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Sample records for winter northeast monsoon

  1. Winter/Summer Monsoon Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Winter/Summer Monsoon Experiment (MONEX) was conducted during the First Global GARP (Global Atmospheric Research Program) Experiment (FGGE). An international...

  2. Late holocene primary productivity and sea surface temperature variations in the northeastern Arabian Sea: Implications for winter monsoon variability.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Boll, A.; Luckge, A.; Munz, P.; Forke, S.; Schulz, H.; Ramaswamy, V.; Rixen, T.; Gaye, B.; Emeis, K.-C.

    changes in winter monsoon strength with winds from the northeast that drive convective mixing and high surface ocean productivity in the northeastern Arabian Sea. To establish a high-resolution record of winter monsoon variability for the late Holocene, we...

  3. Air pollution episodes associated with East Asian winter monsoons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hien, P.D., E-mail: pdhien@gmail.com [Vietnam Atomic Energy Agency, 59 Ly Thuong Kiet str. Hanoi (Viet Nam); Loc, P.D.; Dao, N.V. [National Hydro-Meteorological Center, 62-A2 Nguyen Chi Thanh str. Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2011-11-01

    A dozen multi-day pollution episodes occur from October to February in Hanoi, Vietnam due to prolonged anticyclonic conditions established after the northeast monsoon surges (cold surges). These winter pollution episodes (WPEs) account for most of the 24-h PM{sub 10} exceedances and the highest concentrations of gaseous pollutants in Hanoi. In this study, WPEs were investigated using continuous air quality monitoring data and information on upper-air soundings and air mass trajectories. The 24-h pollutant concentrations are lowest during cold surges; concurrently rise thereafter reaching the highest levels toward the middle of a monsoon cycle, then decline ahead of the next cold surge. Each monsoon cycle usually proceeds through a dry phase and a humid phase as Asiatic continental cold air arrives in Hanoi through inland China then via the East China Sea. WPEs are associated with nighttime radiation temperature inversions (NRTIs) in the dry phase and subsidence temperature inversions (STIs) in the humid phase. In NRTI periods, the rush hour pollution peak is more pronounced in the evening than in the morning and the pollution level is about two times higher at night than in daytime. In STI periods, broad morning and evening traffic peaks are observed and pollution is as high at night as in daytime. The close association between pollution and winter monsoon meteorology found in this study for the winter 2003-04 may serve as a basis for advance warning of WPEs and for forecasting the 24-h pollutant concentrations. - Highlights: {yields} Dozen pollution episodes from Oct. to Feb in Hanoi associated with anticyclones after monsoon surges. {yields} 24-h concentrations of PM{sub 10}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}, CO rise after surge and decline ahead of the next. {yields} Episodes caused by nighttime radiation and subsidence inversions in dry and humid monsoon phases. {yields} Distinct diurnal variations of pollutant concentrations observed in the two periods. {yields} Close

  4. Comparison of East Asian winter monsoon indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Hui

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Four East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM indices are compared in this paper. In the research periods, all the indices show similar interannual and decadal-interdecadal variations, with predominant periods centering in 3–4 years, 6.5 years and 9–15 years, respectively. Besides, all the indices show remarkable weakening trends since the 1980s. The correlation coefficient of each two indices is positive with a significance level of 99%. Both the correlation analyses and the composites indicate that in stronger EAWM years, the Siberian high and the higher-level subtropical westerly jet are stronger, and the Aleutian low and the East Asia trough are deeper. This circulation pattern is favorable for much stronger northwesterly wind and lower air temperature in the subtropical regions of East Asia, while it is on the opposite in weaker EAWM years. Besides, EAWM can also exert a remarkable leading effect on the summer monsoon. After stronger (weaker EAWM, less (more summer precipitation is seen over the regions from the Yangtze River valley of China to southern Japan, while more (less from South China Sea to the tropical western Pacific.

  5. A numerical study of the South China Sea Warm Current during winter monsoon relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cong; Ding, Yang; Bao, Xianwen; Bi, Congcong; Li, Ruixiang; Zhang, Cunjie; Shen, Biao; Wan, Kai

    2018-03-01

    Using a Finite-Volume Community Ocean Model, we investigated the dynamic mechanism of the South China Sea Warm Current (SCSWC) in the northern South China Sea (NSCS) during winter monsoon relaxation. The model reproduces the mean surface circulation of the NSCS during winter, while model-simulated subtidal currents generally capture its current pattern. The model shows that the current over the continental shelf is generally southwestward, under a strong winter monsoon condition, but a northeastward counter-wind current usually develops between 50-and 100-m isobaths, when the monsoon relaxes. Model experiments, focusing on the wind relaxation process, show that sea level is elevated in the northwestern South China Sea (SCS), related to the persistent northeasterly monsoon. Following wind relaxation, a high sea level band builds up along the mid-shelf, and a northeastward current develops, having an obvious vertical barotropic structure. Momentum balance analysis indicates that an along-shelf pressure gradient provides the initial driving force for the SCSWC during the first few days following wind relaxation. The SCSWC subsequently reaches a steady quasi-geostrophic balance in the cross-shelf direction, mainly linked to sea level adjustment over the shelf. Lagrangian particle tracking experiments show that both the southwestward coastal current and slope current contribute to the northeastward movement of the SCSWC during winter monsoon relaxation.

  6. Global surface temperature in relation to northeast monsoon rainfall ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    is observed that the meridional gradient in surface air temperature anomalies between Europe and ... Surface air tempera- ture is one of the factors that influence monsoon variability. The distribution of surface air temper- ature over land and sea determines the locations ..... Asia, north Indian Ocean, northeast Russia and.

  7. Living coccolithophores during the northeast monsoon from the Equatorial Indian Ocean: Implications on hydrography

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Guptha, M.V.S.; Mergulhao, L.P.; Murty, V.S.N.; Shenoy, D.M.

    suggested a prevalence of oligotrophic conditions or lack of supply of nutrients into the upper mixed layer (approx. 50 m thick) during the northeast monsoon. However, the relatively higher abundance of Florisphaera profunda at 4 degrees S indicated...

  8. Late Holocene anti-phase change in the East Asian summer and winter monsoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Shugang; Wang, Xulong; Roberts, Helen M.; Duller, Geoff A. T.; Cheng, Peng; Lu, Yanchou; An, Zhisheng

    2018-05-01

    Changes in East Asian summer and winter monsoon intensity have played a pivotal role in the prosperity and decline of society in the past, and will be important for future climate scenarios. However, the phasing of changes in the intensity of East Asian summer and winter monsoons on millennial and centennial timescales during the Holocene is unclear, limiting our ability to understand the factors driving past and future changes in the monsoon system. Here, we present a high resolution (up to multidecadal) loess record for the last 3.3 ka from the southern Chinese Loess Plateau that clearly demonstrates the relationship between changes in the intensity of the East Asian summer and winter monsoons, particularly at multicentennial scales. At multimillennial scales, the East Asian summer monsoon shows a steady weakening, while the East Asian winter monsoon intensifies continuously. At multicentennial scales, a prominent ∼700-800 yr cycle in the East Asian summer and winter monsoon intensity is observed, and here too the two monsoons are anti-phase. We conclude that multimillennial changes are driven by Northern Hemisphere summer insolation, while multicentennial changes can be correlated with solar activity and changing strength of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation.

  9. Winter distribution of Calanus finmarchicus in the Northeast Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heath, M.R.; Fraser, J.G.; Gislason, A.

    2000-01-01

    Data from plankton sampling and Optical Plankton Counter deployments during six cruises between December of 1994 and 1999 have been used to derive a composite three-dimensional distribution of the abundance of Calanus finmarchicus during winter (December-January) in the Norwegian Sea and Northeast...... Northeast Atlantic, the concentration of wintering animals is around 30% of that in the Norwegian Sea and the vertical distribution is more diffuse and on average deeper. Modelling studies have shown that the overwinter distribution and transport are key factors determining the spatial persistence of C...

  10. Vertical distribution of mesozooplankton in the central and eastern Arabian Sea during the winter monsoons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Padmavati, G.; Haridas, P.; Nair, K.K.C.; Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Shiney, P.; Madhupratap, M.

    The vertical distribution of mesozooplankton in the central and eastern Arabian Sea was investigated during the winter monsoon in 1995. Samples were analysed from discrete depth zones defined according to oxygen and temperature profiles of the water...

  11. Wet scavenging of organic and elemental carbon during summer monsoon and winter monsoon seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonwani, S.; Kulshrestha, U. C.

    2017-12-01

    In the era of rapid industrialization and urbanization, atmospheric abundance of carbonaceous aerosols is increasing due to more and more fossil fuel consumption. Increasing levels of carbonaceous content have significant adverse effects on air quality, human health and climate. The present study was carried out at Delhi covering summer monsoon (July -Sept) and winter monsoon (Dec-Jan) seasons as wind and other meteorological factors affect chemical composition of precipitation in different manner. During the study, the rainwater and PM10 aerosols were collected in order to understand the scavenging process of elemental and organic carbon. The Rain water samples were collected on event basis. PM10 samples were collected before rain (PR), during rain (DR) and after rain (AR) during 2016-2017. The collected samples were analysed by the thermal-optical reflectance method using IMPROVE-A protocol. In PM10, the levels of organic carbon (OC) and its fractions (OC1, OC2, OC3 and OC4) were found significantly lower in the AR samples as compared to PR and DR samples. A significant positive correlation was noticed between scavenging ratios of organic carbon and rain intensity indicating an efficient wet removal of OC. In contrast to OCs, the levels of elemental carbon and its fractions (EC1, EC2, and EC3) in AR were not distinct during PR and DR. The elemental carbon showed very week correlation with rain intensity in Delhi region which could be explained on the basis of hydrophobic nature of freshly emitted carbon soot. The detailed results will be discussed during the conference.

  12. Hydrography and circulation in the western Bay of Bengal during the northeast monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.; Gouveia, A.D.; Shankar, D.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Vinayachandran, P.N.; Sundar, D.; Michael, G.S.; Nampoothiri, G.

    , the transport is 7.7 x 10 sup(6) m sup(3) s sup(-1) . Recent model studies lead us to conclude that the EICC during the northeast monsoon is driven by winds along the east coast of India and Ekman pumping in the interior bay. In the south, Ekman pumping over...

  13. Multi-model ensemble schemes for predicting northeast monsoon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    drought occurred. Some of these are extreme north- east monsoon years with significantly less rain- fall (1982, 1988, 1989 and 2005), and in some years, more than normal rainfall occurred (1987,. 1993, 1996, 1997 and 1998). Some of these typ- ical years may also be characterized as El Ni˜no year (1987), La Ni˜na year ...

  14. Trends of rainfall regime in Peninsular Malaysia during northeast and southwest monsoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chooi Tan, Kok

    2018-04-01

    The trends of rainfall regime in Peninsular Malaysia is mainly affected by the seasonal monsoon. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of northeast and southwest monsoons on the monthly rainfall patterns over Badenoch Estate, Kedah. In addition, the synoptic maps of wind vector also being developed to identify the wind pattern over Peninsular Malaysia from 2007 – 2016. On the other hand, the archived daily rainfall data is acquired from Malaysian Meteorological Department. The temporal and trends of the monthly and annual rainfall over the study area have been analysed from 2007 to 2016. Overall, the average annual precipitation over the study area from 2007 to 2016 recorded by rain gauge is 2562.35 mm per year.

  15. Impacts of interannual variation of the East Asian winter monsoon on aerosol concentrations over eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J.; Liao, H.; Li, J.; Feng, J.

    2012-04-01

    China has been experiencing increased concentrations of aerosols, commonly attributed to the large increases in emissions associated with the rapid economic development. We apply a global three-dimensional Goddard Earth Observing System chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) driven by the NASA/GEOS-4 assimilated meteorological data to quantify the impacts of East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) on the aerosol concentrations over eastern China. We found that the simulated aerosol concentrations over eastern China have strong interannual variation and negative correlations with the strength of EAWM. Model results show that, accounting for sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, and organic carbon aerosols, the winter surface layer PM2.5 concentration averaged over eastern China (110°-125°E, 20°-45°N) can be 17.97% (4.78 µg m-3) higher in the weak monsoon years than that in the strong monsoon years. Regionally, the weakening of EAWM is shown to be able to increase PM2.5 concentration in the middle and lower reach of the Yellow River by 12 µg m-3. This point indicates that climate change associated with variation of EAWM has an essential influence on worsening air quality over eastern China. The possible causes of higher aerosol concentrations in the weak monsoon years may be attributed to the changing in wind fields and planetary boundary layer height between the weak and strong monsoon years. Sensitivity studies are performed to identify the role of chemical reaction associated with temperature and humidity on the higher aerosol concentrations in the weak monsoon years over eastern China.

  16. Regional-scale relationships between aerosol and summer monsoon circulation, and precipitation over northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Soon-Chang; Kim, Sang-Woo; Choi, Suk-Jin; Choi, In-Jin

    2010-08-01

    We investigated the regional-scale relationships between columnar aerosol loads and summer monsoon circulation, and also the precipitation over northeast Asia using aerosol optical depth (AOD) data obtained from the 8-year MODIS, AERONET Sun/sky radiometer, and precipitation data acquired under the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP). These high-quality data revealed the regional-scale link between AOD and summer monsoon circulation, precipitation in July over northeast Asian countries, and their distinct spatial and annual variabilities. Compared to the mean AOD for the entire period of 2001-2008, the increase of almost 40-50% in the AOD value in July 2005 and July 2007 was found over the downwind regions of China (Yellow Sea, Korean peninsula, and East Sea), with negative precipitation anomalies. This can be attributable to the strong westerly confluent flows, between cyclone flows by continental thermal low centered over the northern China and anticyclonic flows by the western North Pacific High, which transport anthropogenic pollution aerosols emitted from east China to aforementioned downwind high AOD regions along the rim of the Pacific marine airmass. In July 2002, however, the easterly flows transported anthropogenic aerosols from east China to the southwestern part of China in July 2002. As a result, the AOD off the coast of China was dramatically reduced in spite of decreasing rainfall. From the calculation of the cross-correlation coefficient between MODIS-derived AOD anomalies and GPCP precipitation anomalies in July over the period 2001-2008, we found negative correlations over the areas encompassed by 105-115°E and 30-35°N and by 120-140°E and 35-40°N (Yellow Sea, Korean peninsula, and East Sea). This suggests that aerosol loads over these regions are easily influenced by the Asian monsoon flow system and associated precipitation.

  17. Enhanced export of carbon by salps during the northeast monsoon period in the northern Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, V.; Sarin, M. M.; Rengarajan, R.

    2005-07-01

    A drifting sediment trap was deployed and 234Th activity in the water column was measured to calculate export flux of carbon at a time-series station in the northern Arabian Sea (lat. 21°30' N; long. 64°00' E) during the winter monsoon, 10-23 February 1997. The sampling period was characterised by an extensive salp swarm, and salp faecal pellets were the dominant contributors to the particulate matter in the sediment traps. Average 234Th flux out of the photic zone was 2300 dpm m -2 d -1 and average POC/ 234Th ratio in trap-derived particles was 0.14 mg/dpm. Average 234Th-derived export flux of carbon was about 332 mg m -2 d -1, representing 36% of the daily primary production (PP) (925 mg C m -2 d -1). Export of about one-third of the daily PP during the end of the winter monsoon could be due to the episodic nature of salp swarms. Salp swarms are frequently observed in the Arabian Sea and may be a significant pathway for rapid export of carbon from the euphotic zone.

  18. Sedimentology and geomorphology analysis of coastal area along pantai penarik, terengganu before and during northeast monsoon season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Tengku Ahmad Imran Ku; Shaufi Sokiman, Mohamad

    2017-10-01

    This research is conducted to understand the sedimentology and morphological change before and during the northeast monsoon at the east coast of peninsular Malaysia. The increase in wind speed, wave energy and rainfall during the northeast monsoon are believed to causes the coastal erosion to increase during the season. Rapid development along the east coast area might disrupt the sediments distribution which can increase the coastal erosion rate every year. The understanding on the sediments distribution, erosion and deposition as well as the morphological change can help to figure out if the coastal erosion can affect the infrastructure in the future. The result of the study can show the necessity to perform mitigation or any required action toward the problem that might happen

  19. Winter monsoon circulation of the northern Arabian Sea and Somali Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Friedrich A.; Fischer, Jürgen

    2000-03-01

    The winter monsoon circulation in the northern inflow region of the Somali Current is discussed on the basis of an array of moored acoustic Doppler current profiler and current meter stations deployed during 1995-1996 and a ship survey carried out in January 1998. It is found that the westward inflow into the Somali Current regime occurs essentially south of 11°N and that this inflow bifurcates at the Somali coast, with the southward branch supplying the equatorward Somali Current and the northward one returning into the northwestern Arabian Sea. This northward branch partially supplies a shallow outflow through the Socotra Passage between the African continent and the banks of Socotra and partially feeds into eastward recirculation directly along the southern slopes of Socotra. Underneath this shallow surface flow, southwestward undercurrent flows are observed. Undercurrent inflow from the Gulf of Aden through the Socotra Passage occurs between 100 and 1000 m, with its current core at 700-800 m, and is clearly marked by the Red Sea Water (RSW) salinity maximum. The observations suggest that the maximum RSW inflow out of the Gulf of Aden occurs during the winter monsoon season and uses the Socotra Passage as its main route into the Indian Ocean. Westward undercurrent inflow into the Somali Current regime is also observed south of Socotra, but this flow lacks the RSW salinity maximum. Off the Arabian peninsula, eastward boundary flow is observed in the upper 800 m with a compensating westward flow to the south. The observed circulation pattern is qualitatively compared with recent high-resolution numerical model studies and is found to be in basic agreement.

  20. East Asian winter monsoon forecasting schemes based on the NCEP's climate forecast system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Baoqiang; Fan, Ke; Yang, Hongqing

    2017-12-01

    The East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) is the major climate system in the Northern Hemisphere during boreal winter. In this study, we developed two schemes to improve the forecasting skill of the interannual variability of the EAWM index (EAWMI) using the interannual increment prediction method, also known as the DY method. First, we found that version 2 of the NCEP's Climate Forecast System (CFSv2) showed higher skill in predicting the EAWMI in DY form than not. So, based on the advantage of the DY method, Scheme-I was obtained by adding the EAWMI DY predicted by CFSv2 to the observed EAWMI in the previous year. This scheme showed higher forecasting skill than CFSv2. Specifically, during 1983-2016, the temporal correlation coefficient between the Scheme-I-predicted and observed EAWMI was 0.47, exceeding the 99% significance level, with the root-mean-square error (RMSE) decreased by 12%. The autumn Arctic sea ice and North Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) are two important external forcing factors for the interannual variability of the EAWM. Therefore, a second (hybrid) prediction scheme, Scheme-II, was also developed. This scheme not only involved the EAWMI DY of CFSv2, but also the sea-ice concentration (SIC) observed the previous autumn in the Laptev and East Siberian seas and the temporal coefficients of the third mode of the North Pacific SST in DY form. We found that a negative SIC anomaly in the preceding autumn over the Laptev and the East Siberian seas could lead to a significant enhancement of the Aleutian low and East Asian westerly jet in the following winter. However, the intensity of the winter Siberian high was mainly affected by the third mode of the North Pacific autumn SST. Scheme-I and Scheme-II also showed higher predictive ability for the EAWMI in negative anomaly years compared to CFSv2. More importantly, the improvement in the prediction skill of the EAWMI by the new schemes, especially for Scheme-II, could enhance the forecasting skill of

  1. Attribution of aerosol radiative forcing over India during the winter monsoon to emissions from source categories and geographical regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S.; Venkataraman, C.; Boucher, O.

    2011-08-01

    We examine the aerosol radiative effects due to aerosols emitted from different emission sectors (anthropogenic and natural) and originating from different geographical regions within and outside India during the northeast (NE) Indian winter monsoon (January-March). These studies are carried out through aerosol transport simulations in the general circulation (GCM) model of the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (LMD). The model estimates of aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA) show lower values (0.86-0.92) over the region north to 10°N comprising of the Indian subcontinent, Bay of Bengal, and parts of the Arabian Sea compared to the region south to 10°N where the estimated SSA values lie in the range 0.94-0.98. The model estimated SSA is consistent with the SSA values inferred through measurements on various platforms. Aerosols of anthropogenic origin reduce the incoming solar radiation at the surface by a factor of 10-20 times the reduction due to natural aerosols. At the top-of-atmosphere (TOA), aerosols from biofuel use cause positive forcing compared to the negative forcing from fossil fuel and natural sources in correspondence with the distribution of SSA which is estimated to be the lowest (0.7-0.78) from biofuel combustion emissions. Aerosols originating from India and Africa-west Asia lead to the reduction in surface radiation (-3 to -8 W m -2) by 40-60% of the total reduction in surface radiation due to all aerosols over the Indian subcontinent and adjoining ocean. Aerosols originating from India and Africa-west Asia also lead to positive radiative effects at TOA over the Arabian Sea, central India (CNI), with the highest positive radiative effects over the Bay of Bengal and cause either negative or positive effects over the Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP).

  2. How autumn Eurasian snow anomalies affect east asian winter monsoon: a numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiao; Wang, Bin

    2018-03-01

    Previous studies have found that snow Eurasian anomalies in autumn can affect East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM), but the mechanisms remain controversial and not well understood. The possible mechanisms by which Eurasian autumn snow anomalies affect EAWM are investigated by numerical experiments with a coupled general circulation model and its atmospheric general circulation model component. The leading empirical orthogonal function mode of the October-November mean Eurasian snow cover is characterized by a uniform anomaly over a broad region of central Eurasia (40°N-65°N, 60°E-140°E). However, the results from a 150-ensemble mean simulation with snow depth anomaly specified in October and November reveal that the Mongolian Plateau and Vicinity (MPV, 40°-55°N, 80°-120°E) is the key region for autumn snow anomalies to affect EAWM. The excessive snow forcing can significantly enhance EAWM and the snowfall over the northwestern China and along the EAWM front zone stretching from the southeast China to Japan. The physical process involves a snow-monsoon feedback mechanism. The excessive autumn snow anomalies over the MPV region can persist into the following winter, and significantly enhance winter snow anomalies, which increase surface albedo, reduce incoming solar radiation and cool the boundary layer air, leading to an enhanced Mongolian High and a deepened East Asian trough. The latter, in turn, strengthen surface northwesterly winds, cooling East Asia and increasing snow accumulation over the MPV region and the southeastern China. The increased snow covers feedback to EAWM system through changing albedo, extending its influence southeastward. It is also found that the atmosphere-ocean coupling process can amplify the delayed influence of Eurasian snow mass anomaly on EAWM. The autumn surface albedo anomalies, however, do not have a lasting "memory" effect. Only if the albedo anomalies are artificially extended into December and January, will the EAWM be

  3. Different sub-monsoon signals in stable oxygen isotope in daily precipitation to the northeast of the Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxin Yang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a stable oxygen isotope (δ18O record in daily precipitation from two sites located to the northeast of the Tibetan Plateau (TP: Yushu on the eastern TP and Xi'an on the eastern Chinese Loess Plateau. It attempts to reveal the unique features associated with variations in atmospheric circulation patterns over inland China. For δ18O in daily precipitation at both stations, temperature effect is significant (p < 0.01 only during non-monsoon, while amount effect is significant only during monsoon. This suggests the coexistence of local recycling with large-scale atmospheric circulation on regional precipitation, which is further verified by the significant correlation of relative humidity with δ18O at both stations during monsoon season. The similarity of δ18O in regions under the supposedly same atmospheric circulation streams is tested for Yushu with that at Lhasa, Lulang and Delingha, demonstrating the lag days of δ18O depletion at Yushu with that at Lulang as varying from 15 to 25 d. This confirms the Bay of Bengal monsoon dominance over Yushu. Daily δ18O at Xi'an is compared with contemporary data at Changsha and Guangzhou, featuring a close correlation with the East Asian summer monsoon evolution processes over eastern China, and reflecting the Meiyu-Baiu front influence during July. Back-trajectory analysis in October–November at Xi'an identified the combined effect of cooling of the atmospheric column by the colder air from the west and the lifting of the warmer air from the east, which coexists with local water vapour source. Interactions of the three result in condensation at lower temperatures that is coupled with the long-distance transport of 2/3 of the available water vapour, thus leading to extremely low δ18O values in the post-monsoon precipitation.

  4. Correlation and anti-correlation of the East Asian summer and winter monsoons during the last 21,000 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xinyu; Liu, Zhengyu; Wang, Shaowu; Cheng, Jun; Zhu, Jiang

    2016-06-22

    Understanding the past significant changes of the East Asia Summer Monsoon (EASM) and Winter Monsoon (EAWM) is critical for improving the projections of future climate over East Asia. One key issue that has remained outstanding from the paleo-climatic records is whether the evolution of the EASM and EAWM are correlated. Here, using a set of long-term transient simulations of the climate evolution of the last 21,000 years, we show that the EASM and EAWM are positively correlated on the orbital timescale in response to the precessional forcing, but are anti-correlated on millennial timescales in response to North Atlantic melt water forcing. The relation between EASM and EAWM can differ dramatically for different timescales because of the different response mechanisms, highlighting the complex dynamics of the East Asian monsoon system and the challenges for future projection.

  5. Modeling and forecasting rainfall patterns of southwest monsoons in North-East India as a SARIMA process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimha Murthy, K. V.; Saravana, R.; Vijaya Kumar, K.

    2018-02-01

    Weather forecasting is an important issue in the field of meteorology all over the world. The pattern and amount of rainfall are the essential factors that affect agricultural systems. India experiences the precious Southwest monsoon season for four months from June to September. The present paper describes an empirical study for modeling and forecasting the time series of Southwest monsoon rainfall patterns in the North-East India. The Box-Jenkins Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) methodology has been adopted for model identification, diagnostic checking and forecasting for this region. The study has shown that the SARIMA (0, 1, 1) (1, 0, 1)4 model is appropriate for analyzing and forecasting the future rainfall patterns. The Analysis of Means (ANOM) is a useful alternative to the analysis of variance (ANOVA) for comparing the group of treatments to study the variations and critical comparisons of rainfall patterns in different months of the season.

  6. Decadal modulation of the ENSO-East Asian winter monsoon relationship by the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xin; Zhang, Wenjun; Stuecker, Malte F.; Liu, Peng; Jin, Fei-Fei; Tan, Guirong

    2017-10-01

    This work investigates the decadal modulation of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) relationship by the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). A stable ENSO-EAWM relationship is found during the positive AMO phase but not during the negative phase. While the impact of El Niño events on the EAWM does not depend on the AMO phase, a different picture is observed for La Niña events. The La Niña boreal winter season coincides with a strengthened EAWM during a positive AMO phase and a weakened EAWM during a negative AMO phase. We suggest that the AMO's modulating effect mainly comprises two pathways that influence ENSO's impact on the EAWM. On one hand, when La Niña coincides with a positive AMO, the warm SST anomalies over the western North Pacific (WNP) are amplified both in intensity and spatial extent, which favors strengthened WNP cyclonic anomalies and an enhanced EAWM. During La Niña with a negative AMO, only very weak SST anomalies occur over the WNP with reduced WNP cyclonic anomalies that are confined to the tropics, thus having little effect on the EAWM. On the other hand, an eastward-propagating Rossby wavetrain across the mid-high latitudes of Eurasia during a warm AMO phase strengthens the Siberian high and thus leads to a strengthened EAWM, while during a cold AMO phase the Siberian high is weakened, leading to a reduced EAWM. In contrast, El Niño and its associated atmospheric responses are relatively strong and stable, independent of the AMO phase. These results carry important implications to the seasonal-to-interannual predictability associated with ENSO.

  7. Role of cold surge and MJO on rainfall enhancement over indonesia during east asian winter monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauzi, R. R.; Hidayat, R.

    2018-05-01

    Intensity of precipitation in Indonesia is influenced by convection and propagation of southwest wind. Objective of this study is to analyze the relationship between cold surge and the phenomenon of intra-seasonal climate variability Madden-julian Oscillation (MJO) for affecting precipitation in Indonesia. The data used for identifying the occurrence of cold surge are meridional wind speed data from the ERA-Interim. In addition, this study also used RMM1 and RMM2 index data from Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) for identifying MJO events. The results showed that during East Asian Winter Monsoon (EAWM) in 15 years (2000-2015), there are 362 cold surge events, 186 MJO events, and 113 cold surge events were associated with MJO events. The spread of cold surge can penetrate to equator and brought mass of water vapor that causes dominant precipitation in the Indonesian Sea up to 50-75% from climatological precipitation during EAWM. The MJO convection activity that moves from west to east also increases precipitation, but the distribution of rainfall is wider than cold surge, especially in Eastern Indonesia. MJO and cold surge simultaneously can increase rainfall over 100-150% in any Indonesian region that affected by MJO and cold surge events. The mechanism of heavy rainfall is illustrated by high activity of moisture transport in areas such as Java Sea and coastal areas of Indonesia.

  8. Influence of Northeast Monsoon cold surges on air quality in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashfold, M. J.; Latif, M. T.; Samah, A. A.; Mead, M. I.; Harris, N. R. P.

    2017-10-01

    Ozone (O3) is an important ground-level pollutant. O3 levels and emissions of O3 precursors have increased significantly over recent decades in East Asia and export of this O3 eastward across the Pacific Ocean is well documented. Here we show that East Asian O3 is also transported southward to tropical Southeast (SE) Asia during the Northeast Monsoon (NEM) season (defined as November to February), and that this transport pathway is especially strong during 'cold surges'. Our analysis employs reanalysis data and measurements from surface sites in Peninsular Malaysia, both covering 2003-2012, along with trajectory calculations. Using a cold surge index (northerly winds at 925 hPa averaged over 105-110°E, 5°N) to define sub-seasonal strengthening of the NEM winds, we find the largest changes in a region covering much of the Indochinese Peninsula and surrounding seas. Here, the levels of O3 and another key pollutant, carbon monoxide, calculated by the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC) Reanalysis are on average elevated by, respectively, >40% (∼15 ppb) and >60% (∼80 ppb) during cold surges. Further, in the broader region of SE Asia local afternoon exceedances of the World Health Organization's air quality guideline for O3 (100 μg m-3, or ∼50 ppb, averaged over 8 h) largely occur during these cold surges. Day-to-day variations in available O3 observations at surface sites on the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia and in corresponding parts of the MACC Reanalysis are similar, and are clearly linked to cold surges. However, observed O3 levels are typically ∼10-20 ppb lower than the MACC Reanalysis. We show that these observations are also subject to influence from local urban pollution. In agreement with past work, we find year-to-year variations in cold surge activity related to the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), but this does not appear to be the dominant influence of ENSO on atmospheric composition in this region. Overall, our study

  9. North-East monsoon rainfall extremes over the southern peninsular India and their association with El Niño

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prem; Gnanaseelan, C.; Chowdary, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between extreme north-east (NE) monsoon rainfall (NEMR) over the Indian peninsula region and El Niño forcing. This turns out to be a critical science issue especially after the 2015 Chennai flood. The puzzle being while most El Niños favour good NE monsoon, some don't. In fact some El Niño years witnessed deficit NE monsoon. Therefore two different cases (or classes) of El Niños are considered for analysis based on standardized NEMR index and Niño 3.4 index with case-1 being both Niño-3.4 and NEMR indices greater than +1 and case-2 being Niño-3.4 index greater than +1 and NEMR index less than -1. Composite analysis suggests that SST anomalies in the central and eastern Pacific are strong in both cases but large differences are noted in the spatial distribution of SST over the Indo-western Pacific region. This questions our understanding of NEMR as mirror image of El Niño conditions in the Pacific. It is noted that the favourable excess NEMR in case-1 is due to anomalous moisture transport from Bay of Bengal and equatorial Indian Ocean to southern peninsular India. Strong SST gradient between warm western Indian Ocean (and Bay of Bengal) and cool western Pacific induced strong easterly wind anomalies during NE monsoon season favour moisture transport towards the core NE monsoon region. Further anomalous moisture convergence and convection over the core NE monsoon region supported positive rainfall anomalies in case-1. While in case-2, weak SST gradients over the Indo-western Pacific and absence of local low level convergence over NE monsoon region are mainly responsible for deficit rainfall. The ocean dynamics in the Indian Ocean displayed large differences during case-1 and case-2, suggesting the key role of Rossby wave dynamics in the Indian Ocean on NE monsoon extremes. Apart from the large scale circulation differences the number of cyclonic systems land fall for case-1 and case-2 have also contributed for

  10. ITCZ and ENSO pacing on East Asian winter monsoon variation during the Holocene: Sedimentological evidence from the Okinawa Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xufeng; Li, Anchun; Wan, Shiming; Kao, Shuhji; Kuhn, Gerhard

    2016-04-01

    Deep-sea fan sediments provide an excellent geological archive for paleoenvironment reconstruction. Grain size, clay mineral and elemental (Ti, Fe, Ca) compositions were measured for a core retrieved from a submarine fan in the Okinawa Trough. Varimax-rotated Principal Component Analysis (V-PCA) on time-evolution of grain size spectrum reveals that, since the Holocene, sediment was transported mainly by the benthic nepheloid layer (33%) and upper layers (33%) which is driven by the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM). The intensification of the Kuroshio Current during the Holocene, masks the fluvial signal of the summer monsoon and obstructs clay minerals derived from the Yellow River, a major contributor prior to 12 ka BP. A new grain size index (GSI), which represents the EAWM well, exhibits a negative correlation with the δ18O record in Dongge Cave, China during the Holocene when sea level was relatively steady. This anticorrelation suggests the southward migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The consistency among our records and rainfall records in Peru, Ti counts in the Cariaco Basin, monsoon records in Oman and the averaged summer insolation pattern at 30°N further support the ITCZ's impact on monsoon systems globally. Cross-Correlation Analyses for GSI and log(Ti/Ca) against δ18O record in Dongge Cave reveal a decoupling between the East Asian winter and summer monsoon during 5500-2500 cal yr BP, with greater complexity in the last 2500 years. This can be attributed to exacerbated ENSO mode fluctuations and possibly anthropogenic interference superimposed on insolation and ITCZ forcing.

  11. Large-scale connection between aerosol optical depth and summer monsoon circulation, and precipitation over northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Woo; Yoon, Soon-Chang; Choi, Suk-Jin; Choi, In-Jin

    2010-05-01

    We investigated the large-scale connection between columnar aerosol loads and summer monsoon circulation, and also the precipitation over northeast Asia using aerosol optical depth (AOD) data obtained from the 8-year MODIS, AERONET Sun/sky radiometer, and precipitation data acquired under the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP). These high-quality data revealed the large-scale link between AOD and summer monsoon circulation, precipitation in July over northeast Asian countries, and their distinct spatial and annual variabilities. Compared to the mean AOD for the entire period of 2001-2008, the increase of almost 40-50% in the AOD value in July 2005 and July 2007 was found over the downwind regions of China (Yellow Sea, Korean peninsula, and East Sea), with negative precipitation anomalies. This can be attributable to the strong westerly confluent flows, between cyclone flows by continental thermal low centered over the northern China and anti-cyclonic flows by the western North Pacific High, which transport anthropogenic pollution aerosols emitted from east China to aforementioned downwind high AOD regions along the rim of the Pacific marine airmass. In July 2002, however, the easterly flows transported anthropogenic aerosols from east China to the southwestern part of China in July 2002. As a result, the AOD off the coast of China was dramatically reduced in spite of decreasing rainfall. From the calculation of the cross-correlation coefficient between MODIS-derived AOD anomalies and GPCP precipitation anomalies over the period 2001-2008, we found negative correlations over the areas encompassed by 105-115E and 30-35N and by 120-140E and 35-40N (Yellow Sea, Korean peninsula, and East Sea). This suggests that aerosol loads over these regions are easily influenced by the Asian monsoon flow system and associated precipitation.

  12. Flood Losses Associated with Winter Storms in the U.S. Northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, M.; Shimkus, C.

    2015-12-01

    Winter storms pose a number of hazards to coastal communities in the U.S. Northeast including heavy rain, snow, strong wind, cold temperatures, and flooding. These hazards can cause millions in property damages from one storm alone. This study addresses the impacts of winter storms from 2001 - 2012 on coastal counties in the U.S. Northeast and underscores the significant economic consequences extreme winter storms have on property. The analysis on the types of hazards (floods, strong wind, snow, etc.) and associated damage from the National Climatic Data Center Storm Events Database indicates that floods were responsible for the highest damages. This finding suggests that winter storm vulnerability could grow in the future as precipitation intensity increases and sea level rise exacerbate flood losses. Flood loss maps are constructed based on damage amount, which can be compared to the flood exposure maps constructed by the NOAA Office of Coastal Management. Interesting agreements and discrepancies exist between the two methods, which warrant further examination. Furthermore, flood losses often came from storms characterized as heavy precipitation storms and strong surge storms, and sometimes both, illustrating the compounding effect of flood risks in the region. While New Jersey counties experienced the most damage per unit area, there is no discernable connection between population density and damage amount, which suggests that societal impacts may rely less on population characteristics and more on infrastructure types and property values, which vary throughout the region.

  13. Quantitative Estimation of the Impact of European Teleconnections on Interannual Variation of East Asian Winter Temperature and Monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Young-Kwon; Kim, Hae-Dong

    2014-01-01

    The impact of European teleconnections including the East AtlanticWest Russia (EA-WR), the Scandinavia (SCA), and the East Atlantic (EA) on East Asian winter temperature variability was quantified and compared with the combined effect of the Arctic Oscillation (AO), the Western Pacific (WP), and the El-Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which are originated in the Northern Hemispheric high-latitudes or the Pacific. Three European teleconnections explained 22-25 percent of the total monthly upper-tropospheric height variance over Eurasia. Regression analysis revealed warming by EA-WR and EA and cooling by SCA over mid-latitude East Asia during their positive phase and vice versa. Temperature anomalies were largely explained by the advective temperature change process at the lower troposphere. The average spatial correlation over East Asia (90-180E, 10-80N) for the last 34 winters between observed and reconstructed temperature comprised of AO, WP and ENSO effect (AWE) was approximately 0.55, and adding the European teleconnection components (ESE) to the reconstructed temperature improved the correlation up to approximately 0.64. Lower level atmospheric structure demonstrated that approximately five of the last 34 winters were significantly better explained by ESE than AWE to determine East Asian seasonal winter temperatures. We also compared the impact between EA-WR and AO on the 1) East Asian winter monsoon, 2) cold surge, and 3) the Siberian high. These three were strongly coupled, and their spatial features and interannual variation were somewhat better explained by EA-WR than AO. Results suggest that the EA-WR impact must be treated more importantly than previously thought for a better understanding of East Asian winter temperature and monsoon variability.

  14. A preliminary report on the biomass of chaetognaths in the Indian Ocean comparing the south-west and north-east monsoon periods

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, V.R.

    sorted and the total number of chaetognaths in the samples were then computed The average number of chaetognaths for all samples from each 5 degrees Marsden Square is separately estimated for the south-west and north-east monsoon periods The period mid...

  15. Variations of physicochemical properties in Kalpakkam coastal waters, east coast of India, during southwest to northeast monsoon transition period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpathy, Kamala Kanta; Mohanty, Ajit K; Sahu, Gouri; Sarkar, Santosh K; Natesan, Usha; Venkatesan, R; Prasad, M V R

    2010-12-01

    A significant variation in physicochemical properties of the Kalpakkam coastal waters, eastern part of India, was observed during the event of southwest to northeast monsoon transition. Increase in nitrate, total nitrogen, and silicate concentrations were noticed during post-transition period. Ammonia concentration was at peak during transition period as compared to pre- and post-transition periods. Hypo-saline condition (~23 psu) was observed during post-transition as the surface water salinity decreased by ~10 psu from the pre-transitional values. Turbidity, suspended particulate matter, phosphate and total phosphorous values decreased marginally, coinciding with northward to southward current reversal. A drastic decrease (eightfold) in chlorophyll-a concentration was observed in the coastal water during post-transition period.

  16. Import cutback could put the squeeze on supplies in Northeast this winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prowler, S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that as far back as late summer, LP-gas marketers in the Northeast were quietly expressing their anxieties about fuel supply levels this coming winter. The 1-million-gal. Sun Refining storage facility in Marcus Hook, Pa. had been converted to butane, thereby depriving the region of a valuable asset for propane storage. And word had gotten around that a significant amount of non-Canadian imported product would not be coming ashore this winter to the Sea-3 storage site in Newington, N.H. It seemed that long before the first autumn colors had touched the foliage in New England, many dealers were biting their nails and wondering, What if?

  17. Chemical composition, source, and process of urban aerosols during winter haze formation in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Liu, Lei; Wang, Yuanyuan; Ren, Yong; Wang, Xin; Shi, Zongbo; Zhang, Daizhou; Che, Huizheng; Zhao, Hujia; Liu, Yanfei; Niu, Hongya; Chen, Jianmin; Zhang, Xiaoye; Lingaswamy, A P; Wang, Zifa; Li, Weijun

    2017-12-01

    The characteristics of aerosol particles have been poorly evaluated even though haze episodes frequently occur in winter in Northeast China. OC/EC analysis, ion chromatography, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to investigate the organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC), and soluble ions in PM 2.5 and the mixing state of individual particles during a severe wintertime haze episode in Northeast China. The organic matter (OM), NH 4 + , SO 4 2- , and NO 3 - concentrations in PM 2.5 were 89.5 μg/m 3 , 24.2 μg/m 3 , 28.1 μg/m 3 , and 32.8 μg/m 3 on the haze days, respectively. TEM observations further showed that over 80% of the haze particles contained primary organic aerosols (POAs). Based on a comparison of the data obtained during the haze formation, we generate the following synthetic model of the process: (1) Stable synoptic meteorological conditions drove the haze formation. (2) The early stage of haze formation (light or moderate haze) was mainly caused by the enrichment of POAs from coal burning for household heating and cooking. (3) High levels of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs), sulfates, and nitrates formation via heterogeneous reactions together with POAs accumulation promoted to the evolution from light or moderate to severe haze. Compared to the severe haze episodes over the North China Plain, the PM 2.5 in Northeast China analyzed in the present study contained similar sulfate, higher SOA, and lower nitrate contents. Our results suggest that most of the POAs and secondary particles were likely related to emissions from coal-burning residential stoves in rural outskirts and small boilers in urban areas. The inefficient burning of coal for household heating and cooking should be monitored during wintertime in Northeast China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The role of the Asian winter monsoon in the rapid propagation of abrupt climate changes during the last deglaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Guoqiang; Sun, Qing; Zhu, Qingzeng; Shan, Yabing; Shang, Wenyu; Ling, Yuan; Su, Youliang; Xie, Manman; Wang, Xishen; Liu, Jiaqi

    2017-12-01

    High-resolution temperature records spanning the last deglaciation from low latitudes are scarce; however, they are important for understanding the rapid propagation of abrupt climate events throughout the Northern Hemisphere and the tropics. Here, we present a branched GDGTs-based temperature reconstruction from the sediments of Maar Lake Huguangyan in tropical China. The record reveals that the mean temperature during the Oldest Dryas was 17.8 °C, which was followed by a two-step increase of 2-3 °C to the Bølling-Allerød, a decrease to 19.8 °C during the Younger Dryas, and a rapid warming at the onset of the Holocene. The Oldest Dryas was about 2 °C warmer than the Younger Dryas. The reconstructed temperature was weighted towards the wintertime since the lake is monomictic and the mixing process in winter supplies nutrients from the lake bottom to the entire water column, greatly promoting biological productivity. In addition, the winter-biased temperature changes observed in the study are more distinctive than the summer-biased temperature records from extra-tropical regions of East Asia. This implies that the temperature decreases during abrupt climatic events were mainly a winter phenomenon. Within the limits of the dating uncertainties, the broadly similar pattern of winter-weighted temperature change observed in both tropical Lake Huguangyan and in Greenland ice cores indicates the occurrence of tightly-coupled interactions between high latitude ice sheets and land areas in the tropics. We suggest that the winter monsoon (especially cold surges) could play an important role in the rapid transmission of the temperature signal from the Arctic to the tropics.

  19. Combined effect of MJO, ENSO and IOD on the intraseasonal variability of northeast monsoon rainfall over south peninsular India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreekala, P. P.; Rao, S. Vijaya Bhaskara; Rajeevan, K.; Arunachalam, M. S.

    2018-02-01

    The present study has examined the combined effect of MJO, ENSO and IOD on the intraseasonal and interannual variability of northeast monsoon rainfall over south peninsular India. The study has revealed that the intraseasonal variation of daily rainfall over south peninsular India during NEM season is associated with various phases of eastward propagating MJO life cycle. Positive rainfall anomaly over south peninsular India and surrounding Indian Ocean (IO) is observed during the strong MJO phases 2, 3 and 4; and negative rainfall anomaly during the strong MJO phases 5,6,7,8 and 1. Above normal (below normal) convection over south peninsular India and suppressed convection over east Indian and West Pacific Ocean, high pressure (low pressure) anomaly over West Pacific Ocean, Positive (negative) SST anomalies over equatorial East and Central Pacific Ocean and easterly wind anomaly (westerly anomaly) over equatorial Indian Ocean are the observed features during the first three MJO (5, 6, 7) phases and all these features are observed in the excess (drought) NEMR composite. This suggests that a similar mode of physical mechanism is responsible for the intraseasonal and interannual variability of northeast monsoon rainfall. The number of days during the first three phases (last four phases) of MJO, where the enhanced convection and positive rainfall anomaly is over Indian Ocean (East Indian ocean and West Pacific Ocean), is more (less) during El Nino and IOD years and less during La Nina and NIOD years and vice versa. The observed excess (deficit) rainfall anomaly over west IO and south peninsular India and deficit (excess) rainfall anomaly over east IO including Bay of Bengal and West Pacific Ocean suggest that the more (less) number of first three phases during El Nino and IOD (La Nina and Negative IOD) is due to the interaction between eastward moving MJO and strong easterlies over equatorial IO present during El Nino and IOD years. This interaction would inhibit the

  20. Evidence for eddy formation in the eastern Arabian Sea during the northeast monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, John G.; Johnson, Donald R.; Kindle, John C.

    1994-01-01

    The seasonal formation of a large (500-800 km diameter) anticyclonic eddy in the upper 300-400 m of the eastern Arabian Sea during the northest monsoon period (December-April) is indicated fom hydrographic and satellite altimetry sea level observations, as well as from numerical model experiments. The center of the eddy circulation is approximately 10 deg N, 70 deg E, just to the west of the north-south Laccadive Island chain. In this paper the eddy is called the Laccadive High (LH). In some ways it is like a mirrorlike counterpart to the Great Whirl that develops during the southwest monsoon of the Somali coast (western Arabian Sea). The LH occurs at the same latitude but on the opposite side of the basin during the reversed monsoon. It is different from the Great Whirl, however, in its formation process, its intensity, and its decay. The hydrographic data obtained from surveys all during a single season give sufficiently close station spacing to allow reasonable contouring of the geopotential surfaces and of the properties within and around the LH region with minimum time aliasing. The Geostat altimeter record extends over 4 years, during which the seasonal variability of the LH indicates a dynamic relief of approximately 15-20 cm, which is in good agreement with the hydrographics observations. The altimetry time series also suggests a westward translation of the LH by January with a subsequent dissipation in midbasin. The model used is a wind-forced three-layer primitive equation model which depicts a LH agreement with the timing, position, and amplitude of both the hydrographic and altimetric measurements. The numerical simulation includes a passive tracer located in the Western Bay of Bengal; the western advection of the tracer around the south coasts of Sri Lanka and India in December and January is consistent with the appearance of low-salinity water observed to extend into the Arabian Sea during this period. The modeling studies suggest that both local and

  1. Physical forcing of biological productivity in the northern Arabian Sea during the northeast monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Ramaiah, N.; Gauns, M.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Muraleedharan, P.M.; Raghukumar, S.; DileepKumar, M.; Madhupratap, M.

    that this interannual variation is of basin-wide spatial scale. After the termination of winter cooling and subsequent warming during the Spring Intermonsoon, the Arabian Sea has low primary production. During the latter period, micro-organisms, i.e. heterotrophic...

  2. Carbon cycling in the northern Arabian Sea during the northeast monsoon: Significance of salps

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Jayakumar, D.A.

    Winter cooling and mixing brings nutrients (nitrate and phosphate) to the surface waters over large parts of the northern Arabian Sea, but the rates of primary production as well as carbon export from the euphotic zone are not especially high during...

  3. Defining Winter and Identifying Synoptic Air Mass Change in the Northeast and Northern Plains U.S. since 1950

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, C. J.; Pennington, D.; Beitscher, M. R.; Godek, M. L.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding and forecasting the characteristics of winter weather change in the northern U.S. is vital to regional economy, agriculture, tourism and resident life. This is especially true in the Northeast and Northern Plains where substantial changes to the winter season have already been documented in the atmospheric science and biological literature. As there is no single established definition of `winter', this research attempts to identify the winter season in both regions utilizing a synoptic climatological approach with air mass frequencies. The Spatial Synoptic Classification is used to determine the daily air mass/ weather type conditions since 1950 at 40 locations across the two regions. Annual frequencies are first computed as a baseline reference. Then winter air mass frequencies and departures from normal are calculated to define the season along with the statistical significance. Once the synoptic winter is established, long-term regional changes to the season and significance are explored. As evident global changes have occurred after 1975, an Early period of years prior to 1975 and a Late set for all years following this date are compared. Early and Late record synoptic changes are then examined to assess any thermal and moisture condition changes of the regional winter air masses over time. Cold to moderately dry air masses dominate annually in both regions. Northeast winters are also characterized by cold to moderate dry air masses, with coastal locations experiencing more Moist Polar types. The Northern Plains winters are dominated by cold, dry air masses in the east and cold to moderate dry air masses in the west. Prior to 1975, Northeast winters are defined by an increase in cooler and wetter air masses. Dry Tropical air masses only occur in this region after 1975. Northern Plains winters are also characterized by more cold, dry air masses prior to 1975. More Dry Moderate and Moist Moderate air masses have occurred since 1975. These results

  4. Precipitation stable isotope records from the northern Hengduan Mountains in China capture signals of the winter India-Burma Trough and the Indian Summer Monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wusheng; Tian, Lide; Yao, Tandong; Xu, Baiqing; Wei, Feili; Ma, Yaoming; Zhu, Haifeng; Luo, Lun; Qu, Dongmei

    2017-11-01

    This project reports results of the first precipitation stable isotope (δ18 O and δD) time series produced for Qamdo in the northern Hengduan Mountains in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau. The data showed that the fluctuations of precipitation stable isotopes at Qamdo during the different seasons revealed various moisture sources. The westerlies and local recycling moisture dominated at the study area before the pre-monsoon and after the post-monsoon seasons, which resulted in similar trends of both precipitation stable isotopes and temperature. The marine moisture was transported to the northern Hengduan Mountains by the winter India-Burma Trough combined with convection. Consequently, stable isotopes in subsequent precipitation were occasionally observed to decrease suddenly. However, δ18 O and δD values of precipitation at Qamdo were lower during the monsoon period and the duration of those low values was longer because of the effects of the Indian Summer Monsoon and the strengthening convection. Our findings indicate that the effects of seasonal precipitation differences caused by various climate systems, including the winter India-Burma Trough and Indian Summer Monsoon, need to be considered when attempting to interpret tree-ring and ice core records for the Hengduan Mountains.

  5. Winter and summer monsoon water mass, heat and freshwater transport changes in the Arabian Sea near 8°N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stramma, Lothar; Brandt, Peter; Schott, Friedrich; Quadfasel, Detlef; Fischer, Jürgen

    The differences in the water mass distributions and transports in the Arabian Sea between the summer monsoon of August 1993 and the winter monsoon of January 1998 are investigated, based on two hydrographic sections along approximately 8°N. At the western end the sections were closed by a northward leg towards the African continent at about 55°E. In the central basin along 8°N the monsoon anomalies of the temperature and density below the surface-mixed layer were dominated by annual Rossby waves propagating westward across the Arabian Sea. In the northwestern part of the basin the annual Rossby waves have much smaller impact, and the density anomalies observed there were mostly associated with the Socotra Gyre. Salinity and oxygen differences along the section reflect local processes such as the spreading of water masses originating in the Bay of Bengal, northward transport of Indian Central Water, or slightly stronger southward spreading of Red Sea Water in August than in January. The anomalous wind conditions of 1997/98 influenced only the upper 50-100 m with warmer surface waters in January 1998, and Bay of Bengal Water covered the surface layer of the section in the eastern Arabian Sea. Estimates of the overturning circulation of the Arabian Sea were carried out despite the fact that many uncertainties are involved. For both cruises a vertical overturning cell of about 4-6 Sv was determined, with inflow below 2500 m and outflow between about 300 and 2500 m. In the upper 300-450 m a seasonally reversing shallow meridional overturning cell appears to exist in which the Ekman transport is balanced by a geostrophic transport. The heat flux across 8°N is dominated by the Ekman transport, yielding about -0.6 PW for August 1993, and 0.24 PW for January 1998. These values are comparable to climatological and model derived heat flux estimates. Freshwater fluxes across 8°N also were computed, yielding northward freshwater fluxes of 0.07 Sv in January 1998 and 0

  6. Application of regional climate models to the Indian winter monsoon over the western Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimri, A P; Yasunari, T; Wiltshire, A; Kumar, P; Mathison, C; Ridley, J; Jacob, D

    2013-12-01

    The Himalayan region is characterized by pronounced topographic heterogeneity and land use variability from west to east, with a large variation in regional climate patterns. Over the western part of the region, almost one-third of the annual precipitation is received in winter during cyclonic storms embedded in westerlies, known locally as the western disturbance. In the present paper, the regional winter climate over the western Himalayas is analyzed from simulations produced by two regional climate models (RCMs) forced with large-scale fields from ERA-Interim. The analysis was conducted by the composition of contrasting (wet and dry) winter precipitation years. The findings showed that RCMs could simulate the regional climate of the western Himalayas and represent the atmospheric circulation during extreme precipitation years in accordance with observations. The results suggest the important role of topography in moisture fluxes, transport and vertical flows. Dynamical downscaling with RCMs represented regional climates at the mountain or even event scale. However, uncertainties of precipitation scale and liquid-solid precipitation ratios within RCMs are still large for the purposes of hydrological and glaciological studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Long range transport of caesium isotopes from temperate latitudes to the equatorial zone during the winter monsoon period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Duy Hien; Nguyen Thanh Binh; Vuong Thu Bac; Truong Y; Nguyen Trong Ngo.

    1993-01-01

    An air radioactivity monitoring study carried out in Dalat, Vietnam since 1986 has revealed distinct peaks of caesium isotope concentrations in air and fallout during December-January, when the monthly average air temperature was lowest and dry fallout dominated. These peaks provide evidence of the intrusion of more radioactive cold air masses from temperate northern latitudes during the development of large-scale anti cyclones, frequently observed in the most active winter monsoon period. High dry fallout velocity (about 10 cm/s) determined from the measured concentrations, clearly demonstrates one of the most relevant features of cold air masses: behind the cold front, vertical air motion is descending. The role of other processes, such as injection of radioactive air from stratosphere and local resuspension of soil dust, has been shown to be insignificant. The interpretation of the experimental results was based on the analysis of environmental -meteorological factors as well as the behaviour of other naturally-occurring radionuclides. (author). 7 refs, 2 figs

  8. Atmospheric aerosols size distribution properties in winter and pre-monsoon over western Indian Thar Desert location

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panwar, Chhagan, E-mail: chhaganpanwar@gmail.com; Vyas, B. M. [Department of Physics, M.L. Sukhadia University, Udaipur-313001 (India)

    2016-05-06

    The first ever experimental results over Indian Thar Desert region concerning to height integrated aerosols size distribution function in particles size ranging between 0.09 to 2 µm such as, aerosols columnar size distribution (CSD), effective radius (R{sub eff}), integrated content of total aerosols (N{sub t}), columnar content of accumulation and coarse size aerosols particles concentration (N{sub a}) (size < 0.5 µm) and (N{sub c}) (size between 0.5 to 2 µm) have been described specifically during winter (a stable weather condition and intense anthropogenic pollution activity period) and pre-monsoon (intense dust storms of natural mineral aerosols as well as unstable atmospheric weather condition period) at Jaisalmer (26.90°N, 69.90°E, 220 m above surface level (asl)) located in central Thar desert vicinity of western Indian site. The CSD and various derived other aerosols size parameters are retrieved from their average spectral characteristics of Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) from UV to Infrared wavelength spectrum measured from Multi-Wavelength solar Radiometer (MWR). The natures of CSD are, in general, bio-modal character, instead of uniformly distributed character and power law distributions. The observed primary peaks in CSD plots are seen around about 10{sup 13} m{sup 2} μm{sup −1} at radius range 0.09-0.20 µm during both the seasons. But, in winter months, secondary peaks of relatively lower CSD values of 10{sup 10} to 10{sup 11} m{sup 2}/μm{sup −1} occur within a lower radius size range 0.4 to 0.6 µm. In contrast to this, while in dust dominated and hot season, the dominated secondary maxima of the higher CSD of about 10{sup 12} m{sup 2}μm{sup −3} is found of bigger aerosols size particles in a rage of 0.6 to 1.0 µm which is clearly demonstrating the characteristics of higher aerosols laden of bigger size aerosols in summer months relative to their prevailed lower aerosols loading of smaller size aerosols particles (0

  9. Sources of anions in aerosols in northeast Greenland during late winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fenger

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of climate effects of atmospheric aerosols is associated with large uncertainty, and a better understanding of their physical and chemical properties is needed, especially in the Arctic environment. The objective of the present study is to improve our understanding of the processes affecting the composition of aerosols in the high Arctic. Therefore size-segregated aerosols were sampled at a high Arctic site, Station Nord (Northeast Greenland, in March 2009 using a Micro Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor. The aerosol samples were extracted in order to analyse three water-soluble anions: chloride, nitrate and sulphate. The results are discussed based on possible chemical and physical transformations as well as transport patterns.

    The total concentrations of the ions at Station Nord were 53–507 ng m−3, 2–298 ng m−3 and 535–1087 ng m−3 for chloride (Cl, nitrate (NO3 and sulphate (SO42−, respectively. The aerosols in late winter/early spring, after polar sunrise, are found to be a mixture of long-range transported and regional to local originating aerosols. Fine particles, smaller than 1 μm, containing SO42−, Cl and NO3, are hypothesized to originate from long-range transport, where SO42− is by far the dominating anion accounting for 50–85% of the analyzed mass. The analysis suggests that Cl and NO3 in coarser particles (> 1.5 μm originate from local/regional sources. Under conditions where the air mass is transported over sea ice at high wind speeds, very coarse particles (> 18 μm are observed, and it is hypothesized that frost flowers on the sea ice are a source of the very coarse nitrate particles.

  10. Impact of East Asian Winter and Australian Summer Monsoons on the Enhanced Surface Westerlies over the Western Tropical Pacific Ocean Preceding the El Niño Onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Zhang, R.; Bourassa, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Composite analysis from NCEP-NCAR reanalysis datasets over the period 1948-2007 indicates that stronger East Asian winter monsoons (EAWM) and stronger Australian summer monsoons (ASM) generally co-exist in boreal winters preceding the onset of El Niño, although the EAWM tend to be weak after 1990, probably because of the decadal shift of EAWM and the change in El Niño events from cold-tongue type to warm-pool type. The anomalous EAWM and ASM enhance surface westerlies over the western tropical Pacific Ocean (WTP). It is proposed that the enhanced surface westerlies over the WTP prior to El Niño onset are generally associated with the concurrent anomalous EAWM and ASM. A simple analytical atmospheric model is constructed to test the hypothesis that the emergence of enhanced surface westerlies over the WTP can be linked to concurrent EAWM and ASM anomalies. Model results indicate that when anomalous northerlies from the EAWM converge with anomalous southerlies from the ASM, westerly anomalies over the WTP are enhanced. This result provides a possible explanation of the co-impact of the EAWM and the ASM on the onset of El Niño through enhancing the surface westerly over the WTP.

  11. PM 2.5 mass concentrations in comparison with aerosol optical depths over the Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean during winter monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, S.

    An analysis of PM 2.5 mass concentrations and 0.5 μm aerosol optical depths (AODs) during the Northeast winter monsoon seasons of 1996-2000 is performed and intercompared. AODs are found to show diurnal variations over Coastal India (CI) (west coast) while they are relatively smooth over the Arabian Sea (AS) (5-20°N) and tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) (5°N-20°S). PM 2.5, PM 10 and total mass concentrations show less variations in a day over these oceanic regions. Columnar AODs are found to increase with an increase in the marine boundary layer aerosol concentrations over CI and AS while an opposite trend is seen over TIO. The yearly-mean AODs and mass concentrations are found to increase over CI and AS, over TIO the mass concentrations increased while the AODs decreased during 1996-2000. It is found from the 7-days air back trajectory analyses that at different altitudes air masses can originate from different source regions leading to changes in chemical, physical and optical characteristics of the aerosol between the surface and column. The differences in the surface and columnar measurements could also occur due to changes in the meteorological conditions, wind patterns, in addition to changes in production and subsequently the transport of aerosols. Least-squares fits to the above intercomparison resulted in intercepts of 0.24 and 0.22 over CI and AS indicating that the background AODs over these oceanic regions are higher. An examination of the daily-mean wind speeds and PM 2.5 mass concentrations yielded an index of wind dependence of 0.04 for AS and 0.07 for TIO. The background PM 2.5 mass concentrations are also found to be high at 36 and 25 μg m -3 over AS and TIO, respectively, indicating a stronger influence from the continent. Frequency distribution figures show that 28% of the PM 2.5 values over CI lie in the 60-80 μg m -3 range. Over AS the dominant mode of distribution is 40-60 μg m -3 with a peak value of 42%. Over TIO PM 2.5 values are found to

  12. Increasing persistent haze in Beijing: potential impacts of weakening East Asian winter monsoons associated with northwestern Pacific sea surface temperature trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, Beijing, the capital city of China, has encountered increasingly frequent persistent haze events (PHE. While the increased pollutant emissions are considered as the most important reason, changes in regional atmospheric circulations associated with large-scale climate warming also play a role. In this study, we find a significant positive trend of PHE in Beijing for the winters from 1980 to 2016 based on updated daily observations. This trend is closely related to an increasing frequency of extreme anomalous southerly episodes in North China, a weakened East Asian trough in the mid-troposphere and a northward shift of the East Asian jet stream in the upper troposphere. These conditions together depict a weakened East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM system, which is then found to be associated with an anomalous warm, high-pressure system in the middle–lower troposphere over the northwestern Pacific. A practical EAWM index is defined as the seasonal meridional wind anomaly at 850 hPa in winter over North China. Over the period 1900–2016, this EAWM index is positively correlated with the sea surface temperature anomalies over the northwestern Pacific, which indicates a wavy positive trend, with an enhanced positive phase since the mid-1980s. Our results suggest an observation-based mechanism linking the increase in PHE in Beijing with large-scale climatic warming through changes in the typical regional atmospheric circulation.

  13. 77 FR 7000 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Gulf of Maine Winter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... 2010, 2011, and 2012. A new peer reviewed benchmark stock assessment review (SARC 52) was completed for... opportunity that otherwise might be foregone. The new information from the GOM winter flounder benchmark stock... Conservation and Management Act (Magnuson-Stevens Act). This action implements new stock status determination...

