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Sample records for winter site fidelity

  1. Influence of age and sex on winter site fidelity of sanderlings Calidris alba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro M. Lourenço

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Many migratory bird species show high levels of site fidelity to their wintering sites, which confers advantages due to prior knowledge, but may also limit the ability of the individual to move away from degrading sites or to detect alternative foraging opportunities. Winter site fidelity often varies among age groups, but sexual differences have seldom been recorded in birds. We studied a population of individually colour-marked sanderlings wintering in and around the Tejo estuary, a large estuarine wetland on the western coast of Portugal. For 160 individuals, sighted a total of 1,249 times between November 2009 and March 2013, we calculated the probability that they moved among five distinct wintering sites and how this probability is affected by distance between them. To compare site fidelity among age classes and sexes, as well as within the same winter and over multiple winters, we used a Site Fidelity Index (SFI. Birds were sexed using a discriminant function based on biometrics of a large set of molecularly sexed sanderlings (n = 990. The vast majority of birds were observed at one site only, and the probability of the few detected movements between sites was negatively correlated with the distance among each pair of sites. Hardly any movements were recorded over more than 15 km, suggesting small home ranges. SFI values indicated that juveniles were less site-faithful than adults which may reflect the accumulated knowledge and/or dominance of older animals. Among adults, females were significantly less site faithful than males. A sexual difference in winter site fidelity is unusual in shorebirds. SFI values show site-faithfulness is lower when multiple winters were considered, and most birds seem to chose a wintering site early in the season and use that site throughout the winter. Sanderlings show a very limited tendency to explore alternative wintering options, which might have implications for their survival when facing habitat change

  2. Wintering ecology of sympatric subspecies of Sandhill Crane: Correlations between body size, site fidelity, and movement patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Gary L.; Dugger, Bruce D.; Herziger, Caroline P.; Casazza, Michael L.; Fleskes, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    Body size is known to correlate with many aspects of life history in birds, and this knowledge can be used to manage and conserve bird species. However, few studies have compared the wintering ecology of sympatric subspecies that vary significantly in body size. We used radiotelemetry to examine the relationship between body size and site fidelity, movements, and home range in 2 subspecies of Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis) wintering in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta of California, USA. Both subspecies showed high interannual return rates to the Delta study area, but Greater Sandhill Cranes (G. c. tabida) showed stronger within-winter fidelity to landscapes in our study region and to roost complexes within landscapes than did Lesser Sandhill Cranes (G. c. canadensis). Foraging flights from roost sites were shorter for G. c. tabida than for G. c. canadensis (1.9 ± 0.01 km vs. 4.5 ± 0.01 km, respectively) and, consequently, the mean size of 95% fixed-kernel winter home ranges was an order of magnitude smaller for G. c. tabida than for G. c. canadensis (1.9 ± 0.4 km2 vs. 21.9 ± 1.9 km2, respectively). Strong site fidelity indicates that conservation planning to manage for adequate food resources around traditional roost sites can be effective for meeting the habitat needs of these cranes, but the scale of conservation efforts should differ by subspecies. Analysis of movement patterns suggests that conservation planners and managers should consider all habitats within 5 km of a known G. c. tabida roost and within 10 km of a G. c. canadensis roost when planning for habitat management, mitigation, acquisition, and easements.

  3. Sex and age differences in site fidelity, food resource tracking, and body condition of wintering Kirtland's Warblers (Setophaga Kirtlandii) in the Bahamas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph M. Wunderle, Jr.; Patricia K. Lebow; Jennifer D. White; Dave Currie; David N. Ewert

    2014-01-01

    Distribution of nonbreeding migrant birds in relation to variation in food availability has been hypothesized to result from the interaction of dominance hierarchies and variable movement responses, which together may have sex- and age-specific consequences. We predicted that site fidelity, movements, and abundance of Kirtland’s Warblers (Setophaga kirtlandii...

  4. A study of moult-site fidelity in Egyptian geese, Alopochen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Little is known about moult and moult-site fidelity of African waterfowl. Satellite telemetry and uniquely engraved colour-rings were used to study moult-site fidelity of Egyptian geese marked at two sites in South Africa – Barberspan in the summer-rainfall region and Strandfontein in the winter-rainfall region. Twelve Egyptian ...

  5. Spirit's Winter Work Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version This portion of an image acquired by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera shows the Spirit rover's winter campaign site. Spirit was parked on a slope tilted 11 degrees to the north to maximize sunlight during the southern winter season. 'Tyrone' is an area where the rover's wheels disturbed light-toned soils. Remote sensing and in-situ analyses found the light-toned soil at Tyrone to be sulfate rich and hydrated. The original picture is catalogued as PSP_001513_1655_red and was taken on Sept. 29, 2006. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project and built the spacecraft. The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment is operated by the University of Arizona, Tucson, and the instrument was built by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corp., Boulder, Colo.

  6. Small home ranges and high site fidelity in red knots (Calidris c. canutus) wintering on the Banc d'Arguin, Mauritania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leyrer, J; Spaans, B; Camara, M; Piersma, T

    Using automated and manual radio-telemetry and resightings of individual colour-ringed birds, we assessed the daily use of space of red knots Calidris canutus canutus at a tropical wintering area along the Sahara coast, the Banc d'Arguin in Mauritania. Confirming earlier suggestions, we found that

  7. Small home ranges and high site fidelity in red knots (Calidris c. canutus) wintering on the Banc d’Arguin, Mauritania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leyrer, Jutta; Spaans, Bernard; Camara, Mohamed; Piersma, Theunis; Bairlein, F.

    2006-01-01

    Using automated and manual radio-telemetry and resightings of individual colour-ringed birds, we assessed the daily use of space of red knots Calidris canutus canutus at a tropical wintering area along the Sahara coast, the Banc d’Arguin in Mauritania. Confirming earlier suggestions, we found that

  8. Site fidelity, mate fidelity, and breeding dispersal in American kestrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhof, K.; Peterson, B.E.

    2009-01-01

    We assessed mate fidelity, nest-box fidelity, and breeding dispersal distances of American Kestrels (falco sparverius) nesting in boxes in southwestern Idaho from 1990 through 2006. Seventy-seven percent of boxes had different males and 87% had different females where nest-box occupants were identified in consecutive years. High turnover rates were partly a result of box-switching. Forty-eight percent of males and 58% of females that nested within the study area in successive years used different boxes. The probability of changing boxes was unrelated to gender, nesting success in the prior year, or years of nesting experience. Breeding dispersal distances for birds that moved to different boxes averaged 2.2 km for males (max = 22 km) and 3.2 km for females (max = 32 km). Approximately 70% of birds that nested in consecutive years on the study area had a different mate in the second year. Mate fidelity was related to box fidelity but not to prior nesting success or years of nesting experience. Mate changes occurred 32% of the time when the previous mate was known to be alive and nesting in the area. Kestrels that switched mates and boxes did not improve or decrease their subsequent nesting success. Kestrels usually switched to mates with less experience and lower lifetime productivity than their previous mates. The costs of switching boxes and mates were low, and there were no obvious benefits to fidelity. The cost of "waiting" for a previous mate that might have died could be high in species with high annual mortality.

  9. Use of geolocators reveals previously unknown Chinese and Korean scaly-sided merganser wintering sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soloveyva, Diana; Afanasiev, Vsevolod; Fox, James W.

    2012-01-01

    areas in successive years, suggesting winter fidelity to catchments if not specific sites. A single female from the adjacent Avvakumovka catchment wintered on saltwater in Korea, at least 1300 km east of Chinese wintering birds. Most sea duck species (Tribe Mergini) form pairs away from breeding areas......, suggesting that this high level of winter dispersal amongst close-nesting females is a potential mechanism to maintain gene flow in this threatened species that has specialist habitat requirements. Hence, female scaly-sided mergansers disperse widely from breeding areas, but show fidelity to nesting areas...

  10. Winter fidelity and apparent survival of lesser snow goose populations in the Pacific flyway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C.K.; Samuel, M.D.; Baranyuk, Vasily V.; Cooch, E.G.; Kraege, Donald K.

    2008-01-01

    The Beringia region of the Arctic contains 2 colonies of lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) breeding on Wrangel Island, Russia, and Banks Island, Canada, and wintering in North America. The Wrangel Island population is composed of 2 subpopulations from a sympatric breeding colony but separate wintering areas, whereas the Banks Island population shares a sympatric wintering area in California, USA, with one of the Wrangel Island subpopulations. The Wrangel Island colony represents the last major snow goose population in Russia and has fluctuated considerably since 1970, whereas the Banks Island population has more than doubled. The reasons for these changes are unclear, but hypotheses include independent population demographics (survival and recruitment) and immigration and emigration among breeding or wintering populations. These demographic and movement patterns have important ecological and management implications for understanding goose population structure, harvest of admixed populations, and gene flow among populations with separate breeding or wintering areas. From 1993 to 1996, we neckbanded molting birds at their breeding colonies and resighted birds on the wintering grounds. We used multistate mark-recapture models to evaluate apparent survival rates, resighting rates, winter fidelity, and potential exchange among these populations. We also compared the utility of face stain in Wrangel Island breeding geese as a predictor of their wintering area. Our results showed similar apparent survival rates between subpopulations of Wrangel Island snow geese and lower apparent survival, but higher emigration, for the Banks Island birds. Males had lower apparent survival than females, most likely due to differences in neckband loss. Transition between wintering areas was low (exchange between the Banks and northern Wrangel Island populations. Face staining was an unreliable indicator of wintering area. Our findings suggest that northern and southern

  11. Bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus group dynamics, site fidelity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... ecology in these waters. Photo-identification undertaken during systematic, non-systematic and opportunistic surveys conducted between 2001 and 2012 was used to assess group dynamics, site fidelity, residency and movement patterns of bottlenose dolphins in the archipelago. Three different patterns of residency were ...

  12. Muskox site fidelity and group cohesion in Jameson Land, East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aastrup, P. J.

    2004-01-01

    . Muskoxen in this area had a very loose group structure, with mother-young pairs as the only apparent bond between individuals. Furthermore, the tagged muskoxen lacked strong fidelity to the site where they were tagged and roamed within an 11.000-km2 area. Hunters reported tagged muskoxen shot up to 120 km...... away from the capture site. From the hunters' reports, we determined that the central part of Jameson Land around Mikael Bjerg was the preferred hunting area in winter. In summer, most muskoxen were shot near the coast of the central part of Jameson Land. The hunter compliance in this study confirms...

  13. Annual survival and site fidelity of northern pintails banded on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolai, Christopher A.; Flint, Paul L.; Wege, Michael L.

    2005-01-01

    We banded northern pintails (Anas acuta; n = 13,645) at a single site on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD), Alaska, USA, from 1990 to 2001. We used recaptures from our site in combination with hunter recoveries to model annual survival, recovery rates, and fidelity to our capture location. Most recoveries (>90%) occurred in the Pacific Flyway with 64% reported from California's Central Valley. Our top candidate models allowed survival to vary by sex but not by age or year. Estimated annual survival was 77.6% (95% CI: 73.9-81.0%) for males and 60.2% (95% CI: 53.2-67.0%) for females. Reporting rates varied by age, sex, and year; estimates for adult males exceeded those for adult females by 3.5 times. Within sexes, reporting rates of hatch-year pintails exceeded those of adults. Estimated recovery rates were considerably lower than those estimated during the 1950s-1970s for winter banded pintails (Hestbeck 1993b), but there were no differences in survival rates. This suggests that changes in harvest regulations may not have influenced annual survival in this population. The propensity of banded pintails to return to our capture site (fidelity rate) varied between sexes and was positively correlated with water conditions in prairie Canada. Our estimates of fidelity rates varied from 77.4% to 87.2% for males and 89.8% to 94.3% for females. Our fidelity estimates suggest that some level of subpopulation structuring may exist for northern pintails. Additionally, our estimates of fidelity support previous observations of northern pintails overflying poor wetland habitat conditions on the Canadian prairies.

  14. Mate fidelity and breeding site tenacity in a monogamous sandpiper, the black turnstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, C.M.; Gill, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    We examined the relationship between mate fidelity and breeding site tenacity during a 5-year study of the black turnstone, Arenaria melanocephala, a socially monogamous sandpiper breeding in subarctic Alaska. We tested the predictions of several hypotheses regarding the incidence of divorce and the benefits of fidelity to mate and breeding site. Interannual return rates to the breeding grounds (88% for males, 79% for females) were among the highest yet recorded for any scolopacid sandpiper, and 88% of returning birds nested on their previous year's territory. The annual divorce rate was only 11%, and mate fidelity was significantly linked to fidelity to territory but independent of sex and year. Males arrived in spring significantly earlier than their mates and interannual fidelity was influenced by the relative timing of arrival of pair members. Reunited pairs had significantly higher fledging success than new pairs formed after death or divorce. The incidence of divorce was unrelated to reproductive success the previous year, although birds nested significantly further away after failure than after a successful nesting attempt. Sightings of marked individuals suggested that members of pairs do not winter together, and breeding site tenacity provides a mechanism through which pair members can reunite. We reject the 'incompatibility' hypothesis for divorce in turnstones, and our data contradict predictions of the 'better option' hypothesis. Alternatively, we propose the 'bet-hedging' hypothesis to explain the occurrence of divorce, which transpires when an individual pairs with a new mate to avoid the cost of waiting for a previous mate to return. Such costs can include remaining unmated, if the former mate has died, or experiencing lower reproductive success because of delayed breeding.

  15. Natal site fidelity by breeding female southern elephant seals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of the four types of terrestrial haulout periods undertaken by southern elephant seals Mirounga leonina, only the purpose of the winter haulout is unknown. Returning to a haulout site from distant pelagic foraging grounds bears significant costs in terms of increased energy expenditure, reduced foraging time and increased ...

  16. False Killer Whales (Pseudorca crassidens) Around the Main Hawaiian Islands: Long-term Site Fidelity, Inter-island Movements, and Association Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    van Beneden (1889, cited in Tomilin 1967) reported a group following a vessel from Brazil to the English Channel. However, there is no published...of site fidelity: A case study involving nearctic-neotropical migrant songbirds wintering in a Costa Rican mangrove . Biological Conservation 77:143–150. Received: 6 July 2007 Accepted: 12 February 2008

  17. Fidelity of bats to forest sites revealed from mist-netting recaptures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger W. Perry

    2011-01-01

    Although site fidelity to permanent roost structures by bats is generally known, long-term fidelity to areas such as foraging or drinking sites is unknown. Furthermore, mist-net recaptures of bats over multiple years are rarely reported. Extensive mist-net surveys were conducted over the course of 8 y in the Ouachita National Forest of central Arkansas, United States...

  18. Site fidelity of the declining amphibian Rana sierrae (Sierra Nevada yellow-legged frog)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen Matthews; Haiganoush Preisler

    2010-01-01

    From 1997 to 2006, we used mark–recapture models to estimate the site fidelity of 1250 Sierra Nevada yellow-legged frogs (Rana sierrae) in Kings Canyon National Park, California, USA, during their three main activity periods of overwintering, breeding, and feeding. To quantify site fidelity, the tendency to return to and reuse previously occupied...

  19. Environmental influences on patterns of vertical movement and site fidelity of grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos at aggregation sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel M S Vianna

    Full Text Available We used acoustic telemetry to describe the patterns of vertical movement, site fidelity and residency of grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos on the outer slope of coral reefs in Palau, Micronesia, over a period of two years and nine months. We tagged 39 sharks (mostly adult females of which 31 were detected regularly throughout the study. Sharks displayed strong inter-annual residency with greater attendance at monitored sites during summer than winter months. More individuals were detected during the day than at night. Mean depths of tagged sharks increased from 35 m in winter to 60 m in spring following an increase in water temperature at 60 m, with maximum mean depths attained when water temperatures at 60 m stabilised around 29°C. Sharks descended to greater depths and used a wider range of depths around the time of the full moon. There were also crepuscular cycles in mean depth, with sharks moving into shallower waters at dawn and dusk each day. We suggest that daily, lunar and seasonal cycles in vertical movement and residency are strategies for optimising both energetic budgets and foraging behaviour. Cyclical patterns of movement in response to environmental variables might affect the susceptibility of reef sharks to fishing, a consideration that should be taken into account in the implementation of conservation strategies.

  20. Environmental influences on patterns of vertical movement and site fidelity of grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) at aggregation sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, Gabriel M S; Meekan, Mark G; Meeuwig, Jessica J; Speed, Conrad W

    2013-01-01

    We used acoustic telemetry to describe the patterns of vertical movement, site fidelity and residency of grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) on the outer slope of coral reefs in Palau, Micronesia, over a period of two years and nine months. We tagged 39 sharks (mostly adult females) of which 31 were detected regularly throughout the study. Sharks displayed strong inter-annual residency with greater attendance at monitored sites during summer than winter months. More individuals were detected during the day than at night. Mean depths of tagged sharks increased from 35 m in winter to 60 m in spring following an increase in water temperature at 60 m, with maximum mean depths attained when water temperatures at 60 m stabilised around 29°C. Sharks descended to greater depths and used a wider range of depths around the time of the full moon. There were also crepuscular cycles in mean depth, with sharks moving into shallower waters at dawn and dusk each day. We suggest that daily, lunar and seasonal cycles in vertical movement and residency are strategies for optimising both energetic budgets and foraging behaviour. Cyclical patterns of movement in response to environmental variables might affect the susceptibility of reef sharks to fishing, a consideration that should be taken into account in the implementation of conservation strategies.

  1. Evidence that soil aluminum enforces site fidelity of southern New England forest trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. W. Bigelow; C. D. Canham

    2010-01-01

    Tree species composition of hardwood forests of the northeastern United States corresponds with soil chemistry, and differential performance along soil calcium (Ca) gradients has been proposed as a mechanism for enforcing this fidelity of species to site. We conducted studies in a southern New England forest to test if surface-soil Ca is more important than other...

  2. Factors contributing to intervention fidelity in a multi-site chronic disease self-management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Karen M; Burke, Somer Goad; O'Connor, Danielle; Walby, Gary; Shippey, Claire; Pitt, Seraphine; McDermott, Robert J; Forthofer, Melinda S

    2006-10-26

    Disease self-management programs have been a popular approach to reducing morbidity and mortality from chronic disease. Replicating an evidence-based disease management program successfully requires practitioners to ensure fidelity to the original program design. The Florida Health Literacy Study (FHLS) was conducted to investigate the implementation impact of the Pfizer, Inc. Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertension Disease Self-Management Program based on health literacy principles in 14 community health centers in Florida. The intervention components discussed include health educator recruitment and training, patient recruitment, class sessions, utilization of program materials, translation of program manuals, patient retention and follow-up, and technical assistance. This report describes challenges associated with achieving a balance between adaptation for cultural relevance and fidelity when implementing the health education program across clinic sites. This balance was necessary to achieve effectiveness of the disease self-management program. The FHLS program was implemented with a high degree of fidelity to the original design and used original program materials. Adaptations identified as advantageous to program participation are discussed, such as implementing alternate methods for recruiting patients and developing staff incentives for participation. Effective program implementation depends on the talent, skill and willing participation of clinic staff. Program adaptations that conserve staff time and resources and recognize their contribution can increase program effectiveness without jeopardizing its fidelity.

  3. Factors contributing to intervention fidelity in a multi-site chronic disease self-management program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitt Seraphine

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objectives Disease self-management programs have been a popular approach to reducing morbidity and mortality from chronic disease. Replicating an evidence-based disease management program successfully requires practitioners to ensure fidelity to the original program design. Methods The Florida Health Literacy Study (FHLS was conducted to investigate the implementation impact of the Pfizer, Inc. Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertension Disease Self-Management Program based on health literacy principles in 14 community health centers in Florida. The intervention components discussed include health educator recruitment and training, patient recruitment, class sessions, utilization of program materials, translation of program manuals, patient retention and follow-up, and technical assistance. Results This report describes challenges associated with achieving a balance between adaptation for cultural relevance and fidelity when implementing the health education program across clinic sites. This balance was necessary to achieve effectiveness of the disease self-management program. The FHLS program was implemented with a high degree of fidelity to the original design and used original program materials. Adaptations identified as advantageous to program participation are discussed, such as implementing alternate methods for recruiting patients and developing staff incentives for participation. Conclusion Effective program implementation depends on the talent, skill and willing participation of clinic staff. Program adaptations that conserve staff time and resources and recognize their contribution can increase program effectiveness without jeopardizing its fidelity.

  4. Spawning site fidelity and apparent annual survival of walleye (Sander vitreus) differ between a Lake Huron and Lake Erie tributary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Todd A.; Binder, Thomas; Holbrook, Christopher; Vandergoot, Christopher; Fielder, David G.; Cooke, Steven J.; Dettmers, John M.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2018-01-01

    Fidelity to spawning habitats can maximise reproductive success of fish by synchronising movements to sites of previous recruitment. To determine the role of reproductive fidelity in structuring walleye Sander vitreus populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes, we used acoustic telemetry combined with Cormack–Jolly–Seber capture–recapture models to estimate spawning site fidelity and apparent annual survival for the Tittabawassee River in Lake Huron and Maumee River in Lake Erie. Walleye in spawning condition were tagged from the Tittabawassee River in Lake Huron and Maumee River in Lake Erie in 2011–2012. Site fidelity and apparent annual survival were estimated from return of individuals to the stream where tagged. Site fidelity estimates were higher in the Tittabawassee River (95%) than the Maumee River (70%) and were not related to sex or fish length at tagging. Apparent annual survival of walleye tagged in the Tittabawassee did not differ among spawning seasons but was higher for female than male walleye and decreased linearly as fish length increased. Apparent annual survival of walleye tagged in the Maumee River did not differ among spawning seasons but was higher for female walleye than male walleye and increased linearly as fish length increased. Greater fidelity of walleye tagged in the Tittabawassee River than walleye tagged in the Maumee River may be related to the close proximity to the Maumee River of other spawning aggregations and multiple spawning sites in Lake Erie. As spawning site fidelity increases, management actions to conserve population structure require an increasing focus on individual stocks.

  5. Nest-site fidelity and dispersal of Gyrfalcons estimated by noninvasive genetic sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booms, T.L.; Talbot, S.L.; Sage, G.K.; McCaffery, B.J.; McCracken, K.G.; Schempf, P.F.

    2011-01-01

    We used feathers from adult Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus) molted in breeding territories and blood samples from nestlings to document nest-site fidelity and dispersal of breeding adults and juveniles at three areas 100- 350 km apart in Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, 2003-2007. We used genotypes from seven polymorphic microsatellite loci that provided a mean probability of identity of 0.91 ??10 -5. Breeding Gyrfalcons were highly faithful to study area and territory; we documented no dispersals of breeding birds among study areas and only one dispersal between territories. But their fidelity to nest sites was low; 22% of birds returned to the same nest site the following year. Distance among alternate nests within a territory averaged 750 m and was similar for both sexes. Mean tenure in a territory was 2.8 years, similar for both sexes, and distributed bimodally with peaks at 1 and 4 years. Mean annual turnover rate at the Ingakslugwat Hills (Volcanoes) study area was 20%. We detected three young that established breeding territories at distances ranging from 0 to 254 km from their natal territory, representing 2.5% apparent recruitment. Gyrfalcons in the Askinuk Mountains study area were slightly but statistically significantly differentiated genetically from those in the Volcanoes and Kilbuck Mountain study areas. These data are the first published on the nest-site fidelity, breeding dispersal, and natal dispersal of the Gyrfalcon in North America and demonstrate the utility of noninvasive genetic sampling to greatly improve our understanding of avian dispersal and its underlying mechanisms. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.

  6. Satellite Tracking and Site Fidelity of Short Ocean Sunfish, Mola ramsayi, in the Galapagos Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tierney M. Thys

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocean sunfishes, with their peculiar morphology, large size, and surface habits, are valuable assets in ecotourism destinations worldwide. This study investigates site fidelity and long-range movements of short ocean sunfish, Mola ramsayi (Giglioli 1883, at Punta Vicente Roca (PVR off Isabela Island in the Galapagos Islands. Five individuals were tracked between 32 and 733 days using ultrasonic receivers and transmitters. Two of the 5 were also tracked with towed pop-off satellite tags. One travelled to the equatorial front covering 2700 km in 53 days, with dive depths in the upper 360 m at temperatures between 9.2°C and 22°C. During its westward travel, dives extended to 1112 m (the deepest depth yet recorded for Molidae into temperatures ranging between 4.5°C and 23.2°C. The remaining four individuals demonstrated site fidelity to PVR and were detected at the site between 128–1361 times for a total of 3557 reports. Forty-eight percent of the reports occurred during daytime hours and 52% after dark. Presumed cleaning session durations had a median of 15 minutes and a maximum of nearly 100 minutes. No other ultrasonic arrays around Galapagos or in the Eastern Pacific regional network recorded the presence of tagged individuals. These data are combined with tourist vessel sightings and submersible observations to confirm Punta Vicente Roca as an important sunfish hotspot.

  7. Site fidelity in the Sichuan Torrent Frog (Amolops mantzorum in a montane region in western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Bo Liao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available I used mark-recapture technique to estimate site fidelity in a subtropical high-elevation torrent frog (Amolops mantzorum during the breeding season in Fengtongzhai National Nature Reserve in western China. I captured, measured, and individually marked 30 males and 15 females in 20 May 2007. I recorded each individual’s initial positions using a Global Positioning System (GPS. For each night from 21 May to 10 June 2007, I recaptured the marked individuals and recorded capture points. The results showed that 16 males and 4 females were never recaptured in the field experiment. Most of the remaining individuals were recaptured only one time. Males and female were recaptured more than 2 and 8 times, respectively. Males and females were recaptured from subsequent positions as far apart as 55 m and 30 m, as close as 0.2 m and 0.1 m. Average neighbor distances on successive capture positions of males recaptured was 10.1 m, and that of females was 4.2 m, suggesting that there were significant difference in site fidelity between females and males. However, there was not significant average activity distance between the sexes. For females, small average activity areas were 10.9 ± 14.9 m2.

  8. Discovery of a new Kittlitz's murrelet nest: Clues to habitat selection and nest-site fidelity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatt, John F.; Naslund, Nancy L.; van Pelt, Thomas I.

    1999-01-01

    On 13 June 1993, a new Kittlitz's murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) nest was discovered near Red Mountain on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. The nest was on a 22° slope at about 900 m elevation with a northeast aspect, and contained a 60.2 × 40.6 mm egg that weighed 49.0 g. Downy feathers and weathered fecal material found at the nest indicated re-use from a previous year, suggesting possible nest site fidelity. The nest was located in an area scoured by winds and free of snow during early spring, suggesting that this may be an important mesoscale factor influencing selection of nesting habitat. Proximity to suitable foraging habitat, particularly sheltered bays and glacial river outflows, may affect breeding habitat choice over larger spatial scales.

  9. Site fidelity of male roe deer in a Mediterranean fragmented area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Melis

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present data on site fidelity based on 7 adult male roe deer Capreolus capreolus (L., which were studied for two years (March 1999-February 2001 by radiotelemetry. The median site fidelity of roe deer between year 1999-2000 and 2000-2001 was 63%. Throughout the year 2000, the analysis of distance between core areas (50% kernel centres revealed 2 tactics of habitat use by adult males: "annually site-faithful" males, who occupied the same home range over the year and "seasonally site-faithful" males, who moved to a different area during the cold months. Being resident throughout the year could privilege territory holders, already present at the beginning of the territorial season in respect to late-coming males. This supports the view of the "always stay" territorial behaviour, as a "low risk-low gain" strategy maximizing high survival and long tenure. Riassunto Fedeltà al territorio dei maschi di capriolo in un'area mediterranea frammentata Sette maschi adulti di capriolo Capreolus capreolus L. sono stati seguiti per due anni, dal Marzo 1999 al Febbraio 2001, con metodi radiotelemetrici. La sovrapposizione mediana degli home range (fedeltà, fra il 1999-2000 e il 2000-2001, è risultata del 63%. Nel corso del 2000, l'analisi della distanza fra core area (50% kernel ha rivelato due tattiche di uso dell'habitat: "maschi fedeli annualmente", che hanno occupato lo stesso home range durante tutto l'anno, e "maschi fedeli stagionalmente", che si sono spostati in un'area diversa durante i mesi freddi. Essere residente per tutto l'anno potrebbe risultare vantaggioso per i maschi che si trovino già sul posto all'inizio della stagione territoriale, rispetto a maschi che abbiano trascorso l'inverno altrove. Questi risultati concordano con la teoria che i caprioli adottino un comportamento territoriale "permanente", come parte di una strategia a

  10. First Direct Evidence for Natal Wintering Ground Fidelity and Estimate of Juvenile Survival in the New Zealand Southern Right Whale Eubalaena australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, E L; Fewster, R M; Childerhouse, S J; Patenaude, N J; Boren, L; Baker, C S

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile survival and recruitment can be more sensitive to environmental, ecological and anthropogenic factors than adult survival, influencing population-level processes like recruitment and growth rate in long-lived, iteroparous species such as southern right whales. Conventionally, Southern right whales are individually identified using callosity patterns, which do not stabilise until 6-12 months, by which time the whale has left its natal wintering grounds. Here we use DNA profiling of skin biopsy samples to identify individual Southern right whales from year of birth and document their return to the species' primary wintering ground in New Zealand waters, the Subantarctic Auckland Islands. We find evidence of natal fidelity to the New Zealand wintering ground by the recapture of 15 of 57 whales, first sampled in year of birth and available for subsequent recapture, during winter surveys to the Auckland Islands in 1995-1998 and 2006-2009. Four individuals were recaptured at the ages of 9 to 11, including two females first sampled as calves in 1998 and subsequently resampled as cows with calves in 2007. Using these capture-recapture records of known-age individuals, we estimate changes in survival with age using Cormack-Jolly-Seber models. Survival is modelled using discrete age classes and as a continuous function of age. Using a bootstrap method to account for uncertainty in model selection and fitting, we provide the first direct estimate of juvenile survival for this population. Our analyses indicate a high annual apparent survival for juveniles at between 0.87 (standard error (SE) 0.17, to age 1) and 0.95 (SE 0.05: ages 2-8). Individual identification by DNA profiling is an effective method for long-term demographic and genetic monitoring, particularly in animals that change identifiable features as they develop or experience tag loss over time.

  11. Migration and wintering sites of Pelagic Cormorants determined by satellite telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Shyla A.; Gill, V.A.; Mulcahy, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    Factors affecting winter survival may be key determinants of status and population trends of seabirds, but connections between breeding sites and wintering areas of most populations are poorly known. Pelagic Cormorants (Phalacrocorax pelagicus; N= 6) surgically implanted with satellite transmitters migrated from a breeding colony on Middleton Island, northern Gulf of Alaska, to wintering sites in southeast Alaska and northern British Columbia. Winter locations averaged 920 km (range = 600-1190 km) from the breeding site. Migration flights in fall and spring lasted ???5 d in four instances. After reaching wintering areas, cormorants settled in narrowly circumscribed inshore locations (~10-km radius) and remained there throughout the nonbreeding period (September- March). Two juveniles tagged at the breeding colony as fledglings remained at their wintering sites for the duration of the tracking interval (14 and 22 mo, respectively). Most cormorants used multiple sites within their winter ranges for roosting and foraging. Band recoveries show that Pelagic Cormorants in southern British Columbia and Washington disperse locally in winter, rather than migrating like the cormorants in our study. Radio-tagging and monitoring cormorants and other seabirds from known breeding sites are vital for understanding migratory connectivity and improving conservation strategies for local populations. ?? 2011 The Authors. Journal of Field Ornithology ?? 2011 Association of Field Ornithologists.

  12. Invasion of Winter Moth in New England: Effects of Defoliation and Site Quality on Tree Mortality

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    Michael J. Simmons

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Widespread and prolonged defoliation by the European winter moth, Operophtera brumata L., has occurred in forests of eastern Massachusetts for more than a decade and populations of winter moth continue to invade new areas of New England. This study characterized the forests of eastern Massachusetts invaded by winter moth and related the duration of winter moth defoliation estimated using dendrochronology to observed levels of tree mortality and understory woody plant density. Quercus basal area mortality in mixed Quercus and mixed Quercus—Pinus strobus forests in eastern Massachusetts ranged from 0–30%; mortality of Quercus in these forests was related to site quality and the number of winter moth defoliation events. In addition, winter moth defoliation events lead to a subsequent increase in understory woody plant density. Our results indicate that winter moth defoliation has been an important disturbance in New England forests that may have lasting impacts.

  13. Temperature characteristics of winter roost-sites for birds and mammals: tree cavities and anthropogenic alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüebler, Martin U.; Widmer, Silv; Korner-Nievergelt, Fränzi; Naef-Daenzer, Beat

    2014-07-01

    The microclimate of potential roost-sites is likely to be a crucial determinant in the optimal roost-site selection of endotherms, in particular during the winter season of temperate zones. Available roost-sites for birds and mammals in European high trunk orchards are mainly tree cavities, wood stacks and artificial nest boxes. However, little is known about the microclimatic patterns inside cavities and thermal advantages of using these winter roost-sites. Here, we simultaneously investigate the thermal patterns of winter roost-sites in relation to winter ambient temperature and their insulation capacity. While tree cavities and wood stacks strongly buffered the daily cycle of temperature changes, nest boxes showed low buffering capacity. The buffering effect of tree cavities was stronger at extreme ambient temperatures compared to temperatures around zero. Heat sources inside roosts amplified Δ T (i.e., the difference between inside and outside temperatures), particularly in the closed roosts of nest boxes and tree cavities, and less in the open wood stacks with stronger circulation of air. Positive Δ T due to the installation of a heat source increased in cold ambient temperatures. These results suggest that orchard habitats in winter show a spatiotemporal mosaic of sites providing different thermal benefits varying over time and in relation to ambient temperatures. At cold temperatures tree cavities provide significantly higher thermal benefits than nest boxes or wood stacks. Thus, in winter ecology of hole-using endotherms, the availability of tree cavities may be an important characteristic of winter habitat quality.

  14. Site fidelity by bees drives pollination facilitation in sequentially blooming plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Jane E; Thomson, James D

    2016-06-01

    Plant species can influence the pollination and reproductive success of coflowering neighbors that share pollinators. Because some individual pollinators habitually forage in particular areas, it is also possible that plant species could influence the pollination of neighbors that bloom later. When flowers of a preferred forage plant decline in an area, site-fidelity may cause individual flower feeders to stay in an area and switch plant species rather than search for preferred plants in a new location. A newly blooming plant species may quickly inherit a set of visitors from a prior plant species, and therefore experience higher pollination success than it would in an area where the first species never bloomed. To test this, we manipulated the placement and timing of two plant species, Delphinium barbeyi and later-blooming Gentiana parryi. We recorded the responses of individually marked bumble bee pollinators. About 63% of marked individuals returned repeatedly to the same areas to forage on Delphinium. When Delphinium was experimentally taken out of bloom, most of those site-faithful individuals (78%) stayed and switched to Gentiana. Consequently, Gentiana flowers received more visits in areas where Delphinium had previously flowered, compared to areas where Delphinium was still flowering or never occurred. Gentiana stigmas received more pollen in areas where Delphinium disappeared than where it never bloomed, indicating that Delphinium increases the pollination of Gentiana when they are separated in time. Overall, we show that individual bumble bees are often site-faithful, causing one plant species to increase the pollination of another even when separated in time, which is a novel mechanism of pollination facilitation.

  15. Site fidelity and movement of Chelonoidis carbonaria (Spix, 1824 (Testudinidae in cocoa plantations in southeastern Brazil

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    JF Borini

    Full Text Available Red-footed Tortoises (Chelonoidis carbonariaSpix, 1824 raised as pets and voluntarily handed over to environmental officers by their owners or apprehended by officers represent a large contingent of animals that overfill triage centres in Brazil. There is no consensus on the fate of these animals, and their numbers continue growing. In this study, we evaluated the movement patterns of C. carbonaria originating from triage centres in areas of cocoa plantations and forest remnants to define their home range and dispersion. After 120 days of quarantine and acclimatisation, eight C. carbonaria adults were released and monitored via radio telemetry for 10 months. The radio transmitters of two individuals presented problems, and consequently, it was not possible to track these individuals. Five individuals remained in an area of 7.75 ha 10 months after release, avoiding contact with humans after the first three months. The greatest problems were the proximity of individuals to inhabited areas in the first three months after release, the death of two individuals, and the escape of one individual. After the experiment, the animals were sent back to the triage centre. Our results suggest that a proportion of the animals in the triage centres are able to survive in natural conditions. Considering their survival and fidelity to the release site, the translocation of animals described herein should be considered partially successful. However, if this measure is adopted, it must be preceded by studies of the animals' origins and by a rigorous genetic, sanitary and behavioural analysis of each individual.

  16. Seagrass Herbivory Levels Sustain Site-Fidelity in a Remnant Dugong Population.

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    Elrika D'Souza

    Full Text Available Herds of dugong, a largely tropical marine megaherbivore, are known to undertake long-distance movements, sequentially overgrazing seagrass meadows in their path. Given their drastic declines in many regions, it is unclear whether at lower densities, their grazing is less intense, reducing their need to travel between meadows. We studied the effect of the feeding behaviour of a small dugong population in the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago, India to understand how small isolated populations graze seagrasses. In the seven years of our observation, all recorded dugongs travelled either solitarily or in pairs, and their use of seagrasses was limited to 8 meadows, some of which were persistently grazed. These meadows were relatively large, contiguous and dominated by short-lived seagrasses species. Dugongs consumed approximately 15% of meadow primary production, but there was a large variation (3-40% of total meadow production in consumption patterns between meadows. The impact of herbivory was relatively high, with shoot densities c. 50% higher inside herbivore exclosures than in areas exposed to repeated grazing. Our results indicate that dugongs in the study area repeatedly graze the same meadows probably because the proportion of primary production consumed reduces shoot density to levels that are still above values that can trigger meadow abandonment. This ability of seagrasses to cope perhaps explains the long-term site fidelity shown by individual dugongs in these meadows. The fact that seagrass meadows in the archipelago are able to support dugong foraging requirements allows us to clearly identify locations where this remnant population persists, and where urgent management efforts can be directed.

  17. Site fidelity and home range of the longsnout seahorse Hippocampus reidi (Teleostei: Syngnathidae) at the Varadero dock, northwest Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    de la Nuez Hernández, Daril; Pastor Gutiérrez, Lourdes; Pérez Angulo, Alejandro; Piloto Cubero, Yuliet; Corrada Wong, Raúl Igor

    2016-01-01

    Fish populations of the Syngnathidae family, including the charismatic seahorse, have significantly declined worldwide during the last decades. Up to now, these populations have been poorly researched in their habitat in Cuba. The objective of this study was to determinate site fidelity and home range of the longsnout seahorse (Hippocampus reidi Ginsburg, 1933), which has been poorly studied and has been classified as a Data Deficient (DD) species by the IUCN. Sampling was conducted between A...

  18. Ontogenetic and sex-based differences in habitat preferences and site fidelity of White's seahorse Hippocampus whitei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasti, D; Martin-Smith, K; Gladstone, W

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine and compare habitat preferences for male and female adult and juvenile White's seahorse Hippocampus whitei and assess their movements and site fidelity over 4 years. Data were collected from three sites along 1.5 km of estuarine shoreline in Port Stephens, New South Wales, Australia, from 2006 to 2009 using H. whitei that had been tagged with visible implant fluorescent elastomer. Relative availability of 12 habitats and habitat preferences of H. whitei was determined, based on the habitat that H. whitei used as a holdfast. Hippocampus whitei occurred in nine different habitats; adults preferred sponge and soft coral Dendronephthya australis habitats with no difference between male and female habitat preferences whilst juveniles preferred gorgonian Euplexaura sp. habitat. There was a significant preference by adults for D. australis colonies with height >40 cm and avoidance of colonies <20 cm. Neither adults nor juveniles used sand or the seagrasses Zostera muelleri subsp. capricorni and Halophila ovalis. Hippocampus whitei showed cryptic behaviour with c. 50% of adult sightings cryptic and c. 75% for juveniles with crypsis occurring predominantly in Sargassum sp. for adults and Euplexaura sp. habitat for juveniles. Within sites, females moved significantly longer distances (maximum of 70 m) than males (maximum of 38 m) over 20 months. Strong site fidelity was displayed by H. whitei with males persisting at the same site for up to 56 months and females for 49 months and no H. whitei moved between sites. The longest period that an H. whitei was recorded on the same holdfast was 17 months for a male and 10 months for a female. As this species displays strong site fidelity, specific habitat preferences and has a limited distribution, future management needs to minimize the risk of habitat disturbance as loss of key habitats could have a negative effect on species abundance and distribution. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the

  19. Reef Sharks Exhibit Site-Fidelity and Higher Relative Abundance in Marine Reserves on the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Mark E.; Babcock, Elizabeth A.; Pikitch, Ellen K.; Abercrombie, Debra L.; Lamb, Norlan F.; Chapman, Demian D.

    2012-01-01

    Carcharhinid sharks can make up a large fraction of the top predators inhabiting tropical marine ecosystems and have declined in many regions due to intense fishing pressure. There is some support for the hypothesis that carcharhinid species that complete their life-cycle within coral reef ecosystems, hereafter referred to as “reef sharks”, are more abundant inside no-take marine reserves due to a reduction in fishing pressure (i.e., they benefit from marine reserves). Key predictions of this hypothesis are that (a) individual reef sharks exhibit high site-fidelity to these protected areas and (b) their relative abundance will generally be higher in these areas compared to fished reefs. To test this hypothesis for the first time in Caribbean coral reef ecosystems we combined acoustic monitoring and baited remote underwater video (BRUV) surveys to measure reef shark site-fidelity and relative abundance, respectively. We focused on the Caribbean reef shark (Carcharhinus perezi), the most common reef shark in the Western Atlantic, at Glover's Reef Marine Reserve (GRMR), Belize. Acoustically tagged sharks (N = 34) were detected throughout the year at this location and exhibited strong site-fidelity. Shark presence or absence on 200 BRUVs deployed at GRMR and three other sites (another reserve site and two fished reefs) showed that the factor “marine reserve” had a significant positive effect on reef shark presence. We rejected environmental factors or site-environment interactions as predominant drivers of this pattern. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that marine reserves can benefit reef shark populations and we suggest new hypotheses to determine the underlying mechanism(s) involved: reduced fishing mortality or enhanced prey availability. PMID:22412965

  20. Incorporating in situ habitat patchiness in site selection models reveals that site fidelity is not always a consequence of animal choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Aline S; Queiroz, Eduardo V; Bryson, Mitch; Byrne, Maria; Coleman, Ross A

    2017-07-01

    Understanding site fidelity is important in animal ecology, but evidence is lacking that this behaviour is due to an animal choosing a specific location. To discern site selection behaviour, it is necessary to consider the spatial distribution of habitats that animals can occupy within a landscape. Tracking animals and defining clear habitat boundaries, however, is often difficult. We use in situ habitat distribution data and animal movement simulations to investigate behavioural choice in site fidelity patterns. We resolved the difficulty of gathering data by working with intertidal rock pool systems, which are of manageable size and where boundaries are easy to define. Movements of the intertidal starfish Parvulastra exigua were quantified to test the hypotheses that (1) this species displays fidelity to a particular rock pool and that (2) rock pool fidelity is due to site selection behaviour. Observed patterns of individuals (n = 10 starfish) returning to a previously occupied rock pool (n = 5 pools per location) were tested against an expected null distribution generated through simulations of random movements within their natural patchy environment. Starfish exhibited site selection behaviour at only one location even though site fidelity was high (av. 7·4 starfish out of 10 found in test pools) in two of the three locations. The random chance of a starfish returning to a pool increased 67% for each metre further a rock pool was from the original pool, and 120% for each square metre increase in surface area of an original pool. The decision of returning to an original rock pool was influenced by food availability. When microalgal cover was >60%, there was a c. 50% chance of animals staying faithful to that pool. Our results show the importance to consider spatial distribution of habitats in understanding patterns of animal movement associated with animal choices and site fidelity. Returning to a particular place does not necessarily mean that an animal

  1. Robustness of high-fidelity Rydberg gates with single-site addressability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerz, Michael H.; Halperin, Eli J.; Aytac, Jon M.; Koch, Christiane P.; Whaley, K. Birgitta

    2014-09-01

    Controlled-phase (cphase) gates can be realized with trapped neutral atoms by making use of the Rydberg blockade. Achieving the ultrahigh fidelities required for quantum computation with such Rydberg gates, however, is compromised by experimental inaccuracies in pulse amplitudes and timings, as well as by stray fields that cause fluctuations of the Rydberg levels. We report here a comparative study of analytic and numerical pulse sequences for the Rydberg cphase gate that specifically examines the robustness of the gate fidelity with respect to such experimental perturbations. Analytical pulse sequences of both simultaneous and stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) are found to be at best moderately robust under these perturbations. In contrast, optimal control theory is seen to allow generation of numerical pulses that are inherently robust within a predefined tolerance window. The resulting numerical pulse shapes display simple modulation patterns and can be rationalized in terms of an interference between distinct two-photon Rydberg excitation pathways. Pulses of such low complexity should be experimentally feasible, allowing gate fidelities of order 99.90-99.99% to be achievable under realistic experimental conditions.

  2. Fidelity of target site duplication and sequence preference during integration of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus.

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    Sanggu Kim

    Full Text Available Xenotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV-related virus (XMRV is a new human retrovirus associated with prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome. The causal relationship of XMRV infection to human disease and the mechanism of pathogenicity have not been established. During retrovirus replication, integration of the cDNA copy of the viral RNA genome into the host cell chromosome is an essential step and involves coordinated joining of the two ends of the linear viral DNA into staggered sites on target DNA. Correct integration produces proviruses that are flanked by a short direct repeat, which varies from 4 to 6 bp among the retroviruses but is invariant for each particular retrovirus. Uncoordinated joining of the two viral DNA ends into target DNA can cause insertions, deletions, or other genomic alterations at the integration site. To determine the fidelity of XMRV integration, cells infected with XMRV were clonally expanded and DNA sequences at the viral-host DNA junctions were determined and analyzed. We found that a majority of the provirus ends were correctly processed and flanked by a 4-bp direct repeat of host DNA. A weak consensus sequence was also detected at the XMRV integration sites. We conclude that integration of XMRV DNA involves a coordinated joining of two viral DNA ends that are spaced 4 bp apart on the target DNA and proceeds with high fidelity.

  3. Hellsgate Big Game Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Site Specific Management Plan for the Hellsgate Project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Matthew T.; Judd, Steven L.

    1999-01-01

    This report contains a detailed site-specific management plan for the Hellsgate Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project. The report provides background information about the mitigation process, the review process, mitigation acquisitions, Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) and mitigation crediting, current habitat conditions, desired future habitat conditions, restoration/enhancements efforts and maps.

  4. Characteristics of foraging sites and protein status in wintering muskoxen: insights from isotopes of nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustine, David D.; Barboza, Perry S.; Lawler, James P.; Arthur, Stephen M.; Shults, Brad S.; Persons, Kate; Adams, Layne G.

    2011-01-01

    Identifying links between nutritional condition of individuals and population trajectories greatly enhances our understanding of the ecology, conservation, and management of wildlife. For northern ungulates, the potential impacts of a changing climate to populations are predicted to be nutritionally mediated through an increase in the severity and variance in winter conditions. Foraging conditions and the availability of body protein as a store for reproduction in late winter may constrain productivity in northern ungulates, yet the link between characteristics of wintering habitats and protein status has not been established for a wild ungulate. We used a non‐invasive proxy of protein status derived from isotopes of N in excreta to evaluate the influence of winter habitats on the protein status of muskoxen in three populations in Alaska (2005–2008). Multiple regression and an information‐theoretic approach were used to compare models that evaluated the influence of population, year, and characteristics of foraging sites (components of diet and physiography) on protein status for groups of muskoxen. The observed variance in protein status among groups of muskoxen across populations and years was partially explained (45%) by local foraging conditions that affected forage availability. Protein status improved for groups of muskoxen as the amount of graminoids in the diet increased (−0.430 ± 0.31, β± 95% CI) and elevation of foraging sites decreased (0.824 ± 0.67). Resources available for reproduction in muskoxen are highly dependent upon demographic, environmental, and physiographic constraints that affect forage availability in winter. Due to their very sedentary nature in winter, muskoxen are highly susceptible to localized foraging conditions; therefore, the spatial variance in resource availability may exert a strong effect on productivity. Consequently, there is a clear need to account for climate–topography effects in winter at multiple scales

  5. Photo-identification, site fidelity, and movement of female gray seals (Halichoerus grypus) between haul-outs in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Olle; Hiby, Lex; Lundberg, Torkel; Jüssi, Mart; Jüssi, Ivar; Helander, Björn

    2005-12-01

    The growing gray seal population in the Baltic Sea has led to increased conflicts with fisheries. Despite limited data on gray seal ecology, management measures, such as culling, have been implemented recently. We studied movements and site fidelity of Baltic gray seals using mark-recapture analysis based on photographic identification of individuals (photo-id). Seals were photographed at the major summer haul-out sites. Profile photographs of the head and neck were matched using purpose-written software to generate a database of capture histories from 1995-2000. The haul-outs were grouped into seven areas. Darroch's method (20) for a two-sample capture-recapture census was adapted to estimate rates of movement between the areas. The majority of seals were estimated to remain within the same area, suggesting that Baltic gray seals exhibit a high degree of site fidelity during the summer, and that fidelity to a site lasts for more than one season.

  6. Fidelity of northern pine snakes (Pituophis m. melanoleucus) to natural and artificial hibernation sites in the New Jersey Pine Barrens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappalorti, Robert T; Burger, Joanna; Burkett, David W; Schneider, David W; McCort, Matthew P; Golden, David M

    2014-01-01

    Environmental managers require information on whether human-made hibernacula are used by rare snakes before constructing large numbers of them as mitigation measures. Fidelity of northern pine snakes (Pituophis m. melanoleucus) was examined in a 6-year study in the New Jersey Pine Barrens to determine whether they used natural and artificial hibernacula equally. Pine snakes used both artificial (human-made) and natural (snake-adapted) hibernacula. Most natural hibernacula were in abandoned burrows of large mammals. Occupancy rates were similar between natural and artificial hibernacula. Only 6 of 27 radio-tracked snakes did not shift hibernacula between years, whereas 78% shifted sites at least once, and fidelity from one year to the next was 42%. For snakes that switched hibernacula (n = 21), one switched among artificial hibernacula, 14 (65%) switched among natural hibernacula, and 6 (29%) switched from artificial to natural hibernacula. Data indicate that most pine snakes switch among hibernacula, mainly selecting natural hibernacula, suggesting that artificial dens are used, but protecting natural hibernacula should be a higher conservation priority.

  7. Ensuring treatment fidelity in a multi-site behavioral intervention study: implementing NIH Behavior Change Consortium recommendations in the SMART trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Sheri L; Burns, Debra S; Docherty, Sharron L; Haase, Joan E

    2011-11-01

    The Stories and Music for Adolescent/Young Adult Resilience during Transplant (SMART) study (R01NR008583; U10CA098543; U10CA095861) is an ongoing multi-site Children's Oncology Group randomized clinical trial testing the efficacy of a therapeutic music video intervention for adolescents/young adults (11-24 years of age) with cancer undergoing stem cell transplant. Treatment fidelity strategies from our trial are consistent with the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Behavior Change Consortium Treatment Fidelity Workgroup (BCC) recommendations and provide a successful working model for treatment fidelity implementation in a large, multi-site behavioral intervention study. In this paper, we summarize 20 specific treatment fidelity strategies used in the SMART trial and how these strategies correspond with NIH BCC recommendations in five specific areas: (1) study design, (2) training providers, (3) delivery of treatment, (4) receipt of treatment, and (5) enactment of treatment skills. Increased use and reporting of treatment fidelity procedures is essential in advancing the reliability and validity of behavioral intervention research. The SMART trial provides a strong model for the application of fidelity strategies to improve scientific findings and addresses the absence of published literature, illustrating the application of BCC recommendations in behavioral intervention studies. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Migration routes and stopover sites of the Eurasian Spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia between the Carpathian Basin and wintering areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pigniczki Csaba

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the migration routes of the Central European Spoonbill population is important for their conservation. Here we analysed movements of 3186 individuals of Eurasian Spoonbills marked with colour rings in the Carpathian Basin (Hungary, Croatia and Serbia between 2003 and 2015, and a satellite tagged individual, which was equipped in Italy in 2013, and later moved to the Carpathian Basin. Migration routes of these Spoonbills predominantly followed the Adriatic Flyway, however, some birds were also found to both east and west from this flyway. We identified 59 stopover sites, 55 of which were located along the Adriatic Flyway. Colourringed juveniles (1cy, on average, spent 4.0±0.9 (SE days on the stopover sites along the Adriatic Flyway during autumn migration, while non-juveniles (> 1cy spent 2.6±1.0 (SE days during autumn and 2.1±0.4 (SE days during spring migration there. These durations were not significantly different. Duration of stops of the satellite tracked individual was between 7 and 15 days during autumn and between 1 and 12 days during spring migration. Our results indicate the existence of two alternative routes of the Adriatic Flyway between the Carpathian Basin and the wintering areas in southern Italy and the central part of coastal North-Africa. The North-Adriatic Flyway includes stopover sites in north-eastern Italy at the river mouth of River Isonzo, Lagunes of Venice and wetlands around River Po. The South Adriatic Flyway leads through the Balkan Peninsula, with stopover sites at the karst lakes of Bosnia and Herzegovina, mouth of the river Neretva (Croatia, Ulcinj Salinas (Montenegro and wetlands in Gulf of Manfredonia (Italy. This hypothesis was also supported by the migration of the satellite tagged individual, the paths of which was described here in detail. The average coordinates of spring and autumn stopover sites were located at different parts of the flyway: it was in south-western Italy during autumn

  9. Nest site characteristics, nesting movements, and lack of long-term nest site fidelity in Agassiz's desert tortoises at a wind energy facility in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Agha, Mickey; Yackulic, Charles B.; Meyer-Wilkins, Kathie; Bjurlin, Curtis; Ennen, Joshua R.; Arundel, Terry R.; Austin, Meaghan

    2014-01-01

    Nest site selection has important consequences for maternal and offspring survival and fitness. Females of some species return to the same nesting areas year after year. We studied nest site characteristics, fidelity, and daily pre-nesting movements in a population of Agassiz’s desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) at a wind energy facility in southern California during two field seasons separated by over a decade. No females returned to the same exact nest site within or between years but several nested in the same general area. However, distances between first and second clutches within a year (2000) were not significantly different from distances between nests among years (2000 and 2011) for a small sample of females, suggesting some degree of fidelity within their normal activity areas. Environmental attributes of nest sites did not differ significantly among females but did among years due largely to changes in perennial plant structure as a result of multiple fires. Daily pre-nesting distances moved by females decreased consistently from the time shelled eggs were first visible in X-radiographs until oviposition, again suggesting some degree of nest site selection. Tortoises appear to select nest sites that are within their long-term activity areas, inside the climate-moderated confines of one of their self-constructed burrows, and specifically, at a depth in the burrow that minimizes exposure of eggs and embryos to lethal incubation temperatures. Nesting in “climate-controlled” burrows and nest guarding by females relaxes some of the constraints that drive nest site selection in other oviparous species.

  10. Implementation of a novel synchronous multi-site all day high-fidelity simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Paul; Verdonk, Franck; Buleon, Clement; Tesniere, Antoine; Lilot, Marc

    2018-01-01

    Integration of simulation in educational curricula for anesthesia and intensive care residents is a hot topic. There is a great interest for simulation centers to share their experiences through multi-site synchronous simulation sessions. The present study results from an experience conducted at three sites in France (Paris, Lyon, and Caen), which involved 16 instructors and 25 residents facing the same scenario across 1 day. Synchronous simulations were performed at each site with local and shared debriefing via teleconference. This innovative approach to simulation was found to be feasible, although certain difficulties were encountered with connectivity.

  11. Time-lapse imagery of Adélie penguins reveals differential winter strategies and breeding site occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Caitlin; Southwell, Colin; Emmerson, Louise; Lunn, Daniel; Hart, Tom

    2018-01-01

    Polar seabirds adopt different over-wintering strategies to survive and build condition during the critical winter period. Penguin species either reside at the colony during the winter months or migrate long distances. Tracking studies and survey methods have revealed differences in winter migration routes among penguin species and colonies, dependent on both biotic and abiotic factors present. However, scan sampling methods are rarely used to reveal non-breeding behaviors during winter and little is known about presence at the colony site over this period. Here we show that Adélie penguins on the Yalour Islands in the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) are present year-round at the colony and undergo a mid-winter peak in abundance during winter. We found a negative relationship between daylight hours and penguin abundance when either open water or compact ice conditions were present, suggesting that penguins return to the breeding colony when visibility is lowest for at-sea foraging and when either extreme low or high levels of sea ice exist offshore. In contrast, Adélie penguins breeding in East Antarctica were not observed at the colonies during winter, suggesting that Adélie penguins undergo differential winter strategies in the marginal ice zone on the WAP compared to those in East Antarctica. These results demonstrate that cameras can successfully monitor wildlife year-round in areas that are largely inaccessible during winter.

  12. Time-lapse imagery of Adélie penguins reveals differential winter strategies and breeding site occupation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwell, Colin; Emmerson, Louise; Lunn, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Polar seabirds adopt different over-wintering strategies to survive and build condition during the critical winter period. Penguin species either reside at the colony during the winter months or migrate long distances. Tracking studies and survey methods have revealed differences in winter migration routes among penguin species and colonies, dependent on both biotic and abiotic factors present. However, scan sampling methods are rarely used to reveal non-breeding behaviors during winter and little is known about presence at the colony site over this period. Here we show that Adélie penguins on the Yalour Islands in the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) are present year-round at the colony and undergo a mid-winter peak in abundance during winter. We found a negative relationship between daylight hours and penguin abundance when either open water or compact ice conditions were present, suggesting that penguins return to the breeding colony when visibility is lowest for at-sea foraging and when either extreme low or high levels of sea ice exist offshore. In contrast, Adélie penguins breeding in East Antarctica were not observed at the colonies during winter, suggesting that Adélie penguins undergo differential winter strategies in the marginal ice zone on the WAP compared to those in East Antarctica. These results demonstrate that cameras can successfully monitor wildlife year-round in areas that are largely inaccessible during winter. PMID:29561876

  13. Two decades of genetic profiling yields first evidence of natal philopatry and long-term fidelity to parturition sites in sharks

    KAUST Repository

    Feldheim, Kevin Andrew; Gruber, Samuel H.; DiBattista, Joseph; Babcock, Elizabeth A.; Kessel, Steven T.; Hendry, Andrew P.; Pikitch, Ellen K.; Ashley, Mary V.; Chapman, Demian D F

    2013-01-01

    in the 1993-1997 cohorts returned to give birth 14-17 years later, providing the first direct evidence of natal philopatry in the chondrichthyans. Long-term fidelity to specific nursery sites coupled with natal philopatry highlights the merits of emerging

  14. A Survey for Odontocete Cetaceans Off Kaua’i and Ni’ihau, Hawai’i, During October and November 2005: Evidence for Population Structure and Site Fidelity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-17

    boat based survey for odontocetes was undertaken off the islands of Kauai & Niihau in October-November 2005 to photoidentify individuals and collect...short-finned pilot whales, 68 identifications) were compared to catalogs of these species from a survey off Kauai and Niihau in 2003, as well as from...identified off Kauai and Niihau , though no matches were found with individuals off any of the other islands. This suggests site fidelity to specific island

  15. Analysis of thematic mapper simulator data acquired during winter season over Pearl River, Mississippi, test site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. E.; Kalcic, M. T. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Digital processed aircraft-acquired thematic mapping simulator (TMS) data collected during the winter season over a forested site in southern Mississippi are presented to investigate the utility of TMS data for use in forest inventories and monitoring. Analyses indicated that TMS data are capable of delineating the mixed forest land cover type to an accuracy of 92.5 % correct. The accuracies associated with river bottom forest and pine forest were 95.5 and 91.5 % correct. The accuracies associated with river bottom forest and pine forest were 95.5 and 91.5 % correct, respectively. The figures reflect the performance for products produced using the best subset of channels for each forest cover type. It was found that the choice of channels (subsets) has a significant effect on the accuracy of classification produced, and that the same channels are not the most desirable for all three forest types studied. Both supervised and unsupervised spectral signature development techniques are evaluated; the unsupervised methods proved unacceptable for the three forest types considered.

