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Sample records for winter rye oilseed

  1. Potential bioetanol and biogas production using lignocellulosic biomass from winter rye, oilseed rape and faba bean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Anneli; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    To meet the increasing need for bioenergy several raw materials have to be considered for the production of e.g. bioethanol and biogas. In this study, three lignocellulosic raw materials were studied, i.e. (1) winter rye straw (Secale cereale L), (2) oilseed rape straw (Brassica napus L.) and (3)...

  2. Potential bioethanol and biogas production using lignocellulosic biomass from winter rye, oilseed rape and faba bean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersson, Anneli; Thomsen, Mette H.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Thomsen, Anne-Belinda [Risoe National Laboratory, P.O. Box 49, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2007-11-15

    To meet the increasing need for bioenergy several raw materials have to be considered for the production of e.g. bioethanol and biogas. In this study, three lignocellulosic raw materials were studied, i.e. (1) winter rye straw (Secale cereale L), (2) oilseed rape straw (Brassica napus L.) and (3) faba bean straw (Viciafaba L.). Their composition with regard to cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, extractives and ash was evaluated, as well as their potential as raw materials for ethanol and biogas production. The materials were pretreated by wet oxidation using parameters previously found to be optimal for pretreatment of corn stover (195 C, 15 min, 2 g l{sup -1} Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and 12 bar oxygen). It was shown that pretreatment was necessary for ethanol production from all raw materials and gave increased biogas yield from winter rye straw. Neither biogas productivity nor yield from oilseed rape straw or faba bean straw was significantly affected by pretreatment. Ethanol was produced by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during simultaneous enzymatic hydrolysis of the solid material after wet oxidation with yields of 66%, 70% and 52% of theoretical for winter rye, oilseed rape and faba bean straw, respectively. Methane was produced with yields of 0.36, 0.42 and 0.44 l g{sup -1} volatile solids for winter rye, oilseed rape and faba bean straw, respectively, without pretreatment of the materials. However, biogas productivity was low and it took over 50 days to reach the final yield. It could be concluded that all three materials are possible raw materials for either biogas or ethanol production; however, improvement of biogas productivity or ethanol yield is necessary before an economical process can be achieved. (author)

  3. Effects of sowing time on pink snow mould, leaf rust and winter damage in winter rye varieties in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SERENIUS

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Disease infection in relation to sowing time of winter rye (Secale cereale was studied in southern Finland in order to compare overwintering capacity of modern rye varieties and to give recommendations for rye cultivation. This was done by using three sowing times and four rye varieties in field trials conducted at three locations in 1999–2001. The early sown rye (beginning of August was severely affected by diseases caused by Puccinia recondita and Microdochium nivale, whereas postponing sowing for two weeks after the recommended sowing time resulted in considerably less infection. The infection levels of diseases differed among rye varieties. Finnish rye varieties Anna and Bor 7068 were more resistant to snow mould and more winter hardy than the Polish variety Amilo, or the German hybrid varieties Picasso and Esprit. However, Amilo was the most resistant to leaf rust. In the first year snow mould appeared to be the primary cause of winter damage, but in the second year the winter damage was positively correlated with leaf rust. No significant correlation between frit fly infestation and winter damage or disease incidence of snow mould or leaf rust was established. The late sowing of rye (in the beginning of September is recommended in Finland, particularly with hybrid varieties, to minimize the need for chemical plant protection in autumn.;

  4. Feral rye (Secale cereal) control in winter canola in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Pacific Northwest (PNW) feral rye is a predominant winter annual grass weed in the low-rainfall region where a winter wheat-tillage fallow rotation has been practiced for more than 130 yrs and winter canola has been introduced recently. A 3-yr study was conducted in Washington to determine th...

  5. Sowing time affects the abundance of pests and weeds in winter rye

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    E. HUUSELA-VEISTOLA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Selection of an appropriate sowing time for some winter rye (Secale cereale cultivars could reduce the need for crop protection measures. In this study the occurrence and status of pests and weeds in relation to sowing time and growth habit of winter rye was studied in southern Finland. This was done using three sowing times and four rye varieties in field trials conducted at three locations in 1999–2001. The early sown rye was severely affected by pests (Oscinella frit, Mayetiola destructor and weeds, whereas postponing sowing for two weeks after the recommended sowing time in late August resulted in considerably less damage and the optimal establishment of crop stands. The German hybrid varieties Picasso and Esprit produced more tillers m-2 in autumn than the Finnish varieties Anna and Bor 7068. However, the number of pests and weeds did not differ among rye varieties. Late sowing of rye should be considered to minimize the need for plant protection. If rye is sown at the recommended time it may still require insecticide treatments promptly in the autumn whereas herbicide treatment need not be determined until spring, after recording the winter mortality of weeds.;

  6. Cultivar and planting date selection for relay-cropping soybean with winter oilseeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Double- and relay-cropping soybean with winter camelina (Camelina sativa L. Crantz) and pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) have been shown to be viable cropping systems for the Upper Midwest. Relaying soybean with these winter oilseeds can result in greater total seed yield (i.e., both combined) and ec...

  7. Geography and end use drive the diversification of worldwide winter rye populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parat, Florence; Schwertfirm, Grit; Rudolph, Ulrike; Miedaner, Thomas; Korzun, Viktor; Bauer, Eva; Schön, Chris-Carolin; Tellier, Aurélien

    2016-01-01

    To meet the current challenges in human food production, improved understanding of the genetic diversity of crop species that maximizes the selection efficacy in breeding programs is needed. The present study offers new insights into the diversity, genetic structure and demographic history of cultivated rye (Secale cereale L.). We genotyped 620 individuals from 14 global rye populations with a different end use (grain or forage) at 32 genome-wide simple sequence repeat markers. We reveal the relationships among these populations, their sizes and the timing of domestication events using population genetics and model-based inference with approximate Bayesian computation. Our main results demonstrate (i) a high within-population variation and genetic diversity, (ii) an unexpected absence of reduction in diversity with an increasing improvement level and (iii) patterns suggestive of multiple domestication events. We suggest that the main drivers of diversification of winter rye are the end use of rye in two early regions of cultivation: rye forage in the Mediterranean area and grain in northeast Europe. The lower diversity and stronger differentiation of eastern European populations were most likely due to more intensive cultivation and breeding of rye in this region, in contrast to the Mediterranean region where it was considered a secondary crop or even a weed. We discuss the relevance of our results for the management of gene bank resources and the pitfalls of inference methods applied to crop domestication due to violation of model assumptions and model complexity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Study of the influence of winter rye on soybean seedling and root rot diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crops can enhance or suppress plant diseases, but little is known about the effect of cover crops on soybean diseases. In 2015, the effect of winter rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop on soybean seedling and root rot was studied at two experimental sites, Boyd and ISUAG-USB, in Ames, IA. Both ...

  9. Mapping of QTL for seed dormancy in a winter oilseed rape doubled haploid population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatzki, Jörg; Schoo, Burkhard; Ecke, Wolfgang; Herrfurth, Cornelia; Feussner, Ivo; Becker, Heiko C; Möllers, Christian

    2013-09-01

    Following winter oilseed rape cultivation, considerable numbers of volunteer oilseed rape plants may occur in subsequent years in following crops. The appearance of volunteer oilseed rape plants is based on the capability of the seeds to become secondary dormant and to survive in this stage for many years in the soil. Genetic reduction of secondary seed dormancy in oilseed rape could provide a means to reduce the frequency of volunteer plants and especially the dispersal of transgenic oilseed rape. The objective of the present study was to analyse the inheritance of primary and secondary seed dormancy in a winter oilseed rape doubled haploid population derived from the cross Express 617 × R53 and to study correlations to other seed traits. Field experiments were performed in Germany for 2 years at two locations with two replicates. Seeds harvested from open pollinated plants were used for all analyses, including a laboratory test for seed dormancy. A previously developed molecular marker map of the doubled haploid population was used to map QTL of the relevant traits. For primary, secondary and total seed dormancy, the results showed significant effects of the genotypes and their interactions, with years and locations. Two, four and five QTL were detected for primary, secondary and total seed dormancy which explained 19, 35 and 42 % of the phenotypic variance, respectively. Results show that secondary seed dormancy is a heritable trait and that selection for low secondary seed dormancy is possible.

  10. Dispersal of solitary bees and bumblebees in a winter oilseed rape field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calabuig, Isabel

    2000-01-01

    Dispersal distributions of solitary bees and bumblebees were studied in a winter oilseed rape field. Window-traps were placed in the rape field along a line transect perpendicular to the field edge. 19 species of solitary bees were recorded and all but four species are polylectic, including...... Brassicaceae as host-plant family. Through non-linear regression, the decline in solitary bee individuals versus distance from field edge significantly fitted a steep two-parameter exponential decay function. Activity of solitary bees was clearly highest within 30 metres from the field edge. Apparently......, solitary bees do not play any noteworthy role in the pollination of winter oilseed rape in Denmark. The traps yielded ten species of bumblebees, and a significant linear correlation was found between numbers of individuals and distance from the field edge. This result is attributed to bumblebee foraging...

  11. Assessing winter oilseed rape freeze injury based on Chinese HJ remote sensing data*

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Bao; Huang, Jing-feng; Guo, Rui-fang; Wang, Hong-bin; Wang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    The winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) accounts for about 90% of the total acreage of oilseed rape in China. However, it suffers the risk of freeze injury during the winter. In this study, we used Chinese HJ-1A/1B CCD sensors, which have a revisit frequency of 2 d as well as 30 m spatial resolution, to monitor the freeze injury of oilseed rape. Mahalanobis distance-derived growing regions in a normal year were taken as the benchmark, and a mask method was applied to obtain the growing regions in the 2010–2011 growing season. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was chosen as the indicator of the degree of damage. The amount of crop damage was determined from the difference in the NDVI before and after the freeze. There was spatial variability in the amount of crop damage, so we examined three factors that may affect the degree of freeze injury: terrain, soil moisture, and crop growth before the freeze. The results showed that all these factors were significantly correlated with freeze injury degree (P<0.01, two-tailed). The damage was generally more serious in low-lying and drought-prone areas; in addition, oilseed rape planted on south- and west-oriented facing slopes and those with luxuriant growth status tended to be more susceptible to freeze injury. Furthermore, land surface temperature (LST) of the coldest day, soil moisture, pre-freeze growth and altitude were in descending order of importance in determining the degree of damage. The findings proposed in this paper would be helpful in understanding the occurrence and severity distribution of oilseed rape freeze injury under certain natural or vegetation conditions, and thus help in mitigation of this kind of meteorological disaster in southern China. PMID:25644468

  12. Assessing winter oilseed rape freeze injury based on Chinese HJ remote sensing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Bao; Huang, Jing-feng; Guo, Rui-fang; Wang, Hong-bin; Wang, Jing

    2015-02-01

    The winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) accounts for about 90% of the total acreage of oilseed rape in China. However, it suffers the risk of freeze injury during the winter. In this study, we used Chinese HJ-1A/1B CCD sensors, which have a revisit frequency of 2 d as well as 30 m spatial resolution, to monitor the freeze injury of oilseed rape. Mahalanobis distance-derived growing regions in a normal year were taken as the benchmark, and a mask method was applied to obtain the growing regions in the 2010-2011 growing season. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was chosen as the indicator of the degree of damage. The amount of crop damage was determined from the difference in the NDVI before and after the freeze. There was spatial variability in the amount of crop damage, so we examined three factors that may affect the degree of freeze injury: terrain, soil moisture, and crop growth before the freeze. The results showed that all these factors were significantly correlated with freeze injury degree (P<0.01, two-tailed). The damage was generally more serious in low-lying and drought-prone areas; in addition, oilseed rape planted on south- and west-oriented facing slopes and those with luxuriant growth status tended to be more susceptible to freeze injury. Furthermore, land surface temperature (LST) of the coldest day, soil moisture, pre-freeze growth and altitude were in descending order of importance in determining the degree of damage. The findings proposed in this paper would be helpful in understanding the occurrence and severity distribution of oilseed rape freeze injury under certain natural or vegetation conditions, and thus help in mitigation of this kind of meteorological disaster in southern China.

  13. Gnome 2 as a Donor of Short Stem Characteristic for Winter Rye (Secale cereale L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. В. Скорик

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Stabilizing (centripetal breeding produced donor of short stem characteristic for winter rye (Secale cereale L. with height of plants ranging from cm 50 to 60. Distribution curve of plant's height remained symmetric with cummulation of frequencies at central classes (leptokurtic. For the first time, designation for new allele of short-stem gene HI-2HI-2 and donor name Gnome 2 was suggested. Gnome 2 was found to have direct genetic correlation of plant height with number of flowers in the ear, length of the ear, weight of 100 seeds from the plant, as well as reverse correlation with ear density and weight of kernels from the ear.

  14. The influence of tillage systems, fertilization and plant protection levels on weed infestation in winter rye cultivated on light soil

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    Piotr Kraska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to determine the influence of conventional and ploughless tillage systems upon infestation in two differentiated fertilization and plant protection levels on light soil. Before harvest winter rye there was determined weed infestation of square-frame method. There were estimated weed species composition and air dry matter of weeds in two randomly selected place. Number of monocotyledonous weeds, total weeds and dry matter of weeds was higher on the objects with ploughless tillage system compared with conventional tillage. Intensive fertilization and plant protection decreased number of dicotyledonous weeds in canopy of winter rye. Conventional tillage system decreased Apera spica-venti occurrence in a canopy of winter rye and increased number of Plantago major plants. Intensive level of fertilization and plant protection decreased weed infestation first of all through Matricaria maritima.

  15. Plant regeneration from hypocotyl protoplasts of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.

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    Wacław Orczyk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Protoplasts were isolated from hypocotyls of six breeding lines and two cultivars of winter oilseed rape (B. napus L.. Under presented culture conditions almost all of the protoplasts regenerated cell walls. Division frequency depended on the genotype and was from 50% to 64%. Shoot regeneration (also depended on the genotype was induced with the frequency of 3.6% (for cv Bolko on the medium containing IAA (0.1 mg•dm-3, zeatin (0.5 mg•dm-3 and BAP (0.5 mg•dm-3 . All shoots were rooted on MS basal medium supplemented with sucrose 30 g•dm-3.

  16. Output of continuous directed selection aimed at short stem development in Winter Rye (Secale cereale L.

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    В. В. Скорик

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article provides progress report on the barley of F3к-10029/Saratovske 4 height decreasing throughout 1974 to 2012 by way of selecting plants of the shortest stem. 38 years of selecting the shortest stem genotypes cut down plant height by 5,7 times at the background of dominant Hl gene expression. Average plant height during 38 breeding cycles was descending by 2,69 cm, but this was not an even trend. New creative donor for ultimate short stem characteristic, Gnome 3, has been developed, with Hl-3Hl-3alleles designation. Relative impact on the efficacy of minus-selection by the plant height of the selection differential (38,00% and inheritance coefficient in its narrow sense (14,56% is established. Efficiency of the selection is realized with the decrease of winter rye height plants by 72,08% as expected by the relative breeding forecast. Analyzes is completed for 11 genetic and statistical clusters of average utilitarian characteristics of Gnome 3 ultra short stem rye over the period from 1974 to 2012.

  17. Crop Establishment Practices Are a Driver of the Plant Microbiota in Winter Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Ridhdhi; Dowling, David N.; Forristal, Patrick D.; Spink, John; Cotter, Paul D.; Bulgarelli, Davide; Germaine, Kieran J.

    2017-01-01

    Gaining a greater understanding of the plant microbiota and its interactions with its host plant heralds a new era of scientific discovery in agriculture. Different agricultural management practices influence soil microbial populations by changing a soil’s physical, chemical and biological properties. However, the impact of these practices on the microbiota associated with economically important crops such as oilseed rape, are still understudied. In this work we investigated the impact of two contrasting crop establishment practices, conventional (plow based) and conservation (strip–tillage) systems, on the microbiota inhabiting different plant microhabitats, namely rhizosphere, root and shoot, of winter oilseed rape under Irish agronomic conditions. Illumina 16S rRNA gene sequence profiling showed that the plant associated microhabitats (root and shoot), are dominated by members of the bacterial phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. The root and shoot associated bacterial communities displayed markedly distinct profiles as a result of tillage practices. We observed a very limited ‘rhizosphere effect’ in the root zone of WOSR, i.e., there was little or no increase in bacterial community richness and abundance in the WOSR rhizosphere compared to the bulk soil. The two tillage systems investigated did not appear to lead to any major long term differences on the bulk soil or rhizosphere bacterial communities. Our data suggests that the WOSR root and shoot microbiota can be impacted by management practices and is an important mechanism that could allow us to understand how plants respond to different management practices and environments. PMID:28848510

  18. Crop Establishment Practices Are a Driver of the Plant Microbiota in Winter Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridhdhi Rathore

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Gaining a greater understanding of the plant microbiota and its interactions with its host plant heralds a new era of scientific discovery in agriculture. Different agricultural management practices influence soil microbial populations by changing a soil’s physical, chemical and biological properties. However, the impact of these practices on the microbiota associated with economically important crops such as oilseed rape, are still understudied. In this work we investigated the impact of two contrasting crop establishment practices, conventional (plow based and conservation (strip–tillage systems, on the microbiota inhabiting different plant microhabitats, namely rhizosphere, root and shoot, of winter oilseed rape under Irish agronomic conditions. Illumina 16S rRNA gene sequence profiling showed that the plant associated microhabitats (root and shoot, are dominated by members of the bacterial phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. The root and shoot associated bacterial communities displayed markedly distinct profiles as a result of tillage practices. We observed a very limited ‘rhizosphere effect’ in the root zone of WOSR, i.e., there was little or no increase in bacterial community richness and abundance in the WOSR rhizosphere compared to the bulk soil. The two tillage systems investigated did not appear to lead to any major long term differences on the bulk soil or rhizosphere bacterial communities. Our data suggests that the WOSR root and shoot microbiota can be impacted by management practices and is an important mechanism that could allow us to understand how plants respond to different management practices and environments.

  19. Donor of winter rye short stem (Secale cereale L. Gnom 1

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    В. В. Скорик

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article proves that the genetic cluster analysis using of parents – offspring system at the period of 38 generations of directional intentional selection to short stem, the height of winter rye plants has been reduced less than 90 cm with simultaneously productivity integral components increasing. Directional selection on parent plants short stem has revealed pleiotropic effects to increasing averages of productivity yield capacity, spike length, flowers number, grains, and short stem and simultaneously its productivity reducing, plant and weight reducing of 100 direct descendants grains. Plant height donor of short stem Gnome 1 has been controlled prevailing by genetic factors and has been less influenced by environmental conditions. Selection by enlargement of elite plants grains has predetermined genetically increasing of the average height of families in the next generation without the concept selection requirements satisfaction. Therefore, the directed selections, by the structural analysis results, are annually held in two phases, first – to the expressed short stem and then among of them – to the high weight of 100 grains per plant and desirable productivity elements. A creative dominant short stem donor with stems up to 90 cm and a weight of 100 grains per plant more than 4.0 g has been made. A short stem spike shortness donor Dwarf 1possesses a significant reserve of common genetic mutation of quantitative characteristics, which can be used by direct and indirect selection. This population has been represented by its large amount, in order to enhance capabilities of directional selection plants short stem providing with the desired productivity components during the studying. Informative additive genetic cluster analysis is high. Plants productivity is considered to be extremely complicated selection characteristics, including many component constituents parts related genetically. One of these traits changing inevitably causes

  20. Genetic Characteristic of Dominant Ultra Short Stem and Wax Coating Absence for Winter Rye (Secale cereale L.

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    В. В. Скорик

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available By means of directed hybridization and selection, a new donor of Winter Rye with combination of ultra short stem and absence of wax coating has been synthesized. Markings was offered for the first time for dominant genes of ultra short stem characteristic – HI-3HI-3, and for recessive genes of absence of wax coating characteristic – wcwc. Determination is made of genetic variability, coefficients of inheritance, phenotype and genotype correlation coefficients, on the basis of which a selection strategy by ten quantitative characteristics is proposed. Polypheny and cohesion effects were established. Under certain conception, strategy and tactic of improvement by breeding of Winter Rye characteristics, determination of genetic and statistic parameters between traits of parents and the offspring is required.

  1. Gnome 2 as a donor for winter rye (Secale cereale L. short stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. В. Скорик

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A stabilizing (directed selection has created a donor of short stem for winter rye (Secale cereale L., plant height of which ranged from 50 to 60 cm. The plant height kept symmetry of its distribution curve and the frequency accumulation in central classes (positive excess. For the first time a symbolic designation to new short-stem related Hl-2Hl-2 allele and the donor name (Gnome 2 were proposed. 28 years of stabilizing selection showed that 57% of overall genetic variability of plant height resulted from adaptive genes available for directed selection by phenotype, and 43% from dominant and epistatic factors that predetermines the expression heterosis effect. Gnome 2 donor proved to have genetic additive correlation between the pants height and number of flows per ear, ear length, weight of seeds per plant , 100 seeds weight per plant; to have reverse correlation with ear density seeds weight per ear. The height of original parent components have displayed direct additive correlation with number of flowers per ear and reverse with the ear density. The additive correlation component directly exposes «genuine» impact of parental plants on the expression of the characteristics indicated among the offspring Productive bushing of parental plants, seed weight per plant directly, and seed size (100 seeds weight indirectly, respectively, influence the height of offspring pants. The reverse additive correlation between the parents height and 100 seeds weight in the offspring is caused by pleiotropic effect of the genes impact thus enabling to combine the desirable characteristics in one genotype. Productive bushing is by 54% due to the impact of general genetic factors among the above, in particular, 30% due to that additive, 24 due to non-additive factors. The concept of genetic improvements for productive bushing of the Gnome 2 rye implies utilization of additive effect through the directed selection, as well as application of breeding techniques

  2. Growth and Yield Stimulation of Winter Oilseed Rape (Brasssica Napus L. by Mg-Titanit Fertiliser

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    Kováčik Peter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effort to achieve higher yields at the required qualitative level has led to the intensive studying the problems of the rational usage of the titanium containing fertilisers by the agricultural research in the course the previous thirty years. Therefore, the objective of the experiment was to evaluate the impact of two doses of Mg-Titanit (0.2 l/ha and 0.4 l/ha on the formation of the aboveground and underground phytomass, also on the total chlorophyll in leaves, on the titanium and nitrogen content in the seeds and straw, on the quantity and quality of winter rape yield. The doses were applied two or three times on the leaves of winter rape (BBCH 50-52, BBCH 59, BBCH 66-67. The experiment was realized on the Haplic Chernozem (48°42´ N, 17°70´ E - Western Slovakia during two farming years (2009/2010 and 2010/2011. The results showed that all three applications of Mg-Titanit in both doses stimulated the formation of aboveground and underground phytomass of winter rape. The highest growth of phytomass was detected after the second application. The application of Mg-Titanit in the growth phases BBCH 50-52 and BBCH 59 increased the contents of both chlorophylls (a and b, where the growth of chlorophyll b content was more considerable than the growth of chlorophyll a content. The third spraying by Mg-Titanit decreased the content of the total chlorophyll. The application of Mg-Titanit had the positive impact on the yield of seeds, straw and fat content in the winter oilseed rape seeds.

  3. Distribution of the Respiratory Pathways in the Isolated Mitochondria from Etiolated Leaves of Winter Wheat and Rye after the Action of Low Temperature

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    Olga A. Borovik

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of low temperature (2 °С, 7 days on the content of soluble carbohydrates in the leaves and oxidative activity of isolated mitochondria from the etiolated plants of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and winter rye (Secale cereale L. has been studied. This paper describes the effect of low temperature on the distribution of the respiratory pathways in the isolated mitochondria from etiolated leaves of winter wheat and rye that are different by resistance to cold. With using the different oxidation substrates (malate, malate + rotenone, succinate, NADH and NADPH, we identified changes in the oxidative activity of winter wheat and rye mitochondria. In this work, the dependence of the functioning of cyanide-insensitive oxidase and rotenone-insensitive NAD(PH dehydrogenases in the isolated mitochondria of winter cereals from content of the soluble carbohydrates is discussed.

  4. Intercropping frost-sensitive legume crops with winter oilseed rape reduces weed competition, insect damage, and improves nitrogen use efficiency

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    Cadoux Stéphane

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mixing plant species in agroecosystems is highlighted as an agroecological solution to reduce pesticides and fertilizers while maintaining profitability. In the French context, intercropping frost-sensitive legume crops with winter oilseed rape is potentially interesting and began to be implemented by farmers. In this study we aimed at measuring the services and disservices of this intercrop with three different legume mixtures, in terms of growth and yield for rapeseed, ground cover of weeds in autumn and damage caused by rape winter stem weevil. The experiment was carried out at four sites from 2011 to 2014. We showed higher total aerial dry weights and total aerial nitrogen contents in the intercrops compared to sole winter oilseed rape in November. The companion plants contributed to the control of weeds and the mitigation of rape winter stem weevil damage, notably through the increase in the total aerial weight. In spring, after destruction of the companion plants, the intercrops had partially compensated a reduction in the N fertilization rate (–30 kg per hectare in terms of aerial nitrogen content in rapeseed, with no consequences on the yield which was maintained or even increased. There were probably other interactions such as an improvement in rapeseed root exploration. The consequences were an increase in the nitrogen use efficiency in intercrops. The intercrop with faba bean and lentil showed the best results in terms of autumn growth, weed control, reduction in rape winter stem weevil damage, and rapeseed N content in spring and yield. Intercropping frost-sensitive legume crops with winter oilseed rape is thus a promising way to reconcile yield and reduction in pesticides and fertilizer use and perhaps to benefit more widely to the cropping system.

  5. Evaluating agroclimatic constraints and yield gaps for winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) - A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi; Lu, Jianwei; Cong, Rihuan; Ren, Tao; Li, Xiaokun

    2017-08-10

    Evaluating the effects of agroclimatic constraints on winter oilseed rape (WOSR) yield can facilitate the development of agricultural mitigation and adaptation strategies. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the WOSR yield and agroclimatic factors using the yield data collected from Agricultural Yearbook and field experimental sites, and the climate dataset from the meteorological stations in Hubei province, China. Five agroclimatic indicators during WOSR growth, such as ≥0 °C accumulated temperature (AT-0), overwintering days (OWD), precipitation (P), precipitation at an earlier stage (EP) and sunshine hours (S), were extracted from twelve agroclimatic indices. The attainable yield for the five yield-limiting factors ranged from 2638 kg ha(-1) (EP) to 3089 kg ha(-1) (AT-0). Farmers (Y farm ) and local agronomists (Y exp ) have achieved 63% and 86% of the attainable yield (Y att ), respectively. The contribution of optimum fertilization to narrow the yield gap (NY exp ) was 52% for the factor P, which was remarkably lower than the mean value (63%). Overall, the precipitation was the crucial yield-limiting agroclimatic factor, and restricted the effect of optimizing fertilization. The integrated data suggest that agricultural strategies of mitigation and adaptation to climatic variability based on different agroclimatic factors are essential for improving the crop yield.

  6. Climate Change: Natural Water and Fertilization Effects on Winter Rye (Secale cereale L.) Yield in Monoculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    . Akad. Tidskr. 139:8. Jolánkai, M., 2005. Effect of climate change on plant cultivation. „AGRO-21" Füzetek. 41. 47-58. Kádár, I., 1992. A növénytáplálás alapelvei és módszerei. MTA TAKI. Budapest. 398 p. Kádár, I., 2005. A rozs (Secale cereale L.) műtrágyázása meszes csernozjom talajon. Növénytermelés. In press Kádár, I., Lásztity, B. & Szemes I., 1982. Az őszi rozs tápanyagfelvételének vizsgálata szabadföldi tartamkísérletben. II. Levélanalízis. Na, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu felvétele. Agrokémia és Talajtan. 31. 17-28. Kádár, I., Szemes, I. & Lásztity, B., 1984. Relationship between "year effect" and state of nutrition in a long-term winter rye experiment. Növénytermelés. 33. 235-241. Kádár, I. & Szemes, I., 1994. A nyírlugosi tartamkísérlet 30 éve. MTA Talajtani és Agrokémiai Kutató Intézete. Budapest. Láng, I., 1973. Műtrágyázási tartamkísérletek homoktalajokon. MTA Doktori Értekezés. MTA TMB. Budapest. Láng, I., 2005. Éghajlat és időjárás: változás-hatás-válaszadás. „AGRO-21" Füzetek. 43. 3-10. Láng, I., Harnos, Zs. & Jolánkai, M., 2004. Alkalmazkodási stratégiák klímaváltozás esetére: nemzetközi tapasztalatok hazai lehetőségek. "AGRO-21" Füzetek. 35. 70-77. Márton, L., 2002. Climate fluctuations and the effects of N fertilizer on the yield of rye (Secale cereale L.). Plant Production. 51. 199-210. Márton, L., 2004. Rainfall and fertilization effects on crops yield in a global climate change. In: Proc. Role of Multipurpose Agriculture in Sustaining Global Environment-AGROENVIRON 2004 (Udine, 20-24. October 2004). Part 3. 451-456. DPVTA. Udine. Márton, L., 2005a. Disasters as drought-, and rainfall excess and artificial fertilization effects on crop yield. In: Proc. International Conference on Energy, Environment and Disasters-INCEED2005 (Charlotte, 24-30. July 2005). 49-50. ISEG. Charlotte. Márton L., 2005b. Artificial fertilizers and climate change impacts on crops yield. In: Proc

  7. Milestone – a selective herbicide for the control of important grasses and broadleaved weeds in winter oilseed rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zotz, Agnes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available MilestoneTM herbicide contains the active substance propyzamide (500 g/L and aminopyralid (5.3 g a.e./L and is formulated as a suspension concentrate (SC. Registration for Milestone for the use in winter oilseed rape was granted in Germany in July 2014. The active substance propyzamide is well known from the product KerbTM FLO (containing 500 g/L propyzamide, suspension concentrate, SC which is widely used in winter oilseed rape (WITTROCK et al., 2008. Aminopyralid is formulated in the commercial product Runway (clopyralid + picloram + aminopyralid. Milestone is applied with a use rate of 1.5 L/ha as a post-emergence herbicide from growth stage BBCH 14 of the crop at the beginning of November until February. Kerb FLO is applied with a use rate of 1.875 L/ha at the same timing. The efficacy of Milestone and Kerb FLO was tested in randomised and replicated plot trials in Germany, France and the United Kingdom. Milestone and Kerb FLO showed comparable and very high control levels against monocotyledonous species such as Alopecurus myosuroides, Apera spica-venti, Bromus species and volunteer cereals. Milestone shows a broader spectrum of activity vs. Kerb FLO against dicotyledonous weeds such as Matricaria chamomilla, Papaver rhoeas and Centaurea cyanus. The use of Milestone in dense crops (as the situation was in autumn 2014 for many areas in Germany shows very high efficacy levels as well. The comparison of various application timings between end of October until beginning of December confirms the application date early November for best results. Milestone controls herbicide-resistant weed populations and can be considered an important part of a resistance management program not only in winter oilseed rape but as a component of an integrated weed management strategy in cropping systems.

  8. Impact of grazing dairy steers on winter rye (Secale cereale) versus winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) and effects on meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and consumer acceptability of organic beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Hannah N; Heins, Bradley J; Delate, Kathleen; Turnbull, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Meat from Holstein and crossbred organic dairy steers finished on winter rye and winter wheat pastures was evaluated and compared for meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and consumer acceptability. Two adjacent 4-ha plots were established with winter rye or winter wheat cover crops in September 2015 at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center (Morris, MN). During spring of 2015, 30 steers were assigned to one of three replicate breed groups at birth. Breed groups were comprised of: Holstein (HOL; n = 10), crossbreds comprised of Montbéliarde, Viking Red, and HOL (MVH; n = 10), and crossbreds comprised of Normande, Jersey, and Viking Red (NJV; n = 10). Dairy steers were maintained in their respective replicate breed group from three days of age until harvest. After weaning, steers were fed an organic total mixed ration of organic corn silage, alfalfa silage, corn, soybean meal, and minerals until spring 2016. Breed groups were randomly assigned to winter rye or winter wheat and rotationally grazed from spring until early summer of 2016. For statistical analysis, independent variables were fixed effects of breed, forage, and the interaction of breed and forage, with replicated group as a random effect. Specific contrast statements were used to compare HOL versus crossbred steers. Fat from crossbreds had 13% greater omega-3 fatty acids than HOL steers. Furthermore, the omega-6/3 ratio was 14% lower in fat from crossbreds than HOL steers. For consumer acceptability, steaks from steers grazed on winter wheat had greater overall liking than steers grazed on winter rye. Steak from crossbreeds had greater overall liking than HOL steers. The results suggest improvement in fatty acids and sensory attributes of beef from crossbred dairy steers compared to HOL steers, as well as those finished on winter wheat compared to winter rye.

  9. Impact of grazing dairy steers on winter rye (Secale cereale versus winter wheat (Triticum aestivum and effects on meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and consumer acceptability of organic beef.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah N Phillips

    Full Text Available Meat from Holstein and crossbred organic dairy steers finished on winter rye and winter wheat pastures was evaluated and compared for meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and consumer acceptability. Two adjacent 4-ha plots were established with winter rye or winter wheat cover crops in September 2015 at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center (Morris, MN. During spring of 2015, 30 steers were assigned to one of three replicate breed groups at birth. Breed groups were comprised of: Holstein (HOL; n = 10, crossbreds comprised of Montbéliarde, Viking Red, and HOL (MVH; n = 10, and crossbreds comprised of Normande, Jersey, and Viking Red (NJV; n = 10. Dairy steers were maintained in their respective replicate breed group from three days of age until harvest. After weaning, steers were fed an organic total mixed ration of organic corn silage, alfalfa silage, corn, soybean meal, and minerals until spring 2016. Breed groups were randomly assigned to winter rye or winter wheat and rotationally grazed from spring until early summer of 2016. For statistical analysis, independent variables were fixed effects of breed, forage, and the interaction of breed and forage, with replicated group as a random effect. Specific contrast statements were used to compare HOL versus crossbred steers. Fat from crossbreds had 13% greater omega-3 fatty acids than HOL steers. Furthermore, the omega-6/3 ratio was 14% lower in fat from crossbreds than HOL steers. For consumer acceptability, steaks from steers grazed on winter wheat had greater overall liking than steers grazed on winter rye. Steak from crossbreeds had greater overall liking than HOL steers. The results suggest improvement in fatty acids and sensory attributes of beef from crossbred dairy steers compared to HOL steers, as well as those finished on winter wheat compared to winter rye.

  10. Mapping Above-Ground Biomass of Winter Oilseed Rape Using High Spatial Resolution Satellite Data at Parcel Scale under Waterlogging Conditions

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    Jiahui Han

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. is one of the three most important oil crops in China, and is regarded as a drought-tolerant oilseed crop. However, it is commonly sensitive to waterlogging, which usually refers to an adverse environment that limits crop development. Moreover, crop growth and soil irrigation can be monitored at a regional level using remote sensing data. High spatial resolution optical satellite sensors are very useful to capture and resist unfavorable field conditions at the sub-field scale. In this study, four different optical sensors, i.e., Pleiades-1A, Worldview-2, Worldview-3, and SPOT-6, were used to estimate the dry above-ground biomass (AGB of oilseed rape and track the seasonal growth dynamics. In addition, three different soil water content field experiments were carried out at different oilseed rape growth stages from November 2014 to May 2015 in Northern Zhejiang province, China. As a significant indicator of crop productivity, AGB was measured during the seasonal growth stages of the oilseed rape at the experimental plots. Several representative vegetation indices (VIs obtained from multiple satellite sensors were compared with the simultaneously-collected oilseed rape AGB. Results showed that the estimation model using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI with a power regression model performed best through the seasonal growth dynamics, with the highest coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.77, the smallest root mean square error (RMSE = 104.64 g/m2, and the relative RMSE (rRMSE = 21%. It is concluded that the use of selected VIs and high spatial multiple satellite data can significantly estimate AGB during the winter oilseed rape growth stages, and can be applied to map the variability of winter oilseed rape at the sub-field level under different waterlogging conditions, which is very promising in the application of agricultural irrigation and precision agriculture.

  11. Analyzing Genetic Diversity for Virulence and Resistance Phenotypes in Populations of Stem Rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. secalis) and Winter Rye (Secale cereale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miedaner, Thomas; Schmitt, Ann-Kristin; Klocke, Bettina; Schmiedchen, Brigitta; Wilde, Peer; Spieß, Hartmut; Szabo, Lilla; Koch, Silvia; Flath, Kerstin

    2016-11-01

    Stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. secalis) leads to considerable yield losses in rye-growing areas with continental climate, from Eastern Germany to Siberia. For implementing resistance breeding, it is of utmost importance to (i) analyze the diversity of stem rust populations in terms of pathotypes (= virulence combinations) and (ii) identify resistance sources in winter rye populations. We analyzed 323 single-uredinial isolates mainly collected from German rye-growing areas across 3 years for their avirulence/virulence on 15 rye inbred differentials. Out of these, 226 pathotypes were detected and only 56 pathotypes occurred more than once. This high diversity was confirmed by a Simpson index of 1.0, a high Shannon index (5.27), and an evenness index of 0.97. In parallel, we investigated stem rust resistance among and within 121 heterogeneous rye populations originating mainly from Russia, Poland, Austria, and the United States across 3 to 15 environments (location-year combinations). While German rye populations had an average stem rust severity of 49.7%, 23 nonadapted populations were significantly (P < 0.01) more resistant with a stem rust severity ranging from 3 to 40%. Out of these, two modern Russian breeding populations and two old Austrian landraces were the best harboring 32 to 70% fully resistant plants across 8 to 10 environments. These populations with the lowest disease severity in adult-plant stage in the field also displayed resistance in leaf segment tests. In conclusion, stem rust populations are highly diverse and the majority of resistances in rye populations seems to be race specific.

  12. Epidemiology of light leaf spot (Pyrenopeziza brassicae) on winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus) = De epidemiologie van 'light leaf spot' (Pyrenopeziza brassicae) in winterkoolzaad (Brassica napus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilles, T.

    2000-01-01

    Forecasts of the severity of light leaf spot of winter oilseed rape are needed to help growers with their decisions on fungicide applications at times when sprays are needed to control light leaf spot, but the disease is difficult to diagnose. A thorough understanding of stages in

  13. Seed Vigor and Field Performance of Winter Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.) Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    GHASSEMI-GOLEZANI, Kazem; Javad BAKHSHY; Yaeghoob RAEY; Ayda HOSSAINZADEH-MAHOOTCHY

    2010-01-01

    The effect of seed vigor on field performance of two oilseed rape cultivars (Licord and Okapi) was investigated in 2008 at the Research Farm of the University Tabriz, Iran. The experiment was arranged as factorial based on RCB design with three replications. A sub-sample of seeds of each cultivar was kept as control. The other two sub-samples of each cultivar with about 15% moisture content were artificially deteriorated at 40C for 9 and 12 days (Licord) and 7 and 10 days (Okapi). Cons...

  14. Spring-summer temperatures reconstructed for northern Switzerland and southwestern Germany from winter rye harvest dates, 1454–1970

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Wetter

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a unique 517-yr long documentary data-based reconstruction of spring-summer (MAMJJ temperatures for northern Switzerland and south-western Germany from 1454 to 1970. It is composed of 25 partial series of winter grain (secale cereale harvest starting dates (WGHD that are partly based on harvest related bookkeeping of institutions (hospitals, municipalities, partly on (early phenological observations. The resulting main Basel WGHD series was homogenised with regard to dating style, data type and altitude. The calibration and verification approach was applied using the homogenous HISTALP temperature series from 1774–1824 for calibration (r = 0.78 and from 1920–1970 for verification (r = 0.75. The latter result even suffers from the weak data base available for 1870–1950. Temperature reconstructions based on WGHD are more influenced by spring temperatures than those based on grape harvest dates (GHD, because rye in contrast to vines already begins to grow as soon as sunlight brings the plant to above freezing. The earliest and latest harvest dates were checked for consistency with narrative documentary weather reports. Comparisons with other European documentary-based GHD and WGHD temperature reconstructions generally reveal significant correlations decreasing with the distance from Switzerland. The new Basel WGHD series shows better skills in representing highly climate change sensitive variations of Swiss Alpine glaciers than available GHD series.

  15. Spring-summer temperatures reconstructed for northern Switzerland and southwestern Germany from winter rye harvest dates, 1454-1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetter, O.; Pfister, C.

    2011-11-01

    This paper presents a unique 517-yr long documentary data-based reconstruction of spring-summer (MAMJJ) temperatures for northern Switzerland and south-western Germany from 1454 to 1970. It is composed of 25 partial series of winter grain (secale cereale) harvest starting dates (WGHD) that are partly based on harvest related bookkeeping of institutions (hospitals, municipalities), partly on (early) phenological observations. The resulting main Basel WGHD series was homogenised with regard to dating style, data type and altitude. The calibration and verification approach was applied using the homogenous HISTALP temperature series from 1774-1824 for calibration (r = 0.78) and from 1920-1970 for verification (r = 0.75). The latter result even suffers from the weak data base available for 1870-1950. Temperature reconstructions based on WGHD are more influenced by spring temperatures than those based on grape harvest dates (GHD), because rye in contrast to vines already begins to grow as soon as sunlight brings the plant to above freezing. The earliest and latest harvest dates were checked for consistency with narrative documentary weather reports. Comparisons with other European documentary-based GHD and WGHD temperature reconstructions generally reveal significant correlations decreasing with the distance from Switzerland. The new Basel WGHD series shows better skills in representing highly climate change sensitive variations of Swiss Alpine glaciers than available GHD series.

  16. Effects of strip intercropping concept with perennial diversified grass-clover strip and annual winter rye-winter vetch intercrop as energy crops

    OpenAIRE

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Johansen , Anders; Carter, Mette S.; Ambus, Per; Jensen, Erik Steen

    2011-01-01

    The combination of perennials and annuals in a strip cropping system is challenging primarily because the interspecific competitive ability of the perennials towards the annuals seems to be too dominating. Especially at the first harvest (tillering) closest to the adjacent grass-clover strip severe total dry matter production reductions was found ranging from 25%, 5% and 20% in the vetch SC, rye SC and vetch-rye IC, respectively. Rye in particular was suffering from the grass-clover interspec...

  17. Biology and harmfulness of Brassica pod midge (Dasineura brassicae Winn. in winter oilseed rape

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    Draga Graora

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Brassica pod midge (Dasineura brassicae Winn. is an important pest in oilseed rape (Brasica napus L.. It develops two generations per year and overwinters in the larval stage in cocoons in soil. Immigration of the first generation adults lasted from the beginning of April until the end of May. Larvae developed in pods from mid-April to mid-June, causing pod deformation and cracking, which resulted in premature falling out of seeds and yield reduction. Pod damage amounted to 11.6%. The emergence of the second generation adults was detected at the end of May and in the first ten days of June. D. brassicae was found to lay eggs in healthy pods and no correlation was found with the cabbage seed weevil, Ceutorhynchus assimilis Paykull.

  18. Contribution of nitrogen uptake and retranslocation during reproductive growth to the nitrogen efficiency of winter oilseed-rape cultivars (Brassica napus L.) differing in leaf senescence

    OpenAIRE

    Fabian Koeslin-Findeklee; Horst, Walter J.

    2016-01-01

    Genotypic variation in N efficiency defined as high grain yield under limited nitrogen (N) supply of winter oilseed-rape line-cultivars has been predominantly attributed to N uptake efficiency (NUPT) through maintained N uptake during reproductive growth related to functional stay-green. For investigating the role of stay-green, N retranslocation and N uptake during the reproductive phase for grain yield formation, two line cultivars differing in N starvation-induced leaf senescence were grow...

  19. Differences between winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) cultivars in nitrogen starvation-induced leaf senescence are governed by leaf-inherent rather than root-derived signals

    OpenAIRE

    Koeslin-Findeklee, Fabian; Martin A. Becker; van der Graaff, Eric; Roitsch, Thomas; Horst, Walter J.

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) efficiency of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) line-cultivars (cvs.), defined as high grain yield under N limitation, has been primarily attributed to maintained N uptake during reproductive growth (N uptake efficiency) in combination with delayed senescence of the older leaves accompanied with maintained photosynthetic capacity (functional stay-green). However, it is not clear whether genotypic variation in N starvation-induced leaf senescence is due to leaf-inherent fact...

  20. The potential of decision support systems to improve risk assessment for pollen beetle management in winter oilseed rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Andrew W; Skellern, Matthew P; Johnen, Andreas; von Richthofen, Julia-Sophie; Watts, Nigel P; Bardsley, Eileen; Murray, Darren A; Cook, Samantha M

    2016-03-01

    The reliance on and extensive use of pyrethroid insecticides have led to pyrethroid resistance in pollen beetle (Meligethes aeneus). Widespread adoption of best practice in pollen beetle management is therefore needed. Decision support systems (DSSs) that identify the risk period(s) for pest migration can help to target monitoring and control efforts, but they must be accurate and labour efficient to gain the support of growers. Weather data and the phenology of pollen beetles in 44 winter oilseed rape crops across England over 4 years were used to compare the performance of two risk management tools: the DSS proPlant expert, which predicts migration risk according to a phenological model and local weather data, and 'rule-based advice', which depends on crop growth stage and a temperature threshold. Both risk management tools were effective in prompting monitoring that would detect breaches of various control thresholds. However, the DSS more accurately predicted migration start and advised significantly fewer days of migration risk, consultation days and monitoring than did rule-based advice. The proPlant expert DSS reliably models pollen beetle phenology. Use of such a DSS can focus monitoring effort to when it is most needed, facilitate the practical use of thresholds and help to prevent unnecessary insecticide applications and the development of insecticide resistance. © 2015 Rothamsted Research Ltd. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Reaction of winter oilseed rape varieties to elevated concentrations of lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oreščanin Bojana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Remediation methods allow the removal of metals from contaminated soil, and phytoremediation a technology for cleaning contaminated soil and waste material by plants, is becoming increasingly used. Brassica napus L., as one of the main oilcrops and high-biomass producing species, is becoming more and more interesting for the use in phytoextraction as it is proved to be tolerant to higher concentrations of heavy metals. The aim of this study was to examine the specific responses of three commercial winter rapeseed varieties, Banaćanka, Slavica and Kata, to the increased concentrations of lead in vitro. Significant reduction in root length of plants treated with lead was observed only in the variety Slavica, indicating susceptibility of this variety to the increased concentrations of this heavy metal. As in variety Kata a significant reduction in the length of the above-ground part due to the treatment with lead was detected, it could be concluded that the variety Banaćanka is the most tolerant to the applied concentrations of lead since there were no significant changes in the growth and biomass accumulation in all treatments except one, and could be recommended for further use in phytoremediation studies. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31025 i br. III43007

  2. Mapping of QTL for the seed storage proteins cruciferin and napin in a winter oilseed rape doubled haploid population and their inheritance in relation to other seed traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatzki, Jörg; Ecke, Wolfgang; Becker, Heiko C; Möllers, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Cruciferin (cru) and napin (nap) were negatively correlated and the cru/nap ratio was closely negative correlated with glucosinolate content indicating a link between the two biosynthetic pathways. Canola-type oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is an economically important oilseed crop in temperate zones. Apart from the oil, the canola protein shows potential as a value-added food and nutraceutical ingredient. The two major storage protein groups occurring in oilseed rape are the 2 S napins and 12 S cruciferins. The aim of the present study was to analyse the genetic variation and the inheritance of napin and cruciferin content of the seed protein in the winter oilseed rape doubled haploid population Express 617 × R53 and to determine correlations to other seed traits. Seed samples were obtained from field experiments performed in 2 years at two locations with two replicates in Germany. A previously developed molecular marker map of the DH population was used to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) of the relevant traits. The results indicated highly significant effects of the year and the genotype on napin and cruciferin content as well as on the ratio of cruciferin to napin. Heritabilities were comparatively high with 0.79 for napin and 0.77 for cruciferin. Napin and cruciferin showed a significant negative correlation (-0.36**) and a close negative correlation of the cru/nap ratio to glucosinolate content was observed (-0.81**). Three QTL for napin and two QTL for cruciferin were detected, together explaining 47 and 35 % of the phenotypic variance. A major QTL for glucosinolate content was detected on linkage group N19 whose confidence interval overlapped with QTL for napin and cruciferin content. Results indicate a relationship between seed protein composition and glucosinolate content.

  3. Genetic variation and inheritance of phytosterol and oil content in a doubled haploid population derived from the winter oilseed rape Sansibar × Oase cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Lishia; Möllers, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Identification of QTL for phytosterol content, oil content, fatty acids content, protein content of defatted meal, and seed weight by multiple interval mapping in a Brassica napus DH population. Phytosterols are minor seed constituents in oilseed rape which have recently drawn wide-interest from the food and nutrition industry due to their health benefit in lowering LDL cholesterol in humans. To understand the genetic basis of phytosterol content and its relationship with other seed quality traits in oilseed rape, QTL mapping was performed in a segregating DH population derived from the cross of two winter oilseed rape varieties, Sansibar and Oase, termed SODH population. Both parental lines are of canola quality which differ in phytosterol and oil content in seed. A genetic map was constructed for SODH population based on a total of 1638 markers organized in 23 linkage groups and covering a map length of 2350 cM with a mean marker interval of 2.0 cM. The SODH population and the parental lines were cultivated at six environments in Europe and were phenotyped for phytosterol content, oil content, fatty acids content, protein content of the defatted meal, and seed weight. Multiple interval mapping identified between one and six QTL for nine phytosterol traits, between two and six QTL for four fatty acids, five QTL for oil content, four QTL for protein content of defatted meal, and three QTL for seed weight. Colocalizations of QTL for different traits were more frequently observed than individual isolated QTL. Major QTL (R (2) ≥ 25%) were all located in the A genome, and the possible candidate genes were investigated by physical localization of the QTL to the reference genome sequence of Brassica rapa.

  4. The impact of sulfate restriction on seed yield and quality of winter oilseed rape depends on the ability to remobilize sulfate from vegetative tissues to reproductive organs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eGirondé

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Our current knowledge about sulfur (S management by winter oilseed rape to satisfy the S demand of developing seeds is still scarce, particularly in relation to S restriction. Our goals were to determine the physiological processes related to S use efficiency that led to maintain the seed yield and quality when S limitation occurred at the bolting or early flowering stages. To address these questions, a pulse-chase 34SO42- labelling method was carried out in order to study the S fluxes from uptake and remobilization at the whole plant level. In response of S limitation at the bolting or early flowering stages, the leaves are the most important source organ for S remobilization during reproductive stages. By combining 34S-tracer with biochemical fractionation in order to separate sulfate from other S-compounds, it appeared that sulfate was the main form of S remobilized in leaves at reproductive stages and that tonoplastic SULTR4-type transporters were specifically involved in the sulfate remobilisation in case of low S availability. In response to S limitation at the bolting stage, the seed yield and quality were dramatically reduced compared to control plants. These data suggest that the increase of both S remobilization from source leaves and the root proliferation in order to maximize sulfate uptake capacities, were not sufficient to maintain the seed yield and quality. When S limitation occurred at the early flowering stage, oilseed rape can optimize the mobilization of sulfate reserves from vegetative organs (leaves and stem to satisfy the demand of seeds and maintain the seed yield and quality. Our study also revealed that the stem may act as a transient storage organ for remobilized S coming from source leaves before its utilization by seeds. The physiological traits (S remobilization, root proliferation, transient S storage in stem observed under S limitation could be used in breeding programs to select oilseed rape genotypes with high S

  5. Effect of date of termination of a winter cereal rye cover crop (Secale cereale) on corn seedling disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover cropping is an expanding conservation practice that offers substantial benefits to soil protection, soil health, water quality, and potentially crop yields. Presently, winter cereals are the most widely used cover crops in the upper Midwest. However, winter cereal cover crops preceding corn, ...

  6. Contribution of Nitrogen Uptake and Retranslocation during Reproductive Growth to the Nitrogen Efficiency of Winter Oilseed-Rape Cultivars (Brassica napus L. Differing in Leaf Senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Koeslin-Findeklee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Genotypic variation in N efficiency defined as high grain yield under limited nitrogen (N supply of winter oilseed-rape line-cultivars has been predominantly attributed to N uptake efficiency (NUPT through maintained N uptake during reproductive growth related to functional stay-green. For investigating the role of stay-green, N retranslocation and N uptake during the reproductive phase for grain yield formation, two line cultivars differing in N starvation-induced leaf senescence were grown in a field experiment without mineral N (N0 and with 160 kg N·ha−1 (N160. Through frequent harvests from full flowering until maturity N uptake, N utilization and apparent N remobilization from vegetative plant parts to the pods could be calculated. NUPT proved being more important than N utilization efficiency (NUE for grain yield formation under N-limiting (N0 conditions. For cultivar differences in N efficiency, particularly N uptake during flowering (NUPT and biomass allocation efficiency (HI to the grains, were decisive. Both crop traits were related to delayed senescence of the older leaves. Remobilization of N particularly from stems and leaves was more important for pod N accumulation than N uptake after full flowering. Pod walls (high N concentrations and stems (high biomass mainly contributed to the crop-residue N at maturity. Decreasing the crop-inherent high N budget surplus of winter oilseed-rape requires increasing the low N remobilization efficiency particularly of pod-wall N to the grains. Addressing this conclusion, multi-year and -location field experiments with an extended range of cultivars including hybrids are desirable.

  7. Improving the fatty acid profile of winter milk from housed cows with contrasting feeding regimes by oilseed supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiadis, S; Leifert, C; Seal, C J; Eyre, M D; Steinshamn, H; Butler, G

    2014-12-01

    Many studies show concentrations of nutritionally desirable fatty acids in bovine milk are lower when cows have no access to grazing, leading to seasonal fluctuations in milk quality if cows are housed for part of the year. This study investigated the potential to improve the fatty acid profiles of bovine milk by oilseed supplementation (rolled linseed and rapeseed) during a period of indoor feeding in both organic and conventional production systems. Both linseed and rapeseed increased the concentrations of total monounsaturated fatty acids, vaccenic acid, oleic acid and rumenic acid in milk, but decreased the concentration of the total and certain individual saturated fatty acids. Linseed resulted in greater changes than rapeseed, and also significantly increased the concentrations of α-linolenic acid, total polyunsaturated fatty acids and total omega-3 fatty acids. The response to oilseed supplementation, with respect to increasing concentrations of vaccenic acid and omega-3 fatty acids, appeared more efficient for organic compared with conventional diets. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Spring-summer temperatures reconstructed for northern Switzerland and south-western Germany from winter rye harvest dates, 1454-1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetter, O.; Pfister, C.

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents a unique 517 yr long documentary data - based reconstruction of spring-summer (MAMJJ) temperatures for northern Switzerland and south western Germany from 1454 to 1970. It is composed of 25 partial series of winter grain (secale cereale) harvest starting dates (WGHD) that are in one part based on harvest related bookkeeping of institutions (hospitals, municipalities), in the other part to (early) phenological observations. The resulting main Basel WGHD series was homogenised with regard to dating style, data type and altitude. The calibration and verification approach was applied using the homogenous HISTALP temperature series from 1774-1824 for calibration (r = 0,78) and from 1920-1970 for verification (r = 0.75). The latter result even suffer from the weak data basis available for 1870-1950. Temperature reconstructions based on WGHD are more influenced by spring temperatures than those based on grape harvest dates (GHD), because rye in contrast to vines already begins to grow as soon as sunlight brings the plant to above freezing. The earliest and latest harvest dates were checked for consistency with narrative documentary weather reports. Comparisons with other European documentary-based GHD and WGHD temperature reconstructions generally reveal significant correlations decreasing with the distance from Switzerland. The new Basel WGHD series shows better skills in representing highly climate change sensitive variations of Swiss Alpine glaciers than available GHD series.

  9. A Comparative Study of Proteolytic Mechanisms during Leaf Senescence of Four Genotypes of Winter Oilseed Rape Highlighted Relevant Physiological and Molecular Traits for NRE Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Girondé

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Winter oilseed rape is characterized by a low N use efficiency related to a weak leaf N remobilization efficiency (NRE at vegetative stages. By investigating the natural genotypic variability of leaf NRE, our goal was to characterize the relevant physiological traits and the main protease classes associated with an efficient proteolysis and high leaf NRE in response to ample or restricted nitrate supply. The degradation rate of soluble proteins and D1 protein (a thylakoid-bound protein were correlated to N remobilization, except for the genotype Samouraï which showed a low NRE despite high levels of proteolysis. Under restricted nitrate conditions, high levels of soluble protein degradation were associated with serine, cysteine and aspartic proteases at acidic pH. Low leaf NRE was related to a weak proteolysis of both soluble and thylakoid-bound proteins. The results obtained on the genotype Samouraï suggest that the timing between the onset of proteolysis and abscission could be a determinant. The specific involvement of acidic proteases suggests that autophagy and/or senescence-associated vacuoles are implicated in N remobilization under low N conditions. The data revealed that the rate of D1 degradation could be a relevant indicator of leaf NRE and might be used as a tool for plant breeding.

  10. A Comparative Study of Proteolytic Mechanisms during Leaf Senescence of Four Genotypes of Winter Oilseed Rape Highlighted Relevant Physiological and Molecular Traits for NRE Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girondé, Alexandra; Poret, Marine; Etienne, Philippe; Trouverie, Jacques; Bouchereau, Alain; Le Cahérec, Françoise; Leport, Laurent; Niogret, Marie-Françoise; Avice, Jean-Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Winter oilseed rape is characterized by a low N use efficiency related to a weak leaf N remobilization efficiency (NRE) at vegetative stages. By investigating the natural genotypic variability of leaf NRE, our goal was to characterize the relevant physiological traits and the main protease classes associated with an efficient proteolysis and high leaf NRE in response to ample or restricted nitrate supply. The degradation rate of soluble proteins and D1 protein (a thylakoid-bound protein) were correlated to N remobilization, except for the genotype Samouraï which showed a low NRE despite high levels of proteolysis. Under restricted nitrate conditions, high levels of soluble protein degradation were associated with serine, cysteine and aspartic proteases at acidic pH. Low leaf NRE was related to a weak proteolysis of both soluble and thylakoid-bound proteins. The results obtained on the genotype Samouraï suggest that the timing between the onset of proteolysis and abscission could be a determinant. The specific involvement of acidic proteases suggests that autophagy and/or senescence-associated vacuoles are implicated in N remobilization under low N conditions. The data revealed that the rate of D1 degradation could be a relevant indicator of leaf NRE and might be used as a tool for plant breeding. PMID:27135221

  11. Differences between winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) cultivars in nitrogen starvation-induced leaf senescence are governed by leaf-inherent rather than root-derived signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeslin-Findeklee, Fabian; Becker, Martin A.; van der Graaff, Eric; Roitsch, Thomas; Horst, Walter J.

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) efficiency of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) line-cultivars (cvs.), defined as high grain yield under N limitation, has been primarily attributed to maintained N uptake during reproductive growth (N uptake efficiency) in combination with delayed senescence of the older leaves accompanied with maintained photosynthetic capacity (functional stay-green). However, it is not clear whether genotypic variation in N starvation-induced leaf senescence is due to leaf-inherent factors and/or governed by root-mediated signals. Therefore, the N-efficient and stay-green cvs. NPZ-1 and Apex were reciprocally grafted with the N-inefficient and early-senescing cvs. NPZ-2 and Capitol, respectively and grown in hydroponics. The senescence status of older leaves after 12 days of N starvation assessed by SPAD, photosynthesis and the expression of the senescence-specific cysteine protease gene SAG12-1 revealed that the stay-green phenotype of the cvs. NPZ-1 and Apex under N starvation was primarily under the control of leaf-inherent factors. The same four cultivars were submitted to N starvation for up to 12 days in a time-course experiment. The specific leaf contents of biologically active and inactive cytokinins (CKs) and the expression of genes involved in CK homeostasis revealed that under N starvation leaves of early-senescing cultivars were characterized by inactivation of biologically active CKs, whereas in stay-green cultivars synthesis, activation, binding of and response to biologically active CKs were favoured. These results suggest that the homeostasis of biologically active CKs was the predominant leaf-inherent factor for cultivar differences in N starvation-induced leaf senescence and thus N efficiency. PMID:25944925

  12. Differences between winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) cultivars in nitrogen starvation-induced leaf senescence are governed by leaf-inherent rather than root-derived signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeslin-Findeklee, Fabian; Becker, Martin A; van der Graaff, Eric; Roitsch, Thomas; Horst, Walter J

    2015-07-01

    Nitrogen (N) efficiency of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) line-cultivars (cvs.), defined as high grain yield under N limitation, has been primarily attributed to maintained N uptake during reproductive growth (N uptake efficiency) in combination with delayed senescence of the older leaves accompanied with maintained photosynthetic capacity (functional stay-green). However, it is not clear whether genotypic variation in N starvation-induced leaf senescence is due to leaf-inherent factors and/or governed by root-mediated signals. Therefore, the N-efficient and stay-green cvs. NPZ-1 and Apex were reciprocally grafted with the N-inefficient and early-senescing cvs. NPZ-2 and Capitol, respectively and grown in hydroponics. The senescence status of older leaves after 12 days of N starvation assessed by SPAD, photosynthesis and the expression of the senescence-specific cysteine protease gene SAG12-1 revealed that the stay-green phenotype of the cvs. NPZ-1 and Apex under N starvation was primarily under the control of leaf-inherent factors. The same four cultivars were submitted to N starvation for up to 12 days in a time-course experiment. The specific leaf contents of biologically active and inactive cytokinins (CKs) and the expression of genes involved in CK homeostasis revealed that under N starvation leaves of early-senescing cultivars were characterized by inactivation of biologically active CKs, whereas in stay-green cultivars synthesis, activation, binding of and response to biologically active CKs were favoured. These results suggest that the homeostasis of biologically active CKs was the predominant leaf-inherent factor for cultivar differences in N starvation-induced leaf senescence and thus N efficiency. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  13. Leaf Senescence, Root Morphology, and Seed Yield of Winter Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L. at Varying Plant Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the yield and yield components were studied using a conventional variety Zhongshuang 11 (ZS 11 and a hybrid variety Zhongyouza 12 (ZYZ 12 at varying plant densities. The increase in plant density led to an initial increase in seed yield and pod numbers per unit area, followed by a decrease. The optimal plant density was 58.5 × 104 plants ha−1 in both ZS 11 and ZYZ 12. The further researches on physiological traits showed a rapid decrease in the green leaf area index (GLAI and chlorophyll content and a remarkable increase in malondialdehyde content in high plant density (HPD population than did the low plant density (LPD population, which indicated the rapid leaf senescence. However, HPD had higher values in terms of pod area index (PAI, pod photosynthesis, and radiation use efficiency (RUE after peak anthesis. A significantly higher level of dry matter accumulation and nitrogen utilization efficiency were observed, which resulted in higher yield. HPD resulted in a rapid decrease in root morphological parameters (root length, root tips, root surface area, and root volume. These results suggested that increasing the plant density within a certain range was a promising option for high seed yield in winter rapeseed in China.

  14. Detecting management and fertilization effects on the carbon balance of winter oilseed rape with manual closed chamber measurements: Can we outrange gap-filling uncertainty and spatiotemporal variability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, Vytas; Moffat, Antje Maria; Calmet, Anna; Andres, Monique; Laufer, Judit; Pehle, Natalia; Rach, Bernd; Gundlach, Laura; Augustin, Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    Winter oilseed rape is the dominant biofuel crop in the young moraine landscape in North-Eastern Germany. However, studies on the effect of rapeseed cropping on net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) and the soil carbon (SC) balance are scarce. SC balance estimates are usually derived from long-term soil sampling field trials where rapeseed is part of different crop rotations. The estimated annual differences linked to rapeseed cropping are rather small (varying between losses of 40 g C m-2 and gains of up to 100 g C m-2). Testing management effects on the NEE and SC balance of cropping systems is best done by comparing plots with different treatments at the same site under the same climate. The soil sampling approach is in the need of field trials that run over decades, which has the disadvantage that management strategies of practical farming may have already changed when the results are derived. Continuous eddy covariance measurements of NEE would require large fields in flat terrain for each of the treatments, which is especially complicated in the heterogeneous landscapes of glacigenic origin of North-Eastern Germany. The common approach of using the chamber technique to derive NEE, however, is subject to the local soil and plant stand heterogeneities due to its tiny footprint. This technique might also disturb the ecosystem, the measurements are usually discontinuous requiring elaborate gap-filling techniques, and it has mostly been used on organic soils where large respiratory C losses occur. Therefore, our aim was to answer, if a combined approach of the eddy covariance and the chamber technique can detect the relatively small NEE and SC differences of rapeseed cropping on mineral soils within a shorter period of time than conventional soil sampling field trials can. We tested the new experimental design taking the advantages of both techniques into account: The eddy covariance tower measuring the NEE dynamics during the year; the chamber measurements to

  15. Rye residue levels affect suppression of the southern root-knot nematode in cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the southeastern United States, rye (Secale cereale) is frequently planted as a winter cover crop in conservation tillage cotton. Although rye produces toxic benzoxazinoid compounds which may play a role in nematode suppression, it is also a host for the southern root-knot nematode Meloidogyne i...

  16. Response of root-knot nematodes and Palmer amaranth to tillage and rye green manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye (Secale cereale L.), which produces bioactive benzoxazinoid compounds, is a frequently used winter cover crop in many agronomic production systems in the USA. Our objective was to determine whether incorporating rye into soil while still green results in greater suppression of root-knot nematod...

