low-elevation coastal zones, which have been under-represented in previous investigations of temporal snow accumulation.

  4. Regional Antarctic snow accumulation over the past 1000 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Thomas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Here we present Antarctic snow accumulation variability at the regional scale over the past 1000 years. A total of 79 ice core snow accumulation records were gathered and assigned to seven geographical regions, separating the high-accumulation coastal zones below 2000 m of elevation from the dry central Antarctic Plateau. The regional composites of annual snow accumulation were evaluated against modelled surface mass balance (SMB from RACMO2.3p2 and precipitation from ERA-Interim reanalysis. With the exception of the Weddell Sea coast, the low-elevation composites capture the regional precipitation and SMB variability as defined by the models. The central Antarctic sites lack coherency and either do not represent regional precipitation or indicate the model inability to capture relevant precipitation processes in the cold, dry central plateau. Our results show that SMB for the total Antarctic Ice Sheet (including ice shelves has increased at a rate of 7 ± 0.13 Gt decade−1 since 1800 AD, representing a net reduction in sea level of ∼ 0.02 mm decade−1 since 1800 and ∼ 0.04 mm decade−1 since 1900 AD. The largest contribution is from the Antarctic Peninsula (∼ 75 % where the annual average SMB during the most recent decade (2001–2010 is 123 ± 44 Gt yr−1 higher than the annual average during the first decade of the 19th century. Only four ice core records cover the full 1000 years, and they suggest a decrease in snow accumulation during this period. However, our study emphasizes the importance of low-elevation coastal zones, which have been under-represented in previous investigations of temporal snow accumulation.

  5. Effects of Snow/ Soil Interface on Microwave Backscatter of Terrestrial Snowpack at X- and Ku- Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, D. H.; Tan, S.; Zhu, J.; Gu, W.; Tsang, L.; Kim, E. J.

    2017-12-01

    Recent advances in monitoring and modeling capabilities to support remote sensing of terrestrial snow is encouraging to develop satellite mission concept in monitoring cold-region hydrological processes on global scales. However, it is still challenging to link back the active microwave backscattering signals to physical snowpack parameters. One of the limitations resides in the ignorance of the vegetation and soil conditions beneath the snowpack in the microwave scattering/ emission modeling and the snow water equivalent (SWE) retrieval algorithm. During the SnowEx 2017 winter campaign in Grand Mesa, CO, a particular effort has been made on comprehensive measurements of the underlying vegetation and soil characteristics from the snowpit measurements. Besides conducting standard snow core sampling, we have made additional protocols to record the background information beneath the snowpack. Recent works on active SWE retrieval algorithm using backscatters at X- (9.6 GHz) and Ku- (17.2 GHz) band suggest the significant signals from the background scattering characterization. The background scattering arising from the rough snow/ soil interface and the buried vegetation inside and beneath the snowpack modifies the sensitivity of the total backscatter to SWE. In this paper, we summarize the snow/ soil interface conditions as observed in the SnowEx campaign. We also develop standards for future in-situ snowpit measurements to include regular snow/ soil interface observations to accommodate the interpretation of microwave backscatter both for modeling and observation of microwave signatures. These observations first provide inputs to the microwave scattering models to predict the backscattering contribution from background, which is one of the key factors to be included to improve the SWE retrieval performance.

  6. The self-organization of snow surfaces and the growth of sastrugi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanski, K.; Bertholet, C.; Anderson, R. S.; Tucker, G. E.

