WorldWideScience

Sample records for winter moth lepidoptera

  1. Hearing in hooktip moths (Drepanidae: Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surlykke, Annemarie; Yack, Jayne E; Spence, Andrew J

    2003-01-01

    This study presents anatomical and physiological evidence for a sense of hearing in hooktip moths (Drepanoidea). Two example species, Drepana arcuata and Watsonalla uncinula, were examined. The abdominal ears of drepanids are structurally unique compared to those of other Lepidoptera and other...... to the dorsal chamber. The ear is tuned to ultrasonic frequencies between 30 and 65 kHz, with a best threshold of around 52 dB SPL at 40 kHz, and no apparent difference between genders. Thus, drepanid hearing resembles that of other moths, indicating that the main function is bat detection. Two sensory cells...

  2. Biology, spread, and biological control of winter moth in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Elkinton; George Boettner; Andrew Liebhold; Rodger. Gwiazdowski

    2015-01-01

    The winter moth (Operophtera brumata L.; Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is an inchworm caterpillar that hatches coincident with bud-break on its hosts and feeds on a wide range of deciduous trees. It is one of a group of geometrid species that feed in early spring and then pupate in the top layer of the soil or litter beginning in mid-May. As postulated...

  3. Modeling winter moth Operophtera brumata egg phenology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salis, Lucia; Lof, Marjolein; Asch, van Margriet; Visser, Marcel E.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between an insect's developmental rate and temperature is crucial to forecast insect phenology under climate change. In the winter moth Operophtera brumata timing of egg-hatching has severe fitness consequences on growth and reproduction as egg-hatching has to match

  4. Asymmetric hybridization between non-native winter moth, Operophtera brumata (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), and native Bruce spanworm, Operophtera bruceata, in the Northeastern United States, assessed with novel microsatellites and SNPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    N.P. Havill; J. Elkinton; J.C. Andersen; S.B. Hagen; Hannah J. Broadley; G.J. Boettner; A. Caccone

    2017-01-01

    The European winter moth, Operophtera brumata, is a non-native pest in the Northeastern USA causing defoliation of forest trees and crops such as apples and blueberries. This species is known to hybridize with O. bruceata, the Bruce spanworm, a native species across North America, although it is not known if there are hybrid...

  5. A new case constructing adelid moth from Chile (Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Parra

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A new case constructing adelid moth from Chile (Lepidoptera. The adult and larva of Ceromitia tubulifolia sp. nov. are described and illustrated. The larvae seem to be associated with sclerophyllous forest of central Chile. The larvae make a protective case from of a piece of leaf. The name phylloikos is proposed for this form of larval case. A review of the morphology and bionomics of this species are provided.Uma nova mariposa Adelidae (Lepidoptera construtora de casulo do Chile. O adulto e a larva de Ceromitia tubulifolia sp. nov. são descritos e ilustrados. As larvas parecem estar associadas à mata esclerófila do Chile central. A larva utiliza um pedaço de folha para construir uma estrutura protetora denominada phylloikos. Comentários sobre aspectos morfológicos e bionômicos da espécie são apresentados.

  6. Development of restriction enzyme analyses to distinguish winter moth from bruce spanworm and hybrids between them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinko Sremac; Joseph Elkinton; Adam. Porter

    2011-01-01

    Elkinton et. al. recently completed a survey of northeastern North America for the newly invasive winter moth, Operophtera brumata L. The survey used traps baited with the winter moth pheromone, which consists of a single compound also used by Bruce spanworm, O. bruceata (Hulst), the North American congener of winter moth. Our...

  7. Identification of a nucleopolyhedrovirus in winter moth populations from Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    John P. Burand; Anna Welch; Woojin Kim; Vince D' Amico; Joseph S. Elkinton

    2011-01-01

    The winter moth, Operophtera brumata, originally from Europe, has recently invaded eastern Massachusetts. This insect has caused widespread defoliation of many deciduous tree species and severely damaged a variety of crop plants in the infested area including apple, strawberry, and especially blueberry.

  8. Evaluation of traps and lures for codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in apple orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the use of several trap – lure combinations to improve monitoring of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in apple, Malus domestica Bordk. Treatments included the use of clear, orange and white traps baited with one or more of the followin...

  9. Before harvest survival of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in artificially infested sweet cherries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior to the 2009 season, sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., from North America were required to be fumigated with methyl bromide before being exported to Japan to eliminate possible infestation by codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). However, based on recent biological...

  10. Effects of elevated CO2 leaf diet on gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) respiration rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anita R. Foss; William J. Mattson; Terry M. Trier

    2013-01-01

    Elevated levels of CO2 affect plant growth and leaf chemistry, which in turn can alter host plant suitability for insect herbivores. We examined the suitability of foliage from trees grown from seedlings since 1997 at Aspen FACE as diet for the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae: paper birch (...

  11. Molecular phylogeny of the small ermine moth genus Yponomeuta (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae) in the Palaearctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turner, H.; Lieshout, N.; van Ginkel, W.E.; Menken, S.B.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The small ermine moth genus Yponomeuta (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae) contains 76 species that are specialist feeders on hosts from Celastraceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae, and several other plant families. The genus is a model for studies in the evolution of phytophagous insects and their

  12. Effect of insecticide on the irradiated tropical warehouse moth,Cadra cautella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Phycitidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faruki, S.I.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of the synthetic pyrethroids, Fenom(r) on the gamma- irradiated Tropical Warehouse Moth, Cadra cautella (Walker)(Lepidoptera: Phycitidae) larvae have been studied. Both theinsecticide and gamma irradiation either singly or in combination,significantly increased larval mortality and developmental periods.The pupation and adult eclosion, reproductive potential and longevity of the adults from treated larvae were significantly decreased

  13. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) thrived in gymnosperm forests following the end-Triassic extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Schootbrugge, Bas; van Eldijk, Timo; Wappler, Torsten; Strother, Paul; van der Weijst, Carolien; Rajaei, Hossein; Visscher, Henk

    2017-04-01

    The oldest evidence for Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) and the Coelolepida (hollow-scaled moths and butterflies) is presented based on an assemblage of fossilized scales encountered in uppermost Triassic and lowermost Jurassic sediments from a core drilled in northern Germany. The diverse assemblage of scales points to a Triassic origin of the Lepidoptera and a radiation of some lineages just before or right after the end-Triassic mass extinction (201 Ma). These findings confirm molecular clock estimates for splits within the Amphiesmenoptera that led to the evolution of true butterflies. Not only did Lepidoptera survive the end-Triassic extinction, they also appear to have radiated directly following this environmental crisis, which could be related to the dramatic changes in paleoclimate triggered by the eruption of the CAMP, especially an increase in humidity. Seen in combination with high-resolution palynological records that show an Early Jurassic dominance of conifer pollen, the presence of scales derived from angiospermivorous Coelolepida likely signifies a host-shift (for multiple lineages of crown group Lepidoptera) from gymnosperms to angiosperms during the Mesozoic.

  14. Immunochemical quantitation, size distribution, and cross-reactivity of lepidoptera (moth) aeroallergens in southeastern Minnesota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynn, S.R.; Swanson, M.C.; Reed, C.E.; Penny, N.D.; Showers, W.B.; Smith, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    With an immunochemical method, we analyzed outdoor air samples during a 3-year period for concentrations of the predominant local species of moth, Pseudaletia unipuncta (Haworth). Airborne particulates were collected on fiberglass filter sheets with an Accu-Vol sampler located 1.5 m above ground on the southeastern Minnesota prairie. Filter eluates analyzed by RIA inhibition contained concentrations of moth protein peaking in June and August to September of each year, with levels comparable to reported immunochemically measured levels of pollen and mold allergens. These peaks also corresponded with total numbers of moths captured in light traps. Moth-allergen activity was distributed in particle sizes ranging from 0.8 to greater than 4.1 micron when sized samples were obtained by use of an Andersen cascade impaction head. By RIA inhibition, there was cross-reactivity between P. unipuncta and insects of different genera, families, and orders, but not with pollens or molds. Forty-five percent of 257 patients with immediate positive skin tests to common aeroallergens had positive skin tests to one or more commercially available whole body insect extracts. Of 120 patients with allergic rhinitis believed to be primarily caused by ragweed sensitivity, 5% also had elevated specific IgE to moths. We conclude that airborne concentrations of Lepidoptera can be measured immunochemically and that moths may be a seasonal allergen in the United States

  15. Toxicity and residual activity of methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide to codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchert, Daniel M; Walgenbach, James F; Kennedy, George G; Long, John W

    2004-08-01

    A series of studies were conducted to examine the residual activity and toxicity of the ecdysone agonists tebufenozide and methoxyfenozide to codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), in North Carolina apple systems. Methoxyfenozide exhibited greater activity than tebufenozide against codling moth eggs in dose-response bioassays, with a 4.5- and 5.3-fold lower LC50 value to eggs laid on fruit treated before or after oviposition, respectively. Oriental fruit moth eggs were 57- and 12-fold less sensitive to methoxyfenozide than were codling moth eggs on fruit treated before and after oviposition, respectively. Methoxyfenozide was effective in reducing larval entries of both codling moth and oriental fruit moth in field residual activity bioassays, exhibiting activity for at least 28 d after application. Residue breakdown on fruit was approximately 80% at 28 d after treatment for both methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide, with the most rapid residue decline (60%) occurring during the first 14 d after application. Two applications of methoxyfenozide applied at 14-d intervals provided better canopy coverage and higher residue levels than one application. Spray volume (683 versus 2,057 liters/ha) did not affect the efficacy of methoxyfenozide. Leaf and fruit expansion during the season was measured to determine potential plant-growth dilution effects on residual activity. There was very little increase in leaf area after mid May, but increase in fruit surface area over the season was described by a second order polynomial regression. Implications for codling moth and oriental fruit moth management programs are discussed.

  16. Monitoring oriental fruit moth and codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with combinations of pheromones and kairomoness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were conducted in North and South America during 2012-2013 to evaluate the use of lure combinations of sex pheromones (PH), host plant volatiles (HPV), and food baits in traps to capture the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) and codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) in pome an...

  17. Variable wing venation in Agathiphaga (Lepidoptera: Agathiphagidae) is key to understanding the evolution of basal moths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, George W.

    2016-01-01

    Details of the ancestral groundplan of wing venation in moths remain uncertain, despite approximately a century of study. Here, we describe a 3-branched subcostal vein, a 5-branched medial vein and a 2-branched cubitus posterior vein on the forewing of Agathiphaga vitiensis Dumbleton 1952 from Vanuatu. Such veins had not previously been described in any Lepidoptera. Because wing veins are typically lost during lepidopteran evolutionary history, rarely—if ever—to be regained, the venation of A. vitiensis probably represents the ancestral character state for moths. Wing venation is often used to identify fossil insects as moths, because wing scales are not always preserved; the presence of a supposedly trichopteran 3-branched subcostal vein in crown Lepidoptera may decrease the certainty with which certain amphiesmenopteran fossils from the Mesozoic can be classified. And because plesiomorphic veins can influence the development of lepidopteran wing patterns even if not expressed in the adult wing, the veins described here may determine the location of wing pattern elements in many lepidopteran taxa. PMID:27853559

  18. The complete mitochondrial genome of the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bao-Cai; Liu, Wei; Wei, Shu-Jun

    2013-02-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) was determined. The genome is 15,253 bp long with 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes and an A+T-rich region. All genes are arranged in their conserved positions compared with the pupative ancestral arrangement of insects except for trnM, which was translocated to the upstream of the transfer RNA cluster trnI-trnQ as in all previously reported lepidopteran mitochondiral genomes. Seven portein-coding genes use ATG start codon and five use ATT. However, the cox1 gene uses the CGA start codon as it is found in all previous reported mitochondrial genomes of Lepidoptera. Nine protein-coding genes stop with termination codon TAA. Four protein-coding genes use incomplete stop codons TA or T. The A+T region is located between rrnS and trnM with a length of 331 bp.

  19. Genetic divergence and evidence for sympatric host-races in the highly polyphagous brown tail moth, Euproctis chrysorrhoea (Lepidoptera: Erebidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marques, J.F.; Wang, H.L.; Svensson, G.P.; Frago Clols, E.; Anderbrant, O.

    2014-01-01

    The brown tail moth (BTM) Euproctis chrysorrhoea (Linnaeus 1758) (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) is a forest and ornamental pest in Europe and the United States. Its extreme polyphagy, and documented phenological shift associated with host use suggest the presence of distinct host-races. To test this

  20. Putative nicotinic acetylchloline receptor subunits express differentially through life cycle of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are the targets of neonicotinoids and spinosads, two insecticides used in orchards to effectively control codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.)(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). The nAChRs mediate the fast actions of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in synaptic tr...

  1. Suppression of leopard moth (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) populations in olive trees in Egypt through mating disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazi, E M; Khafagi, W E; Konstantopoulou, M A; Schlyter, F; Raptopoulos, D; Shweil, S; Abd El-Rahman, S; Atwa, A; Ali, S E; Tawfik, H

    2010-10-01

    The leopard moth, Zeuzera pyrina (L.) (Lepidoptera: Cossidae), is a damaging pest for many fruit trees (e.g., apple [Malus spp.], pear [Pyrus spp.] peach [Prunus spp.], and olive [Olea]). Recently, it caused serious yield losses in newly established olive orchards in Egypt, including the death of young trees. Chemical and biological control have shown limited efficiency against this pest. Field tests were conducted in 2005 and 2006 to evaluate mating disruption (MD) for the control of the leopard moth, on heavily infested, densely planted olive plots (336 trees per ha). The binary blend of the pheromone components (E,Z)-2,13-octadecenyl acetate and (E,Z)-3,13-octadecenyl acetate (95:5) was dispensed from polyethylene vials. Efficacy was measured considering reduction of catches in pheromone traps, reduction of active galleries of leopard moth per tree and fruit yield in the pheromone-treated plots (MD) compared with control plots (CO). Male captures in MD plots were reduced by 89.3% in 2005 and 82.9% in 2006, during a trapping period of 14 and 13 wk, respectively. Application of MD over two consecutive years progressively reduced the number of active galleries per tree in the third year where no sex pheromone was applied. In all years, larval galleries outnumbered moth captures. Fruit yield from trees where sex pheromone had been applied in 2005 and 2006 increased significantly in 2006 (98.8 +/- 2.9 kg per tree) and 2007 (23 +/- 1.3 kg per tree) compared with control ones (61.0 +/- 3.9 and 10.0 +/- 0.6 kg per tree, respectively). Mating disruption shows promising for suppressing leopard moth infestation in olives.

  2. Evaluation of the effects of light entensity and time interval after the start of scotophase on the female flight propensity of Asian gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Erebidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang Chen; Juan Shi; Melody Keena

    2016-01-01

    Asian gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Erebidae), females are capable of flight, but little is known about what causes the variation in flight propensity that has been observed. The female flight propensity and capability of Asian gypsy moth from seven geographic populations (three from China, two from Russia, one from Japan, and one...

  3. CRISPR/Cas9 editing of the codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) CpomOR1 gene affects egg production and viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major pest of pome fruit worldwide. The inclusion of semiochemicals, including the main sex pheromone (codlemone), in codling moth IPM programs has drastically reduced the amount of chemical insecticides needed to control this ...

  4. Morphology and biology of the fruit piercing moth, Ophiusa corona (Fabricious (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Permkam, S.

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Morphology and biology of the fruit-piercing moth Ophiusa coronata (Fabricious (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae were studied in laboratory. Eggs were spherical and colored grayish green with an average diameter of 1.03±0.01 mm (mean±SEM. The larvae were looper caterpillars, possessing 2 white bands on the black head. The body was brown to blackish, marked with black spots and red longitudinal streaks. The pupa was black-brown. The adult moth had rufous and fuscous forewings tinged with a black spot in the middle. The hind wings were bright yellow in ground color with a dark band at the anterior and the posterior borders. Time required for egg to adult development averaged 40.35±0.59 days (mean±SEM. The average duration for egg, larval and pupal developments were 4.0±0.0, 23.20±0.49 and 13.15±0.22 days, respectively. Sexual maturity for female took 10.67±1.05 days. The average duration of egg laying, number of eggs and longevity of adult moths were 7.33±1.28 days, 333.0±171.82 egg/female and 22.83±2.45 days, respectively. Feeding preference and phototaxis of adult studies showed that adults likely preferred to feed ranking from slices of pineapple, banana, papaya and citrus, whereas sapodilla and rose apple were rarely fed on. Blue light and mercury vapor light were highly attractive, whereas violet light and fluorescent light were less attractive to this adult moth species.

  5. The complete mitochondrial genomes of two ghost moths, Thitarodes renzhiensis and Thitarodes yunnanensis: the ancestral gene arrangement in Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yong-Qiang; Ma, Chuan; Chen, Ji-Yue; Yang, Da-Rong

    2012-06-22

    Lepidoptera encompasses more than 160,000 described species that have been classified into 45-48 superfamilies. The previously determined Lepidoptera mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) are limited to six superfamilies of the lineage Ditrysia. Compared with the ancestral insect gene order, these mitogenomes all contain a tRNA rearrangement. To gain new insights into Lepidoptera mitogenome evolution, we sequenced the mitogenomes of two ghost moths that belong to the non-ditrysian lineage Hepialoidea and conducted a comparative mitogenomic analysis across Lepidoptera. The mitogenomes of Thitarodes renzhiensis and T. yunnanensis are 16,173 bp and 15,816 bp long with an A + T content of 81.28 % and 82.34 %, respectively. Both mitogenomes include 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and the A + T-rich region. Different tandem repeats in the A + T-rich region mainly account for the size difference between the two mitogenomes. All the protein-coding genes start with typical mitochondrial initiation codons, except for cox1 (CGA) and nad1 (TTG) in both mitogenomes. The anticodon of trnS(AGN) in T. renzhiensis and T. yunnanensis is UCU instead of the mostly used GCU in other sequenced Lepidoptera mitogenomes. The 1,584-bp sequence from rrnS to nad2 was also determined for an unspecified ghost moth (Thitarodes sp.), which has no repetitive sequence in the A + T-rich region. All three Thitarodes species possess the ancestral gene order with trnI-trnQ-trnM located between the A + T-rich region and nad2, which is different from the gene order trnM-trnI-trnQ in all previously sequenced Lepidoptera species. The formerly identified conserved elements of Lepidoptera mitogenomes (i.e. the motif 'ATAGA' and poly-T stretch in the A + T-rich region and the long intergenic spacer upstream of nad2) are absent in the Thitarodes mitogenomes. The mitogenomes of T. renzhiensis and T. yunnanensis exhibit unusual features compared with the previously determined

  6. DNA barcoding of gypsy moths from China (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) reveals new haplotypes and divergence patterns within gypsy moth subspecies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang Chen; Youqing Luo; Melody A. Keena; Ying Wu; Peng Wu; Juan Shi

    2015-01-01

    The gypsy moth from Asia (two subspecies) is considered a greater threat to North America than European gypsy moth, because of a broader host range and females being capable of flight. Variation within and among gypsy moths from China (nine locations), one of the native countries of Asian gypsy moth, were compared using DNA barcode sequences (658 bp of mtDNA cytochrome...

  7. Effects of orchard host plants (apple and peach) on development of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Clayton T; Hull, Larry A; Krawczyk, Grzegorz

    2007-04-01

    Studies were designed to examine the effects of host plants (apple, Malus domestica Borkh., and peach, Prunus persica L.) on the development of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Oriental fruit moth larvae developed faster on peach than on apple, both on fruit as well as on growing terminal shoots. On fruit, these differences were shown to cause significant changes in both the rate (approximately 20-60 degree-days earlier emergence on peach than on apple) and patterns of adult emergence among several cultivars of peaches and apples. Slopes of female emergence plots varied by host in 2003, with emergence occurring over a longer period on peach cultivars than on apple cultivars (with one exception). Slopes of male emergence curves did not differ by cultivar in 2003. These host-driven effects could impact the efficacy of traditional pest management approaches and probably complicate efforts to predictively model G. molesta populations in mixed cultivar orchards. Such developmental effects may help to explain previously observed differences in patterns of pheromone trap captures in peach versus apple orchards. Host-associated effects should be incorporated into future models to develop more realistic predictive tools and thus improve integrated pest management efforts.

  8. Response of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs to gamma radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, W. D.; Arthur, V.; Mastrangelo, T.

    2010-10-01

    As insects increase in radiotolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of the pest may be present in the fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of the stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radiotolerance of eggs of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to gamma radiation. This species is considered as one of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Eggs (12 h old) were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 35, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation. Surviving larvae were allowed to feed on an artificial diet. Three days after irradiation, it was verified that larvae's cephalic capsules were significantly affected by gamma radiation, and the estimated mean LD 90 and LD 99 were 66.3 Gy and 125.8 Gy, respectively. Oriental fruit moth eggs revealed to be quite radiosensitive and very low doses as 50 Gy were sufficient to disrupt G. molesta embryogenesis. At 25 Gy, only male adults originated from the surviving larvae and, after mating with untreated fertile females, shown to be sterile.

  9. Response of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs to gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, W.D., E-mail: weliton.silva@usp.b [Department of Entomology and Acarology, Laboratory of Chemical Ecology and Insect Behavior, University of Sao Paulo, ' Luiz de Queiroz' College of Agriculture, Padua Dias Avenue, 11, 13418-900 Piracicaba (Brazil); Arthur, V.; Mastrangelo, T. [Food Irradiation and Radioentomology Laboratory, Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA/USP), Centenario Avenue 303, 13400-970 Piracicaba (Brazil)

    2010-10-15

    As insects increase in radiotolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of the pest may be present in the fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of the stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radiotolerance of eggs of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to gamma radiation. This species is considered as one of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Eggs (12 h old) were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 35, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation. Surviving larvae were allowed to feed on an artificial diet. Three days after irradiation, it was verified that larvae's cephalic capsules were significantly affected by gamma radiation, and the estimated mean LD{sub 90} and LD{sub 99} were 66.3 Gy and 125.8 Gy, respectively. Oriental fruit moth eggs revealed to be quite radiosensitive and very low doses as 50 Gy were sufficient to disrupt G. molesta embryogenesis. At 25 Gy, only male adults originated from the surviving larvae and, after mating with untreated fertile females, shown to be sterile.

  10. Identification and Evaluation of 21 Novel Microsatellite Markers from the Autumnal Moth (Epirrita autumnata (Lepidoptera: Geometridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siv Grethe Aarnes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The autumnal moth (Epirrita autumnata is a cyclically outbreaking forest Lepidoptera with circumpolar distribution and substantial impact on Northern ecosystems. We have isolated 21 microsatellites from the species to facilitate population genetic studies of population cycles, outbreaks, and crashes. First, PCR primers and PCR conditions were developed to amplify 19 trinucleotide loci and two tetranucleotide loci in six multiplex PCR approaches and then analyzed for species specificity, sensitivity and precision. Twelve of the loci showed simple tandem repeat array structures while nine loci showed imperfect repeat structures, and repeat numbers varied in our material between six and 15. The application in population genetics for all the 21 microsatellites were further validated in 48 autumnal moths sampled from Northern Norway, and allelic variation was detected in 19 loci. The detected numbers of alleles per locus ranged from two to 13, and the observed and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.04 to 0.69 and 0.04 to 0.79, respectively. Evidence for linkage disequilibrium was found for six loci as well as indication of one null allele. We find that these novel microsatellites and their multiplex-PCR assays are suitable for further research on fine- and large-scale population-genetic studies of Epirrita autumnata.

  11. Identification and Evaluation of 21 Novel Microsatellite Markers from the Autumnal Moth (Epirrita autumnata) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarnes, Siv Grethe; Fløystad, Ida; Schregel, Julia; Vindstad, Ole Petter Laksforsmo; Jepsen, Jane Uhd; Eiken, Hans Geir; Ims, Rolf A.; Hagen, Snorre B.

    2015-01-01

    The autumnal moth (Epirrita autumnata) is a cyclically outbreaking forest Lepidoptera with circumpolar distribution and substantial impact on Northern ecosystems. We have isolated 21 microsatellites from the species to facilitate population genetic studies of population cycles, outbreaks, and crashes. First, PCR primers and PCR conditions were developed to amplify 19 trinucleotide loci and two tetranucleotide loci in six multiplex PCR approaches and then analyzed for species specificity, sensitivity and precision. Twelve of the loci showed simple tandem repeat array structures while nine loci showed imperfect repeat structures, and repeat numbers varied in our material between six and 15. The application in population genetics for all the 21 microsatellites were further validated in 48 autumnal moths sampled from Northern Norway, and allelic variation was detected in 19 loci. The detected numbers of alleles per locus ranged from two to 13, and the observed and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.04 to 0.69 and 0.04 to 0.79, respectively. Evidence for linkage disequilibrium was found for six loci as well as indication of one null allele. We find that these novel microsatellites and their multiplex-PCR assays are suitable for further research on fine- and large-scale population-genetic studies of Epirrita autumnata. PMID:26393576

  12. Differentiating Oriental Fruit Moth and Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Larvae Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegwart, Myriam; Bouvier, Floriane; Maugin, Sandrine; Lecomte, Alain; Lavigne, Claire

    2015-02-01

    Cydia pomonella (L.) and Cydia molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) are two important lepidopteran pests that may co-occur in apple orchards and are difficult to differentiate in the larval stage. We investigate the possibility of using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) coupled with partial least squares analysis to distinguish the larvae of the two species. We further assess whether wild individuals can be differentiated using laboratory strains of the two species for model calibration. The NIRS spectra of C. molesta and C. pomonella differed most in the wavelengths between 1,142 and 1,338 nm. Using these wavelengths, partial least squares analysis allowed the differentiation of C. molesta and C. pomonella at the larval stage with very low error, but only as long as both the calibration and prediction sets for individuals had the same origin (either both from the laboratory or both from the field). Errors that appeared when using laboratory individuals for calibration were owing to the divergence of the C. pomonella laboratory strain, most likely following evolution during rearing. Thus, NIRS appears to be a promising tool for the easy and rapid identification of individuals in the field, provided that it is calibrated based on a subset of field individuals. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Viruses in laboratory-reared cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marti, O.G.; Myers, R.E.; Carpenter, J.E.; Styer, E.L.

    2007-01-01

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Phycitinae), is a non-native species threatening a variety of native cacti, particularly endangered species of Opuntia (Zimmerman et al. 2001), on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Cactoblastis cactorum populations have expanded from Florida northward along the Atlantic coast as far as Charleston, SC, and westward along the Gulf of Mexico to Dauphin Island, south of Mobile, AL. It is feared that further movement to the west will allow C. cactorum to enter the US desert Southwest and Mexico, particularly the latter. Numerous cactus species, especially those of the genera Opuntia and Nopalea, are native to the U.S. and Mexico. Local economies based on agricultural and horticultural uses of cacti could be devastated by C. cactorum (Vigueras and Portillo 2001). A bi-national control program between the US and Mexico is being developed, utilizing the sterile insect technique (SIT). In the SIT program, newly emerged moths are irradiated with a 60 Co source and released to mate with wild individuals. The radiation dose completely sterilizes the females and partially sterilizes the males. When irradiated males mate with wild females, the F1 progeny of these matings are sterile. In order for the SIT program to succeed, large numbers of moths must be reared from egg to adult on artificial diet in a quarantined rearing facility (Carpenter et al. 2001). Irradiated insects must then be released in large numbers at the leading edge of the invasive population and at times which coincide with the presence of wild individuals available for mating. Mortality from disease in the rearing colony disrupts the SIT program by reducing the numbers of insects available for release

  14. Putative nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits express differentially through the life cycle of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jessica A; Garczynski, Stephen F

    2016-04-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are the targets of neonicotinoids and spinosads, two insecticides used in orchards to effectively control codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Orchardists in Washington State are concerned about the possibility of codling moth field populations developing resistance to these two insecticides. In an effort to help mitigate this issue, we initiated a project to identify and characterize codling moth nAChR subunits expressed in heads. This study had two main goals; (i) identify transcripts from a codling moth head transcriptome that encode for nAChR subunits, and (ii) determine nAChR subunit expression profiles in various life stages of codling moth. From a codling moth head transcriptome, 24 transcripts encoding for 12 putative nAChR subunit classes were identified and verified by PCR amplification, cloning, and sequence determination. Characterization of the deduced protein sequences encoded by putative nAChR transcripts revealed that they share the distinguishing features of the cys-loop ligand-gated ion channel superfamily with 9 α-type subunits and 3 β-type subunits identified. Phylogenetic analysis comparing these protein sequences to those of other insect nAChR subunits supports the identification of these proteins as nAChR subunits. Stage expression studies determined that there is clear differential expression of many of these subunits throughout the codling moth life cycle. The information from this study will be used in the future to monitor for potential target-site resistance mechanisms to neonicotinoids and spinosads in tolerant codling moth populations. © 2014 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of the oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ya-jun; Shi, Bao-cai; Kang, Zong-jiang; Zhang, Fan; Wei, Shu-jun

    2012-03-01

    The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) currently is one of the economically most destructive pest species of stone and pome fruits worldwide. Here we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of this pest. This genome is 15,776 bp long, with an A + T content of 81.24%, containing 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes and an A + T-rich region. All gene are arranged as hypothesized ancestral gene order of insects except for trnM, which was shuffled from 3' downstream of trnQ to 5' upstream of trnI. cox1 gene uses unusual CGA start codon, as that in all other sequenced lepidopteran mitochondrial genome. The secondary structures for the two rRNA genes were predicted. All helices typically present in insect mitochondrial rRNA genes are generated. A microsatellite sequence was inserted into the region of H2347 in rrnL in G. molesta and two other sequenced tortricid mitochondrial genomes, indicating that the insertion event in this helix might occurred anciently in family Tortricidae. All of the 22 typical animal tRNA genes have a typical cloverleaf structure except for trnS2, in which the D-stem pairings in the DHU arm are absent. An intergenic sequence is present between trnQ and nad2 as well as in other sequenced lepidopteran mitochondrial genomes, which was presumed to be a remnant of trnM gene and its boundary sequences after the duplication of trnM to the upstream of trnI in Lepidoptera. The A + T-rich region is 836 bp, containing six repeat sequences of "TTATTATTATTATTAAATA(G)TTT."

  16. Tools for resistance monitoring in oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and first assessment in Brazilian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegwart, M; Monteiro, L B; Maugin, S; Olivares, J; Malfitano Carvalho, S; Sauphanor, B

    2011-04-01

    In southern Brazilian apple (Malus spp.) orchards, predominantly organophosphates are used to control the oriental fruit moth, Cydia molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), but control failures often occur. Therefore the susceptibility of three C. molesta Brazilian populations was investigated to five insecticides of different groups and modes of action, in comparison with a susceptible laboratory strain mass reared in southern France for >10 yr. At the same time, comparative biochemical and genetic analysis were performed, assessing the activities of the detoxification enzymatic systems and sequencing a gene of insecticide molecular target to find out markers associated with resistance. The three Brazilian populations were significantly resistant to chlorpyrifos ethyl compared with the reference strain. One of the field populations that had been frequently exposed to deltamethrin treatments showed significant decreasing susceptibility to this compound, whereas none of the three populations had loss of susceptibility to tebufenozide and thiacloprid compared with the reference strain. All three populations had slight but significant increases of glutathione transferase and carboxylesterases activities and significant decrease of specific acetylcholinesterase activities compared with the reference. Only the most resistant population to chlorpyriphos exhibited a significantly higher mixed function oxidase activity than the reference. The acetylcholinesterase of females was significantly less inhibited by carbaryl in the Brazilian populations than in the reference strain (1.7-2.5-fold), and this difference was not expressed in the male moth. However, no mutation in the MACE locus was detected. These biological and molecular characterizations of adaptive response to insecticides in C. molesta provide tools for early detection of insecticide resistance in field populations of this pest.

  17. Allopatric distribution and diversification without niche shift in a bryophyte-feeding basal moth lineage (Lepidoptera: Micropterigidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Yume; Kawakita, Atsushi; Kato, Makoto

    2011-10-22

    The Lepidoptera represent one of the most successful radiations of plant-feeding insects, which predominantly took place within angiosperms beginning in the Cretaceous period. Angiosperm colonization is thought to underlie the evolutionary success of the Lepidoptera because angiosperms provide an enormous range of niches for ecological speciation to take place. By contrast, the basal lepidopteran lineage, Micropterigidae, remained unassociated with angiosperms since Jurassic times but nevertheless achieved a modest diversity in the Japanese Archipelago. We explored the causes and processes of diversification of the Japanese micropterigid moths by performing molecular phylogenetic analysis and extensive ecological surveying. Phylogenetic analysis recovered a monophyletic group of approximately 25 East Asian endemic species that feed exclusively on the liverwort Conocephalum conicum, suggesting that niche shifts hardly played a role in their diversification. Consistent with the low flying ability of micropterigid moths, the distributions of the Conocephalum specialists are each localized and allopatric, indicating that speciation by geographical isolation has been the major process shaping the diversity of Japanese Micropterigidae. To our knowledge, this is the largest radiation of herbivorous insects that does not accompany any apparent niche differentiation. We suggest that the significance of non-ecological speciation during the diversification of the Lepidoptera is commonly underestimated.

  18. Seasonal and cultivar-associated variation in oviposition preference of Oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) adults and feeding behavior of neonate larvae in apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Clayton T; Hull, Larry A; Krawczyk, Grzegorz

    2006-04-01

    The Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) has become a pest of tree fruits since its introduction to the United States in the early twentieth century. Oriental fruit moth has historically been a major pest problem in peach production, and outbreaks in commercial apple (Malus spp.) orchards in the eastern United States were rare until the late 1990s. Recent outbreaks in Mid-Atlantic apple orchards have lead researchers to investigate host-associated effects on oriental fruit moth biology, behavior, and population dynamics. Studies were designed to assess cultivar level effects in apples on oviposition and larval feeding behavior of oriental fruit moth. In a mixed cultivar apple orchard, total oriental fruit moth oviposition and oviposition site preferences varied between cultivars. These preferences also varied over time, when sampling was repeated at various times of the growing season. Although most adult female oriental fruit moth preferentially oviposited in the calyx and stem areas of apple fruit, noticeable numbers of eggs also were laid on the sides of fruit, contradicting some previous reports. Oriental fruit moth females exhibited a strong ovipositional preference for fruit that were previously damaged by oriental fruit moth or codling moth, Cydia ponmonella (L.). The majority of newly hatched oriental fruit moth larvae were observed to spend oriental fruit moth.