  16. The Performance of Early-Generation Perennial Winter Cereals at 21 Sites across Four Continents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C. Hayes

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A network of 21 experiments was established across nine countries on four continents and spanning both hemispheres, to evaluate the relative performance of early generation perennial cereal material derived from wheat, rye, and barley and to inform future breeding strategies. The experimental lines were grown in replicated single rows, and first year production and phenology characteristics as well as yield and persistence for up to three years were monitored. The study showed that the existing experimental material is all relatively short-lived (≤3 years, with environments that are milder in summer and winter generally conferring greater longevity. No pedigree was superior across this diverse network of sites although better performing lines at the higher latitude sites were generally derived from Thinopyrum intermedium. By contrast, at lower latitudes the superior lines were generally derived from Th. ponticum and Th. elongatum parentage. The study observed a poor relationship between year 1 performance and productivity in later years, highlighting the need for perennial cereal material with greater longevity to underpin future experimental evaluation, and the importance for breeding programs to emphasize post-year 1 performance in their selections. Hybrid lines derived from the tetraploid durum wheat generally showed greater longevity than derivatives of hexaploid wheat, highlighting potential for greater use of Triticum turgidum in perennial wheat breeding. We advocate a model in future breeding initiatives that develops perennial cereal genotypes for specific target environments rather than a generic product for one global market. These products may include a diversity of cultivars derived from locally adapted annual and perennial parents. In this scenario the breeding program may have access to only a limited range of adapted perennial grass parents. In other situations, such as at very high latitude environments, perennial crops derived

  17. Two decades of genetic profiling yields first evidence of natal philopatry and long-term fidelity to parturition sites in sharks

    KAUST Repository

    Feldheim, Kevin Andrew

    2013-12-09

    Sharks are a globally threatened group of marine fishes that often breed in their natal region of origin. There has even been speculation that female sharks return to their exact birthplace to breed (\\'natal philopatry\\'), which would have important conservation implications. Genetic profiling of lemon sharks (Negaprion brevirostris) from 20 consecutive cohorts (1993-2012) at Bimini, Bahamas, showed that certain females faithfully gave birth at this site for nearly two decades. At least six females born in the 1993-1997 cohorts returned to give birth 14-17 years later, providing the first direct evidence of natal philopatry in the chondrichthyans. Long-term fidelity to specific nursery sites coupled with natal philopatry highlights the merits of emerging spatial and local conservation efforts for these threatened predators. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Annual survival estimation of migratory songbirds confounded by incomplete breeding site-fidelity: study designs that may help

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall, M. R.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Many species of bird exhibit varying degrees of site–fidelity to the previous year’s territory or breeding area, a phenomenon we refer to as incomplete breeding site–fidelity. If the territory they occupy is located beyond the bounds of the study area or search area (i.e., they have emigrated from the study area, the bird will go undetected and is therefore indistinguishable from dead individuals in capture–mark–recapture studies. Differential emigration rates confound inferences regarding differences in survival between sexes and among species if apparent survival rates are used as estimates of true survival. Moreover, the bias introduced by using apparent survival rates for true survival rates can have profound effects on the predictions of population persistence through time, source/sink dynamics, and other aspects of life–history theory. We investigated four study design and analysis approaches that result in apparent survival estimates that are closer to true survival estimates. Our motivation for this research stemmed from a multi–year capture–recapture study of Prothonotary Warblers (Protonotaria citrea on multiple study plots within a larger landscape of suitable breeding habitat where substantial inter–annual movements of marked individuals among neighboring study plots was documented. We wished to quantify the effects of this type of movement on annual survival estimation. The first two study designs we investigated involved marking birds in a core area and resighting them in the core as well as an area surrounding the core. For the first of these two designs, we demonstrated that as the resighting area surrounding the core gets progressively larger, and more “emigrants” are resighted, apparent survival estimates begin to approximate true survival rates (bias < 0.01. However, given observed inter–annual movements of birds, it is likely to be logistically impractical to resight birds on sufficiently large

  19. Characterisation of extreme winter precipitation in Mediterranean coastal sites and associated anomalous atmospheric circulation patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toreti, A.; Xoplaki, E.; Maraun, D.; Kuglitsch, F. G.; Wanner, H.; Luterbacher, J.

    2010-05-01

    We present an analysis of daily extreme precipitation events for the extended winter season (October-March) at 20 Mediterranean coastal sites covering the period 1950-2006. The heavy tailed behaviour of precipitation extremes and estimated return levels, including associated uncertainties, are derived applying a procedure based on the Generalized Pareto Distribution, in combination with recently developed methods. Precipitation extremes have an important contribution to make seasonal totals (approximately 60% for all series). Three stations (one in the western Mediterranean and the others in the eastern basin) have a 5-year return level above 100 mm, while the lowest value (estimated for two Italian series) is equal to 58 mm. As for the 50-year return level, an Italian station (Genoa) has the highest value of 264 mm, while the other values range from 82 to 200 mm. Furthermore, six series (from stations located in France, Italy, Greece, and Cyprus) show a significant negative tendency in the probability of observing an extreme event. The relationship between extreme precipitation events and the large scale atmospheric circulation at the upper, mid and low troposphere is investigated by using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data. A 2-step classification procedure identifies three significant anomaly patterns both for the western-central and eastern part of the Mediterranean basin. In the western Mediterranean, the anomalous southwesterly surface to mid-tropospheric flow is connected with enhanced moisture transport from the Atlantic. During ≥5-year return level events, the subtropical jet stream axis is aligned with the African coastline and interacts with the eddy-driven jet stream. This is connected with enhanced large scale ascending motions, instability and leads to the development of severe precipitation events. For the eastern Mediterranean extreme precipitation events, the identified anomaly patterns suggest warm air advection connected with anomalous ascent motions

  20. Characterisation of extreme winter precipitation in Mediterranean coastal sites and associated anomalous atmospheric circulation patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Toreti

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis of daily extreme precipitation events for the extended winter season (October–March at 20 Mediterranean coastal sites covering the period 1950–2006. The heavy tailed behaviour of precipitation extremes and estimated return levels, including associated uncertainties, are derived applying a procedure based on the Generalized Pareto Distribution, in combination with recently developed methods. Precipitation extremes have an important contribution to make seasonal totals (approximately 60% for all series. Three stations (one in the western Mediterranean and the others in the eastern basin have a 5-year return level above 100 mm, while the lowest value (estimated for two Italian series is equal to 58 mm. As for the 50-year return level, an Italian station (Genoa has the highest value of 264 mm, while the other values range from 82 to 200 mm. Furthermore, six series (from stations located in France, Italy, Greece, and Cyprus show a significant negative tendency in the probability of observing an extreme event. The relationship between extreme precipitation events and the large scale atmospheric circulation at the upper, mid and low troposphere is investigated by using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data. A 2-step classification procedure identifies three significant anomaly patterns both for the western-central and eastern part of the Mediterranean basin. In the western Mediterranean, the anomalous southwesterly surface to mid-tropospheric flow is connected with enhanced moisture transport from the Atlantic. During ≥5-year return level events, the subtropical jet stream axis is aligned with the African coastline and interacts with the eddy-driven jet stream. This is connected with enhanced large scale ascending motions, instability and leads to the development of severe precipitation events. For the eastern Mediterranean extreme precipitation events, the identified anomaly patterns suggest warm air advection connected with anomalous

  1. Fall migration routes, timing, and wintering sites of North American ospreys as determined by satellite telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martell, M.S.; Henny, Charles J.; Nye, P.; Solensky, Matthew J.

    2001-01-01

    Satellite telemetry was used to determine fall migratory movements of Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) breeding in the United States. Study areas were established along the lower Columbia River between Oregon and Washington; in north-central Minnesota; on Shelter Island, New York; and in southern New Jersey. Seventy-four adults (25 males, 49 females) were tracked from 1995 through 1999. Migration routes differed among populations but not by sex. Western Ospreys migrated through California and to a lesser degree other western states and wintered in Mexico (88%), El Salvador (6%), and Honduras (6%) (25.9A?N to 13.0A?N and 108.3A?W to 87.3A?W). Minnesota Ospreys migrated along three routes: (1) through the Central U.S. and then along the east coast of Mexico, (2) along the Mississippi River Valley, then across the Gulf of Mexico, or (3) through the southeastern U.S., then across the Caribbean. East Coast birds migrated along the eastern seaboard of the U.S., through Florida, and across the Caribbean. Midwestern birds wintered from Mexico south to Bolivia (22.35A?N to 13.64A?S, and 91.75A?W to 61.76A?W), while East Coast birds wintered from Florida to as far south as Brazil (27.48A?N to 18.5A?S and 80.4A?W to 57.29A?W). Dates of departure from breeding areas differed significantly between sexes and geographic regions, with females leaving earlier than males. Western birds traveled a shorter distance than either midwestern or eastern Ospreys. Females traveled farther than males from the same population, which resulted in females typically wintering south of males.

  2. Evidence for foraging -site fidelity and individual foraging behavior of pelagic cormorants rearing chicks in the gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzerka, J.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Garthe, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Pelagic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax pelagicus) is the most widespread cormorant in the North Pacific, but little is known about its foraging and diving behavior. However, knowledge of seabirds' foraging behavior is important to understanding their function in the marine environment. In 2006, using GPS dataloggers, we studied the foraging behavior of 14 male Pelagic Cormorants rearing chicks on Middleton Island, Alaska. For foraging, the birds had high fidelity to a small area 8 km north of the colony. Within that area, the cormorants' diving activity was of two distinct kinds-near-surface dives (1-6 m) and benthic dives (28-33 m). Individuals were consistent in the depths of their dives, either mostly shallow or mostly deep. Few showed no depth preference. Dive duration, time at maximum depth, and pauses at the water surface between consecutive dives were shorter for shallow dives than for deep dives. The cormorants made dives of both types throughout the day, but the frequency of deep dives increased toward evening. Maximum foraging range was 9 km; maximum total distance traveled per trip was 43.4 km. Trip durations ranged from 0.3 to 7.7 hr. Maximum depth of a dive was 42.2 m, and duration of dives ranged from 4 to 120 sec. We found that Pelagic Cormorants at Middleton Island were faithful to one particular foraging area and individuals dived in distinct patterns. Distinct, specialized foraging behavior may be advantageous in reducing intra- and interspecific competition but may also render the species vulnerable to changing environmental conditions. Copyright ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.

  3. [Roosting-site characteristics of wintering black-necked cranes (Grus nigricollis) at Napahai, Yunnan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Peng; Kong, De-Jun; Liu, Qiang; Yu, Hong-Zhong; Zhao, Jian-Lin; Yang, Xiao-Jun

    2011-04-01

    From November 2009 to April 2010, roosting-site characteristics of black-necked cranes (Grus nigricollis) were observed at Napahai Provincial Nature Reserve, Shangri-La, Yunnan, China. The positions of roosting-sites were determined by triangulation with markers and field correction. All of the 63 roosting-sites observed were located in patchy marshes with water, which contained some mud on the bottom and 81% of the roosting-sites were covered by plants. They also had a certain distance to areas of human activities and had a certain distance to the shore. A comparison of roosting sites and random sites showed that roosting-sites had thicker mud layers, a higher ratio of open water, longer distance to roads, villages, and farmland, and water depth. Another comparison of before and after usage of roosting-sites found a significant difference in area of marsh patch. Principal component analysis indicated that the usage of roosting-site of black-necked cranes was affected by human disturbance, area of marsh patch, and the condition of the shallow water environment.

  4. Klebsiella aerogenes UreF: Identification of the UreG Binding Site and Role in Enhancing the Fidelity of Urease Activation†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Jodi L.; Hausinger, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    The Ni-containing active site of Klebsiella aerogenes urease is assembled through the concerted action of the UreD, UreE, UreF, and UreG accessory proteins. UreE functions as a metallochaperone that delivers Ni to a complex of UreD—UreF—UreG bound to urease apoprotein, with UreG serving as a GTPase during enzyme activation. The present study focuses on the role of UreF, previously proposed to act as a GTPase activating protein (GAP) of UreG. Sixteen conserved UreF surface residues that may play roles in protein:protein interactions were independently changed to Ala. When produced in the context of the entire urease gene cluster, cell-free extracts of nine site-directed mutants had less than 10% of the wild-type urease activity. Enrichment of the variant forms of UreF, as the UreE-F fusion proteins, uniformly resulted in co-purification of UreD and urease apoprotein; whereas UreG bound to only a subset of the species. Notably, reduced interaction with UreG correlated with the low activity mutants. The affected residues in UreF map to a distinct surface on the crystal structure, defining the UreG binding site. In contrast to the hypothesis that UreF is a GAP, the UreD—UreF—UreG—urease apoprotein complex containing K165A UreF exhibited significantly greater levels of GTPase activity than that containing the wild-type protein. Additional studies demonstrated the UreG GTPase activity was largely uncoupled from urease activation for the complex containing this UreF variant. Further experiments with these complexes provided evidence that UreF gates the GTPase activity of UreG to enhance the fidelity of urease metallocenter assembly, especially in the presence of the non-cognate metal Zn. PMID:22369361

  5. Winter distribution and use of high elevation caves as foraging sites by the endangered Hawaiian hoary bat, Lasiurus cinereus semotus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorso, Frank; Montoya-Aiona, Kristina; Pinzari, Corinna A.; Todd, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    We examine altitudinal movements involving unusual use of caves by Hawaiian hoary bats, Lasiurus cinereus semotus, during winter and spring in the Mauna Loa Forest Reserve (MLFR), Hawai‘i Island. Acoustic detection of hoary bat vocalizations, were recorded with regularity outside 13 lava tube cave entrances situated between 2,200 to 3,600 m asl from November 2012 to April 2013. Vocalizations were most numerous in November and December with the number of call events and echolocation pulses decreasing through the following months. Bat activity was positively correlated with air temperature and negatively correlated with wind speed. Visual searches found no evidence of hibernacula nor do Hawaiian hoary bats appear to shelter by day in these caves. Nevertheless, bats fly deep into caves as evidenced by numerous carcasses found in cave interiors. The occurrence of feeding buzzes around cave entrances and visual observations of bats flying in acrobatic fashion in cave interiors point to the use of these spaces as foraging sites. Peridroma moth species (Noctuidae), the only abundant nocturnal, flying insect sheltering in large numbers in rock rubble and on cave walls in the MLFR, apparently serve as the principal prey attracting hoary bats during winter to lava tube caves in the upper MLFR. Caves above 3,000 m on Mauna Loa harbor temperatures suitable for Pseudogymnoascus destructansfungi, the causative agent of White-nose Syndrome that is highly lethal to some species of North American cave-dwelling bats. We discuss the potential for White-nose Syndrome to establish and affect Hawaiian hoary bats.

  6. Size distribution and sources of humic-like substances in particulate matter at an urban site during winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seungshik; Son, Se-Chang

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the size distribution and possible sources of humic-like substances (HULIS) in ambient aerosol particles collected at an urban site in Gwangju, Korea during the winter of 2015. A total of 10 sets of size-segregated aerosol samples were collected using a 10-stage Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI), and the samples were analyzed to determine the mass as well as the presence of ionic species (Na(+), NH4(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Cl(-), NO3(-), and SO4(2-)), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and HULIS. The separation and quantification of the size-resolved HULIS components from the MOUDI samples was accomplished using a Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balanced (HLB) solid phase extraction method and a total organic carbon analyzer, respectively. The entire sampling period was divided into two periods: non-Asian dust (NAD) and Asian dust (AD) periods. The contributions of water-soluble organic mass (WSOM = 1.9 × WSOC) and HULIS (=1.9 × HULIS-C) to fine particles (PM1.8) were approximately two times higher in the NAD samples (23.2 and 8.0%) than in the AD samples (12.8 and 4.2%). However, the HULIS-C/WSOC ratio in PM1.8 showed little difference between the NAD (0.35 ± 0.07) and AD (0.35 ± 0.05) samples. The HULIS exhibited a uni-modal size distribution (@0.55 μm) during NAD and a bimodal distribution (@0.32 and 1.8 μm) during AD, which was quite similar to the mass size distributions of particulate matter, WSOC, NO3(-), SO4(2-), and NH4(+) in both the NAD and AD samples. The size distribution characteristics and the results of the correlation analyses indicate that the sources of HULIS varied according to the particle size. In the fine mode (≤1.8 μm), the HULIS composition during the NAD period was strongly associated with secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation processes similar to those of secondary ionic species (cloud processing and/or heterogeneous reactions) and primary emissions during the biomass burning period, and during

  7. Fidelity deviation in quantum teleportation

    OpenAIRE

    Bang, Jeongho; Ryu, Junghee; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir

    2018-01-01

    We analyze the performance of quantum teleportation in terms of average fidelity and fidelity deviation. The average fidelity is defined as the average value of the fidelities over all possible input states and the fidelity deviation is their standard deviation, which is referred to as a concept of fluctuation or universality. In the analysis, we find the condition to optimize both measures under a noisy quantum channel---we here consider the so-called Werner channel. To characterize our resu...

  8. Assessing power plant impacts on fish populations at Northeast Utilities sites: winter flounder studies at Millstone Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorda, E.; Danila, D.J.; Miller, J.D.; Bireley, L.E.; Jacobsen, P.M.

    1987-01-01

    An historical view is presented of the various impact assessment approaches used to study the winter flounder, including efforts to identify and quantify compensation and to model its population dynamics. This review illustrates the need for unbiased estimates of basic life history parameters and power plant related mortalities if compensatory mechanisms are to be understood and if impact assessments are to be meaningful. 67 references, 19 figures, 10 tables

  9. Fidelity in clinical simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sanne; Nøhr, Christian; Rasmussen, Stine Loft

    2013-01-01

    Clinical simulation may be used to identify user needs for context sensitive functionalities in e-Health. The objective with this paper is to describe how user requirements and use cases in a large EHR-platform procurement may be validated by clinical simulation using a very low-fidelity prototype...... without any existing test data. Instead of using test scenarios and use cases, the healthcare professionals who are participating in the clinical simulation are generating both scenario and patient data themselves. We found that this approach allows for an imaginative discussion, not restricted by known...... functionalities and limitations, of the ideal EHR-platform. Subsequently, we discuss benefits and challenges of using an extremely low fidelity environment and discuss the degree of fidelity necessary for conducting clinical simulation....

  10. Fidelity of quantum interferometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahder, Thomas B.; Lopata, Paul A.

    2006-01-01

    For a generic interferometer, the conditional probability density distribution p(φ|m), for the phase φ given measurement outcome m will generally have multiple peaks. Therefore, the phase sensitivity of an interferometer cannot be adequately characterized by the standard deviation, such as Δφ∼1/√(N) (the standard limit), or Δφ∼1/N (the Heisenberg limit). We propose an alternative measure of phase sensitivity--the fidelity of an interferometer--defined as the Shannon mutual information between the phase shift φ and the measurement outcomes m. As an example application of interferometer fidelity, we consider a generic optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer, used as a sensor of a classical field. For the case where there exists no a priori information on the phase shift, we find the surprising result that maximally entangled state input leads to a lower fidelity than Fock state input, for the same photon number

  11. Source apportionment of PM2.5 at multiple Northwest U.S. sites: Assessing regional winter wood smoke impacts from residential wood combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotchenruther, Robert A.

    2016-10-01

    Wood smoke from residential wood combustion is a significant source of elevated PM2.5 in many communities across the Northwest U.S. Accurate representation of residential wood combustion in source-oriented regional scale air quality models is challenging because of multiple uncertainties. As an alternative to source-oriented source apportionment, this work provides, through receptor-oriented source apportionment, an assessment of winter residential wood combustion impacts at multiple Northwest U.S. locations. Source apportionment was performed on chemically speciated PM2.5 from 19 monitoring sites using the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) receptor model. Each site was modeled independently, but a common data preparation and modeling protocol was used so that results were as comparable as possible across sites. Model solutions had from 4 to 8 PMF factors, depending on the site. PMF factors at each site were associated with a source classification (e.g., primary wood smoke), a dominant chemical composition (e.g., ammonium nitrate), or were some mixture. 15 different sources or chemical compositions were identified as contributing to PM2.5 across the 19 sites. The 6 most common were; aged wood smoke and secondary organic carbon, motor vehicles, primary wood smoke, ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, and fugitive dust. Wood smoke was identified at every site, with both aged and primary wood smoke identified at most sites. Wood smoke contributions to PM2.5 were averaged for the two winter months of December and January, the months when wood smoke in the Northwest U.S. is mainly from residential wood combustion. The total contribution of residential wood combustion, that from primary plus aged smoke, ranged from 11.4% to 92.7% of average December and January PM2.5 depending on the site, with the highest percent contributions occurring in smaller towns that have fewer expected sources of winter PM2.5. Receptor modeling at multiple sites, such as that conducted in this

  12. Bioaccumulation of metals in reeds collected from an acid mine drainage contaminated site in winter and spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lin; Cutright, Teresa J

    2016-01-01

    Wetland plants such as Phragmites australis has been used to treat acid mine drainage (AMD) contaminated soil which is a serious environmental issue worldwide. This project investigated metal plaque content(s) and metal uptake in reeds grown in an AMD field in winter and spring. The results indicated that the level of Fe plaque was much higher than Mn and Al plaque as the soil contained more Fe than Al and Mn. The amounts of Mn and Al plaque formed on reeds in spring were not significantly different from that in winter (p > .05). However, more Fe plaque was formed on reeds collected in spring. The concentrations of metals in underground organs were positively related to the metal levels in soils. More Mn and Al transferred to the aboveground tissues of reeds during the spring while the Fe levels in reeds did not significantly vary with seasons. Roots and rhizomes were the main organs for Fe sequestration (16.3 ± 4.15 mg/g in roots in spring) while most Al was sequestered in the shoots of reeds (2.05 ± 0.09 mg/g in shoots in spring). Further research may be needed to enhance the translocation of metals in reeds and increase the phytoremediation efficiency.

  13. Trans-equatorial migration routes, staging sites and wintering areas of a high-Arctic avian predator: the long-tailed Skua (Stercorarius longicaudus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilg, Olivier; Moe, Børge; Hanssen, Sveinn Are; Schmidt, Niels Martin; Sittler, Benoît; Hansen, Jannik; Reneerkens, Jeroen; Sabard, Brigitte; Chastel, Olivier; Moreau, Jérôme; Phillips, Richard A; Oudman, Thomas; Biersma, Elisabeth M; Fenstad, Anette A; Lang, Johannes; Bollache, Loïc

    2013-01-01

    The Long-tailed Skua, a small (summer, but little is known about its migration and winter distribution. We used light-level geolocators to track the annual movements of eight adult birds breeding in north-east Greenland (n = 3) and Svalbard (n = 5). All birds wintered in the Southern Hemisphere (mean arrival-departure dates on wintering grounds: 24 October-21 March): five along the south-west coast of Africa (0-40°S, 0-15°E), in the productive Benguela upwelling, and three further south (30-40°S, 0-50°E), in an area extending into the south-west Indian Ocean. Different migratory routes and rates of travel were documented during post-breeding (345 km d(-1) in late August-early September) and spring migrations (235 km d(-1) in late April) when most birds used a more westerly flyway. Among the different staging areas, a large region off the Grand Banks of Newfoundland appears to be the most important. It was used in autumn by all but one of the tracked birds (from a few days to three weeks) and in spring by five out of eight birds (from one to more than six weeks). Two other staging sites, off the Iberian coast and near the Azores, were used by two birds in spring for five to six weeks. Over one year, individuals travelled between 43,900 and 54,200 km (36,600-45,700 when excluding staging periods) and went as far as 10,500-13,700 km (mean 12,800 km) from their breeding sites. This study has revealed important marine areas in both the south and north Atlantic Ocean. Sustainable management of these ocean basins will benefit Long-tailed Skuas as well as other trans-equatorial migrants from the Arctic.

  14. Meteorological and air quality data quarterly report WIPP site: Eddy County, New Mexico. Winter quarter, December 1976-February 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pocalujka, L.P.; Babij, E.; Church, H.W.

    1979-08-01

    The Wipp meteorological, air quality, and radiological measurements program was implemented to support the environmental effort for the evaluations of the site selection suitability. This data report is the third of a series of seasonal quarterly data summaries to be issued for the southeastern New Mexico site

  15. Winter Wonderlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Listening to people complain about the hardships of winter and the dreariness of the nearly constant gray sky prompted the author to help her sixth graders recognize and appreciate the beauty that surrounds them for nearly five months of the year in western New York. The author opines that if students could see things more artistically, the winter…

  16. Fidelity deviation in quantum teleportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Jeongho; Ryu, Junghee; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir

    2018-04-01

    We analyze the performance of quantum teleportation in terms of average fidelity and fidelity deviation. The average fidelity is defined as the average value of the fidelities over all possible input states and the fidelity deviation is their standard deviation, which is referred to as a concept of fluctuation or universality. In the analysis, we find the condition to optimize both measures under a noisy quantum channel—we here consider the so-called Werner channel. To characterize our results, we introduce a 2D space defined by the aforementioned measures, in which the performance of the teleportation is represented as a point with the channel noise parameter. Through further analysis, we specify some regions drawn for different channel conditions, establishing the connection to the dissimilar contributions of the entanglement to the teleportation and the Bell inequality violation.

  17. Quantum Fidelity and Thermal Phase Transitions in a Two-Dimensional Spin System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bo; Kou Su-Peng; Huang Hai-Lin; Sun Zhao-Yu

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the ability of quantum fidelity in detecting the classical phase transitions (CPTs) in a two-dimensional Heisenberg—Ising mixed spin model, which has a very rich phase diagram and is exactly soluble. For a two-site subsystem of the model, the reduced fidelity (including the operator fidelity and the fidelity susceptibility) at finite temperatures is calculated, and it is found that an extreme value presents at the critical temperature, thus shows a signal for the CPTs. In some parameter region, the signal becomes blurred. We propose to use the 'normalized fidelity susceptibility' to solve this problem

  18. Estimating economic thresholds for site-specific weed control using manual weed counts and sensor technology: an example based on three winter wheat trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Martina; Gutjahr, Christoph; Möhring, Jens; Weis, Martin; Sökefeld, Markus; Gerhards, Roland

    2014-02-01

    Precision experimental design uses the natural heterogeneity of agricultural fields and combines sensor technology with linear mixed models to estimate the effect of weeds, soil properties and herbicide on yield. These estimates can be used to derive economic thresholds. Three field trials are presented using the precision experimental design in winter wheat. Weed densities were determined by manual sampling and bi-spectral cameras, yield and soil properties were mapped. Galium aparine, other broad-leaved weeds and Alopecurus myosuroides reduced yield by 17.5, 1.2 and 12.4 kg ha(-1) plant(-1)  m(2) in one trial. The determined thresholds for site-specific weed control with independently applied herbicides were 4, 48 and 12 plants m(-2), respectively. Spring drought reduced yield effects of weeds considerably in one trial, since water became yield limiting. A negative herbicide effect on the crop was negligible, except in one trial, in which the herbicide mixture tended to reduce yield by 0.6 t ha(-1). Bi-spectral cameras for weed counting were of limited use and still need improvement. Nevertheless, large weed patches were correctly identified. The current paper presents a new approach to conducting field trials and deriving decision rules for weed control in farmers' fields. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Route Fidelity during Marine Megafauna Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis W. Horton

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The conservation and protection of marine megafauna require robust knowledge of where and when animals are located. Yet, our ability to predict animal distributions in space and time remains limited due to difficulties associated with studying elusive animals with large home ranges. The widespread deployment of satellite telemetry technology creates unprecedented opportunities to remotely monitor animal movements and to analyse the spatial and temporal trajectories of these movements from a variety of geophysical perspectives. Reproducible patterns in movement trajectories can help elucidate the potential mechanisms by which marine megafauna navigate across vast expanses of open-ocean. Here, we present an empirical analysis of humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae, great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias, and northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris satellite telemetry-derived route fidelity movements in magnetic and gravitational coordinates. Our analyses demonstrate that: (1 humpback whales, great white sharks and northern elephant seals are capable of performing route fidelity movements across millions of square kilometers of open ocean with a spatial accuracy of better than 150 km despite temporal separations as long as 7 years between individual movements; (2 route fidelity movements include significant (p < 0.05 periodicities that are comparable in duration to the lunar cycles and semi-cycles; (3 latitude and bedrock-dependent gravitational cues are stronger predictors of route fidelity movements than spherical magnetic coordinate cues when analyzed with respect to the temporally dependent moon illumination cycle. We further show that both route fidelity and non-route fidelity movement trajectories, for all three species, describe overlapping in-phase or antiphase sinusoids when individual movements are normalized to the gravitational acceleration present at migratory departure sites. Although these empirical results provide an

  20. Private visit to the CMS assembly site of Dr. Fidel Castro Diaz-Balart from the Superior Institute of Sciences and Nuclear Technologies, Havana, accompanied by His Excellency Mr. Emilio Caballero, Ambassador, Permanent Mission of Cuba in Paris.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    Photo 01: Left to right: His Excellency Mr Emilio Caballero; Prof. Tejinder Virdee, Deputy Spokesman of the CMS experiment; Dr Fidel Castro Diaz-Balart; Dr Matthias Schroeder, physicist, Experimental Physics division; Mrs Noëlle Levy, Casa del Habano, Geneva; Dr John Ellis, Adviser for Non-Member State relations; Dr Christian Roche, Senior Advisor to the Director-General. Photo 02: Left to right: His Excellency Mr Emilio Caballero, Prof. Tejinder Virdee, Dr Fidel Castro Diaz-Balart; Dr Matthias Schroeder; Mrs Noëlle Levy, Prof. Juan Antonio Rubio, Head of the Education and Technology Transfer division; Dr John Ellis.

  1. Codling moth in the Rhone valley: cocooning sites and winter survival of the mature larvae in modern apple orchards Laspeyresia pomonella L. (Lep. Tortricidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Causse, R.

    1976-01-01

    The study of the overwintering sites and mortality of Laspeyresia pomonella L. (Lep. Tortricidae) larvae has been carried out in modern apple orchards. The cocooning behavior has been followed up through a series of 27 successive releases of about 3000 larvae, laboratory reared and labeled by 65 Zn. When the mature larvae are released on the tree, most of them reach progressively the ground by the trunk after exploring it in all directions. When they have reached the ground or also when have been directly released on it, the direction they take seems to be the result of two essential factors: a photonegative response which tends to direct them away from the sun or the moonlight and, on the other hand, a silhouetting effect which draws the insects toward any dark body, clearly delimited. The larval and nymphal distribution on the tree was only 14,5% in the 1st generation and 4,5% in the 2nd generation. The remaining 85,5% or 95,5% are located in or on the soil, under the most varied shelters. This finding is not in agreement with results published by most authors having worked in old type and traditional orchards. The crawling of the larvae on the ground allows most of them to cover distances from 1,5 to 6,0m and up to 10m. Occasionally, a few larvae can be localized in the soil, at the tree base. The winter survival rate seems very low, mortalities varying from 88 to 100% in 1972-1973 and 1973-1974. This mortality has been caused mostly by unfavourable climatic conditions and by predators action: some of the latter have been identified [fr

  2. Contrasting winter and summer VOC mixing ratios at a forest site in the Western Mediterranean Basin: the effect of local biogenic emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Seco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs are involved in ozone and aerosol generation, thus having implications for air quality and climate. VOCs and their emissions by vegetation also have important ecological roles as they can protect plants from stresses and act as communication cues between plants and between plants and animals. In spite of these key environmental and biological roles, the reports on seasonal and daily VOC mixing ratios in the literature for Mediterranean natural environments are scarce.

    We conducted seasonal (winter and summer measurements of VOC mixing ratios in an elevated (720 m a.s.l. holm oak Mediterranean forest site near the metropolitan area of Barcelona (NE Iberian Peninsula. Methanol was the most abundant compound among all the VOCs measured in both seasons. While aromatic VOCs showed almost no seasonal variability, short-chain oxygenated VOCs presented higher mixing ratios in summer, presumably due to greater emission by vegetation and increased photochemistry, both enhanced by the high temperatures and solar radiation in summer. Isoprenoid VOCs showed the biggest seasonal change in mixing ratios: they increased by one order of magnitude in summer, as a result of the vegetation's greater physiological activity and emission rates. The maximum diurnal concentrations of ozone increased in summer too, most likely due to more intense photochemical activity and the higher levels of VOCs in the air.

    The daily variation of VOC mixing ratios was mainly governed by the wind regime of the mountain, as the majority of the VOC species analyzed followed a very similar diel cycle. Mountain and sea breezes that develop after sunrise advect polluted air masses to the mountain. These polluted air masses had previously passed over the urban and industrial areas surrounding the Barcelona metropolitan area, where they were enriched in NOx and in VOCs of biotic and abiotic origin. Moreover, these

  3. Contrasting winter and summer VOC mixing ratios at a forest site in the Western Mediterranean Basin: the effect of local biogenic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seco, R.; Peñuelas, J.; Filella, I.; Llusià, J.; Molowny-Horas, R.; Schallhart, S.; Metzger, A.; Müller, M.; Hansel, A.

    2011-12-01

    Atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are involved in ozone and aerosol generation, thus having implications for air quality and climate. VOCs and their emissions by vegetation also have important ecological roles as they can protect plants from stresses and act as communication cues between plants and between plants and animals. In spite of these key environmental and biological roles, the reports on seasonal and daily VOC mixing ratios in the literature for Mediterranean natural environments are scarce. We conducted seasonal (winter and summer) measurements of VOC mixing ratios in an elevated (720 m a.s.l.) holm oak Mediterranean forest site near the metropolitan area of Barcelona (NE Iberian Peninsula). Methanol was the most abundant compound among all the VOCs measured in both seasons. While aromatic VOCs showed almost no seasonal variability, short-chain oxygenated VOCs presented higher mixing ratios in summer, presumably due to greater emission by vegetation and increased photochemistry, both enhanced by the high temperatures and solar radiation in summer. Isoprenoid VOCs showed the biggest seasonal change in mixing ratios: they increased by one order of magnitude in summer, as a result of the vegetation's greater physiological activity and emission rates. The maximum diurnal concentrations of ozone increased in summer too, most likely due to more intense photochemical activity and the higher levels of VOCs in the air. The daily variation of VOC mixing ratios was mainly governed by the wind regime of the mountain, as the majority of the VOC species analyzed followed a very similar diel cycle. Mountain and sea breezes that develop after sunrise advect polluted air masses to the mountain. These polluted air masses had previously passed over the urban and industrial areas surrounding the Barcelona metropolitan area, where they were enriched in NOx and in VOCs of biotic and abiotic origin. Moreover, these polluted air masses receive additional biogenic

  4. Nuclear power plant training simulator fidelity assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, R.J.; Laughery, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    The fidelity assessment portion of a methodology for evaluating nuclear power plant simulation facilities in regard to their appropriateness for conducting the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's operating test was described. The need for fidelity assessment, data sources, and fidelity data to be collected are addressed. Fidelity data recording, collection, and analysis are discussed. The processes for drawing conclusions from the fidelity assessment and evaluating the adequacy of the simulator control-room layout were presented. 3 refs

  5. WINTER SAECULUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Mihalina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Accumulated imbalances in the economy and on the markets cause specific financial market dynamics that have formed characteristic patterns kept throughout long financial history. In 2008 Authors presented their expectations of key macroeconomic and selected asset class markets developments for period ahead based on Saeculum theory. Use of term Secular describes a specific valuation environment during prolonged period. If valuations as well as selected macro variables are considered as a tool for understanding business cycles then market cycles become much more obvious and easily understandable. Therefore over the long run, certain asset classes do better in terms of risk reward profile than others. Further on, there is no need for frequent portfolio rebalancing and timing of specific investment positions within a particular asset class market. Current stage in cycle development suggests a need for reassessment of trends and prevailing phenomena due to cyclical nture of long lasting Saeculums. Paper reviews developments in recognizable patterns of selected metrics in current Winter Saeculum dominated with prevailing forces of delivering, deflation and decrease in velocity of money.

  6. High-fidelity quantum driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bason, Mark George; Viteau, Matthieu; Malossi, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    Accurately controlling a quantum system is a fundamental requirement in quantum information processing and the coherent manipulation of molecular systems. The ultimate goal in quantum control is to prepare a desired state with the highest fidelity allowed by the available resources...... and the experimental constraints. Here we experimentally implement two optimal high-fidelity control protocols using a two-level quantum system comprising Bose–Einstein condensates in optical lattices. The first is a short-cut protocol that reaches the maximum quantum-transformation speed compatible...

  7. Changing distribution and abundance of Swan Goose Anser cygnoides in the Yangtze River floodplain: the likely loss of a very important wintering site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Cao, L.; Barter, M.; Fox, A.D.; Zhao, M.; Meng, F.; Shi, H.; Jiang, Y.; Zhu, W.

    2011-01-01

    Virtually the entire population of the globally ‘Vulnerable’ Swan Goose Anser cygnoides winters in the Yangtze floodplain. Historically, the species was widely distributed throughout the floodplain but now approximately 95% of the population is confined to three closely-situated wetlands in Anhui

  8. Comparing the Costs and Acceptability of Three Fidelity Assessment Methods for Assertive Community Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Angela L; Kukla, Marina; Salyers, Michelle P; McGrew, John H; Flanagan, Mindy E; Leslie, Doug L; Hunt, Marcia G; McGuire, Alan B

    2017-09-01

    Successful implementation of evidence-based practices requires valid, yet practical fidelity monitoring. This study compared the costs and acceptability of three fidelity assessment methods: on-site, phone, and expert-scored self-report. Thirty-two randomly selected VA mental health intensive case management teams completed all fidelity assessments using a standardized scale and provided feedback on each. Personnel and travel costs across the three methods were compared for statistical differences. Both phone and expert-scored self-report methods demonstrated significantly lower costs than on-site assessments, even when excluding travel costs. However, participants preferred on-site assessments. Remote fidelity assessments hold promise in monitoring large scale program fidelity with limited resources.

  9. Sobriety Treatment and Recovery Teams: Implementation Fidelity and Related Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Ruth A; Posze, Lynn; Willauer, Tina M; Hall, Martin T

    2015-01-01

    Although integrated programs between child welfare and substance abuse treatment are recommended for families with co-occurring child maltreatment and substance use disorders, implementing integrated service delivery strategies with fidelity is a challenging process. This study of the first five years of the Sobriety Treatment and Recovery Team (START) program examines implementation fidelity using a model proposed by Carroll et al. (2007). The study describes the process of strengthening moderators of implementation fidelity, trends in adherence to START service delivery standards, and trends in parent and child outcomes. Qualitative and quantitative measures were used to prospectively study three START sites serving 341 families with 550 parents and 717 children. To achieve implementation fidelity to service delivery standards required a pre-service year and two full years of operation, persistent leadership, and facilitative actions that challenged the existing paradigm. Over four years of service delivery, the time from the child protective services report to completion of five drug treatment sessions was reduced by an average of 75 days. This trend was associated with an increase in parent retention, parental sobriety, and parent retention of child custody. Conclusions/Importance: Understanding the implementation processes necessary to establish complex integrated programs may support realistic allocation of resources. Although implementation fidelity is a moderator of program outcome, complex inter-agency interventions may benefit from innovative measures of fidelity that promote improvement without extensive cost and data collection burden. The implementation framework applied in this study was useful in examining implementation processes, fidelity, and related outcomes.

  10. Contribution of biogenic and photochemical sources to ambient VOCs during winter to summer transition at a semi-arid urban site in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, L K; Tripathi, Nidhi; Yadav, Ravi

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents the sources and characteristics of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measured using PTR-TOF-MS instrument in a metropolitan city of India during winter to summer transition period. Mixing ratios of VOCs exhibited strong diurnal, day-to-day and episodic variations. Methanol was the most dominant species with monthly mean values of 18-22 pbbv. The emission ratios of VOCs relative to benzene calculated from nighttime data were used to estimate the relative contributions of vehicle exhaust and other sources. The increasing daytime ratios of oxygenated-VOCs (OVOCs)/benzene and isoprene/benzene from February to March indicates increasing contribution of photo-oxidation and biogenic sources. Daytime fractions of acetone (18%), acetaldehyde (15%) and isoprene (4.5%) to the sum of measured VOCs in March were higher than those in February. Variations of VOCs at lower temperatures (biogenic emissions. The emissions of OVOCs from vehicle exhaust were estimated to be smaller (20-40%) than those from other sources. The contributions of biogenic and secondary sources to OVOCs and isoprene increased by 10-15% from winter to summer. This study provides evidence that the winter-to-summer transition has an impact on sources and composition of VOCs in tropical urban areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Semiclassical approach to fidelity amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Mata, Ignacio; Vallejos, Raúl O; Wisniacki, Diego A

    2011-01-01

    The fidelity amplitude (FA) is a quantity of paramount importance in echo-type experiments. We use semiclassical theory to study the average FA for quantum chaotic systems under external perturbation. We explain analytically two extreme cases: the random dynamics limit - attained approximately by strongly chaotic systems - and the random perturbation limit, which shows a Lyapunov decay. Numerical simulations help us to bridge the gap between both the extreme cases. (paper)

  12. Assessment of synthetic image fidelity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kevin D.; Moorhead, Ian R.; Gilmore, Marilyn A.; Watson, Graham H.; Thomson, Mitch; Yates, T.; Troscianko, Tomasz; Tolhurst, David J.

    2000-07-01

    Computer generated imagery is increasingly used for a wide variety of purposes ranging from computer games to flight simulators to camouflage and sensor assessment. The fidelity required for this imagery is dependent on the anticipated use - for example when used for camouflage design it must be physically correct spectrally and spatially. The rendering techniques used will also depend upon the waveband being simulated, spatial resolution of the sensor and the required frame rate. Rendering of natural outdoor scenes is particularly demanding, because of the statistical variation in materials and illumination, atmospheric effects and the complex geometric structures of objects such as trees. The accuracy of the simulated imagery has tended to be assessed subjectively in the past. First and second order statistics do not capture many of the essential characteristics of natural scenes. Direct pixel comparison would impose an unachievable demand on the synthetic imagery. For many applications, such as camouflage design, it is important that nay metrics used will work in both visible and infrared wavebands. We are investigating a variety of different methods of comparing real and synthetic imagery and comparing synthetic imagery rendered to different levels of fidelity. These techniques will include neural networks (ICA), higher order statistics and models of human contrast perception. This paper will present an overview of the analyses we have carried out and some initial results along with some preliminary conclusions regarding the fidelity of synthetic imagery.

  13. Physical characteristics and fish assemblage composition at site and mesohabitat scales over a range of streamflows in the Middle Rio Grande, New Mexico, winter 2011-12, summer 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Christopher L.; Pearson, Daniel K.; Porter, Michael D.; Moring, J. Bruce

    2015-01-01

    In winter 2011–12 and summer 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Albuquerque District and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service New Mexico Fish and Wildlife Conservation Office in Albuquerque, New Mexico, evaluated the physical characteristics and fish assemblage composition of available mesohabitats over a range of streamflows at 15 sites on the Middle Rio Grande in New Mexico. The fish assemblage of the Middle Rio Grande includes several minnow species adapted to hydrologically variable but seasonably predictable rivers, including theHybognathus amarus (Rio Grande silvery minnow), a federally listed endangered species. Gaining a better understanding of habitat usage by the Rio Grande silvery minnow was the impetus for studying physical characteristics and fish assemblages in the Middle Rio Grande during different streamflow conditions. Data were collected at all 15 sites during winter 2011–12 (moderate streamflow), and a subset was collected at the 13 most downstream sites in summer 2012 (low streamflow). Sites were grouped into four river reaches separated by diversion dams listed in downstream order (names of the diversion dams are followed by short names of the sites nearest each dam in parentheses, listed in downstream order): (1) Cochiti (Peña Blanca), (2) Angostura (Bernalillo, La Orilla, Barelas, Los Padillas), (3) Isleta (Los Lunas I, Los Lunas II, Abeytas, La Joya, Rio Salado), and (4) San Acacia (Lemitar, Arroyo del Tajo, San Pedro, Bosque del Apache I, and Bosque del Apache II). Stream habitat was mapped in the field by using a geographic information system in conjunction with a Global Positioning System. Fish assemblage composition was determined during both streamflow regimes, and fish were collected by seining in each mesohabitat where physical characteristic data (depth, velocity, dominant substrate type and size, and percent embeddedness) and water-quality properties (temperature

  14. THE CONCEPT OF FIDELITY IN COMICS TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erico Assis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The long-discussed – and frequently dismissed – concept of translation faithfulness or translation fidelity, though usually applied to literary texts, has its fair share of applications when considered for comics translation. In literary translation, non-linguistic portions such as illustrations are often considered addenda or “paratexts” relative to the main, linguistic text. Comics, by its turn, present a certain set of features which single them out as a form that demands a new concept of “text” and, therefore, of translation fidelity. The comic-reading process, as pertaining to cognitive apprehension, implies interpretative accords that differ from the ones in purely linguistic texts: each and every element of the comics page – non-linguistic (mainly imagetic signs, linguistic signs, panel borders, typography and such – are intertwined and should be perceived in regards to its spatial and topological relations. This approach to understanding comics is based on Groensteen (1999 and his concepts of arthrology, spatio-topia, page layout, breakdown and braiding. As for translation fidelity, we rely on authors such as Berman (1984, Guidere (2010 and Aubert (1993. On comics translation, Zanettin (2008, Rota (2008 and Yuste Frías (2010, 2011 are of particular interest. Based on various concepts of fidelity – supported by samples of translated comics with varied degrees of fidelity to the source text – we discuss the different grounds of source-text fidelity, target-reader fidelity and source-author fidelity in the following instances: linguistic sign fidelity, imagetic sign fidelity, spatio-topia fidelity, typographic fidelity and format fidelity.

  15. Winter Weather Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health problems, including ... there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect yourself. ...

  16. Winter maintenance performance measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Winter Performance Index is a method of quantifying winter storm events and the DOTs response to them. : It is a valuable tool for evaluating the States maintenance practices, performing post-storm analysis, training : maintenance personnel...

  17. Winter weather demand considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Winter weather has varied effects on travel behavior. Using 418 survey responses from the Northern Virginia : commuting area of Washington, D.C. and binary logit models, this study examines travel related changes under : different types of winter wea...

  18. Expansion into an herbivorous niche by a customary carnivore : Black-tailed godwits feeding on rhizomes of Zostera at a newly established wintering site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robin, Frederic; Piersma, Theunis; Meunier, Francis; Bocher, Pierrick

    In expanding populations, individuals may increasingly be forced to use sites of relatively low quality. This process, named the "buffer effect," was previously described for the Black-tailed Godwit (Limosa limosa islandica) in its use of nonbreeding sites in Great Britain and of breeding areas in

  19. High Fidelity BWR Fuel Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Su Jong [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This report describes the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) work conducted for completion of the Thermal Hydraulics Methods (THM) Level 3 milestone THM.CFD.P13.03: High Fidelity BWR Fuel Simulation. High fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation for Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) was conducted to investigate the applicability and robustness performance of BWR closures. As a preliminary study, a CFD model with simplified Ferrule spacer grid geometry of NUPEC BWR Full-size Fine-mesh Bundle Test (BFBT) benchmark has been implemented. Performance of multiphase segregated solver with baseline boiling closures has been evaluated. Although the mean values of void fraction and exit quality of CFD result for BFBT case 4101-61 agreed with experimental data, the local void distribution was not predicted accurately. The mesh quality was one of the critical factors to obtain converged result. The stability and robustness of the simulation was mainly affected by the mesh quality, combination of BWR closure models. In addition, the CFD modeling of fully-detailed spacer grid geometry with mixing vane is necessary for improving the accuracy of CFD simulation.

  20. Winter-to-winter variations in indoor radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mose, D.G.; Mushrush, G.W.; Kline, S.W.

    1989-01-01

    Indoor radon concentrations in northern Virginia and central Maryland show a strong dependence on weather. Winter tends to be associated with higher than average indoor radon, and summer with lower than average. However, compared to the winter of 1986-1987, the winter of 1987-1988 was warmer and drier. Consequently, winter-to-winter indoor radon decreased by about 25%. This winter-to-winter decrease is unexpectedly large, and simulates winter-to-summer variations that have been reported

  1. Observation and Modelling of the OH, HO2 and RO2 Radicals at a Regional Site of Beijing in Winter 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Z.; Lu, K.; Ma, X.; Bohn, B.; Hofzumahaus, A.; Broch, S.; Fuchs, H.; Holland, F.; Liu, Y.; Li, X.; Novelli, A.; Rohrer, F.; Wang, H.; Wu, Y.; Shao, M.; Zeng, L.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Wahner, A.; Zhang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    A comprehensive field campaign was carried out in winter 2016 in the campus of UCAS (University of Chinese Academy of Science), located in a small town 60 km northeast of urban Beijing. Concentrations of OH, HO2 and RO2 radicals as well as the total OH reactivity were measured by a laser induced fluorescence instrument. Maximum hourly averaged OH, HO2 and RO2 radical concentrations were (3±2)×106cm-3, (8±6)×107 cm-3 and (7±5)×107 cm-3, respectively. These radical concentrations were smaller than those observed during summer because of the reduced solar radiation. A chemical modulation device to separate atmospheric OH radicals from any interfering species was applied for few days showing negligible interference for both clean and polluted air masses.HONO and HCHO photolysis were found to be the most important primary sources of ROx radicals. CO and NOx were the important OH reactants which contributed more than half of the total OH reactivity. The relative high OH concentrations in polluted episode enabled a fast oxidation of fresh emitted pollutants and the formation of secondary air products. The observed radical concentrations were compared with the results from a chemical box model. The model is capable of reproducing radical concentrations for moderate NOx conditions but larger discrepancies are observed for both low and high NOx regimes for the peroxy radical concentrations. The underestimation of RO2 radical concentrations for high NOx conditions is discussed in the context of recent campaigns.

  2. PM{sub 2.5} acidity at a background site in the Pearl River Delta region in fall-winter of 2007–2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Xiaoxin [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Shenzhen Research Institute, Hong Kong Polytechnic University (China); Guo, Hai, E-mail: ceguohai@polyu.edu.hk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Shenzhen Research Institute, Hong Kong Polytechnic University (China); Wang, Xinming, E-mail: wangxm@gig.ac.cn [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Ding, Xiang; He, Quanfu; Liu, Tengyu; Zhang, Zhou [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China)

    2015-04-09

    Highlights: • 24-h PM{sub 2.5} samples were collected in fall-winter of 2007–2012. • The annual reduction trends of [H{sup +}]{sub total} and [H{sup +}]{sub in-situ} of PM{sub 2.5} was −32 ± 1.5 and −9 ± 1.7 nmol m{sup −3}, respectively. • On hazy days, the concentration of OM showed significant enhancement when [H{sup +}]{sub in-situ} ranged from 85 to 240 nmol m{sup −3}. • [H{sup +}]{sub in-situ} presented a close relationship with NO{sub 3}{sup −} formation mechanisms in low and high acidity of PM{sub 2.5}. - Abstract: Based on field observations and thermodynamic model simulation, the annual trend of PM{sub 2.5} acidity and its characteristics on non-hazy and hazy days in fall-winter of 2007–2012 in the Pearl River Delta region were investigated. Total acidity ([H{sup +}]{sub total}) and in-situ acidity ([H{sup +}]{sub in-situ}) of PM{sub 2.5} significantly decreased (F-test, p < 0.05) at a rate of −32 ± 1.5 nmol m{sup −3} year{sup −1} and −9 ± 1.7 nmol m{sup −3} year{sup −1}, respectively. The variation of acidity was mainly caused by the change of the PM{sub 2.5} component, i.e., the decreasing rates of [H{sup +}]{sub total} and [H{sup +}]{sub in-situ} due to the decrease of sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}) exceeded the increasing rate caused by the growth of nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup −}). [H{sup +}]{sub total}, [H{sup +}]{sub in-situ} and liquid water content on hazy days were 0.9–2.2, 1.2–3.5 and 2.0–3.0 times those on non-hazy days, respectively. On hazy days, the concentration of organic matter (OM) showed significant enhancement when [H{sup +}]{sub in-situ} increased (t-test, p < 0.05), while this was not observed on non-hazy days. Moreover, when the acidity was low (i.e., R = [NH{sub 4}{sup +}]/(2 × [SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}] + [NO{sub 3}{sup −}]) > 0.6), NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} was most likely formed via homogenous reaction. When the acidity was high (R ≤ 0.6), the gas-phase formation of NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} was

  3. Breaking the routine: individual Cory's shearwaters shift winter destinations between hemispheres and across ocean basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Maria P.; Granadeiro, José P.; Phillips, Richard A.; Alonso, Hany; Catry, Paulo

    2011-01-01

    There is growing evidence that migratory species are particularly vulnerable to rapid environmental changes arising from human activity. Species are expected to vary in their capacity to respond to these changes: long-distance migrants and those lacking variability in migratory traits are probably at considerable disadvantage. The few studies that have assessed the degree of plasticity in behaviour of marine animals suggest that fidelity to non-breeding destinations is usually high. In the present study, we evaluated individual flexibility in migration strategy of a highly pelagic seabird, the Cory's shearwater Calonectris diomedea. Geolocation data from 72 different migrations, including 14 birds that were tracked for more than one non-breeding season, showed a remarkable capacity to change winter destinations between years. Although some birds exhibited high site fidelity, others shifted from the South to North Atlantic, from the western to eastern South Atlantic, and from the Atlantic to Indian Ocean. Individuals also showed flexibility in stopover behaviour and migratory schedule. Although their K-selected life-history strategy has the disadvantage that the chances of microevolution are slight if circumstances alter rapidly, these results suggest that Cory's shearwaters may be in a better position than many other long-distance migrants to face the consequences of a changing environment. PMID:21106591

  4. Mercury, Lead, Cadmium, Cobalt, Arsenic and Selenium in the Blood of Semipalmated Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla from Suriname, South America: Age-related Differences in Wintering Site and Comparisons with a Stopover Site in New Jersey, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Burger

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available It is essential to understand contaminant exposure and to compare levels of contaminants in organisms at different ages to determine if there is bioaccumulation, and to compare levels encountered in different geographical areas. In this paper, we report levels of mercury, lead, cadmium, cobalt, arsenic and selenium in the blood of semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla wintering in Suriname as a function of age, and compare them to blood levels in northbound migrants at a stopover in Delaware Bay, New Jersey. We found (1 young birds had higher levels of cadmium, cobalt, and lead than adults (after second year birds; (2 there were no age-related differences for arsenic, mercury and selenium; (3 only four of the possible 16 inter-metal correlations were significant, at the 0.05 level; (4 the highest correlation was between cadmium and lead (Kendall tau = 0.37; and (5 the adult sandpipers had significantly higher levels of cadmium, mercury and selenium in Suriname than in New Jersey, while the New Jersey birds had significantly higher levels of arsenic. Suriname samples were obtained in April, after both age classes had spent the winter in Suriname, which suggests that sandpipers are accumulating higher levels of trace elements in Suriname than in Delaware Bay. The levels of selenium may be within a range of concern for adverse effects, but little is known about adverse effect levels of trace elements in the blood of wild birds.

  5. Balancing "fidelity" and community context in the adaptation of asthma evidence-based interventions in the "real world".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Marielena; Bryant-Stephens, Tyra; Damitz, Maureen; Findley, Sally; Gavillán, Jesús González; Mitchell, Herman; Ohadike, Yvonne U; Persky, Victoria W; Valencia, Gilberto Ramos; Smith, Lucia Rojas; Rosenthal, Michael; Thyne, Shannon; Uyeda, Kimberly; Viswanathan, Meera; Woodell, Carol

    2011-11-01

    The Merck Childhood Asthma Network (MCAN) initiative selected five sites (New York City, Puerto Rico, Chicago, Los Angeles, and Philadelphia) to engage in translational research to adapt evidence-based interventions (EBIs) to improve childhood asthma outcomes. The authors summarize the sites' experience by describing criteria defining the fidelity of translation, community contextual factors serving as barriers or enablers to fidelity, types of adaptation conducted, and strategies used to balance contextual factors and fidelity in developing a "best fit" for EBIs in the community. A conceptual model captures important structural and process-related factors and helps frame lessons learned. Site implementers and intervention developers reached consensus on qualitative rankings of the levels of fidelity of implementation for each of the EBI core components: low fidelity, adaptation (major vs. minor), or high fidelity. MCAN sites were successful in adapting core EBI components based on their understanding of structural and other contextual barriers and enhancers in their communities. Although the sites varied regarding both the EBI components they implemented and their respective levels of fidelity, all sites observed improvement in asthma outcomes. Our collective experiences of adapting and implementing asthma EBIs highlight many of the factors affecting translation of evidenced-based approaches to chronic disease management in real community settings.

  6. Communicating Certainty About Nuclear Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, A.

    2013-12-01

    Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), I inserted a paragraph pointing out that volcanic eruptions serve as an analog that supports new work on nuclear winter. This is the first time that nuclear winter has been in the IPCC report. I will tell the story of the discussions within our chapter, with review editors, and with the IPCC leadership that resulted in a box in Chapter 8 that discusses nuclear winter. We gave a briefing to John Holdren, the President's Science Advisor, about the work. Daniel Ellsberg, Fidel Castro, and Mikhail Gorbachev found out about our work, and used the results to appeal for nuclear abolition. In 2013 the work was featured at the Conference on the Humanitarian Impact of Nuclear Weapons in Oslo, Norway attended by 132 nations, and I gave a TEDx talk, I published an opinion piece on the CNN website, and I gave an invited public lecture in Nagasaki, Japan, all about the climatic consequences of nuclear war. I am now using Twitter and Facebook to communicate about nuclear winter. The threat that nuclear weapons pose to the planet is a much easier problem to solve than global warming. We need to eliminate nuclear weapons so we have the luxury of working on the global warming problem without the possibility of the existential global threat still posed by the global nuclear arsenal.

  7. Physiological Based Simulator Fidelity Design Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Thomas; Hamel, Nancy; Postnikov, Alex; Hoke, Jaclyn; McLean, Angus L. M. Thom, III

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of the role of flight simulation has reinforced assumptions in aviation that the degree of realism in a simulation system directly correlates to the training benefit, i.e., more fidelity is always better. The construct of fidelity has several dimensions, including physical fidelity, functional fidelity, and cognitive fidelity. Interaction of different fidelity dimensions has an impact on trainee immersion, presence, and transfer of training. This paper discusses research results of a recent study that investigated if physiological-based methods could be used to determine the required level of simulator fidelity. Pilots performed a relatively complex flight task consisting of mission task elements of various levels of difficulty in a fixed base flight simulator and a real fighter jet trainer aircraft. Flight runs were performed using one forward visual channel of 40 deg. field of view for the lowest level of fidelity, 120 deg. field of view for the middle level of fidelity, and unrestricted field of view and full dynamic acceleration in the real airplane. Neuro-cognitive and physiological measures were collected under these conditions using the Cognitive Avionics Tool Set (CATS) and nonlinear closed form models for workload prediction were generated based on these data for the various mission task elements. One finding of the work described herein is that simple heart rate is a relatively good predictor of cognitive workload, even for short tasks with dynamic changes in cognitive loading. Additionally, we found that models that used a wide range of physiological and neuro-cognitive measures can further boost the accuracy of the workload prediction.

  8. Overview of the LADCO winter nitrate study: hourly ammonia, nitric acid and PM2.5 composition at an urban and rural site pair during PM2.5 episodes in the US Great Lakes region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shaw

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the LADCO (Lake Michigan Air Directors Consortium Winter Nitrate Study (WNS is presented. Sampling was conducted at ground level at an urban-rural pair of sites during January–March 2009 in eastern Wisconsin, toward the western edge of the US Great Lakes region. Areas surrounding these sites experience multiday episodes of wintertime PM2.5 pollution characterized by high fractions of ammonium nitrate in PM, low wind speeds, and air mass stagnation. Hourly surface monitoring of inorganic gases and aerosols supplemented long-term 24-h aerosol chemistry monitoring at these locations. The urban site (Milwaukee, WI experienced 13 PM2.5 episodes, defined as periods where the seven-hour moving average PM2.5 concentration exceeded 27 μg m−3 for at least four consecutive hours. The rural site experienced seven episodes by the same metric, and all rural episodes coincided with urban episodes. Episodes were characterized by low pressure systems, shallow/stable boundary layer, light winds, and increased temperature and relative humidity relative to climatological mean conditions. They often occurred in the presence of regional snow cover at temperatures near freezing, when snow melt and sublimation could generate fog and strengthen the boundary layer inversion. Substantial contribution to nitrate production from nighttime chemistry of ozone and NO2 to N2O5 and nitric acid is likely and requires further investigation. Pollutant-specific urban excess during episode and non-episode conditions is presented. The largest remaining uncertainties in the conceptual model of the wintertime episodes are the variability from episode-to-episode in ammonia emissions, the balance of daytime and nighttime nitrate production, the relationship between ammonia controls, NOx controls and ammonium nitrate reductions, and the extent to which snow and fog are causal (either through meteorological or chemical processes rather than just correlated with episodes

  9. Fidelity imaging for atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosal, Sayan, E-mail: ghos0087@umn.edu; Salapaka, Murti, E-mail: murtis@umn.edu [Nanodynamics Systems Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2015-01-05

    Atomic force microscopy is widely employed for imaging material at the nanoscale. However, real-time measures on image reliability are lacking in contemporary atomic force microscopy literature. In this article, we present a real-time technique that provides an image of fidelity for a high bandwidth dynamic mode imaging scheme. The fidelity images define channels that allow the user to have additional authority over the choice of decision threshold that facilitates where the emphasis is desired, on discovering most true features on the sample with the possible detection of high number of false features, or emphasizing minimizing instances of false detections. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of fidelity imaging.