  17. The Potential for Cereal Rye Cover Crops to Host Corn Seedling Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Matthew G; Acharya, Jyotsna; Moorman, Thomas B; Robertson, Alison E; Kaspar, Thomas C

    2016-06-01

    Cover cropping is a prevalent conservation practice that offers substantial benefits to soil and water quality. However, winter cereal cover crops preceding corn may diminish beneficial rotation effects because two grass species are grown in succession. Here, we show that rye cover crops host pathogens capable of causing corn seedling disease. We isolated Fusarium graminearum, F. oxysporum, Pythium sylvaticum, and P. torulosum from roots of rye and demonstrate their pathogenicity on corn seedlings. Over 2 years, we quantified the densities of these organisms in rye roots from several field experiments and at various intervals of time after rye cover crops were terminated. Pathogen load in rye roots differed among fields and among years for particular fields. Each of the four pathogen species increased in density over time on roots of herbicide-terminated rye in at least one field site, suggesting the broad potential for rye cover crops to elevate corn seedling pathogen densities. The radicles of corn seedlings planted following a rye cover crop had higher pathogen densities compared with seedlings following a winter fallow. Management practices that limit seedling disease may be required to allow corn yields to respond positively to improvements in soil quality brought about by cover cropping.

  18. Oilseeds business opportunities in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, J.H.M.; Biersteker, J.; Hiel, R.

    2007-01-01

    In this study the business opportunities for Dutch companies in the Ethiopian oilseeds sector are explored. Opportunities for setting up sustainable export chains should mutually benefit Dutch companies as well as the Ethiopian oilseeds sector in particular and the Ethiopian society in general.

  19. Ukrainian cereals and oilseeds trade

    OpenAIRE

    Б. В. Духницький; Т. В. Сіліфонов

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To analyze peculiarities of Ukrainian cereals and oilseeds trade, the situation on the world market, and determine future prospects of its development. Methods. Analysis and synthesis, comparative evaluation, graphic procedure. Results. The role and place of Ukraine in a total grain supply to the world market was determined. Ukraine is a world’s top ten grain producer. Among domestic agricultural products, cereals, oilseeds and sunflower oil are in the highest demand in the w...

  20. Rye flour enriched with arabinoxylans in rye bread making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buksa, Krzysztof; Nowotna, Anna; Ziobro, Rafał; Gambuś, Halina

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate physical and chemical properties of preparations of water soluble arabinoxylans (arabinoxylan-enriched flour) obtained by industrial method and their derivatives (obtained by hydrolysis and cross-linking of aranbinoxylans), as well as their impact on baking properties of rye flours. Additionally, these results were compared with highly purified arabinoxylans prepared by laboratory method and well characterized in the literature. Flour enriched with arabinoxylans was obtained by industrial method involving air separation of flour particles. It was characterized by 8.6% arabinoxylan content, lack of insoluble material and substantial residue (67%) of starch and dextrins. The addition of all industrial method preparations in amount of 10% (i.e. approx. 1% water soluble arabinoxylans), to rye flours resulted in an increase in water absorption, bread volume and decrease in hardness of the bread crumb and the effect was especially strong in the case of flour type 720. Due to the easiness of isolation procedure, industrial method preparation could be advised as an improver for rye bread making. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  1. Research fields, challenges and opportunities in European oilseed crops breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincourt Patrick

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the geographical specialization in oilseed world production, Europe has a major role to play in winter oilseed rape and sunflower breeding. Mainly based on the most recen t results, this review aims to identify the main research and breeding targets for these two crops, as seen through publications, with an attempt to suggest what are opportunities and challenges in these research fields. Growing a healthy and yielding crop remains the key driver for agronomic production. However sustainability and environmental profiles of the cultivar are now entering the field of play: The sustainability concern invested the field of resistance to diseases. Nitrogen use efficiency became an important target for Brassica napus, and crop resilience toward drought stresses is the way chosen in Helianthus annuus breeding for yield improvement. Significant advances are underway for quality traits, but the uncertainty on nutritional and industrial demand may explain why the product diversification remains low.

  2. Winter cover crops on processing tomato yield, quality, pest pressure, nitrogen availability, and profit margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfry, Kimberly D.; Trueman, Cheryl; Vyn, Richard J.; Loewen, Steven A.; Van Eerd, Laura L.

    2017-01-01

    Much of cover crop research to date focuses on key indicators of impact without considering the implications over multiple years, in the absence of a systems-based approach. To evaluate the effect of three years of autumn cover crops on subsequent processing tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) production in 2010 and 2011, a field split-split-plot factorial design trial with effects of cover crop type, urea ammonium nitrate fertilizer rate (0 or 140 kg N ha-1 preplant broadcast incorporated) and tomato cultivar (early vs. late) was conducted. The main plot factor, cover crop, included a no cover crop control, oat (Avena sativa L.), winter cereal rye (hereafter referred to as rye) (Secale cereale L.), oilseed radish (OSR) (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg Stokes), and mix of OSR and rye (OSR + rye) treatments. Cover crop biomass of 0.5 to 2.8 and 1.7 to 3.1 Mg ha-1 was attained in early Oct. and the following early May, respectively. In general, OSR increased soil mineral N during cover crop growth and into the succeeding summer tomato growing season, while the remaining cover crops did not differ from the no cover crop control. The lack of a cover crop by N rate interaction in soil and plant N analyses at harvest suggests that growers may not need to modify N fertilizer rates to tomatoes based on cover crop type. Processing tomato fruit quality at harvest (rots, insect or disease damage, Agtron colour, pH, or natural tomato soluble solids (NTSS)) was not affected by cover crop type. In both years, marketable yield in the no cover crop treatment was lower or not statistically different than all planted cover crops. Partial profit margins over both years were 1320 $ ha-1 higher with OSR and $960 higher with oat compared to the no cover crop control. Thus, results from a systems-based approach suggest that the cover crops tested had no observed negative impact on processing tomato production and have the potential to increase marketable yield and profit margins

  3. Winter cover crops on processing tomato yield, quality, pest pressure, nitrogen availability, and profit margins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfry, Kimberly D; Trueman, Cheryl; Vyn, Richard J; Loewen, Steven A; Van Eerd, Laura L

    2017-01-01

    Much of cover crop research to date focuses on key indicators of impact without considering the implications over multiple years, in the absence of a systems-based approach. To evaluate the effect of three years of autumn cover crops on subsequent processing tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) production in 2010 and 2011, a field split-split-plot factorial design trial with effects of cover crop type, urea ammonium nitrate fertilizer rate (0 or 140 kg N ha-1 preplant broadcast incorporated) and tomato cultivar (early vs. late) was conducted. The main plot factor, cover crop, included a no cover crop control, oat (Avena sativa L.), winter cereal rye (hereafter referred to as rye) (Secale cereale L.), oilseed radish (OSR) (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg Stokes), and mix of OSR and rye (OSR + rye) treatments. Cover crop biomass of 0.5 to 2.8 and 1.7 to 3.1 Mg ha-1 was attained in early Oct. and the following early May, respectively. In general, OSR increased soil mineral N during cover crop growth and into the succeeding summer tomato growing season, while the remaining cover crops did not differ from the no cover crop control. The lack of a cover crop by N rate interaction in soil and plant N analyses at harvest suggests that growers may not need to modify N fertilizer rates to tomatoes based on cover crop type. Processing tomato fruit quality at harvest (rots, insect or disease damage, Agtron colour, pH, or natural tomato soluble solids (NTSS)) was not affected by cover crop type. In both years, marketable yield in the no cover crop treatment was lower or not statistically different than all planted cover crops. Partial profit margins over both years were 1320 $ ha-1 higher with OSR and $960 higher with oat compared to the no cover crop control. Thus, results from a systems-based approach suggest that the cover crops tested had no observed negative impact on processing tomato production and have the potential to increase marketable yield and profit margins.

  4. Planting depth for oilseed calendula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calendula (Calendula officinalis L.) is not only a popular ornamental plant in temperate climates, but also a potential oilseed crop. Its seed oil has high levels of calendic acid, which makes it a highly valued drying oil with important industrial applications. Much basic agronomic information on c...

  5. Ukrainian cereals and oilseeds trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Б. В. Духницький

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze peculiarities of Ukrainian cereals and oilseeds trade, the situation on the world market, and determine future prospects of its development. Methods. Analysis and synthesis, comparative evaluation, graphic procedure. Results. The role and place of Ukraine in a total grain supply to the world market was determined. Ukraine is a world’s top ten grain producer. Among domestic agricultural products, cereals, oilseeds and sunflower oil are in the highest demand in the world. In recent years, our state has reinforced its status as one of the leading exporters of cereals. The commodity pattern of cereals and oilseeds export was analyzed with specifying most in-demand positions and the main countries purchasing these pro­ducts. According to the results of 2015, Ukraine obtained the highest foreign currency revenue from export of corn, wheat and barley (in grain structure including soybeans and rapeseed (among oil crops. Key domestic and multinational operators are the main exporters of cereals and oilseeds in Ukraine and still hold their leading position. It was found a significant excess of import price of seeds as compared with export price of crops grown in Ukraine. Assortment of maize and sunflower seeds offered by major companies-producers in Ukraine was studied. Main trends of the world grain market development are considered. Conclusions. It was established that Ukraine is one of the major exporters of cereals and oilseeds. However, volatility of their prices significantly affects the export revenue that was decreasing even with increasing export quantities in kind. The dependence of domestic grain industry development on high-quality imported seed of maize and sunflower hybrids was recorded. It is expected that in the years to come Ukraine will maintain its strong positions in the world’s grain market.

  6. Pentosans relate to rye quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jindřiška Kučerová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this contribution is the evaluation rye pentosans in the relation to protein content, Fal­ling number, content of maltose and amylograph values. Population and hybrid varieties of rye were grown during 2003–2005. Trials were situated in three different locations of the Czech Republic – Hradec nad Svitavou, Krásné údolí and Staňkov. Content of pentosans varied between 6.60–9.21 %. The highest content of pentosans (average of the three years and three locations achieved the hybrid variety Picasso (8.11 %, which had the highest Falling number (235.8 s and amylograph maximum (625.5 AJ, too. The location Hradec nad Svitavou (8.21 % pentosans was the best and the year 2003 (8.34 % pentosans was the most positive.The results were affected by soil and weather conditions which have influence on protein content. Between the pentosans content and the Falling number a high positive correlation (r = 0.523, P < 0.01 was found and nonsignificant negative correlations with protein content (r = −0.070 and amylograph maximum (r = −0.072. Remarkable difference in the Falling number and amylograph maximum between population varieties (Daňkovské nové a Selgo and hybrid variety (Picasso were found.

  7. Determinants of nectar production in oilseed rape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enkegaard, Annie; Kryger, Per; Boelt, Birte

    2016-01-01

    With the aim of contributing to the development of models forecasting the melliferous characteristics and the potential honey yield of oilseed rape, we analyzed data on the temporal pattern of number of oilseed rape flowers, nectar secretion, sugar concentration, and weight of bee hives in relation...... with significantly reduced quality of the nectar in terms of both volume and sugar concentration, and our results suggest that the oilseed rape in this year did not contribute notably to bee colony development. In years in which the oilseed rape flowered around the normal time (beginning of May), the amount...... of secreted sugar decreased over the flowering period, being governed by inherent oilseed rape characteristics modified by climatic factors preceding the onset of flowering, as well as climatic conditions during flowering. The exploitation of oilseed rape nectar by bee colonies was found to be influenced...

  8. Survival rate of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: On different states of wheat and rye kernels previously infested by beetle pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukajlović Filip N.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to determine survival rate of Plodia interpunctella (Hübner, 1813, reared on different mechanical states of Vizija winter wheat cultivar and Raša winter rye cultivar, previously infested with different beetle pests. Wheat was previously infested with Rhyzopertha dominica, Sitophilus granarius, Oryzaephilus surinamensis and Cryptolestes ferrugineus, while rye was infested only with O. surinamensis. Kernels were tested in three different mechanical states: (A whole undamaged kernels; (B kernels already damaged by pests and (C original storage kernels (mixture of B and C type. No P. interpunctella adult emerged on wheat kernels, while 36 adults developed on rye kernels. The highest abundance reached beetle species who fed with a mixture of kernels damaged by pests and whole undamaged kernels. Development and survival rate of five different storage insect pests depends on type of kernels and there exist significant survivorship correlations among them.

  9. Determination of Ochratoxin A in Rye and Rye-Based Products by Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippolis, Vincenzo; Porricelli, Anna C R; Cortese, Marina; Suman, Michele; Zanardi, Sandro; Pascale, Michelangelo

    2017-09-26

    A rapid fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) was optimized and validated for the determination of ochratoxin A (OTA) in rye and rye crispbread. Samples were extracted with a mixture of acetonitrile/water (60:40, v/v) and purified by SPE-aminopropyl column clean-up before performing the FPIA. Overall mean recoveries were 86 and 95% for spiked rye and rye crispbread with relative standard deviations lower than 6%. Limits of detection (LOD) of the optimized FPIA was 0.6 μg/kg for rye and rye crispbread, respectively. Good correlations (r > 0.977) were observed between OTA contents in contaminated samples obtained by FPIA and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with immunoaffinity cleanup used as reference method. Furthermore, single laboratory validation and small-scale collaborative trials were carried out for the determination of OTA in rye according to Regulation 519/2014/EU laying down procedures for the validation of screening methods. The precision profile of the method, cut-off level and rate of false suspect results confirm the satisfactory analytical performances of assay as a screening method. These findings show that the optimized FPIA is suitable for high-throughput screening, and permits reliable quantitative determination of OTA in rye and rye crispbread at levels that fall below the EU regulatory limits.

  10. Biomass and nutrient cycling by winter cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Koefender

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cover crops are of fundamental importance for the sustainability of the no-tillage system, to ensure soil coverage and to provide benefits for the subsequent crop. The objective of this study was to evaluate the production of biomass and the content and accumulation of nutrients by winter cover crops. The experimental design used in the experiment was a randomized complete block with four replications and six treatments: oilseed radish, vetch, black oats, vetch + black oats, vetch + oilseed radish and fallow. Black oat, oilseed radish in single cultivation and black oat + vetch and vetch + oilseed radish intercroppings showed higher dry matter production. Vetch + oilseed radish intercropping demonstrates higher performance regarding cycling of nutrients, with higher accumulations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Cu, Zn, Fe, Na and B.

  11. Wild pollinators enhance oilseed rape yield in small-holder farming systems in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yi; Xiao, Haijun; Bianchi, Felix J J A; Jauker, Frank; Luo, Shudong; van der Werf, Wopke

    2017-02-21

    Insect pollinators play an important role in crop pollination, but the relative contribution of wild pollinators and honey bees to pollination is currently under debate. There is virtually no information available on the strength of pollination services and the identity of pollination service providers from Asian smallholder farming systems, where fields are small, and variation among fields is high. We established 18 winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) fields along a large geographical gradient in Jiangxi province in China. In each field, oilseed rape plants were grown in closed cages that excluded pollinators and open cages that allowed pollinator access. The pollinator community was sampled by pan traps for the entire oilseed rape blooming period. Oilseed rape plants from which insect pollinators were excluded had on average 38% lower seed set, 17% lower fruit set and 12% lower yield per plant, but the seeds were 17% heavier, and the caged plants had 28% more flowers and 18% higher aboveground vegetative biomass than plants with pollinator access. Oilseed rape plants thus compensate for pollination deficit by producing heavier seeds and more flowers. Regression analysis indicated that local abundance and diversity of wild pollinators were positively associated with seed set and yield/straw ratio, while honey bee abundance was not related to yield parameters. Wild pollinator abundance and diversity contribute to oilseed rape yield by enhancing plant resource allocation to seeds rather than to above-ground biomass. This study highlights the importance of the conservation of wild pollinators to support oilseed rape production in small-holder farming systems in China.

  12. Gravity Survey of the Rye Patch KGRA, Rye Patch, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, M. R.; Gosnold, W. D.

    2011-12-01

    The Rye Patch Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) is located in Pershing County Nevada on the west side of the Humboldt Range and east of the Rye Patch Reservoir approximately 200 km northeast of Reno, Nevada. Previous studies include an earlier gravity survey, 3-D seismic reflection, vertical seismic profiling (VSP) on a single well, 3-D seismic imaging, and a report of the integrated seismic studies. Recently, Presco Energy conducted an aeromagnetic survey and is currently in the process of applying 2-D VSP methods to target exploration and production wells at the site. These studies have indicated that geothermal fluid flow primarily occurs along faults and fractures and that two potential aquifers include a sandstone/siltstone member of the Triassic Natchez Pass Formation and a karst zone that occurs at the interface between Mesozoic limestone and Tertiary volcanics. We hypothesized that addition of a high-resolution gravity survey would better define the locations, trends, lengths, and dip angles of faults and possible solution cavity features. The gravity survey encompassed an area of approximately 78 km2 (30 mi2) within the boundary of the KGRA along with portions of 8 sections directly to the west and 8 sections directly to the east. The survey included 203 stations that were spaced at 400 m intervals. The simple Bouguer anomaly patterns were coincident with elevation, and those patterns remained after terrain corrections were performed. To remove this signal, the data were further processed using wave-length (bandpass) filtering techniques. The results of the filtering and comparison with the recent aeromagnetic survey indicate that the location and trend of major fault systems can be identified using this technique. Dip angles can be inferred by the anomaly contour gradients. By further reductions in the bandpass window, other features such as possible karst solution channels may also be recognizable. Drilling or other geophysical methods such as a

  13. Salinity tolerance of germinating alternative oilseeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrating oilseed crops into rotations can improve soil health benefits, nutrient retention, and pollinator provisions. Field margins represent areas where incorporation of oilseeds is feasible. However in the northern Great Plains, field margins can oftentimes be areas of saline soil, which can i...

  14. APPLICATION OF RYE SSR MARKERS FOR DETECTION OF GENETIC DIVERSITY IN TRITICALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Želmíra Balážová

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Present study aims to testify usefulness of particular rye SSR markers for the detection of genetic diversity degree in the set of 20 triticale cultivars coming from different European countries. For this purpose, a set of six rye SSR markers were used. The set of six polymorphic markers provided 22 alleles with an average frequency of 3.67 alleles per locus. The number of alleles ranged between 2 (SCM43 and 5 (SCM28, SCM86. Resulting from the number and frequency of alleles diversity index (DI, polymorphic information content (PIC and probability of identity (PI were calculated. An average value of PIC for 6 SSR markers was 0.505, the highest value was calculated for rye SSR marker SCM86 (0.706. Based on UPGMA algorithm, a dendrogram was constructed. In dendrogram cultivars were divided into two main clusters. The first cluster contained two cultivars, Russian cultivar Greneder and Slovak cultivar Largus, and second included 18 cultivars. Genetically the closest were two Greek cultivars (Niobi and Thisbi and were close to other Greek cultivar Vrodi. It was possible to separate triticale cultivars of spring and winter form in dendrogram. Results showed the utility of rye microsatellite markers for estimation of genetic diversity of European triticale genotypes leading to genotype identification.

  15. Quality evaluation of the sourdough rye breads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IULIANA BANU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sourdough fermentation is a biotechnological process that has been reported to improve dough properties, to increase bread flavor and taste, to enhance nutritional value and to extend shelf life of sourdough bread. The quality of rye breads prepared with 20 and 40% sourdough, fermented with different mixed starter cultures was investigated in this study. The bread quality was evaluated in terms of specific volume, humidity, total titratable acidity, crumb characteristics and sensory profiles. Digital image analysis revealed that rye bread with 40% sourdough had a considerably denser crumb structure. Rye bread with 20% sourdough maintained superior texture characteristics over the storage period, while increasing the sourdough content to 40% had a negative effect on the texture. The sensory profiles of the bread highly depended on the type of starter cultures used for fermentation.

  16. Biogas and Methane Yield from Rye Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Vítěz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogas production in the Czech Republic has expanded substantially, including marginal regions for maize cultivation. Therefore, there are increasingly sought materials that could partially replace maize silage, as a basic feedstock, while secure both biogas production and its quality.Two samples of rye grass (Lolium multiflorum var. westerwoldicum silage with different solids content 21% and 15% were measured for biogas and methane yield. Rye grass silage with solid content of 15% reached an average specific biogas yield 0.431 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter and an average specific methane yield 0.249 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter. Rye grass silage with solid content 21% reached an average specific biogas yield 0.654 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter and an average specific methane yield 0.399 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter.

  17. Development of new restorer lines for CMS ogura system with the use of resynthesized oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szała, Laurencja; Sosnowska, Katarzyna; Popławska, Wiesława; Liersch, Alina; Olejnik, Anna; Kozłowska, Katarzyna; Bocianowski, Jan; Cegielska-Taras, Teresa

    2016-09-01

    Resynthesized (RS) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is potentially of great interest for hybrid breeding. However, a major problem with the direct use of RS B. napus is the quality of seed oil (high level of erucic acid) and seed meal (high glucosinolate content), which does not comply with double-low quality oilseed rape. Thus, additional developments are needed before RS B. napus can be introduced into breeding practice. In this study, RS oilseed rape was obtained through crosses between B. rapa ssp. chinensis var. chinensis and B. oleracea ssp. acephala var. sabellica. RS plant was then crossed with double-low (00) winter oilseed rape lines containing the Rfo gene for Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS ogu) system. Populations of doubled haploids (DH) were developed from these F1 hybrids using the microspore in vitro culture method. The seeds of semi-RS DH lines were analyzed for erucic acid and glucosinolate content. Among the populations of semi-RS DHs four 00-quality lines with the Rfo gene were selected. Using 344 AFLP markers to estimate genetic relatedness, we showed that the RS lines and semi-RS lines formed clusters that were clearly distinct from 96 winter oilseed rape parental lines of F1 hybrids.

  18. low-FODMAP rye bread vs. regular rye bread to relieve the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Laatikainen, R.; Koskenpato, J.; Hongisto, S. -M.; Loponen, J.; Poussa, T.; Hillilä, Markku; Korpela, R.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Grains are high in FODMAPs (Fermentable Oligo?, Di?, Monosaccharides And Polyols) and often considered as triggers of IBS symptoms. Aim To evaluate if rye bread low in FODMAPs would be better tolerated than regular rye bread in subjects with IBS. Methods The study was conducted as a randomised double blind controlled cross?over study (n?=?87). Participants were supplied with both regular rye bread and low?FODMAP rye bread for 4?weeks. Symptoms were measured with a symptom s...

  19. Mycotoxin production on rice, pulses and oilseeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Fouzia; Samajpati, N.

    Mycotoxin-producing fungi were isolated from contaminated grains of rice, pulses and oilseeds sold in the local markets of Calcutta for human consumption. It was found that aflatoxin B1 was produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, aflatoxin G1 by A. flavus, ochratoxin by Aspergillus ochraceous, sterigmatocystin by Aspergillus japonicus and citrinin by Penicillium citrinum. Aflatoxin B1 (333-10416μg/kg) was produced by Aspergillus spp. in rice, pulses and oilseeds.

  20. No 5-B compensation by rye B-chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roothaan, M; Sybenga, J

    1976-03-01

    Chinese Spring mono-5B wheat was crossed with rye plants, with and without B-chromosomes, to produce polyhaploids with and without 5B and with and without rye B-chromosomes. As expected, absence of 5B resulted in a strong increase of homoeologous pairing. It was accompanied by a decrease in chiasmata in the rye B-chromosomes. The rye B-chromosomes were entirely ineffective in compensating for the 5B effect in nulli 5B, 2 rye B types.

  1. The influence of rye fiber on gut metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Lærke, Helle Nygaard

    2014-01-01

    . This important new book covers… The chemical composition of rye Applications of rye in food production The digestion of rye dietary fiber and its effects on gut metabolism The many bioactive compounds of rye—including lignans, alkylresorcinols, phenolic acids, benzoxazinoids, phytosterols, tocopherols...... giving this healthy grain much more attention. Rye and Health, edited by veteran food technology and nutrition scientists Kaisa Poutanen and Per Åman, explains in detail the composition of rye and its physiological and health effects on humans using the latest research and information available...... and tocotrienols—and their importance in human health Up-to-date findings on biomarkers and how they can be used in intervention and epidemiological studies to link rye intake with disease risk Rye’s influence on glucose levels and other satiating effects Relationships between rye intake and certain Western...

  2. Early osmotic adjustment responses in drought-resistant and drought-sensitive oilseed rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzig, Sarah; Zaharia, L Irina; Abrams, Suzanne; Hohmann, Marie; Legoahec, Laurie; Bouchereau, Alain; Nesi, Nathalie; Snowdon, Rod J

    2014-08-01

    The impact of osmotic stress on growth, physiology, and metabolism of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) was investigated by detailed analysis of biomass traits, hormone metabolites and osmolytes in two genetically unrelated drought-tolerant genotypes and two unrelated drought-sensitive genotypes. Seedlings were grown in vitro under controlled conditions and osmotic stress was simulated by applying a gradual treatment with polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000), followed by hypo-osmotic treatment of variants used for metabolite determination. The results provide a basis for the identification of reliable selection criteria for drought resistance in oilseed rape. The in vitro cultivation system established during this study enabled effective discrimination of early osmotic stress responses between drought-resistant and -susceptible oilseed rape genotypes that also show large differences in relative seed yield under drought conditions in the field. Clear physiological and metabolic differences were observed between the drought-resistant and drought-sensitive genotypes, suggesting that osmotic adjustment is a key component of drought response in oilseed rape. Unexpectedly, however, the drought-resistant genotypes did not show typical hormonal adjustment and osmolyte accumulation, suggesting that they possess alternative physiological mechanisms enabling avoidance of stress symptoms. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  3. Influence of Seeding Ratio, Planting Date, and Termination Date on Rye-Hairy Vetch Cover Crop Mixture Performance under Organic Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Andrew; Cogger, Craig; Bary, Andy; Fortuna, Ann-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Cover crop benefits include nitrogen accumulation and retention, weed suppression, organic matter maintenance, and reduced erosion. Organic farmers need region-specific information on winter cover crop performance to effectively integrate cover crops into their crop rotations. Our research objective was to compare cover crop seeding mixtures, planting dates, and termination dates on performance of rye (Secale cereale L.) and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) monocultures and mixtures in the maritime Pacific Northwest USA. The study included four seed mixtures (100% hairy vetch, 25% rye-75% hairy vetch, 50% rye-50% hairy vetch, and 100% rye by seed weight), two planting dates, and two termination dates, using a split-split plot design with four replications over six years. Measurements included winter ground cover; stand composition; cover crop biomass, N concentration, and N uptake; and June soil NO3(-)-N. Rye planted in mid-September and terminated in late April averaged 5.1 Mg ha(-1) biomass, whereas mixtures averaged 4.1 Mg ha(-1) and hairy vetch 2.3 Mg ha(-1). Delaying planting by 2.5 weeks reduced average winter ground cover by 65%, biomass by 50%, and cover crop N accumulation by 40%. Similar reductions in biomass and N accumulation occurred for late March termination, compared with late April termination. Mixtures had less annual biomass variability than rye. Mixtures accumulated 103 kg ha(-1) N and had mean C:N ratio Cover crop mixtures provided a balance between biomass accumulation and N concentration, more consistent biomass over the six-year study, and were more effective at reducing winter weeds compared with monocultures.

  4. RESEARCHES ON OILSEEDS MARKET IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena SOARE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This scientific paper presents the evolution of oilseeds market in Romania, during the period 2008-2013. In order to show as concise as possible the reality of the oilseeds sector, the research pictures, on the one hand, an evolution of oilseeds specific indicators and on the other hand, an evolution of external trade. Romania disposes of tradition and favourable pedo-climatic conditions for cultivating the oilseeds plants. This is demonstrated by the favourable results obtained in the last years, especially concerning the sunflower crop. In 2013, Romania registered a record for sunflower, occupying the first position in the European Union for cultivated area and production. A negative aspect is represented by the fact that our country has the best conditions in Europe for soybean crop, but it is still dependent on import. Romania imports a huge quantity of soybean oilcakes for animal feeding. Nowadays, Romania is an important actor in the sunflower world market, covering almost 19% of the global demand. In perspective, one could expect significant oilseeds productions with a positive influence on the agro-food trade balance in our country.

  5. Chitinase Genes Responsive to Cold Encode Antifreeze Proteins in Winter Cereals1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Sansun; Moffatt, Barbara A.; Griffith, Marilyn; Xiong, Fei; Yang, Daniel S.C.; Wiseman, Steven B.; Sarhan, Fathey; Danyluk, Jean; Xue, Yi Qi; Hew, Choy L.; Doherty-Kirby, Amanda; Lajoie, Gilles

    2000-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins similar to two different chitinases accumulate during cold acclimation in winter rye (Secale cereale). To determine whether these cold-responsive chitinases require post-translational modification to bind to ice, cDNAs coding for two different full-length chitinases were isolated from a cDNA library produced from cold-acclimated winter rye leaves. CHT9 is a 1,193-bp clone that encodes a 31.7-kD class I chitinase and CHT46 is a 998-bp clone that codes for a 24.8-kD class II chitinase. Chitinase-antifreeze proteins purified from the plant were similar in mass to the predicted mature products of CHT9 and CHT46, thus indicating that there was little chemical modification of the amino acid sequences in planta. To confirm these results, the mature sequences of CHT9 and CHT46 were expressed in Escherichia coli and the products of both cDNAs modified the growth of ice. Transcripts of both genes accumulated late in cold acclimation in winter rye. Southern analysis of winter rye genomic DNA indicated the presence of a small gene family homologous to CHT46. In hexaploid wheat, CHT46 homologs mapped to the homeologous group 1 chromosomes and were expressed in response to cold and drought. We conclude that two novel cold-responsive genes encoding chitinases with ice-binding activity may have arisen in winter rye and other cereals through gene duplication. PMID:11080301

  6. Monoclonal antibodies to the major Lolium perenne (rye grass) pollen allergen Lol p I (Rye I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, C R; Marsh, D G

    1986-12-01

    Thirteen monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were produced against Lol p I (Rye I), the major Lolium perenne (rye grass) pollen allergen. Spleen cells from A/J and SJL mice immunized with highly purified Lol p I (Lol I) were allowed to fuse with cells from the non-secreting Sp2/0-Ag14 myeloma cell line. Each MAb was analyzed for antigenic specificity by radioimmunoassay (RIA) using 125I-Lol I. The epitope specificities of seven of the MAbs were examined by competitive binding against a labelled standard MAb for the Lol I antigen (Ag). The dissociation constant, Kd, of one MAb (No. 3.2) that was studied most extensively was determined by double Ab RIA to be 3.5 X 10(-6) L/M. This MAb recognized the related 27,000-30,000 Group I glycoproteins found in the pollens of nine other species of grass pollens tested, including weak binding to Bermuda grass Group I (Cyn d I), which by conventional analysis using polyclonal anti-Lol I serum shows no detectable binding. Monoclonal antibody No. 3.2 was coupled covalently to Sepharose 4B and used to prepare highly purified Lol I from a partially purified rye pollen extract. Finally, an RIA was developed which permitted the analysis of the Group I components in rye grass and nine other grass pollen species. The latter assay is likely to prove useful in the standardization of grass pollen extracts according to their Group I contents.

  7. Meat and bone meal as nitrogen and phosphorus supplier to cereals and oilseed rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nogalska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of meat and bone meal (MBM on cultivation of winter triticale, winter oilseed rape, winter wheat and maize. The average annual yields and protein yield achieved in crop rotation were studied. The field trials were carried out in north-eastern Poland in 2006–2010. The factor was dose of MBM: 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 t ha-1 year-1 or 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 t ha-1 every other year. The four-year experiment has proven that MBM is a valuable nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer in cultivation of cereals and oilseed rape. By amendment of the tested meal into the soil it produced crop yield and protein yield similar to that achieved by mineral fertilization. However, the crude fat yield of rape was significantly higher under the influence of all the MBM doses. The yield-stimulating effect of MBM did not depend on the frequency of its application; therefore it is more convenient to apply it once every two years. Increasing MBM from 1.5 to 2.5 t ha-1 did not significantly increase any of the four crop yields, therefore for soils that had satisfactory nutrients content, 1 or 1.5 t ha-1 MBM is enough and increasing MBM will only increase economic burden for farmers and environmental risks.

  8. Response of oilseed Brassica cultivars to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hucl, P.; Beversdorf, W.D

    1993-10-01

    Research was conducted to determine the sensitivity of four Brassica oilseed crops to ozone under controlled environmental conditions. Cultivars of four Brassica oilseed species were exposed to acute levels of ozone (0.31 or 0.47 [mu]l/l) at the seedling stage. Brassica hirta BHL-926 was the most sensitive to ozone, followed by B. juncea (Newton) and B. rapa (Torch). Injury symptoms ranged from a slight stippling in insensitive species to large bifacial necrotic patches in the most sensitive species. Brassica napus (canola) seedlings exhibited very little foliar injury (0-4% after 24 h exposure to 0.31 [mu]l/l ozone). In Ontario, where a vast majority of canola acreage is seeded to B. napus cultivars, it is unlikely that canola yields are being affected by exposure to ozone. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  9. Influence of Seeding Ratio, Planting Date, and Termination Date on Rye-Hairy Vetch Cover Crop Mixture Performance under Organic Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Andrew; Cogger, Craig; Bary, Andy; Fortuna, Ann-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Cover crop benefits include nitrogen accumulation and retention, weed suppression, organic matter maintenance, and reduced erosion. Organic farmers need region-specific information on winter cover crop performance to effectively integrate cover crops into their crop rotations. Our research objective was to compare cover crop seeding mixtures, planting dates, and termination dates on performance of rye (Secale cereale L.) and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) monocultures and mixtures in the maritime Pacific Northwest USA. The study included four seed mixtures (100% hairy vetch, 25% rye-75% hairy vetch, 50% rye-50% hairy vetch, and 100% rye by seed weight), two planting dates, and two termination dates, using a split-split plot design with four replications over six years. Measurements included winter ground cover; stand composition; cover crop biomass, N concentration, and N uptake; and June soil NO3--N. Rye planted in mid-September and terminated in late April averaged 5.1 Mg ha-1 biomass, whereas mixtures averaged 4.1 Mg ha-1 and hairy vetch 2.3 Mg ha-1. Delaying planting by 2.5 weeks reduced average winter ground cover by 65%, biomass by 50%, and cover crop N accumulation by 40%. Similar reductions in biomass and N accumulation occurred for late March termination, compared with late April termination. Mixtures had less annual biomass variability than rye. Mixtures accumulated 103 kg ha-1 N and had mean C:N ratio <17:1 when planted in mid-September and terminated in late April. June soil NO3--N (0 to 30 cm depth) averaged 62 kg ha-1 for rye, 97 kg ha-1 for the mixtures, and 119 kg ha-1 for hairy vetch. Weeds comprised less of the mixtures biomass (20% weeds by weight at termination) compared with the monocultures (29%). Cover crop mixtures provided a balance between biomass accumulation and N concentration, more consistent biomass over the six-year study, and were more effective at reducing winter weeds compared with monocultures. PMID:26080008

  10. Cryomicroscopy of isolated rye mesophyll cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steponkus, P.L. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY); Evans, R.Y.; Singh, J.

    1982-01-01

    The cryobehavior of enzymatically isolated rye (Secale cereale L. Cv. Puma) mesophyll cells was observed with a video cryomicroscope. The incidence of intracellular ice formation was influenced by the cold hardiness of the tissue from which the cells were isolated, composition of the suspending medium, cooling rate, and minimum temperature imposed. During cell dehydration, the spatial relation of the cell wall relative to the protoplast (appressed vs. separated) was largely dependent on the extent of dehydration and deformation by the surrounding ice mass. Depending on the minimum temperature attained, injury was manifested as either expansion-induced lysis during warming or the loss of osmotic responsiveness following cooling. Quantification of the volumetric responses was precluded due to the irregular shape of the cells.

  11. Analysis of yield and plant traits of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. cultivated in temperate region in light of the possibilities of sowing in arid areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Zając

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is a review of selected literature on the species of Brassica with the greatest economic significance. Oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp. oleifera currently ranks third worldwide among oilseed crops used for oil production and is the most important in the temperate zone. The manifold uses of rape include not only human consumption of oil, but also the use of post-extraction meal to feed livestock as well as industrial applications as a source of bioenergy or cellulose. The improvement in the economic position of rape among crop plants is also due to the doubling of its yield between 1970 and 2009; the average annual increase in seed yield worldwide was 27 kg ha−1 yr−1. The yield level in Europe exceeds the average yields achieved in the world, particularly in Asia. Recently, the cultivation of oilseed rape was started on a relatively large acreage in Iran where the yield amounted 2.1 t ha−1, exceeding the yields of China and India. In Poland, the acreage of oilseed rape cultivation between 1965 and 2013 increased 3–4 times, and during this period the annual increase in seed yield was 29 kg ha−1 yr−1. Under the field conditions of the temperate climate zone, winter oilseed rape yield is mainly determined by agro-climatic conditions during the growing period, the level of nitrogen fertilization, and the production potential of varieties, which is currently highest in hybrids. There is a noticeable tendency of hybrids towards formation of more siliques by individual oilseed plants. Different production categories of plants appear in a rape crop. Semi-dwarf varieties of winter rapeseed are distinguished by greater silique density, particularly on the main shoot. Moreover, these hybrids are characterized by faster growth of the root system, which enables them to take up nitrogen from the soil more efficiently.

  12. Hanford Reach - Snively Basin Rye Field Rehabilitation 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The project as described for the FY 2013 grant was to continue the control treatments of cereal rye, as well as of selected invasive broadleaves, to continue and...

  13. Hanford Reach - Snively Basin Rye Field Rehabilitation 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Snively Basin area of the Arid Lands Ecology Reserve (ALE) within the Hanford Reach National Monument was historically used to farm cereal rye, among other...

  14. Hanford Reach - Snively Basin Rye Field Rehabilitation 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Snively Basin area of the Arid Lands Ecology Reserve within the Hanford Reach National Monument was historically used to farm cereal rye (Secale cereale), among...

  15. Physical Analysis of the Complex Rye (Secale cereale L.) Alt4 Aluminium (Aluminum) Tolerance Locus Using a Whole-Genome BAC Library of Rye cv. Blanco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye is a diploid crop species with many outstanding qualities, and is also important as a source of new traits for wheat and triticale improvement. Here we describe a BAC library of rye cv. Blanco, representing a valuable resource for rye molecular genetic studies. The library provides a 6 × genome ...

  16. DOP-PCR-based chromosome painting of rye (Secale cereale) and wheat-rye hybrid 1R and 1RS chromosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chromosome painting is an efficient tool for chromosome research. In oeder to determine whether the chromosome painting techniques can be used to identify rye genome in wheat genetic background, 1R and 1RS chromosomes were microdissected from rye (Secale cereale L. var. King ll) and wheat-rye a...

  17. Bacillus megaterium A6 suppresses Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape in the field and promotes oilseed rape growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes serious yield losses in crops in The People’s Republic of China and other regions of the world. Two formulations of oilseed rape seed containing the plant-growth promoting bacterium Bacillus megaterium A6 were evaluated for suppression of this pathogen on oilseed rap...

  18. Randomised clinical trial: low-FODMAP rye bread vs. regular rye bread to relieve the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laatikainen, R; Koskenpato, J; Hongisto, S-M; Loponen, J; Poussa, T; Hillilä, M; Korpela, R

    2016-09-01

    Grains are high in FODMAPs (Fermentable Oligo-, Di-, Monosaccharides And Polyols) and often considered as triggers of IBS symptoms. To evaluate if rye bread low in FODMAPs would be better tolerated than regular rye bread in subjects with IBS. The study was conducted as a randomised double blind controlled cross-over study (n = 87). Participants were supplied with both regular rye bread and low-FODMAP rye bread for 4 weeks. Symptoms were measured with a symptom severity scoring system (IBS-SSS) and visual analogue scale (VAS) assessments of individual symptoms. Quality of life was monitored. Colonic fermentation was measured by the breath hydrogen test and dietary intake by food diaries. Dietary fibre intake increased during both study periods compared to baseline. Many signs of IBS i.e. flatulence, abdominal pain, cramps and stomach rumbling were milder on the low-FODMAP rye bread (P-values: 0.04; 0.049; 0.01 and 0.001). The mean of VAS measurements was favourable towards LF bread [-3 (95% CI): -6 to -1, P = 0.02] but no differences were detected in IBS-SSS or quality of life. The AUC of breath hydrogen values was significantly lower during the low-FODMAP bread period (median 52.9 vs. 72.6; P = 0.01). Low-FODMAP rye bread helps IBS patients to control their symptoms and reduces gastrointestinal gas accumulation. However, replacing regular rye bread by low-FODMAP bread without concomitant broader dietary changes does not improve quality of life or IBS-SSS. Nonetheless, inclusion of low-FODMAP rye bread in diet might be one way that IBS patients could increase their fibre intake. © 2016 The Authors. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Winter MVC

    OpenAIRE

    Castellón Gadea, Pasqual

    2013-01-01

    Winter MVC és un framework de presentació basat en Spring MVC que simplifica la metodologia de configuracions. Winter MVC es un framework de presentación basado en Spring MVC que simplifica la metodología de configuraciones. Winter MVC is a presentation framework that simplifies Spring MVC configuration methodology.

  20. Structural differences between rye and wheat breads but not total fiber content may explain the lower postprandial insulin response to rye bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juntunen, Katri S; Laaksonen, David E; Autio, Karin

    2003-01-01

    -fiber rye bread; each bread provided 50 g available carbohydrate and was served with breakfast. Plasma glucose, insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide 1, and serum C-peptide were measured in fasting and 8 postprandial blood samples. In vitro starch hydrolysis......BACKGROUND: Rye bread has a beneficial effect on the postprandial insulin response in healthy subjects. The role of rye fiber in insulin and glucose metabolism is not known. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the content of rye fiber in rye breads on postprandial insulin...... and the microscopic structure of the breads were also determined. RESULTS: Postprandial insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, and C-peptide responses to the rye breads were significantly lower than the response to the control; no significant differences in insulin and C-peptide responses to the rye...

  1. Jet fuel from 18 cool-season oilseed feedstocks in a semi-arid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Brett; Jabro, Jay

    2017-04-01

    Renewable jet fuel feedstocks can potentially offset the demand for petroleum based transportation resources, diversify cropping systems, and provide numerous ecosystem services . However, identifying suitable feedstock supplies remains a primary constraint to adoption. A 4-yr, multi-site experiment initiated in fall 2012 investigated the yield potential of six winter- and twelve spring-types of cool-season oilseed feedstocks. Sidney, MT (250 mm annual growing season precipitation) was one of eight sites in the western USA with others in Colorado, Idaho, Iowa, Minnesota, North Dakota, Oregon, and Texas. Winter types of Camelina sativa (1), Brassica napus (4), and B. rapa (1) were planted in mid-September, while spring types of Camelina sativa (1), B. napus (4), B. rapa (1), B. juncea (2), B. carinata (2), and Sinapis alba (2) were planted in early to late April. Seeding rates varied by entry and were between 4 to 11 kg/ha. All plots were under no-till management. Plots were 3 by 9 m with each treatment (oilseed entry) replicated four times. Camelina 'Joelle' was the only fall-seeded entry that survived winters with little to no snow cover on plots and where minimum air temperature reached -32°C. Stands of 'Joelle' in the spring of all years were excellent. 'Joelle' plots were typically harvested in July, while spring types were harvested 2-6 weeks later. Severe hailstorms during the late growing seasons of 2013 and 2015 resulted in up to 95% seed loss, preventing normal seed yield harvest of spring types. The B. carinata and spring camelina were the least and most susceptible to hail damage during plant maturity, respectively. 'Joelle' winter camelina was harvested before the severe weather in both years, showing the benefit of an early maturing crop in regions prone to late season hail. Overall, camelina was the only winter type that showed potential as an oilseed feedstock due to its superior winter hardiness. For spring types, B. napus, Camelina sativa, and B

  2. Towards a whole-genome sequence for rye (Secale cereale L.)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bauer, Eva; Schmutzer, Thomas; Barilar, Ivan; Mascher, Martin; Gundlach, Heidrun; Martis, Mihaela-Maria; Twardziok, Sven O; Hackauf, Bernd; Gordillo, Andres; Wilde, Peer; Schmidt, Malthe; Korzun, Viktor; Mayer, Klaus F. X; Schmid, Karl; Schoen, Chris-Carolin; Scholz, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    We report on a whole-genome draft sequence of rye (Secale cereale L.). Rye is a diploid Triticeae species closely related to wheat and barley, and an important crop for food and feed in Central and Eastern Europe...

  3. Ergot alkaloids in some rye-based UK cereal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, C; Anderson, W A C; Rees, G; Krska, R

    2009-01-01

    UK rye-based cereal products were analysed for six major ergot alkaloids using an in-house-validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method that distinguished -ine and -inine epimers (isomers). Ergot alkaloids were detected in 25 of 28 samples subject to quantification limits of 1-3 µg kg(-1), including all of eleven rye crispbreads that had up to 340 µg kg(-1). Continental-style rye breads contained up to 121 µg kg(-1). Loaf breads, bread-mix flours, and crackers contained only low levels of alkaloids. Ergotamine, ergocristine, and ergosine were the predominant ergot alkaloids in terms of level and frequency of occurrence. There were no apparent differences in the ergot levels between the organic and non-organic products, although the numbers tested were low. Most rye breads had a ratio of -ines to -inines of about 1.5, and rye crispbreads had lower and more variable -ine to -inine ratios.

  4. Effect of bread dough mixing method on rye bread quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Dragutin A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sourdough (indirect bread dough mixing method on the quality of rye/wheat bread (TYPE 500 wheat flour and whole grain rye flour - 60:40 and determine its advantages over the straight dough method. Three bread dough mixing methods were used: I - indirect bread dough mixing using flour scalding; II - indirect bread dough mixing without flour scalding; III - straight dough mixing. The study involved the monitoring of the following: microbial characterristics of the flour and dough (yeasts and lactic acid bacteria and of the bread (presence of Enterobacteriaceae, yeasts and moulds; chemical properties of the dough and the bread (pH and degree of acidity; organoleptic attributes of bread (volume, porosity according to Dallman, crumb elasticity, pore structure fineness, bread crumb score, external appearance, crumb appearance, flavour of both the crust and the crumb. The results showed the highest counts of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in the indirect bread dough mixing method using rye flour scalding. The rye/wheat bread made with sourdough had a mild sourish flavour, an intense aroma, a prolonged shelf life, and reduced crumbliness. The study suggests that the technological process of sourdough-type rye/wheat bread making is an important requirement in improving bread quality and assortment that can be used in any bakery facility.[ Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31057 i br. III 46009

  5. The importance of winter forage crops and mixtures in total fodder needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvonimir Štafa

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Winter cereals and legume crops may be used in early spring as forages. The surpluses of produced mixtures are ensilaged. Under dry land conditions some mixtures are dried for hay, or used for grain production after physiological maturity. The early cultivars of fodder rapeseed (Perko and Starška were cut as early as in the middle of April, winter rye at the end of April, triticale at the beginning of May, while winter wheat cutting time was in the middle of May. Winter fodder pea can be used from the beginning of May and by the middle of June. The mixture of winter rye and fodder pea yielded 32.5 %, 26.3 %, 56.0 % and 26.0 % more green mass yield, dry matter yield, digestible crude protein and starch units, respectively, compared to pure winter rye crop. Generally, the advantages of winter cereals and legume mixtures are in higher and more stable yields, balanced fodder, easy cut, and decreased yield losses.

  6. Mycoflora and mycotoxin production in oilseed cakes during farm storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, Caroline; Heutte, Natacha; Richard, Estelle; Bouchart, Valerie; Lebailly, Pierre; Garon, David

    2009-02-25

    Agricultural activities involve the use of oilseed cakes as a source of proteins for livestock. Because the storage of oilseed cakes could induce the development of molds and the production of mycotoxins, a survey was conducted during the 5 months of farm storage. Mycoflora was studied by microscopic examinations, and the presence of Aspergillus fumigatus was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. A multimycotoxin method was developed to quantify seven mycotoxins (aflatoxin B(1), alternariol, fumonisin B(1), gliotoxin, ochratoxin A, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone) in oilseed cakes by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Among 34 fungal species identified, A. fumigatus and Aspergillus repens were observed during 5 and 4 months, respectively. Gliotoxin, an immunosuppressive mycotoxin, was quantified in oilseed cakes up to 45 microg/kg, which was associated with the presence of toxigenic isolates of A. fumigatus.

  7. The globalization of international oilseeds trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittaine Jean-François

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In a globalised world, the trade of goods and services constitute the heart of the economic system. But the trade patterns may show extreme diversity depending upon the nature of the concerned products. The technical and functional constraints do impose their laws, particularly when they relate to biological products/commodities. The term globalization is generally used to describe a complex process of international integration. When referring to oilseeds, the term must also relate to agriculture and human nutritional requirements for a rising human population spread all over the world, particularly in large urban environment. With an annual harvest of about 450 Mn T, oilseeds are naturally “globalized” in their production patterns. The complexity of their production schemes associated with the diversity of their usage on widespread geographical regions gives this group of commodities a unique role on the world markets. This process of opened trade channels has enabled the sector to meet the supply requirements of a quickly rising demand coming from both the population and all the industrial usages including alternative “green” energy. However, for the time being, demand growth has not been fully counter-balanced by production growth. As a consequence, unless some strict reallocation of acreage is effectively organized or new high yielding technologies are developed, it is a fact that vegetable oil will keep a strong demand base for a long time, compounded by the mechanical demand from economic growth in highly populated emerging economies. The balancing of supply and demand is expected to remain a tight exercise every year. At the end of the day, the future of the entire industry largely lies in technology because the final stake is to ensure the proper feeding of a 9 billion people population in a not too far future.

  8. Double-cropping with winter camelina in the northern Corn Belt to produce fuel and food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelina (Camelina sativa L.) is a viable oilseed feedstock for biofuels. Recently, it was shown that fall-seeded winter camelina can be successfully grown in the upper Midwest and may be harvested early enough the following summer to allow producing a second crop. Double-cropping may offer a profit...

  9. Xylanase supplementation to rye diets for growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Pedersen, Trine Friis; Blaabjerg, Karoline

    2016-01-01

    Supplementation of xylanase to pig diets can hydrolyze arabinoxylan (AX) into lower molecular weight compounds and thereby decrease the viscosity and improve nutrient utilization. Xylanase supplementation has, however, shown variable effects in diets containing wheat, rye, and combinations thereof...... excretion of N and P did not differ among treatments. Besides a linear effect (P = 0.05) on ATTD of fat, there were neither linear nor quadratic responses to xylanase supplementation on ATTD of OM, starch, NSP, AX, fat, N, and P. In conclusion, supplementation of endo-1,4-β-xylanase did not improve...... the nutritional value of rye in growing pigs....

  10. Identification of the chromosomes of the rye translocation tester set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sybenga, J; van Eden, J; van der Meijs, Q G; Roeterdink, B W

    1985-05-01

    Intercrossing the Wageningen translocation tester set of rye and the series of 'Imperial' rye additions to 'Chinese Spring' wheat of Sears yielded 29 chromosome disomic translocation hybrids. Observation of trivalents led to the identification of the chromosomes of the tester set in terms of the terminology system used in the Triticinae. The analysis was complicated by very low chiasma frequencies in some short chromosome segments in the hybrids. Nevertheless, it could be safely concluded that 1R=VII; 2R=III; 3R=II; 4R=IV; 5R=VI; 6R=V; 7R=I, which deviates slightly from previous classifications based on other methods.

  11. Phenology of cabbage stem flea beetle (Psylliodes chrysocephala L in oilseed rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivčev Lazar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cabbage stem flea beetle (Psylliodeschrysocephala (L. is an important pest of winter oilseed rape in Serbia. Beetles colonize oilseed rape in early October and are active in the field until first frost and wintertime. In autumn, adults can be seen laying eggs in the soil around plants. Larvae of P. chrysocephala developed intensively on leaf petioles in November, reaching their highest numbers at the end of the month. No infested plants were found in a conventional field, while 14.5% of all dissected leaf petioles were infested on an integrated field. On unprotected plants in an organic field, 76.0% of the plants were infested with larvae at the growth-stage BBCH 18-19, with 31.1% infested leaves on average. As a results, the number of plants was reduced by 51%, i.e. from 43.0/m2 recorded in the autumn to 22.0/m2 in the following spring. A new generation of P. chrysocephala beetles emerged from the soil in the first half of June and rapidly escaped the fields from almost dry plants. Our results showed that a part of the population stayed in aestivation and emerged in the following crop during the next season. On the following 5 March, 0.5 beetles/m2 were found in emergence cages in the organic field, while 0.81 beetles/m2 were found in the former trap crop.

  12. Performance of process-based models for simulation of grain N in crop rotations across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Xiaogang; Kersebaum, KC; Kollas, C

    2017-01-01

    calibration. The models performed better in predicting the grain N of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) compared to spring oat (Avena sativa L.), winter rye (Secale cereale L.), pea (Pisum sativum L.) and winter oilseed rape...

  13. The metabolism of aged seeds. The involvement of the pentose phosphate pathway in respiration in germinating rye grains of various ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Zalewski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Winter rye grains from different harvest years (having distinctly different viabilities were studied in terms of germination, total dehydrogenase activity and growth analysis. Reduction of seed vigor and viability was accompanied by a decrease in the intensity of embryo respiration during germination. The use of (1-14C glucose and (6-14C glucose showed that germinating rye embryos catabolize glucose through glycolysis, Krebs cycle and the pentose phosphate pathway. It was also shown that the C6/C1 ratio in respiring embryos initially increased during the first 48 hours of germination, then dropped, which suggests a mounting contribution of the PP pathway to the overall cotabolism. The oxidation of glucose in, embryos from the most deteriorated grains proceeded through glycolysis and Krebs cycle only.

  14. EFFECT OF THE METHOD OF PREPARATION OF RYE GRAIN ON ITS MICROSTRUCTURE AND SAFETY INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Ponomareva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. One of the main issues in the baking industry is currently the development and introduction of new products increased nutritional value. By promising area of enrichment products include the use of whole grains. Currently pressing issue is expanding the range of bakery products by applying the functional orientation of the whole grain rye. Expand the range of bread from a mixture of rye and wheat flour can be due to the use of whole grain rye. German company "Irex" developed a method of preparing a mixture of products from rye and wheat flour with the addition of acidified whole rye "Saftkorn." The experiment was conducted microstructure definition, content of toxic elements (cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic and microbiological indicators rye "Saftkorn" and "Avanguard". The microstructure and grain safety performance prepared in different ways. The difference in the microstructure of rye "Saftсorn" (Germany and "Аvangard" (Russia. Proven that their microbiological parameters were within acceptable limits.

  15. Molecular Characterization of Aluminium (aluminum) Tolerance in Rye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity, affecting around half of the world’s arable land, severely hinders the ability of crop plants to utilize moisture and nutrients by restricting root growth and function. Among the cultivated cereals, rye is the most Al-tolerant and represents an important potential source of ...

  16. Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on Winter Cover Crops Used in Cotton Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timper, Patricia; Davis, Richard F; Tillman, P Glynn

    2006-03-01

    Substantial reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on winter cover crops may lead to damaging populations in a subsequent cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) crop. The amount of population increase during the winter depends on soil temperature and the host status of the cover crop. Our objectives were to quantify M. incognita race 3 reproduction on rye (Secale cereale) and several leguminous cover crops and to determine if these cover crops increase population densities of M. incognita and subsequent damage to cotton. The cover crops tested were 'Bigbee' berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum), 'Paradana' balansa clover (T. balansae), 'AU Sunrise' and 'Dixie' crimson clover (T. incarnatum), 'Cherokee' red clover (T. pratense), common and 'AU Early Cover' hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), 'Cahaba White' vetch (V. sativa), and 'Wrens Abruzzi' rye. In the greenhouse tests, egg production was greatest on berseem clover, Dixie crimson clover, AU Early Cover hairy vetch, and common hairy vetch; intermediate on Balansa clover and AU Sunrise crimson clover; and least on rye, Cahaba White vetch, and Cherokee red clover. In both 2002 and 2003 field tests, enough heat units were accumulated between 1 January and 20 May for the nematode to complete two generations. Both AU Early Cover and common hairy vetch led to greater root galling than fallow in the subsequent cotton crop; they also supported high reproduction of M. incognita in the greenhouse. Rye and Cahaba White vetch did not increase root galling on cotton and were relatively poor hosts for M. incognita. Only those legumes that increased populations of M. incognita reduced cotton yield. In the southern US, M. incognita can complete one to two generations on a susceptible winter cover crop, so cover crops that support high nematode reproduction may lead to damage and yield losses in the following cotton crop. Planting rye or Meloidogyne-resistant legumes as winter cover crops will lower the risk of increased nematode populations

  17. A review on the challenges for the increased production of oilseeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review on the challenges for the increased production of oilseeds in Ethiopia. ... Ethiopian Journal of Agricultural Sciences ... This paper presents the trends of production, utilization and export of oilseeds and import of vegetable oils; available technologies and the prospects of increasing oilseeds production in Ethiopia.

  18. Oilseeds for use in biodiesel and drop-in renewable jet fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oilseeds, primarily soybean and canola, are currently used as feedstocks for biodiesel production. Oilseeds can also be used to produce drop-in renewable jet fuel and diesel products. While soybean and canola are the most common oilseed crops used for renewable fuel production in the U.S., many othe...

  19. The Effect of Biodiesel Policies on World Oilseed Markets and Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Drabik, Dusan; de Gorter, Harry; Timilsina, Govinda R.

    2013-01-01

    Using an empirical model, this study provides some insights into the functioning of the oilseed-biodiesel-diesel market complex in a large country that determines the biodiesel price, reflecting market equilibrium changes resulting from volatility in the crude oil price. Oilseed crushing produces joint products -- oil and meal -- and this weakens the link between the biodiesel and oilseed...

  20. Effects of fungicides on in vitro spore germination and mycelial growth of the phytopathogens Leptosphaeria maculans and L. biglobosa (phoma stem canker of oilseed rape).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Maria R; Rossall, Stephen; Selley, Andrew; Fitt, Bruce D L

    2010-04-01

    Phoma stem canker, caused by the coexisting related fungal pathogens Leptosphaeria maculans (Des.) Ces. & de Not and L. biglobosa Shoemaker & H Brun, is a major disease of winter oilseed rape in the UK. Annually, over 90% of UK crops receive at least one foliar application of fungicide, but little is known about the sensitivity of the more damaging L. maculans and the less damaging L. biglobosa to these fungicides. The effects of flusilazole, tebuconazole and Methyl Benzimidazole Carbamate (MBC) fungicides (benomyl and carbendazim) on the germination of ascospores, conidia and germ tube growth of both species were examined. Isolates collected from different oilseed rape crops in England and Wales were assessed for their mycelial growth on fungicide-amended medium, and ED(50) values were calculated. Leptosphaeria maculans and L. biglobosa differed in their sensitivity to fungicides. Conidial germination of L. maculans was more sensitive to these fungicides than that of L. biglobosa. Isolates of L. maculans had smaller ED(50) values for mycelial growth for all fungicides tested than isolates of L. biglobosa. These results suggest that fungicide applications might affect the structure of L. maculans/L. biglobosa populations in UK winter oilseed rape crops.

  1. Brewing with 100 % unmalted grains: barley, wheat, oat and rye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhuang, Shiwen; Shetty, Radhakrishna; Hansen, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    Whilst beers have been produced using various levels of unmalted grains as adjuncts along with malt, brewing with 100 % unmalted grains in combination with added mashing enzymes remains mostly unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the brewing potential of 100 % unmalted barley, wheat......, oat and rye in comparison with 100 % malt. To address this, identical brewing methods were adopted at 10-L scale for each grain type by applying a commercial mashing enzyme blend (Ondea® Pro), and selected quality attributes were assessed for respective worts and beers. Different compositions...... barley, oat, rye or wheat using exogenously added enzymes. It also helps to understand the process ability by revealing specific needs when manufacturing different type of beers from unmalted grains, potentially paving the way to process optimisation and development of future products....

  2. 7 CFR 810.1204 - Grades and grade requirements for rye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for rye. 810.1204... Application of Standards § 810.1204 Grades and grade requirements for rye. Grade Minimum test weight per... 49.0 6.0 10.0 3.0 15.0 U.S. Sample grade— U.S. Sample grade is rye that: (a) Does not meet the...

  3. Responsiveness of Urinary and Plasma Alkylresorcinol Metabolites to Rye Intake in Finnish Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mylène Aubertin-Leheudre

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Alkylresorcinols [ARs] have been proposed for use as biomarkers of whole-grain intake. The aim here was to examine the responsiveness of AR metabolites to rye intake. Sixty women were divided into three groups according to their rye consumption. We observed significant differences between groups in plasma 3-[3,5-dihydroxyphenyl]-1-propanoic acid [DHPPA] and in urinary DHPPA and 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid [DHBA]. In addition, these AR metabolites increased proportionally to rye fiber intake. We conclude that these ARs metabolites are accurate and useful biomarkers of rye fiber intake. Further studies are needed to confirm our results in larger and different populations.

  4. Oilseed rape genotypes response to boron toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Jasna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Response of 16 oilseed rape genotypes to B (boron toxicity was analyzed by comparing the results of two experiments conducted in a glasshouse. In Experiment 1 plants were grown in standard nutrient solutions with 10 µMB (control and 1000 µM B. Relative root and shoot growth varied from 20-120% and 31-117%, respectively. Variation in B concentration in shoots was also wide (206.5-441.7 µg B g-1 DW as well as total B uptake by plant (62.3-281.2 µg B g1. Four selected genotypes were grown in Experiment 2 in pots filled with high B soil (8 kg ha-1 B; B8. Shoot growth was not affected by B8 treatment, while root and shoot B concentration was significantly increased compared to control. Genotypes Panther and Pronto which performed low relative root and shoot growth and high B accumulation in plants in Experiment 1, had good growth in B8 treatment. In Experiment 2 genotype NS-L-7 had significantly lower B concentration in shots under treatment B8, but also very high B accumulation in Experiment 1. In addition, cluster analyses classified genotypes in three groups according to traits contrasting in their significance for analyzing response to B toxicity. The first group included four varieties based on their shared characteristics that have small value for the relative growth of roots and shoots and large values of B concentration in shoot. In the second largest group were connected ten genotypes that are heterogeneous in traits and do not stand out on any characteristic. Genotypes NS-L-7 and Navajo were separated in the third group because they had big relative growth of root and shoot, but also a high concentration of B in the shoot, and high total B uptake. Results showed that none of tested genotypes could not be recommended for breeding process to tolerance for B toxicity. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 173028

  5. Quantification of Plasmodiophora brassicae Using a DNA-Based Soil Test Facilitates Sustainable Oilseed Rape Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Charlotte Wallenhammar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of clubroot disease caused by the soil-borne obligate parasite Plasmodiophora brassicae are common in oilseed rape (OSR in Sweden. A DNA-based soil testing service that identifies fields where P. brassicae poses a significant risk of clubroot infection is now commercially available. It was applied here in field surveys to monitor the prevalence of P. brassicae DNA in field soils intended for winter OSR production and winter OSR field experiments. In 2013 in Scania, prior to planting, P. brassicae DNA was detected in 60% of 45 fields on 10 of 18 farms. In 2014, P. brassicae DNA was detected in 44% of 59 fields in 14 of 36 farms, in the main winter OSR producing region in southern Sweden. P. brassicae was present indicative of a risk for >10% yield loss with susceptible cultivars (>1300 DNA copies g soil−1 in 47% and 44% of fields in 2013 and 2014 respectively. Furthermore, P. brassicae DNA was indicative of sites at risk of complete crop failure if susceptible cultivars were grown (>50 000 copies g−1 soil in 14% and 8% of fields in 2013 and 2014, respectively. A survey of all fields at Lanna research station in western Sweden showed that P. brassicae was spread throughout the farm, as only three of the fields (20% showed infection levels below the detection limit for P.brassicae DNA, while the level was >50,000 DNA copies g−1 soil in 20% of the fields. Soil-borne spread is of critical importance and soil scraped off footwear showed levels of up to 682 million spores g−1 soil. Soil testing is an important tool for determining the presence of P. brassicae and providing an indication of potential yield loss, e.g., in advisory work on planning for a sustainable OSR crop rotation. This soil test is gaining acceptance as a tool that increases the likelihood of success in precision agriculture and in applied research conducted in commercial oilseed fields and at research stations. The present application highlights the importance of

  6. Green solvents and technologies for oil extraction from oilseeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S P Jeevan; Prasad, S Rajendra; Banerjee, Rintu; Agarwal, Dinesh K; Kulkarni, Kalyani S; Ramesh, K V

    2017-01-01

    Oilseeds are crucial for the nutritional security of the global population. The conventional technology used for oil extraction from oilseeds is by solvent extraction. In solvent extraction, n-hexane is used as a solvent for its attributes such as simple recovery, non-polar nature, low latent heat of vaporization (330 kJ/kg) and high selectivity to solvents. However, usage of hexane as a solvent has lead to several repercussions such as air pollution, toxicity and harmfulness that prompted to look for alternative options. To circumvent the problem, green solvents could be a promising approach to replace solvent extraction. In this review, green solvents and technology like aqueous assisted enzyme extraction are better solution for oil extraction from oilseeds. Enzyme mediated extraction is eco-friendly, can obtain higher yields, cost-effective and aids in obtaining co-products without any damage. Enzyme technology has great potential for oil extraction in oilseed industry. Similarly, green solvents such as terpenes and ionic liquids have tremendous solvent properties that enable to extract the oil in eco-friendly manner. These green solvents and technologies are considered green owing to the attributes of energy reduction, eco-friendliness, non-toxicity and non-harmfulness. Hence, the review is mainly focussed on the prospects and challenges of green solvents and technology as the best option to replace the conventional methods without compromising the quality of the extracted products.

  7. Flowering dynamics and pollinator visitation of oilseed echium (Echium plantagineum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echium (Echium plantagineum L.) is an alternative oilseed crop in summer-wet temperate regions that provides floral resources to pollinators. Its seed oil is rich in omega-3 fatty acids, such as stearidonic acid, which is desired highly by the cosmetic industry. We examined flowering dynamics, polli...