  14. Winter-spring precipitation reconstructions from tree rings for northeast Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villanueva-Diaz, J.; Cerano-Paredes, J. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales y Agropecuarias, Centro Nacional de Investigacion Disciplinarioa en Relacion Agua, Suelo, Planta. Km 6.5 Margen Derecha del Canal Sacramento Gomez Palacio, Durango, 35140 (Mexico); Stahle, D.W.; Cleaveland, M.K. [Tree-Ring Laboratory, Department of Geosciences, University of Arkansas, fayetteville, Arkansas 72701 (United States); Luckman, B.H. [Department of Geography, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, N6A5C3 (Canada); Therrell, M.D. [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 29904 (United States); Cornejo-Oviedo, E. [Departamento Forestal, Universidad Autonoma Agraria Antonio Narro, Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico)

    2007-07-15

    The understanding of historic hydroclimatic variability is basic for planning proper management of limited water resources in northeastern Mexico. The objective of this study was to develop a network of tree-ring chronologies to reconstruct hydroclimate variability in northeastern Mexico and to analyze the influence of large-scale circulation patterns, such as ENSO. Precipitation sensitive tree-ring chronologies of Douglas-fir were developed in mountain ranges of the Sierra Madre Oriental and used to produce winter-spring precipitation reconstructions for central and southern Nuevo Leon, and southeastern Coahuila. The seasonal winter-spring precipitation reconstructions are 342 years long (1659-2001) for Saltillo, Coahuila and 602 years long (1400-2002) for central and southern Nuevo Leon. Both reconstructions show droughts in the 1810s, 1870s, 1890s, 1910s, and 1970s, and wet periods in the 1770s, 1930s, 1960s, and 1980s. Prior to 1800s the reconstructions are less similar. The impact of ENSO in northeastern Mexico (as measured by the Tropical Rainfall Index) indicated long-term instability of the Pacific equatorial teleconnection. Atmospheric circulation systems coming from higher latitudes (cold fronts or 'nortes') and others developed in the Gulf of Mexico (tropical storms, hurricanes) also influence the climatic conditions characterizing this region. The recent development of new and longer tree-ring chronologies for the region will contribute to a better understanding of the interannual and multidecadal climatic variability of northeastern Mexico.

  15. Occurrence of Magellanic Penguins along the Northeast Brazilian Coast during 2008 Austral Winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Ramos da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During the austral winter of 2008, thousands of penguins traveled to low latitudes along the South Atlantic coast of South America. The atmospheric and oceanic conditions from April to July 2008 may account for the penguins' unusual geographic distribution. During that period, South Atlantic coastal waters were cooler; the wind anomalies had northward and onshore components; the ocean's coastal region presented northward currents that favored the penguins to travel toward lower latitudes. This anomalous climate regime resulted from extreme meteorological frontal systems that occurred mainly during June 2008. Three consecutive extreme midlatitude cyclones produced strong wind shear that resulted in the northward oceanic flow along the South American eastern shoreline favoring the penguins to be spotted in northern tropical waters.

  16. Intrusion of the Bay of Bengal water into the Arabian Sea during winter monsoon and associated chemical and biological response

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Narvekar, J.; Kumar, A.; Shaji, C.; Anand, P.; Sabu, P.; Rijomon, G.; Josia, J.; Jayaraj, K.A.; Radhika, A.; Nair, K.K.C.

    off. The hydrological imbalance thus created on an annual scale will have to be balanced by the inter-basin exchange. In winter this happens through the intrusion of Bay of Bengal waters into the Arabian Sea, when the southward flowing East India...

  17. Sources of anions in aerosols in northeast Greenland during late winter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Marlene Fenger; Sørensen, Lise Lotte; Kristensen, Kasper

    2013-01-01

    −4 is by far the dominating anion accounting for 50–85% of the analyzed mass. The analysis suggests that Cl− and NO−3 in coarser particles (> 1.5 μm) originate from local/regional sources. Under conditions where the air mass is transported over sea ice at high wind speeds, very coarse particles (> 18 μm...... ), respectively. The aerosols in late winter/early spring, after polar sunrise, are found to be a mixture of long-range transported and regional to local originating aerosols. Fine particles, smaller than 1 μm, containing SO2−4 , Cl− and NO− 3 , are hypothesized to originate from long-range transport, where SO2......The knowledge of climate effects of atmospheric aerosols is associated with large uncertainty, and a better understanding of their physical and chemical properties is needed, especially in the Arctic environment. The objective of the present study is to improve our understanding of the processes...

  18. Characterisation of particle mass and number concentration on the east coast of the Malaysian Peninsula during the northeast monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Doreena; Latif, Mohd Talib; Juneng, Liew; Khan, Md Firoz; Amil, Norhaniza; Mead, Mohammed Iqbal; Nadzir, Mohd Shahrul Mohd; Moi, Phang Siew; Samah, Azizan Abu; Ashfold, Matthew J.; Sturges, William T.; Harris, Neil R. P.; Robinson, Andrew D.; Pyle, John A.

    2015-09-01

    Particle mass concentrations (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1) and particle number concentration ((PNC); 0.27 μm ≤ Dp ≤ 34.00 μm) were measured in the tropical coastal environment of Bachok, Kelantan on the Malaysian Peninsula bordering the southern edge of the South China Sea. Statistical methods were applied on a three-month hourly data set (9th January to 24th March 2014) to study the influence of north-easterly winds on the patterns of particle mass and PNC size distributions. The 24-h concentrations of particle mass obtained in this study were below the standard values detailed by the Recommended Malaysian Air Quality Guideline (RMAQG), United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and European Union (EU) except for PM2.5, which recorded a 24-h average of 30 ± 18 μg m-3 and exceeded the World Health Organisation (WHO) threshold value (25 μg m-3). Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that PNC with smaller diameter sizes (0.27-4.50 μm) showed a stronger influence, accounting for 57.6% of the variability in PNC data set. Concentrations of both particle mass and PNC increased steadily in the morning with a distinct peak observed at around 8.00 h, related to a combination of dispersion of accumulated particles overnight and local traffic. In addition to local anthropogenic, agricultural burning and forest fire activities, long-range transport also affects the study area. Hotspot and backward wind trajectory observations illustrated that the biomass burning episode (around February-March) significantly influenced PNC. Meteorological parameters influenced smaller size particles (i.e. PM1 and Dp (0.27-0.43 μm)) the most.

  19. Coral Geochemical Proxy Records Of The East Asian Winter Monsoon And Hydrological Conditions In The Central Vietnam From 1978-2004 AD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C.; Shen, C.; Chen, Y.; Chiang, H.; Lam, D. D.; Ngai, N.

    2007-12-01

    Monthly-resolution geochemical proxies, including δ18O, δ13C, Sr/Ca, and Ba/Ca, in a living Porites coral head, collected from Son Tra Island, a near-shore island located at the north tip of Vung Da Nang Bay, central Vietnam (16°12'59.4", 108°1'57.1"), was used to quantitatively reconstruct records of sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface salinity (SSS), seasonality of rainfall, and regional terrestrial input during a period of 1978-2004 AD. By comparing the 1/4-century geochemical data, five features are exhibited. (1) The coral Sr/Ca-inferred summer SSTs correspond well with the 1°x1° instrumental data to suggest that the regional SST record can be retrieved from this local coral head. (2) Interannual variation of coral winter SST data does not follow regional instrumental values. The harmonic phenomenon between coral inferred winter SST dynamic and the surface pressure difference, between the southern South China Sea (SCS) (0-10°N, 105-115°E) and the northern SCS (22.5-32.5°N, 112-122°E), indicating that the cold local SST induced by East Asian winter monsoon was addressed in the Son Tra coral. (3) 1‰ seasonal anomaly of δ18O residual (Δδ18O) suggests a 2-4-psu seasonal salinity change between dry and wet seasons. (4) The synchronous intra-annual changes of δ18O and Ba/Ca data suggest that the rainy season is from late summer to winter, which is consistent with the meteorological record. (5) The high Ba/Ca background level of 10 μmol/mol in 1992-2004, 2-3 times larger than the averaged value of 4 μmol/mol in 1978-1992, indicates an enhanced terrestrial sediment discharge into the bay over the past 10 years. Ba records probably reflect an impact of human activity on hydrological change since the Vietnam War.

  20. Linkage of the king eider population in Northeast Greenland: Migration, moult and discovery of a new offshore wintering area at Spitsbergenbanken

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, Anders; Johansen, Kasper Lambert; Sonne, Christian

    In late July 2009, two female king eiders were caught on the breeding grounds in Myggbukta, Northeast Greenland and equipped with satellite transmitters. Both individuals were tracked for approximately two years. The birds remained in the Myggbukta area until the onset of the autumn migration...... arrival 6 April) where they stayed for some time before returning on the spring migration to Greenland. During a ship-based survey in the offshore winter location at Spitsbergenbanken in April 2013, a previously unknown wintering ground with approximately 10.000 king eiders was discovered. The birds were...... concentrated in a partly ice-covered area 79 km from shore and of about 20 m depth. The number of king eiders indicated that Spitsbergenbanken is a wintering area for both the East Greenland and the Svalbard breeding populations. The discovery has important conservation implications due to the expanding...

  1. Oceanic and atmospheric conditions associated with the pentad rainfall over the southeastern peninsular India during the North-East Indian Monsoon season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugasundaram, Jothiganesh; Lee, Eungul

    2018-03-01

    The association of North-East Indian Monsoon rainfall (NEIMR) over the southeastern peninsular India with the oceanic and atmospheric conditions over the adjacent ocean regions at pentad time step (five days period) was investigated during the months of October to December for the period 1985-2014. The non-parametric correlation and composite analyses were carried out for the simultaneous and lagged time steps (up to four lags) of oceanic and atmospheric variables with pentad NEIMR. The results indicated that NEIMR was significantly correlated: 1) positively with both sea surface temperature (SST) led by 1-4 pentads (lag 1-4 time steps) and latent heat flux (LHF) during the simultaneous, lag 1 and 2 time steps over the equatorial western Indian Ocean, 2) positively with SST but negatively with LHF (less heat flux from ocean to atmosphere) during the same and all the lagged time steps over the Bay of Bengal. Consistently, during the wet NEIMR pentads over the southeastern peninsular India, SST significantly increased over the Bay of Bengal during all the time steps and the equatorial western Indian Ocean during the lag 2-4 time steps, while the LHF decreased over the Bay of Bengal (all time steps) and increased over the Indian Ocean (same, lag 1 and 2). The investigation on ocean-atmospheric interaction revealed that the enhanced LHF over the equatorial western Indian Ocean was related to increased atmospheric moisture demand and increased wind speed, whereas the reduced LHF over the Bay of Bengal was associated with decreased atmospheric moisture demand and decreased wind speed. The vertically integrated moisture flux and moisture transport vectors from 1000 to 850 hPa exhibited that the moisture was carried away from the equatorial western Indian Ocean to the strong moisture convergence regions of the Bay of Bengal during the same and lag 1 time steps of wet NEIMR pentads. Further, the moisture over the Bay of Bengal was transported to the southeastern peninsular

  2. Low-high latitude interaction forcing on the evolution of the 400 kyr cycle in East Asian winter monsoon records during the last 2.8 Myr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dawei; Zhao, Meixun; Tian, Jun

    2017-09-01

    Variability of the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM), stronger during glacials and weaker during interglacials, has been tightly linked to the wax and wane of the Northern Hemisphere ice sheets (NHIS) via the Siberian High over the last 2.8 million years (Myr). However, the long eccentricity cycle (ca. 400 kyr) in the EAWM record from the late Pliocene to early-Pleistocene (2.8-1.2 Ma) could not be linked to NHIS changes, which lacked the long eccentricity cycle in the Pleistocene. Here, we present the first low latitude EAWM record of the last 2.8 Myr using surface and subsurface temperature difference from the northern South China Sea to evaluate interactions between tropical ocean and EAWM changes. The results show that the EAWM variability displayed significant 400 kyr cycle between 2.8 Ma and 1.2 Ma, with weak (strong) EAWM during high (low) earth orbital eccentricity state. A super El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) proxy record, calculated using west-east equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature differences, revealed 400 kyr cycles throughout the last 2.8 Myr with warm phase during high eccentricity state. Thus, we propose that super ENSO mean state strongly modulated the EAWM strength through remote forcing to generate the 400 kyr cycle between 2.8 Ma and 1.2 Ma, while low NHIS volume was not sufficient to dominate the EAWM variation as it did over the last 0.9 Myr with 100 kyr cycles in dominance.

  3. Tropical and Monsoonal Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Duiing the cold surge event the balance of the 200 mb zonal momentum budget is between the zonal advecton of momentum and the coriolis, aceration ...over the South China Sea in the Malaysia ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS region during the winter monsoon, December 1973. Pure AppL Geophys., 115, 1303-1334. We wish

  4. Contrasting effects of temperature and winter mixing on the seasonal and inter-annual variability of the carbonate system in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Dumousseaud

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Future climate change as a result of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations is expected to strongly affect the oceans, with shallower winter mixing and consequent reduction in primary production and oceanic carbon drawdown in low and mid-latitudinal oceanic regions. Here we test this hypothesis by examining the effects of cold and warm winters on the carbonate system in the surface waters of the Northeast Atlantic Ocean for the period between 2005 and 2007. Monthly observations were made between the English Channel and the Bay of Biscay using a ship of opportunity program. During the colder winter of 2005/2006, the maximum depth of the mixed layer reached up to 650 m in the Bay of Biscay, whilst during the warmer (by 2.6 ± 0.5 °C winter of 2006/2007 the mixed layer depth reached only 300 m. The inter-annual differences in late winter concentrations of nitrate (2.8 ± 1.1 μmol l−1 and dissolved inorganic carbon (22 ± 6 μmol kg−1, with higher concentrations at the end of the colder winter (2005/2006, led to differences in the dissolved oxygen anomaly and the chlorophyll α-fluorescence data for the subsequent growing season. In contrast to model predictions, the calculated air-sea CO2 fluxes (ranging from +3.7 to −4.8 mmol m−2 d−1 showed an increased oceanic CO2 uptake in the Bay of Biscay following the warmer winter of 2006/2007 associated with wind speed and sea surface temperature differences.

  5. Regional variation in the chemical composition of winter snow pack and terricolous lichens in relation to sources of acid emissions in the Usa river basin, northeast European Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, T.R.; Crittenden, P.D.; Young, S.D.

    2003-01-01

    The chemistry of winter snow pack and terricolous lichens indicate pollution distribution in Arctic Russia. - The chemical composition of snow and terricolous lichens was determined along transects through the Subarctic towns of Vorkuta (130 km west-east), Inta (240 km south-north) and Usinsk (140 km, southwest-northeast) in the Usa river basin, northeast European Russia. Evidence of pollution gradients was found on two spatial scales. First, on the Inta transect, northward decreases in concentrations of N in the lichen Cladonia stellaris (from 0.57 mmol N g -1 at 90 km south to 0.43 mmol N g -1 at 130 km north of Inta) and winter deposition of non-sea salt sulphate (from 29.3 to 12.8 mol ha -1 at 90 km south and 110 km north of Inta, respectively) were attributed to long range transport of N and S from lower latitudes. Second, increased ionic content (SO 4 2- , Ca 2+ , K + ) and pH of snow, and modified N concentration and the concentration ratios K + :Mg 2+ and K + : (Mg 2+ +Ca 2+ ) in lichens (Cladonia arbuscula and Flavocetraria cucullata) within ca. 25-40 km of Vorkuta and Inta were largely attributed to local deposition of alkaline coal ash. Total sulphate concentrations in snow varied from ca. 5 μmol l -1 at remote sites to ca. 19 μmol l -1 near Vorkuta. Nitrate concentration in snow (typically ca. 9 μmol l -1 ) did not vary with proximity to perceived pollution sources

  6. Assessing power plant impacts on fish populations at Northeast Utilities sites: winter flounder studies at Millstone Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorda, E.; Danila, D.J.; Miller, J.D.; Bireley, L.E.; Jacobsen, P.M.

    1987-01-01

    An historical view is presented of the various impact assessment approaches used to study the winter flounder, including efforts to identify and quantify compensation and to model its population dynamics. This review illustrates the need for unbiased estimates of basic life history parameters and power plant related mortalities if compensatory mechanisms are to be understood and if impact assessments are to be meaningful. 67 references, 19 figures, 10 tables

  7. Influence of monsoonal winds on chlorophyll-α distribution in the Beibu Gulf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Shen

    Full Text Available The influence of seasonal, monsoonal winds on the temporal and spatial variability of chlorophyll-a (chl-a in the Beibu Gulf is studied based on long-term satellite data of sea surface winds, chl-a concentration and sea surface temperature (SST and in-situ observations for the years from 2002 to 2014. The analysis results indicated that under northeasterly monsoonal winds, chl-a concentrations were substantially elevated in most area of the Beibu Gulf, with a high chl-a concentration (>2 mg m-3 patch extending southwestward from the coastal water of the northeastern Gulf, consistent with the winter wind pattern. Meanwhile, the spatial distribution of high chl-a concentration is correlated with low SST in the northeastern Gulf. In the southern Gulf, there was generally low chl-a, except in the coastal waters southwest of Hainan Island. Here, the upwelling cold water prevails outside the mouth of the Beibu Gulf, driven by the southwesterly monsoonal winds and the runoff from the Changhua River, as implied by low observed SST. Correlation analysis indicated the chl-a concentration was strongly modulated by wind speed (r = 0.63, p0.7, p<0.001. Integrated analysis also showed that stratification is weak and mixing is strong in winter as affected by the high wind speed, which suggests that the wind-induced mixing is a dominant mechanism for entrainment of nutrients and the spatial distribution of chl-a in winter.

  8. Autecology of Astragalus arpilobus Kar. & Kir, a promised species for restoration of the winter rangelands in the northeast of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jankju

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Studying the autecology of range plants provides the basic information on their ecological requirements, cultivation methods and the interactions with the prevailing environment. Such information is necessary for a proper range management. Some ecological characteristics of Astragalus arpilobus Kar. & Kir., were studied in the winter rangelands of Northern Khorasan province. It was naturally growing in Jargalan, Bojnourd, where the altitudinal range varied 500-600 a.s.l, slope 20-100%, and the average annual rainfall 236.85 mm. Soil properties were: loamy texture, average organic matter, low fertility, pH 7.32 and EC 2.30 ds.m-1. A. aripilobus started vegetative growth at the early March, flowering during early May, seed production during June, and terminated its yearly growth at early July. The highest nutritive values and forage quality were at the beginning of growth, which was gradually decreased towards the end of growth season. Crude protein (CP, and ash were decreased whereas acid detergent fiber (ADF, natural detergent fiber (NDF, and dry matter (DM increased by the growing season. Seeds were easily established within pots; however, seed germination rate was low (24%, which by sand paper scarification was increased up to 51%. In conclusion, feasibility of seedling establishment, high nutritive value, and concurrence of plant phenology with the time of maximum need to fodder, by livestocks, propose A. arpilobus as a promising forage plant species for restoration of the winter rangelands in Northern Khorasan province.

  9. SPATIO-TEMPORAL ESTIMATION OF INTEGRATED WATER VAPOUR OVER THE MALAYSIAN PENINSULA DURING MONSOON SEASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Salihin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides the precise information on spatial-temporal distribution of water vapour that was retrieved from Zenith Path Delay (ZPD which was estimated by Global Positioning System (GPS processing over the Malaysian Peninsular. A time series analysis of these ZPD and Integrated Water Vapor (IWV values was done to capture the characteristic on their seasonal variation during monsoon seasons. This study was found that the pattern and distribution of atmospheric water vapour over Malaysian Peninsular in whole four years periods were influenced by two inter-monsoon and two monsoon seasons which are First Inter-monsoon, Second Inter-monsoon, Southwest monsoon and Northeast monsoon.

  10. The asymmetric effects of El Niño and La Niña on the East Asian winter monsoon and their simulation by CMIP5 atmospheric models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhun; Zhou, Tianjun; Wu, Bo

    2017-02-01

    El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events significantly affect the year-by-year variations of the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM). However, the effect of La Niña events on the EAWM is not a mirror image of that of El Niño events. Although the EAWM becomes generally weaker during El Niño events and stronger during La Niña winters, the enhanced precipitation over the southeastern China and warmer surface air temperature along the East Asian coastline during El Niño years are more significant. These asymmetric effects are caused by the asymmetric longitudinal positions of the western North Pacific (WNP) anticyclone during El Niño events and the WNP cyclone during La Niña events; specifically, the center of the WNP cyclone during La Niña events is westward-shifted relative to its El Niño counterpart. This central-position shift results from the longitudinal shift of remote El Niño and La Niña anomalous heating, and asymmetry in the amplitude of local sea surface temperature anomalies over the WNP. However, such asymmetric effects of ENSO on the EAWM are barely reproduced by the atmospheric models of Phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), although the spatial patterns of anomalous circulations are reasonably reproduced. The major limitation of the CMIP5 models is an overestimation of the anomalous WNP anticyclone/cyclone, which leads to stronger EAWM rainfall responses. The overestimated latent heat flux anomalies near the South China Sea and the northern WNP might be a key factor behind the overestimated anomalous circulations.

  11. Seasonal phytoplankton blooms associated with monsoonal influences and coastal environments in the sea areas either side of the Indochina Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Dan Ling; Kawamura, Hiroshi; Shi, Ping; Takahashi, Wataru; Guan, Lei; Shimada, Teruhisa; Sakaida, Futoki; Isoguchi, Osamu

    2006-03-01

    The Gulf of Thailand (GoT) is a semienclosed sea on the west and southwest side of the Indochina Peninsula and connects with the near-coastal waters of the South China Sea (SCS) on the east and northeast side of the Malay Peninsula. The objective of the present study is to understand dynamic features of the phytoplankton biology in the GoT and the nearby SCS, on both sides of the Indochina Peninsula, using remote-sensing measurements of chlorophyll-a (Chl a), sea surface temperature (SST), and surface vector winds obtained during the period from September 1997 to March 2003. Results show that seasonal variations of the phytoplankton blooms are primarily controlled by the monsoonal winds and related coastal environments. The GoT and the near-coastal SCS have a peak in the averaged monthly Chl a in December and January, which is associated with the winter northeaster monsoon. The near-coastal SCS have another big peak in the averaged monthly Chl a in summer (July to September), which is associated with the summer southwest monsoon. The offshore bloom in the GoT occurs in its southern part and enhances the December-January peak of averaged monthly Chl a. By contrast, the offshore bloom in the nearby SCS is observed northeast of the Peninsula, and represents the primary source of the July-September peak Chl a. Here the coastal upwelling associated with the offshore Ekman transport caused by the coastal surface winds parallel to the Vietnam east coast gives physical conditions favorable to the development of offshore phytoplankton blooms. The Mekong River discharge waters flow in different directions, depending on the monsoon winds, and contributes to seasonal blooms on both sides of the Peninsula.

  12. AMS 14 C dating controlled records of monsoon and Indonesian throughflow variability from the eastern Indian Ocean of the past 32,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z. Y.; Chen, M. T.; Shi, X.; Liu, S.; Wang, H.

    2015-12-01

    Zi-Ye Li a, Min-Te Chen b, Hou-Jie Wang a, Sheng-Fa Liu c, Xue-Fa Shi ca College of Marine Geosciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, P.R. Chinab Institute of Applied Geosciences, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan 20224, ROCc First Institute of Oceanography, SOA, Qingdao 266100, P.R. China Indonesian throughflow (ITF) is one of the most important currents responsible for transporting heat and moisture from the western Pacific to the Indian Oceans. The ITF is also well-known as effectively in modulating the global climate change with the interactions among ENSO and Asian monsoons. Here we present an AMS 14C dating controlled sea surface temperature (SST) record from core SO184-10043 (07°18.57'S, 105°03.53'E), which was retrieved from 2171m water depth at a north-south depression located at the southeastern offshore area of Sumatera in the eastern Indian Ocean. Based on our high-resolution SST using Mg/Ca analyses based on planktonic foraminifera shells of Globigerinoides ruber and alkenone index, U k'37-SST, oxygen isotope stratigraphy, and AMC 14C age-controls, our records show that, during the past 32,000 years, the SSTs were decreased which imply weaker ITF during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 2 and 3. The weaker UTF may respond to strengthened northeast monsoon during the boreal winter. During 21 to 15ka, the southeast monsoon had been stronger and the northeast monsoon was relatively weaker. During 15 to 8ka, rapid sea level rising may allow the opening of the gateways in the Makassar Strait and Lombok Strait that may have further strengthened the ITF. During the early Holocene, the northeast and southeast monsoons seem to be both strengthened. We will discuss the implications of the hydrographic variability and their age uncertainties in this paper during the meeting.

  13. Spatio-Temporal Variation and Monsoon Effect on the Temperature Lapse Rate of a Subtropical Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-An Chiu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature lapse rate (TLR has been widely used in the prediction of mountain climate and vegetation and in many ecological models. The aims of this paper are to explore the spatio-temporal variations and monsoon effects on the TLR in the subtropical island of Taiwan with its steep Central Mountain Region (CMR. A TLR analysis using the 32-year monthly mean air temperatures and elevations from 219 weather stations (sea level to 3852 m a.s.l. was performed based on different geographical regions and monsoon exposures. The results revealed that the average TLR for all of Taiwan is -5.17°C km-1, with a general tendency to be steeper in summer and shallower in winter. The results are also shallower than the typical or global average TLR of -6.5°C km-1. During the prevailing northeast monsoon season (winter, the TLR exhibits a contrast between the windward side (steeper, -5.97°C km-1 and the leeward side (shallower, -4.51°C km-1. From the diagnosis on spatial characteristics of monthly cloud amount and vertical atmospheric profiles, this contrasting phenomenon may be explained by the warming effect of onshore stratus clouds (500 - 2500 m depth on cold and dry Siberian monsoon air on the windward side of the CMR. On the southwestern leeward side of the CMR, the low-level (1500 m, the weak ventilation atmosphere and temperature inversion make the TLR shallower than on the windward side.

  14. Stable isotopic characteristic of Taiwan's precipitation: A case study of western Pacific monsoon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Tsung-Ren; Wang, Chung-Ho; Huang, Chi-Chao; Fei, Li-Yuan; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Hwong, Jeen-Lian

    2010-01-01

    The stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopic features of precipitation in Taiwan, an island located at the western Pacific monsoon area, are presented from nearly 3,500 samples collected during the past decade for 20 stations. Results demonstrate that moisture sources from diverse air masses with different isotopic signals are the main parameter in controlling the precipitation's isotope characteristics. The air mass from polar continental (Pc) region contributes the precipitation with high deuterium excess values (up to 23‰) and relatively enriched isotope compositions (e.g., - 3.2‰ for δ 18O) during the winter with prevailing northeasterly monsoon. By contrast, air masses from equatorial maritime (Em) and tropical maritime (Tm) supply the precipitation with low deuterium excess values (as low as about 7‰) and more depleted isotope values (e.g., - 8.9‰ and - 6.0‰ for δ 18O of Tm and Em, respectively) during the summer with prevailing southwesterly monsoon. Thus seasonal differences in terms of δ 18O, δD, and deuterium excess values are primarily influenced by the interactions among various precipitation sources. While these various air masses travel through Taiwan, secondary evaporation effects further modify the isotope characteristics of the inland precipitation, such as raindrop evaporation (reduces the deuterium excess of winter precipitation) and moisture recycling (increases the deuterium excess of summer precipitation). The semi-quantitative estimations in terms of evaluation for changes in the deuterium excess suggest that the raindrop evaporation fractions for winter precipitation range 7% to 15% and the proportions of recycling moisture in summer precipitation are less than 5%. Additionally, the isotopic altitude gradient in terms of δ 18O for summer precipitation is - 0.22‰/100 m, greater than - 0.17‰/100 m of winter precipitation. The greater isotopic gradient in summer can be attributed to a higher temperature vs. altitude gradient

  15. Evidence of Himalayan uplift as seen in Neogene records of Indian monsoon variability from ODP Hole 722B, NW Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthusamy, Prakasam; Gupta, Anil K.; Saini, Naresh K.

    2013-04-01

    The Indian monsoon is one of the most interesting climatic features on Earth impacting most populous countries of South and East Asia. It is marked by seasonal reversals of wind direction with southwesterly winds in summer (June-September) and northeasterly winds in winter (December-February). The monsoon not only impacts socioeconomic conditions of Asia but also brings important changes in fauna and flora, ocean upwelling and primary productivity in the Arabian Sea. The Himalaya has undergone several phases of rapid uplift and exhumation since the early Miocene which led to major intensification of the Indian monsoon. The monsoon is driven by the thermal contrast between land and sea, and is intimately linked with the latitudinal movement of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The effect of Indian monsoon variability and the Himalayan uplift can be seen in numerous proxy records across the region. In this study we discussed about the Indian monsoon intensification and the Himalayan uplift since the early Miocene based on multi proxy records such as planktic foraminiferal relative abundances (Globigerina bulloides, Globigerinita glutinata and mixed layer species), total organic carbon (TOC), CaCO3 and elemental data from ODP Hole 722B (2028 mbsf), northwestern Arabian Sea. The TOC, CaCO3 and elemental variations of the ODP Hole 722B suggest multi phase of monsoonal intensification and Himalayan uplifts. Our results suggest that in the early Miocene (23.03 Ma) to ~15Ma, the wind strength and productivity were low. A major change is observed at ~15 Ma, during which time numerous proxies show abrupt changes. TOC, CaCO3 and Elemental analyses results reveal that a major change in the productivity, wind strength and chemical weathering starts around 15 Ma and extends up to 10 Ma. This suggests that a major Himalayan uplift occurred during ~15-10 Ma that drove Indian monsoon intensification. A similar change is also observed during 5 to 1 Ma. These long

  16. The Indian Monsoon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The word 'monsoon' is derived from the Arabic word 'mausam' for season and the distinguishing attribute of ... lance, the word monsoon is used for the rainfall in the rainy season. In this article, I discuss the ..... [1] C S Ramage, Monsoon meteorology, International Geophysics Series,. Academic Press, San Diego, California ...

  17. The Emissions of Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Nitrous Oxide during Winter without Cultivation in Local Saline-Alkali Rice and Maize Fields in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural ecosystems are important contributors to atmospheric greenhouse gasses (GHGs; however, in situ winter emission data in saline-alkali fields are scarce. Gas samples were collected during different periods, from three rice (R1–R3 and three maize (M1–M3 fields with different soil pH levels and salinity conditions. Carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions in the rice and maize fields decreased with decreasing temperature during the freezing period and increased with the rising temperature during the thawing period, with the majority of winter CO2 emissions occurring during these two periods. Peaks in methane (CH4 emissions were observed during the freezing period in the rice fields and during the snow-melting period in the rice and maize fields. CH4 emissions in the rice fields and CH4 uptake rates in the maize fields were significantly (P < 0.05 related to surface soil temperature. Nitrous oxide (N2O emissions remained relatively low, except for during the peaks observed during the snow-melting period in both the rice and maize fields, leading to the high GHG contribution of the snow-melting period throughout the winter. Higher pH and salinity conditions consistently resulted in lower CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions, CH4 uptake, and lower global warming potential (GWP. These results can contribute to the assessment of the GWP during winter in saline-alkali regions.

  18. Waves in the Red Sea: Response to monsoonal and mountain gap winds

    KAUST Repository

    Ralston, David K.

    2013-08-01

    An unstructured grid, phase-averaged wave model forced with winds from a high resolution atmospheric model is used to evaluate wind wave conditions in the Red Sea over an approximately 2-year period. The Red Sea lies in a narrow rift valley, and the steep topography surrounding the basin steers the dominant wind patterns and consequently the wave climate. At large scales, the model results indicated that the primary seasonal variability in waves was due to the monsoonal wind reversal. During the winter, monsoon winds from the southeast generated waves with mean significant wave heights in excess of 2. m and mean periods of 8. s in the southern Red Sea, while in the northern part of the basin waves were smaller, shorter period, and from northwest. The zone of convergence of winds and waves typically occurred around 19-20°N, but the location varied between 15 and 21.5°N. During the summer, waves were generally smaller and from the northwest over most of the basin. While the seasonal winds oriented along the axis of the Red Sea drove much of the variability in the waves, the maximum wave heights in the simulations were not due to the monsoonal winds but instead were generated by localized mountain wind jets oriented across the basin (roughly east-west). During the summer, a mountain wind jet from the Tokar Gap enhanced the waves in the region of 18 and 20°N, with monthly mean wave heights exceeding 2. m and maximum wave heights of 14. m during a period when the rest of the Red Sea was relatively calm. Smaller mountain gap wind jets along the northeast coast created large waves during the fall and winter, with a series of jets providing a dominant source of wave energy during these periods. Evaluation of the wave model results against observations from a buoy and satellites found that the spatial resolution of the wind model significantly affected the quality of the wave model results. Wind forcing from a 10-km grid produced higher skills for waves than winds from a

  19. Glacial to Holocene swings of the Australian-Indonesian monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtadi, Mahyar; Oppo, Delia W.; Steinke, Stephan; Stuut, Jan-Berend W.; de Pol-Holz, Ricardo; Hebbeln, Dierk; Lückge, Andreas

    2011-08-01

    The Australian-Indonesian monsoon is an important component of the climate system in the tropical Indo-Pacific region. However, its past variability, relation with northern and southern high-latitude climate and connection to the other Asian monsoon systems are poorly understood. Here we present high-resolution records of monsoon-controlled austral winter upwelling during the past 22,000 years, based on planktic foraminiferal oxygen isotopes and faunal composition in a sedimentary archive collected offshore southern Java. We show that glacial-interglacial variations in the Australian-Indonesian winter monsoon were in phase with the Indian summer monsoon system, consistent with their modern linkage through cross-equatorial surface winds. Likewise, millennial-scale variability of upwelling shares similar sign and timing with upwelling variability in the Arabian Sea. On the basis of element composition and grain-size distribution as precipitation-sensitive proxies in the same archive, we infer that (austral) summer monsoon rainfall was highest during the Bølling-Allerød period and the past 2,500 years. Our results indicate drier conditions during Heinrich Stadial 1 due to a southward shift of summer rainfall and a relatively weak Hadley cell south of the Equator. We suggest that the Australian-Indonesian summer and winter monsoon variability were closely linked to summer insolation and abrupt climate changes in the northern hemisphere.

  20. Nitrogen deposition in precipitation to a monsoon-affected eutrophic embayment: Fluxes, sources, and processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunchao; Zhang, Jingping; Liu, Songlin; Jiang, Zhijian; Arbi, Iman; Huang, Xiaoping; Macreadie, Peter Ian

    2018-06-01

    Daya Bay in the South China Sea (SCS) has experienced rapid nitrogen pollution and intensified eutrophication in the past decade due to economic development. Here, we estimated the deposition fluxes of nitrogenous species, clarified the contribution of nitrogen from precipitation and measured ions and isotopic composition (δ15N and δ18O) of nitrate in precipitation in one year period to trace its sources and formation processes among different seasons. We found that the deposition fluxes of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), NO3-, NH4+, NO2-, and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) to Daya Bay were 132.5, 64.4 17.5, 1.0, 49.6 mmol m-2•yr-1, respectively. DON was a significant contributor to nitrogen deposition (37% of TDN), and NO3- accounted for 78% of the DIN in precipitation. The nitrogen deposition fluxes were higher in spring and summer, and lower in winter. Nitrogen from precipitation contributed nearly 38% of the total input of nitrogen (point sources input and dry and wet deposition) in Daya Bay. The δ15N-NO3- abundance, ion compositions, and air mass backward trajectories implicated that coal combustion, vehicle exhausts, and dust from mainland China delivered by northeast monsoon were the main sources in winter, while fossil fuel combustion (coal combustion and vehicle exhausts) and dust from PRD and southeast Asia transported by southwest monsoon were the main sources in spring; marine sources, vehicle exhausts and lightning could be the potential sources in summer. δ18O results showed that OH pathway was dominant in the chemical formation process of nitrate in summer, while N2O5+ DMS/HC pathways in winter and spring.

  1. The classification of PM10 concentrations in Johor Based on Seasonal Monsoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Hazrul Abdul; Hanafi Rahmat, Muhamad; Aisyah Sapani, Siti

    2018-04-01

    Air is the most important living resource in life. Contaminated air could adversely affect human health and the environment, especially during the monsoon season. Contamination occurs as a result of human action and haze. There are several pollutants present in the air where one of them is PM10. Secondary data was obtained from the Department of Environment from 2010 until 2014 and was analyzed using the hourly average of PM10 concentrations. This paper examined the relation between PM10 concentrations and the monsoon seasons (Northeast Monsoon and Southwest Monsoon) in Larkin and Pasir Gudang. It was expected that the concentration of PM10 would be higher during the Southwest Monsoon as it is a dry season. The data revealed that the highest PM10 concentrations were recorded between 2010 to 2014 during this particular monsoon season. The characteristics of PM10 concentration were compared using descriptive statistics based on the monsoon seasons and classified using the hierarchical cluster analysis (Ward Methods). The annual average of PM10 concentration during the Southwest Monsoon had exceeded the standard set by the Malaysia Ambient Air Quality Guidelines (50 μg/m3) while the PM10 concentration during the Northeast Monsoon was below the acceptable level for both stations. The dendrogram displayed showed two clusters for each monsoon season for both stations excepted for the PM10 concentration during the Northeast Monsoon in Larkin which was classified into three clusters due to the haze in 2010. Overall, the concentration of PM10 in 2013 was higher based on the clustering shown for every monsoon season at both stations according to the characteristics in the descriptive statistics.

  2. The Indian Monsoon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    and led to the expectation that the impact of the monsoon on the ... a lead time of 10 days to a month for rainfall, temperature, etc., ... trying to predict, such as clouds or a monsoon depression (in ... occur because (i) the models are not perfect (involving many ... ally at many centres in the world, long-range predictions are.

  3. The Indian Monsoon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pacific Oceans, on subseasonal scales of a few days and on an interannual scale. ... over the Indian monsoon zone2 (Figure 3) during the summer monsoon .... each 500 km ×500 km grid over the equatorial Indian Ocean, Bay of Bengal and ...

  4. The Summer Monsoon of 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurti, T. N.; Bedi, H. S.; Subramaniam, M.

    1989-04-01

    In this paper we have examined the evolution of a number of parameters we believe were important for our understanding of the drought over India during the summer of 1987. The list of parameters includes monthly means or anomalies of the following fields: sea surface temperatures, divergent circulations, outgoing longwave radiation, streamfunction of the lower and upper troposphere, and monthly precipitation (expressed as a percentage departure from a long-term mean). The El Niño related warm sea surface temperature anomaly and a weaker warm sea surface temperature anomaly over the equatorial Indian Ocean provide sustained convection, as reflected by the negative values of the outgoing longwave radiation. With the seasonal heating, a pronounced planetary-scale divergent circulation evolved with a center along the western Pacific Ocean. The monsoonal divergent circulation merged with that related to the El Niño, maintaining most of the heavy rainfall activity between the equatorial Pacific Ocean and east Asia. Persistent convective activity continued south of India during the entire monsoon season. Strong Hadley type overturnings with rising motions over these warm SST anomaly regions and descent roughly near 20° to 25°S was evident as early as April 1987. The subtropical high pressure areas near 20° to 25°S showed stronger than normal circulations. This was revealed by the presence of a counterclockwise streamfunction anomaly at 850 mb during April 1987. With the seasonal heating, this anomaly moved northwards and was located over the Arabian Sea and India. This countermonsoon circulation anomaly at the low levels was associated with a weaker than normal Somali jet and Arabian Sea circulation throughout this summer. The monsoon remained active along northeast India, Bangladesh, northern lndochina, and central China during the summer monsoon season. This was related to the eastward shift of the divergent circulation. An eastward shift of the upper tropospheric

  5. Characteristics of monsoonal circulation over the western Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, J; Chen, E

    1980-01-01

    In this article the meteorological observations on ships four times daily in the area between 0 to 46/sup 0/N, 90 to 155/sup 0/E has been utilized. The grid 2 x 2 degrees along coastal waters, and 5 x 5 degrees over the open sea have been used. Here the monsoon currents over the western Pacific are calculated and analyzed and a brief discussion is given. The following three criteria were obtained: (1) The monsoon current over the western Pacific between winter and summer changed almost in opposite directions with April and October being the transitional months. In general the wind direction change from summer to winter went from the coastal waters to the open sea. (2) After the discussion about the duration and the prevailing wind directions, the following was determined: during the winter monsoon period, the 25/sup 0/N latitudinal line may be regarded as the boundary from October to March when the winter wind directions inclined N (NW or N) to the north of that line; but to the south of it NE winds prevailed. However, the durations were quite different in different regions, ranging from five to nine months. Owing to the topographic influence of the Taiwan Strait, the duration of the NE wind lasted nine months. The 25/sup 0/N line may also be applied for summer monsoons; over the eastern open ocean from the Gulf of the Bohai Sea and the Japanese islands the southerly winds lasted about nine months, but in the Taiwan Strait they lasted only two months. (3) During the winter monsoon period, the region of strong winds which encircled the continent was over the open ocean to the east of the Japanese islands and the Philippines. However, it was not as near to the shore line as in the winter season, and the frequency of strong winds was somewhat more on the southern side of the 25/sup 0/N line.

  6. Seasonal and size-dependent variations in the phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing in the southern South China Sea under the influence of the East Asian monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L.; Tan, Y.; Huang, L.; Hu, Z.; Ke, Z.

    2015-11-01

    To examine seasonal and size-dependent variations in the phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing in oligotrophic tropical waters under the influence of seasonal reversing monsoon, dilution experiments were conducted during the summer of 2009 (21 May to 9 June) and winter 2010 (9 to 18 November) in the southern South China Sea (SSCS). The results showed that environmental variables, phytoplankton biomass, phytoplankton growth rate (μ), microzooplankton grazing rate (m), and correlationship (coupling) between the μ and m, rather than the microzooplankton grazing impact on phytoplankton (m/μ) significantly varied between the two seasons. Higher relative preference index (RPI) for the larger-sized (> 3 μm) phytoplankton than pico-phytoplankton (intermittent arrivals of the northeast winter monsoon could lead to the low μ and m, and the decoupling between the μ and m in the SSCS, through influencing nutrient supply to the surface water, and inducing surface seawater salinity decrease. The low m/μ (waters such as that of the SSCS.

  7. Long-term changes of South China Sea surface temperatures in winter and summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Gyu; Choi, Ara

    2017-07-01

    Utilizing available atmospheric and oceanographic reanalysis data sets, the long-term trend in South China Sea (SCS) sea surface temperature (SST) between 1950 and 2008 and the governing processes are investigated. Both winter and summer SST increased by comparable amounts, but the warming patterns and the governing processes were different. Strong warming in winter occurred in a deep central area, and during summer in the southern region. In winter the net heat flux into the sea increased, contributing to the warming. The spatial pattern of the heat flux, however, was different from that of the warming. Heat flux increased over the coastal area where warming was weaker, but decreased over the deeper area where warming was stronger. The northeasterly monsoon wind weakened lowering the shoreward Ekman transport and the sea surface height gradient. The cyclonic gyre which transports cold northern water to the south weakened, thereby warming the ocean. The effect was manifested more strongly along the southward western boundary current inducing warming in the deep central part. In summer however, the net surface heat flux decreased and could not contribute to the warming. Over the southern part of the SCS, the weakening of the southwesterly summer monsoon reduced southeastward Ekman transport, which is parallel to the mean SST gradient. Southeastward cold advection due to Ekman transport was reduced, thereby warming the surface near the southeastern boundary of the SCS. Upwelling southeast of Vietnam was also weakened, raising the SST east of Vietnam contributing to the southern summer warming secondarily. The weakening of the winds in each season was the ultimate cause of the warming, but the responses of the ocean that lead to the warming were different in winter and summer.

  8. Tropospheric biennial oscillation and South Asian summer monsoon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    20

    suggested that the Indo-Pacific SST displays strong impact on TBO as compared to .... and model display clear biennial signals with above 95% confidence level .... Ascending motion and low level convergence over the monsoon core ..... Indian and western Pacific oceans during the northern winter as revealed by a self-.

  9. Does winter cooling lead to the subsurface salinity minimum off Saurashtra, India?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.; Gouveia, A.D.; Shenoi, S.S.C.

    Cold and dry winds of the northeast monsoon cool the northern Arabian Sea during November-January. The intensity of cooling is highest in the proximity of the peninsula of Saurashtra, India. Using hydrographic data, we propose that the cooling...

  10. Energetics and monsoon bifurcations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadri, Ashwin K.

    2017-01-01

    Monsoons involve increases in dry static energy (DSE), with primary contributions from increased shortwave radiation and condensation of water vapor, compensated by DSE export via horizontal fluxes in monsoonal circulations. We introduce a simple box-model characterizing evolution of the DSE budget to study nonlinear dynamics of steady-state monsoons. Horizontal fluxes of DSE are stabilizing during monsoons, exporting DSE and hence weakening the monsoonal circulation. By contrast latent heat addition (LHA) due to condensation of water vapor destabilizes, by increasing the DSE budget. These two factors, horizontal DSE fluxes and LHA, are most strongly dependent on the contrast in tropospheric mean temperature between land and ocean. For the steady-state DSE in the box-model to be stable, the DSE flux should depend more strongly on the temperature contrast than LHA; stronger circulation then reduces DSE and thereby restores equilibrium. We present conditions for this to occur. The main focus of the paper is describing conditions for bifurcation behavior of simple models. Previous authors presented a minimal model of abrupt monsoon transitions and argued that such behavior can be related to a positive feedback called the `moisture advection feedback'. However, by accounting for the effect of vertical lapse rate of temperature on the DSE flux, we show that bifurcations are not a generic property of such models despite these fluxes being nonlinear in the temperature contrast. We explain the origin of this behavior and describe conditions for a bifurcation to occur. This is illustrated for the case of the July-mean monsoon over India. The default model with mean parameter estimates does not contain a bifurcation, but the model admits bifurcation as parameters are varied.

  11. Monsoon onset over Kerala and pre monsoon rainfall peak

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Shankar, D.

    and the monsoon onset date over Kerala was found to be 0.72, which was statistically significant. Thus, as is felt that the pre monsoon rainfall estimate from the satellite data can be used for predicting the monsoon onset over Kerala coast. The results...

  12. Winter to winter recurrence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia and its impact on winter surface air temperature anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xia; Yang, Guang

    2017-01-01

    The persistence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia shows a winter to winter recurrence (WTWR) phenomenon. Seasonal variations in sea level pressure anomalies and surface wind anomalies display significantly different characteristics between WTWR and non-WTWR years. The WTWR years are characterized by the recurrence of both a strong (weak) anomalous Siberian High and an East Asian winter monsoon over two successive winters without persistence through the intervening summer. However, anomalies during the non-WTWR years have the opposite sign between the current and ensuing winters. The WTWR of circulation anomalies contributes to that of surface air temperature anomalies (SATAs), which is useful information for improving seasonal and interannual climate predictions over East Asia and China. In the positive (negative) WTWR years, SATAs are cooler (warmer) over East Asia in two successive winters, but the signs of the SATAs are opposite in the preceding and subsequent winters during the non-WTWR years.

  13. Monsoon and primary acute angle closure in malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ch'ng, T W; Mosavi, S A A; Noor Azimah, A A; Azlan, N Z; Azhany, Y; Liza-Sharmini, A T

    2013-10-01

    Acute angle closure (AAC) without prompt treatment may lead to optic neuropathy. Environmental factor such as climate change may precipitate pupillary block, the possible mechanism of AAC. To determine the association of northeast monsoon and incidence of AAC in Malaysia. A retrospective study was conducted on AAC patients admitted to two main tertiary hospitals in Kelantan, Malaysia between January 2001 and December 2011. The cumulative number of rainy day, amount of rain, mean cloud cover and 24 hours mean humidity at the estimated day of attack were obtained from the Department of Meteorology, Malaysia. A total 73 cases of AAC were admitted with mean duration of 4.1SD 2.0 days. More than half have previous history of possibility of AAC. There was higher incidence of AAC during the northeast monsoon (October to March). There was also significant correlation of number of rainy day (r=0.718, pclimate as the potential risk factor. Prompt treatment to arrest pupillary block and reduction of the intraocular pressure is important to prevent potential glaucomatous damage. Public awareness of AAC and accessibility to treatment should be part of preparation to face the effect of northeast monsoon.

  14. Measuring the monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaswamy, V.; Nair, R.R.

    that are constant enough to be used for navigation. But the monsoon also acts as a sign of the climatic times. Although its timing is remarkably regular, the intensity of its effects varies considerably from year to year. On top of natural variations in the strength...

  15. The Indian Monsoon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 3. The Indian Monsoon - Links to Cloud systems over the Tropical Oceans. Sulochana Gadgil. Series Article Volume 13 Issue 3 March 2008 pp 218-235. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  16. Foretelling the Monsoon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Relation between the continental TCZ and the TCZ over Equatorial Indian Ocean · Understanding year-to year (interannual) variation of the monsoon · Slide 40 · IMPACT OF EL NINO/LA NINA · Slide 42 · Variation of ISMR anomalies ( i.e. difference from the average value) normalized by std. deviation from 1979-2004.

  17. Winter cooling in the northern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Prasad, T.G.

    forcing that leads to the observed high productivity during winter in the northern Arabian Sea. The weak northerly winds and increased solar insolation during the inter-monsoon period, led to the development of a highly stratified upper layer with warm sea...

  18. Effects of tides on the cross-isobath movement of the low-salinity plume in the western Yellow and East China Seas in winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Hirose, Naoki; Yuan, Dongliang; Moon, Jae-Hong; Pan, Xishan

    2017-07-01

    Offshore extension of the fresh Subei coast water is identified in winter based on in site salinity observation data in this and previous studies. A high-resolution regional ocean circulation model is used to investigate the cross-isobath movement of low salinity-water over the Yellow and East China Seas, and it has reproduced the salinity distribution observed in the winter of 2014-2015 successfully. The model suggests that the low-salinity water is basically degenerated back to the eastern coast of China in winter because of strong northeasterly wind. However, a part of the low-salinity water extends offshore in the southeast direction across the 20-50 m isobaths over the Yangtze Bank, which cannot be explained by either the northerly winter monsoon or the Changjiang discharge. Numerical experiments suggest that the cross-isobath transport of the soluble substances is highly attributed to the tidal residual current, flowing southeastward across 20-50 m isobaths over the whole Yangtze Bank. The results of controlled experiments also indicate that the bottom shear of the tidal current, rather than the tidal mixing, plays a significant role in the cross-isobath current during winter.

  19. The Monsoon Erosion Pump and the Indian Monsoon since Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giosan, L.

    2017-12-01

    Lack of consensus on the Neogene establishment and evolution of the Indian Monsoon is remarkable after half a century of research. Conflicting interpretations point toward the possibility of periodic decoupling between monsoon winds and monsoon precipitation. Here I introduce the concept of a monsoon erosion pump based on terrestrial and oceanic records reconstructed from recent NGHP and IODP drilling and spanning the last 34 million years in the Bay of Bengal, Arabian and Andaman Seas. From millennial to orbital to tectonic timescales, these records suggest that vegetation land cover interacts and modulates the regime of erosion and weathering under perennial but variable monsoonal rain conditions. Under this new proposed paradigm the Indian monsoon exhibits two distinct flavours during the Neogene that can be largely explained by its heartbeat, or astronomical forcing, mediated by the global glacial state and interacting with the paleogeography of South Asia.

  20. Monsoon oscillations regulate fertility of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Raitsos, Dionysios E.

    2015-02-16

    Tropical ocean ecosystems are predicted to become warmer, more saline, and less fertile in a future Earth. The Red Sea, one of the warmest and most saline environments in the world, may afford insights into the function of the tropical ocean ecosystem in a changing planet. We show that the concentration of chlorophyll and the duration of the phytoplankton growing season in the Red Sea are controlled by the strength of the winter Arabian monsoon (through horizontal advection of fertile waters from the Indian Ocean). Furthermore, and contrary to expectation, in the last decade (1998-2010) the winter Red Sea phytoplankton biomass has increased by 75% during prolonged positive phases of the Multivariate El Niño-Southern Oscillation Index. A new mechanism is reported, revealing the synergy of monsoon and climate in regulating Red Sea greenness. © 2015 The Authors.

  1. Monsoon oscillations regulate fertility of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Raitsos, Dionysios E.; Yi, Xing; Platt, Trevor; Racault, Marie-Fanny; Brewin, Robert J. W.; Pradhan, Yaswant; Papadopoulos, Vassilis P.; Sathyendranath, Shubha; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Tropical ocean ecosystems are predicted to become warmer, more saline, and less fertile in a future Earth. The Red Sea, one of the warmest and most saline environments in the world, may afford insights into the function of the tropical ocean ecosystem in a changing planet. We show that the concentration of chlorophyll and the duration of the phytoplankton growing season in the Red Sea are controlled by the strength of the winter Arabian monsoon (through horizontal advection of fertile waters from the Indian Ocean). Furthermore, and contrary to expectation, in the last decade (1998-2010) the winter Red Sea phytoplankton biomass has increased by 75% during prolonged positive phases of the Multivariate El Niño-Southern Oscillation Index. A new mechanism is reported, revealing the synergy of monsoon and climate in regulating Red Sea greenness. © 2015 The Authors.

  2. Satellite observations of the northeast monsoon coastal current

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenoi, S.S.C.; Gouveia, A.D.; Shetye, S.R.; Rao, L.V.G.

    Satellite Infrared observations, from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), during November 1987-February 1988 and hydrographic data from the eastern Arabian Sea are used to describe the poleward flowing coastal current in the eastern...

  3. The coastal current off western India during the northeast monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.; Gouveia, A.D.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Michael, G.S.; Sundar, D.; Almeida, A.M.; Santanam, K.

    , temperature and dynamic topography. To understand the driving mechanism of the current, the annual cycle of the contribution of the longshore pressure gradient and that of the winds to the near-surface momentum balance was examined using available...

  4. Community level perceptions of the monsoon onset, withdrawal and climatic trends in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, M. A.; Abu Syed, M. D.; Hossain, P. R.; Maainuddi, G.; Mamnun, N.

    2012-04-01

    A structured questionnaire study was carried out in 6 different regions in Bangladesh in order to give insight into how the different communities define the monsoon. The respondents were asked how they define the monsoon onset and withdrawal, and by how much these can vary from year to year. They were also asked about how they perceive changes in onset and withdrawal dates and total monsoonal rainfall during the past 20 years. Bangladesh is a developing country with a large proportion of the population living in rural areas and employed in the agricultural sector. It is foreseen that these communities will be most affected by changes in the climate. These groups were considered to be the main stakeholders when considering climate change, due to the direct influence the monsoon has on their livelihood and the food supply for the entire nation. Agricultural workers were therefore the main group targeted in this study. The main aim of the study was to create a framework for defining the monsoon in order to increase the usability of results in future impact-related studies. Refining definitions according to the perceptions of the main stakeholders helps to achieve this goal. Results show that rainfall is the main parameter used in defining the monsoon onset and withdrawal. This is possibly intuitive, however the monsoon onset was considered to be considerably earlier than previous scientific studies. This could be due to pre-monsoonal rainfall, however the respondents defined this type of rainfall separately to what they called the monsoon. The monsoon is considered to start earliest in the Sylhet region in northeast Bangladesh.

  5. Revisiting Asian monsoon formation and change associated with Tibetan Plateau forcing: I. Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Guoxiong; Liu, Yimin; Duan, Anmin; Bao, Qing [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China); Dong, Buwen [University of Reading, Department of Meteorology, National Centre for Atmospheric Science, Reading (United Kingdom); Liang, Xiaoyun [China Meteorological Administration, National Climate Center, Beijing (China); Yu, Jingjing [China Meteorological Administration, National Meteorological Information Center, Beijing (China)

    2012-09-15

    Numerical experiments with different idealized land and mountain distributions are carried out to study the formation of the Asian monsoon and related coupling processes. Results demonstrate that when there is only extratropical continent located between 0 and 120 E and between 20/30 N and the North Pole, a rather weak monsoon rainband appears along the southern border of the continent, coexisting with an intense intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). The continuous ITCZ surrounds the whole globe, prohibits the development of near-surface cross-equatorial flow, and collects water vapor from tropical oceans, resulting in very weak monsoon rainfall. When tropical lands are integrated, the ITCZ over the longitude domain where the extratropical continent exists disappears as a consequence of the development of a strong surface cross-equatorial flow from the winter hemisphere to the summer hemisphere. In addition, an intense interaction between the two hemispheres develops, tropical water vapor is transported to the subtropics by the enhanced poleward flow, and a prototype of the Asian monsoon appears. The Tibetan Plateau acts to enhance the coupling between the lower and upper tropospheric circulations and between the subtropical and tropical monsoon circulations, resulting in an intensification of the East Asian summer monsoon and a weakening of the South Asian summer monsoon. Linking the Iranian Plateau to the Tibetan Plateau substantially reduces the precipitation over Africa and increases the precipitation over the Arabian Sea and the northern Indian subcontinent, effectively contributing to the development of the South Asian summer monsoon. (orig.)

  6. Past 100 Ky surface salinity-gradient response in the eastern Arabian Sea to the summer monsoon variation recorded by delta super(18)O of G. sacculifer

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chodankar, A.R.; Banakar, V.K.; Oba, T.

    tongue may therefore provide a potential tool for understanding the past variation in the intensity of Indian summer monsoons. In response to past fluctuations in the summer- and winter-monsoon intensity, the salinities in both the basins have oscillated... glacial cycle. Mar. Geol. Bassinot, F.C., Labeyrie, L.D., Vincent, E., Quidelleur, X., Shackleton, N.J., Lancelot, Y., 1994. The astronomical theory the Bay of Bengal, suggesting weakest summer monsoons. On the other hand, the lowest contrast indicating...

  7. Predicting summer monsoon of Bhutan based on SST and teleconnection indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorji, Singay; Herath, Srikantha; Mishra, Binaya Kumar; Chophel, Ugyen

    2018-02-01

    The paper uses a statistical method of predicting summer monsoon over Bhutan using the ocean-atmospheric circulation variables of sea surface temperature (SST), mean sea-level pressure (MSLP), and selected teleconnection indices. The predictors are selected based on the correlation. They are the SST and MSLP of the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea and the MSLP of Bangladesh and northeast India. The Northern Hemisphere teleconnections of East Atlantic Pattern (EA), West Pacific Pattern (WP), Pacific/North American Pattern, and East Atlantic/West Russia Pattern (EA/WR). The rainfall station data are grouped into two regions with principal components analysis and Ward's hierarchical clustering algorithm. A support vector machine for regression model is proposed to predict the monsoon. The model shows improved skills over traditional linear regression. The model was able to predict the summer monsoon for the test data from 2011 to 2015 with a total monthly root mean squared error of 112 mm for region A and 33 mm for region B. Model could also forecast the 2016 monsoon of the South Asia Monsoon Outlook of World Meteorological Organization (WMO) for Bhutan. The reliance on agriculture and hydropower economy makes the prediction of summer monsoon highly valuable information for farmers and various other sectors. The proposed method can predict summer monsoon for operational forecasting.

  8. Atmospheric aerosol radiative forcing over a semi-continental location Tripura in North-East India: Model results and ground observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Pranab; De, Barin Kumar; Banik, Trisanu; Gogoi, Mukunda M; Babu, S Suresh; Guha, Anirban

    2017-02-15

    Northeast India (NEI) is located within the boundary of the great Himalayas in the north and the Bay of Bengal (BoB) in the southwest, experiences the mixed influence of the westerly dust advection from the Indian desert, anthropogenic aerosols from the highly polluted Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) and marine aerosols from BoB. The present study deals with the estimation and characterization of aerosol radiative forcing over a semi-continental site Tripura, which is a strategic location in the western part of NEI having close proximity to the outflow of the IGP. Continuous long term measurements of aerosol black carbon (BC) mass concentrations and columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD) are used for the estimation of aerosol radiative forcing in each monthly time scale. The study revealed that the surface forcing due to aerosols was higher during both winter and pre-monsoon seasons, having comparable values of 32W/m 2 and 33.45W/m 2 respectively. The atmospheric forcing was also higher during these months due to increased columnar aerosol loadings (higher AOD ~0.71) shared by abundant BC concentrations (SSA ~0.7); while atmospheric forcing decreased in monsoon due to reduced magnitude of BC (SSA ~0.94 in July) as well as columnar AOD. The top of the atmosphere (TOA) forcing is positive in pre-monsoon and monsoon months with the highest positive value of 3.78W/m 2 in June 2012. The results are discussed in light of seasonal source impact and transport pathways from adjacent regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Physical control of interannual variations of the winter chlorophyll bloom in the northern Arabian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Keerthi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The northern Arabian Sea hosts a winter chlorophyll bloom, triggered by convective overturning in response to cold and dry northeasterly monsoon winds. Previous studies of interannual variations of this bloom only relied on a couple of years of data and reached no consensus on the associated processes. The current study aims at identifying these processes using both  ∼  10 years of observations (including remotely sensed chlorophyll data and physical parameters derived from Argo data and a 20-year-long coupled biophysical ocean model simulation. Despite discrepancies in the estimated bloom amplitude, the six different remotely sensed chlorophyll products analysed in this study display a good phase agreement at seasonal and interannual timescales. The model and observations both indicate that the interannual winter bloom fluctuations are strongly tied to interannual mixed layer depth anomalies ( ∼  0.6 to 0.7 correlation, which are themselves controlled by the net heat flux at the air–sea interface. Our modelling results suggest that the mixed layer depth control of the bloom amplitude ensues from the modulation of nutrient entrainment into the euphotic layer. In contrast, the model and observations both display insignificant correlations between the bloom amplitude and thermocline depth, which precludes a control of the bloom amplitude by daily dilution down to the thermocline depth, as suggested in a previous study.

  10. Origins and interrelationship of Intraseasonal rainfall variations around the Maritime Continent during boreal winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xi; Wu, Renguang

    2018-04-01

    Large intraseasonal rainfall variations are identified over the southern South China Sea (SSCS), tropical southeastern Indian Ocean (SEIO), and east coast of the Philippines (EPHI) in boreal winter. The present study contrasts origins and propagations and investigates interrelations of intraseasonal rainfall variations on the 10-20- and 30-60-day time scales in these regions. Different origins are identified for intraseasonal rainfall anomalies over the SSCS, SEIO, and EPHI on both time scales. On the 10-20-day time scale, strong northerly or northeasterly wind anomalies related to the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) play a major role in intraseasonal rainfall variations over the SSCS and EPHI. On the 30-60-day time scale, both the intraseasonal signal from the tropical Indian Ocean and the EAWM-related wind anomalies contribute to intraseasonal rainfall variations over the SSCS, whereas the EAWM-related wind anomalies have a major contribution to the intraseasonal rainfall variations over the EPHI. No relation is detected between the intraseasonal rainfall variations over the SEIO and the EAWM on both the 10-20-day and 30-60-day time scales. The anomalies associated with intraseasonal rainfall variations over the SSCS and EPHI propagate northwestward and northeastward, respectively, on the 10-20- and 30-60-day time scales. The intraseasonal rainfall anomalies display northwestward and northward propagation over the Bay of Bengal, respectively, on the 10-20- and 30-60-day time scales.

  11. Why the Australian Monsoon Strengthened During the Cold Last Glacial Maximum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, M.; Wang, B.; Liu, J.; Ning, L.