  10. Winters fuels report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The outlook for distillate fuel oil this winter is for increased demand and a return to normal inventory patterns, assuming a resumption of normal, cooler weather than last winter. With industrial production expected to grow slightly from last winter's pace, overall consumption is projected to increase 3 percent from last winter, to 3.4 million barrels per day during the heating season (October 1, 1995-March 31, 1996). Much of the supply win come from stock drawdowns and refinery production. Estimates for the winter are from the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) 4th Quarter 1995 Short-Tenn Energy Outlook (STEO) Mid-World Oil Price Case forecast. Inventories in place on September 30, 1995, of 132 million barrels were 9 percent below the unusually high year-earlier level. Inventories of high-sulfur distillate fuel oil, the principal type used for heating, were 13 percent lower than a year earlier. Supply problems are not anticipated because refinery production and the ready availability of imports should be adequate to meet demand. Residential heating off prices are expected to be somewhat higher than last winter's, as the effects of lower crude oil prices are offset by lower distillate inventories. Heating oil is forecast to average $0.92 per gallon, the highest price since the winter of 1992-93. Diesel fuel (including tax) is predicted to be slightly higher than last year at $1.13 per gallon. This article focuses on the winter assessment for distillate fuel oil, how well last year's STEO winter outlook compared to actual events, and expectations for the coming winter. Additional analyses include regional low-sulfur and high-sulfur distillate supply, demand, and prices, and recent trends in distillate fuel oil inventories

  11. Chemical characteristics of N2O5 observed at a rural site in Beijing winter 2016: from clean to polluted air mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Lu, K.; Tan, Z.; Chen, X.; Wu, Z.; Zhu, Q.; Li, X.; Liu, Y.; Shang, D.; Wu, Y.; Min, H.; Zeng, L.; Schmitt, S. H.; Rohrer, F.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Wahner, A.; Zhang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) plays a vital role in the atmospheric oxidation, the NOX removal and the nitrate formation. A comprehensive campaign was conducted in the wintertime of 2016 in Beijing to focus on the atmospheric oxidation, new particle formation and aerosol light extinctions during the wintertime in Beijing. The site is located at a rural area in the northeast of Beijing and about 60 km away from the city center. A newly developed instrument based on the cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS) was deployed to measure ambient N2O5. Simultaneous measurements of the properties of particles and the relevant trace gases are available. The daily peaks of N2O5 in the clean episodes was lower than that of polluted episodes, the campaign maximum of 1.4 ppbv were captured in the most serious pollution episode. The averaged N2O5 maximum was about 120 pptv near 20:00, which is higher than that observed in summer. The uptake coefficient of N2O5 was derived from an iterative box model approach based on the Regional Atmospheric Chemical Mechanism version 2 (RACM2), constrained to observed trace gas compounds as well as the aerosol surface concentrations. The mechanisms of the chemical compounds of aerosols (measured by AMS) affects the N2O5 uptake coefficient are explored in several chemical coordinate systems. The chemical behaviors of the ambient N2O5 concentrations for this campaign is further discussed in the context of other campaigns performed in the urban and suburban areas in Beijing.

  12. Fidelity induced distance measures for quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhihao; Zhang Fulin; Chen Jingling

    2009-01-01

    Fidelity plays an important role in quantum information theory. In this Letter, we introduce new metric of quantum states induced by fidelity, and connect it with the well-known trace metric, Sine metric and Bures metric for the qubit case. The metric character is also presented for the qudit (i.e., d-dimensional system) case. The CPT contractive property and joint convex property of the metric are also studied.

  13. Correlates of Harlequin Duck densities during winter in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esler, Daniel N.; Bowman, Timothy D.; Dean, T.A.; O'Clair, Charles E.; Jewett, S.C.; McDonald, L.L.

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated relationships of Harlequin Duck (Histrionicus histrionicus) densities to habitat attributes, history of habitat contamination by the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, and prey biomass density and abundance during winters 1995-1997 in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Habitat features that explained variation in duck densities included distance to streams and reefs, degree of exposure to wind and wave action, and dominant substrate type. After accounting for these effects, densities were lower in oiled than unoiled areas, suggesting that population recovery from the oil spill was not complete, due either to lack of recovery from initial oil spill effects or continuing deleterious effects. Prey biomass density and abundance were not strongly related to duck densities after accounting for habitat and area effects. Traits of Harlequin Ducks that reflect their affiliation with naturally predictable winter habitats, such as strong site fidelity and intolerance of increased energy costs, may make their populations particularly vulnerable to chronic oil spill effects and slow to recover from population reductions, which may explain lower densities than expected on oiled areas nearly a decade following the oil spill.

  14. Evaluating display fidelity and interaction fidelity in a virtual reality game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahan, Ryan P; Bowman, Doug A; Zielinski, David J; Brady, Rachael B

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, consumers have witnessed a technological revolution that has delivered more-realistic experiences in their own homes through high-definition, stereoscopic televisions and natural, gesture-based video game consoles. Although these experiences are more realistic, offering higher levels of fidelity, it is not clear how the increased display and interaction aspects of fidelity impact the user experience. Since immersive virtual reality (VR) allows us to achieve very high levels of fidelity, we designed and conducted a study that used a six-sided CAVE to evaluate display fidelity and interaction fidelity independently, at extremely high and low levels, for a VR first-person shooter (FPS) game. Our goal was to gain a better understanding of the effects of fidelity on the user in a complex, performance-intensive context. The results of our study indicate that both display and interaction fidelity significantly affect strategy and performance, as well as subjective judgments of presence, engagement, and usability. In particular, performance results were strongly in favor of two conditions: low-display, low-interaction fidelity (representative of traditional FPS games) and high-display, high-interaction fidelity (similar to the real world).

  15. Abundancia estacional, fenología reproductiva y fidelidad al sitio del mulato (Melanotis caerulescens en ambientes ribereños del suroeste de Jalisco Seasonal abundance, reproductive phenology and site fidelity in riparian environments of the Blue Mockingbird (Melanotis caerulescens in southwestern Jalisco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz de los Milagros Rodríguez-Parga

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio describe la abundancia estacional, fenología reproductiva y fidelidad al sitio de Melanotis caerulescens, especie de ave endémica de México, localmente conocida como mulato y valorada por su canto. Se realizó un muestreo con el método de captura con redes de niebla durante 2 años en 3 sitios de la vegetación ribereña del río Ayuquila, Jalisco. Se caracterizó el hábitat mediante muestreos de los estratos arbóreo, arbustivo y herbáceo. Mediante modelos lineales generalizados se analizaron las diferencias de cobertura de los estratos entre los sitios y se identificó el efecto del sitio y el mes sobre la abundancia de la especie. La presencia de parche de incubación y protuberancia cloacal describe un periodo reproductor de abril a agosto. La abundancia del mulato se relacionó positivamente con sitios de mayor cobertura arbustiva y el análisis de fidelidad (por presencia-ausencia de 16 individuos mostró que 3 parejas reproductoras mantuvieron sus territorios. Estos resultados sugieren que mantener una adecuada densidad de sotobosque arbustivo en zonas ribereñas es importante para proveer alimento y áreas para la nidificación que requiere el mulato. El presente estudio es relevante por tratarse de los primeros datos al respecto que se publican sobre esta especie endémica.This study describes the seasonal abundance, reproductive phenology and site fidelity of the Blue Mockingbird (Melanotis caerulescens, an endemic species of Mexico noted for its singing capabilities. This species was sampled using mist-nets for 2 consecutive years at 3 sites of riparian vegetation in the Ayuquila River, Jalisco. Habitat characterization was carried out through sampling strata of trees, shrubs, and herbaceous ground cover. We used Generalized Linear Models to analyze the differences in coverage strata between the sites, and to identify the effect of site and month on the abundance of the species. The presence of a brood patch and

  16. Winter Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Winter Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1992 and covered offshore areas from the Mid-Atlantic to Georges Bank. Inshore strata were covered...

  17. Deer Wintering Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Deer winter habitat is critical to the long term survival of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Vermont. Being near the northern extreme of the...

  18. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE STUDY OF THE AVIFAUNA FROM THE SITE NATURE 2000 ROSPA0062 – “THE RESERVOIRS ON THE ARGEŞ RIVER” - THE WINTERING QUARTERS FROM THE MIDDLE BASIN OF THE ARGEŞ RIVER. THE HIEMAL SEASON.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Denisa Conete

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we present the results of our ecological research on the avifauna of some reservoirs (a site of the Nature 2000 Network from the middle basin of the Argeş River, during the hiemal season in the period 2003 – 2010. The hibernal/hiemal season is the poorest in species of the six seasons (118 species belonging to 14 orders, 32 families and 68 genera, of which 49 species are dependent on wetlands, but the richest in the number of individuals (448,064. We also perform an analysis of the avifauna according to ecological indices (IR, constancy, dominancy, the Dzuba index of ecological significance, etc.. The Anseriformes were overdominant. It is the only season in which the order Passeriformes is complementary. Great agglomerations of Anseriformes are constantly present during the hiemal season; the specific composition and the number of individuals of the different species vary continuously on each of the reservoirs in relation to the weather conditions, the accessibility of food, etc. The highest number of Anseriformes species was observed on the Budeasa Reservoir (19 species and the lowest on the Bascov Reservoir (12 species. The correlation between temperature and the total number of individuals of the bird species is negative. As the temperature increases, the number of individuals decreases and vice versa. The most important wintering quarter is, during our research, the Goleşti Reservoir, with impressive concentrations of waterbirds. Mention should be made of five characteristic species (eudominant and dominant present in the area of the reservoirs in the hiemal season: Anas platyrhynchos, Aythya ferina, Fulica atra, Aythya fuligula and Larus ridibundus. The high number of subrecedent species (102 emphasizes the great fluctuation of bird species in the area as a result of the fact that these reservoirs are on the course of some European migration routes and ensure favourable conditions (halting, sheltering and feeding

  19. An information theoretic approach to use high-fidelity codes to calibrate low-fidelity codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Allison, E-mail: lewis.allison10@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Smith, Ralph [Department of Mathematics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Williams, Brian [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Figueroa, Victor [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    For many simulation models, it can be prohibitively expensive or physically infeasible to obtain a complete set of experimental data to calibrate model parameters. In such cases, one can alternatively employ validated higher-fidelity codes to generate simulated data, which can be used to calibrate the lower-fidelity code. In this paper, we employ an information-theoretic framework to determine the reduction in parameter uncertainty that is obtained by evaluating the high-fidelity code at a specific set of design conditions. These conditions are chosen sequentially, based on the amount of information that they contribute to the low-fidelity model parameters. The goal is to employ Bayesian experimental design techniques to minimize the number of high-fidelity code evaluations required to accurately calibrate the low-fidelity model. We illustrate the performance of this framework using heat and diffusion examples, a 1-D kinetic neutron diffusion equation, and a particle transport model, and include initial results from the integration of the high-fidelity thermal-hydraulics code Hydra-TH with a low-fidelity exponential model for the friction correlation factor.

  20. Mountain big sagebrush age distribution and relationships on the northern Yellowstone Winter Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl L. Wambolt; Trista L. Hoffman

    2001-01-01

    This study was conducted within the Gardiner Basin, an especially critical wintering area for native ungulates utilizing the Northern Yellowstone Winter Range. Mountain big sagebrush plants on 33 sites were classified as large (≥22 cm canopy cover), small (

  1. Seasonal alterations in host range and fidelity in the polyphagous mirid bug, Apolygus lucorum (Heteroptera: Miridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongsheng Pan

    Full Text Available In herbivorous insects, host plant switching is commonly observed and plays an important role in their annual life cycle. However, much remains to be learned about seasonal host switching of various pestiferous arthropods under natural conditions. From 2006 until 2012, we assessed Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür host plant use in successive spring, summer and winter seasons at one single location (Langfang, China. Data were used to quantify changes in host plant breadth and host fidelity between seasons. Host fidelity of A. lucorum differed between seasons, with 87.9% of spring hosts also used in the summer and 36.1% of summer hosts used in winter. In contrast, as little as 25.6% host plant species were shared between winter and spring. Annual herbaceous plants are most often used for overwintering, while perennial woody plants are relatively important for initial population build-up in the spring. Our study contributes to an improved understanding of evolutionary interactions between A. lucorum and its host plants and lays the groundwork for the design of population management strategies for this important pest in myriad crops.

  2. Fidelity approach in topological superconductors with disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Wen-Chuan; Huang, Guang-Yao; Wang, Zhi, E-mail: physicswangzhi@gmail.com; Yao, Dao-Xin, E-mail: yaodaox@mail.sysu.edu.cn

    2015-03-20

    We apply the fidelity approach to study the topological superconductivity in spin–orbit coupling nanowire system. The wire is modeled as a one layer lattice chain with Zeeman energy and spin–orbit coupling, which is in proximity to a multi-layer superconductor. In particular, we study the effects of disorders and find that the fidelity susceptibility has multiple peaks. It is revealed that one peak indicates the topological quantum phase transition, while other peaks are signaling the pinning of the Majorana bound states by disorders. - Highlights: • We introduce fidelity approach to study the topological superconducting nanowire with disorders. • We study the quantum phase transition in the wire. • We investigate the disorder pinning of the Majorana bound states in the wire.

  3. Fidelity approach in topological superconductors with disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Wen-Chuan; Huang, Guang-Yao; Wang, Zhi; Yao, Dao-Xin

    2015-01-01

    We apply the fidelity approach to study the topological superconductivity in spin–orbit coupling nanowire system. The wire is modeled as a one layer lattice chain with Zeeman energy and spin–orbit coupling, which is in proximity to a multi-layer superconductor. In particular, we study the effects of disorders and find that the fidelity susceptibility has multiple peaks. It is revealed that one peak indicates the topological quantum phase transition, while other peaks are signaling the pinning of the Majorana bound states by disorders. - Highlights: • We introduce fidelity approach to study the topological superconducting nanowire with disorders. • We study the quantum phase transition in the wire. • We investigate the disorder pinning of the Majorana bound states in the wire

  4. Unified universal quantum cloning machine and fidelities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yinan; Shi Handuo; Xiong Zhaoxi; Jing Li; Mu Liangzhu [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Ren Xijun [School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 4750011 (China); Fan Heng [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2011-09-15

    We present a unified universal quantum cloning machine, which combines several different existing universal cloning machines together, including the asymmetric case. In this unified framework, the identical pure states are projected equally into each copy initially constituted by input and one half of the maximally entangled states. We show explicitly that the output states of those universal cloning machines are the same. One importance of this unified cloning machine is that the cloning procession is always the symmetric projection, which reduces dramatically the difficulties for implementation. Also, it is found that this unified cloning machine can be directly modified to the general asymmetric case. Besides the global fidelity and the single-copy fidelity, we also present all possible arbitrary-copy fidelities.

  5. Fidelity susceptibility as holographic PV-criticality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momeni, Davood, E-mail: davoodmomeni78@gmail.com [Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of General & Theoretical Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan); Faizal, Mir, E-mail: mirfaizalmir@googlemail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta T1K 3M4 (Canada); Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, University of British Columbia – Okanagan, 3333 University Way, Kelowna, British Columbia V1V 1V7 (Canada); Myrzakulov, Kairat, E-mail: kairatmyrzakul@gmail.com [Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of General & Theoretical Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan); Myrzakulov, Ratbay, E-mail: rmyrzakulov@gmail.com [Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of General & Theoretical Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan)

    2017-02-10

    It is well known that entropy can be used to holographically establish a connection among geometry, thermodynamics and information theory. In this paper, we will use complexity to holographically establish a connection among geometry, thermodynamics and information theory. Thus, we will analyze the relation among holographic complexity, fidelity susceptibility, and thermodynamics in extended phase space. We will demonstrate that fidelity susceptibility (which is the informational complexity dual to a maximum volume in AdS) can be related to the thermodynamical volume (which is conjugate to the cosmological constant in the extended thermodynamic phase space). Thus, this letter establishes a relation among geometry, thermodynamics, and information theory, using complexity.

  6. Effects of prescribed burns on wintering cavity-nesting birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather L. Bateman; Margaret A. O' Connell

    2006-01-01

    Primary cavity-nesting birds play a critical role in forest ecosystems by excavating cavities later used by other birds and mammals as nesting or roosting sites. Several species of cavity-nesting birds are non-migratory residents and consequently subject to winter conditions. We conducted winter bird counts from 1998 to 2000 to examine the abundance and habitat...

  7. The nuclear winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velikhow, Y.P.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear winter is an example of possible secondary effects, and if we speak of secondary we are thinking of small-scale second-order effects, but a nuclear winter is not a second-order effect. If you calculate the amount of heat produced by a nuclear explosion, it is a very small amount which does not have any chance of changing the Earth's climate, but a nuclear explosion drives or stars some new mechanism - the mechanism of nuclear winter - after 100 megatons of dust are transferred to the upper atmosphere. Another example of such amplification is radioactive fall-out, especially long-life radioactive fall-out after the possible elimination of the nuclear power industry, nuclear storage and distribution of storage waste around the globe. This is a very powerful amplification mechanism

  8. Real-time weed detection, decision making and patch spraying in maize, sugarbeet, winter wheat and winter barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerhards, R; Christensen, Svend

    2003-01-01

    with weed infestation levels higher than the economic weed threshold; a review of such work is provided. This paper presents a system for site-specific weed control in sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.), maize (Zea mays L.), winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), including...

  9. Information, entropy, and fidelity in visual communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huck, Friedrich O.; Fales, Carl L.; Alter-Gartenberg, Rachel; Rahman, Zia-ur

    1992-10-01

    This paper presents an assessment of visual communication that integrates the critical limiting factors of image gathering an display with the digital processing that is used to code and restore images. The approach focuses on two mathematical criteria, information and fidelity, and on their relationships to the entropy of the encoded data and to the visual quality of the restored image.

  10. A new universal colour image fidelity metric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Lucassen, M.P.

    2003-01-01

    We extend a recently introduced universal grayscale image quality index to a newly developed perceptually decorrelated colour space. The resulting colour image fidelity metric quantifies the distortion of a processed colour image relative to its original version. We evaluated the new colour image

  11. Information, entropy and fidelity in visual communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huck, Friedrich O.; Fales, Carl L.; Alter-Gartenberg, Rachel; Rahman, Zia-Ur

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of visual communication that integrates the critical limiting factors of image gathering and display with the digital processing that is used to code and restore images. The approach focuses on two mathematical criteria, information and fidelity, and on their relationships to the entropy of the encoded data and to the visual quality of the restored image.

  12. Fidelity study of superconductivity in extended Hubbard models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plonka, N.; Jia, C. J.; Wang, Y.; Moritz, B.; Devereaux, T. P.

    2015-07-01

    The Hubbard model with local on-site repulsion is generally thought to possess a superconducting ground state for appropriate parameters, but the effects of more realistic long-range Coulomb interactions have not been studied extensively. We study the influence of these interactions on superconductivity by including nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor extended Hubbard interactions in addition to the usual on-site terms. Utilizing numerical exact diagonalization, we analyze the signatures of superconductivity in the ground states through the fidelity metric of quantum information theory. We find that nearest and next-nearest neighbor interactions have thresholds above which they destabilize superconductivity regardless of whether they are attractive or repulsive, seemingly due to competing charge fluctuations.

  13. TET1 and hydroxymethylcytosine in transcription and DNA methylation fidelity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Kristine; Christensen, Jesper; Pedersen, Marianne Terndrup

    2011-01-01

    a role in transcriptional repression. TET1 binds a significant proportion of Polycomb group target genes. Furthermore, TET1 associates and colocalizes with the SIN3A co-repressor complex. We propose that TET1 fine-tunes transcription, opposes aberrant DNA methylation at CpG-rich sequences and thereby...... throughout the genome of embryonic stem cells, with the majority of binding sites located at transcription start sites (TSSs) of CpG-rich promoters and within genes. The hmC modification is found in gene bodies and in contrast to mC is also enriched at CpG-rich TSSs. We provide evidence further that TET1 has...... contributes to the regulation of DNA methylation fidelity....

  14. Employment and winter construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2011-01-01

    Reduced seasonal building activity in the construction sector is often assumed to be related to hard winter conditions for building activities and poor working conditions for construction workers, resulting in higher costs and poor quality of building products, particularly in the northern hemisp...... of contracts for workers is more likely to explain differences in seasonal activity than climatic or technological factors....

  15. Titan's Emergence from Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flasar, F. Michael; Achterberg, Richard; Jennings, Donald; Schinder, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We summarize the changes in Titans thermal structure derived from Cassini CIRS and radio-occultation data during the transition from winter to early spring. Titan's surface, and middle atmosphere show noticeable seasonal change, whereas that in most of the troposphere is mated. This can be understood in terms of the relatively small radiative relaxation time in the middle atmosphere and much larger time scale in the troposphere. The surface exhibits seasonal change because the heat capacity in an annual skin depth is much smaller than that in the lowest scale height of the troposphere. Surface temperatures rise 1 K at raid and high latitudes in the winter northern hemisphere and cool in the southern hemisphere. Changes in in the middle atmosphere are more complicated. Temperatures in the middle stratosphere (approximately 1 mbar) increase by a few kelvin at mid northern latitudes, but those at high latitudes first increase as that region moves out of winter shadow, and then decrease. This probably results from the combined effect of increased solar heating as the suit moves higher in the sky and the decreased adiabatic warming as the sinking motions associated with the cross-equatorial meridional cell weaken. Consistent with this interpretation, the warm temperatures observed higher up at the winter polar stratopause cool significantly.

  16. Site fidelity and longevity of the Karoo Thrush Turdus smithi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , and have a similar maximum longevity. We propose that adult thrushes are able to persist in a given home range because they are able to avoid resident predators, e.g. feral cats Felis sylvestris catus, by accurately predicting their hunting ...

  17. Editorial - The winter Atomiades

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    As we wrote in our previous editorial, the Staff Association gives direct support to sports events, such as the Atomiades, a section of the Association of Sports Communities of European Research Institutes, which brings together sportsmen and women from 38 European research centres in 13 countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, United Kingdom, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Luxemburg, the Netherlands, Russia, and Switzerland). The summer Atomiades take place between the months of June and September every three years. Thirteen such events have taken place since 1973, the last one in June 2009 in Berlin. As far as the winter Atomiades are concerned, also organized every three years, and alternating with the summer Atomiades, there have been eleven since 1981, the last one at the end of January this year in neighbouring France. The following article tells the wonderful adventure of the CERN staff who took part in this event. A positive outcome for CERN skiers at the winter Atomiades The 11t...

  18. Winter is losing its cool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, S.

    2017-12-01

    Winter seasons have significant societal impacts across all sectors ranging from direct human health to ecosystems, transportation, and recreation. This study quantifies the severity of winter and its spatial-temporal variations using a newly developed winter severity index and daily temperature, snowfall and snow depth. The winter severity and the number of extreme winter days are decreasing across the global terrestrial areas during 1901-2015 except the southeast United States and isolated regions in the Southern Hemisphere. These changes are dominated by winter warming, while the changes in daily snowfall and snow depth played a secondary role. The simulations of multiple CMIP5 climate models can well capture the spatial and temporal variations of the observed changes in winter severity and extremes during 1951-2005. The models are consistent in projecting a future milder winter under various scenarios. The winter severity is projected to decrease 60-80% in the middle-latitude Northern Hemisphere under the business-as-usual scenario. The winter arrives later, ends earlier and the length of winter season will be notably shorter. The changes in harsh winter in the polar regions are weak, mainly because the warming leads to more snowfall in the high latitudes.

  19. Severe red spruce winter injury in 2003 creates unusual ecological event in the northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brynne E. Lazarus; Paul G. Schaberg; Donald H. DeHayes; Gary J. Hawley

    2004-01-01

    Abundant winter injury to the current-year (2002) foliage of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) became apparent in the northeastern United States in late winter of 2003. To assess the severity and extent of this damage, we measured foliar winter injury at 28 locations in Vermont and surrounding states and bud mortality at a subset of these sites. Ninety percent of all...

  20. Fidel Castro: the word that unites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grisel Veloz-Fernández

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work carries out a boarding of Fidel Castro's political speech, leaving of an understanding of its renovating character inside the most complex historical segment in the revolutionary process that is the period 1959 - 1961. It is during the same one that in Cuba a consent arms to the socialism. That achievement relapses fundamentally in Fidel's leadership and its capacity to negotiate the nucleus of ideas and values of that process through the political speech. Analyzed around 72 documents a characterization of that speech it has been achieved in benefit of their current utility. Presently work takes as starting point the conditions that existed in our country to the revolutionary victory that were the material base of an authentic revolution of the political speech in Cuba and the world like interaction form and transmission of political ideas as regards talkative resources.

  1. Fidelity of Simulation for Pilot Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    indicators of joint angles. The combination of all the pro- prioceptive senses permits subjects to perceive body accelerations based on the biomechanical ...constraints III. Controllers A. Flight controls 1. Center stick, column, side stick, collective 2. Pedals (yaw control, brakes) 3. Thrust controllers 4...the most sensitive elements in terms of fidelity require- ments. The force-generating systems associated with the stick or column and pedals are

  2. Fidelity, entanglement, and information complementarity relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Jian-Ming; Zhou, Zheng-Wei; Guo, Guang-Can

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of information in isolated multi-qubit systems. It is shown that information is in not only local form but also nonlocal form. We apply a measure of local information based on fidelity, and demonstrate that nonlocal information can be directly related to some appropriate well defined entanglement measures. Under general unitary transformations, local and nonlocal information will exhibit unambiguous complementary behavior with the total information conserved

  3. Relationship Between Self-Assessed Fidelity and Self-Reported Employment in the Individual Placement and Support Model of Supported Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolies, Paul J; Humensky, Jennifer L; Chiang, I-Chin; Covell, Nancy H; Jewell, Thomas C; Broadway-Wilson, Karen; Gregory, Raymond; Scannevin, Gary; Dixon, Lisa B

    2018-05-01

    A growing body of literature demonstrates that high-fidelity implementation of the individual placement and support (IPS) model of supported employment increases the chances of achieving desired outcomes. This study examined the relationship between IPS fidelity, as self-reported by program sites, and employment outcomes and determined whether this relationship was maintained over time. A total of 78 outpatient programs in New York State provided data on self-reported IPS fidelity and employment outcomes. Pearson correlations were used to determine the relationship between fidelity scores and competitive employment rates. A mixed-effects model examined the relationship between repeated fidelity and employment measures over time. A significant positive relationship was found between better self-reported IPS fidelity and greater employment. The relationship between IPS fidelity and employment was sustained over time (up to one year). Higher-fidelity implementation of the IPS model, as self-assessed by program sites, was associated with higher employment rates, which were sustained over time.

  4. Winter Frost and Fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This somewhat oblique blue wide angle Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the 174 km (108 mi) diameter crater, Terby, and its vicinity in December 2004. Located north of Hellas, this region can be covered with seasonal frost and ground-hugging fog, even in the afternoon, despite being north of 30oS. The subtle, wavy pattern is a manifestation of fog. Location near: 28oS, 286oW Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

  5. Decontamination and winter conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quenild, C.; Tveten, U.

    1984-12-01

    The report deals with two decontamonation experiments under winter conditions. A snow-covered parking lot was contaminated, and the snow was subsequently removed using standard snow-moving equipment. The snow left behind was collected and the content of contaminant was determined. A non-radioactive contaminant was used. A decontamination factor exceeding 100 was obtained. Although the eksperimental conditions were close to ideal, it is reason to believe that extremely efficient removal of deposited materials on a snow surface is achivable. In another investigation, run-off from agricultural surface, contaminated while covered with snow, was measured A lycimeter was used in this experiment. A stable layer of ice and snow was allowed to form before contamination. The run-off water was collected at each thaw period until all snow and ice was gone. Cs-134 was used as contaminant. Roughly 30% of the Cs-134 with which the area was contaminated ran off with the melt water. Following a reactor accident situation, this would have given a corresponding reduction in the long term doses. Both of these experiments show that consequence calculation assumptions, as they are currently applied to large accident assessment, tend to overestimate the consequences resulting from accidents taking place under winter conditions

  6. Winter School Les Houches

    CERN Document Server

    Lannoo, Michel; Bastard, Gérald; Voos, Michel; Boccara, Nino

    1986-01-01

    The Winter School held in Les Houches on March 12-21, 1985 was devoted to Semiconductor Heterojunctions and Superlattices, a topic which is recognized as being now one of the most interesting and active fields in semiconductor physics. In fact, following the pioneering work of Esaki and Tsu in 1970, the study of these two-dimensional semiconductor heterostructures has developed rapidly, both from the point of view of basic physics and of applications. For instance, modulation-doped heterojunctions are nowadays currently used to investigate the quantum Hall effect and to make very fast transistors. This book contains the lectures presented at this Winter School, showing in particular that many aspects of semiconductor heterojunctions and super­ lattices were treated, extending from the fabrication of these two-dimensional systems to their basic properties and applications in micro-and opto-electron­ ics. Among the subjects which were covered, one can quote as examples: molecular beam epitaxy and metallorgani...

  7. High-Fidelity Roadway Modeling and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Papelis, Yiannis; Shen, Yuzhong; Unal, Ozhan; Cetin, Mecit

    2010-01-01

    Roads are an essential feature in our daily lives. With the advances in computing technologies, 2D and 3D road models are employed in many applications, such as computer games and virtual environments. Traditional road models were generated by professional artists manually using modeling software tools such as Maya and 3ds Max. This approach requires both highly specialized and sophisticated skills and massive manual labor. Automatic road generation based on procedural modeling can create road models using specially designed computer algorithms or procedures, reducing the tedious manual editing needed for road modeling dramatically. But most existing procedural modeling methods for road generation put emphasis on the visual effects of the generated roads, not the geometrical and architectural fidelity. This limitation seriously restricts the applicability of the generated road models. To address this problem, this paper proposes a high-fidelity roadway generation method that takes into account road design principles practiced by civil engineering professionals, and as a result, the generated roads can support not only general applications such as games and simulations in which roads are used as 3D assets, but also demanding civil engineering applications, which requires accurate geometrical models of roads. The inputs to the proposed method include road specifications, civil engineering road design rules, terrain information, and surrounding environment. Then the proposed method generates in real time 3D roads that have both high visual and geometrical fidelities. This paper discusses in details the procedures that convert 2D roads specified in shape files into 3D roads and civil engineering road design principles. The proposed method can be used in many applications that have stringent requirements on high precision 3D models, such as driving simulations and road design prototyping. Preliminary results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  8. RELAP5: Applications to high fidelity simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnsen, G.W.; Chen, Y.S.

    1988-01-01

    RELAP5 is a pressurized water reactor system transient simulation code for use in nuclear power plant safety analysis. The latest version, MOD2, may be used to simulate and study a wide variety of abnormal events, including loss-of-coolant accidents, operational transients, and transients in which the entire secondary system must be modeled. In this paper, a basic overview of the code is given, its assessment and application illustrated, and progress toward its use as a high fidelity simulator described. 7 refs., 7 figs

  9. Chemical fidelity of an RNA polymerase ribozyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Attwater, J.; Tagami, S.; Kimoto, M.

    2013-01-01

    for function. Here we have explored the chemical fidelity, i.e. substrate selectivity and specificity for both single and multiple catalytic steps of the Z RNA polymerase ribozyme-a modern day analogue of the primordial RNA replicase. Using a wide range of nucleotide analogues and ionic conditions, we observe......The emergence of catalytically active RNA enzymes (ribozymes) is widely believed to have been an important transition in the origin of life. In the context of a likely heterogeneous chemical environment, substrate specificity and selectivity of these primordial enzymes would have been critical...

  10. Fidelity and game-based technology in management education

    OpenAIRE

    Cornacchione Jr.,Edgard B.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores educational technology and management education by analyzing fidelity in game-based management education interventions. A sample of 31 MBA students was selected to help answer the research question: To what extent do MBA students tend to recognize specific game-based academic experiences, in terms of fidelity, as relevant to their managerial performance? Two distinct game-based interventions (BG1 and BG2) with key differences in fidelity levels were explored: BG1 presented...

  11. How Fidelity invests in service professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColgan, E A

    1997-01-01

    If you're in the business of service delivery, investment in the training and development of your staff is one of the keys to your company's success. But what's the best way to design and implement your investment? In 1994, Fidelity Institutional Retirement Services Company (FIRSCo) needed to ensure that its rapidly expanding staff maintained the company's high levels of customer satisfaction. The solution, according to Ellyn McColgan, formerly an executive vice president of FIRSCo and now the president of Fidelity Investments Tax-Exempt Services Company, was to reach out to its service associates with a powerful new model for training and development called Service Delivery University. SDU is a virtual university with a content-based core curriculum and five colleges that focus on business concepts and skills. It is driven by three principles. First, all training must be directly aligned with the company's strategic and financial objectives and focused on customer needs. Second, service delivery is a profession and should be taught as such. And finally, professional development should be the primary responsibility of line managers rather than the human resources department. McColgan explains how FIRSCo overcame resistance to this sweeping change in employee education. (Time was one obstacle: each associate receives 80 hours of training per year.) In addition, the author discusses the fine art of measuring the success of a program like SDU. She finds that the company's investment has paid dividends to the staff, to the organization as a whole, and to FIRSCo's customers.

  12. Study fidelity spatial contours of industrial robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Ivanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper to identify deviations fidelity spatial contours of industrial robots, determine the error pattern detected, and define the ways to solve the problem.The paper presents the research results of fidelity spatial contours done by Fanuc M- 710iC/50 industrial robot when moving along a predetermined path. The proposed method uses a QC20-W ballbar wireless system of Renishaw company, designed to diagnose the state of the measurement and playback linear and angular displacements of the CNC.The solutions to adapt the QC20-W ballbar system to the constructive peculiarities of industrial robots with five or more independently controlled axes are given. The stages of the preparation of diagnostic systems and software robot movements are described.According to study results of errors that arise while playing back the programmed motions of a fixed point of robot capture in three mutually perpendicular planes its practical accuracy has been defined when performing movements in a given region of the working area, thereby allowing us, eventually, to draw a conclusion on the possibility to use a robot in one technological process or another.The study has resulted in emerging the guidelines for the operation of industrial robots with five or more independently controlled axes. Using these guidelines enables us to increase the playback accuracy of the industrial robot to 0.01 mm.

  13. Fidelity Witnesses for Fermionic Quantum Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluza, M.; Kliesch, M.; Eisert, J.; Aolita, L.

    2018-05-01

    The experimental interest and developments in quantum spin-1 /2 chains has increased uninterruptedly over the past decade. In many instances, the target quantum simulation belongs to the broader class of noninteracting fermionic models, constituting an important benchmark. In spite of this class being analytically efficiently tractable, no direct certification tool has yet been reported for it. In fact, in experiments, certification has almost exclusively relied on notions of quantum state tomography scaling very unfavorably with the system size. Here, we develop experimentally friendly fidelity witnesses for all pure fermionic Gaussian target states. Their expectation value yields a tight lower bound to the fidelity and can be measured efficiently. We derive witnesses in full generality in the Majorana-fermion representation and apply them to experimentally relevant spin-1 /2 chains. Among others, we show how to efficiently certify strongly out-of-equilibrium dynamics in critical Ising chains. At the heart of the measurement scheme is a variant of importance sampling specially tailored to overlaps between covariance matrices. The method is shown to be robust against finite experimental-state infidelities.

  14. Spirit Scans Winter Haven

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    At least three different kinds of rocks await scientific analysis at the place where NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit will likely spend several months of Martian winter. They are visible in this picture, which the panoramic camera on Spirit acquired during the rover's 809th sol, or Martian day, of exploring Mars (April 12, 2006). Paper-thin layers of light-toned, jagged-edged rocks protrude horizontally from beneath small sand drifts; a light gray rock with smooth, rounded edges sits atop the sand drifts; and several dark gray to black, angular rocks with vesicles (small holes) typical of hardened lava lie scattered across the sand. This view is an approximately true-color rendering that combines images taken through the panoramic camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters.

  15. Winter fuels report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD's I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD's, as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 day, 30-Day, and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city

  16. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-29

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the United States and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. 27 figs, 12 tabs.

  17. OCRWM Bulletin, Winter 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This publication describes activities associated with the United States Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Program. Activities at the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project are described

  18. Variable Fidelity Aeroelastic Toolkit - Structural Model, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a methodology to incorporate variable fidelity structural models into steady and unsteady aeroelastic and aeroservoelastic analyses in...

  19. 'McMurdo' Panorama from Spirit's 'Winter Haven' (Color Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a stereo pair for PIA01905 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a stereo pair for PIA01905 This 360-degree view, called the 'McMurdo' panorama, comes from the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit. From April through October 2006, Spirit has stayed on a small hill known as 'Low Ridge.' There, the rover's solar panels are tilted toward the sun to maintain enough solar power for Spirit to keep making scientific observations throughout the winter on southern Mars. This view of the surroundings from Spirit's 'Winter Haven' is presented as a stereo anaglyph to show the scene three-dimensionally when viewed through red-blue glasses (with the red lens on the left). Oct. 26, 2006, marks Spirit's 1,000th sol of what was planned as a 90-sol mission. (A sol is a Martian day, which lasts 24 hours, 39 minutes, 35 seconds). The rover has lived through the most challenging part of its second Martian winter. Its solar power levels are rising again. Spring in the southern hemisphere of Mars will begin in early 2007. Before that, the rover team hopes to start driving Spirit again toward scientifically interesting places in the 'Inner Basin' and 'Columbia Hills' inside Gusev crater. The McMurdo panorama is providing team members with key pieces of scientific and topographic information for choosing where to continue Spirit's exploration adventure. The Pancam began shooting component images of this panorama during Spirit's sol 814 (April 18, 2006) and completed the part shown here on sol 932 (Aug. 17, 2006). The panorama was acquired using all 13 of the Pancam's color filters, using lossless compression for the red and blue stereo filters, and only modest levels of compression on the remaining filters. The overall panorama consists of 1,449 Pancam images and represents a raw data volume of nearly 500 megabytes. It is thus the largest, highest-fidelity view of Mars

  20. OCRWM Bulletin, Winter 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This publication describes activities associated with the United States Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Program. Activities at the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project are described.

  1. Visual communication - Information and fidelity. [of images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huck, Freidrich O.; Fales, Carl L.; Alter-Gartenberg, Rachel; Rahman, Zia-Ur; Reichenbach, Stephen E.

    1993-01-01

    This assessment of visual communication deals with image gathering, coding, and restoration as a whole rather than as separate and independent tasks. The approach focuses on two mathematical criteria, information and fidelity, and on their relationships to the entropy of the encoded data and to the visual quality of the restored image. Past applications of these criteria to the assessment of image coding and restoration have been limited to the link that connects the output of the image-gathering device to the input of the image-display device. By contrast, the approach presented in this paper explicitly includes the critical limiting factors that constrain image gathering and display. This extension leads to an end-to-end assessment theory of visual communication that combines optical design with digital processing.

  2. Experimental quantum error correction with high fidelity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingfu; Gangloff, Dorian; Moussa, Osama; Laflamme, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    More than ten years ago a first step toward quantum error correction (QEC) was implemented [Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2152 (1998)]. The work showed there was sufficient control in nuclear magnetic resonance to implement QEC, and demonstrated that the error rate changed from ε to ∼ε 2 . In the current work we reproduce a similar experiment using control techniques that have been since developed, such as the pulses generated by gradient ascent pulse engineering algorithm. We show that the fidelity of the QEC gate sequence and the comparative advantage of QEC are appreciably improved. This advantage is maintained despite the errors introduced by the additional operations needed to protect the quantum states.

  3. High Fidelity In Situ Shoulder Dystocia Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Pelikan, MD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Audience: Resident physicians, emergency department (ED staff Introduction: Precipitous deliveries are high acuity, low occurrence in most emergency departments. Shoulder dystocia is a rare but potentially fatal complication of labor that can be relieved by specific maneuvers that must be implemented in a timely manner. This simulation is designed to educate resident learners on the critical management steps in a shoulder dystocia presenting to the emergency department. A special aspect of this simulation is the unique utilization of the “Noelle” model with an instructing physician at bedside maneuvering the fetus through the stations of labor and providing subtle adjustments to fetal positioning not possible though a mechanized model. A literature search of “shoulder dystocia simulation” consists primarily of obstetrics and mid-wife journals, many of which utilize various mannequin models. None of the reviewed articles utilized a bedside provider maneuvering the fetus with the Noelle model, making this method unique. While the Noelle model is equipped with a remote-controlled motor that automatically rotates and delivers the baby either to the head or to the shoulders and can produce a turtle sign and which will prevent delivery of the baby until signaled to do so by the instructor, using the bedside instructor method allows this simulation to be reproduced with less mechanistically advanced and lower cost models.1-5 Objectives: At the end of this simulation, learners will: 1 Recognize impending delivery and mobilize appropriate resources (ie, both obstetrics [OB] and NICU/pediatrics; 2 Identify risk factors for shoulder dystocia based on history and physical; 3 Recognize shoulder dystocia during delivery; 4 Demonstrate maneuvers to relieve shoulder dystocia; 5 Communicate with team members and nursing staff during resuscitation of a critically ill patient. Method: High-fidelity simulation. Topics: High fidelity, in situ, Noelle model

  4. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-13

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD`s I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s, as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 day, 30-Day, and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city.

  5. Klaus Winter (1930 - 2015)

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    We learned with great sadness that Klaus Winter passed away on 9 February 2015, after a long illness.   Klaus was born in 1930 in Hamburg, where he obtained his diploma in physics in 1955. From 1955 to 1958 he held a scholarship at the Collège de France, where he received his doctorate in nuclear physics under the guidance of Francis Perrin. Klaus joined CERN in 1958, where he first participated in experiments on π+ and K0 decay properties at the PS, and later became the spokesperson of the CHOV Collaboration at the ISR. Starting in 1976, his work focused on experiments with the SPS neutrino beam. In 1984 he joined Ugo Amaldi to head the CHARM experiment, designed for detailed studies of the neutral current interactions of high-energy neutrinos, which had been discovered in 1973 using the Gargamelle bubble chamber at the PS. The unique feature of the detector was its target calorimeter, which used large Carrara marble plates as an absorber material. From 1984 to 1991, Klau...

  6. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-04

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition, underground storage, and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. This report will be published weekly by the EIA starting the first week in October 1990 and will continue until the first week in April 1991. The data will also be available electronically after 5:00 p.m. on Thursday during the heating season through the EIA Electronic Publication System (EPUB). 12 tabs.

  7. Intervention Fidelity in Special and General Education Research Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Elizabeth; Wanzek, Jeanne; Haring, Christa; Ciullo, Stephen; McCulley, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Treatment fidelity reporting practices are described for journals that published general and special education intervention research with high impact factors from 2005 through 2009. The authors reviewed research articles, reported the proportion of intervention studies that described fidelity measurement, detailed the components of fidelity…

  8. Entanglement fidelity of the standard quantum teleportation channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Gang; Ye, Ming-Yong, E-mail: myye@fjnu.edu.cn; Lin, Xiu-Min

    2013-09-16

    We consider the standard quantum teleportation protocol where a general bipartite state is used as entanglement resource. We use the entanglement fidelity to describe how well the standard quantum teleportation channel transmits quantum entanglement and give a simple expression for the entanglement fidelity when it is averaged on all input states.

  9. Commentary: Learning from Variations in Fidelity of Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balu, Rekha; Doolittle, Fred

    2016-01-01

    The articles in this special issue discuss efforts to improve academic reading outcomes for students and ways to achieve high implementation fidelity of promising strategies. At times the authors discuss if--and how--strong fidelity is associated with strong outcomes and potentially even impacts (the difference between program and control group…

  10. Gain tuning and fidelity in continuous-variable quantum teleportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ide, Toshiki; Hofmann, Holger F.; Furusawa, Akira; Kobayashi, Takayoshi

    2002-01-01

    The fidelity of continuous-variable teleportation can be optimized by changing the gain in the modulation of the output field. We discuss the gain dependence of fidelity for coherent, vacuum, and one-photon inputs and propose optimal gain tuning strategies for corresponding input selections

  11. AFFECT: Altered-Fidelity Framework for Enhancing Cognition and Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Patrick McMahan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new framework for analyzing and designing virtual reality (VR techniques. This framework is based on two concepts—system fidelity (i.e., the degree with which real-world experiences are reproduced by a system and memory (i.e., the formation and activation of perceptual, cognitive, and motor networks of neurons. The premise of the framework is to manipulate an aspect of system fidelity in order to assist a stage of memory. We call it the Altered-Fidelity Framework for Enhancing Cognition and Training (AFFECT. AFFECT provides nine categories of approaches to altering system fidelity to positively affect learning or training. These categories are based on the intersections of three aspects of system fidelity (interaction fidelity, scenario fidelity, and display fidelity and three stages of memory (encoding, implicit retrieval, and explicit retrieval. In addition to discussing the details of our new framework, we show how AFFECT can be used as a tool for analyzing and categorizing VR techniques designed to facilitate learning or training. We also demonstrate how AFFECT can be used as a design space for creating new VR techniques intended for educational and training systems.

  12. An empirical study of multidimensional fidelity of COMPASS consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Venus; Ruble, Lisa A; McGrew, John H; Yu, Yue

    2018-06-01

    Consultation is essential to the daily practice of school psychologists (National Association of School Psychologist, 2010). Successful consultation requires fidelity at both the consultant (implementation) and consultee (intervention) levels. We applied a multidimensional, multilevel conception of fidelity (Dunst, Trivette, & Raab, 2013) to a consultative intervention called the Collaborative Model for Promoting Competence and Success (COMPASS) for students with autism. The study provided 3 main findings. First, multidimensional, multilevel fidelity is a stable construct and increases over time with consultation support. Second, mediation analyses revealed that implementation-level fidelity components had distant, indirect effects on student Individualized Education Program (IEP) outcomes. Third, 3 fidelity components correlated with IEP outcomes: teacher coaching responsiveness at the implementation level, and teacher quality of delivery and student responsiveness at the intervention levels. Implications and future directions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Local environment can enhance fidelity of quantum teleportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    BadziaĢ, Piotr; Horodecki, Michał; Horodecki, Paweł; Horodecki, Ryszard

    2000-07-01

    We show how an interaction with the environment can enhance fidelity of quantum teleportation. To this end, we present examples of states which cannot be made useful for teleportation by any local unitary transformations; nevertheless, after being subjected to a dissipative interaction with the local environment, the states allow for teleportation with genuinely quantum fidelity. The surprising fact here is that the necessary interaction does not require any intelligent action from the parties sharing the states. In passing, we produce some general results regarding optimization of teleportation fidelity by local action. We show that bistochastic processes cannot improve fidelity of two-qubit states. We also show that in order to have their fidelity improvable by a local process, the bipartite states must violate the so-called reduction criterion of separability.

  14. Quantum nondemolition measurement saturates fidelity trade-off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mista, L.; Filip, R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: A general quantum measurement on an unknown quantum state enables us to estimate what the state originally was. Simultaneously, the measurement has a destructive effect on a measured quantum state which is reflected by the decrease of the output fidelity. We show for any d-level system that quantum non-demolition measurement controlled by a suitably prepared ancilla is a measurement in which the decrease of the output fidelity is minimal. The ratio between the estimation fidelity and the output fidelity can be continuously controlled by the preparation of the ancilla. Different measurement strategies on the ancilla to gain maximum estimation fidelity are analyzed. A feasible scheme of such a measurement for atomic and optical 2-level systems based on basic controlled-NOT gate is discussed. (author)

  15. Implementation fidelity trajectories of a health promotion program in multidisciplinary settings : Managing tensions in rehabilitation care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Femke; van Offenbeek, Marjolein A. G.; Dekker, Rienk; Hettinga, Florentina J.; Hoekstra, Trynke; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; van der Schans, Cees P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although the importance of evaluating implementation fidelity is acknowledged, little is known about heterogeneity in fidelity over time. This study aims to generate insight into the heterogeneity in implementation fidelity trajectories of a health promotion program in multidisciplinary

  16. Groundstate fidelity phase diagram of the fully anisotropic two-leg spin-½ XXZ ladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng-Hao; Shi, Qian-Qian; Batchelor, Murray T.; Zhou, Huan-Qiang

    2017-11-01

    The fully anisotropic two-leg spin-\\tfrac{1}{2} XXZ ladder model is studied in terms of an algorithm based on the tensor network (TN) representation of quantum many-body states as an adaptation of projected entangled pair states to the geometry of translationally invariant infinite-size quantum spin ladders. The TN algorithm provides an effective method to generate the groundstate wave function, which allows computation of the groundstate fidelity per lattice site, a universal marker to detect phase transitions in quantum many-body systems. The groundstate fidelity is used in conjunction with local order and string order parameters to systematically map out the groundstate phase diagram of the ladder model. The phase diagram exhibits a rich diversity of quantum phases. These are the ferromagnetic, stripe ferromagnetic, rung singlet, rung triplet, Néel, stripe Néel and Haldane phases, along with the two XY phases XY1 and XY2.

  17. Winter/Summer Monsoon Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Winter/Summer Monsoon Experiment (MONEX) was conducted during the First Global GARP (Global Atmospheric Research Program) Experiment (FGGE). An international...

  18. Implementing the LifeSkills Training drug prevention program: factors related to implementation fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalic, Sharon F; Fagan, Abigail A; Argamaso, Susanne

    2008-01-18

    Widespread replication of effective prevention programs is unlikely to affect the incidence of adolescent delinquency, violent crime, and substance use until the quality of implementation of these programs by community-based organizations can be assured. This paper presents the results of a process evaluation employing qualitative and quantitative methods to assess the extent to which 432 schools in 105 sites implemented the LifeSkills Training (LST) drug prevention program with fidelity. Regression analysis was used to examine factors influencing four dimensions of fidelity: adherence, dosage, quality of delivery, and student responsiveness. Although most sites faced common barriers, such as finding room in the school schedule for the program, gaining full support from key participants (i.e., site coordinators, principals, and LST teachers), ensuring teacher participation in training workshops, and classroom management difficulties, most schools involved in the project implemented LST with very high levels of fidelity. Across sites, 86% of program objectives and activities required in the three-year curriculum were delivered to students. Moreover, teachers were observed using all four recommended teaching practices, and 71% of instructors taught all the required LST lessons. Multivariate analyses found that highly rated LST program characteristics and better student behavior were significantly related to a greater proportion of material taught by teachers (adherence). Instructors who rated the LST program characteristics as ideal were more likely to teach all lessons (dosage). Student behavior and use of interactive teaching techniques (quality of delivery) were positively related. No variables were related to student participation (student responsiveness). Although difficult, high implementation fidelity by community-based organizations can be achieved. This study suggests some important factors that organizations should consider to ensure fidelity, such as

  19. Implementing the LifeSkills Training drug prevention program: factors related to implementation fidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fagan Abigail A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Widespread replication of effective prevention programs is unlikely to affect the incidence of adolescent delinquency, violent crime, and substance use until the quality of implementation of these programs by community-based organizations can be assured. Methods This paper presents the results of a process evaluation employing qualitative and quantitative methods to assess the extent to which 432 schools in 105 sites implemented the LifeSkills Training (LST drug prevention program with fidelity. Regression analysis was used to examine factors influencing four dimensions of fidelity: adherence, dosage, quality of delivery, and student responsiveness. Results Although most sites faced common barriers, such as finding room in the school schedule for the program, gaining full support from key participants (i.e., site coordinators, principals, and LST teachers, ensuring teacher participation in training workshops, and classroom management difficulties, most schools involved in the project implemented LST with very high levels of fidelity. Across sites, 86% of program objectives and activities required in the three-year curriculum were delivered to students. Moreover, teachers were observed using all four recommended teaching practices, and 71% of instructors taught all the required LST lessons. Multivariate analyses found that highly rated LST program characteristics and better student behavior were significantly related to a greater proportion of material taught by teachers (adherence. Instructors who rated the LST program characteristics as ideal were more likely to teach all lessons (dosage. Student behavior and use of interactive teaching techniques (quality of delivery were positively related. No variables were related to student participation (student responsiveness. Conclusion Although difficult, high implementation fidelity by community-based organizations can be achieved. This study suggests some important factors that

  20. The meaning of nuclear winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper the author reviews the history and origins of the basic ideas underlying nuclear winter; and findings and predictions of several groups regarding this topic. The author reviews some of the further developments and scientific analyses regarding nuclear winter since the initial announcements of 1983, touching on some of the revisions and controversies and trying to indicate the current status of the field

  1. Using mixed methods to assess fidelity of delivery and its influencing factors in a complex self-management intervention for people with osteoarthritis and low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Elaine; Matthews, James; Hurley, Deirdre A

    2017-08-04

    Despite an increasing awareness of the importance of fidelity of delivery within complex behaviour change interventions, it is often poorly assessed. This mixed methods study aimed to establish the fidelity of delivery of a complex self-management intervention and explore the reasons for these findings using a convergent/triangulation design. Feasibility trial of the Self-management of Osteoarthritis and Low back pain through Activity and Skills (SOLAS) intervention (ISRCTN49875385), delivered in primary care physiotherapy. 60 SOLAS sessions were delivered across seven sites by nine physiotherapists. Fidelity of delivery of prespecified intervention components was evaluated using (1) audio-recordings (n=60), direct observations (n=24) and self-report checklists (n=60) and (2) individual interviews with physiotherapists (n=9). Quantitatively, fidelity scores were calculated using percentage means and SD of components delivered. Associations between fidelity scores and physiotherapist variables were analysed using Spearman's correlations. Interviews were analysed using thematic analysis to explore potential reasons for fidelity scores. Integration of quantitative and qualitative data occurred at an interpretation level using triangulation. Quantitatively, fidelity scores were high for all assessment methods; with self-report (92.7%) consistently higher than direct observations (82.7%) or audio-recordings (81.7%). There was significant variation between physiotherapists' individual scores (69.8% - 100%). Both qualitative and quantitative data (from physiotherapist variables) found that physiotherapists' knowledge (Spearman's association at p=0.003) and previous experience (p=0.008) were factors that influenced their fidelity. The qualitative data also postulated participant-level (eg, individual needs) and programme-level factors (eg, resources) as additional elements that influenced fidelity. The intervention was delivered with high fidelity. This study contributes

  2. Long-term variation in the winter resident bird community of Guanica Forest, Puerto Rico: lessons for measuring and monitoring species richness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Faaborg; Katie M. Dugger; Wayne J. Arendt

    2007-01-01

    Because the winter season is potentially limiting for migratory birds, understanding their nonbreeding distributional patterns is essential. At a given site, patterns of species occurrence and abundance may vary over time and, within a species, wintering strategies may vary with regard to the degree that individuals are site-faithful both within and between winters. We...

  3. High-Fidelity Piezoelectric Audio Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Stanley E.; Fox, Robert L.; Bryant, Robert G.

    2003-01-01

    ModalMax is a very innovative means of harnessing the vibration of a piezoelectric actuator to produce an energy efficient low-profile device with high-bandwidth high-fidelity audio response. The piezoelectric audio device outperforms many commercially available speakers made using speaker cones. The piezoelectric device weighs substantially less (4 g) than the speaker cones which use magnets (10 g). ModalMax devices have extreme fabrication simplicity. The entire audio device is fabricated by lamination. The simplicity of the design lends itself to lower cost. The piezoelectric audio device can be used without its acoustic chambers and thereby resulting in a very low thickness of 0.023 in. (0.58 mm). The piezoelectric audio device can be completely encapsulated, which makes it very attractive for use in wet environments. Encapsulation does not significantly alter the audio response. Its small size (see Figure 1) is applicable to many consumer electronic products, such as pagers, portable radios, headphones, laptop computers, computer monitors, toys, and electronic games. The audio device can also be used in automobile or aircraft sound systems.

  4. High-Fidelity Coding with Correlated Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira, Rava Azeredo; Berry, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Positive correlations in the activity of neurons are widely observed in the brain. Previous studies have shown these correlations to be detrimental to the fidelity of population codes, or at best marginally favorable compared to independent codes. Here, we show that positive correlations can enhance coding performance by astronomical factors. Specifically, the probability of discrimination error can be suppressed by many orders of magnitude. Likewise, the number of stimuli encoded—the capacity—can be enhanced more than tenfold. These effects do not necessitate unrealistic correlation values, and can occur for populations with a few tens of neurons. We further show that both effects benefit from heterogeneity commonly seen in population activity. Error suppression and capacity enhancement rest upon a pattern of correlation. Tuning of one or several effective parameters can yield a limit of perfect coding: the corresponding pattern of positive correlation leads to a ‘lock-in’ of response probabilities that eliminates variability in the subspace relevant for stimulus discrimination. We discuss the nature of this pattern and we suggest experimental tests to identify it. PMID:25412463

  5. Status report on high fidelity reactor simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmiotti, G.; Smith, M.; Rabiti, C.; Lewis, E.; Yang, W.; Leclere, M.; Siegel, A.; Fischer, P.; Kaushik, D.; Ragusa, J.; Lottes, J.; Smith, B.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents the effort under way at Argonne National Laboratory toward a comprehensive, integrated computational tool intended mainly for the high-fidelity simulation of sodium-cooled fast reactors. The main activities carried out involved neutronics, thermal hydraulics, coupling strategies, software architecture, and high-performance computing. A new neutronics code, UNIC, is being developed. The first phase involves the application of a spherical harmonics method to a general, unstructured three-dimensional mesh. The method also has been interfaced with a method of characteristics. The spherical harmonics equations were implemented in a stand-alone code that was then used to solve several benchmark problems. For thermal hydraulics, a computational fluid dynamics code called Nek5000, developed in the Mathematics and Computer Science Division for coupled hydrodynamics and heat transfer, has been applied to a single-pin, periodic cell in the wire-wrap geometry typical of advanced burner reactors. Numerical strategies for multiphysics coupling have been considered and higher-accuracy efficient methods proposed to finely simulate coupled neutronic/thermal-hydraulic reactor transients. Initial steps have been taken in order to couple UNIC and Nek5000, and simplified problems have been defined and solved for testing. Furthermore, we have begun developing a lightweight computational framework, based in part on carefully selected open source tools, to nonobtrusively and efficiently integrate the individual physics modules into a unified simulation tool

  6. Analysis of winter weather conditions and their potential impact on wind farm operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovskaia, E.; Treinish, L. A.; Praino, A.

    2009-12-01

    Severe weather conditions have two primary impacts on wind farm operations. The first relates to understanding potential damage to the turbines themselves and what actions are required to mitigate the effects. The second is recognizing what conditions may lead to a full or partial shutdown of the wind farm with sufficient lead time to determine the likely inability to meet energy generation committments. Ideally, wind forecasting suitable for wind farm operations should be of sufficient fidelity to resolve features within the boundary layer that lead to either damaging conditions or useful power generation. Given the complexity of the site-specific factors that effect the boundary layer at the scale of typical land-based wind farm locations such as topography, vegetation, land use, soil conditions, etc., which may vary with turbine design and layout within the farm, enabling reliable forecasts of too little or too much wind is challenging. A potential solution should involve continuous updates of alert triggering criteria through analysis of local wind patterns and probabilistic risk assessment for each location. To evaluate this idea, we utilize our operational mesoscale prediction system, dubbed “Deep Thunder”, developed at the IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center. In particular, we analyze winter-time near-surface winds in upstate New York, where four similar winds farms are located. Each of these farms were built at roughly the same time and utilize similar turbines. Given the relative uncertainty associated with numerical weather prediction at this scale, and the difference in risk assessment due to the two primary impacts of severe weather, probabilistic forecasts are a prerequisite. Hence, we have employed ensembles of weather scenarios, which are based on the NCAR WRF-ARW modelling system. The set of ensemble members was composed with variations in the choices of physics and parameterization schemes, and source of background fields for initial

  7. Ground-state fidelity in the BCS-BEC crossover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Ayan; Pieri, Pierbiagio

    2009-01-01

    The ground-state fidelity has been introduced recently as a tool to investigate quantum phase transitions. Here, we apply this concept in the context of a crossover problem. Specifically, we calculate the fidelity susceptibility for the BCS ground-state wave function, when the intensity of the fermionic attraction is varied from weak to strong in an interacting Fermi system, through the BCS-Bose-Einstein Condensation crossover. Results are presented for contact and finite-range attractive potentials and for both continuum and lattice models. We conclude that the fidelity susceptibility can be useful also in the context of crossover problems.