  19. Preliminary studies on inherited sterility for field management of diamondback moth (plutella xylostella) (Lepidoptera: plutellidae) on crucifiers in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewusie, E.A.; Nkumsah, A.K.; Alimatu, S.; Osae, M.Y.

    2010-01-01

    The diamondback moth (DBM), plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: plutellidae) is the most destructive insect pest crucifiers in Ghana and the world over. It is estimated to cost about USD 1 billion to control annually worldwide. Reliance on chemicals as the sole control measure for diamondback moth has resulted in the development of a myriad of problems including resistance, high residue levels on produce, destruction of natural enemies and pest resurgence among others. Inherited sterility in Lepidoptera insects has a potential for suppressing DBM populations. We conducted this study to evaluate the use of the technique to manage the diamond back moth in Ghana. When 3 - 4 day old pupae were treated with 130 Gy and 150 Gy of gamma radiation, 47% and 46% respectively of the male pupae developed as normal adults while 40% and 17% respectively of the female pupae developed as normal adults. However, radiation-induced reductions in fecundity and egg viability were expressed in the parental and first filial (F 1 ) generations. Sterility exceeded 66% in the treated parental male and 92% in the treated parental female in both treatments as compared with 78% and 95% in treated F 1 male and female, respectively. The sex ratio was skewed in favour of males in the parental progeny. These results indicate the possibility of using inherited sterility for DBM control. (au)

  20. Male oriental fruit moth response to a combined pheromone-based attracticide formulation targeting both oriental fruit moth and codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenden, Maya L; McClaughlin, John R

    2005-04-01

    Combined attracticide formulations targeting Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), and codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), were tested in a field trapping experiment. Capture of male codling moths in traps baited with the combined formulation was reduced compared with traps baited with the codling moth formulation alone, whereas capture of male Oriental fruit moth was increased compared with traps baited with the Oriental fruit moth formulation alone. Subsequent wind tunnel experiments showed that a single locus of the mixed attracticide formulation or close parallel presentation of the two formulations enhanced source contact by male Oriental fruit moths but did not influence earlier behaviors. However, the two formulations presented in a serial arrangement to Oriental fruit moth males in the wind tunnel resulted in enhanced lock-on, upwind flight, and source contact behaviors. In addition, male Oriental fruit moths remained on mixed pheromone droplets of the paste matrix longer than on droplets of the Oriental fruit moth formulation alone. The increased time spent on the mixed droplet was correlated with a more rapid poisoning and a greater proportion of poisoned males compared with males exposed to the Oriental fruit moth attracticide alone. These results demonstrate that a combined attracticide formulation will have different effects on each of the targeted species. It is anticipated that, due to decreased attractiveness, a combined formulation would be less effective against the codling moth. However, a mixed formulation, due to increased attractiveness and toxicity, could be more effective against the Oriental fruit moth under field conditions.

  1. Effects of orchard host plants on the oviposition preference of the oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Clayton T; Hull, Larry A; Krawczyk, Grzegorz

    2006-08-01

    Recently, the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), has emerged as a major problem on apples (Malus spp.) grown in the mid-Atlantic and midwestern United States, despite its historically important and frequent occurrence as a peach (Prunus spp.) pest. It is possible that host-driven biological phenomena may be contributing to changes in G. molesta population dynamics resulting in outbreaks in apple. Studies were designed to examine the effects of host plants on oviposition behavior, in an effort to clarify the host association status of eastern U.S. populations and also to gain insight into how pest modeling and management efforts may be altered to take into account various host-associated effects. G. molesta adults exhibited ovipositional preference for nonbearing peach trees over nonbearing apple trees in close-range choice tests conducted in the field, regardless of the larval host origin. A significant preference for peach shoots over apple shoots was observed on six of 12 sampling dates with a wild G. molesta population at the interface of adjacent peach and apple blocks. Numbers of eggs found on apple fruit were higher after peach fruit were harvested and apple fruit began to approach maturity (during the flight period for third and fourth brood adults). Possible implications for population modeling and integrated management of G. molesta are discussed.

  2. Yield-based economic thresholds for grape berry moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in juice grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubos, Craig R; Mason, Keith S; Teixeira, Luís A F; Isaacs, Rufus

    2013-04-01

    A 3-yr field study was conducted at commercial juice grape (Vitis labrusca L.) vineyards to develop an economic injury level (EIL) for grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and to determine patterns of cluster injury. Infestation of grape clusters by P. viteana was measured biweekly from bloom until harvest, and fruit was sampled immediately before harvest to determine the yield and level of fruit injury by this pest. Comparison of fruit infestation at each sampling date to that found just before harvest revealed stronger relationships over time, and by early August at least 50% of the variation in preharvest infestation was accounted for by previous infestation. Grape yield declined with increasing infestation by P. viteana, allowing calculation of the EIL at which the value of yield lost to infestation equaled the cost of insecticide applications to prevent the infestation. Using two scenarios of pest control programs based on pyrethroid or diamide insecticides, the EILs were calculated to be 9.9 and 17.7% of clusters damaged, respectively. For use in juice grape vineyard integrated pest management programs, we propose using 5 and 10% damaged clusters at harvest as action thresholds for further testing in field trials to evaluate sampling plans and the use of thresholds to guide vineyard pest management decision-making under different insecticide scenarios.

  3. Effects of gamma radiation on pupae of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck)(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lucia C.A S.; Modolo, Deborah M.; Leandro, Rodrigo Sebastiao Rossi, E-mail: lsasilva@cena.usp.br, E-mail: dmmodolo@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Arthur, Paula B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    As insects increase in radio tolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of pest may present in fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radio tolerance of pupae of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidade), to gamma radiation. This specie is considered as on of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Pupae of 3 days old were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, 250, 300 and 350 Gy of gamma radiation of source Cobalt-60, type Gammacell-220 at dose rate of 0,508 kGy/hour. Each treatment had 4 repetitions with 10 pupae in the total 40 pupae per treatment. Surviving pupae allowed to feed on an artificial diet. After irradiation the insects were keep in room with climatic conditions of 25 {+-}5 deg C and 70 {+-}5% RH. The results showed that the sterilizing dose to adults was 200Gy and that the dose of 350Gy was not sufficient to kill all pupae of insects. (author)

  4. Effects of gamma radiation on pupae of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck)(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lucia C.A S.; Modolo, Deborah M.; Leandro, Rodrigo Sebastiao Rossi; Arthur, Paula B.

    2011-01-01

    As insects increase in radio tolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of pest may present in fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radio tolerance of pupae of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidade), to gamma radiation. This specie is considered as on of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Pupae of 3 days old were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, 250, 300 and 350 Gy of gamma radiation of source Cobalt-60, type Gammacell-220 at dose rate of 0,508 kGy/hour. Each treatment had 4 repetitions with 10 pupae in the total 40 pupae per treatment. Surviving pupae allowed to feed on an artificial diet. After irradiation the insects were keep in room with climatic conditions of 25 ±5 deg C and 70 ±5% RH. The results showed that the sterilizing dose to adults was 200Gy and that the dose of 350Gy was not sufficient to kill all pupae of insects. (author)

  5. Life stage toxicity and residual activity of insecticides to codling moth and oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhaes, Leonardo C; Walgenbach, James F

    2011-12-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), are two key pests of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) in North Carolina. Growers extensively relied on organophosphate insecticides, primarily azinphosmethyl, for > 40 yr to manage these pests. Because of organophosphate resistance development and regulatory actions, growers are transitioning to management programs that use new, reduced-risk, and OP-replacement insecticides. This study evaluated the toxicity of a diversity of replacement insecticides to eggs, larvae, and adults, as well as an assessment of their residual activity, to codling moth and oriental fruit moth. Laboratory-susceptible strains of both species were used for all bioassays. Fresh field-harvested apples were used as a media for assessing the ovicidal activity of insecticides. For larval studies, insecticides were topically applied to the surface of lima bean-based diet, onto which neonates were placed. Toxicity was based on two measures of mortality; 5-d mortality and development to adult stage. Ovicidal bioassays showed that oriental fruit moth eggs were generally more tolerant than codling moth eggs to insecticides, with novaluron, acetamiprid, and azinphoshmethyl having the highest levels of toxicity to eggs of both species. In contrast, codling moth larvae generally were more tolerant than oriental fruit moth to most insecticides. Methoxyfenozide and pyriproxyfen were the only insecticides with lower LC50 values against codling moth than oriental fruit moth neonates. Moreover, a number of insecticides, particularly the IGRs methoxyfenozide and novaluron, the anthranilic diamide chlorantriliprole, and the spinosyn spinetoram, provided equal or longer residual activity against codling moth compared with azinphosmethyl in field studies. Results are discussed in relation to their use in devising field use patterns of insecticides and for insecticide resistance monitoring programs.

  6. Sprayable microencapsulated sex pheromone formulation for mating disruption of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Australian peach and pear orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'Ichev, A L; Stelinski, L L; Williams, D G; Gut, L J

    2006-12-01

    Areawide mating disruption treatments have been effective in controlling infestation of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in Australian pome and stone fruit orchards. Although successful, the areawide mating disruption program has been an expensive approach by using hand-applied Isomate dispensers. Sprayable microencapsulated (MEC) pheromone formulations that can be applied with standard spray equipment could substantially reduce the cost of application. Field trials conducted during two consecutive seasons (2002-2004) demonstrated that monthly applications of MEC-OFM phase V (3M Canada, London, Ontario, Canada) at a rate of 125 ml/ha (37.1 g [AI]/ha) in replicated 2-ha blocks of both peaches and pears reduced oriental fruit moth shoot tip and fruit damage as effectively as a single application of Isomate OFM Rosso hand-applied dispensers (500 dispensers per ha) and as or more effectively than standard broad-spectrum insecticide sprays. Fruit protection was achieved despite high oriental fruit moth population densities in both crops as measured by moth catches in terpinyl acetate food and pheromone traps. Similar numbers of oriental fruit moths were captured among all treatments in food traps but captures of males in pheromone traps were disrupted (96-99%) in pheromone-treated blocks relative to controls. The results of this study suggest that microencapsulated formulations of pheromone could be effectively used in areawide mating disruption programs for oriental fruit moth in Australia as a cost-saving alternative to reservoir-style dispensers requiring labor-intensive hand application.

  7. Field evaluation of effect of temperature on release of Disparlure from a pheromone-baited trapping system used to monitor gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick C. Tobin; Aijun Zhang; Ksenia Onufrieva; Donna Leonard

    2011-01-01

    Traps baited with disparlure, the synthetic form of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), sex pheromone are used to detect newly founded populations and estimate population density across the United States. The lures used in trapping devices are exposed to field conditions with varying climates, which can affect the rate...

  8. Susceptibility of Oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larvae to selected reduced-risk insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Moneen M; Robertson, Jacqueline L; Weinzierl, Richard A

    2010-10-01

    To determine their baseline susceptibility to chlorantraniliprole, spinetoram, spinosad, and acetamiprid, oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), neonates were placed on diet cubes containing a range of concentrations of each insecticide. Mortality was assessed after 96 h. Two populations-a long-term laboratory colony from Rutgers University and a colony established in 2007 from a southwestern Illinois (Calhoun County) field population-were tested. We used probit and logit analyses to compare the responses of Calhoun colony neonates from parents reared on 'Gala' apples (Malus spp.) with those of Calhoun colony neonates from parents reared on lima bean, Phaseolus lunatus L., diet. We also compared the responses of Calhoun colony neonates with those of Rutgers colony neonates (all from parents reared on apples). LC50s (ppm in diet) for Calhoun colony progeny of adults reared on apples were 0.08, 0.06, 0.41, and 0.30, respectively, for chlorantraniliprole, spinetoram, acetamiprid, and spinosad. Parental food source (apples versus lima bean diet) did not consistently influence the concentration-mortality relationships for neonates. Based on LC50s and toxicity ratio tests, Calhoun colony neonates were slightly but significantly less susceptible to spinetoram and acetamiprid than were Rutgers colony neonates. Similarly, LC90s and toxicity ratio tests indicated that Calhoun colony neonates were slightly but significantly less susceptible to chlorantraniliprole as well. However, toxicity ratios (Calhoun/Rutgers) were low in all instances, and the highest ratio was 1.73 at LC90 for chlorantraniliprole. Overall, the two colonies responded similarly to these insecticides. Results reported here provide baseline data for future monitoring of resistance development.

  9. Phylogeny of the pollinating yucca moths, with revision of Mexican species (Tegeticula and Parategeticula; Lepidoptera, Prodoxidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellmyr, Olof; Balcazar-Lara, Manuel; Segraves, Kari A.; Althoff, David M.; Littlefield, Rik J.

    2008-02-01

    ABSTRACT The yucca moths (Tegeticula and Parategeticula; Lepidoptera, Prodoxidae) are well-known for their obligate relationship as exclusive pollinators of yuccas. Revisionary work in recent years has revealed far higher species diversity than historically recognized, increasing the number of described species from four to 21. Based on field surveys in Mexico and examination of collections, we describe five additional species: T. californica Pellmyr sp. nov., T. tehuacana Pellmyr & Balcázar-Lara sp. nov., T. tambasi Pellmyr & Balcázar-Lara sp. nov., T. baja Pellmyr & Balcázar-Lara sp. nov., and P. californica Pellmyr & Balcázar-Lara sp. nov. Tegeticula treculeanella Pellmyr is identified as a junior synonym of T. mexicana Bastida. A diagnostic key to the adults of all species of the T. yuccasella complex is provided. A phylogeny based on a 2104-bp segment of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the cytochrome oxidase I and II region supported monophyly of the two pollinator genera, and strongly supported monophyly of the 17 recognized species of the T. yuccasella complex. Most relationships are well-supported, but some relationships within a recent and rapidly diversified group of 11 taxa are less robust, and in one case conflicts with a whole-genome data set (AFLP). The current mtDNA-based analyses, together with previously published AFLP data, provide a robust phylogenetic foundation for future studies of life history evolution and host interactions in one of the classical models of coevolution and obligate mutualism. ADDITIONAL KEY WORDS: mutualism, pollination, molecular phylogenetics, mitochondrial DNA

  10. Toward reconstructing the evolution of advanced moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera: Ditrysia: an initial molecular study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hausmann Axel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the mega-diverse insect order Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths; 165,000 described species, deeper relationships are little understood within the clade Ditrysia, to which 98% of the species belong. To begin addressing this problem, we tested the ability of five protein-coding nuclear genes (6.7 kb total, and character subsets therein, to resolve relationships among 123 species representing 27 (of 33 superfamilies and 55 (of 100 families of Ditrysia under maximum likelihood analysis. Results Our trees show broad concordance with previous morphological hypotheses of ditrysian phylogeny, although most relationships among superfamilies are weakly supported. There are also notable surprises, such as a consistently closer relationship of Pyraloidea than of butterflies to most Macrolepidoptera. Monophyly is significantly rejected by one or more character sets for the putative clades Macrolepidoptera as currently defined (P P ≤ 0.005, and nearly so for the superfamily Drepanoidea as currently defined (P Separate analyses of mostly synonymous versus non-synonymous character sets revealed notable differences (though not strong conflict, including a marked influence of compositional heterogeneity on apparent signal in the third codon position (nt3. As available model partitioning methods cannot correct for this variation, we assessed overall phylogeny resolution through separate examination of trees from each character set. Exploration of "tree space" with GARLI, using grid computing, showed that hundreds of searches are typically needed to find the best-feasible phylogeny estimate for these data. Conclusion Our results (a corroborate the broad outlines of the current working phylogenetic hypothesis for Ditrysia, (b demonstrate that some prominent features of that hypothesis, including the position of the butterflies, need revision, and (c resolve the majority of family and subfamily relationships within superfamilies as thus far

  11. Effects of elevated CO2 leaf diets on gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) respiration rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, Anita R; Mattson, William J; Trier, Terry M

    2013-06-01

    Elevated levels of CO2 affect plant growth and leaf chemistry, which in turn can alter host plant suitability for insect herbivores. We examined the suitability of foliage from trees grown from seedlings since 1997 at Aspen FACE as diet for the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae: paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marshall) in 2004-2005, and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michaux) in 2006-2007, and measured consequent effects on larval respiration. Leaves were collected for diet and leaf chemistry (nutritional and secondary compound proxies) from trees grown under ambient (average 380 ppm) and elevated CO2 (average 560 ppm) conditions. Elevated CO2 did not significantly alter birch or aspen leaf chemistry compared with ambient levels with the exception that birch percent carbon in 2004 and aspen moisture content in 2006 were significantly lowered. Respiration rates were significantly higher (15-59%) for larvae reared on birch grown under elevated CO2 compared with ambient conditions, but were not different on two aspen clones, until larvae reached the fifth instar, when those consuming elevated CO2 leaves on clone 271 had lower (26%) respiration rates, and those consuming elevated CO2 leaves on clone 216 had higher (36%) respiration rates. However, elevated CO2 had no apparent effect on the respiration rates of pupae derived from larvae fed either birch or aspen leaves. Higher respiration rates for larvae fed diets grown under ambient or elevated CO2 demonstrates their lower efficiency of converting chemical energy of digested food stuffs extracted from such leaves into their biosynthetic processes.

  12. Molecular Phylogeny of the Small Ermine Moth Genus Yponomeuta (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae) in the Palaearctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Hubert; Lieshout, Niek; Van Ginkel, Wil E.; Menken, Steph B. J.

    2010-01-01

    Background The small ermine moth genus Yponomeuta (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae) contains 76 species that are specialist feeders on hosts from Celastraceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae, and several other plant families. The genus is a model for studies in the evolution of phytophagous insects and their host-plant associations. Here, we reconstruct the phylogeny to provide a solid framework for these studies, and to obtain insight into the history of host-plant use and the biogeography of the genus. Methodology/Principal Findings DNA sequences from an internal transcribed spacer region (ITS-1) and from the 16S rDNA (16S) and cytochrome oxidase (COII) mitochondrial genes were collected from 20–23 (depending on gene) species and two outgroup taxa to reconstruct the phylogeny of the Palaearctic members of this genus. Sequences were analysed using three different phylogenetic methods (parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian inference). Conclusions/Significance Roughly the same patterns are retrieved irrespective of the method used, and they are similar among the three genes. Monophyly is well supported for a clade consisting of the Japanese (but not the Dutch) population of Yponomeuta sedellus and Y. yanagawanus, a Y. kanaiellus–polystictus clade, and a Rosaceae-feeding, western Palaearctic clade (Y. cagnagellus–irrorellus clade). Within these clades, relationships are less well supported, and the patterns between the different gene trees are not so similar. The position of the remaining taxa is also variable among the gene trees and rather weakly supported. The phylogenetic information was used to elucidate patterns of biogeography and resource use. In the Palaearctic, the genus most likely originated in the Far East, feeding on Celastraceae, dispersing to the West concomitant with a shift to Rosaceae and further to Salicaceae. The association of Y. cagnagellus with Euonymus europaeus (Celastraceae), however, is a reversal. The only oligophagous species, Y. padellus, belongs

  13. Oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) phenology and management with methoxyfenozide in North Carolina apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchert, Daniel M; Stinner, Ronald E; Walgenbach, James F; Kennedy, George G

    2004-08-01

    The phenology of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), on apple (Malus spp.) in North Carolina was studied using pheromone traps and egg sampling in abandoned and commercial orchards in 2000 and 2001, with subsequent development of an oviposition degree-day model and management studies in relation to codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), phenology. Oriental fruit moth eggs were found in greater numbers on leaves early and on fruit later in the growing season, on the top versus the bottom of the leaf surface, and on the calyx area versus the side or stem end of the fruit. A degree-day (DD) model to predict oriental fruit moth oviposition was developed based on temperature accumulations from peak moth trap capture of the first (overwintering) generation, by using 7.2 and 32.2 degrees C as the temperature limits. The model predicted four ovipositing generations of oriental fruit moth with the second beginning 507 DD after peak moth catch. Using predictions of the oriental fruit moth and codling moth degree-day oviposition models, an experiment was conducted to determine the level of second generation oriental fruit moth control with methoxyfenozide applied under different scenarios for first generation codling moth. Methoxyfenozide was equally effective in managing codling moth and oriental fruit moth for all treatment timings.

  14. Efficacy and release rate of reservoir pheromone dispensers for simultaneous mating disruption of codling moth and oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelinski, L L; Il'ichev, A L; Gut, L J

    2009-02-01

    Five formulations of controlled release, polyethylene tube dispensers of pheromone were evaluated during three field seasons for disruption of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Evaluations were conducted in replicated 4-ha plots of commercial apple in Michigan. Disruption of both C. pomonella and G. molesta male orientation to pheromone traps in plots treated with a dual-species formulation (Isomate CM/OFM TT), simultaneously releasing the pheromone components of both C. pomonella and G. molesta, was equivalent to that obtained by treating plots with separate formulations for each species (Isomate C Plus or Isomate C TT for C. pomonella and Isomate M Rosso for G. molesta) through mid-season. However, disruption efficacy of the dual-species formulation was significantly lower near the end of the season for G. molesta compared with the Isomate M Rosso formulation because of depletion of active ingredients and coincided with a slight increase in fruit injury. Effective disruption of C. pomonella and G. molesta also was obtained with a multispecies formulation (Isomate CM/OFM/LR) that releases the main pheromone components of C. pomonella, G. molesta, and several leafroller species. Each formulation type releasing (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone) also was found to release the E,Z- and Z,E-isomers of codlemone. Our data provide further evidence that simultaneous disruption of C. pomonella and G. molesta with dispensers releasing both species' pheromone components is possible; however, the controlled release formulations tested here require modification or postponed deployment coupled with early season control by other means to achieve season-long efficacy. Simultaneous disruption of several species with a single formulation will be economically advantageous in regions where control of multiple pests is needed given the need for hand application of this

  15. Comparative fitness of irradiated light brown apple moths (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in a wind tunnel, hedgerow, and vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, David M; Stringer, Lloyd D; Mitchell, Vanessa J; Sullivan, Thomas E S; Sullivan, Nicola J; Simmons, Gregory S; Barrington, Anne M; El-Sayed, Ashraf M

    2011-08-01

    Light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is the target of the sterile insect technique, but reduced moth fitness from irradiation lowers the effective overflooding ratio of sterile to wild moths. New measures of insect quality are being sought to improve field performance of irradiated insects, thus improving the cost effectiveness of this technique. Male pupae were irradiated at intervals between 0 and 300 Gy, and adult flight success was assessed in a wind tunnel equipped with flight track recording software. A dose response was evident with reduced successful search behaviors at higher irradiation doses. Irradiation at 250 Gy reduced arrival success to 49% of untreated controls, during 2-min assays. Mark-release-recapture of males irradiated at 250 Gy indicated reduced male moth recapture in hedgerows (75% of control values of 7.22% +/- 1.20 [SEM] males recaptured) and in vineyards (78% of control values 10.5% +/- 1.66% [SEM] recaptured). Males dispersed similar distances in both habitats, and overflooding ratios dropped off rapidly from the release point in both landscapes. Transects of traps with central releases proved to be an efficient method for measuring the quality of released males. Relative field performance of moths was greater than suggested by wind tunnel performance, which could be due to time differences between the two assays, two-minute wind tunnel tests compared with days in the field treatments. Release strategies involving ground releases should consider the effect of limited postrelease dispersal. Aerial release could solve this problem and warrants investigation.

  16. Sexual Dimorphism and Allometric Effects Associated With the Wing Shape of Seven Moth Species of Sphingidae (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Camargo, Willian Rogers Ferreira; de Camargo, Nícholas Ferreira; Corrêa, Danilo do Carmo Vieira; de Camargo, Amabílio J Aires; Diniz, Ivone Rezende

    2015-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism is a pronounced pattern of intraspecific variation in Lepidoptera. However, moths of the family Sphingidae (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea) are considered exceptions to this rule. We used geometric morphometric techniques to detect shape and size sexual dimorphism in the fore and hindwings of seven hawkmoth species. The shape variables produced were then subjected to a discriminant analysis. The allometric effects were measured with a simple regression between the canonical variables and the centroid size. We also used the normalized residuals to assess the nonallometric component of shape variation with a t-test. The deformations in wing shape between sexes per species were assessed with a regression between the nonreduced shape variables and the residuals. We found sexual dimorphism in both wings in all analyzed species, and that the allometric effects were responsible for much of the wing shape variation between the sexes. However, when we removed the size effects, we observed shape sexual dimorphism. It is very common for females to be larger than males in Lepidoptera, so it is expected that the shape of structures such as wings suffers deformations in order to preserve their function. However, sources of variation other than allometry could be a reflection of different reproductive flight behavior (long flights in search for sexual mates in males, and flight in search for host plants in females). © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  17. Long-distance dispersal of the gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) facilitated its initial invasion of Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick C. Tobin; Laura M. Blackburn

    2008-01-01

    Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) spread is dominated by stratified dispersal, and, although spread rates are variable in space and time, the gypsy moth has invaded Wisconsin at a consistently higher rate than in other regions. Allee effects, which act on low-density populations ahead of the moving population that contribute to gypsy moth spread, have...

  18. Toxicity of thiamethoxam and mixtures of chlorantraniliprole plus acetamiprid, esfenvalerate, or thiamethoxam to neonates of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Moneen M; Robertson, Jacqueline L; Weinzierl, Richard A

    2012-08-01

    To assess the toxicity ofthiamethoxam and three mixtures of insecticides to oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), we added the insecticides to diet and fed it to neonates of two laboratory colonies; mortality was assessed after 96 h. Thiamethoxam was much less toxic than insecticides previously tested. Five of six analyses of the joint action of chlorantraniliprole plus acetamiprid, esfenvalerate, or thiamethoxam indicated that toxicity was not independent and not correlated. For chlorantraniliprole plus acetamiprid, mortality was slightly lower than expected at low concentrations and greater than expected at high concentrations. For chlorantraniliprole plus esfenvalerate, mortality was less than expected at nearly all concentrations, suggesting antagonism despite the two compounds' different modes of action. For chlorantraniliprole plus thiamethoxam, observed mortality exceeded expected mortality at low concentrations, but this trend did not continue at higher concentrations. Although the null hypothesis of independent and uncorrelated toxicity was rejected for chlorantraniliprole plus acetamiprid and chlorantraniliprole plus thiamethoxam in three of four analyses, differences between observed and expected mortality were minor and inconsistent over the range of concentrations tested. We do not expect these mixtures to exhibit significant synergism or antagonism in the field. Apparent antagonism between chlorantraniliprole and esfenvalerate is particularly relevant because these insecticides (or chlorantraniliprole plus a different pyrethroid) may be used together in apples or peaches for control of oriental fruit moth and hemipteran pests. The effectiveness of each insecticide against oriental fruit moth might be reduced in such applications.

  19. Predicting the emergence of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), on a degree-day scale in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Vincent P; Hilton, Richard; Brunner, Jay F; Bentley, Walt J; Alston, Diane G; Barrett, Bruce; Van Steenwyk, Robert A; Hull, Larry A; Walgenbach, James F; Coates, William W; Smith, Timothy J

    2013-12-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major pest of apple, pear and walnut production in North America. Management programs are based on preventing larval entry into the fruit or nut and are typically timed by heat-driven models that are synchronized to field populations by first capture of overwintering moths in pheromone traps. Unfortunately, trap capture is affected by a range of environmental parameters as well as by the use of mating disruption, which makes detecting first flight difficult, thus complicating implementation of management programs. The present goal was to evaluate data collected from a broad range of locations across North America to see whether average first spring emergence times could be predicted. Average emergence time on a degree-day scale from 1 January was predictable using latitude and elevation. Sites at elevations of <400 m fit a simple quadratic equation using latitude, but, when higher elevations were included, a multiple regression using elevation was required. The present models can be used to simplify management programs for codling moth in areas where heat-driven models that require extensive trapping to synchronize with emergence are currently used. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Long-term benefits to the growth of ponderosa pines from controlling southwestern pine tip moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Michael R; Chen, Zhong

    2004-12-01

    The southwestern pine tip moth, Rhyacionia neomexicana (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a native forest pest that attacks seedlings and saplings of ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws, in the southwestern United States. Repeated attacks can cause severe deformation of host trees and significant long-term growth loss. Alternatively, effective control of R. neomexicana, vegetative competition, or both in young pine plantations may increase survival and growth of trees for many years after treatments are applied. We test the null hypothesis that 4 yr of R. neomexicana and weed control with insecticide, weeding, and insecticide plus weeding would not have any residual effect on survival and growth of trees in ponderosa pine plantation in northern Arizona 14 yr post-treatment, when the trees were 18 yr old. Both insecticide and weeding treatment increased tree growth and reduced the incidence of southwestern pine tip moth damage compared with the control. However, weeding alone also significantly increased tree survival, whereas insecticide alone did not. The insecticide plus weeding treatment had the greatest tree growth and survival, and the lowest rate of tip moth damage. Based on these results, we rejected our null hypothesis and concluded that there were detectable increases in the survival and growth of ponderosa pines 14 yr after treatments applied to control R. neomexicana and weeds.

  1. Forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae mate-finding behavior is greatest at intermediate population densities: Implications for interpretation of moth capture in pheromone-baited traps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya L. Evenden

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria Hübner (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae is a native forest defoliator with a broad geographic range in North America. Forest tent caterpillars experience cyclical population changes and at high densities, repeated defoliation can cause reduced tree growth and tree mortality. Pheromone-based monitoring of forest tent caterpillar moths can provide information on spatial and temporal patterns of incipient outbreaks. Pheromone-baited trap capture of male moths correlates to the number of eggs and pupae in a population but this relationship breaks down at high population densities, when moth trap capture declines. The objective of the current study is to understand the mechanisms that reduce trap capture at high population densities. We tested two different hypotheses: 1 at high population densities, male moth orientation to pheromone sources is reduced due to competition for pheromone plumes; and 2 moths from high density populations will be in poor condition and less likely to conduct mate-finding behaviors than moths from low density populations. A field study showed non-linear effects of density on male moth capture in female-baited traps. The number of males captured increased up to an intermediate density level and declined at the highest densities. Field cage studies showed that female moth density affected male moth orientation to female-baited traps, as more males were recaptured at low than high female densities. There was no effect of male density on the proportion of males that oriented to female-baited traps. Moth condition was manipulated by varying larval food quantity. Although feeding regimes affected the moth condition (size, there was no evidence of an effect of condition on mate finding or close range mating behavior. In the field, it is likely that competition for pheromone plumes at high female densities during population outbreaks reduces the efficacy of pheromone-baited monitoring

  2. Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Establishment in China: Stages of Invasion and Potential Future Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongyu; Kumar, Sunil

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) is an internal feeding pest of apples and can cause substantial economic losses to fruit growers due to larval feeding which in turn degrades fruit quality and can result in complete crop loss if left uncontrolled. Although this pest originally developed in central Asia, it was not known to occur in China until 1953. For the first three decades the spread of codling moth within China was slow. Within the last three decades, addition of new commercial apple orchards and improved transportation, this pest has spread to over 131 counties in seven provinces in China. We developed regional (China) and global ecological niche models using MaxEnt to identify areas at highest potential risk of codling moth establishment and spread. Our objectives were to 1) predict the potential distribution of codling moth in China, 2) identify the important environmental factors associated with codling moth distribution in China, and 3) identify the different stages of invasion of codling moth in China. Human footprint, annual temperature range, precipitation of wettest quarter, and degree days ≥10 °C were the most important predictors associated with codling moth distribution. Our analysis identified areas where codling moth has the potential to establish, and mapped the different stages of invasion (i.e., potential for population stabilization, colonization, adaptation, and sink) of codling moth in China. Our results can be used in effective monitoring and management to stem the spread of codling moth in China. PMID:28973489

  3. Climate constraints for siberian moth distribution in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuri Baranchikov; Nadezda Tschebakova; Elena Parfenova; Natalia. Kirichenko

    2010-01-01

    A simplistic bioclimatic model of the Siberian moth Dendrolimus sibiricus Tschtvrk. (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) is based on the moth's basic biological requirements, expressed through summer thermal conditions...

  4. Tarsal morphology and attachment ability of the codling moth Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) to smooth surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Bitar, Loris; Voigt, Dagmar; Zebitz, Claus P W; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2009-11-01

    Despite several studies on the attachment ability of different insect taxa, little is known about this phenomenon in adult Lepidoptera. In this study we combined morphological and experimental analyses of tarsal adhesive devices and the attachment ability of the codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) to smooth surfaces. Pretarsi of C. pomonella attach to smooth substrates by means of their smooth, flexible and well developed arolia. Using the centrifugal force measurement technique, friction forces of males and females were assessed on hydrophobic and hydrophilic glass surfaces. Adults of both sexes generated similar forces in spite of the noticeable difference in their body masses. That is why males showed significantly higher safety factors (attachment force divided by body weight) compared to those of females. Hydrophobicity of the substrate had no considerable effect on friction forces. For females, friction forces (sliding parallel to the substrate plane) were compared with adhesive forces (pulling off perpendicularly from the substrate plane) measured on Plexiglas surfaces. It can be concluded that the attachment system of C. pomonella is rather robust against physico-chemical properties of the substrate and is able to achieve a very good attachment on vertical and horizontal substrata.

  5. Potency of nucleopolyhedrovirus genotypes for European and Asian gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Podgwaite; V.V. Martemyanov; J.M. Slavicek; S.A. Bakhavalov; S.V. Pavlushin; N. Hayes-Plazolles; R.T. Zerillo

    2013-01-01

    Gypchek is a gypsy nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) product used for management of European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar dispar L.) in the Unlted States, primarily in areas where the use of broad-spectrum pesticides is not appropriate. Similar LdMNPV products are used in Russia for control of a flighted-female strain of Asian gypsy moth (...

  6. Monitoring codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in orchards treated with pear ester and sex pheromone combo dispensers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lures for monitoring codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), were tested in apple and walnut blocks treated with Cidetrak CM-DA Combo dispensers loaded with pear ester, ethyl (E, Z)-2,4-decadienoate (PE), and sex pheromone (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone). Total and female moth catches with combin...