  8. The global market for oilseeds: prospects and challenges for Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosselet Nathalie

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The global market for oilseeds, grains, vegetable oil and oilseed meal is a complex market which is growing at a very fast pace, and which is characterized by the large volume of production which is traded between countries. Offer is geographically constrained in this market: there are few exporting countries and these are mainly situated on the American continent. Demand on the other hand is more widespread, although highest in Asiatic countries, China in particular. As a result, small importing countries, like Morocco, are in a vulnerable position, and take the full brunt of price volatility. In the 90s, Moroccan oilseed production was relatively high, unfortunately production dropped over the years, and Morocco must now buy vegetable oil and proteins on the global market. Reviving oilseed production in Morocco would considerably help the country and provide numerous benefits, such as food security, improving the country’s trade balance, and enhancing the agronomic management of land thanks to the introduction of break crops. Finally, it would also boost the entire agricultural sector and help increase the income of farmers.

  9. Biological control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (oilseed rape isolate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib) De Bary, the causal agent of stem rot of oilseed rape, is one of the most important phytopathogens. In order to find appropriate biocontrol agents, antagonistic and especially chitinolytical activities of 110 soil actinomycetes were examined. Among assayed isolates, Streptomyces sp. isolate 422 ...

  10. Sesame: the Underexploited Organic Oilseed Crop | Olowe | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is an important oilseed crop that ranks sixth among vegetable oils worldwide. Asia and Africa respectively account for 2.55 and 0.95 of the 3.66 million tons produced worldwide. However, Africa's net export of the commodity is just 38% of its production, despite the fact that the Continent has ...

  11. Fungicide seed treatments for evaluating the corn seedling disease complex following a winter rye cover crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed treatments have been used to manage corn seedling diseases since the 1970’s and they contain a combination of active ingredients with specificity towards different pathogens. We hypothesized that using different seed treatment combinations and assessing seedling disease incidence and severity ...

  12. Factors affecting potential for Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) suppression by winter rye in Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbicide resistant Palmer amaranth has rapidly become a dominant weed management issue in agronomic crops of the Southeast U. S. The small size of Palmer amaranth seeds, relative to other common weeds, provides an opportunity to use physical weed control through high-biomass, rolled cover crop mul...

  13. Use of swine wastewater in oilseed radish crop: agronomic and environmental aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaisa Pegoraro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Swine effluent has been applied to soils to promote nutrient cycling and reduce the uncontrolled disposal of effluents into bodies of water. However, the use of these effluents on various crops has raised environmental and public health concerns. Oilseed radish crop (Raphanus sativus L. is a winter crop planted in no-tillage systems as a green fertilizer that also can be used for biodiesel, and it requires high levels of nutrients for its development. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the environmental and agronomic effects of the application of swine wastewater on oilseed radish. The experiment was conducted in a 0.162 ha area with the following treatments: unirrigated (rainfed, irrigated, and fertilized with swine wastewater (370 m3 ha-1 cycle-1. After each rainfall event, analyses were conducted for the main macro and micronutrients in the runoff and percolated material from drainage lysimeters. Changes in the physical and chemical characteristics of the soil were also analyzed, as were the agronomic and nutritional indices of the dry crop phytomass in full blooming stage. Application of swine wastewater at a level of 370 m3 ha-1 produces a crop with better agronomic quality. Over the long term, however, caution should be taken regarding the surface runoff of NO3-, P, K, Mn and total salts and the percolation of NO3-, Na and Cu. Moreover, the rainfall occurred one day after fertigation contributed to the increase of the levels of P, K, Na, Cu, Zn and Mn in the percolated material.

  14. Isolation of rye-specific DNA fragment and genetic diversity analysis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rye (Secale cereale L.) is one of the most widely uti- lized sources in wheat breeding. Biochemical (Dhaliwal et al. 1988) and cytological (Belyayev et al. 2001) strategies have been used to identify rye chromatins in wheat back- grounds. The major limitation of these techniques is that they are highly technical and ...

  15. Isolation of rye-specific DNA fragment and genetic diversity analysis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 89; Issue 4. Isolation of rye-specific DNA fragment and genetic diversity analysis of rye genus Secale L. using wheat SSR markers. Shulan Fu Zongxiang Tang Zhenglong Ren Huaiqiong Zhang Benju Yan. Research Note Volume 89 Issue 4 December 2010 pp 489-492 ...

  16. The specificity and genetic background of the rye (Secale cereale L.) tissue culture response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targońska, Małgorzata; Hromada-Judycka, Aneta; Bolibok-Brągoszewska, Hanna; Rakoczy-Trojanowska, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Rye is one of the most important crops in Eastern and Northern Europe. Despite the numerous beneficial features of rye, its annual production decreases successively which correlates with the lack of progress in its breeding compared with other cereals. Biotechnological methods could effectively improve the breeding of rye. However, their application is highly limited by the absence of an efficient procedure for plant regeneration in vitro, since rye is one of the most recalcitrant cereals with regard to the tissue culture response (TCR), and successful regeneration is highly dependent on genotype. Efforts to understand the genetic mechanisms controlling TCR of rye have elucidated some basic aspects, and several genes and genome regions controlling this trait have been identified. The aim of this review is to summarize the limited current knowledge of this topic.

  17. THE EFFECT OF SOME TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS ON THE RYE SOURDOUGH BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Banu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The modern biotechnology of bread production uses sourdough as a natural leavening agent. In rye bread making the sourdough is essential. The aim of this paper was to examine the influence of starter culture types, flour extraction rate, dough yield and temperature of fermentation on the quality of the sourdough rye bread. The sourdough was prepared using a mixed culture of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus brevis. The rye breads prepared with 20% sourdough and bread with no sourdough were investigated. The addition of sourdough increases the loaf specific volume relative to control sample. The best results were obtained in case of sourdough made from dark rye flour, 300 dough yield, after 24 h fermentation at 30 °C. The porosity of the bread was estimated by analyzing the scanned images of the vertically halved bread. Digital image analysis revealed that the cell-to-total area ratio was lower for the sourdough prepared with whole rye bread.

  18. Mapping the mosaic of ancestral genotypes in a cultivar of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) selected via pedigree breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, A G; Lydiate, D J

    2003-06-01

    Recent oilseed rape breeding has produced low glucosinolate cultivars that yield proteinaceous meal suitable for animal feed. The low glucosinolate character was introduced into modern cultivars from Brassica napus 'Bronowski', a cultivar that is agronomically inferior in most other respects. Residual segments of 'Bronowski' genotype in modern cultivars probably cause reduced yield, poorer winter hardiness, and lower oil content. The quantity and distribution of the 'Bronowski' genotype in the modern oilseed rape cultivar Brassica napus 'Tapidor' was investigated using a segregating population derived from a cross between 'Tapidor' and its high glucosinolate progenitor. This population was analyzed with 65 informative Brassica RFLP probes and a genetic linkage map, based on the segregation at 77 polymorphic loci, was constructed. The mapping identified 15 residual segments of donor genotype in 'Tapidor', which together occupy approximately 29% of the B. napus genome. Mapping the loci that control variation for the accumulation of total seed glucosinolates in the segregating population has identified three loci that together explain >90% of the variation for this character. All of these loci are in donor segments of the 'Tapidor' genome. This result shows the extent to which conventional breeding programmes have difficulty in eliminating residual segments of donor genotype from elite material.

  19. Evaluation of Yield and Yield Components of Oilseed Rape in the Wheat-Oilseed Rape Strip Intercropping Influenced by Chemical and Biological Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Amirmardfar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of wheat (Triticum aestivum and oilseed rape (Brassica napus strip intercropping on yield components, seed and biological yields of oilseed rape, field experiments were carried out as factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications at Research Farm of Tabriz University, Tabriz, Iran during 2010-2012 cropping seasons. The first factor consisted of four types of wheat and oilseed rape cropping system, sole crop of oilseed rape (A1,: strip intercropping with 8:3 (A2, 12:4 (A3 and 16:5 (A4 of wheat and oilseed rape rows, respectively and the other factor consisted of two fertilizer levels, B1: 100% chemical fertilizers (urea and triple superphosphate and B2: 50% chemical fertilizers + biofertilizers (Nitrazhin and Barvar2. The results showed that strip intercropping of wheat- oilseed rape resulted in significant increase in yield components, seed yield per occupied unit area and biological yield per occupied unit area of oilseed rape as compared with mono-cropping. The number of silique per plant in intercropping systems was significantly higher than that of mono-cropping. The highest seed yield was obtained in the 16:5 rows of wheat-oilseed rape with 343.76 g.m-2 and the lowest mean was observed in mono-cropping of oilseed rape with 260.21 g.m-2. Biological yield per occupied unit area and seed yield per intercropped unit area in B1 were significantly greater than that of B2, but this treatment had no significant effect on the other traits. Because, B1 and B2 had no significant difference in seed yield per occupied unit area and due to the importance of reduction in chemical fertilizers consumption and food and environmental health care, strip intercropping of wheat-oilseed rape under 50% chemical fertilizers + biofertilizers can be recommended as a suitable cultural method.

  20. In vitro Fermentation, Digestion Kinetics and Methane Production of Oilseed Press Cakes from Biodiesel Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Palma, S M; Meale, S J; Pereira, L G R; Machado, F S; Carneiro, H; Lopes, F C F; Maurício, R M; Chaves, A V

    2013-08-01

    Following the extraction of oil for biodiesel production, oilseed press cakes are high in fat. As the dietary supplementation of fat is currently considered the most promising strategy of consistently depressing methanogenesis, it follows that oilseed press cakes may have a similar potential for CH4 abatement. As such, this study aimed to characterise the nutritive value of several oilseed press cakes, glycerine and soybean meal (SBM) and to examine their effects on in vitro ruminal fermentation, digestion kinetics and CH4 production. Moringa press oil seeds exhibited the greatest in sacco effective degradability (ED) of DM and CP (pMoringa oilseed press cakes produced the lowest CH4 (mg/g digested DM) at 6 and 12 h of incubation (pmoringa oilseed press cake at 400 g/kg DM has the greatest potential of the oilseed press cakes examined in this study, to reduce CH4 production, without adversely affecting nutrient degradability.

  1. Postprandial glucose metabolism and SCFA after consuming wholegrain rye bread and wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran in individuals with mild gastrointestinal symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lappi, J; Mykkänen, H; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2014-01-01

    .05) and propionate (p = 0.009) at 30 min increased during both rye bread periods.ConclusionsBeneficial effects of WGR over white wheat bread on glucose and SCFA production were confirmed. The enrichment of the white wheat bread with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) yielded similar but not as pronounced effects than......BackgroundRye bread benefits glucose metabolism. It is unknown whether the same effect is achieved by rye bran-enriched wheat bread. We tested whether white wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) and sourdough wholegrain rye bread (WGR) have similar effects on glucose metabolism...... were similar between the WGR and BRB + WW periods. When compared to the WW period, postprandial insulin concentration at 120 min was lower (p = 0.023) and the first-phase insulin secretion improved (p = 0.033) only after the WGR period, whereas postprandial concentrations of butyrate (p 

  2. Fermentation, Digestion Kinetics and Methane Production of Oilseed Press Cakes from Biodiesel Production

    OpenAIRE

    S. M. Olivares-Palma; S. J. Meale; PEREIRA, L. G. R.; MACHADO, F. S.; Carneiro, H.; F.C.F. Lopes; MAURÍCIO, R. M.; Chaves, A. V.

    2013-01-01

    Following the extraction of oil for biodiesel production, oilseed press cakes are high in fat. As the dietary supplementation of fat is currently considered the most promising strategy of consistently depressing methanogenesis, it follows that oilseed press cakes may have a similar potential for CH4 abatement. As such, this study aimed to characterise the nutritive value of several oilseed press cakes, glycerine and soybean meal (SBM) and to examine their effects on in vitro ruminal fermentat...

  3. Integrated pests monitoring of oilseed rape in means of biodiesel manufacture

    OpenAIRE

    Alasić, Vesna

    2008-01-01

    Because of its high oil content (35 - 44 %) oilseed rape is an important industrial culture. Recently, biodiesel manufacture is especially active. In fact, in the countries of the EU, manufacture of biodiesel has reached its optimum, but sadly, in Republic of Croatia that small amount of biodiesel that is manufactured is obtained from recycled oil. This paper writes about the statistic data in manufacture of oilseed rape, pests of oilseed rape and about presentation of the project: “Integrate...

  4. The Effect of Biodiesel Policies on World Biodiesel and Oilseed Prices

    OpenAIRE

    de Gorter, Harry; Drabik, Dusan; Timilsina, Govinda R.

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical and empirical model is developed to analyze the effect of a biodiesel mandate, a tax exemption (tax credit) and an exogenous diesel price shock on world soybean and canola markets. The jointness in crushing oil and meal from the oilseed reduces the size of the link between biodiesel and oilseed prices. A diesel price shock with a mandate results in a smaller change in oilseed prices compared with a tax exemption. Higher diesel prices increase biodiesel prices under a tax exempti...

  5. Seed dressings to control slug damage in oilseed rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, Louise C; Mullins, Christopher E; Wilson, Michael J

    2002-07-01

    Slugs are major pests of oilseed rape that are poorly controlled by conventional bait pellets. A series of laboratory experiments investigated the potential of seed-dressings to control slug damage in this crop. Four compounds: metaldehyde, methiocarb, cinnamamide and 3,5-dimethoxycinnamic acid (DMCA) were tested at a range of doses for phytotoxicity and ability to reduce damage by Deroceras reticulatum (Müller). Metaldehyde and methiocarb were not phytotoxic at any doses, whereas all doses of cinnamamide and DMCA were. All compounds reduced slug damage, but metaldehyde and methiocarb consistently performed better than cinnamamide and DMCA. Metaldehyde and methiocarb seed-dressings were compared with baited pellets containing the same active ingredients at recommended field doses. The seed-dressings protected plants from damage by D reticulatum and Arion subfuscus (Draparnaud) as well as, or better than, baited pellets. We therefore recommend that metaldehyde and methiocarb should be field-tested as seed dressings to control slugs in oilseed rape.

  6. Applications of Enzymes in Oil and Oilseed Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xuebing

    conventionally high temperature conditioning or cooking is necessary. The good story in industry is the fish oil and olive oil processing. Good quality and higher oil yield have been achieved through the use of enzymes in the processing stages. For the refining stage, the use of enzymes for degumming has......Enzymes, through the last 20-30 years research and development, have been widely explored for the uses in oil and oilseed processing. Following the conventional processing technology from oilseeds, the oil can be produced through pressing or solvent extraction. The crude oil is then refined to meet...... edible requirements. The oil can be also modified to meet functional or even nutritional needs. In each of those steps, enzymes have been used in industry successfully. For the oil processing stage, enzymes have been used to destroy the cell structure so that makes the oil release easier, where...

  7. Impact of different soil cultivation on weed species in winter rape (oilseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Winkler

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A community of weeds and crops is affected by a number of factors, including, among other things, also tillage. In the years 2000–2002, the composition of weed species in rape stands was evaluated on the fields with the total area of 551 hectares (1 hectar equals to some 2.47 acres. The evaluation was carried out with the application of methodology developed by Kühn (1982. On the fields located in the cadastral area of Olomouc – Holice, which had been cultivated in a traditional manner, 115 relevés were recorded. On the fields in the cadastral area of Bohuňovice, which had been cultivated with the application of reduced tillage, 97 relevés were recorded and evaluated. All of the above fields were subjected to the application of chemical agents reducing the occurrence of weeds. The data thus received were processed by means of multidimensional analysis of ecological data with the application of a RDA method (Redundancy Analysis. In the course of three years, 75 weed species were found on the fields under conventional tillage, on the average, 8.2 species per a relevé, while 66 weed species were found during the same period of time on the fields cultivated by means of reduced tillage, on the average, 8.6 species per a relevé. The application of RDA analysis enabled us to sort out the selected species of weeds (i.e. those the frequency of occurrence of which exceeded 15 % into three groups. The conditions provided by the conventional tillage appeared to be more satisfactory for the weed species included in the first group (Arctium tomentosum, Elytrigia repens, Helianthus tuberosus, Chenopodium album, Lolium perenne and Papaver rhoeas. The species included in the second group, i.e. Alsinula media, Apera spica-venti, Atriplex patula, Bromus sterilis, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Equisetum arvense, Fallopia convolvulus, Myosotis arvensis and Thlaspi arvense., responded to reduced tillage by the increase in cover or by increased frequency of occurrence. The third group consists of species such as: Cirsium arvense, Chamomilla recutita, Galium aparine, Lactuca serriola, Matricaria maritima, Triticum aestivum and Viola arvensis. Their cover and frequency of occurrence were in a more degree influenced by factors different from the type of tillage. The manner of tillage appears to be only one of a number of factors that affect the occurrence of weed species. It influences them together with other factors and it is a factor of polyfunctional nature.

  8. Study of Pea Accessions for Development of an Oilseed Pea

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsan Khodapanahi; Mark Lefsrud; Valerie Orsat; Jaswinder Singh; Tom D. Warkentin

    2012-01-01

    Global interest in stable energy resources coupled with growing demand for bio-oils in various conventional and arising industries has renewed the importance of vegetable oil production. To address this global interest, oilseed production has been increased in recent decades by different approaches, such as extending the cultivation area of oil crops, or breeding and growing genetically modified plants. In this study, pea ( Pisum sativum L.) accessions were screened for lipid content using a ...

  9. Occurrence of aflatoxins in oilseeds providing cocoa-butter substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, S J

    1982-01-01

    Four oilseeds providing cocoa-butter substitutes--shea, pentadecima, illipe, and salseed--when tested as substrates for aflatoxin production by two strains of Aspergillus parasiticus, gave varying levels of aflatoxin. Aflatoxins were found at low levels occurring naturally in moldy shea-nuts, but none of 21 commercial shea-nut samples contained greater than 20 micrograms of aflatoxin B1 per kg. PMID:6808919

  10. Are pesticide residues in honey related to oilseed rape treatments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karise, Reet; Raimets, Risto; Bartkevics, Vadims; Pugajeva, Iveta; Pihlik, Priit; Keres, Indrek; Williams, Ingrid H; Viinalass, Haldja; Mänd, Marika

    2017-12-01

    Pesticide treatments before and during the flowering of honey bee forage crops may lead to residues in honey. In northern regions oilseed rape belongs to the main forage crops that is mostly cultivated by means of intensive agriculture, including several pesticide treatments. However, in addition to the focal forage crops, pesticides from non-forage crops can spread to wild flowers around fields, and thus the residues in honey would reflect the whole range of pesticides used in the agricultural landscape. The aim of our study was to clarify which currently used pesticides are present in honey gathered from heterogeneous agricultural landscapes after the end of flowering of oilseed crops. Honey samples (N = 33) were collected from beehives of Estonia during 2013 and 2014, and analysed for residues of 47 currently used agricultural pesticides using the multiresidue method with HPLC-MS/MS and GC-MS and a single residue method for glyphosate, aminopyralid and clopyralid. Residues of eight different active ingredients with representatives from all three basic pesticide classes were determined. Although no correlation was detected between the cumulative amount of pesticide residues and percent of oilseed crops in the foraging territory, most of the residues are those allowed for oilseed rape treatments. Among all pesticides, herbicide residues prevailed in 2013 but not in 2014. Despite the relatively small agricultural impact of Estonia, the detected levels of pesticide residues sometimes exceeded maximum residue level; however, these concentrations do not pose a health risk to consumers, also acute toxicity to honey bees would be very unlikely. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Insecticide residues cross-contamination of oilseeds during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauguet Sylvie

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Pesticide residues are found in oilseeds and crude oils: they are mainly organophosphate insecticides (pirimiphos-methyl, dichlorvos, malathion used in empty storage facilities and for application to stored cereal grains. Even if pests are found in stored oilseeds, French regulation does not permit use of these insecticides on stored oilseeds, as they have affinity for these lipophilic subtances. These residues arise from cross-contamination during mechanical contact with storage bins and grain handling equipment, and not from illegal use. This uptake of insecticide residues from their storage environment by oilseeds can lead to levels that exceed regulatory limits. An investigation of 11 grain storage companies allowed us to follow the course of 27 sunflower seeds batches, from reception at the storage facilities to outloading. Samples from each of these batches, made at outloading, were analysed content for insecticide residues. Traceability of sunflower seeds established by storers allowed us to identify the origine of observed cross-contamination cases. Substances discovered were dichlorvos, pirimiphos-methyl and malathion (and chlorpyriphos-methyl in a single case. Pirimiphos-methyl was most commonly detected, but most cases of non-accordance with regulatory levels were observed with dichlorvos and malathion. Main cross-contamination hazard resulted from treatment of cereals at outloading, just before sunflower seeds were outloaded, especially when these cereals treatments were frequent on that elevator. Other situations led to cross-contaminations, but generally of lower levels: outloading of sunflower seeds after outloading of cereal that was treated at the reception, several weeks or months before; sunflower seeds stored in bin that contained previously treated cereal; empty bins and handling equipment treated before receipt of sunflower seeds.

  12. HEALTH BENEFITS OF KVASS MANUFACTURED FROM RYE WHOLEMEAL BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Gambuś

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Kvass based on traditional technology completely disappeared from polish market. It was replaced by drinks, prepared from malt concentrates, wrongly named kvass. The aim of this study was therefore to obtain traditional bread kvass (by fermentation, using the mash prepared from commercial wholemeal rye bread, produced by 5-phase dough fermentation method, and to determine the quality of this kvass in terms of consumer acceptance, chemical composition and antioxidant activity. It has been demonstrated that based on the traditional wholemeal rye bread, it is possible to produce good quality bread kvass, with similar organoleptic qualities to the commercial kvasses, which contain several added flavours and preservatives. Natural bread kvass can be consumed by consumers of all ages, since it contains only trace amounts of alcohol, and it has almost double the dietary fibre content and three times lower content of reducing sugars as compared to the commercial kvasses. Laboratory made kvasses by natural fermentation also showed an increase in antioxidant activity by 60%, when compared to commercial kvasses.

  13. Study of Pea Accessions for Development of an Oilseed Pea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Khodapanahi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Global interest in stable energy resources coupled with growing demand for bio-oils in various conventional and arising industries has renewed the importance of vegetable oil production. To address this global interest, oilseed production has been increased in recent decades by different approaches, such as extending the cultivation area of oil crops, or breeding and growing genetically modified plants. In this study, pea (Pisum sativum L. accessions were screened for lipid content using a rapid extraction method. This method quantifies lipid concentration in pea seeds and was developed by assessing and comparing the results of existing extraction methods used for canola and soybean, the top two Canadian oilseeds. Seeds of 151 field pea accessions were grown to maturity in 2009 and 2010 at McGill University (Quebec, Canada. Overall, lipid concentration in pea seeds ranged from 0.9 to 5.0%. Among several seed characteristics, only seed shape (wrinkled verses round had a significant effect on the total lipid production in the seeds. Peas are a valuable source of protein and starch, but the lipid concentration in their seeds has been undervalued. This research supports the idea of developing a novel dual-purpose oilseed pea that emulates the protein and oil production in soybean seeds while being conveniently adapted to a colder climate.

  14. Endogaeic ground beetles fauna in oilseed rape field in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zrinka DRMIĆ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The abundance of ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae in oilseed rape field can be an important indicator of different agricultural measures in arable land fauna. Surveys about ground beetle fauna in Croatia are generally very scarce and only few research on oilseed rape were conducted. The aim of this study was to determine the endogaeic ground beetle fauna in oilseed rape field and to determine species abundance and frequency. The study was carried out in Podravina region of Croatia, from the end of May till the mid-September in 2015. Ground beetles were collected using endogaeic traps incorporated in the soil. Altogether, 487 individuals classified into 8 species were collected. Species with the highest abundance and frequency was Brachinus (Brachinus psophia Audinet-Serville, 1821, which was classified as eudominant and constant species. The highest ground beetle abundance was observed in summer period. All of the species found were spring breeders, except for species Trechus (Trechus quadristriatus (Schrank, 1781 which breeds in autumn.

  15. Quantitative Multilevel Analysis of Central Metabolism in Developing Oilseeds of Oilseed Rape during in Vitro Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwender, Jörg; Hebbelmann, Inga; Heinzel, Nicolas; Hildebrandt, Tatjana; Rogers, Alistair; Naik, Dhiraj; Klapperstück, Matthias; Braun, Hans-Peter; Schreiber, Falk; Denolf, Peter; Borisjuk, Ljudmilla; Rolletschek, Hardy

    2015-07-01

    Seeds provide the basis for many food, feed, and fuel products. Continued increases in seed yield, composition, and quality require an improved understanding of how the developing seed converts carbon and nitrogen supplies into storage. Current knowledge of this process is often based on the premise that transcriptional regulation directly translates via enzyme concentration into flux. In an attempt to highlight metabolic control, we explore genotypic differences in carbon partitioning for in vitro cultured developing embryos of oilseed rape (Brassica napus). We determined biomass composition as well as 79 net fluxes, the levels of 77 metabolites, and 26 enzyme activities with specific focus on central metabolism in nine selected germplasm accessions. Overall, we observed a tradeoff between the biomass component fractions of lipid and starch. With increasing lipid content over the spectrum of genotypes, plastidic fatty acid synthesis and glycolytic flux increased concomitantly, while glycolytic intermediates decreased. The lipid/starch tradeoff was not reflected at the proteome level, pointing to the significance of (posttranslational) metabolic control. Enzyme activity/flux and metabolite/flux correlations suggest that plastidic pyruvate kinase exerts flux control and that the lipid/starch tradeoff is most likely mediated by allosteric feedback regulation of phosphofructokinase and ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. Quantitative data were also used to calculate in vivo mass action ratios, reaction equilibria, and metabolite turnover times. Compounds like cyclic 3',5'-AMP and sucrose-6-phosphate were identified to potentially be involved in so far unknown mechanisms of metabolic control. This study provides a rich source of quantitative data for those studying central metabolism. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Quantitative Multilevel Analysis of Central Metabolism in Developing Oilseeds of Oilseed Rape During In Vitro Culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwender, Jorg [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hebbelmann, Inga [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Heinzel, Nicholas [Leibniz Inst. of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Gatersleben (Germany); Hildebrandt, Tatjana [Univ. of Hannover (Germany); Rogers, Alistair [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Naik, Dhiraj [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Indian Inst. of Advanced Research Koba, Gujarat (India); Klapperstuck, Matthias [Monash Univ., Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Braun, Hans -Peter [Univ. of Hannover (Germany); Schreiber, Falk [Monash Univ., Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Univ. Halle-Wittenberg, Melbourne (Australia); Denolf, Peter [Bayer CropScience (Belgium); Borisjuk, Ljudmilla [Leibniz Inst. of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Gatersleben (Germany); Rolletschek, Hardy [Leibniz Inst. of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Gatersleben (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Seeds provide the basis for many food, feed, and fuel products. Continued increases in seed yield, composition, and quality require an improved understanding of how the developing seed converts carbon and nitrogen supplies into storage. Current knowledge of this process is often based on the premise that transcriptional regulation directly translates via enzyme concentration into flux. In an attempt to highlight metabolic control, we explore genotypic differences in carbon partitioning for in vitro cultured developing embryos of oilseed rape (Brassica napus). We determined biomass composition as well as 79 net fluxes, the levels of 77 metabolites, and 26 enzyme activities with specific focus on central metabolism in nine selected germplasm accessions. We observed a tradeoff between the biomass component fractions of lipid and starch. With increasing lipid content over the spectrum of genotypes, plastidic fatty acid synthesis and glycolytic flux increased concomitantly, while glycolytic intermediates decreased. The lipid/starch tradeoff was not reflected at the proteome level, pointing to the significance of (posttranslational) metabolic control. Enzyme activity/flux and metabolite/flux correlations suggest that plastidic pyruvate kinase exerts flux control and that the lipid/starch tradeoff is most likely mediated by allosteric feedback regulation of phosphofructokinase and ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. Also, quantitative data were used to calculate in vivo mass action ratios, reaction equilibria, and metabolite turnover times. Compounds like cyclic 3',5'-AMP and sucrose-6-phosphate were identified to potentially be involved in so far unknown mechanisms of metabolic control. This study provides a rich source of quantitative data for those studying central metabolism..

  17. WINTER SAECULUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Mihalina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Accumulated imbalances in the economy and on the markets cause specific financial market dynamics that have formed characteristic patterns kept throughout long financial history. In 2008 Authors presented their expectations of key macroeconomic and selected asset class markets developments for period ahead based on Saeculum theory. Use of term Secular describes a specific valuation environment during prolonged period. If valuations as well as selected macro variables are considered as a tool for understanding business cycles then market cycles become much more obvious and easily understandable. Therefore over the long run, certain asset classes do better in terms of risk reward profile than others. Further on, there is no need for frequent portfolio rebalancing and timing of specific investment positions within a particular asset class market. Current stage in cycle development suggests a need for reassessment of trends and prevailing phenomena due to cyclical nture of long lasting Saeculums. Paper reviews developments in recognizable patterns of selected metrics in current Winter Saeculum dominated with prevailing forces of delivering, deflation and decrease in velocity of money.

  18. Rye affects bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, microbiota composition and bone mineralization in Turkey poults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Tellez

    Full Text Available Previously, we have reported that rye significantly increased both viscosity and Clostridium perfringens proliferation when compared with corn in an in vitro digestive model. Two independent trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of rye as a source of energy on bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, gut microbiota composition, and bone mineralization, when compared with corn in turkey poults. In each experiment, day-of-hatch, turkey poults were randomly assigned to either a corn or a rye diet (n = 0 /group. At 10 d of age, in both experiments, 12 birds/group were given an oral gavage dose of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d. After 2.5 h of oral gavage, blood and liver samples were collected to evaluate the passage of FITC-d and bacterial translocation (BT respectively. Duodenum, ileum and cecum gut sections were collected to evaluate intestinal viscosity and to enumerate gut microbiota. Tibias were collected for observation of bone parameters. Broilers fed with a rye diet showed increased (p<0.05 intestinal viscosity, BT, and serum FITC-d. Bacterial enumeration revealed that turkey poults fed with rye had increased the number of total lactic acid bacteria (LAB in all three sections of the gastrointestinal tract evaluated when compared to turkey poults fed with corn. Turkey poults fed with rye also had significantly higher coliforms in duodenum and ileum but not in the ceca, whereas the total number of anaerobes increased only in duodenum. A significant reduction in bone strength and bone mineralization was observed in turkey poults fed with rye when compared with corn fed turkey poults. In conclusion, rye evoked mucosal damage in turkey poults that increased intestinal viscosity, increased leakage through the intestinal tract, and altered the microbiota composition and bone mineralization. Studies to evaluate dietary inclusion of selected Direct-Fed Microbial (DFM candidates that produce exogenous enzymes in rye fed

  19. Rye affects bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, microbiota composition and bone mineralization in Turkey poults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez, Guillermo; Latorre, Juan D; Kuttappan, Vivek A; Hargis, Billy M; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we have reported that rye significantly increased both viscosity and Clostridium perfringens proliferation when compared with corn in an in vitro digestive model. Two independent trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of rye as a source of energy on bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, gut microbiota composition, and bone mineralization, when compared with corn in turkey poults. In each experiment, day-of-hatch, turkey poults were randomly assigned to either a corn or a rye diet (n = 0 /group). At 10 d of age, in both experiments, 12 birds/group were given an oral gavage dose of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d). After 2.5 h of oral gavage, blood and liver samples were collected to evaluate the passage of FITC-d and bacterial translocation (BT) respectively. Duodenum, ileum and cecum gut sections were collected to evaluate intestinal viscosity and to enumerate gut microbiota. Tibias were collected for observation of bone parameters. Broilers fed with a rye diet showed increased (pintestinal viscosity, BT, and serum FITC-d. Bacterial enumeration revealed that turkey poults fed with rye had increased the number of total lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in all three sections of the gastrointestinal tract evaluated when compared to turkey poults fed with corn. Turkey poults fed with rye also had significantly higher coliforms in duodenum and ileum but not in the ceca, whereas the total number of anaerobes increased only in duodenum. A significant reduction in bone strength and bone mineralization was observed in turkey poults fed with rye when compared with corn fed turkey poults. In conclusion, rye evoked mucosal damage in turkey poults that increased intestinal viscosity, increased leakage through the intestinal tract, and altered the microbiota composition and bone mineralization. Studies to evaluate dietary inclusion of selected Direct-Fed Microbial (DFM) candidates that produce exogenous enzymes in rye fed turkey poults are

  20. Addition of rye chromosome 4R to wheat increases anther length and pollen grain number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vy; Fleury, Delphine; Timmins, Andy; Laga, Hamid; Hayden, Matthew; Mather, Diane; Okada, Takashi

    2015-05-01

    The research identified rye chromosome 4R arms associated with good pollinator traits, and demonstrated possible use of rye genetic resources to develop elite pollinators for hybrid wheat breeding. Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is a predominantly self-pollinating plant which has relatively small-sized anthers and produces a low number of pollen grains. These features limit the suitability of most wheat lines as pollinators for hybrid seed production. One strategy for improving the pollination ability of wheat is to introgress cross-pollination traits from related species. One such species is rye (Secale cereale L.), which has suitable traits such as high anther extrusion, long anthers containing large amounts of pollen and long pollen viability. Therefore, introducing these traits into wheat is of great interest in hybrid wheat breeding. Here, we investigated wheat-rye chromosome addition lines for the effects of rye chromosomes on anther and pollen development in wheat. Using a single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping array, we detected 984 polymorphic markers that showed expected syntenic relationships between wheat and rye. Our results revealed that the addition of rye chromosomes 1R or 2R reduced pollen fertility, while addition of rye chromosome 4R increased anther size by 16% and pollen grain number by 33%. The effect on anther length was associated with increases in both cell size and the number of endothecium cells and was attributed to the long arm of chromosome 4R. In contrast, the effect on pollen grain number was attributed to the short arm of chromosome 4R. These results indicate that rye chromosome 4R contains at least two genetic factors associated with increased anther size and pollen grain number that can favourably affect pollination traits in wheat.

  1. Phytase activity and degradation of phytic acid during rye bread making

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Merete Møller; Damstrup, Marianne Linde; Thomsen, Agnete Dal; Rasmussen, Søren Kjærgaard; Hansen, Åse

    2006-01-01

    Changes in phytic acid content, activity of phytase and α-amylase in rye breads were determined during rye bread making. The activity of phytase is highest in grain and flour whereas the activity in the sourdoughs is almost the half of the activity in the flour. The activity was unchanged in the dough after mixing and proofing. Degradation of phytic acid (IP6) into lower inositol-phosphates and free phosphate is almost completed during the production of rye bread with long fermentati...

  2. Effects of NaCl treatment on the antioxidant enzymes of oilseed rape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of NaCl treatment on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in leaves of oilseed rape seedlings (Brassica napus L.) were studied. The results showed that the relative water content from leaves of oilseed rape seedlings was gradually decreased and the electronic conductivity was increased during 0 - 24 h under 200 ...

  3. Biological control of Sclerotinia disease by Aspergillus sp. on oilseed rape in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes serious yield losses on oilseed rape and other crops worldwide. Aspergillus sp. Asp-4, previously shown to inhibit germination of sclerotia of S. sclerotiorum in vitro and in the field, was evaluated in field trials for suppression of this pathogen on oilseed rape. S...

  4. 7 CFR 1412.35 - Incorrect or false production evidence of oilseeds and pulse crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... false production evidence of oilseeds and pulse crops. (a) If production evidence submitted in... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Incorrect or false production evidence of oilseeds and pulse crops. 1412.35 Section 1412.35 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture...

  5. In situ ruminal crude protein degradability of by-products from cereals, oilseeds and animal origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habib, G.; Khan, N.A.; Ali, M.; Bezabih, M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a database on in situ ruminal crude protein (CP) degradability characteristics of by-products from cereal grains, oilseeds and animal origin commonly fed to ruminants in Pakistan and South Asian Countries. The oilseed by-products were soybean meal, sunflower

  6. Effects of NaCl treatment on the antioxidant enzymes of oilseed rape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... The effects of NaCl treatment on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in leaves of oilseed rape seedlings. (Brassica napus L.) were studied. The results showed that the relative water content from leaves of oilseed rape seedlings was gradually decreased and the electronic conductivity was increased during 0.

  7. Formulations of Bacillus subtilis BY-2 suppress Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    We are developing a collection of Bacillus strains, isolated from different environments, for use in controlling Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape in China and elsewhere. Strain BY-2, isolated from internal tissues of an oilseed rape root, was demonstrated to be Bacillus subtilis based on bi...

  8. Effect of winter cover crops on nematode population levels in north Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K-H; McSorley, R; Gallaher, R N

    2004-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted in north-central Florida to examine the effects of various winter cover crops on plant-parasitic nematode populations through time. In the first experiment, six winter cover crops were rotated with summer corn (Zea mays), arranged in a randomized complete block design. The cover crops evaluated were wheat (Triticum aestivum), rye (Secale cereale), oat (Avena sativa), lupine (Lupinus angustifolius), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum). At the end of the corn crop in year 1, population densities of Meloidogyne incognita were lowest on corn following rye or oat (P Crotalaria juncea), and corn. Population densities of M. incognita and Helicotylenchus dihystera were affected by previous tropical cover crops (P winter cover crops present at the time of sampling. Plots planted to sunn hemp in the fall maintained the lowest M. incognita and H. dihystera numbers. Results suggest that winter cover crops tested did not suppress plant-parasitic nematodes effectively. Planting tropical cover crops such as sunn hemp after corn in a triple-cropping system with winter cover crops may provide more versatile nematode management strategies in northern Florida.

  9. Genetic Distinctiveness of Rye In situ Accessions from Portugal Unveils a New Hotspot of Unexplored Genetic Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Filipa; Vidigal, Patrícia; Barros, André B.; Monteiro, Ana; Oliveira, Hugo R.; Viegas, Wanda

    2016-01-01

    Rye (Secale cereale L.) is a cereal crop of major importance in many parts of Europe and rye breeders are presently very concerned with the restrict pool of rye genetic resources available. Such narrowing of rye genetic diversity results from the presence of “Petkus” pool in most modern rye varieties as well as “Petkus” × “Carsten” heterotic pool in hybrid rye breeding programs. Previous studies on rye's genetic diversity revealed moreover a common genetic background on landraces (ex situ) and cultivars, regardless of breeding level or geographical origin. Thus evaluation of in situ populations is of utmost importance to unveil “on farm” diversity, which is largely undervalued. Here, we perform the first comprehensive assessment of rye's genetic diversity and population structuring using cultivars, ex situ landraces along a comprehensive sampling of in situ accessions from Portugal, through a molecular-directed analysis using SSRs markers. Rye genetic diversity and population structure analysis does not present any geographical trend but disclosed marked differences between genetic backgrounds of in situ accessions and those of cultivars/ex situ collections. Such genetic distinctiveness of in situ accessions highlights their unexplored potential as new genetic resources, which can be used to boost rye breeding strategies and the production of new varieties. Overall, our study successfully demonstrates the high prospective impact of comparing genetic diversity and structure of cultivars, ex situ, and in situ samples in ascertaining the status of plant genetic resources (PGR). PMID:27630658

  10. NMR metabolomics of ripened and developing oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortesniemi, Maaria; Vuorinen, Anssi L; Sinkkonen, Jari; Yang, Baoru; Rajala, Ari; Kallio, Heikki

    2015-04-01

    The oilseeds of the commercially important oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa) were investigated with (1)H NMR metabolomics. The compositions of ripened (cultivated in field trials) and developing seeds (cultivated in controlled conditions) were compared in multivariate models using principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Differences in the major lipids and the minor metabolites between the two species were found. A higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and sucrose were observed in turnip rape, while the overall oil content and sinapine levels were higher in oilseed rape. The genotype traits were negligible compared to the effect of the growing site and concomitant conditions on the oilseed metabolome. This study demonstrates the applicability of NMR-based analysis in determining the species, geographical origin, developmental stage, and quality of oilseed Brassicas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Acrylamide-asparagine relationship in baked/toasted wheat and rye breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granby, Kit; Nielsen, Nikoline Juul; Hedegaard, Rikke V; Christensen, Tue; Kann, Mette; Skibsted, Leif H

    2008-08-01

    Acrylamide in baked and toasted wheat and rye bread was studied in relation to levels of asparagine in flour, dough, bread and toasts. Asparagine was consumed during bread preparation resulting in reduced acrylamide content in the products. In wheat bread, 12% of the asparagine initially present in the flour (0.14 g kg(-1)) remained after yeast fermentation and baking; for rye bread, 82% of asparagine remained after sourdough fermentation and baking. Asparagine present in untoasted wheat bread had totally reacted after hard toasting. Toasted wheat and rye bread slices contained 11-161 and 27-205 microg kg(-1) acrylamide, respectively, compared to untoasted wheat and rye bread with toasted bread.

  12. Rye Arabinoxylans: Molecular Structure, Physicochemical Properties and Physiological Effects in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik; Lærke, Helle Nygaard

    2010-01-01

    Arabinoxylans (AX) are the main dietary fiber (DF) polysaccharides in rye where they represent ≈55% of the total polysaccharides. Rye AX consist of a backbone of (1→4)-β-d-xylopyranosyl residues (X) mainly substituted with α-l-arabinofuranosyl residues (A) to varying degrees at the O-2 position......,000 with an average of ≈200,000. AX influence physiology in different segments of the gastrointestinal tract. The complex molecular structure of rye AX makes them resistant against microbial modification in the small intestine; consequently, rye AX have a much higher influence on the viscosity in the small intestinal...... digesta than does β-glucan from oats and barley. In spite of that, it has not been possible in studies with AX-rich foods such as bread to demonstrate a significant effect on the postprandial glucose response, however, a significantly reduced insulin response has been seen. Nevertheless, addition of 6 g...

  13. Physical, microscopic and chemical characterisation of industrial rye and wheat brans from the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamal-Eldin, A; Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2009-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies show inverse relationship between intake of wholegrain cereals and several chronic diseases. Components and mechanisms behind possible protective effects of wholegrain cereals are poorly understood. Objective: To characterise commercial rye bran preparations, c...

  14. Presence and Distribution of Oilseed Pumpkin Viruses and Molecular Detection of Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vučurović

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, intensive spread of virus infections of oilseed pumpkin has resulted in significant economic losses in pumpkin crop production, which is currently expanding in our country. In 2007 and 2008, a survey for the presence and distribution of oilseed pumpkin viruses was carried out in order to identify viruses responsible for epidemics and incidences of very destructive symptoms on cucurbit leaves and fruits. Monitoring andcollecting samples of oil pumpkin, as well as other species such as winter and butternut squash and buffalo and bottle gourd with viral infection symptoms, was conducted in several localities of Vojvodina Province. The collected plant samples were tested by DAS-ELISA using polyclonal antisera specific for the detection of six most economically harmful pumpkin viruses: Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV, Watermelon mosaic virus (WMW, Squash mosaic virus (SqMV, Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV and Tobaccoringspot virus (TRSV that are included in A1 quarantine list of harmful organisms in Serbia.Identification of viruses in the collected samples indicated the presence of three viruses, ZYMV, WMV and CMV, in individual and mixed infections. Frequency of the identified viruses varied depending on locality and year of investigations. In 2007, WMV was the most frequent virus (94.2%, while ZYMV was prevalent (98.04% in 2008. High frequency of ZYMV determined in both years of investigation indicated the need for its rapid and reliable molecular detection. During this investigation, a protocol for ZYMVdetection was developed and optimized using specific primers CPfwd/Cprev and commercial kits for total RNA extraction, as well as for RT-PCR. In RT-PCR reaction using these primers, a DNA fragment of approximately 1100 bp, which included coat protein gene, was amplified in the samples of infected pumkin leaves. Although serological methods are still useful for large-scale testing of a great number of

  15. Alkylresorcinols in selected Polish rye and wheat cereals and whole-grain cereal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulawinek, Mariola; Jaromin, Anna; Kozubek, Arkadiusz; Zarnowski, Robert

    2008-08-27

    The alkylresorcinol content and homologue composition in selected Polish rye and wheat cultivars and selected whole-grain cereal products were determined in this study. Cereal grains and whole-grain cereal products were extracted with acetone, whereas bread types were extracted with hot 1-propanol. The average alkylresorcinol content in tested rye (approximately 1100 mg/kg DM) and wheat (approximately 800 mg/kg DM) grains harvested in Poland was within the range previously reported in Swedish and Finnish samples. The total alkylresorcinol content in tested cereal products available on the Polish market varied from very low levels in barley grain-based foods up to 3000 mg/kg DM in wheat bran. The total alkylresorcinol content in 14 bread samples extracted with hot 1-propanol varied from approximately 100 mg/kg DM in whole bread made with honey up to approximately 650 mg/kg DM in whole-rye bread. Calculated ratios of C17:0 to C21:0 homologues, a useful parameter previously used to distinguish between rye and wheat cereals and their derived products, was about 1.2-1.4 in rye products, about 0.2 in wheat products, and varied between 0.2 and 0.6 in cereal-derived products containing a mixture of whole rye and/or wheat. The data set obtained were subsequently compared using cluster and principal component analysis, which allowed the tested cereal products to be classified into two major groups consisting of whole-rye or whole-wheat products, respectively. On the basis of that approach, mixed cereal products containing rye and wheat bran or whole rye and wheat flour were grouped between those two well-defined clusters. Our work not only provides a detailed examination of alkylresorcinols in selected Polish rye and wheat cultivars and selected whole-grain cereal products, but also demonstrates that this type of analysis accompanied by the use of proper statistical algorithms offers an objective way to evaluate the quality of whole-grain rye and/or wheat and their derived

  16. OILSEEDS AS A PERSPECTIVE IN THE NUTRITION ON DAIRY FARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ágnes Süli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades many researches were made to change the milk product food’s composition. The production of better fat-compound milk and dairy products became a goal in the name of health conscious nutrition. Our researches were motivated by non-adequate milk fat’s compound. With the optimal supplement of the feed can be increased the proportion of the polyunsaturated fatty acids and can decreased the unsaturated fatty acids. The object of our experiment to study the effect of natural-based feed additives, such as oilseeds (whole linseed, extruded linseed, whole rapeseed on the fatty acid composition of milk fat. Further information was gained about of oilseeds in specific amounts to be fitted into technology of an intensive dairy farm in practice. The feed supplements were whole, untreated rapeseed and linseed and cold extruded linseed as a part of total mixed ration. The level of the processing of feed supplements affected the fatty acid composition of milk fat. The effect of full fat linseed feed supplement was more significant than that of the cold extruded linseed, in the increase of the polyunsaturated fatty acids, with special regard to the increase of the α-linolenic acid proportion. Out of the full fat oilseeds the feeding of full fat rapeseed did not result in a considerable change in the fatty acid composition of milk fat. After applying full fat linseed as feed supplement, the proportion of α-linolenic acid, a conjugated linoleic acid, an eicosadienoic acid and a docosapentaenoic acid increased in the fatty acid composition of milk fat, while the concentration of many saturated fatty acids reduced

  17. Antioxidant activity of extracts obtained from residues of different oilseeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthäus, B

    2002-06-05

    Residues of the oil-extracting process of oilseeds contain bioactive substances such as phenolic compounds, which could be used as natural antioxidants for the protection of fats and oils against oxidative deterioration. Thus, the extraction of such constituents from residual material can be considered to contribute to the added value of these residues, which could justify their isolation. In the present work the fat-free residues of eight different oilseeds whose oils are usable for nutritional applications, and also as renewable resources, were extracted with 70% methanol, 70% acetone, water, and ethyl acetate/water, respectively. The resulting extracts were investigated regarding their content of total phenolic compounds by the Folin-Ciocalteau assay, sinapine, flavanoids, and the UV-absorption spectra. Further, the antioxidant activity of the extracts was characterized by the DPPH method, the beta-carotene-linoleic acid assay, and ESR investigations. The fat-free residues of the different oilseeds contained considerable amounts of extractable substances. The yields decreased with decreasing polarity of the solvent in the order water, 70% methanol, 70% acetone, and ethyl acetate. The ratio of total phenolic compounds to the extractable compounds ranged from 3 to 19%. There was no significant correlation between the amount of total extractable compounds and the total phenolic compounds (p < 0.001). All extracts showed remarkable antioxidant activities determined with the different methods. The effects depended strongly on the solvent used for the extraction as well as on the extracted residue. A correlation between the methods used for the characterization of the antioxidant activity and the composition of the residues could not be shown.

  18. Components of a Rice-Oilseed Rape Production System Augmented with Trichoderma sp. Tri-1 Control Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on Oilseed Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaojia; Roberts, Daniel P; Xie, Lihua; Maul, Jude E; Yu, Changbing; Li, Yinshui; Zhang, Yinbo; Qin, Lu; Liao, Xing

    2015-10-01

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes serious yield losses on many crops throughout the world. A multicomponent treatment that consisted of the residual rice straw remaining after rice harvest and Trichoderma sp. Tri-1 (Tri-1) formulated with the oilseed rape seedcake fertilizer was used in field soil infested with S. sclerotiorum. This treatment resulted in oilseed rape seed yield that was significantly greater than the nontreated control or when the fungicide carbendizem was used in the presence of this pathogen in field trials. Yield data suggested that the rice straw, oilseed rape seedcake, and Tri-1 components of this treatment all contributed incrementally. Similar treatment results were obtained regarding reduction in disease incidence. Slight improvements in yield and disease incidence were detected when this multicomponent treatment was combined with a fungicide spray. Inhibition of sclerotial germination by this multicomponent treatment trended greater than the nontreated control at 90, 120, and 150 days in field studies but was not significantly different from this control. This multicomponent treatment resulted in increased yield relative to the nontreated control in the absence of pathogen in a greenhouse pot study, while the straw alone and the straw plus oilseed rape seedcake treatments did not; suggesting that Tri-1 was capable of promoting growth. Experiments reported here indicate that a treatment containing components of a rice-oilseed rape production system augmented with Tri-1 can control S. sclerotiorum on oilseed rape, be used in integrated strategies containing fungicide sprays for control of this pathogen, and promote plant growth.

  19. Pattern of Aluminum-Induced Secretion of Organic Acids Differs between Rye and Wheat1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao Feng; Ma, Jian Feng; Matsumoto, Hideaki

    2000-01-01

    Al-Induced secretion of organic acids from the roots has been considered as a mechanism of Al tolerance, but the processes leading to the secretion of organic acids are still unknown. In this study, the secretion pattern and alteration in the metabolism of organic acids under Al stress were examined in rye (Secale cereale L. cv King) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Atlas 66). Al induced rapid secretion of malate in the wheat, but a lag (6 and 10 h for malic and citric acids, respectively) between the exposure to Al and the secretion of organic acids was observed in the rye. The activities of isocitrate dehydrogenase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, and malate dehydrogenase were not affected by Al in either plant. The activity of citrate synthase was increased by the exposure to Al in the rye, but not in the wheat. The secretion of malate was not suppressed at low temperature in the wheat, but that of citrate was stopped in the rye. The Al-induced secretion of citrate from roots of the rye was inhibited by the inhibitors of a citrate carrier, which transports citrate from the mitochondria to the cytoplasm. All of these results suggest that alteration in the metabolism of organic acids is involved in the Al-induced secretion of organic acids in rye, but only activation of an anion channel seems to be responsible for the rapid secretion of malate in the wheat. PMID:10938369

  20. Nutrient cycling in a cropping system with potato, spring wheat, sugar beet, oats and nitrogen catch crops. II. Effect of catch crops on nitrate leaching in autumn and winter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.; Putten, van der P.E.L.

    2004-01-01

    The Nitrate Directive of the European Union (EU) forces agriculture to reduce nitrate emission. The current study addressed nitrate emission and nitrate-N concentrations in leachate from cropping systems with and without the cultivation of catch crops (winter rye: Secale cereale L. and forage rape:

  1. Ascorbate peroxidase. A prominent membrane protein in oilseed glyoxysomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunkelmann, J R; Trelease, R N

    1996-02-01

    The glyoxysomes of growing oilseed seedlings produce H2O2, a reactive oxygen species, during the beta-oxidation of lipids stored in the cotyledons. An expression library of dark-grown cotton (Gossypium hirsutm L.) cotyledons was screened with antibodies that recognized a 31-kD glyoxysomal membrane polypeptide. A full-length cDNA clone (1258 bp) was isolated that encodes a 32-kD subunit of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) with a single, putative membrane-spanning region near the C-terminal end of the polypeptide. Internal amino acid sequence analysis of the cotton 31-kD polypeptide verified that this clone encoded this protein. This enzyme, designated gmAPX, was immunocytochemically and enzymatically localized to the glyoxysomal membrane in cotton cotyledons. The activity of monodehydroascorbate reductase, a protein that reduces monodehydroascorbate to ascorbate with NADH, also was detected in these membranes. The co-localization of gmAPX and monodehydroascorbate reductase within the glyoxysomal membrane likely reflects an essential pathway for scavenging reactive oxygen species and also provides a mechanism to regenerate NAD+ for the continued operation of the glyoxylate cycle and beta-oxidation of fatty acids. Immunological cross-reactivity of 30- to 32-kD proteins in glyoxysomal membranes of cucumber, sunflower, castor bean, and cotton indicate that gmAPX is common among oilseed species.

  2. Influence of Salt Stress on Growth and Frost Resistance of Three Winter Cereals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszak-Slamani, Renata; Brzóstowicz, Aleksander

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents results of a study on the influence of 0-150 mmol NaCl dm-3 Hoagland solution on growth, chlorophyll content, photosynthesis and frost resistance of seedlings of three winter cereals: wheat - cv. Almari, rye - cv. Amilo, and triticale - cv. Tornado. Sodium chloride at 25 mmol dm-3 caused better growth of wheat shoots and roots, both of fresh and dry matter. Higher concentrations of NaCl in the medium decreased the biomass of the tested seedlings. The influence of NaCl on the chlorophyll content in the seedlings varied. The conductometry method showed that the resistance of the cell walls of wheat and rye to low temperature decreased in the presence of NaCl in the growth medium. Luminescence has shown that seedlings that grew in NaCl-containing medium indicated an impediment of electron flow at a lower temperature than the control plants.

  3. Arsenic distribution in soils and rye plants of a cropland located in an abandoned mining area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Álvarez-Ayuso, Esther, E-mail: esther.alvarez@irnasa.csic.es [Department of Environmental Geochemistry, IRNASA (CSIC), C/ Cordel de Merinas 40-52, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Abad-Valle, Patricia [Department of Environmental Geochemistry, IRNASA (CSIC), C/ Cordel de Merinas 40-52, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Murciego, Ascensión [Department of Geology, Plza. de los Caídos s/n, Salamanca University, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Villar-Alonso, Pedro [Saloro SLU, Avda. Italia 8, 37006 Salamanca (Spain)

    2016-01-15

    A mining impacted cropland was studied in order to assess its As pollution level and the derived environmental and health risks. Profile soil samples (0–50 cm) and rye plant samples were collected at different distances (0–150 m) from the near mine dump and analyzed for their As content and distribution. These cropland soils were sandy, acidic and poor in organic matter and Fe/Al oxides. The soil total As concentrations (38–177 mg kg{sup −1}) and, especially, the soil soluble As concentrations (0.48–4.1 mg kg{sup −1}) importantly exceeded their safe limits for agricultural use of soils. Moreover, the soil As contents more prone to be mobilized could rise up to 25–69% of total As levels as determined using (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}, NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}·H{sub 2}O as sequential extractants. Arsenic in rye plants was primarily distributed in roots (3.4–18.8 mg kg{sup −1}), with restricted translocation to shoots (TF = 0.05–0.26) and grains (TF = < 0.02–0.14). The mechanism for this excluder behavior should be likely related to arsenate reduction to arsenite in roots, followed by its complexation with thiols, as suggested by the high arsenite level in rye roots (up to 95% of the total As content) and the negative correlation between thiol concentrations in rye roots and As concentrations in rye shoots (| R | = 0.770; p < 0.01). Accordingly, in spite of the high mobile and mobilizable As contents in soils, As concentrations in rye above-ground tissues comply with the European regulation on undesirable substances in animal feed. Likewise, rye grain As concentrations were below its maximum tolerable concentration in cereals established by international legislation. - Highlights: • Environmental assessment of a rye cultivated area impacted by past mining activities. • Soil As contents exceeded the recommended safe limits for agricultural use of soils. • Soil soluble As concentrations attained high

  4. Limited Impact of a Fall-Seeded, Spring-Terminated Rye Cover Crop on Beneficial Arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Mike W; Gassmann, Aaron J; O'Neal, Matthew E

    2017-04-01

    Cover crops are beneficial to agroecosystems because they decrease soil erosion and nutrient loss while increasing within-field plant diversity. Greater plant diversity within cropping systems can positively affect beneficial arthropod communities. We hypothesized that increasing plant diversity within annually rotated corn and soybean with the addition of a rye cover crop would positively affect the beneficial ground and canopy-dwelling communities compared with rotated corn and soybean grown without a cover crop. From 2011 through 2013, arthropod communities were measured at two locations in Iowa four times throughout each growing season. Pitfall traps were used to sample ground-dwelling arthropods within the corn and soybean plots and sweep nets were used to measure the beneficial arthropods in soybean canopies. Beneficial arthropods captured were identified to either class, order, or family. In both corn and soybean, community composition and total community activity density and abundance did not differ between plots that included the rye cover crop and plots without the rye cover crop. Most taxa did not significantly respond to the presence of the rye cover crop when analyzed individually, with the exceptions of Carabidae and Gryllidae sampled from soybean pitfall traps. Activity density of Carabidae was significantly greater in soybean plots that included a rye cover crop, while activity density of Gryllidae was significantly reduced in plots with the rye cover crop. Although a rye cover crop may be agronomically beneficial, there may be only limited effects on beneficial arthropods when added within an annual rotation of corn and soybean. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Transcriptionally Active Heterochromatin in Rye B Chromosomes[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carchilan, Mariana; Delgado, Margarida; Ribeiro, Teresa; Costa-Nunes, Pedro; Caperta, Ana; Morais-Cecílio, Leonor; Jones, R. Neil; Viegas, Wanda; Houben, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    B chromosomes (Bs) are dispensable components of the genomes of numerous species. Thus far, there is a lack of evidence for any transcripts of Bs in plants, with the exception of some rDNA sequences. Here, we show that the Giemsa banding-positive heterochromatic subterminal domain of rye (Secale cereale) Bs undergoes decondensation during interphase. Contrary to the heterochromatic regions of A chromosomes, this domain is simultaneously marked by trimethylated H3K4 and by trimethylated H3K27, an unusual combination of apparently conflicting histone modifications. Notably, both types of B-specific high copy repeat families (E3900 and D1100) of the subterminal domain are transcriptionally active, although with different tissue type–dependent activity. No small RNAs were detected specifically for the presence of Bs. The lack of any significant open reading frame and the highly heterogeneous size of mainly polyadenylated transcripts indicate that the noncoding RNA may function as structural or catalytic RNA. PMID:17586652

  6. Postprandial glucose metabolism and SCFA after consuming wholegrain rye bread and wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran in individuals with mild gastrointestinal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappi, Jenni; Mykkänen, Hannu; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik; Kirjavainen, Pirkka; Katina, Kati; Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Poutanen, Kaisa; Kolehmainen, Marjukka

    2014-11-04

    Rye bread benefits glucose metabolism. It is unknown whether the same effect is achieved by rye bran-enriched wheat bread. We tested whether white wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) and sourdough wholegrain rye bread (WGR) have similar effects on glucose metabolism and plasma level of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Twenty-one (12 women) of 23 recruited subjects completed an intervention with a four-week run-in and two four-week test periods in cross-over design. White wheat bread (WW; 3% fibre) was consumed during the run-in, and WGR and BRB + WW (10% fibre) during the test periods. A meal test providing 51/33/11 E % from carbohydrates/fat/protein was conducted at the end of each period. Fasting and postprandial plasma samples were analysed for glucose, insulin, and SCFA. Glucose and insulin responses and plasma concentrations of SCFAs to the meal test were similar between the WGR and BRB + WW periods. When compared to the WW period, postprandial insulin concentration at 120 min was lower (p = 0.023) and the first-phase insulin secretion improved (p = 0.033) only after the WGR period, whereas postprandial concentrations of butyrate (p bread periods. Beneficial effects of WGR over white wheat bread on glucose and SCFA production were confirmed. The enrichment of the white wheat bread with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) yielded similar but not as pronounced effects than WGR when compared to WW alone. Postprandially measured glucose metabolism and concentrations of SCFAs provided additional information along with fasting measurements.

  7. Evaluation of nine genotypes of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) for larval infestation and performance of rape stem weevil (Ceutorhynchus napi Gyll.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Heike L; Brandes, Haiko; Ulber, Bernd; Becker, Heiko C; Vidal, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    The rape stem weevil, Ceutorhynchus napi Gyll., is a serious pest of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) crops in Europe causing severe yield loss. In currently used oilseed rape cultivars no resistance to C. napi has been identified. Resynthesized lines of B. napus have potential to broaden the genetic variability and may improve resistance to insect pests. In this study, the susceptibility to C. napi of three cultivars, one breeding line and five resynthesized lines of oilseed rape was compared in a semi-field plot experiment under multi-choice conditions. Plant acceptance for oviposition was estimated by counting the number of C. napi larvae in stems. The larval instar index and the dry body mass were assessed as indicators of larval performance. The extent of larval feeding within stems was determined by the stem injury coefficient. Morphological stem traits and stem contents of glucosinolates were assessed as potential mediators of resistance. The resynthesized line S30 had significantly fewer larvae than the cultivars Express617 and Visby and the resynthesized lines L122 and L16. The low level of larval infestation in S30 was associated with a low larval instar and stem injury index. Low numbers of larvae were not correlated with the length or diameter of stems, and the level of stem glucosinolates. As indicated by the low larval infestation and slow larval development the resistance of S30 to C. napi is based on both antixenotic and antibiotic properties of the genotypes. The resynthesized line S30 should therefore be introduced into B. napus breeding programs to enhance resistance against C. napi.

  8. Evaluation of nine genotypes of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. for larval infestation and performance of rape stem weevil (Ceutorhynchus napi Gyll..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike L Schaefer

    Full Text Available The rape stem weevil, Ceutorhynchus napi Gyll., is a serious pest of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. crops in Europe causing severe yield loss. In currently used oilseed rape cultivars no resistance to C. napi has been identified. Resynthesized lines of B. napus have potential to broaden the genetic variability and may improve resistance to insect pests. In this study, the susceptibility to C. napi of three cultivars, one breeding line and five resynthesized lines of oilseed rape was compared in a semi-field plot experiment under multi-choice conditions. Plant acceptance for oviposition was estimated by counting the number of C. napi larvae in stems. The larval instar index and the dry body mass were assessed as indicators of larval performance. The extent of larval feeding within stems was determined by the stem injury coefficient. Morphological stem traits and stem contents of glucosinolates were assessed as potential mediators of resistance. The resynthesized line S30 had significantly fewer larvae than the cultivars Express617 and Visby and the resynthesized lines L122 and L16. The low level of larval infestation in S30 was associated with a low larval instar and stem injury index. Low numbers of larvae were not correlated with the length or diameter of stems, and the level of stem glucosinolates. As indicated by the low larval infestation and slow larval development the resistance of S30 to C. napi is based on both antixenotic and antibiotic properties of the genotypes. The resynthesized line S30 should therefore be introduced into B. napus breeding programs to enhance resistance against C. napi.

  9. Winter maintenance performance measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Winter Performance Index is a method of quantifying winter storm events and the DOTs response to them. : It is a valuable tool for evaluating the States maintenance practices, performing post-storm analysis, training : maintenance personnel...

  10. Concussion in Winter Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit Button Past Emails Concussion in Winter Sports Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Get prepared ... to enjoy, practice, and compete in various winter sports. There’s no doubt that these sports are a ...

  11. Effect of Different Extrusion Parameters on Dietary Fiber in Wheat Bran and Rye Bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Annica A M; Andersson, R; Jonsäll, Anette; Andersson, Jörgen; Fredriksson, Helena

    2017-06-01

    Wheat bran and rye bran are mostly used as animal feed today, but their high content of dietary fiber and bioactive components are beneficial to human health. Increased use of bran as food raw material could therefore be desirable. However, bran mainly contains unextractable dietary fiber and deteriorates the sensory properties of products. Processing by extrusion could increase the extractability of dietary fiber and increase the sensory qualities of bran products. Wheat bran and rye bran were therefore extruded at different levels of moisture content, screw speed and temperature, in order to find the optimal setting for increased extractability of dietary fiber and positive sensory properties. A water content of 24% for wheat bran and 30% for rye bran, a screw speed of 400 rpm, and a temperature of 130 °C resulted in the highest extractability of total dietary fiber and arabinoxylan. Arabinoxylan extractability increased from 5.8% in wheat bran to 9.0% in extruded wheat bran at those settings, and from 14.6% to 19.2% for rye bran. Total contents of dietary fiber and arabinoxylan were not affected by extrusion. Content of β-glucan was also maintained during extrusion, while its molecular weight decreased slightly and extractability increased slightly. Extrusion at these settings is therefore a suitable process for increasing the use of wheat bran and rye bran as a food raw material. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  12. Identification of the 1RS rye chromosomal segment in wheat by RAPD analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, M J; Rayburn, A L

    1995-11-01

    The introgression of rye DNA into the wheat genome was studied using random decamer and specific primers with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). DNA from paired near-isolines in Chisholm and Arkan backgrounds differing with respect to the presence of a 1 RS.1 BL translocation was amplified with 120 arbitrary sequence primers. Two of the primers (OPR 19 and OPJ07) amplified rye-specific DNA fragments. The OPR19 primer amplified a 1.35-kb fragment that appeared to be specific to the 1 RS.1 BL translocation, based on its presence only in lines carrying the 1 RS. 1 BL translocation. A fragment of the same size was also amplified in 1 RS.1 AL translocation lines. This 1 RS. 1 BL marker locus was designated Ximc 1. The other primer, OPJ07, amplified a 1.2-kb DNA sequence, that was designated Ximc 2, specific to the wheat-rye translocation in various wheat backgrounds. The sequences of the two marker loci were found to be different from each other. The Ximc 1 locus was a low-copy sequence which was also present in Balboa rye genomic DNA. Through the use of specific primers, the presence of the rye-specific marker was confirmed in hexaploid as well as in tetraploid wheat backgrounds. The use of RAPDs for the study of smaller alien introgressions into wheat is discussed.