  8. Recommendations on Model Fidelity for Wind Turbine Gearbox Simulations: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Y.; Keller, J.; La Cava, W.; Austin, J.; Nejad, A. R.; Halse, C.; Bastard, L.; Helsen, J.

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the minimum level of fidelity required to accurately simulate wind turbine gearboxes using state-of-the-art design tools. Excessive model fidelity including drivetrain complexity, gearbox complexity, excitation sources, and imperfections, significantly increases computational time, but may not provide a commensurate increase in the value of the results. Essential design parameters are evaluated, including the planetary load-sharing factor, gear tooth load distribution, and sun orbit motion. Based on the sensitivity study results, recommendations for the minimum model fidelities are provided.

  9. The Importance of Non-Native Prey, the Zebra Mussel Dreissena polymorpha, for the Declining Greater Scaup Aythya marila: A Case Study at a Key European Staging and Wintering Site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Marchowski

    Full Text Available The European population of Greater Scaup Aythya marila has experienced an alarming, ~60% decline in numbers over the last two decades. The brackish lagoons of the Odra River Estuary (ORE in the south-western Baltic Sea, represent an important area for the species during the non-breeding season in Europe. The lagoons regularly support over 20 000 Scaup, with peaks exceeding 100 000 (38%-70% of the population wintering in NW Europe and the highest number recorded in April 2011-105 700. In the ORE, Scaup feed almost exclusively on the non-native Zebra Mussel Dreissena polymorpha. This mussel was present in the ORE already in the 19th century and continues to be superabundant. Using the results of 22 Scaup censuses (November to April 2002/2003 to 2013/2014 from the whole ORE (523 km2 of water, we show that Scaup flocks follow areas with the greatest area of occurrence and biomass of the Zebra Mussel, while areas with low mussel densities are ignored. The numbers of Scaup in the ORE are primarily related to the area of Zebra Mussel occurrence on the lagoon's bottom (km2 in a non-linear fashion. Zebra Mussels were absolutely prevalent (97% of biomass in the digestive tracts of birds unintentionally by-caught in fishing nets (n = 32. We estimate that Scaup alone consume an average of 5 400 tons of Zebra Mussels annually, which represents 5.6% of the total resources of the mussel in the ORE. Our results provide a clear picture of the strong dependence of the declining, migratory duck species on the non-native mussel, its primary food in the ORE. Our findings are particularly important as they can form the basis for the conservation action plan aimed at saving the north-western European populations of Scaup.

  10. The Importance of Non-Native Prey, the Zebra Mussel Dreissena polymorpha, for the Declining Greater Scaup Aythya marila: A Case Study at a Key European Staging and Wintering Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchowski, Dominik; Neubauer, Grzegorz; Ławicki, Łukasz; Woźniczka, Adam; Wysocki, Dariusz; Guentzel, Sebastian; Jarzemski, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    The European population of Greater Scaup Aythya marila has experienced an alarming, ~60% decline in numbers over the last two decades. The brackish lagoons of the Odra River Estuary (ORE) in the south-western Baltic Sea, represent an important area for the species during the non-breeding season in Europe. The lagoons regularly support over 20 000 Scaup, with peaks exceeding 100 000 (38%-70% of the population wintering in NW Europe and the highest number recorded in April 2011-105 700). In the ORE, Scaup feed almost exclusively on the non-native Zebra Mussel Dreissena polymorpha. This mussel was present in the ORE already in the 19th century and continues to be superabundant. Using the results of 22 Scaup censuses (November to April 2002/2003 to 2013/2014) from the whole ORE (523 km2 of water), we show that Scaup flocks follow areas with the greatest area of occurrence and biomass of the Zebra Mussel, while areas with low mussel densities are ignored. The numbers of Scaup in the ORE are primarily related to the area of Zebra Mussel occurrence on the lagoon's bottom (km2) in a non-linear fashion. Zebra Mussels were absolutely prevalent (97% of biomass) in the digestive tracts of birds unintentionally by-caught in fishing nets (n = 32). We estimate that Scaup alone consume an average of 5 400 tons of Zebra Mussels annually, which represents 5.6% of the total resources of the mussel in the ORE. Our results provide a clear picture of the strong dependence of the declining, migratory duck species on the non-native mussel, its primary food in the ORE. Our findings are particularly important as they can form the basis for the conservation action plan aimed at saving the north-western European populations of Scaup.

  11. Fidelity for kicked atoms with gravity near a quantum resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubertrand, Rémy; Guarneri, Italo; Wimberger, Sandro

    2012-03-01

    Kicked atoms under a constant Stark or gravity field are investigated for experimental setups with cold and ultracold atoms. The parametric stability of the quantum dynamics is studied using the fidelity. In the case of a quantum resonance, it is shown that the behavior of the fidelity depends on arithmetic properties of the gravity parameter. Close to a quantum resonance, the long-time asymptotics of the fidelity is studied by means of a pseudoclassical approximation introduced by Fishman et al. [J. Stat. Phys. 110, 911 (2003)]. The long-time decay of fidelity arises from the tunneling out of pseudoclassical stable islands, and a simple ansatz is proposed which satisfactorily reproduces the main features observed in numerical simulations.

  12. Equation of motion for estimation fidelity of monitored oscillating qubits

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bassa, H

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We study the convergence properties of state estimates of an oscillating qubit being monitored by a sequence of discrete, unsharp measurements. Our method derives a differential equation determining the evolution of the estimation fidelity from a...

  13. Hybrid High-Fidelity Auscultation Scope, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA Johnson Space Center's need for a space auscultation capability, Physical Optics Corporation proposes to develop a Hybrid High-Fidelity...

  14. USA luure : Fidel Castro on suremas / Allan Espenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Espenberg, Allan

    2006-01-01

    Kuuba president Fidel Castro, Haiti president Rene Preval, Filipiinide president Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, Türkmenistani president Saparmurat Nijazov, Guinea president Lansana Conte ja Itaalia ekspeaminister Silvio Berlusconi, Sambia ekspresident Frederick Chilubaga võitlevad terviseprobleemidega

  15. Migration and winter distribution of the Chestnutcollared Longspur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellison Kevin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Chestnut-collared Longspur (Calcarius ornatus is one of five grassland songbirds, endemic within North America, with populations that have declined >65% since the 1960s. These species breed and winter in the northern and southern Great Plains, respectively. Identifying migration routes, wintering sites, and the timing of their habitat use is key for understanding the relative magnitude of threats across the annual cycle and effectively targeting habitats for conservation. We tracked migratory movements of seven Chestnut-collared Longspurs with light-level geolocators deployed in Canada. Individuals wintered up to 112-1,200km apart. All followed the Central Flyway, circumvented high-elevation terrain, and traveled east of the breeding location. Unlike most songbirds, the durations of spring and fall migrations were similar; on average 42 ± 7d and 41 ± 5d during fall and spring migrations, respectively, for an approximately 2,000km migration; this highlights the need to better understand habitat requirements during migration for grassland songbirds. Using geospatial habitat data, we assessed winter distribution overlap with four other endemic grassland songbirds; wintering range overlapped 63-99%. Future studies should use more precise devices (e.g., archival GPS units, programmed for data collection dates from this study, to identify specific migratory sites for better conserving this and associated grassland species.

  16. Measurement fidelity in the presence of coherent dynamics or dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jian-Qiang; Ashhab, S.; Nori, Franco

    2011-03-01

    We analyze the problem of a charge qubit probed by a quantum point contact when the measurement is concurrent with Hamiltonian-induced coherent dynamics or dissipation. This additional dynamics changes the state of the qubit before the measurement is completed. As a result, the measurement fidelity is reduced. We calculate the reduction in measurement fidelity in these cases. References: S. Ashhab, J. Q. You, and F. Nori, New J. Phys. 11, 083017 (2009); Phys. Scr. T137, 014005 (2009).

  17. Toward the Effective and Efficient Measurement of Implementation Fidelity

    OpenAIRE

    Schoenwald, Sonja K.; Garland, Ann F.; Chapman, Jason E.; Frazier, Stacy L.; Sheidow, Ashli J.; Southam-Gerow, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Implementation science in mental health is informed by other academic disciplines and industries. Conceptual and methodological territory charted in psychotherapy research is pertinent to two elements of the conceptual model of implementation posited by Aarons and colleagues (2010)—implementation fidelity and innovation feedback systems. Key characteristics of scientifically validated fidelity instruments, and of the feasibility of their use in routine care, are presented. The challenges of e...

  18. High Fidelity Simulation of Atomization in Diesel Engine Sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    state Figure 5. Q criterion isosurface colored by streamwise velocity in the diesel spray injector as viewed from the nozzle exit. Figure 6. U contour...fidelity simulation approach was adopted to study the atom- ization physics of a diesel injector with detailed nozzle internal geometry. The nozzle flow...26; Stanford, CA 14. ABSTRACT A high fidelity numerical simulation of jet breakup and spray formation from a complex diesel fuel injector has been

  19. Humanism of Marti and Fidel in the formation of values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Darias Concepción

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Humanism as an integrative concept of human values has always been present in thinking and revolutionary work of our main precursors. Two strong exponents in the formation of patriotic and human values in our country has been without doubt the work of Martí and Fidel, whose thoughts and actions correspond fully with the humanistic philosophical doctrine. In this paper we reflect on the presence of humanism as a philosophical current in the thinking of Marti and Fidel.

  20. The Project Towards No Drug Abuse (TND) dissemination trial: implementation fidelity and immediate outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbach, Louise Ann; Gunning, Melissa; Sun, Ping; Sussman, Steve

    2010-03-01

    One of the important research issues in the emerging area of research on dissemination of prevention programs relates to the type and extent of training needed by program providers to prepare them to implement effective programs with fidelity. The present paper describes the immediate outcomes of a dissemination and implementation trial of Project Toward No Drug Abuse, an evidence-based prevention program for high school students. A total of 65 high schools in 14 school districts across the USA were recruited and randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions: comprehensive implementation support for teachers, regular workshop training only, or standard care control. The comprehensive intervention was comprised of on-site coaching, web-based support, and technical assistance, in addition to the regular workshop. Students (n = 2,983) completed self-report surveys before and immediately after program implementation. Fidelity of implementation was assessed with a classroom observation procedure that focused on program process. Results indicated that relative to the controls, both intervention conditions produced effects on hypothesized program mediators, including greater gains in program-related knowledge; greater reductions in cigarette, marijuana and hard drug use intentions; and more positive changes in drug-related beliefs. There were stronger effects on implementation fidelity in the comprehensive, relative to the regular, training condition. However, seven of the ten immediate student outcome measures showed no significant differences between the two training conditions. The implications of these findings for dissemination research and practice are discussed.

  1. Fidelity and Game-based Technology in Management Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgard B. Cornacchione Jr.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study explores educational technology and management education by analyzing fidelity in game-basedmanagement education interventions. A sample of 31 MBA students was selected to help answer the researchquestion: To what extent do MBA students tend to recognize specific game-based academic experiences, interms of fidelity, as relevant to their managerial performance? Two distinct game-based interventions (BG1 andBG2 with key differences in fidelity levels were explored: BG1 presented higher physical and functional fidelitylevels and lower psychological fidelity levels. Hypotheses were tested with data from the participants, collectedshortly after their experiences, related to the overall perceived quality of game-based interventions. The findingsreveal a higher overall perception of quality towards BG1: (a better for testing strategies, (b offering betterbusiness and market models, (c based on a pace that better stimulates learning, and (d presenting a fidelity levelthat better supports real world performance. This study fosters the conclusion that MBA students tend torecognize, to a large extent, that specific game-based academic experiences are relevant and meaningful to theirmanagerial development, mostly with heightened fidelity levels of adopted artifacts. Agents must be ready andmotivated to explore the new, to try and err, and to learn collaboratively in order to perform.

  2. Efficiency and Fidelity of Human DNA Polymerases λ and β during Gap-Filling DNA Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jessica A.; Pack, Lindsey R.; Sanman, Laura E.; Suo, Zucai

    2010-01-01

    The base excision repair (BER) pathway coordinates the replacement of 1 to 10 nucleotides at sites of single-base lesions. This process generates DNA substrates with various gap sizes which can alter the catalytic efficiency and fidelity of a DNA polymerase during gap-filling DNA synthesis. Here, we quantitatively determined the substrate specificity and base substitution fidelity of human DNA polymerase λ (Pol λ), an enzyme proposed to support the known BER DNA polymerase β (Pol β), as it filled 1- to 10-nucleotide gaps at 1-nucleotide intervals. Pol λ incorporated a correct nucleotide with relatively high efficiency until the gap size exceeded 9 nucleotides. Unlike Pol λ, Pol β did not have an absolute threshold on gap size as the catalytic efficiency for a correct dNTP gradually decreased as the gap size increased from 2 to 10 nucleotides and then recovered for non-gapped DNA. Surprisingly, an increase in gap size resulted in lower polymerase fidelity for Pol λ, and this downregulation of fidelity was controlled by its non-enzymatic N-terminal domains. Overall, Pol λ was up to 160-fold more error-prone than Pol β, thereby suggesting Pol λ would be more mutagenic during long gap-filling DNA synthesis. In addition, dCTP was the preferred misincorporation for Pol λ and its N-terminal domain truncation mutants. This nucleotide preference was shown to be dependent upon the identity of the adjacent 5′-template base. Our results suggested that both Pol λ and Pol β would catalyze nucleotide incorporation with the highest combination of efficiency and accuracy when the DNA substrate contains a single-nucleotide gap. Thus, Pol λ, like Pol β, is better suited to catalyze gap-filling DNA synthesis during short-patch BER in vivo, although, Pol λ may play a role in long-patch BER. PMID:20961817

  3. Experimental electron density profiles of the mid-latitude lower ionosphere and winter anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapoport, Z.Ts.; Sinel'nikov, V.M.

    1996-01-01

    Summarized measurements of high-latitude electron density profiles of N e lower ionosphere, obtained at M100B meteorological rockets by precision method of coherent frequencies during 1979-1990 at the Volgograd test site (φ = 48 deg 41' N; λ = 44 deg 21 E), are presented. The profiles obtained represent average values of electron density at various altitudes of lower ionosphere (h = 70-100 km) during night and day time hours in winter and non winter periods. Increased electron density values during daytime hours in winter are related to winter anomaly phenomenon. 36 refs.; 1 fig

  4. High Fidelity Raman Chemical Imaging of Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobba, Venkata Nagamalli Koteswara Rao

    The development of high fidelity Raman imaging systems is important for a number of application areas including material science, bio-imaging, bioscience and healthcare, pharmaceutical analysis, and semiconductor characterization. The use of Raman imaging as a characterization tool for detecting the amorphous and crystalline regions in the biopolymer poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) is the precis of my thesis. In the first chapter, a brief insight about the basics of Raman spectroscopy, Raman chemical imaging, Raman mapping, and Raman imaging techniques has been provided. The second chapter contains details about the successful development of tailored sample of PLLA. Biodegradable polymers are used in areas of tissue engineering, agriculture, packaging, and in medical field for drug delivery, implant devices, and surgical sutures. Detailed information about the sample preparation and characterization of these cold-drawn PLLA polymer substrates has been provided. Wide-field Raman hyperspectral imaging using an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) was demonstrated in the early 1990s. The AOTF contributed challenges such as image walk, distortion, and image blur. A wide-field AOTF Raman imaging system has been developed as part of my research and methods to overcome some of the challenges in performing AOTF wide-field Raman imaging are discussed in the third chapter. This imaging system has been used for studying the crystalline and amorphous regions on the cold-drawn sample of PLLA. Of all the different modalities that are available for performing Raman imaging, Raman point-mapping is the most extensively used method. The ease of obtaining the Raman hyperspectral cube dataset with a high spectral and spatial resolution is the main motive of performing this technique. As a part of my research, I have constructed a Raman point-mapping system and used it for obtaining Raman hyperspectral image data of various minerals, pharmaceuticals, and polymers. Chapter four offers

  5. Intraspecific variation in Pinus pinaster PSII photochemical efficiency in response to winter stress and freezing temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcuera, Leyre; Gil-Pelegrin, Eustaquio; Notivol, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    As part of a program to select maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) genotypes for resistance to low winter temperatures, we examined variation in photosystem II activity by chlorophyll fluorescence. Populations and families within populations from contrasting climates were tested during two consecutive winters through two progeny trials, one located at a continental and xeric site and one at a mesic site with Atlantic influence. We also obtained the LT₅₀, or the temperature that causes 50% damage, by controlled freezing and the subsequent analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence in needles and stems that were collected from populations at the continental trial site.P. pinaster showed sensitivity to winter stress at the continental site, during the colder winter. The combination of low temperatures, high solar irradiation and low precipitation caused sustained decreases in maximal photochemical efficiency (F(v)/F(m)), quantum yield of non-cyclic electron transport (Φ(PSII)) and photochemical quenching (qP). The variation in photochemical parameters was larger among families than among populations, and population differences appeared only under the harshest conditions at the continental site. As expected, the environmental effects (winter and site) on the photochemical parameters were much larger than the genotypic effects (population or family). LT₅₀ was closely related to the minimum winter temperatures of the population's range. The dark-adapted F(v)/F(m) ratio discriminated clearly between interior and coastal populations.In conclusion, variations in F(v)/F(m), Φ(PSII), qP and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) in response to winter stress were primarily due to the differences between the winter conditions and the sites and secondarily due to the differences among families and their interactions with the environment. Populations from continental climates showed higher frost tolerance (LT₅₀) than coastal populations that typically experience mild winters

  6. Adherence to hand hygiene guidelines - significance of measuring fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Anne; Ojanperä, Helena; Puhto, Teija; Järvinen, Raija; Kejonen, Pirjo; Holopainen, Arja

    2015-11-01

    The aim was to evaluate the usability of fidelity measures in compliance evaluation of hand hygiene. Adherence to hand hygiene guidelines is important in terms of patient safety. Compliance measures seldom describe how exactly the guidelines are followed. A cross-sectional observation study in a university hospital setting was conducted. Direct observation by trained staff was performed using a standardised observation form supplemented by fidelity criteria. A total of 830 occasions were observed in 13 units. Descriptive statistics (frequency, mean, percentages and range) were used as well as compliance rate by using a standard web-based tool. In addition, the binomial standard normal deviate test was conducted for comparing different methods used in evaluation of hand hygiene and in comparison between professional groups. Measuring fidelity to guidelines was revealed to be useful in uncovering gaps in hand hygiene practices. The main gap related to too short duration of hand rubbing. Thus, although compliance with hand hygiene guidelines measured using a standard web-based tool was satisfactory, the degree of how exactly the guidelines were followed seemed to be critical. Combining the measurement of fidelity to guidelines with the compliance rate is beneficial in revealing inconsistency between optimal and actual hand hygiene behaviour. Evaluating fidelity measures is useful in terms of revealing the gaps between optimal and actual performance in hand hygiene. Fidelity measures are suitable in different healthcare contexts and easy to measure according to the relevant indicators of fidelity, such as the length of hand rubbing. Knowing the gap facilitates improvements in clinical practice. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Learning through a Winter's Tale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidotto, Kristie

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experience during the final semester of Year 11 Theatre Studies when she performed a monologue about Hermione from "The Winter's Tale". This experience was extremely significant to her because it nearly made her lose faith in one of the most important parts of her life, drama. She believes this…

  8. Winter activity of bat-eared foxes Otocyon megalotis on the Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-07-04

    Jul 4, 1988 ... With the start of pair formation in June-July allogrooming, which was not influenced by ... Foxes resumed activity from the same resting sites each day. Tydbesteding ...... mossambicus is active by day during winter, and at night.

  9. Quantum critical scaling of fidelity in BCS-like model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamski, Mariusz; Jedrzejewski, Janusz; Krokhmalskii, Taras

    2013-01-01

    We study scaling of the ground-state fidelity in neighborhoods of quantum critical points in a model of interacting spinful fermions—a BCS-like model. Due to the exact diagonalizability of the model, in one and higher dimensions, scaling of the ground-state fidelity can be analyzed numerically with great accuracy, not only for small systems but also for macroscopic ones, together with the crossover region between them. Additionally, in the one-dimensional case we have been able to derive a number of analytical formulas for fidelity and show that they accurately fit our numerical results; these results are reported in the paper. Besides regular critical points and their neighborhoods, where well-known scaling laws are obeyed, there is the multicritical point and critical points in its proximity where anomalous scaling behavior is found. We also consider scaling of fidelity in neighborhoods of critical points where fidelity oscillates strongly as the system size or the chemical potential is varied. Our results for a one-dimensional version of a BCS-like model are compared with those obtained recently by Rams and Damski in similar studies of a quantum spin chain—an anisotropic XY model in a transverse magnetic field. (paper)

  10. Asymmetric strand segregation: epigenetic costs of genetic fidelity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane P Genereux

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric strand segregation has been proposed as a mechanism to minimize effective mutation rates in epithelial tissues. Under asymmetric strand segregation, the double-stranded molecule that contains the oldest DNA strand is preferentially targeted to the somatic stem cell after each round of DNA replication. This oldest DNA strand is expected to have fewer errors than younger strands because some of the errors that arise on daughter strands during their synthesis fail to be repaired. Empirical findings suggest the possibility of asymmetric strand segregation in a subset of mammalian cell lineages, indicating that it may indeed function to increase genetic fidelity. However, the implications of asymmetric strand segregation for the fidelity of epigenetic information remain unexplored. Here, I explore the impact of strand-segregation dynamics on epigenetic fidelity using a mathematical-modelling approach that draws on the known molecular mechanisms of DNA methylation and existing rate estimates from empirical methylation data. I find that, for a wide range of starting methylation densities, asymmetric -- but not symmetric -- strand segregation leads to systematic increases in methylation levels if parent strands are subject to de novo methylation events. I found that epigenetic fidelity can be compromised when enhanced genetic fidelity is achieved through asymmetric strand segregation. Strand segregation dynamics could thus explain the increased DNA methylation densities that are observed in structured cellular populations during aging and in disease.

  11. 36 CFR 1002.19 - Winter activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RECREATION § 1002.19 Winter activities. (a) Skiing, snowshoeing, ice skating, sledding, innertubing, tobogganing and similar winter sports are prohibited on Presidio Trust roads and in parking areas open to...

  12. Classification guide: Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games classification guide is designed to provide National Paralympic Committees (NPCs) and International Federations (IFs) with information about the classification policies and procedures that will apply to the Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games.

  13. Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weekend Warriors expand/collapse Vitamin D Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter Winter sports enthusiasts are ... skiing! Be Mindful of Time Spent in the Sun, Regardless of the Season If possible, ski early ...

  14. Controls on winter ecosystem respiration in temperate and boreal ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Winter CO2 fluxes represent an important component of the annual carbon budget in northern ecosystems. Understanding winter respiration processes and their responses to climate change is also central to our ability to assess terrestrial carbon cycle and climate feedbacks in the future. However, the factors influencing the spatial and temporal patterns of winter ecosystem respiration (Reco of northern ecosystems are poorly understood. For this reason, we analyzed eddy covariance flux data from 57 ecosystem sites ranging from ~35° N to ~70° N. Deciduous forests were characterized by the highest winter Reco rates (0.90 ± 0.39 g C m−2 d−1, when winter is defined as the period during which daily air temperature remains below 0 °C. By contrast, arctic wetlands had the lowest winter Reco rates (0.02 ± 0.02 g C m−2 d−1. Mixed forests, evergreen needle-leaved forests, grasslands, croplands and boreal wetlands were characterized by intermediate winter Reco rates (g C m−2 d−1 of 0.70(±0.33, 0.60(±0.38, 0.62(±0.43, 0.49(±0.22 and 0.27(±0.08, respectively. Our cross site analysis showed that winter air (Tair and soil (Tsoil temperature played a dominating role in determining the spatial patterns of winter Reco in both forest and managed ecosystems (grasslands and croplands. Besides temperature, the seasonal amplitude of the leaf area index (LAI, inferred from satellite observation, or growing season gross primary productivity, which we use here as a proxy for the amount of recent carbon available for Reco in the subsequent winter, played a marginal role in winter CO2 emissions from forest ecosystems. We found that winter Reco sensitivity to temperature variation across space (

  15. Fiscal loss and program fidelity: impact of the economic downturn on HIV/STI prevention program fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, Joseph A; Dolcini, M Margaret; Gandelman, Alice A; Narayanan, Vasudha; McKay, Virginia R

    2014-03-01

    The economic downturn of 2007 created significant fiscal losses for public and private agencies conducting behavioral prevention. Such macro-economic changes may influence program implementation and sustainability. We examined how public and private agencies conducting RESPECT, a brief HIV/STI (sexually transmitted infection) counseling and testing intervention, adapted to fiscal loss and how these adaptations impacted program fidelity. We collected qualitative and quantitative data in a national sample of 15 agencies experiencing fiscal loss. Using qualitative analyses, we examined how program fidelity varied with different types of adaptations. Agencies reported three levels of adaptation: agency-level, program-level, and direct fiscal remedies. Private agencies tended to use direct fiscal remedies, which were associated with higher fidelity. Some agency-level adaptations contributed to reductions in procedural fit, leading to negative staff morale and decreased confidence in program effectiveness, which in turn, contributed to poor fidelity. Findings describe a "work stress pathway" that links program fiscal losses to poor staff morale and low program fidelity.

  16. Leadership in American Indian Communities: Winter Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metoyer, Cheryl A.

    2010-01-01

    Winter lessons, or stories told in the winter, were one of the ways in which tribal elders instructed and directed young men and women in the proper ways to assume leadership responsibilities. Winter lessons stressed the appropriate relationship between the leader and the community. The intent was to remember the power and purpose of that…

  17. 46 CFR 45.73 - Winter freeboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Winter freeboard. 45.73 Section 45.73 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Freeboards § 45.73 Winter freeboard. The minimum winter freeboard (fw) in inches is obtained by the formula: fw=f(s)+T s...

  18. DNA Polymerase Fidelity: Comparing Direct Competition of Right and Wrong dNTP Substrates with Steady State and Presteady State Kinetics†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Jeffrey G.; Oertell, Keriann; Petruska, John; Goodman, Myron F.

    2009-01-01

    DNA polymerase fidelity is defined as the ratio of right (R) to wrong (W) nucleotide incorporations when dRTP and dWTP substrates compete at equal concentrations for primer extension at the same site in the polymerase-primer-template DNA complex. Typically, R incorporation is favored over W by 103 – 105, even in the absence of 3′-exonuclease proofreading. Straightforward in principal, a direct competition fidelity measurement is difficult to perform in practice because detection of a small amount of W is masked by a large amount of R. As an alternative, enzyme kinetics measurements to evaluate kcat/Km for R and W in separate reactions are widely used to measure polymerase fidelity indirectly, based on a steady-state derivation by Fersht. A systematic comparison between direct competition and kinetics has not been made until now. By separating R and W products using electrophoresis, we have successfully made accurate fidelity measurements for directly competing R and W dNTP substrates for 9 of the 12 natural base mispairs. We compare our direct competition results with steady state and presteady state kinetic measurements of fidelity at the same template site, using the proofreading-deficient mutant of Klenow Fragment (KF−) DNA polymerase. All the data are in quantitative agreement. PMID:20000359

  19. Winter to winter recurrence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia and its impact on winter surface air temperature anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xia; Yang, Guang

    2017-01-01

    The persistence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia shows a winter to winter recurrence (WTWR) phenomenon. Seasonal variations in sea level pressure anomalies and surface wind anomalies display significantly different characteristics between WTWR and non-WTWR years. The WTWR years are characterized by the recurrence of both a strong (weak) anomalous Siberian High and an East Asian winter monsoon over two successive winters without persistence through the intervening summer. However, anomalies during the non-WTWR years have the opposite sign between the current and ensuing winters. The WTWR of circulation anomalies contributes to that of surface air temperature anomalies (SATAs), which is useful information for improving seasonal and interannual climate predictions over East Asia and China. In the positive (negative) WTWR years, SATAs are cooler (warmer) over East Asia in two successive winters, but the signs of the SATAs are opposite in the preceding and subsequent winters during the non-WTWR years.

  20. Multi-fidelity stochastic collocation method for computation of statistical moments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xueyu, E-mail: xueyu-zhu@uiowa.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Linebarger, Erin M., E-mail: aerinline@sci.utah.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Xiu, Dongbin, E-mail: xiu.16@osu.edu [Department of Mathematics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2017-07-15

    We present an efficient numerical algorithm to approximate the statistical moments of stochastic problems, in the presence of models with different fidelities. The method extends the multi-fidelity approximation method developed in . By combining the efficiency of low-fidelity models and the accuracy of high-fidelity models, our method exhibits fast convergence with a limited number of high-fidelity simulations. We establish an error bound of the method and present several numerical examples to demonstrate the efficiency and applicability of the multi-fidelity algorithm.

  1. Comparison of snowpack and winter wet-deposition chemistry in the Rocky Mountains, USA: implications for winter dry deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clow, David W.; Ingersoll, George P.; Mast, M. Alisa; Turk, John T.; Campbell, Donald H.

    Depth-integrated snowpack chemistry was measured just prior to maximum snowpack depth during the winters of 1992-1999 at 12 sites co-located with National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trend Network (NADP/NTN) sites in the central and southern Rocky Mountains, USA. Winter volume-weighted mean wet-deposition concentrations were calculated for the NADP/NTN sites, and the data were compared to snowpack concentrations using the paired t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. No statistically significant differences were indicated in concentrations of SO 42- or NO 3- ( p>0.1). Small, but statistically significant differences ( p⩽0.03) were indicated for all other solutes analyzed. Differences were largest for Ca 2+ concentrations, which on average were 2.3 μeq l -1 (43%) higher in the snowpack than in winter NADP/NTN samples. Eolian carbonate dust appeared to influence snowpack chemistry through both wet and dry deposition, and the effect increased from north to south. Dry deposition of eolian carbonates was estimated to have neutralized an average of 6.9 μeq l -1 and a maximum of 12 μeq l -1 of snowpack acidity at the southernmost sites. The good agreement between snowpack and winter NADP/NTN SO 42- and NO 3- concentrations indicates that for those solutes the two data sets can be combined to increase data density in high-elevation areas, where few NADP/NTN sites exist. This combination of data sets will allow for better estimates of atmospheric deposition of SO 42- and NO 3- across the Rocky Mountain region.

  2. Roost temperature and fidelity of Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Generally,Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat (Epomophorus wahlbergi) roost in trees or under the eaves of buildings. This study investigated the roosting dynamics of E. wahlbergi in the urban environment of Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. To determine roost fidelity bats were radiotracked to daytime roosts. Bats were found to ...

  3. Replicating an Intervention: The Tension between Fidelity and Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Diane M.; Hoppe, Marilyn J.; Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Kluver, Carisa; Higa, Darrel; Wells, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    Increased awareness of the importance of tailoring interventions to participants' cultures has focused attention on the limited generalizability of a single test of an intervention to determine efficacy. Adaptation is often necessary to replicate interventions across cultures. This produces a tension between fidelity to the original intervention…

  4. 77 FR 67689 - Fidelity Aberdeen Street Trust, et al.;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ...] Fidelity Aberdeen Street Trust, et al.; Notice of Application November 6, 2012. AGENCY: Securities and... arrangements (``Prior Order'').\\1\\ \\1\\ Colchester Street Trust, et al., Investment Company Act Release Nos... Trust, et al., Investment Company Act Release Nos. 23787 (Apr. 15, 1999) (notice) and 23831 (May 11...

  5. Learning Intercultural Communication Skills with Virtual Humans: Feedback and Fidelity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, H. Chad; Hays, Matthew Jensen; Core, Mark G.; Auerbach, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In the context of practicing intercultural communication skills, we investigated the role of fidelity in a game-based, virtual learning environment as well as the role of feedback delivered by an intelligent tutoring system. In 2 experiments, we compared variations on the game interface, use of the tutoring system, and the form of the feedback.…

  6. Bounding quantum gate error rate based on reported average fidelity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, Yuval R; Wallman, Joel J; Sanders, Barry C

    2016-01-01

    Remarkable experimental advances in quantum computing are exemplified by recent announcements of impressive average gate fidelities exceeding 99.9% for single-qubit gates and 99% for two-qubit gates. Although these high numbers engender optimism that fault-tolerant quantum computing is within reach, the connection of average gate fidelity with fault-tolerance requirements is not direct. Here we use reported average gate fidelity to determine an upper bound on the quantum-gate error rate, which is the appropriate metric for assessing progress towards fault-tolerant quantum computation, and we demonstrate that this bound is asymptotically tight for general noise. Although this bound is unlikely to be saturated by experimental noise, we demonstrate using explicit examples that the bound indicates a realistic deviation between the true error rate and the reported average fidelity. We introduce the Pauli distance as a measure of this deviation, and we show that knowledge of the Pauli distance enables tighter estimates of the error rate of quantum gates. (fast track communication)

  7. Fidel Castro annab teatepulga üle / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister, 1977-

    2008-01-01

    Kuuba riigipea Fidel Castro teatas, et ei taotle riiginõukogu ega vägede ülemjuhataja ametikohta. F. Castro järglane on tõenäoliselt tema vend Raul Castro. Lisad: Riik pole muutusteks valmis; Võimuletõus ja tuumasõja lävele jõudmine

  8. Fidel Castro andis võimu vennale / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister, 1977-

    2006-01-01

    Kuuba juht Fidel Castro andis haiglassemineku tõttu riigi juhtimise ajutiselt üle oma vennale Raulile. Teade on kutsunud esile mitmeid spekulatsioone Castro tervisliku seisundi üle. Vaatlejate hinnangul peavad tõenäoliselt pettuma need, kes loodavad, et koos Castroga kaob Kuubast kiirelt ka kommunistlik riigikord. Lisa: Isegi diktaator pole surematu

  9. Within-subjects comparison of the HiRes and Fidelity120 speech processing strategies: speech perception and its relation to place-pitch sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Gail S; Dawson, Patricia K; Borden, Lamar Z

    2011-01-01

    experience with Fidelity120. Another three subjects exhibited initial decrements in spectral cue perception with Fidelity120 at the 8-wk time point; however, evidence from one subject suggested that such decrements may resolve with additional experience. Place-pitch thresholds were inversely related to improvements in vowel F2 frequency perception with Fidelity120 relative to HiRes. However, no relationship was observed between place-pitch thresholds and the other spectral measures (vowel F1 frequency or consonant place of articulation). Findings suggest that Fidelity120 supports small improvements in the perception of spectral speech cues in some Advanced Bionics CI users; however, many users show no clear benefit. Benefits are more likely to occur for vowel spectral cues (related to F1 and F2 frequency) than for consonant spectral cues (related to place of articulation). There was an inconsistent relationship between place-pitch sensitivity and improvements in spectral cue perception with Fidelity120 relative to HiRes. This may partly reflect the small number of sites at which place-pitch thresholds were measured. Contrary to some previous reports, there was no clear evidence that Fidelity120 supports improved sentence recognition in noise.

  10. Experimental winter warming modifies thermal performance and primes acorn ants for warm weather

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacLean, Heidi J.; Penick, Clint A.; Dunn, Robert R.

    2017-01-01

    The frequency of warm winter days is increasing under global climate change, but how organisms respond to warmer winters is not well understood. Most studies focus on growing season responses to warming. Locomotor performance is often highly sensitive to temperature, and can determine fitness...... outcomes through a variety of mechanisms including resource acquisition and predator escape. As a consequence, locomotor performance, and its impacts on fitness, may be strongly affected by winter warming in winter-active species. Here we use the acorn ant, Temnothorax curvispinosus, to explore how thermal...... performance (temperature-driven plasticity) in running speed is influenced by experimental winter warming of 3–5 °C above ambient in a field setting. We used running speed as a measure of performance as it is a common locomotor trait that influences acquisition of nest sites and food in acorn ants...

  11. Alternative fidelity measure between two states of an N-state quantum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jingling; Fu Libin; Zhao Xiangeng; Ungar, Abraham A.

    2002-01-01

    An alternative fidelity measure between two states of a qunit, an N-state quantum system, is proposed. It has a hyperbolic geometric interpretation, and it reduces to the Bures fidelity in the special case when N=2

  12. Validation of the Standard Mobility Application Programming Interface Fidelity 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Cross-Country, Dry) 16000-fl 14000 12000- O- U 00 - ielt 0 0 Fidelity2 %0 10000 8000- 4000-zo-- Over Even Under N Fidelity 1 8151 14224 4553 0...Road, Snow) 90% 70% -j S60% > 50% ~40% E 30% S20% 1 0% - ielt 0% 0 5 10 15 20 STNDMob - NRMM (rriph) Figure 57. M923/M200A1 Fidelity 1 vs. Fidelity 2

  13. Winter therapy for the accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    Hundreds of people are hard at work during the year-end technical stop as all the accelerators are undergoing maintenance, renovation and upgrade operations in parallel.   The new beam absorber on its way to Point 2 before being lowered into the LHC tunnel for installation. The accelerator teams didn’t waste any time before starting their annual winter rejuvenation programme over the winter. At the end of November, as the LHC ion run was beginning, work got under way on the PS Booster, where operation had already stopped. On 14 December, once the whole complex had been shut down, the technical teams turned their attention to the other injectors and the LHC. The year-end technical stop (YETS) provides an opportunity to carry out maintenance work on equipment and repair any damage as well as to upgrade the machines for the upcoming runs. Numerous work projects are carried out simultaneously, so good coordination is crucial. Marzia Bernardini's team in the Enginee...

  14. Theoretical investigations of the new Cokriging method for variable-fidelity surrogate modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, Ralf; Bertram, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Cokriging is a variable-fidelity surrogate modeling technique which emulates a target process based on the spatial correlation of sampled data of different levels of fidelity. In this work, we address two theoretical questions associated with the so-called new Cokriging method for variable fidelity...

  15. High-fidelity DNA replication in Mycobacterium tuberculosis relies on a trinuclear zinc center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baños-Mateos, Soledad; van Roon, Anne-Marie M; Lang, Ulla F; Maslen, Sarah L; Skehel, J Mark; Lamers, Meindert H

    2017-10-11

    High-fidelity DNA replication depends on a proofreading 3'-5' exonuclease that is associated with the replicative DNA polymerase. The replicative DNA polymerase DnaE1 from the major pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) uses its intrinsic PHP-exonuclease that is distinct from the canonical DEDD exonucleases found in the Escherichia coli and eukaryotic replisomes. The mechanism of the PHP-exonuclease is not known. Here, we present the crystal structure of the Mtb DnaE1 polymerase. The PHP-exonuclease has a trinuclear zinc center, coordinated by nine conserved residues. Cryo-EM analysis reveals the entry path of the primer strand in the PHP-exonuclease active site. Furthermore, the PHP-exonuclease shows a striking similarity to E. coli endonuclease IV, which provides clues regarding the mechanism of action. Altogether, this work provides important insights into the PHP-exonuclease and reveals unique properties that make it an attractive target for novel anti-mycobacterial drugs.The polymerase and histidinol phosphatase (PHP) domain in the DNA polymerase DnaE1 is essential for mycobacterial high-fidelity DNA replication. Here, the authors determine the DnaE1 crystal structure, which reveals the PHP-exonuclease mechanism that can be exploited for antibiotic development.

  16. Winter wheat response to irrigation, nitrogen fertilization, and cold hazards in the Community Land Model 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Winter wheat is a staple crop for global food security, and is the dominant vegetation cover for a significant fraction of earth's croplands. As such, it plays an important role in soil carbon balance, and land-atmosphere interactions in these key regions. Accurate simulation of winter wheat growth is not only crucial for future yield prediction under changing climate, but also for understanding the energy and water cycles for winter wheat dominated regions. A winter wheat growth model has been developed in the Community Land Model 4.5 (CLM4.5), but its responses to irrigation and nitrogen fertilization have not been validated. In this study, I will validate winter wheat growth response to irrigation and nitrogen fertilization at five winter wheat field sites (TXLU, KSMA, NESA, NDMA, and ABLE) in North America, which were originally designed to understand winter wheat response to nitrogen fertilization and water treatments (4 nitrogen levels and 3 irrigation regimes). I also plan to further update the linkages between winter wheat yield and cold hazards. The previous cold damage function only indirectly affects yield through reduction on leaf area index (LAI) and hence photosynthesis, such approach could sometimes produce an unwanted higher yield when the reduced LAI saved more nutrient in the grain fill stage.

  17. Winter warming from large volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, Alan; Mao, Jianping

    1992-01-01

    An examination of the Northern Hemisphere winter surface temperature patterns after the 12 largest volcanic eruptions from 1883-1992 shows warming over Eurasia and North America and cooling over the Middle East which are significant at the 95-percent level. This pattern is found in the first winter after tropical eruptions, in the first or second winter after midlatitude eruptions, and in the second winter after high latitude eruptions. The effects are independent of the hemisphere of the volcanoes. An enhanced zonal wind driven by heating of the tropical stratosphere by the volcanic aerosols is responsible for the regions of warming, while the cooling is caused by blocking of incoming sunlight.

  18. Enhancing teleportation fidelity by means of weak measurements or reversal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Liang, E-mail: lqiu@cumt.edu.cn [College of Sciences, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Tang, Gang; Yang, Xianqing [College of Sciences, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Wang, Anmin [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2014-11-15

    The enhancement of teleportation fidelity by weak measurement or quantum measurement reversal is investigated. One qubit of a maximally entangled state undergoes the amplitude damping, and the subsequent application of weak measurement or quantum measurement reversal could improve the teleportation fidelity beyond the classical region. The improvement could not be attributed to the increasing of entanglement, quantum discord, classical correlation or total correlation. We declare that it should be owed to the probabilistic nature of the method. - Highlights: • The method’s probabilistic nature should be responsible for the improvement. • Quantum or classical correlation cannot explain the improvement. • The receiver cannot apply weak measurements. • The sender’s quantum measurement reversal is only useful for |Ψ{sup ±}〉.

  19. Methodology for Variable Fidelity Multistage Optimization under Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    problem selected for the application of the new optimization methodology is a Single Stage To Orbit ( SSTO ) expendable launch vehicle (ELV). Three...the primary exercise of the variable fidelity optimization portion of the code. SSTO vehicles have been discussed almost exclusively in the context...of reusable launch vehicles (RLV). There is very little discussion in recent literature of SSTO designs which are expendable. In the light of the

  20. Light fidelity (Li-Fi): towards all-optical networking

    OpenAIRE

    Tsonev, Dobroslav; Videv, Stefan; Haas, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the looming radio frequency (RF) spectrum crisis, this paper aims at demonstrating that optical wireless communication (OWC) has now reached a state where it can demonstrate that it is a viable and matured solution to this fundamental problem. In particular, for indoor communications where most mobile data traffic is consumed, light fidelity (Li-Fi) which is related to visible light communication (VLC) offers many key advantages, and effective solutions to the issues that have be...

  1. Potentials and Challenges of Light Fidelity Based Indoor Communication System

    OpenAIRE

    Aftab, Farooq

    2016-01-01

    In this era of modern devices and high speed communication the issue of spectral overloading is increasing with time and becoming more serious. With the advancement in LED industry, light fidelity (Li-Fi) based indoor network is an attractive substitute for the existing radio frequency (RF) based communication networks. Because of its capability to perform dual function of lighting as well as high speed communication, Li-Fi is attracting both industrial as well as academic researchers. The Li...

  2. Fidel Castro : maailma värvikaim diktaator / Toomas Verrev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Verrev, Toomas

    2007-01-01

    Järg. nr. 113 lk. 40-42, nr. 112 lk. 36-38, nr. 111 lk. 40-42, nr. 110 lk. 48-50, nr. 109 lk. 42-44, nr. 108 lk. 46-48, nr. 107 lk. 40-42, nr. 106 lk. 48-50, nr. 104 lk. 46-48, nr. 103 lk. 34-36, nr. 102 lk. 48-50. Kuuba diktaatori Fidel Castro elukäigust

  3. Evolution Properties of Atomic Fidelity in the Combined Multi-Atom-Cavity Field System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ju-Xia; Zhang Xiao-Juan; Zhang Xiu-Xing

    2015-01-01

    The atom fidelity is investigated in a system consisting of Mtwo-level atoms and M single-mode fields by use of complete quantum theory and numerical evaluation method. The influences of various system parameters on the evolution of atomic fidelity are studied. The results show that the atomic fidelity evolves in a Rabi oscillation manner. The oscillation frequency is mainly modulated by the coupling strength between atoms and light field, the atomic transition probabilities and the average photon numbers. Other factors hardly impact on the atomic fidelity. The present results may provide a useful approach to the maintenance of the atomic fidelity in the atom cavity field systems. (paper)

  4. Interprofessional education in pharmacology using high-fidelity simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Brittney A; Seefeldt, Teresa M; Ngorsuraches, Surachat; Hendrickx, Lori D; Lubeck, Paula M; Farver, Debra K; Heins, Jodi R

    2017-11-01

    This study examined the feasibility of an interprofessional high-fidelity pharmacology simulation and its impact on pharmacy and nursing students' perceptions of interprofessionalism and pharmacology knowledge. Pharmacy and nursing students participated in a pharmacology simulation using a high-fidelity patient simulator. Faculty-facilitated debriefing included discussion of the case and collaboration. To determine the impact of the activity on students' perceptions of interprofessionalism and their ability to apply pharmacology knowledge, surveys were administered to students before and after the simulation. Attitudes Toward Health Care Teams scale (ATHCT) scores improved from 4.55 to 4.72 on a scale of 1-6 (p = 0.005). Almost all (over 90%) of the students stated their pharmacology knowledge and their ability to apply that knowledge improved following the simulation. A simulation in pharmacology is feasible and favorably affected students' interprofessionalism and pharmacology knowledge perceptions. Pharmacology is a core science course required by multiple health professions in early program curricula, making it favorable for incorporation of interprofessional learning experiences. However, reports of high-fidelity interprofessional simulation in pharmacology courses are limited. This manuscript contributes to the literature in the field of interprofessional education by demonstrating that an interprofessional simulation in pharmacology is feasible and can favorably affect students' perceptions of interprofessionalism. This manuscript provides an example of a pharmacology interprofessional simulation that faculty in other programs can use to build similar educational activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. High-Fidelity Multidisciplinary Design Optimization of Aircraft Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Joaquim R. R. A.; Kenway, Gaetan K. W.; Burdette, David; Jonsson, Eirikur; Kennedy, Graeme J.

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate new airframe technologies we need design tools based on high-fidelity models that consider multidisciplinary interactions early in the design process. The overarching goal of this NRA is to develop tools that enable high-fidelity multidisciplinary design optimization of aircraft configurations, and to apply these tools to the design of high aspect ratio flexible wings. We develop a geometry engine that is capable of quickly generating conventional and unconventional aircraft configurations including the internal structure. This geometry engine features adjoint derivative computation for efficient gradient-based optimization. We also added overset capability to a computational fluid dynamics solver, complete with an adjoint implementation and semiautomatic mesh generation. We also developed an approach to constraining buffet and started the development of an approach for constraining utter. On the applications side, we developed a new common high-fidelity model for aeroelastic studies of high aspect ratio wings. We performed optimal design trade-o s between fuel burn and aircraft weight for metal, conventional composite, and carbon nanotube composite wings. We also assessed a continuous morphing trailing edge technology applied to high aspect ratio wings. This research resulted in the publication of 26 manuscripts so far, and the developed methodologies were used in two other NRAs. 1

  6. High-fidelity gates in quantum dot spin qubits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Teck Seng; Coppersmith, S N; Friesen, Mark

    2013-12-03

    Several logical qubits and quantum gates have been proposed for semiconductor quantum dots controlled by voltages applied to top gates. The different schemes can be difficult to compare meaningfully. Here we develop a theoretical framework to evaluate disparate qubit-gating schemes on an equal footing. We apply the procedure to two types of double-dot qubits: the singlet-triplet and the semiconducting quantum dot hybrid qubit. We investigate three quantum gates that flip the qubit state: a DC pulsed gate, an AC gate based on logical qubit resonance, and a gate-like process known as stimulated Raman adiabatic passage. These gates are all mediated by an exchange interaction that is controlled experimentally using the interdot tunnel coupling g and the detuning [Symbol: see text], which sets the energy difference between the dots. Our procedure has two steps. First, we optimize the gate fidelity (f) for fixed g as a function of the other control parameters; this yields an f(opt)(g) that is universal for different types of gates. Next, we identify physical constraints on the control parameters; this yields an upper bound f(max) that is specific to the qubit-gate combination. We show that similar gate fidelities (~99:5%) should be attainable for singlet-triplet qubits in isotopically purified Si, and for hybrid qubits in natural Si. Considerably lower fidelities are obtained for GaAs devices, due to the fluctuating magnetic fields ΔB produced by nuclear spins.

  7. Neural correlates of individual differences in manual imitation fidelity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braadbaart, Lieke; Waiter, Gordon D.; Williams, Justin H. G.

    2012-01-01

    Imitation is crucial for social learning, and so it is important to identify what determines between-subject variability in imitation fidelity. This might help explain what makes some people, like those with social difficulties such as in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), significantly worse at performance on these tasks than others. A novel paradigm was developed to provide objective measures of imitation fidelity in which participants used a touchscreen to imitate videos of a model drawing different shapes. Comparisons between model and participants' kinematic data provided three measures of imitative fidelity. We hypothesized that imitative ability would predict variation in BOLD signal whilst performing a simple imitation task in the MRI-scanner. In particular, an overall measure of accuracy (correlation between model and imitator) would predict activity in the overarching imitation system, whereas bias would be subject to more general aspects of motor control. Participants lying in the MRI-scanner were instructed to imitate different grips on a handle, or to watch someone or a circle moving the handle. Our hypothesis was partly confirmed as correlation between model and imitator was mediated by somatosensory cortex but also ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and bias was mediated mainly by cerebellum but also by the medial frontal and parietal cortices and insula. We suggest that this variance differentially reflects cognitive functions such as feedback-sensitivity and reward-dependent learning, contributing significantly to variability in individuals' imitative abilities as characterized by objective kinematic measures. PMID:23087625

  8. Neural correlates of individual differences in manual imitation fidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieke eBraadbaart

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Imitation is crucial for social learning, and so it is important to identify what determines between-subject variability in imitation fidelity. This might help explain what makes some people, like those with social difficulties such as in Autism Spectrum Disorder, significantly worse at performance on these tasks than others. A novel paradigm was developed to provide objective measures of imitation fidelity in which participants used a touchscreen to imitate videos of a model drawing different shapes. Comparisons between model and participants’ kinematic data provided three measures of imitative fidelity. We hypothesised that imitative ability would predict variation in BOLD signal whilst performing a simple imitation task in the MRI-scanner. In particular, an overall measure of accuracy (correlation between model and imitator would predict activity in the overarching imitation system, whereas bias would be subject to more general aspects of motor control. Participants lying in the MRI-scanner were instructed to imitate different grips on a handle, or to watch someone or a circle moving the handle. Our hypothesis was partly confirmed as correlation between model and imitator was mediated by somatosensory cortex but also ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and bias was mediated mainly by cerebellum but also by the medial frontal and parietal cortices and insula. We suggest that this variance differentially reflects cognitive functions such as feedback-sensitivity and reward-dependent learning, contributing significantly to variability in individuals’ imitative abilities as characterised by objective kinematic measures.

  9. Multi-fidelity Gaussian process regression for computer experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le-Gratiet, Loic

    2013-01-01

    This work is on Gaussian-process based approximation of a code which can be run at different levels of accuracy. The goal is to improve the predictions of a surrogate model of a complex computer code using fast approximations of it. A new formulation of a co-kriging based method has been proposed. In particular this formulation allows for fast implementation and for closed-form expressions for the predictive mean and variance for universal co-kriging in the multi-fidelity framework, which is a breakthrough as it really allows for the practical application of such a method in real cases. Furthermore, fast cross validation, sequential experimental design and sensitivity analysis methods have been extended to the multi-fidelity co-kriging framework. This thesis also deals with a conjecture about the dependence of the learning curve (i.e. the decay rate of the mean square error) with respect to the smoothness of the underlying function. A proof in a fairly general situation (which includes the classical models of Gaussian-process based meta-models with stationary covariance functions) has been obtained while the previous proofs hold only for degenerate kernels (i.e. when the process is in fact finite- dimensional). This result allows for addressing rigorously practical questions such as the optimal allocation of the budget between different levels of codes in the multi-fidelity framework. (author) [fr

  10. Assessing the link between implementation fidelity and health outcomes for a trial of intensive case management by community health workers: a mixed methods study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Barbara; Watt, Kerrianne; McDermott, Robyn; Mills, Jane

    2017-07-17

    Better systems of care are required to address chronic disease in Indigenous people to ensure they can access all their care needs. Health research has produced evidence about effective models of care and chronic disease strategies to address Indigenous health, however the transfer of research findings into routine clinical practice has proven challenging. Complex interventions, such as those related to chronic disease, have many components that are often poorly implemented and hence rarely achieve implementation fidelity. Implementation fidelity is "the degree to which programs are implemented as intended by the program developer". Knowing if an intervention was implemented as planned is fundamental to knowing what has contributed to the success of an intervention. The aim of this study is to adapt the implementation fidelity framework developed by Keith et al. and apply it to the intervention implemented in phase 1 of the Getting Better at Chronic Care in North Queensland study. The objectives are to quantify the level of implementation fidelity achieved during phase 1 of the study, measure the association between implementation fidelity and health outcomes and to explore the features of the primary health care system that contributed to improved health outcomes. A convergent parallel mixed methods study design will be used to develop a process for assessing implementation fidelity. Information collected via a questionnaire and routine data generated during phase 1 of the study will be used to explain the context for the intervention in each site and develop an implementation fidelity score for each component of the intervention. A weighting will be applied to each component of the intervention to calculate the overall implementation score for each participating community. Statistical analysis will assess the level of association between implementation fidelity scores and health outcomes. Health services research seeks to find solutions to social and technical

  11. 33 CFR 100.109 - Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME. 100.109 Section 100.109 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.109 Winter Harbor...

  12. Realism in paediatric emergency simulations: A prospective comparison of in situ, low fidelity and centre-based, high fidelity scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Fenton; Pegiazoglou, Ioannis; McGarvey, Kathryn; Novakov, Ruza; Wolfsberger, Ingrid; Peat, Jennifer

    2018-02-01

    To measure scenario participant and faculty self-reported realism, engagement and learning for the low fidelity, in situ simulations and compare this to high fidelity, centre-based simulations. A prospective survey of scenario participants and faculty completing in situ and centre-based paediatric simulations. There were 382 responses, 276 from scenario participants and 106 from faculty with 241 responses from in situ and 141 from centre-based simulations. Scenario participant responses showed significantly higher ratings for the centre-based simulations for respiratory rate (P = 0.007), pulse (P = 0.036), breath sounds (P = 0.002), heart sounds (P realism for engagement and learning. © 2017 The Authors Emergency Medicine Australasia published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  13. Sources of Nitrogen for Winter Wheat in Organic Cropping Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Schjønning, Per; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2013-01-01

    mineralizable N (PMN), microbial biomass N (MBN)] were monitored during two growth periods; at one site, biomass C/N ratios were also determined. Soil for labile N analysis was shielded from N inputs during spring application to isolate cumulated system effects. Potentially mineralizable N and MBN were...... explained 76 and 82% of the variation in grain N yields in organic cropping systems in 2007 and 2008, showing significant effects of, respectively, topsoil N, depth of A horizon, cumulated inputs of N, and N applied to winter wheat in manure. Thus, soil properties and past and current management all......In organic cropping systems, legumes, cover crops (CC), residue incorporation, and manure application are used to maintain soil fertility, but the contributions of these management practices to soil nitrogen (N) supply remain obscure. We examined potential sources of N for winter wheat (Triticum...

  14. Gross primary production controls the subsequent winter CO2 exchange in a boreal peatland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junbin; Peichl, Matthias; Öquist, Mats; Nilsson, Mats B

    2016-12-01

    In high-latitude regions, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions during the winter represent an important component of the annual ecosystem carbon budget; however, the mechanisms that control the winter CO 2 emissions are currently not well understood. It has been suggested that substrate availability from soil labile carbon pools is a main driver of winter CO 2 emissions. In ecosystems that are dominated by annual herbaceous plants, much of the biomass produced during the summer is likely to contribute to the soil labile carbon pool through litter fall and root senescence in the autumn. Thus, the summer carbon uptake in the ecosystem may have a significant influence on the subsequent winter CO 2 emissions. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a plot-scale shading experiment in a boreal peatland to reduce the gross primary production (GPP) during the growing season. At the growing season peak, vascular plant biomass in the shaded plots was half that in the control plots. During the subsequent winter, the mean CO 2 emission rates were 21% lower in the shaded plots than in the control plots. In addition, long-term (2001-2012) eddy covariance data from the same site showed a strong correlation between the GPP (particularly the late summer and autumn GPP) and the subsequent winter net ecosystem CO 2 exchange (NEE). In contrast, abiotic factors during the winter could not explain the interannual variation in the cumulative winter NEE. Our study demonstrates the presence of a cross-seasonal link between the growing season biotic processes and winter CO 2 emissions, which has important implications for predicting winter CO 2 emission dynamics in response to future climate change. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Nuclear medicine solutions in winter sports problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeflin, F.G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The diagnostic workup of acute Winter Sports injuries is done by Conventional X Ray, CT and MRI. Chronic injuries as stress reactions are best investigated by Nuclear Medicine procedures: Snow Boarding: In Snow-Boarding chronic injuries are mostly seen as local increased uptake laterally in the lower third of the Fibula of the front leg together with Tibial increase medially in the other leg. Skiing: Chronic Skiing injuries are less asymmetrical and mostly seen on the apex of the patella. Chronic Feet Problems: A different chronic problem is the reduced blood perfusion in the feet if hard, tightened boots are used for longer time by professional ski instructors and racers. Flow difference between the foot in the boot and the other without boot are dramatic as measured by Nuclear Medicine Procedures and MRI. Pulmonary Embolism: Acute pulmonary embolism caused by thrombi originating at the site of constant pressure on the back rim of ski boots is not uncommon in older skiers (seek and you will find), but never seen in the younger group of Snow-Boarders. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  16. Interim Report 'Winter smog and traffic'.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, H.; Blom, T.; Bogaard, van den C.; Boluyt, N.; Bree, van L.; Brunekreef, B.; Hoek, G.; Zee, van der S.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents a halfway score of the research project "Winter smog and Traffic", one of the themes of the research programme "Air Pollution and Health". A state of the art is presented of the health effects associated with exposure to winter smog and of the toxicological effects caused by the

  17. Nuclear Winter: Scientists in the Political Arena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badash, Lawrence

    2001-03-01

    The nuclear winter phenomenon is used to illustrate the many paths by which scientific advice reaches decision makers in the United States government. Because the Reagan administration was hostile to the strategic policy that the scientific discovery seemed to demand, the leading proponent of nuclear winter, Carl Sagan, used his formidable talent for popularization to reach a larger audience.

  18. How to Have a Healthy Winter | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Without a doubt, winter is here. Between the icy weather and the recent hustle and bustle of the holidays, everyone is at an increased risk of getting sick. With that in mind, Occupational Health Services has a few simple tips for staying healthy this winter.

  19. Chapter 7: Migration and winter ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Jeffrey F. Kelly; Jean-Luc E. Cartron

    2000-01-01

    The willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii) is a Neotropical migrant that breeds in North America, but winters in Central and northern South America. Little specific information is known about migration and wintering ecology of the southwestern willow flycatcher (E. t. extimus) (Yong and Finch 1997). Our report applies principally...

  20. An Evaluation of Mesoscale Model Based Model Output Statistics (MOS) During the 2002 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hart, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    The skill of a mesoscale model based Model Output Statistics (MOS) system that provided hourly forecasts for 18 sites over northern Utah during the 2002 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games is evaluated...