  7. Are Adult Crambid Snout Moths (Crambinae) and Larval Stages of Lepidoptera Suitable Tools for an Environmental Monitoring of Transgenic Crops? - Implications of a Field Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Andreas; Dolek, Matthias; Theißen, Bernhard; Zapp, Andreas

    2011-08-10

    Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) have been suggested for the environmental monitoring of genetically modified (GM) crops due to their suitability as ecological indicators, and because of the possible adverse impact of the cultivation of current transgenic crops. The German Association of Engineers (VDI) has developed guidelines for the standardized monitoring of Lepidoptera describing the use of light traps for adult moths, transect counts for adult butterflies, and visual search for larvae. The guidelines suggest recording adults of Crambid Snout Moths during transect counts in addition to butterflies, and present detailed protocols for the visual search of larvae. In a field survey in three regions of Germany, we tested the practicability and effort-benefit ratio of the latter two VDI approaches. Crambid Snout Moths turned out to be suitable and practical indicators, which can easily be recorded during transect counts. They were present in 57% of the studied field margins, contributing a substantial part to the overall Lepidoptera count, thus providing valuable additional information to the monitoring results. Visual search of larvae generated results in an adequate effort-benefit ratio when searching for lepidopteran larvae of common species feeding on nettles. Visual search for larvae living on host plants other than nettles was time-consuming and yielded much lower numbers of recorded larvae. Beating samples of bushes and trees yielded a higher number of species and individuals. This method is especially appropriate when hedgerows are sampled, and was judged to perform intermediate concerning the relationship between invested sampling effort and obtained results for lepidopteran larvae. In conclusion, transect counts of adult Crambid Moths and recording of lepidopteran larvae feeding on nettles are feasible additional modules for an environmental monitoring of GM crops. Monitoring larvae living on host plants other than nettles and beating samples of bushes

  8. Are Adult Crambid Snout Moths (Crambinae) and Larval Stages of Lepidoptera Suitable Tools for an Environmental Monitoring of Transgenic Crops? — Implications of a Field Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Andreas; Dolek, Matthias; Theißen, Bernhard; Zapp, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) have been suggested for the environmental monitoring of genetically modified (GM) crops due to their suitability as ecological indicators, and because of the possible adverse impact of the cultivation of current transgenic crops. The German Association of Engineers (VDI) has developed guidelines for the standardized monitoring of Lepidoptera describing the use of light traps for adult moths, transect counts for adult butterflies, and visual search for larvae. The guidelines suggest recording adults of Crambid Snout Moths during transect counts in addition to butterflies, and present detailed protocols for the visual search of larvae. In a field survey in three regions of Germany, we tested the practicability and effort-benefit ratio of the latter two VDI approaches. Crambid Snout Moths turned out to be suitable and practical indicators, which can easily be recorded during transect counts. They were present in 57% of the studied field margins, contributing a substantial part to the overall Lepidoptera count, thus providing valuable additional information to the monitoring results. Visual search of larvae generated results in an adequate effort-benefit ratio when searching for lepidopteran larvae of common species feeding on nettles. Visual search for larvae living on host plants other than nettles was time-consuming and yielded much lower numbers of recorded larvae. Beating samples of bushes and trees yielded a higher number of species and individuals. This method is especially appropriate when hedgerows are sampled, and was judged to perform intermediate concerning the relationship between invested sampling effort and obtained results for lepidopteran larvae. In conclusion, transect counts of adult Crambid Moths and recording of lepidopteran larvae feeding on nettles are feasible additional modules for an environmental monitoring of GM crops. Monitoring larvae living on host plants other than nettles and beating samples of bushes

  9. Are Adult Crambid Snout Moths (Crambinae and Larval Stages of Lepidoptera Suitable Tools for an Environmental Monitoring of Transgenic Crops? — Implications of a Field Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera have been suggested for the environmental monitoring of genetically modified (GM crops due to their suitability as ecological indicators, and because of the possible adverse impact of the cultivation of current transgenic crops. The German Association of Engineers (VDI has developed guidelines for the standardized monitoring of Lepidoptera describing the use of light traps for adult moths, transect counts for adult butterflies, and visual search for larvae. The guidelines suggest recording adults of Crambid Snout Moths during transect counts in addition to butterflies, and present detailed protocols for the visual search of larvae. In a field survey in three regions of Germany, we tested the practicability and effort-benefit ratio of the latter two VDI approaches. Crambid Snout Moths turned out to be suitable and practical indicators, which can easily be recorded during transect counts. They were present in 57% of the studied field margins, contributing a substantial part to the overall Lepidoptera count, thus providing valuable additional information to the monitoring results. Visual search of larvae generated results in an adequate effort-benefit ratio when searching for lepidopteran larvae of common species feeding on nettles. Visual search for larvae living on host plants other than nettles was time-consuming and yielded much lower numbers of recorded larvae. Beating samples of bushes and trees yielded a higher number of species and individuals. This method is especially appropriate when hedgerows are sampled, and was judged to perform intermediate concerning the relationship between invested sampling effort and obtained results for lepidopteran larvae. In conclusion, transect counts of adult Crambid Moths and recording of lepidopteran larvae feeding on nettles are feasible additional modules for an environmental monitoring of GM crops. Monitoring larvae living on host plants other than nettles and beating

  10. Conserved Patterns of Sex Chromosome Dosage Compensation in the Lepidoptera (WZ/ZZ): Insights from a Moth Neo-Z Chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, James R.; Knipple, Douglas C.

    2017-01-01

    Where previously described, patterns of sex chromosome dosage compensation in the Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) have several unusual characteristics. Other female-heterogametic (ZW/ZZ) species exhibit female Z-linked expression that is reduced compared with autosomal expression and male Z expression. In the Lepidoptera, however, Z expression typically appears balanced between sexes but overall reduced relative to autosomal expression, that is Z ≈ ZZ Cydia pomonella, which is a species from the earliest diverging lepidopteran lineage yet examined for dosage compensation and has a neo-Z chromosome resulting from an ancient Z:autosome fusion. While supported by intraspecific analyses, the Z ≈ ZZ pomonella neo-Z genes in outgroup species. In contrast, dosage compensation appears to be absent in reproductive tissues. We thus argue that inclusion of reproductive tissues may explain the incongruence from a prior study on another moth species and that patterns of dosage compensation are likely conserved in the Lepidoptera. Notably, this pattern appears convergent with patterns in eutherian mammals (X ≈ XX < AA). Overall, our results contribute to the notion that the Lepidoptera present challenges both to classical theories regarding the evolution of sex chromosome dosage compensation and the emerging view of the association of dosage compensation with sexual heterogamety. PMID:28338816

  11. Spatially Targeted Applications of Reduced-Risk Insecticides for Economical Control of Grape Berry Moth, Paralobesia viteana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Keith S; Roubos, Craig R; Teixeira, Luis A F; Isaacs, Rufus

    2016-07-19

    The grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana Clemens (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a key economic pest of vineyards in eastern North America, and prevention of fruit infestation is particularly challenging along vineyard borders that are adjacent to wooded areas containing wild grape (Vitis spp.). For three years, infestation and damage in vineyards where reduced-risk insecticides were applied to borders at timings based on a degree day model (Integrated Pest Management program) were compared to that in vineyards where broad-spectrum insecticides were applied across the whole vineyard (Standard program). Infestation at vineyard borders immediately prior to harvest was consistently lower in IPM vineyards than in Standard program vineyards, and in two of the years this was also true at veraison (fruit coloring). Grape berry moth infestation was similar between treatments at vineyard interiors throughout the study, despite no insecticide applications to the interiors of the IPM program vineyards. Populations of two other key vineyard pests, the eastern grape leafhopper, Erythroneura comes (Say) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), and Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), were not significantly different between programs, and natural enemy captures on yellow sticky traps were also similar. The per hectare cost of insecticides applied in the IPM program was consistently lower than for the Standard program, with a significant difference in the third year of this study. We demonstrate how spatially selective applications of reduced-risk insecticides can provide improved control of grape berry moth at lower cost than standard broad-spectrum insecticide-based programs. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. [Diversity of geometrid moth (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in cropland and reforested semi-natural habitats at different altitudes of Bashang Plateau, Hebei Province of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Mei-Chun; Liu, Yun-Hui; Wang, Chang-Liu; Axmacher, Jan C; Li, Liang-Tao; Yu, Zhen-Rong

    2012-03-01

    In order to understand the effects of landscape heterogeneity induced by habitat restoration and landform change on the biodiversity in degraded landscapes, an investigation by using light trap was conducted on the geometrid moth (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) diversity in the cropland and reforested semi-natural habitats in three villages at different altitudes of Bashang Plateau in 2006 and 2007. There existed significant differences in the species richness and individual number of geometrid moth between cropland and reforested semi-natural habitats and in the species richness of geometrid moth between the villages at different altitudes, but no significant differences in the individual number of geometrid moth between the villages at different altitudes and in the standardized sparseness index and Fisher' s alpha index between the villages and between the cropland and reforested semi-natural habitats within each village. The non-metric multi-dimensional scaling (NMDS) indicated that the community structure of geometrid moth in different habitats and at different altitudes differed significantly. This study indicated that the landscape heterogeneity induced by land-form change had significant effects on the community structure and diversity of geometrid moth on Bashang Plateau, and, both cropland and reforested semi-natural habitats were the important habits for geometrid moth. It was suggested that to protect the landscape mosaics containing cropland and reforested semi-natural habitats across the varied landform of Bashang Plateau would have significances in the conservation of high gamma-diversity of geometrid moth, but whether the reforestation and creation of semi-natural habitats could improve the biodiversity of geometrid moth should be monitored in long term.

  13. Effects of irradiation on phenoloxidase levels in codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neven, L.G.; Morford, M.

    1998-01-01

    Laboratory trials were conducted to determine if changes in phenoloxidase, a common hemolymph component in insects, could be detected in codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). The 5 instars of codling moth were irradiated at doses of 0, 100, 300, 600, and 900 Gy and phenoloxidase levels were monitored at 0, 2, 4, and 6 d after treatment. The melanization method, protein electrophoresis, dot blot, and enzyme activity analyses were performed to determine phenoloxidase levels. No significant changes in the protein levels, enzymatic activity, or melanization rates in irradiated codling moth larvae were found. Although the melanization method may be adequate for determining whether larvae of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (L.), were irradiated, it is not applicable to codling moth

  14. Geographic variation in diapause induction: the grape berry moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timer, Jody; Tobin, Patrick C; Saunders, Michael C

    2010-12-01

    Diapause in insects occurs in response to environmental cues, such as changes in photoperiod, and it is a major adaptation by which insects synchronize their activity with biotic resources and environmental constraints. For multivoltine agricultural insect pests, diapause initiation is an important consideration in management decisions, particularly toward the end of the growing season. The grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Clemens), is the main insect pest affecting viticulture, and this insect responds to postsummer solstice photoperiods to initiate diapause. Because the range of grape berry moth extends from southern Canada to the southern United States, different populations are exposed to different photoperiodic regimes. We quantified the diapause response in grape berry moth populations from Arkansas, Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Texas, and Virginia, and observed latitudinal variation in diapause initiation. Populations from Michigan, New York, and Pennsylvania responded significantly different than those from Arkansas, Texas, and Virginia. We also observed, as a consequence of our experiments, that the timing of our laboratory studies influenced grape berry moth's response to photoperiod, ceteris paribus. Experiments that were conducted when grape berry moth would be naturally in diapause resulted in a significant higher proportion of diapausing pupae at photoperiods (i.e., >15 h) that generally do not induce diapause, suggesting that attention should be paid to the timing of behavioral and physiological experiments on insects. This relationship between photoperiod and diapause induction in grape berry moth across geographic regions will provide applicable knowledge to improve pest management decisions. © 2010 Entomological Society of America

  15. Modeling winter moth Operophtera brumata egg phenology: nonlinear effects of temperature and developmental stage on developmental rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salis, Lucia; Lof, Marjolein; Van Asch, M.; Visser, Marcel E.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between an insect's developmental rate and temperature is crucial to forecast insect phenology under climate change. In the winter moth Operophtera brumata timing of egg-hatching has severe fitness consequences on growth and reproduction as egg-hatching has to match

  16. Changes in Species Richness and Composition of Tiger Moths (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae among Three Neotropical Ecoregions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Mario Beccacece

    Full Text Available Paraná, Yungas and Chaco Serrano ecoregions are among the most species-rich terrestrial habitats at higher latitude. However, the information for tiger moths, one of the most speciose groups of moths, is unknown in these ecoregions. In this study, we assess their species richness and composition in all three of these ecoregions. Also we investigated whether the species composition of tiger moths is influenced by climatic factors and altitude. Tiger moth species were obtained with samples from 71 sites using standardized protocols (21 sites were in Yungas, 19 in Paraná and 31 in Chaco Serrano. Rarefaction-extrapolation curves, non-parametric estimators for incidence and sample coverage indices were performed to assess species richness in the ecoregions studied. Non metric multidimensional scaling and adonis tests were performed to compare the species composition of tiger moths among ecoregions. Permutest analysis and Pearson correlation were used to evaluate the relationship among species composition and annual mean temperature, annual temperature range, annual precipitation, precipitation seasonality and altitude. Among ecoregions Paraná was the richest with 125 species, followed by Yungas with 63 species and Chaco Serrano with 24 species. Species composition differed among these ecoregions, although Yungas and Chaco Serrano were more similar than Paraná. Species composition was significantly influenced by climatic factors and altitude. This study showed that species richness and species composition of tiger moths differed among the three ecoregions assessed. Furthermore, not only climatic factors and altitude influence the species composition of tiger moths among ecoregions, but also climatic seasonality at higher latitude in Neotropical South America becomes an important factor.

  17. Target and Non‑Target Moth Species Captured by Pheromone Traps for Some Fruit Tortricid Moths (Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klára Jakubíková

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of the synthetic sexual pheromones for five tortricid species, viz. Grapholita funebrana Treitschke, 1835, G. janthinana (Duponchel, 1835, G. lobarzewskii (Nowicki, 1860, G. molesta (Busck, 1916, and Pandemis heparana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775, was evaluated in two areas in the SE part of the Czech Republic. The lures for G. funebrana produced by the Pherobank showed a higher selectivity and efficiency than those by the Propher. On the contrary, pheromones for G. molesta by the Propher are more effective than those by the Pherobank. Besides the target species, 29 non-target tortricid species and 25 other Lepidoptera species were captured. The number of non-target tortricid species was comparable by the attractants for all species (15 – 17 spp., except Pandemis heparana (only 7 spp.. The most abundant non-target Tortricidae were Cnephasia stephensiana (Doubleday, 1849, Hedya pruniana (Hübner, 1799, and Epiblema cirsiana (Zeller, 1843. Cacoecimorpha pronubana (Hübner, 1799 was recorded in outdoor conditions of the Czech Republic for the first time. Celypha rosaceana (Schläger, 1847 was found as new for Moravia. Oegoconia novimundi (Busck, 1915 (Autostichidae was attracted by the lures for Grapholita funebrana and G. molesta in unusually high number of specimens.

  18. Ionizing irradiation quarantine treatment against oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in ambient and hypoxic atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Guy J

    2004-06-01

    Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), is a pest of many rosaceous temperate fruits, including pomes, Malus spp., and stone fruits, Prunus spp., in much of the world. However, some areas are free of the pest, and shipments of fruit hosts from infested to noninfested areas may be regulated. Current quarantine treatments for oriental fruit moth include methyl bromide fumigation and cold storage for several weeks. Methyl bromide use is being restricted because it is a stratospheric ozone-depleting substance, and alternatives are sought. Cold is not tolerated by many hosts of oriental fruit moth. The objective of this research was to develop irradiation quarantine treatments against the pest under ambient and hypoxic storage conditions because some hosts of oriental fruit moth are stored in hypoxic atmospheres, and hypoxia is known to lessen the effects of irradiation. In ambient atmospheres, no adults emerged from 58,779 fifth instars (the most radiotolerant stage present in fruit) irradiated with a target dose of 200 Gy (195-232 Gy measured). In atmospheres flushed with nitrogen, 5.3% of adults emerged from 44,050 fifth instars irradiated with a target dose of 200 Gy (194-230 Gy measured), but they died at a faster rate than control adults and without laying eggs. A dose of 232 Gy (the maximum recorded when 200 Gy was targeted) is recommended to disinfest any fruit of oriental fruit moth under ambient and hypoxic atmospheres.

  19. Bat-deafness in day-flying moths (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae, Dioptinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullard, J H; Dawson, J W; Otero, L D; Surlykke, A

    1997-11-01

    Assuming that bat-detection is the primary function of moth ears, the ears of moths that are no longer exposed to bats should be deaf to echolocation call frequencies. To test this, we compared the auditory threshold curves of 7 species of Venezuelan day-flying moths (Notodontidae: Dioptinae) to those of 12 sympatric species of nocturnal moths (Notodontidae: Dudusinae, Noctuidae and Arctiidae). Whereas 2 dioptines (Josia turgida, Zunacetha annulata) revealed normal ears, 2 (J. radians, J. gopala) had reduced hearing at bat-specific frequencies (20-80 kHz) and the remaining 3 (Thirmida discinota, Polypoetes circumfumata and Xenorma cytheris) revealed pronounced to complete levels of high-frequency deafness. Although the bat-deaf ears of dioptines could function in other purposes (e.g., social communication), the poor sensitivities of these species even at their best frequencies suggest that these moths represent a state of advanced auditory degeneration brought about by their diurnal life history. The phylogeny of the Notodontidae further suggests that this deafness is a derived (apomorphic) condition and not a retention of a primitive (pleisiomorphic), insensitive state.

  20. Reduced-risk insecticides for control of grape berry moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and conservation of natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Paul E; Isaacs, Rufus

    2007-06-01

    A 3-yr field study was conducted at commercial grape (Vitis spp.) farms to evaluate insect management programs for control of the grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana Clemens (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and conservation of natural enemies. At each farm, one vineyard received only reduced-risk insecticides for control of second and third generation P. viteana, whereas the comparison vineyard received conventional insecticides. Both vineyards received a conventional insecticide application for control of first generation P. viteana and other insect pests. Monitoring with pheromone traps showed no differences between programs in the total number of adult male moths trapped in vineyards, and oviposition by P. viteana was similar between the two programs in all 3 yr. During weekly samples of crop infestation, both programs had a similar percentage of clusters infested by P. viteana larvae. Berries infested by P. viteana were collected from vineyard borders during the second and third P. viteana generations and held under controlled conditions. In eight of the nine berry samples, survival of larvae was significantly lower in berries collected from vineyards managed under the reduced-risk insecticide program compared with the conventional program. Parasitism of P. citeana larvae in these samples was not consistently different between the two insecticide programs over 3 yr, and similar captures of natural enemies were found on yellow sticky traps in the two programs throughout the study. Our results indicate that integrated pest management programs incorporating reduced-risk insecticides for control of P. viteana can obtain similar or greater control of P. viteana compared with programs based solely on conventional insecticides, but they may not lead to measurable long-term increases in parasitism of P. viteana.

  1. Effects of gamma radiation on codling moth (Cydia pomonella, Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) fertility and reproductive behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.

    2002-01-01

    Studies were conducted with codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), to examine the effects of gamma radiation on fertility and reproductive behaviour. Data accumulated during these studies showed that egg production and hatch decreased with increasing radiation dose. Females were more sensitive to radiation treatment than were males. A dose of 150 Gy caused 100% sterility in females and significantly reduced fecundity, and a dose of 350 Gy reduced male fertility to less than 1%. Radiation dosages up to 400 Gy had no adverse effect on male longevity or competitiveness in cages using laboratory reared moths. However, males exposed to a dose of 350 or 400 Gy mated fewer times than unirradiated males. (author)

  2. Susceptibility of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to two pyrethroids and a proposed diagnostic dose of esfenvalerate for field detection of resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Moneen M; Robertson, Jacqueline L; Weinzierl, Richard A

    2011-06-01

    Laboratory colonies of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were reared on 'Gala' apples (Malus pumila Mill.) and lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) diet. Neonates were placed on wheat germ diet containing a range of concentrations of esfenvalerate or lambda-cyhalothrin; mortality was assessed after 96 h. For a long-term laboratory colony, LC50 values of esfenvalerate and lambda-cyhalothrin were 0.35 and 0.12 ppm, respectively, for progeny of insects reared on apples. For a colony established from Calhoun Co., IL, in 2007, LC50 values of esfenvalerate and lambda-cyhalothrin were 0.37 and 0.10 ppm, respectively, for progeny of insects reared on apples. LC50 values of these insecticides did not differ significantly for either colony when progeny of insects reared on lima bean diet were tested. We observed no consistent evidence of pyrethroid resistance in the Calhoun colony after laboratory culture for 21-23 generations. We described the dose-response relationship for esfenvalerate applied topically in 1 microl of acetone to male moths from the long-term laboratory colony and estimated the LD99 to be 0.022 microg per moth. Application of 0.022 microg of esfenvalerate per moth to approximately 600 male moths from two putatively susceptible populations resulted in mean survivorship approximately equal to the expected level of 1.0%. Application of the same dose to 374 field-captured moths from two Calhoun Co. orchards with histories of pyrethroid use resulted in mean survivorship of 9.4 and 82%. We propose that 0.022 microg of esfenvalerate in 1 microl of acetone can be used as a diagnostic dose for monitoring pyrethroid resistance in oriental ruit moth in the field.

  3. The Lepidoptera Odorant Binding Protein gene family: Gene gain and loss within the GOBP/PBP complex of moths and butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Richard G; Große-Wilde, Ewald; Zhou, Jing-Jiang

    2015-07-01

    Butterflies and moths differ significantly in their daily activities: butterflies are diurnal while moths are largely nocturnal or crepuscular. This life history difference is presumably reflected in their sensory biology, and especially the balance between the use of chemical versus visual signals. Odorant Binding Proteins (OBP) are a class of insect proteins, at least some of which are thought to orchestrate the transfer of odor molecules within an olfactory sensillum (olfactory organ), between the air and odor receptor proteins (ORs) on the olfactory neurons. A Lepidoptera specific subclass of OBPs are the GOBPs and PBPs; these were the first OBPs studied and have well documented associations with olfactory sensilla. We have used the available genomes of two moths, Manduca sexta and Bombyx mori, and two butterflies, Danaus plexippus and Heliconius melpomene, to characterize the GOBP/PBP genes, attempting to identify gene orthologs and document specific gene gain and loss. First, we identified the full repertoire of OBPs in the M. sexta genome, and compared these with the full repertoire of OBPs from the other three lepidopteran genomes, the OBPs of Drosophila melanogaster and select OBPs from other Lepidoptera. We also evaluated the tissue specific expression of the M. sexta OBPs using an available RNAseq databases. In the four lepidopteran species, GOBP2 and all PBPs reside in single gene clusters; in two species GOBP1 is documented to be nearby, about 100 kb from the cluster; all GOBP/PBP genes share a common gene structure indicating a common origin. As such, the GOBP/PBP genes form a gene complex. Our findings suggest that (1) the lepidopteran GOBP/PBP complex is a monophyletic lineage with origins deep within Lepidoptera phylogeny, (2) within this lineage PBP gene evolution is much more dynamic than GOBP gene evolution, and (3) butterflies may have lost a PBP gene that plays an important role in moth pheromone detection, correlating with a shift from

  4. Toward a global barcode library for Lymantria (Lepidoptera: Lymantriinae) tussock moths of biosecurity concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detecting and controlling the movements of invasive species, such as insect pests, relies upon rapid and accurate species identification in order to initiate containment procedures by the appropriate authorities. Gypsy moth Lymantria dispar L., introduced from Europe in the 19th century, has become ...

  5. Evaluating dispensers loaded with codlemone and pear ester for disruption of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyvinyl chloride polymer (pvc) dispensers loaded with ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) plus the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone) of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), were compared with similar dispensers and a commercial dispenser (Isomate®-C Plus) loaded with codle...

  6. Fate of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in harvested apples held under short photoperiod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., is a cosmopolitan pest of pome and stone fruits. It has been identified as a quarantine pest of concern in a number of countries where it is not known to occur, most of them in tropical or subtropical countries. Although considerable work has been done on the basi...

  7. Combined approaches using sex pheromone and pear ester for behavioral disruption of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies utilized the attractive properties of pear ester, ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, and codlemone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol, the sex pheromone of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L)., for behavioural disruption. Standard dispensers loaded with codlemone alone or in combination with pear ester (c...

  8. Haruchlora maesi, a new emerald moth genus and species from Mesoamerica (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Geometrinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viidalepp, Jaan; Lindt, Aare

    2014-09-30

    A new genus and species of Neotropical emerald geometrid moths, Haruchlora Viidalepp & Lindt, gen. nov., and Haruchlora maesi Viidalepp & Lindt, sp. nov. are described. The new genus differs from all other New World Geometrinae genera in having a bifid uncus, in characters of the pregenital segments of the male abdomen, and in the male genitalia. 

  9. Sex Attractants of the Banana Moth, Opogona sacchari Bojer (Lepidoptera: Tineidae): Provisional Identification and Field Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: The banana moth, Opogona sacchari Bojer, is a ployphagous agricultural pest in many tropical areas of the world. The identification of an attractant for male O. sacchari could offer new methods for detection, study and control. RESULTS: A male electroantennographically active compound w...

  10. Sex attractant for the banana moth, Opogona sacchari Bojer (Lepidoptera: Tineidae): provisional identification and field evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eric B; Siderhurst, Matthew S; Hollingsworth, Robert G; Showalter, David N; Troyer, Elisa J

    2010-04-01

    The banana moth, Opogona sacchari Bojer, is a polyphagous agricultural pest in many tropical areas of the world. The identification of an attractant for male O. sacchari could offer new methods for detection, study and control. A compound extracted from female O. sacchari elicited responses from antennae of male moths. This compound was identified as a 2/3,(Z)13-octadecadienal by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. An analog, 2/3,(Z)13-octadecadienol, was also detected in some extracts at roughly a 1:20 ratio (alcohol:aldehyde) but did not elicit responses from antennae of male moths. Electroantennograms of synthetic candidate dienals found the strongest responses from (Z, Z)-2,13-octadecadienal and (E, Z)-2,13-octadecadienal. In field trials, (E, Z)-2,13-octadecadienal attracted more male O. sacchari than (Z, Z)-2,13-octadecadienal. Attraction was not improved for either of these compounds when the corresponding stereoisomeric alcohol was added at ratios of 1:1, 1:10 or 1:100 (alcohol:aldehyde). Jackson sticky traps containing 250 microg lures of (E, Z)-2,13-octadecadienal caught as many males as did traps holding virgin females. (E, Z)-2,13-octadecadienal has been identified as an attractant for O. sacchari males and can be used as a monitoring lure of populations of this moth.

  11. Karyotype, sex chromatin and sex chromosome differentiation in the carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Lepidoptera : Pyralidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mediouni, J.; Fuková, Iva; Frydrychová, Radmila; Dhouibi, M. H.; Marec, František

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 2 (2004), s. 184-194 ISSN 0008-7114 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6007307 Keywords : carob moth * CGH * genomic hybridization Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.366, year: 2004

  12. Assessment of sublethal effects of methoxyfenozide on oriental fruit Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchert, Daniel M; Walgenbach, James F; Kennedy, George G

    2005-06-01

    Sublethal effects of the insect growth regulator methoxyfenozide were examined in oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), in laboratory and field studies. In laboratory studies, oriental fruit moth larvae reared on diet amended with 0.1 ppm methoxyfenozide developed at the same rate as larvae reared on untreated diet, and paired moths reared as larvae from the same treated or untreated diets exhibited similar fecundity and fertility. Population growth differences over multiple generations were used to examine sublethal effects of methoxyfenozide on population dynamics in the field. Multiple single-tree cages were placed over apple (Malus spp.) trees treated with two applications of methoxyfenozide (70 g [AI] /ha) and nontreated trees. Cages were infested at a single time point with virgin male and female oriental fruit moth adults, and population growth was evaluated by egg counts, shoot infestation, fruit damage, and larval counts over a 12-wk period. Significantly fewer eggs, larvae, and damaged fruit were found on methoxyfenozide-treated compared with nontreated trees in 2001. Observed population differences may have been a result of direct mortality to eggs and larvae of the first generation rather than sublethal effects. In 2002, no differences were observed between treatments, but a heavy rain event shortly after the early infestation impacted the experiment. A late moth release treatment was tested in 2002 to examine the effects of residual methoxyfenozide 55 d after initial application. Significantly fewer eggs were found in the methoxyfenozide treatment compared with the control, but no differences existed among treatments in shoot infestation, percentage of damaged fruit, or larval populations. It was concluded direct mortality of eggs and larvae exposed to methoxyfenozide rather than sublethal effects were most important in reduction of subsequent generations.

  13. A Binary Host Plant Volatile Lure Combined With Acetic Acid to Monitor Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, A L; Basoalto, E; Katalin, J; El-Sayed, A M

    2015-10-01

    Field studies were conducted in the United States, Hungary, and New Zealand to evaluate the effectiveness of septa lures loaded with ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) and (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (nonatriene) alone and in combination with an acetic acid co-lure for both sexes of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). Additional studies were conducted to evaluate these host plant volatiles and acetic acid in combination with the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone). Traps baited with pear ester/nonatriene + acetic acid placed within orchards treated either with codlemone dispensers or left untreated caught significantly more males, females, and total moths than similar traps baited with pear ester + acetic acid in some assays. Similarly, traps baited with codlemone/pear ester/nonatriene + acetic acid caught significantly greater numbers of moths than traps with codlemone/pear ester + acetic acid lures in some assays in orchards treated with combinational dispensers (dispensers loaded with codlemone/pear ester). These data suggest that monitoring of codling moth can be marginally improved in orchards under variable management plans using a binary host plant volatile lure in combination with codlemone and acetic acid. These results are likely to be most significant in orchards treated with combinational dispensers. Significant increases in the catch of female codling moths in traps with the binary host plant volatile blend plus acetic acid should be useful in developing more effective mass trapping strategies. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  14. Comparative survival rates of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larvae on shoots and fruit of apple and peach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Clayton T; Hull, Larry A; Krawczyk, Grzegorz

    2006-08-01

    Studies were designed to examine the effects of host plants on oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), survival. G. molesta larval survival in the orchard was comparable between apple (Malus spp.) and peach (Prunus spp.) shoots, indicating that both host species can harbor large larval populations during the early season. G. molesta larvae used multiple shoots for feeding and development on peaches but usually only damaged single shoots in apple. Survival differences were present between peach and apple fruit, but this survival was affected by fruit maturity level. Generally, larval survival higher was in ripening peach fruit than in green, immature apple fruit. Larval survival varied among several apple cultivars, indicating that cultivar-level variability needs to be considered. These host-associated effects may impact efforts to predictively model G. molesta populations in commercial orchards where multiple host plant species, or different cultivars of the same species are often grown in proximity. Thus, host-associated dynamics should be included into future population models that underlie management programs.

  15. Sublethal exposure to methoxyfenozide-treated surfaces reduces the attractiveness and responsiveness in adult oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinke, Michael D; Barrett, Bruce A

    2007-02-01

    The chemical communication (female attractiveness and male responsiveness) of adult oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), exposed to surfaces treated with the ecdysteroid agonist methoxyfenozide for 48 h were investigated in two laboratory wind tunnel assays. The recapture assay examined the ability of treated males to orient to a single cage of treated females, and the data gathered were mean percentage of males recaptured per treatment. The male sexual behavior assay examined some specific orientation behaviors (associated with sexual excitability) of treated males when they were given a choice of two competing pheromone sources (cages of treated females), and the data gathered were mean time males spent in upwind plume orientations and at source contact (female cage) per treatment. Data from the recapture assay suggests that exposure to methoxyfenozide impacts male responsiveness more than female attractiveness. In contrast, data from the sexual behavior assay strongly revealed that exposure to methoxyfenozide-treated surfaces does negatively impact both the ability of calling females to attract males and of aroused males to display sustained upwind flight behavior and time spent at the female cages.

  16. Field Experiment of a Three-Chemical Controlled-Release Dispensers to Attract Codling Moth (Cydia pomonella) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Benjamin D; Landolt, Peter J

    2018-03-13

    Male and female codling moths, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were shown to be attracted to a three-chemical kairomonal lure consisting of pear ester, acetic acid, and n-butyl sulfide. A controlled-release device based on sachets was developed in the laboratory and field tested to optimize the attractiveness of C. pomonella to this combination of attractants, and to decrease material costs associated with the controlled-release of these chemicals. The lure was most effective when pear ester was released from a separate dispenser than when combined acetic acid and n-butyl sulfide. We found that acetic acid and n-butyl sulfide can be combined into one device without decreasing C. pomonella trap catches and that there is minimal pear release rate before trap catch is negatively affected. A sachet-based controlled-release system of pear ester, acetic acid, n-butyl sulfide is a cost-effective alternative to a vial and septa controlled-release system and allows for easier quantification of ideal release rates. A reduction in material costs associated with management are important in promoting the adoption of attract-and-kill and mass-trapping paradigms for C. pomonella management. These findings also have important consequences in interpreting studies that use different loads of pear ester, and emphasize the need to better understand the release rates of attractants.

  17. Postharvest treatment of fresh fruit from California with methyl bromide for control of light brown apple moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walse, Spencer S; Myers, Scott W; Liu, Yong-Biao; Bellamy, David E; Obenland, David; Simmons, Greg S; Tebbets, Steve

    2013-06-01

    Methyl bromide (MB) chamber fumigations were evaluated for postharvest control of light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in fresh fruit destined for export from California. To simulate external feeding, larvae were contained in gas-permeable cages and distributed throughout loads of peaches, plums, nectarines (all Prunus spp.), apples (Malus spp.), raspberries (Rubus spp.), or grapes (Vitis spp.). Varying the applied MB dose and the differential sorption of MB by the loads resulted in a range of exposures, expressed as concentration x time cross products (CTs) that were verified by gas-chromatographic quantification of MB in chamber headspace over the course of each fumigation. CTs > or = 60 and > or = 72 mg liter(-1) h at 10.0 +/- 0.5 and 15.6 +/- 0.5 degrees C (x +/- s, average +/- SD), respectively, yielded complete mortality of approximately 6,200 larvae at each temperature. These confirmatory fumigations corroborate E. postvittana mortality data for the first time in relation to measured MB exposures and collectively comprise the largest number of larval specimens tested to date. In addition, akinetic model of MB sorption was developed for the quarantine fumigation of fresh fruit based on the measurement of exposures and how they varied across the fumigation trials. The model describes how to manipulate the applied MB dose, the load factor, and the load geometry for different types of packaged fresh fruit so that the resultant exposure is adequate for insect control.