    2017-12-01

    Seasonal snow covers approximately 15% of the surface of the Earth. The majority of this snow is found on tundra, ice sheets, and sea ice. These windswept snow surfaces self-organize into depositional bedforms, such as ripples, barchan dunes, and transverse waves, and erosional bedforms, such as anvil-shaped sastrugi. Previous researchers have shown that these bedforms influence the reflectivity, thermal conductivity, and aerodynamic roughness of the surface. For the past two winters, we have observed the growth and movement of snow bedforms on Niwot Ridge, Colorado, at an elevation of 3500m. We have observed that (1) when wind speeds are below 3m/s, snow surfaces can be smooth, (2) when winds are higher than 3m/s during and immediately following a storm, the smooth surface is unstable and self-organizes into a field of dunes, (3) as snow begins to harden, it forms erosional bedforms that are characterized by vertical edges facing upwind (4) between 12 and 48 hours after each snowfall, alternating stripes of erosional and depositional bedforms occur, and (5) within 60 hours of each storm, the surface self-organizes into a field of sastrugi, which remains stable until it melts or becomes buried by the next snowfall. Polar researchers should therefore expect snow-covered surfaces to be characterized by fields of bedforms, which evolve in response to variations in snow delivery, windspeed, and periods of sintering. Smooth drifts may be found in sheltered and forested regions. On most ice sheets and sea ice where snowfall is frequent, the typical surface is likely to consist of an evolving mix of depositional and erosional bedforms. Where snowfall is infrequent, for example in Antarctica, the surface will be dominated by sastrugi fields.

  7. Temporal effects of mechanical treatment on winter moose browse in south-central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon Smythe; Dana Sanchez; Ricardo Mata-Gonzalez

    2015-01-01

    Sites containing winter browse species utilized by moose on the Copper River Delta of south-central Alaska were mechanically treated (hydraulic-axed) to counteract possible earthquake related increases in less-preferred forage species, and to measure treatment effects on biomass, height, nutritional quality (crude protein, lignin, and tannin), utilization, and snow...

  8. Winter climate change affects growing-season soil microbial biomass and activity in northern hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge Durán; Jennifer L. Morse; Peter M. Groffman; John L. Campbell; Lynn M. Christenson; Charles T. Driscoll; Timothy J. Fahey; Melany C. Fisk; Myron J. Mitchell; Pamela H. Templer

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the responses of terrestrial ecosystems to global change remains a major challenge of ecological research. We exploited a natural elevation gradient in a northern hardwood forest to determine how reductions in snow accumulation, expected with climate change, directly affect dynamics of soil winter frost, and indirectly soil microbial biomass and activity...

  9. Survival of rapidly fluctuating natural low winter temperatures by High Arctic soil invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Convey, Peter; Abbandonato, Holly; Bergan, Frode

    2015-01-01

    The extreme polar environment creates challenges for its resident invertebrate communities and the stress tolerance of some of these animals has been examined over many years. However, although it is well appreciated that standard air temperature records often fail to describe accurately conditions...... experienced at microhabitat level, few studies have explicitly set out to link field conditions experienced by natural multispecies communities with the more detailed laboratory ecophysiological studies of a small number of 'representative' species. This is particularly the case during winter, when snow cover...... microhabitats. To assess survival of natural High Arctic soil invertebrate communities contained in soil and vegetation cores to natural winter temperature variations, the overwintering temperatures they experienced were manipulated by deploying cores in locations with varying snow accumulation: No Snow...

  10. Estimating detection probability for Canada lynx Lynx canadensis using snow-track surveys in the northern Rocky Mountains, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Squires; Lucretia E. Olson; David L. Turner; Nicholas J. DeCesare; Jay A. Kolbe

    2012-01-01

    We used snow-tracking surveys to determine the probability of detecting Canada lynx Lynx canadensis in known areas of lynx presence in the northern Rocky Mountains, Montana, USA during the winters of 2006 and 2007. We used this information to determine the minimum number of survey replicates necessary to infer the presence and absence of lynx in areas of similar lynx...