    2017-12-01

    The multi-model ensemble simulation suggests that the global monsoon and most sub-monsoons are weakened during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) due to the lower green-house gases concentration, the presence of the ice-sheets and the weakened seasonal distribution of insolation. In contrast, the Australian monsoon is strengthened during the LGM. The precipitation there increases in austral summer and decreases in austral winter, so that the annual range or monsoonality increases. The strengthened monsoonality is mainly due to the decreased precipitation in austral winter, which is primarily caused by circulation changes, although the reduced atmospheric water vapor also has a moderate contribution. On the other hand, the strengthened Australian summer monsoon rainfall is likely caused by the change of land-sea thermal contrast due to the alteration of land-sea configuration and by the asymmetric change in sea surface temperature (SST) over Indo-Pacific warm pool region. The strengthened land-sea thermal contrast and Western Pacific-Eastern Indian Ocean thermal gradients in the pre-summer monsoon season triggers a cyclonic wind anomaly that is maintained to the monsoon season, thereby increasing summer precipitation. The increased summer precipitation is associated with the increased cloud cover over the land and decreased cloud cover over the ocean. This may weaken the land-sea thermal contrast, which agrees with the paleoclimate reconstruction. The biases between different models are likely related to the different responses of SST over the North Atlantic Ocean in the pre-summer monsoon season.

  12. Annual monsoon rains recorded by Jurassic dunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loope, D B; Rowe, C M; Joeckel, R M

    2001-07-05

    Pangaea, the largest landmass in the Earth's history, was nearly bisected by the Equator during the late Palaeozoic and early Mesozoic eras. Modelling experiments and stratigraphic studies have suggested that the supercontinent generated a monsoonal atmospheric circulation that led to extreme seasonality, but direct evidence for annual rainfall periodicity has been lacking. In the Mesozoic era, about 190 million years ago, thick deposits of wind-blown sand accumulated in dunes of a vast, low-latitude desert at Pangaea's western margin. These deposits are now situated in the southwestern USA. Here we analyse slump masses in the annual depositional cycles within these deposits, which have been described for some outcrops of the Navajo Sandstone. Twenty-four slumps, which were generated by heavy rainfall, appear within one interval representing 36 years of dune migration. We interpret the positions of 20 of these masses to indicate slumping during summer monsoon rains, with the other four having been the result of winter storms. The slumped lee faces of these Jurassic dunes therefore represent a prehistoric record of yearly rain events.

  13. Northeast Isidis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    7 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a mesa in northeastern Isidis Planitia. The mesa might be a remnant of terrain that once more extensively covered the region. Location near: 20.3oN, 267.7oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter

  14. Picophytoplankton variability: Influence of winter convective mixing and advection in the northeastern Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemal, Suchandan; Anil, Arga Chandrashekar; Shankar, D.; Remya, R.; Roy, Rajdeep

    2018-04-01

    The deepening of mixed layer and ensuing changes in optical and physicochemical properties of euphotic zone can influence phytoplankton community dynamics in the northeastern Arabian Sea during winter monsoon. The response of picophytoplankton community to such changes during winter convective mixing is not well understood. Herein, we have compared variations in the picophytoplankton community structure during early (November-December 2012), peak (end-January 2014) and late (mid-February 2015) winter monsoon from three separate cruises in the southern northeastern Arabian Sea. The higher Synechococcus abundance owing to entrainment of nutrients in mixed layer was observed during peak winter monsoon, while the concomitant changes in nitrate concentration, light and oxygen environment restricted Prochlorococcus growth resulting in lower abundance during the same period. This highlights the diverse responses of picophytoplankton groups to physicochemical changes of water column during winter convective mixing. The divinyl chlorophyll b/a ratio (marker for Prochlorococcus ecotypes) indicated prevalence of one low-light adapted ecotype (sensitive to light shock) in sub-surface water, one high-light adapted ecotype in surface water during early winter monsoon and both disappeared during intense mixing period in peak winter monsoon. Subsequently, a distinct low-light adapted ecotype, capable to tolerate light shock, was noticed during late winter monsoon and we argue that this ecotype is introduced to southern northeastern Arabian Sea through advection from north by sub-surface circulation. The total picophytoplankton biomass available to microbial loop is restored during late winter monsoon, when stratification begins, with a higher abundance of Synechococcus and the re-occurrence of Prochlorococcus population in the region. These inferences indicate that variability in picophytoplankton community structure and their contribution to the microbial loop are driven by

  15. Regional climate projections for Northeast India: an appraisal from CORDEX South Asia experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D.; Dimri, A. P.

    2017-11-01

    An appraisal of the recent changes in the present climate (1970-2005) followed by the possible future (2006-2100) changes in the climate has been carried out in the current study using the observations and regional climate model (REMO) over the Northeast Indian region. The regional climate model simulation has been used from the COordinated Regional climate Downscaling EXperiment (CORDEX) South Asia framework. A consistent warming for the winter (December, January, and February (DJF)) and post-monsoon (October and November (ON)) has been observed for the present climate especially in the northern and eastern parts of the region. The changes in the near future (2020-2049) and far future (2070-2099) temperature climatology suggest a rise in temperature by 3-8 °C across different representative concentration pathways (RCPs). The rate of long-term (1970-2099) increase in temperature has been found ranging between 0.01 and 0.07 °C/year across the region in the least emission (RCP2.6) to strongest emission (RCP8.5) scenarios. The daily mean precipitation statistics suggests an overall increasing trends of precipitation during the pre-monsoon (March, April, and May (MAM)) for the present across the region with a mixed trend in other seasons. A change in daily mean precipitation ranging from - 60% (during winter) to + 40% during post-monsoon has been projected by the model across different RCPs. RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 show a strong deficit in precipitation in the warmer climate across the region as compared to RCP2.6. This fact is also confirmed from the long-term trend of precipitation where a consistent decreasing trend dominates in the RCP4.5- and RCP8.5-simulated precipitations by the end of the twenty-first century. A large model bias in temperature and precipitation along with high amount of uncertainty is associated with the model simulations; thus, in order to use the projections, a more careful approach to improve the utility of downscaled product should be adopted.

  16. The northwestern Indian Ocean during the monsoons of 1979: distribution, abundance, and feeding of zooplankton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.L.

    1982-01-01

    Upwelling induced by the separation of the Somali Current from the coast of east Africa is associated with low surface temperatures, high concentrations of nitrate, and blooms of phytoplankton. Coefficients of concordance, based upon 17 taxa of zooplankton collected at 33 stations in the southwest monsoon and 15 stations in the northeast monsoon, were consistently larger for the southwest monsoon and indicative of a general response of the zooplankton in the northwestern Indian Ocean. The largest coefficients of concordance in the southwest monsoon were among adult females of Paracalanus denudatus, Paracalanus parvus, and Paracalanus aculeatus and of Calanoides carinatus and Eucalanus spp. Coefficients of concordance among copepodids of six taxa had a trend similar to adult females in the southwest monsoon. During the southwest monsoon, total biomass of zooplankton was significantly greater within areas of upwelling than outside; adult females and copepodids of C. carinatus and Eucalanus spp. were significantly more abundant within the upwelling regions, along with adult females of Clausocalanus furcatus and Clausocalanus minor. The upwelling regions, which are associated with a reproductively active population of the large-bodied C. carinatus, are the primary features affecting distributions of zooplankton during the southwest monsoon and the main difference between monsoons. The ontogenetic migration of C. carinatus is essentially an annual life-history strategy and therefore on the same temporal scale as the reversals in the monsoonal winds and associated upwelling. The ability of C. carinatus to ingest readily the diatoms that dominate the upwelling regions and to store lipid is crucial to its dominance of the areas of upwelling both in numbers and biomass.

  17. Atmospheric circulation characteristics associated with the onset of Asian summer monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chongyin; Pan, Jing

    2006-12-01

    The onset of the Asian summer monsoon has been a focus in the monsoon study for many years. In this paper, we study the variability and predictability of the Asian summer monsoon onset and demonstrate that this onset is associated with specific atmospheric circulation characteristics. The outbreak of the Asian summer monsoon is found to occur first over the southwestern part of the South China Sea (SCS) and the Malay Peninsula region, and the monsoon onset is closely related to intra-seasonal oscillations in the lower atmosphere. These intra-seasonal oscillations consist of two low-frequency vortex pairs, one located to the east of the Philippines and the other over the tropical eastern Indian Ocean. Prior to the Asian summer monsoon onset, a strong low-frequency westerly emerges over the equatorial Indian Ocean and the low-frequency vortex pair develops symmetrically along the equator. The formation and evolution of these low-frequency vortices are important and serve as a good indicator for the Asian summer monsoon onset. The relationship between the northward jumps of the westerly jet over East Asia and the Asian summer monsoon onset over SCS is investigated. It is shown that the northward jump of the westerly jet occurs twice during the transition from winter to summer and these jumps are closely related to the summer monsoon development. The first northward jump (from 25° 28°N to around 30°N) occurs on 8 May on average, about 7 days ahead of the summer monsoon onset over the SCS. It is found that the reverse of meridional temperature gradient in the upper-middle troposphere (500 200 hPa) and the enhancement and northward movement of the subtropical jet in the Southern Hemispheric subtropics are responsible for the first northward jump of the westerly jet.

  18. Seasonal and Intraseasonal Variability of Mesoscale Convective Systems over the South Asian Monsoon Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virts, Katrina S.; Houze, Robert A.

    2016-12-01

    Seasonal and intraseasonal differences in mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) over South Asia are examined using A-Train satellites, a ground-based lightning network, and reanalysis fields. Pre-monsoon (April-May) MCSs occur primarily over Bangladesh and the eastern Bay of Bengal. During the monsoon (June-September), small MCSs occur over the Meghalaya Plateau and northeast Himalayan notch, while large and connected MCSs are most widespread over the Bay of Bengal. Monsoon MCSs produce less lightning and exhibit more extensive stratiform and anvil reflectivity structures in CloudSat observations than do pre-monsoon MCSs. During the monsoon season, Bay of Bengal and Meghalaya Plateau MCSs vary with the 30-60 day northward-propagating intraseasonal oscillation, while northeast Himalayan notch MCSs are associated with weak large-scale anomalies but locally enhanced CAPE. During intraseasonal active periods, a zone of enhanced large and connected MCSs, precipitation, and lightning extends from the northeastern Arabian Sea southeast over India and the Bay of Bengal, flanked by suppressed anomalies. Spatial variability is observed within this enhancement zone: lightning is most enhanced where MCSs are less enhanced, and vice versa. Reanalysis composites indicate that Bay of Bengal MCSs are associated with monsoon depressions, which are frequent during active monsoon periods, while Meghalaya Plateau MCSs are most frequent at the end of break periods, as anomalous southwesterly winds strengthen moist advection toward the terrain. Over both regions, MCSs exhibit more extensive stratiform and anvil regions and less lightning when the large-scale environment is moister, and vice versa.

  19. Interactions Between Asian Air Pollution and Monsoon System: South Asia (ROSES-2014 ACMAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaohua; Chin, Mian; Tao, Zhining; Kim, Dongchul; Bian, Huisheng; Kucsera, Tom

    2018-01-01

    Asia's rapid economic growth over the past several decades has brought a remarkable increase in air pollution levels in that region. High concentrations of aerosols (also known as particulate matter or PM) from pollution sources pose major health hazards to half of the world population in Asia including South Asia. How do pollution and dust aerosols regulate the monsoon circulation and rainfall via scattering and absorbing solar radiation, changing the atmospheric heating rates, and modifying the cloud properties? We conducted a series of regional model experiments with NASA-Unified Weather Research and Forecast (NUWRF) regional model with coupled aerosol-chemistry-radiation-microphysics processes over South Asia for winter, pre-monsoon, and monsoon seasons to address this question. This study investigates the worsening air quality problem in South Asia by focusing on the interactions between pollution and South Asian monsoon, not merely focusing on the increase of pollutant emissions.

  20. Simulation of the anthropogenic aerosols over South Asia and their effects on Indian summer monsoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Zhenming [Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Beijing (China); National Climate Center, Beijing (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Kang, Shichang [Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Beijing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Science, Lanzhou (China); Zhang, Dongfeng [Shanxi Meteorological Bureau, Taiyuan (China); Zhu, Chunzi [Nanjing University of Information Science Technology, College of Atmospheric Science, Nanjing (China); Wu, Jia; Xu, Ying [National Climate Center, Beijing (China)

    2011-05-15

    A regional climate model coupled with a chemistry-aerosol model is employed to simulate the anthropogenic aerosols including sulfate, black carbon and organic carbon and their direct effect on climate over South Asia. The model is driven by the NCAR/NCEP re-analysis data. Multi-year simulations with half, normal and double emission fluxes are conducted. Results show that the model performs well in reproducing present climate over the region. Simulations of the aerosol optical depth and surface concentration of aerosols are also reasonable although to a less extent. The negative radiative forcing is found at the top of atmosphere and largely depended on emission concentration. Surface air temperature decreases by 0.1-0.5 C both in pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons. The range and intensity of cooling areas enlarge while aerosol emission increases. Changes in precipitation are between -25 and 25%. Different diversifications of rainfall are showed with three emission scenarios. The changes of precipitation are consistent with varieties of monsoon onset dates in pre-monsoon season. In the regions of increasing precipitation, monsoon onset is advanced and vice versa. In northeast India and Myanmar, aerosols lead the India summer monsoon onset advancing 1-2 pentads, and delaying by 1-2 pentads in central and southeast India. These changes are mainly caused by the anomaly of local Hadley circulations and enhancive precipitation. Tibetan Plateau played a crucial role in the circulation changes. (orig.)

  1. Monsoon signatures in trace gas records from Cape Rama, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, S.K.; Jani, R.A.; Borole, D.V.; Francey, R.J.; Allison, C.E.; Masarie, K.A.

    2002-01-01

    Concentrations of trace gases CO 2 , CH 4 , CO, N 2 O and H 2 , and the stable carbon and oxygen isotopic composition of CO 2 have been measured in air samples collected from Cape Rama, a coastal station on the west coast of India, since 1993. The data show clear signatures of continental and oceanic air mass resulting in complex seasonal variation of trace gas characteristics. The regional atmospheric circulation in the Indian Ocean and Arabian Sea undergoes biannual reversal in low-level winds associated with the yearly migration of the inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ). From June to September, the wind is from the equatorial Indian Ocean to the Indian subcontinent (southwest monsoon) and brings in pristine marine air. From December to February, dry continental winds blow from the northeast and transport continental emissions to the ocean (northeast monsoon). Detailed transport and chemical modelling will be necessary to interpret these records, however the potential to identify and constrain the regional trace gas emissions appears to be high. (author)

  2. Winter Wonderlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Listening to people complain about the hardships of winter and the dreariness of the nearly constant gray sky prompted the author to help her sixth graders recognize and appreciate the beauty that surrounds them for nearly five months of the year in western New York. The author opines that if students could see things more artistically, the winter…

  3. Pleistocene Indian Monsoon Rainfall Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yirgaw, D. G.; Hathorne, E. C.; Giosan, L.; Collett, T. S.; Sijingeo, A. V.; Nath, B. N.; Frank, M.

    2014-12-01

    The past variability of the Indian Monsoon is mostly known from records of wind strength over the Arabian Sea. Here we investigate proxies for fresh water input and runoff in a region of strong monsoon precipitation that is a major moisture source for the east Asian Monsoon. A sediment core obtained by the IODP vessel JOIDES Resolution and a gravity core from the Alcock Seamount complex in the Andaman Sea are used to examine the past monsoon variability on the Indian sub-continent and directly over the ocean. The current dataset covers the last glacial and deglacial but will eventually provide a Pleistocene record. We utilise the ecological habitats of G. sacculifer and N. dutertrei to investigate the freshwater-induced stratification with paired Mg/Ca and δ18O analyses to estimate seawater δ18O (δ18Osw). During the last 60 kyrs, Ba/Ca ratios and δ18Osw values generally agree well between the two cores and suggest the weakest surface runoff and monsoon during the LGM and strongest monsoon during the Holocene. The difference in δ18O between the species, interpreted as a proxy for upper ocean stratification, implies stratification developed around 37 ka and remained relatively constant during the LGM, deglacial and Holocene. To investigate monsoon variability for intervals in the past, single shell Mg/Ca and δ18O analyses have been conducted. Mg/Ca ratios from individual shells of N. dutertrei suggest relatively small changes in temperature. However, individual N. dutertrei δ18O differ greatly between the mid-Holocene and samples from the LGM and a nearby core top. The mid-Holocene individuals have a greater range and large skew towards negative values indicating greater fresh water influence.

  4. Link between western Arabian sea surface temperature and summer monsoon strength and high-latitude abrupt climate events

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naidu, P.D.

    Artificial Neural Networks (ANN's) based on quantitative analyses of planktic foraminifera. High seasonal SST contrast between winter and summer during the last glacial period indicates weak upwelling and strong cold northeasterly winds. Minimum seasonal SST...

  5. Transport pathways of CO in the African upper troposphere during the monsoon season: a study based upon the assimilation of spaceborne observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Barret

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The transport pathways of carbon monoxide (CO in the African Upper Troposphere (UT during the West African Monsoon (WAM is investigated through the assimilation of CO observations by the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS in the MOCAGE Chemistry Transport Model (CTM. The assimilation setup, based on a 3-D First Guess at Assimilation Time (3-D-FGAT variational method is described. Comparisons between the assimilated CO fields and in situ airborne observations from the MOZAIC program between Europe and both Southern Africa and Southeast Asia show an overall good agreement around the lowermost pressure level sampled by MLS (~215 hPa. The 4-D assimilated fields averaged over the month of July 2006 have been used to determine the main dynamical processes responsible for the transport of CO in the African UT. The studied period corresponds to the second AMMA (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses aircraft campaign. At 220 hPa, the CO distribution is characterized by a latitudinal maximum around 5° N mostly driven by convective uplift of air masses impacted by biomass burning from Southern Africa, uplifted within the WAM region and vented predominantly southward by the upper branch of the winter hemisphere Hadley cell. Above 150 hPa, the African CO distribution is characterized by a broad maximum over northern Africa. This maximum is mostly controlled by the large scale UT circulation driven by the Asian Summer Monsoon (ASM and characterized by the Asian Monsoon Anticyclone (AMA centered at 30° N and the Tropical Easterly Jet (TEJ on the southern flank of the anticyclone. Asian pollution uplifted to the UT over large region of Southeast Asia is trapped within the AMA and transported by the anticyclonic circulation over Northeast Africa. South of the AMA, the TEJ is responsible for the tranport of CO-enriched air masses from India and Southeast Asia over Africa. Using the high time resolution provided by the 4-D assimilated fields, we give evidence

  6. Circulation characteristics of a monsoon depression during ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    ciated with organized convective processes in a monsoon depression. The objective is to ..... the errors are large and the performance of the high-resolution ... Ramage C S 1971 Monsoon meteorology (London: Academic. Press) 45–46.

  7. On breaks of the Indian monsoon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    quadrapole is a basic feature of weak spells of the intraseasonal variation over the Asia-west Pacific region. ... (Earth Planet. Sci.), 112 .... be useful to define the break monsoon (and active ... monsoon zone, different scientists have used the.

  8. Northeast Atlantic blue whiting

    OpenAIRE

    Heino, Mikko

    2010-01-01

    Heino, M. 2010. Northeast Atlantic blue whiting. In Life cycle spatial patterns of small pelagic fish in the Northeast Atlantic, pp. 59-64. Ed by P. Petitgas. ICES Cooperative Research Report 306. ICES, Copenhagen.

  9. Meteorological results of monsoon-88 Expedition (pre-monsoon period)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sadhuram, Y.; Krishnamurthy, L.; Babu, M.T.

    Mean atmospheric circulation, moisture budget and net heat exchange were studied during a pre-monsoon period (18th March to 3rd May, 1988), making use of the data collected on board "Akademik Korolev" in the central equatorial and southern Arabian...

  10. Asian monsoon variability, cyclicities, and forcing mechanisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naidu, P.D.

    in monsoonal intensity from 5 to 2Ma. Uplift of the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau occurred coeval with the increase in strength of the Asian Monsoon between 9.5 and 5Ma. Variability of monsoon on glacial and interglacial time scale Multi proxy based... in the Western Ghats of India 131 Fig. 3. Multi proxy monsoon reconstructions show that summer monsoon strength was stronger during interglacials (shaded intervals) as compared to glacials 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 0 100 200 300 400 0 50...

  11. The Red Sea outflow regulated by the Indian monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiki, Hidenori; Takahashi, Keiko; Yamagata, Toshio

    2006-08-01

    To investigate why the Red Sea water overflows less in summer and more in winter, we have developed a locally high-resolution global OGCM with transposed poles in the Arabian peninsula and India. Based on a series of sensitivity experiments with different sets of idealized atmospheric forcing, the present study shows that the summer cessation of the strait outflow is remotely induced by the monsoonal wind over the Indian Ocean, in particular that over the western Arabian Sea. During the southwest monsoon (May-September), thermocline in the Gulf of Aden shoals as a result of coastal Ekman upwelling induced by the predominantly northeastward wind in the Gulf of Aden and the Arabian Sea. Because this shoaling is maximum during the southwest summer monsoon, the Red Sea water is blocked at the Bab el Mandeb Strait by upwelling of the intermediate water of the Gulf of Aden in late summer. The simulation also shows the three-dimensional evolution of the Red Sea water tongue at the mid-depths in the Gulf of Aden. While the tongue meanders, the discharged Red Sea outflow water (RSOW) (incoming Indian Ocean intermediate water (IOIW)) is always characterized by anticyclonic (cyclonic) vorticity, as suggested from the potential vorticity difference.

  12. Deep learning for predicting the monsoon over the homogeneous regions of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Moumita; Mitra, Pabitra; Nanjundiah, Ravi S.

    2017-06-01

    Indian monsoon varies in its nature over the geographical regions. Predicting the rainfall not just at the national level, but at the regional level is an important task. In this article, we used a deep neural network, namely, the stacked autoencoder to automatically identify climatic factors that are capable of predicting the rainfall over the homogeneous regions of India. An ensemble regression tree model is used for monsoon prediction using the identified climatic predictors. The proposed model provides forecast of the monsoon at a long lead time which supports the government to implement appropriate policies for the economic growth of the country. The monsoon of the central, north-east, north-west, and south-peninsular India regions are predicted with errors of 4.1%, 5.1%, 5.5%, and 6.4%, respectively. The identified predictors show high skill in predicting the regional monsoon having high variability. The proposed model is observed to be competitive with the state-of-the-art prediction models.

  13. Radiative effects of black carbon aerosols on Indian monsoon: a study using WRF-Chem model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Pramod; Tripathi, Sachchida Nand; Srivastava, Rajesh

    2018-04-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is utilized to examine the radiative effects of black carbon (BC) aerosols on the Indian monsoon, for the year 2010. Five ensemble simulations with different initial conditions (1st to 5th December, 2009) were performed and simulation results between 1st January, 2010 to 31st December, 2010 were used for analysis. Most of the BC which stays near the surface during the pre-monsoon season gets transported to higher altitudes with the northward migration of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) during the monsoon season. In both the seasons, strong negative SW anomalies are present at the surface along with positive anomalies in the atmosphere, which results in the surface cooling and lower tropospheric heating, respectively. During the pre-monsoon season, lower troposphere heating causes increased convection and enhanced meridional wind circulation, bringing moist air from Indian Ocean and Bay of Bengal to the North-East India, leading to increased rainfall there. However, during the monsoon season, along with cooling over the land regions, a warming over the Bay of Bengal is simulated. This differential heating results in an increased westerly moisture flux anomaly over central India, leading to increased rainfall over northern parts of India but decreased rainfall over southern parts. Decreased rainfall over southern India is also substantiated by the presence of increased evaporation over Bay of Bengal and decrease over land regions.

  14. Seasonally asymmetric transition of the Asian monsoon in response to ice age boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Hiroaki; Kuroki, Harumitsu; Kamae, Youichi [University of Tsukuba, Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Ohba, Masamichi [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Environmental Science Research Laboratory, Abiko (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    Modulation of a monsoon under glacial forcing is examined using an atmosphere-ocean coupled general circulation model (AOGCM) following the specifications established by Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project phase 2 (PMIP2) to understand the air-sea-land interaction under different climate forcing. Several sensitivity experiments are performed in response to individual changes in the continental ice sheet, orbital parameters, and sea surface temperature (SST) in the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM: 21 ka) to evaluate the driving mechanisms for the anomalous seasonal evolution of the monsoon. Comparison of the model results in the LGM with the pre-industrial (PI) simulation shows that the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal are characterized by enhancement of pre-monsoon convection despite a drop in the SST encompassing the globe, while the rainfall is considerably suppressed in the subsequent monsoon period. In the LGM winter relative to the PI, anomalies in the meridional temperature gradient (MTG) between the Asian continents minus the tropical oceans become positive and are consistent with the intensified pre-monsoon circulation. The enhanced MTG anomalies can be explained by a decrease in the condensation heating relevant to the suppressed tropical convection as well as positive insolation anomalies in the higher latitude, showing an opposing view to a warmer future climate. It is also evident that a latitudinal gradient in the SST across the equator plays an important role in the enhancement of pre-monsoon rainfall. As for the summer, the sensitivity experiments imply that two ice sheets over the northern hemisphere cools the air temperature over the Asian continent, which is consistent with the reduction of MTG involved in the attenuated monsoon. The surplus pre-monsoon convection causes a decrease in the SST through increased heat loss from the ocean surface; in other words, negative ocean feedback is also responsible for the subsequent weakening of summer

  15. The effect of El-Niño on South Asian Monsoon and agricultural production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, A.

    2015-12-01

    Mukherjee A, Wang S.Y.Abstract:The South Asian Monsoon has a prominent and significant impact on South Asian countries like India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and it is one of the most studied phenomena in the world. The monsoon is historically known to be influenced by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The inter-annual and inter-decadal variability of seasonal precipitation over India strongly depends upon the ENSO phasing. The average southwest monsoon rainfall received during the years with El Niño was found to be less compared to normal years and the average rainfall during the northeast monsoon is higher in coastal Andhra Pradesh. ENSO is anti-correlated with Indian summer monsoon (ISM). The last prominent effect of ENSO on India's monsoon occurred in 2009 with 23% reduction in annual rainfall, reducing summer sown crops such as rice, sugar cane etc. and pushing up food prices. Climatic resources endowment plays a major role in planning agricultural production in tropical and sub-tropical environment especially under rain-fed agriculture, and so contingent crop planning drawn on this relationship would help to mitigate the effects of ENSO episodes in the region. The unexplored area in this domain of research is the changes in the frequency and intensity of ENSO due to global warming and its impact on ENSO prediction and agricultural management practices. We analyze the last 30 years datasets of Pacific SST, and precipitation and air temperature over Southeast Asia to examine the evolution of ENSO teleconnections with ISM, as well as making estimates of drought indices such as Palmer Drought Severity Index. This research can lead toward better crop management strategies in the South Asian monsoon region.

  16. Dynamics and Composition of the Asian Summer Monsoon Anticyclone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschaldt, K. D.; Schlager, H.; Baumann, R.; Bozem, H.; Cai, D. S.; Eyring, V.; Hoor, P. M.; Graf, P.; Joeckel, P.; Jurkat, T.; Voigt, C.; Grewe, V.; Zahn, A.; Ziereis, H.

    2017-12-01

    This study places trace gas observations in the upper-tropospheric Asian summer monsoon anticyclone (ASMA) obtained with the HALO research aircraft during the ESMVal campaign into the context of regional, intra-annual variability by hindcasts with the EMAC model. The simulations demonstrate that tropospheric trace gas profiles in the monsoon season are distinct from the rest of the year. Air uplifted from the lower troposphere to the tropopause layer dominates the eastern part of the ASMA's interior, while the western part is characterized by subsidence down to the mid-troposphere. Soluble compounds are being washed out when uplifted by convection in the eastern part, where lightning simultaneously replenishes reactive nitrogen in the upper troposphere. Net photochemical ozone production is significantly enhanced in the ASMA, contrasted by an ozone depleting regime in the mid-troposphere and more neutral conditions in autumn and winter. An analysis of multiple monsoon seasons in the simulation shows that stratospherically influenced tropopause layer air is regularly entrained at the eastern ASMA flank, and then transported in the southern fringe around the interior region. Observed and simulated tracer-tracer relations reflect photochemical O3 production, as well as in-mixing from the lower troposphere and the tropopause layer. The simulation additionally shows entrainment of clean air from the equatorial region by northerly winds at the western ASMA flank. Although the in situ measurements were performed towards the end of summer, the main ingredients needed for their interpretation are present throughout the monsoon season.Subseasonal dynamical instabilities of the ASMA effectively overcome horizontal transport barriers, occur quite frequently, and are of paramount importance for the trace gas composition of the ASMA and its outflow into regions around the world.

  17. WINTER SAECULUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Mihalina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Accumulated imbalances in the economy and on the markets cause specific financial market dynamics that have formed characteristic patterns kept throughout long financial history. In 2008 Authors presented their expectations of key macroeconomic and selected asset class markets developments for period ahead based on Saeculum theory. Use of term Secular describes a specific valuation environment during prolonged period. If valuations as well as selected macro variables are considered as a tool for understanding business cycles then market cycles become much more obvious and easily understandable. Therefore over the long run, certain asset classes do better in terms of risk reward profile than others. Further on, there is no need for frequent portfolio rebalancing and timing of specific investment positions within a particular asset class market. Current stage in cycle development suggests a need for reassessment of trends and prevailing phenomena due to cyclical nture of long lasting Saeculums. Paper reviews developments in recognizable patterns of selected metrics in current Winter Saeculum dominated with prevailing forces of delivering, deflation and decrease in velocity of money.

  18. Interannual and Interdecadal Variations of the East Asian Summer Monsoon and Tropical Pacific SSTs. Part I: Roles of the Subtropical Ridge

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, C.-P.; Zhang, Yongsheng; Li, Tim

    2000-01-01

    The interannual relationship between the East Asian summer monsoon and the tropical Pacific SSTs is studied using rainfall data in the Yangtze River Valley and the NCEP reanalysis for 1951–96. The datasets are also partitioned into two periods, 1951–77 and 1978–96, to study the interdecadal variations of this relationship. A wet summer monsoon is preceded by a warm equatorial eastern Pacific in the previous winter and followed by a cold equatorial eastern Pacific in the following fa...

  19. 75 FR 28564 - Fisheries of the Northeast Region; Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... overfishing or an overfished condition. SUMMARY: This action serves as a notice that NMFS, on behalf of the... to overfishing and are in an overfished condition. Also, in the Northeast Region, Southern New England/Mid-Atlantic windowpane is subject to overfishing and Georges Bank winter flounder is in an...

  20. Northeast Church Rock Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northeast Church Rock Mine, a former uranium mine 17 miles northeast of Gallup, NM in the Pinedale Chapter of the Navajo Nation. EPA is working with NNEPA to oversee cleanup work by United Nuclear Corporation, a company owned by General Electric (GE).

  1. Northeast project/CNEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, R.N.; Ribeiro, G.F.; Lima, J.O.V.; Dornelles, G.H.; Laborne, J.J.; Sakamoto, L.H.; Lemos Junior, O.F.

    1987-10-01

    The subprojects from the Northeast/CNEN project, that aims to disseminate the benefits of nuclear energy are described. Those subprojects are the following: food conservation, energy, health, hydric resources, mineral and agriculture, all of them have as goal to improve the socio-economical conditions of the northeast population in Brazil. (E.G.) [pt

  2. Synchronicity of the East Asian Summer Monsoon variability and Northern Hemisphere climate change since the last deglaciation

    OpenAIRE

    T. Shinozaki; M. Uchida; K. Minoura; M. Kondo; S. F. Rella; Y. Shibata

    2011-01-01

    Understanding of the mechanism of the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) is required for the prediction of climate change in East Asia in a scenario of modern global warming. In this study, we present high-resolution climate records from peat sediments in Northeast Japan to reconstruct the EASM variability based on peat bulk cellulose δ13C since the last deglaciation. We used a 8.8 m long peat sediment core collected from the Tashiro Bog, Northeast Japan. Based ...

  3. Characteristics of monsoon low level jet (MLLJ)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Temperature and wind data are used to describe variation in the strength of the Monsoon Low Level Jet (MLLJ) from an active phase of the monsoon to a break phase. Also estimated are the characteristics of turbulence above and below MLLJ.

  4. The role of precursor gases and meteorology on temporal evolution of O₃ at a tropical location in northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, Pradip Kumar; Bharali, Chandrakala; Pathak, Binita; Kalita, Gayatry

    2014-05-01

    South Asia, particularly the Indo-Gangetic Plains and foothills of the Himalayas, has been found to be a major source of pollutant gases and particles affecting the regional as well as the global climate. Inventories of greenhouse gases for the South Asian region, particularly the sub-Himalayan region, have been inadequate. Hence, measurements of the gases are important from effective characterization of the gases and their climate effects. The diurnal, seasonal, and annual variation of surface level O3 measured for the first time in northeast India at Dibrugarh (27.4° N, 94.9° E, 111 m amsl), a sub-Himalayan location in the Brahmaputra basin, from November 2009 to May 2013 is presented. The effect of the precursor gases NO x and CO measured simultaneously during January 2012-May 2013 and the prevailing meteorology on the growth and decay of O3 has been studied. The O3 concentration starts to increase gradually after sunrise attaining a peak level around 1500 hours LT and then decreases from evening till sunrise next day. The highest and lowest monthly maximum concentration of O3 is observed in March (42.9 ± 10.3 ppb) and July (17.3 ± 7.0 ppb), respectively. The peak in O3 concentration is preceded by the peaks in NO x and CO concentrations which maximize during the period November to March with peak values of 25.2 ± 21.0 ppb and 1.0 ± 0.4 ppm, respectively, in January. Significant nonlinear correlation is observed between O3 and NO, NO2, and CO. National Atmospheric and Oceanic Administration Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory back-trajectory and concentration weighted trajectory analysis carried out to delineate the possible airmass trajectory and to identify the potential source region of NO x and O3 concentrations show that in post-monsoon and winter, majority of the trajectories are confined locally while in pre-monsoon and monsoon, these are originated at the Indo-Gangetic plains, Bangladesh, and Bay of Bengal.

  5. Mid- to late Holocene Indian Ocean Monsoon variability recorded in four speleothems from Socotra Island, Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rampelbergh, Maïté; Fleitmann, Dominik; Verheyden, Sophie; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, Lawrence; De Geest, Peter; De Vleeschouwer, David; Burns, Stephen J.; Matter, Albert; Claeys, Philippe; Keppens, Eddy

    2013-04-01

    Four stalagmites covering the last 7.0 ka were sampled on Socotra, an island in the northern Indian Ocean to investigate the evolution of the northeast Indian Ocean Monsoon (IOM) since the mid Holocene. On Socotra, rain is delivered at the start of the southwest IOM in May-June and at the start of the northeast IOM from September to December. The Haggeher Mountains act as a barrier forcing precipitation brought by the northeast winds to fall preferentially on the eastern side of the island, where the studied caves are located. δ18O and δ13C and Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca signals in the stalagmites reflect precipitation amounts brought by the northeast winds. For stalagmite STM6, this amount effect is amplified by kinetic effects during calcite deposition. Combined interpretation of the stalagmites' signals suggest a weakening of the northeast precipitation between 6.0 and 3.8 ka. After 3.8 ka precipitation intensities remain constant with two superimposed drier periods, between 0 and 0.6 ka and from 2.2 to 3.8 ka. No link can be established with Greenland ice cores and with the summer IOM variability. In contrast to the stable northeast rainy season suggested by the records in this study, speleothem records from western Socotra indicate a wettening of the southwest rainy season on Socotra after 4.4 ka. The local wettening of western Socotra could relate to a more southerly path (more over the Indian Ocean) taken by the southwest winds. Stalagmite STM5, sampled at the fringe between both rain areas displays intermediate δ18O values. After 6.2 ka, similar precipitation changes are seen between eastern Socotra and northern Oman indicating that both regions are affected similarly by the monsoon. Different palaeoclimatologic records from the Arabian Peninsula currently located outside the ITCZ migration pathway display an abrupt drying around 6 ka due to their disconnection from the southwest rain influence. Records that are nowadays still receiving rain by the southwest winds

  6. Sensible climates in monsoon Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, H S; Kawamura, T

    1991-06-01

    This study identifies characteristics of the geographical distribution of sensible climates and their diurnal and annual variations, and presents a classification of bioclimates in monsoon Asia by using Kawamura's discomfort index formula. During the hottest month, tropical areas and areas in central and South China are uncomfortable for humans throughout the day and night, and temperate zones in lowlands are uncomfortable during the daytime. Tropical zones are uncomfortable all year long and temperate zones in lowlands are uncomfortable during summer. Four climatic types were distinguished in monsoon Asia. Climatic type I, hyperthermal throughout the year, occurs in the tropics south of latitude 20 degrees N. Climatic type II, hyperthermal in the hottest month and comfortable in the coldest month, extends over latitudes from 20 degrees to 30 degrees N except in the highlands. Climatic type III, hyperthermal in the hottest month and hypothermal in the coldest month, encompasses temperate zones of East Asia and subtropical arid areas of northwestern India. Climatic type V, comfortable in the hottest month and hypothermal in coldest month, occurs near the southeast coast of the Soviet Union and in the highlands of the Himalayas.

  7. Global monsoons in the mid-Holocene and oceanic feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Z.; Kutzbach, J. [Center for Climatic Research, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1225 W. Dayton Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Harrison, S.P. [Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, P.O. Box 100164, 07701 Jena (Germany); Otto-Bliesner, B. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, PO Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307 (United States)

    2004-03-01

    The response of the six major summer monsoon systems (the North American monsoon, the northern Africa monsoon, the Asia monsoon, the northern Australasian monsoon, the South America monsoon and the southern Africa monsoon) to mid-Holocene orbital forcing has been investigated using a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model (FOAM), with the focus on the distinct roles of the direct insolation forcing and oceanic feedback. The simulation result is also found to compare well with the NCAR CSM. The direct effects of the change in insolation produce an enhancement of the Northern Hemisphere monsoons and a reduction of the Southern Hemisphere monsoons. Ocean feedbacks produce a further enhancement of the northern Africa monsoon and the North American monsoon. However, ocean feedbacks appear to weaken the Asia monsoon, although the overall effect (direct insolation forcing plus ocean feedback) remains a strengthened monsoon. The impact of ocean feedbacks on the South American and southern African monsoons is relatively small, and therefore these regions, especially the South America, experienced a reduced monsoon regime compared to present. However, there is a strong ocean feedback on the northern Australian monsoon that negates the direct effects of orbital changes and results in a strengthening of austral summer monsoon precipitation in this region. A new synthesis is made for mid-Holocene paleoenvironmental records and is compared with the model simulations. Overall, model simulations produce changes in regional climates that are generally consistent with paleoenvironmental observations. (orig.)

  8. East Asian Monsoon and paleoclimatic data analysis: a vegetation point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Guiot

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available First we review several syntheses of paleodata (pollen, lake-levels showing the climate variations in China and Mongolia from the last glacial maximum to Present and in particular the precipitation increase at mid Holocene related to enhanced monsoon. All these results concur to a much enhanced monsoon on most of China during the first half of the Holocene. Second we present, in some details, a temporal study of a core (Lake Bayanchagan, Inner Mongolia located in an arid region at the edge of the present East Asian Monsoon (EAM influence and then sensitive to climatic change. This study involves pollen data together with other macro-remains and stable isotope curve to obtain a robust climate reconstruction. This study shows a long wet period between 11 000 and 5000 years BP divided in two parts, a warmer one from 11 000 and 8000 (marked by large evapotranspiration and a cooler one more favourable to forest expansion. Third, we present a spatial study based on pollen data only and covering all China and Mongolia at 6000 years BP, but using a mechanistic modelling approach, in an inverse mode. It has the advantage to take into account environmental context different from the present one (lower atmospheric CO2, different seasonality. This study shows temperature generally cooler than present one in southern China, but a significant warming was found over Mongolia, and a slightly higher in northeast China. Precipitation was generally higher than today in southern, northeast China, and northern Mongolia, but lower or similar to today in northwest China and north China. Enhanced EAM was then found in the southern half of China and in northeast China.

  9. Fine particulate matter in the tropical environment: monsoonal effects, source apportionment, and health risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    M. F. Khan; M. F. Khan; M. T. Latif; M. T. Latif; W. H. Saw; N. Amil; N. Amil; M. S. M. Nadzir; M. S. M. Nadzir; M. Sahani; N. M. Tahir; N. M. Tahir; J. X. Chung

    2016-01-01

    The health implications of PM2.5 in the tropical region of Southeast Asia (SEA) are significant as PM2.5 can pose serious health concerns. PM2.5 concentration and sources here are strongly influenced by changes in the monsoon regime from the south-west quadrant to the north-east quadrant in the region. In this work, PM2.5 samples were collected at a semi-urban area using a high-volume air sampler at different seasons on 24 h basis. Analysis of trace elements and water-sol...

  10. Observational Analysis of Two Contrasting Monsoon Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karri, S.; Ahmad, R.; Sujata, P.; Jose, S.; Sreenivas, G.; Maurya, D. K.

    2014-11-01

    The Indian summer monsoon rainfall contributes about 75 % of the total annual rainfall and exhibits considerable interannual variations. The agricultural economy of the country depends mainly on the monsoon rainfall. The long-range forecast of the monsoon rainfall is, therefore of significant importance in agricultural planning and other economic activities of the country. There are various parameters which influence the amount of rainfall received during the monsoon. Some of the important parameters considered by the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) for the study of monsoon are Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR), moisture content of the atmosphere, zonal wind speed, low level vorticity, pressure gradient etc. Compared to the Long Period Average (LPA) value of rain fall, the country as a whole received higher amount of rainfall in June, 2013 (34 % more than LPA). The same month showed considerable decrease next year as the amount of rainfall received was around 43 % less compared to LPA. This drastic difference of monsoon prompted to study the behaviour of some of the monsoon relevant parameters. In this study we have considered five atmospheric parameters as the indicators of monsoon behaviour namely vertical relative humidity, OLR, aerosol optical depth (AOD), wind at 850 hPa and mean sea level pressure (MSLP). In the initial analysis of weekly OLR difference for year 2013 and 2014 shows positive values in the month of May over north-western parts of India (region of heat low). This should result in a weaker monsoon in 2014. This is substantiated by the rainfall data received for various stations over India. Inference made based on the analysis of RH profiles coupled with AOD values is in agreement with the rainfall over the corresponding stations.

  11. Stratospheric Influence on Summer Monsoon and Associated Planetary Wave Breaking and Mixing in the Subtropical Tropopause Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubis, S. W.; Nakamura, N.

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that the monsoonal circulation plays an important role in planetary wave breaking (PWB). The highest frequency of breaking events occurs just downstream (east) of the monsoon region in summer. PWB induces mixing of potential vorticity (PV) and hence, alter the horizontal mixing in the atmosphere. Here, the authors hypothesize that the stratospheric easterlies in the boreal summer also play a significant role in the PWB and mixing associated with the summer monsoon. If the stratospheric winds were westerly in boreal summer, the frequency of PWB would be decreased due to more waves penetrating in the stratosphere, resulting in less horizontal PWB and thus reduced mixing in the subtropical tropopause region. The hypothesis is examined by using a set of idealized moist GFDL simulations. The monsoon circulation is produced by adding a land-sea contrast with a Gaussian-shaped mountains positioned in the midlatitudes. Other key ingredients for the monsoon, including albedo, oceanic warm pool, and Q-flux, were also ideally imposed in all simulations. Our control simulation produces a summer monsoon-like circulation similar to the observation. In particular, the thermally forced monsoonal circulation forms a prominent closed upper-level anticyclone that dominates the summertime upper-level flow. Associated with this circulation is an upward-bulging tropopause that forms a large reservoir of anomalously low PV. Consistent with previous studies, the well-defined tropospheric jet lies just poleward of the upper-level anticyclone, and acts as a dynamical barrier between the low-PV reservoir over the monsoonal region and the high-PV reservoir in the extratropics. This barrier disappears just northeast of the monsoon area in the jet exit region, allowing more quasi-planetary waves to break in this region. Repetitive wave breaking further weakens the PV gradient, leading to the formation of the surf zone and stronger mixing in this region. To quantify

  12. Atlantic and Pacific Ocean synergistic forcing of the Mesomerican monsoon over the last two millennia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachniet, M. S.; Asmerom, Y.; Polyak, V. J.; Bernal, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    We present a new replicated, high resolution (~2 yrs) and precisely-dated (± 4 yr) wet season hydroclimate reconstruction for the Mesoamerican sector of the North American Monsoon over the past 2250 years. Our new reconstruction is based on two aragonite stalagmites from southwestern Mexico which replicate oxygen isotope variations over the 950-1950 CE interval, and are calibrated to instrumental rainfall variations in the Basin of Mexico. Such data complement existing dendroclimatic reconstructions of early wet season and winter drought severity. Comparisons to indices of ocean-atmosphere circulation show a combined forcing by the North Atlantic Oscillation and the El Niño/Southern Oscillation. Monsoon strengthening coincided with synergistic forcing of a La Niña-like mode and a negative North Atlantic Oscillation, and vice versa for droughts. Although drought is commonly invoked as an stressor leading to societal change, the role of intensified monsoon onto cultural development is rarely explored. We observe that prominent transitions from drought to pluvial conditions are associated with population increases in three of the major highland Mexico civilizations of Teotihuacan, Tula Grande, and the Aztecs. These data suggest a role for ocean-atmosphere dynamics arising from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans on Mesoamerican monsoon strength.

  13. Winter Weather Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health problems, including ... there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect yourself. ...

  14. Winter maintenance performance measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Winter Performance Index is a method of quantifying winter storm events and the DOTs response to them. : It is a valuable tool for evaluating the States maintenance practices, performing post-storm analysis, training : maintenance personnel...

  15. Winter weather demand considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Winter weather has varied effects on travel behavior. Using 418 survey responses from the Northern Virginia : commuting area of Washington, D.C. and binary logit models, this study examines travel related changes under : different types of winter wea...

  16. Linking the South Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation and the Global Monsoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, H.; Dong, S.; Goni, G. J.; Lee, S. K.

    2016-02-01

    This study tested the hypothesis whether low frequency decadal variability of the South Atlantic meridional heat transport (SAMHT) influences decadal variability of the global monsoons. A multi-century run from a state-of-the-art coupled general circulation model is used as basis for the analysis. Our findings indicate that multi-decadal variability of the South Atlantic Ocean plays a key role in modulating atmospheric circulation via interhemispheric changes in Atlantic Ocean heat content. Weaker SAMHT produces anomalous ocean heat divergence over the South Atlantic resulting in negative ocean heat content anomaly about 15 years later. This, in turn, forces a thermally direct anomalous interhemispheric Hadley circulation in the atmosphere, transporting heat from the northern hemisphere (NH) to the southern hemisphere (SH) and moisture from the SH to the NH, thereby intensify (weaken) summer (winter) monsoon in the NH and winter (summer) monsoon in the SH. Results also show that anomalous atmospheric eddies, both transient and stationary, transport heat northward in both hemispheres producing eddy heat flux convergence (divergence) in the NH (SH) around 15-30°, reinforcing the anomalous Hadley circulation. Overall, SAMHT decadal variability leads its atmospheric response by about 15 years, suggesting that the South Atlantic is a potential predictor of global climate variability.

  17. Relationship between summer monsoon rainfall and cyclogenesis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    relationship between Indian Ocean Dipole Mode. Index (IODMI) and the ... 2013) in the cyclogenesis over north Indian Ocean ..... Indian summer monsoon; J. Climate 17 3141–3155. ... Murakami H, Wang B and Kitoh A 2011 Future change.

  18. The Effect of the South Asia Monsoon on the Wind Sea and Swell Patterns in the Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semedo, Alvaro

    2015-04-01

    Ocean surface gravity waves have a considerable impact on coastal and offshore infrastructures, and are determinant on ship design and routing. But waves also play an important role on the coastal dynamics and beach erosion, and modulate the exchanges of momentum, and mass and other scalars between the atmosphere and the ocean. A constant quantitative and qualitative knowledge of the wave patterns is therefore needed. There are two types of waves at the ocean surface: wind-sea and swell. Wind-sea waves are growing waves under the direct influence of local winds; as these waves propagate away from their generation area, or when their phase speed overcomes the local wind speed, they are called swell. Swell waves can propagate thousands of kilometers across entire ocean basins. The qualitative analysis of ocean surface waves has been the focus of several recent studies, from the wave climate to the air-sea interaction community. The reason for this interest lies mostly in the fact that waves have an impact on the lower atmosphere, and that the air-sea coupling is different depending on the wave regime. Waves modulate the exchange of momentum, heat, and mass across the air-sea interface, and this modulation is different and dependent on the prevalence of one type of waves: wind sea or swell. For fully developed seas the coupling between the ocean-surface and the overlaying atmosphere can be seen as quasi-perfect, in a sense that the momentum transfer and energy dissipation at the ocean surface are in equilibrium. This can only occur in special areas of the Ocean, either in marginal seas, with limited fetch, or in Open Ocean, in areas with strong and persistent wind speed with little or no variation in direction. One of these areas is the Arabian Sea, along the coasts of Somalia, Yemen and Oman. The wind climate in the Arabian sea is under the direct influence of the South Asia monsoon, where the wind blows steady from the northeast during the boreal winter, and

  19. Seasonal and interannual variability of the Mid-Holocene East Asian monsoon in coral δ18O records from the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Donghuai; Gagan, Michael K.; Cheng, Hai; Scott-Gagan, Heather; Dykoski, Carolyn A.; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Su, Ruixia

    2005-08-01

    Understanding the full range of past monsoon variability, with reference to specific monsoon seasons, is essential to test coupled climate models and improve their predictive capabilities. We present a 54-year long, high-resolution skeletal oxygen isotope (δ18O) record extracted from a well-preserved, massive Porites sp. coral at Hainan Island, South China Sea, to investigate East Asian monsoon variability during summer and winter ∼4400 calendar yr ago. Analysis of modern coral δ18O confirms that Porites from Hainan Island are well positioned to record winter monsoon forcing of sea surface temperature (SST), as well as the influence of summer monsoon rainfall on sea surface salinity (SSS). The coral record for ∼4400 yr ago shows ∼9% amplification of the annual cycle of δ18O, in good agreement with coupled ocean-atmosphere models showing higher summer rainfall (lower coral δ18O) and cooler winter SSTs (higher coral δ18O) in response to greater Northern Hemisphere insolation seasonality during the Middle Holocene. Mean SSTs in the South China Sea during the Mid-Holocene were within 0.5 °C of modern values, yet the mean δ18O for the fossil coral is ∼0.6‰ higher than that for the modern coral, suggesting that the δ18O of surface seawater was higher by at least ∼0.5‰, relative to modern values. The 18O-enrichment is likely to be driven by greater advection of moisture towards the Asian landmass, enhanced monsoon wind-induced evaporation and vertical mixing, and/or invigorated advection of saltier 18O-enriched Pacific water into the relatively fresh South China Sea. The 18O-enrichment of the northern South China Sea ∼4400 yr ago contributes to mounting evidence for recent freshening of the tropical Western Pacific. Today, winter SST and summer SSS variability in the South China Sea reflect the interannual influence of ENSO and the biennial variability inherent to monsoon precipitation. Spectral analysis of winter SSTs ∼4400 yr ago reveals a

  20. Effects of Planting of Calluna Vulgaris for Stable Snow Accumulation in Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibuki, R.; Harada, K.

    2017-12-01

    Recent year climate of the winter season is changing and the period of snow accumulation is reduced compared with before. It affects the management of the ski resort. Snowfall had occurred in December 2016, but the snow accumulated after January 2017 at the ski resort located in the Pacific Ocean side of the Northeast region of Japan. This situation is thought to be originated from two reasons, one is snow thawing, another is to be blown away by the strong monsoon wind. We are considering utilizing planting to stabilize snow accumulation. Currently building rock gardens with shrubs, mainly Calluna Vulgaris in the ski resort for attracting customers in the summer. These are difficult to raise in the lowlands of Japan because they are too hot, but because of their good growth in relatively low-temperature highlands, it is rare for local residents to appreciate the value of these. In addition, it is excellent in low temperature resistance, and it will not die even under the snow. We investigated the pressure resistance performance due to snowfall and the appropriateness of growth under the weather conditions of the area. Regarding Calluna Vulgaris, Firefly, the plants were not damaged even under snow more than 1 m. In addition, three years have passed since planting, relatively good growth is shown, and the stock has been growing every year. Based on these results, we plan to stabilize the snow accumulation by carrying out planting of Calluna vulgaris inside the slope. The growth of the Calluna species is gentle and the tree height grows only about 50 cm even if 15 years have passed since planting. Therefore, it is considered that the plant body is hard to put out their head on the snow surface during the ski season. Next season will monitor the snow accumulation around the planting area through the snow season.

  1. Winter-to-winter variations in indoor radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mose, D.G.; Mushrush, G.W.; Kline, S.W.

    1989-01-01

    Indoor radon concentrations in northern Virginia and central Maryland show a strong dependence on weather. Winter tends to be associated with higher than average indoor radon, and summer with lower than average. However, compared to the winter of 1986-1987, the winter of 1987-1988 was warmer and drier. Consequently, winter-to-winter indoor radon decreased by about 25%. This winter-to-winter decrease is unexpectedly large, and simulates winter-to-summer variations that have been reported

  2. Monsoon related changes in sea surface productivity and water column denitrification in the Eastern Arabian Sea during the last glacial cycle

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banakar, V.K.; Oba, T.; Chodankar, A; Kuramoto, T.; Yamamoto, M.; Minagawa, M.

    winter monsoons. Time-series of sedimentary organic-carbon (C sub(org)), sigma alkenone and delta sup(13)C sub(org) for the last 100 kyr, together, indicate increased glacial productivity. Significantly reduced sedimentary-delta sub(15)N during the LGM...

  3. Thermal Properties and Energy Fluxes in Pre-monsoon Season of 2016 at the Ponkar Debris-Covered Glacier, Manang, Nepal Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, M. B.; Kayastha, R. B.; Armstrong, R. L.

    2016-12-01

    Himalayan glaciers are characterized by the presence of extensive debris cover in ablation areas. It is essential to understand the thermal properties and assess the effect of debris in glacier ice melt rate in debris-covered glaciers. Meteorological conditions are recorded on the lower ablation zone of the debris-covered Ponkar Glacier, Bhimthang, Manang, Nepal during pre-monsoon season of 2016. Debris temperature at different depths is monitored for winter and pre-monsoon season to estimate the effective heat conduction. Similarly, melt under the debris is also measured for pre-monsoon season. The incoming and outgoing shortwave radiations are measured at 2 m above the surface and other variables including air temperature, humidity, wind speed, and precipitation are used to estimate surface energy balance. Energy flux is dominated by net shortwave radiation as the foremost source of melting, where contribution of net longwave radiation, sensible, latent, and conductive heat flux is low. The daily average temperature gradients of the debris layer from surface to 30 cm below for winter and pre-monsoon seasons are 0.04 oC cm-1 and 0.23 oC cm-1, respectively. Debris thermal conductivities are 0.30 W m-1 K-1 and 1.69 W m-1 K-1 for the winter and pre-monsoon season, respectively. The higher value of conductivity during pre-monsoon season is due to the higher air temperature and increased precipitation compared to the winter months. The daily mean measured ice melt under a debris layer of 11-20 cm ranges from 0.6 to 1.1 cm. Estimation of melt at a few points can be used to estimate the general melting pattern for the glacier surface, which can be improved by using the spatial distribution of debris thickness and surface temperature.

  4. Aerosol and monsoon climate interactions over Asia: AEROSOL AND MONSOON CLIMATE INTERACTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhanqing [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology and College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing China; Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science and ESSIC, University of Maryland, College Park Maryland USA; Lau, W. K. -M. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science and ESSIC, University of Maryland, College Park Maryland USA; Ramanathan, V. [Department of Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, University of California, San Diego California USA; Wu, G. [Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing China; Ding, Y. [National Climate Center, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing China; Manoj, M. G. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science and ESSIC, University of Maryland, College Park Maryland USA; Liu, J. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science and ESSIC, University of Maryland, College Park Maryland USA; Qian, Y. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Li, J. [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology and College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing China; Zhou, T. [Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing China; Fan, J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Rosenfeld, D. [Institute of Earth Sciences, Hebrew University, Jerusalem Israel; Ming, Y. [Geophysical Fluid Dynamic Laboratory, NOAA, Princeton New Jersey USA; Wang, Y. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena California USA; Huang, J. [College of Atmospheric Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou China; Wang, B. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Hawaii, Honolulu Hawaii USA; School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing China; Xu, X. [Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing China; Lee, S. -S. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science and ESSIC, University of Maryland, College Park Maryland USA; Cribb, M. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science and ESSIC, University of Maryland, College Park Maryland USA; Zhang, F. [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology and College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing China; Yang, X. [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology and College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing China; Zhao, C. [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology and College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing China; Takemura, T. [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Fukuoka Japan; Wang, K. [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology and College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing China; Xia, X. [Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing China; Yin, Y. [School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing China; Zhang, H. [National Climate Center, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing China; Guo, J. [Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing China; Zhai, P. M. [Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing China; Sugimoto, N. [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba Japan; Babu, S. S. [Space Physics Laboratory, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Thiruvananthapuram India; Brasseur, G. P. [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg Germany

    2016-11-15

    Asian monsoons and aerosols have been studied extensively which are intertwined in influencing the climate of Asia. This paper provides a comprehensive review of ample studies on Asian aerosol, monsoon and their interactions. The region is the primary source of aerosol emissions of varies species, influenced by distinct weather and climatic regimes. On continental scale, aerosols reduce surface insolation and weaken the land-ocean thermal contrast, thus inhibiting the development of monsoons. Locally, aerosol radiative effects alter the thermodynamic stability and convective potential of the lower atmosphere leading to reduced temperatures, increased atmospheric stability, and weakened wind and atmospheric circulation. The atmospheric thermodynamic state may also be altered by the aerosol serving as cloud condensation nuclei or ice nuclei. Many mechanisms have been put forth regarding how aerosols modulate the amplitude, frequency, intensity, and phase of numerous monsoon climate variables. A wide range of theoretical, observational, and modeling findings on the Asian monsoon, aerosols, and their interactions are synthesized. A new paradigm is proposed on investigating aerosol-monsoon interactions, in which natural aerosols such as desert dust, black carbon from biomass burning, and biogenic aerosols from vegetation are considered integral components of an intrinsic aerosol-monsoon climate system, subject to external forcings of global warming, anthropogenic aerosols, and land use and change. Future research on aerosol-monsoon interactions calls for an integrated approach and international collaborations based on long-term sustained observations, process measurements, and improved models, as well as using observations to constrain model simulations and projections.

  5. Interhemispheric Changes in Atlantic Ocean Heat Content and Their Link to Global Monsoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, H.; Lee, S. K.; Dong, S.; Goni, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    This study tested the hypothesis whether low frequency decadal variability of the South Atlantic meridional heat transport (SAMHT) influences decadal variability of the global monsoons. A multi-century run from a state-of-the-art coupled general circulation model is used as basis for the analysis. Our findings indicate that multi-decadal variability of the South Atlantic Ocean plays a key role in modulating atmospheric circulation via interhemispheric changes in Atlantic Ocean heat content. Weaker SAMHT produces anomalous ocean heat divergence over the South Atlantic resulting in negative ocean heat content anomaly about 15 years later. This, in turn, forces a thermally direct anomalous interhemispheric Hadley circulation in the atmosphere, transporting heat from the northern hemisphere (NH) to the southern hemisphere (SH) and moisture from the SH to the NH, thereby intensify (weaken) summer (winter) monsoon in the NH and winter (summer) monsoon in the SH. Results also show that anomalous atmospheric eddies, both transient and stationary, transport heat northward in both hemispheres producing eddy heat flux convergence (divergence) in the NH (SH) around 15-30°, reinforcing the anomalous Hadley circulation. The effect of eddies on the NH (SH) poleward of 30° is opposite with heat flux divergence (convergence), which must be balanced by sinking (rising) motion, consistent with a poleward (equatorward) displacement of the jet stream and mean storm track. The mechanism described here could easily be interpreted for the case of strong SAMHT, with the reverse influence on the interhemispheric atmospheric circulation and monsoons. Overall, SAMHT decadal variability leads its atmospheric response by about 15 years, suggesting that the South Atlantic is a potential predictor of global climate variability.

  6. The East Asian Summer Monsoon at mid-Holocene: results from PMIP3 simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Zheng

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Ten Coupled General Circulation Models (CGCMs participated in the third phase of Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP3 are assessed for the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM in both the pre-Industrial (PI, 0 ka and mid-Holocene (MH, 6 ka simulations. Results show that the PMIP3 model median captures well the large-scale characteristics of the EASM, including the two distinct features of the Meiyu rainbelt and the stepwise meridional displacement of the monsoonal rainbelt. At mid-Holocene, the PMIP3 model median shows significant warming (cooling during boreal summer (winter over Eurasia continent that are dominated by the changes of insolation. However, the PMIP3 models fail to simulate a warmer annual mean and winter surface air temperature (TAS over eastern China as derived from proxy records. The EASM at MH are featured by the changes of large-scale circulation over Eastern China while the changes of precipitation are not significant over its sub-domains of the Southern China and the lower reaches of Yangzi River. The inter-model differences for the monsoon precipitation can be associated with different configurations of the changes in large-scale circulation and the water vapour content, of which the former determines the sign of precipitation changes. The large model spread for the TAS over Tibetan Plateau has a positive relationship with the precipitation in the lower reaches of Yangzi River, yet this relationship does not apply to those PMIP3 models in which the monsoonal precipitation is more sensitive to the changes of large-scale circulation. Except that the PMIP3 model median captured the warming of annual mean TAS over Tibetan Plateau, no significant improvements can be concluded when compared with the PMIP2 models results.

  7. A daytime climatological distribution of high opaque ice cloud classes over the Indian summer monsoon region observed from 25-year AVHRR data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Devasthale

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A daytime climatological spatio-temporal distribution of high opaque ice cloud (HOIC classes over the Indian subcontinent (0–40° N, 60° E–100° E is presented using 25-year data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRRs for the summer monsoon months. The HOICs are important for regional radiative balance, precipitation and troposphere-stratosphere exchange. In this study, HOICs are sub-divided into three classes based on their cloud top brightness temperatures (BT. Class I represents very deep convection (BT<220 K. Class II represents deep convection (220 K<=BT<233 K and Class III background convection (233 K<=BT<253 K. Apart from presenting finest spatial resolution (0.1×0.1 degrees and long-term climatology of such cloud classes from AVHRRs to date, this study for the first time illustrates on (1 how these three cloud classes are climatologically distributed during monsoon months, and (2 how their distribution changes during active and break monsoon conditions. It is also investigated that how many deep convective clouds reach the tropopause layer during individual monsoon months. It is seen that Class I and Class II clouds dominate the Indian subcontinent during monsoon. The movement of monsoon over continent is very well reflected in these cloud classes. During monsoon breaks strong suppression of convective activity is observed over the Arabian Sea and the western coast of India. On the other hand, the presence of such convective activity is crucial for active monsoon conditions and all-India rainfall. It is found that a significant fraction of HOICs (3–5% reach the tropopause layer over the Bay of Bengal during June and over the north and northeast India during July and August. Many cases are observed when clouds penetrate the tropopause layer and reach the lower stratosphere. Such cases mostly occur during June compared to the other months.