  18. Silk recycling in larvae of the wax moth, Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shaik, Haq Abdul; Mishra, Archana; Sehnal, František

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 114, JAN 27 (2017), s. 61-65 E-ISSN 1802-8829 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 907 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Lepidoptera * Pyralidae * silk recycling Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 1.167, year: 2016 http://www.eje.cz/pdfs/eje/2017/01/09.pdf

  19. Description of male of the rarest European Carpenter-moth Stygioides persephone (Reisser, 1962) (Lepidoptera: Cossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingenhöle, Arthur; Friedrich, Egbert; Yakovlev, Roman V

    2017-12-12

    Despite the generally good knowledge of the European fauna of Cossidae, several new species (Lepidoptera) have been described in recent years: Dyspessa kostyuki Yakovlev, 2005 (type locality Ukraine, [Lugansk region], "Proval'skaya Stepp" Naturschutsgebiete), D. aphrodite Yakovlev & Witt, 2007 (type locality Greece, Peloponnes, Mega Spileon), and Stygia nilssoni Saldaitis & Yakovlev, 2008 (type locality Islas Canarias, Gran Canaria, Puerto de Mogan) (Yakovlev 2005; Yakovlev & Witt 2007; Saldaitis & Yakovlev 2008). However, a number of European cossids are still poorly known.

  20. Moth Fauna of Gageodo Island in the Southwestern Sea, Korean Peninsula, including Seven Unrecorded Species (Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi, Sei-Woong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We surveyed moths on Gageodo island in the southwestern sea of the Korean Peninsula over three years (2009, 2012, 2013 and found a total of 253 species in 18 families. Geometridae had the greatest species richness, with 63 species, followed by Noctuidae, Erebidae, Crambidae and Sphingidae. The annual changes in species richness and abundance were not different and seasonal occurrence of species showed a unimodal pattern in which the numbers of species and individuals increased from April and May, peaked in June and decreased to September and October. Seven moth species (Pyralidae: Herculia drabicilialis Yamanaka, Didia striatella (Inoue; Crambidae: Clupeosoma pryeri (Butler, Demobotys pervulgalis (Hampson, Yezobotys dissimilis (Yamanaka, Syllepte cissalis Yamanaka; Erebidae: Hypena sinuosa (Wileman are reported for the first time in Korea.

  1. Five functional adipokinetic peptides expressed in the corpus cardiacum of the moth genus Hippotion (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gäde, G.; Šimek, Petr; Clark, K. D.; Marco, H. G.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 184, JUN 10 (2013), s. 85-95 ISSN 0167-0115 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT11513 Grant - others:National Research Foundation(ZA) FA2008071500048 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Sphingidae * common striped hawk moth * Hippotion eson Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.014, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167011513000670

  2. STATUS OF AGENIASPIS FUSCICOLLIS (HYMENOPTERA: ENCRYTIDAE), AN INTRODUCED PARASITOID OF THE APPLE ERMINE MOTH (LEPIDOPTERA: YPONOMEUTIDAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Cossentine, J.E.; Kuhlmann, U.

    2017-01-01

    The apple ermine moth, Yponomeuta malinellus Zeller, is a univoltine pest species that defoliates apple, Malus domestics (Borkh) (Rosaceae), in the temperate region of the Palaearctic. First instars overwinter within a communal hibernaculum beneath the covering of the egg batch (Kock 1998). In spring, larvae emerge to initially mine apple leaves and subsequently feed externally within a communal tent (Menken et al. 1992). During heavy infestations, the communal tents may envelop the entire ap...

  3. Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment for walnuts infested with codling moths (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burditt, A.K. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Irradiation may be a potential quarantine treatment for either diapausing or nondiapausing codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), larvae in walnuts. Exposure of larvae to 51.9 Gy from a 60 Co source significantly reduced emergence of normal adults. The dose required for quarantine security (99.9968% mortality) was 230 Gy based on emergence of adults from treated larvae. Normal adults did not emerge from larvae exposed to 177 Gy in walnuts

  4. Control of the wax moth Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae by the male sterile technique (MST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafari Reza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we examined the control of wax moth using the male sterile technique (MST with gamma-rays. To determine the safe and effective dosage of gamma-rays capable of sterilizing male pupae of the wax moth, male pupae were exposed to increasing single doses of gamma-rays (250, 300, 350 and 400 Gy. The release ratio of sterile to normal males was also studied in a similar experiment. Treatments included sterile males, normal males and virgin females at the following ratios: 1:1:1, 2:1:1, 3:1:1, 4:1:1 and 5:1:1. Possible parthenogenetic reproduction of this pest was also examined. The results showed that 350 Gy was the most effective dose capable of sterilizing the male pupae of the wax moth. The best release ratio was established at four sterile males, one normal male for each normal female (4:1:1. Also females were incapable of producing offspring without males.

  5. Integrated control of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in peach orchards using insecticide and mating disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, R M; Pree, D J; Carter, N J

    2001-04-01

    The efficacy of an integrated and a conventional oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), control program was compared using 4-ha blocks of peach at three Niagara Peninsula farms during 1997-1999. In the integrated program, chlorpyrifos was used to control first-generation larvae and mating disruption using Isomate M100 pheromone dispensers was used to control the second and third generations. In the conventional program, chlorpyrifos was used to control first-generation larvae and pyrethroids were used to control larvae of the later generations. The average release rate of pheromone was 23.7-26.4 mg/ha/h over a period of 86-91 d. The pheromone treatment reduced the capture of moths in pheromone-baited traps on average by 98%, suggesting a high level of disruption. The integrated program provided control of oriental fruit moth similar to the control provided by a conventional program. The mean percentage of peach shoots infested with first- and second-generation larvae, and fruit infested with third-generation larvae was not significantly greater in the integrated-program blocks during the 3-yr study. The elimination of insecticide sprays from the integrated-program blocks did not result in an increase in damage caused by plant bugs. The incidence of damage caused by other pests was negligible in both the integrated and conventional blocks.

  6. Susceptibility of male oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) populations from New Jersey apple orchards to azinphosmethyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usmani, K A; Shearer, P W

    2001-02-01

    Toxicological responses to azinphosmethyl of male Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), from five commercial orchards in which control failures had occurred were examined for azinphosmethyl resistance and for potential resistance mechanisms by using topical pheromone trap bioassay and compared with a reference population that had no history of control failure and had received little selection pressure. The 1998 field survey indicated moderate level of resistance to azinphosmethyl (2.7-4.1-fold); slopes of regressions lines (2.47-2.76) indicate genetically heterogeneous populations. An approximate twofold decline was observed between the fourth flight of 1998 and the first flight of 1999, suggesting the presence of unstable resistance in moths collected from these study sites. The 1999 field surveys indicated lower levels of tolerance to azinphosmethyl. The resistance ratios ranged from 1.17 to 1.86 during the first flight of 1999 and 1.24-2.64 during the fourth flight of 1999. Steep slopes of the concentration-response lines during 1999 season indicated the presence of genetically homogeneous populations with some exceptions. A 1.5-2.0-fold increase was observed between the first and fourth flights of 1999, indicating that resistance can build up during the growing season. S,S,S,-tri-n-butyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF), but not piperonyl butoxide, significantly enhanced the toxicity of azinphosmethyl, suggesting that enhanced metabolism by esterases is involved in the tolerance of azinphosmethyl in moths collected from these study sties.

  7. Separating the attractant from the toxicant improves attract-and-kill of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Juan; Gut, Larry J; Miller, James R

    2013-10-01

    The behavior of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), responding to three attract-and-kill devices was compared in flight tunnel experiments measuring attraction and duration of target contact. Placing a 7.6 by 12.6 cm card immediately upwind of a rubber septum releasing pheromone, dramatically increased the duration on the target to > 60 s. In this setting, nearly all the males flew upwind, landed on the card first, and spent the majority of time searching the card. In contrast, male codling moths spent 90% of males contacting the paper were knocked down 2 h after voluntary exposure. These findings suggest that past attempts to combine insecticide directly with sex pheromones into a small paste, gel, or other forms of dollops are ill-advised because moths are likely over-exposed to pheromone and vacate the target before obtaining a lethal dose of insecticide. It is better to minimize direct contact with the concentrated pheromone while enticing males to extensively search insecticide-treated surface nearby the lure.

  8. Host-associated divergence and incipient speciation in the yucca moth Prodoxus coloradensis (Lepidoptera: Prodoxidae) on three species of host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, C S; Xue, H-J; Yoder, J B; Pellmyr, O

    2010-08-01

    A wide range of evolutionary processes have been implicated in the diversification of yuccas and yucca moths, which exhibit ecological relationships that extend from obligate plant-pollinator mutualisms to commensalist herbivory. Prodoxus coloradensis (Lepidoptera: Prodoxidae) is a yucca moth, which feeds on the flowering stalks of three Yucca species as larvae, but does not provide pollination service. To test for evidence of host-associated speciation, we examined the genetic structure of P. coloradensis using mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase I) and nuclear (elongation factor 1 alpha) DNA sequence data. Multilocus coalescent simulations indicate that moths on different host plant species are characterized by recent divergence and low levels of effective migration, with large effective population sizes and considerable retention of shared ancestral polymorphism. Although geographical distance explains a proportion of the mitochondrial and nuclear DNA variation among moths on different species of Yucca, the effect of host specificity on genetic distance remains significant after accounting for spatial isolation. The results of this study indicate that differentiation within P. coloradensis is consistent with the evolution of incipient species affiliated with different host plants, potentially influenced by sex-biased dispersal and female philopatry.

  9. Rapid assessment of the sex of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) eggs and larvae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrbová, Iva; Neven, L. G.; Bárcenas, N. M.; Gund, N. A.; Dalíková, Martina; Marec, František

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 133, č. 4 (2009), s. 249-261 ISSN 0931-2048 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/06/1860 Grant - others:International Atomic Energy Agency(AT) 58-5352-4-F004; International Atomic Energy Agency(AT) 12055/R; Federal Agency for Agriculture and Food(DE) 05OE023/2 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Lepidoptera * molecular markers * period gene Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.436, year: 2009

  10. Lepidoptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguiar, António M. Franquinho; Karsholt, Ole

    2009-01-01

      Being the first of a series dealing with the entomofauna of the Madeira and Selvagens Islands, this catalogue is a list of all Lepidoptera recorded from this region of Macaronesia, with references to the relevant literature. The checklist includes 37 families, 211 genera and 331 species. 31...... species are recorded from Madeira for the first time, and exact data and locality are given for these in the notes. 32 species, which had previously been recorded from Madeira, are removed from the list of Lepidoptera found in the Madeira Islands being misidentifications, doubtful and unconfirmed records......, undetermined species requiring further study and accidentally introduced species which have not established themselves in Madeira. No genus of Lepidoptera is endemic to Madeira, but 81 species are endemic to the Madeira Archipelago, and a further 36 species are considered Macaronesian endemics. One species...

  11. Phylogeny and evolution of pharmacophagy in tiger moths (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaspel, Jennifer M; Weller, Susan J; Wardwell, Charles T; Zahiri, Reza; Wahlberg, Niklas

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this study was to reconstruct a phylogenetic hypothesis for the moth subfamily Arctiinae (tiger moths, woolly bears) to investigate the evolution of larval and adult pharmacophagy of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) and the pathway to PA chemical specialization in Arctiinae. Pharmacophagy, collection of chemicals for non-nutritive purposes, is well documented in many species, including the model species Utetheisa ornatrix L. A total of 86 exemplar ingroup species representing tiger moth tribes and subtribes (68 genera) and nine outgroup species were selected. Ingroup species included the most species-rich generic groups to represent the diversity of host-plant associations and pharmacophagous behaviors found throughout Arctiinae. Up to nine genetic markers were sequenced: one mitochondrial (COI barcode region), one nuclear rRNA (D2 region, 28S rRNA), and seven nuclear protein-coding gene fragments: elongation factor 1-α protein, wingless, ribosomal protein subunit S5, carbamoylphosphate synthase domain regions, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and cytosolic malate dehydrogenase. A total of 6984 bp was obtained for most species. These data were analyzed using model-based phylogenetic methods: maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI). Ancestral pharmacophagous behaviors and obligate PA associations were reconstructed using the resulting Bayes topology and Reconstructing Ancestral States in Phylogenies (RASP) software. Our results corroborate earlier studies on the evolution of adult pharmacophagous behaviors, suggesting that this behavior arose multiple times and is concentrated in the phaegopterine-euchromiine-ctenuchine clade (PEC). Our results suggest that PA specialization may have arisen early in the phylogeny of the subfamily and that facultative larval pharmacophagous behaviors are the derived condition.

  12. Tillage Reduces Survival of Grape Berry Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), via Burial Rather Than Mechanical Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlock, Jason M; Isaacs, Rufus; Grieshop, Matthew

    2017-02-01

    The grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Clemens), is a key pest of vineyards in eastern North America that overwinters as pupae in leaf litter on the vineyard floor. This presents an opportunity for tillage to disturb and bury the pupae, providing a potential nonchemical approach to control of this pest. Using a Lilleston-style rotary cultivator, we determined the distribution of pupae within the soil profile after single tillage passes, measured the type and severity of damage inflicted on pupae, and investigated how these effects on pupae influenced their survival. Survivorship of pupae recovered from the vineyard immediately after tillage and held until emergence was not significantly different from those recovered from an untilled control area, indicating little effect of mechanical damage on this pest. However, a single pass of the tillage implement buried three-quarters of pupae under at least 1 cm of soil. A laboratory experiment to recreate these conditions resulted in significant increase in mortality when pupae were buried in more than 1 cm of sand. We conclude that 1) interference with adult emergence of diapausing pupae via burial is the primary mechanism by which tillage controls grape berry moth, and 2) efforts to optimize the impact of tillage on grape berry moth populations should focus on maximizing the number of pupae buried. We discuss the potential integration of tillage into different vineyard management systems to enhance pest management. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Phylogeny and evolution of pharmacophagy in tiger moths (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Zaspel

    Full Text Available The focus of this study was to reconstruct a phylogenetic hypothesis for the moth subfamily Arctiinae (tiger moths, woolly bears to investigate the evolution of larval and adult pharmacophagy of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs and the pathway to PA chemical specialization in Arctiinae. Pharmacophagy, collection of chemicals for non-nutritive purposes, is well documented in many species, including the model species Utetheisa ornatrix L. A total of 86 exemplar ingroup species representing tiger moth tribes and subtribes (68 genera and nine outgroup species were selected. Ingroup species included the most species-rich generic groups to represent the diversity of host-plant associations and pharmacophagous behaviors found throughout Arctiinae. Up to nine genetic markers were sequenced: one mitochondrial (COI barcode region, one nuclear rRNA (D2 region, 28S rRNA, and seven nuclear protein-coding gene fragments: elongation factor 1-α protein, wingless, ribosomal protein subunit S5, carbamoylphosphate synthase domain regions, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and cytosolic malate dehydrogenase. A total of 6984 bp was obtained for most species. These data were analyzed using model-based phylogenetic methods: maximum likelihood (ML and Bayesian inference (BI. Ancestral pharmacophagous behaviors and obligate PA associations were reconstructed using the resulting Bayes topology and Reconstructing Ancestral States in Phylogenies (RASP software. Our results corroborate earlier studies on the evolution of adult pharmacophagous behaviors, suggesting that this behavior arose multiple times and is concentrated in the phaegopterine-euchromiine-ctenuchine clade (PEC. Our results suggest that PA specialization may have arisen early in the phylogeny of the subfamily and that facultative larval pharmacophagous behaviors are the derived condition.

  14. Suppression of oriental fruit moth (Grapholita molesta, Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) populations using the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genchev, N.

    2002-01-01

    The Oriental fruit moth (OFM) is a major insect pest of peaches in Bulgaria. Its control usually requires several insecticide treatments per season. This, however, gives rise to serious toxic residue problems. A program for suppression of OFM populations involving the use of sterile-insect technique (SIT) has been developed as an alternative to the chemical methods for OFM. Relevant information regarding laboratory rearing, radiation and basic biology are presented here. Expected effects of some release programs are modelled using appropriate mathematical simulations. Results obtained in a small field experiment showed high efficacy of a program integrating F 1 male sterility technique and classic SIT. (author)

  15. Age-Dependent Developmental Response to Temperature: An Examination of the Rarely Tested Phenomenon in Two Species (Gypsy Moth (Lymantria dispar and Winter Moth (Operophtera brumata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Gray

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The pervading paradigm in insect phenology models is that the response to a given temperature does not vary within a life stage. The developmental rate functions that have been developed for general use, or for specific insects, have for the most part been temperature-dependent but not age-dependent, except where age is an ordinal variable designating the larval instar. Age dependence, where age is a continuous variable, is not often reported (or investigated, and is rarely included in phenology models. I provide a short review of the seldom-investigated phenomenon of age dependence in developmental response to temperature, and compare the derivation of the winter moth egg phenology model by Salis et al. to the derivation of another egg phenology model with age-dependent responses to temperature I discuss some probable reasons for the discrepancies (acknowledged by Salis et al. between modelled and observed developmental rates of the winter moth, and discuss the contribution that geographically robust phenology models can make to estimates of species distributions.

  16. Management of insecticide resistance in Oriental fruit moth (Grapholita molesta; Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) populations from Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanga, Lambert H B; Pree, David J; van Lier, Jennifer L; Walker, Gerald M

    2003-08-01

    The development of resistance in the Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) to organophosphorus (OP) insecticides (azinphos-methyl and phosmet) is a serious threat to the tender fruit industry in Ontario (50% crop losses in 1994). Resistance to carbamate insecticides and increased survival of field-collected moths at diagnostic concentrations of pyrethroids were widespread. As a result, four different treatment regimes were tested to manage resistance in G molesta, and the changes in resistance frequencies under each treatment regime were monitored from 1996 to 1999. The data indicated that the levels of resistance were significantly influenced by the various treatment regimes. The seasonal pattern of resistance was similar for all treatment regimes, in that resistance peaked in mid-season and declined in the late season. Levels of resistance in G molesta to OPs decreased from 55% to 14% and that to pyrethroids declined from 30% to 10% from 1996 to 1999 under a treatment regime consisting of endosulfan-organophosphate-pyrethroid rotation. Similarly, under a treatment regime implemented in commercial orchards (organophosphate-pyrethroid rotation), resistance to OP insecticides declined from 50% to 12% and resistance to pyrethroids evolved to around 16%. The overall data indicated that resistance was unstable; a strategy based on rotation of insecticides by class for each generation of G molesta was successful in managing resistance to both OP and pyrethroid insecticides. The rotational strategy has been widely adopted by growers and is applied to ca 85% of the acreage.

  17. Cutting wild grapevines as a cultural control strategy for grape berry moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Paul E; Isaacs, Rufus

    2007-02-01

    A 3-yr field study was conducted at commercial grape farms to evaluate cutting wild grapevines as a cultural control strategy for grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Clemens). At each farm, wild grapevines were cut in the woods adjacent to one vineyard for control of P. viteana, whereas the comparison vineyard received no such cutting. Both vineyards received a standard broad-spectrum insecticide program for control of P. viteana and other vineyard insect pests. Monitoring with pheromone traps showed no differences between treatments in the total number of male moths trapped in both woods and vineyards. Egglaying by P. viteana was similar between the two wild grape cutting treatments in all 3 yr. During weekly samples of crop infestation by P. viteana, no differences were observed between programs in the percent of clusters infested by P. viteana larvae. Berries infested by P. viteana were collected from vineyard borders during the second and third P. viteana generations and held under controlled conditions. In all but one sample, survival of P. viteana larvae was similar between the two wild grape cutting treatments, parasitism of P. viteana larvae within vineyards was similar between the two wild grape cutting treatments on all sample dates, and similar captures of natural enemies were found on yellow sticky traps in the two treatments throughout the study. The opportunities and benefits of cutting wild grapevines as a cultural control in grape integrated pest management programs in eastern North America are discussed.

  18. Genetic characterization of the gypsy moth from China (Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae using inter simple sequence repeats markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Chen

    Full Text Available This study provides the first genetic characterization of the gypsy moth from China (Lymantriadispar, one of the most recognized pests of forests and ornamental trees in the world. We assessed genetic diversity and structure in eight geographic populations of gypsy moths from China using five polymorphic Inter simple sequence repeat markers, which produced reproducible banding patterns. We observed 102 polymorphic loci across the 176 individuals sampled. Overall genetic diversity (Nei's, H was 0.2357, while the mean genetic diversity within geographic populations was 0.1845 ± 0.0150. The observed genetic distance among the eight populations ranged from 0.0432 to 0.1034. Clustering analysis (using an unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean and multidimensional scaling, revealed strong concordance between the strength of genetic relationships among populations and their geographic proximity. Analysis of molecular variance demonstrated that 25.43% of the total variability (F ST = 0.2543, P < 0.001 was attributable to variation among geographic populations. The results of our analyses investigating the degree of polymorphism, genetic diversity (Nei's and Shannon and genetic structure, suggest that individuals from Hebei may be better able to adapt to different environments and to disperse to new habitats. This study provides crucial genetic information needed to assess the distribution and population dynamics of this important pest species of global concern.

  19. Development of a Susceptibility Index of Apple Cultivars for Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Oviposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Neelendra K; Rajotte, Edwin G; Myers, Clayton T; Krawczyk, Greg; Hull, Larry A

    2015-01-01

    Codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a major fruit feeding pest of apples. Understanding susceptibility differences of various apple cultivars to CM oviposition is an important step in developing resistant varieties as well as monitoring and management strategies for this pest in apple orchards planted with mixed-cultivars. In this context, oviposition preferences of CM for the fruits of different apple cultivars were studied in laboratory bioassays using a series of no-choice and multiple-choice tests in 2006, 2007, and 2008. In 2006 and 2007, 10 apple cultivars, viz., Arlet, Fuji, Gala, Golden Delicious, Honeycrisp, Pristine, Delicious, Stayman, Sunrise, and York Imperial were evaluated, while in the 2008 tests, Golden Delicious, Honeycrisp, and York Imperial were evaluated. During the 2006 tests, preferred apple cultivars for CM oviposition were Golden Delicious and Fuji, while the least preferred were Arlet, Pristine, Sunrise, and Honeycrisp. Similarly, during the 2007 tests, Golden Delicious, Fuji and Stayman remained the preferred cultivars, while Arlet, Honeycrisp, Pristine, and Sunrise remained the least preferred cultivars. In the 2008 tests, Golden Delicious and Honeycrisp were the most and least preferred cultivars, respectively. Based on the oviposition preferences from these bioassays, a susceptibility index for each cultivar was developed. This index may be used as a standard measure in cultivar evaluations in breeding programs, and may assist fruit growers and crop consultants to select the most appropriate cultivar(s) for monitoring and detecting the initial signs of fruit injury from CM in an apple orchard planted with mixed-cultivars.

  20. Development of a Susceptibility Index of Apple Cultivars for Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae Oviposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelendra K Joshi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Codling moth (CM, Cydia pomonella (L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae is a major fruit feeding pest of apples. Understanding susceptibility differences of various apple cultivars to CM oviposition is an important step in developing resistant varieties as well as monitoring and management strategies for this pest in apple orchards planted with mixed-cultivars. In this context, oviposition preferences of CM for the fruits of different apple cultivars were studied in laboratory bioassays using a series of no-choice and multiple-choice tests in 2006, 2007 and 2008. In 2006 and 2007, ten apple cultivars viz., Arlet, Fuji, Gala, Golden Delicious, Honeycrisp, Pristine, Delicious, Stayman, Sunrise, and York Imperial were evaluated, while in the 2008 tests, Golden Delicious, Honeycrisp and York Imperial were evaluated. During the 2006 tests, preferred apple cultivars for CM oviposition were Golden Delicious and Fuji, while the least preferred were Arlet, Pristine, Sunrise, and Honeycrisp. Similarly, during the 2007 tests, Golden Delicious, Fuji and Stayman remained the preferred cultivars, while Arlet, Honeycrisp, Pristine, and Sunrise remained the least preferred cultivars. In the 2008 tests, Golden Delicious and Honeycrisp were the most and least preferred cultivars, respectively. Based on the oviposition preferences from these bioassays, a susceptibility index for each cultivar was developed. This index may be used as a standard measure in cultivar evaluations in breeding programs, and may assist fruit growers and crop consultants to select the most appropriate cultivar(s for monitoring and detecting the initial signs of fruit injury from CM in an apple orchard planted with mixed-cultivars.

  1. Can RNA-Seq resolve the rapid radiation of advanced moths and butterflies (Hexapoda: Lepidoptera: Apoditrysia)? An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazinet, Adam L; Cummings, Michael P; Mitter, Kim T; Mitter, Charles W

    2013-01-01

    Recent molecular phylogenetic studies of the insect order Lepidoptera have robustly resolved family-level divergences within most superfamilies, and most divergences among the relatively species-poor early-arising superfamilies. In sharp contrast, relationships among the superfamilies of more advanced moths and butterflies that comprise the mega-diverse clade Apoditrysia (ca. 145,000 spp.) remain mostly poorly supported. This uncertainty, in turn, limits our ability to discern the origins, ages and evolutionary consequences of traits hypothesized to promote the spectacular diversification of Apoditrysia. Low support along the apoditrysian "backbone" probably reflects rapid diversification. If so, it may be feasible to strengthen resolution by radically increasing the gene sample, but case studies have been few. We explored the potential of next-generation sequencing to conclusively resolve apoditrysian relationships. We used transcriptome RNA-Seq to generate 1579 putatively orthologous gene sequences across a broad sample of 40 apoditrysians plus four outgroups, to which we added two taxa from previously published data. Phylogenetic analysis of a 46-taxon, 741-gene matrix, resulting from a strict filter that eliminated ortholog groups containing any apparent paralogs, yielded dramatic overall increase in bootstrap support for deeper nodes within Apoditrysia as compared to results from previous and concurrent 19-gene analyses. High support was restricted mainly to the huge subclade Obtectomera broadly defined, in which 11 of 12 nodes subtending multiple superfamilies had bootstrap support of 100%. The strongly supported nodes showed little conflict with groupings from previous studies, and were little affected by changes in taxon sampling, suggesting that they reflect true signal rather than artifacts of massive gene sampling. In contrast, strong support was seen at only 2 of 11 deeper nodes among the "lower", non-obtectomeran apoditrysians. These represent a much

  2. Can RNA-Seq resolve the rapid radiation of advanced moths and butterflies (Hexapoda: Lepidoptera: Apoditrysia? An exploratory study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam L Bazinet

    Full Text Available Recent molecular phylogenetic studies of the insect order Lepidoptera have robustly resolved family-level divergences within most superfamilies, and most divergences among the relatively species-poor early-arising superfamilies. In sharp contrast, relationships among the superfamilies of more advanced moths and butterflies that comprise the mega-diverse clade Apoditrysia (ca. 145,000 spp. remain mostly poorly supported. This uncertainty, in turn, limits our ability to discern the origins, ages and evolutionary consequences of traits hypothesized to promote the spectacular diversification of Apoditrysia. Low support along the apoditrysian "backbone" probably reflects rapid diversification. If so, it may be feasible to strengthen resolution by radically increasing the gene sample, but case studies have been few. We explored the potential of next-generation sequencing to conclusively resolve apoditrysian relationships. We used transcriptome RNA-Seq to generate 1579 putatively orthologous gene sequences across a broad sample of 40 apoditrysians plus four outgroups, to which we added two taxa from previously published data. Phylogenetic analysis of a 46-taxon, 741-gene matrix, resulting from a strict filter that eliminated ortholog groups containing any apparent paralogs, yielded dramatic overall increase in bootstrap support for deeper nodes within Apoditrysia as compared to results from previous and concurrent 19-gene analyses. High support was restricted mainly to the huge subclade Obtectomera broadly defined, in which 11 of 12 nodes subtending multiple superfamilies had bootstrap support of 100%. The strongly supported nodes showed little conflict with groupings from previous studies, and were little affected by changes in taxon sampling, suggesting that they reflect true signal rather than artifacts of massive gene sampling. In contrast, strong support was seen at only 2 of 11 deeper nodes among the "lower", non-obtectomeran apoditrysians. These

  3. Genetic Structure and Demographic History Reveal Migration of the Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) from the Southern to Northern Regions of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shu-Jun; Shi, Bao-Cai; Gong, Ya-Jun; Jin, Gui-Hua; Chen, Xue-Xin; Meng, Xiang-Feng

    2013-01-01

    The diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) is one of the most destructive insect pests of cruciferous plants worldwide. Biological, ecological and genetic studies have indicated that this moth is migratory in many regions around the world. Although outbreaks of this pest occur annually in China and cause heavy damage, little is known concerning its migration. To better understand its migration pattern, we investigated the population genetic structure and demographic history of the diamondback moth by analyzing 27 geographical populations across China using four mitochondrial genes and nine microsatellite loci. The results showed that high haplotype diversity and low nucleotide diversity occurred in the diamondback moth populations, a finding that is typical for migratory species. No genetic differentiation among all populations and no correlation between genetic and geographical distance were found. However, pairwise analysis of the mitochondrial genes has indicated that populations from the southern region were more differentiated than those from the northern region. Gene flow analysis revealed that the effective number of migrants per generation into populations of the northern region is very high, whereas that into populations of the southern region is quite low. Neutrality testing, mismatch distribution and Bayesian Skyline Plot analyses based on mitochondrial genes all revealed that deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and sudden expansion of the effective population size were present in populations from the northern region but not in those from the southern region. In conclusion, all our analyses strongly demonstrated that the diamondback moth migrates within China from the southern to northern regions with rare effective migration in the reverse direction. Our research provides a successful example of using population genetic approaches to resolve the seasonal migration of insects. PMID:23565158

  4. Identification of the sex pheromone of the tree infesting Cossid Moth Coryphodema tristis (Lepidoptera: Cossidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Clement Bouwer

    Full Text Available The cossid moth (Coryphodema tristis has a broad range of native tree hosts in South Africa. The moth recently moved into non-native Eucalyptus plantations in South Africa, on which it now causes significant damage. Here we investigate the chemicals involved in pheromone communication between the sexes of this moth in order to better understand its ecology, and with a view to potentially develop management tools for it. In particular, we characterize female gland extracts and headspace samples through coupled gas chromatography electro-antennographic detection (GC-EAD and two dimensional gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCxGC-MS. Tentative identities of the potential pheromone compounds were confirmed by comparing both retention time and mass spectra with authentic standards. Two electrophysiologically active pheromone compounds, tetradecyl acetate (14:OAc and Z9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-14:OAc were identified from pheromone gland extracts, and an additional compound (Z9-14:OH from headspace samples. We further determined dose response curves for the identified compounds and six other structurally similar compounds that are common to the order Cossidae. Male antennae showed superior sensitivity toward Z9-14:OAc, Z7-tetradecenyl acetate (Z7-14:OAc, E9-tetradecenyl acetate (E9-14:OAc, Z9-tetradecenol (Z9-14:OH and Z9-tetradecenal (Z9-14:Ald when compared to female antennae. While we could show electrophysiological responses to single pheromone compounds, behavioral attraction of males was dependent on the synergistic effect of at least two of these compounds. Signal specificity is shown to be gained through pheromone blends. A field trial showed that a significant number of males were caught only in traps baited with a combination of Z9-14:OAc (circa 95% of the ratio and Z9-14:OH. Addition of 14:OAc to this mixture also improved the number of males caught, although not significantly. This study represents a major step towards developing a

  5. Mating competitiveness of irradiated males and females of the indian meal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brower, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    One-day-old adults of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Huebner), were irradiated (I) with either 35 krad (a partially sterilizing dose) or 50 krad (a sterilizing dose) and combined with untreated (U) adults at numbers of 1, 5, 10, 15, or 25 treated males or females per pair of untreated adults. At 25 males per pair, egg hatch was reduced to 4.8 and 22.2% at 35 and 50 krad, respectively. The calculated degree of competitiveness showed that both males and females were more competitive after treatment with 35 krad than after treatment with 50 krad and that treated females were more competitive (based on percentage egg hatch) at both doses than corresponding males. Irradiated females were fully competitive at most release ratios, but I males were not fully competitive even at the higher release ratios, although the decreases were not large enough to seriously affect their use for field control. (author)

  6. Sterilization of Helicoverpa armigera (hubner) moth (lepidoptera; Noctudae) by using Gamma rays radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subiyakto; Wari D Astati; Sunarto Dwi A

    1998-01-01

    This experiment was conducted at the Radiation Facility, National Atomic Energy, Jakarta and Entomology Laboratory of the Research Institute for Tobacco and Crops Malang in 1991. Sterilization of moth by radiating insect on pupae stage. The dosage were 0 (unradiated), 1,3,5,7,9,11,13,and 15 krad. The treatments were arranged in complete randomized design with three replications. Each treatments were made variation of copulation (1) two females radiated with a make unradiated (2) two females unradiated with a male radiated, and (3) two females radiated with a male radiated. The results showed that sub sterile dosage (LD 50 ) for male was 0.94 krad and 7.02 krad for female. The sterile dosage (LD 95 ) for male was 10.85 krad and 14.35 krad for female. Research of the competition for copulation between the male radiated and unradiated is needed. (author)

  7. Phytosanitary irradiation of peach fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) in apple fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Guoping; Li, Baishu; Gao, Meixu; Liu, Bo; Wang, Yuejin; Liu, Tao; Ren, Lili

    2014-10-01

    Peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii Matsumura, is a serious pest of many pome and stone fruits and presents a quarantine problem in some export markets. It is widely distributed in pome fruit production areas in China, Japan, Korea, North Korea and the Far Eastern Federal District of Russia. In this investigation, gamma radiation dose-response tests were conducted with late eggs (5-d-old) and various larval stages, followed by large-scale confirmatory tests on the most tolerant stage in fruit, the fifth instar. The dose-response tests, with the target radiation dose of 20 (late eggs), 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, and 160 Gy (late fifth instars in vitro) respectively applied to all stages, showed that the tolerance to radiation increased with increasing age and developmental stage. The fifth instar (most advanced instar in fruits) was determined to be the most tolerant stage requiring an estimated minimum absorbed dose of 208.6 Gy (95% CI: 195.0, 226.5 Gy) to prevent adult emergence at 99.9968% efficacy (95% confidence level). In the confirmatory tests, irradiation was applied to 30,850 late fifth instars in apple fruits with a target dose of 200 Gy (171.6-227.8 Gy measured), but only 4 deformed adults emerged that died 2 d afterwards without laying eggs. A dose of 228 Gy may be recommended as a phytosanitary irradiation treatment under ambient atmosphere for the control of peach fruit moth on all commodities with an efficacy of 99.9902% at 95% confidence level.