  11. Arctic moisture source for Eurasian snow cover variations in autumn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmann, Martin; Orsolini, Yvan; Vázquez Dominguez, Marta; Gimeno Presa, Luis; Nieto, Raquel; Buligyna, Olga; Jaiser, Ralf; Handorf, Dörthe; Rinke, Anette; Dethloff, Klaus; Sterin, Alexander; Brönnimann, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Global warming is enhanced at high northern latitudes where the Arctic surface air temperature has risen at twice the rate of the global average in recent decades - a feature called Arctic amplification. This recent Arctic warming signal likely results from several factors such as the albedo feedback due to a diminishing cryosphere, enhanced poleward atmospheric and oceanic transport, and change in humidity. The reduction in Arctic sea ice is without doubt substantial and a key factor. Arctic summer sea-ice extent has declined by more than 10% per decade since the start of the satellite era (e.g. Stroeve et al., 2012), culminating in a new record low in September 2012, with the long-term trend largely attributed to anthropogenic global warming. Eurasian snow cover changes have been suggested as a driver for changes in the Arctic Oscillation and might provide a link between sea ice decline in the Arctic during summer and atmospheric circulation in the following winter. However, the mechanism connecting snow cover in Eurasia to sea ice decline in autumn is still under debate. Our analysis focuses at sea ice decline in the Barents-Kara Sea region, which allows us to specify regions of interest for FLEXPART forward and backwards moisture trajectories. Based on Eularian and Lagrangian diagnostics from ERA-INTERIM, we can address the origin and cause of late autumn snow depth variations in a dense (snow observations from 820 land stations), unutilized observational datasets over the Commonwealth of Independent States. Open waters in the Barents and Kara Sea have been shown to increase the diabatic heating of the atmosphere, which amplifies baroclinic cyclones and might induce a remote atmospheric response by triggering stationary Rossby waves (Honda et al. 2009). In agreement with these studies, our results show enhanced storm activity originating at the Barents and Kara with disturbances entering the continent through a small sector from the Barents and Kara Seas

  12. Climate change in winter versus the growing-season leads to different effects on soil microbial activity in northern hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, P. O.; Templer, P. H.; Finzi, A.

    2014-12-01

    Mean winter air temperatures have risen by approximately 2.5˚ C per decade over the last fifty years in the northeastern U.S., reducing the maximum depth of winter snowpack by approximately 26 cm over this period and the duration of winter snow cover by 3.6 to 4.2 days per decade. Forest soils in this region are projected to experience a greater number of freeze-thaw cycles and lower minimum winter soil temperatures as the depth and duration of winter snow cover declines in the next century. Climate change is likely to result not only in lower soil temperatures during winter, but also higher soil temperatures during the growing-season. We conducted two complementary experiments to determine how colder soils in winter and warmer soils in the growing-season affect microbial activity in hardwood forests at Harvard Forest, MA and Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, NH. A combination of removing snow via shoveling and buried heating cables were used to induce freeze-thaw events during winter and to warm soils 5˚C above ambient temperatures during the growing-season. Increasing the depth and duration of soil frost via snow-removal resulted in short-term reductions in soil nitrogen (N) production via microbial proteolytic enzyme activity and net N mineralization following snowmelt, prior to tree leaf-out. Declining mass specific rates of carbon (C) and N mineralization associated with five years of snow removal at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest may be an indication of microbial physiological adaptation to winter climate change. Freeze-thaw cycles during winter reduced microbial extracellular enzyme activity and the temperature sensitivity of microbial C and N mineralization during the growing-season, potentially offsetting nutrient and soil C losses due to soil warming in the growing-season. Our multiple experimental approaches show that winter climate change is likely to contribute to reduced microbial activity in northern hardwood forests.

  13. Extreme winter warming events more negatively impact small rather than large soil fauna: shift in community composition explained by traits not taxa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, S.; Phoenix, G.K.; Berke, J.W.; Callaghan, T.V.; Huyer-Brugman, F.; Berg, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Extreme weather events can have negative impacts on species survival and community structure when surpassinglethal thresholds. Extreme winter warming events in the Arctic rapidly melt snow and expose ecosystems to unseasonablywarm air (2–10 °C for 2–14 days), but returning to cold winter climate

  14. Extreme winter warming events more negatively impact small rather than large soil fauna: shift in community composition explained by traits not taxa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, S.F.; Phoenix, G.K.; Bjerke, J.W.; Callaghan, T.V.; Huyer-Brugman, F.A.; Berg, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Extreme weather events can have negative impacts on species survival and community structure when surpassing lethal thresholds. Extreme winter warming events in the Arctic rapidly melt snow and expose ecosystems to unseasonably warm air (2-10 °C for 2-14 days), but returning to cold winter climate

  15. Evaluation of an assimilation scheme to estimate snow water equivalent in the High Atlas of Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, W. M.; Baldo, E.; Gascoin, S.; Margulis, S. A.; Cortés, G.; Hanich, L.