  8. A method for deterministic statistical downscaling of daily precipitation at a monsoonal site in Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yonghe; Feng, Jinming; Liu, Xiu; Zhao, Yadi

    2017-12-01

    Statistical downscaling (SD) is a method that acquires the local information required for hydrological impact assessment from large-scale atmospheric variables. Very few statistical and deterministic downscaling models for daily precipitation have been conducted for local sites influenced by the East Asian monsoon. In this study, SD models were constructed by selecting the best predictors and using generalized linear models (GLMs) for Feixian, a site in the Yishu River Basin and Shandong Province. By calculating and mapping Spearman rank correlation coefficients between the gridded standardized values of five large-scale variables and daily observed precipitation, different cyclonic circulation patterns were found for monsoonal precipitation in summer (June-September) and winter (November-December and January-March); the values of the gridded boxes with the highest absolute correlations for observed precipitation were selected as predictors. Data for predictors and predictands covered the period 1979-2015, and different calibration and validation periods were divided when fitting and validating the models. Meanwhile, the bootstrap method was also used to fit the GLM. All the above thorough validations indicated that the models were robust and not sensitive to different samples or different periods. Pearson's correlations between downscaled and observed precipitation (logarithmically transformed) on a daily scale reached 0.54-0.57 in summer and 0.56-0.61 in winter, and the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency between downscaled and observed precipitation reached 0.1 in summer and 0.41 in winter. The downscaled precipitation partially reflected exact variations in winter and main trends in summer for total interannual precipitation. For the number of wet days, both winter and summer models were able to reflect interannual variations. Other comparisons were also made in this study. These results demonstrated that when downscaling, it is appropriate to combine a correlation

  9. Monsoon signatures in recent corals from the Laccadive Islands

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.A.S.

    X-radiographs of the coral (Porites sp.) collected from several atolls of Lakshadweep show alternate bands of low and high density, formed in non-monsoon period and monsoon period, respectively. The results reveal annual density variations as well...

  10. Hydrography of the Wadge bank - premonsoon and monsoon seasons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RamaRaju, V.S.; Rao, T.V.N.; RameshBabu, V.; Anto, A.F.

    The hydrography of the Wadge Bank during premonsoon and monsoon seasons is presented. The thermocline slopes downward towards the central region. Upwelling is prominent in the entire region during monsoon and is observed only in the western...

  11. The monsoon system: Land-sea breeze or the ITCZ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadgil, Sulochana

    2018-02-01

    For well over 300 years, the monsoon has been considered to be a gigantic land-sea breeze driven by the land-ocean contrast in surface temperature. In this paper, this hypothesis and its implications for the variability of the monsoon are discussed and it is shown that the observations of monsoon variability do not support this popular theory of the monsoon. An alternative hypothesis (whose origins can be traced to Blanford's (1886) remarkably perceptive analysis) in which the basic system responsible for the Indian summer monsoon is considered to be the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) or the equatorial trough, is then examined and shown to be consistent with the observations. The implications of considering the monsoon as a manifestation of the seasonal migration of the ITCZ for the variability of the Indian summer monsoon and for identification of the monsoonal regions of the world are briefly discussed.

  12. Modelling the Asian summer monsoon using CCAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Kim Chi; McGregor, John L. [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Aspendale, VIC (Australia)

    2009-02-15

    A ten-year mean (1989-1998) climatology of the Asian summer monsoon is studied using the CSIRO Conformal-Cubic Atmospheric Model (CCAM) to downscale NCEP reanalyses. The aim of the current study is to validate the model results against previous work on this topic, in order to identify model strengths and weaknesses in simulating the Asian summer monsoon. The model results are compared with available observations and are presented in two parts. In the first part, the mean summer rainfall, maximum and minimum temperatures and winds are compared with the observations. The second part focuses on validation of the monsoon onset. The model captures the mean characteristics such as the cross-equatorial flow of low-level winds over the Indian Ocean and near the Somali coast, rainfall patterns, onset indices, northward movements, active-break and revival periods. (orig.)

  13. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connell, R.A.

    1991-11-01

    The management structure and program objectives for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) remain unchanged from previous years. Additional funding was provided by the Bonneville Power Administration Regional Biomass Program to continue the publication of articles in the Biologue. The Western Area Power Administration and the Council of Great Lakes Governors funded the project Characterization of Emissions from Burning Woodwaste''. A grant for the ninth year was received from DOE. The Northeast Regional Biomass Steering Committee selected the following four projects for funding for the next fiscal year. (1) Wood Waste Utilization Conference, (2) Performance Evaluation of Wood Systems in Commercial Facilities, (3) Wood Energy Market Utilization Training, (4) Update of the Facility Directory.

  14. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, R.A.

    1991-11-01

    The management structure and program objectives for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) remain unchanged from previous years. Additional funding was provided by the Bonneville Power Administration Regional Biomass Program to continue the publication of articles in the Biologue. The Western Area Power Administration and the Council of Great Lakes Governors funded the project ''Characterization of Emissions from Burning Woodwaste''. A grant for the ninth year was received from DOE. The Northeast Regional Biomass Steering Committee selected the following four projects for funding for the next fiscal year. (1) Wood Waste Utilization Conference, (2) Performance Evaluation of Wood Systems in Commercial Facilities, (3) Wood Energy Market Utilization Training, (4) Update of the Facility Directory

  15. Anomalous behaviour of the Indian summer monsoon 2009

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Indian subcontinent witnessed a severe monsoon drought in the year 2009. India as a whole received. 77% of its long period average during summer monsoon season (1 June to 30 September) of 2009, which is the third highest deficient all India monsoon season rainfall year during the period 1901–2009. Therefore,.

  16. Relationship between summer monsoon rainfall and cyclogenesis over Bay of Bengal during post-monsoon (October-December) season

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sadhuram, Y; Maneesha, K.

    peak monsoon (October–November) season and concluded that the frequency of cyclones is modulated by negative and positive IOD rather than El-Nino and La-Nina. In this study, the relationship between southwest monsoon rainfall (June–September) and TNDC... Relationship between summer monsoon rainfall and cyclogenesis over Bay of Bengal during post-monsoon (October–December) season Y Sadhuram∗ and K Maneesha CSIR–National Institute of Oceanography, 176, Lawsons Bay Colony, Visakhapatnam 530 017, India...

  17. Coastal environments around Thule settlements in Northeast Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroon, Aart; Jakobsen, Bjarne Holm; Pedersen, Jørn Bjarke Torp

    2010-01-01

    Inuit have travelled to and settled in the coastal landscapes of Northeast Greenland for several longer periods during the latest ca. 4500 years. Most recently the Thule culture Inuit lived in the region from around 1400 until 1850 AD. The access to partly and periodically ice covered near coastal...... waters has been crucial to the primarily marine based subsistence strategy of the Thule Inuit culture, and their settlements are therefore found immediately at the coast. Changing geological and geomorphologic settings strongly influence the coastal morphodynamics, and only specific locations offer...... stable and protected conditions needed for proper winter settlements. The comprehensive study of coastal environments and Thule culture winter settlements in the Young Sound region show an accumulation of winter settlements, nearly all located either in protected pocket beaches or on stable basalt capes...

  18. Winters fuels report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The outlook for distillate fuel oil this winter is for increased demand and a return to normal inventory patterns, assuming a resumption of normal, cooler weather than last winter. With industrial production expected to grow slightly from last winter's pace, overall consumption is projected to increase 3 percent from last winter, to 3.4 million barrels per day during the heating season (October 1, 1995-March 31, 1996). Much of the supply win come from stock drawdowns and refinery production. Estimates for the winter are from the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) 4th Quarter 1995 Short-Tenn Energy Outlook (STEO) Mid-World Oil Price Case forecast. Inventories in place on September 30, 1995, of 132 million barrels were 9 percent below the unusually high year-earlier level. Inventories of high-sulfur distillate fuel oil, the principal type used for heating, were 13 percent lower than a year earlier. Supply problems are not anticipated because refinery production and the ready availability of imports should be adequate to meet demand. Residential heating off prices are expected to be somewhat higher than last winter's, as the effects of lower crude oil prices are offset by lower distillate inventories. Heating oil is forecast to average $0.92 per gallon, the highest price since the winter of 1992-93. Diesel fuel (including tax) is predicted to be slightly higher than last year at $1.13 per gallon. This article focuses on the winter assessment for distillate fuel oil, how well last year's STEO winter outlook compared to actual events, and expectations for the coming winter. Additional analyses include regional low-sulfur and high-sulfur distillate supply, demand, and prices, and recent trends in distillate fuel oil inventories

  19. Differential response of winter cooling on biological production in the northeastern Arabian Sea and northwestern Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jyothibabu, R.; Maheswaran, P.A; Madhu, N.V.; Asharaf, T.T.M.; Gerson, V.J.; Haridas, P.; Venugopal, P.; Revichandran, C.; Nair, K.K.C.; Gopalakrishnan, T.C.

    The northern parts of the twin seas bordering the Indian subcontinent, the Arabian Sea (AS) and Bay of Bengal (BOB), were studied during the winter monsoon. Higher biological production was observed in the AS (chlorophyll a 47.5 mg m sup(-2...

  20. Distribution and sources of particulate organic matter in the Indian monsoonal estuaries during monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Krishna, M.S.; Prasad, V.R.; Kumar, B.S.K.; Naidu, S.A.; Rao, G.D.; Viswanadham, R.; Sridevi, T.; Kumar, P.P.; Reddy, N.P.C.

    The distribution and sources of particulate organic carbon (POC) and nitrogen (PN) in 27 Indian estuaries were examined during the monsoon using the content and isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen. Higher phytoplankton biomass was noticed...

  1. Primary sand-dune plant community and soil properties during the west-coast India monsoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willis A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A seven-station interrupted belt transect was established that followed a previously observed plant zonation pattern across an aggrading primary coastal dune system in the dry tropical region of west-coast India. The dominant weather pattern is monsoon from June to November, followed by hot and dry winter months when rainfall is scarce. Physical and chemical soil characteristics in each of the stations were analysed on five separate occasions, the first before the onset of monsoon, three during and the last post-monsoon. The plant community pattern was confirmed by quadrat survey. A pH gradient decreased with distance from the shoreline. Nutrient concentrations were deficient, increasing only in small amounts until the furthest station inland. At that location, there was a distinct and abrupt pedological transition zone from psammite to humic soils. There was a significant increase over previous stations in mean organic matter, ammonium nitrate and soil-water retention, although the increase in real terms was small. ANOVA showed significant variation in electrical conductivity, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and sodium concentrations over time. There was no relationship between soil chemistry characteristics and plant community structure over the transect. Ipomoea pes-caprae and Spinifex littoreus were restricted to the foredunes, the leguminous forb Alysicarpus vaginalis and Perotis indica to the two stations furthest from the strand. Ischaemum indicum, a C4 perennial grass species adopting an ephemeral strategy was, in contrast, ubiquitous to all stations.

  2. Influence of strong monsoon winds on the water quality around a marine cage-culture zone in a shallow and semi-enclosed bay in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuan-Chao Angelo; Huang, Shou-Chung; Meng, Pei-Jie; Hsieh, Hernyi Justin; Chen, Chaolun Allen

    2012-04-01

    Influences of marine cage culture and monsoonal disturbances, northeasterly (NE) and southwesterly (SW) monsoons on the proximal marine environment were investigated across a gradient of sites in a semi-enclosed bay, Magong Bay (Penghu Islands, Taiwan). Elevated levels of ammonia produced by the cages were the main pollutant and distinguished the cage-culture and intermediary zones (1000 m away from the cages) from the reference zone in the NE monsoon, indicating currents produced by the strong monsoon may have extended the spread of nutrient-enriched waters without necessarily flushing such effluents outside Magong Bay. Moreover, the levels of chlorophyll-a, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity were distinguishable between two seasons, suggesting that resuspension caused by the NE monsoon winds may also influence the water quality across this bay. It indicated that the impacts of marine cage culture vary as a function of distance, and also in response to seasonal movements of water driven by local climatic occurrences. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Distribution, abundance, and habitat use of territorial male Boreal Owls (Aegolius funereus) in northeast Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    William H. Lane; David E. Andersen; Thomas H. Nicholls

    1997-01-01

    We conducted nocturnal auditory surveys from 1987-1992 to determine the distribution, abundance, and habitat use of Boreal Owls (Aegolius funereus) in northeast Minnesota. We concentrated our efforts in areas where documented nesting attempts by the owls had occurred, along roadways maintained for winter-time access by motor vehicles, and by...

  4. Decadal variability in snow depth anomaly over Eurasia and its association with all India summer monsoon rainfall and seasonal circulations

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, G P

    2003-01-01

    The Historical Soviet Daily Snow Depth (HSDSD) version II data set has been used in the computation of winter and spring snow depth anomalies over west (25 deg. E to 70 deg. E, 35 deg. N to 65 deg. N) and east (70 deg. E to 160 deg. E, 35 deg. N to 65 deg. N) Eurasia. It is noticed that winter snow depth anomaly over east Eurasia is positively correlated while west Eurasia is negatively correlated with subsequent Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR). The DJF snow depth anomaly shows highest and inverse correlation coefficient (CC) with ISMR over a large area of west Eurasia in a recent period of study i.e. 1975-1995. On the basis of standardised winter (mean of December, January and February) snow depth anomaly over west Eurasia, the years 1966, 1968, 1979 and 1986 are identified as high snow years and the years 1961 and 1975 as low snow years. The characteristics of seasonal monsoon circulation features have been studied in detail during contrasting years of less (more) snow depth in winter/spring seasons f...

  5. Winter Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Winter Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1992 and covered offshore areas from the Mid-Atlantic to Georges Bank. Inshore strata were covered...

  6. Deer Wintering Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Deer winter habitat is critical to the long term survival of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Vermont. Being near the northern extreme of the...

  7. Dirtier Air from a Weaker Monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Mian

    2012-01-01

    The level of air pollution in China has much increased in the past decades, causing serious health problems. Among the main pollutants are aerosols, also known as particulate matter: tiny, invisible particles that are suspended in the air. These particles contribute substantially to premature mortality associated with cardiopulmonary diseases and lung cancer1. The increase of the aerosol level in China has been commonly attributed to the fast rise in pollutant emissions from the rapid economic development in the region. However, writing in Geophysical Research Letters, Jianlei Zhu and colleagues2 tell a different side of the story: using a chemical transport model and observation data, they show that the decadal scale weakening of the East Asian summer monsoon has also contributed to the increase of aerosol concentrations in China. The life cycle of atmospheric aerosols starts with its emission or formation in the atmosphere. Some aerosol components such as dust, soot and sea salt are emitted directly as particles to the atmosphere, but others are formed there by way of photochemical reactions. For example, sulphate and nitrate aerosols are produced from their respective precursor gases, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. Aerosol particles can be transported away from their source locations by winds or vertical motion of the air. Eventually, they are removed from the atmosphere by means of dry deposition and wet scavenging by precipitation. Measurements generally show that aerosol concentrations over Asia are lowest during the summer monsoon season3, because intense rainfall efficiently removes them from the air. The East Asian summer monsoon extends over subtropics and mid-latitudes. Its rainfall tends to concentrate in rain belts that stretch out for many thousands of kilometres and affect China, Korea, Japan and the surrounding area. Observations suggest that the East Asian summer monsoon circulation and precipitation have been in decline since the 1970s4. In

  8. Persistence of radon-222 flux during monsoon at a geothermal zone in Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girault, Frederic; Koirala, Bharat Prasad; Perrier, Frederic; Richon, Patrick; Rajaure, Sudhir

    2009-01-01

    The Syabru-Bensi hydrothermal zone, Langtang region (Nepal), is characterized by high radon-222 and CO 2 discharge. Seasonal variations of gas fluxes were studied on a reference transect in a newly discovered gas discharge zone. Radon-222 and CO 2 fluxes were measured with the accumulation chamber technique, coupled with the scintillation flask method for radon. In the reference transect, fluxes reach exceptional mean values, as high as 8700 ± 1500 g m -2 d -1 for CO 2 and 3400 ± 100 x 10 -3 Bq m -2 s -1 for radon. Gases fluxes were measured in September 2007 during the monsoon and during the dry winter season, in December 2007 to January 2008 and in December 2008 to January 2009. Contrary to expectations, radon and its carrier gas fluxes were similar during both seasons. The integrated flux along this transect was approximately the same for radon, with a small increase of 11 ± 4% during the wet season, whereas it was reduced by 38 ± 5% during the monsoon for CO 2 . In order to account for the persistence of the high gas emissions during monsoon, watering experiments have been performed at selected radon measurement points. After watering, radon flux decreased within 5 min by a factor of 2-7 depending on the point. Subsequently, it returned to its original value, firstly, by an initial partial recovery within 3-4 h, followed by a slow relaxation, lasting around 10 h and possibly superimposed by diurnal variations. Monsoon, in this part of the Himalayas, proceeds generally by brutal rainfall events separated by two- or three-day lapses. Thus, the recovery ability shown in the watering experiments accounts for the observed long-term persistence of gas discharge. This persistence is an important asset for long-term monitoring, for example to study possible temporal variations associated with stress accumulation and release.

  9. Tibet, the Himalaya, Asian monsoons and biodiversity – In what ways are they related?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Spicer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Prevailing dogma asserts that the uplift of Tibet, the onset of the Asian monsoon system and high biodiversity in southern Asia are linked, and that all occurred after 23 million years ago in the Neogene. Here, spanning the last 60 million years of Earth history, the geological, climatological and palaeontological evidence for this linkage is reviewed. The principal conclusions are that: 1 A proto-Tibetan highland existed well before the Neogene and that an Andean type topography with surface elevations of at least 4.5 km existed at the start of the Eocene, before final closure of the Tethys Ocean that separated India from Eurasia. 2 The Himalaya were formed not at the start of the India–Eurasia collision, but after much of Tibet had achieved its present elevation. The Himalaya built against a pre-existing proto-Tibetan highland and only projected above the average height of the plateau after approximately 15 Ma. 3 Monsoon climates have existed across southern Asia for the whole of the Cenozoic, and probably for a lot longer, but that they were of the kind generated by seasonal migrations of the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone. 4 The projection of the High Himalaya above the Tibetan Plateau at about 15 Ma coincides with the development of the modern South Asia Monsoon. 5 The East Asia monsoon became established in its present form about the same time as a consequence of topographic changes in northern Tibet and elsewhere in Asia, the loss of moisture sources in the Asian interior and the development of a strong winter Siberian high as global temperatures declined. 6 New radiometric dates of palaeontological finds point to southern Asia's high biodiversity originating in the Paleogene, not the Neogene.

  10. Decadal variability in snow depth anomaly over Eurasia and its association with all India summer monsoon rainfall and seasonal circulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, G.P.

    2003-05-01

    The Historical Soviet Daily Snow Depth (HSDSD) version II data set has been used in the computation of winter and spring snow depth anomalies over west (25 deg. E to 70 deg. E, 35 deg. N to 65 deg. N) and east (70 deg. E to 160 deg. E, 35 deg. N to 65 deg. N) Eurasia. It is noticed that winter snow depth anomaly over east Eurasia is positively correlated while west Eurasia is negatively correlated with subsequent Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR). The DJF snow depth anomaly shows highest and inverse correlation coefficient (CC) with ISMR over a large area of west Eurasia in a recent period of study i.e. 1975-1995. On the basis of standardised winter (mean of December, January and February) snow depth anomaly over west Eurasia, the years 1966, 1968, 1979 and 1986 are identified as high snow years and the years 1961 and 1975 as low snow years. The characteristics of seasonal monsoon circulation features have been studied in detail during contrasting years of less (more) snow depth in winter/spring seasons followed by excess (deficient) rainfall over India using National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) / National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) reanylised data for the period 1948-1995. The composite difference of temperature, wind, stream function and velocity potential during the years of high and low snow years at upper and lower levels have been studied in detail. The temperature at lower level shows maximum cooling up to 6 deg. C during DJF and this cooling persists up to 500hPa by 2 deg. C which gives rise to anomalous cyclonic circulation over the Caspian Sea and this may be one of the causes of the weakening of the summer monsoon circulation over Indian sub-continent. The stream function difference fields show westerly dominated over Arabian Sea at upper level in weak monsoon years. Velocity potential difference field shows complete phase reversal in the dipole structure from the deficient to excess Indian summer monsoon rainfall. (author)

  11. Northeast U.S. update: price and demand issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucy, M.S.

    1997-01-01

    The issues affecting natural gas prices in the northeast United States were discussed. The supply of natural gas is high because of new pipeline projects and new market entrants. The demand for natural gas is also high because of nuclear plant closings, new electric plants, the clean air act, and economic growth. The supply of natural gas is expected to grow in the Northeast by 27 per cent by the year 2000. Future pipeline projects from Western Canada to Chicago, New York and Boston were examined and their effect on supply and pricing were analyzed. As another variable that affects the pricing of natural gas, a list of the nuclear plants that have closed and which may soon close in the northeast United States was provided, along with a list of new gas fired plants. Other factors affecting winter market prices in the northeast United States for 1997-1998 include El Nino, warm weather forecasts, NYMEX forecasts, natural gas demand, and low oil prices, were also reviewed. Cultivating long term comprehensive relationships, and focusing on customer service were considered the key to successful Canadian export growth. 7 tabs., 5 figs

  12. Intensification and deepening of the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone in response to increase in Indian monsoon wind intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachkar, Zouhair; Lévy, Marina; Smith, Shafer

    2018-01-01

    The decline in oxygen supply to the ocean associated with global warming is expected to expand oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). This global trend can be attenuated or amplified by regional processes. In the Arabian Sea, the world's thickest OMZ is highly vulnerable to changes in the Indian monsoon wind. Evidence from paleo-records and future climate projections indicates strong variations of the Indian monsoon wind intensity over climatic timescales. Yet, the response of the OMZ to these wind changes remains poorly understood and its amplitude and timescale unexplored. Here, we investigate the impacts of perturbations in Indian monsoon wind intensity (from -50 to +50 %) on the size and intensity of the Arabian Sea OMZ, and examine the biogeochemical and ecological implications of these changes. To this end, we conducted a series of eddy-resolving simulations of the Arabian Sea using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) coupled to a nitrogen-based nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton-detritus (NPZD) ecosystem model that includes a representation of the O2 cycle. We show that the Arabian Sea productivity increases and its OMZ expands and deepens in response to monsoon wind intensification. These responses are dominated by the perturbation of the summer monsoon wind, whereas the changes in the winter monsoon wind play a secondary role. While the productivity responds quickly and nearly linearly to wind increase (i.e., on a timescale of years), the OMZ response is much slower (i.e., a timescale of decades). Our analysis reveals that the OMZ expansion at depth is driven by increased oxygen biological consumption, whereas its surface weakening is induced by increased ventilation. The enhanced ventilation favors episodic intrusions of oxic waters in the lower epipelagic zone (100-200 m) of the western and central Arabian Sea, leading to intermittent expansions of marine habitats and a more frequent alternation of hypoxic and oxic conditions there. The increased

  13. Intensification and deepening of the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone in response to increase in Indian monsoon wind intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Lachkar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The decline in oxygen supply to the ocean associated with global warming is expected to expand oxygen minimum zones (OMZs. This global trend can be attenuated or amplified by regional processes. In the Arabian Sea, the world's thickest OMZ is highly vulnerable to changes in the Indian monsoon wind. Evidence from paleo-records and future climate projections indicates strong variations of the Indian monsoon wind intensity over climatic timescales. Yet, the response of the OMZ to these wind changes remains poorly understood and its amplitude and timescale unexplored. Here, we investigate the impacts of perturbations in Indian monsoon wind intensity (from −50 to +50 % on the size and intensity of the Arabian Sea OMZ, and examine the biogeochemical and ecological implications of these changes. To this end, we conducted a series of eddy-resolving simulations of the Arabian Sea using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS coupled to a nitrogen-based nutrient–phytoplankton–zooplankton–detritus (NPZD ecosystem model that includes a representation of the O2 cycle. We show that the Arabian Sea productivity increases and its OMZ expands and deepens in response to monsoon wind intensification. These responses are dominated by the perturbation of the summer monsoon wind, whereas the changes in the winter monsoon wind play a secondary role. While the productivity responds quickly and nearly linearly to wind increase (i.e., on a timescale of years, the OMZ response is much slower (i.e., a timescale of decades. Our analysis reveals that the OMZ expansion at depth is driven by increased oxygen biological consumption, whereas its surface weakening is induced by increased ventilation. The enhanced ventilation favors episodic intrusions of oxic waters in the lower epipelagic zone (100–200 m of the western and central Arabian Sea, leading to intermittent expansions of marine habitats and a more frequent alternation of hypoxic and oxic conditions there

  14. Forecasting Monsoon Precipitation Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper explores the application of Artificial Intelligent (AI) techniques for climate forecast. It pres ents a study on modelling the monsoon precipitation forecast by means of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). Using the historical data of the total amount of summer rainfall over the Delta Area of Yangtze River in China, three ANNs models have been developed to forecast the monsoon precipitation in the corre sponding area one year, five-year, and ten-year forward respectively. Performances of the models have been validated using a 'new' data set that has not been exposed to the models during the processes of model development and test. The experiment results are promising, indicating that the proposed ANNs models have good quality in terms of the accuracy, stability and generalisation ability.

  15. Automated software configuration in the MONSOON system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Philip N.; Buchholz, Nick C.; Moore, Peter C.

    2004-09-01

    MONSOON is the next generation OUV-IR controller project being developed at NOAO. The design is flexible, emphasizing code re-use, maintainability and scalability as key factors. The software needs to support widely divergent detector systems ranging from multi-chip mosaics (for LSST, QUOTA, ODI and NEWFIRM) down to large single or multi-detector laboratory development systems. In order for this flexibility to be effective and safe, the software must be able to configure itself to the requirements of the attached detector system at startup. The basic building block of all MONSOON systems is the PAN-DHE pair which make up a single data acquisition node. In this paper we discuss the software solutions used in the automatic PAN configuration system.

  16. Yields of alfalfa varieties with different fall dormancy levels in northeast china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.S.; Zhu, R.F.; Di, G.L.

    2014-01-01

    Fall dormancy (FD) is an important indicator of winter hardiness in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), the relationship between FD and the yield potential of alfalfa varieties were investigated to survey annual dry matter (DM) yields with FD levels in the northeast regions with cold winters. During three consecutive years, all varieties of five FD levels survived over the winter without any persistency problems and there were no differences in annual DM yields of varieties among FD levels. Among the same FD varieties, DM yields for some of the dormant, semi-dormant and non-dormant varieties were found no correlated with FD levels. In conclusion, it suggests that different FD levels no effected on yields of alfalfa in the cold regions, such as North-east China. (author)

  17. Development of summer monsoon and onset of continuous rains over central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    rains happening during the last phase of monsoon development as a consequence of and after (2-5 weeks) the establishment of monsoon circulation or monsoon front. Summer monsoon front, as the term 'monsoon' originally meant, is to be delineated from...

  18. The Northeast heating fuel market: Assessment and options; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2000-01-01

    In response to a Presidential request, this study examines how the distillate fuel oil market (and related energy markets) in the Northeast behaved in the winter of 1999-2000, explains the role played by residential, commercial, industrial, and electricity generation sector consumers in distillate fuel oil markets and describes how that role is influenced by the structure of tie energy markets in the Northeast. In addition, this report explores the potential for nonresidential users to move away from distillate fuel oil and how this might impact future prices, and discusses conversion of distillate fuel oil users to other fuels over the next 5 years. Because the President's and Secretary's request focused on converting factories and other large-volume users of mostly high-sulfur distillate fuel oil to other fuels, transportation sector use of low-sulfur distillate fuel oil is not examined here

  19. The Northeast heating fuel market: Assessment and options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-07-01

    In response to a Presidential request, this study examines how the distillate fuel oil market (and related energy markets) in the Northeast behaved in the winter of 1999-2000, explains the role played by residential, commercial, industrial, and electricity generation sector consumers in distillate fuel oil markets and describes how that role is influenced by the structure of tie energy markets in the Northeast. In addition, this report explores the potential for nonresidential users to move away from distillate fuel oil and how this might impact future prices, and discusses conversion of distillate fuel oil users to other fuels over the next 5 years. Because the President's and Secretary's request focused on converting factories and other large-volume users of mostly high-sulfur distillate fuel oil to other fuels, transportation sector use of low-sulfur distillate fuel oil is not examined here.

  20. Methane emissions from a landfill in north-east India: Performance of various landfill gas emission models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollapalli, Muralidhar; Kota, Sri Harsha

    2018-03-01

    Rapid urbanization and economic growth has led to significant increase in municipal solid waste generation in India during the last few decades and its management has become a major issue because of poor waste management practices. Solid waste generated is deposited into open dumping sites with hardly any segregation and processing. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) are the major greenhouse gases that are released from the landfill sites due to the biodegradation of organic matter. In this present study, CH 4 and CO 2 emissions from a landfill in north-east India are estimated using a flux chamber during September, 2015 to August, 2016. The average emission rates of CH 4 and CO 2 are 68 and 92 mg/min/m 2 , respectively. The emissions are highest in the summer whilst being lowest in winter. The diurnal variation of emissions indicated that the emissions follow a trend similar to temperature in all the seasons. Correlation coefficients of CH 4 and temperature in summer, monsoon and winter are 0.99, 0.87 and 0.97, respectively. The measured CH 4 in this study is in the range of other studies around the world. Modified Triangular Method (MTM), IPCC model and the USEPA Landfill gas emissions model (LandGEM) were used to predict the CH 4 emissions during the study year. The consequent simulation results indicate that the MTM, LandGEM-Clean Air Act, LandGEM-Inventory and IPCC models predict 1.9, 3.3, 1.6 and 1.4 times of the measured CH 4 emission flux in this study. Assuming that this higher prediction of CH 4 levels observed in this study holds well for other landfills in this region, a new CH 4 emission inventory (Units: Tonnes/year), with a resolution of 0.1 0  × 0.1 0 has been developed. This study stresses the importance of biodegradable composition of waste and meteorology, and also points out the drawbacks of the widely used landfill emission models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Solar activity and rainfall pattern in Tamil Nadu during the Northeast monsoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, R.S.; Mukherjee, B.K.; Ramana Murty, Bh.V.

    1976-01-01

    An attempt is made to examine the association, of any, between the rainfall, in Tamil Nadu and sunspot activity and if so, whether similar periodicities are also present in the sunspot activity. The daily relative sunspot numbers for the period Oct.-Dec. during 1961-70 and the daily sunspot means for the period Oct.-Dec. 1889-1938, as well as the rainfall series for the period Oct.-Nov., during 1961-70 have been analysed by power spectrum. An anti-phase relation was noticed between the rainfall and the sunspot activity. The 15-day periodicity in the rainfall was significant. The sunspot activity also showed similar periodicities as rainfall. The 30-day periodicity in the sunspot activity was significant. (author)

  2. Solar activity and rainfall pattern in Tamil Nadu during the Northeast monsoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, R S; Mukherjee, B K; Ramana Murty, Bh V [Indian Inst. of Tropical Meteorology, Pune

    1976-12-01

    An attempt is made to examine the association, of any, between the rainfall, in Tamil Nadu and sunspot activity and if so, whether similar periodicities are also present in the sunspot activity. The daily relative sunspot numbers for the period Oct.-Dec. during 1961-70 and the daily sunspot means for the period Oct.-Dec. 1889-1938, as well as the rainfall series for the period Oct.-Nov., during 1961-70 have been analysed by power spectrum. An anti-phase relation was noticed between the rainfall and the sunspot activity. The 15-day periodicity in the rainfall was significant. The sunspot activity also showed similar periodicities as rainfall. The 30-day periodicity in the sunspot activity was significant.

  3. Insects of terrestrial origin over Indian Ocean during north-east monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pathak, S.C.; Kulshrestha, V.; Choubey, A; Parulekar, A

    Airborne insects, carried by winds were trapped over the Indian Ocean (Latitude 14 degrees N to 4 degrees S; Longitude 60 degrees-76 degrees 34 minutes E), in the course of cruise 109, ORV Sagar Kanya (January 4-February 6, 1996). A total of 3...

  4. Enhanced export of carbon by salps during the northeast monsoon period in the northern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaswamy, V.; Sarin, M.M.; Rengarajan, R.

    of the photic zone was 2300 dpm m sup(-2) d sup(-1) and average POC/ sup(234)Th ratio in trap-derived particles was 0.14 mg/dpm. Average sup(234)Th derived export flux of carbon was about 332 mg m sup(-2) d sup(-1), representing 36% of the daily primary...

  5. MODIS-Aqua Reveals Evolving Phytoplankton Community Structure During the Arabian Sea Northeast Monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdell, P. Jeremy; Roesler, Collin S.; Goes, Joaquim I.

    2016-01-01

    Applying a bio-optical model designed to identify the mixotrophic dinoflagellate Noctiluca miliaris to MODIS-Aqua revealed (1) patterns in its spatial distribution not previously seen (including its appearance in places not previously sampled), and (2) the surprising disassociation of total chlorophyll biomass with the presence of N. miliaris.

  6. Contrasting sedimentation patterns in two semi-enclosed mesotidal bays along the west and south coasts of Korea controlled by their orientation to the regional monsoon climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seok Hwi; Chun, Seung Soo; Chang, Tae Soo; Jang, Dae Geon

    2017-08-01

    Sedimentation patterns of tidal flats along the Korean west coast have long been known to be largely controlled by the monsoon climate. On the other hand, much less is known about the effect of the monsoon on sedimentation in coastal embayments with mouths of different geographic orientations. Good examples are Hampyeong and Yeoja bays along the west and south coasts, respectively. Both have narrow entrances, but their mouths open toward the northwest and the south, respectively. With mean tidal ranges of 3.46 and 3.2 m, respectively, the two bays experience similar tidal regimes and are hence excellent candidates to compare the effect of different exposure to the same regional monsoon climate on their respective sediment distribution patterns. The winter monsoon, in particular, is characterized by strong northwesterly winds that directly impact the west coast, but blow offshore along the south coast. For the purpose of this study, surficial sediment samples were collected from intertidal and subtidal flats of the two bays, both in summer and winter. Grain-size analyses were carried out by sieving (sand fraction) and Sedigraph (mud fraction). In the case of Yeoja Bay, the sediments consist mostly of mud (mean grain sizes of 5.4 to 8.8 phi). Seasonal changes are very subtle, the sediments being slightly coarser in summer when silt-dominated sediments are supplied by two streams to the northern parts of the bay in response to heavy rainfall. With the exception of the deeper tidal channels, Yeoja Bay is characterized by a thick mud blanket the year round, which is modulated by processes associated with the summer monsoon that predominantly blows from the east. Textural parameters suggest severely restricted sediment mixing on the subtidal and intertidal flats, the overall low energy situation preventing sands from reaching the tidal flats. The sediments of Hampyeong Bay, by contrast, are characterized by a distinct shoreward fining trend. Mean grain sizes average

  7. Impacts of the East Asian monsoon on lower tropospheric ozone over coastal South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Derong; Ding, Aijun; Mao, Huiting; Fu, Congbin; Ding, Ke; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Jane; Wang, Tao; Chan, L Y; Lu, An; Hao, Nan

    2013-01-01

    The impact of the East Asian monsoon (EAM) on climatology and interannual variability of tropospheric ozone (O 3 ) over the coastal South China was investigated by analyzing 11 years of ozonesonde data over Hong Kong with the aid of Lagrangian dispersion modeling of carbon monoxide and calculation of an EAM index. It was found that the seasonal cycle of O 3 in the lower troposphere is highly related to the EAM over the study region. Ozone enhancements in the free troposphere are associated with the monsoon-induced transport of pollutants of continental anthropogenic and biomass burning origins. Lower tropospheric O 3 levels showed high interannual variability, with an annual averaged amplitude up to 61% of averaged concentrations in the boundary layer (0–1 km altitudes) and 49% below 3 km altitude. In spring and autumn, the interannual variability in boundary layer O 3 levels was predominately influenced by the EAM intensity, with high O 3 mixing ratios associated with northeasterly circulation anomalies. (letter)

  8. The nuclear winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velikhow, Y.P.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear winter is an example of possible secondary effects, and if we speak of secondary we are thinking of small-scale second-order effects, but a nuclear winter is not a second-order effect. If you calculate the amount of heat produced by a nuclear explosion, it is a very small amount which does not have any chance of changing the Earth's climate, but a nuclear explosion drives or stars some new mechanism - the mechanism of nuclear winter - after 100 megatons of dust are transferred to the upper atmosphere. Another example of such amplification is radioactive fall-out, especially long-life radioactive fall-out after the possible elimination of the nuclear power industry, nuclear storage and distribution of storage waste around the globe. This is a very powerful amplification mechanism

  9. Monsoon Rainfall and Landslides in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, R. K.; Hasegawa, S.; Bhandary, N. P.; Yatabe, R.

    2009-12-01

    A large number of human settlements on the Nepal Himalayas are situated either on old landslide mass or on landslide-prone areas. As a result, a great number of people are affected by large- and small-scale landslides all over the Himalayas especially during monsoon periods. In Nepal, only in the half monsoon period (June 10 to August 15), 70, 50 and 68 people were killed from landslides in 2007, 2008 and 2009, respectively. In this context, this paper highlights monsoon rainfall and their implications in the Nepal Himalaya. In Nepal, monsoon is major source of rainfall in summer and approximately 80% of the annual total rainfall occurs from June to September. The measured values of mean annual precipitation in Nepal range from a low of approximately 250 mm at area north of the Himalaya to many areas exceeding 6,000 mm. The mean annual rainfall varying between 1500 mm and 2500 mm predominate over most of the country. In Nepal, the daily distribution of precipitation during rainy season is also uneven. Sometime 10% of the total annual precipitation can occur in a single day. Similarly, 50% total annual rainfall also can occur within 10 days of monsoon. This type of uneven distribution plays an important role in triggering many landslides in Nepal. When spatial distribution of landslides was evaluated from record of more than 650 landslides, it is found that more landslides events were concentrated at central Nepal in the area of high mean annual rainfall. When monsoon rainfall and landslide relationship was taken into consideration, it was noticed that a considerable number of landslides were triggered in the Himalaya by continuous rainfall of 3 to 90 days. It has been noticed that continuous rainfall of few days (5 days or 7 days or 10 days) are usually responsible for landsliding in the Nepal Himalaya. Monsoon rains usually fall with interruptions of 2-3 days and are generally characterized by low intensity and long duration. Thus, there is a strong role of

  10. Onset, active and break periods of the Australian monsoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaik, Hakeem A; Cleland, Samuel J

    2010-01-01

    Four operational techniques of monsoon monitoring the Australian monsoon at Darwin have been developed in the Darwin Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre. Two techniques used the rainfall only criteria and look into the onset of wet season rainfall/monsoon rainfall. The other two techniques are based purely on Darwin wind data. The data used for the study ranges from 14 to 21 years. The main purpose of the study is to develop near-real time monitoring tools for the Australian monsoon at Darwin. The average date of onset of the monsoon ranges from 19 December to 30 December. The average date of monsoon onset is 28 December. In eleven out of twenty-one years the onset date remained within three days range between the two rainfall techniques, whereas it is eleven out of fourteen years between the wind techniques. The median number of active monsoon spells in a wet season is 3 for the rainfall techniques and 6 for the wind techniques. The average length of each active monsoon spell is around 4 days for all of the techniques. The date of onset of the monsoon has shown negative correlation with the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) that is late onset is found to occur in El Nino years while early onset is more likely in La Nina years.

  11. Sea surface temperature variability over North Indian Ocean - A study of two contrasting monsoon seasons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.; Sathyendranath, S.; Viswambharan, N.K.; Rao, L.V.G.

    Using the satellite derived sea surface temperature (SST) data for 1979 (bad monsoon) and 1983 (good monsoon), the SST variability for two contrasting monsoon seasons is studied. The study indicates that large negative anomalies off the Somali...

  12. Northeast Snowfall Impact Scale (NESIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — While the Fujita and Saffir-Simpson Scales characterize tornadoes and hurricanes respectively, there is no widely used scale to classify snowstorms. The Northeast...

  13. Multi-ensemble regional simulation of Indian monsoon during contrasting rainfall years: role of convective schemes and nested domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devanand, Anjana; Ghosh, Subimal; Paul, Supantha; Karmakar, Subhankar; Niyogi, Dev

    2018-06-01

    Regional simulations of the seasonal Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR) require an understanding of the model sensitivities to physics and resolution, and its effect on the model uncertainties. It is also important to quantify the added value in the simulated sub-regional precipitation characteristics by a regional climate model (RCM), when compared to coarse resolution rainfall products. This study presents regional model simulations of ISMR at seasonal scale using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with the synoptic scale forcing from ERA-interim reanalysis, for three contrasting monsoon seasons, 1994 (excess), 2002 (deficit) and 2010 (normal). Impact of four cumulus schemes, viz., Kain-Fritsch (KF), Betts-Janjić-Miller, Grell 3D and modified Kain-Fritsch (KFm), and two micro physical parameterization schemes, viz., WRF Single Moment Class 5 scheme and Lin et al. scheme (LIN), with eight different possible combinations are analyzed. The impact of spectral nudging on model sensitivity is also studied. In WRF simulations using spectral nudging, improvement in model rainfall appears to be consistent in regions with topographic variability such as Central Northeast and Konkan Western Ghat sub-regions. However the results are also dependent on choice of cumulus scheme used, with KF and KFm providing relatively good performance and the eight member ensemble mean showing better results for these sub-regions. There is no consistent improvement noted in Northeast and Peninsular Indian monsoon regions. Results indicate that the regional simulations using nested domains can provide some improvements on ISMR simulations. Spectral nudging is found to improve upon the model simulations in terms of reducing the intra ensemble spread and hence the uncertainty in the model simulated precipitation. The results provide important insights regarding the need for further improvements in the regional climate simulations of ISMR for various sub-regions and contribute

  14. Multi-ensemble regional simulation of Indian monsoon during contrasting rainfall years: role of convective schemes and nested domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devanand, Anjana; Ghosh, Subimal; Paul, Supantha; Karmakar, Subhankar; Niyogi, Dev

    2017-08-01

    Regional simulations of the seasonal Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR) require an understanding of the model sensitivities to physics and resolution, and its effect on the model uncertainties. It is also important to quantify the added value in the simulated sub-regional precipitation characteristics by a regional climate model (RCM), when compared to coarse resolution rainfall products. This study presents regional model simulations of ISMR at seasonal scale using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with the synoptic scale forcing from ERA-interim reanalysis, for three contrasting monsoon seasons, 1994 (excess), 2002 (deficit) and 2010 (normal). Impact of four cumulus schemes, viz., Kain-Fritsch (KF), Betts-Janjić-Miller, Grell 3D and modified Kain-Fritsch (KFm), and two micro physical parameterization schemes, viz., WRF Single Moment Class 5 scheme and Lin et al. scheme (LIN), with eight different possible combinations are analyzed. The impact of spectral nudging on model sensitivity is also studied. In WRF simulations using spectral nudging, improvement in model rainfall appears to be consistent in regions with topographic variability such as Central Northeast and Konkan Western Ghat sub-regions. However the results are also dependent on choice of cumulus scheme used, with KF and KFm providing relatively good performance and the eight member ensemble mean showing better results for these sub-regions. There is no consistent improvement noted in Northeast and Peninsular Indian monsoon regions. Results indicate that the regional simulations using nested domains can provide some improvements on ISMR simulations. Spectral nudging is found to improve upon the model simulations in terms of reducing the intra ensemble spread and hence the uncertainty in the model simulated precipitation. The results provide important insights regarding the need for further improvements in the regional climate simulations of ISMR for various sub-regions and contribute

  15. Employment and winter construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2011-01-01

    Reduced seasonal building activity in the construction sector is often assumed to be related to hard winter conditions for building activities and poor working conditions for construction workers, resulting in higher costs and poor quality of building products, particularly in the northern hemisp...... of contracts for workers is more likely to explain differences in seasonal activity than climatic or technological factors....

  16. Titan's Emergence from Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flasar, F. Michael; Achterberg, Richard; Jennings, Donald; Schinder, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We summarize the changes in Titans thermal structure derived from Cassini CIRS and radio-occultation data during the transition from winter to early spring. Titan's surface, and middle atmosphere show noticeable seasonal change, whereas that in most of the troposphere is mated. This can be understood in terms of the relatively small radiative relaxation time in the middle atmosphere and much larger time scale in the troposphere. The surface exhibits seasonal change because the heat capacity in an annual skin depth is much smaller than that in the lowest scale height of the troposphere. Surface temperatures rise 1 K at raid and high latitudes in the winter northern hemisphere and cool in the southern hemisphere. Changes in in the middle atmosphere are more complicated. Temperatures in the middle stratosphere (approximately 1 mbar) increase by a few kelvin at mid northern latitudes, but those at high latitudes first increase as that region moves out of winter shadow, and then decrease. This probably results from the combined effect of increased solar heating as the suit moves higher in the sky and the decreased adiabatic warming as the sinking motions associated with the cross-equatorial meridional cell weaken. Consistent with this interpretation, the warm temperatures observed higher up at the winter polar stratopause cool significantly.

  17. Fine particulate matter in the tropical environment: monsoonal effects, source apportionment, and health risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. F.; Latif, M. T.; Saw, W. H.; Amil, N.; Nadzir, M. S. M.; Sahani, M.; Tahir, N. M.; Chung, J. X.

    2016-01-01

    The health implications of PM2.5 in the tropical region of Southeast Asia (SEA) are significant as PM2.5 can pose serious health concerns. PM2.5 concentration and sources here are strongly influenced by changes in the monsoon regime from the south-west quadrant to the north-east quadrant in the region. In this work, PM2.5 samples were collected at a semi-urban area using a high-volume air sampler at different seasons on 24 h basis. Analysis of trace elements and water-soluble ions was performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and ion chromatography (IC), respectively. Apportionment analysis of PM2.5 was carried out using the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) positive matrix factorization (PMF) 5.0 and a mass closure model. We quantitatively characterized the health risks posed to human populations through the inhalation of selected heavy metals in PM2.5. 48 % of the samples collected exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) 24 h PM2.5 guideline but only 19 % of the samples exceeded 24 h US EPA National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). The PM2.5 concentration was slightly higher during the north-east monsoon compared to south-west monsoon. The main trace metals identified were As, Pb, Cd, Ni, Mn, V, and Cr while the main ions were SO42-, NO3-, NH4+, and Na. The mass closure model identified four major sources of PM2.5 that account for 55 % of total mass balance. The four sources are mineral matter (MIN) (35 %), secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) (11 %), sea salt (SS) (7 %), and trace elements (TE) (2 %). PMF 5.0 elucidated five potential sources: motor vehicle emissions coupled with biomass burning (31 %) were the most dominant, followed by marine/sulfate aerosol (20 %), coal burning (19 %), nitrate aerosol (17 %), and mineral/road dust (13 %). The hazard quotient (HQ) for four selected metals (Pb, As, Cd, and Ni) in PM2.5 mass was highest in PM2.5 mass from the coal burning source and least in PM2.5 mass

  18. Asian Eocene monsoons as revealed by leaf architectural signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Robert A.; Yang, Jian; Herman, Alexei B.; Kodrul, Tatiana; Maslova, Natalia; Spicer, Teresa E. V.; Aleksandrova, Galina; Jin, Jianhua

    2016-09-01

    The onset and development of the Asian monsoon systems is a topic that has attracted considerable research effort but proxy data limitations, coupled with a diversity of definitions and metrics characterizing monsoon phenomena, have generated much debate. Failure of geological proxies to yield metrics capable of distinguishing between rainfall seasonality induced by migrations of the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) from that attributable to topographically modified seasonal pressure reversals has frustrated attempts to understand mechanisms underpinning monsoon development and dynamics. Here we circumvent the use of such single climate parameter metrics in favor of detecting directly the distinctive attributes of different monsoon regimes encoded in leaf fossils. Leaf form adapts to the prevailing climate, particularly under the extreme seasonal stresses imposed by monsoons, so it is likely that fossil leaves carry a unique signature of past monsoon regimes. Leaf form trait spectra obtained from fossils from Eocene basins in southern China were compared with those seen in modern leaves growing under known climate regimes. The fossil leaf trait spectra, including those derived from previously published fossil floras from northwestern India, were most similar to those found in vegetation exposed to the modern Indonesia-Australia Monsoon (I-AM), which is largely a product of seasonal migrations of the ITCZ. The presence of this distinctive leaf physiognomic signature suggests that although a monsoon climate existed in Eocene time across southern Asia the characteristics of the modern topographically-enhanced South Asia Monsoon had yet to develop. By the Eocene leaves in South Asia had become well adapted to an I-AM type regime across many taxa and points to the existence of a pervasive monsoon climate prior to the Eocene. No fossil trait spectra typical of exposure to the modern East Asia monsoon were seen, suggesting the effects of this system in southern

  19. Distribution of mesopelagic micronekton in the Arabian Sea during the winter monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karuppasamy, P.K.; Muraleedharan, K.R.; DineshKumar, P.K.; Nair, M.

    B & Nafpaktitis M, Lanternfishes (Fam. Myctophidae) collected during cruises 3 and 6 of the R/V "Anton Bruun" in the Indian Ocean, Bulletin of the Los Angeles County Museum National History of Science, 5 (1969), 1-79. 48 Tsarin S A & Boltacher...

  20. Indian summer monsoon and winter hydrographic variations over past millennia resolved by clay sedimentation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.; Dayal, A.M.; Basavaiah, N.; Kader, U.S.A.

    the eastern Arabian Sea, Earth planet. Sci. Lett., 177, 209-218, doi:10.1016/S0012-821X(00)00053-4. Sinha, A., K. G. Cannariato, L. D. Stott, H. Cheng, R. L. Edwards, M. G. Yadava, R. Ramesh, and I. B. Singh (2007), A 900-year (600 to 1500 A.D.) record.../1 (# 3904; latitude 08 o 07.9’ N; Longitude 76 o 01.8’ E; water depth 1400 m; Figure 1) has been chosen for the present study, because: (i) it lies in an area receiving orographically enhanced SWM precipitation, (ii) located in advection path of BBW...

  1. Unusual blooms of green Noctiluca miliaris (Dinophyceae) in the Arabian Sea during the winter monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gomes, H.R.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Parab, S.G.; Goes, J.I.; Pednekar, S.; Al-Azri, A.R.N.; Thoppil, P.G.

    A large-scale, ongoing study conducted by the National Institute of Oceanography, India, from 2003 onward in support of India’s ocean color program, has documented for the first time ever the appearance of extensive blooms of Noctiluca miliaris...

  2. Mesoscale process-induced variation of the West India coastal current during the winter monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jineesh, V.K.; Muraleedharan, K.R.; Lix, J.K.; Revichandran, C.; HareeshKumar, P.V.; NaveenKumar, K.R.

    to an increase in sea level amplitude up to 28 cm Off southwest India, the poleward flow is along the western flank of this anticyclonic eddy and the geostrophic current completes the circulation around the eddy The eastward component of the geostrophic current...

  3. Phytoplanktons and zooplanktons diversity in karachi coastal seawater under high and low tide during winter monsoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaqoob, N.; Mashiatullah, A.; Sher, N.; Javed, T.; Ghaffar, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper represents the population density of phytoplanktons and zooplanktons recorded during the marine environmental studies at Karachi coast in the month of February 2011. Samples were collected by towing net, preserved and quantification and identification was carried out under light microscope. Twenty-three phytoplanktons species and nine zooplankton groups were recorded in the seawater from the sampling area of 10 square kilometers. Coscinodiscus and Copepods were dominant in the population of phytoplankton and zooplankton, respectively. Phytoplankton population density increased while zooplankton abundance decreased offshore from the coastline in the open sea. (author)

  4. Energetics of Indian winter monsoon P. Kumar@ and A. P. Dimri ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    31

    The model overestimation/underestimation of wind, temperature and specific ..... 500 hPa shows negative bias with maxima over southern Indian ocean (Fig.4c). ..... of the Himalayan terrain, causing orographic lifting or rising motion during. 20.

  5. Dust-induced episodic phytoplankton blooms in the Arabian Sea during winter monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banerjee, P.; PrasannaKumar, S.

    of dust and the amount of nutrients (nitrate, phosphate, and iron) that can be derived from the dust depositions. Additionally, we used published in situ nutrients data in conjunction with carbon: nitrogen: phosphorus and iron: carbon molar ratios...

  6. Early forecasting of Indian Summer Monsoon: case study 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surovyatkina, Elena; Stolbova, Veronika; Kurths, Jurgen

    2017-04-01

    The prior knowledge of dates of onset and withdrawal of monsoon is of vital importance for the population of the Indian subcontinent. In May 2016 before monsoon season, India recorded its highest-ever temperature of 51C. Hot waves have decimated crops, killed livestock and left 330 million people without enough water. At the end of monsoon season the floods in Indian this year have also broken previous records. Severe and devastating rainfall poured down, triggering dams spilling and floods. Such extreme conditions pose the vital questions such as: When will the monsoon come? When will the monsoon withdraw? More lead time in monsoon forecast warning is crucial for taking appropriate decisions at various levels - from the farmer's field (e.g. plowing day, seeding) to the central government (e.g. managing water and energy resources, food procurement policies). The Indian Meteorological Department issues forecasts of onset of monsoon for Kerala state in South India on May 15-th. It does not give such predictions for the other 28 states of the country. Our study concerns the central part of India. We made the monsoon forecast using our recently developed method which focuses on Tipping elements of the Indian monsoon [1]. Our prediction relies on observations of near-surface air temperature and relative humidity from both the ERA-40 and NCEP/NCAR reanalyses. We performed both of our forecasts for the onset and withdrawal of monsoon for the central part of India, the Eastern Ghats (20N,80E). We predicted the monsoon arrival to the Eastern Ghats (20N,80E) on the 13th of June with a deviation of +/-4 days. The prediction was made on May 6-th, 2016 [2], that is 40 days in advance of the date of the forecast. The actual monsoon arrival was June 17-th. In this day near-surface air temperature and relative humidity overcame the critical values and the monsoon season started, that was confirmed by observations of meteorological stations located around the EG-region. We

  7. The Asian Monsoon Links to Solar Changes and the Intertropical Convergence Zone and 1300 Years of Chinese Human Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, E.; Hsu, Y.; Lee, T.

    2011-12-01

    Here we present a new paleoclimatic record from a sediment core recovered in Lake Liyutan in central Taiwan over the last 1300 years. The age model is based on 2 AMS 14C dates. Adjustments of age were using the well-dated records from a near by lake sediment core. The Lake Liyutan sediments record the strength of the summer monsoon in two independent ways: (1) the magnetic parameters (ARM/χ, ARM, anhysteresis remenent magnetization; χ, Volume susceptibility) and magnetic susceptibility, and (2) total organic carbon content, organic C/N elemental ratio and δ13Corg of the sediments as a result of changes in different organic matter origins and terrigenous detritus dilution due to precipitation. All the proxy records are 10 to 30- year-resolution. Weaker summer monsoon phases reconstructed from the Lake Liyutan correlate with higher δ18O at Dongge and Hulu caves, which indicates lower summer precipitation rates. Moreover, it is interesting to find that the strong winter monsoon from the Lake Huguang Maar records show a synchronous relationship with weaker summer monsoon from the caves and the Lake Liyutan. From the coincidence in timing, these records were explained by migrations in the intertropical convergence zone. In addition, the weak Asian summer monsoon in the Lake Liyutan corresponds with lowering Northern Hemisphere summer insolation recorded at Dongge cave. Climate variations influenced the agricultural productivity, health risk, and conflict level of preindustrial societies. We note that, on the basis of our new lake record, major changes in Chinese dynasties occurred when the summer monsoon strength was weaker and rainfall was reduced. The Tang dynasty began to ebb in the eighth century, and it fully collapsed in AD907, then the dynastic transitions to the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. The weak summer monsoon and reduced rainfall was indicated in the coincidence in timing of the sediment core LYT-3A from Lake Liyutan during 1100 - 1000BP. In

  8. Spatiotemporal characteristics and water budget of water cycle elements in different seasons in northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周杰; 赵俊虎; 何文平; 龚志强

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the spatiotemporal characteristics of precipitable water, precipitation, evaporation, and water–vapor flux divergence in different seasons over northeast China and the water balance of that area. The data used in this paper is provided by the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The results show that the spatial distributions of precipitable water, precipitation, and evaporation feature that the values of elements above in the southeastern area are larger than those in the northwestern area;in summer, much precipitation and evaporation occur in the Changbai Mountain region as a strong moisture convergence region;in spring and autumn, moisture divergence dominates the northeast of China;in winter, the moisture divergence and convergence are weak in this area. From 1979 to 2010, the total precipitation of summer and autumn in northeast China decreased significantly; especially from 1999 to 2010, the summer precipitation always demonstrated negative anomaly. Additionally, other elements in different seasons changed in a truly imperceptible way. In spring, the evaporation exceeded the precipitation in northeast China; in summer, the precipitation was more prominent;in autumn and winter, precipitation played a more dominating role than the evaporation in the northern part of northeast China, while the evaporation exceeded the precipitation in the southern part. The Interim ECMWF Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim) data have properly described the water balance of different seasons in northeast China. Based on ERA-Interim data, the moisture sinks computed through moisture convergence and moisture local variation are quite consistent with those computed through precipitation and evaporation, which proves that ERA-Interim data can be used in the research of water balance in northeast China. On a seasonal scale, the moisture convergence has a greater influence than the local moisture variation on a moisture sink, and the latter is

  9. Spatiotemporal characteristics and water budget of water cycle elements in different seasons in northeast China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jie; Zhao Jun-Hu; He Wen-Ping; Zhi-Qiang Gong

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the spatiotemporal characteristics of precipitable water, precipitation, evaporation, and water–vapor flux divergence in different seasons over northeast China and the water balance of that area. The data used in this paper is provided by the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The results show that the spatial distributions of precipitable water, precipitation, and evaporation feature that the values of elements above in the southeastern area are larger than those in the northwestern area; in summer, much precipitation and evaporation occur in the Changbai Mountain region as a strong moisture convergence region; in spring and autumn, moisture divergence dominates the northeast of China; in winter, the moisture divergence and convergence are weak in this area. From 1979 to 2010, the total precipitation of summer and autumn in northeast China decreased significantly; especially from 1999 to 2010, the summer precipitation always demonstrated negative anomaly. Additionally, other elements in different seasons changed in a truly imperceptible way. In spring, the evaporation exceeded the precipitation in northeast China; in summer, the precipitation was more prominent; in autumn and winter, precipitation played a more dominating role than the evaporation in the northern part of northeast China, while the evaporation exceeded the precipitation in the southern part.The Interim ECMWF Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim) data have properly described the water balance of different seasons in northeast China. Based on ERA-Interim data, the moisture sinks computed through moisture convergence and moisture local variation are quite consistent with those computed through precipitation and evaporation, which proves that ERA-Interim data can be used in the research of water balance in northeast China. On a seasonal scale, the moisture convergence has a greater influence than the local moisture variation on a moisture sink, and the latter is

  10. Evaporation over the Arabian Sea during two contrasting monsoons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.; Sadhuram, Y.

    monsoon rainfall. It is noticed that in general, the sea surface temperatures are higher in 1983 throughout the monsoon season than in 1979 in the Arabian Sea excepting western region. The mean rates of evaporation on a seasonal scale are found to be equal...

  11. Reconciling societal and scientific definitions for the monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Mathew; Stephenson, David

    2014-05-01

    Science defines the monsoon in numerous ways. We can apply these definitions to forecast data, reanalysis data, observations, GCMs and more. In a basic research setting, we hope that this work will advance science and our understanding of the monsoon system. In an applied research setting, we often hope that this work will benefit a specific stakeholder or community. We may want to inform a stakeholder when the monsoon starts, now and in the future. However, what happens if the stakeholders cannot relate to the information because their perceptions do not align with the monsoon definition we use in our analysis? We can resolve this either by teaching the stakeholders or learning from them about how they define the monsoon and when they perceive it to begin. In this work we reconcile different scientific monsoon definitions with the perceptions of agricultural communities in Bangladesh. We have developed a statistical technique that rates different scientific definitions against the people's perceptions of when the monsoon starts and ends. We construct a probability mass function (pmf) around each of the respondent's answers in a questionnaire survey. We can use this pmf to analyze the time series of monsoon onsets and withdrawals from the different scientific definitions. We can thereby quantitatively judge which definition may be most appropriate for a specific applied research setting.

  12. The monsoon system: Land–sea breeze or the ITCZ?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sulochana Gadgil

    2018-01-27

    Jan 27, 2018 ... ocean contrast is one of the main drivers of the monsoon rainfall, in the 5th Assessment Report of the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change. (IPCC Climate Change 2013), the likely enhance- ment of monsoon rainfall has been attributed to increased land–sea contrast, and more abundant.

  13. Impact of Climate Change on India's Monsoonal Climate: Present ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Expected Future Changes in Rainfall and Temperature over India under IPCC SRES A1B GHG Scenarios · Expected Future Change in Monsoon Rainfall and Annual Surface Temp for 2020's, 2050's and 2080's · Likely Future Paradox of Monsoon-ENSO Links · High-Resolution Regional Climate Change Scenarios.

  14. Gridded daily Indian monsoon rainfall for 14 seasons: Merged ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indian monsoon is an important component of earth's climate system. Daily rainfall data for longer period is vital to study components and processes related to Indian monsoon. Daily observed gridded rainfall data covering both land and adjoining oceanic regions are required for numerical model vali- dation and model ...

  15. Atmospheric 210Pb changes during monsoon in east and west coast of Peninsular Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Munirah Johari; Che Abdul Rahim Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: 210 Pb is widely used as an atmospheric tracer as its parent, 222 Rn is continuously produced in the atmosphere from soil emanation. This study was conducted to observe the changes of 210 Pb activity based on temporal and spatial factor using PM10 samples. PM10 were sampled by Malaysian Meteorological Department in four station consist of two station from both east and west coast of Peninsular Malaysia in 2007. Activity level of 210 Pb was determined using the Tennelec XLB-5 Gross Alpha-Beta Counter, Canberra, after the ingrowth of 210 Pb by the outgrowth of 210 Bi. Basically, the analysed result showed that three to four significant peaks during northeast monsoon, southwest monsoon and inter monsoon. For east coast which comprises Kuantan and Mersing stations, the highest 210 Pb activity in Kuantan was in April and June with 45.73 ± 3.66 mBq/ kg and 48.20 ± 3.33 mBq/ kg, respectively. While in Mersing, 210 Pb activity showed the highest in April and July with 45.77 ± 2.67 mBq/ kg and 44.21 ± 2.42 mBq/ kg, respectively. As for the west coast, it comprises Setiawan and Chuping stations. Setiawan station showed the highest 210 Pb activity in October and July with 48.90 ± 2.52 mBq/ kg and 44.09 ± 2.34 mBq/ kg, respectively. Chuping showed the highest 210 Pb activity in March and October with 39.96 ± 1.94 mBq/ kg and 14.98 ± 0.80 mBq/ kg, respectively. It shows that 210 Pb activity in Chuping is much lower than in Setiawan because of its location is in a rural area. This study showed that during southwest monsoon from May to September, it clearly showed that 210 Pb activity is higher in west coast than in east coast as wind sources come from southwest of Peninsular Malaysia. (author)

  16. Simulation of the Indian summer monsoon onset-phase rainfall using a regional model

    KAUST Repository

    Srinivas, C. V.