  13. Effect of thermal heating on some lignans in flax seeds, sesame seeds and rye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstenmeyer, Eva; Reimer, Sigrid; Berghofer, Emmerich; Schwartz, Heidi; Sontag, Gerhard

    2013-06-01

    Consumption of lignan rich food is presumed to have positive effects on human health. As numerous foods are consumed mainly in processed form it is important to investigate the changes of the lignan content during processing. To this end, unheated and heated sesame seeds, sesame products, rye grains, rye flour, rye bread and flax seeds were extracted by sonication with ethanol/water (70:30, v:v) or sodium methoxide. The extracts were additionally hydrolysed enzymatically (β-glucuronidase/arylsulphatase, cellulase), the compounds separated on a reversed phase column by gradient elution and detected by UV/ESI-MS in the negative ionisation multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM). Secoisolariciresinol, lariciresinol, pinoresinol, 7-hydroxymatairesinol, syringaresinol, isolariciresinol, secoisolariciresinol diglycoside, lariciresinol monoglycoside, pinoresinol mono-, di- and triglycoside, sesaminol, sesaminol triglycoside, sesamolinol and sesamolinol diglycoside were identified. Moderate heating at 100°C did not degrade the lignan aglycones and glycosides in dry foods. In contrast, heating was responsible for the better extractability of the lignans. If samples with high moisture content were heated, the degradation of the lignans in sesame seeds and rye was observed already at 100°C. Higher roasting temperatures caused degradation of aglycones and glycosides. Especially at 250°C, lignans were degraded rapidly in sesame seeds and rye but not in flax seeds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Different numbers of rye B chromosomes induce identical compaction changes in distinct A chromosome domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, M; Caperta, A; Ribeiro, T; Viegas, W; Jones, R N; Morais-Cecílio, L

    2004-01-01

    In rye each B chromosome (B) represents 5.5% of the diploid A genome. Rye Bs have several nuclear to whole plant effects although they seem to bear no genes except for the ones that lead to their maintenance within a population. In this context, and considering that rye Bs are enriched in repetitive non-coding regions that build up heterochromatin (het), we investigated the influence of Bs on the organization of two chromatin fractions, namely the ribosomal DNA (facultative het) and satellite (non-het) domain of rye chromosome 1 by silver staining on root tip metaphase cells. The results show that rye Bs cause condensation both in the NOR and in the chromosome 1 satellite domain. Since the silver staining technique used is indicative of the transcriptional activity of the NORs, the condensation observed at those loci demonstrates that the rRNA gene arrays are down-regulated in the presence of Bs, regardless of their number per individual. Furthermore, the organizational changes of metaphase NORs find parallel with the interphase organization of ribosomal chromatin, since the frequency of cells with intranucleolar condensed rDNA regions increases drastically and nuclear matrix attachment pattern is altered in the presence of the Bs. Our results show an identical effect of the Bs on the organization of two distinct chromosome domains displaying a presence/absence dichotomy. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  15. Porcine intestinal microbiota is shaped by diet composition based on rye or triticale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbach, K; Strang, E J P; Mosenthin, R; Camarinha-Silva, A; Seifert, J

    2017-12-01

    The present study aimed to compare the microbiota composition from pigs fed different cereal grain types, either rye or triticale, as sole energy source. Ileal digesta and faeces were sampled from eight pigs of each experiment. Illumina amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used to analyse the microbiota. Concentrations of short-chain fatty acids and ammonia were determined from faecal samples. The grain type revealed significant alterations in the overall microbiota structure. The rye-based diet was associated with an increased abundance of Lactobacillus in ileal digesta and Streptococcus in faeces and significantly higher concentrations of faecal short-chain fatty acids and ammonia compared to triticale. However, triticale significantly promoted the abundance of Streptococcus in ileal digesta and Clostridium sensu stricto in faeces. Diets based on rye or triticale affect varying intestinal microbiota, both of taxonomical and metabolic structure, with rye indicating an enhanced saccharolytic potential and triticale a more cellulolytic potential. Nutrient composition of rye and triticale are attractive for porcine nutrition. Both cereal grains show varying stimuli on the microbiota composition and microbial products of the ileum and faeces. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Textural properties of bread formulations based on buckwheat and rye flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Dvořáková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern nutrition and nutritionists worldwide more and more require high nutritional quality foods including breads. Products based on rye (Secale cereale L. and other cereals such as buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench provide nutritional benefits such as higher intake of fibre which has a positive effect on digestion and decreases a risk of obesity and heart disease, therefore current trend is to replace part of gluten breads with other cereal products. The main aim of this work was to observe changes in breads based on buckwheat and rye mixtures influenced by ratio of buckwheat and rye flour. Eleven ratios of buckwheat-rye flours were prepared. Dough and bread quality were tested in terms of dough machine workability, dough and pastry yield, baking loss, specific volume and texture analyses 24 and 72 hours after baking. The results were statistically evaluated and showed that rising amount of rye flour in mixtures did not affect dough machine workability but improved all of the investigated texture characteristics such as chewiness and gumminess, concerning specific volume of breads, no significant differences were found. All texture parameters deteriorated with staling time.

  17. Effects of experimental warming on fungal disease progress in oilseed rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebold, Magdalena; von Tiedemann, Andreas

    2013-06-01

    Global warming will influence the growth and development of both crops and pathogens. The aims of this study were to investigate potential effects of future warming on oilseed rape growth and the epidemiology of the three economically important pathogens Verticillium longisporum, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and Leptosphaeria maculans (anamorph: Phoma lingam). We utilized climate chambers and a soil warming facility, where treatments represented regional warming scenarios for Lower Saxony, Germany, by 2050 and 2100, and compared results of both approaches on a thermal time scale by calculating degree-days (dd) from day of sowing, December 1st and March 1st until sampling, the latter correlating best with disease progress. Regression analysis showed that plant growth and growth stages in spring responded almost linearly to increasing thermal time until 1000-1500 dd. Colonization of plant tissue by V. longisporum showed an exponential increase when exceeding 1300-1500 dd and reaching plant growth stage BBCH 74/75 (pod development). V. longisporum colonization of plants may be advanced, potentially leading to higher inoculum densities after harvest and increased economic importance of this pathogen under future warming. Sclerotia germination of S. sclerotiorum reached its maximum at 600-900 dd. Advance of these critical degree-days may lead to earlier apothecia production, potentially advancing the infection window, whereas the future importance of S. sclerotiorum may remain constant. Severity of phoma crown canker increased linearly with increasing thermal time, but showed also large variation in response to the warming scenarios, suggesting that factors such as canopy microclimate in fall or leaf shedding over winter may play a bigger role for L. maculans infection and disease severity than higher soil temperatures. Thermal time was a suitable tool to combine and integrate data on biological responses to soil and air temperature increases from climate chamber and field

  18. Hormones and Pod Development in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus) 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bouille, Pierre; Sotta, Bruno; Miginiac, Emile; Merrien, André

    1989-01-01

    The endogenous levels of several plant growth substances (indole acetic acid, IAA; abscisic acid, ABA; zeatin, Z; zeatin riboside, [9R]Z; isopentenyladenine, iP; and isopentenyladenosine, [9R]iP were measured during pod development of field grown oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L. var oleifera cv Bienvenu) with high performance liquid chromatography and immunoenzymic (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA) techniques. Results show that pod development is characterized by high levels of Z and [9R]Z in 3 day old fruits and of IAA on the fourth day. During pod maturation, initially a significant increase of IAA and cytokinins was observed, followed by a progressive rise of ABA levels and a concomitant decline of IAA and cytokinin (except iP) levels. The relationship between hormone levels and development, especially pod number, seed number per pod, and seed weight determination, will be discussed. PMID:16666891

  19. Draft genome sequence of the oilseed species Ricinus communis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Agnes P; Crabtree, Jonathan; Zhao, Qi; Lorenzi, Hernan; Orvis, Joshua; Puiu, Daniela; Melake-Berhan, Admasu; Jones, Kristine M; Redman, Julia; Chen, Grace; Cahoon, Edgar B; Gedil, Melaku; Stanke, Mario; Haas, Brian J; Wortman, Jennifer R; Fraser-Liggett, Claire M; Ravel, Jacques; Rabinowicz, Pablo D

    2010-09-01

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis) is an oilseed crop that belongs to the spurge (Euphorbiaceae) family, which comprises approximately 6,300 species that include cassava (Manihot esculenta), rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) and physic nut (Jatropha curcas). It is primarily of economic interest as a source of castor oil, used for the production of high-quality lubricants because of its high proportion of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleic acid. However, castor bean genomics is also relevant to biosecurity as the seeds contain high levels of ricin, a highly toxic, ribosome-inactivating protein. Here we report the draft genome sequence of castor bean (4.6-fold coverage), the first for a member of the Euphorbiaceae. Whereas most of the key genes involved in oil synthesis and turnover are single copy, the number of members of the ricin gene family is larger than previously thought. Comparative genomics analysis suggests the presence of an ancient hexaploidization event that is conserved across the dicotyledonous lineage.

  20. Clubroot – An Emerging Disease Faced by Czech Oilseed Rape Growers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Řičařová V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Clubroot is caused by the pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae Woronin and has become a serious problem in oilseed rape production in the Czech Republic. The disease was previously widespread in commercial vegetable production and in hobby gardens. Whereas previously restricted only to the NE, since 2010 oilseed rape clubroot has been spreading across the whole country. A five-year monitoring of clubroot occurrence based on disease symptoms detection on oilseed rape fields was accomplished by the Union of Oilseed Growers and Processors. The presence of P. brassicae and clubroot symptoms was reported in all regions of the Czech Republic, except the Ústecký region, and in 31 out of 76 districts. At present, at least 130 fields are known to be infested by the pathogen, but this number is very likely underestimated. Some soil samples were also tested using the conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR method to evaluate the soil usability. All 14 suspected samples tested positive.

  1. Production of mono- and sesquiterpenes in Camelina sativa oilseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Jörg M; Higashi, Yasuhiro; Feng, Xiaohong; Kutchan, Toni M

    2015-09-01

    Camelina was bioengineered to accumulate (4 S )-limonene and (+)-δ-cadinene in seed. Plastidic localization of the recombinant enzymes resulted in higher yields than cytosolic localization. Overexpressing 1-deoxy- d -xylulose-5-phosphate synthase ( DXS ) further increased terpene accumulation. Many plant-derived compounds of high value for industrial or pharmaceutical applications originate from plant species that are not amenable to cultivation. Biotechnological production in low-input organisms is an attractive alternative. Several microbes are well established as biotechnological production platforms; however, their growth requires fermentation units, energy input, and nutrients. Plant-based production systems potentially allow the generation of high-value compounds on arable land with minimal input. Here we explore whether Camelina sativa (camelina), an emerging low-input non-foodstuff Brassicaceae oilseed crop grown on marginal lands or as a rotation crop on fallow land, can successfully be refactored to produce and store novel compounds in seed. As proof-of-concept, we use the cyclic monoterpene hydrocarbon (4S)-limonene and the bicyclic sesquiterpene hydrocarbon (+)-δ-cadinene, which have potential biofuel and industrial solvent applications. Post-translational translocation of the recombinant enzymes to the plastid with concurrent overexpression of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXS) resulted in the accumulation of (4S)-limonene and (+)-δ-cadinene up to 7 mg g(-1) seed and 5 mg g(-1) seed, respectively. This study presents the framework for rapid engineering of camelina oilseed production platforms for terpene-based high-value compounds.

  2. Forecasting the Adoption of GM Oilseed Rape: Evidence from a Discrete Choice Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Breustedt, Gunnar; Muller-Scheessel, Jorg; Latacz-Lohmann, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores farmers’ willingness to adopt genetically modified oilseed rape prior to its commercial release and estimates the ‘demand’ for the new technology. The analysis is based upon choice experiments with 202 German arable farmers. A multinomial probit estimation revealed that GM attributes such as gross margin, expected liability from cross pollination, or flexibility in returning to conventional oilseed rape significantly affect the likelihood of adoption. Neighbouring farmers’...

  3. An ALMT1 gene cluster controlling aluminium (aluminum) tolerance at the Alt4 locus of rye (Secale cereale L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminium toxicity is a major problem in agriculture worldwide. Among the cultivated triticeae, rye (Secale cereale L.) is one of the most Al-tolerant and represents an important potential source of Al-tolerance for improvement of wheat. The Alt4 Al-tolerance locus of rye contains a cluster of genes...

  4. Long-term intake of iron fortified wholemeal rye bread appears to benefit iron status of young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Nielsen, Sussi Bæch; Thomsen, A.D.

    2005-01-01

    The efficacy of intake of iron fortified, wholemeal rye bread on iron status of young women with low iron stores was evaluated in a 5 month single-blind intervention study. Two parallel groups of women (20-38 y) were given 144 g of rye bread/d either fortified with 6 mg iron as ferrous fumarate/100...

  5. Postprandial effects of test meals including concentrated arabinoxylan and whole grain rye in subjects with the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, M L; Lærke, H N; Overgaard, A

    2014-01-01

    of digestible carbohydrate were as follows: semolina porridge added concentrated arabinoxylan (AX), rye kernels (RK) or concentrated arabinoxylan combined with rye kernels (AXRK) and semolina porridge as control (SE). A standard lunch was served 4 h after the test meals. Blood samples were drawn during a 6-h...

  6. NMR-based metabonomics reveals that plasma betaine increases upon intake of high-fiber rye buns in hypercholesterolemic pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertram, Hanne Christine S.; Malmendal, Anders; Nielsen, Niels Chr

    2009-01-01

    This study presents an NMR-based metabonomic approach to explore the overall endogenous biochemical effects of a rye versus wheat-based fiber-rich diet in hypercholesterolemic pigs. The pigs were fed high-fat, high-cholesterol rye- (n = 9) or wheat- (n = 8) based buns with similar levels of dietary...

  7. Fermentation, Digestion Kinetics and Methane Production of Oilseed Press Cakes from Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Olivares-Palma

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Following the extraction of oil for biodiesel production, oilseed press cakes are high in fat. As the dietary supplementation of fat is currently considered the most promising strategy of consistently depressing methanogenesis, it follows that oilseed press cakes may have a similar potential for CH4 abatement. As such, this study aimed to characterise the nutritive value of several oilseed press cakes, glycerine and soybean meal (SBM and to examine their effects on in vitro ruminal fermentation, digestion kinetics and CH4 production. Moringa press oil seeds exhibited the greatest in sacco effective degradability (ED of DM and CP (p<0.05. In vitro gas production (ml/g digested DM was not affected (p = 0.70 by supplement at 48 h of incubation. In vitro DMD was increased with the supplementation of glycerine and SBM at all levels of inclusion. Moringa oilseed press cakes produced the lowest CH4 (mg/g digested DM at 6 and 12 h of incubation (p<0.05. The findings suggest that moringa oilseed press cake at 400 g/kg DM has the greatest potential of the oilseed press cakes examined in this study, to reduce CH4 production, without adversely affecting nutrient degradability.

  8. Antifungal activity of essential oils evaluated by two different application techniques against rye bread spoilage fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Karin Isabel; Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To study how antifungal activity of natural essential oils depends on the assay method used.Methods and Results: Oils of bay, cinnamon leaf, clove, lemongrass, mustard, orange, sage, thyme and two rosemary oils were tested by two methods: (1) a rye bread-based agar medium was supplemented...... with 100 and 250 mu l l(-1) essential oil and (2) real rye bread was exposed to 136 and 272 mu l l(-1) volatile oil in air. Rye bread spoilage fungi were used for testing. Method 1 proved thyme oil to be the overall best growth inhibitor, followed by clove and cinnamon. On the contrary, orange, sage...... on the application method. Larger phenolic compounds such as thymol and eugenol (thyme, cinnamon and clove) had best effect applied directly to medium, whereas smaller compounds such as allyl isothiocyanate and citral (mustard and lemongrass) were most efficient when added as volatiles.Significance and Impact...

  9. Influence of jet milling and particle size on the composition, physicochemical and mechanical properties of barley and rye flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakos, Antonios; Kyriakakis, Georgios; Evageliou, Vasiliki; Protonotariou, Styliani; Mandala, Ioanna; Ritzoulis, Christos

    2017-01-15

    Finer barley and rye flours were produced by jet milling at two feed rates. The effect of reduced particle size on composition and several physicochemical and mechanical properties of all flours were evaluated. Moisture content decreased as the size of the granules decreased. Differences on ash and protein contents were observed. Jet milling increased the amount of damaged starch in both rye and barley flours. True density increased with decreased particle size whereas porosity and bulk density increased. The solvent retention capacity profile was also affected by jet milling. Barley was richer in phenolics and had greater antioxidant activity than rye. Regarding colour, both rye and barley flours when subjected to jet milling became brighter, whereas their yellowness was not altered significantly. The minimum gelation concentration for all flours was 16%w/v. Barley flour gels were stronger, firmer and more elastic than the rye ones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A high density consensus map of rye (Secale cereale L. based on DArT markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Milczarski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rye (Secale cereale L. is an economically important crop, exhibiting unique features such as outstanding resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses and high nutrient use efficiency. This species presents a challenge to geneticists and breeders due to its large genome containing a high proportion of repetitive sequences, self incompatibility, severe inbreeding depression and tissue culture recalcitrance. The genomic resources currently available for rye are underdeveloped in comparison with other crops of similar economic importance. The aim of this study was to create a highly saturated, multilocus linkage map of rye via consensus mapping, based on Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT markers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Recombinant inbred lines (RILs from 5 populations (564 in total were genotyped using DArT markers and subjected to linkage analysis using Join Map 4.0 and Multipoint Consensus 2.2 software. A consensus map was constructed using a total of 9703 segregating markers. The average chromosome map length ranged from 199.9 cM (2R to 251.4 cM (4R and the average map density was 1.1 cM. The integrated map comprised 4048 loci with the number of markers per chromosome ranging from 454 for 7R to 805 for 4R. In comparison with previously published studies on rye, this represents an eight-fold increase in the number of loci placed on a consensus map and a more than two-fold increase in the number of genetically mapped DArT markers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Through the careful choice of marker type, mapping populations and the use of software packages implementing powerful algorithms for map order optimization, we produced a valuable resource for rye and triticale genomics and breeding, which provides an excellent starting point for more in-depth studies on rye genome organization.

  11. Rye kernel breakfast increases satiety in the afternoon - an effect of food structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredriksson Helena

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The structure of whole grain cereals is maintained to varying degrees during processing and preparation of foods. Food structure can influence metabolism, including perceived hunger and satiety. A diet that enhances satiety per calorie may help to prevent excessive calorie intake. The objective of this work was to compare subjective appetite ratings after consumption of intact and milled rye kernels. Methods Two studies were performed using a randomized, cross-over design. Ratings for appetite (hunger, satiety and desire to eat were registered during an 8-h period after consumption of whole and milled rye kernels prepared as breads (study 1, n = 24 and porridges (study 2, n = 20. Sifted wheat bread was used as reference in both study parts and the products were eaten in iso-caloric portions with standardized additional breakfast foods. Breads and porridges were analyzed to determine whether structure (whole vs. milled kernels effected dietary fibre content and composition after preparation of the products. Statistical evaluation of the appetite ratings after intake of the different breakfasts was done by paired t-tests for morning and afternoon ratings separately, with subjects as random effect and type of breakfast and time points as fixed effects. Results All rye breakfasts resulted in higher satiety ratings in the morning and afternoon compared with the iso-caloric reference breakfast with sifted wheat bread. Rye bread with milled or whole kernels affected appetite equally, so no effect of structure was observed. In contrast, after consumption of the rye kernel breakfast, satiety was increased and hunger suppressed in the afternoon compared with the milled rye kernel porridge breakfast. This effect could be related to structural differences alone, because the products were equal in nutritional content including dietary fibre content and composition. Conclusions The study demonstrates that small changes in diet composition

  12. Allelopathic cover crop of rye for integrated weed control in sustainable agroecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Tabaglio

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The allelopathic potential of rye (Secale cereale L. is mainly due to phytotoxic benzoxazinones, compounds that are produced and accumulated in young tissues to different degrees depending on cultivar and environmental influences. Living rye plants exude low levels of benzoxazinones, while cover crop residues can release from 12 to 20 kg ha–1. This paper summarizes the results obtained from several experiments performed in both controlled and field environments, in which rye was used as a cover crop to control summer weeds in a following maize crop. Significant differences in benzoxazinoid content were detected between rye cultivars. In controlled environments, rye mulches significantly reduced germination of some broadleaf weeds. Germination and seedling growth of Amaranthus retroflexus and Portulaca oleracea were particularly affected by the application of rye mulches, while Chenopodium album was hardly influenced and Abutilon theophrasti was advantaged by the presence of the mulch. With reference to the influence of agronomic factors on the production of benzoxazinoids, nitrogen fertilization increased the content of allelochemicals, although proportionally less than dry matter. The field trial established on no-till maize confirmed the significant weed suppressiveness of rye mulch, both for grass and broadleaf weeds. A significant positive interaction between nitrogen (N fertilization and notillage resulting in the suppression of broadleaf weeds was observed. The different behavior of the weeds in the presence of allelochemicals was explained in terms of differential uptake and translocation capabilities. The four summer weeds tested were able to grow in the presence of low amounts of benzoxazolin-2(3H-one (BOA, between 0.3 and 20 mmol g–1 fresh weight. Although there were considerable differences in their sensitivity to higher BOA concentrations, P. oleracea, A. retroflexus, and Ch. album represented a group of species with a consistent

  13. In vitro culture of cell aggregates of rye (Secale cereale L.) at low densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottley, J; Sybenga, J

    1988-05-01

    The growth of cell aggregates from a rye suspension culture was tested at low density in three culture systems. Mass seeding was the most supportive system, followed by agarose droplets. Microdroplet culture using Cuprak dishes was the least effective system. Growth was stimulated by the presence of a feeder layer of suspension cells but only if the feeder contact with the nursed cells was via a liquid and not a gaseous phase. Plating efficiences were enhanced by the feeder effect, whereas the subsequent growth rates were less affected. The techniques described should prove useful in programs aimed at the in vitro genetic manipulation of rye or other cereals.

  14. Identification of rye chromosomes: the Giemsa banding pattern and the translocation tester set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, J M; Sybenga, J

    1976-01-01

    The Giemsa banding pattern is given for eleven reciprocal translocations of rye, Secale cereale L., together involving all chromosomes at least once, and one telocentric substitution. It is possible to correlate the identification system based on the Giemsa pattern with that based on the translocation tester set. The location of the translocation break points could be determined very exactly for a number of translocations, somewhat less exactly for others. The variations in the banding pattern, resulting from genetic, environmental and technical variation, make definite identification with the nomenclature system of the different rye additions to wheat difficult. An attempt is made, but some caution is necessary.

  15. Efficacy of Cotton Root Destruction and Winter Cover Crops for Suppression of Hoplolaimus columbus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R F; Baird, R E; McNeil, R D

    2000-12-01

    The efficacy of rye (Secale cereale) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) winter cover crops and cotton stalk and root destruction (i.e., pulling them up) were evaluated in field tests during two growing seasons for Hoplolaimus columbus management in cotton. The effect of removing debris from the field following root destruction also was evaluated. Wheat and rye produced similar amounts of biomass, and both crops produced more biomass (P Cover crops did not suppress H. columbus population levels or increase subsequent cotton yields. Cotton root destruction did not affect cotton stand or plant height the following year. Cotton root destruction lowered (P rye or wheat cover crop or cotton root destruction following harvest is ineffective for H. columbus management in cotton.

  16. Biosynthesis and chemical transformation of benzoxazinoids in rye during seed germination and the identification of a rye Bx6-like gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanwir, Fariha; Dionisio, Giuseppe; B. Adhikari, Khem

    2017-01-01

    as well as the turnover of compounds either pre-stored in the embryo or de novo biosynthesized. Bioinformatic analysis, together with the differential distribution of ScBx6-like transcripts in root and shoot tissues, suggested the presence of a ZmBx6 homolog encoding a 2-oxoglutarate dependent...... dehydrogenase in rye. The ScBx6-like cDNA was expressed in E. coli for functional characterization in vitro. LC-MS/MS analysis showed that the purified enzyme was responsible for the oxidation of DIBOA-glc into TRIBOA-glc, strongly suggesting the ScBX6-like enzyme in rye to be a functional ortholog of maize Zm...

  17. Concentrated Arabinoxylan but Not Concentrated Beta-Glucan in Wheat Bread Has Similar Effects on Postprandial Insulin as Whole-Grain Rye in Porto-arterial Catheterized Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kirstine Lykke; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Lærke, Helle Nygaard

    2013-01-01

    The acute glycemic effects of concentrated dietary fibers (DF) versus whole-grain rye were studied in portoarterial catheterized pigs. Two white wheat breads with wheat arabinoxylan (AX) or oat beta-glucan (BG), two rye breads with intact rye kernels (RK) or milled rye (GR), and a low DF white...... min postprandial for AX and GR (74.4 and 129 pmol/min for AX and GR, respectively, compared to 738 pmol/min for WF, P effective in improving insulin economy, suggesting that arabinoxylan from wheat and rye induces similar outcomes in the metabolic...

  18. Winter pasture and cover crops and their effects on soil and summer grain crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvadi Antonio Balbinot Junior

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of winter land use on the amount of residual straw, the physical soil properties and grain yields of maize, common bean and soybean summer crops cultivated in succession. The experiment was carried out in the North Plateau of Santa Catarina state, Brazil, from May 2006 to April 2010. Five strategies of land use in winter were evaluated: intercropping with black oat + ryegrass + vetch, without grazing and nitrogen (N fertilization (intercropping cover; the same intercropping, with grazing and 100 kg ha-1 of N per year topdressing (pasture with N; the same intercropping, with grazing and without nitrogen fertilization (pasture without N; oilseed radish, without grazing and nitrogen fertilization (oilseed radish; and natural vegetation, without grazing and nitrogen fertilization (fallow. Intercropping cover produces a greater amount of biomass in the system and, consequently, a greater accumulation of total and particulate organic carbon on the surface soil layer. However, land use in winter does not significantly affect soil physical properties related to soil compaction, nor the grain yield of maize, soybean and common bean cultivated in succession.

  19. Winters fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-27

    The outlook for distillate fuel oil this winter is for increased demand and a return to normal inventory patterns, assuming a resumption of normal, cooler weather than last winter. With industrial production expected to grow slightly from last winter`s pace, overall consumption is projected to increase 3 percent from last winter, to 3.4 million barrels per day during the heating season (October 1, 1995-March 31, 1996). Much of the supply win come from stock drawdowns and refinery production. Estimates for the winter are from the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) 4th Quarter 1995 Short-Tenn Energy Outlook (STEO) Mid-World Oil Price Case forecast. Inventories in place on September 30, 1995, of 132 million barrels were 9 percent below the unusually high year-earlier level. Inventories of high-sulfur distillate fuel oil, the principal type used for heating, were 13 percent lower than a year earlier. Supply problems are not anticipated because refinery production and the ready availability of imports should be adequate to meet demand. Residential heating off prices are expected to be somewhat higher than last winter`s, as the effects of lower crude oil prices are offset by lower distillate inventories. Heating oil is forecast to average $0.92 per gallon, the highest price since the winter of 1992-93. Diesel fuel (including tax) is predicted to be slightly higher than last year at $1.13 per gallon. This article focuses on the winter assessment for distillate fuel oil, how well last year`s STEO winter outlook compared to actual events, and expectations for the coming winter. Additional analyses include regional low-sulfur and high-sulfur distillate supply, demand, and prices, and recent trends in distillate fuel oil inventories.

  20. Components of a rice-oilseed rape production system augmented with trichoderma sp. Tri-1 control sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes serious yield losses on many crops throughout the world. In two field trials conducted at the same location in consecutive years, a treatment containing formulated Trichoderma harzianum-1 (Tri-1) resulted in oilseed rape seed yield that was significantly greater than...

  1. Implementation of Molecular Systems for Identification of Genetic Polymorphism in Winter Wheat to Obtain High-Performance Specialized Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgun, B.V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The molecular genetic polymorphism detection systems to screen the presence of alleles in winter wheat 100 varieties were developed. Polymerase chain reactions were deployed to identify relevant genes. The level of allele prevalence of low and medium activity of polyphenol oxidase enzymes was defined and the validation was carried out. Wheat varieties carrying rye 1AL.1RS, 1BL.1RS translocations were characterized and those containing recessive allele of Tamyb10 gene, with Stb4 gene resistance to Septoria linked to polymorphic locus Xgwm111. Waxy wheat variety was discovered and other varieties carrying atypical functional Wx-B1e allele. Characteristics of 100 elite and perspective varieties of wheat were compiled for the presence of alleles of genes determining grain quality (genes PPO, Tamyb10-A1, Wx, resistance to biotic and abiotic stress (rye translocative material, Tamyb10-A1, Stb4.

  2. Root-knot Nematode Management and Yield of Soybean as Affected by Winter Cover Crops, Tillage Systems, and Nematicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minton, N A; Parker, M B

    1987-01-01

    Management of Meloidogyne incognita on soybean as affected by winter small grain crops or fallow, two tillage systems, and nematicides was studied. Numbers of M. incognita did not differ in plots planted to wheat and rye. Yields of soybean planted after these crops also did not differ. Numbers of M. incognita were greater in fallow than in rye plots, but soybean yield was not affected by the two treatments. Soybean yields were greater in subsoil-plant than in moldboard plowed plots. Ethylene dibromide reduced nematode population densities more consistently than aldicarb and phenamiphos. Also, ethylene dibromide increased yields the most and phenamiphos the least. There was a positive correlation (P = 0.001) of seed size (weight of 100 seeds) with yield (r = 0.79), indicating that factors affecting yield also affected seed size.

  3. Rye bran bread intake elevates urinary excretion of ferulic acid in humans, but does not affect the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation ex vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, H.; Tetens, I.; Let, Mette Bruni

    2004-01-01

    . The subjects ingested rye bran enriched breads equivalent to similar to 10.2 mg ferulic acid per day. Results The urinary excretion of ferulic acid averaged similar to 4.8 mg per day during intervention with rye bran breads and similar to 1.9 mg per day on the control breads (P = 0.002). Rye bran intervention......Background Rye bread contributes an important part of the whole grain intake in the Scandinavian diet. Ferulic acid is the major phenolic compound in rye bran and is an antioxidant in vitro and may, therefore, contribute to cardioprotective effects of whole grain consumption. Aim of study Firstly...... women after a dietary intake of rye bran or an inert wheat bran (control) in a crossover study (2 x 6 weeks with 4 weeks washout). The potential antioxidative effect of the rye bran intervention was investigated by measuring low-density lipoprotein (LDL) susceptibility to copper oxidation ex vivo...

  4. METABOLIC AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PROBIOTIC CULTURE IN MILK SUPPLEMENTED WITH RYE FLAKES AND MALT EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bărăscu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rye flakes and malt extract were added to milk in order to stimulate growth and fermentative activity of probioticbacteria and to obtain a probiotic product with pleasant sensory attributes. Probiotic culture used in this study containsbifidobacteria, Lb. acidophilus, Lactobacilus lactis and Streptococcus thermophilus.Rye flakes have a stimulating effect more pronounced than malt extract on acidification capacity of the probioticculture, and to achieve an increase of the milk acidity of 7g lactic acid /dm3 (in 6h at 39oC the two ingredients must beadded in concentration of 2% and, respectively, 0.2%..The probiotic culture reach the greatest proteolytic activity when rye flakes are added in the proportion of 3% andmalt extract in the proportion of 0.1% and the amino acids released rate was 764.6 μg%. The lactose bioconversionrate was greater in the milk supplemented with rye flakes 3% and malt extract 0.1% and residual lactose was 3.84%.

  5. Early decomposer assemblages of soil organisms in litterbags with vetch and rye roots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva, Slavka; Christensen, Søren; Petersen, Henning

    2005-01-01

    production in vetch compared to rye. Furthermore, in vetch dauer larvae of bacteria feeding nematodes prevailed, which is also a sign of high bacterial production followed by food shortage for the bacterivores. Bacterivorous and predatory nematodes with capability of consuming protozoa showed an inverse...

  6. Benefits of Vetch and Rye Cover Crops to Sweet Corn under No-Tillage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zotarelli, L.; Avila, L.; Scholberg, J.M.S.; Alves, B.J.R.

    2009-01-01

    Leguminous cover crops (CCs) may reduce N fertilizer requirements by fixing N biologically and storing leftover N-fertilizer applied in the previous year. The objective of this study was to determine the contribution of CCs [rye (Secale cereal L.) and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth)] on plant N

  7. Application of cross-linked and hydrolyzed arabinoxylans in baking of model rye bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buksa, Krzysztof; Nowotna, Anna; Ziobro, Rafał

    2016-02-01

    The role of water extractable arabinoxylan with varying molar mass and structure (cross-linked vs. hydrolyzed) in the structure formation of rye bread was examined using a model bread. Instead of the normal flour, the dough contained starch, arabinoxylan and protein, which were isolated from rye wholemeal. It was observed that the applied mixes of these constituents result in a product closely resembling typical rye bread, even if arabinoxylan was modified (by cross-linking or hydrolysis). The levels of arabinoxylan required for bread preparation depended on its modification and mix composition. At 3% protein, the maximum applicable level of poorly soluble cross-linked arabinoxylan was 3%, as higher amounts of this preparation resulted in an extensively viscous dough and diminished bread volume. On the other hand highly soluble, hydrolyzed arabinoxylan could be used at a higher level (6%) together with larger amounts of rye protein (3% or 6%). Further addition of arabinoxylan leads to excessive water absorption, resulting in a decreased viscosity of the dough during baking and insufficient gas retention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Deoxynivalenol and other Fusarium toxins in wheat and rye flours on the Danish market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Have; Pasikhani, Faranak Ghorbani; Berg, T.

    2003-01-01

    wheat, durum wheat and rye. The samples were collected from 1998 to 2001 from both mills and the retail market in Denmark. A total of 190. our samples were analysed for DON and NIV and about 60 samples for HT-2, T-2 toxin and ZON. DON was most frequently detected with an incidence rate of 78% over all...... samples for all years. The contamination level varied considerably from year to year, and for wheat and rye the highest incidence and DON concentrations were found in samples from the 1998 harvest. There were regular and heavy rainfalls in Denmark during the flowering period of the crops that year......, and DON was found in all samples, with mean concentrations in wheat and rye. our of 191 mug kg(-1) (n = 14) and 99 mug kg(-1) (n = 16), respectively. Comparison of data from each harvest year showed higher contents of DON in samples of wheat (range 20-527 mug kg(-1)) than in rye (20-257 mug kg(-1...

  9. Low level impurities in imported wheat are a likely source of feral transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Juerg; Brodmann, Peter; Oehen, Bernadette; Bagutti, Claudia

    2015-11-01

    In Switzerland, the cultivation of genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and the use of its seeds for food and feed are not permitted. Nevertheless, the GM oilseed rape events GT73, MS8×RF3, MS8 and RF3 have recently been found in the Rhine port of Basel, Switzerland. The sources of GM oilseed rape seeds have been unknown. The main agricultural good being imported at the Rhine port of Basel is wheat and from 2010 to 2013, 19% of all Swiss wheat imports originated from Canada. As over 90% of all oilseed rape grown in Canada is GM, we hypothesised that imports of Canadian wheat may contain low level impurities of GM oilseed rape. Therefore, waste fraction samples gathered during the mechanical cleaning of Canadian wheat from two Swiss grain mills were analysed by separating oilseed rape seeds from waste fraction samples and testing DNA of pooled seeds for the presence of transgenes by real-time PCR. Furthermore, oilseed rape seeds from each grain mill were sown in a germination experiment, and seedling DNA was tested for the presence of transgenes by real-time PCR. GT73, MS8×RF3, MS8 and RF3 oilseed rape was detected among seed samples and seedlings of both grain mills. Based on this data, we projected a mean proportion of 0.005% of oilseed rape in wheat imported from Canada. Besides Canadian wheat, the Rhine port of Basel does not import any other significant amounts of agricultural products from GM oilseed rape producing countries. We therefore conclude that Canadian wheat is the major source of unintended introduction of GM oilseed rape seeds into Switzerland.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF A FUNCTIONAL PURPOSE WHIPPED BREAD WHOLE GRAIN WHEAT, RYE AND WHEAT BRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the development of whipped bakery products enriched with dietary fiber, minerals, vitamins retinol, tocopherol, group, polyunsaturated fatty acids through the use of rye and wheat bran and flour of wholegrain wheat. The main raw material for enrichment whipped bakery products used wheat bran and rye. Choice of rye and wheat bran as supplementation prepared whipped bread is explained not only from the point of view of the rationality of the use of this secondary raw materials, but also its rich vitamin and mineral composition. Wheat bran contain the necessary man of b vitamins, including B1, B2, B6, PP and others. Found provitamin a (carotene and vitamin E (tocopherol. Bran is rich in mineral substances. Among them potassium, magnesium, chromium, zinc, copper, selenium and other trace elements. Thanks to this composition bran are essential dietary product. They are rich in insoluble fiber and can be useful to reduce the risk of developing colon cancer. Rye bran contain dietary fiber, tocopherol E, thiamin B1, Riboflavin B2, Pantothenic acid B5, B4 (choline, nicotinic acid B3, etc. In the bran rich set of microelements and macroelements such as iron, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, iodine, selenium, chromium, etc. the Introduction in the diet, bran rye contribute to the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis, diabetes and anemia. They restore blood pressure, reduce blood sugar levels and improve the cardiovascular system. Flour from wholegrain wheat is the main supplier of bread protein and starch, while preserving the maximum of the original nutritional value of the grain, enriched whipped bread macro - and micronutrients. The analysis of the chemical composition of flour from wholegrain wheat, rye and wheat bran leads to the conclusion that the choice of these types of materials suitable for making the recipe whipped bakery products, because their use can increase the content in bread is not only the

  11. Flowering dynamics and pollinator visitation of oilseed echium (Echium plantagineum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie A Eberle

    Full Text Available Echium (Echium plantagineum L. is an alternative oilseed crop in summer-wet temperate regions that provides floral resources to pollinators. Its seed oil is rich in omega-3 fatty acids, such as stearidonic acid, which is desired highly by the cosmetic industry. Seeds were sown in field plots over three years in western Minnesota in spring (early-sown or early summer (late-sown, and flower abundance, pollinator visitation, and seed yields were studied. Initial flowering commenced 41 to 55 d after sowing, and anthesis duration (first flowering to harvest was 34 to 70 d. Late sowing dates delayed anthesis, but increased the intensity of visitation by pollinators. Cumulative flower densities ranged from 1 to 4.5 billion ha-1. Flowers attracted numerous honey bees (Apis mellifera L., as many as 35 per minute of observation, which represented about 50% of all insect visitors. Early-sown echium produced seed yields up to 750 kg ha-1, which were 2-29 times higher than those of late-sown echium. Early sowing of echium in Minnesota provides abundant floral resources for pollinators for up to two months and simultaneously produces seed yields whose profits rival those of corn (Zea mays L..

  12. Co-digestion of wheat and rye bread suspensions with source-sorted municipal biowaste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chaoran, E-mail: Chaoran.Li3@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Biology for Engineers and Biotechnology of Wastewater, Am Fasanengarten, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Mörtelmaier, Christoph, E-mail: Christoph.Moertelmaier@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Biology for Engineers and Biotechnology of Wastewater, Am Fasanengarten, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Winter, Josef, E-mail: Josef.Winter@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Biology for Engineers and Biotechnology of Wastewater, Am Fasanengarten, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Gallert, Claudia, E-mail: Claudia.Gallert@HS-Emden-Leer.de [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Biology for Engineers and Biotechnology of Wastewater, Am Fasanengarten, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); University of Applied Science, Hochschule Emden-Leer, Faculty of Technology, Division Microbiology – Biotechnology, Constantiaplatz 4, D-26723 Emden (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    Graphical abstract: Volatile fatty acid spectra of acidified WBS, RBS or FBS differ, but methanogenesis is similar. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Biogas improvement by co-digestion of wheat and rye bread. • Increased population density at high organic loading rates. • Less Pelotomaculum but increased numbers of Syntrophobacter and Smithella found in rye bread reactor. • Replacement of Methanosarcinales by acetate-oxidizers in rye bread co-digestion. • Increasing proportion of Methanomicrobiales in biowaste + rye bread reactor. - Abstract: Acidification of wheat bread (WBS), rye bread (RBS) and fresh biowaste suspensions (FBS), leading to lactate+acetate, lactate+acetate+n-buyrate, and acetate+propionate+n-butyrate, respectively, and biogas production as well as population dynamics were investigated. Co-fermentation of FBS (14 kg m{sup −3} d{sup −1} organic loading rate (OLR)) with WBS or RBS was stable up to an OLR of 22 kg m{sup −3} d{sup −1} and resulted in up to 3 times as much biogas. During co-fermentation at more than 20 kg m{sup −3} d{sup −1} OLR the total population increased more than 2-fold, but the originally low share of propionate-oxidizing bacteria significantly decreased. The proportion of methanogens also decreased. Whereas the proportion of Methanosarcinales to Methanomicrobiales in biowaste and biowaste+WBS remained constant, Methanosarcinales and in particular Methanosaeta spec. in the biowaste+RBS assay almost completely disappeared. Methanomicrobiales increased instead, indicating propionate oxidation via acetate cleavage to CO{sub 2} and hydrogen.

  13. Alterations and abnormal mitosis of wheat chromosomes induced by wheat-rye monosomic addition lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shulan Fu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Wheat-rye addition lines are an old topic. However, the alterations and abnormal mitotic behaviours of wheat chromosomes caused by wheat-rye monosomic addition lines are seldom reported. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Octoploid triticale was derived from common wheat T. aestivum L. 'Mianyang11'×rye S. cereale L. 'Kustro' and some progeny were obtained by the controlled backcrossing of triticale with 'Mianyang11' followed by self-fertilization. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH using rye genomic DNA and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH using repetitive sequences pAs1 and pSc119.2 as probes were used to analyze the mitotic chromosomes of these progeny. Strong pSc119.2 FISH signals could be observed at the telomeric regions of 3DS arms in 'Mianyang11'. However, the pSc119.2 FISH signals were disappeared from the selfed progeny of 4R monosomic addition line and the changed 3D chromosomes could be transmitted to next generation stably. In one of the selfed progeny of 7R monosomic addition line, one 2D chromosome was broken and three 4A chromosomes were observed. In the selfed progeny of 6R monosomic addition line, structural variation and abnormal mitotic behaviour of 3D chromosome were detected. Additionally, 1A and 4B chromosomes were eliminated from some of the progeny of 6R monosomic addition line. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicated that single rye chromosome added to wheat might cause alterations and abnormal mitotic behaviours of wheat chromosomes and it is possible that the stress caused by single alien chromosome might be one of the factors that induced karyotype alteration of wheat.

  14. Evaluation of the Minolta SPAD-502 meter for nitrogen management of oilseed rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhe-yan; He, Yong; Huang, Min

    2006-09-01

    Nitrogen is important for oilseed rape production and even moderate deficiencies will substantially reduce yield and profit, but excessive N can pollute both surface and ground water. Thus, farmers are walking a thin line. In order to find the relationship between the SPAD value and the nitrogen content of oilseed rapes, a Minolta SPAD-502 Meter can be used for on-farm measurement of the N content, and then the Kjeldahl method has been used for measuring the nitrogen content of these oilseed rapes. Every leaf had 10 points SPAD value in average for measuring by SPAD, according to the area of the leaves, the points were increased or decreased. The Kjeldahl method has been used for organic nitrogen determination for over a century. Before using the Kjeldahl method to measuring the nitrogen content, all the leaves has been washed and dried. The results of these two methods has been fitted, as a result, the correlation coefficient is 0.863. Another sample was used to check if the result was perfect, the error of the forecasting value is about 7.4%. A new method for measuring the nitrogen content quickly of oilseed rapes has been found, the nitrogen content of the oilseed rape can be measured nondestructively and quickly.

  15. Comparison of ethanol-soluble proteins from different rye (Secale cereale) varieties by two-dimensional electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radzikowski, Louise; Nesic, Ljiljana; Hansen, H.B.

    2002-01-01

    The major storage proteins from six rye varieties, grown under the same conditions in 1997 and 1998 in Ronhave, Denmark, were analyzed by two-dimensional (2-D) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The proteins were extracted from ground rye kernels with 70% ethanol and separated by 2-D......, that the protein patterns (number of different proteins and their isoelectric points and molecular weights) from the six rye varieties were different. Based on the presence of unique cultivar-specific spots it was possible to differentiate between all six varieties if the two harvest years were investigated...... characteristics showed that one protein spot was located close to the parameters bread volume and bread height....

  16. Appetite and food intake after consumption of sausages with 10% fat and added wheat or rye bran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuholm, Stine; Arildsen Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe; Sørensen, Karina Vejrum

    2014-01-01

    fibers to sausages, (2) type of dietary fibers and (3) the food matrix of the dietary fibers. In this randomized cross-over study 25 young men were served four test meals; wheat bran sausages, rye bran sausages, rye bran bread and wheat flour sausages. The test meals were served as breakfast after...... and rye bran added to sausages decreased appetite sensations and thereby has a potential added health benefit beyond the role as fat-replacer. The satisfying effect of dietary fibers appears to be more pronounced when added to sausages than when added to bread, stressing the importance of food matrix...

  17. N loss to drain flow and N2O emissions from a corn-soybean rotation with winter rye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthropogenic perturbation of the global nitrogen cycle and its effects on the environment such as hypoxia in coastal regions and increased N2O emissions is of increasing, cross-disciplinary, worldwide concern, and agricultural production is a major contributor. Only limited studies, however, have s...

  18. Isolation of cultivation-resistant oomycetes, first detected as amplicon sequences, from roots of herbicide-terminated winter rye

    Science.gov (United States)

    The dynamics of microbial communities associated with dying cover crops are of interest because of potential impacts on disease in a subsequent crop, and because of the importance of microbial activity on plant residue to soil organic matter dynamics and nutrient cycling. High throughput amplicon se...

  19. Cadmium uptake and speciation changes in the rhizosphere of cadmium accumulator and non-accumulator oilseed rape varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Dechun; Xing, Jianping; Jiao, Weiping; Wong, Woonchung

    2009-01-01

    Characteristics of cadmium (Cd) uptake kinetics and distribution of Cd speciation in the rhizosphere for Cd accumulator and non-accumulator oilseed rape varieties were investigated under nutrient solution and rhizobox soil culture conditions. The results showed that the maximal influx (V(max)) for Cd2+ and Km were significantly different for the two oilseed rape varieties. The value of V(max) for Cd accumulator oilseed rape Zhucang Huazi was two-fold greater than that for oilseed rape Chuan you II-93. The exchangeable Cd concentration in the rhizosphere was significantly lower than in non-rhizospheric soils supplemented with CdSO4 for both the varieties. Carbonate-bound Cd in the rhizosphere of Cd accumulator oilseed rape was significantly higher than that in the rhizosphere of non-accumulator oilseed rape and non-rhizospheric soil. Cd accumulator oilseed rape had a higher Cd2+ affinity and more ability to uptake insoluble Cd in the soil than the non-accumulator oilseed rape.

  20. Sensitization to turnip rape and oilseed rape in children with atopic dermatitis: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poikonen, Sanna; Puumalainen, Tuija J; Kautiainen, Hannu; Palosuo, Timo; Reunala, Timo; Turjanmaa, Kristiina

    2008-08-01

    Turnip rape and oilseed rape 2S albumins are new allergens in children with atopic dermatitis suspected for food allergy. We recently found that 11% (206/1887) of these children had a positive skin prick test to seeds of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and/or turnip rape (Brassica rapa). In the present case-control study we examined how the children with atopic dermatitis sensitized to turnip rape and oilseed rape had been breast-fed and whether they had some common sensitization pattern to certain foods or pollens. A total of 64 children with atopic dermatitis and a positive skin prick test to turnip rape and/or oilseed rape (>or=5 mm) were examined. Sixty-four age- and sex-matched children with atopic dermatitis but negative skin prick tests to turnip rape and oilseed rape served as case controls. The turnip rape and/or oilseed rape sensitized children with atopic dermatitis had significantly more often positive skin prick tests reactions and IgE antibodies to various foods (cow's milk, egg, wheat, mustard; p children. They had been exclusively breast-fed for a longer period (median 4 months; p Children with atopic dermatitis sensitized to oilseed rape and turnip rape had high frequency of associated sensitizations to all foods and pollens tested showing that oilseed plant sensitization affects especially atopic children who have been sensitized to multiple allergens.

  1. Effect of oilseed source on ruminal fermentation and methane production of a grass-legume diet in continuous culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addition of oilseeds to pasture-based ruminant diets has been shown to decrease enteric CH4 emissions. However, little research has directly compared the effect of oilseed source on ruminal fermentation and Methane (CH4) production. A 4-unit continuous culture fermentor system was used to test 4 oil...

  2. Remote Estimation of Vegetation Fraction and Flower Fraction in Oilseed Rape with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghui Fang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study developed an approach for remote estimation of Vegetation Fraction (VF and Flower Fraction (FF in oilseed rape, which is a crop species with conspicuous flowers during reproduction. Canopy reflectance in green, red, red edge and NIR bands was obtained by a camera system mounted on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV when oilseed rape was in the vegetative growth and flowering stage. The relationship of several widely-used Vegetation Indices (VI vs. VF was tested and found to be different in different phenology stages. At the same VF when oilseed rape was flowering, canopy reflectance increased in all bands, and the tested VI decreased. Therefore, two algorithms to estimate VF were calibrated respectively, one for samples during vegetative growth and the other for samples during flowering stage. The results showed that the Visible Atmospherically Resistant Index (VARIgreen worked most accurately for estimating VF in flower-free samples with an Root Mean Square Error (RMSE of 3.56%, while the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI2 was the best in flower-containing samples with an RMSE of 5.65%. Based on reflectance in green and NIR bands, a technique was developed to identify whether a sample contained flowers and then to choose automatically the appropriate algorithm for its VF estimation. During the flowering season, we also explored the potential of using canopy reflectance or VIs to estimate FF in oilseed rape. No significant correlation was observed between VI and FF when soil was visible in the sensor’s field of view. Reflectance at 550 nm worked well for FF estimation with coefficient of determination (R2 above 0.6. Our model was validated in oilseed rape planted under different nitrogen fertilization applications and in different phenology stages. The results showed that it was able to predict VF and FF accurately in oilseed rape with RMSE below 6%.

  3. Mid-winter Waterfowl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mid-winter Waterfowl Survey is a nationwide effort to survey waterfowl in areas of major concentration on their wintering grounds and provide winter distribution...

  4. The Emerging Oilseed Crop Sesamum indicum Enters the "Omics" Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossa, Komivi; Diouf, Diaga; Wang, Linhai; Wei, Xin; Zhang, Yanxin; Niang, Mareme; Fonceka, Daniel; Yu, Jingyin; Mmadi, Marie A; Yehouessi, Louis W; Liao, Boshou; Zhang, Xiurong; Cisse, Ndiaga

    2017-01-01

    Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is one of the oldest oilseed crops widely grown in Africa and Asia for its high-quality nutritional seeds. It is well adapted to harsh environments and constitutes an alternative cash crop for smallholders in developing countries. Despite its economic and nutritional importance, sesame is considered as an orphan crop because it has received very little attention from science. As a consequence, it lags behind the other major oil crops as far as genetic improvement is concerned. In recent years, the scenario has considerably changed with the decoding of the sesame nuclear genome leading to the development of various genomic resources including molecular markers, comprehensive genetic maps, high-quality transcriptome assemblies, web-based functional databases and diverse daft genome sequences. The availability of these tools in association with the discovery of candidate genes and quantitative trait locis for key agronomic traits including high oil content and quality, waterlogging and drought tolerance, disease resistance, cytoplasmic male sterility, high yield, pave the way to the development of some new strategies for sesame genetic improvement. As a result, sesame has graduated from an "orphan crop" to a "genomic resource-rich crop." With the limited research teams working on sesame worldwide, more synergic efforts are needed to integrate these resources in sesame breeding for productivity upsurge, ensuring food security and improved livelihood in developing countries. This review retraces the evolution of sesame research by highlighting the recent advances in the "Omics" area and also critically discusses the future prospects for a further genetic improvement and a better expansion of this crop.

  5. Inheritance of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) RAPD markers in a backcross progeny with Brassica campestris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, T.R.; Jensen, J.; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    1996-01-01

    Different cultivars/transgenic lines of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) were crossed (as females) with different cultivars/populations of Brassica campestris. All cross combinations produced seed, with an average seed set per pollination of 9.8. Backcrossing of selected interspecific hybrids (as...... markers could be assigned to six linkage groups, most probably reflecting six B. napus C-chromosomes. The presence of backcross plants with recombinant genotypes suggests that complex genetic processes can take place during the interspecific hybridisation and backcrossing in these Brassica species....... The implications of our results for the possible choice nf integration sites of transgenes in oilseed rape are discussed....

  6. Solubilization and characterization of diacylglycerol acyltransferase from microspore-derived cultures of oilseed rape.

    OpenAIRE

    Little, D.; Weselake, R; Pomeroy, K; Furukawa-Stoffer, T; Bagu, J

    1994-01-01

    Particulate fractions prepared from microspore-derived (MD) embryos of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. cv. Reston) and an embryogenic MD cell suspension culture of oilseed rape (B. napus L. cv. Jet Neuf) were used as a source of diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT, EC 2.3.1.20) for enzyme characterization and development of a solubilization procedure. DGAT activity in the 1500-100,000 g fraction from MD embryos was stimulated 4-5-fold by 3 to 4 mg of BSA/ml of reaction mixture. DGAT activity...

  7. Brassinosteroids increase winter survival of winter rye (Secale cereale L.) by affecting photosynthetic capacity and carbohydrate metabolism during the cold acclimation process

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pociecha, E.; Dziurka, M.; Oklešťková, Jana; Janeczko, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 2 (2016), s. 127-135 ISSN 0167-6903 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-34792S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Chlorophyll a fluorescence * Cold acclimation * Frost tolerance Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.646, year: 2016

  8. Benzoxazinoids in rye allelopathy - from discovery to application in sustainable weed control and organic farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Margot; Marocco, Adriano; Tabaglio, Vincenzo; Macias, Francisco A; Molinillo, Jose M G

    2013-02-01

    The allelopathic potency of rye (Secale cereale L.) is due mainly to the presence of phytotoxic benzoxazinones-compounds whose biosynthesis is developmentally regulated, with the highest accumulation in young tissue and a dependency on cultivar and environmental influences. Benzoxazinones can be released from residues of greenhouse-grown rye at levels between 12 and 20 kg/ha, with lower amounts exuded by living plants. In soil, benzoxazinones are subject to a cascade of transformation reactions, and levels in the range 0.5-5 kg/ha have been reported. Starting with the accumulation of less toxic benzoxazolinones, the transformation reactions in soil primarily lead to the production of phenoxazinones, acetamides, and malonamic acids. These reactions are associated with microbial activity in the soil. In addition to benzoxazinones, benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one (BOA) has been investigated for phytotoxic effects in weeds and crops. Exposure to BOA affects transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome patterns of the seedlings, inhibits germination and growth, and can induce death of sensitive species. Differences in the sensitivity of cultivars and ecotypes are due to different species-dependent strategies that have evolved to cope with BOA. These strategies include the rapid activation of detoxification reactions and extrusion of detoxified compounds. In contrast to sensitive ecotypes, tolerant ecotypes are less affected by exposure to BOA. Like the original compounds BOA and MBOA, all exuded detoxification products are converted to phenoxazinones, which can be degraded by several specialized fungi via the Fenton reaction. Because of their selectivity, specific activity, and presumably limited persistence in the soil, benzoxazinoids or rye residues are suitable means for weed control. In fact, rye is one of the best cool season cover crops and widely used because of its excellent weed suppressive potential. Breeding of benzoxazinoid resistant crops and of rye with high

  9. Whole grain rye breakfast - sustained satiety during three weeks of regular consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, Hanna; Tillander, Isabella; Andersson, Roger; Olsson, Johan; Fredriksson, Helena; Webb, Dominic-Luc; Åman, Per

    2012-02-01

    Whole grain rye products have previously been shown to increase feelings of satiety for up to 8h after intake under standardized conditions. This study was set out to investigate the sustainability of the satiating effect after regular consumption of breakfast meals with whole grain rye porridge or refined wheat bread. The study was randomized, cross-over and double-blind. Healthy subjects (n=24) were randomly assigned to daily consumption of iso-caloric standardized breakfast meals with whole grain rye porridge or refined wheat bread for two 3-wk phases, separated by a wash out of 3-4weeks. Each intervention phase had 3 scheduled visit days (days 1, 8 and 22) when appetite ratings (hunger, satiety and desire to eat) were registered for 24h at standardized conditions. Orocecal transit time (salicylazosulfapyridine/sulfapyridine method) and breath hydrogen as an indicator of colonic fermentation were measured at day 8 of each 3-wk phase in a subgroup (n=16). To investigate effects of breakfast on free-living food intake, 3-day weighed food diaries were self-registered during both intervention phases. Whole grain rye porridge breakfast resulted in higher ratings of satiety and lower hunger and desire to eat during 4h post consumption compared to refined wheat bread breakfast (psustained throughout the 3-wk study phases. Unlike previous studies, the effects did not persist into the afternoon (4-8h). The orocecal transit times after consumption of both breakfasts were similar and in the range of 5-6h. The rye porridge resulted in high levels of breath hydrogen 4-8h after intake, showing extensive colonic fermentation. This was however not related to any changes in appetite during this time-period. There were no significant differences in self-reported macronutrient- and energy intake between diets. This study shows that the satiating effect of rye persists after repeated daily consumption for up to three weeks. Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01117363. Copyright

  10. Behavior of the complex micro-ecology in maize and rye flour and mother-dough for broa throughout storage

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, João Miguel Ferreira; Malcata, F. Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Besides water, maize and rye flour are the main constituents of broa a unique sourdough bread, manufactured following traditional protocols at the farm level in Portugal. Mother-dough, i.e., a piece of leavened dough kept aside from batch to batch under refrigeration conditions, constitutes the only starter culture used throughout breadmaking. Maize and rye flour, as well as mother-dough, were accordingly assayed for their microbiological profiles throughout storage time, to characterize the...

  11. Winter Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Winter Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1992 and covered offshore areas from the Mid-Atlantic to Georges Bank. Inshore strata were covered...

  12. Deer Wintering Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Deer winter habitat is critical to the long term survival of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Vermont. Being near the northern extreme of the...

  13. Quantitative Multilevel Analysis of Central Metabolism in Developing Oilseeds of Oilseed Rape during in Vitro Culture1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwender, Jörg; Hebbelmann, Inga; Heinzel, Nicolas; Hildebrandt, Tatjana; Rogers, Alistair; Klapperstück, Matthias; Schreiber, Falk; Borisjuk, Ljudmilla; Rolletschek, Hardy

    2015-01-01

    Seeds provide the basis for many food, feed, and fuel products. Continued increases in seed yield, composition, and quality require an improved understanding of how the developing seed converts carbon and nitrogen supplies into storage. Current knowledge of this process is often based on the premise that transcriptional regulation directly translates via enzyme concentration into flux. In an attempt to highlight metabolic control, we explore genotypic differences in carbon partitioning for in vitro cultured developing embryos of oilseed rape (Brassica napus). We determined biomass composition as well as 79 net fluxes, the levels of 77 metabolites, and 26 enzyme activities with specific focus on central metabolism in nine selected germplasm accessions. Overall, we observed a tradeoff between the biomass component fractions of lipid and starch. With increasing lipid content over the spectrum of genotypes, plastidic fatty acid synthesis and glycolytic flux increased concomitantly, while glycolytic intermediates decreased. The lipid/starch tradeoff was not reflected at the proteome level, pointing to the significance of (posttranslational) metabolic control. Enzyme activity/flux and metabolite/flux correlations suggest that plastidic pyruvate kinase exerts flux control and that the lipid/starch tradeoff is most likely mediated by allosteric feedback regulation of phosphofructokinase and ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. Quantitative data were also used to calculate in vivo mass action ratios, reaction equilibria, and metabolite turnover times. Compounds like cyclic 3′,5′-AMP and sucrose-6-phosphate were identified to potentially be involved in so far unknown mechanisms of metabolic control. This study provides a rich source of quantitative data for those studying central metabolism. PMID:25944824

  14. Wholegrain rye, but not wholegrain wheat, lowers body weight and fat mass compared with refined wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, J; Vuholm, Stine; Iversen, K N

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Observational studies suggest inverse associations between wholegrain intake and body weight gain. Only few controlled intervention studies have supported this association and few compare effects of different grain varieties. OBJECTIVE: To investigate how wholegrain wheat (WGW) and rye...... compared with refined wheat (RW) affect body weight and composition and appetite sensation. DESIGN: Seventy overweight/obese adults participated in this 6-week randomized parallel study, in which they replaced their habitual cereal foods with RW, WGW or wholegrain rye (WGR). Further, a 4 h postprandial...... test meal challenge was completed with meals corresponding to diet allocation in the beginning and after the intervention. Body weight and composition, fasted blood samples, compliance and 4-day dietary intake were obtained before and after the intervention period. Appetite and breath hydrogen...

  15. Sensory characteristics and consumer liking of sausages with 10% fat and added rye or wheat bran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arildsen Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe; Vuholm, Stine; Aaslyng, Margit Dall

    2014-01-01

    and added rye or wheat bran. Sensory descriptive attributes (odor, appearance, texture, and flavor) of rye bran sausage (RBS) and wheat bran sausage (WBS) were evaluated by a trained sensory panel (n = 9). A sausage with wheat flour (WFS) and two commercial 20% (20%S) and 10% (10%S) (w/w) fat sausages were...... the other sausages. RBS was similar to the commercial 10%S with regard to several sensory attributes and liking, whereas WBS was the least juicy, had a higher intensity of cereal odor and flavor, and the lowest liking.......Improving the nutritional profile of sausages through the addition of dietary fiber might affect appetite, sensory characteristics, and liking differently depending on the fiber source. This study investigates the sensory characteristics and consumer acceptance of sausages with 10% (w/w) fat...

  16. Zinc absorption in humans from meals based on rye, barley, oatmeal, triticale and whole wheat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstroem, B.A.; Almgren, A.; Kivistoe, B.C.; Cederblad, A.

    1987-11-01

    The absorption of zinc from meals based on 60 g of rye, barley, oatmeal, triticale or whole wheat was studied by use of extrinsic labelling with /sup 65/Zn and measurement of the whole-body retention of the radionuclide. The cereals were prepared in the form of bread or porridge and were served with 200 mL of milk. The oatmeal flakes were also served without further preparation. The absorption of zinc was negatively correlated to the phytic acid content of the meal with the highest absorption, 26.8 +/- 7.4%, from the rye bread meal containing 100 mumol of phytic acid and the lowest, 8.4 +/- 1.0%, from oatmeal porridge with a phytic acid content of 600 mumol. It is concluded that food preparation that decreases the phytic acid content improves zinc absorption.

  17. Bioethanol production by inherent enzymes from rye and wheat with addition of organic farming cheese whey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kádár, Zsófia; Christensen, Anne Deen; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard

    2011-01-01

    In organic farming, there is a strong effort to minimize the share of non-renewable resources (e.g. fossil fuels) and use only (preferably on-farm produced) bio-based energy and renewable raw materials, with the aim of achieving sustainable production systems and to become self-sufficient in energy...... in Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) process to use a cheap nutrient and water source. The ethanol fermentations were completed by 190 h. The fermentation efficiency of germinated and un-germinated grains (without commercial enzymes) was compared with that of commercial enzymes in SSF...... and furthermore Autoamylolytical Quotient (AAQ) was calculated. On rye 72% yield of the theoretical was achieved by applying commercial enzymes, which decreased only by 10%, when in situ enzymes produced during germination were used alone. The obtained ethanol yields and high (90%) AAQ values showed that rye...

  18. Zinc absorption in humans from meals based on rye, barley, oatmeal, triticale and whole wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandström, B; Almgren, A; Kivistö, B; Cederblad, A

    1987-11-01

    The absorption of zinc from meals based on 60 g of rye, barley, oatmeal, triticale or whole wheat was studied by use of extrinsic labelling with 65Zn and measurement of the whole-body retention of the radionuclide. The cereals were prepared in the form of bread or porridge and were served with 200 mL of milk. The oatmeal flakes were also served without further preparation. The absorption of zinc was negatively correlated to the phytic acid content of the meal with the highest absorption, 26.8 +/- 7.4%, from the rye bread meal containing 100 mumol of phytic acid and the lowest, 8.4 +/- 1.0%, from oatmeal porridge with a phytic acid content of 600 mumol. It is concluded that food preparation that decreases the phytic acid content improves zinc absorption.

  19. cDNA cloning and immunological characterization of the rye grass allergen Lol p I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, M; Ishioka, G Y; Walker, L E; Chesnut, R W

    1990-09-25

    The complete amino acid sequence of two "isoallergenic" forms of Lol p I, the major rye grass (Lolium perenne) pollen allergen, was deduced from cDNA sequence analysis. cDNA clones isolated from a Lolium perenne pollen library contained an open reading frame coding for a 240-amino acid protein. Comparison of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of two of these clones revealed four changes at the amino acid level and numerous nucleotide differences. Both clones contained one possible asparagine-linked glycosylation site. Northern blot analysis shows one RNA species of 1.2 kilobases. Based on the complete amino acid sequence of Lol p I, overlapping peptides covering the entire molecule were synthesized. Utilizing these peptides we have identified a determinant within the Lol p I molecule that is recognized by human leukocyte antigen class II-restricted T cells obtained from persons allergic to rye grass pollen.