  1. Implementation fidelity of a nurse-led falls prevention program in acute hospitals during the 6-PACK trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Renata T; Barker, Anna L; Ayton, Darshini R; Landgren, Fiona; Kamar, Jeannette; Hill, Keith D; Brand, Caroline A; Sherrington, Catherine; Wolfe, Rory; Rifat, Sheral; Stoelwinder, Johannes

    2017-06-02

    When tested in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of 31,411 patients, the nurse-led 6-PACK falls prevention program did not reduce falls. Poor implementation fidelity (i.e., program not implemented as intended) may explain this result. Despite repeated calls for the examination of implementation fidelity as an essential component of evaluating interventions designed to improve the delivery of care, it has been neglected in prior falls prevention studies. This study examined implementation fidelity of the 6-PACK program during a large multi-site RCT. Based on the 6-PACK implementation framework and intervention description, implementation fidelity was examined by quantifying adherence to program components and organizational support. Adherence indicators were: 1) falls-risk tool completion; and for patients classified as high-risk, provision of 2) a 'Falls alert' sign; and 3) at least one additional 6-PACK intervention. Organizational support indicators were: 1) provision of resources (executive sponsorship, site clinical leaders and equipment); 2) implementation activities (modification of patient care plans; training; implementation tailoring; audits, reminders and feedback; and provision of data); and 3) program acceptability. Data were collected from daily bedside observation, medical records, resource utilization diaries and nurse surveys. All seven intervention components were delivered on the 12 intervention wards. Program adherence data were collected from 103,398 observations and medical record audits. The falls-risk tool was completed each day for 75% of patients. Of the 38% of patients classified as high-risk, 79% had a 'Falls alert' sign and 63% were provided with at least one additional 6-PACK intervention, as recommended. All hospitals provided the recommended resources and undertook the nine outlined program implementation activities. Most of the nurses surveyed considered program components important for falls prevention. While implementation

  2. Intraspecific variation in Pinus pinaster PSII photochemical efficiency in response to winter stress and freezing temperatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyre Corcuera

    Full Text Available As part of a program to select maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait. genotypes for resistance to low winter temperatures, we examined variation in photosystem II activity by chlorophyll fluorescence. Populations and families within populations from contrasting climates were tested during two consecutive winters through two progeny trials, one located at a continental and xeric site and one at a mesic site with Atlantic influence. We also obtained the LT₅₀, or the temperature that causes 50% damage, by controlled freezing and the subsequent analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence in needles and stems that were collected from populations at the continental trial site.P. pinaster showed sensitivity to winter stress at the continental site, during the colder winter. The combination of low temperatures, high solar irradiation and low precipitation caused sustained decreases in maximal photochemical efficiency (F(v/F(m, quantum yield of non-cyclic electron transport (Φ(PSII and photochemical quenching (qP. The variation in photochemical parameters was larger among families than among populations, and population differences appeared only under the harshest conditions at the continental site. As expected, the environmental effects (winter and site on the photochemical parameters were much larger than the genotypic effects (population or family. LT₅₀ was closely related to the minimum winter temperatures of the population's range. The dark-adapted F(v/F(m ratio discriminated clearly between interior and coastal populations.In conclusion, variations in F(v/F(m, Φ(PSII, qP and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ in response to winter stress were primarily due to the differences between the winter conditions and the sites and secondarily due to the differences among families and their interactions with the environment. Populations from continental climates showed higher frost tolerance (LT₅₀ than coastal populations that typically experience mild

  3. Nuclear winter or nuclear fall?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, André

    Climate is universal. If a major modern nuclear war (i.e., with a large number of small-yield weapons) were to happen, it is not even necessary to have a specific part of the world directly involved for there to be cause to worry about the consequences for its inhabitants and their future. Indeed, smoke from fires ignited by the nuclear explosions would be transported by winds all over the world, causing dark and cold. According to the first study, by Turco et al. [1983], air surface temperature over continental areas of the northern mid-latitudes (assumed to be the nuclear war theatre) would fall to winter levels even in summer (hence the term “nuclear winter”) and induce drastic climatic conditions for several months at least. The devastating effects of a nuclear war would thus last much longer than was assumed initially. Discussing to what extent these estimations of long-term impacts on climate are reliable is the purpose of this article.

  4. Sources and contributions of wood smoke during winter in London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crilley, Leigh; Bloss, William; Yin, Jianxin; Beddows, David; Harrison, Roy; Zotter, Peter; Prevot, Andre; Green, David

    2014-05-01

    Determining the contribution of wood smoke in large urban centres such as London is becoming increasingly important with the changing nature of domestic heating partly due to the installation of biomass burning heaters to meet renewable energy targets imposed by the EU and also a rise in so-called recreational burning for aesthetic reasons (Fuller et al., 2013). Recent work in large urban centres (London, Paris and Berlin) has demonstrated an increase in the contribution of wood smoke to ambient particles during winter that can at times exceed traffic emissions. In Europe, biomass burning has been identified as a major cause of exceedances of European air quality limits during winter (Fuller et al., 2013). In light of the changing nature of emissions in urban areas there is a need for on-going measurements to assess the impact of biomass burning in cities like London. Therefore we aimed to determine quantitatively the contribution of biomass burning in London and surrounding rural areas. We also aimed to determine whether local emissions or regional sources were the main source of biomass burning in London. Sources of wood smoke during winter in London were investigated at an urban background site (North Kensington) and two surrounding rural sites (Harwell and Detling) by analysing selected wood smoke chemical tracers. Concentrations of levoglucosan, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC) and K+ were generally well correlated, indicating a similar source of these species at the three sites. Based on the conversion factor for levoglucosan, mean wood smoke mass at Detling, North Kensington and Harwell was 0.78, 0.87 and 1.0 µg m-3, respectively. At all the sites, biomass burning was found to be a source of OC and EC, with the largest source of OC and EC found to be secondary organic aerosols and traffic emissions, respectively. Peaks in levoglucosan concentrations at the sites were observed to coincide with low ambient temperature, suggesting domestic heating as

  5. Quantum Entanglement: Separability, Measure, Fidelity of Teleportation, and Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum entanglement plays crucial roles in quantum information processing. Quantum entangled states have become the key ingredient in the rapidly expanding field of quantum information science. Although the nonclassical nature of entanglement has been recognized for many years, considerable efforts have been taken to understand and characterize its properties recently. In this review, we introduce some recent results in the theory of quantum entanglement. In particular separability criteria based on the Bloch representation, covariance matrix, normal form and entanglement witness, lower bounds, subadditivity property of concurrence and tangle, fully entangled fraction related to the optimal fidelity of quantum teleportation, and entanglement distillation will be discussed in detail.

  6. Theory of fidelity measure in degenerate four-wave mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochove, E.J.

    1983-01-01

    Phase-conjugate beam fidelity is studied in degenerate four-wave mixing with spatially varying pump beams. The analysis includes the effects of probe depletion, diffracting non-linear phase variation focussing, and finally that of losses. Relatively simple algebraic expressions are found for the phase conjugate reflectivity for the cases of collinear and near-collinear beam gemetries. It is found that by focussing the probe beam into the mixing medium, the fraction of energy in the phase conjugate beam which was transferred to other modes, may typically be reduced by one order of magnitude. (Author) [pt

  7. Multi-fidelity optimization of horizontal axis wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McWilliam, Michael; Zahle, Frederik; Pavese, Christian

    2017-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the numerical design optimization of wind turbines. Many examples of wind turbine design optimization in literature rely on simplified analysis in some form. This may lead to sub-optimal design, because the optimizer does not see the full fidelity of the problem....... Finally, AMMF was used in full aero-elastic wind turbine rotor design optimization problem based on the DTU 10 MW reference wind turbine design. Mixed results were achieved for the final study and further work is needed to find the best configuration for AMMF....

  8. Fidelity considerations in translational research: Eating As Treatment - a stepped wedge, randomised controlled trial of a dietitian delivered behaviour change counselling intervention for head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Alison Kate; Baker, Amanda; Britton, Ben; Wratten, Chris; Bauer, Judith; Wolfenden, Luke; Carter, Gregory

    2015-10-15

    The confidence with which researchers can comment on intervention efficacy relies on evaluation and consideration of intervention fidelity. Accordingly, there have been calls to increase the transparency with which fidelity methodology is reported. Despite this, consideration and/or reporting of fidelity methods remains poor. We seek to address this gap by describing the methodology for promoting and facilitating the evaluation of intervention fidelity in The EAT (Eating As Treatment) project: a multi-site stepped wedge randomised controlled trial of a dietitian delivered behaviour change counselling intervention to improve nutrition (primary outcome) in head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. In accordance with recommendations from the National Institutes of Health Behaviour Change Consortium Treatment Fidelity Workgroup, we sought to maximise fidelity in this stepped wedge randomised controlled trial via strategies implemented from study design through to provider training, intervention delivery and receipt. As the EAT intervention is designed to be incorporated into standard dietetic consultations, we also address unique challenges for translational research. We offer a strong model for improving the quality of translational findings via real world application of National Institutes of Health Behaviour Change Consortium recommendations. Greater transparency in the reporting of behaviour change research is an important step in improving the progress and quality of behaviour change research. ACTRN12613000320752 (Date of registration 21 March 2013).

  9. Winter habitat occurrence patterns of temperate migrant birds in Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, D.K.; Robbins, C.S.; Sauer, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    We used mist nets and point counts to sample bird populations in 61 sites in Belize during January-March of 1987-1991. Sites were classified as forest, second growth, woody agricultural crops (citrus, mango, cacao, and cashew), or non-woody agricultural crops (rice and sugar cane). We evaluated patterns of occurence of wintering temperate migrant bird species in these habitats. Mist net captures of 22 of 31 migrant species differed significantly among habitats. Of these, 13 species were captured more frequently in the agricultural habitats. American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla), Black-and-white Warbler (Mniotilta varia), and Magnolia Warbler (Dendroica magnolia) were among the species captured most frequently in woody agricultural habitats; captures of Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas), Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea), and Northern (lcterus galbula) and Orchard orioles (I. spur/anus) were highest in the non-woody agricultural sites. We relate these occurrence patterns to trends in breeding populations in North America. While count data provide a wide picture of winter habitat distribution of migrants, more intensive work is necessary to assess temporal and geographic variation of migrant bird use of agricultural habitats.

  10. A global analysis of the comparability of winter chill models for fruit and nut trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedeling, Eike; Brown, Patrick H

    2011-05-01

    Many fruit and nut trees must fulfill a chilling requirement to break their winter dormancy and resume normal growth in spring. Several models exist for quantifying winter chill, and growers and researchers often tacitly assume that the choice of model is not important and estimates of species chilling requirements are valid across growing regions. To test this assumption, Safe Winter Chill (the amount of winter chill that is exceeded in 90% of years) was calculated for 5,078 weather stations around the world, using the Dynamic Model [in Chill Portions (CP)], the Chilling Hours (CH) Model and the Utah Model [Utah Chill Units (UCU)]. Distributions of the ratios between different winter chill metrics were mapped on a global scale. These ratios should be constant if the models were strictly proportional. Ratios between winter chill metrics varied substantially, with the CH/CP ratio ranging between 0 and 34, the UCU/CP ratio between -155 and +20 and the UCU/CH ratio between -10 and +5. The models are thus not proportional, and chilling requirements determined in a given location may not be valid elsewhere. The Utah Model produced negative winter chill totals in many Subtropical regions, where it does not seem to be useful. Mean annual temperature and daily temperature range influenced all winter chill ratios, but explained only between 12 and 27% of the variation. Data on chilling requirements should always be amended with information on the location and experimental conditions of the study in which they were determined, ideally including site-specific conversion factors between winter chill models. This would greatly facilitate the transfer of such information across growing regions, and help prepare growers for the impact of climate change.

  11. Contrasting Seasonal Survivorship of Two Migratory Songbirds Wintering in Threatened Mangrove Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Calvert

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-distance migrants wintering in tropical regions face a number of critical conservation threats throughout their lives, but seasonal estimates of key demographic parameters such as winter survival are rare. Using mist-netting-based mark-recapture data collected in coastal Costa Rica over a six-year period, we examined variation in within- and between-winter survivorship of the Prothonotary Warbler (Protonotaria citrea; 753 young and 376 adults banded, a declining neotropical habitat specialist that depends on threatened mangrove forests during the nonbreeding season. We derived parallel seasonal survivorship estimates for the Northern Waterthrush (Seiurus noveboracensis; 564 young and 93 adults banded, a cohabitant mangrove specialist that has not shown the same population decline in North America, to assess whether contrasting survivorship might contribute to the observed differences in the species’ population trajectories. Although average annual survival probability was relatively similar between the two species for both young and adult birds, monthly estimates indicated that relative to Northern Waterthrush, Prothonotary Warblers exhibited: greater interannual variation in survivorship, especially within winters; greater variation in survivorship among the three study sites; lower average between-winter survivorship, particularly among females, and; a sharp decline in between-winter survivorship from 2003 to 2009 for both age groups and both sexes. Rather than identifying one seasonal vital rate as a causal factor of Prothonotary Warbler population declines, our species comparison suggests that the combination of variable within-winter survival with decreasing between-winter survival demands a multi-seasonal approach to the conservation of this and other tropical-wintering migrants.

  12. Hippocampal Astrocytes in Migrating and Wintering Semipalmated Sandpiper Calidris pusilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-Paulo, Dario; de Morais Magalhães, Nara G; de Almeida Miranda, Diego; Diniz, Daniel G; Henrique, Ediely P; Moraes, Isis A M; Pereira, Patrick D C; de Melo, Mauro A D; de Lima, Camila M; de Oliveira, Marcus A; Guerreiro-Diniz, Cristovam; Sherry, David F; Diniz, Cristovam W P

    2017-01-01

    Seasonal migratory birds return to the same breeding and wintering grounds year after year, and migratory long-distance shorebirds are good examples of this. These tasks require learning and long-term spatial memory abilities that are integrated into a navigational system for repeatedly locating breeding, wintering, and stopover sites. Previous investigations focused on the neurobiological basis of hippocampal plasticity and numerical estimates of hippocampal neurogenesis in birds but only a few studies investigated potential contributions of glial cells to hippocampal-dependent tasks related to migration. Here we hypothesized that the astrocytes of migrating and wintering birds may exhibit significant morphological and numerical differences connected to the long-distance flight. We used as a model the semipalmated sandpiper Calidris pusilla , that migrates from northern Canada and Alaska to South America. Before the transatlantic non-stop long-distance component of their flight, the birds make a stopover at the Bay of Fundy in Canada. To test our hypothesis, we estimated total numbers and compared the three-dimensional (3-D) morphological features of adult C. pusilla astrocytes captured in the Bay of Fundy ( n = 249 cells) with those from birds captured in the coastal region of Bragança, Brazil, during the wintering period ( n = 250 cells). Optical fractionator was used to estimate the number of astrocytes and for 3-D reconstructions we used hierarchical cluster analysis. Both morphological phenotypes showed reduced morphological complexity after the long-distance non-stop flight, but the reduction in complexity was much greater in Type I than in Type II astrocytes. Coherently, we also found a significant reduction in the total number of astrocytes after the transatlantic flight. Taken together these findings suggest that the long-distance non-stop flight altered significantly the astrocytes population and that morphologically distinct astrocytes may play

  13. Hippocampal Astrocytes in Migrating and Wintering Semipalmated Sandpiper Calidris pusilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Carvalho-Paulo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal migratory birds return to the same breeding and wintering grounds year after year, and migratory long-distance shorebirds are good examples of this. These tasks require learning and long-term spatial memory abilities that are integrated into a navigational system for repeatedly locating breeding, wintering, and stopover sites. Previous investigations focused on the neurobiological basis of hippocampal plasticity and numerical estimates of hippocampal neurogenesis in birds but only a few studies investigated potential contributions of glial cells to hippocampal-dependent tasks related to migration. Here we hypothesized that the astrocytes of migrating and wintering birds may exhibit significant morphological and numerical differences connected to the long-distance flight. We used as a model the semipalmated sandpiper Calidris pusilla, that migrates from northern Canada and Alaska to South America. Before the transatlantic non-stop long-distance component of their flight, the birds make a stopover at the Bay of Fundy in Canada. To test our hypothesis, we estimated total numbers and compared the three-dimensional (3-D morphological features of adult C. pusilla astrocytes captured in the Bay of Fundy (n = 249 cells with those from birds captured in the coastal region of Bragança, Brazil, during the wintering period (n = 250 cells. Optical fractionator was used to estimate the number of astrocytes and for 3-D reconstructions we used hierarchical cluster analysis. Both morphological phenotypes showed reduced morphological complexity after the long-distance non-stop flight, but the reduction in complexity was much greater in Type I than in Type II astrocytes. Coherently, we also found a significant reduction in the total number of astrocytes after the transatlantic flight. Taken together these findings suggest that the long-distance non-stop flight altered significantly the astrocytes population and that morphologically distinct astrocytes

  14. Foraging flight distances of wintering ducks and geese: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P. Johnson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The distance covered by foraging animals, especially those that radiate from a central area when foraging, may affect ecosystem, community, and population dynamics, and has conservation and landscape planning implications for multiple taxa, including migratory waterfowl. Migrating and wintering waterfowl make regular foraging flights between roosting and feeding areas that can greatly impact energetic resources within the foraging zone near roost sites. We reviewed published studies and gray literature for one-way foraging flight distances (FFDs of migrating and wintering dabbling ducks and geese. Thirty reviewed studies reported FFDs and several reported values for multiple species or locations. We obtained FFD values for migration (n = 7 and winter (n = 70. We evaluated the effects of body mass, guild, i.e., dabbling duck or goose, and location, i.e., Nearctic or Palearctic, on FFDs. We used the second-order Akaike's Information Criterion for model selection. We found support for effects of location and guild on FFDs. FFDs of waterfowl wintering in the Nearctic (7.4 ± 6.7 km, mean ± SD; n = 39 values were longer than in the Palearctic (4.2 ± 3.2 km; n = 31 values. The FFDs of geese (7.8 ± 7.2 km, mean ± SD; n = 24 values were longer than FFDs of dabbling ducks (5.1 ± 4.4 km, mean ± SD; n = 46 values. We found mixed evidence that distance flown from the roost changed, i.e., increased or decreased, seasonally. Our results can be used to refine estimates of energetic carrying capacity around roosts and in biological and landscape planning efforts.

  15. Staff turnover in statewide implementation of ACT: relationship with ACT fidelity and other team characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Rollins, Angela L.; Salyers, Michelle P.; Tsai, Jack; Lydick, Jennifer M.

    2010-01-01

    Staff turnover on assertive community treatment (ACT) teams is a poorly understood phenomenon. This study examined annual turnover and fidelity data collected in a statewide implementation of ACT over a 5-year period. Mean annual staff turnover across all observations was 30.0%. Turnover was negatively correlated with overall fidelity at Year 1 and 3. The team approach fidelity item was negatively correlated with staff turnover at Year 3. For 13 teams with 3 years of follow-up data, turnover ...

  16. FIDELITY TOWARDS FORMS: AN ONTOLOGICAL APPROACH – PART II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA BAZAC

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper opposes to a common attitude towards forms – as being something non-important, superficial, “formal” – Plato and Aristotle’s philosophy, according to which things exist because of forms. From the inquiry of their logic that mixes the epistemological and the ontological standpoint, the analysis goes on to the problem of the understanding of forms as events: as mirrors of the manner we see the world/as mirrors of the way of thinking. I contrast the event to the situation – in Alain Badiou’s manner – and I show that there is a logic of continuity between Aristotle’s insistence on the concrete face of form (σύνoλoν and Badiou’s concept of fidelity: because this concept always relates to the concrete which deserves to be faithful towards. The value of things we support gives their “forms”. If so, fidelity towards forms is something more complete and suggestive than to follow essences: forms are as important as essences; this is obvious when the forms change but the essence do not; in fact, it is not a real change. The real change is when the form changes bringing also the change of the essence.

  17. Generalized Hofmann quantum process fidelity bounds for quantum filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlák, Michal; Fiurášek, Jaromír

    2016-04-01

    We propose and investigate bounds on the quantum process fidelity of quantum filters, i.e., probabilistic quantum operations represented by a single Kraus operator K . These bounds generalize the Hofmann bounds on the quantum process fidelity of unitary operations [H. F. Hofmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 160504 (2005), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.94.160504] and are based on probing the quantum filter with pure states forming two mutually unbiased bases. Determination of these bounds therefore requires far fewer measurements than full quantum process tomography. We find that it is particularly suitable to construct one of the probe bases from the right eigenstates of K , because in this case the bounds are tight in the sense that if the actual filter coincides with the ideal one, then both the lower and the upper bounds are equal to 1. We theoretically investigate the application of these bounds to a two-qubit optical quantum filter formed by the interference of two photons on a partially polarizing beam splitter. For an experimentally convenient choice of factorized input states and measurements we study the tightness of the bounds. We show that more stringent bounds can be obtained by more sophisticated processing of the data using convex optimization and we compare our methods for different choices of the input probe states.

  18. Bipartite fidelity and Loschmidt echo of the bosonic conformal interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tianci; Lin, Mao

    2017-12-01

    We study the quantum quench problem for a class of bosonic conformal interfaces by computing the Loschmidt echo and the bipartite fidelity. The quench can be viewed as a sudden change of boundary conditions parametrized by θ when connecting two one-dimensional critical systems. They are classified by S (θ ) matrices associated with the current scattering processes on the interface. The resulting Loschmidt echo of the quench has long time algebraic decay t-α, whose exponent also appears in the finite size bipartite fidelity as L-α/2. We perform analytic and numerical calculations of the exponent α , and find that it has a quadratic dependence on the change of θ if the prior and post-quench boundary conditions are of the same type of S , while remaining 1/4 otherwise. Possible physical realizations of these interfaces include, for instance, connecting different quantum wires (Luttinger liquids), quench of the topological phase edge states, etc., and the exponent can be detected in an x-ray edge singularity-type experiment.

  19. Patterns of communication in high-fidelity simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Judy K; Nelson, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    High-fidelity simulation is commonplace in nursing education. However, critical thinking, decision making, and psychomotor skills scenarios are emphasized. Scenarios involving communication occur in interprofessional or intraprofessional settings. The importance of effective nurse-patient communication is reflected in statements from the American Nurses Association and Quality and Safety Education for Nurses, and in the graduate outcomes of most nursing programs. This qualitative study examined the patterns of communication observed in video recordings of a medical-surgical scenario with 71 senior students in a baccalaureate program. Thematic analysis revealed patterns of (a) focusing on tasks, (b) communicating-in-action, and (c) being therapeutic. Additional categories under the patterns included missing opportunities, viewing the "small picture," relying on informing, speaking in "medical tongues," offering choices…okay?, feeling uncomfortable, and using therapeutic techniques. The findings suggest the importance of using high-fidelity simulation to develop expertise in communication. In addition, the findings reinforce the recommendation to prioritize communication aspects of scenarios and debriefing for all simulations. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. FIDELITY TOWARDS FORMS: AN ONTOLOGICAL APPROACH – PART I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA BAZAC

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper opposes to a common attitude towards forms – as being something non-important, superficial, “formal” – Plato and Aristotle’s philosophy, according to which things exist because of forms. From the inquiry of their logic that mixes the epistemological and the ontological standpoint, the analysis goes on to the problem of the understanding of forms as events: as mirrors of the manner we see the world/as mirrors of the way of thinking. I contrast the event to the situation – in Alain Badiou’s manner – and I show that there is a logic of continuity between Aristotle’s insistence on the concrete face of form (σύνoλoν and Badiou’s concept of fidelity: because this concept always relates to the concrete which deserves to be faithful towards. The value of things we support gives their “forms”. If so, fidelity towards forms is something more complete and suggestive than to follow essences: forms are as important as essences; this is obvious when the forms change but the essence do not; in fact, it is not a real change. The real change is when the form changes bringing also the change of the essence.

  1. Mitotic chromosome transmission fidelity mutants in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, F.; Gerring, S.L.; Connelly, C.; Hieter, P.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have isolated 136 independent EMS-induced mutations in haploid yeast strains that exhibit decreased chromosome transmission fidelity in mitosis. Eight-five percent of the mutations are recessive and 15% are partially dominant. Complementation analysis between MATa and MATα isolates identifies 11 chromosome transmission fidelity (CTF) complementation groups, the largest of which is identical to CHL1. For 49 independent mutations, no corresponding allele has been recovered in the opposite mating type. The initial screen monitored the stability of a centromere-linked color marker on a nonessential yeast chromosome fragment; the mitotic inheritance of natural yeast chromosome III is also affected by the ctf mutations. Of the 136 isolates identified, seven were inviable at 37 degree and five were inviable at 11 degree. In all cases tested, these temperature conditional lethalities cosegregated with the chromosome instability phenotype. Five additional complementation groups (ctf12 through ctf16) have been defined by complementation analysis of the mutations causing inviability at 37 degree. All of the mutant strains showed normal sensitivity to ultraviolet and γ-irradiation

  2. PHYSICS OF ECLIPSING BINARIES. II. TOWARD THE INCREASED MODEL FIDELITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prša, A.; Conroy, K. E.; Horvat, M.; Kochoska, A.; Hambleton, K. M. [Villanova University, Dept. of Astrophysics and Planetary Sciences, 800 E Lancaster Avenue, Villanova PA 19085 (United States); Pablo, H. [Université de Montréal, Pavillon Roger-Gaudry, 2900, boul. Édouard-Montpetit Montréal QC H3T 1J4 (Canada); Bloemen, S. [Radboud University Nijmegen, Department of Astrophysics, IMAPP, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Giammarco, J. [Eastern University, Dept. of Astronomy and Physics, 1300 Eagle Road, St. Davids, PA 19087 (United States); Degroote, P. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium)

    2016-12-01

    The precision of photometric and spectroscopic observations has been systematically improved in the last decade, mostly thanks to space-borne photometric missions and ground-based spectrographs dedicated to finding exoplanets. The field of eclipsing binary stars strongly benefited from this development. Eclipsing binaries serve as critical tools for determining fundamental stellar properties (masses, radii, temperatures, and luminosities), yet the models are not capable of reproducing observed data well, either because of the missing physics or because of insufficient precision. This led to a predicament where radiative and dynamical effects, insofar buried in noise, started showing up routinely in the data, but were not accounted for in the models. PHOEBE (PHysics Of Eclipsing BinariEs; http://phoebe-project.org) is an open source modeling code for computing theoretical light and radial velocity curves that addresses both problems by incorporating missing physics and by increasing the computational fidelity. In particular, we discuss triangulation as a superior surface discretization algorithm, meshing of rotating single stars, light travel time effects, advanced phase computation, volume conservation in eccentric orbits, and improved computation of local intensity across the stellar surfaces that includes the photon-weighted mode, the enhanced limb darkening treatment, the better reflection treatment, and Doppler boosting. Here we present the concepts on which PHOEBE is built and proofs of concept that demonstrate the increased model fidelity.

  3. Importance of debriefing in high-fidelity simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Karnjuš

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Debriefing has been identified as one of the most important parts of a high-fidelity simulation learning process. During debriefing, the mentor invites learners to critically assess the knowledge and skills used during the execution of a scenario. Regardless of the abundance of studies that have examined simulation-based education, debriefing is still poorly defined.The present article examines the essential features of debriefing, its phases, techniques and methods with a systematic review of recent publications. It emphasizes the mentor’s role, since the effectiveness of debriefing largely depends on the mentor’s skills to conduct it. The guidelines that allow the mentor to evaluate his performance in conducting debriefing are also presented. We underline the importance of debriefing in clinical settings as part of continuous learning process. Debriefing allows the medical teams to assess their performance and develop new strategies to achieve higher competencies.Although the debriefing is the cornerstone of high-fidelity simulation learning process, it also represents an important learning strategy in the clinical setting. Many important aspects of debriefing are still poorly explored and understood, therefore this part of the learning process should be given greater attention in the future.

  4. Evaluation of a novel high-fidelity epistaxis task trainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Grace M; Roth, Kathryn; Rotenberg, Brian; Sommer, Doron D; Sowerby, Leigh; Fung, Kevin

    2016-07-01

    To assess the efficacy of a novel high-fidelity epistaxis simulator in teaching epistaxis management to junior otolaryngology head and neck surgery residents. Prospective cohort study. A novel high-fidelity epistaxis task trainer was developed using a cadaver head, intravenous tubing, and a food coloring-filled saline bag to emulate blood. Learners were instructed on two techniques of nasal packing (formal nasal pack and nasal tampon) for the management of epistaxis using the task trainer. Learners were videotaped attempting to pack the nose of the task trainer pre- and postintervention (verbal instruction, and practice time with task trainer). Five board-certified otolaryngologists (blinded to pre- and postintervention status) evaluated the packing technique using standardized subjective outcome measures. There were 13 junior otolaryngology residents enrolled in the study. This cohort showed a statistically significant increase in global rating scores (P epistaxis simulator has been successful in teaching and the practical application of various skills in epistaxis management. This task trainer appears to confer an educational benefit in technical skills acquisition in novice learners. Further studies are needed to determine long-term skill retention. Simulation is a promising educational adjunct that effectively enhances epistaxis management skills acquisition while maximizing patient safety. NA. Laryngoscope, 126:1501-1503, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  5. Multi-Fidelity Uncertainty Propagation for Cardiovascular Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleeter, Casey; Geraci, Gianluca; Schiavazzi, Daniele; Kahn, Andrew; Marsden, Alison

    2017-11-01

    Hemodynamic models are successfully employed in the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disease with increasing frequency. However, their widespread adoption is hindered by our inability to account for uncertainty stemming from multiple sources, including boundary conditions, vessel material properties, and model geometry. In this study, we propose a stochastic framework which leverages three cardiovascular model fidelities: 3D, 1D and 0D models. 3D models are generated from patient-specific medical imaging (CT and MRI) of aortic and coronary anatomies using the SimVascular open-source platform, with fluid structure interaction simulations and Windkessel boundary conditions. 1D models consist of a simplified geometry automatically extracted from the 3D model, while 0D models are obtained from equivalent circuit representations of blood flow in deformable vessels. Multi-level and multi-fidelity estimators from Sandia's open-source DAKOTA toolkit are leveraged to reduce the variance in our estimated output quantities of interest while maintaining a reasonable computational cost. The performance of these estimators in terms of computational cost reductions is investigated for a variety of output quantities of interest, including global and local hemodynamic indicators. Sandia National Labs is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by NTESS, LLC, for the U.S. DOE under contract DE-NA0003525. Funding for this project provided by NIH-NIBIB R01 EB018302.

  6. High Fidelity Simulation of Primary Atomization in Diesel Engine Sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Christopher; Bravo, Luis; Kim, Dokyun

    2014-11-01

    A high-fidelity numerical simulation of jet breakup and spray formation from a complex diesel fuel injector at ambient conditions has been performed. A full understanding of the primary atomization process in fuel injection of diesel has not been achieved for several reasons including the difficulties accessing the optically dense region. Due to the recent advances in numerical methods and computing resources, high fidelity simulations of atomizing flows are becoming available to provide new insights of the process. In the present study, an unstructured un-split Volume-of-Fluid (VoF) method coupled to a stochastic Lagrangian spray model is employed to simulate the atomization process. A common rail fuel injector is simulated by using a nozzle geometry available through the Engine Combustion Network. The working conditions correspond to a single orifice (90 μm) JP-8 fueled injector operating at an injection pressure of 90 bar, ambient condition at 29 bar, 300 K filled with 100% nitrogen with Rel = 16,071, Wel = 75,334 setting the spray in the full atomization mode. The experimental dataset from Army Research Lab is used for validation in terms of spray global parameters and local droplet distributions. The quantitative comparison will be presented and discussed. Supported by Oak Ridge Associated Universities and the Army Research Laboratory.

  7. Advanced decision support for winter road maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This document provides an overview of the Federal Highway Administration's winter Maintenance Decision Support System (MDSS). The MDSS is a decision support tool that has the ability to provide weather predictions focused toward the road surface. The...

  8. Overview of climatic effects of nuclear winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.M.; Malone, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    A general description of the climatic effects of a nuclear war are presented. This paper offers a short history of the subject, a discussion of relevant parameters and physical processes, and a description of plausible nuclear winter scenario. 9 refs

  9. Unusial winter 2011/2012 in Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Faško, P.; Lapin, M.; Matejovič, P.; Pecho, Jozef

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2012), s. 19-26 ISSN 1335-339X Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : winter characteristics * climate variabilit * climate change * global warming Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  10. Drought and Winter Drying (Pest Alert)

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA Forest Service

    Drought and winter drying have periodically caused major damage to trees. Drought reduces the amount of water available in the soil. In the case of winter drying, the water may be in the soil, but freezing of the soil makes the water unavailable to the tree. In both cases, more water is lost through transpiration than is available to the plant. Symptoms of drought and...

  11. Coming to grips with nuclear winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherr, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    This editorial examines the politics related to the concept of nuclear winter which is a term used to describe temperature changes brought on by the injection of smoke into the atmosphere by the massive fires set off by nuclear explosions. The climate change alone could cause crop failures and lead to massive starvation. The author suggests that the prospect of a nuclear winter should be a deterrent to any nuclear exchange

  12. Barriers to wheelchair use in the winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripat, Jacquie D; Brown, Cara L; Ethans, Karen D

    2015-06-01

    To test the hypothesis that challenges to community participation posed by winter weather are greater for individuals who use scooters, manual and power wheelchairs (wheeled mobility devices [WMDs]) than for the general ambulatory population, and to determine what WMD users identify as the most salient environmental barriers to community participation during the winter. Cross-sectional survey organized around 5 environmental domains: technological, natural, physical, social/attitudinal, and policy. Urban community in Canada. Convenience sample of WMD users or their proxy (N=99). Not applicable. Not applicable. Forty-two percent identified reduced outing frequency in winter months, associated with increased age (χ(3)=6.4, P=.04), lack of access to family/friends for transportation (χ(2)=8.1, P=.04), and primary type of WMD used in the winter (scooter χ(2)=8.8, P=.003). Most reported tires/casters becoming stuck in the snow (95%) or slipping on the ice (91%), difficulty ascending inclines/ramps (92%), and cold hands while using controls or pushing rims (85%); fewer identified frozen wheelchair/scooter batteries, seat cushions/backrests, or electronics. Sidewalks/roads were reported to be problematic by 99%. Eighty percent reported needing additional help in the winter. Limited community access in winter led to a sense of loneliness/isolation, and fear/anxiety related to safety. Respondents identified policies that limited participation during winter. People who use WMDs decrease their community participation in cold weather because of multiple environmental barriers. Clinicians, researchers, and policymakers can take a multidimensional approach to mitigate these barriers in order to enhance community participation by WMD users in winter. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Naked mole-rat has increased translational fidelity compared with the mouse, as well as a unique 28S ribosomal RNA cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azpurua, Jorge; Ke, Zhonghe; Chen, Iris X; Zhang, Quanwei; Ermolenko, Dmitri N; Zhang, Zhengdong D; Gorbunova, Vera; Seluanov, Andrei

    2013-10-22

    The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a subterranean eusocial rodent with a markedly long lifespan and resistance to tumorigenesis. Multiple data implicate modulation of protein translation in longevity. Here we report that 28S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) of the naked mole-rat is processed into two smaller fragments of unequal size. The two breakpoints are located in the 28S rRNA divergent region 6 and excise a fragment of 263 nt. The excised fragment is unique to the naked mole-rat rRNA and does not show homology to other genomic regions. Because this hidden break site could alter ribosome structure, we investigated whether translation rate and amino acid incorporation fidelity were altered. We report that naked mole-rat fibroblasts have significantly increased translational fidelity despite having comparable translation rates with mouse fibroblasts. Although we cannot directly test whether the unique 28S rRNA structure contributes to the increased fidelity of translation, we speculate that it may change the folding or dynamics of the large ribosomal subunit, altering the rate of GTP hydrolysis and/or interaction of the large subunit with tRNA during accommodation, thus affecting the fidelity of protein synthesis. In summary, our results show that naked mole-rat cells produce fewer aberrant proteins, supporting the hypothesis that the more stable proteome of the naked mole-rat contributes to its longevity.

  14. Implementation fidelity trajectories of a health promotion program in multidisciplinary settings: managing tensions in rehabilitation care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, Femke; van Offenbeek, Marjolein A G; Dekker, Rienk; Hettinga, Florentina J; Hoekstra, Trynke; van der Woude, Lucas H V; van der Schans, Cees P

    2017-12-01

    Although the importance of evaluating implementation fidelity is acknowledged, little is known about heterogeneity in fidelity over time. This study aims to generate insight into the heterogeneity in implementation fidelity trajectories of a health promotion program in multidisciplinary settings and the relationship with changes in patients' health behavior. This study used longitudinal data from the nationwide implementation of an evidence-informed physical activity promotion program in Dutch rehabilitation care. Fidelity scores were calculated based on annual surveys filled in by involved professionals (n = ± 70). Higher fidelity scores indicate a more complete implementation of the program's core components. A hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted on the implementation fidelity scores of 17 organizations at three different time points. Quantitative and qualitative data were used to explore organizational and professional differences between identified trajectories. Regression analyses were conducted to determine differences in patient outcomes. Three trajectories were identified as the following: 'stable high fidelity' (n = 9), 'moderate and improving fidelity' (n = 6), and 'unstable fidelity' (n = 2). The stable high fidelity organizations were generally smaller, started earlier, and implemented the program in a more structured way compared to moderate and improving fidelity organizations. At the implementation period's start and end, support from physicians and physiotherapists, professionals' appreciation, and program compatibility were rated more positively by professionals working in stable high fidelity organizations as compared to the moderate and improving fidelity organizations (p organizations had often an explicit vision and strategy about the implementation of the program. Intriguingly, the trajectories were not associated with patients' self-reported physical activity outcomes (adjusted model β = - 651.6, t(613)

  15. Entanglement-fidelity relations for inaccurate ancilla-driven quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimae, Tomoyuki; Kahn, Jonas

    2010-01-01

    It was shown by T. Morimae [Phys. Rev. A 81, 060307(R) (2010)] that the gate fidelity of an inaccurate one-way quantum computation is upper bounded by a decreasing function of the amount of entanglement in the register. This means that a strong entanglement causes the low gate fidelity in the one-way quantum computation with inaccurate measurements. In this paper, we derive similar entanglement-fidelity relations for the inaccurate ancilla-driven quantum computation. These relations again imply that a strong entanglement in the register causes the low gate fidelity in the ancilla-driven quantum computation if the measurements on the ancilla are inaccurate.

  16. The dependence of fidelity on the squeezing parameter in teleportation of the squeezed coherent states

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jing-Tao; He Guang-Qiang; Ren Li-Jie; Zeng Gui-Hua

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates an analytical expression of teleportation fidelity in the teleportation scheme of a single mode of electromagnetic field. The fidelity between the original squeezed coherent state and the teleported one is expressed in terms of the squeezing parameter r and the quantum channel parameter (two-mode squeezed state) p. The results of analysis show that the fidelity increases with the increase of the quantum channel parameter p, while the fidelity decreases with the increase of the squeezing parameter r of the squeezed state. Thus the coherent state (r = 0)is the best quantum signal for continuous variable quantum teleportation once the quantum channel is built.

  17. Fidelity considerations for simulation-based usability assessments of mobile ICT for hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Yngve; Alsos, Ole A; Svanæs, Dag

    2010-01-01

    training simulation fidelity theories. Based on a review of the training simulation literature, a set of fidelity dimensions through which training simulations are often adjusted to meet specific goals are identified. It is argued that the same mechanisms can be used in usability assessments of mobile ICT...... for hospitals. Our argument is substantiated by using the identified set of fidelity dimensions in a retrospective analysis of two usability assessments. The analysis explains how the configuration of fidelity dimensions, each reflecting various degrees of realism vis-à-vis the actual performance context...

  18. Winter Dew Harvest in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arias-Torres Jorge Ernesto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents experimental and theoretical results of winter dew harvest in México City in terms of condensation rate. A simplified theoretical model based on a steady-state energy balance on a radiator-condenser was fitted, as a function of the ambient temperature, the relative humidity and the wind velocity. A glass sheet and aluminum sheet white-painted were used as samples over the outdoor experiments. A good correlation was obtained between the theoretical and experimental data. The experimental results show that there was condensation in 68% of the winter nights on both condensers. The total winter condensed mass was 2977 g/m2 and 2888 g/m2 on the glass sheet and aluminum sheet white-painted, respectively. Thus, the condensed mass on the glass was only 3% higher than that on the painted surface. The maximum nightly dew harvests occurred during December, which linearly reduced from 50 g/m2 night to 22 g/m2 night as the winter months went by. The condensation occurred from 1:00 a.m. to 9:00 a.m., with maximum condensation rates between 6:00 a.m. and 7:00 a.m. The dew harvest can provide a partial alternative to the winter water shortage in certain locations with similar climates to the winter in Mexico City, as long as pollution is not significant.

  19. New winter hardy winter bread wheat cultivar (Triticum aestivum L. Voloshkova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Л. М. Голик

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Creation of Initial raw for breeding of winter wheat by change of the development type under low temperatures influence was described. Seeds of spring wheat were vernalized in aluminum weighting bottle. By using low temperatures at sawing of M2-6 at the begin ind of optimal terms of sawing of winter wheat, new winter-hardy variety of Voloshkova was bred.

  20. Symmetry boost of the fidelity of Shor factoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Y. S.; Blümel, R.

    2018-05-01

    In Shor's algorithm quantum subroutines occur with the structure F U F-1 , where F is a unitary transform and U is performing a quantum computation. Examples are quantum adders and subunits of quantum modulo adders. In this paper we show, both analytically and numerically, that if, in analogy to spin echoes, F and F-1 can be implemented symmetrically when executing Shor's algorithm on actual, imperfect quantum hardware, such that F and F-1 have the same hardware errors, a symmetry boost in the fidelity of the combined F U F-1 quantum operation results when compared to the case in which the errors in F and F-1 are independently random. Running the complete gate-by-gate implemented Shor algorithm, we show that the symmetry-induced fidelity boost can be as large as a factor 4. While most of our analytical and numerical results concern the case of over- and under-rotation of controlled rotation gates, in the numerically accessible case of Shor's algorithm with a small number of qubits, we show explicitly that the symmetry boost is robust with respect to more general types of errors. While, expectedly, additional error types reduce the symmetry boost, we show explicitly, by implementing general off-diagonal SU (N ) errors (N =2 ,4 ,8 ), that the boost factor scales like a Lorentzian in δ /σ , where σ and δ are the error strengths of the diagonal over- and underrotation errors and the off-diagonal SU (N ) errors, respectively. The Lorentzian shape also shows that, while the boost factor may become small with increasing δ , it declines slowly (essentially like a power law) and is never completely erased. We also investigate the effect of diagonal nonunitary errors, which, in analogy to unitary errors, reduce but never erase the symmetry boost. Going beyond the case of small quantum processors, we present analytical scaling results that show that the symmetry boost persists in the practically interesting case of a large number of qubits. We illustrate this result

  1. Enhanced fidelity of an educational intervention on skin self-examination through surveillance and standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Rikki; Mallett, Kimberly A; Hultgren, Brittney; Turrisi, Rob; Gilbertsen, Margaret L; Martini, Mary C; Robinson, June K

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma can metastasize but is often successfully treated when discovered in an early stage. Melanoma patients and their skin check partners can learn skin self-examination (SSE) skills and these skills can be improved by practice. The purpose of this study is to determine the degree of fidelity with which educational in-person SSE intervention can be delivered by trained research coordinators to patients at risk of developing another melanoma and their skin check partners. The in-person intervention was performed in two iterations. In phase 1 (2006-2008), the research coordinators were trained to perform the intervention using a written script. In phase 2 (2011-2013), the research coordinators were trained to perform the intervention with a PowerPoint aid. Each research coordinator was individually counseled by one of the authors (KM) to insure standardization and enhance fidelity of intervention delivery. Phase 1 and Phase 2 were compared on 16 fidelity components. Further, Phase 2 fidelity was assessed by comparing mean scores of fidelity across the five research coordinators who delivered the intervention. Phase 2, which utilized a PowerPoint aid, was delivered with a higher degree of fidelity compared to phase 1with four fidelity components with significantly higher fidelity than Phase 1: 1) Explained details of melanoma, χ 2 (1, n = 199)= 96.31, p 14) and there were no mean differences in fidelity across research coordinators, indicating consistency in fidelity. This can be attributed to the standardization and cueing that the PowerPoint program offered. Supervision was also a key component in establishing and maintaining fidelity of the patient educational process. This method of intervention delivery enables trained healthcare professionals to deliver an educational intervention in an effective, consistent manner.

  2. Winter barley mutants created in the Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayats, O.M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Increasing fodder and protein production is one of the objectives of the development of agriculture in Ukraine. Higher productivity of fodder crops, due to new highly productive varieties, is the means to meet this aim. Winter barley is an important crop for fodder purposes. The climate of the Ukraine is favourable for growing this crop. The areas used for the growth of winter barley are however, small (500,000-550,000 ha) and there is a shortage of good quality varieties. The main aim of the work was therefore to create new varieties of highly productive winter barley, of good quality. The new varieties and mutation lines of winter barley were created under the influence of water solutions of N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMH - 0,012, 0,005%), N-nitroso-N-ethylurea (NEH - 0,05; 0.025; 0,012%) ethyleneimine (EI - 0,02; 0,01; 0,005%) on winter barley seeds of the varieties of local and foreign selections. On the basis of many years of investigations (1984-94) the following mutations were described: hard-grained, winter-hardiness, earliness, middle-maturity, late-maturity, wide and large leaves, narrow leaves, multinodal, great number of leaves, great number of flowers, strong stem (lodging resistant), tallness, semi-dwarfness, dwarfness, and high productivity. Particularly valuable are mutants with high productivity of green bulk. Their potential yield is 70 t/ha. As a result of the work two varieties of winter barley 'Shyrokolysty' and 'Kormovy' were released into the State register of plant varieties of the Ukraine. The other valuable mutant genotypes are used in cross breeding programmes. (author)

  3. No evidence that migratory geese disperse avian influenza viruses from breeding to wintering ground.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenglai Yin

    Full Text Available Low pathogenic avian influenza virus can mutate to a highly pathogenic strain that causes severe clinical signs in birds and humans. Migratory waterfowl, especially ducks, are considered the main hosts of low pathogenic avian influenza virus, but the role of geese in dispersing the virus over long-distances is still unclear. We collected throat and cloaca samples from three goose species, Bean goose (Anser fabalis, Barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis and Greater white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons, from their breeding grounds, spring stopover sites, and wintering grounds. We tested if the geese were infected with low pathogenic avian influenza virus outside of their wintering grounds, and analysed the spatial and temporal patterns of infection prevalence on their wintering grounds. Our results show that geese were not infected before their arrival on wintering grounds. Barnacle geese and Greater white-fronted geese had low prevalence of infection just after their arrival on wintering grounds in the Netherlands, but the prevalence increased in successive months, and peaked after December. This suggests that migratory geese are exposed to the virus after their arrival on wintering grounds, indicating that migratory geese might not disperse low pathogenic avian influenza virus during autumn migration.

  4. 2010 winter games tracks energy in real time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-01-15

    An online energy tracker was developed by BC Hydro to publicly monitor the real-time energy consumption at the Vancouver 2010 Olympic winter game sites within Vancouver, Richmond, Whistler and Whistler Blackcomb. The venues and associated sites participating in the live energy tracking project were the Richmond Olympic Oval, Canada Hockey Place, Vancouver Olympic/Paralympic Centre, South East False Creek Community Centre, Whistler Blackcomb Roundhouse Lodge and snowmaking facilities, and the Olympic and Paralympic Villages. The system was developed to allow venue managers to optimize their use of electricity on an hourly and daily basis. An energy tracking display board developed by Pulse Energy enabled them to compare their performance to similar facilities in real time, and to determine the greenhouse gas savings achieved as result of building and operating practices. Some venues had the potential to save as much as 15 to 20 per cent in energy costs with corresponding reductions in carbon emissions. Efficiency and conservation was built into the design of many new venues. The retrofits made to several existing buildings will continue to contribute to British Columbia's conservation goals long after the 2010 winter games are over.

  5. Examining winter visitor use in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mae A. Davenport; Wayne A. Freimund; William T. Borrie; Robert E. Manning; William A. Valliere; Benjamin Wang

    2000-01-01

    This research was designed to assist the managers of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) in their decision making about winter visitation. The focus of this report is on winter use patterns and winter visitor preferences. It is the author’s hope that this information will benefit both the quality of winter experiences and the stewardship of the park resources. This report...

  6. Hand ultrasound: a high-fidelity simulation of lung sliding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokoohi, Hamid; Boniface, Keith

    2012-09-01

    Simulation training has been effectively used to integrate didactic knowledge and technical skills in emergency and critical care medicine. In this article, we introduce a novel model of simulating lung ultrasound and the features of lung sliding and pneumothorax by performing a hand ultrasound. The simulation model involves scanning the palmar aspect of the hand to create normal lung sliding in varying modes of scanning and to mimic ultrasound features of pneumothorax, including "stratosphere/barcode sign" and "lung point." The simple, reproducible, and readily available simulation model we describe demonstrates a high-fidelity simulation surrogate that can be used to rapidly illustrate the signs of normal and abnormal lung sliding at the bedside. © 2012 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  7. High fidelity simulation effectiveness in nursing students' transfer of learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkman, Tera R

    2013-07-13

    Members of nursing faculty are utilizing interactive teaching tools to improve nursing student's clinical judgment; one method that has been found to be potentially effective is high fidelity simulation (HFS). The purpose of this time series design study was to determine whether undergraduate nursing students were able to transfer knowledge and skills learned from classroom lecture and a HFS clinical to the traditional clinical setting. Students (n=42) were observed and rated on their ability to perform a respiratory assessment. The observations and ratings took place at the bedside, prior to a respiratory lecture, following the respiratory lecture, and following simulation clinical. The findings indicated that there was a significant difference (p=0.000) in transfer of learning demonstrated over time. Transfer of learning was demonstrated and the use of HFS was found to be an effective learning and teaching method. Implications of results are discussed.

  8. TOPFARM: Multi-fidelity optimization of wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan; Fuglsang, Peter; Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    2014-01-01

    design of the Middelgrunden wind farm, this work focuses on demonstrating a method that optimizes the profit of wind farms over their lifetime based on a balance of the energy production income, the electrical grid costs, the foundations cost, and the cost of wake turbulence induced fatigue degradation...... of different wind turbine components. A multi-fidelity concept is adapted, which uses cost function models of increasing complexity (and decreasing speed) to accelerate the convergence to an optimum solution. In the EU-FP6 TOPFARM project, three levels of complexity are considered. The first level uses...... a simple stationary wind farm wake model to estimate the Annual Energy Production (AEP), a foundations cost model depending on the water depth and an electrical grid cost function dictated by cable length. The second level calculates the AEP and adds a wake-induced fatigue degradation cost function...

  9. Restless Tuneup of High-Fidelity Qubit Gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rol, M. A.; Bultink, C. C.; O'Brien, T. E.; de Jong, S. R.; Theis, L. S.; Fu, X.; Luthi, F.; Vermeulen, R. F. L.; de Sterke, J. C.; Bruno, A.; Deurloo, D.; Schouten, R. N.; Wilhelm, F. K.; DiCarlo, L.

    2017-04-01

    We present a tuneup protocol for qubit gates with tenfold speedup over traditional methods reliant on qubit initialization by energy relaxation. This speedup is achieved by constructing a cost function for Nelder-Mead optimization from real-time correlation of nondemolition measurements interleaving gate operations without pause. Applying the protocol on a transmon qubit achieves 0.999 average Clifford fidelity in one minute, as independently verified using randomized benchmarking and gate-set tomography. The adjustable sensitivity of the cost function allows the detection of fractional changes in the gate error with a nearly constant signal-to-noise ratio. The restless concept demonstrated can be readily extended to the tuneup of two-qubit gates and measurement operations.

  10. High-fidelity plasma codes for burn physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooley, James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Graziani, Frank [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Marinak, Marty [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Murillo, Michael [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2016-10-19

    Accurate predictions of equation of state (EOS), ionic and electronic transport properties are of critical importance for high-energy-density plasma science. Transport coefficients inform radiation-hydrodynamic codes and impact diagnostic interpretation, which in turn impacts our understanding of the development of instabilities, the overall energy balance of burning plasmas, and the efficacy of self-heating from charged-particle stopping. Important processes include thermal and electrical conduction, electron-ion coupling, inter-diffusion, ion viscosity, and charged particle stopping. However, uncertainties in these coefficients are not well established. Fundamental plasma science codes, also called high-fidelity plasma codes, are a relatively recent computational tool that augments both experimental data and theoretical foundations of transport coefficients. This paper addresses the current status of HFPC codes and their future development, and the potential impact they play in improving the predictive capability of the multi-physics hydrodynamic codes used in HED design.

  11. Model-implementation fidelity in cyber physical system design

    CERN Document Server

    Fabre, Christian

    2017-01-01

    This book puts in focus various techniques for checking modeling fidelity of Cyber Physical Systems (CPS), with respect to the physical world they represent. The authors' present modeling and analysis techniques representing different communities, from very different angles, discuss their possible interactions, and discuss the commonalities and differences between their practices. Coverage includes model driven development, resource-driven development, statistical analysis, proofs of simulator implementation, compiler construction, power/temperature modeling of digital devices, high-level performance analysis, and code/device certification. Several industrial contexts are covered, including modeling of computing and communication, proof architectures models and statistical based validation techniques. Addresses CPS design problems such as cross-application interference, parsimonious modeling, and trustful code production Describes solutions, such as simulation for extra-functional properties, extension of cod...

  12. Operational meaning of discord in terms of teleportation fidelity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Satyabrata; Banerjee, Subhashish

    2012-12-01

    Quantum discord is a prominent measure of quantum correlations, playing an important role in expanding its horizon beyond entanglement. Here we provide an operational meaning of (geometric) discord, which quantifies the amount of nonclassical correlations of an arbitrary quantum system based on its minimal distance from the set of classical states, in terms of teleportation fidelity for general two-qubit and (d⊗d)-dimensional isotropic and Werner states. A critical value of the discord is found beyond which the two-qubit state must violate Bell's inequality. This is illustrated by an open-system model of a dissipative two-qubit state. For the (d⊗d)-dimensional states the lower bound of discord is shown to be obtainable from an experimentally measurable witness operator.

  13. Light fidelity (Li-Fi): towards all-optical networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsonev, Dobroslav; Videv, Stefan; Haas, Harald

    2013-12-01

    Motivated by the looming radio frequency (RF) spectrum crisis, this paper aims at demonstrating that optical wireless communication (OWC) has now reached a state where it can demonstrate that it is a viable and matured solution to this fundamental problem. In particular, for indoor communications where most mobile data traffic is consumed, light fidelity (Li-Fi) which is related to visible light communication (VLC) offers many key advantages, and effective solutions to the issues that have been posed in the last decade. This paper discusses all key component technologies required to realize optical cellular communication systems referred to here as optical attocell networks. Optical attocells are the next step in the progression towards ever smaller cells, a progression which is known to be the most significant contributor to the improvements in network spectral efficiencies in RF wireless networks.

  14. Site fidelity of female minke whales in the Gulf of. St Lawrence, Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Lopes, Xenia; Bérubé, Martine; Berrow, Simon D.; Larsen, Finn; Haug, Tore; Hoekendijk, Jeroen; Hoelzel, A. Rus; Kot, Brian; Øien, Nils; Oosting, Tom; Pampoulie, Christophe; Ramp, Christian; Robbins, Jooke; Ryan, Conor; Sears, Richard; Simon, Malene; Skaug, H. J.; Verkuil, Yvonne; Vikingsson, G.A.; Witting, Lars; van der Zee, Jurjan; Palsboll, Per

    2017-01-01

    The minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) is a globally-distributed species whose population ecology is poorly understood. Most knowledge about minke whale populations, including gender differences, originates from historical data collected during commercial harvests. Here we present results from

  15. Estimating winter survival of winter wheat by simulations of plant frost tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergjord Olsen, A.K.; Persson, T.; Wit, de A.; Nkurunziza, L.; Sindhøj, E.; Eckersten, H.

    2018-01-01

    Based on soil temperature, snow depth and the grown cultivar's maximum attainable level of frost tolerance (LT50c), the FROSTOL model simulates development of frost tolerance (LT50) and winter damage, thereby enabling risk calculations for winter wheat survival. To explore the accuracy of this

  16. Root development of fodder radish and winter wheat before winter in relation to uptake of nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlström, Ellen Margrethe; Hansen, Elly Møller; Mandel, A.

    2015-01-01

    occurred. Quantitative data is missing on N leaching of a catch crop compared to a winter cereal in a conventional cereal-based cropping system. The aim of the study was to investigate whether fodder radish (Raphanus sativus L.) (FR) would be more efficient than winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (WW...

  17. Improved management of winter operations to limit subsurface contamination with degradable deicing chemicals in cold regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    French, H.K.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of management considerations required for better control of deicing chemicals in the unsaturated zone at sites with winter maintenance operations in cold regions. Degradable organic deicing chemicals are the main focus. The importance of the heterogeneity of both the

  18. Payment mechanisms for winter road maintenance services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Abdi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In countries with severe winters a major part of the annual budget for road maintenance is allocated on performance of winter road maintenance tasks. Finding appropriate remuneration forms to compensate entrepreneurs for performed road measures during winter is not an easy task in order to minimise or eliminate disputes and satisfy both client organisations and contractors. On the other hand improper reimbursement models lead either to the client’s annual budget imbalance due to unnecessary cost overruns or affect contractor’s cash-flow. Such cases in turn affect just-in-time winter road maintenance and then traffic safety. To solve such problems, a number of countries in cold regions like Sweden have developed different remuneration models based more on weather data called Weather Index. Therefore the objective of this paper is to investigate and evaluate the payment models applied in Sweden. The study uses a number of approaches namely; domestic questionnaire survey, analysis of a number of contract documents, a series of meetings with the project managers and an international benchmarking. The study recognised four remuneration models for winter maintenance service of which one based on weather data statistics. The study reveals the payment model based on weather data statistics is only applied for the roads with higher traffic flow and the model generates most uncertainty.

  19. Risk management model of winter navigation operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdez Banda, Osiris A.; Goerlandt, Floris; Kuzmin, Vladimir; Kujala, Pentti; Montewka, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    The wintertime maritime traffic operations in the Gulf of Finland are managed through the Finnish–Swedish Winter Navigation System. This establishes the requirements and limitations for the vessels navigating when ice covers this area. During winter navigation in the Gulf of Finland, the largest risk stems from accidental ship collisions which may also trigger oil spills. In this article, a model for managing the risk of winter navigation operations is presented. The model analyses the probability of oil spills derived from collisions involving oil tanker vessels and other vessel types. The model structure is based on the steps provided in the Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and adapted into a Bayesian Network model. The results indicate that ship independent navigation and convoys are the operations with higher probability of oil spills. Minor spills are most probable, while major oil spills found very unlikely but possible. - Highlights: •A model to assess and manage the risk of winter navigation operations is proposed. •The risks of oil spills in winter navigation in the Gulf of Finland are analysed. •The model assesses and prioritizes actions to control the risk of the operations. •The model suggests navigational training as the most efficient risk control option.

  20. Blending Qualitative and Computational Linguistics Methods for Fidelity Assessment: Experience with the Familias Unidas Preventive Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Carlos; Pantin, Hilda; Villamar, Juan; Prado, Guillermo; Tapia, Maria; Ogihara, Mitsunori; Cruden, Gracelyn; Brown, C Hendricks

    2015-09-01

    Careful fidelity monitoring and feedback are critical to implementing effective interventions. A wide range of procedures exist to assess fidelity; most are derived from observational assessments (Schoenwald and Garland, Psycholog Assess 25:146-156, 2013). However, these fidelity measures are resource intensive for research teams in efficacy/effectiveness trials, and are often unattainable or unmanageable for the host organization to rate when the program is implemented on a large scale. We present a first step towards automated processing of linguistic patterns in fidelity monitoring of a behavioral intervention using an innovative mixed methods approach to fidelity assessment that uses rule-based, computational linguistics to overcome major resource burdens. Data come from an effectiveness trial of the Familias Unidas intervention, an evidence-based, family-centered preventive intervention found to be efficacious in reducing conduct problems, substance use and HIV sexual risk behaviors among Hispanic youth. This computational approach focuses on "joining," which measures the quality of the working alliance of the facilitator with the family. Quantitative assessments of reliability are provided. Kappa scores between a human rater and a machine rater for the new method for measuring joining reached 0.83. Early findings suggest that this approach can reduce the high cost of fidelity measurement and the time delay between fidelity assessment and feedback to facilitators; it also has the potential for improving the quality of intervention fidelity ratings.