    2015-09-11

    This study examines the ability of the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) regional model to simulate Indian summer monsoon (ISM) rainfall climatology in different climate zones during the monsoon onset phase in the decade 2000–2009. The initial and boundary conditions for ARW are provided from the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis Project (NNRP) global reanalysis. Seasonal onset-phase rainfall is compared with corresponding values from 0.25° IMD (India Meteorological Department) rainfall and NNRP precipitation data over seven climate zones (perhumid, humid, dry/moist, subhumid, dry/moist, semiarid and arid) of India to see whether dynamical downscaling using a regional model yields advantages over just using large-scale model predictions. Results show that the model could simulate the onset phase in terms of progression and distribution of rainfall in most zones (except over the northeast) with good correlations and low error metrics. The observed mean onset dates and their variability over different zones are well reproduced by the regional model over most climate zones. It has been found that the ARW performed similarly to the reanalysis in most zones and improves the onset time by 1 to 3 days in zones 4 and 7, in which the NNRP shows a delayed onset compared to the actual IMD onset times. The variations in the onset-phase rainfall during the below-normal onset (June negative) and above-normal onset (June positive) phases are well simulated. The slight underestimation of onset-phase rainfall in the northeast zone could be due to failure in resolving the wide extent of topographic variations and the associated multiscale interactions in that zone. Spatial comparisons showed improvement of pentad rainfall in both space and quantity in ARW simulations over NNRP data, as evident from a wider eastward distribution of pentad rainfall over the Western Ghats, central and eastern India, as in IMD observations. While NNRP under-represented the high pentad rainfall over northeast, east and

  17. Simulation of the Indian summer monsoon onset-phase rainfall using a regional model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. V. Srinivas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the ability of the Advanced Research WRF (ARW regional model to simulate Indian summer monsoon (ISM rainfall climatology in different climate zones during the monsoon onset phase in the decade 2000–2009. The initial and boundary conditions for ARW are provided from the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis Project (NNRP global reanalysis. Seasonal onset-phase rainfall is compared with corresponding values from 0.25° IMD (India Meteorological Department rainfall and NNRP precipitation data over seven climate zones (perhumid, humid, dry/moist, subhumid, dry/moist, semiarid and arid of India to see whether dynamical downscaling using a regional model yields advantages over just using large-scale model predictions. Results show that the model could simulate the onset phase in terms of progression and distribution of rainfall in most zones (except over the northeast with good correlations and low error metrics. The observed mean onset dates and their variability over different zones are well reproduced by the regional model over most climate zones. It has been found that the ARW performed similarly to the reanalysis in most zones and improves the onset time by 1 to 3 days in zones 4 and 7, in which the NNRP shows a delayed onset compared to the actual IMD onset times. The variations in the onset-phase rainfall during the below-normal onset (June negative and above-normal onset (June positive phases are well simulated. The slight underestimation of onset-phase rainfall in the northeast zone could be due to failure in resolving the wide extent of topographic variations and the associated multiscale interactions in that zone. Spatial comparisons showed improvement of pentad rainfall in both space and quantity in ARW simulations over NNRP data, as evident from a wider eastward distribution of pentad rainfall over the Western Ghats, central and eastern India, as in IMD observations. While NNRP under-represented the high pentad rainfall over

  18. Editorial - The winter Atomiades

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    As we wrote in our previous editorial, the Staff Association gives direct support to sports events, such as the Atomiades, a section of the Association of Sports Communities of European Research Institutes, which brings together sportsmen and women from 38 European research centres in 13 countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, United Kingdom, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Luxemburg, the Netherlands, Russia, and Switzerland). The summer Atomiades take place between the months of June and September every three years. Thirteen such events have taken place since 1973, the last one in June 2009 in Berlin. As far as the winter Atomiades are concerned, also organized every three years, and alternating with the summer Atomiades, there have been eleven since 1981, the last one at the end of January this year in neighbouring France. The following article tells the wonderful adventure of the CERN staff who took part in this event. A positive outcome for CERN skiers at the winter Atomiades The 11t...

  19. Winter is losing its cool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, S.

    2017-12-01

    Winter seasons have significant societal impacts across all sectors ranging from direct human health to ecosystems, transportation, and recreation. This study quantifies the severity of winter and its spatial-temporal variations using a newly developed winter severity index and daily temperature, snowfall and snow depth. The winter severity and the number of extreme winter days are decreasing across the global terrestrial areas during 1901-2015 except the southeast United States and isolated regions in the Southern Hemisphere. These changes are dominated by winter warming, while the changes in daily snowfall and snow depth played a secondary role. The simulations of multiple CMIP5 climate models can well capture the spatial and temporal variations of the observed changes in winter severity and extremes during 1951-2005. The models are consistent in projecting a future milder winter under various scenarios. The winter severity is projected to decrease 60-80% in the middle-latitude Northern Hemisphere under the business-as-usual scenario. The winter arrives later, ends earlier and the length of winter season will be notably shorter. The changes in harsh winter in the polar regions are weak, mainly because the warming leads to more snowfall in the high latitudes.

  20. Cloud-radiation-precipitation associations over the Asian monsoon region: an observational analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiandong; Wang, Wei-Chyung; Dong, Xiquan; Mao, Jiangyu

    2017-11-01

    This study uses 2001-2014 satellite observations and reanalyses to investigate the seasonal characteristics of Cloud Radiative Effects (CREs) and their associations with cloud fraction (CF) and precipitation over the Asian monsoon region (AMR) covering Eastern China (EC) and South Asia (SA). The CREs exhibit strong seasonal variations but show distinctly different relationships with CFs and precipitation over the two regions. For EC, the CREs is dominated by shortwave (SW) cooling, with an annual mean value of - 40 W m- 2 for net CRE, and peak in summer while the presence of extensive and opaque low-level clouds contributes to large Top-Of-Atmosphere (TOA) albedo (>0.5) in winter. For SA, a weak net CRE exists throughout the year due to in-phase compensation of SWCRE by longwave (LW) CRE associated with the frequent occurrence of high clouds. For the entire AMR, SWCRE strongly correlates with the dominant types of CFs, although the cloud vertical structure plays important role particularly in summer. The relationships between CREs and precipitation are stronger in SA than in EC, indicating the dominant effect of monsoon circulation in the former region. SWCRE over EC is only partly related to precipitation and shows distinctive regional variations. Further studies need to pay more attention to vertical distributions of cloud micro- and macro-physical properties, and associated precipitation systems over the AMR.

  1. Global effect of irrigation and its impact on the onset of the Indian summer monsoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimberteau, Matthieu [Universite de Paris 6, Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique, Paris Cedex 05 (France); Laval, Katia [Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique, Paris (France); Perrier, Alain [UFR Physique de l' Environnement, AgroParisTech, Paris (France); Polcher, Jan [CNRS, Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique, Paris (France)

    2012-09-15

    In a context of increased demand for food and of climate change, the water consumptions associated with the agricultural practice of irrigation focuses attention. In order to analyze the global influence of irrigation on the water cycle, the land surface model ORCHIDEE is coupled to the GCM LMDZ to simulate the impact of irrigation on climate. A 30-year simulation which takes into account irrigation is compared with a simulation which does not. Differences are usually not significant on average over all land surfaces but hydrological variables are significantly affected by irrigation over some of the main irrigated river basins. Significant impacts over the Mississippi river basin are shown to be contrasted between eastern and western regions. An increase in summer precipitation is simulated over the arid western region in association with enhanced evapotranspiration whereas a decrease in precipitation occurs over the wet eastern part of the basin. Over the Indian peninsula where irrigation is high during winter and spring, a delay of 6 days is found for the mean monsoon onset date when irrigation is activated, leading to a significant decrease in precipitation during May to July. Moreover, the higher decrease occurs in June when the water requirements by crops are maximum, exacerbating water scarcity in this region. A significant cooling of the land surfaces occurs during the period of high irrigation leading to a decrease of the land-sea heat contrast in June, which delays the monsoon onset. (orig.)

  2. Nuclear policies in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, A.

    1995-01-01

    In Northeast Asia, states have tried to enhance their security through unilateral means rather than cooperative ones. In this area, there is no regional multilateral security dialogue of significance. In the nuclear age, security is not something to be built for oneself irrespective of others. Security is something to be built together with one's opponents. The arms build-up in Northeast Asia is very substantial. Defence budgets are growing almost as fast as are the national economies. Still, there is no arms race, i.e. no interacting patterns of arms acquisitions and force deployments. There is a real risk, however, that the arms build-up might spill over into an arms race. Hence the case for cooperative policies - for confidence-building measures and arms control in particular - to prevent this from happening. The end of the Cold War has brought about profound changes in the international political and economic environment. There is a noticeable tendency towards political reconciliation and cooperation among states and an increasing interdependence and globalization. On the other hand, one cannot miss some worrisome phenomena, including the resurgence of nationalism, the multiplication of ethnic conflicts and the dangers associated with the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. This is particularly true of the Northeast Asian region. Although some changes in the regional security outlook are favourable, there are also sources of insecurity and uncertainty in Northeast Asia, not least being the disturbing trend towards a regional arms build-up. In today's Northeast Asia weapons proliferation is a source of growing concern. The major purpose of this volume is to provide a comprehensive analysis of the dimensions of the various nuclear problems and their interrelationships in Northeast Asia. A second purpose is to explore practical approaches to regional non-proliferation, to see how they may be strengthened and made mutually supportive of the global non

  3. Frozen cropland soil in northeast China as source of N2O and CO2 emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Shujie; Qiao, Yunfa; Han, Xiaozeng; Brancher Franco, Roberta; Burger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural soils are important sources of atmospheric N2O and CO2. However, in boreal agro-ecosystems the contribution of the winter season to annual emissions of these gases has rarely been determined. In this study, soil N2O and CO2 fluxes were measured for 6 years in a corn-soybean-wheat rotation in northeast China to quantify the contribution of wintertime N2O and CO2 fluxes to annual emissions. The treatments were chemical fertilizer (NPK), chemical fertilizer plus composted pig manure (NPKOM), and control (Cont.). Mean soil N2O fluxes among all three treatments in the winter (November-March), when soil temperatures are below -7°C for extended periods, were 0.89-3.01 µg N m(-2) h(-1), and in between the growing season and winter (October and April), when freeze-thaw events occur, 1.73-5.48 µg N m(-2) h(-1). The cumulative N2O emissions were on average 0.27-1.39, 0.03-0.08 and 0.03-0.11 kg N2O_N ha(-1) during the growing season, October and April, and winter, respectively. The average contributions of winter N2O efflux to annual emissions were 6.3-12.1%. In all three seasons, the highest N2O emissions occurred in NPKOM, while NPK and Cont. emissions were similar. Cumulative CO2 emissions were 2.73-4.94, 0.13-0.20 and 0.07-0.11 Mg CO2-C ha(-1) during growing season, October and April, and winter, respectively. The contribution of winter CO2 to total annual emissions was 2.0-2.4%. Our results indicate that in boreal agricultural systems in northeast China, CO2 and N2O emissions continue throughout the winter.

  4. Middle Holocene Organic Carbon and Biomarker Records from the South Yellow Sea: Relationship to the East Asian Monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Liang; Hu, Bangqi; Li, Jun; Dou, Yanguang; Xie, Luhua; Dong, Liang

    2018-03-01

    The East Asian monsoon system influences the sedimentation and transport of organic matter in East Asian marginal seas that is derived from both terrestrial and marine sources. In this study, we determined organic carbon (OC) isotope values, concentrations of marine biomarkers, and levels of OC and total nitrogen (TN) in core YSC-1 from the central South Yellow Sea (SYS). Our objectives were to trace the sources of OC and variations in palaeoproductivity since the middle Holocene, and their relationships with the East Asian monsoon system. The relative contributions of terrestrial versus marine organic matter in core sediments were estimated using a two-end-member mixing model of OC isotopes. Results show that marine organic matter has been the main sediment constituent since the middle Holocene. The variation of terrestrial organic carbon concentration (OCter) is similar to the EASM history. However, the variation of marine organic carbon concentration (OCmar) is opposite to that of the EASM curve, suggesting OCmar is distinctly influenced by terrestrial material input. Inputs of terrestrial nutrients into the SYS occur in the form of fluvial and aeolian dust, while concentrations of nutrients in surface water are derived mainly from bottom water via the Yellow Sea circulation system, which is controlled by the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM). Variations in palaeoproductivity represented by marine organic matter and biomarker records are, in general, consistent with the recent EAWM intensity studies, thus, compared with EASM, EAWM may play the main role to control the marine productivity variations in the SYS.

  5. Weakening of the North American monsoon with global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascale, Salvatore; Boos, William R.; Bordoni, Simona; Delworth, Thomas L.; Kapnick, Sarah B.; Murakami, Hiroyuki; Vecchi, Gabriel A.; Zhang, Wei

    2017-11-01

    Future changes in the North American monsoon, a circulation system that brings abundant summer rains to vast areas of the North American Southwest, could have significant consequences for regional water resources. How this monsoon will change with increasing greenhouse gases, however, remains unclear, not least because coarse horizontal resolution and systematic sea-surface temperature biases limit the reliability of its numerical model simulations. Here we investigate the monsoon response to increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations using a 50-km-resolution global climate model which features a realistic representation of the monsoon climatology and its synoptic-scale variability. It is found that the monsoon response to CO2 doubling is sensitive to sea-surface temperature biases. When minimizing these biases, the model projects a robust reduction in monsoonal precipitation over the southwestern United States, contrasting with previous multi-model assessments. Most of this precipitation decline can be attributed to increased atmospheric stability, and hence weakened convection, caused by uniform sea-surface warming. These results suggest improved adaptation measures, particularly water resource planning, will be required to cope with projected reductions in monsoon rainfall in the American Southwest.

  6. Winter Frost and Fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This somewhat oblique blue wide angle Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the 174 km (108 mi) diameter crater, Terby, and its vicinity in December 2004. Located north of Hellas, this region can be covered with seasonal frost and ground-hugging fog, even in the afternoon, despite being north of 30oS. The subtle, wavy pattern is a manifestation of fog. Location near: 28oS, 286oW Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

  7. Decadal Monsoon-ENSO Relationships Reexamined

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Kyung-Sook; Timmermann, Axel

    2018-02-01

    The strength of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR) relationship shows considerable decadal fluctuations, which have been previously linked to low-frequency climatic processes such as shifts in ENSO's center of action or the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. However, random variability can also cause similar variations in the relationship between climate phenomena. Here we propose a statistical test to determine whether the observed time-evolving correlations between ENSO and ISMR are different from those expected from a simple stochastic null hypothesis model. The analysis focuses on the time evolution of moving correlations, their expected variance, and probabilities for rapid transitions. The results indicate that the time evolution of the observed running correlation between these climate modes is indistinguishable from a system in which the ISMR signal can be expressed as a stochastically perturbed ENSO signal. This challenges previous deterministic interpretations. Our results are further corroborated by the analysis of climate model simulations.

  8. The Aerosol-Monsoon Climate System of Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K. M.; Kyu-Myong, Kim

    2012-01-01

    In Asian monsoon countries such as China and India, human health and safety problems caused by air-pollution are worsening due to the increased loading of atmospheric pollutants stemming from rising energy demand associated with the rapid pace of industrialization and modernization. Meanwhile, uneven distribution of monsoon rain associated with flash flood or prolonged drought, has caused major loss of human lives, and damages in crop and properties with devastating societal impacts on Asian countries. Historically, air-pollution and monsoon research are treated as separate problems. However a growing number of recent studies have suggested that the two problems may be intrinsically intertwined and need to be studied jointly. Because of complexity of the dynamics of the monsoon systems, aerosol impacts on monsoons and vice versa must be studied and understood in the context of aerosol forcing in relationship to changes in fundamental driving forces of the monsoon climate system (e.g. sea surface temperature, land-sea contrast etc.) on time scales from intraseasonal variability (weeks) to climate change ( multi-decades). Indeed, because of the large contributions of aerosols to the global and regional energy balance of the atmosphere and earth surface, and possible effects of the microphysics of clouds and precipitation, a better understanding of the response to climate change in Asian monsoon regions requires that aerosols be considered as an integral component of a fully coupled aerosol-monsoon system on all time scales. In this paper, using observations and results from climate modeling, we will discuss the coherent variability of the coupled aerosol-monsoon climate system in South Asia and East Asia, including aerosol distribution and types, with respect to rainfall, moisture, winds, land-sea thermal contrast, heat sources and sink distributions in the atmosphere in seasonal, interannual to climate change time scales. We will show examples of how elevated

  9. Spatial evolution of phosphorus fractionation in the sediments of Rhumel River in the northeast Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Azzouz , Sarah; Chellat , Smaine; Boukhalfa , Chahrazed; Amrane , Abdeltif

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The objective of the present study is the characterization of the spatial evolution of phosphorus forms in sediments of Rhumel River located in northeast Algeria during winter conditions. Sediments samples were collected along the river in Constantine city during the year 2012. The samples were subjected to physicochemical characterization and metals analysis. Phosphorus was fractionated by sequential extractions procedure in exchangeable, oxyhydroxides bound; calcium ...

  10. Decontamination and winter conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quenild, C.; Tveten, U.

    1984-12-01

    The report deals with two decontamonation experiments under winter conditions. A snow-covered parking lot was contaminated, and the snow was subsequently removed using standard snow-moving equipment. The snow left behind was collected and the content of contaminant was determined. A non-radioactive contaminant was used. A decontamination factor exceeding 100 was obtained. Although the eksperimental conditions were close to ideal, it is reason to believe that extremely efficient removal of deposited materials on a snow surface is achivable. In another investigation, run-off from agricultural surface, contaminated while covered with snow, was measured A lycimeter was used in this experiment. A stable layer of ice and snow was allowed to form before contamination. The run-off water was collected at each thaw period until all snow and ice was gone. Cs-134 was used as contaminant. Roughly 30% of the Cs-134 with which the area was contaminated ran off with the melt water. Following a reactor accident situation, this would have given a corresponding reduction in the long term doses. Both of these experiments show that consequence calculation assumptions, as they are currently applied to large accident assessment, tend to overestimate the consequences resulting from accidents taking place under winter conditions

  11. Spirit's Winter Work Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version This portion of an image acquired by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera shows the Spirit rover's winter campaign site. Spirit was parked on a slope tilted 11 degrees to the north to maximize sunlight during the southern winter season. 'Tyrone' is an area where the rover's wheels disturbed light-toned soils. Remote sensing and in-situ analyses found the light-toned soil at Tyrone to be sulfate rich and hydrated. The original picture is catalogued as PSP_001513_1655_red and was taken on Sept. 29, 2006. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project and built the spacecraft. The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment is operated by the University of Arizona, Tucson, and the instrument was built by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corp., Boulder, Colo.

  12. Winter School Les Houches

    CERN Document Server

    Lannoo, Michel; Bastard, Gérald; Voos, Michel; Boccara, Nino

    1986-01-01

    The Winter School held in Les Houches on March 12-21, 1985 was devoted to Semiconductor Heterojunctions and Superlattices, a topic which is recognized as being now one of the most interesting and active fields in semiconductor physics. In fact, following the pioneering work of Esaki and Tsu in 1970, the study of these two-dimensional semiconductor heterostructures has developed rapidly, both from the point of view of basic physics and of applications. For instance, modulation-doped heterojunctions are nowadays currently used to investigate the quantum Hall effect and to make very fast transistors. This book contains the lectures presented at this Winter School, showing in particular that many aspects of semiconductor heterojunctions and super­ lattices were treated, extending from the fabrication of these two-dimensional systems to their basic properties and applications in micro-and opto-electron­ ics. Among the subjects which were covered, one can quote as examples: molecular beam epitaxy and metallorgani...

  13. Geochemical provenance of sediments from the northern East China Sea document a gradual migration of the Asian Monsoon belt over the past 400,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beny, François; Toucanne, Samuel; Skonieczny, Charlotte; Bayon, Germain; Ziegler, Martin

    2018-06-01

    The reconstruction of the long-term evolution of the East Asian Monsoon remains controversial. In this study, we aim to give a new outlook on this evolution by studying a 400 kyr long sediment record (U1429) from the northern East China Sea recovered during IODP Expedition 346. Neodymium isotopic ratios and rare earth element concentrations of different grain-size fractions reveal significant provenance changes of the sediments in the East China Sea between East Asian continental sources (mainly Yellow River) and sediment contributions from the Japanese Archipelago. These provenance changes are interpreted as the direct impact of sea level changes, due to the reorganization of East Asian river mouth locations and ocean circulation on the East China Sea shelf, and latitudinal shifts of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) from the interior of Asia to the western North Pacific Ocean. Our data reveal the dominance of winter and summer monsoons during glacial and interglacial periods, respectively, except for glacial MIS 6d (∼150-180 ka) during which unexpected summer monsoon dominated conditions prevailed. Finally, our data suggests a possible strengthening of the interglacial summer monsoon rainfalls over the East Asian continent and Japan throughout the past 400 kyr, and between MIS 11 and MIS 5 in particular. This could result from a gradual northward migration of the ITCZ.

  14. Validation of the HIRHAM-Simulated Indian Summer Monsoon Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Polanski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The regional climate model HIRHAM has been applied over the Asian continent to simulate the Indian monsoon circulation under present-day conditions. The model is driven at the lateral and lower boundaries by European reanalysis (ERA40 data for the period from 1958 to 2001. Simulations with a horizontal resolution of 50 km are carried out to analyze the regional monsoon patterns. The focus in this paper is on the validation of the long-term summer monsoon climatology and its variability concerning circulation, temperature, and precipitation. Additionally, the monsoonal behavior in simulations for wet and dry years has been investigated and compared against several observational data sets. The results successfully reproduce the observations due to a realistic reproduction of topographic features. The simulated precipitation shows a better agreement with a high-resolution gridded precipitation data set over the central land areas of India and in the higher elevated Tibetan and Himalayan regions than ERA40.

  15. Prediction of monsoon rainfall with a nested grid mesoscale limited ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    At the India Meteorological Department (IMD), New Delhi, a 12-level limited area ... namurti et al (1995, 1998) noted that the Florida .... intensifies into monsoon depression giving rise to .... available to us on rainfall over the sea is the INSAT.

  16. Retrieval of vertical wind profiles during monsoon from satellite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Complex EOF analysis; cloud motion vector winds; wind profiles; retrieval; monsoon. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. .... The data gaps are removed using simple linear interpolation .... retrieved via standard linear regression using the two independent ...

  17. Spatial monsoon variability with respect to NAO and SO

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the negative phase of ESI tendency, almost all subdivisions of India show ... to affect the Indian summer monsoon rainfall indi- ... Monthly composite picture of ESI during (a) positive (28 years) and (b) negative (25 years) tendency of ESI.

  18. Air sea interaction during summer monsoon period of 1979

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.

    The present study highlights the utility of satellite derived parameters like SST, precipitation, CMV winds in the lower troposphere etc. in supplementing the in-situ observations. This information can lead to a better understanding of the monsoon...

  19. Unusual rainfall shift during monsoon period of 2010 in Pakistan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arslan

    2013-09-04

    Sep 4, 2013 ... Key words: Indus River, monsoon, flooding in 2010, rainfall pattern, Climate ... data was plotted in excel sheet with upper and lower limits defined .... Houze Jr, Rasmussen R, Medina K, Brodzik S, Romatschke SU (2011).

  20. Did Aboriginal vegetation burning affect the Australian summer monsoon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-08-01

    For thousands of years, Aboriginal Australians burned forests, creating grasslands. Some studies have suggested that in addition to changing the landscape, these burning practices also affected the timing and intensity of the Australian summer monsoon. Different vegetation types can alter evaporation, roughness, and surface reflectivity, leading to changes in the weather and climate. On the basis of an ensemble of experiments with a global climate model, Notaro et al. conducted a comprehensive evaluation of the effects of decreased vegetation cover on the summer monsoon in northern Australia. They found that although decreased vegetation cover would have had only minor effects during the height of the monsoon season, during the premonsoon season, burning-induced vegetation loss would have caused significant decreases in precipitation and increases in temperature. Thus, by burning forests, Aboriginals altered the local climate, effectively extending the dry season and delaying the start of the monsoon season. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2011GL047774, 2011)

  1. Dinoflagellates in a mesotrophic, tropical environment influenced by monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeCosta, P.M.; Anil, A.C.; Patil, J.S.; Hegde, S.; DeSilva, M.S.; Chourasia, M.

    The changes in dinoflagellate community structure in both e the water column and sediment in a mesotrophic, tropical port environment were investigated in this study. Since the South West Monsoon (SWM) is the main source of climatic variation...

  2. quantitative precipitation forecasts during the Indian Summer Monsoon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    65

    the Indian Summer Monsoon: Contiguous Rain Area (CRA) Approach ... 1Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, Melbourne, Australia ... are evaluated over India using the Contiguous Rainfall Area (CRA) verification technique.

  3. Spatio-temporal variability of summer monsoon rainfall over Orissa ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    decreasing trends in rainfall and number of rainy days over some parts of southwest Orissa during. June and ..... the recent trends and associated physical processes. 3. Results and ... depends on the activity of the monsoon trough. To.

  4. The USA and proliferation in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, S.B.

    1995-01-01

    United States policy on proliferation in Northeast Asia poses a test of balance between general US global non-proliferation goals and specific US regional security goals for Northeast Asia. US policy on proliferation in Northeast Asia further poses a test of priorities for US bilateral relations with the key Northeast Asian states, as non-proliferation and regional security goals must be weighed against other (e.g., economic, human rights) declared US policy goals. The result is a US policy equation for Northeast Asia proliferation that is considerably more complex in execution than might be expected from the simple statement of the US goal to avoid nuclear proliferation in Northeast Asia. The question of security assurances - both negative and positive - may be closely related to US policies to avoid proliferation in Northeast Asia

  5. Recent change of the global monsoon precipitation (1979-2008)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bin [University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Meteorology, Honolulu, HI (United States); University of Hawaii at Manoa, International Pacific Research Center, Honolulu, HI (United States); Liu, Jian [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Nanjing (China); Kim, Hyung-Jin [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Research Institute for Global Change, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Webster, Peter J. [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Atlanta, GA (United States); Yim, So-Young [University of Hawaii at Manoa, International Pacific Research Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2012-09-15

    The global monsoon (GM) is a defining feature of the annual variation of Earth's climate system. Quantifying and understanding the present-day monsoon precipitation change are crucial for prediction of its future and reflection of its past. Here we show that regional monsoons are coordinated not only by external solar forcing but also by internal feedback processes such as El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). From one monsoon year (May to the next April) to the next, most continental monsoon regions, separated by vast areas of arid trade winds and deserts, vary in a cohesive manner driven by ENSO. The ENSO has tighter regulation on the northern hemisphere summer monsoon (NHSM) than on the southern hemisphere summer monsoon (SHSM). More notably, the GM precipitation (GMP) has intensified over the past three decades mainly due to the significant upward trend in NHSM. The intensification of the GMP originates primarily from an enhanced east-west thermal contrast in the Pacific Ocean, which is coupled with a rising pressure in the subtropical eastern Pacific and decreasing pressure over the Indo-Pacific warm pool. While this mechanism tends to amplify both the NHSM and SHSM, the stronger (weaker) warming trend in the NH (SH) creates a hemispheric thermal contrast, which favors intensification of the NHSM but weakens the SHSM. The enhanced Pacific zonal thermal contrast is largely a result of natural variability, whilst the enhanced hemispherical thermal contrast is likely due to anthropogenic forcing. We found that the enhanced global summer monsoon not only amplifies the annual cycle of tropical climate but also promotes directly a ''wet-gets-wetter'' trend pattern and indirectly a ''dry-gets-drier'' trend pattern through coupling with deserts and trade winds. The mechanisms recognized in this study suggest a way forward for understanding past and future changes of the GM in terms of its driven mechanisms. (orig.)

  6. Transient coupling relationships of the Holocene Australian monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRobie, F. H.; Stemler, T.; Wyrwoll, K.-H.

    2015-08-01

    The northwest Australian summer monsoon owes a notable degree of its interannual variability to interactions with other regional monsoon systems. Therefore, changes in the nature of these relationships may contribute to variability in monsoon strength over longer time scales. Previous attempts to evaluate how proxy records from the Indonesian-Australian monsoon region correspond to other records from the Indian and East Asian monsoon regions, as well as to El Niño-related proxy records, have been qualitative, relying on 'curve-fitting' methods. Here, we seek a quantitative approach for identifying coupling relationships between paleoclimate proxy records, employing statistical techniques to compute the interdependence of two paleoclimate time series. We verify the use of complex networks to identify coupling relationships between modern climate indices. This method is then extended to a set of paleoclimate proxy records from the Asian, Australasian and South American regions spanning the past 9000 years. The resulting networks demonstrate the existence of coupling relationships between regional monsoon systems on millennial time scales, but also highlight the transient nature of teleconnections during this period. In the context of the northwest Australian summer monsoon, we recognise a shift in coupling relationships from strong interhemispheric links with East Asian and ITCZ-related proxy records in the mid-Holocene to significantly weaker coupling in the later Holocene. Although the identified links cannot explain the underlying physical processes leading to coupling between regional monsoon systems, this method provides a step towards understanding the role that changes in teleconnections play in millennial-to orbital-scale climate variability.

  7. Spirit Scans Winter Haven

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    At least three different kinds of rocks await scientific analysis at the place where NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit will likely spend several months of Martian winter. They are visible in this picture, which the panoramic camera on Spirit acquired during the rover's 809th sol, or Martian day, of exploring Mars (April 12, 2006). Paper-thin layers of light-toned, jagged-edged rocks protrude horizontally from beneath small sand drifts; a light gray rock with smooth, rounded edges sits atop the sand drifts; and several dark gray to black, angular rocks with vesicles (small holes) typical of hardened lava lie scattered across the sand. This view is an approximately true-color rendering that combines images taken through the panoramic camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters.

  8. Winter fuels report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD's I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD's, as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 day, 30-Day, and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city

  9. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-29

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the United States and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. 27 figs, 12 tabs.

  10. Changes in the Indian summer monsoon intensity in Sri Lanka during the last 30 ky - A multiproxy record from a marine sediment core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghage, P. N.; Nanayakkara, N. U.; Kodithuwakku, S.; Siriwardana, S.; Luo, C.; Fenghua, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Indian monsoon plays a vital role in determining climate events happening in the Asian region. There is no sufficient work in Sri Lanka to fully understand how the summer monsoonal variability affected Sri Lanka during the quaternary. Sri Lanka is situated at an ideal location with a unique geography to isolate Indian summer monsoon record from iris counterpart, Indian winter monsoon. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate its variability and understand the forcing factors. For this purpose a 1.82 m long gravity core, extracted from western continental shelf off Colombo, Sri Lanka by Shiyan 1 research vessel, was used. Particle size, chemical composition and colour reflectance were measured using laser particle size analyzer at 2 cm resolution, X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) at 2 cm resolution, and color spectrophotometer at 1 cm resolution respectively. Radio carbon dating of foraminifera tests by gas bench technique yielded the sediment age. Finally, principal component analysis (PCA) of XRF and color reflectance (DSR) data was performed to identify groups of correlating elements and mineralogical composition of sediments. Particle size results indicate that Increasing temperature and strengthening monsoonal rainfall after around 18000 yrs BP, at the end of last glacial period, enhanced chemical weathering over physical weathering. Proxies for terrestrial influx (XRF PC1, DSR PC1) and upwelling and nutrient supply driven marine productivity (XRF PC3 and DSR PC2) indicate that strengthening of summer monsoon started around 15000 yrs BP and maximized around 8000-10000 yrs BP after a short period of weakening during Younger Dryas (around 11000 yrs BP). The 8.2 cold event was recorded as a period of low terrestrial influx indicating weakening of rainfall. After that terrestrial input was low till around 2000 yrs BP indicating decrease in rainfall. However, marine productivity remained increasing throughout the Holocene indicating an increase in

  11. Causal evidence between monsoon and evolution of rhizomyine rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Antoñanzas, Raquel; Knoll, Fabien; Wan, Shiming; Flynn, Lawrence J

    2015-03-11

    The modern Asian monsoonal systems are currently believed to have originated around the end of the Oligocene following a crucial step of uplift of the Tibetan-Himalayan highlands. Although monsoon possibly drove the evolution of many mammal lineages during the Neogene, no evidence thereof has been provided so far. We examined the evolutionary history of a clade of rodents, the Rhizomyinae, in conjunction with our current knowledge of monsoon fluctuations over time. The macroevolutionary dynamics of rhizomyines were analyzed within a well-constrained phylogenetic framework coupled with biogeographic and evolutionary rate studies. The evolutionary novelties developed by these rodents were surveyed in parallel with the fluctuations of the Indian monsoon so as to evaluate synchroneity and postulate causal relationships. We showed the existence of three drops in biodiversity during the evolution of rhizomyines, all of which reflected elevated extinction rates. Our results demonstrated linkage of monsoon variations with the evolution and biogeography of rhizomyines. Paradoxically, the evolution of rhizomyines was accelerated during the phases of weakening of the monsoons, not of strengthening, most probably because at those intervals forest habitats declined, which triggered extinction and progressive specialization toward a burrowing existence.

  12. Tree ring evidence of a 20th century precipitation surge in the monsoon shadow zone of the western Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ram R.

    2011-01-01

    The present study is the first attempt to develop an annual (August-July) precipitation series back to AD 1330 using a tree ring data network of Himalayan cedar (Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) G. Don) from the Lahaul-Spiti region in the western Himalaya, India. The rainfall reconstruction reveals high magnitude multidecadal droughts during the 14th and 15th centuries and thenceforth a gradual increase in precipitation. Increasingly wet conditions during the 20th century are consistent with other long-term precipitation reconstructions from high Asia and reflect a large-scale intensification of the hydrological cycle, coincident with what is anticipated due to global warming. Significant relationships between reconstructed precipitation and precipitation records from central southwest Asia, east of the Caspian Sea, ENSO (NINO4-SST) variability and summer monsoon rainfall over central northeast India underscore the utility of our data in synoptic climatology.

  13. Northeast natural gas market outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denhardt, R.

    2001-01-01

    This power point presentation included several charts and graphs depicting the major pipeline projects, including the Alliance Pipeline, to move gas from the U.S. midwest (14.5 Bcfd) to the northeast (11.6 Bcfd). Alliance is expected to add 1.6 Bcfd of capacity and supplies could ultimately expand to 4 Bcfd. The addition of the Vector Pipeline could create excess capacity to eastern Canada. The major cause for increased power demand is power generation. For example, proposed gas combined cycle plants in Ontario equal 3.2 GW about 720 MMcfd at 90 per cent capacity, while environmental regulations have put 9.4 GW of coal at risk in Michigan. It was noted that U.S. northeast market growth is not likely to absorb all the proposed pipeline capacity, but potential capacity additions to the New England market are very significant compared to the market size. tabs., figs

  14. Convective environment in pre-monsoon and monsoon conditions over the Indian subcontinent: the impact of surface forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Thomas

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic soundings for pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons from the Indian subcontinent are analysed to document differences between convective environments. The pre-monsoon environment features more variability for both near-surface moisture and free-tropospheric temperature and moisture profiles. As a result, the level of neutral buoyancy (LNB and pseudo-adiabatic convective available potential energy (CAPE vary more for the pre-monsoon environment. Pre-monsoon soundings also feature higher lifting condensation levels (LCLs. LCL heights are shown to depend on the availability of surface moisture, with low LCLs corresponding to high surface humidity, arguably because of the availability of soil moisture. A simple theoretical argument is developed and showed to mimic the observed relationship between LCLs and surface moisture. We argue that the key element is the partitioning of surface energy flux into its sensible and latent components, that is, the surface Bowen ratio, and the way the Bowen ratio affects surface buoyancy flux. We support our argument with observations of changes in the Bowen ratio and LCL height around the monsoon onset, and with idealized simulations of cloud fields driven by surface heat fluxes with different Bowen ratios.

  15. Summer monsoon rainfall variability over North East regions of India and its association with Eurasian snow, Atlantic Sea Surface temperature and Arctic Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Amita; Oh, Jaiho; Kim, In-won; Kripalani, R. H.; Mitra, A. K.; Pandithurai, G.

    2017-10-01

    This observational study during the 29-year period from 1979 to 2007 evaluates the potential role of Eurasian snow in modulating the North East-Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall with a lead time of almost 6 months. This link is manifested by the changes in high-latitude atmospheric winter snow variability over Eurasia associated with Arctic Oscillation (AO). Excessive wintertime Eurasian snow leads to an anomalous cooling of the overlying atmosphere and is associated with the negative mode of AO, inducing a meridional wave-train descending over the tropical north Atlantic and is associated with cooling of this region. Once the cold anomalies are established over the tropical Atlantic, it persists up to the following summer leading to an anomalous zonal wave-train further inducing a descending branch over NE-India resulting in weak summer monsoon rainfall.

  16. Recent Progresses in Impacts of Indo-Western Pacific Ocean on East Asian Monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianping

    2016-04-01

    Some progresses in impacts of Western Pacific Ocean (WPO) on East Asian monsoon and stratosphere climate are reviewed from the following aspects. (1) Impact of the IPOD (a cross-basin dipole pattern of SSTA variability between the Indo-Pacific warm pool (IPWP) and North Pacific Ocean) on the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM).The IPOD exhibits a considerable correlation with the EASM. In summers with a positive IPOD phase, the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) weakens and shrinks with WPSH ridge moving northwards, which favours an intensified EASM and a decrease in summer rainfall in the Yangtze River valley, and vice versa. (2) TheIndo-Western Pacific convection oscillation (IPCO),which is an out-of-phase fluctuation in convection anomalies between the north Indian Ocean and the western North Pacific region,is closely related to the EASM.Negative IPCO phases, which exhibit an enhanced convection over the north Indian Ocean and a suppressed convection over the western North Pacific, favor a weakened EASM and an increase of summer rainfall in the Yangtze River valley with the joint actions of the stronger than normal Ural and Okhotsk blocking highs and the subtropical western Pacific high, and vice versa.(3) Asymmetric influence of the two types of ENSO on summer rainfall in China. The two types of ENSO have asymmetric impacts on summer rainfall over the Yangtze River Valley. The relation between summer rainfall over this valley and the cold tongue (CT) El Niño is significantly positive, while the relation with the CT La Niña is not significant. The negative phase of the warm pool (WP) ENSO has a significant positive influence, whereas no significant relation with the positive phase. They indicated that this asymmetric response of the EASM is likely to be linked to the different spatial patterns of the two types of ENSO.(4) Linkage between recent winter precipitation increase in the middle-lower Yangtze River valley (MLY) since the late 1970s andwarming in the

  17. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-13

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD`s I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s, as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 day, 30-Day, and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city.

  18. Klaus Winter (1930 - 2015)

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    We learned with great sadness that Klaus Winter passed away on 9 February 2015, after a long illness.   Klaus was born in 1930 in Hamburg, where he obtained his diploma in physics in 1955. From 1955 to 1958 he held a scholarship at the Collège de France, where he received his doctorate in nuclear physics under the guidance of Francis Perrin. Klaus joined CERN in 1958, where he first participated in experiments on π+ and K0 decay properties at the PS, and later became the spokesperson of the CHOV Collaboration at the ISR. Starting in 1976, his work focused on experiments with the SPS neutrino beam. In 1984 he joined Ugo Amaldi to head the CHARM experiment, designed for detailed studies of the neutral current interactions of high-energy neutrinos, which had been discovered in 1973 using the Gargamelle bubble chamber at the PS. The unique feature of the detector was its target calorimeter, which used large Carrara marble plates as an absorber material. From 1984 to 1991, Klau...

  19. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-04

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition, underground storage, and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. This report will be published weekly by the EIA starting the first week in October 1990 and will continue until the first week in April 1991. The data will also be available electronically after 5:00 p.m. on Thursday during the heating season through the EIA Electronic Publication System (EPUB). 12 tabs.

  20. Indian Monsoon and denitrification change in the Laxmi Basin (IODP Exp. 355 Site U1456) of the Eastern Arabian Sea during the last 800 kyrs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. E.; Khim, B. K.; Ikehara, M.; Lee, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Arabian Sea is a famous site for the basin-wide denitrification in the globe. The Western Arabian Sea has been acknowledged by its upwelling-induced denitrification related to the Indian Monsoon system (Altabet et al., 1999). It was recently reported that the denitrification in the Eastern Arabian Sea (IODP Exp. 355 Site U1456) has been persistent and consistent during the mid-Pleistocene as reflected in the bulk sediment δ15N values (Tripathi et al., 2017). Based on the age model reconstructed by δ18O stratigraphy of planktonic foraminifera (Globigerinoides ruber) together with shipboard biostratigraphic and paleomagnetic data at Site U1456 drilled in the Laxmi Basin of the Eastern Arabian Sea, the glacial-interglacial fluctuations of denitrification in association with the development of oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) were resolved in the context of Indian Monsoon activity. One of striking features in the Eastern Arabian Sea is that the δ15N values of bulk sediment show clear and consistent denitrification with minimum δ15N values exceeding 6‰ even during glacial periods, when its western counterpart experienced a temporal collapse of OMZ and denitrification. The Eastern Arabian Sea is fed not only by the upwelling-induced productivity in the western margin during the summer monsoon but also by the high productivity during the winter monsoon, both of which maintain the increased productivity affecting the OMZ through the consumption of dissolved oxygen by the degradation of sinking organic particles. The Eastern Arabian Sea is further influenced by the clockwise surface currents, intermediate water ventilation change by the blockage of Antarctic Intermediate Water, limited inflow from the Red Sea/Persian Gulf, and the freshwater salinity stratification due to nearby riverine discharges, all of which make the denitrification process more complicated than the Western Arabian Sea. Nonetheless, the glacial-interglacial denitrification change in the Eastern

  1. An integrated campaign for investigation of winter-time continental haze over Indo-Gangetic Basin and its radiative effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Sanat Kumar; Chatterjee, Abhijit; Ghosh, Sanjay K.; Raha, Sibaji

    2015-01-01

    An outflow of continental haze occurs from Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB) in the North to Bay of Bengal (BoB) in the South. An integrated campaign was organized to investigate this continental haze during December 2013–February 2014 at source and remote regions within IGB to quantify its radiative effects. Measurements were carried out at three locations in eastern India; 1) Kalas Island, Sundarban (21.68°N, 88.57°E) — an isolated island along the north-east coast of BoB, 2) Kolkata (22.57°N, 88.42°E) — an urban metropolis and 3) Siliguri (26.70°N, 88.35°E) — an urban region at the foothills of eastern Himalayas. Ground-based AOD (at 0.5 μm) is observed to be maximum (1.25 ± 0.18) over Kolkata followed by Siliguri (0.60 ± 0.17) and minimum over Sundarban (0.53 ± 0.18). Black carbon concentration is found to be maximum at Kolkata (21.6 ± 6.6 μg·m −3 ) with almost equal concentrations at Siliguri (12.6 ± 5.2 μg·m −3 ) and Sundarban (12.3 ± 3.0 μg·m −3 ). Combination of MODIS-AOD and back-trajectories analysis shows an outflow of winter-time continental haze originating from central IGB and venting out through Sundarban towards BoB. This continental haze with high extinction coefficient is identified up to central BoB using CALIPSO observations and is found to contribute ~ 75% to marine AOD over central BoB. This haze produces significantly high aerosol radiative forcing within the atmosphere over Kolkata (75.4 Wm −2 ) as well as over Siliguri and Sundarban (40 Wm −2 ) indicating large forcing over entire IGB, from foothills of the Himalayas to coastal region. This winter-time continental haze also causes about similar radiative heating (1.5 K·day −1 ) from Siliguri to Sundarban which is enhanced over Kolkata (3 K·day −1 ) due to large emission of local urban aerosols. This high aerosol heating over entire IGB and coastal region of BoB can have considerable impact on the monsoonal circulation and more importantly, such haze

  2. An integrated campaign for investigation of winter-time continental haze over Indo-Gangetic Basin and its radiative effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Sanat Kumar, E-mail: sanatkrdas@gmail.com [Environmental Sciences Section, Bose Institute, Kolkata (India); Center for Astroparticle Physics and Space Science, Bose Institute, Kolkata (India); Chatterjee, Abhijit [Environmental Sciences Section, Bose Institute, Kolkata (India); Center for Astroparticle Physics and Space Science, Bose Institute, Kolkata (India); National Facility on Astroparticle Physics and Space Science, Darjeeling (India); Ghosh, Sanjay K. [Center for Astroparticle Physics and Space Science, Bose Institute, Kolkata (India); National Facility on Astroparticle Physics and Space Science, Darjeeling (India); Raha, Sibaji [Environmental Sciences Section, Bose Institute, Kolkata (India); Center for Astroparticle Physics and Space Science, Bose Institute, Kolkata (India); National Facility on Astroparticle Physics and Space Science, Darjeeling (India)

    2015-11-15

    An outflow of continental haze occurs from Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB) in the North to Bay of Bengal (BoB) in the South. An integrated campaign was organized to investigate this continental haze during December 2013–February 2014 at source and remote regions within IGB to quantify its radiative effects. Measurements were carried out at three locations in eastern India; 1) Kalas Island, Sundarban (21.68°N, 88.57°E) — an isolated island along the north-east coast of BoB, 2) Kolkata (22.57°N, 88.42°E) — an urban metropolis and 3) Siliguri (26.70°N, 88.35°E) — an urban region at the foothills of eastern Himalayas. Ground-based AOD (at 0.5 μm) is observed to be maximum (1.25 ± 0.18) over Kolkata followed by Siliguri (0.60 ± 0.17) and minimum over Sundarban (0.53 ± 0.18). Black carbon concentration is found to be maximum at Kolkata (21.6 ± 6.6 μg·m{sup −3}) with almost equal concentrations at Siliguri (12.6 ± 5.2 μg·m{sup −3}) and Sundarban (12.3 ± 3.0 μg·m{sup −3}). Combination of MODIS-AOD and back-trajectories analysis shows an outflow of winter-time continental haze originating from central IGB and venting out through Sundarban towards BoB. This continental haze with high extinction coefficient is identified up to central BoB using CALIPSO observations and is found to contribute ~ 75% to marine AOD over central BoB. This haze produces significantly high aerosol radiative forcing within the atmosphere over Kolkata (75.4 Wm{sup −2}) as well as over Siliguri and Sundarban (40 Wm{sup −2}) indicating large forcing over entire IGB, from foothills of the Himalayas to coastal region. This winter-time continental haze also causes about similar radiative heating (1.5 K·day{sup −1}) from Siliguri to Sundarban which is enhanced over Kolkata (3 K·day{sup −1}) due to large emission of local urban aerosols. This high aerosol heating over entire IGB and coastal region of BoB can have considerable impact on the monsoonal circulation and more

  3. Modelling Monsoons: Understanding and Predicting Current and Future Behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, A; Sperber, K R; Slingo, J M; Meehl, G A; Mechoso, C R; Kimoto, M; Giannini, A

    2008-09-16

    The global monsoon system is so varied and complex that understanding and predicting its diverse behaviour remains a challenge that will occupy modellers for many years to come. Despite the difficult task ahead, an improved monsoon modelling capability has been realized through the inclusion of more detailed physics of the climate system and higher resolution in our numerical models. Perhaps the most crucial improvement to date has been the development of coupled ocean-atmosphere models. From subseasonal to interdecadal timescales, only through the inclusion of air-sea interaction can the proper phasing and teleconnections of convection be attained with respect to sea surface temperature variations. Even then, the response to slow variations in remote forcings (e.g., El Nino-Southern Oscillation) does not result in a robust solution, as there are a host of competing modes of variability that must be represented, including those that appear to be chaotic. Understanding the links between monsoons and land surface processes is not as mature as that explored regarding air-sea interactions. A land surface forcing signal appears to dominate the onset of wet season rainfall over the North American monsoon region, though the relative role of ocean versus land forcing remains a topic of investigation in all the monsoon systems. Also, improved forecasts have been made during periods in which additional sounding observations are available for data assimilation. Thus, there is untapped predictability that can only be attained through the development of a more comprehensive observing system for all monsoon regions. Additionally, improved parameterizations - for example, of convection, cloud, radiation, and boundary layer schemes as well as land surface processes - are essential to realize the full potential of monsoon predictability. Dynamical considerations require ever increased horizontal resolution (probably to 0.5 degree or higher) in order to resolve many monsoon features

  4. Indian monsoon variability on millennial-orbital timescales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathayat, Gayatri; Cheng, Hai; Sinha, Ashish; Spötl, Christoph; Edwards, R Lawrence; Zhang, Haiwei; Li, Xianglei; Yi, Liang; Ning, Youfeng; Cai, Yanjun; Lui, Weiguo Lui; Breitenbach, Sebastian F M

    2016-04-13

    The Indian summer monsoon (ISM) monsoon is critical to billions of people living in the region. Yet, significant debates remain on primary ISM drivers on millennial-orbital timescales. Here, we use speleothem oxygen isotope (δ(18)O) data from Bittoo cave, Northern India to reconstruct ISM variability over the past 280,000 years. We find strong coherence between North Indian and Chinese speleothem δ(18)O records from the East Asian monsoon domain, suggesting that both Asian monsoon subsystems exhibit a coupled response to changes in Northern Hemisphere summer insolation (NHSI) without significant temporal lags, supporting the view that the tropical-subtropical monsoon variability is driven directly by precession-induced changes in NHSI. Comparisons of the North Indian record with both Antarctic ice core and sea-surface temperature records from the southern Indian Ocean over the last glacial period do not suggest a dominant role of Southern Hemisphere climate processes in regulating the ISM variability on millennial-orbital timescales.

  5. Testing a flexible method to reduce false monsoon onsets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Alexander Stiller-Reeve

    Full Text Available To generate information about the monsoon onset and withdrawal we have to choose a monsoon definition and apply it to data. One problem that arises is that false monsoon onsets can hamper our analysis, which is often alleviated by smoothing the data in time or space. Another problem is that local communities or stakeholder groups may define the monsoon differently. We therefore aim to develop a technique that reduces false onsets for high-resolution gridded data, while also being flexible for different requirements that can be tailored to particular end-users. In this study, we explain how we developed our technique and demonstrate how it successfully reduces false onsets and withdrawals. The presented results yield improved information about the monsoon length and its interannual variability. Due to this improvement, we are able to extract information from higher resolution data sets. This implies that we can potentially get a more detailed picture of local climate variations that can be used in more local climate application projects such as community-based adaptations.

  6. Global monsoon precipitation responses to large volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Chai, Jing; Wang, Bin; Liu, Jian; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Zhiyuan

    2016-01-01

    Climate variation of global monsoon (GM) precipitation involves both internal feedback and external forcing. Here, we focus on strong volcanic forcing since large eruptions are known to be a dominant mechanism in natural climate change. It is not known whether large volcanoes erupted at different latitudes have distinctive effects on the monsoon in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) and the Southern Hemisphere (SH). We address this issue using a 1500-year volcanic sensitivity simulation by the Community Earth System Model version 1.0 (CESM1). Volcanoes are classified into three types based on their meridional aerosol distributions: NH volcanoes, SH volcanoes and equatorial volcanoes. Using the model simulation, we discover that the GM precipitation in one hemisphere is enhanced significantly by the remote volcanic forcing occurring in the other hemisphere. This remote volcanic forcing-induced intensification is mainly through circulation change rather than moisture content change. In addition, the NH volcanic eruptions are more efficient in reducing the NH monsoon precipitation than the equatorial ones, and so do the SH eruptions in weakening the SH monsoon, because the equatorial eruptions, despite reducing moisture content, have weaker effects in weakening the off-equatorial monsoon circulation than the subtropical-extratropical volcanoes do. PMID:27063141

  7. Global monsoon precipitation responses to large volcanic eruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Chai, Jing; Wang, Bin; Liu, Jian; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Zhiyuan

    2016-04-11

    Climate variation of global monsoon (GM) precipitation involves both internal feedback and external forcing. Here, we focus on strong volcanic forcing since large eruptions are known to be a dominant mechanism in natural climate change. It is not known whether large volcanoes erupted at different latitudes have distinctive effects on the monsoon in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) and the Southern Hemisphere (SH). We address this issue using a 1500-year volcanic sensitivity simulation by the Community Earth System Model version 1.0 (CESM1). Volcanoes are classified into three types based on their meridional aerosol distributions: NH volcanoes, SH volcanoes and equatorial volcanoes. Using the model simulation, we discover that the GM precipitation in one hemisphere is enhanced significantly by the remote volcanic forcing occurring in the other hemisphere. This remote volcanic forcing-induced intensification is mainly through circulation change rather than moisture content change. In addition, the NH volcanic eruptions are more efficient in reducing the NH monsoon precipitation than the equatorial ones, and so do the SH eruptions in weakening the SH monsoon, because the equatorial eruptions, despite reducing moisture content, have weaker effects in weakening the off-equatorial monsoon circulation than the subtropical-extratropical volcanoes do.

  8. Asian monsoons in a late Eocene greenhouse world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, A; van Cappelle, M; Abels, H A; Ladant, J-B; Trabucho-Alexandre, J; France-Lanord, C; Donnadieu, Y; Vandenberghe, J; Rigaudier, T; Lécuyer, C; Terry, D; Adriaens, R; Boura, A; Guo, Z; Soe, Aung Naing; Quade, J; Dupont-Nivet, G; Jaeger, J-J

    2014-09-25

    The strong present-day Asian monsoons are thought to have originated between 25 and 22 million years (Myr) ago, driven by Tibetan-Himalayan uplift. However, the existence of older Asian monsoons and their response to enhanced greenhouse conditions such as those in the Eocene period (55-34 Myr ago) are unknown because of the paucity of well-dated records. Here we show late Eocene climate records revealing marked monsoon-like patterns in rainfall and wind south and north of the Tibetan-Himalayan orogen. This is indicated by low oxygen isotope values with strong seasonality in gastropod shells and mammal teeth from Myanmar, and by aeolian dust deposition in northwest China. Our climate simulations support modern-like Eocene monsoonal rainfall and show that a reinforced hydrological cycle responding to enhanced greenhouse conditions counterbalanced the negative effect of lower Tibetan relief on precipitation. These strong monsoons later weakened with the global shift to icehouse conditions 34 Myr ago.

  9. Carbon dioxide emissions from Indian monsoonal estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma Vedula, VSS

    2012-07-01

    The oceans act as a net sink for atmospheric CO2, however, the role of coastal bodies on global CO2 fluxes remains unclear due to lack of data. The estimated absorption of CO2 from the continental shelves, with limited data, is 0.22 to 1.0 PgC/y, and of CO2 emission by estuaries to the atmosphere is 0.27 PgC/y. The estimates from the estuaries suffer from large uncertainties due to large variability and lack of systematic data collection. It is especially true for Southeast Asian estuaries as the biogeochemical cycling of material are different due to high atmospheric temperature, seasonality driven by monsoons, seasonal discharge etc. In order to quantify CO2 emissions from the Indian estuaries, samples were collected at 27 estuaries all along the Indian coast during discharge wet and dry periods. The emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere from Indian estuaries were 4-5 times higher during wet than dry period. The pCO2 ranged between ~300 and 18492 microatm which were within the range of world estuaries. The mean pCO2 and particulate organic carbon (POC) showed positive relation with rate of discharge suggesting availability of high quantities of organic matter that led to enhanced microbial decomposition. The annual CO2 fluxes from the Indian estuaries, together with dry period data available in the literature, amounts to 1.92 TgC which is >10 times less than that from the European estuaries. The low CO2 fluxes from the Indian estuaries are attributed to low flushing rates and less human settlements along the banks of the Indian estuaries.

  10. Fine particulate matter in the tropical environment: monsoonal effects, source apportionment, and health risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The health implications of PM2.5 in the tropical region of Southeast Asia (SEA are significant as PM2.5 can pose serious health concerns. PM2.5 concentration and sources here are strongly influenced by changes in the monsoon regime from the south-west quadrant to the north-east quadrant in the region. In this work, PM2.5 samples were collected at a semi-urban area using a high-volume air sampler at different seasons on 24 h basis. Analysis of trace elements and water-soluble ions was performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS and ion chromatography (IC, respectively. Apportionment analysis of PM2.5 was carried out using the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA positive matrix factorization (PMF 5.0 and a mass closure model. We quantitatively characterized the health risks posed to human populations through the inhalation of selected heavy metals in PM2.5. 48 % of the samples collected exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO 24 h PM2.5 guideline but only 19 % of the samples exceeded 24 h US EPA National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS. The PM2.5 concentration was slightly higher during the north-east monsoon compared to south-west monsoon. The main trace metals identified were As, Pb, Cd, Ni, Mn, V, and Cr while the main ions were SO42−, NO3−, NH4+, and Na. The mass closure model identified four major sources of PM2.5 that account for 55 % of total mass balance. The four sources are mineral matter (MIN (35 %, secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA (11 %, sea salt (SS (7 %, and trace elements (TE (2 %. PMF 5.0 elucidated five potential sources: motor vehicle emissions coupled with biomass burning (31 % were the most dominant, followed by marine/sulfate aerosol (20 %, coal burning (19 %, nitrate aerosol (17 %, and mineral/road dust (13 %. The hazard quotient (HQ for four selected metals (Pb, As, Cd, and Ni in PM2.5 mass was highest in PM2.5 mass from the coal burning

  11. Application study of monthly precipitation forecast in Northeast China based on the cold vortex persistence activity index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Liu; Meihui, Qu; Guolin, Feng; Qucheng, Chu; Jing, Cao; Jie, Yang; Ling, Cao; Yao, Feng

    2018-03-01

    This paper introduces three quantitative indicators to conduct research for characterizing Northeast China cold vortex persistence activity: cold vortex persistence, generalized "cold vortex," and cold vortex precipitation. As discussed in the first part of paper, a hindcast is performed by multiple regressions using Northeast China precipitation from 2012 to 2014 combination with the previous winter 144 air-sea system factors. The results show that the mentioned three cold vortex index series can reflect the spatial and temporal distributions of observational precipitation in 2012-2014 and obtain results. The cold vortex factors are then added to the Forecast System on Dynamical and Analogy Skills (FODAS) to carry out dynamic statistical hindcast of precipitation in Northeast China from 2003 to 2012. Based on the characteristics and significance of each index, precipitation hindcast is carried out for Northeast China in May, June, July, August, May-June, and July-August. It turns out that the Northeast Cold Vortex Index Series, as defined in this paper, can make positive corrections to the FODAS forecast system, and most of the index correction results are higher than the system's own correction value. This study provides quantitative index products and supplies a solid technical foundation and support for monthly precipitation forecast in Northeast China.

  12. Diatom community dynamics in a tropical, monsoon-influenced environment: West coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeCosta, P.M.; Anil, A.C.

    Diatom communities are influenced by environmental perturbations, such as the monsoon system that impact the niche opportunities of species. To discern the influence of the monsoon system on diatom community structure, we sampled during two...

  13. Changes of extreme precipitation and nonlinear influence of climate variables over monsoon region in China

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Tao; Wang, Huixia Judy; Zhou, Tianjun

    2017-01-01

    of precipitation extremes over monsoon regions in China (MRC). However, research on monsoon extremes in China and their associations with climate variables is limited. In this study, we examine the space-time variations of extreme precipitation across the MRC

  14. Influence of monsoon upwelling on the planktonic foraminifera off Oman during Late Quaternary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naidu, P.D.

    Planktonic foraminifer abundances, fluxes, test sizes, and coiling properties are influenced in various ways by the southwest monsoon winds and associated upwelling in the western Arabian Sea. The influence of monsoon driven upwelling...

  15. Maritimes and northeast pipeline update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langan, P.

    1998-01-01

    Efforts made by Maritimes and Northeast Pipelines to bring the benefits of natural gas to the Maritime's economy was discussed. Some background on the developments that have brought the company to where they are today and an update on all their activities were presented. These activities and operations are expected to impact and affect the region's economy in a positive way. Particular attention was paid to the company's policy on laterals and the positive effects of that policy on the development of natural gas service and future natural gas distribution business in the Maritimes

  16. 76 FR 34139 - Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Meeting Postponement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    .... 2] Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Meeting Postponement AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration... announced the first meeting of the Northeast Corridor Safety Committee, a Federal Advisory Committee... future date. DATES: The meeting of the Northeast Corridor Safety Committee scheduled to commence on...

  17. 77 FR 3326 - Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    .... 3] Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of Northeast Corridor Safety Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FRA announced the first meeting of the Northeast Corridor Safety Committee, a Federal...

  18. 76 FR 32391 - Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-06

    .... 1] Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of the Northeast Corridor Safety Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FRA announces the first meeting of the Northeast Corridor Safety Committee, a...

  19. Environmental status of groundwater affected by chromite ore processing residue (COPR) dumpsites during pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matern, Katrin; Weigand, Harald; Singh, Abhas; Mansfeldt, Tim

    2017-02-01

    Chromite ore processing residue (COPR) is generated by the roasting of chromite ores for the extraction of chromium. Leaching of carcinogenic hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) from COPR dumpsites and contamination of groundwater is a key environmental risk. The objective of the study was to evaluate Cr(VI) contamination in groundwater in the vicinity of three COPR disposal sites in Uttar Pradesh, India, in the pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons. Groundwater samples (n = 57 pre-monsoon, n = 70 monsoon) were taken in 2014 and analyzed for Cr(VI) and relevant hydrochemical parameters. The site-specific ranges of Cr(VI) concentrations in groundwater were Rania), <0.005 to 115 mg L -1 (Chhiwali), and <0.005 to 2.0 mg L -1 (Godhrauli). Maximum levels of Cr(VI) were found close to the COPR dumpsites and significantly exceeded safe drinking water limits (0.05 mg L -1 ). No significant dependence of Cr(VI) concentration on monsoons was observed.

  20. An interdecadal climate dipole between Northeast Asia and Antarctica over the past five centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Keyan; Chen, Deliang; Guo, Zhengtang; Zhao, Yan; Frank, David; He, Maosheng; Zhou, Feifei; Shi, Feng; Seppä, Heikki; Zhang, Peng; Neukom, Raphael

    2018-03-01

    Climate models emphasize the need to investigate inter-hemispheric climatic interactions. However, these models often underestimate the inter-hemispheric differences in climate change. With the wide application of reanalysis data since 1948, we identified a dipole pattern between the geopotential heights (GPHs) in Northeast Asia and Antarctica on the interdecadal scale in boreal summer. This Northeast Asia/Antarctica (NAA) dipole pattern is not conspicuous on the interannual scale, probably in that the interannual inter-hemispheric climate interaction is masked by strong interannual signals in the tropics associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Unfortunately, the instrumental records are not sufficiently long-lasting to detect the interdecadal variability of the NAA. We thus reconstructed GPHs since 1565, making using the proxy records mostly from tree rings in Northeast Asia and ice cores from Antarctica. The strength of the NAA is time-varying and it is most conspicuous in the eighteenth century and after the late twentieth century. The strength of the NAA matches well with the variations of the solar radiation and tends to increase in along with its enhancement. In boreal summer, enhanced heating associated with high solar radiation in the Northern Hemisphere drives more air masses from the South to the North. This inter-hemispheric interaction is particularly strong in East Asia as a result of the Asian summer monsoon. Northeast Asia and Antarctica appear to be the key regions responsible for inter-hemispheric interactions on the interdecadal scale in boreal summer since they are respectively located at the front and the end of this inter-hemispheric trajectory.