  20. Second meal effect on appetite and fermentation of wholegrain rye foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrügger, Sabine; Vigsnæs, Louise Kristine; Blennow, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Wholegrain rye has been associated with decreased hunger sensations. This may be partly mediated by colonic fermentation. Sustained consumption of fermentable components is known to change the gut microflora and may increase numbers of saccharolytic bacteria. Objective: To investigate....... In an in vitro study, RKB and RK were subjected to digestion and 24 h-fermentation in order to study SCFA production and growth of selected saccharolytic bacteria. Results: The test meals did not differ in their effect on parameters of subjective appetite sensation the following day. Ad libitum energy intake...... the effect of wholegrain rye consumption on appetite and colonic fermentation after a subsequent meal. Methods: In a randomized, controlled, three-arm cross-over study, twelve healthy male subjects consumed three iso-caloric evening test meals. The test meals were based on white wheat bread (WBB), wholegrain...

  1. Comparable efficiency of different extraction protocols for wheat and rye prolamins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Socha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification and quantification of cereal storage proteins is of interest of many researchers. Their structural or functional properties are usually affected by the way how they are extracted. The efficiency of extraction process depends on the cereal source and working conditions. Here, we described various commonly used extraction protocols differing in the extraction conditions (pre-extraction of albumins/globulins, sequential extraction of individual protein fractions or co-extraction of gluten proteins, heating or non-heating, reducing or non-reducing conditions. The total protein content of all fractions extracted from commercially available wheat and rye flours was measured by the Bradford method. Tris-Tricine SDS-PAGE was used to determine the molecular weights of wheat gliadins, rye secalins and high-molecular weight glutelins which are the main triggering factors causing celiac disease. Moreover, we were able to distinguish individual subunits (α/β-, γ-, ω-gliadins and 40k-γ-, 75k-γ-, ω-secalins of wheat/rye prolamins. Generally, modified extraction protocols against classical Osborne procedure were more effective and yields higher protein content in all protein fractions. Bradford measurement led into underestimation of results in three extraction procedures, while all protein fractions were clearly identified on SDS-PAGE gels. Co-extraction of gluten proteins resulted in appearance of both, low-molecular weight fractions (wheat gliadins and rye secalins as well as high-molecular weight glutelins which means that is not necessary to extract gluten proteins separately. The two of three extraction protocols showed high technical reproducibility with coefficient of variation less than 20%. Carefully optimized extraction protocol can be advantageous for further analyses of cereal prolamins.  Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE

  2. Genetic architecture of complex agronomic traits examined in two testcross populations of rye (Secale cereale L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miedaner Thomas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rye is an important European crop used for food, feed, and bioenergy. Several quality and yield-related traits are of agronomic relevance for rye breeding programs. Profound knowledge of the genetic architecture of these traits is needed to successfully implement marker-assisted selection programs. Nevertheless, little is known on quantitative loci underlying important agronomic traits in rye. Results We used 440 F3:4 inbred lines from two biparental populations (Pop-A, Pop-B fingerprinted with about 800 to 900 SNP, SSR and/or DArT markers and outcrossed them to a tester for phenotyping. The resulting hybrids and their parents were evaluated for grain yield, single-ear weight, test weight, plant height, thousand-kernel weight, falling number, protein, starch, soluble and total pentosan contents in up to ten environments in Central Europe. The quality of the phenotypic data was high reflected by moderate to high heritability estimates. QTL analyses revealed a total of 31 QTL for Pop-A and 52 for Pop-B. QTL x environment interactions were significant (P  Conclusions QTL mapping was successfully applied based on two segregating rye populations. QTL underlying grain yield and several quality traits had small effects. In contrast, thousand-kernel weight, test weight, falling number and starch content were affected by several major QTL with a high frequency of occurrence in cross validation. These QTL explaining a large proportion of the genotypic variance can be exploited in marker-assisted selection programs and are candidates for further genetic dissection.

  3. Estimation of Blast Severity on Rye and Triticale Spikes by Digital Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Leodato Nunes Maciel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, more efficient methods are a necessity for evaluating blast severity on spikes in the breeding programs of rye, triticale, wheat, and barley. The objective of this work was to determine the feasibility of assessing blast severity based on the analysis of digital images of symptomatic rye and triticale spikes. Triticale and rye genotypes were grown to anthesis in pots and were then inoculated with a mixture of Magnaporthe oryzae isolates. Blast severity on the spikes was evaluated visually and after that the spikes were detached and photographed. Blast severity was determined using the program ImageJ to analyze the obtained images. Two methods of image analysis were used: selection of symptomatic areas using a mouse cursor (SCU and selection of symptomatic areas using image segmentation (SIS. The SCU method was considered the standard reference method for determining the true value of blast severity on spikes. An analysis of variance did not determine any difference among the evaluation methods. The coefficient of determination (R2 obtained from a linear regression analysis between the variables SIS and SCU was 0.615. The obtained data indicate that the evaluation of blast severity on spikes based on image segmentation is feasible and reliable.

  4. Differentiation of raw spirits of rye, corn and potato using chromatographic profiles of volatile compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziółkowska, Angelika; Jeleń, Henryk H

    2012-10-01

    The origin of the raw spirits influences the sensory quality of rectified spirits that are subsequently used for the production of vodka. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of two methods based on the comparison of profiles of volatile compounds [solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) and gas chromatography with flame ionisation detection (GC-FID)] for the determination of origin of raw spirits obtained from rye, corn (maize) and potato. Profiles obtained for the volatile compounds by using these methods were different and were influenced by the sample introduction method. The main groups of volatiles obtained using SPME-GC-MS method were fatty acid ethyl esters, while in the case of GC-FID fusel alcohols and ethyl acetate dominated. Data obtained from these methods were treated using principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis to test the possibility of sample differentiation and classification. It was relatively easy to differentiate potato spirits from the remainder; however, it was not possible to fully distinguish the corn samples from rye samples. The classification ability of the SPME-GC-MS method was 95% but the prediction ability was 97.4%. For the GC-FID method the classification ability was 90.1%, whereas the prediction ability was 94.27%. The methods presented can be used for reliable differentiation of potato spirits from corn and rye spirits. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Transcriptomic analysis of nitrogen starvation- and cultivar-specific leaf senescence in winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeslin-Findeklee, Fabian; Rizi, Vajiheh Safavi; Becker, Martin A; Parra-Londono, Sebastian; Arif, Muhammad; Balazadeh, Salma; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Kunze, Reinhard; Horst, Walter J

    2015-04-01

    High nitrogen (N) efficiency, characterized by high grain yield under N limitation, is an important agricultural trait in Brassica napus L. cultivars related to delayed senescence of older leaves during reproductive growth (a syndrome called stay-green). The aim of this study was thus to identify genes whose expression is specifically altered during N starvation-induced leaf senescence and that can be used as markers to distinguish cultivars at early stages of senescence prior to chlorophyll loss. To this end, the transcriptomes of leaves of two B. napus cultivars differing in stay-green characteristics and N efficiency were analyzed 4 days after the induction of senescence by either N starvation, leaf shading or detaching. In addition to N metabolism genes, N starvation mostly (and specifically) repressed genes related to photosynthesis, photorespiration and cell-wall structure, while genes related to mitochondrial electron transport and flavonoid biosynthesis were predominately up-regulated. A kinetic study over a period of 12 days with four B. napus cultivars differing in their stay-green characteristics confirmed the cultivar-specific regulation of six genes in agreement with their senescence behavior: the senescence regulator ANAC029, the anthocyanin synthesis-related genes ANS and DFR-like1, the ammonium transporter AMT1;4, the ureide transporter UPS5, and SPS1 involved in sucrose biosynthesis. The identified genes represent markers for the detection of cultivar-specific differences in N starvation-induced leaf senescence and can thus be employed as valuable tools in B. napus breeding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Oilseed Radish (Raphanus Sativus) Effects on Soil Structure and Soil Water Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus spp. oleifera) reduces nematode populations. Fall-incorporated radish biomass may also improve soil physical and hydraulic properties to increase the yield and quality of subsequently grown sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.). This field study determined radish effects on...

  7. Effect of Enzymatic Hydrolysis on the Antioxidant Properties of Alcoholic Extracts of Oilseed Cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Arct

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to compare changes in the total phenolic, flavonoid and reducing sugar content and antioxidant activity of alcoholic extracts of Oenothera biennis, Borago officinalis and Nigella sativa oilseed cakes before and after enzymatic hydrolysis. Extraction with ethanol and hydrolysis with different commercially available glycosidases: α-amylase, β-glucosidase, β-glucanase and their combinations in a ratio of 1:1:1 were investigated. Total phenolic, flavonoid and reducing sugar content, iron-chelating activity and antioxidant activity according to DPPH and ABTS tests were measured in non-hydrolysed extracts and compared with the results obtained for the extracts after the application of immobilised enzymes. As a result, the hydrolysed extracts had a higher phenolic and reducing sugar content as well as higher iron-chelating and antioxidant activities. Total phenolic content of Oenothera biennis, Borago officinalis and Nigella sativa oilseed cake extracts after enzymatic hydrolysis was higher in comparison with non-hydrolysed extracts, i.e. 2 times (for the enzyme combination, and 1.5 and 2 times (for β-glucanase (p<0.05, respectively. The best results in increasing the flavonoid and sugar content as well as in iron-chelating activity were obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis of oilseed cake extracts by β-glucanase. Oilseed cake extracts after hydrolysis with an enzyme combination in a ratio of 1:1:1 had the highest increase in antioxidant activity.

  8. Effect of unconventional oilseeds (safflower, poppy, hemp, camelina) on in vitro ruminal methane production and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaopu; Kreuzer, Michael; Braun, Ueli; Schwarm, Angela

    2017-08-01

    Dietary supplementation with oilseeds can reduce methane emission in ruminants, but only a few common seeds have been tested so far. This study tested safflower (Carthamus tinctorius), poppy (Papaver somniferum), hemp (Cannabis sativa), and camelina (Camelina sativa) seeds in vitro using coconut (Cocos nucifera) oil and linseed (Linum usitatissimum) as positive controls. All the tested oilseeds suppressed methane yield (mL g-1 dry matter, up to 21%) compared to the non-supplemented control when provided at 70 g oil kg-1 dry matter, and they were as effective as coconut oil. Safflower and hemp were more effective than linseed (21% and 18% vs. 10%), whereas the effects of poppy and camelina were similar to linseed. When methane was related to digestible organic matter, only hemp and safflower seeds and coconut oil were effective compared to the non-supplemented control (up to 11%). The level of methanogenesis and the ratios of either the n-6:n-3 fatty acids or C18:2 :C18:3 in the seed lipids were not related. Unconventional oilseeds widen the spectrum of oilseeds that can be used in dietary methane mitigation. In vivo confirmation of their methane mitigating effect is still needed, and their effects on animal performance still must be determined. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Reduction of antinutritional glucosinolates in Brassica oilseeds by mutation of genes encoding transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nour-Eldin, Hussam Hassan; Madsen, Svend Roesen; Engelen, Steven

    2017-01-01

    The nutritional value of Brassica seed meals is reduced by the presence of glucosinolates, which are toxic compounds involved in plant defense. Mutation of the genes encoding two glucosinolate transporters (GTRs) eliminated glucosinolates from Arabidopsis thaliana seeds, but translation of loss-o...... glucosinolate content in other oilseed crops, such as Camelina sativa or Crambe abyssinica....

  10. The effect of biodiesel policies on world biodiesel and oilseed prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drabik, D.; Gorter, de H.; Timilsina, G.R.

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical and empirical model is developed to analyze the effect of a biodiesel mandate, a tax exemption (tax credit) and an exogenous diesel price shock on world soybean and canola markets. The jointness in crushing oil and meal from the oilseed reduces the size of the link between biodiesel

  11. Weevils of the genus Ceutorhynchus Germ associated with oilseed rape in northern Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Sivčev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Our research of the genus Ceutorhynchus associated with oilseed rape was conducted in northern parts of Serbia (Stari Žednik, Subotica. A specific assemblage of eight weevil species was found. The most numerous were stem weevils Ceutorhynchus napi with 81% of all trapped specimens, followed by C. pallidactylus with 18%. The remaining six weevil specimens were C. obstrictus, C.erysimi, C. minutus, C. picitarsis, C. sulcicollis and C. typhae, comprising 1% of all trapped insects. Stem weevils C. napi and C. pallidactylus began to immigrate into the oilseed rape fields in autumn, as early as November 10 (BBCH 17-18. The maximum flight was recorded at the beginning of oilseed rape stem elongation (BBCH 22-25 on March 23. A new generation of C. pallidactylus emerged from oilseed rape fields in June (BBCH 76-88, while individual specimens occurred during the autumn. The majority of C. napi emerged in March next year, sporadically until May 7. As a consequence of C. napi dominance insecticide treatment should be performed earlier than usual, i.e. when C. pallidactilus is the primary target.

  12. Gas assisted mechanical expression of cocoa butter from cocoa nibs and edible oils from oilseeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venter, M.J.; Willems, P.; Kuipers, N.J.M.; de Haan, A.B.

    2006-01-01

    The current methods used to recover high quality oil from oilseeds have low yields (mechanical expression, aqueous extraction), require the use of toxic chemicals and rigorous purification processes that can reduce the quality of the oil (solvent extraction with hexane) or are unsuitable for the

  13. Negative priming of native soil organic carbon mineralization by oilseed biochars of contrasting quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francischinelli Rittl, T.; Novotny, E.H.; Baliero, F.C.; Hoffland, E.; Alves, B.J.R.; Kuijper, T.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    Oilseed-derived biochar, a by-product of pyrolysis for biodiesel production, is richer in aliphatic compounds than the commonly studied wood-derived biochar, affecting both its mineralization in soil and its interaction with native soil organic carbon (nSOC). Here, we investigated the soil C

  14. Sustainability assessment of oilseed fractionation processes: A case study on lupin seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghout, J.A.M.; Pelgrom, P.J.M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.; Boom, R.M.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional ingredient production focusses on high purity and yield, resulting in energy- and resource-intensive fractionation processes. We explored alternative fractionation routes for oilseeds by focussing on functionality and optimal resource use. Lupin seeds were taken as model material because

  15. Investigation into the prospects of five novel oilseed crops within Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marvin, H.J.P.; Mastebroek, H.D.; Becu, D.M.S.; Janssens, R.J.J.

    2000-01-01

    The economic potential in Europe of five novel oilseed crops for applications within the chemical industry, particularly in paints and lubricants, was investigated within a multidisciplinary integrated research and development project. The entire production chain was subjected to a study. The

  16. Prediction of oil expression by uniaxial compression using time-varying oilseed properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bargale, P. C.; Wulfsohn, Dvoralai; Irudayaraj, J.

    2000-01-01

    A mathematical simulation of uniaxial compression of oilseeds for oil extraction was developed based upon combining Terzaghi's theory of consolidation for saturated soils with Darcy's law for unsaturated flow, while incorporating the time-varying nature of the coefficients of permeability...

  17. Registration of an oilseed sunflower germplasm HA-DM1 resistant to sunflower downy mildew

    Science.gov (United States)

    HA-DM1 (Reg. No.xxx, PI 674793) sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) germplasm was developed and released cooperatively by the USDA-ARS, Sunflower and Plant Biology Research Unit and the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station in 2015. HA-DM1 is a BC2F4 derived oilseed maintainer line from the cros...

  18. Assessing winter cover crop nutrient uptake efficiency using a water quality simulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, In-Young; Lee, Sangchui; Sadeghi, Ali M.; Beeson, Peter C.; Hively, W. Dean; McCarty, Greg W.; Lang, Megan W.

    2013-01-01

    Winter cover crops are an effective conservation management practice with potential to improve water quality. Throughout the Chesapeake Bay Watershed (CBW), which is located in the Mid-Atlantic US, winter cover crop use has been emphasized and federal and state cost-share programs are available to farmers to subsidize the cost of winter cover crop establishment. The objective of this study was to assess the long-term effect of planting winter cover crops at the watershed scale and to identify critical source areas of high nitrate export. A physically-based watershed simulation model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), was calibrated and validated using water quality monitoring data and satellite-based estimates of winter cover crop species performance to simulate hydrological processes and nutrient cycling over the period of 1991–2000. Multiple scenarios were developed to obtain baseline information on nitrate loading without winter cover crops planted and to investigate how nitrate loading could change with different winter cover crop planting scenarios, including different species, planting times, and implementation areas. The results indicate that winter cover crops had a negligible impact on water budget, but significantly reduced nitrate leaching to groundwater and delivery to the waterways. Without winter cover crops, annual nitrate loading was approximately 14 kg ha−1, but it decreased to 4.6–10.1 kg ha−1 with winter cover crops resulting in a reduction rate of 27–67% at the watershed scale. Rye was most effective, with a potential to reduce nitrate leaching by up to 93% with early planting at the field scale. Early planting of winter cover crops (~30 days of additional growing days) was crucial, as it lowered nitrate export by an additional ~2 kg ha−1 when compared to late planting scenarios. The effectiveness of cover cropping increased with increasing extent of winter cover crop implementation. Agricultural fields with well-drained soils

  19. Oilseed rape (Brassica napus) as a resource for farmland insect pollinators: quantifying floral traits in conventional varieties and breeding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Jonathan M; Cook, Samantha M; Wright, Geraldine A; Osborne, Juliet L; Clark, Suzanne J; Swain, Jennifer L; Haughton, Alison J

    2017-08-01

    Oilseed rape (OSR; Brassica napus L.) is a major crop in temperate regions and provides an important source of nutrition to many of the yield-enhancing insect flower visitors that consume floral nectar. The manipulation of mechanisms that control various crop plant traits for the benefit of pollinators has been suggested in the bid to increase food security, but little is known about inherent floral trait expression in contemporary OSR varieties or the breeding systems used in OSR breeding programmes. We studied a range of floral traits in glasshouse-grown, certified conventional varieties of winter OSR to test for variation among and within breeding systems. We measured 24-h nectar secretion rate, amount, concentration and ratio of nectar sugars per flower, and sizes and number of flowers produced per plant from 24 varieties of OSR representing open-pollinated (OP), genic male sterility (GMS) hybrid and cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) hybrid breeding systems. Sugar concentration was consistent among and within the breeding systems; however, GMS hybrids produced more nectar and more sugar per flower than CMS hybrid or OP varieties. With the exception of ratio of fructose/glucose in OP varieties, we found that nectar traits were consistent within all the breeding systems. When scaled, GMS hybrids produced 1.73 times more nectar resource per plant than OP varieties. Nectar production and amount of nectar sugar in OSR plants were independent of number and size of flowers. Our data show that floral traits of glasshouse-grown OSR differed among breeding systems, suggesting that manipulation and enhancement of nectar rewards for insect flower visitors, including pollinators, could be included in future OSR breeding programmes.

  20. Unexpected diversity of feral genetically modified oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) despite a cultivation and import ban in Switzerland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schulze, Juerg; Frauenknecht, Tina; Brodmann, Peter; Bagutti, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Despite cultivation and seed import bans of genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), feral GM plants were found growing along railway lines and in port areas at four sites in Switzerland in 2011 and 2012...

  1. Employment and winter construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2011-01-01

    hemisphere. Can climatic conditions alone explain the sizeable difference in reduction in building activity in the construction sector in European countries in the winter months, or are other factors such as technology, economic cycles and schemes for financial compensation influential as well? What...... of contracts for workers is more likely to explain differences in seasonal activity than climatic or technological factors....

  2. Significant reductions in oil quality and lipid content of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Namazkar, Shahla; Egsgaard, Helge; Frenck, Georg

    Despite of the potential importance to food and bioenergy purposes effects from climate change on plant oil quality have hardly been characterized. Worldwide Brassica napus, rapeseed or oilseed rape, is the second largest source of vegetable oil and the predominant oil crop in Europe. We found...... significant changes in oil quality and quantity of cultivars of oilseed rape grown in five future climate scenarios with elevated [CO2], [O3], temperature and combinations hereof (~RCP8.5, IPCC 2013)....

  3. Unexpected diversity of feral genetically modified oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. despite a cultivation and import ban in Switzerland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juerg Schulze

    Full Text Available Despite cultivation and seed import bans of genetically modified (GM oilseed rape (Brassica napus L., feral GM plants were found growing along railway lines and in port areas at four sites in Switzerland in 2011 and 2012. All GM plants were identified as glyphosate-resistant GM event GT73 (Roundup Ready, Monsanto. The most affected sites were the Rhine port of Basel and the St. Johann freight railway station in Basel. To assess the distribution and intra- and interspecific outcrossing of GM oilseed rape in more detail, we monitored these two sites in 2013. Leaves and seed pods of feral oilseed rape plants, their possible hybridization partners and putative hybrid plants were sampled in monthly intervals and analysed for the presence of transgenes by real-time PCR. Using flow cytometry, we measured DNA contents of cell nuclei to confirm putative hybrids. In total, 2787 plants were sampled. The presence of GT73 oilseed rape could be confirmed at all previously documented sampling locations and was additionally detected at one new sampling location within the Rhine port. Furthermore, we found the glufosinate-resistant GM events MS8xRF3, MS8 and RF3 (all traded as InVigor, Bayer at five sampling locations in the Rhine port. To our knowledge, this is the first time that feral MS8xRF3, MS8 or RF3 plants were detected in Europe. Real-time PCR analyses of seeds showed outcrossing of GT73 into two non-GM oilseed rape plants, but no outcrossing of transgenes into related wild species was observed. We found no hybrids between oilseed rape and related species. GM plants most frequently occurred at unloading sites for ships, indicating that ship cargo traffic is the main entry pathway for GM oilseed rape. In the future, it will be of major interest to determine the source of GM oilseed rape seeds.

  4. Meteorological and landscape influences on pollen beetle immigration into oilseed rape crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skellern, Matthew P; Welham, Sue J; Watts, Nigel P; Cook, Samantha M

    2017-04-01

    Heavy reliance on pesticide inputs to maintain crop yields has been an important aspect of agricultural intensification. Insecticide use has had detrimental impacts on pollinators and natural pest control agents, contributing to a decline in associated ecosystem services, and has also led to resistance development in pest populations. Throughout Europe, in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) crops, prophylactic use of insecticides against pollen beetles (Meligethes aeneus F. also known as Brassicogethes aeneus) has led to such issues, and there is an urgent need to develop more sustainable pest management practices for the crop. Although advice is available to oilseed rape growers regarding control thresholds, it may not be adhered to due to the expense of pollen beetle monitoring relative to the inexpensive cost of pyrethroid insecticides. Thus, the key to reducing prophylactic insecticide applications may lie with improved, less labour intensive methods of pollen beetle monitoring. For these to be realized, a better understanding is needed of the effects of agri-landscape features and meteorological conditions on pollen beetle immigration into the crop. In this study, based on data from four years of pollen beetle monitoring on a total of 41 field sites, we model the effects of meteorological (wind speed and direction, rainfall and accumulated temperature) and landscape (areas of woodland, residential gardens, the current and previous seasons' oilseed rape crops, and lengths of hedgerows and treelines) variables on directional sticky trap catches, at both the single trap and field scales. Meteorological variables, particularly accumulated temperature and wind speed were more important than landscape variables in predicting the abundance of pollen beetles immigrating into OSR fields. Sticky traps that were facing downwind caught more beetles than those that were facing across-wind or upwind; this is the first study to show at a landscape-scale, direct evidence for

  5. Endosperm and whole grain rye breads are characterized by low post-prandial insulin response and a beneficial blood glucose profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Östman Elin M

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rye products have previously been shown to induce comparatively low post-prandial insulin responses; irrespectively of their glycaemic indices (GI. However, the mechanism behind this lowered insulin demand remains unknown. An improved insulin economy might contribute to the benefits seen in epidemiological studies with whole grain diets on metabolic risk factors and weight regulation. The objective of this study was to explore the mechanism for a reduced post-prandial insulin demand with rye products. Methods 12 healthy subjects were given flour based rye products made from endosperm, whole grain or bran, produced with different methods (baking, simulated sour-dough baking and boiling as breakfasts in random order in a cross-over design. White wheat bread (WWB was used as a reference. Blood glucose, serum insulin, plasma ghrelin and subjective satiety were measured during 180 minutes. To evaluate the course of post-meal glycaemia, a measure of the glycaemic profile (GP was introduced defined as the duration for the incremental post-prandial blood glucose response divided with the blood glucose incremental peak (min/mM. Results The study shows that whole grain rye breads and endosperm rye products induced significantly (p Conclusion Our study shows that endosperm and wholegrain rye products induce low acute insulinaemic responses and improved glycaemic profiles. The results also suggest that the rye products possess beneficial appetite regulating properties. Further studies are needed to identify the unknown property or bioactive component(s responsible for these beneficial metabolic features of rye.

  6. Effects on chick performance and nutrient digestibility of an endo-xylanase added to a wheat- and rye-based diet in relation to fat source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langhout, D.J.; Schutte, J.B.; Geerse, C.; Kies, A.K.; Jong, J. de; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    1997-01-01

    1. A study with growing chicks investigated the effects of an inclusion of an endo-xylanase preparation (LYXASAN®) to a wheat- and rye-based diet on performance and nutrient digestibility in relation to the fat source. 2. The basal diet contained 500 g wheat and 100 g rye/kg of diet. The basal diet

  7. UPLC-QTOF/MS metabolic profiling unveils urinary changes in humans after a whole grain rye versus refined wheat bread intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondia-Pons, Isabel; Barri, Thaer; Hanhineva, Kati

    2013-01-01

    Non-targeted urine metabolite profiling has not been previously exploited in the field of whole grain (WG) products. WG products, particularly rye, are important elements in a healthy Nordic diet. The aim of this study was to identify novel urinary biomarkers of WG rye bread (RB) intake...... in a randomised crossover study with RB versus refined wheat bread (WB)....

  8. Products deriving from microbial fermentation are linked to insulinaemic response in pigs fed breads prepared from whole-wheat grain and wheat and rye ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Jørgensen, Henry Johs. Høgh; Serena, Anja

    2011-01-01

    The effects of wheat and rye breads made from whole-wheat grain (WWG), wheat aleurone flour (WAF) or rye aleurone flour (RAF) on net portal absorption of carbohydrate-derived nutrients (glucose, SCFA and lactate) and apparent insulin secretion were studied in a model experiment with catheterised...

  9. Prospects of whole grain crops of wheat, rye and triticale under different fertilizer regimes for energy production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Wollenweber, Bernd

    2007-01-01

    Cereal grain yield and biomass production are affected by fertilizer application strategies. In order to quantify the performance of wheat, rye and triticale cultivars for use as energy crops, field experiments with either modified phosphorus-potassium or potassium applications were designed at two...... for biomass, ash and contents of nitrogen (N), K, Cl, sulphur (S) and Na. Dry matter yields varied between 11.5 and 15.9 t ha-1 at the two locations. Triticale and rye had a higher total dry matter yield than wheat, even at lower inputs of N fertilizer. Thus, the constant high yield of rye and triticale...... is an advantage for biomass for energy purposes. The mineral content of the grain fraction changed only little between years and locations. By contrast, large variations in the analysed ions in the straw fraction between years and locations were observed. The use of K fertilizers resulted in a significantly...

  10. Appetite and food intake after consumption of sausages with 10% fat and added wheat or rye bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuholm, Stine; Arildsen Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe; Vejrum Sørensen, Karina; Kehlet, Ursula; Raben, Anne; Kristensen, Mette

    2014-02-01

    The use of dietary fibers as fat-replacers in sausages gives less energy-dense and thereby healthier foods. Also, dietary fibers have been shown to induce satiety. The objectives of this study were to investigate if appetite sensations and energy intake was affected by (1) addition of dietary fibers to sausages, (2) type of dietary fibers and (3) the food matrix of the dietary fibers. In this randomized cross-over study 25 young men were served four test meals; wheat bran sausages, rye bran sausages, rye bran bread and wheat flour sausages. The test meals were served as breakfast after an overnight fast. Appetite sensations were evaluated by visual analogue scales (VAS) assessed every 30 min for 240 min followed by an ad libitum lunch meal where energy intake was calculated. Both rye bran and wheat bran sausages increased satiety (P importance of food matrix and food processing.

  11. Rye Bs disclose ancestral sequences in cereal genomes with a potential role in gametophyte chromatid segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, H Sofia; Barão, Augusta; Caperta, Ana; Rocha, João; Viegas, Wanda; Delgado, Margarida

    2009-08-01

    Two sequence families, E3900 and D1100, are amplified on the subtelomeric domain of the long arm of rye B chromosomes, the region that controls its drive mechanism. In this work, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with a number of primers spanning E3900 shows that the organization and nucleotide sequence of E3900-related portions are present and highly conserved on rye A chromosomes as well as in other cereals. Quantitative Real-Time PCR estimates two E3900 sequences to be represented in 100-150 copies on Bs and at least as single copies on As. A novel E3900-related sequence, with a deletion that results in a frameshift and subsequently an open reading frame with putative DNA binding motifs, is identified. Expression analysis of E3900 indicates identical transcription levels in leaves from plants with and without Bs, showing that the expression of these sequences must be silenced on Bs and tightly regulated on As in leaves. In contrast, E3900 transcription is upregulated during meiosis exclusively in plants with Bs, maintaining a high level of transcription in the gametophyte. Interestingly, Bs not only influence their own chromatid segregation but also that of the regular chromosome complement of both rye and wheat. There is a drastic increase in frequency of disrupted metaphase and anaphase cells in the first mitosis of pollen grains carrying Bs, which appears to be due to anomalous adherences between sister chromatids. Taken together, this work provides insight into how E3900 sequences are potentially associated with important evolutionary mechanisms involved in basic cellular processes.

  12. Effect of oil-seed pressing residue on bread colour and texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek-Tilistyák J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cold-pressing residue of walnut kernel (WKR and brown linseed (BLR was applied in wheat flour blends at 100:0, 95:5 and 90:10 ratios, of which enriched breads were baked, then stored for 3 days at ambient temperature. Colour parameters and firmness of bread crumb were measured daily. Bavarian rye-bread (BR and wholemeal multigrain bread (WMMG were used as competitive, marketable breads for comparing tests.

  13. Multicompartmental nontargeted LC-MS metabolomics: explorative study on the metabolic responses of rye fiber versus refined wheat fiber intake in plasma and urine of hypercholesterolemic pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Natalja; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Lærke, Helle Nygaard

    2013-01-01

    A multicompartmental nontargeted LC–MS metabolomics approach was used to study the metabolic responses on plasma and urine of hypercholesterolemic pigs after consumption of diets with contrasting dietary fiber composition (whole grain rye with added rye bran versus refined wheat). To study...... consumption of nonrefined dietary fiber is reflected in higher excretion of phenolic compounds and dicarboxylic acids in urine and lower levels of linoleic acid derived oxylipins and cholesterol in plasma, which can be linked to beneficial health effects of rye components. On the other hand, pro......-inflammatory lipid mediators were detected in higher concentration after rye consumption compared to refined wheat, which is opposite to what would be expected. These may indicate that even though a positive lowering effect with respect to cholesterol and fatty acids was achieved, this effect of rye dietary fiber...

  14. Indications of Selenium Protection against Cadmium and Lead Toxicity in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhilin; Yin, Xuebin; Bañuelos, Gary S.; Lin, Zhi-Qing; Liu, Ying; Li, Miao; Yuan, Linxi

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the beneficial role of selenium (Se) in protecting oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) plants from cadmium (Cd+2) and lead (Pb+2) toxicity. Exogenous Se markedly reduced Cd and Pb concentration in both roots and shoots. Supplementation of the medium with Se (5, 10, and 15 mg kg-1) alleviated the negative effect of Cd and Pb on growth and led to a decrease in oxidative damages caused by Cd and Pb. Furthermore, Se-enhanced superoxide free radicals (O2•¯), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and lipid peroxidation, as indicated by malondialdehyde accumulation, but decreased superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities. Meanwhile, the presence of Cd and Pb in the medium affected Se speciation in shoots. The results suggest that Se could alleviate Cd and Pb toxicity by preventing oxidative stress in oilseed rape plant. PMID:28018407

  15. Ethanol production from rape straw: Part of an oilseed rape biorefinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvaniti, Efthalia

    The aim of this study was 1) present an oilseed rape whole crop biorefinery; 2) to investigate the best available experimental conditions for production of cellulosic ethanol from rape straw, and included the processes of thermo-chemical pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and C6 fermentation......, and 3) to couple cellulosic ethanol production to production of cellulolytic enzymes that are needed for cellulosic ethanol production, inside a rape straw biorefinery. For the first is based less on available experiments, and more on literature review. The second and third study conclusions were drawn...... rapeseed biodiesel plant of Europe to an oilseed rape whole-crop biorefinery by 2020 is envisioned and discussed. The description and discussion of this biorefinery is based partly on literature review, and partly on own experimental data, especially on pretreatment of rape straw, and production...

  16. Effects of Field Conditions on Emergence of Oilseed Rape Seed lots Grown in Khorasan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Yanegh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen irrigated farms of canola from six cities of Khorasan selected to assess the seedling emergence one month after sowing in 2009. Soil texture of each farm determined using the Hydrometer method. The results showed that weather conditions of sowing areas had no significant effect on emergence of oilseed rape. With increasing the temperature (within the range of 19.5 to 21.5 ˚C emergence percentage was not increased significantly. Rainfall also caused no significant effect on seedling emergence. The percentage of emergence in machine-sowing and hand-sowing were 38.4% and 28%, respectively. Soils with loam silt, silt clay loam and loam texture had emergence of 27.2%, 31.2% and 47% respectively. It seems soil texture plays a great roll on the emergence of oilseed rape with epigeal seedlings.

  17. Indications of selenium protection against cadmium and lead toxicity in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilin Wu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the beneficial role of selenium (Se in protecting oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. plants from cadmium (Cd+2 and lead (Pb+2 toxicity. Exogenous Se markedly reduced Cd and Pb concentration in both roots and shoots. Supplementation of the medium with Se (5, 10 and 15 mg kg-1 alleviated the negative effect of Cd and Pb on growth and led to a decrease in oxidative damages caused by Cd and Pb. Furthermore, Se enhanced superoxide free radicals (O2-, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and lipid peroxidation, as indicated by malondialdehyde (MDA accumulation, but decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities. Meanwhile, the presence of Cd and Pb in the medium affected Se speciation in shoots. The results suggest that Se could alleviate Cd and Pb toxicity by preventing oxidative stress in oilseed rape plant.

  18. Numerical estimation of deformation energy of selected bulk oilseeds in compression loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, C.; Kabutey, A.; Herak, D.; Gurdil, G. A. K.

    2017-09-01

    This paper aimed at the determination of the deformation energy of some bulk oilseeds or kernels namely oil palm, sunflower, rape and flax in linear pressing applying the trapezoidal rule which is characterized by the area under the force and deformation curve.The bulk samples were measured at the initial pressing height of 60 mm with the vessel diameter of 60 mm where they were compressed under the universal compression machine at a maximum force of 200 kN and speed of 5 mm/min.Based on the compression test, the optimal deformation energy for recovering the oil was observed at a force of 163 kN where there was no seed/kernel cake ejection in comparison to the initial maximum force used particularly for rape and flax bulk oilseeds.This information is needed for analyzing the energy efficiency of the non-linear compression process involving a mechanical screw press or expeller.

  19. Use of reverse micelles for the simultaneous extraction of oil, proteins, and glucosinolates from cruciferous oilseeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugolini, Luisa; De Nicola, Gina; Palmieri, Sandro

    2008-03-12

    Cruciferous oilseeds are important sources of oil, proteins, and glucosinolates (GLs), potentially available when biorefinery processes are used. The proposed extraction technology is based on the use of reverse micelles (RMs) made with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) dispersed in organic solvent. The physicochemical properties of this extraction system and the good water solubility of many high value compounds, such as GLs and some proteins, permit the simultaneous extraction of oil, and these products from cruciferous oilseed meals. This procedure is based on three main steps: (i) seed conditioning; (ii) solid-liquid extraction by RM solution; and (iii) back-transfer of the RM solution for recovery of the extracted compounds. The method makes it possible to simultaneously extract almost the same amount of oil as with pure organic solvents used in the current extraction plants and more than 90% of soluble proteins and GLs. It is a promising biorefinery technology alternative to traditional oil extraction processes.

  20. Ozone dose-response relationships for spring oilseed rape and broccoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bock, Maarten; Op de Beeck, Maarten; De Temmerman, Ludwig; Guisez, Yves; Ceulemans, Reinhart; Vandermeiren, Karine

    2011-03-01

    Tropospheric ozone is an important air pollutant with known detrimental effects for several crops. Ozone effects on seed yield, oil percentage, oil yield and 1000 seed weight were examined for spring oilseed rape ( Brassica napus cv. Ability). For broccoli ( Brassica oleracea L. cv. Italica cv. Monaco) the effects on fresh marketable weight and total dry weight were studied. Current ozone levels were compared with an increase of 20 and 40 ppb during 8 h per day, over the entire growing season. Oilseed rape seed yield was negatively correlated with ozone dose indices calculated from emergence until harvest. This resulted in an R2 of 0.24 and 0.26 ( p broccoli the applied ozone doses had no effect on yield.

  1. Constipation is relieved more by rye bread than wheat bread or laxatives without increased adverse gastrointestinal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holma, Reetta; Hongisto, Sanna-Maria; Saxelin, Maija; Korpela, Riitta

    2010-03-01

    Rye bread and lactobacilli modify the colonic environment and have the potential to relieve constipation and could be a safe and convenient alternative to laxatives. The effects of rye bread and cultured buttermilk with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) on bowel function and colon metabolism were investigated and compared with laxatives in 51 constipated adults. They were randomized to receive whole-grain rye bread (minimum 240 g/d), LGG (2 x 10(10) colony-forming units/d), whole-grain rye bread (minimum 240 g/d) + LGG (2 x 10(10) colony-forming units/d), white wheat bread (maximum 192 g/d), or laxatives (as usual for a participant) for 3 wk. Participants recorded their dietary habits, bowel function, and gastrointestinal symptoms. Fecal weight, pH, SCFA and bacterial enzyme activities, total intestinal transit time (TITT), and breath hydrogen were determined. Rye bread, compared with white wheat bread, shortened TITT by 23% (P = 0.040), increased weekly defecations by 1.4 (P = 0.014), softened feces [odds ratio (OR) 3.98; P = 0.037], eased defecation (OR 5.08; P = 0.018), increased fecal acetic acid and butyric acid contents by 24% (P = 0.044) and 63% (P bread reduced TITT by 41% (P = 0.006), fecal beta-glucuronidase activity by 38% (P = 0.033), and fecal pH by 0.31 units (P = 0.006). LGG did not relieve constipation or significantly affect colonic metabolism. Gastrointestinal adverse effects did not significantly differ among the study groups. In conclusion, rye bread relieves mild constipation and improves colonic metabolism compared with white wheat bread and commonly used laxatives without increasing gastrointestinal adverse effects.

  2. Metabolomics reveals the metabolic shifts following an intervention with rye bread in postmenopausal women- a randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moazzami Ali A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that whole grain (WG cereals can protect against the development of chronic diseases, but the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Among WG products, WG rye is considered even more potent because of its unique discrepancy in postprandial insulin and glucose responses known as the rye factor. In this study, an NMR-based metabolomics approach was applied to study the metabolic effects of WG rye as a tool to determine the beneficial effects of WG rye on human health. Methods Thirty-three postmenopausal Finnish women with elevated serum total cholesterol (5.0-8.5 mmol/L and BMI of 20–33 kg/m2 consumed a minimum of 20% of their daily energy intake as high fiber WG rye bread (RB or refined wheat bread (WB in a randomized, controlled, crossover design with two 8-wk intervention periods separated by an 8-wk washout period. At the end of each intervention period, fasting serum was collected for NMR-based metabolomics and the analysis of cholesterol fractions. Multilevel partial least squares discriminant analysis was used for paired comparisons of multivariate data. Results The metabolomics analysis of serum showed lower leucine and isoleucine and higher betaine and N,N-dimethylglycine levels after RB than WB intake. To further investigate the metabolic effects of RB, the serum cholesterol fractions were measured. Total- and LDL-cholesterol levels were higher after RB intake than after WB (p Conclusions This study revealed favorable shifts in branched amino acid and single carbon metabolism and an unfavorable shift in serum cholesterol levels after RB intake in postmenopausal women, which should be considered for evaluating health beneficial effects of rye products.

  3. Editorial - The winter Atomiades

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    As we wrote in our previous editorial, the Staff Association gives direct support to sports events, such as the Atomiades, a section of the Association of Sports Communities of European Research Institutes, which brings together sportsmen and women from 38 European research centres in 13 countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, United Kingdom, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Luxemburg, the Netherlands, Russia, and Switzerland). The summer Atomiades take place between the months of June and September every three years. Thirteen such events have taken place since 1973, the last one in June 2009 in Berlin. As far as the winter Atomiades are concerned, also organized every three years, and alternating with the summer Atomiades, there have been eleven since 1981, the last one at the end of January this year in neighbouring France. The following article tells the wonderful adventure of the CERN staff who took part in this event. A positive outcome for CERN skiers at the winter Atomiades The 11t...

  4. Winter in Bavaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Stephens

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available "A Winter In Bavaria" was written on location in Regensburg, Germany, and is the first-hand account of a cataclysm, already predicted by Nostradamus, which changed the direction of Bavarian culture forever. Anything vaguely resembling an allusion to any real person or institution is entirely coincidental, has no foundation in fact and is clearly the product of a mind estranged - except that Bavarian beer is, by and large, still to be highly recommended.

  5. Sensory evaluation of commercial fat spreads based on oilseeds and walnut

    OpenAIRE

    Dimić Etelka B.; Vujasinović Vesna B.; Radočaj Olga F.; Borić Bojan D.

    2013-01-01

    The main focus of this study was on the sensory evaluation of commercial oilseeds spreads, as the most significant characteristic of this type of product from the consumers’ point of view. Sensory analysis was conducted by five experts using a quantitative descriptive and sensory profile test, applying a scoring method according to the standard procedure. Five different spreads were evaluated: sunflower, pumpkin, sesame, peanut, and walnut. Oil content and ...

  6. Distance from forest edge affects bee pollinators in oilseed rape fields

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, S.; Requier, F.; Nusillard, B.; Roberts, Stuart; Potts, Simon; Bouget, C.

    2014-01-01

    Wild pollinators have been shown to enhance the pollination of Brassica napus(oilseed rape) and thus increase its market value. Several studies have previously shown that pollination services are greater in crops adjoining forest patches or other seminatural habitats than in crops completely surrounded by other crops.\\ud In this study, we investigated the specific importance of forest edges in providing potential pollinators in B. napus fields in two areas in France. Bees were caught with yel...

  7. Something in the air? The impact of volatiles on mollusc attack of oilseed rape seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix, Anne-Emmanuelle; Poppy, Guy M.; Newland, Philip L.; van Dam, Nicole M.; Hanley, Mick E.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Mounting concerns about balancing food security with the environmental impacts of agro-chemical use underpin the need to better understand the mechanisms by which crop plants, particularly during the vulnerable seedling stage, attract or repel herbivores. Methods The feeding preferences of the mollusc Helix aspersa were determined for several oilseed rape (Brassica napus) cultivars and a rank order of acceptability was established. This was compared with glucosinolate concentrations and volatile organic compound (VOC) profiles to determine whether seedling acceptability to molluscs was linked to either form of defence. Key Results While VOC profiles for each oilseed rape cultivar could be separated by canonical discriminant analysis and associated with mollusc feeding preferences, glucosinolate profiles were unrelated to snail feeding behaviour. A mixture of monoterpenes (α-pinene, β-myrcene and δ-3-carene) was identified as a putative attractant, while a blend of the green leaf volatiles 3-hexen-1-ol, 3-hexen-1-ol acetate and the monoterpene α-terpinene was identified as a putative repellent mix. Added to the VOC profile of oilseed rape seedlings, the ‘repellent’ mix reduced mollusc selection, while the ‘attractant’ mix had no effect. Conclusions Despite the widespread assumption that seedling selection by generalist herbivores is governed by chemical defence and taste, we show that olfactory cues may be more important. Oilseed rape may be atypical of wild plants, but our ability to identify repellent volatile organic compounds that can influence snail olfactory selection points to new methods for crop protection using modified VOC profiles during the vulnerable seedling stage. PMID:27009912

  8. A continuum of research projects to improve extraction of oil and proteins in oilseed plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miquel Martine

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A key challenge in the actual context of fossil sources rarefaction, global warming, and of increase of the world global population, is to promote the use of molecules derived from renewable sources such as plants. Among these molecules, lipids and proteins are targets of interest. Plant lipids from oilseeds are attractive substitutes to the use of fossil oil. Till the beginning of the 20th century, numerous products used in the daily life were derived from natural renewable products. For instance, plant oil was commonly used as fuel for vehicles and was entering in the composition of paintings, lubricants etc. Unfortunately, natural oils have been progressively replaced by cheaper fossil oil in the fabrication of these products. Nowadays, fossil oils are becoming increasingly expensive being a finite comodity. It is thus important to reduce our dependence from fossil oil and develop substitution industries. Oilseeds contain important amounts of proteins which are mainly used in feed. As several kilograms of plant protein are needed to obtain one kilogram of animal protein, the interest toward using plant protein in food is reinforced. The developments of the use of plant lipids, as well as proteins are a major stakes for the competitiveness of European agriculture and industry, as well as for sustainable development. Extraction of oil and proteins from rapeseed has a significant cost, in term of energy and solvent uses, and finally affects the ultimate quality of the products (protein digestibility. In order to quantitatively extract seed reserves under mild conditions, it will be necessary to limit the amount of energy needed, and avoid any use of solvents. Ideally, seeds should be processed in a bio refinery. In this paper, we will describe how oilseeds store their reserves, and roadblocks for improving actual oilseed extraction processes. A continuum of research projects aimed at answering targeted questions will be presented, with selected

  9. Oilseeds native to the Cerrado have fatty acid profile beneficial for cardiovascular health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Medeiros ALVES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To assess and compare the fatty acid composition of edible seeds and a nut native to the Cerrado (Brazilian savannah to that of traditional oilseeds. Methods: Baru almonds, Cerrado cashew nuts, and pequi almonds were extracted from the fruits using appropriate equipment. All edible seeds and nuts were roasted, except for the Brazil nut. The sample lipids were extracted via cold pressing. The fatty acids were esterified, and the fatty acid esters were analyzed by gas chromatography. Results: The native and traditional edible seeds and nuts contain mostly monounsaturated fatty acids (42.72 g to 63.44 g/100 g, except for the Brazil nut, which showed predominance of polyunsaturated fatty acids (45.48 g/100 g. Pequi almond had the highest saturated fatty acid content (36.14 g/100 g. The fatty acids with the highest concentration were oleic and linoleic acids, and palmitic acid was also found in considerable concentration in the oilseeds studied. The Cerrado cashew nut and the traditional cashew nut have similar fatty acid profiles. As for the ratio of ω-6 to ω-3, the baru almond showed the highest ratio, 9:1, which was the closest to the recommended intake of these fatty acids. Conclusion: The fatty acid profile of the edible seeds and nuts native to the cerrado is similar to those of traditional oilseeds. We suggest the inclusion of native oilseeds in the diet aiming at reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease, especially the baru almond and the cerrado cashew nut, due to the fact they have high ratio of monounsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids.

  10. Oilseed rape: learning about ancient and recent polyploid evolution from a recent crop species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, A S; Snowdon, R J

    2016-11-01

    Oilseed rape (Brassica napus) is one of our youngest crop species, arising several times under cultivation in the last few thousand years and completely unknown in the wild. Oilseed rape originated from hybridisation events between progenitor diploid species B. rapa and B. oleracea, both important vegetable species. The diploid progenitors are also ancient polyploids, with remnants of two previous polyploidisation events evident in the triplicated genome structure. This history of polyploid evolution and human agricultural selection makes B. napus an excellent model with which to investigate processes of genomic evolution and selection in polyploid crops. The ease of de novo interspecific hybridisation, responsiveness to tissue culture, and the close relationship of oilseed rape to the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, coupled with the recent availability of reference genome sequences and suites of molecular cytogenetic and high-throughput genotyping tools, allow detailed dissection of genetic, genomic and phenotypic interactions in this crop. In this review we discuss the past and present uses of B. napus as a model for polyploid speciation and evolution in crop species, along with current and developing analysis tools and resources. We further outline unanswered questions that may now be tractable to investigation. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  11. Dedicated Industrial Oilseed Crops as Metabolic Engineering Platforms for Sustainable Industrial Feedstock Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li-Hua; Krens, Frans; Smith, Mark A.; Li, Xueyuan; Qi, Weicong; van Loo, Eibertus N.; Iven, Tim; Feussner, Ivo; Nazarenus, Tara J.; Huai, Dongxin; Taylor, David C.; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Green, Allan G.; Shockey, Jay; Klasson, K. Thomas; Mullen, Robert T.; Huang, Bangquan; Dyer, John M.; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2016-01-01

    Feedstocks for industrial applications ranging from polymers to lubricants are largely derived from petroleum, a non-renewable resource. Vegetable oils with fatty acid structures and storage forms tailored for specific industrial uses offer renewable and potentially sustainable sources of petrochemical-type functionalities. A wide array of industrial vegetable oils can be generated through biotechnology, but will likely require non-commodity oilseed platforms dedicated to specialty oil production for commercial acceptance. Here we show the feasibility of three Brassicaceae oilseeds crambe, camelina, and carinata, none of which are widely cultivated for food use, as hosts for complex metabolic engineering of wax esters for lubricant applications. Lines producing wax esters >20% of total seed oil were generated for each crop and further improved for high temperature oxidative stability by down-regulation of fatty acid polyunsaturation. Field cultivation of optimized wax ester-producing crambe demonstrated commercial utility of these engineered crops and a path for sustainable production of other industrial oils in dedicated specialty oilseeds. PMID:26916792

  12. Cold plasma treatment enhances oilseed rape seed germination under drought stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Li; Jiangang, Li; Minchong, Shen; Chunlei, Zhang; Yuanhua, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Effects of cold plasma treatment on seed germination, seedling growth, antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation levels and osmotic-adjustment products of oilseed rape under drought stress were investigated in a drought-sensitive (Zhongshuang 7) and drought-tolerant cultivar (Zhongshuang 11). Results showed that, under drought stress, cold plasma treatment significantly improved the germination rate by 6.25% in Zhongshuang 7, and 4.44% in Zhongshuang 11. Seedling growth characteristics, including shoot and root dry weights, shoot and root lengths, and lateral root number, significantly increased after cold plasma treatment. The apparent contact angle was reduced by 30.38% in Zhongshuang 7 and 16.91% in Zhongshuang 11. Cold plasma treatment markedly raised superoxide dismutase and catalase activities by 17.71% and 16.52% in Zhongshuang 7, and by 13.00% and 13.21% in Zhongshuang 11. Moreover, cold plasma treatment significantly increased the soluble sugar and protein contents, but reduced the malondialdehyde content in seedlings. Our results suggested that cold plasma treatment improved oilseed rape drought tolerance by improving antioxidant enzyme activities, increasing osmotic-adjustment products, and reducing lipid peroxidation, especially in the drought-sensitive cultivar (Zhongshuang 7). Thus, cold plasma treatment can be used in an ameliorative way to improve germination and protect oilseed rape seedlings against damage caused by drought stress. PMID:26264651

  13. Response of seed tocopherols in oilseed rape to nitrogen fertilizer sources and application rates* #

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Nazim; Li, Hui; Jiang, Yu-xiao; Jabeen, Zahra; Shamsi, Imran Haider; Ali, Essa; Jiang, Li-xi

    2014-01-01

    Tocopherols (Tocs) are vital scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and important seed oil quality indicators. Nitrogen (N) is one of the most important fertilizers in promoting biomass and grain yield in crop production. However, the effect of different sources and application rates of N on seed Toc contents in oilseed rape is poorly understood. In this study, pot trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of two sources of N fertilizer (urea and ammonium nitrate). Each source was applied to five oilseed rape genotypes (Zheshuang 72, Jiu-Er-1358, Zheshuang 758, Shiralee, and Pakola) at three different application rates (0.41 g/pot (N1), 0.81 g/pot (N2), and 1.20 g/pot (N3)). Results indicated that urea increased α-, γ-, and total Toc (T-Toc) more than did ammonium nitrate. N3 was proven as the most efficient application rate, which yielded high contents of γ-Toc and T-Toc. Highly significant correlations were observed between Toc isomers, T-Toc, and α-/γ-Toc ratio. These results clearly demonstrate that N sources and application rates significantly affect seed Toc contents in oilseed rape. PMID:24510711

  14. Dedicated Industrial Oilseed Crops as Metabolic Engineering Platforms for Sustainable Industrial Feedstock Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li-Hua; Krens, Frans; Smith, Mark A; Li, Xueyuan; Qi, Weicong; van Loo, Eibertus N; Iven, Tim; Feussner, Ivo; Nazarenus, Tara J; Huai, Dongxin; Taylor, David C; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Green, Allan G; Shockey, Jay; Klasson, K Thomas; Mullen, Robert T; Huang, Bangquan; Dyer, John M; Cahoon, Edgar B

    2016-02-26

    Feedstocks for industrial applications ranging from polymers to lubricants are largely derived from petroleum, a non-renewable resource. Vegetable oils with fatty acid structures and storage forms tailored for specific industrial uses offer renewable and potentially sustainable sources of petrochemical-type functionalities. A wide array of industrial vegetable oils can be generated through biotechnology, but will likely require non-commodity oilseed platforms dedicated to specialty oil production for commercial acceptance. Here we show the feasibility of three Brassicaceae oilseeds crambe, camelina, and carinata, none of which are widely cultivated for food use, as hosts for complex metabolic engineering of wax esters for lubricant applications. Lines producing wax esters >20% of total seed oil were generated for each crop and further improved for high temperature oxidative stability by down-regulation of fatty acid polyunsaturation. Field cultivation of optimized wax ester-producing crambe demonstrated commercial utility of these engineered crops and a path for sustainable production of other industrial oils in dedicated specialty oilseeds.

  15. Influence of top dressing on yield and seed quality components of oilseed rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujaković Milka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oilseed rape is an agronomically important species grown for seed that contains 40-48% oil and 18-25% proteins. Oilseed rape has high demands for nitrogen. The research was performed on four varieties of oilseed rape (Banaćanka, Valeska, Slavica and Express developed at Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad, during vegetative seasons 2007-2008 and 2008-2009. During vegetation, top dressing was applied with different amounts of KAN: control (0 kg N ha-1, 50 kg N ha-1, 100 kg N ha-1, 150 kg N ha-1 and the N quantity determination were performed applying the balancing method (also known as N-min method. Yield, 1000-seed weight, seed germination, oil and protein content were determined after harvest. Yield and seed germination depended on seed production year. 1000-seed weight depended on seed production year and genotype. Oil and protein content in seed depended on production year, genotype and amount of the N-fertilizer applied by top dressing.

  16. Variation of the Nuclear, Subnuclear and Chromosomal Flavanol Deposition in Hemlock and Rye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feucht, Walter; Dithmar, Heike; Polster, Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    Nuclei of hemlock (Tsuga canadensis and Tsuga canadensis var. nana) were investigated for the presence of flavanols. Histochemical staining with p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde proved to be a highly valuable method yielding a bright blue flavanol coloration for nuclei. There was a significant variation in flavanol deposition (1) among nuclei, (2) at the subnuclear level and also (3) along the chromosomes during mitosis. The presence of flavanols in nucleoli could not be established probably because they were too small, measuring less than 1 μm in diameter. In contrast to Tsuga, the cells and nuclei of rootlets from rye (Secale cereale) were totally devoid of natural flavanols. However, externally added flavanols, catechin and epicatechin, were bound to the rye nuclei, while the rather large nucleoli failed to associate with the flavanols. The strong sink activity of nucleoplasm and chromosomes for flavanols in Tsuga and Secale indicates a process which is apparently widespread even in distantly related plant species. Variations in chromatin-associated flavanols could to some extent be induced by acetylation/deacetylation of histones, as confirmed in the present study by means of UVVIS spectroscopic titrations of histone sulphate and chemically acetylated histone sulphate.

  17. Rapid method of element determination in rye crispbread by ICP OES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Szymczycha-Madeja

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, various sample preparation procedures, i.e., microwave-assisted acid digestion in a mixture of HNO3 and H2O2 solutions, solubilisation in aqua regia or tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide and extraction in diluted HNO3 or in HCl, for the determination of the total content of Ba, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, Sr and Zn in rye crispbread using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry were compared. Analytical characteristic was evaluated by comparing the accuracy and precision of the results and limits of detection of elements. Among these five procedures solubilisation in aqua regia provides the best results, i.e., limits of detection of elements within 0.12–31.4 ng mL−1, precision of 0.4–5% and accuracy better than 5%. Additionally, a good agreement between the measured and certified values of the NIST 1567a was found for all elements. The proposed procedure is simple, reduces sample handling and minimises time and reagent consumption. Thus, it can be alternatively used instead of microwave-assisted acid digestion for routine analysis. Six different rye crispbreads were analysed with this procedure.

  18. Complete amino acid sequence of a Lolium perenne (perennial rye grass) pollen allergen, Lol p II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, A A; Shenbagamurthi, P; Marsh, D G

    1989-07-05

    The complete amino acid sequence of a Lolium perenne (rye grass) pollen allergen, Lol p II was determined by automated Edman degradation of the protein and selected fragments. Cleavage of the protein by enzymatic and chemical techniques established an unambiguous sequence for the protein. Lol p II contains 97 amino acid residues, with a calculated molecular weight of 10,882. The protein lacks cysteine and glutamine and shows no evidence of glycosylation. Theoretical predictions by Fraga's (Fraga, S. (1982) Can. J. Chem. 60, 2606-2610) and Hopp and Woods' (Hopp, T. P., and Woods, K. R. (1981) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 78, 3824-3828) methods indicate the presence of four hydrophilic regions, which may contribute to sequential or parts of conformational B-cell epitopes. Analysis of amphipathic regions by Berzofsky's method indicates the presence of a highly amphipathic region, which may contain, or contribute to, an Ia/T-cell epitope. This latter segment of Lol p II was found to be highly homologous with an antibody-binding segment of the major rye allergen Lol p I and may explain why immune responsiveness to both the allergens is associated with HLA-DR3.

  19. De novo evolution of satellite DNA on the rye B chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, T; Seago, C; Jones, R N; Ougham, H; Thomas, H; Forster, J W; Jenkins, G

    2000-02-01

    The most distinctive region of the rye B chromosome is a subtelomeric domain that contains an exceptional concentration of B-chromosome-specific sequences. At metaphase this domain appears to be the physical counterpart of the subtelomeric heterochromatic regions present on standard rye chromosomes, but its conformation at interphase is less condensed. In this report we show that the two sequence families that have been previously found to make up the bulk of the domain have been assembled from fragments of a variety of sequence elements, giving rise to their ostensibly foreign origin. A single mechanism, probably based on synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA), is responsible for their assembly. We provide evidence for sequential evolution of one family on the B chromosome itself. The extent of these rearrangements and the complexity of the higher-order organization of the B-chromosome-specific families indicate that instability is a property of the domain itself, rather than of any single sequence. Indirect evidence suggests that particular fragments may have been selected to confer different properties on the domain and that rearrangements are frequently selected for their effect on DNA structure. The current organization appears to represent a transient stage in the evolution of a conventional heterochromatic region from complex sequences.

  20. Male sterility of triticale lines generated through recombination of triticale and rye maintainers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Warzecha

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Triticum timopheevi cytoplasmic male sterility (cms system in triticale (xTriticosecale Wittmack suffers from a low frequency of maintainers and environmental instability of the male sterility. On the other hand, the Pampa cms system in rye (Secale cereale exhibits strong male sterility and a low frequency of restorers. Here, we report generating hybrids between maintainers of the T. timopheevi cms system in triticale and maintainers of the rye Pampa cms system. Ten hybrids were obtained. Their hybridity was verified by PCR (polymerase chain reaction using ISSR (inter simple sequence repeats primers. The cms maintaining ability of F2 individuals and their progeny was tested. The F2 plants were crossed to male sterile lines of triticale carrying the T. timopheevi cytoplasm. Among 180 G1 offspring of these crosses, 71 (39.4% were completely male sterile. Fourteen F2 individuals (7.8%, as well as their F2S1 and progeny, generated stable male sterility in G1, G1BC1 and G1BC2 generations after the crosses. Our results suggest that it is possible to produce a more stable cms system in triticale based on the T. timopheevi cytoplasm as compared to the existing one.

  1. Utilization of rye as energy source affects bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, microbiota composition, and bone mineralization in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two independent trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of two different dietary cereal types, corn versus rye, on digesta viscosity, gut integrity, and gut microbiota composition in commercial broiler chickens. In each experiment, day-of-hatch, off-sex broiler chickens were randomly assigned ...

  2. RNA interference targeting rye secalins alters flour protein composition in a wheat variety carrying a 1Bl.1RS translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat varieties carrying chromosome translocations from rye are part of the international wheat breeding pool, despite being associated with defects in dough processing quality. Among the proposed causes for the quality defects of flours from such wheats is the presence of the secalins, encoded by ...

  3. Present Status and Perspectives on the Use of Alkylresorcinols as Biomarkers of Wholegrain Wheat and Rye Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair B. Ross

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkylresorcinols (ARs were first proposed as potential biomarkers of wholegrain wheat and rye intake a decade ago. Since then there has been a considerable body of research which suggests that ARs do meet most criteria of a biomarker of these foods. Results from human studies on plasma AR and their plasma and urinary metabolites strongly indicate that these compounds are responsive to whole grain wheat and rye intake and are correlated with various measures of AR consumption. This review briefly summarises work on the bioactivities of AR and focuses on aspects related to their use as biomarkers of whole grain wheat and rye intake. Evidence suggests that they thus far broadly fulfil the criteria to act as biomarkers of these cereals. However, there are still gaps in the knowledge on factors relating to the wide interindividual variation, and application to different epidemiological cohorts. Overall, ARs are highly promising biomarkers of whole grain wheat and rye intake and add to our increasing understanding of whole grains and health.

  4. Expression of allelopathy in the soil environment: Soil concentration and activity of benzoxazinoid compounds released by rye cover crop residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    The activity of allelopathic compounds is often reduced in the soil environment where processes involving release from donor plant material, soil adsorption and degradation, and uptake by receptor plants naturally result in complex interactions. Rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crops are known to supp...

  5. Effects of whole-grain rye porridge with added inulin and wheat gluten on appetite, gut fermentation and postprandial glucose metabolism: a randomised, cross-over, breakfast study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Isabella; Shi, Lin; Webb, Dominic-Luc; Hellström, Per M; Risérus, Ulf; Landberg, Rikard

    2016-12-01

    Whole-grain rye foods reduce appetite, insulin and sometimes glucose responses. Increased gut fermentation and plant protein may mediate the effect. The aims of the present study were to investigate whether the appetite-suppressing effects of whole-grain rye porridge could be enhanced by replacing part of the rye with fermented dietary fibre and plant protein, and to explore the role of gut fermentation on appetite and metabolic responses over 8 h. We conducted a randomised, cross-over study using two rye porridges (40 and 55 g), three 40-g rye porridges with addition of inulin:gluten (9:3; 6:6; 3:9 g) and a refined wheat bread control (55 g), served as part of complete breakfasts. A standardised lunch and an ad libitum dinner were served 4 and 8 h later, respectively. Appetite, breath hydrogen and methane, glucose, insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) responses were measured over 8 h. Twenty-one healthy men and women, aged 23-60 years, with BMI of 21-33 kg/m2 participated in this study. Before lunch, the 55-g rye porridges lowered hunger by 20 % and desire to eat by 22 % and increased fullness by 29 % compared with wheat bread (Pinulin and gluten compared with plain rye porridges.

  6. Winter School Les Houches

    CERN Document Server

    Lannoo, Michel; Bastard, Gérald; Voos, Michel; Boccara, Nino

    1986-01-01

    The Winter School held in Les Houches on March 12-21, 1985 was devoted to Semiconductor Heterojunctions and Superlattices, a topic which is recognized as being now one of the most interesting and active fields in semiconductor physics. In fact, following the pioneering work of Esaki and Tsu in 1970, the study of these two-dimensional semiconductor heterostructures has developed rapidly, both from the point of view of basic physics and of applications. For instance, modulation-doped heterojunctions are nowadays currently used to investigate the quantum Hall effect and to make very fast transistors. This book contains the lectures presented at this Winter School, showing in particular that many aspects of semiconductor heterojunctions and super­ lattices were treated, extending from the fabrication of these two-dimensional systems to their basic properties and applications in micro-and opto-electron­ ics. Among the subjects which were covered, one can quote as examples: molecular beam epitaxy and metallorgani...