  1. Implementation Fidelity of a Voluntary Sector-Led Diabetes Education Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Michele S. Y.; Jones, Mat; Solomon-Moore, Emma; Smith, Jane R.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The quality of voluntary sector-led community health programmes is an important concern for service users, providers and commissioners. Research on the fidelity of programme implementation offers a basis for assessing and further enhancing practice. The purpose of this paper is to report on the fidelity assessment of Living Well Taking…

  2. Evidence, Fidelity, and Organisational Rationales: Multiple Uses of Motivational Interviewing in a Social Services Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björk, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    In discussions and empirical investigations of the implementation of evidence-based interventions there is often a narrow focus on treatment fidelity. Studying a social services agency trying to incorporate Motivational Interviewing (MI), commonly regarded as evidence-based, this paper problematises a one-sided attention to treatment fidelity by…

  3. Assessment of Fidelity in Interventions to Improve Hand Hygiene of Healthcare Workers: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musuuza, Jackson S.; Barker, Anna; Ngam, Caitlyn; Vellardita, Lia; Safdar, Nasia

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Compliance with hand hygiene in healthcare workers is fundamental to infection prevention yet remains a challenge to sustain. We examined fidelity reporting in interventions to improve hand hygiene compliance, and we assessed 5 measures of intervention fidelity: (1) adherence, (2) exposure or dose, (3) quality of intervention delivery, (4) participant responsiveness, and (5) program differentiation. DESIGN Systematic review METHODS A librarian performed searches of the literature in PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL), Cochrane Library, and Web of Science of material published prior to June 19, 2015. The review protocol was registered in PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews, and assessment of study quality was conducted for each study reviewed. RESULTS A total of 100 studies met the inclusion criteria. Only 8 of these 100 studies reported all 5 measures of intervention fidelity. In addition, 39 of 100 (39%) failed to include at least 3 fidelity measures; 20 of 100 (20%) failed to include 4 measures; 17 of 100 (17%) failed to include 2 measures, while 16 of 100 (16%) of the studies failed to include at least 1 measure of fidelity. Participant responsiveness and adherence to the intervention were the most frequently unreported fidelity measures, while quality of the delivery was the most frequently reported measure. CONCLUSIONS Almost all hand hygiene intervention studies failed to report at least 1 fidelity measurement. To facilitate replication and effective implementation, reporting fidelity should be standard practice when describing results of complex behavioral interventions such as hand hygiene. PMID:26861117

  4. Effect on High versus Low Fidelity Haptic Feedback in a Virtual Reality Baseball Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryge, Andreas Nicolaj; Thomsen, Lui Albæk; Berthelsen, Theis

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present a within-subjects study (n=26) comparing participants' experience of three kinds of haptic feedback (no haptic feedback, low fidelity haptic feedback and high fidelity haptic feedback) simulating the impact between a virtual baseball bat and ball. We noticed some minor ef...

  5. Blood lead concentrations in Alaskan tundra swans: linking breeding and wintering areas with satellite telemetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Craig R; Franson, J Christian

    2014-04-01

    Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) like many waterfowl species are susceptible to lead (Pb) poisoning, and Pb-induced mortality has been reported from many areas of their wintering range. Little is known however about Pb levels throughout the annual cycle of tundra swans, especially during summer when birds are on remote northern breeding areas where they are less likely to be exposed to anthropogenic sources of Pb. Our objective was to document summer Pb levels in tundra swans throughout their breeding range in Alaska to determine if there were population-specific differences in blood Pb concentrations that might pose a threat to swans and to humans that may consume them. We measured blood Pb concentrations in tundra swans at five locations in Alaska, representing birds that winter in both the Pacific Flyway and Atlantic Flyway. We also marked swans at each location with satellite transmitters and coded neck bands, to identify staging and wintering sites and determine if winter site use correlated with summer Pb concentrations. Blood Pb levels were generally low (<0.2 μg/ml) in swans across all breeding areas. Pb levels were lower in cygnets than adults, suggesting that swans were likely exposed to Pb on wintering areas or on return migration to Alaska, rather than on the summer breeding grounds. Blood Pb levels varied significantly across the five breeding areas, with highest concentrations in birds on the North Slope of Alaska (wintering in the Atlantic Flyway), and lowest in birds from the lower Alaska Peninsula that rarely migrate south for winter.

  6. Road salt application planning tool for winter de-icing operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenouth, William R.; Gharabaghi, Bahram; Perera, Nandana

    2015-05-01

    Road authorities, who are charged with the task of maintaining safe, driveable road conditions during severe winter storm events are coming under increasing pressure to protect salt vulnerable areas (SVAs). For the purpose of modelling urban winter hydrology, the temperature index method was modified to incorporate ploughing and salting considerations and was calibrated using winter field data from two sites in Southern Ontario and validated using data collected from a section of Highway 401 - Canada's busiest highway. The modified temperature index model (MTIM) accurately predicted salt-induced melt (R2 = 0.98 and 0.99, RMSE = 19.9 and 282.4 m3, CRM = -0.003 and 0.006 for calibration and validation sites respectively), and showed a demonstrable ability to calculate the Bare Pavement Regain Time (BPRT). The BPRT is a key factor on road safety and the basis for many winter maintenance performance standards for different classes of highways. Optimizing salt application rate scenarios can be achieved using the MTIM with only two meteorological forecast inputs for the storm event - readily available on-line through the Road Weather Information System (RWIS) - and can serve as a simple yet effective tool for winter road maintenance practitioners seeking to optimize salt application rates for a given storm event in salt vulnerable areas.

  7. Does winter region affect spring arrival time and body mass of king eiders in northern Alaska?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Abby N.; Oppel, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    Events during the non-breeding season may affect the body condition of migratory birds and influence performance during the following breeding season. Migratory birds nesting in the Arctic often rely on endogenous nutrients for reproductive efforts, and are thus potentially subject to such carry-over effects. We tested whether king eider (Somateria spectabilis) arrival time and body mass upon arrival at breeding grounds in northern Alaska were affected by their choice of a winter region in the Bering Sea. We captured birds shortly after arrival on breeding grounds in early June 2002–2006 at two sites in northern Alaska and determined the region in which individuals wintered using satellite telemetry or stable isotope ratios of head feathers. We used generalized linear models to assess whether winter region explained variation in arrival body mass among individuals by accounting for sex, site, annual variation, and the date a bird was captured. We found no support for our hypothesis that either arrival time or arrival body mass of king eiders differed among winter regions. We conclude that wintering in different regions in the Bering Sea is unlikely to have reproductive consequences for king eiders in our study areas.

  8. Winter Activity of Coastal Plain Populations of Bat Species Affected by White-Nose Syndrome and Wind Energy Facilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F Grider

    Full Text Available Across the entire distribution of a species, populations may have variable responses to environmental perturbations. Many bat species experience mortality in large portions of their range during hibernation and along migratory paths to and from wintering grounds, from White-nose syndrome (WNS and wind energy development, respectively. In some areas, warm temperatures may allow bats to remain active through winter, thus decreasing their susceptibility to WNS and/or mortality associated with migration to wintering grounds. These areas could act as a refugia and be important for the persistence of local populations. To determine if warmer temperatures affect bat activity, we compared year-round activity of bat populations in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont of North Carolina, USA, two regions that differ in winter temperature. We established six recording stations, four along a 295-kilometer north-south transect in the Coastal Plain, and two in the Piedmont of North Carolina. We recorded bat activity over two years. We supplemented our recordings with mist-net data. Although bat activity was lower during winter at all sites, the odds of recording a bat during winter were higher at Coastal Plain sites when compared with Piedmont sites. Further, bats in the Piedmont had a lower level of winter activity compared to summer activity than bats in the Coastal Plain that had more similar levels of activity in the winter and summer. We found high bat species richness on the Coastal Plain in winter, with winter-active species including those known to hibernate throughout most of their range and others known to be long distance migrants. In particular, two species impacted by WNS, the northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis and tricolored bat (Perimyotis subflavus, were present year round in the Coastal Plain. The tricolored bat was also present year-round in the Piedmont. In the Coastal Plain, the long distance migratory hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus

  9. Winter Activity of Coastal Plain Populations of Bat Species Affected by White-Nose Syndrome and Wind Energy Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grider, John F; Larsen, Angela L; Homyack, Jessica A; Kalcounis-Rueppell, Matina C

    2016-01-01

    Across the entire distribution of a species, populations may have variable responses to environmental perturbations. Many bat species experience mortality in large portions of their range during hibernation and along migratory paths to and from wintering grounds, from White-nose syndrome (WNS) and wind energy development, respectively. In some areas, warm temperatures may allow bats to remain active through winter, thus decreasing their susceptibility to WNS and/or mortality associated with migration to wintering grounds. These areas could act as a refugia and be important for the persistence of local populations. To determine if warmer temperatures affect bat activity, we compared year-round activity of bat populations in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont of North Carolina, USA, two regions that differ in winter temperature. We established six recording stations, four along a 295-kilometer north-south transect in the Coastal Plain, and two in the Piedmont of North Carolina. We recorded bat activity over two years. We supplemented our recordings with mist-net data. Although bat activity was lower during winter at all sites, the odds of recording a bat during winter were higher at Coastal Plain sites when compared with Piedmont sites. Further, bats in the Piedmont had a lower level of winter activity compared to summer activity than bats in the Coastal Plain that had more similar levels of activity in the winter and summer. We found high bat species richness on the Coastal Plain in winter, with winter-active species including those known to hibernate throughout most of their range and others known to be long distance migrants. In particular, two species impacted by WNS, the northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis) and tricolored bat (Perimyotis subflavus), were present year round in the Coastal Plain. The tricolored bat was also present year-round in the Piedmont. In the Coastal Plain, the long distance migratory hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus) was active in the

  10. High-fidelity state detection and tomography of a single-ion Zeeman qubit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keselman, A; Glickman, Y; Akerman, N; Kotler, S; Ozeri, R

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate high-fidelity Zeeman qubit state detection in a single trapped 88 Sr + ion. Qubit readout is performed by shelving one of the qubit states to a metastable level using a narrow linewidth diode laser at 674 nm, followed by state-selective fluorescence detection. The average fidelity reached for the readout of the qubit state is 0.9989(1). We then measure the fidelity of state tomography, averaged over all possible single-qubit states, which is 0.9979(2). We also fully characterize the detection process using quantum process tomography. This readout fidelity is compatible with recent estimates of the detection error threshold required for fault-tolerant computation, whereas high-fidelity state tomography opens the way for high-precision quantum process tomography.

  11. Multi-fidelity machine learning models for accurate bandgap predictions of solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilania, Ghanshyam; Gubernatis, James E.; Lookman, Turab

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present a multi-fidelity co-kriging statistical learning framework that combines variable-fidelity quantum mechanical calculations of bandgaps to generate a machine-learned model that enables low-cost accurate predictions of the bandgaps at the highest fidelity level. Additionally, the adopted Gaussian process regression formulation allows us to predict the underlying uncertainties as a measure of our confidence in the predictions. In using a set of 600 elpasolite compounds as an example dataset and using semi-local and hybrid exchange correlation functionals within density functional theory as two levels of fidelities, we demonstrate the excellent learning performance of the method against actual high fidelity quantum mechanical calculations of the bandgaps. The presented statistical learning method is not restricted to bandgaps or electronic structure methods and extends the utility of high throughput property predictions in a significant way.

  12. High-fidelity state detection and tomography of a single-ion Zeeman qubit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keselman, A; Glickman, Y; Akerman, N; Kotler, S; Ozeri, R, E-mail: ozeri@weizmann.ac.il [Physics of Complex Systems, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)

    2011-07-15

    We demonstrate high-fidelity Zeeman qubit state detection in a single trapped {sup 88}Sr{sup +} ion. Qubit readout is performed by shelving one of the qubit states to a metastable level using a narrow linewidth diode laser at 674 nm, followed by state-selective fluorescence detection. The average fidelity reached for the readout of the qubit state is 0.9989(1). We then measure the fidelity of state tomography, averaged over all possible single-qubit states, which is 0.9979(2). We also fully characterize the detection process using quantum process tomography. This readout fidelity is compatible with recent estimates of the detection error threshold required for fault-tolerant computation, whereas high-fidelity state tomography opens the way for high-precision quantum process tomography.

  13. Mortality impact of extreme winter temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Julio; García, Ricardo; López, César; Linares, Cristina; Tobías, Aurelio; Prieto, Luis

    2005-01-01

    During the last few years great attention has been paid to the evaluation of the impact of extreme temperatures on human health. This paper examines the effect of extreme winter temperature on mortality in Madrid for people older than 65, using ARIMA and GAM models. Data correspond to 1,815 winter days over the period 1986 1997, during which time a total of 133,000 deaths occurred. The daily maximum temperature (Tmax) was shown to be the best thermal indicator of the impact of climate on mortality. When total mortality was considered, the maximum impact occured 7 8 days after a temperature extreme; for circulatory diseases the lag was between 7 and 14 days. When respiratory causes were considered, two mortality peaks were evident at 4 5 and 11 days. When the impact of winter extreme temperatures was compared with that associated with summer extremes, it was found to occur over a longer term, and appeared to be more indirect.

  14. The engineering approach to winter sports

    CERN Document Server

    Cheli, Federico; Maldifassi, Stefano; Melzi, Stefano; Sabbioni, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    The Engineering Approach to Winter Sports presents the state-of-the-art research in the field of winter sports in a harmonized and comprehensive way for a diverse audience of engineers, equipment and facilities designers, and materials scientists. The book examines the physics and chemistry of snow and ice with particular focus on the interaction (friction) between sports equipment and snow/ice, how it is influenced by environmental factors, such as temperature and pressure, as well as by contaminants and how it can be modified through the use of ski waxes or the microtextures of blades or ski soles. The authors also cover, in turn, the different disciplines in winter sports:  skiing (both alpine and cross country), skating and jumping, bob sledding and skeleton, hockey and curling, with attention given to both equipment design and on the simulation of gesture and  track optimization.

  15. Prevalence of operator fatigue in winter maintenance operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camden, Matthew C; Medina-Flintsch, Alejandra; Hickman, Jeffrey S; Bryce, James; Flintsch, Gerardo; Hanowski, Richard J

    2018-02-02

    Similar to commercial motor vehicle drivers, winter maintenance operators are likely to be at an increased risk of becoming fatigued while driving due to long, inconsistent shifts, environmental stressors, and limited opportunities for sleep. Despite this risk, there is little research concerning the prevalence of winter maintenance operator fatigue during winter emergencies. The purpose of this research was to investigate the prevalence, sources, and countermeasures of fatigue in winter maintenance operations. Questionnaires from 1043 winter maintenance operators and 453 managers were received from 29 Clear Road member states. Results confirmed that fatigue was prevalent in winter maintenance operations. Over 70% of the operators and managers believed that fatigue has a moderate to significant impact on winter maintenance operations. Approximately 75% of winter maintenance operators reported to at least sometimes drive while fatigued, and 96% of managers believed their winter maintenance operators drove while fatigued at least some of the time. Furthermore, winter maintenance operators and managers identified fatigue countermeasures and sources of fatigue related to winter maintenance equipment. However, the countermeasures believed to be the most effective at reducing fatigue during winter emergencies (i.e., naps) were underutilized. For example, winter maintenance operators reported to never use naps to eliminate fatigue. These results indicated winter maintenance operations are impacted by operator fatigue. These results support the increased need for research and effective countermeasures targeting winter maintenance operator fatigue. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A method for assessing fidelity of delivery of telephone behavioral support for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorencatto, Fabiana; West, Robert; Bruguera, Carla; Michie, Susan

    2014-06-01

    Behavioral support for smoking cessation is delivered through different modalities, often guided by treatment manuals. Recently developed methods for assessing fidelity of delivery have shown that face-to-face behavioral support is often not delivered as specified in the service treatment manual. This study aimed to extend this method to evaluate fidelity of telephone-delivered behavioral support. A treatment manual and transcripts of 75 audio-recorded behavioral support sessions were obtained from the United Kingdom's national Quitline service and coded into component behavior change techniques (BCTs) using a taxonomy of 45 smoking cessation BCTs. Interrater reliability was assessed using percentage agreement. Fidelity was assessed by comparing the number of BCTs identified in the manual with those delivered in telephone sessions by 4 counselors. Fidelity was assessed according to session type, duration, counselor, and BCT. Differences between self-reported and actual BCT use were examined. Average coding reliability was high (81%). On average, 41.8% of manual-specified BCTs were delivered per session (SD = 16.2), with fidelity varying by counselor from 32% to 49%. Fidelity was highest in pre-quit sessions (46%) and for BCT "give options for additional support" (95%). Fidelity was lowest for quit-day sessions (35%) and BCT "set graded tasks" (0%). Session duration was positively correlated with fidelity (r = .585; p reliably coded in terms of BCTs. This can be used to assess fidelity to treatment manuals and to in turn identify training needs. The observed low fidelity underlines the need to establish routine procedures for monitoring delivery of behavioral support. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. [Winter sport injuries in childhood (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausbrandt, D; Höllwarth, M; Ritter, G

    1979-01-01

    3374 accidents occurring on the field of sport during the years 1975--1977 accounted for 19% of all accidents dealt with at the Institute of Kinderchirurgie in Graz. 51% of the accidents were caused by the typical winter sports: skiing, tobogganing, ice-skating and ski-jumping with skiing accounting for 75% of the accidents. The fracture localization typical of the different kinds of winter sport is dealt with in detail. The correct size and safety of the equipment were found to be particularly important in the prevention of such accidents in childhood.

  18. Severe European winters in a secular perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Andreas; Hänsel, Stephanie

    2017-04-01

    Temperature conditions during the winter time are substantially shaped by a strong year-to-year variability. European winters since the late 1980s - compared to previous decades and centuries - were mainly characterised by a high temperature level, including recent record-warm winters. Yet, comparably cold winters and severe cold spells still occur nowadays, like recently observed from 2009 to 2013 and in early 2017. Central England experienced its second coldest December since start of observations more than 350 years ago in 2010, and some of the lowest temperatures ever measured in northern Europe (below -50 °C in Lapland) were recorded in January 1999. Analysing thermal characteristics and spatial distribution of severe (historical) winters - using early instrumental data - helps expanding and consolidating our knowledge of past weather extremes. This contribution presents efforts towards this direction. We focus on a) compiling and assessing a very long-term instrumental, spatially widespread and well-distributed, high-quality meteorological data set to b) investigate very cold winter temperatures in Europe from early measurements until today. In a first step, we analyse the longest available time series of monthly temperature averages within Europe. Our dataset extends from the Nordic countries up to the Mediterranean and from the British Isles up to Russia. We utilise as much as possible homogenised times series in order to ensure reliable results. Homogenised data derive from the NORDHOM (Scandinavia) and HISTALP (greater alpine region) datasets or were obtained from national weather services and universities. Other (not specifically homogenised) data were derived from the ECA&D dataset or national institutions. The employed time series often start already during the 18th century, with Paris & Central England being the longest datasets (from 1659). In a second step, daily temperature averages are involved. Only some of those series are homogenised, but

  19. Mechanical weed control in organic winter wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Euro Pannacci; Francesco Tei; Marcello Guiducci

    2017-01-01

    Three field experiments were carried out in organic winter wheat in three consecutive years (exp. 1, 2005-06; exp. 2, 2006- 07; exp. 3, 2007-08) in central Italy (42°57’ N - 12°22’ E, 165 m a.s.l.) in order to evaluate the efficacy against weeds and the effects on winter wheat of two main mechanical weed control strategies: i) spring tine harrowing used at three different application times (1 passage at T1, 2 passages at the time T1, 1 passage at T1 followed by 1 passage at T1 + 14 days) in t...

  20. Nuclear winter: The evidence and the risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, O.

    1985-01-01

    Global concern over nuclear extinction, centered on the holocaust itself, now has turned to the more terrifying consequences of a post-war nuclear winter: ''the long-term effects - destruction of the environment, spread of epidemic diseases, contamination by radioactivity, and ... collapse of agriculture-(that) would spread famine and death to every country.'' Nuclear Winter, the latest in a series of studies by a number of different groups is clinical, analytical, systematic, and detailed. Two physicists and biologist analyze the effects on the climate, plants, animals, and living systems; the human costs; the policy implications.

  1. Nuclear winter: The evidence and the risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, O.

    1985-01-01

    Global concern over nuclear extinction, centered on the holocaust itself, now has turned to the more terrifying consequences of a post-war nuclear winter: ''the long-term effects - destruction of the environment, spread of epidemic diseases, contamination by radioactivity, and ... collapse of agriculture-[that] would spread famine and death to every country.'' Nuclear Winter, the latest in a series of studies by a number of different groups is clinical, analytical, systematic, and detailed. Two physicists and biologist analyze the effects on the climate, plants, animals, and living systems; the human costs; the policy implications

  2. Climate Prediction Center - Site Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weather Service NWS logo - Click to go to the NWS home page Climate Prediction Center Home Site Map News Means Bulletins Annual Winter Stratospheric Ozone Climate Diagnostics Bulletin (Most Recent) Climate (Hazards Outlook) Climate Assessment: Dec. 1999-Feb. 2000 (Seasonal) Climate Assessment: Mar-May 2000

  3. The effect of high fidelity simulated learning methods on physiotherapy pre-registration education: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Fiona; Cooper, Kay

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this review is to identify if high fidelity simulated learning methods are effective in enhancing clinical/practical skills compared to usual, low fidelity simulated learning methods in pre-registration physiotherapy education.

  4. Improving discharge data fidelity for use in large administrative databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gologorsky, Yakov; Knightly, John J; Lu, Yi; Chi, John H; Groff, Michael W

    2014-06-01

    Large administrative databases have assumed a major role in population-based studies examining health care delivery. Lumbar fusion surgeries specifically have been scrutinized for rising rates coupled with ill-defined indications for fusion such as stenosis and spondylosis. Administrative databases classify cases with the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM). The ICD-9-CM discharge codes are not designated by surgeons, but rather are assigned by trained hospital medical coders. It is unclear how accurately they capture the surgeon's indication for fusion. The authors first sought to compare the ICD-9-CM code(s) assigned by the medical coder according to the surgeon's indication based on a review of the medical chart, and then to elucidate barriers to data fidelity. A retrospective review was undertaken of all lumbar fusions performed in the Department of Neurosurgery at the authors' institution between August 1, 2011, and August 31, 2013. Based on this review, the indication for fusion in each case was categorized as follows: spondylolisthesis, deformity, tumor, infection, nonpathological fracture, pseudarthrosis, adjacent-level degeneration, stenosis, degenerative disc disease, or disc herniation. These surgeon diagnoses were compared with the primary ICD-9-CM codes that were generated by the medical coders and submitted to administrative databases. A follow-up interview with the hospital's coders and coding manager was undertaken to review causes of error and suggestions for future improvement in data fidelity. There were 178 lumbar fusion operations performed in the course of 170 hospital admissions. There were 44 hospitalizations in which fusion was performed for tumor, infection, or nonpathological fracture. Of these, the primary diagnosis matched the surgical indication for fusion in 98% of cases. The remaining 126 hospitalizations were for degenerative diseases, and of these, the primary ICD-9-CM

  5. Reducing the uncertainty in the fidelity of seismic imaging results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, H. W.; Zou, Z.

    2017-12-01

    A key aspect in geoscientific inversion is quantifying the quality of the results. In seismic imaging, we must quantify the uncertainty of every imaging result based on field data, because data noise and methodology limitations may produce artifacts. Detection of artifacts is therefore an important aspect in uncertainty quantification in geoscientific inversion. Quantifying the uncertainty of seismic imaging solutions means assessing their fidelity, which defines the truthfulness of the imaged targets in terms of their resolution, position error and artifact. Key challenges to achieving the fidelity of seismic imaging include: (1) Difficulty to tell signal from artifact and noise; (2) Limitations in signal-to-noise ratio and seismic illumination; and (3) The multi-scale nature of the data space and model space. Most seismic imaging studies of the Earth's crust and mantle have employed inversion or modeling approaches. Though they are in opposite directions of mapping between the data space and model space, both inversion and modeling seek the best model to minimize the misfit in the data space, which unfortunately is not the output space. The fact that the selection and uncertainty of the output model are not judged in the output space has exacerbated the nonuniqueness problem for inversion and modeling. In contrast, the practice in exploration seismology has long established a two-fold approach of seismic imaging: Using velocity modeling building to establish the long-wavelength reference velocity models, and using seismic migration to map the short-wavelength reflectivity structures. Most interestingly, seismic migration maps the data into an output space called imaging space, where the output reflection images of the subsurface are formed based on an imaging condition. A good example is the reverse time migration, which seeks the reflectivity image as the best fit in the image space between the extrapolation of time-reversed waveform data and the prediction

  6. Fidelity of implementation: development and testing of a measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiitala Wyndy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Along with the increasing prevalence of chronic illness has been an increase in interventions, such as nurse case management programs, to improve outcomes for patients with chronic illness. Evidence supports the effectiveness of such interventions in reducing patient morbidity, mortality, and resource utilization, but other studies have produced equivocal results. Often, little is known about how implementation of an intervention actually occurs in clinical practice. While studies often assume that interventions are used in clinical practice exactly as originally designed, this may not be the case. Thus, fidelity of an intervention's implementation reflects how an intervention is, or is not, used in clinical practice and is an important factor in understanding intervention effectiveness and in replicating the intervention in dissemination efforts. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of implementation science by (a proposing a methodology for measuring fidelity of implementation (FOI and (b testing the measure by examining the association between FOI and intervention effectiveness. Methods We define and measure FOI based on organizational members' level of commitment to using the distinct components that make up an intervention as they were designed. Semistructured interviews were conducted among 18 organizational members in four medical centers, and the interviews were analyzed qualitatively to assess three dimensions of commitment to use--satisfaction, consistency, and quality--and to develop an overall rating of FOI. Mixed methods were used to explore the association between FOI and intervention effectiveness (inpatient resource utilization and mortality. Results Predictive validity of the FOI measure was supported based on the statistical significance of FOI as a predictor of intervention effectiveness. The strongest relationship between FOI and intervention effectiveness was found when an

  7. Fidelity of implementation: development and testing of a measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Rosalind E; Hopp, Faith P; Subramanian, Usha; Wiitala, Wyndy; Lowery, Julie C

    2010-12-30

    Along with the increasing prevalence of chronic illness has been an increase in interventions, such as nurse case management programs, to improve outcomes for patients with chronic illness. Evidence supports the effectiveness of such interventions in reducing patient morbidity, mortality, and resource utilization, but other studies have produced equivocal results. Often, little is known about how implementation of an intervention actually occurs in clinical practice. While studies often assume that interventions are used in clinical practice exactly as originally designed, this may not be the case. Thus, fidelity of an intervention's implementation reflects how an intervention is, or is not, used in clinical practice and is an important factor in understanding intervention effectiveness and in replicating the intervention in dissemination efforts. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of implementation science by (a) proposing a methodology for measuring fidelity of implementation (FOI) and (b) testing the measure by examining the association between FOI and intervention effectiveness. We define and measure FOI based on organizational members' level of commitment to using the distinct components that make up an intervention as they were designed. Semistructured interviews were conducted among 18 organizational members in four medical centers, and the interviews were analyzed qualitatively to assess three dimensions of commitment to use--satisfaction, consistency, and quality--and to develop an overall rating of FOI. Mixed methods were used to explore the association between FOI and intervention effectiveness (inpatient resource utilization and mortality). Predictive validity of the FOI measure was supported based on the statistical significance of FOI as a predictor of intervention effectiveness. The strongest relationship between FOI and intervention effectiveness was found when an alternative measure of FOI was utilized based on

  8. Henslow's sparrow winter-survival estimates and response to prescribed burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, B.S.; Krementz, D.G.; Woodrey, M.S.

    2006-01-01

    Wintering Henslow's sparrow (Ammodramus henslowii) populations rely on lands managed with prescribed burning, but the effects of various burn regimes on their overwinter survival are unknown. We studied wintering Henslow's sparrows in coastal pine savannas at the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge, Jackson County, Mississippi, USA, during January and February 2001 and 2002. We used the known-fate modeling procedure in program MARK to evaluate the effects of burn age (1 or 2 growing seasons elapsed), burn season (growing, dormant), and calendar year on the survival rates of 83 radiomarked Henslow's sparrows. We found strong evidence that Henslow's sparrow survival rates differed by burn age (with higher survival in recently burned sites) and by year (with lower survival rates in 2001 likely because of drought conditions). We found some evidence that survival rates also differed by bum season (with higher survival in growing-season sites), although the effects of burn season were only apparent in recently burned sites. Avian predation was the suspected major cause of mortality (causing 6 of 14 deaths) with 1 confirmed loggerhead shrike (Lanius ludovicianus) depredation. Our results indicated that recently burned savannas provide high-quality wintering habitats and suggested that managers can improve conditions for wintering Henslow's sparrows by burning a large percentage of savannas each year.

  9. Winter cooling in the northern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Prasad, T.G.

    forcing that leads to the observed high productivity during winter in the northern Arabian Sea. The weak northerly winds and increased solar insolation during the inter-monsoon period, led to the development of a highly stratified upper layer with warm sea...

  10. Winter mortality in relation to climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keatinge, W. R.; Donaldson, G. C.; Bucher, K.; Jendritzky, G.; Cordioli, E.; Martinelli, M.; Katsouyanni, K.; Kunst, A. E.; McDonald, C.; Näyhä, S.; Vuori, I.

    2000-01-01

    We report further details of the Eurowinter survey of cold related mortalities and protective measures against cold in seven regions of Europe, and review these with other evidence on the relationship of winter mortality to climate. Data for the oldest subject group studied, aged 65-74, showed that

  11. Come back on the french gas winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The document analyzes the french gas market behavior during the winter 2005/2006: the gas consumption, the imports decrease was offset by the the liquefied natural gas supply increase at Fos, the stocks levels and the transparency of the information. (A.L.B.)

  12. Winter Wheat Root Growth and Nitrogen Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Irene Skovby

    in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L). Field experiments on the effect of sowing date, N fertilization and cultivars were conducted on a sandy loam soil in Taastrup, Denmark. The root studies were conducted by means of the minirhizotron method. Also, a field experiment on the effect of defoliation and N...

  13. Stay Safe and Healthy This Winter!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-11-23

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics offer some simple ways to stay safe and healthy during the winter holiday season.  Created: 11/23/2010 by CDC Office of Women’s Health.   Date Released: 11/23/2010.

  14. Winter Video Series Coming in January | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Scientific Library’s annual Summer Video Series was so successful that it will be offering a new Winter Video Series beginning in January. For this inaugural event, the staff is showing the eight-part series from National Geographic titled “American Genius.” 

  15. Music Activities for Lemonade in Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2014-01-01

    "Lemonade in Winter: A Book About Two Kids Counting Money" is a children's book about math; however, when sharing it in the music classroom, street cries and clapping games emerge. Jenkins' and Karas' book provides a springboard to lessons addressing several music elements, including form, tempo, and rhythm, as well as…

  16. Winter Secrets: An Instant Lesson Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collyer, Cam

    1997-01-01

    Outdoor lesson plan aims to stimulate student interest in animals' adaptations to winter and the various signs and clues to animal behavior. Includes questions for class discussion, tips for guiding the hike, and instructions for two games that illustrate the predator-prey relationship. Notes curriculum connections to the East York (Ontario) Board…

  17. Modeling winter moth Operophtera brumata egg phenology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salis, Lucia; Lof, Marjolein; Asch, van Margriet; Visser, Marcel E.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between an insect's developmental rate and temperature is crucial to forecast insect phenology under climate change. In the winter moth Operophtera brumata timing of egg-hatching has severe fitness consequences on growth and reproduction as egg-hatching has to match

  18. Creation of a Rapid High-Fidelity Aerodynamics Module for a Multidisciplinary Design Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Muktha; Whittecar, William; Edwards, Stephen; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2012-01-01

    In the traditional aerospace vehicle design process, each successive design phase is accompanied by an increment in the modeling fidelity of the disciplinary analyses being performed. This trend follows a corresponding shrinking of the design space as more and more design decisions are locked in. The correlated increase in knowledge about the design and decrease in design freedom occurs partly because increases in modeling fidelity are usually accompanied by significant increases in the computational expense of performing the analyses. When running high fidelity analyses, it is not usually feasible to explore a large number of variations, and so design space exploration is reserved for conceptual design, and higher fidelity analyses are run only once a specific point design has been selected to carry forward. The designs produced by this traditional process have been recognized as being limited by the uncertainty that is present early on due to the use of lower fidelity analyses. For example, uncertainty in aerodynamics predictions produces uncertainty in trajectory optimization, which can impact overall vehicle sizing. This effect can become more significant when trajectories are being shaped by active constraints. For example, if an optimal trajectory is running up against a normal load factor constraint, inaccuracies in the aerodynamic coefficient predictions can cause a feasible trajectory to be considered infeasible, or vice versa. For this reason, a trade must always be performed between the desired fidelity and the resources available. Apart from this trade between fidelity and computational expense, it is very desirable to use higher fidelity analyses earlier in the design process. A large body of work has been performed to this end, led by efforts in the area of surrogate modeling. In surrogate modeling, an up-front investment is made by running a high fidelity code over a Design of Experiments (DOE); once completed, the DOE data is used to create a

  19. The effects of teacher fidelity of implementation of pathways to health on student outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Melissa A; Riggs, Nathaniel R; Shin, Hee-Sung; Tate, Eleanor B; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2015-03-01

    Previous research has demonstrated the importance of ensuring that programs are implemented as intended by program developers in order to achieve desired program effects. The current study examined implementation fidelity of Pathways to Health (Pathways), a newly developed obesity prevention program for fourth- through sixth-grade children. We explored the associations between self-reported and observed implementation fidelity scores and whether implementation fidelity differed across the first 2 years of program implementation. Additionally, we examined whether implementation fidelity affected program outcomes and whether teacher beliefs were associated with implementation fidelity. The program was better received, and implementation fidelity had more effects on program outcomes in fifth grade than in fourth grade. Findings suggest that implementation in school-based obesity programs may affect junk food intake and intentions to eat healthfully and exercise. School support was associated with implementation fidelity, suggesting that prevention programs may benefit from including a component that boosts school-wide support. © The Author(s) 2013.

  20. Multi-infill strategy for kriging models used in variable fidelity optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao SONG

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a computationally efficient optimization method for aerodynamic design has been developed. The low-fidelity model and the multi-infill strategy are utilized in this approach. Low-fidelity data is employed to provide a good global trend for model prediction, and multiple sample points chosen by different infill criteria in each updating cycle are used to enhance the exploitation and exploration ability of the optimization approach. Take the advantages of low-fidelity model and the multi-infill strategy, and no initial sample for the high-fidelity model is needed. This approach is applied to an airfoil design case and a high-dimensional wing design case. It saves a large number of high-fidelity function evaluations for initial model construction. What’s more, faster reduction of an aerodynamic function is achieved, when compared to ordinary kriging using the multi-infill strategy and variable-fidelity model using single infill criterion. The results indicate that the developed approach has a promising application to efficient aerodynamic design when high-fidelity analyses are involved. Keywords: Aerodynamics, Infill criteria, Kriging models, Multi-infill, Optimization

  1. Impact of warm winters on microbial growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgander, Johanna; Rousk, Johannes; Axel Olsson, Pål

    2014-05-01

    Growth of soil bacteria has an asymmetrical response to higher temperature with a gradual increase with increasing temperatures until an optimum after which a steep decline occurs. In laboratory studies it has been shown that by exposing a soil bacterial community to a temperature above the community's optimum temperature for two months, the bacterial community grows warm-adapted, and the optimum temperature of bacterial growth shifts towards higher temperatures. This result suggests a change in the intrinsic temperature dependence of bacterial growth, as temperature influenced the bacterial growth even though all other factors were kept constant. An intrinsic temperature dependence could be explained by either a change in the bacterial community composition, exchanging less tolerant bacteria towards more tolerant ones, or it could be due to adaptation within the bacteria present. No matter what the shift in temperature tolerance is due to, the shift could have ecosystem scale implications, as winters in northern Europe are getting warmer. To address the question of how microbes and plants are affected by warmer winters, a winter-warming experiment was established in a South Swedish grassland. Results suggest a positive response in microbial growth rate in plots where winter soil temperatures were around 6 °C above ambient. Both bacterial and fungal growth (leucine incorporation, and acetate into ergosterol incorporation, respectively) appeared stimulated, and there are two candidate explanations for these results. Either (i) warming directly influence microbial communities by modulating their temperature adaptation, or (ii) warming indirectly affected the microbial communities via temperature induced changes in bacterial growth conditions. The first explanation is in accordance with what has been shown in laboratory conditions (explained above), where the differences in the intrinsic temperature relationships were examined. To test this explanation the

  2. Investigating variations in implementation fidelity of an organizational-level occupational health intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustsson, Hanna; von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Stenfors-Hayes, Terese; Hasson, Henna

    2015-06-01

    The workplace has been suggested as an important arena for health promotion, but little is known about how the organizational setting influences the implementation of interventions. The aims of this study are to evaluate implementation fidelity in an organizational-level occupational health intervention and to investigate possible explanations for variations in fidelity between intervention units. The intervention consisted of an integration of health promotion, occupational health and safety, and a system for continuous improvements (Kaizen) and was conducted in a quasi-experimental design at a Swedish hospital. Implementation fidelity was evaluated with the Conceptual Framework for Implementation Fidelity and implementation factors used to investigate variations in fidelity with the Framework for Evaluating Organizational-level Interventions. A multi-method approach including interviews, Kaizen notes, and questionnaires was applied. Implementation fidelity differed between units even though the intervention was introduced and supported in the same way. Important differences in all elements proposed in the model for evaluating organizational-level interventions, i.e., context, intervention, and mental models, were found to explain the differences in fidelity. Implementation strategies may need to be adapted depending on the local context. Implementation fidelity, as well as pre-intervention implementation elements, is likely to affect the implementation success and needs to be assessed in intervention research. The high variation in fidelity across the units indicates the need for adjustments to the type of designs used to assess the effects of interventions. Thus, rather than using designs that aim to control variation, it may be necessary to use those that aim at exploring and explaining variation, such as adapted study designs.

  3. Methods for streamlining intervention fidelity checklists: an example from the chronic disease self-management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, SangNam; Smith, Matthew Lee; Altpeter, Mary; Belza, Basia; Post, Lindsey; Ory, Marcia G

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining intervention fidelity should be part of any programmatic quality assurance (QA) plan and is often a licensure requirement. However, fidelity checklists designed by original program developers are often lengthy, which makes compliance difficult once programs become widely disseminated in the field. As a case example, we used Stanford's original Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP) fidelity checklist of 157 items to demonstrate heuristic procedures for generating shorter fidelity checklists. Using an expert consensus approach, we sought feedback from active master trainers registered with the Stanford University Patient Education Research Center about which items were most essential to, and also feasible for, assessing fidelity. We conducted three sequential surveys and one expert group-teleconference call. Three versions of the fidelity checklist were created using different statistical and methodological criteria. In a final group-teleconference call with seven national experts, there was unanimous agreement that all three final versions (e.g., a 34-item version, a 20-item version, and a 12-item version) should be made available because the purpose and resources for administering a checklist might vary from one setting to another. This study highlights the methodology used to generate shorter versions of a fidelity checklist, which has potential to inform future QA efforts for this and other evidence-based programs (EBP) for older adults delivered in community settings. With CDSMP and other EBP, it is important to differentiate between program fidelity as mandated by program developers for licensure, and intervention fidelity tools for providing an "at-a-glance" snapshot of the level of compliance to selected program indicators.

  4. Nuclear Winter: The implications for civil defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chester, C.V.; Perry, A.M.; Hobbs, B.F.

    1987-01-01

    ''Nuclear Winter'' is the term given to hypothesized cooling in the northern hemisphere following a nuclear war due to injection of smoke from burning cities into the atmosphere. The voluminous literature on this subject produced since the original paper in 1983 by Turco, Toon, Ackerman, Pollack, and Sagen (TTAPS) has been reviewed. The widespread use of 3-dimensional global circulation models have resulted in reduced estimates of cooling; 15 to 25 0 C for a summer war and a few degrees for a winter war. More serious may be the possibility of suppression of convective precipitation by the altered temperature profiles in the atmosphere. However, very large uncertainties remain in input parameters, the models, and the results of calculations. We believe the state of knowledge about nuclear winter is sufficiently developed to conclude: Neither cold nor drought are likely to be direct threats to human survival for populations with the wherewithal to survive normal January temperatures; The principal threat from nuclear winter is to food production, and could present problems to third parties without food reserves; and Loss of a crop year is neither a new nor unexpected threat from nuclear war to the US and the Soviet Union. Both have at least a year's food reserve at all times. Both face formidable organizational problems in distributing their reserves in a war-damaged environment. The consequences of nuclear winter could be expected to fall more heavily on the Soviet Union than the US due to its higher latitude and less productive agriculture. This may be especially true if disturbances of rainfall amounts and distribution persist for more than a year. 6 refs

  5. Nuclear Winter: Implications for civil defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chester, C.V.; Perry, A.M.; Hobbs, B.F.

    1988-05-01

    ''Nuclear Winter'' is the term given to the cooling hypothesized to occur in the Northern Hemisphere following a nuclear war as the result of the injection of smoke from burning cities into the atmosphere. The voluminous literature on this subject produced since the paper was published in 1983 by Turco, Toon, Ackerman, Pollack, and Sagen (TTAPS) has been reviewed. Three-dimensional global circulation models have resulted in reduced estimates of cooling---15 to 25/degree/C for a summer war and a few degrees for a winter war. More serious may be the possibility of suppression of convective precipitation by the altered temperature profiles in the atmosphere. However, very large uncertainties remain in input parameters, the models, and the results of calculations. We believe the state of knowledge about nuclear winter is sufficiently developed to conclude: Neither cold nor drought is likely to be a direct threat to human survival for populations with the wherewithal to survive normal January temperatures. The principal threat from nuclear winter is to food production, and this could present problems to third parties who are without food reserves. Loss of a crop year is neither a new nor an unexpected threat from nuclear war to the United States and the Soviet Union. Both have at least a year's food reserve at all times. Both face formidable organizational problems in distributing their reserves in a war-damaged environment. The consequences of nuclear winter could be expected to fall more heavily on the Soviet Union than the United States due to its higher latitude and less productive agriculture. This may be especially true if disturbances of rainfall amounts and distribution persist for more than a year.

  6. Effective gene editing by high-fidelity base editor 2 in mouse zygotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puping Liang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Targeted point mutagenesis through homologous recombination has been widely used in genetic studies and holds considerable promise for repairing disease-causing mutations in patients. However, problems such as mosaicism and low mutagenesis efficiency continue to pose challenges to clinical application of such approaches. Recently, a base editor (BE system built on cytidine (C deaminase and CRISPR/Cas9 technology was developed as an alternative method for targeted point mutagenesis in plant, yeast, and human cells. Base editors convert C in the deamination window to thymidine (T efficiently, however, it remains unclear whether targeted base editing in mouse embryos is feasible. In this report, we generated a modified high-fidelity version of base editor 2 (HF2-BE2, and investigated its base editing efficacy in mouse embryos. We found that HF2-BE2 could convert C to T efficiently, with up to 100% biallelic mutation efficiency in mouse embryos. Unlike BE3, HF2-BE2 could convert C to T on both the target and non-target strand, expanding the editing scope of base editors. Surprisingly, we found HF2-BE2 could also deaminate C that was proximal to the gRNA-binding region. Taken together, our work demonstrates the feasibility of generating point mutations in mouse by base editing, and underscores the need to carefully optimize base editing systems in order to eliminate proximal-site deamination.

  7. Cas4-Dependent Prespacer Processing Ensures High-Fidelity Programming of CRISPR Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hayun; Zhou, Yi; Taylor, David W; Sashital, Dipali G

    2018-04-05

    CRISPR-Cas immune systems integrate short segments of foreign DNA as spacers into the host CRISPR locus to provide molecular memory of infection. Cas4 proteins are widespread in CRISPR-Cas systems and are thought to participate in spacer acquisition, although their exact function remains unknown. Here we show that Bacillus halodurans type I-C Cas4 is required for efficient prespacer processing prior to Cas1-Cas2-mediated integration. Cas4 interacts tightly with the Cas1 integrase, forming a heterohexameric complex containing two Cas1 dimers and two Cas4 subunits. In the presence of Cas1 and Cas2, Cas4 processes double-stranded substrates with long 3' overhangs through site-specific endonucleolytic cleavage. Cas4 recognizes PAM sequences within the prespacer and prevents integration of unprocessed prespacers, ensuring that only functional spacers will be integrated into the CRISPR array. Our results reveal the critical role of Cas4 in maintaining fidelity during CRISPR adaptation, providing a structural and mechanistic model for prespacer processing and integration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Teaching Palatoplasty Using a High-Fidelity Cleft Palate Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Homan; Podolsky, Dale J; Fisher, David M; Wong, Karen W; Lorenz, H Peter; Khosla, Rohit K; Drake, James M; Forrest, Christopher R

    2018-01-01

    Cleft palate repair is a challenging procedure for cleft surgeons to teach. A novel high-fidelity cleft palate simulator has been described for surgeon training. This study evaluates the simulator's effect on surgeon procedural confidence and palatoplasty knowledge among learners. Plastic surgery trainees attended a palatoplasty workshop consisting of a didactic session on cleft palate anatomy and repair followed by a simulation session. Participants completed a procedural confidence questionnaire and palatoplasty knowledge test immediately before and after the workshop. All participants reported significantly higher procedural confidence following the workshop (p cleft palate surgery experience had higher procedural confidence before (p cleft palate experience did not have higher mean baseline test scores than those with no experience (30 percent versus 28 percent; p > 0.05), but did have significantly higher scores after the workshop (61 percent versus 35 percent; p cleft palate simulator as a training tool to teach palatoplasty. Improved procedural confidence and knowledge were observed after a single session, with benefits seen among trainees both with and without previous cleft experience.

  9. High-fidelity operations in microfabricated surface ion traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maunz, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Trapped ion systems can be used to implement quantum computation as well as quantum simulation. To scale these systems to the number of qubits required to solve interesting problems in quantum chemistry or solid state physics, the use of large multi-zone ion traps has been proposed. Microfabrication enables the realization of surface electrode ion traps with complex electrode structures. While these traps may enable the scaling of trapped ion quantum information processing (QIP), microfabricated ion traps also pose several technical challenges. Here, we present Sandia's trap fabrication capabilities and characterize trap properties and shuttling operations in our most recent high optical access trap (HOA-2). To demonstrate the viability of Sandia's microfabricated ion traps for QIP we realize robust single and two-qubit gates and characterize them using gate set tomography (GST). In this way we are able to demonstrate the first single qubit gates with a diamond norm of less than 1 . 7 ×10-4 , below a rigorous fault tolerance threshold for general noise of 6 . 7 ×10-4. Furthermore, we realize Mølmer-Sørensen two qubit gates with a process fidelity of 99 . 58(6) % also characterized by GST. These results demonstrate the viability of microfabricated surface traps for state of the art quantum information processing demonstrations. This research was funded, in part, by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA).

  10. Single-Cell Based Quantitative Assay of Chromosome Transmission Fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jin; Heinecke, Dominic; Mulla, Wahid A; Bradford, William D; Rubinstein, Boris; Box, Andrew; Haug, Jeffrey S; Li, Rong

    2015-03-30

    Errors in mitosis are a primary cause of chromosome instability (CIN), generating aneuploid progeny cells. Whereas a variety of factors can influence CIN, under most conditions mitotic errors are rare events that have been difficult to measure accurately. Here we report a green fluorescent protein-based quantitative chromosome transmission fidelity (qCTF) assay in budding yeast that allows sensitive and quantitative detection of CIN and can be easily adapted to high-throughput analysis. Using the qCTF assay, we performed genome-wide quantitative profiling of genes that affect CIN in a dosage-dependent manner and identified genes that elevate CIN when either increased (icCIN) or decreased in copy number (dcCIN). Unexpectedly, qCTF screening also revealed genes whose change in copy number quantitatively suppress CIN, suggesting that the basal error rate of the wild-type genome is not minimized, but rather, may have evolved toward an optimal level that balances both stability and low-level karyotype variation for evolutionary adaptation. Copyright © 2015 Zhu et al.

  11. Biosensor Architectures for High-Fidelity Reporting of Cellular Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dushek, Omer; Lellouch, Annemarie C.; Vaux, David J.; Shahrezaei, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Understanding mechanisms of information processing in cellular signaling networks requires quantitative measurements of protein activities in living cells. Biosensors are molecular probes that have been developed to directly track the activity of specific signaling proteins and their use is revolutionizing our understanding of signal transduction. The use of biosensors relies on the assumption that their activity is linearly proportional to the activity of the signaling protein they have been engineered to track. We use mechanistic mathematical models of common biosensor architectures (single-chain FRET-based biosensors), which include both intramolecular and intermolecular reactions, to study the validity of the linearity assumption. As a result of the classic mechanism of zero-order ultrasensitivity, we find that biosensor activity can be highly nonlinear so that small changes in signaling protein activity can give rise to large changes in biosensor activity and vice versa. This nonlinearity is abolished in architectures that favor the formation of biosensor oligomers, but oligomeric biosensors produce complicated FRET states. Based on this finding, we show that high-fidelity reporting is possible when a single-chain intermolecular biosensor is used that cannot undergo intramolecular reactions and is restricted to forming dimers. We provide phase diagrams that compare various trade-offs, including observer effects, which further highlight the utility of biosensor architectures that favor intermolecular over intramolecular binding. We discuss challenges in calibrating and constructing biosensors and highlight the utility of mathematical models in designing novel probes for cellular signaling. PMID:25099816

  12. Winter temperature affects the prevalence of ticks in an Arctic seabird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Descamps

    Full Text Available The Arctic is rapidly warming and host-parasite relationships may be modified by such environmental changes. Here, I showed that the average winter temperature in Svalbard, Arctic Norway, explained almost 90% of the average prevalence of ticks in an Arctic seabird, the Brünnich's guillemot Uria lomvia. An increase of 1°C in the average winter temperature at the nesting colony site was associated with a 5% increase in the number of birds infected by these ectoparasites in the subsequent breeding season. Guillemots were generally infested by only a few ticks (≤5 and I found no direct effect of tick presence on their body condition and breeding success. However, the strong effect of average winter temperature described here clearly indicates that tick-seabird relationships in the Arctic may be strongly affected by ongoing climate warming.

  13. Nutritional composition and in vitro digestibility of grass and legume winter (cover) crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A N; Ferreira, G; Teets, C L; Thomason, W E; Teutsch, C D

    2018-03-01

    In dairy farming systems, growing winter crops for forage is frequently limited to annual grasses grown in monoculture. The objectives of this study were to determine how cropping grasses alone or in mixtures with legumes affects the yield, nutritional composition, and in vitro digestibility of fresh and ensiled winter crops and the yield, nutritional composition, and in vitro digestibility of the subsequent summer crops. Experimental plots were planted with 15 different winter crops at 3 locations in Virginia. At each site, 4 plots of each treatment were planted in a randomized complete block design. The 15 treatments included 5 winter annual grasses [barley (BA), ryegrass (RG), rye (RY), triticale (TR), and wheat (WT)] in monoculture [i.e., no legumes (NO)] or with 1 of 2 winter annual legumes [crimson clover (CC) and hairy vetch (HV)]. After harvesting the winter crops, corn and forage sorghum were planted within the same plots perpendicular to the winter crop plantings. The nutritional composition and the in vitro digestibility of winter and summer crops were determined for fresh and ensiled samples. Growing grasses in mixtures with CC increased forage dry matter (DM) yield (2.84 Mg/ha), but the yield of mixtures with HV (2.47 Mg/ha) was similar to that of grasses grown in monoculture (2.40 Mg/ha). Growing grasses in mixtures with legumes increased the crude protein concentration of the fresh forage from 13.0% to 15.5% for CC and to 17.3% for HV. For neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations, the interaction between grasses and legumes was significant for both fresh and ensiled forages. Growing BA, RY, and TR in mixtures with legumes decreased NDF concentrations, whereas growing RG and WT with legumes did not affect the NDF concentrations of either the fresh or the ensiled forages. Growing grasses in mixtures with legumes decreased the concentration of sugars of fresh forages relative to grasses grown in monoculture. Primarily, this decrease can be

  14. Holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility as holographic information dual to different volumes in AdS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Mazhari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility have been defined as new quantities dual to different volumes in AdS. In this paper, we will use these new proposals to calculate both of these quantities for a variety of interesting deformations of AdS. We obtain the holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility for an AdS black hole, Janus solution, a solution with cylindrical symmetry, an inhomogeneous background and a hyperscaling violating background. It is observed that the holographic complexity depends on the size of the subsystem for all these solutions and the fidelity susceptibility does not have any such dependence.

  15. Evaluating Fidelity to a Modified NIATx Process Improvement Strategy for Improving HIV Services in Correctional Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankow, Jennifer; Willett, Jennifer; Yang, Yang; Swan, Holly; Dembo, Richard; Burdon, William M; Patterson, Yvonne; Pearson, Frank S; Belenko, Steven; Frisman, Linda K

    2018-04-01

    In a study aimed at improving the quality of HIV services for inmates, an organizational process improvement strategy using change teams was tested in 14 correctional facilities in 8 US states and Puerto Rico. Data to examine fidelity to the process improvement strategy consisted of quantitative ratings of the structural and process components of the strategy and qualitative notes that explicate challenges in maintaining fidelity to the strategy. Fidelity challenges included (1) lack of communication and leadership within change teams, (2) instability in team membership, and (3) issues with data utilization in decision-making to implement improvements to services delivery.

  16. Equivalence between entanglement and the optimal fidelity of continuous variable teleportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2005-10-07

    We devise the optimal form of Gaussian resource states enabling continuous-variable teleportation with maximal fidelity. We show that a nonclassical optimal fidelity of N-user teleportation networks is necessary and sufficient for N-party entangled Gaussian resources, yielding an estimator of multipartite entanglement. The entanglement of teleportation is equivalent to the entanglement of formation in a two-user protocol, and to the localizable entanglement in a multiuser one. Finally, we show that the continuous-variable tangle, quantifying entanglement sharing in three-mode Gaussian states, is defined operationally in terms of the optimal fidelity of a tripartite teleportation network.

  17. Staff turnover in statewide implementation of ACT: relationship with ACT fidelity and other team characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Angela L; Salyers, Michelle P; Tsai, Jack; Lydick, Jennifer M

    2010-09-01

    Staff turnover on assertive community treatment (ACT) teams is a poorly understood phenomenon. This study examined annual turnover and fidelity data collected in a statewide implementation of ACT over a 5-year period. Mean annual staff turnover across all observations was 30.0%. Turnover was negatively correlated with overall fidelity at Year 1 and 3. The team approach fidelity item was negatively correlated with staff turnover at Year 3. For 13 teams with 3 years of follow-up data, turnover rates did not change over time. Most ACT staff turnover rates were comparable or better than other turnover rates reported in the mental health and substance abuse literature.

  18. High-fidelity teleportation of continuous-variable quantum States using delocalized single photons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulrik L; Ralph, Timothy C

    2013-01-01

    Traditional continuous-variable teleportation can only approach unit fidelity in the limit of an infinite (and unphysical) amount of squeezing. We describe a new method for continuous-variable teleportation that approaches unit fidelity with finite resources. The protocol is not based on squeezed...... states as in traditional teleportation but on an ensemble of single photon entangled states. We characterize the teleportation scheme with coherent states, mesoscopic superposition states, and two-mode squeezed states and we find several situations in which near-unity teleportation fidelity can...

  19. Recommendations on Model Fidelity for Wind Turbine Gearbox Simulations; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, J.; Lacava, W.; Austin, J.; Nejad, A.; Halse, C.; Bastard, L.; Helsen, J.

    2015-02-01

    This work investigates the minimum level of fidelity required to accurately simulate wind turbine gearboxes using state-of-the-art design tools. Excessive model fidelity including drivetrain complexity, gearbox complexity, excitation sources, and imperfections, significantly increases computational time, but may not provide a commensurate increase in the value of the results. Essential designparameters are evaluated, including the planetary load-sharing factor, gear tooth load distribution, and sun orbit motion. Based on the sensitivity study results, recommendations for the minimum model fidelities are provided.

  20. Holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility as holographic information dual to different volumes in AdS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazhari, N.S., E-mail: najmemazhari86@gmail.com [Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of General & Theoretical Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan); Momeni, Davood, E-mail: davoodmomeni78@gmail.com [Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of General & Theoretical Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan); Bahamonde, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.beltran.14@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Faizal, Mir, E-mail: mirfaizalmir@googlemail.com [Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, University of British Columbia - Okanagan, 3333 University Way, Kelowna, British Columbia, V1V 1V7 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta, T1K 3M4 (Canada); Myrzakulov, Ratbay, E-mail: rmyrzakulov@gmail.com [Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of General & Theoretical Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan)

    2017-03-10

    The holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility have been defined as new quantities dual to different volumes in AdS. In this paper, we will use these new proposals to calculate both of these quantities for a variety of interesting deformations of AdS. We obtain the holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility for an AdS black hole, Janus solution, a solution with cylindrical symmetry, an inhomogeneous background and a hyperscaling violating background. It is observed that the holographic complexity depends on the size of the subsystem for all these solutions and the fidelity susceptibility does not have any such dependence.

  1. RNA polymerase II transcriptional fidelity control and its functional interplay with DNA modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Wang, Wei; Chong, Jenny; Shin, Ji Hyun; Xu, Jun; Wang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Accurate genetic information transfer is essential for life. As a key enzyme involved in the first step of gene expression, RNA polymerase II (Pol II) must maintain high transcriptional fidelity while it reads along DNA template and synthesizes RNA transcript in a stepwise manner during transcription elongation. DNA lesions or modifications may lead to significant changes in transcriptional fidelity or transcription elongation dynamics. In this review, we will summarize recent progress towards understanding the molecular basis of RNA Pol II transcriptional fidelity control and impacts of DNA lesions and modifications on Pol II transcription elongation. PMID:26392149

  2. How to Measure Motivational Interviewing Fidelity in Randomized Controlled Trials: Practical Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelsma, Judith G M; Mertens, Vera-Christina; Forsberg, Lisa; Forsberg, Lars

    2015-07-01

    Many randomized controlled trials in which motivational interviewing (MI) is a key intervention make no provision for the assessment of treatment fidelity. This methodological shortcoming makes it impossible to distinguish between high- and low-quality MI interventions, and, consequently, to know whether MI provision has contributed to any intervention effects. This article makes some practical recommendations for the collection, selection, coding and reporting of MI fidelity data, as measured using the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity Code. We hope that researchers will consider these recommendations and include MI fidelity measures in future studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The paradox of Spoonbill migration : Most birds travel to where survival rates are lowest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lok, Tamar; Overdijk, Otto; Tinbergen, Joost M.; Piersma, Theunis

    2011-01-01

    Migrant birds face a choice where to spend the winter. Presumably there is a trade-off between migration distance (costs) and the quality of the wintering site (benefits). Wintering site fidelity is often high and increases with age. Hypotheses to explain such a pattern assume that wintering site

  4. Incorporating Yearly Derived Winter Wheat Maps Into Winter Wheat Yield Forecasting Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skakun, S.; Franch, B.; Roger, J.-C.; Vermote, E.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Justice, C.; Santamaría-Artigas, A.

    2016-01-01

    Wheat is one of the most important cereal crops in the world. Timely and accurate forecast of wheat yield and production at global scale is vital in implementing food security policy. Becker-Reshef et al. (2010) developed a generalized empirical model for forecasting winter wheat production using remote sensing data and official statistics. This model was implemented using static wheat maps. In this paper, we analyze the impact of incorporating yearly wheat masks into the forecasting model. We propose a new approach of producing in season winter wheat maps exploiting satellite data and official statistics on crop area only. Validation on independent data showed that the proposed approach reached 6% to 23% of omission error and 10% to 16% of commission error when mapping winter wheat 2-3 months before harvest. In general, we found a limited impact of using yearly winter wheat masks over a static mask for the study regions.