    2017-12-01

    The snow melt from the Atlas mountains represents a crucial water resource for crop irrigation in Morocco. Due to the paucity of in situ measurements, and the high spatial variability of the snow cover in this semi-arid region, assimilation of snow cover area (SCA) from high resolution optical remote sensing into a snowpack energy-balance model is considered as a promising method to estimate the snow water equivalent (SWE) and snow melt at catchment scales. Here we present a preliminary evaluation of an uncalibrated particle batch smoother data assimilation scheme (Margulis et al., 2015, J. Hydrometeor., 16, 1752-1772) in the High-Atlas Rheraya pilot catchment (225 km2) over a snow season. This approach does not require in situ data since it is based on MERRA-2 reanalyses data and satellite fractional snow cover area data. We compared the output of this prior/posterior ensemble data assimilation system to output from the distributed snowpack evolution model SnowModel (Liston and Elder, 2006, J. Hydrometeor. 7, 1259-1276). SnowModel was forced with in situ meteorological data from five automatic weather stations (AWS) and some key parameters (precipitation correction factor and rain-snow phase transition parameters) were calibrated using a time series of 8-m resolution SCA maps from Formosat-2. The SnowModel simulation was validated using a continuous snow height record at one high elevation AWS. The results indicate that the open loop simulation was reasonably accurate (compared to SnowModel results) in spite of the coarse resolution of the MERRA-2 forcing. The assimilation of Formosat-2 SCA further improved the simulation in terms of the peak SWE and SWE evolution over the melt season. During the accumulation season, the differences between the modeled and estimated (posterior) SWE were more substantial. The differences appear to be due to some observed precipitation events not being captured in MERRA-2. Further investigation will determine whether additional

  16. MODIS Snow and Sea Ice Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Riggs, George A.; Salomonson, Vincent V.

    2004-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe the suite of Earth Observing System (EOS) Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra and Aqua snow and sea ice products. Global, daily products, developed at Goddard Space Flight Center, are archived and distributed through the National Snow and Ice Data Center at various resolutions and on different grids useful for different communities Snow products include binary snow cover, snow albedo, and in the near future, fraction of snow in a 5OO-m pixel. Sea ice products include ice extent determined with two different algorithms, and sea ice surface temperature. The algorithms used to develop these products are described. Both the snow and sea ice products, available since February 24,2000, are useful for modelers. Validation of the products is also discussed.

  17. Rabi, Snow, and "The Two Cultures"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Michael A.

    2003-04-01

    John Rigden in his biography of I. I. Rabi, "Rabi: Scientist and Citizen" (1987, 2000 with a new preface) includes an intriguing footnote concerning Rabi's influence on C. P. Snow. According to the footnote, when Snow and his son were visiting the Rabis in New York City, Rabi's wife heard Snow tell his son that Rabi was "the man who gave me [Snow] the idea for the two cultures." In this talk, after a brief overview of Rabi's views on science and society, the mutual influence between Rabi and Snow is explored. On the basis of chronology and an interpretation of Rabi's works (published and unpublished) as well as letters between Rabi and Snow, a case is made that Rabi could very well have been the man who gave Snow the idea for "The Two Cultures."

  18. Influence of snow cover distribution on soil temperature and nutrient dynamics in alpine pedoenvironments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermanno Zanini

    Full Text Available In Alpine sites snow is present on the ground from six to eight months per year in relation to elevation and exposure. Water is therefore immobilized into the solid state for the greater part of the winter season and released to the ground in a short period during spring snowmelt. In these areas, snow distribution exercises a fundamental role in influencing soil temperature and nutrient dynamics, in particular of nitrogen, with great consequences on plant nutrition. The dormant vegetation period, the low temperatures and the persistent snow cover suggest that soil biological activity is only concentrated during summer. As a matter of fact, soils covered with a consistent snow cover are isolated from the air temperature and can not freeze during winter. A snowpack of sufficient thickness, accumulated early in winter, insulates the ground from the surrounding atmosphere maintaining soil temperature closed to 0 °C during the whole winter season. The elevation of the snow line and the shorter permanence of snow on the ground, as a result of global warming (IPCC, 1996, 2001, might reduce the insulation effect of the snowpack, exposing soils of the mountain belt to lower temperatures and to a greater frequency of freeze/thaw cycles, which might alter organic matter dynamics and soil nutrient availability. Such thermal stresses may determine the lysis of microbial cells and the consequent increase of nitrogen and carbon mineralization by the survived microorganisms. Moreover, the freeze/thaw cycles can determine the exposure of exchange surfaces not available before, with release of organic matter of non-microbial origin, which may become available to surviving microorganisms for respiration. The reduced or absent microbial immobilization may cause the accumulation of remarkable amounts of inorganic nitrogen in soil, potentially leachable during spring snowmelt, when plants have not still started the growing season. Changes of snow distribution in