  7. Nutritional composition and in vitro digestibility of grass and legume winter (cover) crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A N; Ferreira, G; Teets, C L; Thomason, W E; Teutsch, C D

    2017-12-20

    In dairy farming systems, growing winter crops for forage is frequently limited to annual grasses grown in monoculture. The objectives of this study were to determine how cropping grasses alone or in mixtures with legumes affects the yield, nutritional composition, and in vitro digestibility of fresh and ensiled winter crops and the yield, nutritional composition, and in vitro digestibility of the subsequent summer crops. Experimental plots were planted with 15 different winter crops at 3 locations in Virginia. At each site, 4 plots of each treatment were planted in a randomized complete block design. The 15 treatments included 5 winter annual grasses (barley [BA], ryegrass [RG], rye [RY], triticale [TR], and wheat [WT]) in monoculture (i.e., no legumes [NO]) or with 1 of 2 winter annual legumes (crimson clover [CC] and hairy vetch [HV]). After harvesting the winter crops, corn and forage sorghum were planted within the same plots perpendicular to the winter crop plantings. The nutritional composition and the in vitro digestibility of winter and summer crops were determined for fresh and ensiled samples. Growing grasses in mixtures with CC increased forage dry matter (DM) yield (2.84 Mg/ha), but the yield of mixtures with HV (2.47 Mg/ha) was similar to that of grasses grown in monoculture (2.40 Mg/ha). Growing grasses in mixtures with legumes increased the crude protein concentration of the fresh forage from 13.0% to 15.5% for CC and to 17.3% for HV. For neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations, the interaction between grasses and legumes was significant for both fresh and ensiled forages. Growing BA, RY, and TR in mixtures with legumes decreased NDF concentrations, whereas growing RG and WT with legumes did not affect the NDF concentrations of either the fresh or the ensiled forages. Growing grasses in mixtures with legumes decreased the concentration of sugars of fresh forages relative to grasses grown in monoculture. Primarily, this decrease can be

  8. Genetic gains in wheat in Turkey: Winter wheat for dryland conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut Keser

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat breeders in Turkey have been developing new varieties since the 1920s, but few studies have evaluated the rates of genetic improvement. This study determined wheat genetic gains by evaluating 22 winter/facultative varieties released for rainfed conditions between 1931 and 2006. The study was conducted at three locations in Turkey during 2008–2012, with a total of 21 test sites. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four replicates in 2008 and 2009 and three replicates in 2010–2012. Regression analysis was conducted to determine genetic progress over time. Mean yield across all 21 locations was 3.34 t ha−1, but varied from 1.11 t ha−1 to 6.02 t ha−1 and was highly affected by moisture stress. Annual genetic gain was 0.50% compared to Ak-702, or 0.30% compared to the first modern landmark varieties. The genetic gains in drought-affected sites were 0.75% compared to Ak-702 and 0.66% compared to the landmark varieties. Modern varieties had both improved yield potential and tolerance to moisture stress. Rht genes and rye translocations were largely absent in the varieties studied. The number of spikes per unit area decreased by 10% over the study period, but grains spike−1 and 1000-kernel weight increased by 10%. There were no significant increases in harvest index, grain size, or spike fertility, and no significant decrease in quality over time. Future use of Rht genes and rye translocations in breeding programs may increase yield under rainfed conditions. Keywords: Genetic gain, Rainfed wheat production, Winter wheat, Yield

  9. Potential environmental impacts associated with large-scale herbicide-tolerant GM oilseed rape crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fellous Marc

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The Biomolecular Engineering Commission considers that the knowledge acquired in the last three years has provided significant information in reply to the points raised in its review dated 16 February 2001. The Commission has studied the potential environmental impacts associated with large-scale herbicidetolerantGMoilseed rape crops, making a distinction between direct and indirect impacts. Direct impacts stem from the intrinsic properties of herbicide-tolerant GM oilseed rape crops whereas indirect impacts result from practices associated with the farming of these crops. The Commission considers that, in the absence of the use of the herbicide in question in and outside of farmed land, there is no direct environmental risk (development of invasive crops per se associated with the presence of a herbicide-tolerance gene in oilseed rape (or related species. Nevertheless, since the interest of these tolerant crops lies in the use of the herbicide in question, indirect effects, to varying extents, have been identified and must be taken into account: the use of the herbicide in question, applied to agricultural fields containing the herbicide-tolerant crop could lead to an increase in oilseed rape volunteer populations in crop rotations; the selective pressure exerted by non-specific herbicides (to which the crops have been rendered tolerant may be very high in cases of continuous and uncontrolled use of these herbicides, and may result in the persistence of rare events such as the reproduction of fertile interspecies hybrids; the change to the range of herbicides used should be conveyed by more effective weed control and, like any change in farming practices, induce indirect effects on the agri-ecosystem, particularly in terms of changes to weeds and the associated animal life. Accordingly, the Biomolecular Engineering Commission recommends a global approach in terms of the large-scale farming of herbicide-tolerant crops that: accounts for the

  10. Use of formulated Trichoderma sp. Tri-1 in combination with reduced rates of chemical pesticide for control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorium on oilseed rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable strategies for control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape are needed. Here we tested combinations of Trichoderma sp. Tri-1, formulated with oilseed rape seedcake and straw, with reduced application rates of the chemical pesticide Carbendazim for control of this pathogen on oils...

  11. Effects of plant densities on yield, yield components and some morphological characters of two cultivators of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Barzinjy, M.; Stölen, O.; Christiansen, Jørgen Lindskrog

    2003-01-01

    Effects of Plant Densities on Yield, Yield Components and some Morphological Characters of two Cultivators of Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.)......Effects of Plant Densities on Yield, Yield Components and some Morphological Characters of two Cultivators of Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.)...

  12. Status of feral oilseed rape in Europe: its minor role as a GM impurity and its potential as a reservoir of transgene persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Squire, Geoffrey R.; Breckling, Broder; Dietz Pfeilstetter, Antje

    2011-01-01

    Feral oilseed rape has become widespread in Europe on waysides and waste ground. Its potential as a source of GM impurity in oilseed rape harvests is quantified, for the first time, by a consistent analysis applied over a wide range of study areas in Europe. The maximum contribution of feral...

  13. High-fiber rye diet increases ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients compared with low-fiber wheat diet independent of meal frequency in ileostomy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaksson, Hanna; Landberg, Rikard; Sundberg, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    Background:Whole-grain foods and cereal dietary fiber intake is associated with lower body weight. This may partly result from lower energy utilization of high-fiber diets. Objective: In the present study, the impact on ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients in response to a rye bread high...... was independent of meal frequency. This suggests that a high intake of rye may result in lower availability of macronutrients for small intestinal digestion and absorption. A regular intake of rye may therefore have implications for weight management....

  14. Molecular cloning, expression and immunological characterisation of Lol p 5C, a novel allergen isoform of rye grass pollen demonstrating high IgE reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suphioglu, C; Mawdsley, D; Schäppi, G; Gruehn, S; de Leon, M; Rolland, J M; O'Hehir, R E

    1999-12-03

    A novel isoform of a major rye grass pollen allergen Lol p 5 was isolated from a cDNA expression library. The new isoform, Lol p 5C, shares 95% amino acid sequence identity with Lol p 5A. Both isoforms demonstrated shared antigenic activity but different allergenic activities. Recombinant Lol p 5C demonstrated 100% IgE reactivity in 22 rye grass pollen sensitive patients. In comparison, recombinant Lol p 5A showed IgE reactivity in less than 64% of the patients. Therefore, Lol p 5C represents a novel and highly IgE-reactive isoform allergen of rye grass pollen.

  15. Measurements for winter road maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Riehm, Mats

    2012-01-01

    Winter road maintenance activities are crucial for maintaining the accessibility and traffic safety of the road network at northerly latitudes during winter. Common winter road maintenance activities include snow ploughing and the use of anti-icing agents (e.g. road salt, NaCl). Since the local weather is decisive in creating an increased risk of slippery conditions, understanding the link between local weather and conditions at the road surface is critically important. Sensors are commonly i...

  16. Salmonid behaviour under winter conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Watz, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Winter conditions are believed to play an important role in the population dynamics of northern temperate stream fish, challenging the ability of fish to physiologically and behaviourally adapt. Climate change is predicted to increase both mean temperature and temperature fluctuations, especially during winter, leading to dynamic environmental conditions in terms of river ice production and flow. Therefore, knowledge about the winter ecology of stream fish is important for predicting and miti...

  17. Do competitive conditions affect introgression of transgenes from oilseed rape (Brassica napus) to weedy Brassica rapa? AS case study with special reference to transplastomic oilseed rape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Marina

    In species where chloroplast inheritance is exclusively or predominantly maternal, pollen-mediated flow of transgenes is reduced if transgenes are inserted in chloroplast DNA instead of nuclear DNA. However, transmission of chloroplast-encoded transgeneswill still occur if transgenic individuals......) significantly. As to the proportion between the species, B. rapa was a stronger competitor than B. napus. Theproportion seemed to be a more powerful factor than the density. In conclusion, hybridisation on B. napus seems to be most likely at current field densities of B. napus and when B. rapa is an abundant...... affected the thousand-kernel weight significantly. It was concluded that further introgression of transgenes from transplastomic oilseed rape to B. rapa is mostlikely at current field densities of B. napus and when B. rapa is an abundant weed....

  18. Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) mitigation in seedling cotton using strip tillage and winter cover crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toews, Michael D; Tubbs, R Scott; Wann, Dylan Q; Sullivan, Dana

    2010-10-01

    Thrips are the most consistent insect pests of seedling cotton in the southeastern United States, where symptoms can range from leaf curling to stand loss. In a 2 year study, thrips adults and immatures were sampled at 14, 21 and 28 days after planting on cotton planted with a thiamethoxam seed treatment in concert with crimson clover, wheat or rye winter cover crops and conventional or strip tillage to investigate potential differences in thrips infestations. Densities of adult thrips, primarily Frankliniella fusca (Hinds), peaked on the first sampling date, whereas immature densities peaked on the second sampling date. Regardless of winter cover crop, plots that received strip tillage experienced significantly fewer thrips at each sampling interval. In addition, assessment of percentage ground cover 42 days after planting showed that there was more than twice as much ground cover in the strip-tilled plots compared with conventionally tilled plots. Correlation analyses showed that increased ground cover was inversely related to thrips densities that occurred on all three sampling dates in 2008 and the final sampling date in 2009. Growers who utilize strip tillage and a winter cover crop can utilize seed treatments for mitigation of early-season thrips infestation.

  19. Stamena winter wheat variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišić Todor

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Stamena is a winter wheat variety developed at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad, Yugoslavia. It was released by the Federal Commission for varietals Approval in 1999. Stamena was developed by crossing genetically divergent and highly productive parents Lasta and Rodna (Breeders: T. Mišić. N. Mladenov, Z. Jerković and R. Jevtić. Spike is white, smooth, awn less, medium compact with 18-21 spike lets. The grain is vitreous and dark red (Triticum aestivum L. ssp. vulgar e var. lutescens. Stamena is a medium early variety, 1 day earlier than Partizanka and 3 days earlier than Jugoslavija (Table 4. It has excellent resistance to winterkilling, as in very winter hardy Partizanka. The average stem height is 78 cm, with a good resistance to lodging. Stamena has field resistance to leaf rust (Pucce, recondita tritict, horizontal resistance, which is the type of resistance that modern wheat breeding is interested in. The resistance to stem rust (Pucce, graminis tritict is good and to powdery mildew (Erysiphegraminis tritici very good. The 1000 grain mass is about 32 g and volume grain mass 81.3 kg/hi. (Table 2. Stamena is classified in the subgroup A-l. It has excellent milling and baking quality and it belong to the 1st technological group (quality enhancer. The quantity of dry gluten is about 9%. The variety Stamena is a very productive, with the genetic potential for grain above 11 t/ha suitable for growing on fertile and less fertile soils. It has started to be grown commercially in 2000.

  20. Plasma alkylresorcinols, biomarkers of whole-grain wheat and rye intake, and incidence of colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyrø, Cecilie; Olsen, Anja; Landberg, Rikard

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the association between whole-grain intake and colorectal cancer. Because whole-grain intake estimation might be prone to measurement errors, more objective measures (eg, biomarkers) could assist in investigating such associations. METHODS: The association...... between alkylresorcinols, biomarkers of whole-grain rye and wheat intake, and colorectal cancer incidence were investigated using prediagnostic plasma samples from colorectal cancer case patients and matched control subjects nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition....... We included 1372 incident colorectal cancer case patients and 1372 individual matched control subjects and calculated the incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for overall and anatomical subsites of colorectal cancer using conditional logistic regression adjusted for potential confounders. Regional...

  1. Tracking of intercalary DNA sequences integrated into tandem repeat arrays in rye Secale vavilovii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Achrem

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The structure of repetitive sequences of the JNK block present in the pericentromeric region of the 2RL chromosome was studied in Secale vavilovii. Amplification of sequences present between the JNK sequences led to the identification of seven abnormal DNA fragments. Two of these fragments showed high similarity to the glutamate 5-kinase gene and putative alcohol dehydrogenase gene of trypanosomatid from the genus Leishmania, whose presence can be explained by horizontal gene transfer (HGT. Other fragments were similar to mitochondrial gene for ribosomal protein S4 in plants and to the glycoprotein (G gene of the IHNV virus. Presumably, they are pseudogenes inserted into the JNK heterochromatin region. Within this region, also fragments similar to the rye repetitive sequence and chromosome 3B in wheat were found. There is no known mechanism that would explain how foreign sequences were inserted into the block region of tandem repetitive sequences of the JNK family.

  2. High-temperature treatment for efficient drying of bread rye and reduction of fungal contaminants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, E.F.; Elmholt, S.; Thrane, Ulf

    2005-01-01

    Mycotoxin-producing fungi are natural contaminants of cereals and their toxins are harmful to humans and animals. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is among the most important. Heat treatment by drum drying does not eliminate already formed mycotoxins but the technique can reduce the number of viable fungi......% but confirmed that drum drying did not destroy already formed OTA. The combination of a high drying capacity and a short but efficient heat treatment was obtained by drum drying as opposed to on-floor, batch and ordinary continuous flow drying, and it reduced the risk of mould deterioration to almost zero when...... on the grain. The aim of this study was to establish a drying regime that kills fungal propagules on rye without reducing its quality for baking. Special attention was paid to some important mycotoxin-producing species. As drying temperatures and retention time in the drum are essential, the drum drier must...

  3. Arthropod Pest Control for UK Oilseed Rape - Comparing Insecticide Efficacies, Side Effects and Alternatives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Zhang

    Full Text Available Oilseed rape (Brassica napus is an important combinable break crop in the UK, which is largely protected from arthropod pests by insecticidal chemicals. Despite ongoing debate regarding the use of neonicotinoids, the dominant seed treatment ingredients used for this crop, there is little publicly available data comparing the efficacy of insecticides in controlling key arthropod pests or comparing the impacts on non-target species and the wider environment. To provide an insight into these matters, a UK-wide expert survey targeting agronomists and entomologists was conducted from March to June 2015. Based on the opinions of 90 respondents, an average of 20% yield loss caused by the key arthropod pests was expected to have occurred in the absence of insecticide treatments. Relatively older chemical groups were perceived to have lower efficacy for target pests than newer ones, partly due to the development of insecticide resistance. Without neonicotinoid seed treatments, a lack of good control for cabbage stem flea beetle was perceived. Wide spectrum foliar insecticide sprays were perceived to have significantly greater negative impacts than seed treatments on users' health, natural enemies, pollinators, soil and water, and many foliar active ingredients have had potential risks for non-target arthropod species in UK oilseed rape fields for the past 25 years. Overall, 72% of respondents opposed the neonicotinoid restriction, while 10% supported it. Opposition and support of the restriction were largely based on concerns for pollinators and the wider environment, highlighting the uncertainty over the side effects of neonicotinoid use. More people from the government and research institutes leaned towards neutrality over the issue, compared to those directly involved in growing the crop. Neonicotinoid restriction was expected to result in greater effort and expenditure on pest control and lower production (0-1 t/ha less. Alternatives for future

  4. Combination of existing and alternative technologies to promote oilseeds and pulses proteins in food applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chéreau Denis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The continuous world population growth induces a total protein demand increase based mainly on plant sources. To meet these global nutritional challenges, existing and innovative dry and wet fractionation processes will have to be combined to better valorise plant protein fraction from pulses and oilseeds. The worldwide success of soy protein isolates originate from the intrinsic qualities of soybean proteins but also from a continuous R&D effort since mid-twenty century. Therefore, the soy protein development model can be applied to protein isolates from diverse pulses and oilseeds meals as rapeseed which has already been recognised as novel food protein in Europe. To boost the delivery of plant proteins, agrofood-industries and academics must pool their respective expertise. Innovative and issue solving R&D projects have to be launched to better valorise pulses and oilseed proteins by (i creating oil extraction processes which preserve native proteins structure; (ii developing novel protein extraction processes from lab up to industrial pilot scale; (iii producing plant protein isolates having comparable foaming, emulsifying or gelling functionality than animal; and (iv generating hydrolysed proteins with high digestibility adapted to human nutrition. It is also essential to initiate research programs to innovate in wet and dry fractionations of plants or to design in vitro models to evaluate proteins digestibility and allergenicity. The increased awareness regarding plant protein valorisation resulted in the creation by agro-industries and academics of the open platform IMPROVE which propose a combination of competencies and equipment to boost market uptake of Plant Based Proteins.

  5. Ozone effects on yield quality of spring oilseed rape and broccoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermeiren, Karine; De Bock, Maarten; Horemans, Nele; Guisez, Yves; Ceulemans, Reinhart; De Temmerman, Ludwig

    2012-02-01

    The impact of elevated tropospheric ozone (O 3) on the quality of spring oilseed rape ( Brassica napus cv Ability) and broccoli ( Brassica oleracea L. cv Italic cv Monaco) was assessed during a three year Open - Top Chamber (OTC) experiment. Current ambient O 3 levels were compared to an increase of 20 and 40 ppb during 8 h per day over the entire growing season. The qualitative responses were expressed as a function of the accumulated hourly O 3 concentrations over a threshold of 40 ppb (AOT40) and the phytotoxic O 3 dose above a threshold of 6 nmol s -1 m -2 projected leaf area (POD 6). Our results provide clear evidence that O 3 has an influence on the qualitative attributes of the harvested products of these Brassica species. The responses were comparable whether they were expressed as a function of the accumulated O 3 concentrations or of the modelled O 3 uptake. The protein concentration of oilseed rape seeds and broccoli heads was significantly increased in response to O 3. There was also a shift in the fatty acid composition of the vegetable oil derived from seeds of oilseed rape. Oleic acid (18:1) declined significantly ( p broccoli an important shift occurred from indolic to aliphatic GSLs although the total GSL concentration was not changed. The increase in the aliphatic/indolic GSL ratio ( p broccoli were not influenced by O 3; glutathione (GSH) was slightly increased in response to a higher O 3 uptake ( p < 0.05). The consequences of these changes with regard to food and feed quality and human health are discussed.

  6. Partial characterization, antioxidative properties and hypolipidemic effects of oilseed cake of Allanblackia floribunda and Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudjeko, Thaddée; Ngomoyogoli, Judith Emery Kanemoto; Woguia, Alice Louise; Yanou, Nicolas Njintang

    2013-12-11

    High fat diet is known to induce oxidative stress and abnormal changes in lipid metabolism. Many traditional plants have been shown to possess antioxidant and lipid-lowering activities, improving on oxidative status and lipid profile. In this paper, we characterized and examined the antioxidative properties of the oilseed cake of A. floribunda and J. curcas. We also evaluated their effect on lipid profile in the plasma and liver of experimental rats placed on a high fat diet. For a partial characterization, the qualitative and quantitative analyses of storage proteins, dietary fibre and polyphenol content were evaluated. Four extracts (aqueous, ethanolic, methanolic and 0.1 N HCl) were evaluated for their antioxidant properties and scavenging activities. The effect on lipid profile was evaluated after the administration of the crude extracts to albino rats placed on a high fat diet. Our results showed that J. curcas contains 10 times more storage proteins than A. floribunda while A. floribunda contains twice as much total dietary fibre than J. curcas. An evaluation of the different families of storage proteins showed that J. curcas has glutelins as the major storage proteins in its seeds (61.65 mg/g d.m), followed by globulins (25.30 mg/g d.m) and albumins (18.30 mg/g d.m). The electrophoretic analyses revealed a diversity of bands at the level of the different families and for both species. The evaluation of the in vitro antioxidant activities showed that A. floribunda extracts had higher antioxidant properties. Although the composition of A. floribunda and J. curcas oilseed cake are different, they lowered serum triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and blood glucose level. These results show that the oilseed cake of A. floribunda and J. curcas possess antioxidant properties with an effect on blood glucose level and lipid profile.

  7. Large-scale monitoring of effects of clothianidin-dressed oilseed rape seeds on pollinating insects in Northern Germany: effects on honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolke, Daniel; Fuchs, Stefan; Grünewald, Bernd; Gao, Zhenglei; Blenau, Wolfgang

    2016-11-01

    Possible effects of clothianidin seed-treated oilseed rape on honey bee colonies were investigated in a large-scale monitoring project in Northern Germany, where oilseed rape usually comprises 25-33 % of the arable land. For both reference and test sites, six study locations were selected and eight honey bee hives were placed at each location. At each site, three locations were directly adjacent to oilseed rape fields and three locations were situated 400 m away from the nearest oilseed rape field. Thus, 96 hives were exposed to fully flowering oilseed rape crops. Colony sizes and weights, the amount of honey harvested, and infection with parasites and diseases were monitored between April and September 2014. The percentage of oilseed rape pollen was determined in pollen and honey samples. After oilseed rape flowering, the hives were transferred to an extensive isolated area for post-exposure monitoring. Total numbers of adult bees and brood cells showed seasonal fluctuations, and there were no significant differences between the sites. The honey, which was extracted at the end of the exposure phase, contained 62.0-83.5 % oilseed rape pollen. Varroa destructor infestation was low during most of the course of the study but increased at the end of the study due to flumethrin resistance in the mite populations. In summary, honey bee colonies foraging in clothianidin seed-treated oilseed rape did not show any detrimental symptoms as compared to colonies foraging in clothianidin-free oilseed rape. Development of colony strength, brood success as well as honey yield and pathogen infection were not significantly affected by clothianidin seed-treatment during this study.

  8. Effects of rye grass coverage on soil loss from loess slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuequn Dong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Vegetative coverage is commonly used to reduce urban slope soil erosion. Laboratory experimental study on soil erosion under grass covered slopes is conventionally time and space consuming. In this study, a new method is suggested to study the influences of vegetation coverage on soil erosion from a sloped loess surface under three slope gradients of 5°, 15°, and 25°; four rye grass coverages of 0%, 25%, 50%, and 75%; and three rainfall intensities of 60, 90, and 120 mm/h with a silt-loamy loess soil. Rye grasses were planted in the field with the studied soil before being transplanted into a laboratory flume. Grass was allowed to resume growth for a period before the rain simulation experiment. Results showed that the grass cover reduced soil erosion by 63.90% to 92.75% and sediment transport rate by 80.59% to 96.17% under different slope gradients and rainfall intensities. The sediment concentration/sediment transport rate from bare slope was significantly higher than from a grass-covered slope. The sediment concentration/transport rate from grass-covered slopes decreased linearly with grass coverage and increased with rainfall intensity. The sediment concentration/transport rate from the bare slope increased as a power function of slope and reached the maximum value at the gradient of about 25°, whereas that from grass-covered slope increased linearly and at much lower levels. The results of this study can be used to estimate the effect of vegetation on soil erosion from loess slopes.

  9. Germination of rye brome (Bromus secalinus L. seeds under simulated drought and different thermal conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Haliniarz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the germination of rye brome (Bromus secalinus L. seeds and the initial growth of seedlings under simulated drought and different thermal conditions. The study included two experiments carried out under laboratory conditions in the spring of 2012. The first experiment involved an evaluation of the speed of germination as well as of the biometric characters and weight of seedlings in polyethylene glycol solutions (PEG 8000 in which the water potential was: -0.2; -0.4; -0.65; -0.9 MPa, and in distilled water as the control treatment. The experiment was conducted at the following temperatures: 25/22oC and 18/14oC day/night, at a relative air humidity of 90%. The other experiment, in which lessive soil was used as a germination substrate, was carried out in a plant growth chamber at two levels of air humidity (55–65% and 85–95% and temperature (22/10oC and 16/5oC. The soil moisture content was determined by the gravimetric method and the water potential corresponding to it was as follows: -0.02, -0.07, -0.16, -0.49, -1.55 MPa. The germination capacity and emergence of Bromus secalinus as well as the weight of sprouts produced were significantly dependent on the water potential of the polyethylene glycol solution and on the soil water potential. The emergence of Bromus secalinus was completely inhibited by reducing the soil water potential below -0.16 MPa (the point of strong growth inhibition. The emergence and biometric characters of rye bro- me seedlings were significantly dependent on temperature and air humidity.

  10. Variability of N{sub 2}O emissions during the production of poplar and rye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, Juergen; Hellebrand, Hans Juergen; Scholz, Volkhard [ATB Potsdam (Germany)], E-mail: jkern@atb-potsdam.de

    2008-07-01

    The emission of N{sub 2}O from the soil has a significant impact on the greenhouse gas balance of energy crops. Soil type, temperature, precipitation, tillage practice and level of fertilization may affect the source strength of N{sub 2}O emissions and fertilizer-induced N{sub 2}O emissions. The N{sub 2}O-fluxes from different sites of an experimental field were measured by the flux chamber method over a period of four years (2003-2006). Poplar and rye as one perennial and one annual crop were fertilized at levels of 0 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}, 75 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} and 150 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}. Enhanced N{sub 2}O emission spots with maxima of up to 1653 {mu}g N{sub 2}O m{sup -2} h{sup -1} were observed at fertilized sites for several weeks. The emissions ranged between 0.4 kg N{sub 2}O-N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} and 2.7 kg N{sub 2}O-N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} depending on fertilization level, crop variety and year. The mean conversion factor was 2.1% for poplar and 0.9% for rye. The CO{sub 2}-advantage of energy crops is reduced by N{sub 2}O emissions by up to 10%. (author)

  11. Immunochemical studies of Lolium perenne (rye grass) pollen allergens, Lol p I, II, and III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, A A; Kihara, T K; Marsh, D G

    1987-12-15

    It was reported earlier that human immune responses to three perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne) pollen allergens, Lol p I, II, and III, are associated with histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR3. Rye-allergic people are often concordantly sensitive to all three of these allergens. Since earlier studies suggested that these antigens are non-cross-reactive, their immunologic relatedness by double antibody radioimmunoassay (DARIA) was studied in order to understand further the immunochemical basis for the concordant recognition of the three allergens. Direct binding DARIA studies were performed with human sera from 189 allergic subjects. Inhibition DARIA studies were carried out with 17 human sera from grass-allergic patients who were on grass immunotherapy, one goat anti-serum, and six rabbit antisera. None of the sera detected any significant degree of two-way cross-reactivity between Lol p I and II, or between Lol p I and III. However, the degree of two-way cross-reactivity between Lol p II and III exhibited by individual human and animal antisera varied between undetectable and 100%. In general, the degree of cross-reactivity between Lol p II and III was higher among human sera than among animal sera. Taken together with earlier findings that antibody responses to Lol p I, II and III are associated with HLA-HDR3, and that most Lol p II and III responders are also Lol p I responders, but not vice versa, our present results suggest the following: the HLA-DR3-encoded Ia molecule recognizes a similar immunodominant Ia recognition site (agretope) shared between Lol p I and Lol p II and/or III; in addition, Lol p I appears to contain unique Ia recognition site(s) not present in Lol p II and III. However, further epitope analyses are required to investigate these possibilities.

  12. Divergent Development of Hexaploid Triticale by a Wheat - Rye -Psathyrostachys huashanica Trigeneric Hybrid Method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houyang Kang

    Full Text Available Hexaploid triticale is an important forage crop and a promising energy plant. Some forms were previously reported for developing the hexaploid triticale, such as crossing tetraploid wheat or hexaploid wheat with rye, crossing hexaploid triticale and/or hexaploid wheat with octoploid triticale, and spontaneously appearing in the selfed progenies of octoploid triticale. In the present study, we developed an effective method for production of diverse types of hexaploid triticale via wheat-rye-Psathyrostachys huashanica trigeneric hybrid. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH karyotyping revealed that D genome chromosomes were completely eliminated and the whole A, B, and R genome chromosomes were retained in three lines. More interestingly, the composite genome of the line K14-489-2 consisted of complete A and B genomes and chromosomes 1D, 2R, 3R, 4R, 5R, 6R, and 7R, that of line K14-491-2 was 12 A-genome (1A-6A, 14 B-genome (1B-7B, 12 R-genome (1R-3R, 5R-7R, and chromosomes 1D and 3D, and that of the line K14-547-1 had 26A/B and 14R chromosomes, plus one pair of centric 6BL/2DS translocations. This finding implies that some of D genome chromosomes can be spontaneously and stably incorporated into the hexaploid triticale. Additionally, a variety of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS compositions were detected in the six hexaploid triticale lines, respectively. Besides, compared with its recurrent triticale parent Zhongsi828, these lines showed high level of resistance to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, Pst pathogens prevalent in China, including V26/Gui 22. These new hexaploid triticales not only enhanced diversification of triticale but also could be utilized as valuable germplasm for wheat improvement.

  13. Estimating the Economic Value of Greenhouse Gases Emissions of Oilseeds in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jamalipor

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Human life on earth depends on temperature range control due to the effects of greenhouse gases. Earth atmosphere plays an important role to prevent the decrease of temperature. One of the principal factors of environmental pollution and the main source of earth climate and biodiversity changes is greenhouse gas emissions from various sources, particularly agricultural sector. Agriculture sector is a major source of greenhouse gas sequestration, including methane, nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and nitric oxide. One of the most important sub-sector of agriculture that produce greenhouse gases is agronomy. Nitrous oxide is one of the most important greenhouse gas and agriculture is the largest source. About 70 percent of N2O emitted into the atmosphere from soil, obtained from biomass. The total cultivation of oilseeds i.e. soybean, canola, corn for grain and other oilseeds, is equal to 534,132 hectares. Materials and Methods: In this study to measure emissions of CO2 and N2O, Greenhouse Gas Emissions Model (GHGEM was used. This model was employed to estimate greenhouse gas emissions from activities directly and indirectly related to agriculture production and the effects of mitigation measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. To estimate the total production of N2O and CO2 in the agricultural ecosystem, 2011-12 crop year data reported by the Ministry of Jihad Agriculture has been used. In addition, the provinces divided into different classes based on the scale of production and emissions and their condition through means comparison test was examined. Results and Discussion: The total amount of N2O and CO2 emissions from cereal crops including soybean, canola, corn for grain and other oilseeds was estimated. Khuzestan and Zanjan provinces, with an annual production 341.49 and 0.004 ton of N2O emission are the highest and lowest N2O producers, respectively. In addition, the Golestan and Hormozgan provinces respectively

  14. Natural Resources and Local Development: The Argentinian Oilseed Complex and Biofuel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Scialabba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Argentina is very rich in natural resources, particularly those linked to the oilseed production. Global demand and improved means of production, have resulted in a mature and developed production infrastructure geared toward export. This generates not just revenue, but also has other positive effects, such as the creation of jobs and sustainable development. In this context, biofuel production adds multidimensional value to the vegetable oil industry and generations many spin-off industries.

  15. Tracking U.S. Grain, Oilseed and Related Product Exports in Mexico (Summary)

    OpenAIRE

    Salin, Delmy

    2014-01-01

    Texas A&M AgriLife Research and Texas A&M Transportation Institute scientists found that rail continues to be the most important mode of transport for U.S. grains, oilseeds, and products entering Mexico, followed by seaports and trucks. Nearly all Mexican land ports of entry are connected with a U.S. railroad, except for Nuevo Progreso, which does not have rail access (Fig. 1). Increased rail efficiency caused by larger trains and gauge uniformity facilitates North America Railroads (Canada, ...

  16. Stem base diseases of winter wheat grown after forecrops of the family Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Majchrzak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A study into the sanitary state of roots and culm base of winter wheat was carried out in 1999-2002 in the Production and Experimental Station in Bałcyny near Ostróda. Experimental wheat was cultivated after spring cross plants such as spring oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp. oleiferus Metz., white mustard (Sinapis alba L, chinese mustard (Brassica juncea L., oleiferous radish (Raphanus sativus var. oleiferus L., false flax (Camelina sativa L., crambe (Crambe abbysinica Hoechst. and after oats (Avena sativa L. as a control. The other experimental factor was the method of after-harvest residue management, i.e. ploughing in the stubble, ploughing in the stubble and straw, ploughing in the stubble and straw with nitrogen added. The occurrence of root rot and stem base diseases was affected by weather conditions and forecrop species. Winter wheat roots were attacked to the lowest degree when spring rape and radish were used as forecrops, and to the highest degree - when grown after oat. The culm base was most intensely infected with fusarium foot rot (Fusarium spp.. The remaining root-rot diseases occurred every year but with different intensity. The method of utilization of after-harvest residues did not have a clear effect on the intensity of infection of the roots and culm base of winter wheat.

  17. Optimal Cross Hedging Winter Canola

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seon-Woong; Brorsen, B. Wade; Yoon, Byung-Sam

    2014-01-01

    Winter canola in the southern Great Plains has shown large price fluctuations and there have been questions about which futures market could be used to reduce price risk. Our results indicate that the optimal futures contract to cross hedge winter canola is soybean oil futures.

  18. Response of winter rape (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera Metzg., Sinsk to foliar fertilization and different seeding rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezary A. Kwiatkowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment in growing winter rape was carried out during the period 2009-2011 in a family farm (owned by Mr. M. Bednarczyk located in Jaroszewice (Lublin region, on podzolic soil. Plant biometric features as well as yield and seed qualitative parameters (oil, protein and glucosinolate content were evaluated depending on the following rates of soil NPK fertilizers and on foliar fertilization (autumn spraying with the fertilizer solution: 100% and 75% of NPK as well as urea + nickel chelate + MgSO4H2O; 100% and 75% of NPK as well as urea + Plonvit R + MgSO4H2O. Plots without foliar fertilization (only 100% of NPK were the control treatment. The other experimental factor was the seeding rate (2.5 kg×ha-1 – 30 cm row spacing; 4 kg×ha-1 – 18 cm row spacing. Foliar spraying was done once in the autumn in the second decade of October. Tillage as well as mechanical and chemical control of agricultural pests in the plantation were typical for this plant species and consistent with the recommendations for winter rape protection. A hypothesis was made that the application of foliar fertilizers would have a beneficial effect on winter rape productivity, at the same time maintaining the high quality of raw material. It was also assumed that a reduction in the seeding rate of winter oilseed rape would result in reduced plant lodging and an increased number of siliques per plant; as a consequence, seed and oil productivity would be at a level not lower than that obtained at the higher seeding rate. The present study has proved that foliar fertilization of winter oilseed rape in the autumn period contributes to improved plant winter hardiness and increased productivity. The application of foliar fertilizers also enables the rates of basic mineral NPK fertilizers to be reduced by 25% without detriment to seed yield. Foliar fertilizers have been found to have a weaker effect on changing the chemical composition of rapeseed. The study has shown that

  19. A systematic review of rye (Secale cereale L.) as a source of resistance to pathogens and pests in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Herrera, Leonardo A; Garkava-Gustavsson, Larisa; Åhman, Inger

    2017-01-01

    Wheat is globally one of the most important crops. With the current human population growth rate, there is an increasing need to raise wheat productivity by means of plant breeding, along with development of more efficient and sustainable agricultural systems. Damage by pathogens and pests, in combination with adverse climate effects, need to be counteracted by incorporating new germplasm that makes wheat more resistant/tolerant to such stress factors. Rye has been used as a source for improved resistance to pathogens and pests in wheat during more than 50 years. With new devastating stem and yellow rust pathotypes invading wheat at large acreage globally, along with new biotypes of pest insects, there is renewed interest in using rye as a source of resistance. Currently the proportion of wheat cultivars with rye chromatin varies between countries, with examples of up to 34%. There is mainly one rye source, Petkus, that has been widely exploited and that has contributed considerably to raise yields and increase disease resistance in wheat. Successively, the multiple disease resistances conferred by this source has been overcome by new pathotypes of leaf rust, yellow rust, stem rust and powdery mildew. However, there are several other rye sources reported to make wheat more resistant to various biotic constraints when their rye chromatin has been transferred to wheat. There is also development of knowledge on how to produce new rye translocation, substitution and addition lines. Here we compile information that may facilitate decision making for wheat breeders aiming to transfer resistance to biotic constraints from rye to elite wheat germplasm.

  20. Klaus Winter (1930 - 2015)

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    We learned with great sadness that Klaus Winter passed away on 9 February 2015, after a long illness.   Klaus was born in 1930 in Hamburg, where he obtained his diploma in physics in 1955. From 1955 to 1958 he held a scholarship at the Collège de France, where he received his doctorate in nuclear physics under the guidance of Francis Perrin. Klaus joined CERN in 1958, where he first participated in experiments on π+ and K0 decay properties at the PS, and later became the spokesperson of the CHOV Collaboration at the ISR. Starting in 1976, his work focused on experiments with the SPS neutrino beam. In 1984 he joined Ugo Amaldi to head the CHARM experiment, designed for detailed studies of the neutral current interactions of high-energy neutrinos, which had been discovered in 1973 using the Gargamelle bubble chamber at the PS. The unique feature of the detector was its target calorimeter, which used large Carrara marble plates as an absorber material. From 1984 to 1991, Klau...

  1. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-13

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD`s I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s, as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 day, 30-Day, and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city.

  2. Airborne molds and mycotoxins associated with handling of corn silage and oilseed cakes in agricultural environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, Caroline; Richard, Estelle; Heutte, Natacha; Picquet, Rachel; Bouchart, Valérie; Garon, David

    2010-05-01

    In agricultural areas, the contamination of feedstuffs with molds and mycotoxins presents major environmental and health concerns. During cattle feeding, fungi and mycotoxins were monitored in corn silage, oilseed cakes and bioaerosols collected in Normandy. Most of the corn silages were found to be contaminated by deoxynivalenol (mean concentration: 1883 μg kg -1) while a few of oilseed cakes were contaminated by alternariol, fumonisin B 1 or gliotoxin. In ambient bioaerosols, the values for fungi per cubic meter of air varied from 4.3 × 10 2 to 6.2 × 10 5 cfu m -3. Seasonal variations were observed with some species like Aspergillus fumigatus which significantly decreased between the 2 seasons ( P = 0.0186) while the Penicillium roqueforti group significantly increased during the second season ( P = 0.0156). In the personal bioaerosols, the values for fungi per cubic meter of air varied from 3.3 10 3 to 1.7 10 6 cfu m -3 and the number of A. fumigatus spores significantly decreased between the 2 seasons ( P = 0.0488). Gliotoxin, an immunosuppressive mycotoxin, was quantified in 3 personal filters at 3.73 μg m -3, 1.09 μg m -3 and 2.97 μg m -3.

  3. Genetic diversity in Carthamus tinctorius (Asteraceae; safflower), an underutilized oilseed crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Stephanie A; Burke, John M

    2014-10-01

    • Underutilized crops are potentially valuable resources for meeting increasing food demands. Safflower, an oilseed crop, is an example of one such underutilized crop that thrives in moisture-limited areas. Characterization of the genetic diversity maintained within the gene pools of underutilized crops such as safflower is an important step in their further development.• A total of 190 safflower individuals, including 134 USDA accessions, 48 breeding lines from two private North American safflower breeding companies, and eight wild safflower individuals, were genotyped using 133 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. We then used the resulting data to assess the amount and distribution of genetic diversity within and among these collections of safflower.• Although just a modest reduction in gene diversity was observed in the commercial breeding lines (relative to the other safflower groupings), safflower domestication was accompanied by a significant decrease in allelic richness. Further, our results suggest that most safflower breeding lines originated from a single pool of diversity within the Old World safflower germplasm.• Taken together, our results suggest that both the safflower germplasm collection and related, wild species harbor previously undocumented genetic diversity that could help fuel future improvement efforts. Paired with analyses of functional diversity, the molecular resources described herein will be thus be useful in the continued development of safflower as an oilseed crop. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  4. The presence of turnip yellows virus in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloševic Dragana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 86 oilseed rape samples from six crops in different localities were collected during 2014 and analyzed for the presence of Turnip yellows virus (TuYV, Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV and Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV using commercial double-antibody sandwich (DAS-ELISA kits. TuYV was serologically detected in 60 collected samples (69.77%, and none of the samples tested were positive for CaMV and TuMV. Six selected TuYV isolates were successfully transmitted by Myzus persicae to three test plants, confirming the infectious nature of the disease. In the selected ELISA-positive samples, the presence of TuYV was further confirmed by RT-PCR and sequencing. A comparison of the obtained sequence with those available in GenBank confirmed the presence of TuYV in oilseed rape samples. An analysis of P0 gene sequence data for a subset of these isolates showed they clustered with the known TuYV and were distinct from Beet western yellows virus (BWYV isolates.

  5. Camelina as a sustainable oilseed crop: contributions of plant breeding and genetic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmann, Johann; Eynck, Christina

    2015-04-01

    Camelina is an underutilized Brassicaceae oilseed plant with a considerable agronomic potential for biofuel and vegetable oil production in temperate regions. In contrast to most Brassicaceae, camelina is resistant to alternaria black spot and other diseases and pests. Sequencing of the camelina genome revealed an undifferentiated allohexaploid genome with a comparatively large number of genes and low percentage of repetitive DNA. As there is a close relationship between camelina and the genetic model plant Arabidopsis, this review aims at exploring the potential of translating basic Arabidopsis results into a camelina oilseed crop for food and non-food applications. Recently, Arabidopsis genes for drought resistance or increased photosynthesis and overall productivity have successfully been expressed in camelina. In addition, gene constructs affecting lipid metabolism pathways have been engineered into camelina for synthesizing either long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, hydroxy fatty acids or high-oleic oils in particular camelina strains, which is of great interest in human food, industrial or biofuel applications, respectively. These results confirm the potential of camelina to serve as a biotechnology platform in biorefinery applications thus justifying further investment in breeding and genetic research for combining agronomic potential, unique oil quality features and biosafety into an agricultural production system. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Molecular mechanism of manipulating seed coat coloration in oilseed Brassica species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Cheng-Yu

    2013-05-01

    Yellow seed is a desirable characteristic for the breeding of oilseed Brassica crops, but the manifestation of seed coat color is very intricate due to the involvement of various pigments, the main components of which are flavonols, proanthocyanidin (condensed tannin), and maybe some other phenolic relatives, like lignin and melanin. The focus of this review is to examine the genetics mechanism regarding the biosynthesis and regulation of these pigments in the seed coat of oilseed Brassica. This knowledge came largely from recent researches on the molecular mechanism of TRANSPARENT TESTA (tt) and similar mutations in the ancestry model plant of Brassica, Arabidopsis. Some key enzymes in the flavonoid (flavonols and proanthocyanidin) biosynthetic pathway have been characterized in tt mutants. Some orthologs to these TRANSPARENT TESTA genes have also been cloned in Brassica species. However, it is suggested that some alterative metabolism pathways, including lignin and melanin, might also be involved in seed color manifestation. Polyphenol oxidases, such as laccase, tyrosinase, or even peroxidase, participate in the oxidation step in proanthocyanidin, lignin, and melanin biosynthesis. Moreover, some researches also suggested that melanic pigment in black-seeded Brassica was several fold higher than in yellow-seeded Brassica. Although more experiments are required to evaluate the importance of lignin and melanin in seed coat browning, the current results suggest that the flavonols and proanthocyanidin are not the only roles affecting seed color.

  7. Occurrence of Plasmodiophora brassicae in Finnish turnip rape and oilseed rape fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika Rastas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Clubroot, caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae Woronin, is a serious plant disease of cruciferous plants. A field survey of occurrence of clubroot in oilseed fields was conducted in Finland in 2007−2009 and in 1984−1989. At present, the disease is distributed throughout the oilseed cultivation area. Clubroot was found on average from 30% of fields, but its severity was low; fields with high numbers of infected plants and plants with severe symptoms were rare. According to the survey, cultivation frequency of cruciferous plants is the most important factor affecting clubroot occurrence and severity. Clubroot was found in soils with a wide range of pH-values (pH 5-7.6, but symptoms were most severe at low pH. According to the survey, and greenhouse and field trials, high temperature and moisture during the early growth period seem to favour disease development and can cause significant yield losses. In a survival trial, clubroot declined to close to zero after four years in the absence of host plants, but traces of the pathogen were still detectable after a 19-year trial period, making eradication of the pathogen very difficult.

  8. Antioxidant Potential of the Extracts, Fractions and Oils Derived from Oilseeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shagufta Ishtiaque

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The polyphenolic extracts and oils were obtained from ajwain, mustard, fenugreek and poppy seeds. The extracts were partitioned into acidic and neutral polyphenolic fractions and following estimation of total phenolics in the crude extract, acidic and neutral fractions and oil, all were analyzed for their DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging potential, ferric reducing ability and chelating power. The highest amount of polyphenols was found in ajwain (8330 ± 107, then in mustard seeds (2844 ± 56.00 and in fenugreek (1130 ± 29.00, and least in poppy seeds (937 ± 18.52. The higher amounts of polyphenols were estimated in neutral fraction compared to acidic (p fenugreek and least by poppy seed extracts (p < 0.05. The reducing power and the chelating effect of the oilseeds followed the same order as DPPH, but higher % chelation was shown by neutral than acidic fraction (p < 0.05. Though low in polyphenols, the oil fractions were as strong antioxidants as the acidic one. Though oilseeds are used in very small quantity in food, they are potential sources of natural antioxidants and may replace synthetic ones.

  9. Transgene expression and fitness of hybrids between GM oilseed rape and Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammitzbøll, Henriette; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Jørgensen, Rikke Bagger

    2005-01-01

    Oilseed rape (Brassica napus) is sexually compatible with its wild and weedy relative B. rapa, and introgression of genes from B. napus has been found to occur over a few generations. We simulated the early stages of transgene escape by producing F1 hybrids and the first backcross generation between two lines of transgenic B. napus and two populations of weedy B. rapa. Transgene expression and the fitness of the hybrids were examined under different environmental conditions. Expression of the transgenes was analyzed at the mRNA level by quantitative PCR and found to be stable in the hybrids, regardless of the genetic background and the environment, and equal to the level of transcription in the parental B. napus lines. Vigor of the hybrids was measured as the photosynthetic capability; pollen viability and seed set per silique. Photosynthetic capability of first generation hybrids was found to be at the same level, or higher, than that of the parental species, whereas the reproductive fitness was significantly lower. The first backcross generation had a significantly lower photosynthetic capability and reproductive fitness compared to the parental species. This is the first study that examines transgene expression at the mRNA level in transgenic hybrids of B. napus of different genetic background exposed to different environmental conditions. The data presented clarify important details of the overall risk assessment of growing transgenic oilseed rape.

  10. Environmental aspects and challenges of oilseed produced biodiesel in Southeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayed, M.H.; Masjuki, H.H.; Saidur, R.; Kalam, M.A.; Jahirul, M.I. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2009-12-15

    Research on alternative fuel for the vehemently growing number of automotivesis intensified due to environmental reasons rather than turmoil in energy price and supply. From the policy and steps to emphasis the use of biofuel by governments all around the world, this can be comprehended that biofuel have placed itself as a number one substitute for fossil fuels. These phenomena made Southeast Asia a prominent exporter of biodiesel. But thrust in biodiesel production from oilseeds of palm and Jatropha curcas in Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand is seriously threatening environmental harmony. This paper focuses on this critical issue of biodiesels environmental impacts, policy, standardization of this region as well as on the emission of biodiesel in automotive uses. To draw a bottom line on feasibilities of different feedstock of biodiesel, a critical analysis on oilseed yield rate, land use, engine emissions and oxidation stability is reviewed. Palm oil based biodiesel is clearly ahead in all these aspects of feasibility, except in the case of NO{sub x} where it lags from conventional petro diesel. (author)

  11. Tangent Curve Function Description of Mechanical Behaviour of Bulk Oilseeds: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigalingging R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of tangent curve mathematical model for description of mechanical behaviour of selected bulk oilseeds, namely jatropha, sunflower, rape, garden pea, and common bean in linear compression was reviewed. Based on the review analysis, the tangent curve function has been developed using MathCAD 14 software which employs the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm for data fitting optimal for tangent curve approximation. Linear compression parameters including force (N, deformation (mm, energy (J, and/or volume energy (J-m-3 can equally be determined by the tangent model. Additionally, the theoretical dependency between force and deformation characteristic curves can be defined by the force coefficient of mechanical behaviour (N and deformation coefficient of mechanical behaviour (mm-1 of the tangent model. In conclusion, the review results, however, shows that the tangent curve mathematical model which is dependent on experimental boundary conditions is potentialy useful for theoretical description of mechanical properties and deformation characteristics of bulk oilseeds in axial compression.

  12. Effects of processing on availability of total plant sterols, steryl ferulates and steryl glycosides from wheat and rye bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Laura; Lampi, Anna-Maija; Rita, Hannu; Aura, Anna-Marja; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja; Piironen, Vieno

    2007-10-31

    Rye and wheat bran are excellent natural sources of plant sterols in the diet. Their content, however, may vary according to processing. Thermal (roasting and heating in a microwave oven), mechanical (milling and cryogenic grinding), and enzymatic treatments (hydrolysis with xylanase or beta-glucanase or a mixture of these two enzymes) were performed, and their effect on sterol content, extractability of sterols and the characteristic steryl conjugates of cereals (steryl ferulates, steryl glycosides, and acylated steryl glycosides) were studied. Mechanical and enzymatic treatments increased the apparent sterol content, whereas aqueous processing without enzymes hindered the availability of total sterols, especially from rye bran. Changes were also seen in the amounts of steryl conjugates caused by the enzymatic treatments. On the basis of the results of this study, it can be speculated that a combination of fine particle size and enzymatic processing results in optimal sterol availability in cereal processing.

  13. Quantitative aspects of the metabolism of lignans in pigs fed fibre-enriched rye and wheat bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lærke, Helle N; Mortensen, Marianne A; Hedemann, Mette S

    2009-01-01

    -67 d, and analysed the content of plant lignans and their metabolites in the diet, blood, bile, faeces, urine and selected tissues. Apparent faecal digestibility of dietary precursors was higher than of total (plant- and entero-) lignans due to conversion to enterolactone and enterodiol....... The digestibility of lariciresinol and matairesinol was lower than that of the sum of plant lignans. This suggests that interconversion of plant lignans during digestion and enterohepatic circulation occur without complete conversion to enterolignans. The majority of lignans present in plasma and urine...... was in the form of enterolignans, but up to 23 % in the plasma, and 11 % in the urine of the rye-fed pigs were in the form of plant lignans. There was a very high concentration of lignans in bile from the rye-fed pigs with as much as 77 % in the form of plant lignans. Lignans were detected in the tissue of colon...

  14. Rye polyphenols and the metabolism of n-3 fatty acids in rats: a dose dependent fatty fish-like effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ounnas, Fayçal; de Lorgeril, Michel; Salen, Patricia; Laporte, François; Calani, Luca; Mena, Pedro; Brighenti, Furio; Del Rio, Daniele; Demeilliers, Christine

    2017-01-10

    As long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) of the n-3 series are critically important for human health, fish consumption has considerably increased in recent decades, resulting in overfishing to respond to the worldwide demand, to an extent that is not sustainable for consumers' health, fisheries economy, and marine ecology. In a recent study, it has been shown that whole rye (WR) consumption improves blood and liver n-3 LCFA levels and gut microbiota composition in rats compared to refined rye. The present work demonstrates that specific colonic polyphenol metabolites may dose dependently stimulate the synthesis of n-3 LCFA, possibly through their microbial and hepatic metabolites in rats. The intake of plant n-3 alpha-linolenic acid and WR results in a sort of fatty fish-like effect, demonstrating that the n-3 LCFA levels in blood and tissues could be increased without eating marine foods, and therefore without promoting unsustainable overfishing, and without damaging marine ecology.

  15. Control of slug damage to oilseed rape and wheat with imidacloprid seed dressings in laboratory and field experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simms, L.C.; Ester, A.; Wilson, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Slugs are common pests of oilseed and cereal crops in Europe and are currently controlled using bait pellets that often fail to give adequate protection: Here we investigate the potential of the broad-spectrum insecticide imidacloprid, previously suggested to have activity against slugs, to control

  16. Development of a biologically based fertilizer, incorporating Bacillus megaterium A6, for improved phosphorus nutrition of oilseed rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaojia; Roberts, Daniel P; Xie, Lihua; Maul, Jude E; Yu, Changbing; Li, Yinshui; Zhang, Shujie; Liao, Xing

    2013-04-01

    Sustainable methods with diminished impact on the environment need to be developed for the production of oilseed rape in China and other regions of the world. A biological fertilizer consisting of Bacillus megaterium A6 cultured on oilseed rape meal improved oilseed rape seed yield (P rape meal without strain A6 in 1 of 2 experiments, suggesting a role for strain A6 in improving yield. Strain A6 was capable of solubilizing phosphorus from rock phosphate in liquid culture and produced enzymes capable of mineralizing organic phosphorus (acid phosphatase, phytase) in liquid culture and in the biological fertilizer. The biologically based fertilizer, containing strain A6, improved plant phosphorus nutrition in greenhouse pot experiments resulting in significantly greater available phosphorus in natural soil and in significantly greater plant phosphorus content relative to the nontreated control. Seed yield and available phosphorus in natural soil were significantly greater with a synthetic chemical fertilizer treatment, reduced in phosphorus content, than the biological fertilizer treatment, but a treatment containing the biological fertilizer combined with the synthetic fertilizer provided the significantly greatest seed yield, available phosphorus in natural soil, and plant phosphorus content. These results suggest that the biological fertilizer was capable of improving oilseed rape seed yield, at least in part, through the phosphorus-solubilizing activity of B. megaterium A6.

  17. Regulation of erucic acid accumulation in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) : effects of temperature and abscisic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilmer, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    Vegetable oils are an important commodity world-wide with an annual production of about 70 million tonnes. Oilseed rape is one of the four major crops, providing about 10% of the total production. Quality of vegetable oils is determined by the fatty acid composition of the triacylglycerols

  18. 7 CFR 1412.34 - Submitting production evidence for establishing direct payment yields for oilseeds and pulse crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... oilseeds and pulse crops. (a)(1) Reports of production evidence must be submitted when the owner elects to...-peril crop insurance loss adjustment settlement; or (vii) Other production evidence determined... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Submitting production evidence for establishing...

  19. FEASIBILITY OF HYGROMYCIN AS A SELECTION AGENT IN AGROBACTERIUM-MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION OF OILSEED RAPE (BRASSICA NAPUS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tímea Kuťka Hlozáková

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work the feasibility of the antibiotic hygromycin as a selection agent in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. was evaluated. For this, two economically important commercial varieties Haydn and Hunter and tobacco as a model plant were subjected to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The 5-6 days-old oilseed rape hypocotyls and 4-6 weeks-old tobacco leaf segments were transformed with the binary vector pCambia1304. The T-DNA contained the reporter gfp:gus and the selectable marker htp genes. Regeneration of transformed cells was conducted under selection of 10 mg.l-1 (oilseed rape and 30 mg.l-1 (tobacco hygromycin. Putative transgenic plantlets were analysed by the mean of the histochemical GUS and PCR analyses. Transformation efficiency ranged from 1.0% (cv. Haydn to 40.4% (tobacco. No transgenic shoots were detected for the cv. Hunter. It points out the oilseed rape cultivar specificity plays significant role in choice of suitable selection agent.

  20. Effect of Winter Cover Crops on Soil Nitrogen Availability, Corn Yield, and Nitrate Leaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kuo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Biculture of nonlegumes and legumes could serve as cover crops for increasing main crop yield, while reducing NO3 leaching. This study, conducted from 1994 to 1999, determined the effect of monocultured cereal rye (Secale cereale L., annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa, and bicultured rye/vetch and ryegrass/vetch on N availability in soil, corn (Zea mays L. yield, and NO3-N leaching in a silt loam soil. The field had been in corn and cover crop rotation since 1987. In addition to the cover crop treatments, there were four N fertilizer rates (0, 67, 134, and 201 kg N ha-1, referred to as N0, N1, N2, and N3, respectively applied to corn. The experiment was a randomized split-block design with three replications for each treatment. Lysimeters were installed in 1987 at 0.75 m below the soil surface for leachate collection for the N0, N2, and N3 treatments. The result showed that vetch monoculture had the most influence on soil N availability and corn yield, followed by the bicultures. Rye or ryegrass monoculture had either no effect or an adverse effect on corn yield and soil N availability. Leachate NO3-N concentration was highest where vetch cover crop was planted regardless of N rates, which suggests that N mineralization of vetch N continued well into the fall and winter. Leachate NO3-N concentration increased with increasing N fertilizer rates and exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s drinking water standard of 10 mg N l�1 even at recommended N rate for corn in this region (coastal Pacific Northwest. In comparisons of the average NO3-N concentration during the period of high N leaching, monocultured rye and ryegrass or bicultured rye/vetch and ryegrass/vetch very effectively decreased N leaching in 1998 with dry fall weather. The amount of N available for leaching (determined based on the presidedress nitrate test, the amount of N fertilizer applied, and N uptake correlated well with average NO3

  1. Effect of winter cover crops on soil nitrogen availability, corn yield, and nitrate leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, S; Huang, B; Bembenek, R

    2001-10-25

    Biculture of nonlegumes and legumes could serve as cover crops for increasing main crop yield, while reducing NO3 leaching. This study, conducted from 1994 to 1999, determined the effect of monocultured cereal rye (Secale cereale L.), annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), and bicultured rye/vetch and ryegrass/vetch on N availability in soil, corn (Zea mays L.) yield, and NO3-N leaching in a silt loam soil. The field had been in corn and cover crop rotation since 1987. In addition to the cover crop treatments, there were four N fertilizer rates (0, 67, 134, and 201 kg N ha(-1), referred to as N0, N1, N2, and N3, respectively) applied to corn. The experiment was a randomized split-block design with three replications for each treatment. Lysimeters were installed in 1987 at 0.75 m below the soil surface for leachate collection for the N 0, N 2, and N 3 treatments. The result showed that vetch monoculture had the most influence on soil N availability and corn yield, followed by the bicultures. Rye or ryegrass monoculture had either no effect or an adverse effect on corn yield and soil N availability. Leachate NO3-N concentration was highest where vetch cover crop was planted regardless of N rates, which suggests that N mineralization of vetch N continued well into the fall and winter. Leachate NO3-N concentration increased with increasing N fertilizer rates and exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's drinking water standard of 10 mg N l(-1) even at recommended N rate for corn in this region (coastal Pacific Northwest). In comparisons of the average NO3-N concentration during the period of high N leaching, monocultured rye and ryegrass or bicultured rye/vetch and ryegrass/vetch very effectively decreased N leaching in 1998 with dry fall weather. The amount of N available for leaching (determined based on the presidedress nitrate test, the amount of N fertilizer applied, and N uptake) correlated well with average NO3-N during

  2. Production parameters and forage loss of oat and rye grass pastures managed with beef heifers fed diets with energy supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Angelo Damian Pizzuti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Production parameters of intercropped pastures of oat and rye grass managed with beef heifers supplemented with brown rice meal and/or protected fat were evaluated. Twenty-eight Charolais × Nellore crossbred heifers at initial average age of 18 months and initial average live weight of 274.9 kg were utilized in the experiment. Animals were kept on oat + rye grass pastures and distributed in the following treatments: no-supplementation (NS: heifers kept only in pastures; Megalac (MEG: supplementation with protected fat; brown rice meal (BRM: supplementation with BRM; BRM + MEG: supplementation with BRM plus protected fat. The greater participation of oat leaf was from July 5th to August 10th, 2009 and of rye grass, from August 30th to September 26th, 2009. The crude protein content increased until the 55th day (225.1 g/kg. Pasture total digestible nutrients presented a cubic behavior, with an average of 722.0 g/kg. The highest supply of leaf blades, 5.17 kg of dry matter/100 kg of live weight, was found in the second period. Pasture intake increased throughout the periods. Forage mass and support capacity of the animal did not differ between treatments, presenting means of 1245.02 kg of dry matter/ha and 882 kg of live weight/ha, respectively. Stoking rate, forage loss and pasture intake were not affected by the treatments. Supplementation of beef heifers with rice meal and/or protected fat did not change production parameters of oat + rye grass pastures or pasture intake. Increase in daily accumulation rate of dry matter and supporting capacity of the animals increases forage losses.

  3. Post-harvest N2O emissions were not affected by various types of oilseed straw incorporated into soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köbke, Sarah; Senbayram, Mehmet; Hegewald, Hannes; Christen, Olaf; Dittert, Klaus

    2015-04-01

    Oilseed rape post-harvest N2O emissions are seen highly critical as so far they are considered as one of the most crucial drawbacks in climate-saving bioenergy production systems. N2O emissions may substantially counterbalance the intended savings in CO2 emissions. Carbon-rich crop residues in conjunction with residual soil nitrate are seen as a key driver since they may serve as energy source for denitrification and, they may alter soil-borne N2O emissions. As oilseed rape straw is known to have high N/C ratio compared to other crop residues, its soil incorporation may specifically trigger post-harvest N2O emissions. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine post-harvest N2O emissions in soils amended with various types of oilseed rape straw (with different N/C ratio) and barley straw in field and incubation experiments. In the incubation experiment, oilseed rape or 15N labelled barley straw were mixed with soil at a rate of 1.3 t DM ha-1 and studied for 43 days. Treatments consisted of non-treated control soil (CK), 15N labelled barley straw (BST), oilseed rape straw (RST), 15N labelled barley straw + N (BST+N), or oilseed rape straw + N (RST+N). N fertilizer was applied to the soil surface as ammonium-nitrate at a rate of 100 kg N ha-1 and soil moisture was adjusted to 80% water-holding capacity. In the field experiment, during the vegetation period 15N labelled fertilizer (15NH415NO3) was used to generate 15N labelled oilseed rape straw (up to 5 at%). Here, the three fertilizer treatments consisted of 5 kg N ha-1 (RST-5), 150 kg N ha-1 (RST-150) and 180 kg N ha-1 (RST-180). Post-harvest N2O emissions were determined during the period of August 2013 to February 2014 by using static flux chambers. In the incubation trial, cumulative N2O emissions were 5, 29, 40 g N2O-N ha-1 148 days-1 in non-fertilized control, BST and RST treatments, respectively. Here, emissions were slightly higher in RST than BST (p

  4. Lactic acid bacteria community dynamics and metabolite production of rye sourdough fermentations share characteristics of wheat and spelt sourdough fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckx, Stefan; Van der Meulen, Roel; Maes, Dominique; Scheirlinck, Ilse; Huys, Geert; Vandamme, Peter; De Vuyst, Luc

    2010-12-01

    Four spontaneous rye sourdough fermentations were performed over a period of ten days with daily back-slopping. Samples taken at all refreshment steps were used for culture-dependent and culture-independent characterization of the microbiota present. Furthermore, an extensive metabolite target analysis was performed through a combination of various chromatographic methods, including liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were calculated and a principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the data obtained in this study combined with data obtained previously for wheat and spelt sourdoughs. In general, the establishment of a stable microbial ecosystem occurred through a three-phase evolution, with mainly Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum dominating the rye sourdough ecosystems. PCA revealed that ornithine and mannitol were positively correlated with rye sourdoughs, contributing to bacterial competitiveness at the onset of sourdough production. Wheat and spelt sourdoughs showed a high degree of similarity, although certain compounds (e.g. indolelactic acid) appeared to be specific for spelt sourdoughs. The production of amino acid metabolites, mainly hydroxy acids (e.g. phenyllactic acid) and alcohols (e.g. 3-methyl-1-butanol), contributed to the equilibration of the redox balance and further enhanced the competitiveness of dominant species in stable sourdoughs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of commercial rye whole-meal bread on postprandial blood glucose and gastric emptying in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwich Gassan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The intake of dietary fibre has been shown to reduce the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of commercial rye whole-meal bread containing whole kernels and white wheat bread on the rate of gastric emptying and postprandial glucose response in healthy subjects. Methods Ten healthy subjects took part in a blinded crossover trial. Blood glucose level and gastric emptying rate (GER were determined after the ingestion of 150 g white wheat bread or 150 g whole-meal rye bread on two different occasions after fasting overnight. The GER was measured using real-time ultrasonography, and was calculated as the percentage change in antral cross-sectional area 15 and 90 minutes after completing the meal. Results No statistically significant difference was found between the GER values or the blood glucose levels following the two meals when evaluated with the Wilcoxon signed rank sum test. Conclusion The present study revealed no difference in postprandial blood glucose response or gastric emptying after the ingestion of rye whole-meal bread compared with white wheat bread. Trial registration NCT00779298

  6. Spontaneous and divergent hexaploid triticales derived from common wheat × rye by complete elimination of D-genome chromosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Li

    Full Text Available Hexaploid triticale could be either synthesized by crossing tetraploid wheat with rye, or developed by crossing hexaploid wheat with a hexaploid triticale or an octoploid triticale.Here two hexaploid triticales with great morphologic divergence derived from common wheat cultivar M8003 (Triticum aestivum L. × Austrian rye (Secale cereale L. were reported, exhibiting high resistance for powdery mildew and stripe rust and potential for wheat improvement. Sequential fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH karyotyping revealed that D-genome chromosomes were completely eliminated and the whole A-genome, B-genome and R-genome chromosomes were retained in both lines. Furthermore, plentiful alterations of wheat chromosomes including 5A and 7B were detected in both triticales and additionally altered 5B, 7A chromosome and restructured chromosome 2A was assayed in N9116H and N9116M, respectively, even after selfing for several decades. Besides, meiotic asynchrony was displayed and a variety of storage protein variations were assayed, especially in the HMW/LMW-GS region and secalins region in both triticales.This study confirms that whole D-genome chromosomes could be preferentially eliminated in the hybrid of common wheat × rye, "genome shock" was accompanying the allopolyploidization of nascent triticales, and great morphologic divergence might result from the genetic variations. Moreover, new hexaploid triticale lines contributing potential resistance resources for wheat improvement were produced.

  7. The Challenge of Winter Backpacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Michael; Mapes, Alan

    1981-01-01

    Tips and techniques for safe and enjoyable winter backpacking are offered. Topics covered include cross county skis, snowshoes, clothing, footwear, shelter, sleeping bags, food, hypothermia prevention, as well as general rules and requirements. (CO)

  8. Winter waterfowl survey, southeastern Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Little is known of the total numbers of wintering waterfowl within the north pacific coastal region. The random stratified plot sampling methods used in 1980, as...

  9. Winter/Summer Monsoon Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Winter/Summer Monsoon Experiment (MONEX) was conducted during the First Global GARP (Global Atmospheric Research Program) Experiment (FGGE). An international...