  8. N-butyl sulfide as an attractant and co-attractant for male and female codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research to discover and develop attractants for the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L., has involved identification of the chemicals eliciting moth orientation to conspecific female moths, host fruits, fermented baits, and species of microbes. Pear eester, acetic acid, and N-butyl sulfide are am...

  9. Lepidoptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos; Agassiz, David; Augustin, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    We provide a comprehensive overview of those Lepidopteran invasions to Europe that result from increasing globalisation and also review expansion of species within Europe. A total of 97 non-native Lepidoptera species (about 1% of the known fauna), in 20 families and 11 superfamilies have...... established so far in Europe, of which 30 alone are Pyraloidea. In addition, 88 European species in 25 families have expanded their range within Europe and around 23% of these are of Mediterranean or Balkan origin, invading the north and west. Although a number of these alien species have been in Europe...... for hundreds of years, 74% have established during the 20th century and arrivals are accelerating, with an average of 1.9 alien Lepidoptera newly established per year between 2000–2007. For 78 aliens with a known area of origin, Asia has contributed 28.9%, Africa (including Macaronesian islands, Canaries...

  10. Host-associated genetic differentiation in the goldenrod elliptical-gall moth, Gnorimoschema gallaesolidaginis (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nason, John D; Heard, Stephen B; Williams, Frederick R

    2002-07-01

    Careful study of apparently generalist phytophagous insects often reveals that they instead represent complexes of genetically differentiated host races or cryptic species. The goldenrod elliptical-gall moth, Gnorimoschema gallaesolidaginis, attacks two goldenrods in the Solidago canadensis complex: S. altissima and S. gigantea (Asteraceae). We tested for host-associated genetic differentiation in G. gallaesolidaginis via analysis of variation at 12 allozyme loci among larvae collected at six sites in Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska. Gnorimoschema gallaesolidaginis from each host are highly polymorphic (3.6-4.7 alleles/locus and expected heterozygosity 0.28-0.38 within site-host combinations). Although there were no fixed differences between larvae from S. altissima and S. gigantea at any site, these represent well differentiated host forms, with 11 of 12 loci showing significantly different allele frequencies between host-associated collections at one or more sites. Host plant has a larger effect on genetic structure among populations than does location (Wright's FST = 0.16 between host forms vs. F(ST) = 0.061 and 0.026 among altissima and gigantea populations, respectively). The estimated F(ST) between host forms suggests that the historical effective rate of gene flow has been low (N(e)m approximately 1.3). Consistent with this historical estimate is the absence of detectable recombinant (hybrid and introgressant between host form) individuals in contemporary populations (none of 431 genotyped individuals). Upper 95% confidence limits for the frequency of recombinant individuals range from 5% to 9%. Host association is tight, but imperfect, with only one likely example of a host mismatch (a larva galling the wrong host species). Our inferences about hybridization and host association are based on new maximum-likelihood methods for estimating frequencies of genealogical classes (in this case, two parental classes, F1 and F2 hybrids, and backcrosses) in a population

  11. Origin of the hungry caterpillar: Evolution of fasting in slug moths (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Limacodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaspel, J M; Weller, S J; Epstein, M E

    2016-01-01

    Studies of caterpillar defense strategy evolution typically focus on aposematic coloration, gregarious behavior, and/or chemical defense. In the slug moth family Limacodidae, the evolution of chemical defense is coupled to the life history trait of first instar feeding behaviors. In nettle caterpillars, the first instars fast and molt into a second instar that feeds. In contrast, gelatines and monkey slug larval forms feed in the first instar. This study focused on whether the evolution of fasting associated with the nettle morphology was a derived trait of single or multiple origins. Twenty-nine species of Limacodidae (including one Chrysopolominae) representing 27 genera and four outgroup species with known first and final instar morphologies and behaviors were included. Four out-group species representing Megalopygidae (1 sp), Dalceridae (1 sp) and Aididae (2 sp) were included. These were sequenced for three molecular markers for a total of 4073 bp, mitochondrial COI (∼1500 bp), 18S (∼1900 bp) and the D2 region of 28S (approximately 670 bp). Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses were conducted. The resulting phylogeny and comparative analysis of feeding strategy revealed that the nettle caterpillar morphology and behavior of larval fasting may have a single origin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Distribution Characteristics of Eggs and Neonate Larvae of Codling Moth, (L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher H. Wearing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Literature is reviewed on the spatial distribution of the eggs and neonate larvae of codling moth on apple trees in relation to research conducted in Nelson, New Zealand. At Nelson, oviposition increased with height and was greater in the north and east of the trees and in those with greater fruit load in some seasons, which matches published reports. All publications and the research recorded high percentages of eggs laid singly within 10–15 cm of the fruit, with most eggs on leaves even within fruit clusters; oviposition on fruit clusters of different sizes was nonrandom because more eggs were laid on those with more fruit, but the aggregation of both per cluster and within clusters was even greater than that caused by the fruit number alone. Oviposition at random with respect to the fruit occurred only at very low population density. The choice of oviposition site between fruit and the adaxial leaf surface and abaxial leaf surface (AbLS was variable and cultivar related. Cultivars on which eggs predominated on the AbLS were less frequent and characterized by low trichome density. In the literature, neonate larvae from eggs on the AbLS suffered greater mortality, as did those in Nelson that hatched more distant from the fruit. This review discusses the interaction between these distribution characteristics and species-specific host–plant volatiles, egg adhesion to plant surfaces, oviposition deterrents, predation, and their relevance to pest management.

  13. Different emergence phenology of European grapevine moth (Lobesia botrana, Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on six varieties of grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiéry, D; Monceau, K; Moreau, J

    2014-06-01

    The phenology of insect emergence affects reproductive success and is especially critical in short-lived species. An increasing number of studies have documented the effects of thermal and other climatic variations and of unpredictable habitats on the timing of adult insect emergence within and between populations and years. Numerous interacting factors may affect the phenology of adult emergence. Host-plant quality and availability is a key factor that has been largely neglected in studies of the phenology of phytophagous insects. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of host plant characteristics on the rate of larval growth and the pattern of emergence in a wild population of Lobesia botrana (European grapevine moth), a significant pest in European vineyards. The phenology of emergence differed significantly among the six tested varieties of grapes. The percentage of bunches harboring pupae was similar among the different grape varieties, and the total number of pupae collected was similar to the number of emerging adults per bunch. Among the six varieties of grapes, 0-25 pupae were produced on each bunch. Each of the grape varieties had a single wave of emergence, in which males emerged before females, but their emergence phenology differed significantly in Chardonnay, Chasselas, and Pinot grapes. Both genders had extended durations of emergence in Merlot grapes. Together, the present results show that the characteristics of the grape host plant affect the emergence phenology of L. botrana.

  14. Distribution Characteristics of Eggs and Neonate Larvae of Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wearing, Christopher H

    2016-01-01

    Literature is reviewed on the spatial distribution of the eggs and neonate larvae of codling moth on apple trees in relation to research conducted in Nelson, New Zealand. At Nelson, oviposition increased with height and was greater in the north and east of the trees and in those with greater fruit load in some seasons, which matches published reports. All publications and the research recorded high percentages of eggs laid singly within 10-15 cm of the fruit, with most eggs on leaves even within fruit clusters; oviposition on fruit clusters of different sizes was nonrandom because more eggs were laid on those with more fruit, but the aggregation of both per cluster and within clusters was even greater than that caused by the fruit number alone. Oviposition at random with respect to the fruit occurred only at very low population density. The choice of oviposition site between fruit and the adaxial leaf surface and abaxial leaf surface (AbLS) was variable and cultivar related. Cultivars on which eggs predominated on the AbLS were less frequent and characterized by low trichome density. In the literature, neonate larvae from eggs on the AbLS suffered greater mortality, as did those in Nelson that hatched more distant from the fruit. This review discusses the interaction between these distribution characteristics and species-specific host-plant volatiles, egg adhesion to plant surfaces, oviposition deterrents, predation, and their relevance to pest management.

  15. Morphology and distribution of antennal sensilla of two tortricid moths, Cydia pomonella and C. succedana (Lepidoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Hyun Sik; Park, Kye Chung; Oh, Hyun-Woo; Park, Chung Gyoo

    2016-11-01

    Morphology of antennal sensilla and their distributions were investigated in male and female adults of two tortricid moths, Cydia pomonella and C. succedana using scanning electron microscopy. The antennae of both sexes of the two species were filiform, and the overall lengths of the antennae and the number of consisting segments were greater in males than in females. Six types of sensilla (s.) were identified from the antennae of both sexes in the two species: s. trichodea, s. basiconica, s. coeloconica, s. auricillica, s. chaetica, and s. styloconica, in varying numbers and distribution along the antennae. Among them, surface of four sensilla types (s. trichodea, s. basiconica, s. coeloconica, s. auricillica) were multiporous in the two species, indicating that the primary function of these sensilla is olfactory. The s. trichodea were the most numerous on the antennae in both sexes of the two species. Male C. pomonella has a greater number of s. trichodea than the female. The four sensilla types were further divided into different subtypes in the two species; s. trichodea into three subtypes, s. basiconica into two subtypes, s. coeloconica into two subtypes in C. pomonella and one subtype in C. succedana, and s. auricillica into two subtypes. Sexual dimorphism was observed in the subtypes of s. trichodea. The long subtype of s. trichodea occurs only on male antennae, whereas the short subtypes mainly on female antennae. These findings would be helpful for further studies on detailed chemo-receptive functions of each subtype of the antennal sensilla. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Respiratory response of fifth-instar codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to rapidly changing temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neven, L G

    1998-02-01

    Fifth-instar codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), larvae were exposed to 10 simulated heat treatments of apples and pears and CO2 levels were monitored as a measure of respiration. Marked increases in respiration rates (microliter CO2/mg/min) were noted during these treatments. Respiration peaked between 3.5 and 4.8 microliters CO2/mg/min; the amount of time to peak respiration depended on the heating rate and was correlated to the LT95. No differences were observed between male and female larvae in the timing of the peaks of CO2 production. In treatments where mortality occurred, CO2 levels dropped to zero, but only after a considerable time after death. Respiratory recovery rates, the time it took for CO2 levels to return to normal, were recorded after treatments at time points where CO2 production reached 3/4 and maximum peak. Respiration rates at constant temperatures were recorded within the range of 10-30 degrees C. Q10 over this range was 1.49, whereas Q10 was the greatest, 2.54, between 10 and 15 degrees C.

  17. Relevance of reproductive correlates in response of diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae to plant quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Soufbaf

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To study the relationships between leaf nitrogen and the reproductive potential of diamondback moth, all reproductive parameters of this pest raised on two canola cultivars were evaluated. A standardized regression coefficient (β was used as an index for nitrogen-reproduction relationship strength. The only difference between net fecundity rate and net fertility rate is hx’s effect, but the difference in their standardized regression coefficients was not significant [β=+0.934 (R2=0.87, F1,4=27.34, P=0.006 and β=+0.922 (R2=0.85, F1,4=22.825, P=0.009]. Accordingly, gross fecundity rate and gross fertility rate differ only in hx’s effect, but the difference in standardized regression coefficients again was not significant [β=0.895 (R2=0.8, F1,4=16.159, P=0.016-0.890 (R2=0.79, F1,4=15.266, P=0.017=0.005]. As gross fecundity rate differs from net fecundity rate only in midpoint survivorship (Lx’s effect, it is understood that survivorship could affect the plant nitrogen–fecundity relation considerably (standardized coefficients difference=0.044 and could be a critical parameter in insectplant interactions. But, the terms of reproductive parameters, i.e. Lx and hx, showed the same effect on the strength of nitrogen-fecundity regression statistically, even though Lx has been selected frequently by many researchers as an important fitness correlate. Measuring the hatch rate could be recommended in trophic interactions studies due to its being easier to apply, more robust, and quicker to accomplish than measurement of survivorship; however, it is important as an indicator in combination with brood size for determining the initial population size of an insect herbivore.

  18. Diversification rates, host plant shifts and an updated molecular phylogeny of Andean Eois moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Strutzenberger

    Full Text Available Eois is one of the best-investigated genera of tropical moths. Its close association with Piper plants has inspired numerous studies on life histories, phylogeny and evolutionary biology. This study provides an updated view on phylogeny, host plant use and temporal patterns of speciation in Eois. Using sequence data (2776 bp from one mitochondrial (COI and one nuclear gene (Ef1-alpha for 221 Eois species, we confirm and reinforce previous findings regarding temporal patterns of diversification. Deep diversification within Andean Eois took place in the Miocene followed by a sustained high rate of diversification until the Pleistocene when a pronounced slowdown of speciation is evident. In South America, Eois diversification is very likely to be primarily driven by the Andean uplift which occurred concurrently with the entire evolutionary history of Eois. A massively expanded dataset enabled an in-depth look into the phylogenetic signal contained in host plant usage. This revealed several independent shifts from Piper to other host plant genera and families. Seven shifts to Peperomia, the sister genus of Piper were detected, indicating that the shift to Peperomia was an easy one compared to the singular shifts to the Chloranthaceae, Siparunaceae and the Piperacean genus Manekia. The potential for close co-evolution of Eois with Piper host plants is therefore bound to be limited to smaller subsets within Neotropical Eois instead of a frequently proposed genus-wide co-evolutionary scenario. In regards to Eois systematics we confirm the monophyly of Neotropical Eois in relation to their Old World counterparts. A tentative biogeographical hypothesis is presented suggesting that Eois originated in tropical Asia and subsequently colonized the Neotropics and Africa. Within Neotropical Eois we were able to identify the existence of six clades not recognized in previous studies and confirm and reinforce the monophyly of all 9 previously delimited

  19. The "windows ",scales,and bristles of the tropical moth Rothschildia lebeau (Lepidoptera:Saturniidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Hernández-Chavarría

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The common Spanish name of the moth Rothschildia lebeau (Saturniidaeis cuatro ventanas (four ‘windows ’,because it exhibits a transparent oval path in each wing.The scales of the colored areas and the bristles from the "window "were analyzed.We developed a simple device to measure transmittance across the "windows "with an spectrophotometer.A square section of "window "was mounted onto a flat black card and placed onto a clamp that hung in the path of the light -beam of the spectrophotometer.Absorbance was measured at 350 and 550 nm,with the "window "positioned perpendicular to the light beam (incidence of 90 °;then the measurements were repeated with the "window "moved at an angle of 45 °.Each measurement was replicated 5 times.Wing color spots were analyzed with a light dissection microscope (stereoscopeand with scanning electron microscopy.The scales have a minimum of 4 morphological types,3 of them showed the typical appearance of unspecialized scales described for other butterflies; whereas the fourth has features particular to this species. On the "window "the scales are transformed in hair-like bristles that do not interfere with light, conferring the transparency that characterizes the "windows ".However,if the wing is illuminated at an almost grazing-incidence,they reflect the light as a mirror.Two hypothetical functional explanation for the windows are mimicry and interspecies communication.Rev.Biol.Trop.52(4:919-926.Epub 2005 Jun 24.El nombre común de la mariposa nocturna Rothschildia lebeau (Saturniidaees "cuatro ventanas ",porque exhibe una zona transparente en cada ala.Las escamas de las áreas coloreadas y las cerdas de las "ventanas "fueron analizadas al estereoscopio y al microscopio electrónico de rastreo. Al menos se identificaron cuatro tipos morfológicos de escamas similares a las escamas no especializadas de otras mariposas.En la "ventana "las escamas han sido sustituidas por cerdas que no interfieren el paso de la

  20. N-Butyl sulfide as an attractant and coattractant for male and female codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolt, Peter J; Ohler, Bonnie; Lo, Peter; Cha, Dong; Davis, Thomas S; Suckling, David M; Brunner, Jay

    2014-04-01

    Research to discover and develop attractants for the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., has involved identification of the chemicals eliciting moth orientation to conspecific female moths, host fruits, fermented baits, and species of microbes. Pear ester, acetic acid, and N-butyl sulfide are among those chemicals reported to attract or enhance attractiveness to codling moth. We evaluated the trapping of codling moth with N-butyl sulfide alone and in combination with acetic acid and pear ester in apple orchards. Acetic acid was attractive in two tests and N-butyl sulfide was attractive in one of two tests. N-Butyl sulfide increased catches of codling moth when used with acetic acid to bait traps. N-Butyl sulfide also increased catches of codling moth when added to traps baited with the combination of acetic acid and pear ester. Male and female codling moth both responded to these chemicals and chemical combinations. These results provide a new three-component lure comprising N-butyl sulfide, acetic acid, and pear ester that is stronger for luring codling moth females than other attractants tested.

  1. First record of folivory on a newly documented host plant for the little known geometrid moth Eupithecia yubitzae Vargas & Parra (Lepidoptera, Geometridae in northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The native tree Schinus molle (Anacardiacae is reported for the first time as a host plant for larvae of the little known geometrid moth Eupithecia yubitzae Vargas & Parra (Lepidoptera, Geometridae in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile, based on morphology and DNA barcodes. This discovery importantly expands the host range of E. yubitzae, as previous records were restricted to Fabaceae trees. Larvae were previously known as florivorous, while these were found to be folivorous on S. molle. Furthermore, host-associated cryptic larval polychromatism was detected, as larvae collected on S. molle were found to be mostly pale green, contrasting with the dark yellow ground color of the larvae typically collected on fabaceous host plants.

  2. Impact of Entomophaga maimaiga (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae) on outbreak gypsy moth populations (Lepidoptera: Erebidae): the role of weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    James R. ​Reilly; Ann E. Hajek; Andrew M. Liebhold; Ruth. Plymale

    2014-01-01

    The fungal pathogen Entomophaga maimaiga Humber, Shimazu, and Soper is prevalent in gypsy moth [Lymantria dispar (L.)] populations throughout North America. To understand how weather-related variables influence gypsy moth–E. maimaiga interactions in the field, we measured fungal infection rates at 12 sites...

  3. Developing the F1 sterility technique for the management of the carob moth ectomyelois ceratoniae zeller (Lepidoptera: pyralidae) in a pomegranate orchards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Jemaa, J. M. M.; Dhouibi, M. E. H.

    2012-12-01

    A pilot sterile insect release program was initiated for the control of the date moth ectromyelois ceratoniae Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in a pomegranate orchard near Tunisia. The F1 sterility technique was tested against pest for four successive seasons. Moth adults were irradiated with an effective gamma dose of 400 Gy using a 6 0C o irradiator (dose rate of 46 Gy/min). Releases were done from June to September each year with a release ratio of 5 to 1 (irradiated to non-irradiated). The release assessment was measured in the treated field as the reduction of the percentage of fruit damage and the reduction of percentage of larvae in rotten fruits at harvest. Results showed that F1 sterility could be a potential method for the control of carob in pomegranate orcharch. In the treated field, the percent damage of pomegranates at harvest declined from 28% in first year to 6.5% last year in the treated plot against 32% and 33% in the control plots. The percent of rotten fruits in the treated area was respectively 26%, 5.5%, 3.25% and 1.25% against 32%, 30.5% 30% and 30.5% in the control area during 4 years. The percentage of larvae in rotten fruit was respectively 20%, 5.5%, 3.25% and 1.25% compared to 32%, 30.5%, 30% and 30.5% in the controls. (Author)

  4. Assessing moth migration and population structuring in Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) at the regional scale: example from the Darling Downs, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kirsten D; Lawrence, Nicole; Lange, Corinna L; Scott, Leon J; Wilkinson, Kendle S; Merritt, Melissa A; Miles, Melina; Murray, David; Graham, Glenn C

    2005-12-01

    Analysis of gene flow and migration of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) in a major cropping region of Australia identified substantial genetic structuring, migration events, and significant population genotype changes over the 38-mo sample period from November 1999 to January 2003. Five highly variable microsatellite markers were used to analyze 916 individuals from 77 collections across 10 localities in the Darling Downs. The molecular data indicate that in some years (e.g., April 2002-March 2003), low levels of H. armigera migration and high differentiation between populations occurred, whereas in other years (e.g., April 2001-March 2002), there were higher levels of adult moth movement resulting in little local structuring of populations. Analysis of populations in other Australian cropping regions provided insight into the quantity and direction of immigration of H. armigera adults into the Darling Downs growing region of Australia. These data provide evidence adult moth movement differs from season to season, highlighting the importance of studies in groups such as the Lepidoptera extending over consecutive years, because short-term sampling may be misleading when population dynamics and migration change so significantly. This research demonstrates the importance of maintaining a coordinated insecticide resistance management strategy, because in some years H. armigera populations may be independent within a region and thus significantly influenced by local management practices; however, periods with high migration will occur and resistance may rapidly spread.

  5. A global phylogeny of leafmining Ectoedemia moths (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae): host plant family shifts and allopatry as drivers of speciation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorenweerd, C.; van Nieukerken, E.J.; Menken, S.B.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Host association patterns in Ectoedemia (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae) are also encountered in other insect groups with intimate plant relationships, including a high degree of monophagy, a preference for ecologically dominant plant families (e.g. Fagaceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae, and

  6. A global phylogeny of leafmining Ectoedemia moths (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae): exploring host plant family shifts and allopatry as drivers of speciation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorenweerd, C.; Nieukerken, van E.J.; Menken, S.B.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Host association patterns in Ectoedemia (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae) are also encountered in other insect groups with intimate plant relationships, including a high degree of monophagy, a preference for ecologically dominant plant families (e.g. Fagaceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae, and

  7. Comparison of mating disruption with pesticides for management of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in North Carolina apple orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovanci, Orkun B; Schal, Coby; Walgenbach, James F; Kennedy, George G

    2005-08-01

    The efficacy of mating disruption by using Isomate-M 100 pheromone dispensers and two formulations of microencapsulated sprayable pheromone for management of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), was compared with conventional insecticides in large plot studies in Henderson County, North Carolina, in 2000 and 2001. In addition, experiments were conducted in small and large plots to test the response of oriental fruit moth males to different application rates of sprayable pheromone. Pheromone trap catches were significantly reduced in mating disruption blocks compared with conventional and abandoned orchards. Pheromone traps placed in the upper canopy captured significantly more moths than traps placed in the lower canopy across all treatments, and lures loaded with 100 microg of pheromone caught more moths than traps with 300 microg, but the difference between doses was statistically significant at only one location in 2001. Isomate-M 100 provided excellent trap shutdown and was significantly more effective than sprayable pheromone formulations. Fruit damage by oriental fruit moth larvae was very low (oriental fruit moth population pressure in large plot studies. Mating disruption proved to be an alternative to organophosphate insecticides for managing oriental fruit moth populations in North Carolina apple orchards.

  8. Overview: Identification characters of Lepidoptera eggs (Insecta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are 160,000 species of described Lepidoptera, or moths and butterflies, on Earth. The egg stage is the least known biological stage of moths and butterflies and there have been very few comparative studies. The purpose of this video is to provide the few, major characteristics of Lepidoptera...

  9. Preliminary assessment of the moth (Lepidoptera: Heterocera) fauna of Rincon de Guadalupe, Sierra de Bacadehuachi, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Palting

    2013-01-01

    The Sierra de Bacadéhuachi is a poorly sampled extension of the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) located in east-central Sonora near the town of Bacadéhuachi. Sampling of moths using mercury vapor and ultraviolet lights occurred in summer and fall 2011, and spring 2012 at Rincón de Guadalupe, located in pine-oak forest at 1680 m elevation. Approximately 400 taxa of moths...

  10. Auditory sensitivity of Hawaiian moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and selective predation by the Hawaiian hoary bat (Chiroptera: Lasiurus cinereus semotus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullard, J. H.

    2001-01-01

    The islands of Hawai'i offer a unique opportunity for studying the auditory ecology of moths and bats since this habitat has a single species of bat, the Hawaiian hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus semotus), which exerts the entire predatory selection pressure on the ears of sympatric moths. I compared the moth wings discarded by foraging bats with the number of surviving moths on the island of Kaua'i and concluded that the endemic noctuid Haliophyle euclidias is more heavily preyed upon than similar-sized endemic (e.g. Agrotis diplosticta) and adventive (Agrotis ipsilon and Pseudaletia unipuncta) species. Electrophysiological examinations indicated that, compared with species less preyed upon, H. euclidias has lower auditory sensitivities to the bat's social and echolocation calls, which will result in shorter detection distances of the bat. The poor ears of H. euclidias suggest that this moth coevolved with the bat using non-auditory defences that resulted in auditory degeneration. This moth now suffers higher predation because it is drawn away from its normal habitat by the man-made lights that are exploited by the bat. PMID:11429137

  11. Assessing the quality of mass-reared codling moths (Lepidoptera: tortricidae) by using field release-recapture tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloem, S.; Bloem, K.A.; Knight, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    Following small-scale field releases of sterile, mass-reared codling moths, Cydia pomonella (L.), in the spring of 1995, significantly higher numbers of adults originating from larvae that had been induced into diapause were recaptured in passive interception traps compared with standard (nondiapaused) colony moths reared under either constant or fluctuating temperatures. When releases were made in the summer, significantly more diapaused females were again recaptured and similar numbers of diapaused and fluctuating temperature-reared standard males were trapped. Our field data showed that both male and female codling moths dispersed farther as ambient temperatures increased. When standard and diapaused sterile codling moths were released into replicated 1-ha plots under large-scale Sterile Insect Release program conditions in the summer and fall of 1996 and the spring of 1997, the proportion of recaptured diapaused males was significantly higher than for standard (nondiapaused) moths. This was true for recapture of males with passive interception, pheromone-baited, and virgin female-baited traps

  12. A large-scale, higher-level, molecular phylogenetic study of the insect order Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher-level relationships within the Lepidoptera, and particularly within the species-rich subclade Ditrysia, are generally not well understood, although recent studies have yielded progress. 483 taxa spanning 115 of 124 families were sampled for 19 protein-coding nuclear genes. Their aligned nucle...

  13. European grapevine moth (Lobesia botrana Denis and Schiff. (Lepidoptera: Totricidae – occurence and management in Istrian vineyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Bažok

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to identify European grapevine moths (Lobesia botrana Denis and Schiff. flight dynamics, larvae occurrence and degree-day accumulations (DDA for each moth generation in two Istrian vineyards with different pest management practices. The moth has developed three generations. During the third generation there was a significant flight peak in the vineyard without pest management. Predictions about larvae number and possible damage must be based on both, visual monitoring of grapevine and weekly adults catch. Developmental time with lower thermal threshold of 7 °C was calculated. The flight of the first generation was between 217.9 and 406.6 °C, second generation between 786.3 and 1329.8 °C, third generation between 1452.8 and 2108.2 °C.

  14. Improvement of the sterile insect technique for codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera Tortricidae) to facilitate expansion of field application

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vreysen, M. J. B.; Carpenter, J. E.; Marec, František

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 134, č. 3 (2010), s. 165-181 ISSN 0931-2048 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/09/2106 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : area-wide integrated pest management * codling moth * genetic sexing Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.276, year: 2010

  15. Evidence of sexual selection in Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae): correlation of female moth genitalia and Solanaceae host fruit size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neoleucinodes elegantalis is a Neotropical moth considered a quarantine pest in the family Solanaceae. In previous studies, this species has shown population genetic structure FST =0.57 (P<0.0001) based on host plant associations. This genetic differentiation is further demonstrated here based on ad...

  16. Evaluation of novel semiochemical dispensers simultaneously releasing pear ester and sex pheromone for mating disruption of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The performance of polyvinyl chloride polymer (pvc) dispensers loaded with two rates of ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) plus the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone) of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), was compared with similar dispensers and two commercial dispensers l...

  17. Field validation of a three chemical controlled release dispenser to attract codling moth (Cydia pomonella) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male and female codling moths, Cydia pomonella, were shown to be attracted to three chemical kairoonomal lure comprised of pear ester, acetic acid, and n-butyl sulfide. A novel controlled-release device based on sachets was developed in the laboratory and field tested to optimize the attractivness ...

  18. Measuring local genetic variability in populations of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) across an unmanaged / commercial orchard interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genetic structure of adult codling moth Cydia pomonella L., populations was characterized both inside a managed apple, Malus domestica Borkdhausen, orchard and in surrounding unmanaged hosts and non-host trees in central Chile during 2006-2007. Adult males were collected using an array of sex ph...

  19. Improving the performance of the Granulosis virus of Codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricideae) by adding the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae with sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies evaluated the effectiveness of adding Saccharomyces cerevisiae with brown cane sugar (sugar) to the codling moth granulosis virus, CpGV, to improve larval control of Cydia pomonella (L.), on apple. Neither the use of the yeast or sugar alone caused larval mortality greater than the water con...

  20. Behavioural responses of diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) to extracts derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charleston, D.S.; Kfir, R.; Vet, L.E.M.; Dicke, M.

    2005-01-01

    The impact of three different doses of botanical insecticide derived from the syringa tree, Melia azedarach and the neem tree, Azadirachta indica was tested on the behaviour of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus). Both botanical insecticides had a significant impact on larval

  1. Ultrastructural study of developmental stages of Mattesia dispora (Neogregarinorida: Lipotrophidae), a parasite of the flour moth Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valigurová, A.; Koudela, Břetislav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 4 (2006), s. 313-323 ISSN 0932-4739 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD524/03/H133 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : developmental stages * neogregarine * flour moth Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.729, year: 2006

  2. Rearing a native cactus moth, Melitara prodenialis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), on artificial diet and Opuntia cladodes: Preliminary comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study compared several biological parameters of native cactus moth, Melitara prodenialis, reared on an artificial versus the natural diet of Opuntia spp. cladodes. Results suggest that the current artificial diet developed for mass rearing C. cactorum can provide nutritional value for the rear...

  3. Could natural selection change the geographic range limits of light brown apple moth (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae in North America?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Morey

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We artificially selected for increased freeze tolerance in the invasive light brown apple moth. Our results suggest that, by not accounting for adaptation to cold, current models of potential geographic distributions could underestimate the areas at risk of exposure to this species.

  4. Could natural selection change the geographic range limits of light brown apple moth (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) in North America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy C. Morey; Robert C. Venette; William D. Hutchison

    2013-01-01

    We artificially selected for increased freeze tolerance in the invasive light brown apple moth. Our results suggest that, by not accounting for adaptation to cold, current models of potential geographic distributions could underestimate the areas at risk of exposure to this species.

  5. The optimal sex pheromone release rate for trapping the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Xu, Jing; Zhang, Runzhi

    2016-02-16

    For successful pest management, codlemone (E, E-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol) is widely used to monitor codling moth. The pheromone release rate is essential for the lure's attractiveness. The optimal sex pheromone release rate (V0) for trapping codling moth was evaluated during 2013-2014. The overwinter generation V0 was 6.7-33.4 μg wk(-1), and moth catches (MCs) were 0.82 ± 0.11 adults/trap/week; MCs for lower (V1) and higher (V2) release rates were 52.4% and 46.3%, respectively, of that for V0. The first generation V0 was 18.4-29.6 μg wk(-1), with MCs of 1.45 ± 0.29 adults/week/trap. V1 and V2 MCs were 34.5% and 31.7%, respectively, of those for V0. Combining across generations, the final V0 was 18.4-29.6 μg wk(-1), with MCs of 1.07 ± 0.06 adults/week/trap. V1 and V2 MCs were 51.4% and 41.1%, respectively, of that for V0. Overwinter generation emergence was relatively concentrated, requiring a wider V0. Maintaining the release rate at 18.4-29.6 μg wk(-1) could optimize the lure's efficacy; this resulted in the capture of nearly 1.9 and 2.4 times more moths than V1 and V2, respectively. The results also indicate that a dispenser pheromone release rate of 200-300 times that of the female moth can perfectly outcompetes females in the field.

  6. Comparison of a sprayable pheromone formulation and two hand-applied pheromone dispensers foruse in the integrated control of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, R M; Pree, D J; Barszcz, E S; Carter, N J

    2004-04-01

    The efficacy of integrated programs using a sprayable pheromone formulation or one of two hand-applied pheromone dispensers, and a conventional oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) control program, was compared using 4-5-ha blocks of peach orchard at three Niagara Peninsula farms during 2000-2002. In the integrated programs, chlorpyrifos and mating disruption with 3M Sprayable Pheromone, Isomate OFM Rosso, or Rak 5 hand-applied dispensers were used to control first-generation larvae, and mating disruption alone was used to control second- and third-generation larvae. In the conventional program, chlorpyrifos was used to control first-generation larvae, and pyrethroid insecticides were used to control larvae of the later generations. All programs were effective at maintaining fruit infestation by G. molesta below the industry tolerance level of 1%. An integrated program using sprayable pheromone required the use of more supplementary insecticide applications to control second- and third-generation larvae than a program using hand-applied dispensers. The elimination of insecticide sprays from integrated program blocks did not result in an increase in damage by plant bugs, Lygus spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae) or by the plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

  7. Relationship between male moths of Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Millière) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) caught in sex pheromone traps and cumulative degree-days in vineyards in southern Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidart, María Valeria; Mujica, María Valentina; Calvo, María Victoria; Duarte, Felicia; Bentancourt, Carlos María; Franco, Jorge; Scatoni, Iris Beatriz

    2013-12-01

    Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Millière) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) has been known in Uruguay for 30 years and only in vineyards, despite being polyphagous. In recent years, this pest has caused sporadic but serious damage on some grapevine cultivars. Understanding the insect's phenology and developing a monitoring program are essential aspects of integrated pest management. We monitored males using sexual pheromone traps on four cultivars of vine, Pinot noir, Tannat, Gewürztraminer, and Cabernet Sauvignon, in two vine-growing establishments in the Department of Canelones and compiled data on the accumulated effective temperatures for the southern area of Uruguay. We determined that this species undergoes three generations per year and overwinters without diapause as larvae on dried grapes remaining after harvest. Using the proportion of cumulative male moths caught from December to May from 2003-2007 on the four cultivars and the sum of effective temperatures above two previously-published lower-threshold temperatures for development, 12.26°C and 13°C, statistically significant logistic models were estimated. Predictions based on the resulting models suggested that they would be acceptable tools to improve the efficiency of integrated management of this pest in Uruguay.