  19. Responses of Plant Community Composition to Long-term Changes in Snow Depth at the Great Basin Desert - Sierra Nevada ecotone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loik, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    Snowfall is the dominant hydrologic input for many high-elevation ecosystems of the western United States. Many climate models envision changes in California's Sierra Nevada snow pack characteristics, which would severely impact the storage and release of water for one of the world's largest economies. Given the importance of snowfall for future carbon cycling in high elevation ecosystems, how will these changes affect seedling recruitment, plant mortality, and community composition? To address this question, experiments utilize snow fences to manipulate snow depth and melt timing at a desert-montane ecotone in eastern California, USA. Long-term April 1 snow pack depth averages 1344 mm (1928-2015) but is highly variable from year to year. Snow fences increased equilibrium drift snow depth by 100%. Long-term changes in snow depth and melt timing are associated with s shift from shurbs to graminoids where snow depth was increased for >50 years. Changes in snow have impacted growth for only three plant species. Moreover, annual growth ring increments of the conifers Pinus jeffreyi and Pi. contorta were not equally sensitive to snow depth. There were over 8000 seedlings of the shrubs Artemisia tridentata and Purshia tridentata found in 6300 m2 in summer 2009, following about 1400 mm of winter snow and spring rain. The frequency of seedlings of A. tridentata and P. tridentata were much lower on increased-depth plots compared to ambient-depth, and reduced-depth plots. Survival of the first year was lowest for A. tridentata. Survival of seedlings from the 2008 cohort was much higher for P. tridentata than A. tridentata during the 2011-2015 drought. Results indicate complex interactions between snow depth and plant community characteristics, and that responses of plants at this ecotone may not respond similarly to increases vs. decreases in snow depth. These changes portend altered carbon uptake in this region under future snowfall scenarios.

  20. Employment and winter construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2011-01-01

    Reduced seasonal building activity in the construction sector is often assumed to be related to hard winter conditions for building activities and poor working conditions for construction workers, resulting in higher costs and poor quality of building products, particularly in the northern...... hemisphere. Can climatic conditions alone explain the sizeable difference in reduction in building activity in the construction sector in European countries in the winter months, or are other factors such as technology, economic cycles and schemes for financial compensation influential as well? What...... possibilities exist for reducing seasonal variation in employment? In addition to a literature review related to winter construction, European and national employment and meteorological data were studied. Finally, ministerial acts, ministerial orders or other public policy documents related to winter...

  1. Deer Wintering Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Deer winter habitat is critical to the long term survival of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Vermont. Being near the northern extreme of the...

  2. Winter Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Winter Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1992 and covered offshore areas from the Mid-Atlantic to Georges Bank. Inshore strata were covered...

  3. Science of Nowcasting Olympic Weather for Vancouver 2010 (SNOW-V10): a World Weather Research Programme Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, G. A.; Joe, P. I.; Mailhot, J.; Bailey, M.; Bélair, S.; Boudala, F. S.; Brugman, M.; Campos, E.; Carpenter, R. L.; Crawford, R. W.; Cober, S. G.; Denis, B.; Doyle, C.; Reeves, H. D.; Gultepe, I.; Haiden, T.; Heckman, I.; Huang, L. X.; Milbrandt, J. A.; Mo, R.; Rasmussen, R. M.; Smith, T.; Stewart, R. E.; Wang, D.; Wilson, L. J.