  1. Evaluation of global climate models for Indian monsoon climatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodra, Evan; Ganguly, Auroop R; Ghosh, Subimal

    2012-01-01

    The viability of global climate models for forecasting the Indian monsoon is explored. Evaluation and intercomparison of model skills are employed to assess the reliability of individual models and to guide model selection strategies. Two dominant and unique patterns of Indian monsoon climatology are trends in maximum temperature and periodicity in total rainfall observed after 30 yr averaging over India. An examination of seven models and their ensembles reveals that no single model or model selection strategy outperforms the rest. The single-best model for the periodicity of Indian monsoon rainfall is the only model that captures a low-frequency natural climate oscillator thought to dictate the periodicity. The trend in maximum temperature, which most models are thought to handle relatively better, is best captured through a multimodel average compared to individual models. The results suggest a need to carefully evaluate individual models and model combinations, in addition to physical drivers where possible, for regional projections from global climate models. (letter)

  2. The meaning of nuclear winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper the author reviews the history and origins of the basic ideas underlying nuclear winter; and findings and predictions of several groups regarding this topic. The author reviews some of the further developments and scientific analyses regarding nuclear winter since the initial announcements of 1983, touching on some of the revisions and controversies and trying to indicate the current status of the field

  3. Comparison between phytoplankton bio-diversity and various indices for winter monsoon and inter monsoon periods in north-eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Motwani, G.; Raman, M.; Matondkar, P.; Parab, S.G.; Pednekar, S.; Solanki, H.

    Diversity Index, Simpson Diversity Index, Margalef Diversity Index, McIntosh Diversity Index, Pielou Evenness Index and dominance index Results showed that Navicula, Thalasiothrix and Rhizosolenia were most abundant among the diatoms Trichodesmium, a...

  4. Observations of barrier layer formation in the Bay of Bengal during summer monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vinayachandran, P.N.; Murty, V.S.N.; RameshBabu, V.

    monsoon, J. Geophys. Res., 107(C12), 8018, doi:10.1029/2001JC000831, 2002. 1. Introduction [2] Several monsoon lows and depressions, that contrib- ute substantially to the summer monsoon rainfall of the Indian subcontinent, form over the Bay of Bengal... August–September, 1990,Murtyetal.[1996]foundthatthemixedlayerbasedon a temperature criterion is deeper than that using density. The regionwithrelativelyfreshwaterwithhighSSTappearstobe an excellent breeding ground for the formation of monsoon depressions...

  5. Effects of increased CO{sub 2} levels on monsoons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherchi, Annalisa; Masina, Simona; Navarra, Antonio [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici and Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna (Italy); Alessandri, Andrea [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici, Bologna (Italy)

    2011-07-15

    Increased atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration provided warmer atmospheric temperature and higher atmospheric water vapor content, but not necessarily more precipitation. A set of experiments performed with a state-of-the-art coupled general circulation model forced with increased atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration (2, 4 and 16 times the present-day mean value) were analyzed and compared with a control experiment to evaluate the effect of increased CO{sub 2} levels on monsoons. Generally, the monsoon precipitation responses to CO{sub 2} forcing are largest if extreme concentrations of carbon dioxide are used, but they are not necessarily proportional to the forcing applied. In fact, despite a common response in terms of an atmospheric water vapor increase to the atmospheric warming, two out of the six monsoons studied simulate less or equal summer mean precipitation in the 16 x CO{sub 2} experiment compared to the intermediate sensitivity experiments. The precipitation differences between CO{sub 2} sensitivity experiments and CTRL have been investigated specifying the contribution of thermodynamic and purely dynamic processes. As a general rule, the differences depending on the atmospheric moisture content changes (thermodynamic component) are large and positive, and they tend to be damped by the dynamic component associated with the changes in the vertical velocity. However, differences are observed among monsoons in terms of the role played by other terms (like moisture advection and evaporation) in shaping the precipitation changes in warmer climates. The precipitation increase, even if weak, occurs despite a weakening of the mean circulation in the monsoon regions (''precipitation-wind paradox''). In particular, the tropical east-west Walker circulation is reduced, as found from velocity potential analysis. The meridional component of the monsoon circulation is changed as well, with larger (smaller) meridional (vertical) scales. (orig.)

  6. New spatial and temporal indices of Indian summer monsoon rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Sanjeev; Uma, R.; Lakshmi Kumar, T. V.; Narayanan, M. S.; Pokhrel, Samir; Kripalani, R. H.

    2018-02-01

    The overall yearly seasonal performance of Indian southwest monsoon rainfall (ISMR) for the whole Indian land mass is presently expressed by the India Meteorological Department (IMD) by a single number, the total quantum of rainfall. Any particular year is declared as excess/deficit or normal monsoon rainfall year on the basis of this single number. It is well known that monsoon rainfall also has high interannual variability in spatial and temporal scales. To account for these aspects in ISMR, we propose two new spatial and temporal indices. These indices have been calculated using the 115 years of IMD daily 0.25° × 0.25° gridded rainfall data. Both indices seem to go in tandem with the in vogue seasonal quantum index. The anomaly analysis indicates that the indices during excess monsoon years behave randomly, while for deficit monsoon years the phase of all the three indices is the same. Evaluation of these indices is also studied with respect to the existing dynamical indices based on large-scale circulation. It is found that the new temporal indices have better link with circulation indices as compared to the new spatial indices. El Nino and Southern Oscillation (ENSO) especially over the equatorial Pacific Ocean still have the largest influence in both the new indices. However, temporal indices have much better remote influence as compared to that of spatial indices. Linkages over the Indian Ocean regions are very different in both the spatial and temporal indices. Continuous wavelet transform (CWT) analysis indicates that the complete spectrum of oscillation of the QI is shared in the lower oscillation band by the spatial index and in the higher oscillation band by the temporal index. These new indices may give some extra dimension to study Indian summer monsoon variability.

  7. 20th century intraseasonal Asian monsoon dynamics viewed from Isomap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hannachi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Asian summer monsoon is a high-dimensional and highly nonlinear phenomenon involving considerable moisture transport towards land from the ocean, and is critical for the whole region. We have used daily ECMWF reanalysis (ERA-40 sea-level pressure (SLP anomalies on the seasonal cycle, over the region 50–145° E, 20° S–35° N, to study the nonlinearity of the Asian monsoon using Isomap. We have focused on the two-dimensional embedding of the SLP anomalies for ease of interpretation. Unlike the unimodality obtained from tests performed in empirical orthogonal function space, the probability density function, within the two-dimensional Isomap space, turns out to be bimodal. But a clustering procedure applied to the SLP data reveals support for three clusters, which are identified using a three-component bivariate Gaussian mixture model. The modes are found to appear similar to active and break phases of the monsoon over South Asia in addition to a third phase, which shows active conditions over the western North Pacific. Using the low-level wind field anomalies, the active phase over South Asia is found to be characterised by a strengthening and an eastward extension of the Somali jet. However during the break phase, the Somali jet is weakened near southern India, while the monsoon trough in northern India also weakens. Interpretation is aided using the APHRODITE gridded land precipitation product for monsoon Asia. The effect of large-scale seasonal mean monsoon and lower boundary forcing, in the form of ENSO, is also investigated and discussed. The outcome here is that ENSO is shown to perturb the intraseasonal regimes, in agreement with conceptual ideas.

  8. Monsoon effect simulation on typhoon rainfall potential - Typhoon Morakot (2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ling Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A record breaking extreme precipitation event produced 3000 mm day-1 of accumulated rainfall over southern Taiwan in August 2009. The interactions between Typhoon Morakot and the prevailing southwesterly (SW monsoon are the primary mechanism for this heavy precipitation during 5 - 13 August 2009. This extreme precipitation could be produced by the abundant moisture from the SW monsoon associated with the interaction between typhoon and monsoon wind fields, leading to severe property damage. The accurate mapping of extreme precipitation caused from the interaction between a monsoon and typhoon is critical for early warning in Taiwan. This study simulates the heavy rainfall event is based on the Weather Research and Forecast system model (WRF using the three nested domain configuration. Using data assimilation with a virtual meteorological field using the 3D-Var system, such as wind field to alter the SW monsoon strength in the initial condition, the impacts of intensified convergence and water vapor content on the accumulated rainfall are analyzed to quantize the intensification of typhoon rainfall potential. The results showed a positive correlation between the enhanced precipitation and the intensity of low-level wind speed convergence as well as water vapor content. For the Typhoon Morakot case study the rainfall for could attain approximately 2 × 104 mm at 6 hours interval in the southern Taiwan area when 10 × 10-6 s-1 convergence intensified at 850 hPa level around the southern part of the Taiwan Strait. These results suggest that low-level wind speed, convergence and water vapor content play key roles in the typhoon rainfall potential coupled with the SW monsoon.

  9. New stable isotope records of sediment cores from the SE Arabian Sea - Inferences on the variations in monsoon regime during the late Quaternery

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Thamban, M.; Rao, V.P.

    , Vidyanagar 671 123, India We reconstruct here the changes in regional hydr o- graphy related to the fluctuations in Indian mo n soons du r ing the late Quaternary based on the stable isotope composition of the foraminifers and organic matter in three... value du r ing the early Holocene for the eastern Arabian Sea 21 . The SW monsoon intensity was very weak and the dry NE mo n soon was the dominant feature during the LGM in the Ar a bian Sea 3 . The cool winds of the north - easterly winter...

  10. Coupling of Community Land Model with RegCM4 for Indian Summer Monsoon Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, R. K. S.; Sinha, P.; Mohanty, M. R.; Mohanty, U. C.

    2017-11-01

    CM4-BATS. During both the years, BATS scheme in RegCM4 failed to represent low precipitation over the leeward than windward side of the Western Ghats, while CLM schemes (both versions) in the RegCM4 are able to depict this feature. In the topographic regions, such as the Western Ghats, northeast India and state of Jammu and Kashmir, RegCM4-BATS overestimates the rainfall amount with higher bias. Statistical analysis using anomaly correlation coefficient, root mean square error, equitable threat score, and critical success index confirms that RegCM4-CLM performs better than RegCM4-BATS in the simulation of the Indian summer monsoon.

  11. International Conference on Aerosols, Clouds and the Indian Monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ramesh P.; Tare, Vinod; Tripathi, S. N.

    2005-06-01

    In recent years, dense haze and fog problems in the northern parts of India have affected the 460 million people living in the Indo-Gangetic basin. Substantial Indian research activities related to aerosols, clouds, and monsoon are taking place in the central and southern parts of India. To attract attention to the problems, a three-day International Conference on Aerosols, Clouds and Indian Monsoon was recently held at the Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, in the central part of the Indo-Gangetic basin. About 120 delegates from India, Germany, Greece, Japan, Taiwan, and the United States attended the conference.

  12. Northeast Waste Management Alliance (NEWMA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goland, A.N.; Kaplan, E.

    1993-11-01

    Funding was provided to Brookhaven National Laboratory in the fourth quarter of FY93 to establish a regional alliance as defined by Dr. Clyde Frank during his visit to BNL on March 7, 1993. In collaboration with the Long Island Research Institute (LIRI), BNL developed a business plan for the Northeast Waste Management Alliance (NEWMA). Concurrently, informal discussions were initiated with representatives of the waste management industry, and meetings were held with local and state regulatory and governmental personnel to obtain their enthusiasm and involvement. A subcontract to LIRI was written to enable it to formalize interactions with companies offering new waste management technologies selected for their dual value to the DOE and local governments in the Northeast. LIRI was founded to develop and coordinate economic growth via introduction of new technologies. As a not-for-profit institution it is in an ideal position to manage the development of NEWMA through ready access to venture capital and strong interactions with the business community, universities, and BNL. Another subcontract was written with a professor at SUNY/Stony Brook to perform an evaluation of new pyrolitic processes, some of which may be appropriate for development by NEWMA. Independent endorsement of the business plan recently by another organization, GETF, with broad knowledge of DOE/EM-50 objectives, provides a further incentive for moving rapidly to implement the NEWMA strategy. This report describes progress made during the last quarter of FY93

  13. Synchronicity of the East Asian Summer Monsoon variability and Northern Hemisphere climate change since the last deglaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinozaki, T.; Uchida, M.; Minoura, K.; Kondo, M.; Rella, S. F.; Shibata, Y.

    2011-06-01

    Understanding of the mechanism of the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) is required for the prediction of climate change in East Asia in a scenario of modern global warming. In this study, we present high-resolution climate records from peat sediments in Northeast Japan to reconstruct the EASM variability based on peat bulk cellulose δ13C since the last deglaciation. We used a 8.8 m long peat sediment core collected from the Tashiro Bog, Northeast Japan. Based on 42 14C measurements, the core bottom reaches ~15.5 ka. δ13C, accumulation rate and accumulation flux time-series correlate well to Greenland ice core δ18O variability, suggesting that the climate record in Northeast Japan is linked to global climate changes. The δ13C record at Tashiro Bog and other paleo-EASM records at Northeast and Southern China consistently demonstrate that hydrological environments were spatially different in mid-high and mid-low latitude regions over the last 15.5 kyr. During global cooling (warming) periods, mid-high and mid-low latitude regions were characterized by wet (dry) and dry (wet) environments, respectively. We suggest that these climatic patterns are related to the migration of the EASM-related rain belt during global climate changes, as a consequence of variations in intensity and location of both the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and the Western Pacific Subtropical High (STH). The location of the rain belt largely influences the East Asian hydrological environment. Our δ13C time-series are characterized by a 1230 yr throughout the Holocene and a 680 yr periodicity during the early Holocene. The 1230 yr periodicity is in agreement with North Atlantic ice-rafted debris (IRD) events, suggesting a teleconnection between the Northeast Japan and the North Atlantic during the Holocene. In addition, it is the first evidence that the Bond events were recorded in terrestrial sediment in Japan. On the other hand, the 680 yr periodicity between 10.0 and 8.0 kyr is

  14. Rainwater composition in northeast Uruguay

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zunckel, M

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available and regional land clearing practices.High ammonium samples in August (Cluster 2) coincide with winter crops fertiliza- tion and ammonia absorption favored by organic acids; during spring, fertilization of rice and maize crops, volatilization favored... and magne- sium, suggests a contribution from a marine source to the Uruguayanrainwater chemistry.In turn, a correla- tion between nitrate and ammonium is attributed mainly to livestock and fertilizer use.Correlations between fluoride and organic acids...

  15. Chemical composition and characteristics of ambient aerosols and rainwater residues during Indian summer monsoon: Insight from aerosol mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Abhishek; Gupta, Tarun; Tripathi, Sachchida N.

    2016-07-01

    Real time composition of non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1) is measured via Aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) for the first time during Indian summer monsoon at Kanpur, a polluted urban location located at the heart of Indo Gangetic Plain (IGP). Submicron aerosols are found to be dominated by organics followed by nitrate. Source apportionment of organic aerosols (OA) via positive matrix factorization (PMF) revealed several types of secondary/oxidized and primary organic aerosols. On average, OA are completely dominated by oxidized OA with a very little contribution from biomass burning OA. During rain events, PM1 concentration is decreased almost by 60%, but its composition remains nearly the same. Oxidized OA showed slightly more decrease than primary OAs, probably due to their higher hygroscopicity. The presence of organo nitrates (ON) is also detected in ambient aerosols. Apart from real-time sampling, collected fog and rainwater samples were also analyzed via AMS in offline mode and in the ICP-OES (Inductively coupled plasma - Optical emission spectrometry) for elements. The presence of sea salt, organo nitrates and sulfates has been observed. Rainwater residues are also dominated by organics but their O/C ratios are 15-20% lower than the observed values for ambient OA. Alkali metals such as Ca, Na, K are found to be most abundant in the rainwater followed by Zn. Rainwater residues are also found to be much less oxidized than the aerosols present inside the fog water, indicating presence of less oxidized organics. These findings indicate that rain can act as an effective scavenger of different types of pollutants even for submicron particle range. Rainwater residues also contain organo sulfates which indicate that some portion of the dissolved aerosols has undergone aqueous processing, possibly inside the cloud. Highly oxidized and possibly hygroscopic OA during monsoon period compared to other seasons (winter, post monsoon), indicates that they can act

  16. Monsoon Convection during the South China Sea Monsoon Experiment Observed from Shipboard Radar and the TRMM Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickenbach, Tom; Cifelli, Rob; Halverson, Jeff; Kucera, Paul; Atkinson, Lester; Fisher, Brad; Gerlach, John; Harris, Kathy; Kaufman, Cristina; Liu, Ching-Hwang; hide

    1999-01-01

    A main goal of the recent South China Sea Monsoon Experiment (SCSMEX) was to study convective processes associated with the onset of the Southeast Asian summer monsoon. The NASA TOGA C-band scanning radar was deployed on the Chinese research vessel Shi Yan #3 for two 20 day cruises, collecting dual-Doppler measurements in conjunction with the BMRC C-Pol dual-polarimetric radar on Dongsha Island. Soundings and surface meteorological data were also collected with an NCAR Integrated Sounding System (ISS). This experiment was the first major tropical field campaign following the launch of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. These observations of tropical oceanic convection provided an opportunity to make comparisons between surface radar measurements and the Precipitation Radar (PR) aboard the TRMM satellite in an oceanic environment. Nearly continuous radar operations were conducted during two Intensive Observing Periods (IOPS) straddling the onset of the monsoon (5-25 May 1998 and 5-25 June 1998). Mesoscale lines of convection with widespread regions of both trailing and forward stratiform precipitation were observed during the active monsoon periods in a southwesterly flow regime. Several examples of mesoscale convection will be shown from ship-based and spacebome radar reflectivity data during times of TRMM satellite overpasses. Further examples of pre-monsoon convection, characterized by isolated cumulonimbus and shallow, precipitating congestus clouds, will be discussed. A strong waterspout was observed very near the ship from an isolated cell in the pre-monsoon period, and was well documented with photography, radar, sounding, and sounding data.

  17. Asian monsoons and aridification response to Paleogene sea retreat and Neogene westerly shielding indicated by seasonality in Paratethys oysters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougeois, Laurie; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; de Rafélis, Marc; Tindall, Julia C.; Proust, Jean-Noël; Reichart, Gert-Jan; de Nooijer, Lennart J.; Guo, Zhaojie; Ormukov, Cholponbelk

    2018-03-01

    Asian climate patterns, characterised by highly seasonal monsoons and continentality, are thought to originate in the Eocene epoch (56 to 34 million years ago - Ma) in response to global climate, Tibetan Plateau uplift and the disappearance of the giant Proto-Paratethys sea formerly extending over Eurasia. The influence of this sea on Asian climate has hitherto not been constrained by proxy records despite being recognised as a major driver by climate models. We report here strongly seasonal records preserved in annual lamina of Eocene oysters from the Proto-Paratethys with sedimentological and numerical data showing that monsoons were not dampened by the sea and that aridification was modulated by westerly moisture sourced from the sea. Hot and arid summers despite the presence of the sea suggest a strong anticyclonic zone at Central Asian latitudes and an orographic effect from the emerging Tibetan Plateau. Westerly moisture precipitating during cold and wetter winters appear to have decreased in two steps. First in response to the late Eocene (34-37 Ma) sea retreat; second by the orogeny of the Tian Shan and Pamir ranges shielding the westerlies after 25 Ma. Paleogene sea retreat and Neogene westerly shielding thus provide two successive mechanisms forcing coeval Asian desertification and biotic crises.

  18. Mapping forests in monsoon Asia with ALOS PALSAR 50-m mosaic images and MODIS imagery in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yuanwei; Xiao, Xiangming; Dong, Jinwei; Zhang, Geli; Roy, Partha Sarathi; Joshi, Pawan Kumar; Gilani, Hammad; Murthy, Manchiraju Sri Ramachandra; Jin, Cui; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Yao; Chen, Bangqian; Menarguez, Michael Angelo; Biradar, Chandrashekhar M; Bajgain, Rajen; Li, Xiangping; Dai, Shengqi; Hou, Ying; Xin, Fengfei; Moore, Berrien

    2016-02-11

    Extensive forest changes have occurred in monsoon Asia, substantially affecting climate, carbon cycle and biodiversity. Accurate forest cover maps at fine spatial resolutions are required to qualify and quantify these effects. In this study, an algorithm was developed to map forests in 2010, with the use of structure and biomass information from the Advanced Land Observation System (ALOS) Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) mosaic dataset and the phenological information from MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MOD13Q1 and MOD09A1) products. Our forest map (PALSARMOD50 m F/NF) was assessed through randomly selected ground truth samples from high spatial resolution images and had an overall accuracy of 95%. Total area of forests in monsoon Asia in 2010 was estimated to be ~6.3 × 10(6 )km(2). The distribution of evergreen and deciduous forests agreed reasonably well with the median Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in winter. PALSARMOD50 m F/NF map showed good spatial and areal agreements with selected forest maps generated by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA F/NF), European Space Agency (ESA F/NF), Boston University (MCD12Q1 F/NF), Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO FRA), and University of Maryland (Landsat forests), but relatively large differences and uncertainties in tropical forests and evergreen and deciduous forests.

  19. Dynamics and composition of the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gottschaldt, Klaus Dirk; Schlager, Hans; Baumann, Robert; Sinh Cai, Duy; Eyring, Veronika; Graf, Phoebe; Grewe, V.; Jöckel, Patrick; Jurkat-Witschas, Tina; Voigt, Christiane; Zahn, Andreas; Ziereis, Helmut

    2018-01-01

    This study places HALO research aircraft observations in the upper-tropospheric Asian summer monsoon anticyclone (ASMA) into the context of regional, intra-annual variability by hindcasts with the ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model. The observations were obtained during the Earth

  20. Characteristics of monsoon waves off Uran, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nayak, B.U.; Chandramohan, P.; Mandal, S.

    's and the spectral methods for determining various wave parameters. Monsoon wave climate was stronger with the occurrence of the highest significant wave height of 2.45 m and the corresponding maximum wave height of 3.9 m in July. Significant wave height varied from...

  1. Simulation of Indian summer monsoon using the Japan ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Simulation of Indian summer monsoon using the Japan Meteorological Agency's seasonal ensemble prediction system. Kailas Sonawane1,∗. , O P Sreejith1, D R Pattanaik1,. Mahendra Benke1, Nitin Patil2 and D S Pai1. 1India Meteorological Department, Pune 411 005, India. 2Interdisciplinary Programme in Climate ...

  2. Monsoon sensitivity to aerosol direct radiative forcing in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to the total, scattering aerosols and black carbon aerosols. ... acts as an internal damping mechanism spinning down the regional hydrological cycle and leading to sig- ... tion and emission of longwave radiation. ... effect of aerosols over India, where the emission of .... that aerosol effects on monsoon water cycle dynam-.

  3. Dynamics and composition of the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschaldt, Klaus-Dirk; Schlager, Hans; Baumann, Robert; Sinh Cai, Duy; Eyring, Veronika; Graf, Phoebe; Grewe, Volker; Jöckel, Patrick; Jurkat-Witschas, Tina; Voigt, Christiane; Zahn, Andreas; Ziereis, Helmut

    2018-04-01

    This study places HALO research aircraft observations in the upper-tropospheric Asian summer monsoon anticyclone (ASMA) into the context of regional, intra-annual variability by hindcasts with the ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model. The observations were obtained during the Earth System Model Validation (ESMVal) campaign in September 2012. Observed and simulated tracer-tracer relations reflect photochemical O3 production as well as in-mixing from the lower troposphere and the tropopause layer. The simulations demonstrate that tropospheric trace gas profiles in the monsoon season are distinct from those in the rest of the year, and the measurements reflect the main processes acting throughout the monsoon season. Net photochemical O3 production is significantly enhanced in the ASMA, where uplifted precursors meet increased NOx, mainly produced by lightning. An analysis of multiple monsoon seasons in the simulation shows that stratospherically influenced tropopause layer air is regularly entrained at the eastern ASMA flank and then transported in the southern fringe around the interior region. Radial transport barriers of the circulation are effectively overcome by subseasonal dynamical instabilities of the anticyclone, which occur quite frequently and are of paramount importance for the trace gas composition of the ASMA. Both the isentropic entrainment of O3-rich air and the photochemical conversion of uplifted O3-poor air tend to increase O3 in the ASMA outflow.

  4. Predicting monsoon rainfall and pressure indices from sea surface temperature

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sadhuram, Y.

    The relationship between the sea surface temperature (SST) in the Indian Ocean and monsoon rainfall has been examined by using 21 years data set (1967-87) of MOHSST.6 (Met. Office Historical Sea Surface Temperature data set, obtained from U.K. Met...

  5. Retrieval of vertical wind profiles during monsoon from satellite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    large number of radiosonde observations of wind profiles over the Indian Ocean during the monsoon months. It has been found that the first ... include several sources of both systematic and random errors. Among them cloud top height .... highly correlated with the pseudo-winds at levels between 850mb and 600mb (r ј 0:8) ...

  6. Fluvial hydrology and geomorphology of Monsoon-dominated Indian rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwas S. Kale

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The Indian rivers are dominantly monsoon rainfed. As a result, their regime characteristics are dictated by the spatio-temporal variations in the monsoon rainfall. Although the rivers carry out most of the geomorphic work during 4-5 months of the monsoon season, the nature and magnitude of response to variations in the discharge and sediment load varies with the basin size and relief characteristics. Large monsoon floods play a role of great importance on all the rivers. This paper describes the hydrological and geomorphological characteristics of the two major fluvial systems of the Indian region, namely the Himalayan fluvial system and the Peninsular fluvial system. Large number of studies published so far indicate that there are noteworthy differences between the two river systems, with respect to river hydrology, channel morphology, sediment load and behaviour. The nature of alterations in the fluvial system due to increased human interference is also briefly mentioned. This short review demonstrates that there is immense variety of rivers in India. This makes India one of the best places to study rivers and their forms and processes.

  7. Long range prediction of Indian summer monsoon rainfall

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to the performance of summer monsoon rain- fall over India. Variations in the total amount of rainfall have strong socio-economic consequences. Parthasarathy et al .... deviation of rainfall for training period 1961–1995, are 838.4 mm and 89.3 mm respectively. The period. 1949–1960 and 1996–2005 is used for independent.

  8. Moisture source for summer monsoon rainfall over India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sadhuram, Y.; Rao, D.P.

    Southwest monsoon plays a vital role in India's economy as the major income comes from agriculture. What could be the moisture source for this copious amount of rainfall over the Indian sub-continent?. This has been studied in detail and noticed...

  9. Surface temperature pattern of the Indian Ocean before summer monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopinathan, C.K.; Rao, D.P.

    , suggests that the position of the warmer areas in the Bay of Bengal in May is an indicator of the subsequent summer rainfall over India. The statistical method adopted for the long range forcasting of the Indian summer monsoon gives very little...

  10. Seasonal prediction of Indian summer monsoon: Sensitivity to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study, the assessment of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) developed at National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) for seasonal forecasting of Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) with different persistent SST is reported. Towards achieving the objective, 30-year model climatology has been ...

  11. Summer monsoon intraseasonal oscillation over eastern Arabian Sea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Significant power is seen in the 8–15-day time scale in TWV during onset and retreat of the summer ... Intraseasonal oscillation; wavelet analysis; Indian summer monsoon. J. Earth .... be caused by synoptic scale systems, in conformity with the ...

  12. Unusual rainfall shift during monsoon period of 2010 in Pakistan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Floods due to “blocking event” in the jet stream during 2010 caused intense rainfall and flash floods in northern Pakistan which resulted to riverine flooding in southern Pakistan. In the beginning of July 2010, changes in summer monsoon rainfall patterns caused the most severe flooding in Pakistan history. Process control ...

  13. Seasonal forecasting of Bangladesh summer monsoon rainfall using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, the development of a statistical forecasting method for summer ... 2008 summer monsoon rainfall based on the model were also found to be in good agreement with the ..... nificant on the basis of a one-tailed test of Student's.

  14. Seasonal behaviour of tidal inlets in a tropical monsoon area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, N.T.; Stive, M.J.F.; Verhagen, H.J.; Wang, Z.B.

    2008-01-01

    Morphodynamics of a tidal inlet system on a micro-tidal coast in a tropical monsoon influenced region is modelled and discussed. Influences of river flow and wave climate on the inlet morphology are investigated with the aid of process-based state-of-the-art numerical models. Seasonal and episodic

  15. Increased particle flux to the deep ocean related to monsoons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, R.R.; Ittekkot, V.; Manganini, S.J.; Ramaswamy, V.; Haake, B.; Degens, E.T.; Desai, B.N.; Honjo, S.

    . To assess the impact of monsoon-driven processes on the downward particle flux variations in the open ocean we deployed three moored arrays consisting of six time-series sediment traps at selected locations in the western, central and eastern parts...

  16. Monsoon regime in the Indian Ocean and zooplankton variability

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, V.R.

    and the estuaries in order to show how the monsoon exerts its influence on zooplankton from different types of environment. In the open ocean, the semi-annually reversing system of currents exert profound influence on the shifting of zooplankton populations and its...

  17. Northeast market view : Millennium Pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentzien, D.C.

    1998-01-01

    The potential for growth in the U.S. northeast natural gas markets was discussed. In presenting a forecast for natural gas consumption, the growth in demand was attributed primarily to the planned conversion of coal and oil-fired electric generation plants to gas-fired ones, combined with nuclear plant shutdowns, and more stringent environmental policies. An overview of the development of the Millennium Pipeline bringing natural gas from the Alberta border all the way to New York City was also provided, with an update on the current status of the project. Assuming no unreasonable delays in the present schedule, the line should be in service sometime in the year 2000. figs

  18. Carbonatite magmatism in northeast India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D.; Mamallan, R.; Dwivedy, K. K.

    The Shillong Plateau of northeast India is identified as an alkaline province in view of the development of several carbonatite complexes e.g. the Sung Valley (Jaintia Hills), Jasra (Karbi-Anglong), Samchampi and Barpung (Mikir Hills) and lamprophyre dyke swarms (Swangkre, Garo-Khasi Hills). On the basis of limited KAr data, magmatic activity appears to have taken place over a protracted period, ranging from the Late Jurassic to the Early Cretaceous. The carbonatite complexes of the Shillong Plateau share several common traits: they are emplaced along rift zones, either within Archaean gneisses or Proterozoic metasediments and granites, and exhibit enrichment in the light rare-earth elements, U, Th, Nb, Zr, Ti, K and Na. The enrichment in incompatible trace elements can best be accounted for if the parental magmas were of alkali basaltic type (e.g. mela-nephelinite or carbonate-rich alkali picrite).

  19. The Global Monsoon as Seen through the Divergent Atmospheric Circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenberth, Kevin E.; Stepaniak, David P.; Caron, Julie M.

    2000-11-01

    A comprehensive description is given of the global monsoon as seen through the large-scale overturning in the atmosphere that changes with the seasons, and it provides a basis for delimiting the monsoon regions of the world. The analysis focuses on the mean annual cycle of the divergent winds and associated vertical motions, as given by the monthly mean fields for 1979-93 reanalyses from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP-NCAR) and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), which are able to reproduce the dominant modes. A complex empirical orthogonal function analysis of the divergent circulation brings out two dominant modes with essentially the same vertical structures in all months of the year. The first mode, which depicts the global monsoon, has a simple vertical structure with a maximum in vertical motion at about 400 mb, divergence in the upper troposphere that is strongest at 150 mb and decays to zero amplitude above 70 mb, and convergence in the lower troposphere with a maximum at 925 mb (ECMWF) or 850 mb (NCEP). However, this mode has a rich three-dimensional spatial structure that evolves with the seasons. It accounts for 60% of the annual cycle variance of the divergent mass circulation and dominates the Hadley circulation as well as three overturning transverse cells. These include the Pacific Walker circulation; an Americas-Atlantic Walker circulation, both of which comprise rising motion in the west and sinking in the east; and a transverse cell over Asia, the Middle East, North Africa, and the Indian Ocean that has rising motion in the east and sinking toward the west. These exist year-round but migrate and evolve considerably with the seasons and have about a third to half of the mass flux of the peak Hadley cell. The annual cycle of the two Hadley cells reveals peak strength in early February and early August in both reanalyses.A second monsoon mode, which accounts for

  20. An Assessment of Monsoon Triggered Landslides in Western Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudan Acharya, Madhu

    2010-05-01

    Due to heavy monsoon rain, rugged topography and very young mountains, frequent slope failures and soil erosion are very common in Nepal but in most of cases the natural slopes are disturbed by men to construct a road through it and the situation further aggravated by the Monsoon rain. Summer usually tests the disaster response capacity of Nepal, when the monsoons trigger water induced disasters. This year Nepal's Western regions were most severely affected by floods and landslides. Every year, sadly, it is the same story of mostly poor people living in remote villages succumbing to landslides and flooding and those who survive facing hardships brought on by the disaster. The tail end of the monsoon in October has triggered flood and landslides in Nepal which affected a total of 14 districts in the mid and far-west regions, of which Kailali, Bardiya, Banke, Dadeldhura, Accham and Kanchapur district are most affected. The affected areas are geographically scattered and remote, and are therefore difficult to access. In this year (2009), flood and landslides have claimed 62 lives, affecting more than 152,000 individuals from 27,000 families. More than 4,000 families are displaced and are taking shelter in schools, open space and forest areas with no protection from the external elements. In the above context the prevention and mitigation measures for landslides is a great challenge for Nepal. Nepal has been investing its huge amount of resources to stabilize landslides and roadside slope failures, still then it has become unmanageable during Monsoon time. Considering the above facts, an assessment of landslides which were occurred during the Monsoon (July-October 2009), along Khodpe - Jhota - Chainpur road in far western region of Nepal has been carried out based on the field observation of various landslides. The paper presents the causes and mechanisms of failures of different landslides which are mostly triggered by Monsoon rain. It also suggests some low cost

  1. Large-scale control of the Arabian Sea monsoon inversion in August

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chi-Hua; Wang, S.-Y. Simon; Hsu, Huang-Hsiung

    2017-12-01

    The summer monsoon inversion in the Arabian Sea is characterized by a large amount of low clouds and August as the peak season. Atmospheric stratification associated with the monsoon inversion has been considered a local system influenced by the advancement of the India-Pakistan monsoon. Empirical and numerical evidence from this study suggests that the Arabian Sea monsoon inversion is linked to a broader-scale monsoon evolution across the African Sahel, South Asia, and East Asia-Western North Pacific (WNP), rather than being a mere byproduct of the India-Pakistan monsoon progression. In August, the upper-tropospheric anticyclone in South Asia extends sideways corresponding with the enhanced precipitation in the subtropical WNP, equatorial Indian Ocean, and African Sahel while the middle part of this anticyclone weakens over the Arabian Sea. The increased heating in the adjacent monsoon systems creates a suppression effect on the Arabian Sea, suggesting an apparent competition among the Africa-Asia-WNP monsoon subsystems. The peak Sahel rainfall in August, together with enhanced heating in the equatorial Indian Ocean, produces a critical effect on strengthening the Arabian Sea thermal inversion. By contrast, the WNP monsoon onset which signifies the eastward expansion of the subtropical Asian monsoon heating might play a secondary or opposite role in the Arabian Sea monsoon inversion.

  2. What drives the global summer monsoon over the past millennium?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jian [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Nanjing (China); Wang, Bin [University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Meteorology, Honolulu, HI (United States); University of Hawaii at Manoa, International Pacific Research Center, Honolulu, HI (United States); Yim, So-Young; Lee, June-Yi [University of Hawaii at Manoa, International Pacific Research Center, Honolulu, HI (United States); Jhun, Jong-Ghap [Seoul National University, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences/Research Institute of Oceanography, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Kyung-Ja [Pusan National University, Division of Earth Environmental System, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    The global summer monsoon precipitation (GSMP) provides a fundamental measure for changes in the annual cycle of the climate system and hydroclimate. We investigate mechanisms governing decadal-centennial variations of the GSMP over the past millennium with a coupled climate model's (ECHO-G) simulation forced by solar-volcanic (SV) radiative forcing and greenhouse gases (GHG) forcing. We show that the leading mode of GSMP is a forced response to external forcing on centennial time scale with a globally uniform change of precipitation across all monsoon regions, whereas the second mode represents internal variability on multi-decadal time scale with regional characteristics. The total amount of GSMP varies in phase with the global mean temperature, indicating that global warming is accompanied by amplification of the annual cycle of the climate system. The northern hemisphere summer monsoon precipitation (NHSMP) responds to GHG forcing more sensitively, while the southern hemisphere summer monsoon precipitation (SHSMP) responds to the SV radiative forcing more sensitively. The NHSMP is enhanced by increased NH land-ocean thermal contrast and NH-minus-SH thermal contrast. On the other hand, the SHSMP is strengthened by enhanced SH subtropical highs and the east-west mass contrast between Southeast Pacific and tropical Indian Ocean. The strength of the GSMP is determined by the factors controlling both the NHSMP and SHSMP. Intensification of GSMP is associated with (a) increased global land-ocean thermal contrast, (b) reinforced east-west mass contrast between Southeast Pacific and tropical Indian Ocean, and (c) enhanced circumglobal SH subtropical highs. The physical mechanisms revealed here will add understanding of future change of the global monsoon. (orig.)

  3. Potential modulations of pre-monsoon aerosols during El Niño: impact on Indian summer monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadnavis, S.; Roy, Chaitri; Sabin, T. P.; Ayantika, D. C.; Ashok, K.

    2017-10-01

    The potential role of aerosol loading on the Indian summer monsoon rainfall during the El Niño years are examined using satellite-derived observations and a state of the art fully interactive aerosol-chemistry-climate model. The Aerosol Index (AI) from TOMS (1978-2005) and Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) from MISR spectroradiometer (2000-2010) indicate a higher-than-normal aerosol loading over the Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP) during the pre-monsoon season with a concurrent El Niño. Sensitivity experiments using ECHAM5-HAMMOZ climate model suggests that this enhanced loading of pre-monsoon absorbing aerosols over the Indo-Gangetic plain can reduce the drought during El Niño years by invoking the `Elevated-Heat-Pump' mechanism through an anomalous aerosol-induced warm core in the atmospheric column. This anomalous heating upshot the relative strengthening of the cross-equatorial moisture inflow associated with the monsoon and eventually reduces the severity of drought during El Niño years. The findings are subject to the usual limitations such as the uncertainties in observations, and limited number of El Niño years (during the study period).

  4. Influence of northeasterly trade winds on intensity of winter bloom in the northern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dwivedi, R.M.; Raman, M.; Parab, S.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Nayak, S.

    annada and Udupi Districts , Pilikula Nisarga Dhama Society, Moodushedde, Mang a- lore, 2002, pp. 48, 66. 9. Pa til, A. D. et al. , The inophyllum, novel inhibitors of HIV - 1 revers e transcriptase isolated from the Malaysian tree Calophyllum... these scenarios were observed in practice during the two ship cruises. More over, detailed study of beha v iour of the two parameters indicated a time lag b e tween changing pattern of wind force and its manifestation in the form of vari a tion...

  5. Using idealized snow forcing to test teleconnections with the Indian summer monsoon in the Hadley Centre GCM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, A.G. [University of Reading, NCAS-Climate, Walker Institute for Climate System Research, Department of Meteorology, Reading (United Kingdom); Slingo, J.M. [University of Reading, NCAS-Climate, Walker Institute for Climate System Research, Department of Meteorology, Reading (United Kingdom); Met Office, Exeter (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-15

    Anomalous heavy snow during winter or spring has long been regarded as a possible precursor of deficient Indian monsoon rainfall during the subsequent summer. However previous work in this field is inconclusive, in terms of the mechanism that communicates snow anomalies to the monsoon summer, and even the region from which snow has the most impact. In this study we explore these issues in coupled and atmosphere-only versions of the Hadley Centre model. A 1050-year control integration of the HadCM3 coupled model, which well represents the seasonal cycle of snow cover over the Eurasian continent, is analysed and shows evidence for weakened monsoons being preceded by strong snow forcing (in the absence of ENSO) over either the Himalaya/Tibetan Plateau or north/west Eurasia regions. However, empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis of springtime interannual variability in snow depth shows the leading mode to have opposite signs between these two regions, suggesting that competing mechanisms may be possible. To determine the dominant region, ensemble integrations are carried out using HadAM3, the atmospheric component of HadCM3, and a variety of anomalous snow forcing initial conditions obtained from the control integration of the coupled model. Forcings are applied during spring in separate experiments over the Himalaya/Tibetan Plateau and north/west Eurasia regions, in conjunction with climatological SSTs in order to avoid the direct effects of ENSO. With the aid of idealized forcing conditions in sensitivity tests, we demonstrate that forcing from the Himalaya region is dominant in this model via a Blanford-type mechanism involving reduced surface sensible heat and longwave fluxes, reduced heating of the troposphere over the Tibetan Plateau and consequently a reduced meridional tropospheric temperature gradient which weakens the monsoon during early summer. Snow albedo is shown to be key to the mechanism, explaining around 50% of the perturbation in sensible

  6. Monsoon Convective During the South China Sea Monsoon Experiment: Observations from Ground-Based Radar and the TRMM Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifelli, Rob; Rickenbach, Tom; Halverson, Jeff; Keenan, Tom; Kucera, Paul; Atkinson, Lester; Fisher, Brad; Gerlach, John; Harris, Kathy; Kaufman, Cristina

    1999-01-01

    A main goal of the recent South China Sea Monsoon Experiment (SCSMEX) was to study convective processes associated with the onset of the Southeast Asian summer monsoon. The NASA TOGA C-band scanning radar was deployed on the Chinese research vessel Shi Yan #3 for two 20 day cruises, collecting dual-Doppler measurements in conjunction with the BMRC C-Pol dual-polarimetric radar on Dongsha Island. Soundings and surface meteorological data were also collected with an NCAR Integrated Sounding System (ISS). This experiment was the first major tropical field campaign following the launch of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. These observations of tropical oceanic convection provided an opportunity to make comparisons between surface radar measurements and the Precipitation Radar (PR) aboard the TRMM satellite in an oceanic environment. Nearly continuous radar operations were conducted during two Intensive Observing Periods (IOPS) straddling the onset of the monsoon (5-25 May 1998 and 5-25 June 1998). Mesoscale lines of convection with widespread regions of both trailing and forward stratiform precipitation were observed following the onset of the active monsoon in the northern South China Sea region. The vertical structure of the convection during periods of strong westerly flow and relatively moist environmental conditions in the lower to mid-troposphere contrasted sharply with convection observed during periods of low level easterlies, weak shear, and relatively dry conditions in the mid to upper troposphere. Several examples of mesoscale convection will be shown from the ground (ship)-based and spaceborne radar data during times of TRMM satellite overpasses. Examples of pre-monsoon convection, characterized by isolated cumulonimbus and shallow, precipitating congestus clouds, will also be discussed.

  7. A distinction between summer rainy season and summer monsoon season over the Central Highlands of Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo-Thanh, Huong; Ngo-Duc, Thanh; Nguyen-Hong, Hanh; Baker, Peter; Phan-Van, Tan

    2018-05-01

    The daily rainfall data at 13 stations over the Central Highlands (CH) Vietnam were collected for the period 1981-2014. Two different sets of criteria using daily observed rainfall and 850 hPa daily reanalysis wind data were applied to determine the onset (retreat) dates of the summer rainy season (RS) and summer monsoon (SM) season, respectively. Over the study period, the mean RS and SM onset dates were April 20 and May 13 with standard deviations of 17.4 and 17.8 days, respectively. The mean RS and SM retreat dates were November 1 and September 30 with standard deviations of 17.9 and 10.2 days, respectively . The year-to-year variations of the onset dates and the rainfall amount within the RS and SM season were closely linked with the preceding winter and spring sea surface temperature in the central-eastern and western Pacific. It was also found that the onset dates were significantly correlated with the RS and SM rainfall amount.

  8. Precipitation, temperature, and teleconnection signals across the combined North American, Monsoon Asia, and Old World Drought Atlases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smerdon, J. E.; Baek, S. H.; Coats, S.; Williams, P.; Cook, B.; Cook, E. R.; Seager, R.

    2017-12-01

    The tree-ring-based North American Drought Atlas (NADA), Monsoon Asia Drought Atlas (MADA), and Old World Drought Atlas (OWDA) collectively yield a near-hemispheric gridded reconstruction of hydroclimate variability over the last millennium. To test the robustness of the large-scale representation of hydroclimate variability across the drought atlases, the joint expression of seasonal climate variability and teleconnections in the NADA, MADA, and OWDA are compared against two global, observation-based PDSI products. Predominantly positive (negative) correlations are determined between seasonal precipitation (surface air temperature) and collocated tree-ring-based PDSI, with average Pearson's correlation coefficients increasing in magnitude from boreal winter to summer. For precipitation, these correlations tend to be stronger in the boreal winter and summer when calculated for the observed PDSI record, while remaining similar for temperature. Notwithstanding these differences, the drought atlases robustly express teleconnection patterns associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). These expressions exist in the drought atlas estimates of boreal summer PDSI despite the fact that these modes of climate variability are dominant in boreal winter, with the exception of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. ENSO and NAO teleconnection patterns in the drought atlases are particularly consistent with their well-known dominant expressions in boreal winter and over the OWDA domain, respectively. Collectively, our findings confirm that the joint Northern Hemisphere drought atlases robustly reflect large-scale patterns of hydroclimate variability on seasonal to multidecadal timescales over the 20th century and are likely to provide similarly robust estimates of hydroclimate variability prior to the existence of widespread instrumental data.

  9. The Northeast Greenland Sirius Water Polynya dynamics and variability inferred from satellite imagery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørn Bjarke Torp; Kaufmann, Laura Hauch; Kroon, Aart

    2010-01-01

    One of the most prominent polynyas in Northeast Greenland, already noted by the early expeditions in the area, is located around Shannon Ø and Pendulum Øer between 75° and 74°N in the transition zone between the fast ice and pack ice. This study names the polynya the ‘Sirius Water Polynya...... and summer regimes in the seasonal evolution of the polynya. During the winter regime, both the size of and the ice cover within the polynya varies significantly on a temporal and spatial scale. Intermittent wind-driven openings of the polynya alternate with periods of increasing ice cover. Some of the most...

  10. Learning through a Winter's Tale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidotto, Kristie

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experience during the final semester of Year 11 Theatre Studies when she performed a monologue about Hermione from "The Winter's Tale". This experience was extremely significant to her because it nearly made her lose faith in one of the most important parts of her life, drama. She believes this…

  11. Characterization of rainwater chemical composition after a Southeast Asia haze event: insight of transboundary pollutant transport during the northeast monsoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadzir, Mohd Shahrul Mohd; Lin, Chin Yik; Khan, Md Firoz; Latif, Mohd Talib; Dominick, Doreena; Hamid, Haris Hafizal Abdul; Mohamad, Noorlin; Maulud, Khairul Nizam Abdul; Wahab, Muhammad Ikram Abdul; Kamaludin, Nurul Farahana; Lazim, Mohamad Azwani Shah Mat

    2017-06-01

    Open biomass burning in Peninsula Malaysia, Sumatra, and parts of the Indochinese region is a major source of transboundary haze pollution in the Southeast Asia. To study the influence of haze on rainwater chemistry, a short-term investigation was carried out during the occurrence of a severe haze episode from March to April 2014. Rainwater samples were collected after a prolonged drought and analyzed for heavy metals and major ion concentrations using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and ion chromatography (IC), respectively. The chemical composition and morphology of the solid particulates suspended in rainwater were examined using a scanning electron microscope coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The dataset was further interpreted using enrichment factors (EF), statistical analysis, and a back trajectory (BT) model to find the possible sources of the particulates and pollutants. The results show a drop in rainwater pH from near neutral (pH 6.54) to acidic (

  12. Northeast Marine Recreational Fishing Expenditure Survey 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A series of expenditure surveys have been done both regionally and nationally. This data pertains to the Northeast U.S. states that was collected in 1998....

  13. Northeast Pacific Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0163799)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Northeast Pacific (NEP) new regional climatology is derived from the NCEI World Ocean Database archive of temperature and salinity and covers a time period from...

  14. MARS and its applications at Northeast Utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, Y.F.; Raines, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The MAAP Accident Response System (MARS) for Northeast Utilities Millstone Unit 1 (MP-1) has been jointly developed by Northeast Utilities (NU) and Fauske ampersand Associates, Inc. (FAI). Millstone Unit 1 is a 2011-MW(thermal) boiling water reactor (BWR)/3 with a Mark-I containment. MARS/MP1 is user-friendly computer software that is structured to provide Northeast Utilities management and engineering staff with key insights during actual or simulated accidents. Times to core uncovery, vessel failure, and containment failure are among the figures of merit that can be obtained from this system. MARS/MP1 can predict future conditions of the MP-1 plant based on current plant data and their trends (time-dependent plant data). The objective of this paper is to present the research and development effort of the MARS/MP1 software at Northeast Utilities

  15. Northeast Economic Add-On Data 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Revealed preference models provide insights into recreational angler behavior and the economic value of recreational fishing trips. This data is for the Northeast...

  16. Effects of adjusting cropping systems on utilization efficiency of climatic resources in Northeast China under future climate scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianping; Zhao, Junfang; Xu, Yanhong; Chu, Zheng; Mu, Jia; Zhao, Qian

    Quantitatively evaluating the effects of adjusting cropping systems on the utilization efficiency of climatic resources under climate change is an important task for assessing food security in China. To understand these effects, we used daily climate variables obtained from the regional climate model RegCM3 from 1981 to 2100 under the A1B scenario and crop observations from 53 agro-meteorological experimental stations from 1981 to 2010 in Northeast China. Three one-grade zones of cropping systems were divided by heat, water, topography and crop-type, including the semi-arid areas of the northeast and northwest (III), the one crop area of warm-cool plants in semi-humid plain or hilly regions of the northeast (IV), and the two crop area in irrigated farmland in the Huanghuaihai Plain (VI). An agro-ecological zone model was used to calculate climatic potential productivities. The effects of adjusting cropping systems on climate resource utilization in Northeast China under the A1B scenario were assessed. The results indicated that from 1981 to 2100 in the III, IV and VI areas, the planting boundaries of different cropping systems in Northeast China obviously shifted toward the north and the east based on comprehensively considering the heat and precipitation resources. However, due to high temperature stress, the climatic potential productivity of spring maize was reduced in the future. Therefore, adjusting the cropping system is an effective way to improve the climatic potential productivity and climate resource utilization. Replacing the one crop in one year model (spring maize) by the two crops in one year model (winter wheat and summer maize) significantly increased the total climatic potential productivity and average utilization efficiencies. During the periods of 2011-2040, 2041-2070 and 2071-2100, the average total climatic potential productivities of winter wheat and summer maize increased by 9.36%, 11.88% and 12.13% compared to that of spring maize

  17. Northeast Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, Tom [Pace Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2013-09-30

    From October 1, 2009 through September 30, 2013 (“contract period”), the Northeast Clean Energy Application Center (“NE-CEAC”) worked in New York and New England (Connecticut, Rhode Island, Vermont, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maine) to create a more robust market for the deployment of clean energy technologies (CETs) including combined heat and power (CHP), district energy systems (DES), and waste heat recovery (WHR) systems through the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers. CHP, DES, and WHR can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, reduce electrical and thermal energy costs, and provide more reliable energy for users throughout the United States. The NE-CEAC’s efforts in the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers helped advance the market for CETs in the Northeast thereby helping the region move towards the following outcomes: Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and criteria pollutants; Improvements in energy efficiency resulting in lower costs of doing business; Productivity gains in industry and efficiency gains in buildings; Lower regional energy costs; Strengthened energy security; Enhanced consumer choice; Reduced price risks for end-users; and Economic development effects keeping more jobs and more income in our regional economy Over the contract period, NE-CEAC provided technical assistance to approximately 56 different potential end-users that were interested in CHP and other CETs for their facility or facilities. Of these 56 potential end-users, five new CHP projects totaling over 60 MW of install capacity became operational during the contract period. The NE-CEAC helped host numerous target market workshops, trainings, and webinars; and NE-CEAC staff delivered presentations at many other workshops and conferences. In total, over 60 different workshops, conferences

  18. Northeast Solar Energy Market Coalition (NESEMC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabago, Karl R. [Pace Energy and Climate Center Pace University School of Law

    2018-03-31

    The Northeast Solar Energy Market Coalition (NESEMC) brought together solar energy business associations and other stakeholders in the Northeast to harmonize regional solar energy policy and advance the solar energy market. The Coalition was managed by the Pace Energy and Climate Center, a project of the Pace University Elisabeth Haub School of Law. The NESEMC was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative as a cooperative agreement through 2017 as part of Solar Market Pathways.

  19. Northeast storms ranked by wind stress and wave-generated bottom stress observed in Massachusetts Bay, 1990-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butman, B.; Sherwood, C.R.; Dalyander, P.S.

    2008-01-01

    Along the coast of the northeastern United States, strong winds blowing from the northeast are often associated with storms called northeasters, coastal storms that strongly influence weather. In addition to effects caused by wind stress, the sea floor is affected by bottom stress associated with these storms. Bottom stress caused by orbital velocities associated with surface waves integrated over the duration of a storm is a metric of storm strength at the sea floor. Near-bottom wave-orbital velocities calculated by using measurements of significant wave height and dominant wave period and the parametric spectral method described in Wiberg and Sherwood [Wiberg, P.L., Sherwood, C.R. Calculating wave-generated bottom orbital velocities from surface wave parameters. Computers in Geosciences, in press] compared well with observations in Massachusetts Bay. Integrated bottom-wave stress (called IWAVES), calculated at 30 m water depth, and a companion storm-strength metric, integrated surface wind stress at 10 m (called IWINDS), are used to provide an overview of the strength, frequency, and timing of large storms in Massachusetts Bay over a 17-year period from January 1990 through December 2006. These new metrics reflect both storm duration and intensity. Northeast storms were the major cause of large waves in Massachusetts Bay because of the long fetch to the east: of the strongest 10% of storms (n=38) ranked by IWAVES, 22 had vector-averaged wind stress from the northeast quadrant. The Blizzard of December 1992, the Perfect Storm of October 1991, and a December 2003 storm were the strongest three storms ranked by IWAVES and IWINDS, and all were northeasters. IWAVES integrated over the winter season (defined as October-May) ranged by about a factor of 11; the winters with the highest integrated IWAVES were 1992-1993 and 2004-2005 and the winter with the lowest integrated IWAVES was 2001-2002. May 2005 was the only month in the 17-year record that two of the nine

  20. Continuous and simultaneous measurements of precipitation and vapor isotopes over two monsoon seasons during 2016-2017 in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackisch, D.; He, S.; Ong, M. R.; Goodkin, N.

    2017-12-01

    Water isotopes are important tracers of climate dynamics and their measurement can provide valuable insights into the relationship between isotopes and atmospheric parameters and overall convective activities. While most studies provide data on daily or even monthly time scales, high-temporal in-situ stable isotope measurements are scarce, especially in the tropics. In this study, we presented δ18O and δ2H values in precipitation and vapor continuously and simultaneously measured using laser spectroscopy in Singapore during the 2016/2017 Northeast (NE) Asian monsoon and 2017 Southwest (SW) Asian monsoon. We found that δ-values of precipitation and vapor exhibit quite different patterns during individual events, although there is a significant correlation between the δ-values of precipitation and of vapor. δ-values in precipitation during individual precipitation events show a distinct V-shape pattern, with the lowest isotope values observed in the middle of the event. However, isotopes in water vapor mostly show an L-shape and are characterized by a gradual decrease with the onset of rainfall. The difference in δ-values of precipitation and vapor is generally constant during the early stage of the events but gradually increases near the end. It is likely that vapor and precipitation are closer to equilibrium at the early stage of a rain event, but diverge at the later stages. This divergence can be largely attributed to the evaporation of raindrops. We notice a frequent drop in d-excess of precipitation, whereas d-excess in vapor increases. In addition, a significant correlation exists between outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and isotopes in both precipitation and vapor, suggesting an influence of regional convective activity.

  1. Predictor-Year Subspace Clustering Based Ensemble Prediction of Indian Summer Monsoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moumita Saha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Forecasting the Indian summer monsoon is a challenging task due to its complex and nonlinear behavior. A large number of global climatic variables with varying interaction patterns over years influence monsoon. Various statistical and neural prediction models have been proposed for forecasting monsoon, but many of them fail to capture variability over years. The skill of predictor variables of monsoon also evolves over time. In this article, we propose a joint-clustering of monsoon years and predictors for understanding and predicting the monsoon. This is achieved by subspace clustering algorithm. It groups the years based on prevailing global climatic condition using statistical clustering technique and subsequently for each such group it identifies significant climatic predictor variables which assist in better prediction. Prediction model is designed to frame individual cluster using random forest of regression tree. Prediction of aggregate and regional monsoon is attempted. Mean absolute error of 5.2% is obtained for forecasting aggregate Indian summer monsoon. Errors in predicting the regional monsoons are also comparable in comparison to the high variation of regional precipitation. Proposed joint-clustering based ensemble model is observed to be superior to existing monsoon prediction models and it also surpasses general nonclustering based prediction models.

  2. The Northeast Stream Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Riva-Murray, Karen; Coles, James F.

    2016-04-22

    In 2016, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) is assessing stream quality in the northeastern United States. The goal of the Northeast Stream Quality Assessment (NESQA) is to assess the quality of streams in the region by characterizing multiple water-quality factors that are stressors to aquatic life and evaluating the relation between these stressors and biological communities. The focus of NESQA in 2016 will be on the effects of urbanization and agriculture on stream quality in all or parts of eight states: Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont.Findings will provide the public and policymakers with information about the most critical factors affecting stream quality, thus providing insights about possible approaches to protect the health of streams in the region. The NESQA study will be the fourth regional study conducted as part of NAWQA and will be of similar design and scope to the first three, in the Midwest in 2013, the Southeast in 2014, and the Pacific Northwest in 2015 (http://txpub.usgs.gov/RSQA/).

  3. Predicting onset and withdrawal of Indian Summer Monsoon in 2016: results of Tipping elements approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surovyatkina, Elena; Stolbova, Veronika; Kurths, Jurgen

    2017-04-01

    The monsoon is the season of rain caused by a global seasonal reverse in winds direction and a change in pressure distribution. The Southwest winds bring summer monsoon to India. The economy of India is able to maintain its GDP in the wake of a good monsoon. However, if monsoon gets delayed by even two weeks, it can spell disaster because the high population depending on agriculture - 70% of its people directly related to farming. Agriculture, in turn, is dependent on the monsoon. Although the rainy season happens annually between June and September, the time of monsoon season's onset and withdrawal varies within a month from year to year. The important feature of the monsoon is that it starts and ends suddenly. Hence, despite enormous progress having been made in predicting monsoon since 1886, it remains a significant scientific challenge. To make predictions of monsoon timing in 2016, we applied our recently developed method [1]. Our approach is based on a teleconnection between the Eastern Ghats (EG) and North Pakistan (NP) - Tipping Elements of Indian Summer Monsoon. Both our predictions - for monsoon onset and withdrawal - were made for the Eastern Ghats region (EG-20N,80E) in the central part of India, while the Indian Meteorological Department forecasts monsoon over Kerala - a state at the southern tip of the Indian subcontinent. Our prediction for monsoon onset was published on May 6-th, 2016 [2]. We predicted the monsoon arrival to the EG on the 13th of June with a deviation of +/-4 days. In fact, monsoon onset was on June 17-th, that was confirmed by information from meteorological stations located around the EG-region. Hence, our prediction of monsoon onset (made 40 days in advance) was correct. We delivered the prediction of monsoon withdrawal on July 27, 2016 [3], announcing the monsoon withdrawal from the EG on October 5-th with a deviation of +/-5 days. The actual monsoon withdrawal started on October 10-th when the relative humidity in the region

  4. CloudSat observations of cloud-type distribution over the Indian summer monsoon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Subrahmanyam

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional distribution of various cloud types over the Indian summer monsoon (ISM region using five years (2006–2010 of CloudSat observations during June-July-August-September months is discussed for the first time. As the radiative properties, latent heat released and microphysical properties of clouds differ largely depending on the cloud type, it becomes important to know what types of clouds occur over which region. In this regard, the present analysis establishes the three-dimensional distribution of frequency of occurrence of stratus (St, stratocumulus (Sc, nimbostratus (Ns, cumulus (Cu, altocumulus (Ac, altostratus (As, cirrus (Ci and deep convective (DC clouds over the ISM region. The results show that the various cloud types preferentially occur over some regions of the ISM, which are consistent during all the years of observations. It is found that the DC clouds frequently occur over northeast of Bay of Bengal (BoB, Ci clouds over a wide region of south BoB–Indian peninsula–equatorial Indian Ocean, and Sc clouds over the north Arabian Sea. Ac clouds preferentially occur over land, and a large amount of As clouds are found over BoB. The occurrence of both St and Ns clouds over the study region is much lower than all other cloud types.The interannual variability of all these clouds including their vertical distribution is discussed. It is envisaged that the present study opens up possibilities to quantify the feedback of individual cloud type in the maintenance of the ISM through radiative forcing and latent heat release.

  5. Loss of sea ice during winter north of Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid H. Onarheim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea ice loss in the Arctic Ocean has up to now been strongest during summer. In contrast, the sea ice concentration north of Svalbard has experienced a larger decline during winter since 1979. The trend in winter ice area loss is close to 10% per decade, and concurrent with a 0.3°C per decade warming of the Atlantic Water entering the Arctic Ocean in this region. Simultaneously, there has been a 2°C per decade warming of winter mean surface air temperature north of Svalbard, which is 20–45% higher than observations on the west coast. Generally, the ice edge north of Svalbard has retreated towards the northeast, along the Atlantic Water pathway. By making reasonable assumptions about the Atlantic Water volume and associated heat transport, we show that the extra oceanic heat brought into the region is likely to have caused the sea ice loss. The reduced sea ice cover leads to more oceanic heat transferred to the atmosphere, suggesting that part of the atmospheric warming is driven by larger open water area. In contrast to significant trends in sea ice concentration, Atlantic Water temperature and air temperature, there is no significant temporal trend in the local winds. Thus, winds have not caused the long-term warming or sea ice loss. However, the dominant winds transport sea ice from the Arctic Ocean into the region north of Svalbard, and the local wind has influence on the year-to-year variability of the ice concentration, which correlates with surface air temperatures, ocean temperatures, as well as the local wind.

  6. 36 CFR 1002.19 - Winter activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RECREATION § 1002.19 Winter activities. (a) Skiing, snowshoeing, ice skating, sledding, innertubing, tobogganing and similar winter sports are prohibited on Presidio Trust roads and in parking areas open to...

  7. Classification guide: Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games classification guide is designed to provide National Paralympic Committees (NPCs) and International Federations (IFs) with information about the classification policies and procedures that will apply to the Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games.

  8. Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weekend Warriors expand/collapse Vitamin D Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter Winter sports enthusiasts are ... skiing! Be Mindful of Time Spent in the Sun, Regardless of the Season If possible, ski early ...

  9. Atmospheric water budget over the South Asian summer monsoon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnikrishnan, C. K.; Rajeevan, M.

    2018-04-01

    High resolution hybrid atmospheric water budget over the South Asian monsoon region is examined. The regional characteristics, variability, regional controlling factors and the interrelations of the atmospheric water budget components are investigated. The surface evapotranspiration was created using the High Resolution Land Data Assimilation System (HRLDAS) with the satellite-observed rainfall and vegetation fraction. HRLDAS evapotranspiration shows significant similarity with in situ observations and MODIS satellite-observed evapotranspiration. Result highlights the fundamental importance of evapotranspiration over northwest and southeast India on atmospheric water balance. The investigation shows that the surface net radiation controls the annual evapotranspiration over those regions, where the surface evapotranspiration is lower than 550 mm. The rainfall and evapotranspiration show a linear relation over the low-rainfall regions (forcing (like surface net radiation). The lead and lag correlation of water budget components show that the water budget anomalies are interrelated in the monsoon season even up to 4 months lead. These results show the important regional interrelation of water budget anomalies on south Asian monsoon.