  8. Novel microsatellite markers for the oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and effects of null alleles on population genetics analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W; Cao, L-J; Wang, Y-Z; Li, B-Y; Wei, S-J

    2017-06-01

    The oriental fruit moth (OFM) Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is an important economic pest of stone and pome fruits worldwide. We sequenced the OFM genome using next-generation sequencing and characterized the microsatellite distribution. In total, 56,674 microsatellites were identified, with 11,584 loci suitable for primer design. Twenty-seven polymorphic microsatellites, including 24 loci with trinucleotide repeat and three with pentanucleotide repeat, were validated in 95 individuals from four natural populations. The allele numbers ranged from 4 to 40, with an average value of 13.7 per locus. A high frequency of null alleles was observed in most loci developed for the OFM. Three marker panels, all of the loci, nine loci with the lowest null allele frequencies, and nine loci with the highest null allele frequencies, were established for population genetics analyses. The null allele influenced estimations of genetic diversity parameters but not the OFM's genetic structure. Both a STRUCTURE analysis and a discriminant analysis of principal components, using the three marker panels, divided the four natural populations into three groups. However, more individuals were incorrectly assigned by the STRUCTURE analysis when the marker panel with the highest null allele frequency was used compared with the other two panels. Our study provides empirical research on the effects of null alleles on population genetics analyses. The microsatellites developed will be valuable markers for genetic studies of the OFM.

  9. Efficiency of guva and lemon grass fine dusts on the potato tuber moth Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesbah, H A; El-Kady, Magda B; Mourad, A K; Kordy, A M; Gouda, Randa M; Ibrahim, Gehan M

    2012-01-01

    The present study was initiated to elucidate the effect of potato tubers treatment using fine dusts of Psidium guajava, Cymbopogon citratus, talc powder and their progressive dilutions(w/w) on the fitness components of raised generations of the potato tuber moth (PTM), Phthorimaea operculella. Results showed a direct as well as cumulative delayed effect of the tested plants fine dusts, either alone or admixed with talc powder in progressive dilutions from 5% up to 50% w/w on the viability of developing immatures and potentiality of adult moths. The revealed effects of each of the tested crude plant fine dusts or talc powder alone and/or their progressive dilutions (w/w) could be explained briefly as gradual significant shortening of life span of both sexes, prolongation of larval duration, reduction in number of raised pupae, increase of malformed ones, sharp decrease in the rate of emerged moths, deposited eggs, and developing of immatures; According to lower used dilutions of each tested plant fine dust from 5% to 20%, the complete inhibition of reproductive potential of both adult sexes, the going on metamorphic development of deposited eggs and/or raised immatures of the following generation, after the treatment of parent one, had been revealed the following distinct failure of: a) F1 development after former treatment of parent generation with the higher concentrations of 30-50% of both tested plant fine dusts and the lower prepared dilutions (10% and 20% (w/w)) of both the tested Psidium guajava and (20% (w/w)) Cymbopogom citratus plant fine dusts, resulted in fewer number of the emerged moths that were unviable, weak, sterile and died before induction the F1 progeny, b) F2 development due to the former treatment of the parents with talc powder, Psidium guajava fine dusts alone or its prepared dilutions of (5% (w/w)) and Cymbopogom citratus dilution of (10%(w/w)) gave unviable weak and sterile moths unable to induce the F2 progeny, c) F3 development post

  10. Sex-Pheromone-Mediated Mating Disruption Technology for the Oriental Fruit Moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): Overview and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Wei N. Kong; J. Li; Ren J. Fan; Sheng C. Li; Rui Y. Ma

    2014-01-01

    A great deal of progress has been made over the last three decades in research on pheromone-mediated mating disruption technology for the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck). Pheromones can interrupt normal orientation, and the most likely mechanism of pheromone disruption, competitive-attraction (false-plume following), invokes competition between point sources of pheromone formulation and females for males. This technology, performed by broadcasting pheromones into orchards to d...

  11. Modeling codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae phenology and predicting egg hatch in apple orchards of the Maule Region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Barros-Parada

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted in the Maule Region to characterize the phenology of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L. The Predictive Extension Timing Estimator (PETE and a logistic phenological model were validated with eight data sets of cumulative moth catches in sex pheromone (PH and kairomone-baited traps and the cumulative occurrence of fruit injuries from apple (Malus domestica Borkh. orchards during the 2009-2011 seasons. Second, the start of egg hatch was predicted from the first sustained male and female moth catches (biofix in traps baited with pear ester (PE, PE+acetic acid (AA, PE+PH, and PH alone. Both phenological models fit data well except that the logistic provided a better fit than the PETE model of the phenology of egg hatch of the codling moth in the first generation, with a difference of 11 d between models in the prediction of 50% egg hatch. No significant difference was found between biofix dates established for males using either PH or PE+PH lures or for the biofix date based on female catches with PE+AA or PH+PE. The biofix established with the sustained female catch occurred nearly 11 d later than the male-based biofix. The use of a female biofix provided on average a 4-d improvement in the prediction of first egg hatch compared with the traditional use of a male biofix, but this difference was not significant. The use of PE+AA lures increased the proportion of cases when a female-based biofix could be established compared with the use of the PH+PE lure.

  12. Effects of reservoir dispenser height on efficacy of mating disruption of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, David L; Stelinski, Lukasz L; Miller, James R; Grieshop, Matthew J; Gut, Larry J

    2011-08-01

    The effect of varying the height of reservoir dispensers for mating disruption of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), was investigated. The goal was to improve the effectiveness of C. pomonella mating disruption through improved understanding of adult distribution within the tree canopy and the impact of pheromone dispenser placement on disruption. Two dispensers per tree were placed at 2 m and 4 m and/or one dispenser at each height on the tree at a label rate of 1000 units ha(-1) . Monitoring traps and tethered female moths were deployed in plots at 2 and 4 m heights to assess treatment effects by catches or matings respectively. Fewest male moths were captured with all dispensers placed at 4 m. Female mating was lowest, and with least variation between females tethered at 2 and 4 m, when dispensers were placed simultaneously at 2 and 4 m (28% mated). Mating was 32% with both dispensers at 4 m, 38% with both dispensers at 2 m and 46% in the no disruption control. Mating was highest across treatments when females were tethered at 2 m and dispensers placed at 4 m (40%), and when females were tethered at 4 m with dispensers placed at 2 m (46%). Traps at 4 m in trees captured more male moths than traps at 2 m, regardless of disruption dispenser positioning. Female mating was lowest when dispensers were placed simultaneously at 2 and 4 m, suggesting that current recommendations for placement of reservoir dispensers in tree crowns may be suboptimal. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) flight behavior and phenology based on field-deployed automated pheromone-baited traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick C. Tobin; Kenneth T. Klein; Donna S. Leonard

    2009-01-01

    Populations of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), are extensively monitored in the United States through the use of pheromone-baited traps.We report on use of automated pheromone-baited traps that use a recording sensor and data logger to record the unique date-time stamp of males as they enter the trap.We deployed a total of 352 automated traps...

  14. Biological effects of some natural and chemical compounds on the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella Zell. (Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaby, Aziza; Abdel-Rahman, H; Moawad, S

    2009-07-01

    The olfactory reaction of larvae and moths was investigated towards 18 oils (6 natural oils and 12 commercial chemical oils). Some of these oils such as peppermint and camphor (natural oils) and eugenol and camphene (commercial oils) were repellent to both larvae and moths. Other oils such as strawberry and d-limonene were attractive to both larvae and moths. Some of the repellent oils were, therefore, tested for their effect on certain biological aspects of the insects. Eugenol and peppermint oils, each at the 0.01% conc., caused a significant depression in the fecundity of moth and decreased the percentage of egg hatchability. Eugenol oil was much more effective than peppermint oil at 1%. Dried (leaves, fruits or seeds) powder of 14 different plants species were tested in different concentrations with talcum powder (carrier material) against egg deposition. The results indicated that dried powders of Allium cepa, Curcuma longa, Colocasia antiqurum, Ocimum basilicum. Dodonaea viscose and Thuja orientalis played a highly significant role in reducing egg deposition. The most impressive effect was displayed by powders of D. viscose and A. cepa, which caused the highest depression in egg deposition as well as in the emerging offsprings. Ethanolic extracts of 11 plants indicated that extracts of Pithuranthos tortosus and Iphiona scabra caused the maximum inhibition of egg hatchability, followed by C. longa, Citrullus colocynthia and T. orientalis. Ethanolic extracts of Schinus terebenthiflius (leaves) and I. scabra caused the highest depression in the deposited eggs, as they played a remarkable role as ovipositor deterrents. The majority of the plant extracts at 1% conc. could protect potato tubers at different intervals according to the calculated tuber damage index as follows: Iphiopna > Pithuranthos > Curcuma > Schinus (fruits) Thuja > Schinus (leaves) > Dodonaea > Citrullus.

  15. Feasibility of Mating Disruption for Agricultural Pest Eradication in an Urban Environment: Light Brown Apple Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Perth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soopaya, Rajendra; Woods, Bill; Lacey, Ian; Virdi, Amandip; Mafra-Neto, Agenor; Suckling, David Maxwell

    2015-08-01

    Eradication technologies are needed for urban and suburban situations, but may require different technologies from pest management in agriculture. We investigated mating disruption of a model moth species recently targeted for eradication in Californian cities, by applying dollops of SPLAT releasing a two-component sex pheromone of the light brown apple moth in 2-ha plots in low-density residential Perth, Australia. The pheromone technology was applied manually at ∼1.5 m height to street and garden trees, scrubs, and walls at 500 dollops per hectare of 0.8 g containing ∼80 mg active two-component pheromone. Catches of male moths were similar among all plots before treatment, but in treated areas (six replicates) pheromone trap catches were substantially reduced for up to 29 wk posttreatment, compared with untreated control plot catches (three replicates). The treatment with pheromone reduced catch to virgin females by 86% (P environments. The need for new socially acceptable tools for eradication in urban environments is likely to increase because of increasing need for eradications. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Oxygenated Phosphine Fumigation for Control of Light Brown Apple Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Eggs on Cut-Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Samuel S; Liu, Yong-Biao; Simmons, Gregory S

    2015-08-01

    Light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), eggs were subjected to oxygenated phosphine fumigation treatments under 70% oxygen on cut flowers to determine efficacy and safety. Five cut flower species: roses, lilies, tulips, gerbera daisy, and pompon chrysanthemums, were fumigated in separate groups with 2,500 ppm phosphine for 72 h at 5°C. Egg mortality and postharvest quality of cut flowers were determined after fumigation. Egg mortalities of 99.7-100% were achieved among the cut flower species. The treatment was safe to all cut flowers except gerbera daisy. A 96-h fumigation treatment with 2,200 ppm phosphine of eggs on chrysanthemums cut flowers also did not achieve complete control of light brown apple moth eggs. A simulation of fumigation in hermetically sealed fumigation chambers with gerbera daisy showed significant accumulations of carbon dioxide and ethylene by the end of 72-h sealing. However, oxygenated phosphine fumigations with carbon dioxide and ethylene absorbents did not reduce the injury to gerbera daisy, indicating that it is likely that phosphine may directly cause the injury to gerbera daisy cut flowers. The study demonstrated that oxygenated phosphine fumigation is effective against light brown apple moth eggs. However, it may not be able to achieve the probit9 quarantine level of control and the treatment was safe to most of the cut flower species. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  17. Effects of exposure to pheromone and insecticide constituents of an attracticide formulation on reproductive behavior of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenden, Maya L; McLaughlin, John R; Czokajlo, Darek

    2005-04-01

    The effect of exposure to both the pheromone and insecticide constituents of an attracticide formulation on subsequent pheromonal response of male oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), was tested in several wind tunnel bioassays. Male response to the attracticide formulation was significantly reduced in all behavioral categories, including source contact 1 h after sublethal exposure (both by voluntary contact in the wind tunnel and forced application in the laboratory) to the attracticide formulation containing inert ingredients, pheromone, and insecticide. Sublethal exposure to the attracticide formulation in the laboratory (forced application) 24 h before the bioassay resulted in a significantly lower proportion of males subsequently responding to attracticide droplets in the wind tunnel. However, voluntary contact of male moths with the toxic formulation in the wind tunnel had no effect on subsequent response 24 h later. Exposure of males to different constituents of the attracticide formulation demonstrated that both pheromone and insecticide exerted effects on subsequent male pheromonal response. Exposure to the formulation containing the inert ingredients plus the pheromone (no insecticide) significantly reduced male behavioral responses to an attracticide droplet in the wind tunnel 1 h but not 24 h after exposure, compared with males treated with inert ingredients alone. Response to attracticide droplets was further reduced by exposure to the entire attracticide formulation containing inert ingredients, pheromone and insecticide at both 1 and 24 h postexposure. Similarly, males exposed to inert ingredients plus pheromone were less likely to orient to female-produced plumes 1 h but not 24 h after exposure than males treated with inert ingredients alone. Response to female-produced plumes was further reduced at 1 h but not at 24 h after exposure to the entire attracticide formulation. Mating success of males was

  18. What kind of signals do mimetic tiger moths send? A phylogenetic test of wasp mimicry systems (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae: Euchromiini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Rebecca B; Weller, Susan J

    2002-05-22

    Mimicry has been examined in field and laboratory studies of butterflies and its evolutionary dynamics have been explored in computer simulations. Phylogenetic studies examining the evolution of mimicry, however, are rare. Here, the phylogeny of wasp-mimicking tiger moths, the Sphecosoma group, was used to test evolutionary predictions of computer simulations of conventional Müllerian mimicry and quasi-Batesian mimicry dynamics. We examined whether mimetic traits evolved individually, or as suites of characters, using concentrated change tests. The phylogeny of these moth mimics revealed that individual mimetic characters were conserved, as are the three mimetic wasp forms: yellow Polybia, black Polybia and Parachartergus mimetic types. This finding was consistent with a 'supergene' control of linked loci and the Nicholson two-step model of mimicry evolution. We also used a modified permutation-tail probability approach to examine the rate of mimetic-type evolution. The observed topology, hypothetical Müllerian and Batesian scenarios, and 1000 random trees were compared using Kishino-Hasegawa tests. The observed phylogeny was more consistent with the predicted Müllerian distribution of mimetic traits than with that of a quasi-Batesian scenario. We suggest that the range of discriminatory abilities of the predator community plays a key role in shaping mimicry dynamics.

  19. Sex-Pheromone-Mediated Mating Disruption Technology for the Oriental Fruit Moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae: Overview and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei N. Kong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of progress has been made over the last three decades in research on pheromone-mediated mating disruption technology for the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck. Pheromones can interrupt normal orientation, and the most likely mechanism of pheromone disruption, competitive-attraction (false-plume following, invokes competition between point sources of pheromone formulation and females for males. This technology, performed by broadcasting pheromones into orchards to disrupt mate finding, has been successfully implemented in oriental fruit moth control. Reservoir-style dispensers made of polyethylene tubes, which release pheromone throughout the full growing season, are the current industry standard. Although reasonably effective, they require labor-intensive hand application. Recently, a new formulation, paraffin wax, which maximizes competition between point sources of synthetic pheromone and feral females for males, was shown to have high disruption performance. As this formulation is highly effective, inexpensive, and easy to produce, further study and development are advisable. Increased understanding of the principles of mating disruption will aid in the design of more effective dispensers. Continued research is needed to meet grower concerns with regard to risk, efficacy, and cost and to identify other semiochemicals that can be applied to this delivery system. Greater knowledge of the integration of different biological control methods is therefore essential.

  20. Expression of a Sensory Neuron Membrane Protein SNMP2 in Olfactory Sensilla of Codling Moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinglong; Liu, Lu; Fang, Yiqing; Feng, Jinian

    2016-08-01

    In insects, sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs) are critical peripheral olfactory proteins and highly promote the sensitivity of pheromone detection. In this study, we cloned an SNMP transcript (CpomSNMP2, GenBank KU302714) from the antennae of the codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.) Its open reading frame is 1,575 bp and it encodes a protein with 524 amino acids. CpomSNMP2 contains two putative transmembrane domains and has a large extracellular loop. Phylogenetic analysis showed that CpomSNMP2 is clustered into the group of previously characterized lepidopteron SNMP2s. Expression levels of CpomSNMP2 were significantly higher in antennae of both males and females than in tissues from the thoraxes, abdomens, legs, and wings. CpomSNMP2 was distributed in sensilla trichodea of both males and females, but only in sensilla chaetica of males. This study provides evidence for olfactory roles of CpomSNMP2 in this moth. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Foliar application of microdoses of sucrose to reduce codling moth Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) damage to apple trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnault, Ingrid; Lombarkia, Nadia; Joy-Ondet, Sophie; Romet, Lionel; Brahim, Imene; Meradi, Rahma; Nasri, Ardjouna; Auger, Jacques; Derridj, Sylvie

    2016-10-01

    The effects of foliar applications of microdoses of sucrose to reduce the damage by the codling moth have been reported from nine trials carried in France and Algeria from 2009 to 2014. The activity of sucrose alone was assessed by comparison with an untreated control and some treatments with the Cydia pomonella granulovirus or a chemical insecticide. The addition of sucrose to these different treatments was also investigated. The application of sucrose at 0.01% reduced the means of infested fruits with a value of Abbott's efficacy of 41.0 ± 10.0%. This involved the induction of resistance by antixenosis to insect egg laying. Indeed, it seems that acceptance of egg laying on leaves treated with sucrose was reduced. The addition of sucrose to thiacloprid improved its efficacy (59.5% ± 12.8) by 18.4%. However, the sucrose had no added value when associated with C. pomonella granulovirus treatments. Foliar applications of microdoses of sucrose every 20 days in commercial orchards can partially protect against the codling moth. Its addition to thiacloprid increases the efficacy in integrated control strategies, contrary to C. pomonella granulovirus treatments. This work opens a route for the development of new biocontrol strategies. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Population biology of the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), in two potato cropping systems in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, M; Gavish, S; Dori, I

    2000-08-01

    The life cycle, within-field distribution, crop damage and impact of natural enemies of the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) were investigated in two potato cropping systems. The two systems differed in soil type (sandy vs. loess) which in turn affected the choice of cultivars, irrigation programme, insecticide application method (ground vs. aerial), and planting and harvest times. From mid-April to the end of May, almost twice as many moths were caught in pheromone traps in sandy than in loess fields. Highest infestation of tubers was found before harvest, and infestation was greater in loess than in sandy fields. Larval densities in foliage and tubers were significantly higher at the margins of the fields than in the centre. A significant positive correlation was found between adult catch and larval infestation on foliage in sandy fields but not in loess. Tuber infestation in sand was positively correlated with foliage infestation. No such correlation was detected in loess. Five parasitic wasps emerged from P. operculella larvae collected from commercial fields and volunteer plants: Diadegma pulchripes (Kokujev) and Temelucha decorata, (Gravenhorst) (Ichneumonidae) and Bracon gelechiae Ashmead and two other unidentified Braconidae. The most abundant predators at the field site were Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus (Coccinellidae), Chrysoperla carnea Stephens (Chrysopidae), Orius albidipennis (Reuter) (Anthocoridae) and four ant species (Formicidae). Parasitism rate reached 40% and predation was estimated at 79%. Results are discussed with regard to the development of an integrated pest management programme for this important pest.

  3. Temporal Patterns in the Abundance and Species Composition of Spiders on Host Plants of the Invasive Moth Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, Brian N; Mills, Nicholas J; Daane, Kent M

    2017-06-01

    Generalist predators such as spiders may help mitigate the spread and impact of exotic herbivores. The lack of prey specificity and long generation times of spiders may allow them to persist when pests are scarce, and to limit the growth of pest populations before they reach damaging levels. We examined whether resident spiders are likely to play a role in maintaining populations of the invasive light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), below outbreak levels in California. We surveyed the spider community on two E. postvittana host plants, the ornamental Australian tea tree, Leptospermum laevigatum, and the weed French broom, Genista monspessulana, to characterize spider and larval E. postvittana abundance and spider species composition throughout the year. Spider densities and species composition showed slight seasonal changes. Spiders were present during periods of high and low E. postvittana abundance. Anyphaenid hunting spiders, Anyphaena aperta Banks in Australian tea tree and Anyphaena pacifica Banks in French broom, dominated spider species composition at four of five sampled sites, and underwent only slight seasonal variation in abundance. Adult A. aperta were rare at all times of the year, suggesting that high mortality among juvenile A. aperta limits the potential of this species as a predator of E. postvittana. Nevertheless, the continued presence of spiders throughout the year indicates that the resident spider community is likely to play a key role in reducing E. postvittana populations in California. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  4. Pathogenicity, morphology, and characterization of a Nosema fumiferanae isolate (Microsporidia: Nosematidae) from the light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Julie V; Huang, Wei-Fone; Solter, Leellen F; Mills, Nicholas J

    2016-02-01

    We recently discovered infections by a microsporidium closely related to Nosema fumiferanae in field populations of the light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in the San Francisco region of California. E. postvittana originates from Australia and was first detected in California in 2006; therefore, our aim was to identify and determine the origin of the Nosema isolate. We characterized the pathogenicity, transmission pathways, and ultrastructure of this new Nosema isolate. In addition, we sequenced fragments of commonly used genetic markers (ITS, SSU, and RPB1), and examined the phylogenetic relationships between the Nosema isolate and other microsporidian species commonly found in lepidopteran hosts. The pathogenicity of the Nosema isolate was investigated by infecting second instar larvae of E. postvittana. Larval and pupal survivorship were reduced by 7% and 13% respectively, and pupation occurred 1-2d later in infected individuals than in healthy individuals. Emerging infected females died 5d earlier than healthy females, and daily fecundity was 22% lower. Hatch rate also was 22% lower for eggs oviposited by infected females. Vertical transmission was confirmed; spores were present in 68% of egg masses and 100% of the surviving larvae from infected females. Ultrastructure images, together with sequences from selected genetic markers, confirmed the Nosema isolate to be a member of the Nosema fumiferanae species complex (Nosema fumiferanae postvittana subsp. n.). The association of this pathogen with E. postvittana contributes further to the biotic resistance that E. postvittana has experienced since its introduction to California. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Observations on an irruption event of the moth Achaea catocaloides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The moth Achaea catocaloides Guenee (Lepidoptera: Erebidae, formerly Noctuidae) experiences periodic population irruptions in tropical Africa. Large numbers of adult moths were observed in the Kakamega Forest, Western Kenya in March 2012. Estimated densities of adult moths flying in surveyed forest areas were 6.8 ...

  6. A new pygmy leafmining moth, Stigmella tatrica sp. n., from the alpine zone of the Tatra Mountains (Lepidoptera, Nepticulidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenko Tokár

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Stigmella tatrica sp. n. is described from moths taken in the alpine zone of the Tatra Mountains in Slovakia. The new species is similar to several other montane species of Stigmella Schrank, 1802 in the S. aurella (Fabricius, 1775 group in external characters and male genitalia; its closest relative is S. dryadella (O. Hofmann, 1868. It is indistinguishable from S. tormentillella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1860 by the colour and pattern elements of the forewing; however, it differs in the male genitalia in the shape and number of cornuti, in the female genitalia by long apophyses with protruding ovipositor, and by COI barcodes. Immature stages are unknown, but Dryas octopetala L. (Rosaceae is the possible hostplant. The long ovipositor suggests an unusual, possibly hidden place for oviposition. The male and female adults and genitalia of both sexes are figured and photographs of the habitat are provided.

  7. Kauri seeds and larval somersaults: the larval trunk of the seed mining basal moth Agathiphaga vitensis (Lepidoptera: Agathiphagidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Steen

    2012-09-01

    The trunk morphology of the larvae of the kauri pine (Agathis) seed infesting moth Agathiphaga is described using conventional, polarization, and scanning electron microscopy. The pine seed chamber formed by the larva is also described and commented on. The simple larval chaetotaxy includes more of the minute posture sensing setae, proprioceptors, than expected from the lepidopteran larval ground plan. The excess of proprioceptors is suggested to be necessary for sensory input concerning the larval posture within the seed chamber. The trunk musculature includes an autapomorphic radial ventral musculature made up of unique multisegmental muscles. The combined presence of additional proprioceptors and the unique ventral musculature is proposed to be related to the larval movement within the confined space of the seed chamber, especially to a proposed somersault movement that allows the larva to orientate itself within the chamber. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Similar worldwide patterns in the sex pheromone signal and response in the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, A L; Barros-Parada, W; Bosch, D; Escudero-Colomar, L A; Fuentes-Contreras, E; Hernández-Sánchez, J; Jung, C; Yung, C; Kim, Y; Kovanci, O B; Levi, A; Lo, P; Molinari, F; Valls, J; Gemeno, C

    2015-02-01

    The response of Grapholita molesta (Busck) males to three-component sex pheromone blends containing a 100% ratio of the major sex pheromone component, (Z)-8-dodecenyl acetate and a 10% ratio of (Z)-8-dodecenol, but with varying ratios of (E)-8-dodecenyl acetate (0.4, 5.4, 10.4, 30.4, and 100.1% E-blends) was tested with populations in eight stone and pome fruit orchards in Europe, Asia, and North and South America. Traps baited with the 5.4% E-blend caught significantly more males than traps with any other blend with all populations. Significantly more males were caught in traps baited with the 10.4% E-blend than in traps with the remaining blends, except with the 0.4% E-blend in Turkey. Significant differences in male moth catches occurred between the other blends with the 0.4>30.4% E-blend, and the 30.4>100.1% E-blend. Male moth catches with the 100.1% E-blend only differed from the hexane control in Chile. No apparent differences were noted to these blends in populations collected from pome or stone fruits. Flight tunnel assays to synthetic blends with a subset of populations were similar to the field results, but the breadth of the most attractive E-blends was wider. Flight tunnel assays also demonstrated a high level of male-female cross-attraction among field-collected populations. Female gland extracts from field-collected populations did not show any significant variation in their three-component blends. The only exceptions in these assays were that long-term laboratory populations were less responsive and attractive, and produced different blend ratios of the two minor components than recently collected field populations.

  9. Characterization of the Complete Mitochondrion Genome of Diurnal Moth Amata emma (Butler) (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) and Its Phylogenetic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hui-Fen; Su, Tian-Juan; Luo, A-Rong; Zhu, Chao-Dong; Wu, Chun-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Mitogenomes can provide information for phylogenetic analyses and evolutionary biology. The complete mitochondrial genome of Amata emma (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) was sequenced and analyzed in the study. The circular genome is 15,463 bp in size, with the gene content, orientation and order identical to other ditrysian insects. The genome composition of the major strand shows highly A+T biased and exhibits negative AT-skew and GC-skew. The initial codons are the canonical putative start codons ATN with the exception of cox1 gene which uses CGA instead. Ten genes share complete termination codons TAA, and three genes use incomplete stop codons TA or T. Additionally, the codon distribution and Relative Synonymous Codon Usage of the 13 PCGs in the A. emma mitogenome are consistent with those in other Noctuid mitogenomes. All tRNA genes have typical cloverleaf secondary structures, except for the trnS1 (AGN) gene, in which the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm is simplified down to a loop. The secondary structures of two rRNA genes broadly conform with the models proposed for these genes of other Lepidopteran insects. Except for the A+T-rich region, there are three major intergenic spacers, spanning at least 10 bp and five overlapping regions. There are obvious differences in the A+T-rich region between A. emma and other Lepidopteran insects reported previously except that the A+T-rich region contains an ‘ATAGA’ -like motif followed by a 19 bp poly-T stretch and a (AT)9 element preceded by the ‘ATTTA’ motif. It neither has a poly-A (in the α strand) upstream trnM nor potential stem-loop structures and just has some simple structures like (AT)nGTAT. The phylogenetic relationships based on nucleotide sequences of 13 PCGs using Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood methods provided a well-supported a broader outline of Lepidoptera and which agree with the traditional morphological classification and recently working, but with a much higher support. PMID:24069145

  10. Efficacy of eco-smart insecticides against certain biological stages of jasmine moth, Palpita unionalis Hb.(Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Farag Mahmoud

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of six eco-smart insecticides, Dipel 2x 6.4% WP (Bacillus thuringensis AI, Biofly 100% WP (Beauvaria bessiana AI, Radiant 12% SC (Saccharopolyspora spinosa AI, Mectin 1.8% EC (Streptomyces avermitilis AI, Nimbecidine 0.03% EC (Azadirachtin AI and Bio-Power 50% EC (Beauvaria bessiana AI, were tested against eggs, larvae and pupae of the jasmine moth, Palpita unionalis Hb. and its parasitoid Apanteles syleptae under laboratory conditions. Data indicated that all tested insecticides had ovicidal activity against P. unionalis. Mectin was the most toxic among the tested insecticides against the egg stage, followed by Radiant or Dipel 2x, and their respective values of LC50 were 0.005 cm/l, 0.006 cm/l and 0.055 g/l. Dipel 2x was the most toxic insecticide to the 1st instar larvae of P. unionalis, whereas Mectin was the most toxic to both the 3rd and 5th instar larvae. Also, the results revealed that Mectin was the most effective against the pupal stage, followed descendingly by Radiant and Dipel 2x. The toxicity index values showed a superior efficiency of Mectin at LC50 (100% against eggs, 3rd and 5th instar larvae, and pupal stage, whereas Dipel 2x showed such superior efficiency at LC50 (100% only against 1st instar larvae. The results showed that the percents of pupation and emergence of moths were significantly different in all treatments compared to control, while deformed pupae and malformed adults were insignificantly different when fifth instar larvae were treated with the tested insecticides. Moreover, the rate of P. unionalis adult emergence from treated pupae was concentration-dependent and significant differences were found between insecticide treatments and control. Generally, Mectin, Radiant and Dipel 2x caused the highest impacts on adult emergence and malformed adults percentages. Regarding the toxicity of insecticides to the endoparasitoid A. syleptae, the treated cocoons developed to adult stages with no significant

  11. The remarkable endemism of moths at White Sands National Monument in New Mexico, USA, with special emphasis on Gelechioidea (Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric H. Metzler

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The white sands formation, a snow-white gypsum dunes system, is the world's largest gypsum dune field. White Sands National Monument protects about 40% of the dunes; the dunes formation as it is known today was formed ca. 8,000 years BP. Prior to 8,000 years BP, the area covered by the dunes was a wet cool forest of the last glacial maximum in North America. The dunes were formed as a result of the hypsithermal, a warming and drying period which followed the most recent glacial maximum. The white sands formation is located in south central New Mexico in the Tularosa Basin of southwestern United States. A 10-year study of moths at the dunes was commissioned by the U. S. National Park Service in 2006. Almost immediately species new to science were detected. In the period of 6 years, 30 new species were discovered in the dunes. Several of the new species are white or very pale in color, and are endemic to the dunes. The focus of the 10 year project was modified to emphasize naming the undescribed species which helps the National Park Service catalog and manage the habitats. The data should encourage other researchers to explore the interactions of the animals with the plants and the harsh desert environment, to study DNA and evolution, and to study the rapid adaptation which seems to be occurring.

  12. A model for the overwintering process of European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Baumgärtner

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the development, parametrization and validation of a phenology model of the overwintering process of European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller populations in northern latitudes. The model is built on diapause and poikilothermic population development theories and represents the phenological events of entries into and emergence from pre-diapause, diapause and post-diapause phases. The rate sum models for pre-diapause and post-diapause development are based on published non-linear temperature dependent rate functions. The rate sum model for diapause, however, is negatively affected by the photoperiod during diapause and positively influenced by the photoperiod at the time of diapause entry. The diapause model is parametrized with 3-year data from 25 locations in Europe and Cyprus, and validated with 1-3 year observations from 18 locations in Europe and California. Despite restrictive assumptions and limitations imposed by weather data recorded at variable distances from the observation sites, and the variable qualities of observation data, the model’s predictive and explanatory capabilities are useful for adaptive pest management and assessments of the invasive potential. The need for controlled experiments is recognized and suggestions are made for improving the model.

  13. Insecticide resistance in populations of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), from the state of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, V C; de Siqueira, H A A; da Silva, J E; de Farias, M J D C

    2011-01-01

    The diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (L.) has a great economic importance in Brassicaceae crops in many parts of the world. Recurrent infestations of this pest in growing areas of Pernambuco state, Brazil, have led farmers to frequently spray their crops with insecticides. However, control failures by several insecticides have been alleged by farmers. The objective of this study was to check whether resistance to insecticides could explain these control failures in P. xylostella. Populations of P. xylostella from Pernambuco were collected between January and April 2009. The resistance ratios of P. xylostella populations were compared among five different active ingredients: abamectin, methomyl, lufenuron, indoxacarb, and diafenthiuron by leaf dipping bioassays using foliar discs of kale leaves. Mortality data were submitted to probit analysis. The P. xylostella populations showed variable response and significant resistance to one or more insecticides. The population from Bezerros County exhibited the highest resistance ratios to indoxacarb (25.3 times), abamectin (61.7 times), and lufenuron (705.2 times), when compared to the reference population. The populations from Bonito and Jupi Counties were 33.0 and 12.0 times more resistant to lufenuron and abamectin, respectively, when compared with the reference population. Resistance to methomyl was the least common, but not less important, in at least four populations. These results indicated that control failures were associated with resistance by some of the evaluated insecticides, reinforcing the need for resistance management in areas of the state of Pernambuco.

  14. Comparison of microcapsule density with various apple tissues and formulations of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) sprayable pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldstein, Daniel E; Gut, L J

    2003-02-01

    The density of microcapsules was compared on 'Golden Delicious' mature and immature foliage, fruit, and 1-yr-old limbs after dip treatments with Phase III oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), microencapsulated pheromone. Microcapsules were counted with a dissecting microscope at 50x magnification after apple tissues were treated with a two-step dye staining process to increase the visibility of the microcapsules. The number of Phase III microcapsules on 1-yr limbs treated with a field concentration was two- to threefold greater than the number of microcapsules on similarly treated fruit or foliage. Phase I, III, and V OFM MEC and Checkmate OFM-F formulations of microencapsulated pheromone also were compared to determine their abundance on mature apple foliage. The Phase V OFM MEC formulation had the highest density of microcapsules when mature foliage was treated at the field rate. The Phase I treatment had the greatest difference between upper and lower leaf surfaces with 18-fold greater microcapsule density on the upper surface. On mature apple leaves treated with Phase III MEC, the number of microcapsules/cm2 was two- to threefold greater on fields of view without the mid-vein than those that included the mid-vein. The cuticle structure and abundance of trichomes are two factors that may have contributed to differences in microcapsule density among plant tissue types, top and bottom leaf surfaces, and fields of view with and without the mid-vein.