    2014-01-01

    A World Weather Research Programme (WWRP) project entitled the Science of Nowcasting Olympic Weather for Vancouver 2010 (SNOW-V10) was developed to be associated with the Vancouver 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games conducted between 12 February and 21 March 2010. The SNOW-V10 international team augmented the instrumentation associated with the Winter Games and several new numerical weather forecasting and nowcasting models were added. Both the additional observational and model data were available to the forecasters in real time. This was an excellent opportunity to demonstrate existing capability in nowcasting and to develop better techniques for short term (0-6 h) nowcasts of winter weather in complex terrain. Better techniques to forecast visibility, low cloud, wind gusts, precipitation rate and type were evaluated. The weather during the games was exceptionally variable with many periods of low visibility, low ceilings and precipitation in the form of both snow and rain. The data collected should improve our understanding of many physical phenomena such as the diabatic effects due to melting snow, wind flow around and over terrain, diurnal flow reversal in valleys associated with daytime heating, and precipitation reductions and increases due to local terrain. Many studies related to these phenomena are described in the Special Issue on SNOW-V10 for which this paper was written. Numerical weather prediction and nowcast models have been evaluated against the unique observational data set now available. It is anticipated that the data set and the knowledge learned as a result of SNOW-V10 will become a resource for other World Meteorological Organization member states who are interested in improving forecasts of winter weather.

  4. How much of stream and groundwater comes from snow? A stable isotope perspective in the Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beria, H.; Schaefli, B.; Ceperley, N. C.; Michelon, A.; Larsen, J.

    2017-12-01

    Precipitation which once fell as snow is predicted to fall more often as liquid rain now that climate is, and continues, warming. Within snow dominated areas, preferential winter groundwater recharge has been observed, however a shorter winter season and smaller snow fraction results in earlier snowmelt and thinner snowpacks. This has the potential to change the supply of snow water sources to both streams and groundwater, which has important implications for flow regimes and water resources. Stable isotopes of water (2H and 18O) allow us to discriminate rain vs snow signatures within water flowing in the stream or the subsurface. Using one year of isotope data collected in a Swiss Alpine catchment (Vallon de Nant, Vaud), we developed novel forward Bayesian mixing models, based on statistical and empirical likelihoods, to quantify source contributions and uncertainty estimates. To account for the spatial heterogeneity in precipitation isotopes, we parameterized the model accounting for elevation effects on isotopes, calculated using the network of GNIP stations in Switzerland. Instead of sampling meltwater, we sampled snowpack throughout the season and across a steep elevation gradient (1241m to 2455m) to infer the snowmelt transformation factor. Due to continuous mixing within the snowpack, the snowmelt water shows much lower variability in its isotopic range which is reflected in the snow transformation factor. Snowmelt yield to groundwater recharge per unit amount of precipitation was found to be greater than rainfall in Vallon de Nant, suggesting strongly preferential winter recharge. Seasonal dynamics of stream responses to rain-on-snow events, fog deposition, snowmelt and summer rain were also explored. Innovative monitoring and sampling with tools such as stable isotopes and forward Bayesian mixing models are key to improved comprehension of global recharge mechanisms.

  5. Satellite-retrieval and modeling of glacier mass balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruyter Wildt, Martijn Sybren

    2002-07-01

    another Icelandic glacier (S¢lheimajökull) was also influenced by precipitation variations. Equilibrium Line Elevation at the end of the melting season (ELAe) is a proxy for Bm, but the Equilibrium Line (EL) is mostly not visible on AVHRR images when it is located above its position of the previous year(s). EL detection is further hindered by clouds and a gradual transition between ice and firn or snow. Consequently, detection of the ELAe on albedo images is not particularly useful for estimating Bm. Instead, we propose to study the mean albedo of the entire ice cap throughout the melting season, so that all available information about the surface albedo is taken into account. The mean net potential global radiation, which can be estimated from the mean surface albedo alone, is found to relate linearly to Bm. Like AVHRR images, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images only display the surface firn line as a distinct boundary and not the snow line (i.e. melting snow and firn have the same backscatter and albedo signatures). On the other hand, winter SAR images of Vatnajökull display sub-surface firn-ice transitions, but these do not correspond to the late summer surface firn line. Unlike albedo images, SAR images do not display inter-annual variations of the signal within the accumulation area that are clearly related to Bm and are therefore less usefull for mass balance retrieval. For the north-western part of Vatnajökull the indirect observations (satellite and modelled) correspond with the direct (in situ) observations. Only for one year the different estimates strongly diverge, probably due to a lack of satellite images and an erroneously modeled distribution of precipitation. We compute the best estimate of the mass balance of north-western Vatnajökull as the weighted mean of the individual estimates. For the part of Vatnajökull where the mass balance has not been measured, we can use the indirect methods to estimate relative variations in Bm.