  5. Temporal Variability and Characterization of Aerosols across the Pakistan Region during the Winter Fog Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Fahim Khokhar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fog is a meteorological/environmental phenomenon which happens across the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP and leads to significant social and economic problems, especially posing significant threats to public health and causing disruptions in air and road traffic. Meteorological stations in Pakistan provide limited information regarding fog episodes as these provide only point observations. Continuous monitoring, as well as a spatially coherent picture of fog distribution, is possible through the use of satellite observations. This study focuses on the 2012–2015 winter fog episodes over the Pakistan region using the Moderate Resolution Image Spectrometer (MODIS, the Ozone Monitoring Instrument and the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO products. The main objective of the study was to map the spatial distribution of aerosols, their types, and to identify the aerosol origins during special weather conditions like fog in Pakistan. The study also included ground monitoring of particulate matter (PM concentrations, which were conducted during the 2014–2015 winter period only. Overall, this study is part of a multi-country project supported by the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD, started in 2014–2015 winter period, whereby scientists from Bangladesh, India and Nepal have also conducted measurements at their respective sites. A significant correlation between MODIS (AOD and AERONET Station (AOD data from Lahore was identified. Mass concentration of PM10 at all sampling sites within Lahore city exceeded the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS levels on most of the occasions. Smoke and absorbing aerosol were found to be major constituents of winter fog in Pakistan. Furthermore, an extended span of winter fog was also observed in Lahore city during the winter of 2014–2015. The Vertical Feature Mask (VFM provided by CALIPSO satellite confirmed the low-lying aerosol

  6. [Food habits and winter diet of Charadrius melodus (Charadriiformes: Charadriidae) in Boca Ciega, Tamaulipas, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda-Villanueva, Iris; Contreras-Lozano, Jorge; Garcia-Salas, Juan; González-Páez, Hugo

    2013-06-01

    The Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus) is a migratory endangered species that arrives, along with a great number of other winter migratory birds, to Boca Ciega every year. In spite of the importance of this ecosystem, these species, are threatened by the current habitat change caused by the dredging activities in the area. With the aim to generate new information about the importance of this area during winter, we studied C melodus activities during the winter season in Laguna Madre, from December 2009 to March 2010. Our objectives were: 1) determine the importance of the area during winter, 2) describe C. melodus ethology, feeding substrate preferences and food items, 3) to analyze and describe the sympatric diversity associated with C melodus. A total of ninety nine individuals were observed during the monitoring. The Cochran and Kendall test showed a high significance of the species with the substrate and signs tests using a binomial distribution that indicated a high preference for algal type of substrate. The highest activity recorded for this species during this winter season was feeding. The principal food items found in sediments were larvae of Diptera: Chironomidae and Ephydridae. The sympatric species of C. melodus were two families of Charadriiforms: Scolopacidae (nine species) and Charadriidae (two species). We concluded that this is an important area for feeding, protection and rest sites for this species, and its protection and management is recommended.

  7. 'McMurdo' Panorama from Spirit's 'Winter Haven'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This 360-degree view, called the 'McMurdo' panorama, comes from the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit. From April through October 2006, Spirit has stayed on a small hill known as 'Low Ridge.' There, the rover's solar panels are tilted toward the sun to maintain enough solar power for Spirit to keep making scientific observations throughout the winter on southern Mars. This view of the surroundings from Spirit's 'Winter Haven' is presented in approximately true color. Oct. 26, 2006, marks Spirit's 1,000th sol of what was planned as a 90-sol mission. (A sol is a Martian day, which lasts 24 hours, 39 minutes, 35 seconds). The rover has lived through the most challenging part of its second Martian winter. Its solar power levels are rising again. Spring in the southern hemisphere of Mars will begin in early 2007. Before that, the rover team hopes to start driving Spirit again toward scientifically interesting places in the 'Inner Basin' and 'Columbia Hills' inside Gusev crater. The McMurdo panorama is providing team members with key pieces of scientific and topographic information for choosing where to continue Spirit's exploration adventure. The Pancam began shooting component images of this panorama during Spirit's sol 814 (April 18, 2006) and completed the part shown here on sol 932 (Aug. 17, 2006). The panorama was acquired using all 13 of the Pancam's color filters, using lossless compression for the red and blue stereo filters, and only modest levels of compression on the remaining filters. The overall panorama consists of 1,449 Pancam images and represents a raw data volume of nearly 500 megabytes. It is thus the largest, highest-fidelity view of Mars acquired from either rover. Additional photo coverage of the parts of the rover deck not shown here was completed on sol 980 (Oct. 5 , 2006). The team is completing the processing and mosaicking of those final pieces of the panorama, and that image will be released on the Web shortly

  8. 'McMurdo' Panorama from Spirit's 'Winter Haven' (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This 360-degree view, called the 'McMurdo' panorama, comes from the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit. From April through October 2006, Spirit has stayed on a small hill known as 'Low Ridge.' There, the rover's solar panels are tilted toward the sun to maintain enough solar power for Spirit to keep making scientific observations throughout the winter on southern Mars. This view of the surroundings from Spirit's 'Winter Haven' is presented as a stereo anaglyph to show the scene three-dimensionally when viewed through red-blue glasses (with the red lens on the left). Oct. 26, 2006, marks Spirit's 1,000th sol of what was planned as a 90-sol mission. (A sol is a Martian day, which lasts 24 hours, 39 minutes, 35 seconds). The rover has lived through the most challenging part of its second Martian winter. Its solar power levels are rising again. Spring in the southern hemisphere of Mars will begin in early 2007. Before that, the rover team hopes to start driving Spirit again toward scientifically interesting places in the 'Inner Basin' and 'Columbia Hills' inside Gusev crater. The McMurdo panorama is providing team members with key pieces of scientific and topographic information for choosing where to continue Spirit's exploration adventure. The Pancam began shooting component images of this panorama during Spirit's sol 814 (April 18, 2006) and completed the part shown here on sol 932 (Aug. 17, 2006). The panorama was acquired using all 13 of the Pancam's color filters, using lossless compression for the red and blue stereo filters, and only modest levels of compression on the remaining filters. The overall panorama consists of 1,449 Pancam images and represents a raw data volume of nearly 500 megabytes. It is thus the largest, highest-fidelity view of Mars acquired from either rover. Additional photo coverage of the parts of the rover deck not shown here was completed on sol 980 (Oct. 5 , 2006). The team is completing the processing and

  9. 'McMurdo' Panorama from Spirit's 'Winter Haven' (False Color)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This 360-degree view, called the 'McMurdo' panorama, comes from the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit. From April through October 2006, Spirit has stayed on a small hill known as 'Low Ridge.' There, the rover's solar panels are tilted toward the sun to maintain enough solar power for Spirit to keep making scientific observations throughout the winter on southern Mars. This view of the surroundings from Spirit's 'Winter Haven' is presented in exaggerated color to enhance color differences among rocks, soils and sand. Oct. 26, 2006, marks Spirit's 1,000th sol of what was planned as a 90-sol mission. (A sol is a Martian day, which lasts 24 hours, 39 minutes, 35 seconds). The rover has lived through the most challenging part of its second Martian winter. Its solar power levels are rising again. Spring in the southern hemisphere of Mars will begin in early 2007. Before that, the rover team hopes to start driving Spirit again toward scientifically interesting places in the 'Inner Basin' and 'Columbia Hills' inside Gusev crater. The McMurdo panorama is providing team members with key pieces of scientific and topographic information for choosing where to continue Spirit's exploration adventure. The Pancam began shooting component images of this panorama during Spirit's sol 814 (April 18, 2006) and completed the part shown here on sol 932 (Aug. 17, 2006). The panorama was acquired using all 13 of the Pancam's color filters, using lossless compression for the red and blue stereo filters, and only modest levels of compression on the remaining filters. The overall panorama consists of 1,449 Pancam images and represents a raw data volume of nearly 500 megabytes. It is thus the largest, highest-fidelity view of Mars acquired from either rover. Additional photo coverage of the parts of the rover deck not shown here was completed on sol 980 (Oct. 5 , 2006). The team is completing the processing and mosaicking of those final pieces of the panorama

  10. Ethnography, fidelity, and the evidence that anthropology adds: supplementing the fidelity process in a clinical trial of supported employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Morris, Carolyn; Lopez, Gilberto; Ottomanelli, Lisa; Goetz, Lance; Dixon-Lawson, Kimberly

    2014-06-01

    This discussion considers the role and findings of ethnographic research within a clinical trial of supported employment for veterans with spinal cord injury. Contributing to qualitative evaluation research and to debates over anthropological evidence vis-à-vis clinical trials, we demonstrate how enactors of a randomized controlled trial can simultaneously attend to both the trial's evidentiary and procedural requirements and to the lived experiences and needs of patients and clinicians. Three major findings are described: (1) contextual information essential to fidelity efforts within the trial; (2) the role of human interrelationships and idiosyncratic networks in the trial's success; and (3) a mapping of the power and authority structures relevant to the staff's ability to perform the protocol. We emphasize strengths of anthropological ethnography in clinical trials that include the provision of complementary, qualitative data, the capture of otherwise unmeasured parts of the trial, and the realization of important information for the translation of the clinical findings into new settings. © 2014 by the American Anthropological Association.

  11. Winter climate variability and classification in the Bulgarian Mountainous Regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkova, Nadezhda; Koleva, Ekaterina

    2004-01-01

    The problems of snowiness and thermal conditions of winters are of high interest of investigations because of the more frequent droughts, occurred in the region. In the present study an attempt to reveal tendencies existing during the last 70 years of 20 th century in the course winter precipitation and,temperature as well as in some of the snow cover parameters. On the base of mean winter air temperature winters in the Bulgarian mountains were analyzed and classified. The main results of the study show that winter precipitation has decrease tendencies more significant in the highest parts of the mountains. On the other hand winter air temperature increases. It shows a relatively well-established maximum at the end of the studied period. In the Bulgarian mountains normal winters are about 35-40% of all winters. (Author)

  12. High Fidelity Simulation of Littoral Environments: Applications and Coupling of Participating Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allard, Richard

    2003-01-01

    The High Fidelity Simulation of Littoral Environments (HFSoLE) Challenge Project (C75) encompasses a suite of seven oceanographic models capable of exchanging information in a physically meaningful sense across the littoral environment...

  13. Can you design for Fidelity? How your intervention framework describes intended actions, participation and behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Signe; Gish, Liv; Ipsen, Christine

    In recent years the term fidelity has been introduced within the field of organizational level interventions. Fidelity describes the extent to which the intervention has been implemented as it was originally intended, and is regarded critical for determining the validity of the research results...... in organizational level interventions. The concept of fidelity stems from clinical interventions although the concept has developed over time (Bellg et al. 2004). Organizational level interventions differ from clinical interventions, as they are more complex regarding both the “dose” given and the number and levels...... of participants involved at the same time. Steering organizational level interventions in every detail and secure full fidelity or treatment integrity can thus seem difficult. Organizational level intervention frameworks are often built on the designer’s experiences with previous interventions as well as what...

  14. Advanced High and Low Fidelity HPC Simulations of FCS Concept Designs for Dynamic Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sandhu, S. S; Kanapady, R; Tamma, K. K

    2004-01-01

    ...) resources of many Army initiatives. In this paper we present a new and advanced HPC based rigid and flexible modeling and simulation technology capable of adaptive high/low fidelity modeling that is useful in the initial design concept...

  15. Laser Welding Process Parameters Optimization Using Variable-Fidelity Metamodel and NSGA-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Chaochao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimization methodology based on variable-fidelity (VF metamodels and nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II for laser bead-on-plate welding of stainless steel 316L is presented. The relationships between input process parameters (laser power, welding speed and laser focal position and output responses (weld width and weld depth are constructed by VF metamodels. In VF metamodels, the information from two levels fidelity models are integrated, in which the low-fidelity model (LF is finite element simulation model that is used to capture the general trend of the metamodels, and high-fidelity (HF model which from physical experiments is used to ensure the accuracy of metamodels. The accuracy of the VF metamodel is verified by actual experiments. To slove the optimization problem, NSGA-II is used to search for multi-objective Pareto optimal solutions. The results of verification experiments show that the obtained optimal parameters are effective and reliable.

  16. Development of a fidelity scale for Danish specialized early interventions service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melau, Marianne; Albert, Nikolai; Nordentoft, Merete

    2017-01-01

    positive effects along with creating new teams and preserving critical components is to ensure fidelity to the model. Currently there is no Danish fidelity scale for SEI services. AIM: To establish a fidelity scale for SEI teams, in a brief and easily manageable form, for the use of evaluating......BACKGROUND: The efficacy of the Specialized Early Intervention (SEI) treatment in Denmark, the OPUS treatment, has in a randomized clinical trial proved to be very effective compared to treatment as usual, and the dissemination of SEI services is increasing in Denmark. A prerequisite for upholding...... and assessing the critical components in Danish SEI services. METHOD: We identified essential evidence-based components of SEI services internationally and interviewed experts from five Danish SEI teams, using an adapted version of the Delphi Consensus method. RESULTS: An 18-point fidelity scale was constructed...

  17. High-fidelity polarization storage in a gigahertz bandwidth quantum memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England, D G; Michelberger, P S; Champion, T F M; Reim, K F; Lee, K C; Sprague, M R; Jin, X-M; Langford, N K; Kolthammer, W S; Nunn, J; Walmsley, I A

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a dual-rail optical Raman memory inside a polarization interferometer; this enables us to store polarization-encoded information at GHz bandwidths in a room-temperature atomic ensemble. By performing full process tomography on the system, we measure up to 97 ± 1% process fidelity for the storage and retrieval process. At longer storage times, the process fidelity remains high, despite a loss of efficiency. The fidelity is 86 ± 4% for 1.5 μs storage time, which is 5000 times the pulse duration. Hence, high fidelity is combined with a large time-bandwidth product. This high performance, with an experimentally simple setup, demonstrates the suitability of the Raman memory for integration into large-scale quantum networks. (paper)

  18. High-Fidelity Simulation for Neonatal Nursing Education: An Integrative Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Allyson

    2015-01-01

    The lack of safe avenues to develop neonatal nursing competencies using human subjects leads to the notion that simulation education for neonatal nurses might be an ideal form of education. This integrative literature review compares traditional, teacher-centered education with high-fidelity simulation education for neonatal nurses. It examines the theoretical frameworks used in neonatal nursing education and outlines the advantages of this type of training, including improving communication and teamwork; providing an innovative pedagogical approach; and aiding in skill acquisition, confidence, and participant satisfaction. The importance of debriefing is also examined. High-fidelity simulation is not without disadvantages, including its significant cost, the time associated with training, the need for very complex technical equipment, and increased faculty resource requirements. Innovative uses of high-fidelity simulation in neonatal nursing education are suggested. High-fidelity simulation has great potential but requires additional research to fully prove its efficacy.

  19. Multi-Fidelity Multi-Strategy and Multi-Disciplinary Design Optimization Environment, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Multidisciplinary design and optimization (MDO) tools developed to perform multi-disciplinary analysis based on low fidelity computation methods have been used in...

  20. Fidelity of DNA Replication in Normal and Malignant Human Breast Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sekowski, Jennifer

    1998-01-01

    In order to determine the degree to which the accumulation of mutations in breast cancer cells is due to a change in the fidelity of the cellular DNA replication machinery we have completed a series...

  1. AGA predicts winter jump in residential gas price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The American Gas Association predicts the average heating bill for residential gas consumers could increase by as much as 18% this winter. AGA Pres. Mike Baly said, Last year's winter was warmer than normal. If the 1992-93 winter is similar, AGA projects that residential natural gas heating bills will go up about 6%. If we see a return to normal winter weather, our projection show the average bill could rise by almost 18%

  2. A modified theoretical framework to assess implementation fidelity of adaptive public health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Dennis; Van der Stuyft, Patrick; Zabala, Maríadel Carmen; Castro, Marta; Lefèvre, Pierre

    2016-07-08

    One of the major debates in implementation research turns around fidelity and adaptation. Fidelity is the degree to which an intervention is implemented as intended by its developers. It is meant to ensure that the intervention maintains its intended effects. Adaptation is the process of implementers or users bringing changes to the original design of an intervention. Depending on the nature of the modifications brought, adaptation could either be potentially positive or could carry the risk of threatening the theoretical basis of the intervention, resulting in a negative effect on expected outcomes. Adaptive interventions are those for which adaptation is allowed or even encouraged. Classical fidelity dimensions and conceptual frameworks do not address the issue of how to adapt an intervention while still maintaining its effectiveness. We support the idea that fidelity and adaptation co-exist and that adaptations can impact either positively or negatively on the intervention's effectiveness. For adaptive interventions, research should answer the question how an adequate fidelity-adaptation balance can be reached. One way to address this issue is by looking systematically at the aspects of an intervention that are being adapted. We conducted fidelity research on the implementation of an empowerment strategy for dengue prevention in Cuba. In view of the adaptive nature of the strategy, we anticipated that the classical fidelity dimensions would be of limited use for assessing adaptations. The typology we used in the assessment-implemented, not-implemented, modified, or added components of the strategy-also had limitations. It did not allow us to answer the question which of the modifications introduced in the strategy contributed to or distracted from outcomes. We confronted our empirical research with existing literature on fidelity, and as a result, considered that the framework for implementation fidelity proposed by Carroll et al. in 2007 could potentially meet

  3. High-fidelity state transfer over an unmodulated linear XY spin chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, C. Allen; Ou Yongcheng; Byrd, Mark S.; Wang Zhaoming

    2010-01-01

    We provide a class of initial encodings that can be sent with a high fidelity over an unmodulated, linear, XY spin chain. As an example, an average fidelity of 96% can be obtained using an 11-spin encoding to transmit a state over a chain containing 10 000 spins. An analysis of the magnetic-field dependence is given, and conditions for field optimization are provided.

  4. A method for assessing fidelity of delivery of telephone behavioral support for smoking cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Lorencatto, F.; West, R.; Bruguera, C.; Michie, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Behavioral support for smoking cessation is delivered through different modalities, often guided by treatment manuals. Recently developed methods for assessing fidelity of delivery have shown that face-to-face behavioral support is often not delivered as specified in the service treatment manual. This study aimed to extend this method to evaluate fidelity of telephone-delivered behavioral support. \\ud \\ud Method: A treatment manual and transcripts of 75 audio-recorded behavioral s...

  5. Enhancing experience prototyping by the help of mixed-fidelity prototypes

    OpenAIRE

    Yasar, Ansar-Ul-Haque

    2007-01-01

    In this research review I undertook the problem related to the usage of a new concept known as the Mixed- Fidelity Prototype which is a mixture of its predecessors Low- and High- Fidelity Prototypes in Experience Prototyping. Experience Prototyping is a good way to explore, communicate and interact with the designs we develop like experiencing cycling on the ice, although the mood, snow conditions, bicycle type and many other factors really matter and tend to change with time. Experience Prot...

  6. Measuring Transpiration to Regulate Winter Irrigation Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelson, Lisa [Auburn University

    2006-11-08

    Periodic transpiration (monthly sums) in a young loblolly pine plantation between ages 3 and 6 was measured using thermal dissipation probes. Fertilization and fertilization with irrigation were better than irrigation alone in increasing transpiration of young loblolly pines during winter months, apparently because of increased leaf area in fertilized trees. Irrigation alone did not significantly increase transpiration compared with the non-fertilized and non-irrigated control plots.

  7. School in nature from spring to winter

    OpenAIRE

    MLSOVÁ, Martina

    2012-01-01

    The bachelor's thesis "Outdoor school from spring to winter" deals with the influence of field teaching on the locomotor development of preschool children. Based on specialized literature its theoretical part summarizes the influence of the natural environment on the child's development. It describes the benefits of field teaching, it deals with the term "Outdoor school" nowadays and in the past and with the locomotor development of children. The practical part includes an elaborated yearlong...

  8. Postharvest tillage reduces Downy Brome infestations in winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Pacific Northwest, downy brome continues to infest winter wheat producing regions especially in low-rainfall areas where the winter wheat-summer fallow rotation is the dominate production system. In Washington, a study was conducted for 2 years at each of two locations in the winter wheat -su...

  9. Assessing hypotheses about nesting site occupancy dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bled, Florent; Royle, J. Andrew; Cam, Emmanuelle

    2011-01-01

    Hypotheses about habitat selection developed in the evolutionary ecology framework assume that individuals, under some conditions, select breeding habitat based on expected fitness in different habitat. The relationship between habitat quality and fitness may be reflected by breeding success of individuals, which may in turn be used to assess habitat quality. Habitat quality may also be assessed via local density: if high-quality sites are preferentially used, high density may reflect high-quality habitat. Here we assessed whether site occupancy dynamics vary with site surrogates for habitat quality. We modeled nest site use probability in a seabird subcolony (the Black-legged Kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla) over a 20-year period. We estimated site persistence (an occupied site remains occupied from time t to t + 1) and colonization through two subprocesses: first colonization (site creation at the timescale of the study) and recolonization (a site is colonized again after being deserted). Our model explicitly incorporated site-specific and neighboring breeding success and conspecific density in the neighborhood. Our results provided evidence that reproductively "successful'' sites have a higher persistence probability than "unsuccessful'' ones. Analyses of site fidelity in marked birds and of survival probability showed that high site persistence predominantly reflects site fidelity, not immediate colonization by new owners after emigration or death of previous owners. There is a negative quadratic relationship between local density and persistence probability. First colonization probability decreases with density, whereas recolonization probability is constant. This highlights the importance of distinguishing initial colonization and recolonization to understand site occupancy. All dynamics varied positively with neighboring breeding success. We found evidence of a positive interaction between site-specific and neighboring breeding success. We addressed local

  10. Flowering time control in European winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Martin Langer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Flowering time is an important trait in wheat breeding as it affects adaptation and yield potential. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic architecture of flowering time in European winter bread wheat cultivars. To this end a population of 410 winter wheat varieties was evaluated in multi-location field trials and genotyped by a genotyping-by-sequencing approach and candidate gene markers. Our analyses revealed that the photoperiod regulator Ppd-D1 is the major factor affecting flowering time in this germplasm set, explaining 58% of the genotypic variance. Copy number variation at the Ppd-B1 locus was present but explains only 3.2% and thus a comparably small proportion of genotypic variance. By contrast, the plant height loci Rht-B1 and Rht-D1 had no effect on flowering time. The genome-wide scan identified six QTL which each explain only a small proportion of genotypic variance and in addition we identified a number of epistatic QTL, also with small effects. Taken together, our results show that flowering time in European winter bread wheat cultivars is mainly controlled by Ppd-D1 while the fine tuning to local climatic conditions is achieved through Ppd-B1 copy number variation and a larger number of QTL with small effects.

  11. Engagement in Training as a Mechanism to Understanding Fidelity of Implementation of the Responsive Classroom Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanless, Shannon B; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E; Abry, Tashia; Larsen, Ross A; Patton, Christine L

    2015-11-01

    Fidelity of implementation of classroom interventions varies greatly, a reality that is concerning because higher fidelity of implementation relates to greater effectiveness of the intervention. We analyzed 126 fourth and fifth grade teachers from the treatment group of a randomized controlled trial of the Responsive Classroom® (RC) approach. Prior to training in the intervention, we assessed factors that had the potential to represent a teacher's readiness to implement with fidelity. These included teachers' observed emotional support, teacher-rated use of intervention practices, teacher-rated self-efficacy, teacher-rated collective responsibility, education level, and years of experience, and they were not directly related to observed fidelity of implementation 2 years later. Further analyses indicated, however, that RC trainers' ratings of teachers' engagement in the initial weeklong RC training mediated the relation between initial observed emotional support and later observed fidelity of implementation. We discuss these findings as a way to advance understanding of teachers' readiness to implement new interventions with fidelity.

  12. Effect of decoherence on fidelity in teleportation using entangled coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, H; Chandra, N; Prakash, R; Shivani

    2007-01-01

    A scheme of teleporting a superposition of coherent states (α) and ( - α) using a beam splitter and two phase shifters was proposed by van Enk and Hirota (2001 Phys. Rev. A 64 022313). The authors concluded that the probability for successful teleportation is 1/2. In this paper, it is shown that the authors' scheme can be altered slightly so as to obtain an almost perfect teleportation for an appreciable value of (α) 2 . For (α) 2 = 5, the minimum of average fidelity, which is the minimum of the sum of the product of probability of occurrence of any case, and the corresponding fidelity is less than 1 by a quantity ∼10 -4 . We also discuss the effect of decoherence on teleportation fidelity. We find that if no photons are counted in both final outputs, the minimum assured fidelity is still non-zero except when there is no decoherence and the information is an even coherent state. For non-zero photon counts, minimum assured fidelity decreases with an increase in (α) 2 for low noise. For high noise, however, it increases, attains a maximum value and then decreases with (α) 2 . The average fidelity depends appreciably on the information for low values of (α) 2 only

  13. Unbiased multi-fidelity estimate of failure probability of a free plane jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Alexandre; Kramer, Boris; Willcox, Karen; Peherstorfer, Benjamin

    2017-11-01

    Estimating failure probability related to fluid flows is a challenge because it requires a large number of evaluations of expensive models. We address this challenge by leveraging multiple low fidelity models of the flow dynamics to create an optimal unbiased estimator. In particular, we investigate the effects of uncertain inlet conditions in the width of a free plane jet. We classify a condition as failure when the corresponding jet width is below a small threshold, such that failure is a rare event (failure probability is smaller than 0.001). We estimate failure probability by combining the frameworks of multi-fidelity importance sampling and optimal fusion of estimators. Multi-fidelity importance sampling uses a low fidelity model to explore the parameter space and create a biasing distribution. An unbiased estimate is then computed with a relatively small number of evaluations of the high fidelity model. In the presence of multiple low fidelity models, this framework offers multiple competing estimators. Optimal fusion combines all competing estimators into a single estimator with minimal variance. We show that this combined framework can significantly reduce the cost of estimating failure probabilities, and thus can have a large impact in fluid flow applications. This work was funded by DARPA.

  14. The influence of sowing period and seeding norm on autumn vegetation, winter hardiness and yield of winter cereal crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potapova G. N.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available the winter wheat and triticale in the middle part of the Ural Mountains haven’t been seeded before. The technology of winter crop cultivation should be improved due to the production of new varieties of winter rye. Winter hardiness and yield of winter rye are higher in comparison with winter triticale and especially with winter wheat. The sowing period and the seeding rate influence the amount of yield and winter hardiness. The winter hardiness of winter cereals and the yield of the rye variety Iset sowed on August 25 and the yield of the triticale variety Bashkir short-stalked and wheat Kazanskaya 560 sowed on August 15 were higher. It is important to sow winter grain in local conditions in the second half of August. The sowing this period allows to provide plants with the necessary amount of positive temperatures (450–500 °C. This helps the plants to form 3–4 shoots of tillering and a mass of 10 dry plants reaching 3–5 grams. The winter grain crops in the middle part of the Ural Mountains should be sown with seeding rates of 6 and 7 million of sprouting grains per 1 ha, and the seeds must be cultivated with fungicidal preparation before seeding.

  15. Biochemical characterization of enzyme fidelity of influenza A virus RNA polymerase complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Aggarwal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that the highly error prone replication process of influenza A virus (IAV, together with viral genome assortment, facilitates the efficient evolutionary capacity of IAV. Therefore, it has been logically assumed that the enzyme responsible for viral RNA replication process, influenza virus type A RNA polymerase (IAV Pol, is a highly error-prone polymerase which provides the genomic mutations necessary for viral evolution and host adaptation. Importantly, however, the actual enzyme fidelity of IAV RNA polymerase has never been characterized.Here we established new biochemical assay conditions that enabled us to assess both polymerase activity with physiological NTP pools and enzyme fidelity of IAV Pol. We report that IAV Pol displays highly active RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity at unbiased physiological NTP substrate concentrations. With this robust enzyme activity, for the first time, we were able to compare the enzyme fidelity of IAV Pol complex with that of bacterial phage T7 RNA polymerase and the reverse transcriptases (RT of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 and murine leukemia virus (MuLV, which are known to be low and high fidelity enzymes, respectively. We observed that IAV Pol displayed significantly higher fidelity than HIV-1 RT and T7 RNA polymerase and equivalent or higher fidelity than MuLV RT. In addition, the IAV Pol complex showed increased fidelity at lower temperatures. Moreover, upon replacement of Mg(++ with Mn(++, IAV Pol displayed increased polymerase activity, but with significantly reduced processivity, and misincorporation was slightly elevated in the presence of Mn(++. Finally, when the IAV nucleoprotein (NP was included in the reactions, the IAV Pol complex exhibited enhanced polymerase activity with increased fidelity.Our study indicates that IAV Pol is a high fidelity enzyme. We envision that the high fidelity nature of IAV Pol may be important to counter-balance the multiple rounds of

  16. Development of a measure of model fidelity for mental health Crisis Resolution Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Evans, Brynmor; Bond, Gary R; Ruud, Torleif; Ivanecka, Ada; Gray, Richard; Osborn, David; Nolan, Fiona; Henderson, Claire; Mason, Oliver; Goater, Nicky; Kelly, Kathleen; Ambler, Gareth; Morant, Nicola; Onyett, Steve; Lamb, Danielle; Fahmy, Sarah; Brown, Ellie; Paterson, Beth; Sweeney, Angela; Hindle, David; Fullarton, Kate; Frerichs, Johanna; Johnson, Sonia

    2016-12-01

    Crisis Resolution Teams (CRTs) provide short-term intensive home treatment to people experiencing mental health crisis. Trial evidence suggests CRTs can be effective at reducing hospital admissions and increasing satisfaction with acute care. When scaled up to national level however, CRT implementation and outcomes have been variable. We aimed to develop and test a fidelity scale to assess adherence to a model of best practice for CRTs, based on best available evidence. A concept mapping process was used to develop a CRT fidelity scale. Participants (n = 68) from a range of stakeholder groups prioritised and grouped statements (n = 72) about important components of the CRT model, generated from a literature review, national survey and qualitative interviews. These data were analysed using Ariadne software and the resultant cluster solution informed item selection for a CRT fidelity scale. Operational criteria and scoring anchor points were developed for each item. The CORE CRT fidelity scale was then piloted in 75 CRTs in the UK to assess the range of scores achieved and feasibility for use in a 1-day fidelity review process. Trained reviewers (n = 16) rated CRT service fidelity in a vignette exercise to test the scale's inter-rater reliability. There were high levels of agreement within and between stakeholder groups regarding the most important components of the CRT model. A 39-item measure of CRT model fidelity was developed. Piloting indicated that the scale was feasible for use to assess CRT model fidelity and had good face validity. The wide range of item scores and total scores across CRT services in the pilot demonstrate the measure can distinguish lower and higher fidelity services. Moderately good inter-rater reliability was found, with an estimated correlation between individual ratings of 0.65 (95% CI: 0.54 to 0.76). The CORE CRT Fidelity Scale has been developed through a rigorous and systematic process. Promising initial testing indicates

  17. Attenuation of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus by Engineered Viral Polymerase Fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Devendra K; Diaz-San Segundo, Fayna; Campagnola, Grace; Keith, Anna; Schafer, Elizabeth A; Kloc, Anna; de Los Santos, Teresa; Peersen, Olve; Rieder, Elizabeth

    2017-08-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) (3D pol ) catalyzes viral RNA synthesis. Its characteristic low fidelity and absence of proofreading activity allow FMDV to rapidly mutate and adapt to dynamic environments. In this study, we used the structure of FMDV 3D pol in combination with previously reported results from similar picornaviral polymerases to design point mutations that would alter replication fidelity. In particular, we targeted Trp237 within conserved polymerase motif A because of the low reversion potential inherent in the single UGG codon. Using biochemical and genetic tools, we show that the replacement of tryptophan 237 with phenylalanine imparts higher fidelity, but replacements with isoleucine and leucine resulted in lower-fidelity phenotypes. Viruses containing these W237 substitutions show in vitro growth kinetics and plaque morphologies similar to those of the wild-type (WT) A 24 Cruzeiro strain in BHK cells, and both high- and low-fidelity variants retained fitness during coinfection with the wild-type virus. The higher-fidelity W237F (W237F HF ) mutant virus was more resistant to the mutagenic nucleoside analogs ribavirin and 5-fluorouracil than the WT virus, whereas the lower-fidelity W237I (W237I LF ) and W237L LF mutant viruses exhibited lower ribavirin resistance. Interestingly, the variant viruses showed heterogeneous and slightly delayed growth kinetics in primary porcine kidney cells, and they were significantly attenuated in mouse infection experiments. These data demonstrate, for a single virus, that either increased or decreased RdRp fidelity attenuates virus growth in animals, which is a desirable feature for the development of safer and genetically more stable vaccine candidates. IMPORTANCE Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is the most devastating disease affecting livestock worldwide. Here, using structural and biochemical analyses, we have identified FMDV 3D pol mutations that affect polymerase

  18. Assessing fidelity of delivery of smoking cessation behavioural support in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorencatto, Fabiana; West, Robert; Christopherson, Charlotte; Michie, Susan

    2013-04-04

    Effectiveness of evidence-based behaviour change interventions is likely to be undermined by failure to deliver interventions as planned. Behavioural support for smoking cessation can be a highly cost-effective, life-saving intervention. However, in practice, outcomes are highly variable. Part of this may be due to variability in fidelity of intervention implementation. To date, there have been no published studies on this. The present study aimed to: evaluate a method for assessing fidelity of behavioural support; assess fidelity of delivery in two English Stop-Smoking Services; and compare the extent of fidelity according to session types, duration, individual practitioners, and component behaviour change techniques (BCTs). Treatment manuals and transcripts of 34 audio-recorded behavioural support sessions were obtained from two Stop-Smoking Services and coded into component BCTs using a taxonomy of 43 BCTs. Inter-rater reliability was assessed using percentage agreement. Fidelity was assessed by examining the proportion of BCTs specified in the manuals that were delivered in individual sessions. This was assessed by session type (i.e., pre-quit, quit, post-quit), duration, individual practitioner, and BCT. Inter-coder reliability was high (87.1%). On average, 66% of manual-specified BCTs were delivered per session (SD 15.3, range: 35% to 90%). In Service 1, average fidelity was highest for post-quit sessions (69%) and lowest for pre-quit (58%). In Service 2, fidelity was highest for quit-day (81%) and lowest for post-quit sessions (56%). Session duration was not significantly correlated with fidelity. Individual practitioner fidelity ranged from 55% to 78%. Individual manual-specified BCTs were delivered on average 63% of the time (SD 28.5, range: 0 to 100%). The extent to which smoking cessation behavioural support is delivered as specified in treatment manuals can be reliably assessed using transcripts of audiotaped sessions. This allows the investigation of

  19. High-Fidelity Aerodynamic Shape Optimization for Natural Laminar Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashad, Ramy

    To ensure the long-term sustainability of aviation, serious effort is underway to mitigate the escalating economic, environmental, and social concerns of the industry. Significant improvement to the energy efficiency of air transportation is required through the research and development of advanced and unconventional airframe and engine technologies. In the quest to reduce airframe drag, this thesis is concerned with the development and demonstration of an effective design tool for improving the aerodynamic efficiency of subsonic and transonic airfoils. The objective is to advance the state-of-the-art in high-fidelity aerodynamic shape optimization by incorporating and exploiting the phenomenon of laminar-turbulent transition in an efficient manner. A framework for the design and optimization of Natural Laminar Flow (NLF) airfoils is developed and demonstrated with transition prediction capable of accounting for the effects of Reynolds number, freestream turbulence intensity, Mach number, and pressure gradients. First, a two-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) flow solver has been extended to incorporate an iterative laminar-turbulent transition prediction methodology. The natural transition locations due to Tollmien-Schlichting instabilities are predicted using the simplified eN envelope method of Drela and Giles or, alternatively, the compressible form of the Arnal-Habiballah-Delcourt criterion. The boundary-layer properties are obtained directly from the Navier-Stokes flow solution, and the transition to turbulent flow is modeled using an intermittency function in conjunction with the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. The RANS solver is subsequently employed in a gradient-based sequential quadratic programming shape optimization framework. The laminar-turbulent transition criteria are tightly coupled into the objective and gradient evaluations. The gradients are obtained using a new augmented discrete-adjoint formulation for non-local transition

  20. Descrivere un Social Network Site: un approccio empirico

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossi, Luca; Di Lascio, F Marta L; Pacelli, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    This chapters provide methods to describe in a quantitative way, a social network site as a whole. Besides the most commonly used metrics such as number of users or level of activity the chapter proposes more complex metrics based on topi diversity and language fidelity....

  1. Fidelity Failures in Brief Strategic Family Therapy for Adolescent Drug Abuse: A Clinical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebensohn-Chialvo, Florencia; Rohrbaugh, Michael J; Hasler, Brant P

    2018-04-30

    As evidence-based family treatments for adolescent substance use and conduct problems gain traction, cutting edge research moves beyond randomized efficacy trials to address questions such as how these treatments work and how best to disseminate them to community settings. A key factor in effective dissemination is treatment fidelity, which refers to implementing an intervention in a manner consistent with an established manual. While most fidelity research is quantitative, this study offers a qualitative clinical analysis of fidelity failures in a large, multisite effectiveness trial of Brief Strategic Family Therapy (BSFT) for adolescent drug abuse, where BSFT developers trained community therapists to administer this intervention in their own agencies. Using case notes and video recordings of therapy sessions, an independent expert panel first rated 103 cases on quantitative fidelity scales grounded in the BSFT manual and the broader structural-strategic framework that informs BSFT intervention. Because fidelity was generally low, the panel reviewed all cases qualitatively to identify emergent types or categories of fidelity failure. Ten categories of failures emerged, characterized by therapist omissions (e.g., failure to engage key family members, failure to think in threes) and commissions (e.g., off-model, nonsystemic formulations/interventions). Of these, "failure to think in threes" appeared basic and particularly problematic, reflecting the central place of this idea in structural theory and therapy. Although subject to possible bias, our observations highlight likely stumbling blocks in exporting a complex family treatment like BSFT to community settings. These findings also underscore the importance of treatment fidelity in family therapy research. © 2018 Family Process Institute.

  2. Regional greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of winter wheat and winter rapeseed for biofuels in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsgaard, Lars; Olesen, Jørgen E; Hermansen, John Erik

    2013-01-01

    Biofuels from bioenergy crops may substitute a significant part of fossil fuels in the transport sector where, e.g., the European Union has set a target of using 10% renewable energy by 2020. Savings of greenhouse gas emissions by biofuels vary according to cropping systems and are influenced...... by such regional factors as soil conditions, climate and input of agrochemicals. Here we analysed at a regional scale the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with cultivation of winter wheat for bioethanol and winter rapeseed for rapeseed methyl ester (RME) under Danish conditions. Emitted CO2 equivalents...

  3. Modeling organic aerosol concentrations and properties during winter 2014 in the northwestern Mediterranean region

    OpenAIRE

    Chrit, Mounir; Sartelet, Karine; Sciare, Jean; Majdi, Marwa; Nicolas, José; Petit, Jean-Eudes; Dulac, François

    2018-01-01

    Organic aerosols are measured at a remote site (Ersa) on Corsica Cape in the northwestern Mediterranean basin during the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (CharMEx) winter campaign of 2014, when high organic concentrations from anthropogenic origin are observed. This work aims at representing the observed organic aerosol concentrations and properties (oxidation state) using the air-quality model Polyphemus with a surrogate approach for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. Becau...

  4. Spectrum of winter dermatoses in rural Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kamel, Mohamed A

    2016-05-01

    Surveys that have been carried out to determine the prevalence of skin diseases in rural Yemen are scarce or not available. To investigate the spectrum of winter dermatoses in a rural Yemeni community. A retrospective study was conducted at the dermatology outpatient clinic of the Al-Helal Specialized Hospital (Radaa' district of Al Bayda' Governorate) using data analysis of 700 selected records of patients managed during four months of the 2013-14 winter season. Seven hundred patients with 730 diseases were reported in this study; the major bulk of patients (46.57%) were in the >18-40-year age group, and females outnumbered males. By far, dermatitis, eczematous, and allergic disorders (38.49%) topped the list of the most frequent skin disorders groups, followed by skin infections and infestations (20%) and the pigmentary disorders (13.70%) group. Contact dermatitis (10.68%) was the most prevalent skin disorder, followed by hyperpigmentations (8.77%), acne (8.08%), viral infections (5.75%), atopic dermatitis (5.62%), and parasitic infestations (5.34%). This survey has documented the spectrum of winter dermatoses in a rural Yemeni community but also reflects the pattern of common dermatoses in the whole country. Dermatitis, eczematous, and allergic disorders, skin infections, and pigmentary disorders are the commonest groups. Contact dermatitis is the most prevalent disorder, and leishmaniasis is the most prevalent skin infectious disease. Climate, occupational, social, and environmental factors are the main contributors. Such statistics can form an important basis for community-based health policies. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  5. Does Zoning Winter Recreationists Reduce Recreation Conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Aubrey D.; Vaske, Jerry J.; Squires, John R.; Olson, Lucretia E.; Roberts, Elizabeth K.

    2017-01-01

    Parks and protected area managers use zoning to decrease interpersonal conflict between recreationists. Zoning, or segregation, of recreation—often by non-motorized and motorized activity—is designed to limit physical interaction while providing recreation opportunities to both groups. This article investigated the effectiveness of zoning to reduce recreation conflict in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area in Colorado, USA. Despite a zoning management system, established groomed travel routes were used by both non-motorized recreationists (backcountry skiers, snowboarders, snowshoers) and motorized recreationists (snowmobilers). We hypothesized that persistent recreation conflict reported by non-motorized recreationists was the result of recreation occurring in areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use, mostly along groomed routes. We performed a geospatial analysis of recreation [from Global Positioning System (GPS) points, n = 1,233,449] in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area to identify areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use. We then surveyed non-motorized recreationists ( n = 199) to test whether reported conflict is higher for respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with respondents traveling outside areas of mixed-use. Results from the geospatial analysis showed that only 0.7 % of the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area contained recreation from both groups, however that area contained 14.8 % of all non-motorized recreation and 49.1 % of all motorized recreation. Survey analysis results showed higher interpersonal conflict for all five standard conflict variables among non-motorized respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with those traveling outside mixed-use areas. Management implications and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of zoning are provided.

  6. NS Pudarka: A new winter wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-yielding, medium late winter wheat cultivar NS Pudarka was developed by crossing genetic divergent parents: line NMNH-07 and cv. NS 40S and Simonida. In cultivar NS Pudarka genes responsible for high yield potential, very good technological quality, resistance to lodging, low temperature and diseases, were successfully combined. It was registered by Ministry of agriculture, forestry and water management of Serbia Republic in 2013. This cultivar has wide adaptability and stability of yield that enable growing in different environments with optimal agricultural practice. On the base of technological quality this cultivar belongs to the second quality class, A2 farinograph subgroup and second technological group.

  7. Mechanical weed control in organic winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euro Pannacci

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Three field experiments were carried out in organic winter wheat in three consecutive years (exp. 1, 2005-06; exp. 2, 2006- 07; exp. 3, 2007-08 in central Italy (42°57’ N - 12°22’ E, 165 m a.s.l. in order to evaluate the efficacy against weeds and the effects on winter wheat of two main mechanical weed control strategies: i spring tine harrowing used at three different application times (1 passage at T1, 2 passages at the time T1, 1 passage at T1 followed by 1 passage at T1 + 14 days in the crop sowed at narrow (traditional row spacing (0.15 m; and ii split-hoeing and finger-weeder, alone and combined at T1, in the crop sowed at wider row spacing (0.30 m. At the time T1 winter wheat was at tillering and weeds were at the cotyledons-2 true leaves growth stage. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replicates. Six weeks after mechanical treatments, weed ground cover (% was rated visually using the Braun-Blanquet coverabundance scale; weeds on three squares (0.6×0.5 m each one per plot were collected, counted, weighed, dried in oven at 105°C to determine weed density and weed above-ground dry biomass. At harvest, wheat ears density, grain yield, weight of 1000 seeds and hectolitre weight were recorded. Total weed flora was quite different in the three experiments. The main weed species were: Polygonum aviculare L. (exp. 1 and 2, Fallopia convolvulus (L. Á. Löve (exp. 1 and 3, Stachys annua (L. L. (exp. 1, Anagallis arvensis L. (exp. 2, Papaver rhoeas L. (exp.3, Veronica hederifolia L. (exp. 3. In the winter wheat sowed at narrow rows, 2 passages with spring-tine harrowing at the same time seems to be the best option in order to reconcile a good efficacy with the feasibility of treatment. In wider rows spacing the best weed control was obtained by split hoeing alone or combined with finger-weeder. The grain yield, on average 10% higher in narrow rows, the lower costs and the good selectivity of spring-tine harrowing

  8. Isotope signatures in winter moulted feathers predict malaria prevalence in a breeding avian host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohannes, Elizabeth; Hansson, Bengt; Lee, Raymond W; Waldenström, Jonas; Westerdahl, Helena; Akesson, Mikael; Hasselquist, Dennis; Bensch, Staffan

    2008-11-01

    It is widely accepted that animal distribution and migration strategy might have co-evolved in relation to selection pressures exerted by parasites. Here, we first determined the prevalence and types of malaria blood parasites in a breeding population of great reed warblers Acrocephalus arundinaceus using PCR. Secondly, we tested for differences in individual feather stable isotope signatures (delta (13)C, delta (15)N, deltaD and delta (34)S) to investigate whether malaria infected and non-infected birds had occupied different areas in winter. We show that birds moulting in Afro-tropical habitats with significantly higher delta (13)C and delta (15)N but lower deltaD and delta(34)S values were more frequently infected with malaria parasites. Based on established patterns of isotopic distributions, our results indicate that moulting sites with higher incidence of malaria are generally drier and situated further to the north in West Africa than sites with lower incidence of malaria. Our findings are pertinent to the general hypothesis that animal distribution and particularly avian migration strategy might evolve in response to selection pressures exerted by parasites at different geographic scales. Tradeoffs between investment in energy demanding life history traits (e.g. migration and winter moult) and immune function are suggested to contribute to the particular choice of habitat during migration and at wintering sites.

  9. Running Club Warm Up Staves Off Winter's Chill

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Not deterred by winter's chill, over 900 runners met at the CERN Prévesin site for Escalade training. Think the sudden cold snap is a reason to stay indoors? Think again! The CERN running club has just recently had the honour of holding the November 11th Escalade training session, and with over 900 runners present at the Prévessin site it was clear that the chilly temperatures were no barrier whatsoever. The story behind Escalade training starts back in 1977 when a group of running enthusiasts from the Stade Genève club decided to organize a running race in the Old Town in conjunction with the Escalade festivities. They were told that no normal people would think of organizing a running race in the month of December, but fortunately they ignored the advice! From the initial 50 or so runners, these Escalade races have grown into an institution and now attract upwards of 15,000 people of all ages from 5 to over 80 each year. And with over 30% of each year's runners participat...

  10. Behaviour change intervention for smokeless tobacco cessation: its development, feasibility and fidelity testing in Pakistan and in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Siddiqi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People of South Asian-origin are responsible for more than three-quarters of all the smokeless tobacco (SLT consumption worldwide; yet there is little evidence on the effect of SLT cessation interventions in this population. South Asians use highly addictive and hazardous SLT products that have a strong socio-cultural dimension. We designed a bespoke behaviour change intervention (BCI to support South Asians in quitting SLT and then evaluated its feasibility in Pakistan and in the UK. Methods We conducted two literature reviews to identify determinants of SLT use among South Asians and behaviour change techniques (BCTs likely to modify these, respectively. Iterative consensus development workshops helped in selecting potent BCTs for BCI and designing activities and materials to deliver these. We piloted the BCI in 32 SLT users. All BCI sessions were audiotaped and analysed for adherence to intervention content and the quality of interaction (fidelity index. In-depth interviews with16 participants and five advisors assessed acceptability and feasibility of delivering the BCI, respectively. Quit success was assessed at 6 months by saliva/urine cotinine. Results The BCI included 23 activities and an interactive pictorial resource that supported these. Activities included raising awareness of the harms of SLT use and benefits of quitting, boosting clients’ motivation and self-efficacy, and developing strategies to manage their triggers, withdrawal symptoms, and relapse should that occur. Betel quid and Guthka were the common forms of SLT used. Pakistani clients were more SLT dependent than those in the UK. Out of 32, four participants had undetectable cotinine at 6 months. Fidelity scores for each site varied between 11.2 and 42.6 for adherence to content – maximum score achievable 44; and between 1.4 and 14 for the quality of interaction - maximum score achievable was 14. Interviews with advisors highlighted the need for

  11. Variation in the hindgut microbial communities of the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris over winter in Crystal River, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merson, Samuel D.; Ouwerkerk, Diane; Gulino, Lisa-Maree; Klieve, Athol; Bonde, Robert K.; Burgess, Elizabeth A.; Lanyon, Janet M.

    2014-01-01

    The Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris, is a hindgut-fermenting herbivore. In winter, manatees migrate to warm water overwintering sites where they undergo dietary shifts and may suffer from cold-induced stress. Given these seasonally induced changes in diet, the present study aimed to examine variation in the hindgut bacterial communities of wild manatees overwintering at Crystal River, west Florida. Faeces were sampled from 36 manatees of known sex and body size in early winter when manatees were newly arrived and then in mid-winter and late winter when diet had probably changed and environmental stress may have increased. Concentrations of faecal cortisol metabolite, an indicator of a stress response, were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Using 454-pyrosequencing, 2027 bacterial operational taxonomic units were identified in manatee faeces following amplicon pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene V3/V4 region. Classified sequences were assigned to eight previously described bacterial phyla; only 0.36% of sequences could not be classified to phylum level. Five core phyla were identified in all samples. The majority (96.8%) of sequences were classified as Firmicutes (77.3 ± 11.1% of total sequences) or Bacteroidetes (19.5 ± 10.6%). Alpha-diversity measures trended towards higher diversity of hindgut microbiota in manatees in mid-winter compared to early and late winter. Beta-diversity measures, analysed through permanova, also indicated significant differences in bacterial communities based on the season.

  12. Patterns of leaf morphology and leaf N content in relation to winter temperatures in three evergreen tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediavilla, Sonia; Gallardo-López, Victoria; González-Zurdo, Patricia; Escudero, Alfonso

    2012-09-01

    The competitive equilibrium between deciduous and perennial species in a new scenario of climate change may depend closely on the productivity of leaves along the different seasons of the year and on the morphological and chemical adaptations required for leaf survival during the different seasons. The aim of the present work was to analyze such adaptations in the leaves of three evergreen species ( Quercus ilex, Q. suber and Pinus pinaster) and their responses to between-site differences in the intensity of winter harshness. We explore the hypothesis that the harshness of winter would contribute to enhancing the leaf traits that allow them to persist under conditions of stress. The results revealed that as winter harshness increases a decrease in leaf size occurs in all three species, together with an increase in the content of nitrogen per unit leaf area and a greater leaf mass per unit area, which seems to be achieved only through increased thickness, with no associated changes in density. P. pinaster was the species with the most intense response to the harshening of winter conditions, undergoing a more marked thickening of its needles than the two Quercus species. Our findings thus suggest that lower winter temperatures involve an increase in the cost of leaf production of evergreen species, which must be taken into account in the estimation of the final cost and benefit balance of evergreens. Such cost increases would be more pronounced for those species that, like P. pinaster, show a stronger response to the winter cold.

  13. High fidelity chemistry and radiation modeling for oxy -- combustion scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Sater, Hassan A.

    Dissipation Concept (EDC) employing a 41-step detailed chemistry mechanism, the non-adiabatic extension of the equilibrium Probability Density Function (PDF) based mixture-fraction model and a two-step global finite rate chemistry model with modified rate constants proposed to work well in oxy-methane flames. Based on the results from this section, the equilibrium PDF model in conjunction with a high-fidelity non-gray model for the radiative properties of the gas-phase may be deemed as accurate to capture the major gas species concentrations, temperatures and flame lengths in oxy-methane flames. The third section examines the variations in radiative transfer predictions due to the choice of chemistry and gas-phase radiative property models. The radiative properties were estimated employing four weighted-sum-of-gray-gases models (WSGGM) that were formulated employing different spectroscopic/model databases. An average variation of 14 -- 17% in the wall incident radiative fluxes was observed between the EDC and equilibrium mixture fraction chemistry models, due to differences in their temperature predictions within the flame. One-dimensional, line-of-sight radiation calculations showed a 15 -- 25 % reduction in the directional radiative fluxes at lower axial locations as a result of ignoring radiation from CO and CH4. Under the constraints of fixed temperature and species distributions, the flame radiant power estimates and average wall incident radiative fluxes varied by nearly 60% and 11% respectively among the different WSGG models.

  14. Warmed Winter Water Temperatures Alter Reproduction in Two Fish Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firkus, Tyler; Rahel, Frank J; Bergman, Harold L; Cherrington, Brian D

    2018-02-01

    We examined the spawning success of Fathead Minnows (Pimephales promelas) and Johnny Darters (Etheostoma nigrum) exposed to elevated winter water temperatures typical of streams characterized by anthropogenic thermal inputs. When Fathead Minnows were exposed to temperature treatments of 12, 16, or 20 °C during the winter, spawning occurred at 16 and 20 °C but not 12 °C. Eggs were deposited over 9 weeks before winter spawning ceased. Fathead Minnows from the three winter temperature treatments were then exposed to a simulated spring transition. Spawning occurred at all three temperature treatments during the spring, but fish from the 16° and 20 °C treatment had delayed egg production indicating a latent effect of warm winter temperatures on spring spawning. mRNA analysis of the egg yolk protein vitellogenin showed elevated expression in female Fathead Minnows at 16 and 20 °C during winter spawning that decreased after winter spawning ceased, whereas Fathead Minnows at 12 °C maintained comparatively low expression during winter. Johnny Darters were exposed to 4 °C to represent winter temperatures in the absence of thermal inputs, and 12, 16, and 20 °C to represent varying degrees of winter thermal pollution. Johnny Darters spawned during winter at 12, 16, and 20 °C but not at 4 °C. Johnny Darters at 4 °C subsequently spawned following a simulated spring period while those at 12, 16, and 20 °C did not. Our results indicate elevated winter water temperatures common in effluent-dominated streams can promote out-of-season spawning and that vitellogenin expression is a useful indicator of spawning readiness for fish exposed to elevated winter temperatures.

  15. Warmed Winter Water Temperatures Alter Reproduction in Two Fish Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firkus, Tyler; Rahel, Frank J.; Bergman, Harold L.; Cherrington, Brian D.

    2018-02-01

    We examined the spawning success of Fathead Minnows ( Pimephales promelas) and Johnny Darters ( Etheostoma nigrum) exposed to elevated winter water temperatures typical of streams characterized by anthropogenic thermal inputs. When Fathead Minnows were exposed to temperature treatments of 12, 16, or 20 °C during the winter, spawning occurred at 16 and 20 °C but not 12 °C. Eggs were deposited over 9 weeks before winter spawning ceased. Fathead Minnows from the three winter temperature treatments were then exposed to a simulated spring transition. Spawning occurred at all three temperature treatments during the spring, but fish from the 16° and 20 °C treatment had delayed egg production indicating a latent effect of warm winter temperatures on spring spawning. mRNA analysis of the egg yolk protein vitellogenin showed elevated expression in female Fathead Minnows at 16 and 20 °C during winter spawning that decreased after winter spawning ceased, whereas Fathead Minnows at 12 °C maintained comparatively low expression during winter. Johnny Darters were exposed to 4 °C to represent winter temperatures in the absence of thermal inputs, and 12, 16, and 20 °C to represent varying degrees of winter thermal pollution. Johnny Darters spawned during winter at 12, 16, and 20 °C but not at 4 °C. Johnny Darters at 4 °C subsequently spawned following a simulated spring period while those at 12, 16, and 20 °C did not. Our results indicate elevated winter water temperatures common in effluent-dominated streams can promote out-of-season spawning and that vitellogenin expression is a useful indicator of spawning readiness for fish exposed to elevated winter temperatures.

  16. Effect of laser pulse shaping parameters on the fidelity of quantum logic gates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaari, Ryan R; Brown, Alex

    2012-09-14

    The effect of varying parameters specific to laser pulse shaping instruments on resulting fidelities for the ACNOT(1), NOT(2), and Hadamard(2) quantum logic gates are studied for the diatomic molecule (12)C(16)O. These parameters include varying the frequency resolution, adjusting the number of frequency components and also varying the amplitude and phase at each frequency component. A time domain analytic form of the original discretized frequency domain laser pulse function is derived, providing a useful means to infer the resulting pulse shape through variations to the aforementioned parameters. We show that amplitude variation at each frequency component is a crucial requirement for optimal laser pulse shaping, whereas phase variation provides minimal contribution. We also show that high fidelity laser pulses are dependent upon the frequency resolution and increasing the number of frequency components provides only a small incremental improvement to quantum gate fidelity. Analysis through use of the pulse area theorem confirms the resulting population dynamics for one or two frequency high fidelity laser pulses and implies similar dynamics for more complex laser pulse shapes. The ability to produce high fidelity laser pulses that provide both population control and global phase alignment is attributed greatly to the natural evolution phase alignment of the qubits involved within the quantum logic gate operation.

  17. From Practice to Evidence in Child Welfare: Model Specification and Fidelity Measurement of Team Decisionmaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearman, Sarah Kate; Garland, Ann F; Schoenwald, Sonja K

    2014-04-01

    Fidelity measurement methods have traditionally been used to develop and evaluate the effects of psychosocial treatments and, more recently, their implementation in practice. The fidelity measurement process can also be used to operationally define and specify components of emerging but untested practices outside the realm of conventional treatment. Achieving optimal fidelity measurement effectiveness (scientific validity and reliability) and efficiency (feasibility and relevance in routine care contexts) is challenging. The purpose of this paper is to identify strategies to address these challenges in child welfare system practices. To illustrate the challenges, and operational steps to address them, we present a case example using the "Team Decisionmaking" (TDM; Annie E. Casey Foundation) intervention. This intervention has potential utility for decreasing initial entry into and time spent in foster care and increasing rates of reunification and relative care. While promising, the model requires rigorous research to refine knowledge regarding the relationship between intervention components and outcomes-research that requires fidelity measurement. The intent of this paper is to illustrate how potentially generalizable steps for developing effective and efficient fidelity measurement methods can be used to more clearly define and test the effects of child welfare system practices.

  18. A high-throughput assay for the comprehensive profiling of DNA ligase fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, Gregory J S; Bauer, Robert J; Nichols, Nicole M; Mazzola, Laurie; Bybee, Joanna; Rivizzigno, Danielle; Cantin, Elizabeth; Evans, Thomas C

    2016-01-29

    DNA ligases have broad application in molecular biology, from traditional cloning methods to modern synthetic biology and molecular diagnostics protocols. Ligation-based detection of polynucleotide sequences can be achieved by the ligation of probe oligonucleotides when annealed to a complementary target sequence. In order to achieve a high sensitivity and low background, the ligase must efficiently join correctly base-paired substrates, while discriminating against the ligation of substrates containing even one mismatched base pair. In the current study, we report the use of capillary electrophoresis to rapidly generate mismatch fidelity profiles that interrogate all 256 possible base-pair combinations at a ligation junction in a single experiment. Rapid screening of ligase fidelity in a 96-well plate format has allowed the study of ligase fidelity in unprecedented depth. As an example of this new method, herein we report the ligation fidelity of Thermus thermophilus DNA ligase at a range of temperatures, buffer pH and monovalent cation strength. This screen allows the selection of reaction conditions that maximize fidelity without sacrificing activity, while generating a profile of specific mismatches that ligate detectably under each set of conditions. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  19. SPARK RttT: Year One Fidelity and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochford, Joseph A.; O'Neill, Adrienne; Gelb, Adele; Ross, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Developed in 2003 by the Sisters of Charity Foundation of Canton with a grant from the Kellogg Foundation, "Supporting Partnerships to Assure Ready Kids" ("SPARK Ohio") is a family-centered kindergarten readiness program that works with families, schools, and the community. From its initial sites in Stark County, "SPARK…

  20. Effects of drought and prolonged winter on Townsend's ground squirrel demography in shrubsteppe habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horne, Beatrice; Olson, Gail S.; Schooley, Robert L.; Corn, Janelle G.; Burnham, Kenneth P.