  15. Silk moths in Madagascar: A review of biology, uses and challenges related to Borocera cajani (Vinson, 1863 (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razafimanantsoa, TM.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Borocera cajani or "Landibe" (vernacular name is the wild silk moth that is currently used to produce silk textiles in Madagascar. This species is endemic to Madagascar, and is distributed throughout the island, colonizing the Uapaca bojeri or "Tapia" forest of the central highlands. The forest provides food in the form of plants for B. cajani, including U. bojeri leaves. The species secretes silk at the onset of pupation and for making cocoons. Borocera cajani and its natural habitat are threatened by human destruction, such as bush fires, firewood collection, charcoal production, and the over-harvesting of their cocoons. Wild silk production largely disappeared when the silk industry utilized many people on the island as the collectors of cocoons, spinners, dyers, weavers, and artists who transform the silk into clothes, accessories, and objects. Therefore, it is important to study the biology of B. cajani to revitalize silk production in a way that helps conserve this species and the Tapia forest.

  16. A global phylogeny of leafmining Ectoedemia moths (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae): exploring host plant family shifts and allopatry as drivers of speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorenweerd, Camiel; van Nieukerken, Erik J; Menken, Steph B J

    2015-01-01

    Host association patterns in Ectoedemia (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae) are also encountered in other insect groups with intimate plant relationships, including a high degree of monophagy, a preference for ecologically dominant plant families (e.g. Fagaceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae, and Betulaceae) and a tendency for related insect species to feed on related host plant species. The evolutionary processes underlying these patterns are only partly understood, we therefore assessed the role of allopatry and host plant family shifts in speciation within Ectoedemia. Six nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers with a total aligned length of 3692 base pairs were used to infer phylogenetic relationships among 92 species belonging to the subgenus Ectoedemia of the genus Ectoedemia, representing a thorough taxon sampling with a global coverage. The results support monophyletic species groups that are congruent with published findings based on morphology. We used the obtained phylogeny to explore host plant family association and geographical distribution to investigate if host shifts and allopatry have been instrumental in the speciation of these leafmining insects. We found that, even though most species within species groups commonly feed on plants from one family, shifts to a distantly related host family have occasionally occurred throughout the phylogeny and such shifts are most commonly observed towards Betulaceae. The largest radiations have occurred within species groups that feed on Fagaceae, Rosaceae, and Salicaceae. Most species are restricted to one of the seven global biogeographic regions, but within species groups representatives are commonly found in different biogeographic regions. Although we find general patterns with regard to host use and biogeography, there are differences between clades that suggest that different drivers of speciation, and perhaps drivers that we did not examine, have shaped diversity patterns in different clades.

  17. A large-scale, higher-level, molecular phylogenetic study of the insect order Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome C Regier

    Full Text Available Higher-level relationships within the Lepidoptera, and particularly within the species-rich subclade Ditrysia, are generally not well understood, although recent studies have yielded progress. We present the most comprehensive molecular analysis of lepidopteran phylogeny to date, focusing on relationships among superfamilies.483 taxa spanning 115 of 124 families were sampled for 19 protein-coding nuclear genes, from which maximum likelihood tree estimates and bootstrap percentages were obtained using GARLI. Assessment of heuristic search effectiveness showed that better trees and higher bootstrap percentages probably remain to be discovered even after 1000 or more search replicates, but further search proved impractical even with grid computing. Other analyses explored the effects of sampling nonsynonymous change only versus partitioned and unpartitioned total nucleotide change; deletion of rogue taxa; and compositional heterogeneity. Relationships among the non-ditrysian lineages previously inferred from morphology were largely confirmed, plus some new ones, with strong support. Robust support was also found for divergences among non-apoditrysian lineages of Ditrysia, but only rarely so within Apoditrysia. Paraphyly for Tineoidea is strongly supported by analysis of nonsynonymous-only signal; conflicting, strong support for tineoid monophyly when synonymous signal was added back is shown to result from compositional heterogeneity.Support for among-superfamily relationships outside the Apoditrysia is now generally strong. Comparable support is mostly lacking within Apoditrysia, but dramatically increased bootstrap percentages for some nodes after rogue taxon removal, and concordance with other evidence, strongly suggest that our picture of apoditrysian phylogeny is approximately correct. This study highlights the challenge of finding optimal topologies when analyzing hundreds of taxa. It also shows that some nodes get strong support only when

  18. Improving Irradiated Wheat Flour By Iron Fortification And Inducing Resistance Against Mediterranean Flour Moth,Ephestia Kuehniella (Pyralidae: Lepidoptera)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, H.F.; Mikhaiel, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of iron fortified non-irradiated and irradiated flour at different concentrations (10, 20, 30, 40 and 60 ppm) on biology and physiology of Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller. The results showed that the percent mortality of larvae which reared on both types of flour was increased by increasing the concentration of iron and the larval mortality was 90.09% at the highest concentration of iron (60 ppm) fortified non-irradiated flour than in other treatments. Larval weight was reduced in the first generation only and this decrease was a concentration dependent. Percent pupation among F1 generation was significantly reduced while there was non-significant changed in F2 generation. The percent adult emergence among both generations beside the lifespan of the adults had non-significant difference in non-irradiated flour as compared with control. In contrast, both male and female adults lived longer than the control in irradiated flour fortified with iron. Iron fortified both types of flour had no effect on the sex ratio of adults and it was in favour of male in all treatments as control. Also, the effect of iron fortified on larval development through non-irradiated flour was markedly retarded and it was prolonged to about 38.77 days. The developmental period of pupal stage was not changed in iron fortified non-irradiated flour but it was delayed in irradiated flour. Moreover, the disturbances of main metabolites and vital enzyme activities were determined after feeding newly hatched larvae of E. kuehniella on iron fortified non-irradiated and irradiated wheat flour with iron

  19. Characterization of plant growth-promoting traits of bacteria isolated from larval guts of diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (lepidoptera: plutellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiragandhi, P; Anandham, R; Madhaiyan, M; Sa, T M

    2008-04-01

    Eight bacterial isolates from the larval guts of Diamondback moths (Plutella xylostella) were tested for their plant growth-promoting (PGP) traits and effects on early plant growth. All of the strains tested positive for nitrogen fixation and indole 3-acetic acid (IAA) and salicylic acid production but negative for hydrogen cyanide and pectinase production. In addition, five of the isolates exhibited significant levels of tricalcium phosphate and zinc oxide solubilization; six isolates were able to oxidize sulfur in growth media; and four isolates tested positive for chitinase and beta-1,3-glucanase activities. Based on their IAA production, six strains including four that were 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase positive and two that were ACC deaminase negative were tested for PGP activity on the early growth of canola and tomato seeds under gnotobiotic conditions. Acinetobacter sp. PSGB04 significantly increased root length (41%), seedling vigor, and dry biomass (30%) of the canola test plants, whereas Pseudomonas sp. PRGB06 inhibited the mycelial growth of Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum coccodes, C. gleospoiroides, Rhizoctonia solani, and Sclerotia sclerotiorum under in vitro conditions. A significant increase, greater than that of the control, was also noted for growth parameters of the tomato test plants when the seeds were treated with PRGB06. Therefore, the results of the present study suggest that bacteria associated with insect larval guts possess PGP traits and positively influence plant growth. Therefore, insect gut bacteria as effective PGP agents represent an unexplored niche and may broaden the spectrum of beneficial bacteria available for crop production.

  20. Detection and monitoring of pink bollworm moths and invasive insects using pheromone traps and encounter rate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pink bollworm moth, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is one of the most destructive pests in agriculture. An ongoing eradication program using a combination of sex pheromone monitoring and mating disruption, irradiated sterile moth releases, genetically-modified Bt...

  1. Current temporal trends in moth abundance are counter to predicted effects of climate change in an assemblage of subarctic forest moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Mark D; Kozlov, Mikhail V; Itämies, Juhani; Pulliainen, Erkki; Bäck, Jaana; Kyrö, Ella-Maria; Niemelä, Pekka

    2014-06-01

    Changes in climate are influencing the distribution and abundance of the world's biota, with significant consequences for biological diversity and ecosystem processes. Recent work has raised concern that populations of moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera) may be particularly susceptible to population declines under environmental change. Moreover, effects of climate change may be especially pronounced in high latitude ecosystems. Here, we examine population dynamics in an assemblage of subarctic forest moths in Finnish Lapland to assess current trajectories of population change. Moth counts were made continuously over a period of 32 years using light traps. From 456 species recorded, 80 were sufficiently abundant for detailed analyses of their population dynamics. Climate records indicated rapid increases in temperature and winter precipitation at our study site during the sampling period. However, 90% of moth populations were stable (57%) or increasing (33%) over the same period of study. Nonetheless, current population trends do not appear to reflect positive responses to climate change. Rather, time-series models illustrated that the per capita rates of change of moth species were more frequently associated negatively than positively with climate change variables, even as their populations were increasing. For example, the per capita rates of change of 35% of microlepidoptera were associated negatively with climate change variables. Moth life-history traits were not generally strong predictors of current population change or associations with climate change variables. However, 60% of moth species that fed as larvae on resources other than living vascular plants (e.g. litter, lichen, mosses) were associated negatively with climate change variables in time-series models, suggesting that such species may be particularly vulnerable to climate change. Overall, populations of subarctic forest moths in Finland are performing better than expected, and their populations

  2. Unique synteny and alternate splicing of the chitin synthases in closely related heliothine moths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two chitin synthase genes were characterized in the genomes of two heliothine moths: the corn earworm/cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). In both moths, the coding sequences for the two ge...

  3. Binding Properties of General Odorant Binding Proteins from the Oriental Fruit Moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae.

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    Guangwei Li

    Full Text Available The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta is a host-switching pest species. The adults highly depend on olfactory cues in locating optimal host plants and oviposition sites. Odorant binding proteins (OBPs are thought to be responsible for recognizing and transporting hydrophobic odorants across the aqueous sensillum lymph to stimulate the odorant receptors (ORs within the antennal sensilla and activate the olfactory signal transduction pathway. Exploring the physiological function of these OBPs could facilitate understanding insect chemical communications.Two antennae-specific general OBPs (GOBPs of G. molesta were expressed and purified in vitro. The binding affinities of G. molesta GOBP1 and 2 (GmolGOBP1 and 2 for sex pheromone components and host plant volatiles were measured by fluorescence ligand-binding assays. The distribution of GmolGOBP1 and 2 in the antennal sensillum were defined by whole mount fluorescence immunohistochemistry (WM-FIHC experiments. The binding sites of GmolGOBP2 were predicted using homology modeling, molecular docking and site-directed mutagenesis. Both GmolGOBP1 and 2 are housing in sensilla basiconica and with no differences in male and female antennae. Recombinant GmolGOBP1 (rGmolGOBP1 exhibited broad binding properties towards host plant volatiles and sex pheromone components; rGmolGOBP2 could not effectively bind host plant volatiles but showed specific binding affinity with a minor sex pheromone component dodecanol. We chose GmolGOBP2 and dodecanol for further homology modeling, molecular docking, and site-directed mutagenesis. Binding affinities of mutants demonstrated that Thr9 was the key binding site and confirmed dodecanol bonding to protein involves a hydrogen bond. Combined with the pH effect on binding affinities of rGmolGOBP2, ligand binding and release of GmolGOBP2 were related to a pH-dependent conformational transition.Two rGmolGOBPs exhibit different binding characteristics for tested ligands. r

  4. Binding Properties of General Odorant Binding Proteins from the Oriental Fruit Moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangwei; Chen, Xiulin; Li, Boliao; Zhang, Guohui; Li, Yiping; Wu, Junxiang

    2016-01-01

    The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta is a host-switching pest species. The adults highly depend on olfactory cues in locating optimal host plants and oviposition sites. Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) are thought to be responsible for recognizing and transporting hydrophobic odorants across the aqueous sensillum lymph to stimulate the odorant receptors (ORs) within the antennal sensilla and activate the olfactory signal transduction pathway. Exploring the physiological function of these OBPs could facilitate understanding insect chemical communications. Two antennae-specific general OBPs (GOBPs) of G. molesta were expressed and purified in vitro. The binding affinities of G. molesta GOBP1 and 2 (GmolGOBP1 and 2) for sex pheromone components and host plant volatiles were measured by fluorescence ligand-binding assays. The distribution of GmolGOBP1 and 2 in the antennal sensillum were defined by whole mount fluorescence immunohistochemistry (WM-FIHC) experiments. The binding sites of GmolGOBP2 were predicted using homology modeling, molecular docking and site-directed mutagenesis. Both GmolGOBP1 and 2 are housing in sensilla basiconica and with no differences in male and female antennae. Recombinant GmolGOBP1 (rGmolGOBP1) exhibited broad binding properties towards host plant volatiles and sex pheromone components; rGmolGOBP2 could not effectively bind host plant volatiles but showed specific binding affinity with a minor sex pheromone component dodecanol. We chose GmolGOBP2 and dodecanol for further homology modeling, molecular docking, and site-directed mutagenesis. Binding affinities of mutants demonstrated that Thr9 was the key binding site and confirmed dodecanol bonding to protein involves a hydrogen bond. Combined with the pH effect on binding affinities of rGmolGOBP2, ligand binding and release of GmolGOBP2 were related to a pH-dependent conformational transition. Two rGmolGOBPs exhibit different binding characteristics for tested ligands. rGmolGOBP1 has

  5. Binding Properties of General Odorant Binding Proteins from the Oriental Fruit Moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangwei; Chen, Xiulin; Li, Boliao; Zhang, Guohui; Li, Yiping; Wu, Junxiang

    2016-01-01

    Background The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta is a host-switching pest species. The adults highly depend on olfactory cues in locating optimal host plants and oviposition sites. Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) are thought to be responsible for recognizing and transporting hydrophobic odorants across the aqueous sensillum lymph to stimulate the odorant receptors (ORs) within the antennal sensilla and activate the olfactory signal transduction pathway. Exploring the physiological function of these OBPs could facilitate understanding insect chemical communications. Methodology/Principal Finding Two antennae-specific general OBPs (GOBPs) of G. molesta were expressed and purified in vitro. The binding affinities of G. molesta GOBP1 and 2 (GmolGOBP1 and 2) for sex pheromone components and host plant volatiles were measured by fluorescence ligand-binding assays. The distribution of GmolGOBP1 and 2 in the antennal sensillum were defined by whole mount fluorescence immunohistochemistry (WM-FIHC) experiments. The binding sites of GmolGOBP2 were predicted using homology modeling, molecular docking and site-directed mutagenesis. Both GmolGOBP1 and 2 are housing in sensilla basiconica and with no differences in male and female antennae. Recombinant GmolGOBP1 (rGmolGOBP1) exhibited broad binding properties towards host plant volatiles and sex pheromone components; rGmolGOBP2 could not effectively bind host plant volatiles but showed specific binding affinity with a minor sex pheromone component dodecanol. We chose GmolGOBP2 and dodecanol for further homology modeling, molecular docking, and site-directed mutagenesis. Binding affinities of mutants demonstrated that Thr9 was the key binding site and confirmed dodecanol bonding to protein involves a hydrogen bond. Combined with the pH effect on binding affinities of rGmolGOBP2, ligand binding and release of GmolGOBP2 were related to a pH-dependent conformational transition. Conclusion Two rGmolGOBPs exhibit different

  6. Addition of pear ester enhances disruption of mating by female codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in walnut orchards treated with meso dispensers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The success of applying low rates (50 ha-1) of dispensers to achieve disruption of adult communication of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L)., in walnuts, Juglans regia (L.),was evaluated with several methods. These included cumulative catches of male moths in traps baited with either sex pheromone (...

  7. Development and Fecundity Performance of Oriental Fruit Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Reared on Shoots and Fruits of Peach and Pear in Different Seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Juan; Li, Guangwei; Xu, Xiangli; Wu, Junxiang

    2015-12-01

    The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta (Busck) is a globally important insect pest. In some parts of its geographic range, the oriental fruit moth shifts its attack from peach orchards to pear orchards late in the growing season. The phenological effects of host plants on the performance of the moth were evaluated by examining the development and fecundity of the moth reared on peach (Prunus persica variety "Shahong") and pear (Pyrus bretshneideri variety "Dangshan Su") collected at various times of the growing season under laboratory conditions. Results showed that the moth developed faster on shoots and fruits of peach than on those of pear. The preimaginal survival rate was the highest on peach shoots, and the moth could not survive on pear fruit collected on May 10. For both peach and pear, the boring rates of neonatal larvae were significantly higher on shoots than on fruits, and the pupal mass of females was significantly higher on fruits than on shoots. The boring rate increased with pear fruits growing during later days. Fecundity was significantly less on pear shoots than on the other plant materials. The results of this study suggest a possible host adaptation process in oriental fruit moth. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Susceptibility of the endangered Karner blue butterfly (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) to Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki used for gypsy moth suppression in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherine Papp Herms; Deborah G. McCullough; Leah S. Bauer; Robert A. Haack; Norman R. Dubois

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the phenological and physiological susceptibility of the endangered Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis) to Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Bt), a product widely used for gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) suppression in Michigan and other infested states. We...

  9. Susceptibility in field populations of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in Ontario and Quebec apple orchards to a selection of insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigg-McGuffin, Kristy; Scott, Ian M; Bellerose, Sylvie; Chouinard, Gérald; Cormier, Daniel; Scott-Dupree, Cynthia

    2015-02-01

    Codling moth is a major pest of pome fruit worldwide. Insecticide resistance has become a widespread pest management issue. However, the current status of insecticide resistance in Ontario and Quebec codling moth populations is unknown. Codling moth populations were collected from 27 orchards in Ontario and Quebec from 2008 to 2010. A series of laboratory bioassays were performed to establish baseline susceptibility of adults and larvae to azinphos-methyl, thiacloprid, chlorantraniliprole and methoxyfenozide. Adult codling moth percentage mortality ranged from 22 to 97% and from 21 to 85% when exposed to topical bioassays using azinphos-methyl and thiacloprid respectively. Azinphos-methyl LC50 values from three selected orchards were ca fivefold greater than those from an insecticide-susceptible population. Neonate larva percentage mortality ranged from 5 to 50%, from 15 to 65%, from 90 to 100% and from 10 to 40% when exposed to diet bioassays using azinphos-methyl, thiacloprid, chlorantraniliprole and methoxyfenozide respectively. Based on the response of the field-collected populations, resistance development to some registered insecticides was evident in some Ontario and Quebec populations. With the present status of insecticide resistance documented in these regions, modifications to codling moth management strategies should be initiated before changes in field efficacy occur. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Costs and benefits of thermal acclimation for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): implications for pest control and the sterile insect release programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidawanyika, Frank; Terblanche, John S

    2011-07-01

    Sterile insect release (SIR) is used to suppress insect pest populations in agro-ecosystems, but its success hinges on the performance of the released insects and prevailing environmental conditions. For example, low temperatures dramatically reduce SIR efficacy in cooler conditions. Here, we report on the costs and benefits of thermal acclimation for laboratory and field responses of codling moth, Cydia pomonella. Using a component of field fitness, we demonstrate that low temperature acclimated laboratory-reared moths are recaptured significantly more (∼2-4×) under cooler conditions in the wild relative to warm-acclimated or control moths. However, improvements in low temperature performance in cold-acclimated moths came at a cost to performance under warmer conditions. At high ambient temperatures, warm-acclimation improved field performance relative to control or cold-acclimated moths. Laboratory assessments of thermal activity and their limits matched the field results, indicating that these laboratory assays may be transferable to field performance. This study demonstrates clear costs and benefits of thermal acclimation on laboratory and field performance and the potential utility of thermal pretreatments for offsetting negative efficacy in SIR programmes under adverse thermal conditions. Consequently, the present work shows that evolutionary principles of phenotypic plasticity can be used to improve field performance and thus possibly enhance pest control programmes seeking increased efficacy.

  11. [Accidents due to Lepidoptera: Hylesia nigricans (Berg, 1875) or "mariposa negra"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrerizo, Silvia; Spera, Marina; de Roodt, Adolfo

    2014-04-01

    Lepidoptera (butterflies, caterpillars and moths) biologic features make possible the contact between different instars and humans. The moth Hylesia nigricans is responsible for epidemic outbreaks in our country. It is called erucism when the contact is with caterpillars and lepidopterism when the contact is with moths. We perform an update of these important medical lepidopters.

  12. Population genetic structure and approximate Bayesian computation analyses reveal the southern origin and northward dispersal of the oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in its native range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shu-Jun; Cao, Li-Jun; Gong, Ya-Jun; Shi, Bao-Cai; Wang, Su; Zhang, Fan; Guo, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Yuan-Min; Chen, Xue-Xin

    2015-08-01

    The oriental fruit moth (OFM) Grapholita molesta is one of the most destructive orchard pests. Assumed to be native to China, the moth is now distributed throughout the world. However, the evolutionary history of this moth in its native range remains unknown. In this study, we explored the population genetic structure, dispersal routes and demographic history of the OFM in China and South Korea based on mitochondrial genes and microsatellite loci. The Mantel test indicated a significant correlation between genetic distance and geographical distance in the populations. Bayesian analysis of population genetic structure (baps) identified four nested clusters, while the geneland analysis inferred five genetic groups with spatial discontinuities. Based on the approximate Bayesian computation approach, we found that the OFM was originated from southern China near the Shilin area of Yunnan Province. The early divergence and dispersal of this moth was dated to the Penultimate glaciation of Pleistocene. Further dispersal from southern to northern region of China occurred before the last glacial maximum, while the expansion of population size in the derived populations in northern region of China occurred after the last glacial maximum. Our results indicated that the current distribution and structure of the OFM were complicatedly influenced by climatic and geological events and human activities of cultivation and wide dissemination of peach in ancient China. We provide an example on revealing the origin and dispersal history of an agricultural pest insect in its native range as well as the underlying factors. © 2015 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Cross-resistance between azinphos-methyl and acetamiprid in populations of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), from Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Alan L

    2010-08-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), has been intensely managed with the organophosphate insecticide azinphos-methyl for 50 years, and populations have developed resistance. New management programs have been developed and implemented that rely more heavily on other classes of insecticides. A prerequisite for developing effective resistance management strategies for these compounds is to establish their current levels of effectiveness. Adult and neonate larval assays were conducted to assess the response of field-collected codling moth populations from apple in Washington State. Male codling moth populations exhibited a range of responses to a discriminating concentration of azinphos-methyl in a survey of 20 populations. Populations from certified organic orchards were more susceptible than those from conventional orchards. Mean fecundity was inversely related to azinphos-methyl tolerance. Male responses to azinphos-methyl and acetamiprid varied significantly among populations and were correlated. The residual effectiveness of field applications of both insecticides varied significantly against neonate larvae. Neonate bioassays with insecticide-dipped fruit found significant differences among populations with azinphos-methyl, acetamiprid, methoxyfenozide and spinosad, but not with esfenvalerate. These results support a concern that alternation of insecticides with different modes of action may not be a sufficient strategy to avoid the evolution of broad-spectrum insecticide resistance by codling moth. Published 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Identification of three randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction markers for distinguishing Asian and North American Gypsy Moths (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Schreiber; Karen J. Garner; James M. Slavicek

    1997-01-01

    Gypsy moths originating in Asia have recently been introduced into North America, making it necessary to develop markers for distinguishing the Asian strain from the established North American population. We have identified 3 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction generated (RAPD-PCR) markers which are specific for either Asian or North American...

  15. Irrigation and fertilization effects on Nantucket Pine Tip Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Damage levels and pupal weight in an intensively-managed pine plantation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, David, R.; Nowak, John, T.; Fettig, Christopher, J.

    2003-10-01

    The widespread application of intensive forest management practices throughout the southeastern U.S. has increased loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., yields and shortened conventional rotation lengths. Fluctuations in Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock), population density and subsequent damage levels have been linked to variations in management intensity. We examined the effects of two practices, irrigation and fertilization, on R. frustrana damage levels and pupal weights in an intensively-managed P. taeda plantation in South Carolina. Trees received intensive weed control and one of the following treatments; irrigation only. fertilization only, irrigation + fertilization, or control. Mean whole-tree tip moth damage levels ranged from <1 to 48% during this study. Damage levels differed significantly among treatments in two tip moth generations in 2001, but not 2000. Pupal weight was significantly heavier in fertilization compared to the irrigation treatment in 2000, but no significant differences were observed in 2001. Tree diameter. height. and aboveground volume were significantly greater in the irrigation + fertilization than in the irrigation treatment after two growing seasons. Our data suggest that intensive management practices that include irrigation and fertilization do not consistently increase R. frustrana damage levels and pupal weights as is commonly believed. However, tip moth suppression efforts in areas adjacent to our study may have partially reduced the potential impacts of R. frustrana on this experiment.

  16. Relationship between male moths of Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Milli?re) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) caught in sex pheromone traps and cumulative degree-days in vineyards in southern Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Vidart, Mar?a Valeria; Mujica, Mar?a Valentina; Calvo, Mar?a Victoria; Duarte, Felicia; Bentancourt, Carlos Mar?a; Franco, Jorge; Scatoni, Iris Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Milli?re) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) has been known in Uruguay for 30 years and only in vineyards, despite being polyphagous. In recent years, this pest has caused sporadic but serious damage on some grapevine cultivars. Understanding the insect?s phenology and developing a monitoring program are essential aspects of integrated pest management. We monitored males using sexual pheromone traps on four cultivars of vine, Pinot noir, Tannat, Gew?rztraminer, and Cabernet Sauv...

  17. COMPARISON OF SAMPLING TECHNIQUES USED IN STUDYING LEPIDOPTERA POPULATION DYNAMICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four methods (light traps, foliage samples, canvas bands, and gypsy moth egg mass surveys) that are used to study the population dynamics of foliage-feeding Lepidoptera were compared for 10 species, including gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. Samples were collected weekly at 12 sit...

  18. Identification to Lepidoptera Superfamily-under the microscope (Insecta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are 160,000 species of described Lepidoptera, or moths and butterflies, on Earth, although it is estimated that the number is closer to 500,000 species. Many moths from all over the world are intercepted at U.S. ports on a wide variety of economically important commodities. The purpose of t...

  19. Influence of ionizing radiation on flight activity of F-1 progeny of sub-sterilized male moths of Spodoptera litura (fabr.) (lepidoptera: noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubeda; Zarin, Mahtab; Seth, R.K.; Seth, Ranjana

    2012-01-01

    Radiation mediated 'Inherited or F-1 sterility', as a parabiological (genetic) control measure using a range of 100-130 Gy to the male parents, has been proposed for the suppression of Spodoptera litura (Seth and Sehgal 1993; Seth and Sharma 2001). This is a modified Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) wherein sub-sterilizing gamma doses are preferred than the high (100%) sterilizing dose in order to sustain the insects competitiveness. In the present study the flight activity of F-1 progeny of sub-sterilized male moths was ascertained to judge the performance of F-1 sterility as a control tactic. The male flight ability of F-1 progeny males derived from sub-sterilized male moths, S. litura in presence of normal females, was tested in two modes in 'Flight assay chamber' (a perspex cage of size, 45 x 45 x 60 cm) having a black hollow cylinder (25.4 cm dia, 30.5 cm ht.) placed inside

  20. Mating disruption with low density diffusers for the management of oriental fruit moths (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in apple orchards under subtropical climate in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Lino Bittencourt; Souza, Alexander; Argenton, Jeferson

    2013-01-01

    The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta Busck, and fruit flies, Anastrepha fraterculus L., are the important apple pests under Subtropical climate in Southern Brazil, and control is normally accomplished with insecticides. An alternative strategy for the control of G. molesta is mating disruption, through the use of pheromones. Mating disruption strategies using a low density of dispensers (20) per hectare were tested in comparison with conventional pesticides for control of G. molesta in...

  1. Host specificity and reproductive success of yucca moths (Tegeticula spp. Lepidoptera: Prodoxidae) mirror patterns of gene flow between host plant varieties of the Joshua tree (Yucca brevifolia: Agavaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher Irwin; Drummond, Christopher S; Godsoe, William; Yoder, Jeremy B; Pellmyr, Olle

    2009-12-01

    Coevolution between flowering plants and their pollinators is thought to have generated much of the diversity of life on Earth, but the population processes that may have produced these macroevolutionary patterns remain unclear. Mathematical models of coevolution in obligate pollination mutualisms suggest that phenotype matching between plants and their pollinators can generate reproductive isolation. Here, we test this hypothesis using a natural experiment that examines the role of natural selection on phenotype matching between yuccas and yucca moths (Tegeticula spp.) in mediating reproductive isolation between two varieties of Joshua tree (Yucca brevifolia var. brevifolia and Y. brevifolia var. jaegeriana). Using passive monitoring techniques, DNA barcoding, microsatellite DNA genotyping, and sibship reconstruction, we track host specificity and the fitness consequences of host choice in a zone of sympatry. We show that the two moth species differ in their degree of host specificity and that oviposition on a foreign host plant results in the production of fewer offspring. This difference in host specificity between the two moth species mirrors patterns of chloroplast introgression from west to east between host varieties, suggesting that natural selection acting on pollinator phenotypes mediates gene flow and reproductive isolation between Joshua-tree varieties.

  2. Gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) control with ground-based hydraulic applications of Gypchek, in vitro-produced virus, and Bacillus thuringiensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorpe, K.W.; Podgwaite, J.D.; Slavicek, J.M.; Webb, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    Gypchek, a registered microbial insecticide for aerial and ground-based application against the gypsy moth, Lymantris dispar L., was field-tested in 1996 and 1997 at 2 doses (10(11) and 10(12) polyhedral inclusion bodies (PIB) per 379 liters (100 gallons)) and with and without a sunscreen. An in vitro-produced strain of gypsy moth virus was tested in 1997 at the 10(11)-PIB dose; however, the effective dose was lower because in vitro-produced PIBs contained 5-fold fewer virions than Gypchek PIBs. Treatments were applied to overstory oak, Quercus spp., trees with a truck-mounted hydraulic sprayer. Larval mortality was significantly greater, and larval density was significantly lower, on trees treated with both Gypchek and in vitro-produced virus than on untreated trees. Treatment with in vitro-produced virus resulted in significantly lower mortality and higher larval density than Gypchek treatment. Defoliation was significantly reduced by all treatments in 1996 but not in 1997, when overall gypsy moth population density dropped to very low levels. Mortality was significantly higher among larvae treated at the 10(12)-PIB dose in 1996, but there was no significant dose effect on larval density or defoliation. Mortality, density, and defoliation were not dose dependent in the 1997 test. The addition of sunscreen to Gypchek applied at the 10(12)-PIB dose did not have a significant effect on any of the measured parameters in 1996 or 1997. In 1996, the addition of an enhancer, Blankophor BBH, to the 10(11)-PIB dose increased mortality to a level that was not significantly different from that at the 10(12)-PIB dose. The level of control with the 10(12)-PIB treatment was not significantly different from that achieved with an application of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki Berliner (Foray 48B) at 36 billion international units (BIU) per 379 liters

  3. Mating disruption with low density diffusers for the management of oriental fruit moths (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in apple orchards under subtropical climate in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino Bittencourt Monteiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta Busck, and fruit flies, Anastrepha fraterculus L., are the important apple pests under Subtropical climate in Southern Brazil, and control is normally accomplished with insecticides. An alternative strategy for the control of G. molesta is mating disruption, through the use of pheromones. Mating disruption strategies using a low density of dispensers (20 per hectare were tested in comparison with conventional pesticides for control of G. molesta in commercial Gala apple orchards in Fraiburgo, SC, for a period of five years. The average field efficiency period of mating disruption formulation over five years was 113 days. In this period the mating interruption index on mating disruption plots was 84.8% over five years. Damage to Gala apples by oriental moth larvae was low (<0.1% in mating disruption plots but did not differ from conventional plots, except in the third year. The use of mating disruption allowed for an average reduction of 5.2 insecticide treatments per year in Gala orchards during field efficiency period. It was necessary to apply 1.0 and 1.2 applications of insecticide to control of G. molesta and A. fraterculus, respectively. Mating disruption with a low density of diffusers proved to be an effective alternative to conventional methods for control of G. molesta in Gala apple orchards in subtropical climate in southern Brazil.

  4. Ability of the oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to detoxify juglone, the main secondary metabolite of the non-host plant walnut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskorski, Rafal; Ineichen, Simon; Dorn, Silvia

    2011-10-01

    Many plant species produce toxic secondary metabolites that limit attacks by herbivorous insects, and may thereby constrain insect expansion to new hosts. Walnut is a host for the codling moth Cydia pomonella, which efficiently detoxifies the main walnut defensive compound juglone (5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone). The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta, which also belongs to the tribe Grapholitini, does not feed on walnut. We tested the performance of G. molesta, a highly invasive species, on artificial diets containing juglone at levels mimicking those found in walnut over the growing season. Juglone-fed G. molesta survived relatively well to adulthood, but larval and adult body weights were reduced, and larval developmental time was prolonged in a dose-dependent fashion. Chemical analysis of frass from larvae that had been fed a juglone-containing diet suggests that G. molesta reduces juglone to non-toxic 1,4,5-trihydroxynaphthalene in its gut. This unexpected tolerance of G. molesta to high levels of juglone may facilitate expansion of the host range beyond the current rosacean fruit trees used by this invasive pest.