  10. Shining Light on "Dark Winter"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tara O'Toole; Michael Mair; Thomas V. Inglesby

    2002-01-01

    ... Security, and the Oklahoma National Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism, held a senior-level exercise entitled "Dark Winter" that simulated a covert smallpox attack on the United States...

  11. Nitrate Leaching from Winter Cereal Cover Crops Using Undisturbed Soil-Column Lysimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisinger, John J; Ricigliano, Kristin A

    2017-05-01

    Cover crops are important management practices for reducing nitrogen (N) leaching, especially in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, which is under total maximum daily load (TMDL) restraints. Winter cereals are common cool-season crops in the Bay watershed, but studies have not directly compared nitrate-N (NO-N) leaching losses from these species. A 3-yr cover crop lysimeter study was conducted in Beltsville, MD, to directly compare NO-N leaching from a commonly grown cultivar of barley ( L.), rye ( L.), and wheat ( L.), along with a no-cover control, using eight tension-drained undisturbed soil column lysimeters in a completely randomized design with two replicates. The lysimeters were configured to exclude runoff and to estimate NO-N leaching and flow-weighted NO-N concentration (FWNC). The temporal pattern of NO-N leaching showed a consistent highly significant ( cover crops compared with no cover but showed only small and periodically significant ( covers. Nitrate-N leaching was more affected by the quantity of establishment-season (mid-October to mid-December) precipitation than by cover crop species. For example, compared with no cover, winter cereal covers reduced NO-N leaching 95% in a dry year and 50% in wet years, with corresponding reductions in FWNC of 92 and 43%, respectively. These results are important for scientists, nutrient managers, and policymakers because they directly compare NO-N leaching from winter cereal covers and expand knowledge for developing management practices for winter cereals that can improve water quality and increase N efficiency in cropping systems. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  12. Whole-grain rye bread consumption by women correlates with plasma alkylresorcinols and increases their concentration compared with low-fiber wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linko, Anna-Maria; Juntunen, Katri S; Mykkänen, Hannu M; Adlercreutz, Herman

    2005-03-01

    Whole-grain rye and wheat products are rich in lignans, the precursors of enterolactone (ENL) and alkylresorcinols (ARs), which are phenolic lipids. In this crossover trial, we examined the effect of whole-grain rye bread compared with low-fiber wheat bread on plasma AR levels. Women (n = 39) aged 59 +/- 0.94 y (mean +/- SEM) were advised to consume rye (214 +/- 7.1 g/d) or wheat (178 +/- 6.5 g/d) bread (20% of total daily energy intake) in random order for 8 wk. The test periods were separated by an 8-wk washout period. ARs with different homologues and ENL were measured in plasma collected at the beginning (habitual diet) and end of the test bread periods. AR concentrations were higher (P bread (352 +/- 24.7 nmol/L) and habitual diet (97.7 +/- 12.1 and 88.3 +/- 8.7 nmol/L) periods than after the wheat bread period (36.6 +/- 4.2 nmol/L). Plasma AR concentrations were correlated with intake of rye bread (r = 0.34, P = 0.037), and with insoluble fiber from the whole diet during the rye (r = 0.39, P = 0.013) and wheat (r = 0.32, P = 0.047) bread periods. The plasma AR 17:0/21:0 ratio differed after the rye (0.84 +/- 0.04) and wheat (0.53 +/- 0.08) bread diet periods (P whole-grain rye intake, and their homologue pattern could be used as an indicator of the bread type consumed.

  13. Rye Canyon X-ray noise test: One-third octave-band data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willshire, W. L., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Acoustic data were obtained for the 25 ft. diameter X-wing rotor model during performance testing of the rotor system in hover. Data collected at the outdoor whirl tower test facility with a twelve microphone array were taken for approximately 150 test conditions comprised of various combinations of RPM, blade pressure ratio (BPR), and blade angle of attack (collective). The three test parameters had four values of RPM from 404 to 497, twelve values of BPR from 1.0 to 2.1, and six values of collective from 0.0 deg to 8.5 deg. Fifteen to twenty seconds of acoustic data were reduced to obtain an average 1/3 octave band spectrum for each microphone for each test condition. The complete, as measured, 1/3 octave band results for all the acoustic data are listed. Another part of the X-wing noise test was the acoustic calibration of the Rye Canyon whirl tower bowl. Corrections were computed which, when applied to as measured data, yield estimates of the free field X-wing noise. The free field estimates provide a more realistic measure of the rotor system noise levels. Trend analysis of the three test parameters on noise level were performed.

  14. Variation of the Nuclear, Subnuclear and Chromosomal Flavanol Deposition in Hemlock and Rye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Polster

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Nuclei of hemlock (Tsuga canadensis and Tsuga canadensis var. nana wereinvestigated for the presence of flavanols. Histochemical staining with p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde proved to be a highly valuable method yielding a brightblue flavanol coloration for nuclei. There was a significant variation in flavanol deposition(1 among nuclei, (2 at the subnuclear level and also (3 along the chromosomes duringmitosis. The presence of flavanols in nucleoli could not be established probably becausethey were too small, measuring less than 1 μm in diameter. In contrast to Tsuga, the cellsand nuclei of rootlets from rye (Secale cereale were totally devoid of natural flavanols.However, externally added flavanols, catechin and epicatechin, were bound to the ryenuclei, while the rather large nucleoli failed to associate with the flavanols. The strong sinkactivity of nucleoplasm and chromosomes for flavanols in Tsuga and Secale indicates aprocess which is apparently widespread even in distantly related plant species. Variationsin chromatin-associated flavanols could to some extent be induced byacetylation/deacetylation of histones, as confirmed in the present study by means of UV-VIS spectroscopic titrations of histone sulphate and chemically acetylated histone sulphate.

  15. Growth and yield of cucumber under no-tillage cultivation using rye as a cover crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Jelonkiewicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the first two years of study, method of cultivation did not affect the emergence of cucumber seedlings. In the third year, a drought occurring during the spring was the cause of poor seedling emergence on no-tilled plots. Six weeks after seed sowing, the shoots of cucumbers grown on the no-tilled plots were much shorter, especially in the last study year. At the time of cucumber seed sowing, no-tilled soil contained less phosphorus and potassium and in the middle of the fructification period the content of these elements in cucumber leaves was higher under no-tillage cultivation. Additional spring fertilization of rye with ammonium nitrate resulted in a higher N-NO3 content in soil and later in a higher nitrogen content of cucumber leaves. The content of calcium and magnesium in soil and than in cucumber leaves was independent of the cultivation method. In the first two years, method of cultivation did not affect the yield of cucumber fruits and in the third year the yield was much lower under no-tillage because of poor seedling emergence. Moreover, in the third year the fruits were smaller and dry matter content of the fruit was significantly higer under no-tillage cultivation.

  16. Three-dimensional seismic imaging of the Rye Patch geothermal reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feighner, M.; Gritto, R.; Daley, T.M.; Keers, H.; Majer, E.L.

    1999-11-01

    A 3-D surface seismic survey was conducted to explore the structure of the Rye Patch geothermal reservoir (Nevada), to determine if modern seismic techniques could be successfully applied in geothermal environments. Furthermore, it was intended to map the structural features which may control geothermal production in the reservoir. The seismic survey covered an area of 3.03 square miles and was designed with 12 north-south receiver lines and 25 east-west source lines. The receiver group interval was 100 feet and the receiver line spacing was 800 feet. The source interval was 100 feet while the source line spacing was 400 feet. The sources were comprised of 4 vibrator trucks arranged in a box array. Seismic processing involved, among other steps, the picking of over 700,000 of the possible one million traces to determine first arrival travel times, normal moveout correction, 3-D stack, deconvolution, time migration, and depth conversion. The final data set represents a 3-D cube of the subsurface structure in the reservoir. Additionally, the travel times were used to perform tomographic inversions for velocity estimates to support the findings of the surface seismic imaging. The results suggest the presence of at least one dominant fault responsible for the migration of fluids in the reservoir. Furthermore, it is suggested that this feature might be part of a fault system that includes a graben structure.

  17. Resistance to Wheat Curl Mite in Arthropod-Resistant Rye-Wheat Translocation Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Maria Aguirre-Rojas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The wheat curl mite, Aceria toschiella (Keifer, and a complex of viruses vectored by A. toschiella substantially reduce wheat yields in every wheat-producing continent in the world. The development of A. toschiella-resistant wheat cultivars is a proven economically and ecologically viable method of controlling this pest. This study assessed A. toschiella resistance in wheat genotypes containing the H13, H21, H25, H26, H18 and Hdic genes for resistance to the Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say and in 94M370 wheat, which contains the Dn7 gene for resistance to the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov. A. toschiella populations produced on plants containing Dn7 and H21 were significantly lower than those on plants of the susceptible control and no different than those on the resistant control. Dn7 resistance to D. noxia and H21 resistance to M. destructor resulted from translocations of chromatin from rye into wheat (H21—2BS/2RL, Dn7—1BL/1RS. These results provide new wheat pest management information, indicating that Dn7 and H21 constitute resources that can be used to reduce yield losses caused by A. toschiella, M. destructor, D. noxia, and wheat streak mosaic virus infection by transferring multi-pest resistance to single sources of germplasm.

  18. Meiotic behaviour of telo-tertiary compensating trisomics of rye: evaluation for use in hybrid varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, J N; Sybenga, J

    1989-12-01

    Meiosis of four telocentric-tertiary compensating trisomics of rye (Secale cereale L.) was studied with the purpose of evaluating their suitability for use in maintaining genic male-sterile lines applied in hybrid varieties. They had been constructed from four different reciprocal translocations and three different telocentrics. In one trisomic a slight, but significant tendency was demonstrated for preferential pairing of the two normal chromosomes associated with the compensating complex. This promotes the desired segregation into one normal and one compensating karyotype. In all trisomies, however, too high a frequency of failure of chiasma formation in a critical segment of the complex was evident. This is correlated with the ease of recovery of the trisomics, but results in undesired segregational products. Interstitial chiasmata leading to the formation of branched configurations were also present, more in some trisomics than in others. These also result in undesired segregations. The behaviour at meiosis was so closely correlated with the length of the chromosome segments involved that a prediction of the most favourable combination of telocentric and translocation can be made. The telocentric should be large, the corresponding translocated segment large and the interstitial segment small. The non-translocated arm of the translocated chromosome should be large and the second translocated segment small. The combinations of translocations and telocentrics had not been selected for these criteria and did not meet the requirements for practical application.

  19. Oilseed rape grain yield productivity increases with hybrid varietal types: a first balance sheet with post registration tests in France and in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinochet Xavier

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1994 several oilseed rape hybrid types were proposed to farmers. Following registration experiments, Cetiom and different equivalent institutions in European Union have tested them in different post registration national networks. Grain yield productivity increases were demonstrated and a first synthesis could be done to check avantages and difficulties which had occurred. For winter types, Hybrid Composits were widely used, mainly in France and in the United Kingdom. Grain yield increases were important in the South and West part of France where their market shares increased up to 50-80%. Nevertheless, many fecondation problems occurred in several places all over Europe. Reasons of such problems were difficult to identify. Several factors, as cold temperatures, nutritionnal competitions, pollen avaibility may be involved to explain low seed sets. Restored Hybrids made with the NPZ hybridation system were successfully tested widely, and has reached significative market shares during 1999-2000 season. Less experiments were carried out with others hybrid types (Ogu-INRA Restored Hybrids, Mixed Hybrids. Ogu-INRA Restored Hybrids reached the highest grain yield levels but users are waiting for lower glucosinolates seed content hybrids which would come in the next future. Performances comparisons among countries have to be done carefully. Productivity increases with hybrid types could have been over estimated depending of pollinic environments or plot size and possible neighbouring effects. For France, results from field trials networks are coherent with results coming from postal surveys. For spring varieties, Polima restored hybrids and varietal associations have demonstrated a significative advantage compared to classical lines.

  20. Winter cereal yields as affected by animal manure and green manure in organic arable farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jørgen E; Askegaard, Margrethe; Rasmussen, Ilse Ankjær

    2009-01-01

    and applying the material to the cereals in the rotation, possibly after digestion in a biogas reactor. Cereal grain protein content was increased more by the N in the grass-clover than from manure application, probably due to different timing ofN availability. Green-manure crops or manures with a relatively......The effect of nitrogen (N) supply through animal and green manures on grain yield of winter wheat and winter rye was investigated from 1997 to 2004 in an organic farming crop rotation experiment in Denmark on three different soil types varying from coarse sand to sandy loam. Two experimental...... left on the soil as mulch. Animal manure was applied as slurry to the cereal crops in the rotation in rates corresponding to 40% of the N demand of the cereal crops. Application of 50 kg NH4-N ha-' in manure increased average wheatgrain yield by 0.4-0.9 Mg DM ha-1, whereas the use of catch crops did...

  1. Population Growth of Pratylenchus penetrans on Winter Cover Crops Grown in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forge, T A; Ingham, R E; Kaufman, D; Pinkerton, J N

    2000-03-01

    Population growth of Pratylenchus penetrans on 13 fall and winter cover crops was studied in the greenhouse and field. All crops except oat cv. Saia supported population growth of P. penetrans in greenhouse experiments, although the response of P. penetrans to oat cv. Saia varied considerably between experiments. The mean ratio of the final population density/initial population density (Pf/Pi) after 16 weeks for P. penetrans added to a greenhouse soil mix was 0.09, whereas Pf/Pi values after 10 weeks for two experiments with naturally infested soil were 0.95 and 2.3. Although P. penetrans increased on sudangrass cv. Trudan 8 and sudangrass x sorghum hybrid cv. SS 222, subsequent incorporation of sudangrass vegetation into soil reduced P. penetrans populations to preplant levels. Field experiments were inconclusive but suggested that oat cv. Saia or rye cv. Wheeler may be better choices for winter cover than weed-contaminated fallow or other crops on P. penetrans-infested sites in the Pacific Northwest.

  2. Reduction of antinutritional glucosinolates in Brassica oilseeds by mutation of genes encoding transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour-Eldin, Hussam Hassan; Madsen, Svend Roesen; Engelen, Steven; Jørgensen, Morten Egevang; Olsen, Carl Erik; Andersen, Jonathan Sonne; Seynnaeve, David; Verhoye, Thalia; Fulawka, Rudy; Denolf, Peter; Halkier, Barbara Ann

    2017-04-01

    The nutritional value of Brassica seed meals is reduced by the presence of glucosinolates, which are toxic compounds involved in plant defense. Mutation of the genes encoding two glucosinolate transporters (GTRs) eliminated glucosinolates from Arabidopsis thaliana seeds, but translation of loss-of-function phenotypes into Brassica crops is challenging because Brassica is polyploid. We mutated one of seven and four of 12 GTR orthologs and reduced glucosinolate levels in seeds by 60-70% in two different Brassica species (Brassica rapa and Brassica juncea). Reduction in seed glucosinolates was stably inherited over multiple generations and maintained in field trials of two mutant populations at three locations. Successful translation of the gtr loss-of-function phenotype from model plant to two Brassica crops suggests that our transport engineering approach could be broadly applied to reduce seed glucosinolate content in other oilseed crops, such as Camelina sativa or Crambe abyssinica.

  3. The presence of Bt-transgenic oilseed rape in wild mustard populations affects plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongbo; Stewart, C Neal; Li, Junsheng; Huang, Hai; Zhang, Xitao

    2015-12-01

    The adventitious presence of transgenic plants in wild plant populations is of ecological and regulatory concern, but the consequences of adventitious presence are not well understood. Here, we introduced Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac (Bt)-transgenic oilseed rape (Bt OSR, Brassica napus) with various frequencies into wild mustard (Brassica juncea) populations. We sought to better understand the adventitious presence of this transgenic insecticidal crop in a wild-relative plant population. We assessed the factors of competition, resource availability and diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) infestation on plant population dynamics. As expected, Bt OSR performed better than wild mustard in mixed populations under herbivore attack in habitats with enough resources, whereas wild mustard had higher fitness when Bt OSR was rarer in habitats with limited resources. Results suggest that the presence of insect-resistant transgenic plants could decrease the growth of wild mustard and Bt OSR plants and their populations, especially under high herbivore pressure.

  4. Effects of prepartum diets supplemented with rolled oilseeds on calf birth weight, postpartum health, feed intake, milk yield, and reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, R; Colazo, M G; Oba, M; Ambrose, D J

    2016-05-01

    The objectives were to determine the effects of supplemental fat (no oilseed vs. oilseed) during late gestation and the source of fat (canola vs. sunflower seed), on dry matter intake (DMI), plasma metabolite concentrations, milk production and composition, calf birth weight, postpartum health disorders, ovarian function and reproductive performance in dairy cows. Pregnant Holstein cows, blocked by body condition and parity, were assigned to 1 of 3 diets containing rolled canola seed (high in oleic acid; n=43) or sunflower (high in linoleic acid; n=45) at 8% of dry matter, or no oilseed (control; n=43), for the last 35±2 d of pregnancy. After calving, all cows received a common lactation diet. Blood samples were collected at wk -3 (i.e., 2 wk after initiation of prepartum diets) and at wk +1, +2, +3, +4 and +5 postpartum to determine the concentration of fatty acids (mEq/dL), β-hydroxybutyrate (mg/dL), and glucose (mg/dL). Ovarian ultrasonography was performed twice weekly to determine the first appearance of dominant (10mm) and preovulatory-size (≥16mm) follicles, and ovulation. Uterine inflammatory status based on the proportion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN; subclinical endometritis: >8% PMN) was assessed at d 25±1 postpartum. Significant parity by treatment interactions were observed for DMI and milk yield. Prepartum oilseed supplementation, more specifically sunflower seed supplementation, increased postpartum DMI in primiparous cows without affecting prepartum DMI or milk yield. Contrarily, in multiparous cows, prepartum oilseed supplementation decreased both prepartum and postpartum DMI and milk yield during the first 2 wk. Regardless of parity, prepartum feeding of canola reduced postpartum DMI compared with those fed sunflower. Mean fatty acids concentrations at wk -3 were greater in cows given supplemental oilseed than those fed no oilseeds. Gestation length and calf birth weight were increased in cows given supplemental oilseed prepartum

  5. A Distributed Model of Oilseed Biorefining, via Integrated Industrial Ecology Exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Jeremy C.

    As the demand for direct petroleum substitutes increases, biorefineries are poised to become centers for conversion of biomass into fuels, energy, and biomaterials. A distributed model offers reduced transportation, tailored process technology to available feedstock, and increased local resilience. Oilseeds are capable of producing a wide variety of useful products additive to food, feed, and fuel needs. Biodiesel manufacturing technology lends itself to smaller-scale distributed facilities able to process diverse feedstocks and meet demand of critical diesel fuel for basic municipal services, safety, sanitation, infrastructure repair, and food production. Integrating biodiesel refining facilities as tenants of eco-industrial parks presents a novel approach for synergistic energy and material exchanges whereby environmental and economic metrics can be significantly improved upon compared to stand alone models. This research is based on the Catawba County NC EcoComplex and the oilseed crushing and biodiesel processing facilities (capacity-433 tons biodiesel per year) located within. Technical and environmental analyses of the biorefinery components as well as agronomic and economic models are presented. The life cycle assessment for the two optimal biodiesel feedstocks, soybeans and used cooking oil, resulted in fossil energy ratios of 7.19 and 12.1 with carbon intensity values of 12.51 gCO2-eq/MJ and 7.93 gCO2-eq/MJ, respectively within the industrial ecology system. Economic modeling resulted in a biodiesel conversion cost of 1.43 per liter of fuel produced with used cooking oil, requiring a subsidy of 0.58 per liter to reach the break-even point. As subsidies continue significant fluctuation, metrics other than operating costs are required to justify small-scale biofuel projects.

  6. The health condition of spring oilseed crops in relation to the fungi colonising their seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Majchrzak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conduced in the years 1999-2000. The aim of the research was to determine the health condition of overground parts and seeds of the following spring oilseed crops: crambe (Crambe abbysinica Hoechst. cv. B o r o w s k i, false flax (Camelina sativa L. cv. B o r o w s k a, spring rape (Brassica napus ssp. oleifera L. cv. M a r g o and oleiferous radish (Raphanus sativus var. oleiferus L. cv. P e g l e t t a. In all the years of the research alternaria blight was found on the leaves and siliques of spring rape and oleiferous radish and on the leaves and stems of crambe. False flax proved to be weakly infected by pathogens. On its leaves gray mould (Botrytis cinerea was found in all the years of the research. The disease was found on the siliques only in 1999. In 2000 powdery mildew was found on spring rape and false flax (respectively, Erysiphe crucifearum and E.cichoracearum. The weather conditions affected the intensity of the diseases on the studied spring oilseed crops. Alernaria genus, especially A.alternata was most commonly isolated from the seeds of examined plants. It constituted from 37% (in crambe to 63,3% (in spring rape of all the isolates. Of the remaining pathogenic species, numerous fungi of the Fusarium genus (F.avenaceum, F.culmorum, F.equiseti and F.oxysporum were isolated. They constituted from 1,0% (false flax to 17,3% (crambe of the isolates.

  7. Sensory evaluation of commercial fat spreads based on oilseeds and walnut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimić Etelka B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of this study was on the sensory evaluation of commercial oilseeds spreads, as the most significant characteristic of this type of product from the consumers’ point of view. Sensory analysis was conducted by five experts using a quantitative descriptive and sensory profile test, applying a scoring method according to the standard procedure. Five different spreads were evaluated: sunflower, pumpkin, sesame, peanut, and walnut. Oil content and amounts of separated oil on the surface were determined for each spread. The results have shown that the color of spreads was very different, depending on the oilseed: gray for sunflower, brown for walnut, yellowish-brown for peanut butter, ivory for sesame and profoundly dark green for pumpkin seeds spread. The flavor and odor of the spreads were characteristic for the raw materials used; however, the sunflower and walnut spreads had a slight rancid flavor. Generally, the spreadability of all spreads was good, but their mouth feel was not acceptable. During the consumption, all of them were sticking immensely to the roof of the mouth, which made the swallowing harder. The highest total score of 16.20 points (max. 20 was obtained for the peanut butter, while the lowest (10.38 was achieved by the sunflower butter. Oil separation (various degrees was noticed in all spreads, which negatively influenced the appearance and entire sensorial quality of the products. The quantity of separated oil depended on the age and total amount of oil in the spreads, and was between 1.13% in the peanut butter and 12.15% in the walnut spread in reference to the net weight of the product. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31014: Development of the new functional confectionery products based on oil crops

  8. Bioactive properties of faveleira (Cnidoscolus quercifolius seeds, oil and press cake obtained during oilseed processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penha Patrícia Cabral Ribeiro

    Full Text Available To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature concerning the bioactive properties of faveleira products. This work focuses on the physicochemical evaluation of faveleira oil, as well as it investigates the bioactive properties of faveleira seeds, faveleira oil and the press cake obtained during the oilseed processing. The seeds were cold pressed and the following tests were performed: physicochemical characteristics (acidity, peroxide values, moisture and volatile matter, density and viscosity and fatty acid profile of faveleira oil; total phenolic and flavonoid content of faveleira seed and press cake; antibacterial activity of seed, oil and press cake; and antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power assay, total antioxidant capacity, superoxide radical scavenging assay and oxygen radical absorbance capacity of seed, oil and press cake. Our work demonstrated that the faveleira seed oil has low acidity (0.78 ± 0.03% oleic acid and peroxide value (1.13 ± 0.12 mEq/1000g, associated with the relevant concentration of linoleic acid (53.56%. It was observed that important phenolics (398.89 ± 6.34 mg EAG/100 g, especially flavonoids (29.81 ± 0.71 mg RE/g remain in the press cake, which indicates that the by-product of the faveleira oilseed production constitutes a rich residual source of bioactive compounds. No bacterial growth inhibition was detected, but all samples including faveleira seeds, press cake, oil and its fractions have potent antioxidant activities, mainly the press cake, with oxygen radical absorbance capacity of 28.39 ± 4.36 μM TE/g. Our results also show that faveleira oil has potential to be used as edible oil and the press cake should be used to contain the most antioxidants from seed.

  9. Bioactive properties of faveleira (Cnidoscolus quercifolius) seeds, oil and press cake obtained during oilseed processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Penha Patrícia Cabral; Silva, Denise Maria de Lima E; Assis, Cristiane Fernandes de; Correia, Roberta Targino Pinto; Damasceno, Karla Suzanne Florentino da Silva Chaves

    2017-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature concerning the bioactive properties of faveleira products. This work focuses on the physicochemical evaluation of faveleira oil, as well as it investigates the bioactive properties of faveleira seeds, faveleira oil and the press cake obtained during the oilseed processing. The seeds were cold pressed and the following tests were performed: physicochemical characteristics (acidity, peroxide values, moisture and volatile matter, density and viscosity) and fatty acid profile of faveleira oil; total phenolic and flavonoid content of faveleira seed and press cake; antibacterial activity of seed, oil and press cake; and antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power assay, total antioxidant capacity, superoxide radical scavenging assay and oxygen radical absorbance capacity) of seed, oil and press cake. Our work demonstrated that the faveleira seed oil has low acidity (0.78 ± 0.03% oleic acid) and peroxide value (1.13 ± 0.12 mEq/1000g), associated with the relevant concentration of linoleic acid (53.56%). It was observed that important phenolics (398.89 ± 6.34 mg EAG/100 g), especially flavonoids (29.81 ± 0.71 mg RE/g) remain in the press cake, which indicates that the by-product of the faveleira oilseed production constitutes a rich residual source of bioactive compounds. No bacterial growth inhibition was detected, but all samples including faveleira seeds, press cake, oil and its fractions have potent antioxidant activities, mainly the press cake, with oxygen radical absorbance capacity of 28.39 ± 4.36 μM TE/g. Our results also show that faveleira oil has potential to be used as edible oil and the press cake should be used to contain the most antioxidants from seed.

  10. Elicitation of expert judgments of uncertainty in the risk assessment of herbicide-tolerant oilseed crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krayer von Krauss, Martin P; Casman, Elizabeth A; Small, Mitchell J

    2004-12-01

    One of the lay public's concerns about genetically modified (GM) organisms (GMO) and related emerging technologies is that not all the important risks are evaluated or even identified yet--and that ignorance of the unanticipated risks could lead to severe environmental or public health consequences. To some degree, even the scientists who participated in the analysis of the risks from GMOs (arguably the people most qualified to critique these analyses) share some of this concern. To formally explore the uncertainty in the risk assessment of a GM crop, we conducted detailed interviews of seven leading experts on GM oilseed crops to obtain qualitative and quantitative information on their understanding of the uncertainties associated with the risks to agriculture from GM oilseed crops (canola or rapeseed). The results of these elicitations revealed three issues of potential concern that are currently left outside the scope of risk assessments. These are (1) the potential loss of the agronomic and environmental benefits of glyphosate (a herbicide widely used in no-till agriculture) due to the combined problems of glyphosate-tolerant canola and wheat volunteer plants, (2) the growing problem of seed lot contamination, and (3) the potential market impacts. The elicitations also identified two areas where knowledge is insufficient. These are: the occurrence of hybridization between canola and wild relatives and the ability of the hybrids to perpetuate themselves in nature, and the fate of the herbicide-tolerance genes in soil and their interaction with soil microfauna and -flora. The methodological contribution of this work is a formal approach to analyzing the uncertainty surrounding complex problems.

  11. Solubilization and characterization of diacylglycerol acyltransferase from microspore-derived cultures of oilseed rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, D; Weselake, R; Pomeroy, K; Furukawa-Stoffer, T; Bagu, J

    1994-12-15

    Particulate fractions prepared from microspore-derived (MD) embryos of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. cv. Reston) and an embryogenic MD cell suspension culture of oilseed rape (B. napus L. cv. Jet Neuf) were used as a source of diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT, EC 2.3.1.20) for enzyme characterization and development of a solubilization procedure. DGAT activity in the 1500-100,000 g fraction from MD embryos was stimulated 4-5-fold by 3 to 4 mg of BSA/ml of reaction mixture. DGAT activity from MD embryos was stimulated 2-3-fold by fluoride salts and 1.4-fold by NaCl, whereas iodide salts caused substantial inhibition of enzyme activity. The effect of the various 1:1 electrolytes on enzyme activity appeared to be related more to their differential effects on solution structure rather than ionic strength. DGAT was solubilized from membranes of MD embryos and the cell suspension culture by about 80 and 50% respectively, using 2 M NaCl in 1% (w/v) octanoyl-N-methyl-glucamide (MEGA-8) (pH 8.0 buffer) at a detergent to protein ratio of 2:1. The specific activity of solubilized DGAT was about 2-fold greater than that of the particulate enzyme. The mechanism of solubilization appeared to be related to the lowering of the critical micellar concentration of MEGA-8 in the presence of NaCl. DGAT, solubilized from MD embryos, eluted with an M(r) of about 2 x 10(6) during gel-filtration chromatography on a Superose 6 column equilibrated in buffer containing 0.1% (w/v) MEGA-8. The solubilized enzyme exhibited optimal activity at pH 7. At concentrations above 2 microM acyl-CoA, the specificity of solubilized DGAT for oleoyl-CoA and palmitoyl-CoA was considerably greater than for stearoyl-CoA.

  12. Forms of inorganic phosphorus in soil under different long term soil tillage systems and winter crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tales Tiecher

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of crops with different capacity of P uptake and use under long-term soil tillage systems can affect the distribution of P cycling and inorganic forms in the soil, as a result of higher or lower use efficiency of P applied in fertilizers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of long-term cultivation of different winter species under tillage systems on the distribution of inorganic P forms in the soil. In 1986, the experiment was initiated with six winter crops (blue lupin, hairy vetch, oat, oilseed radish, wheat and fallow on a Rhodic Hapludox in southwestern Paraná, under no-tillage (NT and conventional tillage (CT. The application of phosphate fertilizer in NT rows increased inorganic P in the labile and moderately labile forms, and soil disturbance in CT redistributed the applied P in the deeper layers, increasing the moderately labile P concentration in the subsurface layers. Black oat and blue lupin were the most efficient P-recyclers and under NT, they increased the labile P content in the soil surface layers.

  13. Concentrated arabinoxylan but not concentrated β-glucan in wheat bread has similar effects on postprandial insulin as whole-grain rye in porto-arterial catheterized pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Kirstine L; Hedemann, Mette S; Lærke, Helle N; Jørgensen, Henry; Mutt, Shivaprakash J; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Bach Knudsen, Knud E

    2013-08-14

    The acute glycemic effects of concentrated dietary fibers (DF) versus whole-grain rye were studied in porto-arterial catheterized pigs. Two white wheat breads with wheat arabinoxylan (AX) or oat β-glucan (BG), two rye breads with intact rye kernels (RK) or milled rye (GR), and a low DF white wheat bread were fed to six pigs in a randomized crossover design. Blood profiles were collected for 4 h after feeding. Glucose absorption was reduced in pigs fed the AX bread at 60 min postprandial (3.1 mmol/min for AX compared to 9.4 mmol/min for WF, P = 0.02) and insulin secretion was lowered at 30 min postprandial for AX and GR (74.4 and 129 pmol/min for AX and GR, respectively, compared to 738 pmol/min for WF, P breads were most effective in improving insulin economy, suggesting that arabinoxylan from wheat and rye induces similar outcomes in the metabolic response.

  14. High-fiber rye diet increases ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients compared with low-fiber wheat diet independent of meal frequency in ileostomy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Isaksson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whole-grain foods and cereal dietary fiber intake is associated with lower body weight. This may partly result from lower energy utilization of high-fiber diets. Objective: In the present study, the impact on ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients in response to a rye bread high-fiber diet compared to a refined wheat low-fiber diet was investigated. Furthermore, the effect of meal frequency on apparent absorption of nutrients was studied for the first time. Design: Ten participants that had undergone ileostomy consumed standardized iso-caloric diets, including low-fiber wheat bread (20 g dietary fiber per day for 2 weeks followed by high-fiber rye bread (52 g dietary fiber per day for 2 weeks. The diets were consumed in an ordinary (three meals per day and a nibbling (seven meals per day meal frequency in a cross-over design. Ileal effluents were collected during 24 h at the third day of each of the four dietary periods and analyzed for gross energy and nutrient contents. Results: The results showed that intake of rye bread high-fiber diet compared to the refined wheat low-fiber diet caused an increase in ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients. The effect was independent of meal frequency. This suggests that a high intake of rye may result in lower availability of macronutrients for small intestinal digestion and absorption. A regular intake of rye may therefore have implications for weight management.

  15. Winter Storm Zones on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, J. L.; Haberle, R. M.; Barnes, J. R.; Bridger, A. F. C.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Preferred regions of weather activity in Mars' winter middle latitudes-so called 'storm zones' are found in a general circulation model of Mars' atmospheric circulation. During northern winter, these storm zones occur in middle latitudes in the major planitia (low-relief regions) of the western and eastern hemisphere. In contrast, the highlands of the eastern hemisphere are mostly quiescent. Compared to Earth's storm zones where diabatic heating associated with land-sea thermal contrasts is crucial, orography on Mars is fundamental to the regionalization of weather activity. Future spacecraft missions aimed at assessing Mars' climate and its variability need to include such regions in observation strategies.

  16. Nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics enable detection of the effects of a whole grain rye and rye bran diet on the metabolic profile of plasma in prostate cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazzami, Ali A; Zhang, Jie-Xian; Kamal-Eldin, Afaf; Aman, Per; Hallmans, Göran; Johansson, Jan-Erik; Andersson, Sven-Olof

    2011-12-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the most common cancer in the Western world and the second most important cancer causing male deaths, after lung cancer, in the United States and Britain. Lifestyle and dietary changes are recommended for men diagnosed with early-stage PC. It has been shown that a diet rich in whole grain (WG) rye reduces the progression of early-stage PC, but the underlying mechanism is not clear. This study sought to identify changes in the metabolic signature of plasma in patients with early-stage PC following intervention with a diet rich in WG rye and rye bran product (RP) compared with refined white wheat product (WP) as a tool for mechanistic investigation of the beneficial health effects of RP on PC progression. Seventeen PC patients received 485 g RP or WP in a randomized, controlled, crossover design during a period of 6 wk with a 2-wk washout period. At the end of each intervention period, plasma was collected after fasting and used for (1)H NMR-based metabolomics. Multilevel partial least squares discriminant analysis was used for paired comparisons of multivariate data. A metabolomics analysis of plasma showed an increase in 5 metabolites, including 3-hydroxybutyric acid, acetone, betaine, N,N-dimethylglycine, and dimethyl sulfone, after RP. To understand these metabolic changes, fasting plasma homocysteine, leptin, adiponectin, and glucagon were measured separately. The plasma homocysteine concentration was lower (P = 0.017) and that of leptin tended to be lower (P = 0.07) after RP intake compared to WP intake. The increase in plasma 3-hydroxybutyric acid and acetone after RP suggests a shift in energy metabolism from anabolic to catabolic status, which could explain some of the beneficial health effects of WG rye, i.e., reduction in prostate-specific antigen and reduced 24-h insulin secretion. In addition, the increase in betaine and N,N-dimethylglycine and the decrease in homocysteine show a favorable shift in homocysteine metabolism after RP

  17. Adventitious presence of other varieties in oilseed rape (¤Brassica napus¤) from seed banks and certified seed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, T.; Hauser, Thure Pavlo; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    2007-01-01

    in the soil seed-bank. This information was acquired through DNA analysis of volunteers collected in the field and seedlings derived from the soil seed-bank. DNA profiles of the volunteers and seedlings were obtained using Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) markers, and the profiles were compared with ISSR...... profiles from an assortment of 14 of the most commonly cultivated oilseed rape varieties from 1985 to 2004. This comparison was performed using the assignment program, AFLPOP. The age of the seed bank germinating to become volunteers was assumed from information on previously cultivated oilseed rape...... analysed and, from soil cores, their soil seed-bank was estimated to be 50-100 seeds m(-2). The ISSR analysis of the 14 reference varieties showed that three of the certified seed lots contained other varieties above the allowed threshold. Our findings are discussed in the context of the coexistence...

  18. Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) powder as an ingredient of rye bread: an anti-diabetic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajerska, Joanna; Mildner-Szkudlarz, Sylwia; Podgórski, Tomasz; Oszmatek-Pruszyńska, Ewa

    2013-09-01

    In this study, a most consumer-acceptable rye bread (RB) containing saffron (S) powder (RB+S) was designed to verify its anti-diabetic properties, and to compare these effects with those of RB and S separately, matched to a similar dose of bioactive components, used in the high-fat (HF) diet in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced Wistar rats. After baking, beneficial antioxidant and sensory properties for RB enriched with 0.12% S were achieved. Twenty-four severely diabetic rats (fasting blood glucose (FBG) ≥350 mg/dL) were randomized to incorporate either 0.08% of pure S, or RB enriched with 0.12% S (the diet provided 0.08% of S), or RB alone into their diet for 5 weeks. As controls, nontreated, HF-feeding STZ-induced rats (positive control-HF/STZ) and rats receiving normal laboratory diet (negative control-C) were used. A significant FBG-lowering effect was observed (47%, 53%, and 54% reduction vs. HF/STZ; P<.05) after S, RB, and RB+S treatment. Improvements in the rats' glycemia were achieved by β-cell regeneration and increases in insulin secretion. Only in the S and RB+S group of rats, a significant (P<.05) increase in relative pancreas (vs. HF/STZ) was noted. A significant (P<.05) reduction in the concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) was achieved, whereas the ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) was not changed after S, RB and RB+S treatment (vs. HF/STZ). Triglyceride (TG) concentrations after S, RB, and RB+S treatment were significantly decreased (P<.05) versus HF/STZ. Both S and RB can be used in diabetic therapy, but no additional metabolic effect was achieved after consumption of RB+S.

  19. Molecular genetics of human immune responsiveness to Lolium perenne (rye) allergen, Lol p III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, A A; Freidhoff, L R; Marsh, D G

    1989-01-01

    Lol p II and III are each about 11-kD protein allergens from the pollen of Lolium perenne (rye grass). We have found that human immune responses (IgE and IgG antibodies) to both proteins are significantly associated with HLA-DR3. In addition, the two proteins are cross-reactive with the antibodies in many human sera (about 84% human sera showed the cross-reactivity). We have determined greater than 90% of the amino acid sequences of the two proteins and found that they are at least 54% homologous. Berzofsky found that 75% of the 23 known T cell sites in various proteins had an amphipathic structure. Our analysis by the same method showed that both Lol p II and III have a major region of amphipathicity (at residues 61-67, Lol p III numbering) which might contain sites for binding to an Ia molecule and a T cell receptor. This region is identical between Lol p II and III, except for an Arg-Lys substitution, and could account, in part, for the DR3 association with responsiveness to both molecules. An interesting difference between the two proteins is that immune response to Lol p III is associated with DR5 (in addition to DR3), whereas no DR5 association is found in the case of Lol p II. One possibility is that Lol p III has an additional site which binds to the DR5 Ia molecule. Lol p III indeed has a second highly amphiphathic peptide, 24-30 (Lol p III 24 R P G D T L A 30), which is different and not amphipathic in Lol p II.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Antioxidant effects of phenolic rye (Secale cereale L.) extracts, monomeric hydroxycinnamates, and ferulic acid dehydrodimers on human low-density lipoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mette Findal; Landbo, A K; Christensen, L P

    2001-01-01

    Dietary antioxidants that protect low-density lipoprotein (LDL) from oxidation may help to prevent atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. The antioxidant activities of purified monomeric and dimeric hydroxycinnamates and of phenolic extracts from rye (whole grain, bran, and flour) were...... investigated using an in vitro copper-catalyzed human LDL oxidation assay. The most abundant ferulic acid dehydrodimer (diFA) found in rye, 8-O-4-diFA, was a slightly better antioxidant than ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid. The antioxidant activity of the 8-5-diFA was comparable to that of ferulic acid......, but neither 5-5-diFA nor 8-5-benzofuran-diFA inhibited LDL oxidation when added at 10-40 microM. The antioxidant activity of the monomeric hydroxycinnamates decreased in the following order: caffeic acid > sinapic acid > ferulic acid > p-coumaric acid. The antioxidant activity of rye extracts...

  1. Antioxidant effects of phenolic rye (Secale cereale L.) extracts, monomeric hydroxycinnamates, and ferulic acid dehydrodimers on human low-density lipoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, M.F.; Landbo, Anne-Katrine Regel; Christensen, L.P.

    2001-01-01

    Dietary antioxidants that protect low-density lipoprotein (LDL) from oxidation may help to prevent atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. The antioxidant activities of purified monomeric and dimeric hydroxycinnamates and of phenolic extracts from rye (whole grain, bran, and flour) were...... investigated using an in vitro copper-catalyzed human LDL oxidation assay. The most abundant ferulic acid dehydrodimer (diFA) found in rye, 8-O-4- diFA, was a slightly better antioxidant than ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid. The antioxidant activity of the 8-5-diFA was comparable to that of ferulic acid......, but neither 5-5-diFA nor 8- 5-benzofuran-diFA inhibited LDL oxidation when added at 10-40 muM. The antioxidant activity of the monomeric hydroxycinnamates decreased in the following order: caffeic acid > sinapic acid > ferulic acid > p-coumaric acid. The antioxidant activity of rye extracts was significantly...

  2. Lignan precursors from flaxseed or rye bran do not protect against the development of intestinal neoplasia in Apc(Min) mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Kranen, H.J.; Mortensen, Alicja; Sørensen, Ilona Kryspin

    2003-01-01

    immunohistochemical staining for the p53 gene were observed in a set of 48 colon tumors. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that increased intake of lignan precursors from flaxseed or rye bran, administered in a Western-style diet, does not protect against intestinal tumor development in an appropriate animal......Phytoestrogens, like isoflavonoids and lignans, have been postulated as possible colorectal cancer protective constituents. To investigate this hypothesis, two high-fiber sources rich in lignan precursors, i.e., rye bran and flaxseed, were tested for their ability to modulate intestinal tumor...... development in Apc(Min) mice. Test diets consisted of a control diet (a Westem-style diet, adjusted for fiber and/or phytate content) supplemented with 5% flaxseed or 30% rye bran. Chemical analysis of diets and blood samples confirmed the enhanced systemic exposure of mice fed the test diets to the major...

  3. Comparison of the levels of bioactive benzoxazinoids in different wheat and rye fractions and the transformation of these compounds in homemade foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanwir, Fariha; Fredholm, Maria; Gregersen, Per L.

    2013-01-01

    Benzoxazinoids are important phytochemicals found in wheat and rye that are associated with plant resistance against pathogens, and recent studies have emphasized the potential health-promoting role of these compounds i.e. anti-cancer, anti-allergy and anti-inflammation. Accordingly, an understan......Benzoxazinoids are important phytochemicals found in wheat and rye that are associated with plant resistance against pathogens, and recent studies have emphasized the potential health-promoting role of these compounds i.e. anti-cancer, anti-allergy and anti-inflammation. Accordingly....... The analysis of seed fractions obtained from the milling of wheat and rye showed significantly higher concentrations of these bioactive compounds in the germ than in the other fractions, i.e. the bran and endosperm. Di-hexoses of 2,4-dihydroxy-1, 4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIBOA-glc-hexose) and 2-hydroxy-1, 4...

  4. Demonstration of human, rye grass pollen extract-specific, helper and suppressor stimulating activity of modified allergens by effects on in vitro hapten-specific antibody production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, A W; Johansson, S G

    1989-01-01

    An in vivo system is described in which penicilloyl antibody was produced from peripheral leucocytes of a grass pollen-sensitive patient who had received penicillin therapy, by challenge of the cells with penicilloyl-grass pollen extract conjugate. Incubation of these leucocytes with a number of modified preparations of grass pollen extract with various T-cell-stimulating properties was shown to affect penicilloyl antibody production. Both chymotryptically fragmented rye grass pollen extract and a conjugate of f met-leu-phe and rye grass pollen extract enhanced penicilloyl-specific antibody similarly to the enhancement induced by unmodified extract, though at high concentration some suppression was seen. A conjugate of polysarcosine and rye grass pollen extract, previously shown to cause antibody suppression in mice, was similarly suppressive for penicilloyl-specific antibody. The system therefore shows potential for the evaluation of the effects of modified allergen treatment on antibody levels via T-cell mechanisms.

  5. Dynamics of rye chromosome 1R regions with high or low crossover frequency in homology search and synapsis development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nohelia T Valenzuela

    Full Text Available In many organisms, homologous pairing and synapsis depend on the meiotic recombination machinery that repairs double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs produced at the onset of meiosis. The culmination of recombination via crossover gives rise to chiasmata, which locate distally in many plant species such as rye, Secale cereale. Although, synapsis initiates close to the chromosome ends, a direct effect of regions with high crossover frequency on partner identification and synapsis initiation has not been demonstrated. Here, we analyze the dynamics of distal and proximal regions of a rye chromosome introgressed into wheat to define their role on meiotic homology search and synapsis. We have used lines with a pair of two-armed chromosome 1R of rye, or a pair of telocentrics of its long arm (1RL, which were homozygous for the standard 1RL structure, homozygous for an inversion of 1RL that changes chiasma location from distal to proximal, or heterozygous for the inversion. Physical mapping of recombination produced in the ditelocentric heterozygote (1RL/1RL(inv showed that 70% of crossovers in the arm were confined to a terminal segment representing 10% of the 1RL length. The dynamics of the arms 1RL and 1RL(inv during zygotene demonstrates that crossover-rich regions are more active in recognizing the homologous partner and developing synapsis than crossover-poor regions. When the crossover-rich regions are positioned in the vicinity of chromosome ends, their association is facilitated by telomere clustering; when they are positioned centrally in one of the two-armed chromosomes and distally in the homolog, their association is probably derived from chromosome elongation. On the other hand, chromosome movements that disassemble the bouquet may facilitate chromosome pairing correction by dissolution of improper chromosome associations. Taken together, these data support that repair of DSBs via crossover is essential in both the search of the homologous partner

  6. Isolation and characterization of gluten protein types from wheat, rye, barley and oats for use as reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalk, Kathrin; Lexhaller, Barbara; Koehler, Peter; Scherf, Katharina Anne

    2017-01-01

    Gluten proteins from wheat, rye, barley and, in rare cases, oats, are responsible for triggering hypersensitivity reactions such as celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity and wheat allergy. Well-defined reference materials (RM) are essential for clinical studies, diagnostics, elucidation of disease mechanisms and food analyses to ensure the safety of gluten-free foods. Various RM are currently used, but a thorough characterization of the gluten source, content and composition is often missing. However, this characterization is essential due to the complexity and heterogeneity of gluten to avoid ambiguous results caused by differences in the RM used. A comprehensive strategy to isolate gluten protein fractions and gluten protein types (GPT) from wheat, rye, barley and oat flours was developed to obtain well-defined RM for clinical assays and gluten-free compliance testing. All isolated GPT (ω5-gliadins, ω1,2-gliadins, α-gliadins, γ-gliadins and high- and low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits from wheat, ω-secalins, γ-75k-secalins, γ-40k-secalins and high-molecular-weight secalins from rye, C-hordeins, γ-hordeins, B-hordeins and D-hordeins from barley and avenins from oats) were fully characterized using analytical reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), N-terminal sequencing, electrospray-ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QTOF-MS) and untargeted LC-MS/MS of chymotryptic hydrolyzates of the single GPT. Taken together, the analytical methods confirmed that all GPT were reproducibly isolated in high purity from the flours and were suitable to be used as RM, e.g., for calibration of LC-MS/MS methods or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs).

  7. Testing for Market Power in Multiple-Input, Multiple-Output Industries: The Australian Grains and Oilseeds Industries

    OpenAIRE

    O?Donnell, Christopher J.; Griffith, Garry R.; Nightingale, John J.; Piggott, Roley R.

    2004-01-01

    Recent empirical studies have found significant evidence of departures from competition in the input side of the Australian bread, breakfast cereal and margarine end-product markets. For example, Griffith (2000) found that firms in some parts of the processing and marketing sector exerted market power when purchasing grains and oilseeds from farmers. As noted at the time, this result accorded well with the views of previous regulatory authorities (p.358). In the mid-1990s, the Prices Surveill...

  8. Genetic variants associated with the root system architecture of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) under contrasting phosphate supply

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaohua; Chen, Yanling; Thomas, Catherine L.; Ding, Guangda; Xu, Ping; Shi, Dexu; Grandke, Fabian; Jin, Kemo; Cai, Hongmei; Xu, Fangsen; Yi, Bin; Broadley, Martin R.; Shi, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Breeding crops with ideal root system architecture for efficient absorption of phosphorus is an important strategy to reduce the use of phosphate fertilizers. To investigate genetic variants leading to changes in root system architecture, 405 oilseed rape cultivars were genotyped with a 60K Brassica Infinium SNP array in low and high P environments. A total of 285 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were associated with root system architecture traits at varying phosphorus levels. Nine single-nuc...

  9. Processing-bioprocessing of oilseed rape in bioenergy production and value added utilization of remaining seed components

    OpenAIRE

    Bagger, Christian; Bellostas, Natalia; Jensen, Søren K.; Sørensen, Jens C.; Sørensen, Hilmer; Sørensen, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    Cruciferous oilseed crops accumulate relatively high concentrations of oil, proteins and dietary fibres (DF) in their seeds, in addition to bioactive components as glucosinolates and myrosinase isoenzymes (thioglucohydrolase; EC 3.2.1.147). When mixed in the presence of moisture, myrosinase isoenzymes and associated components transform glucosinolates into various types of products, which reduces the value of the extracted oil and the remaining seed components, as well as producing unwanted e...

  10. Mid-infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometrics to detect Sclerotinia stem rot on oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chu; Feng, Xuping; Wang, Jian; Liu, Fei; He, Yong; Zhou, Weijun

    2017-01-01

    Detection of plant diseases in a fast and simple way is crucial for timely disease control. Conventionally, plant diseases are accurately identified by DNA, RNA or serology based methods which are time consuming, complex and expensive. Mid-infrared spectroscopy is a promising technique that simplifies the detection procedure for the disease. Mid-infrared spectroscopy was used to identify the spectral differences between healthy and infected oilseed rape leaves. Two different sample sets from two experiments were used to explore and validate the feasibility of using mid-infrared spectroscopy in detecting Sclerotinia stem rot (SSR) on oilseed rape leaves. The average mid-infrared spectra showed differences between healthy and infected leaves, and the differences varied among different sample sets. Optimal wavenumbers for the 2 sample sets selected by the second derivative spectra were similar, indicating the efficacy of selecting optimal wavenumbers. Chemometric methods were further used to quantitatively detect the oilseed rape leaves infected by SSR, including the partial least squares-discriminant analysis, support vector machine and extreme learning machine. The discriminant models using the full spectra and the optimal wavenumbers of the 2 sample sets were effective for classification accuracies over 80%. The discriminant results for the 2 sample sets varied due to variations in the samples. The use of two sample sets proved and validated the feasibility of using mid-infrared spectroscopy and chemometric methods for detecting SSR on oilseed rape leaves. The similarities among the selected optimal wavenumbers in different sample sets made it feasible to simplify the models and build practical models. Mid-infrared spectroscopy is a reliable and promising technique for SSR control. This study helps in developing practical application of using mid-infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometrics to detect plant disease.

  11. Bread consumption patterns in a Swedish national dietary survey focusing particularly on whole-grain and rye bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernilla Sandvik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bread types with high contents of whole grains and rye are associated with beneficial health effects. Consumer characteristics of different bread consumption patterns are however not well known. Objective: To compare bread consumption patterns among Swedish adults in relation to selected socio-demographic, geographic, and lifestyle-related factors. For selected consumer groups, the further aim is to investigate the intake of whole grains and the context of bread consumption, that is, where and when it is consumed. Design: Secondary analysis was performed on bread consumption data from a national dietary survey (n=1,435. Respondents were segmented into consumer groups according to the type and amount of bread consumed. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to study how selected socio-demographic, geographic, and lifestyle-related factors were associated with the consumer groups. Selected consumption groups were compared in terms of whole-grain intake and consumption context. Consumption in different age groups was analysed more in detail. Results: One-third of the respondents consumed mainly white bread. Socio-demographic, geographic, and healthy-lifestyle-related factors were associated with the bread type consumed. White bread consumption was associated with younger age groups, less education, children in the family, eating less fruit and vegetables, and more candy and snacks; the opposite was seen for mainly whole-grain bread consumers. Older age groups more often reported eating dry crisp bread, whole-grain bread, and whole-grain rye bread with sourdough whereas younger respondents reported eating bread outside the home, something that also mainly white bread eaters did. Low consumers of bread also consumed less whole grain in total. Conclusions: Traditional bread consumption structures were observed, as was a transition among young consumers who more often consumed fast food bread and bread outside the home, as well as

  12. Whole Rye Consumption Improves Blood and Liver n-3 Fatty Acid Profile and Gut Microbiota Composition in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayçal Ounnas

    Full Text Available Whole rye (WR consumption seems to be associated with beneficial health effects. Although rye fiber and polyphenols are thought to be bioactive, the mechanisms behind the health effects of WR have yet to be fully identified. This study in rats was designed to investigate whether WR can influence the metabolism of n-3 and n-6 long-chain fatty acids (LCFA and gut microbiota composition.For 12 weeks, rats were fed a diet containing either 50% WR or 50% refined rye (RR. The WR diet provided more fiber (+21% and polyphenols (+29% than the RR diet. Fat intake was the same in both diets and particularly involved similar amounts of essential (18-carbon n-3 and n-6 LCFAs.The WR diet significantly increased the 24-hour urinary excretion of polyphenol metabolites-including enterolactone-compared with the RR diet. The WR rats had significantly more n-3 LCFA-in particular, eicosapentanoic (EPA and docosahexanoic (DHA acids-in their plasma and liver. Compared with the RR diet, the WR diet brought significant changes in gut microbiota composition, with increased diversity in the feces (Shannon and Simpson indices, decreased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and decreased proportions of uncultured Clostridiales cluster IA and Clostridium cluster IV in the feces. In contrast, no difference was found between groups with regards to cecum microbiota. The WR rats had lower concentrations of total short-chain fatty acids (SCFA in cecum and feces (p<0.05. Finally, acetate was lower (p<0.001 in the cecum of WR rats while butyrate was lower (p<0.05 in the feces of WR rats.This study shows for the first time that WR consumption results in major biological modifications-increased plasma and liver n-3 EPA and DHA levels and improved gut microbiota profile, notably with increased diversity-known to provide health benefits. Unexpectedly, WR decreased SCFA levels in both cecum and feces. More studies are needed to understand the interactions between whole rye (fiber and

  13. Bread consumption patterns in a Swedish national dietary survey focusing particularly on whole-grain and rye bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandvik, Pernilla; Kihlberg, Iwona; Lindroos, Anna Karin; Marklinder, Ingela; Nydahl, Margaretha

    2014-01-01

    Background Bread types with high contents of whole grains and rye are associated with beneficial health effects. Consumer characteristics of different bread consumption patterns are however not well known. Objective To compare bread consumption patterns among Swedish adults in relation to selected socio-demographic, geographic, and lifestyle-related factors. For selected consumer groups, the further aim is to investigate the intake of whole grains and the context of bread consumption, that is, where and when it is consumed. Design Secondary analysis was performed on bread consumption data from a national dietary survey (n=1,435). Respondents were segmented into consumer groups according to the type and amount of bread consumed. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to study how selected socio-demographic, geographic, and lifestyle-related factors were associated with the consumer groups. Selected consumption groups were compared in terms of whole-grain intake and consumption context. Consumption in different age groups was analysed more in detail. Results One-third of the respondents consumed mainly white bread. Socio-demographic, geographic, and healthy-lifestyle-related factors were associated with the bread type consumed. White bread consumption was associated with younger age groups, less education, children in the family, eating less fruit and vegetables, and more candy and snacks; the opposite was seen for mainly whole-grain bread consumers. Older age groups more often reported eating dry crisp bread, whole-grain bread, and whole-grain rye bread with sourdough whereas younger respondents reported eating bread outside the home, something that also mainly white bread eaters did. Low consumers of bread also consumed less whole grain in total. Conclusions Traditional bread consumption structures were observed, as was a transition among young consumers who more often consumed fast food bread and bread outside the home, as well as less rye and whole

  14. Effect of Bioprocessing on the In Vitro Colonic Microbial Metabolism of Phenolic Acids from Rye Bran Fortified Breads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koistinen, Ville M; Nordlund, Emilia; Katina, Kati

    2017-01-01

    Cereal bran is an important source of dietary fiber and bioactive compounds, such as phenolic acids. We aimed to study the phenolic acid metabolism of native and bioprocessed rye bran fortified refined wheat bread and to elucidate the microbial metabolic route of phenolic acids. After incubation...... in an in vitro colon model, the metabolites were analyzed using two different methods applying mass spectrometry. While phenolic acids were released more extensively from the bioprocessed bran bread and ferulic acid had consistently higher concentrations in the bread type during fermentation, there were only....... In addition, we provide expansion to the known metabolic pathways of phenolic acids....

  15. Eikenprocessierups doorstaat koude winter goed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, S.

    2010-01-01

    Eikenprocessierupsen zijn niet gedeerd door de langdurige koude van deze winter. Bij het opensnijden van eipakketjes blijken de rupsjes springlevend naar buiten te komen. Het is nog te vroeg om nu al iets te zeggen over de mogelijke overlast later dit jaar. Dat is afhankelijk van de

  16. The effect of water and salt stresses on the phosphorus content and acid phosphatase activity in oilseed rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Flasiński

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oilseed rape plants responded to water and salt stresses (-0.5 MPa, PEG 6000 and NaCI by reduction of the fresh and dry weights of shoots and roots. When PEG was used, the ratio of dry weights of roots:shoots surpassed that of controls. The leaf protein content increased considerably. The phosphorus content decreased only in the roots, most significantly after three days of stress. Immediately after the stresses were induced, an increase in the acid phosphatase (AP activity was noted. Water and salt stresses caused four- and two-fold increases in AP activity in leaves, respectively. Changes in the enzyme activity were negligible in stems and roots. There are nine forms of AP in young leaves of oilseed rape. In the stressed plants, from No. 5 revealed lower activity and forms Nos 8 and 9, higher activities than in the control. The increase in AP activity was directly accompanied by the decrease in the water potential of the tissues. Oilseed rape is considerably less sensitive to salt stress than to water stress, which is manifested as the lower inhibition of plant growth and also by a smaller increase in acid phosphatase activity.

  17. Evaluating the Role of Seed Treatments in Canola/Oilseed Rape Production: Integrated Pest Management, Pollinator Health, and Biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Sekulic

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The use patterns and role of insecticide seed treatments, with focus on neonicotinoid insecticides, were examined for canola/oilseed rape production in Canada and the EU. Since nearly all planted canola acres in Western Canada and, historically, a majority of planted oilseed acres in the EU, use seed treatments, it is worth examining whether broad use of insecticidal seed treatments (IST is compatible with principles of integrated pest management (IPM. The neonicotinoid insecticide (NNI seed treatment (NNI ST use pattern has risen due to effective control of several early season insect pests, the most destructive being flea beetles (Phyllotreta sp.. Negative environmental impact and poor efficacy of foliar applied insecticides on flea beetles led growers to look for better alternatives. Due to their biology, predictive models have been difficult to develop for flea beetles, and, therefore, targeted application of seed treatments, as part of an IPM program, has contributed to grower profitability and overall pollinator success for canola production in Western Canada. Early evidence suggests that the recent restriction on NNI may negatively impact grower profitability and does not appear to be having positive impact on pollinator health. Further investigation on impact of NNI on individual bee vs. hive health need to be conducted. Predictive models for flea beetle emergence/feeding activity in canola/oilseed rape need to be developed, as broad acre deployment of NNI seed treatments may not be sustainable due to concerns about resistance/tolerance in flea beetles and other pest species.

  18. COMPETITIVE POSITION OF THE MAIN PRODUCERS AND EXPORTERS OF OILSEEDS AND VEGETABLE OILS IN THE INTRA-EU TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Pawlak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to assess the competitive position of the main producers and exporters of oilseeds and vegetable oils in the intra-EU trade in 2004 and 2012. The competitiveness was assessed with the use of a selected set of quantitative measures of international competitive position. Moreover, some shares of the analysed countries in the intra-EU trade, as well as relative export intensity of oilseeds and vegetable oils in these countries were estimated. On the basis of the conducted analyses it is possible to conclude that apart from Germany in trade in rapeseed and soya beans, as well as the Netherlands in trade in rapeseed and sunflower-seed, the main producers and exporters of oilseeds were competitive on the Single European Market. Excluding soya-bean oil produced in the EU mainly from imported raw material, competitive advantage of most of the countries decreased together with the level of processing and was lower in trade in vegetable oils.

  19. Plasma and Urine Concentrations of Bioactive Dietary Benzoxazinoids and Their Glucuronidated Conjugates in Rats Fed a Rye Bread-Based Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    B. Adhikari, Khem; Lærke, Helle N.; Mortensen, Anne G.

    2012-01-01

    and DIBOA were detected in both the plasma and urine. Ndehydroxylation was found to be a critical step in the absorption of hydroxamic acids. This unprecedented study will trigger future interest in the biological effects of benzoxazinoids in whole grain rye and wheat diets in humans and other animals....... benzoxazinoids from rye bread using Wistar rats as a model. HBOA-glc (2-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one) was the predominant benzoxazinoid in the plasma (74 ± 27 nmol/L), followed by DIBOA-glc (2-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy-4-hydroxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one) and HBOA. The total level of benzoxazinoids...

  20. The role of whole-wheat grain and wheat and rye ingredients on the digestion and fermentation processes in the gut - a model experiment with pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legall, Maud; Serena, Anja; Jørgensen, Henry

    2009-01-01

    The effect of wheat and rye breads made from white wheat flour with added refined fibre (WFL), whole-wheat grain, wheat aleurone flour (WAF) or rye aleurone flour (RAF) on digestion and fermentation processes in the gut was studied in a model experiment with pigs. The diets were similar in dietary...... of the wheat-based diets primarily due to the higher intestinal viscosity. The DF composition had an impact on (P,0001) the site for fibre degradation in the large intestine. Thus, AX of the WAF bread, with the lowest degree of substitution, were fermented as much in the caecum as in the colon, whereas AX...

  1. Multi-model uncertainty analysis in predicting grain N for crop rotations in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Xiaogang; Kersebaum, Kurt C; Kollas, Chris

    2017-01-01

    simulating different treatments (catch crops, CO2 concentrations, irrigation, N application, residues and tillage) in four multi-year rotation experiments in Europe to assess modelling accuracy. Seven grain and seed crops in four rotation systems in Europe were included in the study, namely winter wheat......, winter barley, spring barley, spring oat, winter rye, pea and winter oilseed rape. Our results indicate that the higher level of calibration significantly increased the quality of the simulation for grain N. In addition, models performed better in predicting grain N of winter wheat, winter barley...... than a random single model. Models correctly simulated the effects of enhanced N input on grain N of winter wheat and winter barley, whereas effects of tillage and irrigation were less well estimated. However, the use of continuous simulation did not improve the simulations as compared to single year...

  2. Xanthophyll cycle pigment and antioxidant profiles of winter-red (anthocyanic) and winter-green (acyanic) angiosperm evergreen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Nicole M; Burkey, Kent O; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine; Smith, William K

    2012-03-01

    Leaves of many angiosperm evergreen species change colour from green to red during winter, corresponding with the synthesis of anthocyanin pigments. The ecophysiological function of winter colour change (if any), and why it occurs in some species and not others, are not yet understood. It was hypothesized that anthocyanins play a compensatory photoprotective role in species with limited capacity for energy dissipation. Seasonal xanthophyll pigment content, chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf nitrogen, and low molecular weight antioxidants (LMWA) of five winter-red and five winter-green angiosperm evergreen species were compared. Our results showed no difference in seasonal xanthophyll pigment content (V+A+Z g(-1) leaf dry mass) or LMWA between winter-red and winter-green species, indicating red-leafed species are not deficient in their capacity for non-photochemical energy dissipation via these mechanisms. Winter-red and winter-green species also did not differ in percentage leaf nitrogen, corroborating previous studies showing no difference in seasonal photosynthesis under saturating irradiance. Consistent with a photoprotective function of anthocyanin, winter-red species had significantly lower xanthophyll content per unit chlorophyll and less sustained photoinhibition than winter-green species (i.e. higher pre-dawn F(v)/F(m) and a lower proportion of de-epoxidized xanthophylls retained overnight). Red-leafed species also maintained a higher maximum quantum yield efficiency of PSII at midday (F'(v)/F'(m)) during winter, and showed characteristics of shade acclimation (positive correlation between anthocyanin and chlorophyll content, and negative correlation with chlorophyll a/b). These results suggest that the capacity for photon energy dissipation (photochemical and non-photochemical) is not limited in red-leafed species, and that anthocyanins more likely function as an alternative photoprotective strategy to increased VAZ/Chl during winter.

  3. Overexpression of BnWRKY33 in oilseed rape enhances resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Fang, Hedi; Chen, Yu; Chen, Keping; Li, Guanying; Gu, Shoulai; Tan, Xiaoli

    2014-09-01

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes a devastating disease in oilseed rape (Brassica napus) resulting in a tremendous yield loss worldwide. Studies on various host-pathogen interactions have shown that plant WRKY transcription factors are essential for defence. For the B. napus-S. sclerotiorum interaction, little direct evidence has been found with regard to the biological roles of specific WRKY genes in host resistance. In this study, we isolated a B. napus WRKY gene, BnWRKY33, and found that the gene is highly responsive to S. sclerotiorum infection. Transgenic B. napus plants overexpressing BnWRKY33 showed markedly enhanced resistance to S. sclerotiorum, constitutive activation of the expression of BnPR1 and BnPDF1.2, and inhibition of H2 O2 accumulation in response to pathogen infection. Further, we isolated a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase substrate gene, BnMKS1, and found that not only can BnWRKY33 interact with BnMKS1, which can also interact with BnMPK4, using the yeast two-hybrid assay, consistent with their collective nuclear localization, but also BnWRKY33, BnMKS1 and BnMPK4 are substantially and synergistically expressed in response to S. sclerotiorum infection. In contrast, the three genes showed differential expression in response to phytohormone treatments. Together, these results suggest that BnWRKY33 plays an important role in B. napus defence to S. sclerotiorum, which is most probably associated with the activation of the salicylic acid (SA)- and jasmonic acid (JA)-mediated defence response and inhibition of H2 O2 accumulation, and we propose a potential mechanism in which BnMPK4-BnMKS1-BnWRKY33 exist in a nuclear localized complex to regulate resistance to S. sclerotiorum in oilseed rape. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  4. Mexican Mid-winter Waterfowl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mexican Mid-winter Waterfowl Survey is a continuation of the annual winter waterfowl survey which is conducted in the United States and Mexico. Since the...