  6. The future of winter tourism in Planina pod Golico in the lights of global warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Ogrin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Warmer winters have brought the ski area Španov vrh near Jesenice in decline. New climate conditions put plans of conventional ski tourism in a different point of a view. The article analysis trends of air temperature and snow conditions in winter months at Planina pod Golico to fnd out if weather conditions assure development of classical winter tourism at ski area Španov vrh. As alternative to conventional way of tourism, the article recommends some new, more sustainable solutions for development of tourism, which could bring renaissance to Planina pod Golico.

  7. Seasonal and altitudinal variations in snow algal communities on an Alaskan glacier (Gulkana glacier in the Alaska range)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Nozomu

    2013-01-01

    Snow and ice algae are cold tolerant algae growing on the surface of snow and ice, and they play an important role in the carbon cycles for glaciers and snowfields in the world. Seasonal and altitudinal variations in seven major taxa of algae (green algae and cyanobacteria) were investigated on the Gulkana glacier in Alaska at six different elevations from May to September in 2001. The snow algal communities and their biomasses changed over time and elevation. Snow algae were rarely observed on the glacier in May although air temperature had been above 0 ° C since the middle of the month and surface snow had melted. In June, algae appeared in the lower areas of the glacier, where the ablation ice surface was exposed. In August, the distribution of algae was extended to the upper parts of the glacier as the snow line was elevated. In September, the glacier surface was finally covered with new winter snow, which terminated algal growth in the season. Mean algal biomass of the study sites continuously increased and reached 6.3 × 10 μl m −2 in cell volume or 13 mg carbon m −2 in September. The algal community was dominated by Chlamydomonas nivalis on the snow surface, and by Ancylonema nordenskiöldii and Mesotaenium berggrenii on the ice surface throughout the melting season. Other algae were less abundant and appeared in only a limited area of the glacier. Results in this study suggest that algae on both snow and ice surfaces significantly contribute to the net production of organic carbon on the glacier and substantially affect surface albedo of the snow and ice during the melting season. (letter)

  8. Ensemble-based assimilation of fractional snow-covered area satellite retrievals to estimate the snow distribution at Arctic sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalstad, Kristoffer; Westermann, Sebastian; Vikhamar Schuler, Thomas; Boike, Julia; Bertino, Laurent

    2018-01-01

    With its high albedo, low thermal conductivity and large water storing capacity, snow strongly modulates the surface energy and water balance, which makes it a critical factor in mid- to high-latitude and mountain environments. However, estimating the snow water equivalent (SWE) is challenging in remote-sensing applications already at medium spatial resolutions of 1 km. We present an ensemble-based data assimilation framework that estimates the peak subgrid SWE distribution (SSD) at the 1 km scale by assimilating fractional snow-covered area (fSCA) satellite retrievals in a simple snow model forced by downscaled reanalysis data. The basic idea is to relate the timing of the snow cover depletion (accessible from satellite products) to the peak SSD. Peak subgrid SWE is assumed to be lognormally distributed, which can be translated to a modeled time series of fSCA through the snow model. Assimilation of satellite-derived fSCA facilitates the estimation of the peak SSD, while taking into account uncertainties in both the model and the assimilated data sets. As an extension to previous studies, our method makes use of the novel (to snow data assimilation) ensemble smoother with multiple data assimilation (ES-MDA) scheme combined with analytical Gaussian anamorphosis to assimilate time series of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Sentinel-2 fSCA retrievals. The scheme is applied to Arctic sites near Ny-Ålesund (79° N, Svalbard, Norway) where field measurements of fSCA and SWE distributions are available. The method is able to successfully recover accurate estimates of peak SSD on most of the occasions considered. Through the ES-MDA assimilation, the root-mean-square error (RMSE) for the fSCA, peak mean SWE and peak subgrid coefficient of variation is improved by around 75, 60 and 20 %, respectively, when compared to the prior, yielding RMSEs of 0.01, 0.09 m water equivalent (w.e.) and 0.13, respectively. The ES-MDA either outperforms or at least