  10. A Subnational Perspective for Comparative Research: Education and Development in Northeast Brazil and Northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Gerald; Kempner, Ken

    1996-01-01

    Case studies of northeast Brazil and northeast Thailand highlight the importance of a subnational approach to comparative research. Compares geographic and economic conditions, regional culture, ethnicity and gender issues, migration patterns, religion, literacy, and educational underdevelopment. Points out that neglect of a region and its people…

  11. Leadership in American Indian Communities: Winter Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metoyer, Cheryl A.

    2010-01-01

    Winter lessons, or stories told in the winter, were one of the ways in which tribal elders instructed and directed young men and women in the proper ways to assume leadership responsibilities. Winter lessons stressed the appropriate relationship between the leader and the community. The intent was to remember the power and purpose of that…

  12. 46 CFR 45.73 - Winter freeboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Winter freeboard. 45.73 Section 45.73 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Freeboards § 45.73 Winter freeboard. The minimum winter freeboard (fw) in inches is obtained by the formula: fw=f(s)+T s...

  13. A new order in northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, G.

    1991-01-01

    The fate of northeast Asia is central to the global balance of power. But just as the Cold War took a different course in northeast Asia than it did in its central battleground in Europe, so the post-Cold War world in northeast Asia is taking on a different shape. In Europe, formal arms control was a feature of the political landscape both before and after sweeping changes began altering the face of the continent in 1989. In contrast, northeast Asia saw only informal arms control measures before 1989. But in the post-Cold War world, the opportunity for more formal accords seems to be growing as the changing political environment makes them possible. In the rapidly developing virtuous circle of detente in northeast Asia, the prospects for arms control progress are better than ever, although considerable obstacles remain in the way. One of the unique features of northeast Asia is the convergence of interests of four of the world's most powerful nations - the US, the Soviet Union, Japan, and China. But unlike Europe, where the interests of the Soviet Union and the US have intermingled with those of the diverse members of the European Community (EC) and resulted in far-reaching arms reduction and confidence-building accords, northeast Asia has known only limited regional efforts at reducing tension and enhancing regional security. Nevertheless, unilateral moves and bilateral discussions among the four powers have produced a Sino-Soviet detente, reductions in US and Soviet forces in the Pacific region, the beginning of a Soviet-Japanese dialogue aimed at normalizing relations, and an overall trend toward closer diplomatic and economic relations throughout the region

  14. Effects of large-scale deforestation on precipitation in the monsoon regions: remote versus local effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraju, N; Bala, Govindasamy; Modak, Angshuman

    2015-03-17

    In this paper, using idealized climate model simulations, we investigate the biogeophysical effects of large-scale deforestation on monsoon regions. We find that the remote forcing from large-scale deforestation in the northern middle and high latitudes shifts the Intertropical Convergence Zone southward. This results in a significant decrease in precipitation in the Northern Hemisphere monsoon regions (East Asia, North America, North Africa, and South Asia) and moderate precipitation increases in the Southern Hemisphere monsoon regions (South Africa, South America, and Australia). The magnitude of the monsoonal precipitation changes depends on the location of deforestation, with remote effects showing a larger influence than local effects. The South Asian Monsoon region is affected the most, with 18% decline in precipitation over India. Our results indicate that any comprehensive assessment of afforestation/reforestation as climate change mitigation strategies should carefully evaluate the remote effects on monsoonal precipitation alongside the large local impacts on temperatures.

  15. Understanding the Unusual 2017 Monsoon and Floods in South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanda, A. S.; Palash, W.; Hasan, M. A.; Nusrat, F.

    2017-12-01

    Driven primarily by the South Asian Monsoon, the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) river basin system collectively drains intense precipitation for an area of more than 1.5 million square kilometers during the wet summer season. Bangladesh, being the lowest riparian country in the system, experiences recurrent floods and immense suffering to its population. The 2017 monsoon season was quite unusual in terms of the characteristics of the precipitation received in the basin. The monsoon was spread out over a much larger time span (April-October) compared to the average monsoon season (June-September). Although the monsoon does not typically start until June in Bangladesh, the 2017 season started much earlier in April with unusually heavy precipitation in the Meghna basin region and caused major damage to agriculture in northeastern Bangladesh. The rainfall continued in several record-breaking pulses, compared to the typical one or two large waves. One of the largest pulses occurred in early August with very high in intensity and volume, causing ECMWF to issue a major warning about widespread flooding in Bangladesh, Northern India, and Eastern Nepal. This record flood event impacted over 40 million people in the above regions, causing major damage to life and infrastructure. Although the Brahmaputra rose above the danger level several times this season, the Ganges was unusually low, thus sparing downstream areas from disastrous floods. However, heavy precipitation continued until October, causing urban flooding in Dhaka and Chittagong - and worsening sanitation and public health conditions in southern Bangladesh - currently undergoing a terrible humanitarian crisis involving Rohingya refugees from the Myanmar. Despite marked improvement in flood forecasting systems in recent years, the 2017 floods identified critical gaps in our understanding of the flooding phenomena and limitations of dissemination in these regions. In this study, we investigate 1) the unusual

  16. Upwelling features near Sri Lanka in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ShreeRam, P.; Rao, L.V.G.

    , the southwest monsoon in summer and the northeast monsoon in winter. The wind stress associated with these winds cause mass drift of oceanic waters leading to upwelling and downwelling. The upwelling features in the Bay of Bengal with a special mention about...

  17. Diurnal variability of heat fluxes over the coastal waters off Visakhapatnam during post-monsoon and winter seasons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramu, Ch V.; Bharathi, G.; Sadhuram, Y.; Prasad, K.V.S.R.

    by De Cosmo et al.9 are used in this computation. τ = ρa CD U2 (3) QSH = ρa Cp CH (Ts-Ta) U (4) QLH = ρa L CE (es-ea) U (5) where ρa is the density of air (kg/m3), Cp is the specific heat of air at constant pressure, CH is the Stanton number..., Energy budget studies, water-loss Investigations: Lake Hefner studies, U.S. Geol. Surv. CIRC., 229, (1952) 71-88. 9 DeCosmo J, Katsaros K B, Smith S D, Anderson R J, Oost W A, Bumke K & Chadwick H M, Air-sea exchange of water vapor and sensible heat...

  18. Myctophid and pelagic shrimp assemblages in the oxygen minimum zone of the Andaman Sea during the winter monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karuppasamy, P.K.; LaluRaj, C.M.; Muraleedharan, K.R.; Nair, M.

    of myctophid in the oxygen minimum zone of Northern Arabian Sea. The Joint Global Ocean Flux23 study showed a strong relationship between the distribution of organisms and the oxygen profiles in the Arabian Sea, especially in locations where the OMZ..., M.S., Sardesai, S., Sarma, V.V.S.S., Shenoy, D.M., Nail, H, Maheswaran, P.A., Krishna Kumari, K., Rajesh, G., Sudhir, A.K. & Binu, M.S., Severe fish mortality associated with red tide observed in the sea off Cochin. Curr.Sci., (1998), 75, 543...

  19. Pulleniatina Minimum Events in the Andaman Sea (NE Indian Ocean): Implications for winter monsoon and thermocline changes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sijinkumar, A.V.; Nath, B.N.; Possnert, G.; Aldahan, A.

    abundance, and which matches well with the Pacific records influenced by the Kuroshio Current. Additionally, two significant minimum events of P. obliquiloculata are also seen during the Younger Dryas (YD) and late Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 20-18 cal ka... (LGM, 20-18 cal ka BP, Younger Dryas (YD, 13-10.5 cal ka BP) and late Holocene (4.5-3 cal ka BP). Northern core SK 168 shows distinctive minimum events and the intensity of variation reduces towards the south. The Holocene PME is a little longer...

  20. Distributional characteristics of surface-layer mesozooplankton in the Bay of Bengal during the 2005 winter monsoon.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, V.; Ramaiah, N.

    . Z., National Institute of Oceanography, Goa. (1976) pp. 21-27. 50 Raymont, J. E. C., Plankton and productivity in the oceans 2nd edition, Volume 2- Zooplankton, Pergamon Press, (1983) 1-824 pp. 51 Lavaniegos, B. E., Jiménez-Pérez, L. C...

  1. Hydrography and biogeochemistry of the north western Bay of Bengal and the north eastern Arabian Sea during winter monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Balachandran, K.K.; Laluraj, C.M.; Jyothibabu, R.; Madhu, N.V.; Muraleedharan, K.R.; Vijay, J.G.; Maheswaran, P.A.; Ashraf, T.T.M.; Nair, K.K.C.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    in the Arabian Sea is driven by net heat loss from the ocean, whereas the Bay of Bengal does not contribute to such large heat loss to the atmosphere. It appears that the subduction of high saline Arabian Sea water mass is the mechanism behind the formation of a...

  2. East Asian winter temperature variation associated with the combined effects of AO and WP pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Jin; Ahn, Joong-Bae

    2016-04-01

    The combined effects of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and Western Pacific (WP) teleconnection pattern on the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) over the last 56 years (1958/59-2013/2014) were investigated using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data (Park and Ahn, 2015). The study results revealed that the effect of the AO on winter temperature in East Asia could be changed depending on the phases of the WP pattern in the North Pacific. The negative relationship between the EAWM and the AO increased when the AO and WP were in-phase with each other. Hence, when winter negative (positive) AO was accompanied by negative (positive) WP, negative (positive) temperature anomalies were dominant across the entire East Asia region. Conversely, when the AO and WP were of-of-phase, the winter temperature anomaly in East Asia did not show distinct changes. Furthermore, from the perspective of stationary planetary waves, the zonal wavenumber-2 patterns of sea level pressure and geopotential height at 500hPa circulation strengthened when the AO and WP were in-phase but were not significant for the out-of-phase condition. It explained the possible mechanism of the combined effects of the AO and WP on the circulation related to EAWM. Reference Park, H.-J., and J.-B. Ahn (2015) Combined effect of the Arctic Oscillation and the Western Pacific pattern on East Asia winter temperature, Clim. Dyn. DOI:10.1007/s00382-015-2763-2. Acknowledgements This work was funded by the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under grant KMIPA2015-2081.

  3. Morphology, Composition, and Mixing State of Individual Aerosol Particles in Northeast China during Wintertime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Xu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Northeast China is located in a high latitude area of the world and undergoes a cold season that lasts six months each year. Recently, regional haze episodes with high concentrations of fine particles (PM2.5 have frequently been occurring in Northeast China during the heating period, but little information has been available. Aerosol particles were collected in winter at a site in a suburban county town (T1 and a site in a background rural area (T2. Morphology, size, elemental composition, and mixing state of individual aerosol particles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Aerosol particles were mainly composed of organic matter (OM and S-rich and certain amounts of soot and K-rich. OM represented the most abundant particles, accounting for 60.7% and 53.5% at the T1 and T2 sites, respectively. Abundant spherical OM particles were likely emitted directly from coal-burning stoves. Soot decreased from 16.9% at the T1 site to 4.6% at the T2 site and sulfate particles decrease from 35.9% at the T2 site to 15.7% at the T1 site, suggesting that long-range transport air masses experienced more aging processes and produced more secondary particles. Based on our investigations, we proposed that emissions from coal-burning stoves in most rural areas of the west part of Northeast China can induce regional haze episodes.

  4. Effect of climate change on seasonal monsoon in Asia and its impact on the variability of monsoon rainfall in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen Yi Loo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Global warming and climate change is one of the most extensively researched and discussed topical issues affecting the environment. Although there are enough historical evidence to support the theory that climate change is a natural phenomenon, many research scientists are widely in agreement that the increase in temperature in the 20th century is anthropologically related. The associated effects are the variability of rainfall and cyclonic patterns that are being observed globally. In Southeast Asia the link between global warming and the seasonal atmospheric flow during the monsoon seasons shows varying degree of fuzziness. This study investigates the impact of climate change on the seasonality of monsoon Asia and its effect on the variability of monsoon rainfall in Southeast Asia. The comparison of decadal variation of precipitation and temperature anomalies before the 1970s found general increases which were mostly varying. But beyond the 1970s, global precipitation anomalous showed increases that almost corresponded with increases in global temperature anomalies for the same period. There are frequent changes and a shift westward of the Indian summer monsoon. Although precipitation is observed to be 70% below normal levels, in some areas the topography affects the intensity of rainfall. These shifting phenomenon of other monsoon season in the region are impacting on the variability of rainfall and the onset of monsoons in Southeast Asia and is predicted to delay for 15 days the onset of the monsoon in the future. The variability of monsoon rainfall in the SEA region is observed to be decadal and the frequency and intensity of intermittent flooding of some areas during the monsoon season have serious consequences on the human, financial, infrastructure and food security of the region.

  5. 78 FR 41772 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-11

    ... States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Proposed Rule To Allow Northeast Multispecies Sector Vessels.... ADDRESSES: A copy of the accompanying environmental assessment is available from the NMFS Northeast Regional.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Amendment 16 to the Northeast Multispecies Fisheries Management Plan...

  6. Streamflow characteristics and trends along Soldier Creek, Northeast Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2017-08-16

    Historical data for six selected U.S. Geological Survey streamgages along Soldier Creek in northeast Kansas were used in an assessment of streamflow characteristics and trends. This information is required by the Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation for the effective management of tribal water resources, including drought contingency planning. Streamflow data for the period of record at each streamgage were used to assess annual mean streamflow, annual mean base flow, mean monthly flow, annual peak flow, and annual minimum flow.Annual mean streamflows along Soldier Creek were characterized by substantial year-to-year variability with no pronounced long-term trends. On average, annual mean base flow accounted for about 20 percent of annual mean streamflow. Mean monthly flows followed a general seasonal pattern that included peak values in spring and low values in winter. Annual peak flows, which were characterized by considerable year-to-year variability, were most likely to occur in May and June and least likely to occur during November through February. With the exception of a weak yet statistically significant increasing trend at the Soldier Creek near Topeka, Kansas, streamgage, there were no pronounced long-term trends in annual peak flows. Annual 1-day, 30-day, and 90-day mean minimum flows were characterized by considerable year-to-year variability with no pronounced long-term trend. During an extreme drought, as was the case in the mid-1950s, there may be zero flow in Soldier Creek continuously for a period of one to several months.

  7. Migration strategies of Swan Geese Anser cygnoides from northeast Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batbayar, Nyambayar; Takekawa, John Y.; Newman, Scott H.; Prosser, Diann J.; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmyadag; Xiao, Xiangming

    2011-01-01

    In 2006–2008, 25 Swan Geese Anser cygnoides were marked with solar-powered GPS satellite transmitters in northeast Mongolia to examine the timing and pathways of their migration. Most geese began their autumn migration in August, flying southeast toward a staging area at the Yalu River Estuary on the China-North Korea border. After staging for several weeks, the Swan Geese continued to their wintering grounds at wetlands along the Yangtze River Basin of eastern China in December. Spring migration commenced in late February, and the birds following either a same-route or loop migration to arrive at the breeding grounds in mid April. Swan Geese used a larger number of staging areas for a longer duration when they were north of 42°N latitude; they seemed to avoid staging for extended periods in the highly urbanised areas of eastern China. Further research should examine threats and disturbances to the geese in relation to human population growth and increasing urbanisation.

  8. Communicating Certainty About Nuclear Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, A.

    2013-12-01

    I have been spending much of my time in the past several years trying to warn the world about the continuing danger of nuclear weapons, and that the solution is a rapid reduction in the nuclear arsenal. I feel that a scientist who discovers dangers to society has an ethical duty to issue a warning, even if the danger is so scary that it is hard for people to deal with. The debate about nuclear winter in the 1980s helped to end the nuclear arms race, but the planet still has enough nuclear weapons, even after reductions planned for 2017 under the New START treaty, to produce nuclear winter, with temperatures plunging below freezing in the summer in major agricultural regions, threatening the food supply for most of the planet. New research by myself, Brian Toon, Mike Mills, and colleagues over the past six years has found that a nuclear war between any two countries, such as India and Pakistan, using 50 atom bombs each of the size dropped on Hiroshima could produce climate change unprecedented in recorded human history, and a world food crisis because of the agricultural effects. This is much less than 1% of the current global arsenal. Communicating certainty - what we know for sure - has been much more effective than communicating uncertainty. The limited success I have had has come from persistence and serendipity. The first step was to do the science. We have published peer-reviewed articles in major journals, including Science, Nature, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Journal of Geophysical Research, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Physics Today, and Climatic Change. But policymakers do not read these journals. Through fairly convoluted circumstances, which will be described in this talk, we were able to get papers published in Scientific American and the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists. I have also published several encyclopedia articles on the subject. As a Lead Author of Chapter 8 (Radiative Forcing) of the recently published Fifth Assessment

  9. Destabilization of the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, N. J.; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Kjaer, K. H.

    . Here, we reveal that the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS), which extends more than 600 km into the interior of the ice sheet, is now undergoing dynamic thinning after more than a quarter of a century of stability. This sector of the GrIS is of particular interest in sea level projections, because...... the glacier flows into a large submarine basin with a negative bed slope near the grounding line. Our findings unfold the next step in mass loss of the GrIS as we show a heightened risk of rapid sustained loss from Northeast Greenland on top of the thinning in Southeast and Northwestern Greenland....

  10. 77 FR 73734 - Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    .... 5] Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of a Northeast Corridor Safety... Committee is made up of stakeholders operating on the [[Page 73735

  11. 78 FR 23815 - Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    .... 6] Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of the Northeast Corridor Safety Committee (NECSC) Meeting. [[Page 23816

  12. Comparative Study of Monsoon Rainfall Variability over India and the Odisha State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K C Gouda

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Indian summer monsoon (ISM plays an important role in the weather and climate system over India. The rainfall during monsoon season controls many sectors from agriculture, food, energy, and water, to the management of disasters. Being a coastal province on the eastern side of India, Odisha is one of the most important states affected by the monsoon rainfall and associated hydro-meteorological systems. The variability of monsoon rainfall is highly unpredictable at multiple scales both in space and time. In this study, the monsoon variability over the state of Odisha is studied using the daily gridded rainfall data from India Meteorological Department (IMD. A comparative analysis of the behaviour of monsoon rainfall at a larger scale (India, regional scale (Odisha, and sub-regional scale (zones of Odisha is carried out in terms of the seasonal cycle of monsoon rainfall and its interannual variability. It is seen that there is no synchronization in the seasonal monsoon category (normal/excess/deficit when analysed over large (India and regional (Odisha scales. The impact of El Niño, La Niña, and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD on the monsoon rainfall at both scales (large scale and regional scale is analysed and compared. The results show that the impact is much more for rainfall over India, but it has no such relation with the rainfall over Odisha. It is also observed that there is a positive (negative relation of the IOD with the seasonal monsoon rainfall variability over Odisha (India. The correlation between the IAV of monsoon rainfall between the large scale and regional scale was found to be 0.46 with a phase synchronization of 63%. IAV on a sub-regional scale is also presented.

  13. Aerosol and rainfall variability over the Indian monsoon region: distributions, trends and coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gautam

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol solar absorption over the Indian monsoon region has a potential role of modulating the monsoon circulation and rainfall distribution as suggested by recent studies based on model simulations. Prior to the onset of the monsoon, northern India is influenced by significant dust transport that constitutes the bulk of the regional aerosol loading over the Gangetic-Himalayan region. In this paper, a multi-sensor characterization of the increasing pre-monsoon aerosol loading over northern India, in terms of their spatial, temporal and vertical distribution is presented. Aerosol transport from the northwestern arid regions into the Indo-Gangetic Plains and over the foothills of the Himalayas is found to be vertically extended to elevated altitudes (up to 5 km as observed from the space-borne lidar measurements (CALIPSO. In relation with the enhanced pre-monsoon aerosol loading and the associated solar absorption effects on tropospheric temperature anomalies, this paper investigates the monsoon rainfall variability over India in recent past decades from an observational viewpoint. It is found that the early summer monsoon rainfall over India is on the rise since 1950s, as indicated by historical rainfall data, with over 20% increase for the period 1950–2004. This large sustained increase in the early summer rainfall is led by the observed strengthening of the pre-monsoon tropospheric land-sea thermal gradient over the Indian monsoon region as indicated by microwave satellite measurements (MSU of tropospheric temperatures from 1979–2007. Combined analysis of changes in tropospheric temperatures and summer monsoon rainfall in the past three decades, suggest a future possibility of an emerging rainfall pattern of a wetter monsoon over South Asia in early summer followed by a drier period.

  14. Role of sea surface temperature anomalies in the tropical Indo-Pacific region in the northeast Asia severe drought in summer 2014: month-to-month perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiqing; Fan, Ke; Wang, HuiJun

    2017-09-01

    The severe drought over northeast Asia in summer 2014 and the contribution to it by sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the tropical Indo-Pacific region were investigated from the month-to-month perspective. The severe drought was accompanied by weak lower-level summer monsoon flow and featured an obvious northward movement during summer. The mid-latitude Asian summer (MAS) pattern and East Asia/Pacific teleconnection (EAP) pattern, induced by the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) and western North Pacific summer monsoon (WNPSM) rainfall anomalies respectively, were two main bridges between the SST anomalies in the tropical Indo-Pacific region and the severe drought. Warming in the Arabian Sea induced reduced rainfall over northeast India and then triggered a negative MAS pattern favoring the severe drought in June 2014. In July 2014, warming in the tropical western North Pacific led to a strong WNPSM and increased rainfall over the Philippine Sea, triggering a positive EAP pattern. The equatorial eastern Pacific and local warming resulted in increased rainfall over the off-equatorial western Pacific and triggered an EAP-like pattern. The EAP pattern and EAP-like pattern contributed to the severe drought in July 2014. A negative Indian Ocean dipole induced an anomalous meridional circulation, and warming in the equatorial eastern Pacific induced an anomalous zonal circulation, in August 2014. The two anomalous cells led to a weak ISM and WNPSM, triggering the negative MAS and EAP patterns responsible for the severe drought. Two possible reasons for the northward movement of the drought were also proposed.

  15. Winter therapy for the accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    Hundreds of people are hard at work during the year-end technical stop as all the accelerators are undergoing maintenance, renovation and upgrade operations in parallel.   The new beam absorber on its way to Point 2 before being lowered into the LHC tunnel for installation. The accelerator teams didn’t waste any time before starting their annual winter rejuvenation programme over the winter. At the end of November, as the LHC ion run was beginning, work got under way on the PS Booster, where operation had already stopped. On 14 December, once the whole complex had been shut down, the technical teams turned their attention to the other injectors and the LHC. The year-end technical stop (YETS) provides an opportunity to carry out maintenance work on equipment and repair any damage as well as to upgrade the machines for the upcoming runs. Numerous work projects are carried out simultaneously, so good coordination is crucial. Marzia Bernardini's team in the Enginee...

  16. South Asian summer monsoon variability during the last ~54 kyrs inferred from surface water salinity and river run off proxies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gebregiorgis, D.; Hathorne, E.C.; Sijinkumar, A.V.; Nath, B.N.; Nurnberg, D.; Frank, M.

    ; Viswambharan and Mohanakumar, 2014). Decadal to centennial scale variations in monsoon precipitation have been in phase with temperature fluctuations in northern high latitudes(Fleitmann et al., 2003). Monsoonal changes on millennial to longer time...

  17. 77 FR 20690 - Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    .... 4] Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of the Northeast Corridor Safety... NECSC is made up of stakeholders operating on the Northeast Corridor (NEC), and the purpose of the...

  18. 33 CFR 117.829 - Northeast Cape Fear River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Cape Fear River. 117... BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.829 Northeast Cape... the Seaboard System Railroad Bridge across the Northeast Cape Fear River, mile 27.0, at Castle Hayne...

  19. The abrupt onset of the modern South Asian monsoon winds

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Betzler, C.; Eberli, G.P.; Kroon, D.; Wright, J.D.; Swart, P.K.; Nath, B.N.; Alvarez-Zarikian, C.A.; Alonso-Garcia, M.; Bialik, O.M.; Blattler, C.L.; Guo, J.; Haffen, S.; Horozal, S.; Inoue, M.; Jovane, L.; Lanci, L.; Laya, J.C.; Mee, A.L.H.; Ludmann, T.; Nakakuni, M.; Niino, K.; Petruny, L.M.; Pratiwi, S.D.; Reijmer, J.J.G.; Reolid, J.; Slagle, A.L.; Sloss, C.R.; Su, X.; Yao, Z.; Young, J.R.

    :29838 | DOI: 10.1038/srep29838 www.nature.com/scientificreports The abrupt onset of the modern South Asian Monsoon winds Christian Betzler1, Gregor P. Eberli2, Dick Kroon3, James D. Wright4, Peter K. Swart2, Bejugam Nagender Nath5, Carlos A. Alvarez....betzler@uni-hamburg.de) Received: 25 April 2016 accepted: 21 June 2016 Published: 20 July 2016 OPEN www.nature.com/scientificreports/ 2Scientific RepoRts | 6:29838 | DOI: 10.1038/srep29838 control, and we propose that the post Miocene Climate Optimum cooling, together...

  20. Extended Range Prediction of Indian Summer Monsoon: Current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, A. K.; Abhilash, S.; Borah, N.; Joseph, S.; Chattopadhyay, R.; S, S.; Rajeevan, M.; Mandal, R.; Dey, A.

    2014-12-01

    The main focus of this study is to develop forecast consensus in the extended range prediction (ERP) of monsoon Intraseasonal oscillations using a suit of different variants of Climate Forecast system (CFS) model. In this CFS based Grand MME prediction system (CGMME), the ensemble members are generated by perturbing the initial condition and using different configurations of CFSv2. This is to address the role of different physical mechanisms known to have control on the error growth in the ERP in the 15-20 day time scale. The final formulation of CGMME is based on 21 ensembles of the standalone Global Forecast System (GFS) forced with bias corrected forecasted SST from CFS, 11 low resolution CFST126 and 11 high resolution CFST382. Thus, we develop the multi-model consensus forecast for the ERP of Indian summer monsoon (ISM) using a suite of different variants of CFS model. This coordinated international effort lead towards the development of specific tailor made regional forecast products over Indian region. Skill of deterministic and probabilistic categorical rainfall forecast as well the verification of large-scale low frequency monsoon intraseasonal oscillations has been carried out using hindcast from 2001-2012 during the monsoon season in which all models are initialized at every five days starting from 16May to 28 September. The skill of deterministic forecast from CGMME is better than the best participating single model ensemble configuration (SME). The CGMME approach is believed to quantify the uncertainty in both initial conditions and model formulation. Main improvement is attained in probabilistic forecast which is because of an increase in the ensemble spread, thereby reducing the error due to over-confident ensembles in a single model configuration. For probabilistic forecast, three tercile ranges are determined by ranking method based on the percentage of ensemble members from all the participating models falls in those three categories. CGMME further

  1. Winter storm intensity, hazards, and property losses in the New York tristate area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimkus, Cari E; Ting, Mingfang; Booth, James F; Adamo, Susana B; Madajewicz, Malgosia; Kushnir, Yochanan; Rieder, Harald E

    2017-07-01

    Winter storms pose numerous hazards to the Northeast United States, including rain, snow, strong wind, and flooding. These hazards can cause millions of dollars in damages from one storm alone. This study investigates meteorological intensity and impacts of winter storms from 2001 to 2014 on coastal counties in Connecticut, New Jersey, and New York and underscores the consequences of winter storms. The study selected 70 winter storms on the basis of station observations of surface wind strength, heavy precipitation, high storm tide, and snow extremes. Storm rankings differed between measures, suggesting that intensity is not easily defined with a single metric. Several storms fell into two or more categories (multiple-category storms). Following storm selection, property damages were examined to determine which types lead to high losses. The analysis of hazards (or events) and associated damages using the Storm Events Database of the National Centers for Environmental Information indicates that multiple-category storms were responsible for a greater portion of the damage. Flooding was responsible for the highest losses, but no discernible connection exists between the number of storms that afflict a county and the damage it faces. These results imply that losses may rely more on the incidence of specific hazards, infrastructure types, and property values, which vary throughout the region. © 2017 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of The New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. Why is Bay of Bengal warmer than Arabian Sea during the summer monsoon?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenoi, S.S.C.; Shankar, D.; Shetye, S.R.

    the summer monsoon. In the Arabian Sea, the winds associated with the summer monsoon are stronger and favour the transfer of heat to deeper layers owing to overturning and turbulent mixing. In contrast, the weaker winds over the bay force a relatively...

  3. The value of C sub(e) for the Arabian Sea during summer monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, A.S.; Sadhuram, Y.; Krishna, V.V.G.

    We estimate, from the moisture budget the bulk aerodynamic coefficient for latent heat flux (C sub(e)) during the monsoon season over the central Arabian Sea. The average value of C sub(e) under active monsoon conditions was found to be 2.25 x 10...

  4. Recent trends in pre-monsoon daily temperature extremes over India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    e-mail: kotha@tropmet.res.in. Extreme climate and weather events are increasingly being recognized as key aspects of climate change. Pre-monsoon season ... change in day-to-day magnitude of fluctuations of pre-monsoon maximum and minimum tempera- tures. ... by high exceedence counts during drought periods.

  5. Residual estuarine circulation in the Mandovi, a monsoonal estuary: A three-dimensional model study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vijith, V.; Shetye, S.R.; Baetens, K.; Luyten, P.; Michael, G.S.

    -dependence is forced by the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) and hence the estuary is referred to as a monsoonal estuary. In this paper, we use a three-dimensional, open source, hydrodynamic, numerical model to reproduce the observed annual salinity field in the Mandovi. We...

  6. Monsoon wind and maritime trade: A case study of historical evidence from Orissa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Raut, L.N.

    Monsoon plays a predominant role in the daily life of the people of South Asia. The use of monsoon wind in the Indian Ocean for maritime trade was a boon to the sailing ships to reach overseas countries. It is believed that Hippalus discovered...

  7. Modelling the impacts of deforestation on monsoon rainfall in West Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abiodun, B J; Pal, J S; Afiesimama, E A; Gutowski, W J; Adedoyin, A

    2010-01-01

    The study found that deforestation causes more monsoon moisture to be retained in the mid-troposphere, thereby reducing the northward transport of moisture needed for rainfall over West Africa. Hence, deforestation has dynamical impacts on the West African monsoon and rainfall.

  8. Physical and biological characteristics of the winter-summer transition in the Central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Zarokanellos, Nikolaos

    2017-07-25

    The Central Red Sea (CRS) lies between two distinct hydrographic and atmospheric regimes. In the southern Red Sea, seasonal monsoon reversal regulates the exchange of water between the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean. In the northern Red Sea, intermediate and occasionally deep water are formed during winter to sustain the basin\\'s overturning circulation. Highly variable mesoscale eddies and the northward flowing eastern boundary current (EBC) determine the physical and biogeochemical characteristics of the CRS. Ship-based and glider observations in the CRS between March and June 2013 capture key features of the transition from winter to summer and depict the impact of the eddy activity on the EBC flow. Less saline and relatively warmer water of Indian Ocean origin reaches the CRS via the EBC. Initially, an anticyclonic eddy with diameter of 140 km penetrating to 150m depth with maximum velocities up to 30–35 cm s prevails in the CRS. This anticyclonic eddy appears to block or at least redirect the northward flow of the EBC. Dissipation of the eddy permits the near-coastal, northward flow of the EBC and gives place to a smaller cyclonic eddy with a diameter of about 50 km penetrating to 200 m depth. By the end of May, as the northerly winds become stronger and persistent throughout the basin, characteristic of the summer southwest monsoon wind regime, the EBC, and its associated lower salinity water became less evident, replaced by the saltier surface water that characterizes the onset of the summer stratification in the CRS.

  9. On the role of convective systems over the northwest Pacific and monsoon activity over the Indian subcontinent

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.; Babu, A; Reason, C.

    been examined in relation to breaks in monsoon conditions over the Indian sub-continent during contrasting monsoon years. A see-saw nature of convection between the NWP and north Indian Ocean was found during the years with excess monsoon rainfall...

  10. Fine-scale responses of phytoplankton to freshwater influx in a tropical monsoonal estuary following the onset of southwest monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pednekar, S.M.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Gomes, H.R.; Goes, J.I.; Parab, S.G.; Kerkar, V.

    of seawater which have a significant impact on circulation, salinity (Shetye et al 2007; Vijith et al 2009) as well as water column turbidity caused by the dis- turbance of bottom sediments (Devassy and Goes 1988). On account of this free mixing of coastal.... By the first week of October (PostM Influence of SW monsoon in phytoplankton–freshwater influx 549 phase), rainfall had reduced to occasional and spo- radic showers and salinity values began rising to between3and7psu. 3.3 Nitrate Nitrate variation across...

  11. Diagnosis of the Asian summer monsoon variability and the climate prediction of monsoon precipitation via physical decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Young-Kwon

    This study investigates the space-time evolution of the dominant modes that constitute the Asian summer monsoon (ASM), and, as an ultimate goal, the climate prediction of the ASM rainfall. Precipitation and other synoptic variables during the prominent life cycle of the ASM (May 21 to September 17) are used to show the detailed features of dominant modes, which are identified as the seasonal cycle, the ISO defined by the 40--50 day intraseasonal oscillation including the Madden-Julian oscillation, and the El Nino mode. The present study reveals that the ISO is the second largest component of the ASM rainfall variation. Correlation analysis indicates that ISO explains a larger fraction of the variance of the observed precipitation (without climatology) than the ENSO mode. The dominant ISO signal faithfully explains the northward propagation of the ISO toward the Asian continent causing intraseasonal active/break periods. The interannual variation of the ISO strength suggests that the ENSO exerts some influence on the ISO. The composite convective ISO anomaly and Kelvin-Rossby wave response over the Indian Ocean shows that the ISO tends to be stronger during the early stage of the ASM than normal in El Nino (La Nina) years, indicating greater (smaller) possibility of ISO-related extreme rainfall over India, Bangladesh, and the Bay of Bengal. The ENSO mode reveals that the following factors affect the evolution of the ASM system in El Nino (La Nina) years. (1) The anomalous sea surface temperature and sea level pressure over the Indian Ocean during the early stage of the ASM weaken (enhance) the meridional pressure gradient. (2) As a result, the westerly jet and the ensuing moisture transport toward India and the Bay of Bengal become weak (strong) and delayed (expedited), providing a less (more) favorable condition for regional monsoon onsets. (3) The Walker circulation anomaly results in an enhanced subsidence (ascent) and drought (flood) over the Maritime continent

  12. Winter warming from large volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, Alan; Mao, Jianping

    1992-01-01

    An examination of the Northern Hemisphere winter surface temperature patterns after the 12 largest volcanic eruptions from 1883-1992 shows warming over Eurasia and North America and cooling over the Middle East which are significant at the 95-percent level. This pattern is found in the first winter after tropical eruptions, in the first or second winter after midlatitude eruptions, and in the second winter after high latitude eruptions. The effects are independent of the hemisphere of the volcanoes. An enhanced zonal wind driven by heating of the tropical stratosphere by the volcanic aerosols is responsible for the regions of warming, while the cooling is caused by blocking of incoming sunlight.

  13. Relative role of pre-monsoon conditions and intraseasonal oscillations in determining early-vs-late indian monsoon intensity in a GCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Rohit; Chakraborty, Arindam; Nanjundiah, Ravi S.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify relative roles of different land-atmospheric conditions, apart from sea surface temperature (SST), in determining early vs. late summer monsoon intensity over India in a high resolution general circulation model (GCM). We find that in its early phase (June-July; JJ), pre-monsoon land-atmospheric processes play major role to modulate the precipitation over Indian region. These effects of pre-monsoon conditions decrease substantially during its later phase (August-September; AS) for which the interannual variation is mainly governed by the low frequency northward propagating intraseasonal oscillations. This intraseasonal variability which is related to mean vertical wind shear has a significant role during the early phase of monsoon as well. Further, using multiple linear regression, we show that interannual variation of early and late monsoon rainfall over India is best explained when all these land-atmospheric parameters are taken together. Our study delineates the relative role of different processes affecting early versus later summer monsoon rainfall over India that can be used for determining its subseasonal predictability.

  14. Transport of sulfonamide antibiotics in crop fields during monsoon season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong Yol; Ruidisch, Marianne; Huwe, Bernd

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies have documented the occurrence of veterinary sulfonamide antibiotics in groundwater and rivers located far from pollution sources, although their transport and fate is relatively unknown. In mountainous agricultural fields, the transport behaviour can be influenced by climate, slope and physico-chemical properties of the sulfonamides. The objective of this research is to describe the transport behaviour of three sulfonamide antibiotics (sulfamethoxazole, sulfadimethoxine and sulfamethazine) in sloped agricultural fields located in the Haean catchment, South Korea. During dry and monsoon seasons, a solute transport experiment was conducted in two typical sandy loam agricultural fields after application of antibiotics and potassium bromide as conservative tracers. Field measurement and modelling revealed that frequency and amount of runoff generation indicate a relation between slope and rain intensity during monsoon season. Since the steepness of slope influenced partitioning of precipitation between runoff and subsurface flow, higher loss of sulfonamide antibiotics and bromide by runoff was observed at the steeper sloped field. Bromide on topsoil rapidly infiltrated at high infiltration rates. On the contrary, the sulfonamides were relatively retarded in the upper soil layer due to adsorption onto soil particles. Presence of furrows and ridges affected the distribution of sulfonamide antibiotics in the subsurface due to gradient from wetter furrows to drier ridges induced by topography. Modelling results with HydroGeoSphere matched with background studies that describe physico-chemical properties of the sulfonamides interaction between soil and the antibiotic group, solute transport through vadose zone and runoff generation by storm events.

  15. Hybrid insolation forcing of Pliocene monsoon dynamics in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Kuechler

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pliocene is regarded as a potential analogue for future climate with conditions generally warmer-than-today and higher-than-preindustrial atmospheric CO2 levels. Here we present the first orbitally resolved records of continental hydrology and vegetation changes from West Africa for two Pliocene time intervals (5.0–4.6 Ma, 3.6–3.0 Ma, which we compare with records from the last glacial cycle (Kuechler et al., 2013. Our results indicate that changes in local insolation alone are insufficient to explain the full degree of hydrologic variations. Generally two modes of interacting insolation forcings are observed: during eccentricity maxima, when precession was strong, the West African monsoon was driven by summer insolation; during eccentricity minima, when precession-driven variations in local insolation were minimal, obliquity-driven changes in the summer latitudinal insolation gradient became dominant. This hybrid monsoonal forcing concept explains orbitally controlled tropical climate changes, incorporating the forcing mechanism of latitudinal gradients for the Pliocene, which probably increased in importance during subsequent Northern Hemisphere glaciations.

  16. The detection of post-monsoon tropospheric ozone variability over south Asia using IASI data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Barret

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The ozone (O3 variability over south Asia during the 2008 post-monsoon season has been assessed using measurements from the MetOP-A/IASI instrument and O3 profiles retrieved with the SOftware for a Fast Retrieval of IASI Data (SOFRID. The information content study and error analyses carried out in this paper show that IASI Level 1 data can be used to retrieve tropospheric O3 columns (TOC, surface-225 hPa and UTLS columns (225–70 hPa with errors smaller than 20%. Validation with global radiosonde O3 profiles obtained during a period of 6 months show the excellent agreement between IASI and radiosonde for the UTLS with correlation coefficient R > 0.91 and good agreement in the troposphere with correlation coefficient R > 0.74. For both the UTLS and the troposphere Relative Standard Deviations (RSD are lower than 23%. Comparison with in-situ measurements from the MOZAIC program around Hyderabad demonstrates that IASI is able to capture the TOC inter and intra-seasonal variability in central India. Nevertheless, the agreement is mitigated by the fact that the smoothing of the true O3 profiles by the retrieval results in a reduction of the TOC variability detected by IASI relative to the variability observed by in situ instruments. The post-monsoon temporal variability of the vertical profile of O3 around Hyderabad has been investigated with MOZAIC observations. These observations from airborne instruments show that tropospheric O3 is steadily elevated during most of the studied period with the exception of two sharp drops following the crossing of tropical storms over India. Lagrangian simulations with the FLEXPART model indicate that elevated O3 concentrations in the middle troposphere near Hyderabad are associated with the transport of UTLS air-masses that have followed the Subtropical Westerly Jet (SWJ and subsided over northern India together

  17. Dynamics of methane emissions from a freshwater marsh of northeast China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Wenyan; Song, Changchun; Zhang, Jinbo [Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academic Science, Changchun Jilin, 130012 (China)

    2006-12-01

    In this paper, CH{sub 4} flux was measured from Nov. 2002 to Oct. 2005, to estimate CH{sub 4} emissions in winter and during freeze-thaw period, and interannual variation in CH{sub 4} emissions in freshwater marsh in northeast China. The results showed that there was an obvious CH{sub 4} emission (0.1-2.3 mg m{sup -2} h{sup -1}) in the freshwater marsh in winter. Flux of CH{sub 4} in winter (November to March the next year) was about 3.8%, 5.5%, and 2.2% of the whole year in 2003, 2004, and 2005, respectively. Emission of CH{sub 4} significantly increased during the freeze-thaw period (April-June), and was about 30.8%, 20.9%, and 20.6% of the whole year in 2003, 2004, and 2005, respectively. Standing water depth greatly governed interannual variation of CH{sub 4} emissions from marshes during the thaw-freeze period. Interannual variation of CH{sub 4} emissions was significant during the growing season (p<0.05). Standing water depth during April to June was a primary factor, which affected the interannual variation of CH{sub 4} flux during the growing season. Precipitation during the preceding non-growing season affected CH{sub 4} emission indirectly via standing water depth. (author)

  18. Active summer carbon storage for winter persistence in trees at the cold alpine treeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mai-He; Jiang, Yong; Wang, Ao; Li, Xiaobin; Zhu, Wanze; Yan, Cai-Feng; Du, Zhong; Shi, Zheng; Lei, Jingpin; Schönbeck, Leonie; He, Peng; Yu, Fei-Hai; Wang, Xue

    2018-03-12

    The low-temperature limited alpine treeline is one of the most obvious boundaries in mountain landscapes. The question of whether resource limitation is the physiological mechanism for the formation of the alpine treeline is still waiting for conclusive evidence and answers. We therefore examined non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) and nitrogen (N) in treeline trees (TATs) and low-elevation trees (LETs) in both summer and winter in 11 alpine treeline cases ranging from subtropical monsoon to temperate continental climates across Eurasia. We found that tissue N concentration did not decrease with increasing elevation at the individual treeline level, but the mean root N concentration was lower in TATs than in LETs across treelines in summer. The TATs did not have lower tissue NSC concentrations than LETs in summer. However, the present study with multiple tree species across a large geographical scale, for the first time, revealed a common phenomenon that TATs had significantly lower NSC concentration in roots but not in the aboveground tissues than LETs in winter. Compared with LETs, TATs exhibited both a passive NSC storage in aboveground tissues in excess of carbon demand and an active starch storage in roots at the expense of growth reduction during the growing season. This starch accumulation disappeared in winter. Our results highlight some important aspects of the N and carbon physiology in relation to season in trees at their upper limits. Whether or to what extent the disadvantages of winter root NSC and summer root N level of TATs affect the growth of treeline trees and the alpine treeline formation needs to be further studied.

  19. Effects of salt stress on tillering nodes to the growth of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiong, Y.; Yuan, G.; Zhixia, X.; Xiaojing, L.

    2016-01-01

    In monsoon climate regions, the tillering nodes of winter wheat can be stressed by high salt accumulation on the soil surface in spring, thereby leading to salt-induced damage. To understand whether tillering nodes could be stressed by salinity and to estimate its effects on the growth of winter wheat under salt stress, the tillering nodes of two wheat cultivars, H-4589 (salt-sensitive) and J-32 (salt-tolerant), were treated with salinity to investigate the physiological and biochemical changes in seedling growth. The results indicated that salt stress on tillering nodes significantly reduced plant height and shoot dry weight; increased Na+ accumulation, soluble sugar and proline in both H-4589 and J-32; which demonstrated remarkable effects on the growth of winter wheat when the tillering nodes were under salt stress. Furthermore, equivalent Na+ accumulations were discovered in two cultivars when tillering nodes were under salt stress, while remarkably different Na+ accumulations were discovered in two cultivars when roots were under salt stress. Based on the results from anatomic analyses, we speculated that no anatomic differences in tillering nodes between two cultivars could give reason to the equivalent Na+ accumulations in two cultivars when tillering nodes were under salt stress; and more lignified endodermis in primary roots as well as larger reduction of lateral root number in salt-tolerant cultivars which contributed to preventing Na+ influx could explain the remarkably lower Na+ accumulation in salt-tolerant cultivar when roots were under salt stress. All of these results indicated that the tillering nodes could mediate Na+ influx from the environment leading to salt-induced damage to the growth of winter wheat. (author)

  20. Delivery of halogenated very short-lived substances from the west Indian Ocean to the stratosphere during the Asian summer monsoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fiehn

    2017-06-01

    Asian summer monsoon is lower than from previous cruises in the tropical west Pacific Ocean during boreal autumn and early winter but higher than from the tropical Atlantic during boreal summer. In contrast, the projected CH2Br2 entrainment was very high because of the high emissions during the west Indian Ocean cruise. The 16-year July time series shows highest interannual variability for the shortest-lived CH3I and lowest for the longest-lived CH2Br2. During this time period, a small increase in VSLS entrainment from the west Indian Ocean through the Asian monsoon to the stratosphere is found. Overall, this study confirms that the subtropical and tropical west Indian Ocean is an important source region of halogenated VSLSs, especially CH2Br2, to the troposphere and stratosphere during the Asian summer monsoon.

  1. Change in the relationship between the Australian summer monsoon circulation and boreal summer precipitation over Central China in the late 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruowen; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Tianyu; He, Shengping

    2017-09-01

    Recent study revealed a close connection between the Australian summer monsoon (ASM) and boreal summer precipitation over Central China (SPCC). This study further revealed a strengthening of the ASM-SPCC relationship around the late 1990s. It is found that the relationship between the ASM and the SPCC during 1979-1997 (1998-2014) relationship is statistically insignificant (significant). Further analysis indicated that during 1998-2014, the weakened ASM is concurrent with significant positive sea surface temperature (SST) in the Indian Ocean and South China Sea, which could persist into the following boreal summer and further lead to intensified East Asian summer monsoon, strengthened western North Pacific subtropical high, and anomalous ascending motion over Central China. Consequently, more moisture is transported from the western Pacific northward to Central China where significant anomalous convergence appears. Therefore, the ASM could potentially influence the SPCC during 1998-2014. By contrast, the ASM-related SST and atmospheric circulation anomalies in boreal winter are statistically insignificant during 1979-1997. Such an interdecadal change might be attributed to the interdecadal warming that occurred in the Indian Ocean and South China Sea around the late 1990s. This study might be useful for the prediction of the SPCC.

  2. Impact of ice sheet induced North Atlantic oscillation on East Asian summer monsoon during an interglacial 500,000 years ago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundaram, S.; Yin, Q.Z.; Berger, A.; Muri, H. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Earth and Life Institute (ELI), Georges Lemaitre Centre for Earth and Climate Research (TECLIM), Louvain la Neuve (Belgium)

    2012-09-15

    Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 13, an interglacial about 500,000 years ago, is unique due to an exceptionally strong East Asia summer monsoon (EASM) occurring in a relatively cool climate with low greenhouse gas concentrations (GHG). This paper attempts to find one of the possible mechanisms for this seeming paradox. Simulations with an Earth System model LOVECLIM show that the presence of ice sheets over North America and Eurasia during MIS-13 induces a positive phase of the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) like feature. The ocean having a longer memory than the atmosphere, the oceanic anomalies associated with NAO persists until summer. The signals of summer NAO are transmitted to East Asia to reinforce the monsoon there through the stationary waves excited at the Asian Jet entrance. The geopotential height shows clearly a mid-latitude wave train with positive anomalies over the eastern Mediterranean/Caspian Sea and the Okhotsk Sea and a negative anomaly over Lake Baikal. This reinforces the effect of the high-latitude wave train induced independently by the Eurasian ice sheet topography as shown in previous study. These features reinforce the Meiyu front and enhance the precipitation over East Asia. The results obtained from LOVECLIM are further confirmed by an atmospheric general circulation model, ARPEGE. (orig.)

  3. 33 CFR 100.109 - Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME. 100.109 Section 100.109 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.109 Winter Harbor...

  4. Study on coral annual banding for the investigation of Asian monsoon; Asian monsoon to sango nenrin kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, A. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Kawabata, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    A coral skeleton is sampled at Kenya`s Malindi National Marine Park situated west of the Seychelles, and it offers information about the Afro-Asian monsoon. An X-ray profile of the specimen discloses the seasonal variation in the density of the coral skeleton. The oxygen isotopic ratio, which is generally affected by the seawater oxygen isotopic ratio composition which is dependent on the surface layer water temperature and fresh water, is found dominated, in the coral skeleton, practically by the surface layer water temperature. Accordingly, the oxygen isotopic ratio represents the seasonal and annual variations in the surface layer water temperature. It is inferred that the emergence of Ba/Ca ratio peaks in December into January reflects the presence of Ba from rivers, and there are indications that the Somali current has transported water to the coral sampling area from the Galana River which is the greatest river in Kenya. Five of the Ba/Ca ratio peaks coincide with peaks in the UV fluorescent band, which is attributed to the presence of terrigenous organic matters. The ENSO and Asian monsoon phenomena are estimated on the basis of the findings described above. 11 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Variability in ozone and its precursor gases over the Bay of Bengal during post-monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Chinmay; Lal, Shyam; Venkataramani, Sethuram; Naja, Manish; Ojha, Narendra

    2013-04-01

    O3 and precursor gases were measured during a ship campaign over the Bay of Bengal (BoB) during 28 October -17 November, 2010. The measurements revealed the large spatial heterogeneity in trace gas levels over the BoB during post-monsoon months. The heterogeneity was attributed to unique transport patterns over north and south BoB during this period. Four distinct types of air-masses influenced by heavy pollution from nearby source regions (49% time over North-West Myanmar, East Bangladesh and North-East India), mixed type (25% time over Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam and 75% time over East BoB), affected by long-range transport of pollutants (59% time over continental South Myanmar, Vietnam and Hong-Kong region of China) and pristine marine (99% time over oceanic regions) were identified. Among these, the continental air masses were fresher compared to marine air masses. High O3 and CO levels were observed in air masses coming from South-East Asia. O3, C4H10 and alkenes were highest in air masses arriving from eastern IGP, Bangladesh, Myanmar via the North BoB. The C2H2 to CO slope of 0.004 and C3H8 to CO slope of 0.003 indicated predominance of biofuel/biomass burning in air masses from South-East Asia. The i-C4H10 to n- C4H10 value of 0.62 indicated contributions of urban/industrial sources in air masses arriving from Bangladesh, India and North-West Myanmar. 'Potential Source Contribution Function' analysis indicated fire impacted South of Myanmar and Thailand regions as potential contributors to high CO levels above 260 ppbv measured on 14 November. Observed enhancements in surface CO during 2-3 November were attributed to the faster transport of continental pollutants associated with cyclonic winds. The O3 e-fold time of 2.3 days indicated the higher rate of O3 destruction over the BoB due to higher precursor levels. Principle component analysis indicated that transport from continental source regions played a major role in determining the chemical composition

  6. Interim Report 'Winter smog and traffic'.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, H.; Blom, T.; Bogaard, van den C.; Boluyt, N.; Bree, van L.; Brunekreef, B.; Hoek, G.; Zee, van der S.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents a halfway score of the research project "Winter smog and Traffic", one of the themes of the research programme "Air Pollution and Health". A state of the art is presented of the health effects associated with exposure to winter smog and of the toxicological effects caused by the

  7. Nuclear Winter: Scientists in the Political Arena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badash, Lawrence

    2001-03-01

    The nuclear winter phenomenon is used to illustrate the many paths by which scientific advice reaches decision makers in the United States government. Because the Reagan administration was hostile to the strategic policy that the scientific discovery seemed to demand, the leading proponent of nuclear winter, Carl Sagan, used his formidable talent for popularization to reach a larger audience.

  8. How to Have a Healthy Winter | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Without a doubt, winter is here. Between the icy weather and the recent hustle and bustle of the holidays, everyone is at an increased risk of getting sick. With that in mind, Occupational Health Services has a few simple tips for staying healthy this winter.

  9. Chapter 7: Migration and winter ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Jeffrey F. Kelly; Jean-Luc E. Cartron

    2000-01-01

    The willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii) is a Neotropical migrant that breeds in North America, but winters in Central and northern South America. Little specific information is known about migration and wintering ecology of the southwestern willow flycatcher (E. t. extimus) (Yong and Finch 1997). Our report applies principally...

  10. Multi-decadal modulation of the El Nino-Indian monsoon relationship by Indian Ocean variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ummenhofer, Caroline C; Sen Gupta, Alexander; Li Yue; Taschetto, Andrea S; England, Matthew H

    2011-01-01

    The role of leading modes of Indo-Pacific climate variability is investigated for modulation of the strength of the Indian summer monsoon during the period 1877-2006. In particular, the effect of Indian Ocean conditions on the relationship between the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian monsoon is explored. Using an extended classification for ENSO and Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) events for the past 130 years and reanalyses, we have expanded previous interannual work to show that variations in Indian Ocean conditions modulate the ENSO-Indian monsoon relationship also on decadal timescales. El Nino events are frequently accompanied by a significantly reduced Indian monsoon and widespread drought conditions due to anomalous subsidence associated with a shift in the descending branch of the zonal Walker circulation. However, for El Nino events that co-occur with positive IOD (pIOD) events, Indian Ocean conditions act to counter El Nino's drought-inducing subsidence by enhancing moisture convergence over the Indian subcontinent, with an average monsoon season resulting. Decadal modulations of the frequency of independent and combined El Nino and pIOD events are consistent with a strengthened El Nino-Indian monsoon relationship observed at the start of the 20th century and the apparent recent weakening of the El Nino-Indian monsoon relationship.

  11. Multi-decadal modulation of the El Nino-Indian monsoon relationship by Indian Ocean variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ummenhofer, Caroline C; Sen Gupta, Alexander; Li Yue; Taschetto, Andrea S; England, Matthew H, E-mail: c.ummenhofer@unsw.edu.au [Climate Change Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia)

    2011-07-15

    The role of leading modes of Indo-Pacific climate variability is investigated for modulation of the strength of the Indian summer monsoon during the period 1877-2006. In particular, the effect of Indian Ocean conditions on the relationship between the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian monsoon is explored. Using an extended classification for ENSO and Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) events for the past 130 years and reanalyses, we have expanded previous interannual work to show that variations in Indian Ocean conditions modulate the ENSO-Indian monsoon relationship also on decadal timescales. El Nino events are frequently accompanied by a significantly reduced Indian monsoon and widespread drought conditions due to anomalous subsidence associated with a shift in the descending branch of the zonal Walker circulation. However, for El Nino events that co-occur with positive IOD (pIOD) events, Indian Ocean conditions act to counter El Nino's drought-inducing subsidence by enhancing moisture convergence over the Indian subcontinent, with an average monsoon season resulting. Decadal modulations of the frequency of independent and combined El Nino and pIOD events are consistent with a strengthened El Nino-Indian monsoon relationship observed at the start of the 20th century and the apparent recent weakening of the El Nino-Indian monsoon relationship.

  12. Picophytoplankton as Tracers of Environmental Forcing in a Tropical Monsoonal Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitbavkar, Smita; Patil, Jagadish S; Rajaneesh, K M

    2015-10-01

    In order to better understand the picophytoplankton (PP) dynamics in tropical monsoon influenced coastal regions, samples were collected daily (June-September 2008: monsoon, December 2008: post-monsoon and April 2009: pre-monsoon) from a fixed station in Dona Paula Bay, India. Eight PP abundance peaks comprising Prochlorococcus-like cells, picoeukaryotes, and three groups of Synechococcus occurred. The chlorophyll biomass and PP abundance were negatively influenced by reduced solar radiation, salinity and water transparency due to precipitation and positively influenced by the stabilized waters during precipitation break/non-monsoon periods. Responses to environmental conditions differed with PP groups, wherein the presence of Synechococcus-PEI (phycoerythrin) throughout the year suggested its ability to tolerate salinity and temperature variations and low light conditions. Synechococcus-PEII appearance toward monsoon end and non-monsoon during high water transparency suggests its tidal advection from offshore waters. Dominance of Synechococcus-PC (phycocyanin) at intermediate salinities under low water transparency during MON and high salinities in PrM coinciding with high nitrate concentrations implies a greater influence of light quality or nutrients. Cyanobacteria and not picoeukaryotes were the dominant picophytoplankton in terms of numbers as well as biomass. This study suggests that PP could be used as tracers of environmental forcing driven by tides and freshwater influx and also highlights the importance of high-frequency samplings in dynamic coastal regions through which transient responses can be captured.

  13. Global warming and South Indian monsoon rainfall-lessons from the Mid-Miocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Markus; Kern, Andrea K; Harzhauser, Mathias; Kroh, Andreas; Piller, Werner E

    2013-04-01

    Precipitation over India is driven by the Indian monsoon. Although changes in this atmospheric circulation are caused by the differential seasonal diabatic heating of Asia and the Indo-Pacific Ocean, it is so far unknown how global warming influences the monsoon rainfalls regionally. Herein, we present a Miocene pollen flora as the first direct proxy for monsoon over southern India during the Middle Miocene Climate Optimum. To identify climatic key parameters, such as mean annual temperature, warmest month temperature, coldest month temperature, mean annual precipitation, mean precipitation during the driest month, mean precipitation during the wettest month and mean precipitation during the warmest month the Coexistence Approach is applied. Irrespective of a ~ 3-4 °C higher global temperature during the Middle Miocene Climate Optimum, the results indicate a modern-like monsoonal precipitation pattern contrasting marine proxies which point to a strong decline of Indian monsoon in the Himalaya at this time. Therefore, the strength of monsoon rainfall in tropical India appears neither to be related to global warming nor to be linked with the atmospheric conditions over the Tibetan Plateau. For the future it implies that increased global warming does not necessarily entail changes in the South Indian monsoon rainfall.

  14. Haze in the Grand Canyon: An evaluation of the Winter Haze Intensive Tracer Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    The Grand Canyon is one of the most spectacular natural sights on earth. Approximately 4 million visitors travel to Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP) each year to enjoy its majestic geological formations and intensely colored views. However, visibility in GCNP can be impaired by small increases in concentrations of fine suspended particles that scatter and absorb light; the resulting visibility degradation is perceived as haze. Sulfate particles are a major factor in visibility impairment at Grand Canyon in summer and winter. Many wintertime hazes at GCNP are believed to result from the accumulation of emissions from local sources during conditions of air stagnation, which occur more frequently in winter than in summer. In January and February 1987, the National Park Service (NPS) carried out a large-scale experiment known as the Winter Haze Intensive Tracer Experiment (WHITEX) to investigate the causes of wintertime haze in the region of GCNP and Canyonlands National Park. The overall objective of WHITEX was to assess the feasibility of attributing visibility impairment in specific geographic regions to emissions from a single point source. The experiment called for the injection of a tracer, deuterated methane (CD{sub 4}), into one of the stacks of the Navajo Generating Station (NGS), a major coal-fired power plant located 25 km from the GCNP boundary and 110 km northeast of Grand Canyon Village. A network of field stations was established in the vicinity -- mostly to the northeast of GCNP and NGS -- to measure CD{sub 4} concentrations, atmospheric aerosol and optical properties, and other chemical and physical attributes. 19 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Initial results from the StratoClim aircraft campaign in the Asian Monsoon in summer 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rex, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Asian Monsoon System is one of the Earth's largest and most energetic weather systems. Monsoon rainfall is critical to feeding over a billion people in Asia and the monsoon circulation affects weather patterns over the entire northern hemisphere. The Monsoon also acts like an enormous elevator, pumping vast amounts of air and pollutants from the surface up to the tropopause region at levels above 16km altitude, from where air can ascend into the stratosphere, where it spreads globally. Thus the monsoon affects the chemical composition of the global tropopause region and the stratosphere, and hence plays a key role for the composition of the UTS. Dynamically the monsoon circulation leads to the formation of a large anticyclone at tropopause levels above South Asia - the Asian Monsoon Anticyclone (AMA). Satellite images show a large cloud of aerosols directly above the monsoon, the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (ATAL). In July to August 2017 the international research project StratoClim carried out the first in-situ aircraft measurements in the AMA and the ATAL with the high altitude research aircraft M55-Geophysica. Around 8 scientific flights took place in the airspaces of Nepal, India and Bangladesh and have horizontally and vertically probed the AMA and have well characterized the ATAL along flight patterns that have been carefully designed by a theory, modelling and satellite data analysing team in the field. The aircraft campaign has been complemented by launches of research balloons from ground stations in Nepal, Bangladesh, China and Palau. The presentation will give an overview of the StratoClim project, the aircraft and balloon activities and initial results from the StratoClim Asian Monsoon campaign in summer 2017.

  16. Heavy Rainfall Associated with a Monsoon Depression in South China: Structure Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Jianying; JIANG Jixi; BU Yalin; LIU Nianqing

    2008-01-01

    A heavy rainfall associated with the deepening of a monsoon depression happened in the summer of 2005.This process was first diagnostically analyzed and the 3D structure of the monsoon depression was discussed,then this structure was compared with those of the monsoon depression in South Asia and the low vortex in the Meiyu front. The results showed that the heavy rainfall directly resulted from a monsoon depression in South China, and the large-scale environment provided a favorable background for the deepening of the monsoon depression. The 3D structure of the monsoon depression was as follows. In the horizontal direction,there existed a convective cloud band to the south of the monsoon depression, which lay in a convectively instable area, with a relatively strong ascending motion in the mid and low levels of the troposphere, and the ascending motion matched well with a moist tongue, a convergence area, and a band of positive vorticity in the mid and low levels of the troposphere. In the vertical direction, the depression had an obviously cyclonic circulation in the mid and low levels of the troposphere, but no circulation from above 300 hPa. The monsoon depression corresponded to convergence and positive vorticity in the low levels, but to divergence and negative vortieity in the upper levels. The upward draft of the depression could reach the upper levels of the troposphere in the west of the depression, while the descending motion lay in the east. There was a low-level jet to the south of the depression, while the upper-level jet was not obvious. The depression was vertically warm in the upper levels and cold in the low levels, and the axis of the depression tilted southeastward with height, whose characteristics were different not only from the monsoon depression in South Asia but also from the low vortex in the Meiyu front.