  5. Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weekend Warriors expand/collapse Vitamin D Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter Winter sports enthusiasts are ... skiing! Be Mindful of Time Spent in the Sun, Regardless of the Season If possible, ski early ...

  6. The influence of addition of dried tomato pomace on the physical and sensory properties of whole grain rye flour cookies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomić Jelena M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the potential raw materials which could be used for production of food with added nutritional value is tomato pomace, a by-product from tomato processing. On the other hand, requirements of consumers for diverse food with potential for health benefits impose the need for creation of products made from different cereals. In this respect, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of addition of dried tomato pomace on the physical and sensory properties of whole grain rye flour cookies. The whole grain rye flour was substituted with tomato pomace powder in two levels (15% and 25% in the standard formulation of short-dough cookie. The quality of final products was evaluated by instrumental and sensory methods. The results clearly demonstrated that redness (+a* and yellowness (+b* were highly influenced by level of tomato pomace in the cookie formulations due to its content of carotenoid pigments. The spread factor of the cookies made with addition of tomato pomace powder was higher than the control sample. Hardness of the cookie samples decreased for approximately 50% for the cookie sample with 25% tomato pomace level substitution when compared with control sample. According to the results of sensory analysis, substitution level of 15% caused decrease of surface roughness, fracturability, and granularity, as well as increase of caramel flavour intensity. Substitution level of 25% caused higher degree of cookie softening and more pronounced tomato flavour.

  7. Comprehensive and Comparative Metabolomic Profiling of Wheat, Barley, Oat and Rye Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Advanced Chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakimov, Bekzod; Jespersen, Birthe Møller; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2014-10-31

    Beyond the main bulk components of cereals such as the polysaccharides and proteins, lower concentration secondary metabolites largely contribute to the nutritional value. This paper outlines a comprehensive protocol for GC-MS metabolomic profiling of phenolics and organic acids in grains, the performance of which is demonstrated through a comparison of the metabolite profiles of the main northern European cereal crops: wheat, barley, oat and rye. Phenolics and organic acids were extracted using acidic hydrolysis, trimethylsilylated using a new method based on trimethylsilyl cyanide and analyzed by GC-MS. In order to extract pure metabolite peaks, the raw chromatographic data were processed by a multi-way decomposition method, Parallel Factor Analysis 2. This approach lead to the semi-quantitative detection of a total of 247 analytes, out of which 89 were identified based on RI and EI-MS library match. The cereal metabolome included 32 phenolics, 30 organic acids, 10 fatty acids, 11 carbohydrates and 6 sterols. The metabolome of the four cereals were compared in detail, including low concentration phenolics and organic acids. Rye and oat displayed higher total concentration of phenolic acids, but ferulic, caffeic and sinapinic acids and their esters were found to be the main phenolics in all four cereals. Compared to the previously reported methods, the outlined protocol provided an efficient and high throughput analysis of the cereal metabolome and the acidic hydrolysis improved the detection of conjugated phenolics.

  8. Comprehensive and Comparative Metabolomic Profiling of Wheat, Barley, Oat and Rye Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Advanced Chemometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekzod Khakimov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Beyond the main bulk components of cereals such as the polysaccharides and proteins, lower concentration secondary metabolites largely contribute to the nutritional value. This paper outlines a comprehensive protocol for GC-MS metabolomic profiling of phenolics and organic acids in grains, the performance of which is demonstrated through a comparison of the metabolite profiles of the main northern European cereal crops: wheat, barley, oat and rye. Phenolics and organic acids were extracted using acidic hydrolysis, trimethylsilylated using a new method based on trimethylsilyl cyanide and analyzed by GC-MS. In order to extract pure metabolite peaks, the raw chromatographic data were processed by a multi-way decomposition method, Parallel Factor Analysis 2. This approach lead to the semi-quantitative detection of a total of 247 analytes, out of which 89 were identified based on RI and EI-MS library match. The cereal metabolome included 32 phenolics, 30 organic acids, 10 fatty acids, 11 carbohydrates and 6 sterols. The metabolome of the four cereals were compared in detail, including low concentration phenolics and organic acids. Rye and oat displayed higher total concentration of phenolic acids, but ferulic, caffeic and sinapinic acids and their esters were found to be the main phenolics in all four cereals. Compared to the previously reported methods, the outlined protocol provided an efficient and high throughput analysis of the cereal metabolome and the acidic hydrolysis improved the detection of conjugated phenolics.

  9. THE EFFECT OF BODY WEIGHT OF PIGS ON TRUE AND APPARENT ILEAL AMINO ACIDS DIGESTIBILITY OF RYE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitrayová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that the ability of pigs to digest protein increases with age. However, it has been shown that small pigs excreted more endogenous nitrogen (N than large pigs. Consequently, the apparent amino acids (AA digestibility may be lower in young pigs while true digestibility, which is corrected for endogenous losses, may be comparable with that found in older pigs. To test this hypothesis, six cannulated piglets (mean body weight 20.6 kg fitted with a simple T-cannula at terminal ileum were used to estimate apparent and true digestibilities of AA and of total N in a rye-based diet (96 % rye. The digestibility study was repeated on the same pigs fed the same diet when they reached mean body weight 61.7 kg. The apparent ileal digestibilities of total AA and total N were significantly higher in heavier pigs than in piglets. Except for methionine and phenylalanine, the apparent digestibilities of individual AA showed a similar pattern. In contrast, there was no significant difference between piglets and heavier pigs for the true ileal digestibility of total N. True digestibility of most AA was lower in heavier pigs than in piglets, the differences for total and some individual AA being significant. The present results suggest that the higher apparent digestibility values found in heavier pigs as compared to piglets are due to the confounding effect of endogenous N losses rather than the better ability of older pigs to digest protein.

  10. Leadership in American Indian Communities: Winter Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metoyer, Cheryl A.

    2010-01-01

    Winter lessons, or stories told in the winter, were one of the ways in which tribal elders instructed and directed young men and women in the proper ways to assume leadership responsibilities. Winter lessons stressed the appropriate relationship between the leader and the community. The intent was to remember the power and purpose of that…

  11. Hydrogen sulfide alleviates lead-induced photosynthetic and ultrastructural changes in oilseed rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, B; Song, W J; Hu, W Z; Luo, X N; Gill, R A; Wang, J; Zhou, W J

    2014-04-01

    The role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in alleviating lead (Pb) induced stress in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) was studied under laboratory conditions. Plants were grown hydroponically in greenhouse conditions under three levels (0, 100, and 400 µM) of Pb and three levels (0, 100 and 200 µM) of H2S donor, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS). Application of H2S significantly improved the plant growth, root morphology, chlorophyll contents and photosynthetic activity in leaves of B. napus under Pb stress. Moreover, exogenously applied H2S significantly lowered the Pb concentration in shoots and roots of plants under Pb stress. The microscopic examination indicated that application of exogenous H2S enabled a clean mesophyll cell having a well developed chloroplast with thylakoid membranes and starch grains. A number of modifications could be observed in root tip cell i.e. mature mitochondria, long endoplasmic reticulum and golgibodies under combined application of H2S and Pb. On the basis of these findings, it can be concluded that application of exogenous H2S has a protective role on plant growth, net photosynthesis rate and ultrastructural changes in B. napus plants under high Pb exposures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Storage stability of screwpress-extracted oils and residual meals from CELSS candidate oilseed crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, S. D.; Watkins, B. A.; Nielsen, S. S.

    1997-01-01

    The efficacy of using screwpress extraction for oil was studied with three Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS) candidate oilseed crops (soybean, peanut, and canola), since use of volatile organic solvents for oil extraction likely would be impractical in a closed system. Low oil yields from initial work indicated that a modification of the process is necessary to increase extraction efficiency. The extracted oil from each crop was tested for stability and sensory characteristics. When stored at 23 degC, canola oil and meal were least stable to oxidative rancidity, whereas peanut oil and meal were least stable to hydrolytic rancidity. When stored at 65 degC, soybean oil and canola meal were least stable to oxidative rancidity, whereas peanut oil and meal were least stable to hydrolytic rancidity. Sensory evaluation of the extracted oils used in bread and salad dressing indicated that flavor, odor intensity, acceptability, and overall preference may be of concern for screwpress-extracted canola oil when it is used in an unrefined form. Overall results with screwpress-extracted crude oils indicated that soybean oil may be more stable and acceptable than canola or peanut under typical storage conditions.

  13. WHAT IS BEHIND BIASED TECHNICAL CHANGE IN PRODUCTION OF CEREAL AND OILSEED CROPS IN SLOVAKIA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter FANDEL

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the productivity change in the production of cereal and oilseed crops in Slovakia with special emphasis on technical change analysis. It employs a non-parametric distance function approach to measure Malmquist productivity index which is decomposed into technical efficiency change and technical change. Technical change is further decomposed into technical change magnitude and input- and output-bias indices. The productivity change components provide more detailed information about character of productivity change itself and its sources. Our results indicate that productivity in the analysed sector decreased approximately by 20% within the examined period of 1998-2007. The decrease was caused mostly by worsening the technical change (-41,6%. Indices of input- and output bias of technical change were various from unity what suggests that technical change was not Hicks’- neutral. Results of further analysis of the direction of technical change bias indicate that farms in average tend to apply fertilizers-using/seed-saving, seed-using/labour-saving, and fertilizers-using/labour-saving technical change bias over the whole sample period, as well as in the EU pre-accession and EU post-accession periods.

  14. Camelina (Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz) as an alternative oilseed: molecular and ecogeographic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghamkhar, Kioumars; Croser, Janine; Aryamanesh, Nader; Campbell, Margaret; Kon'kova, Nina; Francis, Clive

    2010-07-01

    Camelina (Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz) is an oilseed known for its potential as a low-input biofuel feedstock and its high levels of beneficial fatty acids. We investigated the role of geographical origin in genetic variation and fatty acid content, expecting to find significant variability among 53 accessions and a link between ecogeography and both origin and key oil traits. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting revealed high levels of diversity within the 53 accessions. Even though sampling was relatively biased towards the Russian-Ukrainian area, this region was identified as a genetic diversity hotspot and possible centre of origin for camelina. The accessions were categorized by principal coordinate analysis using molecular marker data, enabling identification of links between geographical distribution and these categories. The influence of geographic location on four canola oil quality measures in camelina was evaluated using a geographic information system. These measures were (1) more than 30% alpha-linolenic acid, (2) less than 3% erucic acid, (3) less than 10% saturated fatty acids, and (4) a ratio of alpha-linolenic to linoleic acid greater than 1. The results clearly confirm that camelina oil quality characteristics are strongly influenced by environmental factors. The unprecedented high genetic diversity in this group of accessions offers an excellent opportunity to investigate valuable genes for successful adaptation of camelina to specific ecogeographical conditions such as drought.

  15. Oilseed Meal Effects on the Emergence and Survival of Crop and Weed Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie L. Rothlisberger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oilseed crops are being widely evaluated for potential biodiesel production. Seed meal (SM remaining after extracting oil may have use as bioherbicides or organic fertilizers. Brassicaceae SM often contains glucosinolates that hydrolyze into biologically active compounds that may inhibit various pests. Jatropha curcas SM contains curcin, a phytoxin. A 14-day greenhouse study determined that Sinapis alba (white mustard, Brassica juncea (Indian mustard, Camelina sativa, and Jatropha curcas applied to soil at varying application rates [0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.5% (w/w] and incubation times (1, 7, and 14 d prior to planting affected seed emergence and seedling survival of cotton [Gossypium hirsutum (L.], sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench], johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense, and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus. With each species, emergence and survival was most decreased by 2.5% SM application applied at 1 and 7 d incubations. White mustard SM incubated for 1 d applied at low and high rates had similar negative effects on johnsongrass seedlings. Redroot pigweed seedling survival was generally most decreased by all 2.5% SM applications. Based on significant effects determined by ANOVA, results suggested that the type, rate, and timing of SM application should be considered before land-applying SMs in cropping systems.

  16. Generation of transgenic plants of a potential oilseed crop Camelina sativa by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chaofu; Kang, Jinling

    2008-02-01

    Camelina sativa is an alternative oilseed crop that can be used as a potential low-cost biofuel crop or a source of health promoting omega-3 fatty acids. Currently, the fatty acid composition of camelina does not uniquely fit any particular uses, thus limit its commercial value and large-scale production. In order to improve oil quality and other agronomic characters, we have developed an efficient and simple in planta method to generate transgenic camelina plants. The method included Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation of plants at early flowering stage along with a vacuum infiltration procedure. We used a fluorescent protein (DsRed) as a visual selection marker, which allowed us to conveniently screen mature transgenic seeds from a large number of untransformed seeds. Using this method, over 1% of transgenic seeds can be obtained. Genetic analysis revealed that most of transgenic plants contain a single copy of transgene. In addition, we also demonstrated that transgenic camelina seeds produced novel hydroxy fatty acids by transforming a castor fatty acid hydroxylase. In conclusion, our results provide a rapid means to genetically improve agronomic characters of camelina, including fatty acid profiles of its seed oils. Camelina may serve as a potential industrial crop to produce novel biotechnology products.

  17. Mathematical modeling of a biogenous filter cake and identification of oilseed material parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Očenášek J.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modeling of the filtration and extrusion process inside a linear compression chamber has gained a lot of attention during several past decades. This subject was originally related to mechanical and hydraulic properties of soils (in particular work of Terzaghi and later was this approach adopted for the modeling of various technological processes in the chemical industry (work of Shirato. Developed mathematical models of continuum mechanics of porous materials with interstitial fluid were then applied also to the problem of an oilseed expression. In this case, various simplifications and partial linearizations are introduced in models for the reason of an analytical or numerical solubility; or it is not possible to generalize the model formulation into the fully 3D problem of an oil expression extrusion with a complex geometry such as it has a screw press extruder.We proposed a modified model for the oil seeds expression process in a linear compression chamber. The model accounts for the rheological properties of the deformable solid matrix of compressed seed, where the permeability of the porous solid is described by the Darcy's law. A methodology of the experimental work necessary for a material parameters identification is presented together with numerical simulation examples.

  18. Evidence for pollinator cost and farming benefits of neonicotinoid seed coatings on oilseed rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budge, G. E.; Garthwaite, D.; Crowe, A.; Boatman, N. D.; Delaplane, K. S.; Brown, M. A.; Thygesen, H. H.; Pietravalle, S.

    2015-08-01

    Chronic exposure to neonicotinoid insecticides has been linked to reduced survival of pollinating insects at both the individual and colony level, but so far only experimentally. Analyses of large-scale datasets to investigate the real-world links between the use of neonicotinoids and pollinator mortality are lacking. Moreover, the impacts of neonicotinoid seed coatings in reducing subsequent applications of foliar insecticide sprays and increasing crop yield are not known, despite the supposed benefits of this practice driving widespread use. Here, we combine large-scale pesticide usage and yield observations from oilseed rape with those detailing honey bee colony losses over an 11 year period, and reveal a correlation between honey bee colony losses and national-scale imidacloprid (a neonicotinoid) usage patterns across England and Wales. We also provide the first evidence that farmers who use neonicotinoid seed coatings reduce the number of subsequent applications of foliar insecticide sprays and may derive an economic return. Our results inform the societal discussion on the pollinator costs and farming benefits of prophylactic neonicotinoid usage on a mass flowering crop.

  19. Does pea lectin expressed transgenically in oilseed rape (Brassica napus) influence honey bee (Apis mellifera) larvae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrman, Anna

    2007-01-01

    The European honey bee (Apis mellifera) is important both for pollination and for honey production. Pollen is the major protein source for bees, which exposes them directly to changes in pollen quality e.g. through genetic engineering. In order to create a worst case scenario regarding pea lectin (PSL) expressed transgenically in oilseed rape anthers and pollen, the maximum amount of dried pollen that could be mixed in an artificial diet without negatively affecting larval performance (1.5% w/w) was fed to bee larvae. Pollen from two transgenic plant lines expressing PSL up to 1.2% of total soluble protein and pollen from one non-transgenic line was added to the same diet and used as a pollen control. When these three pollen diets and the control diet (without added pollen) were compared, no negative effect from the pollen of the transgenic plants could be detected on larval mortality, weight, or development time. An increased weight and a reduced developmental time were recorded for larvae on all diets containing pollen when compared to the diet without pollen.

  20. Energetic balance from biodiesel production of oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Rubens [Parana Agronomical Institute (IAPAR), Londrina, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: siqueira@iapar.br; Gamero, Carlos Antonio [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas; Boller, Walter [University of Passo Fundo (UPF), RS (Brazil). Agronomical and Veterinary College

    2008-07-01

    It was evaluated the energetic balance and the energetic efficiency of the oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus L.) crop under the no-tillage system. The energy input totalized 6,718 MJ ha{sup -1} where the industrial processing, the fertilizer and the herbicide had participation of 30.7; 23.0 and 20.2 %, respectively. The energy production was 56,650.94 MJ ha{sup -1} and the produced grains have represented 33.2 % of the total. The energetic demand for the production of one kg of biomass of the aerial part, one kg of oil and one kg of biodiesel were respectively 1,829; 19,000 and 27,422 kJ. There was a return of 8.44 for each energy unit used in the process. The net gain of energy was 49,932 MJ ha{sup -1} which is equivalent in energy to 1,295 L diesel oil. (author)

  1. Patterns of domestication in the Ethiopian oil-seed crop noug (Guizotia abyssinica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempewolf, Hannes; Tesfaye, Misteru; Teshome, Abel; Bjorkman, Anne D; Andrew, Rose L; Scascitelli, Moira; Black, Scott; Bekele, Endashaw; Engels, Johannes M M; Cronk, Quentin C B; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2015-06-01

    Noug (Guizotia abyssinica) is a semidomesticated oil-seed crop, which is primarily cultivated in Ethiopia. Unlike its closest crop relative, sunflower, noug has small seeds, small flowering heads, many branches, many flowering heads, and indeterminate flowering, and it shatters in the field. Here, we conducted common garden studies and microsatellite analyses of genetic variation to test whether high levels of crop-wild gene flow and/or unfavorable phenotypic correlations have hindered noug domestication. With the exception of one population, analyses of microsatellite variation failed to detect substantial recent admixture between noug and its wild progenitor. Likewise, only very weak correlations were found between seed mass and the number or size of flowering heads. Thus, noug's 'atypical' domestication syndrome does not seem to be a consequence of recent introgression or unfavorable phenotypic correlations. Nonetheless, our data do reveal evidence of local adaptation of noug cultivars to different precipitation regimes, as well as high levels of phenotypic plasticity, which may permit reasonable yields under diverse environmental conditions. Why noug has not been fully domesticated remains a mystery, but perhaps early farmers selected for resilience to episodic drought or untended environments rather than larger seeds. Domestication may also have been slowed by noug's outcrossing mating system.

  2. Metabolic engineering of biomass for high energy density: oilseed-like triacylglycerol yields from plant leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhercke, Thomas; El Tahchy, Anna; Liu, Qing; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Shrestha, Pushkar; Divi, Uday K; Ral, Jean-Philippe; Mansour, Maged P; Nichols, Peter D; James, Christopher N; Horn, Patrick J; Chapman, Kent D; Beaudoin, Frederic; Ruiz-López, Noemi; Larkin, Philip J; de Feyter, Robert C; Singh, Surinder P; Petrie, James R

    2014-02-01

    High biomass crops have recently attracted significant attention as an alternative platform for the renewable production of high energy storage lipids such as triacylglycerol (TAG). While TAG typically accumulates in seeds as storage compounds fuelling subsequent germination, levels in vegetative tissues are generally low. Here, we report the accumulation of more than 15% TAG (17.7% total lipids) by dry weight in Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) leaves by the co-expression of three genes involved in different aspects of TAG production without severely impacting plant development. These yields far exceed the levels found in wild-type leaf tissue as well as previously reported engineered TAG yields in vegetative tissues of Arabidopsis thaliana and N. tabacum. When translated to a high biomass crop, the current levels would translate to an oil yield per hectare that exceeds those of most cultivated oilseed crops. Confocal fluorescence microscopy and mass spectrometry imaging confirmed the accumulation of TAG within leaf mesophyll cells. In addition, we explored the applicability of several existing oil-processing methods using fresh leaf tissue. Our results demonstrate the technical feasibility of a vegetative plant oil production platform and provide for a step change in the bioenergy landscape, opening new prospects for sustainable food, high energy forage, biofuel and biomaterial applications. © 2013 CSIRO. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Non-destructive in vitro selection of microspore-derived embryos with the fertility restorer gene for CMS Ogu-INRA in winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Havlíčková

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Technique developed in this study provides early and non-destructive sampling of embryonic tissue and the use of new markers for simple and efficient control of the presence of Rfo gene in all accessions.

  4. Winter to winter recurrence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia and its impact on winter surface air temperature anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xia; Yang, Guang

    2017-01-01

    The persistence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia shows a winter to winter recurrence (WTWR) phenomenon. Seasonal variations in sea level pressure anomalies and surface wind anomalies display significantly different characteristics between WTWR and non-WTWR years. The WTWR years are characterized by the recurrence of both a strong (weak) anomalous Siberian High and an East Asian winter monsoon over two successive winters without persistence through the intervening summer. However, anomalies during the non-WTWR years have the opposite sign between the current and ensuing winters. The WTWR of circulation anomalies contributes to that of surface air temperature anomalies (SATAs), which is useful information for improving seasonal and interannual climate predictions over East Asia and China. In the positive (negative) WTWR years, SATAs are cooler (warmer) over East Asia in two successive winters, but the signs of the SATAs are opposite in the preceding and subsequent winters during the non-WTWR years.

  5. 33 CFR 100.109 - Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME. 100.109 Section 100.109 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME. (a) Regulated area. The regulated area includes all waters of Winter...

  6. Intake of whole-grain and fiber-rich rye bread versus refined wheat bread does not differentiate intestinal microbiota composition in Finnish adults with metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lappi, J.; Salojärvi, J.; Kolehmainen, M.; Mykkänen, H.; Poutanen, K.; Vos, de W.M.; Salonen, A.

    2013-01-01

    Whole-grain (WG) foods rich in indigestible carbohydrates are thought to modulate the composition of the intestinal microbiota. We investigated in a randomized, parallel, 2-arm 12-wk intervention whether consumption of WG and fiber-rich rye breads compared with refined wheat breads affected the

  7. Identification of barley and rye varieties using matrix- assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry with neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, H.A.; Petersen, Marianne Kjerstine; Sperotto, Maria Maddalena

    2001-01-01

    developed, which combines analysis of alcohol-soluble wheat proteins (gliadins) using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry with neural networks. Here we have applied the same method for the identification of both barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and rye (Secale cereale L...

  8. Soluble and cell wall-bound phenolic acids and ferulic acid dehydrodimers in rye flour and five bread model systems: insight into mechanisms of improved availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynkowska, Wioletta M; Cyran, Malgorzata R; Ceglińska, Alicja

    2015-03-30

    The bread-making process influences bread components, including phenolics that significantly contribute to its antioxidant properties. Five bread model systems made from different rye cultivars were investigated to compare their impact on concentration of ethanol-soluble (free and ester-bound) and insoluble phenolics. Breads produced by a straight dough method without acid addition (A) and three-stage sourdough method with 12 h native starter preparation (C) exhibited the highest, genotype-dependent concentrations of free phenolic acids. Dough acidification by direct acid addition (method B) or by gradual production during prolonged starter fermentation (24 and 48 h, for methods D and E) considerably decreased their level. However, breads B were enriched in soluble ester-bound fraction. Both direct methods, despite substantial differences in dough pH, caused a similar increase in the amount of insoluble ester-bound fraction. The contents of phenolic fractions in rye bread were positively related to activity level of feruloyl esterase and negatively to those of arabinoxylan-hydrolysing enzymes in wholemeal flour. The solubility of rye bread phenolics may be enhanced by application of a suitable bread-making procedure with respect to rye cultivar, as the mechanisms of this process are also governed by a response of an individual genotype with specific biochemical profile. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Role of Bacillus subtilis direct-fed microbial on digesta viscosity, bacterial translocation, and bone mineralization in turkey poults fed with a rye-based diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye contains high concentrations of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), leading to reduced digestibility. Since poultry have little or no endogenous enzymes capable of hydrolyzing these NSP, exogenous carbohydrases as feed additives are used in an attempt to reduce the anti-nutritional effects of the...

  10. Ergot alkaloids in rye flour determined by solid-phase cation-exchange and high-pressure liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Ida Marie Lindhardt Drejer; Rasmussen, Peter Have; Strobel, B.W.

    2008-01-01

    Ergot alkaloids are mycotoxins that are undesirable contaminants of cereal products, particularly rye. A method was developed employing clean-up by cation-exchange solid-phase extraction, separation by high-performance liquid chromatography under alkaline conditions and fluorescence detection...

  11. NMR-based metabonomic studies reveal changes in the biochemical profile of plasma and urine from pigs fed high-fibre rye bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertram, Hanne C; Bach Knudsen, Knud E; Serena, Anja

    2006-01-01

    This study presents an NMR-based metabonomic approach to elucidate the overall endogenous biochemical effects of a wholegrain diet. Two diets with similar levels of dietary fibre and macronutrients, but with contrasting levels of wholegrain ingredients, were prepared from wholegrain rye (wholegrain...... disclosed biochemical effects of a wholegrain diet on plasma betaine content and excretion of betaine and creatinine....

  12. Impact of cell wall-degrading enzymes on water-holding capacity and solubility of dietary fibre in rye and wheat bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, Karin; Nordlund, Emilia; Tornberg, Eva; Eliasson, Ann-Charlotte; Buchert, Johanna

    2013-03-15

    Rye and wheat bran were treated with several xylanases and endoglucanases, and the effects on physicochemical properties such as solubility, viscosity, water-holding capacity and particle size as well as the chemical composition of the soluble and insoluble fractions of the bran were studied. A large number of enzymes with well-defined activities were used. This enabled a comparison between enzymes of different origins and with different activities as well as a comparison between the effects of the enzymes on rye and wheat bran. The xylanases derived from Bacillus subtilis were the most effective in solubilising dietary fibre from wheat and rye bran. There was a tendency for a higher degree of degradation of the soluble or solubilised dietary fibre in rye bran than in wheat bran when treated with most of the enzymes. None of the enzymes increased the water-holding capacity of the bran or the viscosity of the aqueous phase. The content of insoluble material decreased as the dietary fibre was solubilised by the enzymes. The amount of material that may form a network to retain water in the system was thereby decreased. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Resistance genes for rye stem rust (SrR) and barley powdery mildew (Mla) are located in syntenic regions on short arm of chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mago, R; Spielmeyer, W; Lawrence, G J; Ellis, J G; Pryor, A J

    2004-02-01

    Genetic stocks were developed for the localization and eventual cloning of the stem rust resistance gene SrR that occurs in wheat lines carrying the 1RS translocation from Secale cereale 'Imperial' rye. We have used a mutation-based approach for molecular analysis of the SrR region in rye. Forty-one independent mutants resulting in loss of SrR resistance were isolated: many of these were deletions of various sizes that were used to locate SrR with respect to chromosome group 1S markers. The analysis of the mutants showed that markers about 1 Mb apart flanking the barley Mla locus also flank SrR. Additionally, three of the approximately 20 closely related sequences of Mla in rye are deleted in each of six interstitial deletion mutants of SrR. The results indicate that the SrR region in rye is syntenic to the Mla region in barley or that SrR is possibly orthologous to the Mla locus.

  14. Group 5 allergens of timothy grass (Phl p 5) bear cross-reacting T cell epitopes with group 1 allergens of rye grass (Lol p 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, W D; Karamfilov, T; Bufe, A; Fahlbush, B; Wolf, I; Jäger, L

    1996-04-01

    Selected human T cell clones reactive with group 5 allergens of timothy grass (Phl p 5) were cross-stimulated in specific proliferation assays with group 1 allergens of rye grass (Lol p 1). Such interspecies cross-reactivities result obviously from structural motifs presented on defined Phl p 5 fragments as shown with recombinant Phl p 5 products.

  15. Molecular Cytogenetic Characterization of Novel Wheat-rye T1RS.1BL Translocation Lines with High Resistance to Diseases and Great Agronomic Traits

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    Tianheng Ren

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Rye has been used worldwide as a source for the genetic improvement of wheat. In this study, two stable wheat-rye primary T1RS.1BL translocation lines were selected from the progeny of the crossing of the wheat cultivar Mianyang11-1 and a Chinese local rye variety, Weining. These two novel translocation lines were identified by molecular cytogenetic analysis. PCR results, multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (MC-FISH, and acid polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (A-PAGE indicated that both new translocation lines harbor a pair of T1RS.1BL translocation chromosomes, and have been named RT828-10 and RT828-11, respectively. The cytogenetic results also indicated that the pSc119.2 signals of 5AL were absent in both lines along with the pSc119.2 signals of 4AL of RT828-11. When inoculated with different stripe rust and powdery mildew isolates, both lines expressed high resistance to Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici and Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici pathotypes, which are prevalent in China and are virulent on Yr9 and Pm8. The line RT828-11 also exhibited excellent agronomic traits in the field. The present study indicates that this rye variety may carry untapped variations that could potentially be used for wheat improvement.

  16. Targeted metabolomics reveals differences in the extended postprandial plasma metabolome of healthy subjects after intake of whole-grain rye porridges versus refined wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lin; Brunius, Carl; Lindelöf, Magnus; Shameh, Souad Abou; Wu, Huaxing; Lee, Isabella; Landberg, Rikard; Moazzami, Ali A

    2017-07-01

    We previously found that whole-grain (WG) rye porridges suppressed appetite and improved glucose metabolism. This study aimed to investigate potential plasma metabolites that may be related to differences in those appetite and glucose responses. Twenty-one health subjects consumed six isocaloric breakfasts in a randomized cross-over study. Plain WG rye porridges (40 and 55 g), rye porridge enriched with different inulin: gluten proportions (9:3 g; 6:6 g; 3:9 g), and a 55 g refined wheat bread (control) were served as part of complete breakfast, followed by a standardized lunch. NMR metabolomics assessed 36 plasma metabolites and short chain fatty acids were measured by GC-MS from baseline up to 8 h. Pre-lunch plasma essential amino acids reflected protein composition and post-lunch plasma short chain fatty acids varied with fiber content in breakfasts. No correlations were observed between measured metabolites and glucose, insulin, or appetite responses. Differences in protein and fiber contents in breakfasts altered postprandial plasma amino acids and short chain fatty acids, respectively, but were unrelated to appetite and glucose responses. Further studies are warrant to identify the underlying mechanisms for the beneficial effects on appetite and second meal glucose responses after rye-based foods. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Fermentation Results and Chemical Composition of Agricultural Distillates Obtained from Rye and Barley Grains and the Corresponding Malts as a Source of Amylolytic Enzymes and Starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerek, Maria; Pielech-Przybylska, Katarzyna; Dziekońska-Kubczak, Urszula; Patelski, Piotr; Strąk, Ewelina

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the efficiency of rye and barley starch hydrolysis in mashing processes using cereal malts as a source of amylolytic enzymes and starch, and to establish the volatile profile of the obtained agricultural distillates. In addition, the effects of the pretreatment method of unmalted cereal grains on the physicochemical composition of the prepared mashes, fermentation results, and the composition of the obtained distillates were investigated. The raw materials used were unmalted rye and barley grains, as well as the corresponding malts. All experiments were first performed on a semi-technical scale, and then verified under industrial conditions in a Polish distillery. The fermentable sugars present in sweet mashes mostly consisted of maltose, followed by glucose and maltotriose. Pressure-thermal treatment of unmalted cereals, and especially rye grains, resulted in higher ethanol content in mashes in comparison with samples subjected to pressureless liberation of starch. All agricultural distillates originating from mashes containing rye and barley grains and the corresponding malts were characterized by low concentrations of undesirable compounds, such as acetaldehyde and methanol. The distillates obtained under industrial conditions contained lower concentrations of higher alcohols (apart from 1-propanol) than those obtained on a semi-technical scale.

  18. Fermentation Results and Chemical Composition of Agricultural Distillates Obtained from Rye and Barley Grains and the Corresponding Malts as a Source of Amylolytic Enzymes and Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Balcerek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the efficiency of rye and barley starch hydrolysis in mashing processes using cereal malts as a source of amylolytic enzymes and starch, and to establish the volatile profile of the obtained agricultural distillates. In addition, the effects of the pretreatment method of unmalted cereal grains on the physicochemical composition of the prepared mashes, fermentation results, and the composition of the obtained distillates were investigated. The raw materials used were unmalted rye and barley grains, as well as the corresponding malts. All experiments were first performed on a semi-technical scale, and then verified under industrial conditions in a Polish distillery. The fermentable sugars present in sweet mashes mostly consisted of maltose, followed by glucose and maltotriose. Pressure-thermal treatment of unmalted cereals, and especially rye grains, resulted in higher ethanol content in mashes in comparison with samples subjected to pressureless liberation of starch. All agricultural distillates originating from mashes containing rye and barley grains and the corresponding malts were characterized by low concentrations of undesirable compounds, such as acetaldehyde and methanol. The distillates obtained under industrial conditions contained lower concentrations of higher alcohols (apart from 1-propanol than those obtained on a semi-technical scale.

  19. DETERMINATION OF OPTIMUM PARAMETERS OF A ZAMESHIVANIYE OF A SBIVNY SEMI-FINISHED PRODUCT FROM A MIX OF RYE AND WHEAT FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In article influence of parameters замеса (pressure, duration of knocking down, frequency of rotation of mesilny body sbivny dough from a mix of rye and wheat flour on indicators of quality of finished articles is investigated.

  20. Optimizing the harvesting stage of rye as a green manure to maximize nutrient production and to minimize methane production in mono-rice paddies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Yoon [Division of Applied Life Science (BK 21 Program), Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), Department of Microbial Ecology, Wageningen (Netherlands); Park, Chi Kyu [Hamyang-gun Agricultural Development & Technology Center, Hamyang 676-806 (Korea, Republic of); Gwon, Hyo Suk; Khan, Muhammad Israr [Division of Applied Life Science (BK 21 Program), Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Pil Joo, E-mail: pjkim@gnu.ac.kr [Division of Applied Life Science (BK 21 Program), Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Rye (Secale cerealis) has been widely cultivated to improve soil quality in temperate paddies. However, its biomass incorporation can significantly increase greenhouse gas emissions, particularly the emission of methane (CH{sub 4}), during rice cultivation. The chemical composition and productivity of cover crop biomass may vary at different growing stages. Therefore, nutrient productivity and CH{sub 4} production potential might be controlled by selecting the optimum harvesting stage. To investigate the effect of rye harvesting stage on nutrient productivity and CH{sub 4} production potential, rye was harvested at different growing stages, from the flowering stage to the maturing stage, for seven weeks. The chemical composition and biomass productivity of rye were investigated. CH{sub 4} production was measured by laboratory incubation, and CH{sub 4} production potential was estimated to determine the real impact on CH{sub 4} dynamics in rice soils. Rye biomass increased with plant maturation, but nutrient productivities such as N (nitrogen), P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and K{sub 2}O were maximized at the flowering stage. The contents of cellulose and lignin increased significantly as plants matured, but the total N, labile organic carbon (C), and hot and cold water-extractable organic C clearly decreased. Soils were mixed with 0.3% (wt wt{sup −1} on dry weight) air-dried biomass and incubated to measure the maximum CH{sub 4} productivity at 30 °C under flooded conditions. Maximum CH{sub 4} productivity was significantly correlated with increasing labile organic C and protein content, but it was negatively correlated with total organic C, cellulose, and lignin content. CH{sub 4} production potentials were significantly increased up to the pre-maturing stage (220 DAS) and remained unchanged thereafter. As a result, CH{sub 4} production potential per N productivity was the lowest at the late flowering stage (198–205 DAS), which could be the best harvesting stage as well

  1. The Diversity of Sequence and Chromosomal Distribution of New Transposable Element-Related Segments in the Rye Genome Revealed by FISH and Lineage Annotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingxin Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Transposable elements (TEs in plant genomes exhibit a great variety of structure, sequence content and copy number, making them important drivers for species diversity and genome evolution. Even though a genome-wide statistic summary of TEs in rye has been obtained using high-throughput DNA sequencing technology, the accurate diversity of TEs in rye, as well as their chromosomal distribution and evolution, remains elusive due to the repetitive sequence assembling problems and the high dynamic and nested nature of TEs. In this study, using genomic plasmid library construction combined with dot-blot hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH analysis, we successfully isolated 70 unique FISH-positive TE-related sequences including 47 rye genome specific ones: 30 showed homology or partial homology with previously FISH characterized sequences and 40 have not been characterized. Among the 70 sequences, 48 sequences carried Ty3/gypsy-derived segments, 7 sequences carried Ty1/copia-derived segments and 15 sequences carried segments homologous with multiple TE families. 26 TE lineages were found in the 70 sequences, and among these lineages, Wilma was found in sequences dispersed in all chromosome regions except telomeric positions; Abiba was found in sequences predominantly located at pericentromeric and centromeric positions; Wis, Carmilla, and Inga were found in sequences displaying signals dispersed from distal regions toward pericentromeric positions; except DNA transposon lineages, all the other lineages were found in sequences displaying signals dispersed from proximal regions toward distal regions. A high percentage (21.4% of chimeric sequences were identified in this study and their high abundance in rye genome suggested that new TEs might form through recombination and nested transposition. Our results also gave proofs that diverse TE lineages were arranged at centromeric and pericentromeric positions in rye, and lineages like

  2. Mercury in wintering seabirds, an aggravating factor to winter wrecks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Jérôme; Lacoue-Labarthe, Thomas; Nguyen, Hanh Linh; Boué, Amélie; Spitz, Jérôme; Bustamante, Paco

    2015-09-15

    Every year, thousands of seabirds are cast ashore and are found dead along the coasts of North America and Western Europe. These massive mortality events called 'winter wrecks' have generally been attributed to harsh climatic conditions and prolonged storms which affect bird energy balance and impact their body condition. Nevertheless, additional stress factors, such as contaminant body burden, could potentially cumulate to energy constraints and actively contribute to winter wrecks. However, the role played by these additional factors in seabird massive winter mortality has received little attention to date. In February/March 2014, an unprecedented seabird wreck occurred along the Atlantic French coasts during which > 43,000 seabirds were found dead. By analyzing mercury (Hg) concentrations in various tissues collected on stranded birds, we tested the hypothesis that Hg played a significant role in this mortality. More specifically, we aimed to (1) describe Hg contamination in wintering seabirds found along the French coasts in 2014, and (2) determine if Hg concentrations measured in some vital organs such as kidney and brain reached toxicity thresholds that could have led to deleterious effects and to an enhanced mortality. We found some of the highest Hg levels ever reported in Atlantic puffins, common guillemots, razorbills and kittiwakes. Measured concentrations ranged from 0.8 to 3.6 μg · g(-1) of dry weight in brain, 1.3 to 7.2 μg · g(-1) in muscle, 2.5 to 13.5 μg · g(-1) in kidney, 2.9 to 18.6 μg · g(-1) in blood and from 3.1 to 19.5 μg · g(-1) in liver. Hg concentrations in liver and brain were generally below the estimated acute toxicity levels. However, kidney concentrations were not different than those measured in the liver, and above levels associated to renal sub-lethal effects, suggesting a potential Hg poisoning. We concluded that although Hg was not directly responsible for the high observed mortality, it has been a major aggravating

  3. Molecular basis of IgE-recognition of Lol p 5, a major allergen of rye-grass pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suphioglu, C; Blaher, B; Rolland, J M; McCluskey, J; Schäppi, G; Kenrick, J; Singh, M B; Knox, R B

    1998-04-01

    Grass pollen, especially of rye-grass (Lolium perenne). represents an important cause of type I allergy. Identification of IgE-binding (allergenic) epitopes of major grass pollen allergens is essential for understanding the molecular basis of interaction between allergens and human IgE antibodies and therefore facilitates the devising of safer and more effective diagnostic and immunotherapy reagents. The aim of this study was to identify the allergenic epitopes of Lol p 5, a major allergen of rye-grass pollen, immunodissect these epitopes further so that the amino acid residues critical for antibody binding can be determined and investigate the conservation and nature of these epitopes within the context of the natural grass pollen allergens. Peptides, 12-13 amino acid residues long and overlapping each other by 4 amino acid residues, based on the entire deduced amino acid sequence of the coding region of Lol p 5, were synthesised and assayed for IgE-binding. Two strong IgE-binding epitopes (Lol p 5 (49-60) and (265-276), referred to as peptides 7 and 34, respectively) were identified. These epitopes were further resolved by truncated peptides and amino acid replacement studies and the amino acid residues critical for IgE-binding determined (Lol p 5 (49-60) residue Lys57 and (265-276) residue Lys275). Sequences of these epitopes were conserved in related allergens and may form the conserved allergenic domains responsible for the cross-reactivity observed between pollen allergens of taxonomically related grasses. Furthermore, due to its strong IgE-reactivity, synthetic peptide Lol p 5 (265-276) was used to affinity-purify specific IgE antibodies which recognised proteins of other clinically important grass pollens. further indicating presence of allergenic cross-reactivity at the level of allergenic epitope. Moreover, Lol p 5 (265 276) demonstrated a strong capacity to inhibit IgE-binding to natural rye-grass pollen proteins highlighting the antibody accessibility

  4. APPLICATION OF OAT, WHEAT AND RYE BRAN TO MODIFY NUTRITIONAL PROPERTIES, PHYSICAL AND SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF EXTRUDED CORN SNACKS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowska, Agnieszka; Polcyn, Anna; Chudy, Sylwia; Michniewicz, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Cereal products constitute the basis of the diet pyramid. While the consumption of such products as bread decreases, the group of food which popularity increase is cereal snacks. Unfortunately, the dietary value of this group of foodstuffs is limited. Thus, different types of cereal bran may be added to the produced snacks to enhance their nutritive value. However, an addition of bran may have an adverse effect on quality attributes of products. Corn grits enriched with 20 and 40% oat, wheat and rye bran was extruded. Basic parameters determining the nutritive value, physical characteristics and sensory attributes of the six produced types of extrudates were measured and compared. Moreover, the effect of additives applied on viscosity of aqueous suspensions of the raw materials and extrudates under controlled conditions was measured using RVA. The dietary value of snacks containing bran depends on the type and quantitative shares of the additives. The content of dietary fibre in produced extrudates ranged from 6.5 to 15.8%, including soluble dietary fibre at 2.1 to 3.7%. With an increase of bran content in extrudates, their expansion decreased, density increased and the colour of extrudates changed (reduced brightness, increased a*, decreased b*). In sensory evaluation the highest acceptability was given to extrudates with a 20% addition of oat bran, while the lowest was given for those with 40% wheat bran. Based on PCA results positive correlations were found between overall desirability and crispiness, porosity, taste, colour and expansion. Negative correlations between desirability and hardness and density of extrudates were observed. The additives and their level also had an effect on changes in viscosity of aqueous suspensions measured using RVA. However, no correlation was found between quality features of extrudates and values of attributes measured in the analysis of viscosity. In the production of corn extruded snacks an addition of oat, wheat and rye bran

  5. Communicating Certainty About Nuclear Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, A.

    2013-12-01

    I have been spending much of my time in the past several years trying to warn the world about the continuing danger of nuclear weapons, and that the solution is a rapid reduction in the nuclear arsenal. I feel that a scientist who discovers dangers to society has an ethical duty to issue a warning, even if the danger is so scary that it is hard for people to deal with. The debate about nuclear winter in the 1980s helped to end the nuclear arms race, but the planet still has enough nuclear weapons, even after reductions planned for 2017 under the New START treaty, to produce nuclear winter, with temperatures plunging below freezing in the summer in major agricultural regions, threatening the food supply for most of the planet. New research by myself, Brian Toon, Mike Mills, and colleagues over the past six years has found that a nuclear war between any two countries, such as India and Pakistan, using 50 atom bombs each of the size dropped on Hiroshima could produce climate change unprecedented in recorded human history, and a world food crisis because of the agricultural effects. This is much less than 1% of the current global arsenal. Communicating certainty - what we know for sure - has been much more effective than communicating uncertainty. The limited success I have had has come from persistence and serendipity. The first step was to do the science. We have published peer-reviewed articles in major journals, including Science, Nature, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Journal of Geophysical Research, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Physics Today, and Climatic Change. But policymakers do not read these journals. Through fairly convoluted circumstances, which will be described in this talk, we were able to get papers published in Scientific American and the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists. I have also published several encyclopedia articles on the subject. As a Lead Author of Chapter 8 (Radiative Forcing) of the recently published Fifth Assessment

  6. Production of red-flowered oilseed rape via the ectopic expression of Orychophragmus violaceus OvPAP2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wenqin; Chen, Daozong; Pan, Qi; Li, Fengfeng; Zhao, Zhigang; Ge, Xianhong; Li, Zaiyun

    2018-02-01

    Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), which has yellow flowers, is both an important oil crop and a traditional tourism resource in China, whereas the Orychophragmus violaceus, which has purple flowers, likely possesses a candidate gene or genes to alter the flower colour of oilseed rape. A previously established B. napus line has a particular pair of O. violaceus chromosomes (M4) and exhibits slightly red petals. In this study, the transcriptomic analysis of M4, B. napus (H3), and O. violaceus with purple petals (OvP) and with white petals (OvW) revealed that most anthocyanin biosynthesis genes were up-regulated in both M4 and OvP. Read assembly and sequence alignment identified a homolog of AtPAP2 in M4, which produced the O. violaceus transcript (OvPAP2). The overexpression of OvPAP2 via the CaMV35S promoter in Arabidopsis thaliana led to different levels of anthocyanin accumulation in most organs, including the petals. However, the B. napus overexpression plants showed anthocyanin accumulation primarily in the anthers, but not the petals. However, when OvPAP2 was driven by the petal-specific promoter XY355, the transgenic B. napus plants produced red anthers and red petals. The results of metabolomic experiments showed that specific anthocyanins accumulated to high levels in the red petals. This study illustrates the feasibility of producing red-flowered oilseed rape, thereby enhancing its ornamental value, via the ectopic expression of the OvPAP2 gene. Moreover, the practical application of this study for insect pest management in the crop is discussed. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Nitrogen Fertilizer Management for Enhancing Crop Productivity and Nitrogen Use Efficiency in a Rice-Oilseed Rape Rotation System in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Yousaf

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of efficient rates of nitrogen (N fertilizer application is important with regard to increasing crop productivity and maintaining environmental sustainability. Rice-oilseed rape rotations are a mainstay of the economy and food security of China. Therefore, a field experiment was carried out during 2011–2013 in Honghu to identify the most appropriate N application rates for enhancing crop productivity and N use efficiency for rice (Oryza sativa L.-oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. rotations. Six N fertilizer treatments (RO1, RO2, RO3, RO4, RO5, and RO6 were laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. ROx represented the N fertilizer application rates (kg ha–1 for rice and oilseed rape, respectively. Grain yields from plots receiving N fertilizer were significantly increased by 59–71% (rice and 109–160% (oilseed rape during the total rotation (2011–2013, as compared to RO1 (control; no application. Furthermore, a similar trend was observed for N accumulation, ranging from 88–125% and 134–200% in aerial parts of rice and oilseed rape, respectively. Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE was significantly higher (38.5% under RO2 and lower (34.2% under RO6 while apparent N balance (ANB was positively lowest under R05 (183.4 kg ha–1 followed by R02 (234.2 kg ha–1 and highest under R06 (344.5 kg ha–1 during the total rotation. The results of grain yield, NUE, and ANB indicated that the R02 rate of N application was superior. This information should help to develop a cost-effective and environment-friendly N management strategy for rice-oilseed rape rotation systems of central China.

  8. Ethanol production from rape straw: Part of an oilseed rape biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvaniti, E.

    2010-12-15

    Agricultural residues from rapeseed biodiesel industry (rapeseed cake, rape straw, crude glycerol), which represent the 82%wt. of the oilseed rape, currently have only low-grade applications in the market. For this, a scenario was built on exploiting qualities of rapeseed biodiesel residues for forming added-value products, and expanding and upgrading an existing biodiesel plant, to an oilseed rape biorefinery by 2020 in European ground. Selection of products was based on a technological feasibility study given the time frame, while priority was given to Low-Value-High-Volume readily marketed products, like production of energy and feed. Products selected except rapeseed biodiesel, were ethanol, biogas, enzymes energy, chemical building blocks, and superior quality animal fodder. The production lines were analyzed and prospects for 2020 were projected on a critical basis. Particular merit was given to two products, ethanol from cellulose, and cellulolytic enzymes from rape straw. Cellulosic ethanol from rape straw was optimized for all production steps, i.e. for thermo-chemical pretreatment, enzyme hydrolysis, and fermentation of C6 sugars. Thermo-chemical pretreatment was studied with Wet oxidation technique at different conditions of temperature, reaction time, and oxygen pressure, but also factors like pre-soaking straw in warm water, or recycling liquid were also studied. Wet oxidation has been extensively tested in the past for different substrates, and gives promising results with indicators that are important for cellulosic ethanol production; C6 sugars recovery, high digestibility for enzymes, and limited formed degradation products. Here, optimal pretreatment conditions for rape straw were first presoaking rape straw at 80 deg. C for 20 minutes, and then wet-oxidize with 12 bar of oxygen at 205 deg. C for 3 minutes. Recovery of cellulose and hemicellulose under these conditions was 105% and 106% respectively, while recovery of lignin was 86%. When this

  9. Development of an efficient regeneration and transformation method for the new potential oilseed crop Lepidium campestre

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Lepidium campestre is an undomesticated oilseed species with a great potential to become a new crop for both food and industrial feedstocks production. Genetic modification is needed for further improving the oil quantity and quality of Lepidium. Studies on in vitro shoot regeneration of Lepidium are very limited and there is no transformation protocol available. Results We have investigated the effects of different factors, especially the type, concentration and combination of plant growth regulators (PGRs) on in vitro shoot regeneration of Lepidium. The results showed that the 2,4-D treatment was crucial to shoot regeneration from different explants. The duration of 2,4-D exposure between 2-4 days did not show significant difference in shoot regeneration, while the effect of 2,4-D concentration varied greatly depending on the type of explants and cytokinins used, for example, the low concentration of 2,4-D combined with TDZ significantly increased the regeneration frequency of hypocotyls. Cotyledon and hypocotyl explants responded differently to cytokinin, for example, TDZ was more effective than zeatin in promoting shoot regeneration from hypocotyls, but did not affect the regeneration of cotyledons which was more affected by high concentration of zeatin. The results also showed that NAA was not effective for shoot regeneration. Germination in light increased the regeneration frequency compared to that in dark. After optimization of the different conditions, an efficient regeneration protocol was developed with the regeneration efficiency of 92.7%. Using this protocol, the transformation frequency of 6% in average was achieved. The presence of transgenes in the transgenic lines was confirmed by GUS staining, PCR and Southern blot analyses. Conclusion Through systematic investigation of important factors affecting in vitro shoot regeneration, we have developed an efficient regeneration and transformation protocol for the genetic modification of

  10. The Emerging Oilseed Crop Sesamum indicum Enters the “Omics” Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komivi Dossa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sesame (Sesamum indicum L. is one of the oldest oilseed crops widely grown in Africa and Asia for its high-quality nutritional seeds. It is well adapted to harsh environments and constitutes an alternative cash crop for smallholders in developing countries. Despite its economic and nutritional importance, sesame is considered as an orphan crop because it has received very little attention from science. As a consequence, it lags behind the other major oil crops as far as genetic improvement is concerned. In recent years, the scenario has considerably changed with the decoding of the sesame nuclear genome leading to the development of various genomic resources including molecular markers, comprehensive genetic maps, high-quality transcriptome assemblies, web-based functional databases and diverse daft genome sequences. The availability of these tools in association with the discovery of candidate genes and quantitative trait locis for key agronomic traits including high oil content and quality, waterlogging and drought tolerance, disease resistance, cytoplasmic male sterility, high yield, pave the way to the development of some new strategies for sesame genetic improvement. As a result, sesame has graduated from an “orphan crop” to a “genomic resource-rich crop.” With the limited research teams working on sesame worldwide, more synergic efforts are needed to integrate these resources in sesame breeding for productivity upsurge, ensuring food security and improved livelihood in developing countries. This review retraces the evolution of sesame research by highlighting the recent advances in the “Omics” area and also critically discusses the future prospects for a further genetic improvement and a better expansion of this crop.

  11. Identification of three genes encoding microsomal oleate desaturases (FAD2) from the oilseed crop Camelina sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jinling; Snapp, Anna R; Lu, Chaofu

    2011-02-01

    Camelina sativa is a re-emerging low-input oilseed crop that may provide economical vegetable oils for industrial applications. It is desirable to increase the monounsaturated oleic acid (cis-9-octadecenoic acid, 18:1), and to decrease polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), linoleic (cis, cis-9,12-octadecadienoic acid, 18:2) and α-linolenic (all-cis-9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, 18:3) acids, in camelina oils to improve oxidative stability. 18:1 desaturation is mainly controlled by the microsomal oleate desaturase (FAD2; EC 1.3.1.35) encoded by the FAD2 gene. Three FAD2 genes, designated CsFAD2-1 to 3, were identified in camelina. Functional expression of these genes in yeast confirmed that they all encode microsomal oleate desaturases. Although the three CsFAD2 genes share very high sequence similarity, they showed different expression patterns. Expression of CsFAD2-1 was detected in all tissues examined, including developing seed, flower, as well as in vegetable tissues such as leaf, root, and stem. Transcripts of CsFAD2-2 and CsFAD2-3 were mainly detected in developing seeds, suggesting their major roles in storage oil desaturation in seed. The introns of the three CsFAD2 genes, which showed greater sequence variations, may provide additional resources for designing molecular markers in breeding. Furthermore, the roles of CsFAD2 in PUFA synthesis were demonstrated by mutant analysis and by antisense gene expression in camelina seed. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  12. Consequences of gene flow between oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and its relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongbo; Wei, Wei; Ma, Keping; Li, Junsheng; Liang, Yuyong; Darmency, Henri

    2013-10-01

    Numerous studies have focused on the probability of occurrence of gene flow between transgenic crops and their wild relatives and the likelihood of transgene escape, which should be assessed before the commercial release of transgenic crops. This review paper focuses on this issue for oilseed rape, Brassica napus L., a species that produces huge numbers of pollen grains and seeds. We analyze separately the distinct steps of gene flow: (1) pollen and seeds as vectors of gene flow; (2) spontaneous hybridization; (3) hybrid behavior, fitness cost due to hybridization and mechanisms of introgression; (4) and fitness benefit due to transgenes (e.g. herbicide resistance and Bt toxin). Some physical, biological and molecular means of transgene containment are also described. Although hybrids and first generation progeny are difficult to identify in fields and non-crop habitats, the literature shows that transgenes could readily introgress into Brassica rapa, Brassica juncea and Brassica oleracea, while introgression is expected to be rare with Brassica nigra, Hirschfeldia incana and Raphanus raphanistrum. The hybrids grow well but produce less seed than their wild parent. The difference declines with increasing generations. However, there is large uncertainty about the evolution of chromosome numbers and recombination, and many parameters of life history traits of hybrids and progeny are not determined with satisfactory confidence to build generic models capable to really cover the wide diversity of situations. We show that more studies are needed to strengthen and organize biological knowledge, which is a necessary prerequisite for model simulations to assess the practical and evolutionary outputs of introgression, and to provide guidelines for gene flow management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Composition and fatty acid profile of milk from cows supplemented with pressed oilseed cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; Neto, Severino Gonzaga; de Lima, Francisco Helton Sa; de Medeiros, Ariosvaldo Nunes; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Pereira, Elzania Sales; Bagaldo, Adriana Regina; de Pellegrini, Caius Barcellos; Correia, Braulio Rocha

    2016-10-01

    This study compared the productive and nutritional parameters of milk from crossbred lactating cows managed on Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania and with a diet supplemented with different pressed oilseed cakes. The supplements used were as follows: peanut cake, sunflower cake and palm kernel cake for replacement of soybean meal. Sixteen cows with an average weight of 544 ± 57 kg and producing 8 ± 1.4 L of milk per day were used in this study. The animals were randomly assigned to the treatments according to a Latin square design repeated over time, with four treatments, 16 animals and four experimental periods. Supplementation of the diet with peanut cake, sunflower cake and palm kernel cake compared with soybean meal in the diet of cows did not affect the average daily production or composition of the milk. The palm kernel cake promoted an increase in lauric fatty acids (C12:0 ) and palmitoleic acids (C16:1 ) (5.02 and 1.65%, respectively) compared with peanut cake and sunflower cake (4.13 and 4.01%, respectively). The levels of oleic fatty acids (C18:1 ) were higher for the sunflower cake and palm kernel cake supplements (26.01 and 25.01%, respectively) compared with peanut cake (23.11%). The replacement of soybean meal with sunflower cake and palm kernel cake improved the nutritional quality of the milk, with lower concentrations of saturated fatty acids and higher concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids, without compromising the production or nutritional composition of the milk. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  14. A study of the human immune response to Lolium perenne (rye) pollen and its components, Lol p I and Lol p II (rye I and rye II). I. Prevalence of reactivity to the allergens and correlations among skin test, IgE antibody, and IgG antibody data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidhoff, L R; Ehrlich-Kautzky, E; Grant, J H; Meyers, D A; Marsh, D G

    1986-12-01

    In a stratified random sample of 320 white adults, the prevalence of puncture skin test positivity (ST +) to Lolium perenne (rye grass)-pollen extract (LPE) was 16%. Fifteen percent of all subjects (or 84% of subjects classified LPE IgE antibody positive [Ab +]) was classified IgE Ab + to highly purified Lol p I (Rye I), and 4% of all subjects (or 26% of subjects classified LPE IgE Ab +) was classified IgE Ab + to highly purified Lol p II (Rye II). These data and similar results obtained in an allergy-enriched group of 361 subjects are consistent with previous studies that Lol I is a major allergen and Lol II is a minor allergen of LPE. Whether we studied LPE, Lol I, or Lol II, responder subjects were younger than nonresponder subjects and more male than female subjects were responders. We then investigated the quantitative interrelationships among ST, IgE, and IgG Ab responsiveness to LPE, Lol I, and Lol II in the allergy-enriched group. For each allergen, log-log correlations were strong and significant for ST versus IgE Ab and for IgE Ab versus IgG Ab. All subjects IgE Ab + to Lol I or Lol II were IgG Ab + to that allergen, supporting other evidence for a commonality in the genetic control influencing the production of IgE and IgG Abs to a given allergen. Log-log correlations among ST end points, IgE Ab levels, or IgG Ab levels were strong for LPE versus either Lol I or Lol II but weak between Lol I and Lol II, consistent with the reported lack of cross-reactivity between Lol I and Lol II. Despite these findings, almost all Lol II + subjects were Lol I + by ST (98%), IgE Ab (91%), and IgG Ab (83%), suggesting that the Ia-restricted immune recognition of both these molecules is at least in part under a common genetic control.

  15. Zea mI, the maize homolog of the allergen-encoding Lol pI gene of rye grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadwater, A H; Rubinstein, A L; Chay, C H; Klapper, D G; Bedinger, P A

    1993-09-15

    Sequence analysis of a pollen-specific cDNA from maize has identified a homolog (Zea mI) of the gene (Lol pI) encoding the major allergen of rye-grass pollen. The protein encoded by the partial cDNA sequence is 59.3% identical and 72.7% similar to the comparable region of the reported amino acid sequence of Lol pIA. Southern analysis indicates that this cDNA represents a member of a small multigene family in maize. Northern analysis shows expression only in pollen, not in vegetative or female floral tissues. The timing of expression is developmentally regulated, occurring at a low level prior to the first pollen mitosis and at a high level after this postmeiotic division. Western analysis detects a protein in maize pollen lysates using polyclonal antiserum and monoclonal antibodies directed against purified Lolium perenne allergen.

  16. Cloning and sequencing of Lol pI, the major allergenic protein of rye-grass pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, I J; Smith, P M; Pollock, J; Theerakulpisut, P; Avjioglu, A; Davies, S; Hough, T; Singh, M B; Simpson, R J; Ward, L D

    1991-02-25

    We have isolated a full length cDNA clone encoding the major glycoprotein allergen Lol pI. The clone was selected using a combination of immunological screening of a cDNA expression library and PCR amplification of Lol pI-specific transcripts. Lol pI expressed in bacteria as a fusion protein shows recognition by specific IgE antibodies present in sera of grass pollen-allergic subjects. Northern analysis has shown that the Lol pI transcripts are expressed only in pollen of rye-grass. Molecular cloning of Lol pI provides a molecular genetic approach to study the structure-function relationship of allergens.

  17. Attempts to use pulsed light as an emerging technology for inactivation of mould naturally present on rye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA ARON MAFTEI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pulsed light technology was used to inactivate moulds, naturally present on rye. The experiments were performed on samples containing 3.5·104 CFU/g and 4.3·103 CFU/g. Treatments of different duration (5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 40 pulses at intensity of 0.4 J·cm-2 per pulse were applied and mould inactivation was evaluated. Besides confirming the utilisation of pulsed light as decontamination method for cereals, this work contributes with new information regarding the effects of the spectral range of pulsed light, proving that the whole UV range of the spectrum accounts for the lethal effect against moulds. This research supports pulsed light as emerging technology in food preservation.

  18. Winter therapy for the accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    Hundreds of people are hard at work during the year-end technical stop as all the accelerators are undergoing maintenance, renovation and upgrade operations in parallel.   The new beam absorber on its way to Point 2 before being lowered into the LHC tunnel for installation. The accelerator teams didn’t waste any time before starting their annual winter rejuvenation programme over the winter. At the end of November, as the LHC ion run was beginning, work got under way on the PS Booster, where operation had already stopped. On 14 December, once the whole complex had been shut down, the technical teams turned their attention to the other injectors and the LHC. The year-end technical stop (YETS) provides an opportunity to carry out maintenance work on equipment and repair any damage as well as to upgrade the machines for the upcoming runs. Numerous work projects are carried out simultaneously, so good coordination is crucial. Marzia Bernardini's team in the Enginee...

  19. Multiple-trait- and selection indices-genomic predictions for grain yield and protein content in rye for feeding purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulthess, Albert Wilhelm; Wang, Yu; Miedaner, Thomas; Wilde, Peer; Reif, Jochen C; Zhao, Yusheng

    2016-02-01

    Exploiting the benefits from multiple-trait genomic selection for protein content prediction relying on additional grain yield information within training sets is a realistic genomic selection approach in rye breeding. Multiple-trait genomic selection (MTGS) was specially designed to benefit from the information of genetically correlated indicator traits in order to improve genomic prediction accuracies. Two segregating F3:4 rye testcross populations genotyped using diversity array technology markers and evaluated for grain yield (GY) and protein content (PC) were considered. The aims of our study were to explore the benefits of MTGS over single-trait genomic selection (STGS) for GY and PC prediction and to apply GS to predict different selection indices (SIs) for GY and PC improvement. Our results using a two-trait model (2TGS) empirically confirm that the ideal scenario to exploit the benefits of MTGS would be when the predictions of a relatively low heritable target trait with scarce phenotypic records are supported by an intensively phenotyped genetically correlated indicator trait which has higher heritability. This ideal scenario is expected for PC in practice. According to our GS implementation, MTGS can be performed in order to achieve more cycles of selection by unit of time. If the aim is to exclusively improve the prediction accuracy of a scarcely phenotyped trait, 2TGS will be a more accurate approach than a three-trait model which incorporates an additional correlated indicator trait. In general for balanced phenotypic information, we recommend to perform GS considering SIs as single traits, this method being a simple, direct and efficient way of prediction.

  20. Methodologic considerations in the measurement of glycemic index: glycemic response to rye bread, oatmeal porridge, and mashed potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hätönen, Katja A; Similä, Minna E; Virtamo, Jarmo R; Eriksson, Johan G; Hannila, Marja-Leena; Sinkko, Harri K; Sundvall, Jouko E; Mykkänen, Hannu M; Valsta, Liisa M

    2006-11-01

    Methodologic choices affect measures of the glycemic index (GI). The effects on GI values of blood sampling site, reference food type, and the number of repeat tests have been insufficiently determined. The objective was to study the effect of methodologic choices on GI values. Comparisons were made between venous and capillary blood sampling and between glucose and white bread as the reference food. The number of tests needed for the reference food was assessed. Rye bread, oatmeal porridge, and instant mashed potato were used as the test foods. Twelve healthy volunteers were served each test food once and both reference foods 3 times at 1-wk intervals in a random order after they had fasted overnight. Capillary and venous blood samples were drawn at intervals for 3 h after each study meal. GIs and their CVs based on capillary samples were lower than those based on venous samples. Two tests of glucose solution as the reference provided stable capillary GIs for the test foods. The capillary GIs did not differ significantly when white bread was used as the reference 1, 2, or 3 times, but the variation was lower when tests were performed 2 and 3 times. Capillary GIs with white bread as the reference were 1.3 times as high as those with glucose as the reference. The capillary GIs of rye bread, oatmeal porridge, and mashed potato were 77, 74, and 80, respectively, with glucose as the reference. Capillary blood sampling should be used in the measurement of GI, and reference tests with glucose or white bread should be performed at least twice.