    1997-01-01

    During a mark–recapture study of Townsend's ground squirrels (Spermophilus townsendii) on 20 sites in the Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area, Idaho, in 1991 through 1994, 4407 animals were marked in 17639 capture events. This study of differences in population dynamics of Townsend's ground squirrels among habitats spanned a drought near the extreme of the 130-yr record, followed by prolonged winter conditions.Townsend's ground squirrels have a short active season (≈4 mo) in which to reproduce and store fat for overwintering. Their food consists largely of succulent grasses and forbs in this dry shrubsteppe and grassland habitat. The drought in the latter half of the 1992 active season produced early drying of Sandberg's bluegrass (Poa secunda) and was associated with low adult and juvenile body masses prior to immergence into estivation/hibernation. The following prolonged winter was associated with late emergence of females in 1993. Early-season body masses of adults were low in 1993 relative to 1992, whereas percentage of body fat in males was relatively high. These weather patterns in spring 1992 and winter 1993 also resulted in reduced adult persistence through the ≈7-mo inactive period, especially for adult females, and near-zero persistence of >1200 juveniles. Consequently, densities of Townsend's ground squirrels across the 20 livetrap sites declined.The demographic effects of drought and prolonged winter lasted at least through the subsequent breeding season. Adult females that survived these weather extremes produced fewer emergent young per female than did adult females prior to the event. Prior to the drought/prolonged winter, yearling female body masses were higher than, or indistinguishable from, those of adults. Females produced in 1993 had lower body masses as yearlings than did adult females.Demographic response to the drought and prolonged winter varied with habitat; ground squirrels in sagebrush habitat showed less decline

  1. Aspen Winter Conferences on High Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2011-02-12

    The 2011 Aspen Winter Conference on Particle Physics was held at the Aspen Center for Physics from February 12 to February 18, 2011. Ninety-four participants from ten countries, and several universities and national labs attended the workshop titled, "New Data From the Energy Frontier." There were 54 formal talks, and a considerable number of informal discussions held during the week. The week's events included a public lecture ("The Hunt for the Elusive Higgs Boson" given by Ben Kilminster from Ohio State University) and attended by 119 members of the public, and a physics cafe geared for high schoolers that is a discussion with physicists. The 2011 Aspen Winter Conference on Astroparticle physics held at the Aspen Center for Physics was "Indirect and Direct Detection of Dark Matter." It was held from February 6 to February 12, 2011. The 70 participants came from 7 countries and attended 53 talks over five days. Late mornings through the afternoon are reserved for informal discussions. In feedback received from participants, it is often these unplanned chats that produce the most excitement due to working through problems with fellow physicists from other institutions and countries or due to incipient collaborations. In addition, Blas Cabrera of Stanford University gave a public lecture titled "What Makes Up Dark Matter." There were 183 members of the general public in attendance. Before the lecture, 45 people attended the physics cafe to discuss dark matter. This report provides the attendee lists, programs, and announcement posters for each event.

  2. Monitoring water phase dynamics in winter clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Edwin F.; Ware, Randolph; Joe, Paul; Hudak, David

    2014-10-01

    This work presents observations of water phase dynamics that demonstrate the theoretical Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen concepts in mixed-phase winter storms. The work analyzes vertical profiles of air vapor pressure, and equilibrium vapor pressure over liquid water and ice. Based only on the magnitude ranking of these vapor pressures, we identified conditions where liquid droplets and ice particles grow or deplete simultaneously, as well as the conditions where droplets evaporate and ice particles grow by vapor diffusion. The method is applied to ground-based remote-sensing observations during two snowstorms, using two distinct microwave profiling radiometers operating in different climatic regions (North American Central High Plains and Great Lakes). The results are compared with independent microwave radiometer retrievals of vertically integrated liquid water, cloud-base estimates from a co-located ceilometer, reflectivity factor and Doppler velocity observations by nearby vertically pointing radars, and radiometer estimates of liquid water layers aloft. This work thus makes a positive contribution toward monitoring and nowcasting the evolution of supercooled droplets in winter clouds.

  3. Winter-APK voor bijen : Helpt u deze winter mee bij het praktijkonderzoek?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Som de Cerff, B.; Cornelissen, B.; Moens, F.

    2013-01-01

    Om de risico’s van een aanrijding bij sneeuw en gladheid te verminderen, laten steeds meer automobilisten bij het monteren van winterbanden ook een wintercontrole uitvoeren. Zou een dergelijke controle voor de winter ook schade aan onze volken in de vorm van wintersterfte kunnen verminderen? Dat zou

  4. Impacts of winter NPO on subsequent winter ENSO: sensitivity to the definition of NPO index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shangfeng; Wu, Renguang

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the linkage between boreal winter North Pacific Oscillation (NPO) and subsequent winter El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) based on seven different NPO indices. Results show that the influence of winter NPO on the subsequent winter El Niño is sensitive to how the NPO is defined. A significant NPO-El Niño connection is obtained when the NPO-related anomalous cyclone over the subtropical North Pacific extends to near-equatorial regions. The anomalous cyclone induces warm sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies through modulating surface heat fluxes. These warm SST anomalies are able to maintain into the following spring and summer through an air-sea coupled process and in turn induce significant westerly wind anomalies over the tropical western Pacific. In contrast, the NPO-El Niño relationship is unclear when the NPO-related anomalous cyclone over the subtropical North Pacific is confined to off-equatorial regions and cannot induce significant warm SST anomalies over the subtropical North Pacific. The present study suggests that definitions of NPO should be taken into account when using NPO to predict ENSO. In particular, we recommend defining the NPO index based on the empirical orthogonal function technique over appropriate region that does not extend too far north.

  5. Change of Landscape Structure before and after Winter Olympic Games in Nagano City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Yoshio; Takeda, Toshiharu

    Recently it is desirable to realize the conservation of biodiversity and to create the city with symbiosis with nature even in local city. In this study, we chose Nagano City which was the site of the Winter Olympic Games as the subject of study, investigated the change of land cover by using Landsat TM data of the year 1985 and 1999 which were before and after the Winter Olympic Games, and grasped the change of landscape structure quantitatively by using landscape indices. As a result, we obtained the following conclusions. The expansion of urban area proceeded rapidly before and after the Winter Olympic Games. The area of artificial land cover in the city planning area has increased by 57%. In the meantime the areas of upland field and paddy field have decreased by 45% and 50% respectively. Therefore, agricultural land changed into urban area remarkably. It was found that the shape of paches of paddy field and upland field especially became small and the inequality of the paches decreased before and after the Winter Olympic Games. It became clear that the fragmentation has occurred in agricultural land such as paddy field, upland field and orchard.

  6. From Cyclone Tracks to the Costs of European Winter Storms: A Probabilistic Loss Assessment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orwig, K.; Renggli, D.; Corti, T.; Reese, S.; Wueest, M.; Viktor, E.; Zimmerli, P.

    2014-12-01

    European winter storms cause billions of dollars of insured losses every year. Therefore, it is essential to understand potential impacts of future events, and the role reinsurance can play to mitigate the losses. The authors will present an overview on natural catastrophe risk assessment modeling in the reinsurance industry, and the development of a new innovative approach for modeling the risk associated with European winter storms.The new innovative approach includes the development of physically meaningful probabilistic (i.e. simulated) events for European winter storm loss assessment. The meteorological hazard component of the new model is based on cyclone and windstorm tracks identified in the 20thCentury Reanalysis data. The knowledge of the evolution of winter storms both in time and space allows the physically meaningful perturbation of historical event properties (e.g. track, intensity, etc.). The perturbation includes a random element but also takes the local climatology and the evolution of the historical event into account.The low-resolution wind footprints taken from the 20thCentury Reanalysis are processed by a statistical-dynamical downscaling to generate high-resolution footprints for both the simulated and historical events. Downscaling transfer functions are generated using ENSEMBLES regional climate model data. The result is a set of reliable probabilistic events representing thousands of years. The event set is then combined with country and site-specific vulnerability functions and detailed market- or client-specific information to compute annual expected losses.

  7. Metabolic response to lipid infusion in fasting winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks (Aptenodytes patagonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teulier, Loïc; Tornos, Jérémy; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Rey, Benjamin; Roussel, Damien

    2013-05-01

    During the cold austral winter, king penguin chicks are infrequently fed by their parents and thus experience severe nutritional deprivation under harsh environmental conditions. These energetic constraints lead to a range of energy sparing mechanisms balanced by the maintenance of efficient thermogenic processes. The present work investigated whether the high thermogenic capacities exhibited by winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks could be related to an increase in lipid substrate supply and oxidation in skeletal muscle, the main site of thermogenesis in birds. To test this hypothesis, we examined i) the effect of an experimental rise in plasma triglyceride on the whole metabolic rate in winter-acclimatized (WA) and de-acclimatized king penguin chicks kept at thermoneutrality (TN), and ii) investigated the fuel preference of muscle mitochondria. In vivo, a perfusion of a lipid emulsion induced a small 10% increase of metabolic rate in WA chicks but not in TN group. In vitro, the oxidation rate of muscle mitochondria respiring on lipid-derived substrate was +40% higher in WA chicks than in TN, while no differences were found between groups when mitochondria oxidized carbohydrate-derived substrate or succinate. Despite an enhanced fuel selection towards lipid oxidation in skeletal muscle, a rise of circulating lipids per se was not sufficient to fully unravel the thermogenic capacity of winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Analysis of forest stands used by wintering woodland caribou in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Antoniak

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Two summers' field surveys at 9 locations in northwestern Ontario showed that woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou wintering areas supported jack pine and black spruce stands with low tree densities (mean 1552 trees/ ha, 39% of a fully stocked stand, low basal areas (mean 14.14 m2/ha, low volumes (mean 116 mVha, 68% of Normal Yield Tables and short heights (95% of stands 12 m or less. Ecologically, most sights were classed V30. Significantly more lichen (averaging 39% lichen ground cover was found on plots used by caribou. Three measured areas showed few shrubs, possibly enhancing escape possibilities and reducing browse attractive to moose. An HIS model predicted known locations of caribou winter habitat from FRI data with 76% accuracy. Landsat imagery theme 3 (open conifer produced 74% accuracy. Combining these methods permitted prediction of all 50 test sites. The low volumes of timber found in caribou wintering areas suggest that setting aside reserves for caribou winter habitat would not sacrifice as much wood product value as might at first appear.

  9. High fidelity does not preclude colonization: range expansion of molting Black Brant on the Arctic coast of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Paul L.; Meixell, Brandt W.; Mallek, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    High rates of site fidelity have been assumed to infer static distributions of molting geese in some cases. To test this assumption, we examined movements of individually marked birds to understand the underlying mechanisms of range expansion of molting Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) on the Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) of Alaska. The Teshekpuk Lake Special Area (TLSA) on the ACP was created to protect the primary molting area of Brant. When established in 1977, the TLSA was thought to include most, if not all, wetlands used by molting Brant on the ACP. From 2010 to 2013, we surveyed areas outside the TLSA and counted an average of 9800 Brant per year, representing 29–37% of all molting Brant counted on the ACP. We captured and banded molting Brant in 2011 and 2012 both within the TLSA and outside the TLSA at the Piasuk River Delta and Cape Simpson to assess movements of birds among areas across years. Estimates of movement rates out of the TLSA exceeded those into the TLSA, demonstrating overall directional dispersal. We found differences in sex and age ratios and proportions of adult females with brood patches, but no differences in mass dynamics for birds captured within and outside the TLSA. Overall fidelity rates to specific lakes (0.81, range = 0.49–0.92) were unchanged from comparable estimates obtained in the early 1990s. We conclude that Brant are dispersing from the TLSA into new molting areas while simultaneously redistributing within the TLSA, likely as a consequence of changes in relative habitat quality. Shifts in distribution resulted from colonization of new areas by young birds as well as low levels of directional dispersal of birds that previously molted in the TLSA. Based on combined counts, the overall number of molting Brant across the ACP has increased substantially.

  10. Mother knows best: occurrence and associations of resighted humpback whales suggest maternally derived fidelity to a Southern Hemisphere coastal feeding ground.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco Barendse

    Full Text Available Site fidelity is common among migratory cetaceans, including humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae. In the Northern Hemisphere it has been found that fidelity to humpback whale feeding grounds is transferred maternally but this has never been shown for the species in the Southern Hemisphere. We examined this in a unique feeding area off west South Africa using resighting data of 68 individually identified humpback whales by means of photographic (tail flukes and dorsal fins and/or molecular methods (microsatellite genotyping over an 18 year span. We found short-term association patterns and recurrent visits typical of other feeding grounds. Males and females had different seasonality of attendance. Significant female-dominated presence corresponded to timing of an expected influx of females on their southward migration from the breeding ground: firstly non-nursing (possibly pregnant females in mid-spring, and mothers and calves in mid-to late summer. The potential benefit of this mid-latitude feeding area for females is illustrated by a record of a cow with known age of at least 23 years that produced calves in three consecutive years, each of which survived to at least six months of age: the first record of successful post-partum ovulation for this species in the Southern Hemisphere. We recorded association of a weaned calf with its mother, and a recurring association between a non-lactating female and male over more than two years. Moreover, three animals first identified as calves returned to the same area in subsequent years, sometimes on the same day as their mothers. This, together with numerous Parent-Offspring relations detected genetically among and between resighted and non-resighted whales is strongly suggestive of maternally derived site fidelity at a small spatial scale by a small sub-population of humpback whales.

  11. Carry-over effects of winter location contribute to variation in timing of nest initiation and clutch size in black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schamber, Jason L.; Sedinger, James S.; Ward, David H.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed carry-over effects from winter location on timing of nest initiation and clutch size of Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) using observations of individually marked brant breeding at the Tutakoke River colony in Alaska, and wintering along a latitudinal gradient at three areas on the Pacific coast of Baja California: northernmost Bahia San Quintin (BSQ), Laguna Ojo de Liebre (LOL), and southernmost Laguna San Ignacio (LSI). Black Brant initiated nests according to a north—south trend in winter location, although year was a stronger predictor of initiation date than was wintering site. Female Black Brant that wintered at BSQ initiated nests 2.2 days earlier than females from LSI. Conversely, Black Brant showed only a weak south—north trend in clutch size; individuals from LSI laid slightly larger clutches than individuals from BSQ, probably because a smaller proportion of only high-quality females from the southernmost wintering area in Baja California were able to attain the nutritional condition necessary to breed. These results indicate that winter location can influence individual reproductive performance and, potentially, limit population growth of southern segments of the wintering Black Brant population.

  12. High-fidelity adiabatic inversion of a {sup 31}P electron spin qubit in natural silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laucht, Arne, E-mail: a.laucht@unsw.edu.au; Kalra, Rachpon; Muhonen, Juha T.; Dehollain, Juan P.; Mohiyaddin, Fahd A.; Hudson, Fay; Dzurak, Andrew S.; Morello, Andrea [Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); McCallum, Jeffrey C.; Jamieson, David N. [Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2014-03-03

    The main limitation to the high-fidelity quantum control of spins in semiconductors is the presence of strongly fluctuating fields arising from the nuclear spin bath of the host material. We demonstrate here a substantial improvement in single-qubit inversion fidelities for an electron spin qubit bound to a {sup 31}P atom in natural silicon, by applying adiabatic sweeps instead of narrow-band pulses. We achieve an inversion fidelity of 97%, and we observe signatures in the spin resonance spectra and the spin coherence time that are consistent with the presence of an additional exchange-coupled donor. This work highlights the effectiveness of simple adiabatic inversion techniques for spin control in fluctuating environments.

  13. Illustrating the multiple facets and levels of fidelity of implementation to a teacher classroom management intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinke, Wendy M; Herman, Keith C; Stormont, Melissa; Newcomer, Lori; David, Kimberly

    2013-11-01

    Many school-based interventions to promote student mental health rely on teachers as implementers. Thus, understanding the interplay between the multiple domains of fidelity to the intervention and intervention support systems such as coaching and teacher implementation of new skills is an important aspect of implementation science. This study describes a systematic process for assessing multiple domains of fidelity. Data from a larger efficacy trial of the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management (IY TCM) program are utilized. Data on fidelity to the IY TCM workshop training sessions and onsite weekly coaching indicate that workshop leaders and the IY TCM coach implemented the training and coaching model with adequate adherence. Further, workshop leaders' ratings of engagement were associated with teacher implementation of specific praise, following training on this content. Lastly, the IY TCM coach differentiation of teacher exposure to coaching was evaluated and found to be associated with teacher implementation of classroom management practices and student disruptive behavior.

  14. Optimal estimate of a pure qubit state from Uhlmann-Josza fidelity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Manuel Avila, E-mail: manvlk@yahoo.com [Centro Universitario UAEM Valle de Chalco, UAEMex, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico)

    2012-04-15

    In the framework of collective measurements, efforts have been made to reconstruct one-qubit states. Such schemes find an obstacle in the no-cloning theorem, which prevents full reconstruction of a quantum state. Quantum Mechanics thus restricts to obtain estimates of the reconstruction of a pure qubit. We discuss the optimal estimate on the basis of the Uhlmann-Josza fidelity, respecting the limitations imposed by the no-cloning theorem. We derive a realistic optimal expression for the average fidelity. Our formalism also introduces an optimization parameter L. Values close to zero imply full reconstruction of the qubit (i. e., the classical limit), while larger L's represent good quantum optimization of the qubit estimate. The parameter L is interpreted as the degree of quantumness of the average fidelity associated with the reconstruction. (author)

  15. Fidelity estimation between two finite ensembles of unknown pure equatorial qubit states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siomau, Michael, E-mail: siomau@physi.uni-heidelberg.de [Physikalisches Institut, Heidelberg Universitaet, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Theoretical Physics, Belarussian State University, 220030 Minsk (Belarus)

    2011-09-05

    Suppose, we are given two finite ensembles of pure qubit states, so that the qubits in each ensemble are prepared in identical (but unknown for us) states lying on the equator of the Bloch sphere. What is the best strategy to estimate fidelity between these two finite ensembles of qubit states? We discuss three possible strategies for the fidelity estimation. We show that the best strategy includes two stages: a specific unitary transformation on two ensembles and state estimation of the output states of this transformation. -- Highlights: → We search for the best strategy for the fidelity estimation. → A measurement-based, a cloning-based and a unified strategies are considered. → The last strategy includes a specific unitary transformation and state estimation. → The unified strategy is shown to be the best among the three.

  16. Technical Basis for Physical Fidelity of NRC Control Room Training Simulators for Advanced Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minsk, Brian S.; Branch, Kristi M.; Bates, Edward K.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Gore, Bryan F.; Faris, Drury K.

    2009-10-09

    The objective of this study is to determine how simulator physical fidelity influences the effectiveness of training the regulatory personnel responsible for examination and oversight of operating personnel and inspection of technical systems at nuclear power reactors. It seeks to contribute to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC’s) understanding of the physical fidelity requirements of training simulators. The goal of the study is to provide an analytic framework, data, and analyses that inform NRC decisions about the physical fidelity requirements of the simulators it will need to train its staff for assignment at advanced reactors. These staff are expected to come from increasingly diverse educational and experiential backgrounds.

  17. Wintering bald eagle trends in northern Arizona, 1975-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teryl G. Grubb

    2003-01-01

    Between 1975 and 2000, 4,525 sightings of wintering bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) were recorded at Mormon Lake in northern Arizona. Numbers of wintering eagles fluctuated little in the 20 years from 1975 through 1994 (5.5 ± 3.0 mean sightings per day). However, during the winters of 1995 through 1997 local record highs of 59 to 118 eagles...

  18. Quantum-critical scaling of fidelity in 2D pairing models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamski, Mariusz, E-mail: mariusz.adamski@ift.uni.wroc.pl [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Wrocław, pl. Maksa Borna 9, 50–204, Wrocław (Poland); Jȩdrzejewski, Janusz [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Wrocław, pl. Maksa Borna 9, 50–204, Wrocław (Poland); Krokhmalskii, Taras [Institute for Condensed Matter Physics, 1 Svientsitski Street, 79011, Lviv (Ukraine)

    2017-01-15

    The laws of quantum-critical scaling theory of quantum fidelity, dependent on the underlying system dimensionality D, have so far been verified in exactly solvable 1D models, belonging to or equivalent to interacting, quadratic (quasifree), spinless or spinfull, lattice-fermion models. The obtained results are so appealing that in quest for correlation lengths and associated universal critical indices ν, which characterize the divergence of correlation lengths on approaching critical points, one might be inclined to substitute the hard task of determining an asymptotic behavior at large distances of a two-point correlation function by an easier one, of determining the quantum-critical scaling of the quantum fidelity. However, the role of system's dimensionality has been left as an open problem. Our aim in this paper is to fill up this gap, at least partially, by verifying the laws of quantum-critical scaling theory of quantum fidelity in a 2D case. To this end, we study correlation functions and quantum fidelity of 2D exactly solvable models, which are interacting, quasifree, spinfull, lattice-fermion models. The considered 2D models exhibit new, as compared with 1D ones, features: at a given quantum-critical point there exists a multitude of correlation lengths and multiple universal critical indices ν, since these quantities depend on spatial directions, moreover, the indices ν may assume larger values. These facts follow from the obtained by us analytical asymptotic formulae for two-point correlation functions. In such new circumstances we discuss the behavior of quantum fidelity from the perspective of quantum-critical scaling theory. In particular, we are interested in finding out to what extent the quantum fidelity approach may be an alternative to the correlation-function approach in studies of quantum-critical points beyond 1D.

  19. Can GRACE detect winter snows in Japan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heki, Kosuke

    2010-05-01

    Current spatial resolution of the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites is 300-400 km, and so its hydrological applications have been limited to continents and large islands. The Japanese Islands have width slightly smaller than this spatial resolution, but are known to show large amplitude seasonal changes in surface masses due mainly to winter snow. Such loads are responsible for seasonal crustal deformation observed with GEONET, a dense array of GPS (Global Positioning System) receivers in Japan (Heki, 2001). There is also a dense network of surface meteorological sensors for, e.g. snow depths, atmospheric pressures, etc. Heki (2004) showed that combined effects of surface loads, i.e. snow (predominant), atmosphere, soil moisture, dam impoundment, can explain seasonal crustal deformation observed by GPS to a large extent. The total weight of the winter snow in the Japanese Islands in its peak season may reach ~50 Gt. This is comparable to the annual loss of mountain glaciers in the Asian high mountains (Matsuo & Heki, 2010), and is above the detection level of GRACE. In this study, I use GRACE Level-2 Release-4 data from CSR, Univ. Texas, up to 2009 November, and evaluated seasonal changes in surface loads in and around the Japanese Islands. After applying a 350 km Gaussian filter and a de-striping filter, the peak-to-peak change of the water depth becomes ~4 cm in northern Japan. The maximum value is achieved in February-March. The region of large winter load spans from Hokkaido, Japan, to northeastern Honshu, which roughly coincides with the region of deep snow in Japan. Next I compiled snow depth data from surface meteorological observations, and converted them to loads using time-dependent snow density due to compaction. By applying the same spatial filter as the GRACE data, its spatial pattern becomes similar to the GRACE results. The present study suggests that GRACE is capable of detecting seasonal mass changes in an island arc not

  20. The History of Winter: teachers as scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, L.; Courville, Z.; Wasilewski, P. J.; Gow, T.; Bender, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    The History of Winter (HOW) is a NASA Goddard Space Flight Center-funded teacher enrichment program that was started by Dr. Peter Wasilewski (NASA), Dr. Robert Gabrys (NASA) and Dr. Tony Gow (Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, or CRREL) in 2001 and continues with support and involvement of scientists from both the NASA Cryospheric Sciences Laboratory and CREEL. The program brings educators mostly from middle and high schools but also from state parks, community colleges and other institutions from across the US to the Northwood School (a small, private boarding school) in Lake Placid, NY for one week to learn about several facets of winter, polar, and snow research, including the science and history of polar ice core research, lake ice formation and structure, snow pack science, winter ecology, and remote sensing including current and future NASA cryospheric missions. The program receives support from the Northwood School staff to facilitate the program. The goal of the program is to create 'teachers as scientists' which is achieved through several hands-on field experiences in which the teachers have the opportunity to work with polar researchers from NASA, CRREL and partner Universities to dig and sample snow pits, make ice thin sections from lake ice, make snow shelters, and observe under-ice lake ecology. The hands-on work allows the teachers to use the same tools and techniques used in polar research while simultaneously introducing science concepts and activities to support their classroom work. The ultimate goal of the program is to provide the classroom teachers with the opportunity to learn about current and timely cryospheric research as well as to engage in real fieldwork experiences. The enthusiasm generated during the week-long program is translated into classroom activities with guidance from scientists, teachers and educational professionals. The opportunity to engage with polar researchers, both young investigators and renowned

  1. Home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games 1976-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Darryl; Ramchandani, Girish

    2017-01-01

    There is a limited amount of home advantage research concerned with winter sports. There is also a distinct lack of studies that investigate home advantage in the context of para sport events. This paper addresses this gap in the knowledge by examining home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games. Using a standardised measure of success, we compared the performances of host nations at home with their own performances away from home between 1976 and 2014. Both country level and individual sport level analysis is conducted for this time period. Comparisons are also drawn with the Winter Olympic Games since 1992, the point from which both the Winter Olympic Games and the Winter Paralympic Games have been hosted by the same nations and in the same years. Clear evidence of a home advantage effect in the Winter Paralympic Games was found at country level. When examining individual sports, only alpine skiing and cross country skiing returned a significant home advantage effect. When comparing home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games with the Winter Olympic Games for the last seven host nations (1992-2014), we found that home advantage was generally more pronounced (although not a statistically significant difference) in the case of the former. The causes of home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games are unclear and should be investigated further.

  2. Improving the fidelity of teleportation through noisy channels using weak measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pramanik, T., E-mail: tanu.pram99@bose.res.in; Majumdar, A.S., E-mail: archan@bose.res.in

    2013-12-13

    We employ the technique of weak measurement in order to enable preservation of teleportation fidelity for two-qubit noisy channels. We consider one or both qubits of a maximally entangled state to undergo amplitude damping, and show that the application of weak measurement and a subsequent reverse operation could lead to a fidelity greater than 2/3 for any value of the decoherence parameter. The success probability of the protocol decreases with the strength of weak measurement, and is lower when both the qubits are affected by decoherence. Finally, our protocol is shown to work for the Werner state too.

  3. Simulator fidelity and training effectiveness: a comprehensive bibliography with selected annotations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.L.; Bolton, P.A.; Shikiar, R.; Saari, L.M.

    1984-05-01

    This document contains a comprehensive bibliography on the topic of simulator fidelity and training effectiveness, prepared during the preliminary phases of work on an NRC-sponsored project on the Role of Nuclear Power Plant Simulators in Operator Licensing and Training. Section A of the document is an annotated bibliography consisting of articles and reports with relevance to the psychological aspects of simulator fidelity and the effectiveness of training simulators in a variety of settings, including military. The annotated items are drawn from a more comprehensive bibliography, presented in Section B, listing documents treating the role of simulators in operator training both in the nuclear industry and elsewhere

  4. Fidelity susceptibility and long-range correlation in the Kitaev honeycomb model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuo; Gu, Shi-Jian; Sun, Chang-Pu; Lin, Hai-Qing

    2008-07-01

    We study exactly both the ground-state fidelity susceptibility and bond-bond correlation function in the Kitaev honeycomb model. Our results show that the fidelity susceptibility can be used to identify the topological phase transition from a gapped A phase with Abelian anyon excitations to a gapless B phase with non-Abelian anyon excitations. We also find that the bond-bond correlation function decays exponentially in the gapped phase, but algebraically in the gapless phase. For the former case, the correlation length is found to be 1/ξ=2sinh-1[2Jz-1/(1-Jz)] , which diverges around the critical point Jz=(1/2)+ .

  5. Improving contraceptive choice: fidelity of implementation and the gap between effectiveness and efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbers, Samantha; Flandrick, Kathleen; Bermudez, Dayana; Meserve, Allison; Chiasson, Mary Ann

    2014-11-01

    Interventions to reduce unintended pregnancy through improved contraceptive use are a public health priority. A comprehensive process evaluation of a contraceptive assessment module intervention with demonstrated efficacy was undertaken. The 12-month process evaluation goal was to describe the extent to which the intervention was implemented as intended over time, and to identify programmatic adjustments to improve implementation fidelity. Quantitative and qualitative methods included staff surveys, electronic health record data, usage monitoring, and observations. Fidelity of implementation was low overall (framework enabled the research team to identify and address complexities inherent in effectiveness studies and facilitated the alignment of program and context. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  6. On the Fidelity of “CORK” Borehole Hydrologic Observatory Pressure Records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keir Becker

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Long-term formation pressure monitoring in Ocean Drilling Program (ODP and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP boreholes using evolving Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit (CORK hydrologic observatory technology has led to unanticipated applications as a result of the growing duration of recording intervals and the improvement of measurement fidelity. Current capabilities provide geologically meaningful observations over a broad range of time scales from static state to 1 Hz, allowing investigations of many coupled hydrologic, geodynamic, and seismologic phenomena. In this review, we present observations that provide constraints on current limits to recording fidelity, and examples of how leakage can affect pressure observations.

  7. Long lifetime and high-fidelity quantum memory of photonic polarization qubit by lifting zeeman degeneracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhongxiao; Wu, Yuelong; Tian, Long; Chen, Lirong; Zhang, Zhiying; Yan, Zhihui; Li, Shujing; Wang, Hai; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi

    2013-12-13

    Long-lived and high-fidelity memory for a photonic polarization qubit (PPQ) is crucial for constructing quantum networks. We present a millisecond storage system based on electromagnetically induced transparency, in which a moderate magnetic field is applied on a cold-atom cloud to lift Zeeman degeneracy and, thus, the PPQ states are stored as two magnetic-field-insensitive spin waves. Especially, the influence of magnetic-field-sensitive spin waves on the storage performances is almost totally avoided. The measured average fidelities of the polarization states are 98.6% at 200  μs and 78.4% at 4.5 ms, respectively.

  8. A high fidelity model and code generator for the simulation of BOP systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galen, S.; Vinay, M.

    1993-01-01

    TOPMERET represents a significant advance in the modelling fidelity of Balance of Plant systems (BOP). It is extremely flexible and can accommodate a variety of systems, including main steam, feedwater, turbine, condenser, offgas, large volumes, such as the containment, and water systems such as service water. It handles both normal and abnormal operating scenarios, including pipe break accidents. It was tested successfully on various simulators, and meets the fidelity required of BOP system models so as to successfully integrate with the high level of control automation of European designs. (Z.S.) 1 ref

  9. Regional meteorological drivers and long term trends of winter-spring nitrate dynamics across watersheds in northeastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossman, Jill; Eimers, M Catherine; Casson, Nora J.; Burns, Douglas A.; Campbell, John L.; Likens, Gene E; Mitchell, Myron J; Nelson, Sarah J.; Shanley, James B.; Watmough, Shaun A.; Webster, Kara L

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the contribution of winter rain-on-snow (ROS) events to annual and seasonal nitrate (N-NO3) export and identified the regional meteorological drivers of inter-annual variability in ROS N-NO3 export (ROS-N) at 9 headwater streams located across Ontario, Canada and the northeastern United States. Although on average only 3.3 % of annual precipitation fell as ROS during winter over the study period, these events contributed a significant proportion of annual and winter N-NO3 export at the majority of sites (average of 12 and 42 %, respectively); with the exception of the most northern catchment, where total winter precipitation was exceptionally low (average 77 mm). In years with a greater magnitude of ROS events, the timing of the peak N-NO3 export period (during spring melt) was redistributed to earlier in the year. Variability in ROS frequency and magnitude amongst sites was high and a generalised linear model demonstrated that this spatial variability could be explained by interactive effects between regional and site-specific drivers. Snowpack coverage was particularly important for explaining the site-specific ROS response. Specifically, ROS events were less common when higher temperatures eliminated snow cover despite increasing the proportion of winter rainfall, whereas ROS event frequency was greater at sites where sufficient snow cover remained. This research suggests that catchment response to changes in N deposition is sensitive to climate change; a vulnerability which appears to vary in intensity throughout the seasonally snow-covered temperate region. Furthermore, the sensitivity of stream N-NO3 export to ROS events and potential shifts (earlier) in the timing of N-NO3 export relative to other nutrients affect downstream nutrient stoichiometry and the community composition of phytoplankton and other algae.

  10. Energy market barometer report - Winter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, Joachim; Cartel, Melodie; Shao, Evan; Vernay, Anne-Lorene

    2017-01-01

    This Winter 2016 edition of the Grenoble Ecole de Management (GEM) Energy Market Barometer explores the opinion of French energy experts about the decentralization of the electricity sector in France. French experts were also asked where the focus of French energy policy should be in the next five years. Key findings: - French energy experts sense a clear trend toward the decentralization of the French electricity system; - Technology innovation and self-sufficiency for corporations and municipalities are the two major promises of decentralization; - The major barriers to faster decentralization in France are the high price of energy storage systems and the lack of political will; - 74% of experts believe that energy efficiency should be a top priority for French energy policy in the next five years; - Reducing greenhouse gas emissions and facilitating the decentralization of the electricity sector should also be a top priority for French energy policy in the next five years; - Experts are divided over the future of nuclear energy

  11. Chemical profile of Taxodium distichum winter cones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đapić Nina M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is concerned with the chemical profile of Taxodium distichum winter cones. The extract obtained after maceration in absolute ethanol was subjected to qualitative analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and quantification was done by gas chromatography/ flame ionization detector. The chromatogram revealed the presence of 53 compounds, of which 33 compounds were identified. The extract contained oxygenated monoterpenes (12.42%, sesquiterpenes (5.18%, oxygenated sesquiterpenes (17.41%, diterpenes (1.15%, and oxygenated diterpenes (30.87%, while the amount of retinoic acid was 0.32%. Monoacylglycerols were detected in the amount of 4.32%. The most abundant compounds were: caryophyllene oxide (14.27%, 6,7-dehydro-ferruginol (12.49%, bornyl acetate (10.96%, 6- deoxy-taxodione (9.50% and trans-caryophyllene (4.20%.

  12. High Versus Low Theoretical Fidelity Pedometer Intervention Using Social-Cognitive Theory on Steps and Self-Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raedeke, Thomas D; Dlugonski, Deirdre

    2017-12-01

    This study was designed to compare a low versus high theoretical fidelity pedometer intervention applying social-cognitive theory on step counts and self-efficacy. Fifty-six public university employees participated in a 10-week randomized controlled trial with 2 conditions that varied in theoretical fidelity. Participants in the high theoretical fidelity condition wore a pedometer and participated in a weekly group walk followed by a meeting to discuss cognitive-behavioral strategies targeting self-efficacy. Participants in the low theoretical fidelity condition met for a group walk and also used a pedometer as a motivational tool and to monitor steps. Step counts were assessed throughout the 10-week intervention and after a no-treatment follow-up (20 weeks and 30 weeks). Self-efficacy was measured preintervention and postintervention. Participants in the high theoretical fidelity condition increased daily steps by 2,283 from preintervention to postintervention, whereas participants in the low fidelity condition demonstrated minimal change during the same time period (p = .002). Individuals attending at least 80% of the sessions in the high theoretical fidelity condition showed an increase of 3,217 daily steps (d = 1.03), whereas low attenders increased by 925 (d = 0.40). Attendance had minimal impact in the low theoretical fidelity condition. Follow-up data revealed that step counts were at least somewhat maintained. For self-efficacy, participants in the high, compared with those in the low, theoretical fidelity condition showed greater improvements. Findings highlight the importance of basing activity promotion efforts on theory. The high theoretical fidelity intervention that included cognitive-behavioral strategies targeting self-efficacy was more effective than the low theoretical fidelity intervention, especially for those with high attendance.

  13. Chemical composition, sources, and aging process of submicron aerosols in Beijing: Contrast between summer and winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weiwei; Hu, Min; Hu, Wei; Jimenez, Jose L.; Yuan, Bin; Chen, Wentai; Wang, Ming; Wu, Yusheng; Chen, Chen; Wang, Zhibin; Peng, Jianfei; Zeng, Limin; Shao, Min

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the seasonal characteristics of submicron aerosol (PM1) in Beijing urban areas, a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol-mass-spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was utilized at an urban site in summer (August to September 2011) and winter (November to December 2010), coupled with multiple state of the art online instruments. The average mass concentrations of PM1 (60-84 µg m-3) and its chemical compositions in different campaigns of Beijing were relatively consistent in recent years. In summer, the daily variations of PM1 mass concentrations were stable and repeatable. Eighty-two percent of the PM1 mass concentration on average was composed of secondary species, where 62% is secondary inorganic aerosol and 20% secondary organic aerosol (SOA). In winter, PM1 mass concentrations changed dramatically because of the different meteorological conditions. The high average fraction (58%) of primary species in PM1 including primary organic aerosol (POA), black carbon, and chloride indicates primary emissions usually played a more important role in the winter. However, aqueous chemistry resulting in efficient secondary formation during occasional periods with high relative humidity may also contribute substantially to haze in winter. Results of past OA source apportionment studies in Beijing show 45-67% of OA in summer and 22-50% of OA in winter can be composed of SOA. Based on the source apportionment results, we found 45% POA in winter and 61% POA in summer are from nonfossil sources, contributed by cooking OA in both seasons and biomass burning OA (BBOA) in winter. Cooking OA, accounting for 13-24% of OA, is an important nonfossil carbon source in all years of Beijing and should not be neglected. The fossil sources of POA include hydrocarbon-like OA from vehicle emissions in both seasons and coal combustion OA (CCOA) in winter. The CCOA and BBOA were the two main contributors (57% of OA) for the highest OA concentrations (>100 µg m-3) in winter. The POA

  14. The Validity and Incremental Validity of Knowledge Tests, Low-Fidelity Simulations, and High-Fidelity Simulations for Predicting Job Performance in Advanced-Level High-Stakes Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievens, Filip; Patterson, Fiona

    2011-01-01

    In high-stakes selection among candidates with considerable domain-specific knowledge and experience, investigations of whether high-fidelity simulations (assessment centers; ACs) have incremental validity over low-fidelity simulations (situational judgment tests; SJTs) are lacking. Therefore, this article integrates research on the validity of…

  15. Metropolitan garbage dumps: possible winter migratory raptor monitoring stations in peninsular India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pande

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Winter raptor migration and movement is poorly documented for peninsular India, mainly due to the lack of geographical bottlenecks. We describe, for the first time, the use of a garbage dump in a metropolitan city as an alternative visual winter raptor monitoring station. The daily count, adult to juvenile ratios and species composition of three migratory raptor species, Steppe Eagle Aquila nipalensis, Black-eared Kite Milvus migrans lineatus and Tawny Eagle Aquila rapax are presented. Ground temperatures at the garbage dump site and surrounding area, and the wing beat rate of migratory raptors before and after arrival in the early morning were measured. A total of 355 raptors migrating over a period of six observation days with 250 adults and 105 juveniles were recorded. The temperature of the garbage dump was significantly higher than the surrounding area, while the wing flapping rate was significantly lower over the garbage dump area. It is possible that migrating raptors use garbage dump thermals in the early morning to save energy with soaring and gliding flight (versus flapping flight. We propose that such sites may be used as visual winter migration monitoring stations in metropolitan cities in peninsular India.

  16. Regional Distribution Shifts Help Explain Local Changes in Wintering Raptor Abundance: Implications for Interpreting Population Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paprocki, Neil; Heath, Julie A.; Novak, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of multiple taxa across broad-scales suggest that species distributions are shifting poleward in response to global climate change. Recognizing the influence of distribution shifts on population indices will be an important part of interpreting trends within management units because current practice often assumes that changes in local populations reflect local habitat conditions. However, the individual- and population-level processes that drive distribution shifts may occur across a large, regional scale and have little to do with the habitats within the management unit. We examined the latitudinal center of abundance for the winter distributions of six western North America raptor species using Christmas Bird Counts from 1975–2011. Also, we considered whether population indices within western North America Bird Conservation Regions (BCRs) were explained by distribution shifts. All six raptors had significant poleward shifts in their wintering distributions over time. Rough-legged Hawks (Buteo lagopus) and Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) showed the fastest rate of change, with 8.41 km yr−1 and 7.74 km yr−1 shifts, respectively. Raptors may be particularly responsive to warming winters because of variable migration tendencies, intraspecific competition for nesting sites that drives males to winter farther north, or both. Overall, 40% of BCR population trend models were improved by incorporating information about wintering distributions; however, support for the effect of distribution on BCR indices varied by species with Rough-legged Hawks showing the most evidence. These results emphasize the importance of understanding how regional distribution shifts influence local-scale population indices. If global climate change is altering distribution patterns, then trends within some management units may not reflect changes in local habitat conditions. The methods used to monitor and manage bird populations within local BCRs will fundamentally change as

  17. Regional distribution shifts help explain local changes in wintering raptor abundance: implications for interpreting population trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Paprocki

    Full Text Available Studies of multiple taxa across broad-scales suggest that species distributions are shifting poleward in response to global climate change. Recognizing the influence of distribution shifts on population indices will be an important part of interpreting trends within management units because current practice often assumes that changes in local populations reflect local habitat conditions. However, the individual- and population-level processes that drive distribution shifts may occur across a large, regional scale and have little to do with the habitats within the management unit. We examined the latitudinal center of abundance for the winter distributions of six western North America raptor species using Christmas Bird Counts from 1975-2011. Also, we considered whether population indices within western North America Bird Conservation Regions (BCRs were explained by distribution shifts. All six raptors had significant poleward shifts in their wintering distributions over time. Rough-legged Hawks (Buteo lagopus and Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos showed the fastest rate of change, with 8.41 km yr(-1 and 7.74 km yr(-1 shifts, respectively. Raptors may be particularly responsive to warming winters because of variable migration tendencies, intraspecific competition for nesting sites that drives males to winter farther north, or both. Overall, 40% of BCR population trend models were improved by incorporating information about wintering distributions; however, support for the effect of distribution on BCR indices varied by species with Rough-legged Hawks showing the most evidence. These results emphasize the importance of understanding how regional distribution shifts influence local-scale population indices. If global climate change is altering distribution patterns, then trends within some management units may not reflect changes in local habitat conditions. The methods used to monitor and manage bird populations within local BCRs will fundamentally

  18. Interplay of catalysis, fidelity, threading, and processivity in the exo- and endonucleolytic reactions of human exonuclease I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Yuqian; Hellinga, Homme W.; Beese, Lorena S. (Duke-MED)

    2017-05-22

    Human exonuclease 1 (hExo1) is a member of the RAD2/XPG structure-specific 5'-nuclease superfamily. Its dominant, processive 5'–3' exonuclease and secondary 5'-flap endonuclease activities participate in various DNA repair, recombination, and replication processes. A single active site processes both recessed ends and 5'-flap substrates. By initiating enzyme reactions in crystals, we have trapped hExo1 reaction intermediates that reveal structures of these substrates before and after their exo- and endonucleolytic cleavage, as well as structures of uncleaved, unthreaded, and partially threaded 5' flaps. Their distinctive 5' ends are accommodated by a small, mobile arch in the active site that binds recessed ends at its base and threads 5' flaps through a narrow aperture within its interior. A sequence of successive, interlocking conformational changes guides the two substrate types into a shared reaction mechanism that catalyzes their cleavage by an elaborated variant of the two-metal, in-line hydrolysis mechanism. Coupling of substrate-dependent arch motions to transition-state stabilization suppresses inappropriate or premature cleavage, enhancing processing fidelity. The striking reduction in flap conformational entropy is catalyzed, in part, by arch motions and transient binding interactions between the flap and unprocessed DNA strand. At the end of the observed reaction sequence, hExo1 resets without relinquishing DNA binding, suggesting a structural basis for its processivity.

  19. On the relation between ionospheric winter anomalies and solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumi, G.C.

    2001-01-01

    There are two different winter anomalies. A small one that appears in connection with ionization at relatively low latitudes in the bottom of the D-region of the ionosphere. There, the electron densities in the winter happen to be less than should be expected. On the other hand, the classic winter anomaly is present when in the winter the upper D-region, again at relatively low latitudes, has more ionization than should be expected. Both these effects are due to the slant compression of the geomagnetic field produced by the solar wind in the wind in the winter season (which is, of course, the summer season when reference is made to events in the other hemisphere). It is shown that the small winter anomaly is a consequence of a hemispheric imbalance in the flux of galactic cosmic rays determined by the obliquely distorted geomagnetic field. It is shown that the standard winter anomaly can be ascribed to the influx of a super solar wind, which penetrates into the Earth's polar atmosphere down to E-region, heights and, duly concentrated through a funneling action at the winter pole of the distorted geomagnetic field, slows down the winter polar vortex. An equatorward motion of the polar air with its content of nitric oxide brings about the excess of ionization in the upper D-region at lower latitudes. The experimentally observed rhythmic recurrence of the upper winter anomaly is correlated to a possible rhythmic recurrence of the super solar wind. The actual detection of the upper winter anomaly could yield some information on the velocity of the basic solar wind. A by-product of the present analysis, the determination of Γ, the coefficient of collisional detachment of the electrons from the O 2 - ions, is presented in the Appendix

  20. On the relation between ionospheric winter anomalies and solar wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumi, G.C. [Lecco, (Italy)

    2001-06-01

    There are two different winter anomalies. A small one that appears in connection with ionization at relatively low latitudes in the bottom of the D-region of the ionosphere. There, the electron densities in the winter happen to be less than should be expected. On the other hand, the classic winter anomaly is present when in the winter the upper D-region, again at relatively low latitudes, has more ionization than should be expected. Both these effects are due to the slant compression of the geomagnetic field produced by the solar wind in the wind in the winter season (which is, of course, the summer season when reference is made to events in the other hemisphere). It is shown that the small winter anomaly is a consequence of a hemispheric imbalance in the flux of galactic cosmic rays determined by the obliquely distorted geomagnetic field. It is shown that the standard winter anomaly can be ascribed to the influx of a super solar wind, which penetrates into the Earth's polar atmosphere down to E-region, heights and, duly concentrated through a funneling action at the winter pole of the distorted geomagnetic field, slows down the winter polar vortex. An equatorward motion of the polar air with its content of nitric oxide brings about the excess of ionization in the upper D-region at lower latitudes. The experimentally observed rhythmic recurrence of the upper winter anomaly is correlated to a possible rhythmic recurrence of the super solar wind. The actual detection of the upper winter anomaly could yield some information on the velocity of the basic solar wind. A by-product of the present analysis, the determination of {gamma}, the coefficient of collisional detachment of the electrons from the O{sub 2} {sup -} ions, is presented in the Appendix.

  1. Winter climate limits subantarctic low forest growth and establishment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie A Harsch

    Full Text Available Campbell Island, an isolated island 600 km south of New Zealand mainland (52 °S, 169 °E is oceanic (Conrad Index of Continentality  =  -5 with small differences between mean summer and winter temperatures. Previous work established the unexpected result that a mean annual climate warming of c. 0.6 °C since the 1940's has not led to upward movement of the forest limit. Here we explore the relative importance of summer and winter climatic conditions on growth and age-class structure of the treeline forming species, Dracophyllum longifolium and Dracophyllum scoparium over the second half of the 20th century. The relationship between climate and growth and establishment were evaluated using standard dendroecological methods and local climate data from a meteorological station on the island. Growth and establishment were correlated against climate variables and further evaluated within hierarchical regression models to take into account the effect of plot level variables. Winter climatic conditions exerted a greater effect on growth and establishment than summer climatic conditions. Establishment is maximized under warm (mean winter temperatures >7 °C, dry winters (total winter precipitation <400 mm. Growth, on the other hand, is adversely affected by wide winter temperature ranges and increased rainfall. The contrasting effect of winter warmth on growth and establishment suggests that winter temperature affects growth and establishment through differing mechanisms. We propose that milder winters enhance survival of seedlings and, therefore, recruitment, but increases metabolic stress on established plants, resulting in lower growth rates. Future winter warming may therefore have complex effects on plant growth and establishment globally.

  2. Winter Climate Limits Subantarctic Low Forest Growth and Establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsch, Melanie A.; McGlone, Matt S.; Wilmshurst, Janet M.

    2014-01-01

    Campbell Island, an isolated island 600 km south of New Zealand mainland (52°S, 169°E) is oceanic (Conrad Index of Continentality  = −5) with small differences between mean summer and winter temperatures. Previous work established the unexpected result that a mean annual climate warming of c. 0.6°C since the 1940's has not led to upward movement of the forest limit. Here we explore the relative importance of summer and winter climatic conditions on growth and age-class structure of the treeline forming species, Dracophyllum longifolium and Dracophyllum scoparium over the second half of the 20th century. The relationship between climate and growth and establishment were evaluated using standard dendroecological methods and local climate data from a meteorological station on the island. Growth and establishment were correlated against climate variables and further evaluated within hierarchical regression models to take into account the effect of plot level variables. Winter climatic conditions exerted a greater effect on growth and establishment than summer climatic conditions. Establishment is maximized under warm (mean winter temperatures >7 °C), dry winters (total winter precipitation <400 mm). Growth, on the other hand, is adversely affected by wide winter temperature ranges and increased rainfall. The contrasting effect of winter warmth on growth and establishment suggests that winter temperature affects growth and establishment through differing mechanisms. We propose that milder winters enhance survival of seedlings and, therefore, recruitment, but increases metabolic stress on established plants, resulting in lower growth rates. Future winter warming may therefore have complex effects on plant growth and establishment globally. PMID:24691026

  3. Winter climate limits subantarctic low forest growth and establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsch, Melanie A; McGlone, Matt S; Wilmshurst, Janet M

    2014-01-01

    Campbell Island, an isolated island 600 km south of New Zealand mainland (52 °S, 169 °E) is oceanic (Conrad Index of Continentality  =  -5) with small differences between mean summer and winter temperatures. Previous work established the unexpected result that a mean annual climate warming of c. 0.6 °C since the 1940's has not led to upward movement of the forest limit. Here we explore the relative importance of summer and winter climatic conditions on growth and age-class structure of the treeline forming species, Dracophyllum longifolium and Dracophyllum scoparium over the second half of the 20th century. The relationship between climate and growth and establishment were evaluated using standard dendroecological methods and local climate data from a meteorological station on the island. Growth and establishment were correlated against climate variables and further evaluated within hierarchical regression models to take into account the effect of plot level variables. Winter climatic conditions exerted a greater effect on growth and establishment than summer climatic conditions. Establishment is maximized under warm (mean winter temperatures >7 °C), dry winters (total winter precipitation <400 mm). Growth, on the other hand, is adversely affected by wide winter temperature ranges and increased rainfall. The contrasting effect of winter warmth on growth and establishment suggests that winter temperature affects growth and establishment through differing mechanisms. We propose that milder winters enhance survival of seedlings and, therefore, recruitment, but increases metabolic stress on established plants, resulting in lower growth rates. Future winter warming may therefore have complex effects on plant growth and establishment globally.

  4. Source of atmospheric heavy metals in winter in Foshan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ji-Hua; Duan, Jing-Chun; Ma, Yong-Liang; Yang, Fu-Mo; Cheng, Yuan; He, Ke-Bin; Yu, Yong-Chang; Wang, Jie-Wen

    2014-09-15

    Foshan is a ceramics manufacturing center in the world and the most polluted city in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) in southern China measured by the levels of atmospheric heavy metals. PM2.5 samples were collected in Foshan in winter 2008. Among the 22 elements and ions analyzed, 7 heavy metals (Zn, V, Mn, Cu, As, Cd and Pb) were studied in depth for their levels, spatiotemporal variations and sources. The ambient concentrations of the heavy metals were much higher than the reported average concentrations in China. The levels of Pb (675.7 ± 378.5 ng/m(3)), As (76.6 ± 49.1 ng/m(3)) and Cd (42.6 ± 45.2 ng/m(3)) exceeded the reference values of NAAQS (GB3095-2012) and the health guidelines of the World Health Organization. Generally, the levels of atmospheric heavy metals showed spatial distribution as: downtown site (CC, Chancheng District)>urban sites (NH and SD, Nanhai and Shunde Districts)>rural site (SS, Shanshui District). Two sources of heavy metals, the ceramic and aluminum industries, were identified during the sampling period. The large number of ceramic manufactures was responsible for the high levels of atmospheric Zn, Pb and As in Chancheng District. Transport from an aluminum industry park under light north-west winds contributed high levels of Cd to the SS site (Shanshui District). The average concentration of Cd under north-west wind was 220 ng/m(3), 20.5 times higher than those under other wind directions. The high daily maximum enrichment factors (EFs) of Cd, Pb, Zn, As and Cu at all four sites indicated extremely high contamination by local emissions. Back trajectory analysis showed that the heavy metals were also closely associated with the pathway of air mass. A positive matrix factorization (PMF) method was applied to determine the source apportionment of these heavy metals. Five factors (industry including the ceramic industry and coal combustion, vehicle emissions, dust, transportation and sea salt) were identified and industry was the most

  5. Ecological correlates of variable organ sizes and fat loads in the most northerly-wintering shorebirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Dekinga, Anne; Gill, R.E.; Summers, R.W.; Piersma, Theunis

    2013-01-01

    Shorebirds at northern latitudes during the nonbreeding season typically carry relatively large lipid stores and exhibit an up-regulation of lean tissues associated with digestion and thermogenesis. Intraspecific variation in these tissues across sites primarily reflects differences in environmental conditions. Rock (Calidris ptilocnemis (Coues, 1873)) and Purple (Calidris maritima (Brünnich, 1764)) sandpipers are closely related species having the most northerly nonbreeding distributions among shorebirds, living at latitudes up to 61°N in Cook Inlet, Alaska, and up to 71°N in northern Norway, respectively. Cook Inlet is the coldest known site used by nonbreeding shorebirds, and the region’s mudflats annually experience extensive coverage of foraging sites by sea and shore-fast ice. Accordingly, Rock Sandpipers increase their fat stores to nearly 20% of body mass during winter. In contrast, Purple Sandpipers exploit predictably ice-free rocky intertidal foraging sites and maintain low (food resources.

  6. Import cutback could put the squeeze on supplies in Northeast this winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prowler, S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that as far back as late summer, LP-gas marketers in the Northeast were quietly expressing their anxieties about fuel supply levels this coming winter. The 1-million-gal. Sun Refining storage facility in Marcus Hook, Pa. had been converted to butane, thereby depriving the region of a valuable asset for propane storage. And word had gotten around that a significant amount of non-Canadian imported product would not be coming ashore this winter to the Sea-3 storage site in Newington, N.H. It seemed that long before the first autumn colors had touched the foliage in New England, many dealers were biting their nails and wondering, What if?

  7. Winter road access to projected works in the diversion of the Little Whale River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulet, R.

    1993-01-01

    The Great Whale hydroelectric complex in northern Quebec will require diversion of the Little Whale River, involving construction of dams 40 m and 30 m high and a canal 600 m long. The main mode of access to the construction sites will be a winter road, supplemented by an airfield designed for large-capacity aircraft. The method used by Hydro-Quebec in its environmental assessment of the winter road project is described. This method comprises five steps: delimitation of the study zone; establishment of a road corridor of choice by successively eliminating territory according to given constraints; description of the physical and biological environment; determination and optimization of the road route; and evaluation of potential impacts, along with establishment of measures to mitigate those impacts. The optimal routing is determined on the basis of criteria such as the presence of permafrost, the nature of the soils, avoidance of slopes steeper than 10%, and the depth and width of ice crossings

  8. Relationship between Systems Coaching and Problem-Solving Implementation Fidelity in a Response-to-Intervention Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Amanda L.; Castillo, Jose M.; Batsche, George M.; Kincaid, Donald

    2016-01-01

    The literature on RTI has indicated that professional development and coaching are critical to facilitating problem-solving implementation with fidelity. This study examined the extent to which systems coaching related to the fidelity of problem-solving implementation in 31 schools from six districts. Schools participated in three years of a…

  9. High versus Low Theoretical Fidelity Pedometer Intervention Using Social-Cognitive Theory on Steps and Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raedeke, Thomas D.; Dlugonski, Deirdre

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to compare a low versus high theoretical fidelity pedometer intervention applying social-cognitive theory on step counts and self-efficacy. Method: Fifty-six public university employees participated in a 10-week randomized controlled trial with 2 conditions that varied in theoretical fidelity. Participants in the…

  10. Perceptions of Fidelity to Family Group Decision-Making Principles: Examining the Impact of Race, Gender, and Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauktis, Mary E.; Huefner, Jonathan; Cahalane, Helen

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions of fidelity to family group principles using comparative information from family, friends, and professionals, taking into account race and gender. White respondents felt there was a greater degree of fidelity than did the African American respondents, with other race respondents sometimes rating similarly to…

  11. Intervention Fidelity for a Complex Behaviour Change Intervention in Community Pharmacy Addressing Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, K. P.; O'Reilly, S. L.; George, J.; Peterson, G. M.; Jackson, S. L.; Duncan, G.; Howarth, H.; Dunbar, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Delivery of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention programs by community pharmacists appears effective and enhances health service access. However, their capacity to implement complex behavioural change processes during patient counselling remains largely unexplored. This study aims to determine intervention fidelity by pharmacists…

  12. Evaluating the Implementation of the Empowering Coaching™ Programme: Balancing Fidelity and Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søvik, Margaret L.; Larsen, Torill; Tjomsland, Hege; Samdal, Oddrun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the implementation of a theoretically grounded coach education training programme for youth football coaches in Norway, through observational methods. In particular, it focuses on implementation fidelity and programme adaptation, and possible differences between the coach educators (CEs) according…

  13. Treatment Fidelity: Its Importance and Reported Frequency in Aphasia Treatment Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckley, Jacqueline J.; Douglas, Natalie F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Treatment fidelity is a measure of the reliability of the administration of an intervention in a treatment study. It is an important aspect of the validity of a research study, and it has implications for the ultimate implementation of evidence-supported interventions in typical clinical settings. Method: Aphasia treatment studies…

  14. A Review of the Literature on Training Simulators: Translators: Transfer of Training and Simulator Fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    Noise is distracting especially in complex tasks that require close attention and concentration (Finkelman 1975). Improper lighting (Tinker 1943...before coping with . the entire systemi. However, the functional fidelity may be affected due to the isolation of a £ articular subsystem. Curry (1981

  15. Fidelity Susceptibility Made Simple: A Unified Quantum Monte Carlo Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The fidelity susceptibility is a general purpose probe of phase transitions. With its origin in quantum information and in the differential geometry perspective of quantum states, the fidelity susceptibility can indicate the presence of a phase transition without prior knowledge of the local order parameter, as well as reveal the universal properties of a critical point. The wide applicability of the fidelity susceptibility to quantum many-body systems is, however, hindered by the limited computational tools to evaluate it. We present a generic, efficient, and elegant approach to compute the fidelity susceptibility of correlated fermions, bosons, and quantum spin systems in a broad range of quantum Monte Carlo methods. It can be applied to both the ground-state and nonzero-temperature cases. The Monte Carlo estimator has a simple yet universal form, which can be efficiently evaluated in simulations. We demonstrate the power of this approach with applications to the Bose-Hubbard model, the spin-1/2 XXZ model, and use it to examine the hypothetical intermediate spin-liquid phase in the Hubbard model on the honeycomb lattice.

  16. 75 FR 42749 - Fidelity National Financial, Inc.; Analysis of the Agreement Containing Consent Order to Aid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... purchase, sale, transfer, and finance of residential and commercial real estate. Fidelity provides title insurance to residential and commercial property buyers and sellers, real estate agents and brokers... character of the real estate markets in which the title information services are used, geographic markets...

  17. Debriefing after High-Fidelity Simulation and Knowledge Retention: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Susan L.

    2013-01-01

    High-fidelity simulation (HFS) use in nursing education has been a frequent research topic in recent years. Previous research included studies on the use of HFS with nursing students, focusing on their feelings of self-confidence and anxiety. However, research focused specifically on the debriefing portion of HFS was limited. This quantitative,…

  18. Hybrid surrogate-model-based multi-fidelity efficient global optimization applied to helicopter blade design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyarit, Atthaphon; Sugiura, Masahiko; Tanabe, Yasutada; Kanazaki, Masahiro

    2018-06-01

    A multi-fidelity optimization technique by an efficient global optimization process using a hybrid surrogate model is investigated for solving real-world design problems. The model constructs the local deviation using the kriging method and the global model using a radial basis function. The expected improvement is computed to decide additional samples that can improve the model. The approach was first investigated by solving mathematical test problems. The results were compared with optimization results from an ordinary kriging method and a co-kriging method, and the proposed method produced the best solution. The proposed method was also applied to aerodynamic design optimization of helicopter blades to obtain the maximum blade efficiency. The optimal shape obtained by the proposed method achieved performance almost equivalent to that obtained using the high-fidelity, evaluation-based single-fidelity optimization. Comparing all three methods, the proposed method required the lowest total number of high-fidelity evaluation runs to obtain a converged solution.

  19. Multi-fidelity wake modelling based on Co-Kriging method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Y. M.; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan; van der Laan, Paul

    2016-01-01

    models, respectively. Both the univariate and multivariate based surrogate models are established by taking the local wind speed and wind direction as variables of the wind farm power efficiency function. Various multi-fidelity surrogate models are compared and different sampling schemes are discussed...

  20. Progress in the Utilization of High-Fidelity Simulation in Basic Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helyer, Richard; Dickens, Peter

    2016-01-01

    High-fidelity patient simulators are mainly used to teach clinical skills and remain underutilized in teaching basic sciences. This article summarizes our current views on the use of simulation in basic science education and identifies pitfalls and opportunities for progress.