  17. Impact of anthropogenic aerosols from global, East Asian, and non-East Asian sources on East Asian summer monsoon system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiuyan; Wang, Zhili; Zhang, Hua

    2017-01-01

    The impact of the total effects due to anthropogenic aerosols from global, East Asian, and non-East Asian sources on East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) system is studied using an aerosol-climate online model BCC_AGCM2.0.1_CUACE/Aero. The results show that the summer mean net all-sky shortwave fluxes averaged over East Asian monsoon region (EAMR) at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and surface reduce by 4.8 and 5.0 W m- 2, respectively, due to the increases of global aerosol emissions in 2000 relative to 1850. Changes in radiations and their resulting changes in heat and water transport and cloud fraction contribute together to the surface cooling over EAMR in summer. The increases in global anthropogenic aerosols lead to a decrease of 2.1 K in summer mean surface temperature and an increase of 0.4 hPa in summer mean surface pressure averaged over EAMR, respectively. It is shown that the changes in surface temperature and pressure are significantly larger over land than ocean, thus decreasing the contrast of land-sea surface temperature and pressure. This results in the marked anomalies of north and northeast winds over eastern and southern China and the surrounding oceans in summer, thereby weakening the EASM. The summer mean precipitation averaged over the EAMR reduces by 12%. The changes in non-East Asian aerosol emissions play a more important role in inducing the changes of local temperature and pressure, and thus significantly exacerbate the weakness of the EASM circulation due to local aerosol changes. The weakening of circulation due to both is comparable, and even the effect of non-local aerosols is larger in individual regions. The changes of local and non-local aerosols contribute comparably to the reductions in precipitation over oceans, whereas cause opposite changes over eastern China. Our results highlight the importance of aerosol changes outside East Asia in the impact of the changes of anthropogenic aerosols on EASM.

  18. Russia and proliferation in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatov, A.I.

    1995-01-01

    For Russia, security, including non-proliferation, in Northeast Asia means in particular the maintenance of stability. Progress in arms control and non-proliferation may enhance regional stability. A common regional approach is proposed. Russia recognizes the US alliances with Japan and republic of Korea and is searching for a new cooperation framework in the region, namely further development of relations with China and reasonable rapprochement with Japan

  19. Winter sea ice export from the Laptev Sea preconditions the local summer sea ice cover and fast ice decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Itkin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ice retreat in the eastern Eurasian Arctic is a consequence of atmospheric and oceanic processes and regional feedback mechanisms acting on the ice cover, both in winter and summer. A correct representation of these processes in numerical models is important, since it will improve predictions of sea ice anomalies along the Northeast Passage and beyond. In this study, we highlight the importance of winter ice dynamics for local summer sea ice anomalies in thickness, volume and extent. By means of airborne sea ice thickness surveys made over pack ice areas in the south-eastern Laptev Sea, we show that years of offshore-directed sea ice transport have a thinning effect on the late-winter sea ice cover. To confirm the preconditioning effect of enhanced offshore advection in late winter on the summer sea ice cover, we perform a sensitivity study using a numerical model. Results verify that the preconditioning effect plays a bigger role for the regional ice extent. Furthermore, they indicate an increase in volume export from the Laptev Sea as a consequence of enhanced offshore advection, which has far-reaching consequences for the entire Arctic sea ice mass balance. Moreover we show that ice dynamics in winter not only preconditions local summer ice extent, but also accelerate fast-ice decay.

  20. Nuclear winter or nuclear fall?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, André

    Climate is universal. If a major modern nuclear war (i.e., with a large number of small-yield weapons) were to happen, it is not even necessary to have a specific part of the world directly involved for there to be cause to worry about the consequences for its inhabitants and their future. Indeed, smoke from fires ignited by the nuclear explosions would be transported by winds all over the world, causing dark and cold. According to the first study, by Turco et al. [1983], air surface temperature over continental areas of the northern mid-latitudes (assumed to be the nuclear war theatre) would fall to winter levels even in summer (hence the term “nuclear winter”) and induce drastic climatic conditions for several months at least. The devastating effects of a nuclear war would thus last much longer than was assumed initially. Discussing to what extent these estimations of long-term impacts on climate are reliable is the purpose of this article.

  1. Black carbon and West African Monsoon precipitation. Observations and simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.; Adams, A.; Zhang, C.; Wang, C.

    2009-01-01

    We have recently investigated large-scale co-variability between aerosol and precipitation and other meteorological variables in the West African Monsoon (WAM) region using long term satellite observations and reanalysis data. In this study we compared the observational results to a global model simulation including only direct radiative forcing of black carbon (BC). From both observations and model simulations we found that in boreal cold seasons anomalously high African aerosols are associated with significant reductions in cloud amount, cloud top height, and surface precipitation. These results suggest that the observed precipitation reduction in the WAM region is caused by radiative effect of BC. The result also suggests that the BC effect on precipitation is nonlinear. (orig.)

  2. The Winter Cooling Trend in Eastern China during the Recent Global Warming Hiatus Period and Its Possible Reason

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, T.; Li, S.; Luo, F.; Han, Z.

    2017-12-01

    The authors analyzed the observed winter surface air temperature in eastern mainland China during the recent global warming hiatus period through 1998-2013. The results suggest a substantial cooling trend of about -1.0°/decade in Eastern China, Northeast China and Southeast China. Mechanism exploration indicates that the displacement of the East Asian upper-tropospheric jet and the associated Rossby wave may have contributed to the cooling trend. A southward shift of the East Asian polar together with a northward shift of the subtropical jet caused the enhancement of the northern East Asian trough and Siberian High. A diagnostic analysis suggests that the Arctic sea ice loss, ENSO and North Atlantic SST all play a role. With the three factors removed, the air temperature trend is -0.35, -0.08 and -0.44°/decade over East China, Northeast China and Southeast China, respectively.

  3. Large-Scale Control of the Arabian Sea Summer Monsoon Inversion and Low Clouds: A New Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C. H.; Wang, S. Y.; Hsu, H. H.; Hsu, P. C.

    2016-12-01

    The Arabian Sea undergoes a so-called summer monsoon inversion that reaches the maximum intensity in August associated with a large amount of low-level clouds. The formation of inversion and low clouds was generally thought to be a local system influenced by the India-Pakistan monsoon advancement. New empirical and numerical evidence suggests that, rather than being a mere byproduct of the nearby monsoon, the Arabian Sea monsoon inversion is coupled with a broad-scale monsoon evolution connected across the Africa Sahel, South Asia, and the East Asia-western North Pacific (WNP). Several subseasonal variations occur in tandem: The eastward expansion of the Asian-Pacific monsoonal heating likely suppresses the India-Pakistan monsoon while enhancing low-level thermal inversion of Arabian Sea; the upper-tropospheric anticyclone in South Asia weakens in August smoothing zonal contrast in geopotential heights (10°N-30°N); the subtropical WNP monsoon trough in the lower troposphere that signals the revival of East Asian summer monsoon matures in August; the Sahel rainfall peaks in August accompanied by an intensified tropical easterly jet. The occurrence of the latter two processes enhances upper-level anticyclones over Africa and WNP and this, in turn, induces subsidence in between over the Arabian Sea. Numerical experiments demonstrate the combined effect of the African and WNP monsoonal heating on the enhancement of the Arabian Sea monsoon inversion. Connection is further found in the interannual and decadal variations between the East Asian-WNP monsoon and the Arabian Sea monsoon inversion. In years with reduced low clouds of Arabian Sea, the East Asian midlatitude jet stream remains strong in August while the WNP monsoon trough appears to be weakened. The Arabian Sea inversion (ridge) and WNP trough pattern which forms a dipole structure, is also found to have intensified since the 21st century.

  4. Uniform climate development between the subtropical and subpolar Northeast Atlantic across marine isotope stage 11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Helmke

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Proxy records from a core site off Northwest Africa were generated and compared with data from the subpolar Northeast Atlantic to unravel some main climatic features of interglacial marine isotope stage (MIS 11 (423–362 ka. The records point to an almost 25 kyr lasting full interglacial period during stage 11 that was preceded by a considerably long glacial-interglacial transition (Termination V. Off NW Africa, a strong reduction of terrestrially derived iron input is noted after 420 ka suggesting a pronounced increase in continental humidity and vegetation cover over Northwest Africa. In analogy to the Holocene climate of the region, this early wet phase of MIS 11 was likely associated with enhanced influence of the West African monsoon system on the Saharan-Sahel region which led to both a reduction in trade wind intensity off NW Africa and the formation of sapropel S11 in the Mediterranean Sea. A detailed comparison with data from the subpolar North Atlantic indicates a remarkable coherent timing for the main environmental changes in both regions giving evidence for strong interglacial climate connection between the low and high latitude North Atlantic. Although our records of MIS 11 compare well with the Holocene in terms of some major climate characteristics there are distinct differences in the temporal evolution of each peak warm interval. This suggests that care should be taken when using MIS 11 as analogue to forecast future interglacial conditions.

  5. Correlations of Rainfall and Forest Type with Papilionid Assemblages in Assam in Northeast India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamini Kusum Barua

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available No comprehensive community studies have been done on the butterflies of the tropical monsoon forests of the East Himalayan region. We described the Papilionidae at one site within the continuous moist deciduous forest belt of Northeast India and their variation with season and forest type. We surveyed 20 permanent line transects, varying with respect to canopy openness and observed levels of disturbance. A total sample effort of 131 days during the dry and wet seasons of a two-year study resulted in 18,373 individuals identified from 28 Papilionidae species. Constrained canonical correspondence ordination was used to examine the effects of season, forest type, rainfall, year, altitude, and geographical position on the species assemblages. Results showed that rainfall, forest type, and season accounted for most variance in papilionid abundance. Rainfall was strongly correlated with the abundance of some species. Nine species were associated with gaps, 16 species were restricted to closed forest, and three species were encountered in both gaps and closed forest. Six species with narrow geographic range were found only in closed forest. The results confirm the strong seasonality of continental Southeast Asian butterfly assemblages.

  6. Sensitivity studies on the impacts of Tibetan Plateau snowpack pollution on the Asian hydrological cycle and monsoon climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Y.; Flanner, M.; Leung, R.; Wang, W.

    2012-04-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) has long been identified to be critical in regulating the Asian monsoon climate and hydrological cycle. In this modeling study a series of numerical experiments with a global climate model are designed to simulate radiative effect of black carbon (BC) and dust in snow, and to assess the relative impacts of anthropogenic CO2 and carbonaceous particles in the atmosphere and snow on the snowpack over the TP and subsequent impacts on the Asian monsoon climate and hydrological cycle. Simulations results show a large BC content in snow over the TP, especially the southern slope. Because of the high aerosol content in snow and large incident solar radiation in the low latitude and high elevation, the TP exhibits the largest surface radiative flux changes induced by aerosols (e.g. BC, Dust) in snow compared to any other snow-covered regions in the world. Simulation results show that the aerosol-induced snow albedo perturbations generate surface radiative flux changes of 5-25 W m-2 during spring, with a maximum in April or May. BC-in-snow increases the surface air temperature by around 1.0oC averaged over the TP and reduces spring snowpack over the TP more than pre-industrial to present CO2 increase and carbonaceous particles in the atmosphere. As a result, runoff increases during late winter and early spring but decreases during late spring and early summer (i.e. a trend toward earlier melt dates). The snowmelt efficacy, defined as the snowpack reduction per unit degree of warming induced by the forcing agent, is 1-4 times larger for BC-in-snow than CO2 increase during April-July, indicating that BC-in-snow more efficiently accelerates snowmelt because the increased net solar radiation induced by reduced albedo melts the snow more efficiently than snow melt due to warming in the air. The TP also influences the South (SAM) and East (EAM) Asian monsoon through its dynamical and thermal forcing. Simulation results show that during boreal spring

  7. Sensitivity studies on the impacts of Tibetan Plateau snowpack pollution on the Asian hydrological cycle and monsoon climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Yun; Flanner, M G; Leung, Lai-Yung R; Wang, Weiguo

    2011-03-02

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP), the highest and largest plateau in the world, has long been identified to be critical in regulating the Asian monsoon climate and hydrological cycle. The snowpack and glaciers over the TP provide fresh water to billions of people in Asian countries, but the TP glaciers have been retreating extensively at a speed faster than any other part of the world. In this study a series of experiments with a global climate model are designed to simulate black carbon (BC) and dust in snow and their radiative forcing and to assess the relative impacts of anthropogenic CO2 and carbonaceous particles in the atmosphere and snow, respectively, on the snowpack over the TP, as well as their subsequent impacts on the Asian monsoon climate and hydrological cycle. Results show a large BC content in snow over the TP, especially the southern slope, with concentration larger than 100 µk/kg. Because of the high aerosol content in snow and large incident solar radiation in the low latitude and high elevation, the TP exhibits the largest surface radiative forcing induced by aerosols (e.g. BC, Dust) in snow compared to other snow-covered regions in the world. The aerosol-induced snow albedo perturbations generate surface radiative forcing of 5-25 W m-2 during spring, with a maximum in April or May. BC-in-snow increases the surface air temperature by around 1.0°C averaged over the TP and reduces snowpack over the TP more than that induced by pre-industrial to present CO2 increase and carbonaceous particles in the atmosphere during spring. As a result, runoff increases during late winter and early spring but decreases during late spring and early summer (i.e. a trend toward earlier melt dates). The snowmelt efficacy, defined as the snowpack reduction per unit degree of warming induced by the forcing agent, is 1-4 times larger for BC-in-snow than CO2 increase during April-July, indicating that BC-in-snow more efficiently

  8. Tectonic uplift-influenced monsoonal changes promoted hominin occupation of the Luonan Basin: Insights from a loess-paleosol sequence, eastern Qinling Mountains, central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Qian; Hong, Hanlie; Zhao, Lulu; Furnes, Harald; Lu, Huayu; Han, Wen; Liu, Yao; Jia, Zhuoyue; Wang, Chaowen; Yin, Ke; Algeo, Thomas J.

    2017-08-01

    Quaternary soil deposits from northern and southern China are distinctly different, reflecting variability of the East Asian monsoon north and south of the Qinling Mountains. Coeval sediments from the transitional climatic zone of central China, which are little studied to date, have the potential to improve our understanding of Quaternary monsoon changes and associated influences on hominin occupation of this region. Here, we investigate in detail a well-preserved and continuous Quaternary loess-paleosol sequence (Shangbaichuan) from the Luonan Basin, using a variety of weathering indices including major and trace element ratios, clay mineralogy, and Fe-oxide mineralogy. The whole-rock samples display similar rare earth element patterns characterized by upper continental crustal ratios: (La/Yb)N ≈ 9.5 and Eu/Eu* ≈ 0.65. Elemental data such as (La/Yb)N, La/Th and Eu/Eu* ratios show a high degree of homogeneity, suggesting that dust in the source region may have been thoroughly mixed and recycled, resulting in all samples having a uniform initial composition. Indices for pedogenic weathering such as Na/K, Ba/Sr, Rb/Sr, CIA, CIW, CPA, PIA, kaolinite/illite, (kaolinite + smectite)/illite, and hematite/(hematite + goethite) exhibit similar secular trends and reveal a four-stage accumulation history. The indices also indicate that the climate was warmer and wetter during the most recent interglacial stage, compared with coeval environments of the Chinese Loess Plateau. Secular changes in weathering intensity can be related to stepwise uplift of the Qinling Mountains and variation in East Asian monsoon intensity, both of which played significant roles in controlling climate evolution in the Luonan Basin. Furthermore, intensified aridity and winter monsoon strength in dust source areas, as evidenced by mineralogic and geochemical changes, may have been due to the mid-Pleistocene climate transition. Based on temporal correlation of warmer and wetter climatic conditions

  9. Geochemical loading of suspended sediment carried by large monsoonal rivers in Burma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, R. A.; Tipper, E.; Bird, M. I.; Oo, N.

    2013-12-01

    The Irrawaddy and Salween rivers of Burma drain the most rapidly exhuming region in the Himalayas, the eastern syntaxis zone. These monsoonal rivers have catchment areas of 0.413 x 106 km2 and 0.272 x 106 km2, respectively, and approximately 95% of the Irrawaddy catchment lies within Burma, while the catchment of the Salween flows through China, Thailand and Burma. They are long rivers (~2000 and ~2800 km) which have steep and narrow bedrock gorges along much of their length, and different amounts of floodplain in their lower reaches. These rivers have been less studied than other large Asian systems because of political instability in Burma and restricted access. Based on available historical data, and field work in 2005-2008, Robinson et al. (2007) estimated that the Irrawaddy is likely to be the 3rd largest river globally in terms of sediment load and when the Irrawaddy and Salween estimated fluxes are combined, they together contribute 4.6 Mt/yr of particulate organic carbon (POC) and an additional 1.1Mt/yr of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to the ocean. When estimated yields of total organic carbon are calculated, the Irrawaddy-Salween system ranks alongside the Amazon as one of the largest yields of organic carbon, and is higher than the yield for the Ganges-Brahmaptura (Bird et al., 2008). Here we present preliminary geochemical data for water and sediment from the Irrawaddy and Salween rivers, and demonstrate the variability in elemental concentrations of water between the rivers and the summer and winter monsoon seasons, and differences in suspended sediment geochemistry as a function of water depth. The variability and magnitude of weathering products carried by such significant systems need to be quantified in order to understand their contribution to global element cycling (Tipper et al., 2006) and sedimentary depocentres. Our data highlight that further study of the geochemistry of such large rivers will significantly improve our understanding of the

  10. Development of a solar thermal storage system suitable for the farmhouse heating in northeast China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, M.K. [Shenyang Agricultural Univ., Shenyang (China)

    2010-07-01

    This study reported on the performance of a passive solar radiant floor heating system designed for standard energy-saving farmhouses in northeast China. Weather data in the region was analyzed in terms of solar radiation, temperature, humidity and light levels. The heating characteristics of the building materials such as windows, doors, walls and roofs were also analyzed along with the indoor thermal environment of the farmhouse. The heating load was then calculated along with the size of the thermal storage element and the area of the collector element. The passive solar radiant floor heating system was designed for heating during the winter and cooling in summer. According to the results, the heating characteristics of the system have the potential to improve farming villages environment and the use of renewable energy.

  11. Prediction and Monitoring of Monsoon Intraseasonal Oscillations over Indian Monsoon Region in an Ensemble Prediction System using CFSv2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Nabanita; Sukumarpillai, Abhilash; Sahai, Atul Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Rajib; Joseph, Susmitha; De, Soumyendu; Nath Goswami, Bhupendra; Kumar, Arun

    2014-05-01

    An ensemble prediction system (EPS) is devised for the extended range prediction (ERP) of monsoon intraseasonal oscillations (MISO) of Indian summer monsoon (ISM) using NCEP Climate Forecast System model version2 at T126 horizontal resolution. The EPS is formulated by producing 11 member ensembles through the perturbation of atmospheric initial conditions. The hindcast experiments were conducted at every 5-day interval for 45 days lead time starting from 16th May to 28th September during 2001-2012. The general simulation of ISM characteristics and the ERP skill of the proposed EPS at pentad mean scale are evaluated in the present study. Though the EPS underestimates both the mean and variability of ISM rainfall, it simulates the northward propagation of MISO reasonably well. It is found that the signal-to-noise ratio becomes unity by about18 days and the predictability error saturates by about 25 days. Though useful deterministic forecasts could be generated up to 2nd pentad lead, significant correlations are observed even up to 4th pentad lead. The skill in predicting large-scale MISO, which is assessed by comparing the predicted and observed MISO indices, is found to be ~17 days. It is noted that the prediction skill of actual rainfall is closely related to the prediction of amplitude of large scale MISO as well as the initial conditions related to the different phases of MISO. Categorical prediction skills reveals that break is more skillfully predicted, followed by active and then normal. The categorical probability skill scores suggest that useful probabilistic forecasts could be generated even up to 4th pentad lead.

  12. Statistical-Dynamical Seasonal Forecasts of Central-Southwest Asian Winter Precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippett, Michael K.; Goddard, Lisa; Barnston, Anthony G.

    2005-06-01

    Interannual precipitation variability in central-southwest (CSW) Asia has been associated with East Asian jet stream variability and western Pacific tropical convection. However, atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) forced by observed sea surface temperature (SST) poorly simulate the region's interannual precipitation variability. The statistical-dynamical approach uses statistical methods to correct systematic deficiencies in the response of AGCMs to SST forcing. Statistical correction methods linking model-simulated Indo-west Pacific precipitation and observed CSW Asia precipitation result in modest, but statistically significant, cross-validated simulation skill in the northeast part of the domain for the period from 1951 to 1998. The statistical-dynamical method is also applied to recent (winter 1998/99 to 2002/03) multimodel, two-tier December-March precipitation forecasts initiated in October. This period includes 4 yr (winter of 1998/99 to 2001/02) of severe drought. Tercile probability forecasts are produced using ensemble-mean forecasts and forecast error estimates. The statistical-dynamical forecasts show enhanced probability of below-normal precipitation for the four drought years and capture the return to normal conditions in part of the region during the winter of 2002/03.May Kabul be without gold, but not without snow.—Traditional Afghan proverb

  13. Factors controlling the temporal and spatial variations in Synechococcus abundance in a monsoonal estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajaneesh, K.M.; Mitbavkar, S.

    salinity preferences with phycoerythrin-rich cells at salinities >2 (Synechococcus-PEI), >20 (Synechococcus-PEII) and <1 (Synechococcus-PEIII) whereas phycocyanin-rich (Synechococcus-PC) dominant at lower salinities. Downstream stratification during monsoon...

  14. Deglaciation in the tropical Indian Ocean driven by interplay between the regional monsoon and global teleconnections

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saraswat, R.; Lea, D.W.; Nigam, R.; Mackensen, A.; Naik, Dinesh K.

    High resolution climate records of the ice age terminations from monsoon-dominated regions reveal the interplay of regional and global driving forces. Speleothem records from Chinese caves indicate that glacial terminations were interrupted...

  15. Attenuation of surface waves due to monsoon rains: A model study for the north Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vethamony, P.; Kumar, B.P.; Sarma, Y.V.B.

    The dynamic interaction of intense rain with waves based on momentum exchange is applied to a second generation wave model to predict wave attenuation during monsoon. The scheme takes into account the characteristics of rain and wave parameters...

  16. Variability of the date of monsoon onset over Kerala (India) of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P N Preenu

    2017-07-25

    Jul 25, 2017 ... Nansen Environmental Research Centre India, 6A Oxford Business Centre, Kochi, Kerala 682 016, India. ... Monsoon onset over Kerala (India) which occurs every year is a ...... for delayed MOK years and figure 12 gives the.

  17. Relationships between Indian summer monsoon rainfall and ice cover over selected oceanic regions

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopinathan, C.K.

    The variations in oceanic ice cover at selected polar regions during 1973 to 1987 have been analysed in relation to the seasonal Indian summer monsoon rainfall. The ice cover over the Arctic regions in June has negative relationship (correlation...

  18. Monsoon oscillations of the Findlater Jet and coastal winds of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Zhao, C.; Muraleedharan, P.M.; Rao, G.S.P.; Sugimori, Y.

    Intraseasonal variability (ISV) of the Low Level Jet (LLJ) and its effects on coastal winds during the Indian summer monsoon are examined using National Centre for Environmental Prediction / National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCEP) reanalyses...

  19. Monsoonal reversal of remote sensing biases in latent heat flux over eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Muraleedharan, P.M.; Pankajakshan, T.; Sathe, P.V.; Murty, V.S.N.; Santosh, K.R.

    The Arabian Sea is a unique basin where a number of atmospheric and oceanographic processes occur due to the contrasting climatic conditions, which it experiences. The drastic monsoonal variability occurring in the boundary layer adversely affects...

  20. Seasonal variations in the fouling diatom community structure from a monsoon influenced tropical estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mitbavkar, S.; Anil, A.C.

    Seasonal variations in the fouling diatom community from a monsoon influenced tropical estuary were investigated. The community composition did not differ significantly between stainless steel and polystyrene substrata due to dominance by Navicula...

  1. Bacterial domination over Archaea in ammonia oxidation in a monsoon-driven tropical estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vipindas, P.V.; Anas, A.; Jasmin, C.; Lallu, K.R.; Fausia, K.H.; Balachandran, K.K.; Muraleedharan, K.R.; Nair, S.

    Autotrophic ammonia oxidizing microorganisms,which are responsible for the rate-limiting step of nitrification in most aquatic systems, have not been studied in tropical estuaries. Cochin estuary (CE) is one of the largest, productive, and monsoon...

  2. Driving forces of Indian summer monsoon on Milankovitch and sub-Milankovitch time scales: A review

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naidu, P.D.

    A scientific consensus exists that tectonic evolution of Himalaya is the main cause of monsoon initiation and evolution in southeast Asia. Several forcing factors such as tectonic, solar insolation, latent heat transport, albedo of the earth surface...

  3. Spectral characteristics of the nearshore waves off Paradip, India during monsoon and extreme events

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Aboobacker, V.M.; Vethamony, P.; Sudheesh, K.; Rupali, S.P.

    and directional wave energy spectra distinctly separate out the wave conditions that prevailed off Paradip in the monsoon, fair weather and extreme weather events during the above period. Frequency-energy spectra during extreme events are single peaked...

  4. Influence of orographically enhanced SW monsoon flux on coastal processes along the SE Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.; Raghavan, B.R.; Singh, K.; Rajawat, A; Ajai; Kader, U.S.A; Nayak, S.

    The Arabian Sea has an excess evaporation over precipitation regime. The southeast Arabian Sea is, however, anomalous because it has ~2800–4800 mm rainfall during the southwest monsoon (SWM). Despite a high rainfall, the fluvial influence on supply...

  5. Interactions between trophic levels in upwelling and non-upwelling regions during summer monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Malik, A; Fernandes, C.E.G.; Gonsalves, M.J.B.D.; Subina, N.S.; Mamatha, S.S.; Krishna, K.S.; Varik, S.; RituKumari; Gauns, M.; Cejoice, R.P.; Pandey, S.S.; Jineesh, V.K.; Kamaleson, A; Vijayan, V.; Mukherjee, I.; Subramanyan, S.; Nair, S.; Ingole, B.S.; LokaBharathi, P.A

    Coastal upwelling is a regular phenomenon occurring along the southwest coast of India during summer monsoon (May–September). We hypothesize that there could be a shift in environmental parameters along with changes in the network of interactions...

  6. Seasonal variations in abundance, biomass and grazing rates of microzooplankton in a tropical monsoonal estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gauns, M.; Mochemadkar, S.; Patil, S.; Pratihary, A.K.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Madhupratap, M.

    Seasonal abundance, composition and grazing rates of microzooplankton (20–200 µm) in the Zuari estuary were investigated to evaluate their importance in food web dynamics of a tropical monsoonal estuary. Average abundances of microzooplankton...

  7. Monsoonal impact on planktonic standing stock and abundance in a tropical estuary (Cochin backwaters - India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhu, N.V.; Jyothibabu, R; Balachandran, K.K.; Honey, U.K.; Martin, G.D.; Vijay, J.G.; Shiyas, C.A.; Gupta, G.V.M.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    and post monsoon seasons, but became low during premonsoon season (<5). Hence, it is suggested that during the periods of fresh water dominance, the trophic food web of Cochin estuarine system is characterized by substantial amount of unconsumed carbon...

  8. Variations in phytoplankton community in a monsoon-influenced tropical estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Patil, J.S.; Anil, A.C.

    . The break period in monsoon altered the phytoplankton community leading to mixed species bloom of large-sized diatoms and harmful dinoflagellates (Gymnodinium catenatum and Cochlodinium polykrikoides) under high-saline, nutrient-poor, non...

  9. Upper ocean stratification and circulation in the northern Bay of Bengal during southwest monsoon of 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishna, V. V.; Murty, V. S. N.; Sengupta, D.; Shenoy, Shrikant; Araligidad, Nilesh

    2002-03-01

    During the southwest monsoon (July) of 1991 a large plume (300×250 km 2) of warm (>29°C) and less saline (Continental Shelf Research 19 (1999) 1437, Journal of Geophysical Research 106 (C1) (2001) 1067).

  10. Foraminiferal production and monsoonal upwelling in the Arabian sea: evidence from sediment traps

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Curry, W.B.; Ostermann, D.R.; Guptha, M.V.S.; Ittekkot, V.

    Planktonic foraminifera collected in sediment traps in the Arabian Sea during 1986 and 1987 responded to the southern Asian monsoon with changes in productivity, relative abundance of species and isotopic shell chemistry. Most species...

  11. Ecology of benthic production during southwest monsoon in an estuarine complex of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.; Dwivedi, S.N.

    Qualitative and quantitative differences in the spatial temporal distribution and production of benthic macrofauna in pre- and post-monsoon were observed and the differences are discussed in relation to the environmental factors The fauna...

  12. RAMA: The Research Moored Array for African-Asian-Australian Monsoon Analysis and Prediction (including supplement)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    McPhaden, M.J.; Meyers, G.; Ando, K.; Masumoto, Y.; Murty, V.S.N.; Ravichandran, M.; Syamsudin, F.; Vialard, J.; Yu, L.; Yu, W.

    -atmosphere interactions, and intense seasonal rains over the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, East Africa, and Australia. Recurrence of these monsoon rains is critical to agricultural production that supports a third of the world’s population. The Indian Ocean also...

  13. Differential response of vegetation in Hulun Lake region at the northern margin of Asian summer monsoon to extreme cold events of the last deglaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengrui; Xiao, Jule; Xu, Qinghai; Wen, Ruilin; Fan, Jiawei; Huang, Yun; Yamagata, Hideki

    2018-06-01

    The response of vegetation to extreme cold events during the last deglaciation is important for assessing the impact of possible extreme climatic events on terrestrial ecosystems under future global warming scenarios. Here, we present a detailed record of the development of regional vegetation in the northern margin of Asian summer monsoon during the last deglaciation (16,500-11,000 cal yr BP) based on a radiocarbon-dated high-resolution pollen record from Hulun Lake, northeast China. The results show that the regional vegetation changed from subalpine meadow-desert steppe to mixed coniferous and deciduous forest-typical steppe during the last deglaciation. However, its responses to the Heinrich event 1 (H1) and the Younger Dryas event (YD) were significantly different: during the H1 event, scattered sparse forest was present in the surrounding mountains, while within the lake catchment the vegetation cover was poor and was dominated by desert steppe. In contrast, during the YD event, deciduous forest developed and the proportion of coniferous forest increased in the mountains, the lake catchment was occupied by typical steppe. We suggest that changes in Northern Hemisphere summer insolation and land surface conditions (ice sheets and sea level) caused temperature and monsoonal precipitation variations that contributed to the contrasting vegetation response during the two cold events. We conclude that under future global warming scenarios, extreme climatic events may cause a deterioration of the ecological environment of the Hulun Lake region, resulting in increased coniferous forest and decreased total forest cover in the surrounding mountains, and a reduction in typical steppe in the lake catchment.

  14. Importance of monsoon rainfall in mass fluxes of filtered and unfiltered mercury in Gwangyang Bay, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Jiyi; Han, Seunghee

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the effects of the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM), which brings approximately half of Korea's annual rainfall in July, on the concentration and particle-water partitioning, and sources of Hg in coastal waters. Surface seawater samples were collected from eight sites in Gwangyang Bay, Korea, during the monsoon (July, 2009) and non-monsoon dry (April and November, 2009) seasons and the concentrations of suspended particulate matter, chlorophyll-a, and unfiltered and filtered Hg were determined. We found significant (p 0.05) between the monsoon (459 ± 141 pmol g -1 ) and the dry season (346 ± 30 pmol g -1 ), which resulted in decreased particle-water partition coefficients of Hg in the monsoon season compared to the values in the dry season: 5.7 ± 0.1 in April, 5.3 ± 0.1 in July, and 5.8 ± 0.1 in November. The annual Hg input to Gwangyang Bay was estimated at 64 ± 6.6 mol yr -1 and 27 ± 1.9 mol yr -1 for unfiltered and filtered Hg, respectively. The Hg discharged from rivers was a major source of Hg in Gwangyang Bay: the river input contributed 83 ± 13% of total input of unfiltered and 73 ± 6.0% of filtered Hg. On a monthly basis, unfiltered Hg input was 17 ± 11 mol month -1 in the monsoon season and 3.2 ± 0.70 mol month -1 in the dry season, while filtered Hg input was 7.1 ± 4.1 mol month -1 in the monsoon and 1.3 ± 0.26 mol month -1 in the dry. Consequently, the EASM resulted in an unfiltered Hg input 5.3 times greater than the mean dry month input and a filtered Hg input 5.5 times greater than the mean dry month input, which is mainly attributable to enhanced river water discharge during the monsoon season. - Research Highlights: → Filtered mercury concentration increased in the monsoon month in coastal water. → The monsoon rain increased unfiltered Hg input 5.5 times greater than the dry month. → The monsoon rain increased filtered Hg input 5.3 times greater than the dry month.

  15. Glacial-interglacial water cycle, global monsoon and atmospheric methane changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Zhengtang; Wu, Haibin [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Cenozoic Geology and Environment, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Beijing (China); Zhou, Xin [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Cenozoic Geology and Environment, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Beijing (China); University of Science and Technology of China, School of Earth and Space Sciences and Institute of Polar Environment, Hefei (China)

    2012-09-15

    The causes of atmospheric methane (CH{sub 4}) changes are still a major contention, in particular with regards to the relative contributions of glacial-interglacial cycles, monsoons in both hemispheres and the late Holocene human intervention. Here, we explore the CH{sub 4} signals in the Antarctic EPICA Dome C and Vostok ice records using the methods of timeseries analyses and correlate them with insolation and geological records to address these issues. The results parse out three distinct groups of CH{sub 4} signals attributable to different drivers. The first group ({proportional_to}80% variance), well tracking the marine {delta}{sup 18}O record, is attributable to glacial-interglacial modulation on the global water cycle with the effects shared by wetlands at all latitudes, from monsoonal and non-monsoonal regions in both hemispheres. The second group ({proportional_to}15% variance), centered at the {proportional_to}10-kyr semi-precession frequency, is linkable with insolation-driven tropical monsoon changes in both hemispheres. The third group ({proportional_to}5% variance), marked by millennial frequencies, is seemingly related with the combined effect of ice-volume and bi-hemispheric insolation changes at the precession bands. These results indicate that bi-hemispheric monsoon changes have been a constant driver of atmospheric CH{sub 4}. This mechanism also partially explains the Holocene CH{sub 4} reversal since {proportional_to}5 kyr BP besides the human intervention. In the light of these results, we propose that global monsoon can be regarded as a system consisting of two main integrated components, one primarily driven by the oscillations of Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) in response to the low-latitude summer insolation changes, anti-phase between the two hemispheres (i.e. the ITCZ monsoon component); and another modulated by the glacial-interglacial cycles, mostly synchronous at the global scale (i.e. the glacial-interglacial monsoon

  16. Characteristics of surface O{sub 3} over Qinghai Lake area in Northeast Tibetan Plateau, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Zhenxing, E-mail: zxshen@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Key Lab of Aerosol, SKLLQG, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an (China); Cao, Junji [Key Lab of Aerosol, SKLLQG, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an (China); Zhang, Leiming [Air Quality Research Division, Environment Canada, Toronto (Canada); Zhao, Zhuzi [Key Lab of Aerosol, SKLLQG, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an (China); Dong, Jungang [School of Architecture, Xi' an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi' an 710055 (China); Wang, Linqing [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Wang, Qiyuan; Li, Guohui; Liu, Suixin [Key Lab of Aerosol, SKLLQG, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an (China); Zhang, Qian [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China)

    2014-12-01

    Surface O{sub 3} was monitored continuously during Aug. 12, 2010 to Jul. 21, 2011 at a high elevation site (3200 m above sea level) in Qinghai Lake area (36°58′37″N, 99°53′56″E) in Northeast Tibetan Plateau, China. Daily average O{sub 3} ranged from 21.8 ppbv to 65.3 ppbv with an annual average of 41.0 ppbv. Seasonal average of O{sub 3} followed a decreasing order of summer > autumn > spring > winter. Diurnal variations of O{sub 3} showed low concentrations during daytime and high concentrations during late night and early morning. An intensive campaign was also conducted during Aug. 13–31, 2010 to investigate correlations between meteorological or chemical conditions and O{sub 3}. It was found that O{sub 3} was poorly correlated with solar radiation due to the insufficient NO{sub x} in the ambient air, thus limiting O{sub 3} formation under strong solar radiation. In contrast, high O{sub 3} levels always coincided with strong winds, suggesting that stratospheric O{sub 3} and long range transport might be the main sources of O{sub 3} in this rural area. Back-trajectory analysis supported this hypothesis and further indicated the transport of air masses from northwest, northeast and southeast directions. - Highlights: • Surface O{sub 3} was measured in Qinghai Lake area in Northeast Tibetan Plateau, China. • The O{sub 3} chemical formation was under a strong NOx-limited in Qinghai Lake areas. • Stratospheric O{sub 3} and transport might be the main sources of O{sub 3} in this area.

  17. Characteristics of surface O3 over Qinghai Lake area in Northeast Tibetan Plateau, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Zhenxing; Cao, Junji; Zhang, Leiming; Zhao, Zhuzi; Dong, Jungang; Wang, Linqing; Wang, Qiyuan; Li, Guohui; Liu, Suixin; Zhang, Qian

    2014-01-01

    Surface O 3 was monitored continuously during Aug. 12, 2010 to Jul. 21, 2011 at a high elevation site (3200 m above sea level) in Qinghai Lake area (36°58′37″N, 99°53′56″E) in Northeast Tibetan Plateau, China. Daily average O 3 ranged from 21.8 ppbv to 65.3 ppbv with an annual average of 41.0 ppbv. Seasonal average of O 3 followed a decreasing order of summer > autumn > spring > winter. Diurnal variations of O 3 showed low concentrations during daytime and high concentrations during late night and early morning. An intensive campaign was also conducted during Aug. 13–31, 2010 to investigate correlations between meteorological or chemical conditions and O 3 . It was found that O 3 was poorly correlated with solar radiation due to the insufficient NO x in the ambient air, thus limiting O 3 formation under strong solar radiation. In contrast, high O 3 levels always coincided with strong winds, suggesting that stratospheric O 3 and long range transport might be the main sources of O 3 in this rural area. Back-trajectory analysis supported this hypothesis and further indicated the transport of air masses from northwest, northeast and southeast directions. - Highlights: • Surface O 3 was measured in Qinghai Lake area in Northeast Tibetan Plateau, China. • The O 3 chemical formation was under a strong NOx-limited in Qinghai Lake areas. • Stratospheric O 3 and transport might be the main sources of O 3 in this area

  18. Estimating the Population Size and Genetic Diversity of Amur Tigers in Northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailong Dou

    Full Text Available Over the past century, the endangered Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica has experienced a severe contraction in demography and geographic range because of habitat loss, poaching, and prey depletion. In its historical home in Northeast China, there appears to be a single tiger population that includes tigers in Southwest Primorye and Northeast China; however, the current demographic status of this population is uncertain. Information on the abundance, distribution and genetic diversity of this population for assessing the efficacy of conservation interventions are scarce. We used noninvasive genetic detection data from scats, capture-recapture models and an accumulation curve method to estimate the abundance of Amur tigers in Northeast China. We identified 11 individual tigers (6 females and 5 males using 10 microsatellite loci in three nature reserves between April 2013 and May 2015. These tigers are confined primarily to a Hunchun Nature Reserve along the border with Russia, with an estimated population abundance of 9-11 tigers during the winter of 2014-2015. They showed a low level of genetic diversity. The mean number of alleles per locus was 2.60 and expected and observed heterozygosity were 0.42 and 0.49, respectively. We also documented long-distance dispersal (~270 km of a male Amur tiger to Huangnihe Nature Reserve from the border, suggesting that the expansion of neighboring Russian populations may eventually help sustain Chinese populations. However, the small and isolated population recorded by this study demonstrate that there is an urgent need for more intensive regional management to create a tiger-permeable landscape and increased genetic connectivity with other populations.

  19. Estimating the Population Size and Genetic Diversity of Amur Tigers in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Hailong; Yang, Haitao; Feng, Limin; Mou, Pu; Wang, Tianming; Ge, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    Over the past century, the endangered Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) has experienced a severe contraction in demography and geographic range because of habitat loss, poaching, and prey depletion. In its historical home in Northeast China, there appears to be a single tiger population that includes tigers in Southwest Primorye and Northeast China; however, the current demographic status of this population is uncertain. Information on the abundance, distribution and genetic diversity of this population for assessing the efficacy of conservation interventions are scarce. We used noninvasive genetic detection data from scats, capture-recapture models and an accumulation curve method to estimate the abundance of Amur tigers in Northeast China. We identified 11 individual tigers (6 females and 5 males) using 10 microsatellite loci in three nature reserves between April 2013 and May 2015. These tigers are confined primarily to a Hunchun Nature Reserve along the border with Russia, with an estimated population abundance of 9-11 tigers during the winter of 2014-2015. They showed a low level of genetic diversity. The mean number of alleles per locus was 2.60 and expected and observed heterozygosity were 0.42 and 0.49, respectively. We also documented long-distance dispersal (~270 km) of a male Amur tiger to Huangnihe Nature Reserve from the border, suggesting that the expansion of neighboring Russian populations may eventually help sustain Chinese populations. However, the small and isolated population recorded by this study demonstrate that there is an urgent need for more intensive regional management to create a tiger-permeable landscape and increased genetic connectivity with other populations.

  20. Regional climate change projections of streamflow characteristics in the Northeast and Midwest U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora M.C. Demaria

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Study region: Northeast and Midwest, United States. Study focus: Assessing the climate change impacts on the basin scale is important for water and natural resource managers. Here, the presence of monotonic trends and changes in climate-driven simulated 3-day peak flows, 7-day low flows, and mean base flows are evaluated in the Northeast and Midwest U.S. during the 20th and the 21st centuries using climate projections from sixteen climate models. Proven statistical methods are used to spatially and temporally disaggregate precipitation and temperature fields to a finer resolution before being used as drivers for a hydrological model. New hydrological insights for the region: Changes in the annual cycle of precipitation are likely to occur during the 21st century as winter precipitation increases and warmer temperatures reduce snow coverage across the entire domain especially in the northern basins. Maximum precipitation intensities are projected to become more intense across the region by mid-century especially along the coast. Positive trends in 3-day peak flows are also projected in the region as a result of the more intense precipitation, whereas the magnitude of 7-day low flows and mean base flows are projected to decrease. The length of the low flows season will likely extend by mid-century despite the increased precipitation as the atmospheric demand increases. Keywords: Streamflow peaks, Low flows, Trend analysis, Intense precipitation, Base flows

  1. Asian summer monsoon prediction in ECMWF System 4 and NCEP CFSv2 retrospective seasonal forecasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hye-Mi; Webster, Peter J.; Curry, Judith A.; Toma, Violeta E. [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Earth and Atmospheric Science, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2012-12-15

    The seasonal prediction skill of the Asian summer monsoon is assessed using retrospective predictions (1982-2009) from the ECMWF System 4 (SYS4) and NCEP CFS version 2 (CFSv2) seasonal prediction systems. In both SYS4 and CFSv2, a cold bias of sea-surface temperature (SST) is found over the equatorial Pacific, North Atlantic, Indian Oceans and over a broad region in the Southern Hemisphere relative to observations. In contrast, a warm bias is found over the northern part of North Pacific and North Atlantic. Excessive precipitation is found along the ITCZ, equatorial Atlantic, equatorial Indian Ocean and the maritime continent. The southwest monsoon flow and the Somali Jet are stronger in SYS4, while the south-easterly trade winds over the tropical Indian Ocean, the Somali Jet and the subtropical northwestern Pacific high are weaker in CFSv2 relative to the reanalysis. In both systems, the prediction of SST, precipitation and low-level zonal wind has greatest skill in the tropical belt, especially over the central and eastern Pacific where the influence of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is dominant. Both modeling systems capture the global monsoon and the large-scale monsoon wind variability well, while at the same time performing poorly in simulating monsoon precipitation. The Asian monsoon prediction skill increases with the ENSO amplitude, although the models simulate an overly strong impact of ENSO on the monsoon. Overall, the monsoon predictive skill is lower than the ENSO skill in both modeling systems but both systems show greater predictive skill compared to persistence. (orig.)

  2. Monsoon rainfall behaviour in recent times on local/regional scale in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Surender; Rao, V.U.M.; Singh, Diwan

    2002-08-01

    An attempt has been made here to investigate the local/regional monsoon rainfall behaviour in the meteorological sub-division no. 13 comprising the areas of Haryana, Delhi and Chandigarh in India. The monthly monsoon rainfall data of 30 years (1970-99) of different locations in the region were used for the investigation. All locations except Delhi received more rainfall in monsoon season during the decade (1990-99) showing general increasing trend in the rainfall behaviour in recent times. The mean monsoon rainfall at various locations ranged between 324.8 mm at Sirsa and 974.9 mm at Chandigarh. The major amount of monsoon rainfall occurred during the month of July and August in the entire region. Monthly mean rainfall ranged between 37.5 to 144.9 mm (June), 130.6 to 298.2 mm (July), 92.6 to 313.6 mm (August) and 44.0 to 149.4mm (September) at different locations. All the locations in the region exhibited overall increasing trend in monsoon rainfall over the period under study. All locations in the region received their lowest monsoon rainfall in the year 1987 which was a drought year and the season's rainfall ranged between 56.1 mm (Sirsa) and 290.0 mm (Delhi) during this year. Many of the locations observed clusters of fluctuations in their respective monsoon rainfall. The statistical summaries of historical data series (1970-99) gave rainfall information on various time scale. Such information acquires value through its influence on the decision making of the ultimate users. (author)

  3. A mechanism for land-ocean contrasts in global monsoon trends in a warming climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fasullo, J. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, CAS/NCAR, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2012-09-15

    A central paradox of the global monsoon record involves reported decreases in rainfall over land during an era in which the global hydrologic cycle is both expected and observed to intensify. It is within this context that this work develops a physical basis for both interpreting the observed record and anticipating changes in the monsoons in a warming climate while bolstering the concept of the global monsoon in the context of shared feedbacks. The global-land monsoon record across multiple reanalyses is first assessed. Trends that in other studies have been taken as real are shown to likely be spurious as a result of changes in the assimilated data streams both prior to and during the satellite era. Nonetheless, based on satellite estimates, robust increases in monsoon rainfall over ocean do exist and a physical basis for this land-ocean contrast remains lacking. To address the contrast's causes, simulated trends are therefore assessed. While projections of total rainfall are inconsistent across models, the robust land-ocean contrast identified in observations is confirmed. A feedback mechanism is proposed rooted in the facts that land areas warm disproportionately relative to ocean, and onshore flow is the chief source of monsoonal moisture. Reductions in lower tropospheric relative humidity over land domains are therefore inevitable and these have direct consequences for the monsoonal convective environment including an increase in the lifting condensation level and a shift in the distribution of convection generally towards less frequent and potentially more intense events. The mechanism is interpreted as an important modulating influence on the ''rich-get-richer'' mechanism. Caveats for regional monsoons exist and are discussed. (orig.)

  4. Monsoonal response to mid-holocene orbital forcing in a high resolution GCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. C. Bosmans

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we use a sophisticated high-resolution atmosphere-ocean coupled climate model, EC-Earth, to investigate the effect of Mid-Holocene orbital forcing on summer monsoons on both hemispheres. During the Mid-Holocene (6 ka, there was more summer insolation on the Northern Hemisphere than today, which intensified the meridional temperature and pressure gradients. Over North Africa, monsoonal precipitation is intensified through increased landward monsoon winds and moisture advection as well as decreased moisture convergence over the oceans and more convergence over land compared to the pre-industrial simulation. Precipitation also extends further north as the ITCZ shifts northward in response to the stronger poleward gradient of insolation. This increase and poleward extent is stronger than in most previous ocean-atmosphere GCM simulations. In north-westernmost Africa, precipitation extends up to 35° N. Over tropical Africa, internal feedbacks completely overcome the direct warming effect of increased insolation. We also find a weakened African Easterly Jet. Over Asia, monsoonal precipitation during the Mid-Holocene is increased as well, but the response is different than over North-Africa. There is more convection over land at the expense of convection over the ocean, but precipitation does not extend further northward, monsoon winds over the ocean are weaker and the surrounding ocean does not provide more moisture. On the Southern Hemisphere, summer insolation and the poleward insolation gradient were weaker during the Mid-Holocene, resulting in a reduced South American monsoon through decreased monsoon winds and less convection, as well as an equatorward shift in the ITCZ. This study corroborates the findings of paleodata research as well as previous model studies, while giving a more detailed account of Mid-Holocene monsoons.

  5. Evaluation of CFSV2 Forecast Skill for Indian Summer Monsoon Sub-Seasonal Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    S, S. A.; Ghosh, S.

    2015-12-01

    Prediction of sub seasonal monsoon characteristics of Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) is highly crucial for agricultural planning and water resource management. The Climate forecast System version 2 (CFS V2), the state of the art coupled climate model developed by NCEP, is currently being employed for the seasonal and extended range forecasts of ISM. Even though CFSV2 is a fully coupled ocean- atmosphere- land model with advanced physics, increased resolution and refined initialisation, its ISM forecasts, in terms of seasonal mean and variability needs improvement. Numerous works have been done for verifying the CFSV2 forecasts in terms of the seasonal mean, its mean and variability, active and break spells, and El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) - monsoon interactions. Most of these works are based on either rain fall strength or rainfall based indices. Here we evaluate the skill of CFS v2 model in forecasting the various sub seasonal features of ISM, viz., the onset and withdrawal days of monsoon that are determined using circulation based indices, the Monsoon Intra Seasonal Oscillations (MISO), and Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean sea surface temperatures. The MISO index, we use here, is based on zonal wind at 850 hPa and Outgoing Long wave Radiation (OLR) anomalies. With this work, we aim at assessing the skill of the model in simulating the large scale circulation patterns and their variabilities within the monsoon season. Variabilities in these large scale circulation patterns are primarily responsible for the variabilities in the seasonal monsoon strength and its temporal distribution across the season. We find that the model can better forecast the large scale circulation and than the actual precipitation. Hence we suggest that seasonal rainfall forecasts can be improved by the statistical downscaling of CFSV2 forecasts by incorporating the established relationships between the well forecasted large scale variables and monsoon precipitation.

  6. Long range forecasting of summer monsoon rainfall from SST in the central equatorial Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sadhuram, Y; Murthy, T.V.R.

    of summer monsoon rainfall from SST in the central equatorial Indian ocean Y. Sadhuram and T. V. Ramana Murthy National Institute of Oceanography, Regional Centre, 176, Lawson's Bay Colony, . Visakhapatnam-530017 ABSTRACT Severalprediction tedmiques have... and droughts associated with strong and weak monsoons greatly influence the economy of the country. Most of the droughts and floods are associated with EI-Nino and La- Nina respectively (Webster andYang3 and krishna Kumar et al\\. The relationship between ENSO...

  7. GMMIP (v1.0) contribution to CMIP6: Global Monsoons Model Inter-comparison Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Tianjun; Turner, Andrew G.; Kinter, James L.; Wang, Bin; Qian, Yun; Chen, Xiaolong; Wu, Bo; Wang, Bin; Liu, Bo; Zou, Liwei; He, Bian

    2016-10-10

    The Global Monsoons Model Inter-comparison Project (GMMIP) has been endorsed by the panel of Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP) as one of the participating model inter-comparison projects (MIPs) in the sixth phase of CMIP (CMIP6). The focus of GMMIP is on monsoon climatology, variability, prediction and projection, which is relevant to four of the “Grand Challenges” proposed by the World Climate Research Programme. At present, 21 international modeling groups are committed to joining GMMIP. This overview paper introduces the motivation behind GMMIP and the scientific questions it intends to answer. Three tiers of experiments, of decreasing priority, are designed to examine (a) model skill in simulating the climatology and interannual-to-multidecadal variability of global monsoons forced by the sea surface temperature during historical climate period; (b) the roles of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation in driving variations of the global and regional monsoons; and (c) the effects of large orographic terrain on the establishment of the monsoons. The outputs of the CMIP6 Diagnostic, Evaluation and Characterization of Klima experiments (DECK), “historical” simulation and endorsed MIPs will also be used in the diagnostic analysis of GMMIP to give a comprehensive understanding of the roles played by different external forcings, potential improvements in the simulation of monsoon rainfall at high resolution and reproducibility at decadal timescales. The implementation of GMMIP will improve our understanding of the fundamental physics of changes in the global and regional monsoons over the past 140 years and ultimately benefit monsoons prediction and projection in the current century.

  8. Cyclone trends constrain monsoon variability during late Oligocene sea level highstands (Kachchh Basin, NW India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, M.; Piller, W. E.; Harzhauser, M.; Kroh, A.

    2013-09-01

    Climate change has an unknown impact on tropical cyclones and the Asian monsoon. Herein we present a sequence of fossil shell beds from the shallow-marine Maniyara Fort Formation (Kachcch Basin) as a recorder of tropical cyclone activity along the NW Indian coast during the late Oligocene warming period (~ 27-24 Ma). Proxy data providing information about the atmospheric circulation dynamics over the Indian subcontinent at this time are important since it corresponds to a major climate reorganization in Asia that ends up with the establishment of the modern Asian monsoon system at the Oligocene-Miocene boundary. The vast shell concentrations are comprised of a mixture of parautochthonous and allochthonous assemblages indicating storm-generated sediment transport from deeper to shallow water during third-order sea level highstands. Three distinct skeletal assemblages were distinguished, each recording a relative storm wave base. (1) A shallow storm wave base is shown by nearshore molluscs, reef corals and Clypeaster echinoids; (2) an intermediate storm wave base depth is indicated by lepidocyclinid foraminifers, Eupatagus echinoids and corallinacean algae; and (3) a deep storm wave base is represented by an Amussiopecten bivalve-Schizaster echinoid assemblage. These wave base depth estimates were used for the reconstruction of long-term tropical storm intensity during the late Oligocene. The development and intensification of cyclones over the recent Arabian Sea is primarily limited by the atmospheric monsoon circulation and strength of the associated vertical wind shear. Therefore, since the topographic boundary conditions for the Indian monsoon already existed in the late Oligocene, the reconstructed long-term cyclone trends were interpreted to reflect monsoon variability during the initiation of the Asian monsoon system. Our results imply an active monsoon over the Eastern Tethys at ~ 26 Ma followed by a period of monsoon weakening during the peak of the late

  9. African monsoon multidisciplinary analysis - An international research project and field campaign

    OpenAIRE

    Redelsperger, J. L.; Thorncroft, C. D.; Diedhiou, Arona; Lebel, Thierry; Parker, D. J.; Polcher, J.

    2006-01-01

    African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) is an international project to improve our knowledge and understanding of the West African monsoon (WAM) and its variability with an emphasis on daily-to-interannual time scales. AMMA is motivated by an interest in fundamental scientific issues and by the societal need for improved prediction of the WAM and its impacts on West African nations. Recognizing the societal need to develop strategies that reduce the socioeconomic impacts of the vari...

  10. Advanced decision support for winter road maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This document provides an overview of the Federal Highway Administration's winter Maintenance Decision Support System (MDSS). The MDSS is a decision support tool that has the ability to provide weather predictions focused toward the road surface. The...

  11. Overview of climatic effects of nuclear winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.M.; Malone, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    A general description of the climatic effects of a nuclear war are presented. This paper offers a short history of the subject, a discussion of relevant parameters and physical processes, and a description of plausible nuclear winter scenario. 9 refs

  12. Unusial winter 2011/2012 in Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Faško, P.; Lapin, M.; Matejovič, P.; Pecho, Jozef

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2012), s. 19-26 ISSN 1335-339X Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : winter characteristics * climate variabilit * climate change * global warming Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  13. Drought and Winter Drying (Pest Alert)

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA Forest Service

    Drought and winter drying have periodically caused major damage to trees. Drought reduces the amount of water available in the soil. In the case of winter drying, the water may be in the soil, but freezing of the soil makes the water unavailable to the tree. In both cases, more water is lost through transpiration than is available to the plant. Symptoms of drought and...

  14. Coming to grips with nuclear winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherr, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    This editorial examines the politics related to the concept of nuclear winter which is a term used to describe temperature changes brought on by the injection of smoke into the atmosphere by the massive fires set off by nuclear explosions. The climate change alone could cause crop failures and lead to massive starvation. The author suggests that the prospect of a nuclear winter should be a deterrent to any nuclear exchange

  15. Barriers to wheelchair use in the winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripat, Jacquie D; Brown, Cara L; Ethans, Karen D

    2015-06-01

    To test the hypothesis that challenges to community participation posed by winter weather are greater for individuals who use scooters, manual and power wheelchairs (wheeled mobility devices [WMDs]) than for the general ambulatory population, and to determine what WMD users identify as the most salient environmental barriers to community participation during the winter. Cross-sectional survey organized around 5 environmental domains: technological, natural, physical, social/attitudinal, and policy. Urban community in Canada. Convenience sample of WMD users or their proxy (N=99). Not applicable. Not applicable. Forty-two percent identified reduced outing frequency in winter months, associated with increased age (χ(3)=6.4, P=.04), lack of access to family/friends for transportation (χ(2)=8.1, P=.04), and primary type of WMD used in the winter (scooter χ(2)=8.8, P=.003). Most reported tires/casters becoming stuck in the snow (95%) or slipping on the ice (91%), difficulty ascending inclines/ramps (92%), and cold hands while using controls or pushing rims (85%); fewer identified frozen wheelchair/scooter batteries, seat cushions/backrests, or electronics. Sidewalks/roads were reported to be problematic by 99%. Eighty percent reported needing additional help in the winter. Limited community access in winter led to a sense of loneliness/isolation, and fear/anxiety related to safety. Respondents identified policies that limited participation during winter. People who use WMDs decrease their community participation in cold weather because of multiple environmental barriers. Clinicians, researchers, and policymakers can take a multidimensional approach to mitigate these barriers in order to enhance community participation by WMD users in winter. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Vertical structure of atmospheric boundary layer over Ranchi during the summer monsoon season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Sagarika; Srivastava, Nishi; Kumar, Manoj

    2018-04-01

    Thermodynamic structure and variability in the atmospheric boundary layer have been investigated with the help of balloon-borne GPS radiosonde over a monsoon trough station Ranchi (Lat. 23°45'N, Long. 85°43'E, India) during the summer monsoon season (June-September) for a period of 2011-2013. Virtual potential temperature gradient method is used for the determination of mixed layer height (MLH). The MLH has been found to vary in the range of 1000-1300 m during the onset, 600-900 m during the active and 1400-1750 m during the break phase of monsoon over this region. Inter-annual variations noticed in MLH could be associated with inter-annual variability in convection and rainfall prevailing over the region. Along with the MLH, the cloud layer heights are also derived from the thermodynamic profiles for the onset, active and break phases of monsoon. Cloud layer height varied a lot during different phases of the monsoon. For the determination of boundary-layer convection, thermodynamic parameter difference (δθ = θ es- θ e) between saturated equivalent potential temperature (θ es ) and equivalent potential temperature (θ e) is used. It is a good indicator of convection and indicates the intense and suppressed convection during different phases of monsoon.

  17. Influence of inland aerosol loading on the monsoon over Indian subcontinent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, M.; Krishnakumar, V.; Mahadevan Pillai, V. P.; Radhakrishnan, S. R.; Raghunath, K.

    2008-12-01

    The monsoon water cycle is the lifeline to over 60% of the world's population. The study on the behavioral change of Indian monsoon due to aerosol loading will help for the better understanding of Indian Monsoon. Aerosol system influences the atmosphere in two ways; it affects directly the radiation budget and indirectly provides condensation nuclei required for the clouds. The precipitation of the clouds in the monsoon season depends on the microphysical properties of the clouds. The effect of aerosol on cirrus clouds is being looked into through this work as an effort to study the role of aerosol on Indian Monsoon. The microphysical properties of high altitude clouds were obtained from the ground based lidar experiments at a low latitude station in the Indian subcontinent. Measurements during the Indian monsoon period from the inland station National Atmospheric Research Laboratory (NARL) Gadanki (13.5_ N, 79.2_ E), Tirupati, India were used for the investigation. The depolarization characteristics of the cirrus clouds were measured and the correlation between the depolarization and the precipitation characteristics were studied. The results obtained over a period of one year from January 1998 to December 1998 were presented.

  18. Sensible and latent heat forced divergent circulations in the West African Monsoon System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagos, S.; Zhang, C.

    2008-12-01

    Field properties of divergent circulation are utilized to identify the roles of various diabatic processes in forcing moisture transport in the dynamics of the West African Monsoon and its seasonal cycle. In this analysis, the divergence field is treated as a set of point sources and is partitioned into two sub-sets corresponding to latent heat release and surface sensible heat flux at each respective point. The divergent circulation associated with each set is then calculated from the Poisson's equation using Gauss-Seidel iteration. Moisture transport by each set of divergent circulation is subsequently estimated. The results show different roles of the divergent circulations forced by surface sensible and latent heating in the monsoon dynamics. Surface sensible heating drives a shallow meridional circulation, which transports moisture deep into the continent at the polar side of the monsoon rain band and thereby promotes the seasonal northward migration of monsoon precipitation during the monsoon onset season. In contrast, the circulation directly associated with latent heating is deep and the corresponding moisture convergence is within the region of precipitation. Latent heating also induces dry air advection from the north. Neither effect promotes the seasonal northward migration of precipitation. The relative contributions of the processes associated with latent and sensible heating to the net moisture convergence, and hence the seasonal evolution of monsoon precipitation, depend on the background moisture.

  19. The East Asian Atmospheric Water Cycle and Monsoon Circulation in the Met Office Unified Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, José M.; Milton, Sean F.; Marzin, Charline

    2017-10-01

    In this study the low-level monsoon circulation and observed sources of moisture responsible for the maintenance and seasonal evolution of the East Asian monsoon are examined, studying the detailed water budget components. These observational estimates are contrasted with the Met Office Unified Model (MetUM) climate simulation performance in capturing the circulation and water cycle at a variety of model horizontal resolutions and in fully coupled ocean-atmosphere simulations. We study the role of large-scale circulation in determining the hydrological cycle by analyzing key systematic errors in the model simulations. MetUM climate simulations exhibit robust circulation errors, including a weakening of the summer west Pacific Subtropical High, which leads to an underestimation of the southwesterly monsoon flow over the region. Precipitation and implied diabatic heating biases in the South Asian monsoon and Maritime Continent region are shown, via nudging sensitivity experiments, to have an impact on the East Asian monsoon circulation. By inference, the improvement of these tropical biases with increased model horizontal resolution is hypothesized to be a factor in improvements seen over East Asia with increased resolution. Results from the annual cycle of the hydrological budget components in five domains show a good agreement between MetUM simulations and ERA-Interim reanalysis in northern and Tibetan domains. In simulations, the contribution from moisture convergence is larger than in reanalysis, and they display less precipitation recycling over land. The errors are closely linked to monsoon circulation biases.

  20. Regional trends in early-monsoon rainfall over Vietnam and CCSM4 attribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, R.; Wang, S. S.-Y.; Gillies, R. R.; Buckley, B. M.; Yoon, J.-H.; Cho, C.

    2018-04-01

    The analysis of precipitation trends for Vietnam revealed that early-monsoon precipitation has increased over the past three decades but to varying degrees over the northern, central and southern portions of the country. Upon investigation, it was found that the change in early-monsoon precipitation is associated with changes in the low-level cyclonic airflow over the South China Sea and Indochina that is embedded in the large-scale atmospheric circulation associated with a "La Niña-like" anomalous sea surface temperature pattern with warming in the western Pacific and Indian Oceans and cooling in the eastern Pacific. The Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) was subsequently used for an attribution analysis. Over northern Vietnam an early-monsoon increase in precipitation is attributed to changes in both greenhouse gases and natural forcing. For central Vietnam, the observed increase in early-monsoon precipitation is reproduced by the simulation forced with greenhouse gases. However, over southern Vietnam the early-monsoon precipitation increase is less definitive where aerosols were seen to be preponderant but natural forcing through the role of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation may well be a factor that is not resolved by CCSM4. Increased early-monsoonal precipitation over the coastal lowland and deltas has the potential to amplify economic and human losses.