  5. Use of gamma radiation (Co60) as quarentenary treatment, to control the moth Opogona sacchari (Bojer, 1856) (Lepidoptera: Tineidade) on banana (Musa sp.) and Dracaena fragans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potenza, Marcos Roberto

    1999-01-01

    This research had the aim at evaluating the physical treatment by gamma radiation as an alternative method to disinfestate bananas and Dracaena fragans stalks without roots, to exportation, infested with the moth Opogona sacchari. The moth rearing was initiated from infested D. fragans originated from Juquia, state of Sao Paulo. Gammacell 220 with Cobalt-60 with activity of 537, 82 Ci was used as an irradiator. Tests on artificial diet, bananas variety Nanicao and D. fragans stalks without roots were done, with doses varying form 5,0 to 500,0 Gy. The doses of of 140,0; 240,0 and 450,0 Gy fitted the rules of absence of adults emergency, affecting eggs with seven days old, twenty two days old larvae and eleven days old pupae, irradiated on artificial diet, respectively. The dose to disinfestate twenty two days old O. sacchari infesting D. fragans stalk sheaves without roots and bananas in bunch, used to exportation, was 300,0 Gy and to eleven days old pupae, in the some conditions, was of 450,0 Gy. The dose of gamma radiation from 50,0 to 500,0 Gy affected sprouting. (author)

  6. Preference of Quinoa Moth: Eurysacca Melanocampta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae for Two Varieties of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. in Olfactometry Assays Preferencia de la Polilla de la Quinua: Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae por dos Variedades de Quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. en Ensayos de Olfatometría

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan  F Costa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Insects are attracted to plants by visual and olfactory cues. The quinoa moth, Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is the main insect pest of the quinoa crop, Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (Chenopodiales: Chenopodiaceae, in the southern Peruvian Andes, causing grain yield losses. The aim of this study was to investigate the behavioural response of adult quinoa moths to olfactory stimuli. Specifically, the objectives of this study were: 1 to determine the capacity of E. melanocampta adults of searching for quinoa plants using plant olfactory cues; 2 to determine the preference of E. melanocampta females for the odours derived from two varieties of quinoa: Amarilla de Marangani and Blanca de Junín; and 3 to assess the attraction of male quinoa moths to E. melanocampta females and the host plant in olfactometric bioassays. Adults preferred quinoa plant odour sources in choice tests when distilled water was used as a control (P La atracción de insectos hacia las plantas es causada tanto por estímulos visuales como olfativos. La polilla de la quinua, Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, es la principal plaga en el cultivo de quinua, Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (Chenopodiales: Chenopodiaceae, en los Andes del sur peruano causando pérdidas en la producción de granos. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las respuestas conductuales frente a estímulos olfativos de adultos de la polilla de la quinua. Específicamente, los objetivos del estudio fueron: 1 estudiar la capacidad de búsqueda de plantas de quinua de los adultos de E. melanocampta utilizando plantas como estímulos olfativos; 2 determinar la preferencia de hembras de E. melanocampta por olores derivados de plantas de dos variedades de quinua: Amarilla de Marangani y Blanca de Junín; y 3 estudiar la atracción de los machos hacia hembras de E. melanocampta y hacia las plantas hospederas en bioensayos de olfatometría. Los adultos eligieron fuentes

  7. RNA interference in Lepidoptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terenius, Ole; Papanicolaou, Alexie; Garbutt, Jennie S.

    2011-01-01

    Gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) has revolutionized the study of gene function, particularly in non-model insects. However, in Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) RNAi has many times proven to be difficult to achieve. Most of the negative results have been anecdotal and the positive...... is particularly successful in the family Saturniidae and in genes involved in immunity. On the contrary, gene expression in epidermal tissues seems to be most difficult to silence. In addition, gene silencing by feeding dsRNA requires high concentrations for success. Possible causes for the variability of success...

  8. Evolution of sexual dimorphism in the Lepidoptera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, C.E.; Zwaan, B.J.; Brakefield, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Among the animals, the Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) are second only to beetles in number of described species and are known for their striking intra- and interspecific diversity. Within species, sexual dimorphism is a source of variation in life history (e.g., sexual size dimorphism and

  9. Effect of {gamma}-irradiation on the biology and ultrastructure of haemocytes of greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Galleridae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Kholy, Eman M.S. [Biological Applications Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Abd El-Aziz, Nahla M., E-mail: nahlasalem97@yahoo.co [Entomology Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University (Egypt)

    2010-09-15

    This study was carried out on fully grown pupae of greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella L., {gamma}-irradiated to 100, 150, 300 and 400 Gy. The four doses given to male parents in the F{sub 1} generation decreased the average number of eggs per mated female, the percentage of egg hatching and the percentage of mating in both the male and female lines; the effects increased with the dose. Dose dependence of the reduction in the fecundity and the percentage of egg hatching among the female line pairings (female descendants of irradiated parental male pupae) was more significant than among the male line pairings (male descendants of irradiated parental male pupae). We also examined morphological changes in the irradiated blood cells using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Vacuolization of the cytoplasm, disorganization and swelling of mitochondria were found.

  10. Cross-amplification of microsatellites from the codling moth Cydia pomonella to three other species of the tribe Grapholitini (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M H; Dorn, S

    2010-11-01

    This study examined cross-species amplification of 33 microsatellite markers, previously developed for Cydia pomonella, in three related fruit moth species of the same tribe (Grapholitini), namely Grapholita molesta, Grapholita funebrana and Grapholita lobarzewskii. Eight microsatellite loci yielded polymorphic products for G. molesta, nine for G. funebrana and 11 for G. lobarzewskii. At all these loci, the number of alleles ranged between four and 11 in G. molesta, and between four and nine in G. funebrana and G. lobarzewskii each. The successful cross-amplified loci can be used for research on population genetics and gene flow of the three target species. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. BIOLOGICAL AND ULTRASTRUCTURAL STUDIES ON THE HAEMOCYTES OF F1 LARVAE OF THE GAMMA IRRADIATED GREAT WAX MOTH PUPAE GALLERIA MELLONELLA (L.) (LEPIDOPTERA : GAELLERIDAE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-KHOLY, E.M.S.; EL-NAGGAR, S.E.M.; ABD EL-AZIZ, N.M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study was carried out on the full grown male pupae of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella L., when irradiated with 100, 150, 300 and 400 Gray of gamma radiation. Two groups of newly moulted 4 th instar larvae were set up, each group consisted of 50 larvae. The first group was exposed in the pupal stage to 100 Gy and the second with 150 Gy then the larval haemolymph was collected. Also, a control group of 50 larvae (non-irradiated) was investigated. The morphological changes in the irradiated blood cells, as compared to the control, were examined using the transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Vacuolization of cytoplasm, disorganization and swelling of mitochondria were appeared. The biological effects of gamma irradiation of the parental male pupae on the reproduction of adult moths when treated males were mated with normal females (male line) and when normal males were mated with treated females (female line) were studied. The latent biological effects of four gamma doses (100, 150, 300 and 400 Gy) on the F1 generation showed that the average number of eggs per mated female, the percentage of egg hatch and the percent of mating were gradually reduced when the given gamma dose to male parents was increased at all treatments (male and female lines). The reduction in the fecundity and the percentage of egg hatch among female line pairings (females descendant of irradiated parental male pupae) was reduced than that among male line pairings (males descendant of irradiated parental male pupae) with increasing the gamma dose

  12. Relationship between behavior and physiology in an invasive pest species: oviposition site selection and temperature-dependent development of the oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notter-Hausmann, Claudia; Dorn, Silvia

    2010-04-01

    Oviposition site selection is crucial for the reproductive success of a herbivore insect species with relatively sedentary larvae. The optimal oviposition theory, i.e., the preference-performance hypothesis, has thus far mainly been tested with a focus on nutritional quality of the host. This study investigates whether female oriental fruit moth Grapholita (Cydia) molesta choose a microhabitat for oviposition characterized by a temperature range within which their offspring perform best. Thermal preferences of females during oviposition were assessed in a circular temperature gradient arena. Offspring performance and survival were assessed under different constant temperature conditions. Females preferred oviposition sites of approximately 30 degrees C over lower and higher temperatures. At this temperature, egg, larval, and pupal development was significantly faster than at 22 and 25 degrees C, and larval development was also faster than at 33 degrees C. At 30 degrees C and at the lower temperatures tested, survival of eggs and larvae was significantly higher than at 33 degrees C, whereas development was precluded at 35 degrees C. Furthermore, female pupal weight attained at 30 and 33 degrees C exceeded that reached at the lower temperatures tested. Considering the potentially reduced predation risk caused by the shorter developmental time of eggs and larvae, the laboratory data suggest that this species maximizes its fitness by selecting a thermally optimal environment for its offspring, supporting the optimal oviposition theory. Conversely, it is known that the codling moth (C. pomonella) lacks a mechanism to avoid temperatures lethal to progeny development, which may reflect the differences in geographic ranges of these tortricids.

  13. Integrated pest management of the banded sunflower moth in cultivated sunflower in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a key insect pest of cultivated sunflowers in North Dakota. We investigated pest management strategies to reduce feeding injury caused by the banded sunflower moth in commercial oilseed and confection sunflower fields l...

  14. “This is not an apple”–yeast mutualism in codling moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. The larva of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Tortricidae, Lepidoptera) is known as the worm in the apple, mining the fruit for food. We show that codling moth larvae are closely associated with yeasts of the genus Metschnikowia. Yeast is an essential part of the larval diet and further promotes lar...

  15. Identification of the Female-Produced Sex Pheromone of Tischeria ekebladella, an Oak Leafmining Moth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molnár, B.P.; Tröger, A.; Toshova, T.B.; Subchev, M.; Nieukerken, van E.J.; Kosten, J.C.; Muus, T.S.T.; Schreurs, A.; Szőcs, G.; Tóth, M.; Francke, W.

    2012-01-01

    The native leafmining moth Tischeria ekebladella (Lepidoptera: Tischeriidae) feeds on oaks and recently has become a pest of silviculture and urban green areas in central Europe. The behavioral responses of male moths to hexane extracts of whole bodies of calling females or males were tested under

  16. The effects of the pine processionary moth on the increment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... sycophanta L. (Coleoptera: Carabidae) used against the pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa Den. & Schiff.) (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae) in biological control. T. J. Zool. 30:181-185. Kanat M, Sivrikaya F (2005). Effect of the pine processionary moth on diameter increment of Calabrian ...

  17. Materiały do znajomości Gelechiidae (Lepidoptera) Wielkopolskiego Parku Narodowego

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baraniak, Edward; Walczak, Urszula; Karsholt, Ole

    2014-01-01

    A faunistic list of 48 species of gelechiid moths (Lepidoptera: Gele-chiidae) collected in the Wielkopolski National Park is given. Syncopacma larseniella GOZMANY, 1957 is new to the fauna of Poland.......A faunistic list of 48 species of gelechiid moths (Lepidoptera: Gele-chiidae) collected in the Wielkopolski National Park is given. Syncopacma larseniella GOZMANY, 1957 is new to the fauna of Poland....

  18. Mouthparts and associated sensilla of a South American moth, Synempora andesae (Lepidoptera: Neopseustidae Piezas bucales y sensilios asociados de Synempora andesae, una polilla de Sudamérica (Lepidoptera: Neopseustidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel J. Faucheux

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The mouthparts of Synempora andesae Davis & Nielsen were studied by means of scanning electron microscope. The existence of gustative uniporous sensilla styloconica is demonstrated for the second time on the proboscis of Neopseustidae. It is with this family, and not at a later stage within the Incurvaroidea, that these sensilla appear during the evolution of Lepidoptera. Contrary to common belief, the labial-palp-pit organ, or organ of vom Rath, is present at the distal extremity of the labial palpi of S. andesae. It is made up of a dozen of grooved multiporous sensilla coeloconica whose function is carbon dioxide sensitive. Thus, its presumed absence can no longer be considered as an autapomorphy of Neopseustidae. S. andesae possesses other original characteristics: both short and long bifurcate aporous sensilla chaetica on the labrum, numerous sensilla campaniformia on the first segment of labial palpi, as well as those previously described: the double-tube configuration of the proboscis and the composite and polymorphic multiporous sensilla basiconica on the antennae. Other cephalic sensilla are also described: aporous bifurcate sensilla chaetica on the clypeus, aporous sensilla campaniformia above the mandibles, and on the chaetosemata.Las piezas bucales de Synempora andesae Davis & Nielsen fueron estudiadas con un microscopio electrónico de barrido. Se demuestra, por segunda vez, la existencia de sensilios estilocónicos gustativos uniporosos en la proboscis de Neopseustidae. Es en esta familia, y no en un estadio posterior dentro de Incurvaroidea, que aparecen estos sensilios durante la evolución de Lepidoptera. Contrario a lo que se cree, el órgano sensitivo labial u órgano de Von Rath, se encuentra en la extremidad distal del palpo labial de S. andesae. Está conformado por una docena de sensilios celocónicos multiporosos estriados, cuya función es percibir el dióxido de carbono. Por lo tanto, su supuesta ausencia ya no puede

  19. Sex Attractant Pheromone of the Luna Moth, Actias luna (Linnaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Jocelyn G; Haynes, Kenneth F; Dossey, Aaron T; McElfresh, J Steven; Allison, Jeremy D

    2016-09-01

    Giant silk moths (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) typically are not well represented as larvae or adults in community level inventories of Lepidoptera, and as a result, little is known about their population dynamics. Furthermore, in recent years, many species of silk moths appear to have experienced population declines. Volatile sex pheromones are powerful sampling tools that can be used in operational conservation and monitoring programs for insects. Here, we describe the identification of the sex attractant pheromone of a giant silk moth, the luna moth Actias luna. Coupled gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analyses of extracts from pheromone glands of female luna moths supported the identification of (6E,11Z)-6,11-octadecadienal (E6,Z11-18:Ald), (6E)-6-octadecenal (E6-18:Ald), and (11Z)-11-octadecenal (Z11-18:Ald) as the compounds in extracts that elicited responses from antennae of male moths. These identifications were confirmed by synthesis, followed by testing of blends of the synthetic compounds in field trials in Ontario, Canada, and Kentucky, USA. Male moths were attracted to synthetic E6,Z11-18:Ald as a single component. Attraction appeared to be enhanced by addition of E6-18:Ald but not Z11-18:Ald, suggesting that the luna moth pheromone consists of a blend of E6,Z11-18:Ald and E6-18:Ald.

  20. Effects of Low Ozone Concentrations and Short Exposure Times on the Mortality of Immature Stages of the Indian Meal Moth, Plodia Interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keivanloo Ensieh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In Iran, the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner, is one of the most important pests of such stored products as date fruits and pistachio nuts. Ozone was applied as a gas at four concentrations (0, 2, 3, and 5 ppm for four different periods (30, 60, 90, and 120 min on the immature stages of P. interpunctella. The results indicated that by increasing the concentration and exposure time, the rate of mortality increased for all tested stages. This study showed that 12-day-old larvae were more susceptible than other stages when exposed to 5 ppm ozone for 120 min. The next in order of susceptibility were pupae, then 5-day-old larvae, and 17-dayold larvae had the highest sensitivity to ozonation. At the highest concentration of ozone, for the longest time, the least mortality rate was recorded for one-day-old eggs. According to the results, a reduction in the population density of P. interpunctella in laboratory experiments is promising. However, validation studies will be necessary to fully determine the potential of ozone as a replacement for the current post harvest chemical control of P. interpunctella on either pistachio nuts or date fruits.

  1. Three-dimensional antennal lobe atlas of the oriental fruit moth, Cydia molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): comparison of male and female glomerular organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Nélia; Couton, Louise; Gemeno, César; Avilla, Jesús; Rospars, Jean-Pierre; Anton, Sylvia

    2009-09-01

    The oriental fruit moth Cydia molesta is an important pest and the behavioural role of olfactory signals such as pheromones and plant volatiles have been studied extensively in both sexes. To understand odour processing further, however, detailed knowledge of the anatomy of the olfactory system is crucial. In the present study, an atlas of the antennal lobe (AL) is presented based on the three-dimensional reconstructions of both ALs of three male and three female brains by means of neuroanatomical and computational approaches. We identified 48-49 "ordinary" glomeruli and one large glomerulus situated at the entrance of the antennal nerve in males, and 49-52 "ordinary" glomeruli and one large glomerulus in the ventro-medial part of the AL in females. Anomalous supernumerary, anomalous missing and sexually dimorphic glomeruli were found in the studied individuals in greater numbers than in other lepidopteran species. Male and female maps were compared with respect to glomerular size and position with 45 glomeruli being matched, indicating a conserved glomerular pattern between the sexes. Three additional glomeruli were sexually dimorphic in size and five male-specific and six female-specific glomeruli were also found. Palp backfills resulted in the staining of a unique glomerulus in both sexes identified as the sexually dimorphic glomerulus 45. This glomerulus was never stained from antennal backfills, which stained the other glomeruli of the AL. The three-dimensional atlas can now be used to elucidate the functional role of individual glomeruli in both sexes of C. molesta.

  2. Feeding indices and enzymatic activities of carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller (Lepidoptera: pyrallidae on two commercial pistachio cultivars and an artificial diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeimeh Teimouri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Feeding indices and enzymatic activities of Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller were studied in a growth chamber under controlled conditions (29 ± 2 °C, relative humidity of 70 ± 5% and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D hours on two commercial Pistachio cultivars (Akbari and Kalequchi and an artificial diet. Feeding indices of E. ceratoniae larvae differed significantly on three hosts (P < 0.05. The relative consumption rate was calculated to be 5.36 ± 0.009, 11.10 ± 1.49 and 10.631 ± 0.599 (mg/mg/day on artificial diet, Akbari and Kalequchi cultivars, respectively. Carob moth larvae reared on Akbari cultivar showed the highest efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD (5.64 ± 0.43. The highest amount of efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI was obtained on artificial diet but approximate digestibility (AD was the lowest on this diet. The highest enzymatic activities of alpha-amylase, general proteases and lipase were observed in the midgut of larvae reared on artificial diet. Total protein and lipid value were highest in larvae that were reared on artificial diet.

  3. The Effect of Vitamin C and / Or Gamma Irradiation on Some Biological Aspects of the Greater Wax Moth, Galleria mellonella (Pyralidae: Lepidoptera)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhaiel, A.A.; Mohamed, H.F.; Mohamed, N.E.

    2011-01-01

    This study is conducted to determine the impact of unilateral and joint with vitamin C concentrations (0.25 Molar) and gamma rays in artificial diets on some biological aspects of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella L. Vitamin C showed the positive impact of combined treatment with the dose rate 100 Gy on the average number of eggs per mated female and on percentage of the eggs hatched through the crosses T male X N female and N male X T female. Larval and Pupal period for both sexes did much affect by either radiation or vitamin C or both together. The average weights of larvae and pupae were significantly increased in the most concentrations when compared with the untreated control group. The highest percentage of survived larvae was 96.30 % from the control at the concentration 0.25 Molar of vitamin C and the lowest percentage was 61.11% from the control at dose rate 300 Gy only. While highest rate of the emergence was found by the treatments of vitamin C only or combined with the dose rate 100 Gy. The percentage of sex ratio was in favor of males at the dose rate 300 Gy only. Vitamin C significantly increased the activity of GOT and GPT enzymes by increasing the dose of gamma radiation in larvae of G. mellonella as compared to the control group

  4. Development and Characterization of Novel Microsatellite Markers for the Peach Fruit Moth Carposina sasakii (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae Using Next-Generation Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Zhu Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The peach fruit moth Carposina sasakii is an economically important pest on dozens of fruits from Rosaceae and Rhamnaceae in Northeast Asia. We developed novel microsatellite markers for C. sasakii from randomly sequenced regions of the genome using next-generation sequencing. In total, 95,153 microsatellite markers were isolated from 4.70 GB genomic sequences. Thirty-five polymorphic markers were developed by assessing in 63 individuals from two geographical populations. The allele numbers ranged from 2 to 9 with an average value of 4.60 per locus, while the polymorphism information content ranged from 0.075 to 0.696 with an average value of 0.407. Furthermore, the observed and expected heterozygosity varied from 0.000 to 0.677 and 0.062 to 0.771, respectively. The microsatellites developed provide abundant molecular markers for investigating genetic structure, genetic diversity, and existence of host-plant associated biotypes of C. sasakii.

  5. A subpopulation of mushroom body intrinsic neurons is generated by protocerebral neuroblasts in the tobacco hornworm moth, Manduca sexta (Sphingidae, Lepidoptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Sarah M.; Pettrey, Colleen; Daly, Kevin C.

    2010-01-01

    Subpopulations of Kenyon cells, the intrinsic neurons of the insect mushroom bodies, are typically sequentially generated by dedicated neuroblasts that begin proliferating during embryogenesis. When present, Class III Kenyon cells are thought to be the first born population of neurons by virtue of the location of their cell somata, farthest from the position of the mushroom body neuroblasts. In the adult tobacco hornworm moth Manduca sexta, the axons of Class III Kenyon cells form a separate Y tract and dorsal and ventral lobelet; surprisingly, these distinctive structures are absent from the larval Manduca mushroom bodies. BrdU labeling and immunohistochemical staining reveal that Class III Kenyon cells are in fact born in the mid-larval through adult stages. The peripheral position of their cell bodies is due to their genesis from two previously undescribed protocerebral neuroblasts distinct from the mushroom body neuroblasts that generate the other Kenyon cell types. These findings challenge the notion that all Kenyon cells are produced solely by the mushroom body neuroblasts, and may explain why Class III Kenyon cells are found sporadically across the insects, suggesting that when present, they may arise through de novo recruitment of neuroblasts outside of the mushroom bodies. In addition, lifelong neurogenesis by both the Class III neuroblasts and the mushroom body neuroblasts was observed, raising the possibility that adult neurogenesis may play a role in mushroom body function in Manduca. PMID:21040804

  6. NEW DATA ON THE COMPOSITION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF NOCTUID MOTHS (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE OF LITTORAL AND ISLAND ECOSYSTEMS (Message 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Abdurakhmanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Aim. Study of biological diversity of the Caspian and island ecosystems, the composition, especially the geographical distribution and possible ways of forming a scoop fauna (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae are presented.Methods. We used the traditional methods of collecting (light traps, hand picking from the screen, and the definition of material processing. List of species composition of discussed fauna composed by modern taxonomy using directories is presented.Results. 40 -years study of the authors (islands ecosystems are discussed at the first time, and published works of other researchers are summarized. Fauna of Caspian coast and islands ecosystems is represented by 902 species (Chechen Island – 82 species, Tyuleniy Island – 59, Nordoviy Island – 21, Kulaly Island – 28. Fairly well represented on the mainland genera (Cuculia – 64, Acronicta –28, Caradrina – 24, Hadena – 31, Euxoa – 51, Xestia – 63, etc. have from 1 to 5 species on the islands. Cornutiplusia circumflexa (Linnaeus,1767, Photedes extrema (Hübner, 1809, Pseudohadena immunda (Eversmann, 1842 , Hadena capsincola (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775 are found only on the islands, and Turkmen species, genus and subfamily has not been which were not found in the south-west of Kazakhstan is found on Chechen Island. Analysis of areas of discussed fauna showed a clear dominance Turanian, Mediterranean, Trans-Holarctic complexes. Established relationship and power links 13 regional and island faunas five Caspian countries.Main conclusions. The results obtained in the amount of the other groups of insects, arachnids, animals and plants form the basis of findings of probable ways of formation of these faunas, the age of the islands themselves, and most importantly the level regime of the Caspian Sea.

  7. Where does Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) overwinter in adjacent peach, pear and apple orchards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X-F; Fan, F; Wang, C; Wei, G-S

    2016-02-01

    The Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major pest of tree fruits worldwide, and the diapausing larvae overwinter in cryptic habitats. Investigations of overwintering G. molesta were conducted in adjacent peach, pear and apple orchards in Northern China over three consecutive winters to determine the overwintering site and habitat preferences of the moth. Counts of overwintering larvae in the different orchards demonstrated that the late-maturing peach orchard ('Shenzhou honey peach') was the most preferred overwintering habitat with more than 90% of the collected larvae. Larvae were more abundant in host trees, and they very rarely overwintered in the soil. The overwintering site preferences on the host trees were significantly different; over 50% larvae were located in the tree trunks, and followed by main branches. Most of the G. molesta overwintered on the sunny side of the host trees at or below 60 cm from the ground; a few were cocooned on the shaded sides of the trees or greater than 60 cm from the ground. G. molesta began overwintering between August and October, mid- to late September was the peak period for entering winter diapause during 2011-2013 (77.78, 67.59 and 71.15%, respectively). Our findings improve understanding of the orchard habitat and overwintering site preferences of G. molesta and would be useful in the development of efficient forecasting and pest-management strategies for orchards during the winter and early spring.

  8. The use of Gamma radiation of Cobalt-60 to control avocado moth Stenoma catenifer Walsingham, 1912 (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) and its effects on the quality of the fruit of Persea americana (Miller) (Lauraceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Lilian Karla Figueira da

    2004-01-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the influence of Gamma radiation of Cobalt-60, in the avocado moth Stenoma catenifer Walsingham, 1912 (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) and its effects on the quality of the fruit Persea americana (Miller) (Lauraceae). For this research, insects were irradiated in ali phases of their life cycle with doses varying from O to 600 Gy and they were maintained at the temperature of 25 +- 2 deg C, humidity of 70 +- 10% and photo phase of 14 h. The species was raised on natural diet, avocado seeds. The cultivar fruits Geada were irradiated with doses that varied from 0 to 150 Gy, maintained for 15 days at room temperature (20 a 35 deg C and humidity of 70 - 80 %) and 30 days at a temperature of 10 deg C, humidity of 40 - 60 %. The chemical-physics and sensorial analyses were carried out. According to the obtained results, it was verified that the lethal dose of gamma radiation to S. catenifer eggs, was of 75 Gy; for caterpillars and pupas was of 300 Gy. The sterile-dose for upcoming adults from irradiated S. catenifer eggs was of 25 Gy; for upcoming adults from irradiated caterpillars, it was of 100 Gy; for adults coming from irradiated pupas was of 150 Gy and for irradiated adults was of 200 Gy. The irradiation in the avocado fruit, maintained at room temperature for 7 days of storage, caused change in the coloration of the fruit (dark spots and yellowish coloration) and more firmness. The sensorial characteristics were kept and the irradiated fruit was the chosen one as favorite for tasting. The irradiated fruits that were kept at 10 deg C, obtained an increase in the storage period, without changing their chemical physics characteristics. The coloration of the fruits was kept, more firmness and a subtle acidity taste increase, being effective in the conservation of the fruits and in the maintenance of their sensorial characteristics. The use of the gamma radiation as treatment quarantine of S. catenifer it was efficient, should be treated them with

  9. Ao38, a new cell line from eggs of the black witch moth, Ascalapha odorata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, is permissive for AcMNPV infection and produces high levels of recombinant proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Sheng

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The insect cell line is a critical component in the production of recombinant proteins in the baculovirus expression system and new cell lines hold the promise of increasing both quantity and quality of protein production. Results Seventy cell lines were established by single-cell cloning from a primary culture of cells derived from eggs of the black witch moth (Ascalapha odorata; Lepidoptera, Noctuidae. Among 8 rapidly growing lines, cell line 38 (Ao38 was selected for further analysis, based on susceptibility to AcMNPV infection and production of secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP from a baculovirus expression vector. In comparisons with low-passage High Five (BTI-Tn-5B1-4 cells, infected Ao38 cells produced β-galactosidase and SEAP at levels higher (153% and 150%, respectively than those measured from High Five cells. Analysis of N-glycans of SEAP produced in Ao38 cells revealed two N-glycosylation sites and glycosylation patterns similar to those reported for High Five and Sf9 cells. Glycopeptide isoforms consisted of pauci- or oligomannose, with and without fucose on N-acetylglucosamine(s linked to asparagine residues. Estimates of Ao38 cell volume suggest that Ao38 cells are approximately 2.5× larger than Sf9 cells but only approximately 74% of the size of High Five cells. Ao38 cells were highly susceptible to AcMNPV infection, similar to infectivity of Sf9 cells. Production of infectious AcMNPV budded virions from Ao38 cells peaked at approximately 4.5 × 107 IU/ml, exceeding that from High Five cells while lower than that from Sf9 cells. Ao38 cells grew rapidly in stationary culture with a population doubling time of 20.2 hr, and Ao38 cells were readily adapted to serum-free medium (Sf-900III and to a suspension culture system. Analysis of Ao38 and a parental Ascalapha odorata cell line indicated that these lines were free of the alphanodavirus that was recently identified as an adventitious agent in High Five cell

  10. Susceptibility of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dependence on pyrethroids and organophosphates to control the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) on cabbage and cauliflower in Ghana since the 1990's, and the absence of effective resistance management strategies has led to reported cases of widespread development of ...

  11. selected strains of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Abstract. Effective control of the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) has become critical due to the genetic ability of the insect pest to develop resistance to insecticides. Alternating or rotating the use of insecticides that do not show cross-resistance is an important component of an.

  12. The use of Gamma radiation of Cobalt-60 to control avocado moth Stenoma catenifer Walsingham, 1912 (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) and its effects on the quality of the fruit of Persea americana (Miller) (Lauraceae).; Uso da radiacao gama do Cobalto-60, para controlar a broca-do-abacate Stenoma catenifer Walsingham, 1912 (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) e seus efeitos na qualidade do fruto de Persea americana (Miller) (Lauraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Lilian Karla Figueira da

    2004-07-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the influence of Gamma radiation of Cobalt-60, in the avocado moth Stenoma catenifer Walsingham, 1912 (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) and its effects on the quality of the fruit Persea americana (Miller) (Lauraceae). For this research, insects were irradiated in ali phases of their life cycle with doses varying from O to 600 Gy and they were maintained at the temperature of 25 +- 2 deg C, humidity of 70 +- 10% and photo phase of 14 h. The species was raised on natural diet, avocado seeds. The cultivar fruits Geada were irradiated with doses that varied from 0 to 150 Gy, maintained for 15 days at room temperature (20 a 35 deg C and humidity of 70 - 80 %) and 30 days at a temperature of 10 deg C, humidity of 40 - 60 %. The chemical-physics and sensorial analyses were carried out. According to the obtained results, it was verified that the lethal dose of gamma radiation to S. catenifer eggs, was of 75 Gy; for caterpillars and pupas was of 300 Gy. The sterile-dose for upcoming adults from irradiated S. catenifer eggs was of 25 Gy; for upcoming adults from irradiated caterpillars, it was of 100 Gy; for adults coming from irradiated pupas was of 150 Gy and for irradiated adults was of 200 Gy. The irradiation in the avocado fruit, maintained at room temperature for 7 days of storage, caused change in the coloration of the fruit (dark spots and yellowish coloration) and more firmness. The sensorial characteristics were kept and the irradiated fruit was the chosen one as favorite for tasting. The irradiated fruits that were kept at 10 deg C, obtained an increase in the storage period, without changing their chemical physics characteristics. The coloration of the fruits was kept, more firmness and a subtle acidity taste increase, being effective in the conservation of the fruits and in the maintenance of their sensorial characteristics. The use of the gamma radiation as treatment quarantine of S. catenifer it was efficient, should be treated them with

  13. The cabbage moth or the sorrel moth (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harvey, Jeff A.; Hengeveld, Eke; Malčická, Mima

    2016-01-01

    When insect herbivores develop over many generations on the same plant species, their descendants may evolve physiological adaptations that enable them to develop more successfully on that plant species than naive conspecifics. Here, we compared development of wild and lab-reared caterpillars of the

  14. The seesaw effect of winter temperature change on the recruitment of cotton bollworms Helicoverpa armigera through mismatched phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Gadi V P; Shi, Peijian; Hui, Cang; Cheng, Xiaofei; Ouyang, Fang; Ge, Feng

    2015-12-01

    Knowing how climate change affects the population dynamics of insect pests is critical for the future of integrated pest management. Rising winter temperatures from global warming can drive increases in outbreaks of some agricultural pests. In contrast, here we propose an alternative hypothesis that both extremely cold and warm winters can mismatch the timing between the eclosion of overwintering pests and the flowering of key host plants. As host plants normally need higher effective cumulative temperatures for flowering than insects need for eclosion, changes in flowering time will be less dramatic than changes in eclosion time, leading to a mismatch of phenology on either side of the optimal winter temperature. We term this the "seesaw effect." Using a long-term dataset of the Old World cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in northern China, we tested this seesaw hypothesis by running a generalized additive model for the effects of the third generation moth in the preceding year, the winter air temperature, the number of winter days below a critical temperature and cumulative precipitation during winter on the demography of the overwintering moth. Results confirmed the existence of the seesaw effect of winter temperature change on overwintering populations. Pest management should therefore consider the indirect effect of changing crop phenology (whether due to greenhouse cultivation or to climate change) on pest outbreaks. As arthropods from mid- and high latitudes are actually living in a cooler thermal environment than their physiological optimum in contrast to species from lower latitudes, the effects of rising winter temperatures on the population dynamics of arthropods in the different latitudinal zones should be considered separately. The seesaw effect makes it more difficult to predict the average long-term population dynamics of insect pests at high latitudes due to the potential sharp changes in annual growth rates

  15. Phylogenomics provides strong evidence for relationships of butterflies and moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Akito Y; Breinholt, Jesse W

    2014-08-07

    Butterflies and moths constitute some of the most popular and charismatic insects. Lepidoptera include approximately 160 000 described species, many of which are important model organisms. Previous studies on the evolution of Lepidoptera did not confidently place butterflies, and many relationships among superfamilies in the megadiverse clade Ditrysia remain largely uncertain. We generated a molecular dataset with 46 taxa, combining 33 new transcriptomes with 13 available genomes, transcriptomes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Using HaMStR with a Lepidoptera-specific core-orthologue set of single copy loci, we identified 2696 genes for inclusion into the phylogenomic analysis. Nucleotides and amino acids of the all-gene, all-taxon dataset yielded nearly identical, well-supported trees. Monophyly of butterflies (Papilionoidea) was strongly supported, and the group included skippers (Hesperiidae) and the enigmatic butterfly-moths (Hedylidae). Butterflies were placed sister to the remaining obtectomeran Lepidoptera, and the latter was grouped with greater than or equal to 87% bootstrap support. Establishing confident relationships among the four most diverse macroheteroceran superfamilies was previously challenging, but we recovered 100% bootstrap support for the following relationships: ((Geometroidea, Noctuoidea), (Bombycoidea, Lasiocampoidea)). We present the first robust, transcriptome-based tree of Lepidoptera that strongly contradicts historical placement of butterflies, and provide an evolutionary framework for genomic, developmental and ecological studies on this diverse insect order. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of gypsy moth outbreaks on North American woodpeckers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter D. Koenig; Eric L. Walters; Andrew M. Liebhold

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effects of the introduced gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) on seven species of North American woodpeckers by matching spatially explicit data on gypsy moth outbreaks with data on breeding and wintering populations. In general, we detected modest effects during outbreaks: during the breeding season one species, the Red-headed Woodpecker...

  17. Studies on African zygaenoid moths (Lepidoptera: Zygaenoidea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1998-04-14

    Apr 14, 1998 ... abdominal segments 9+ I 0 are extended into a pair of poste- rior apophyses, indicated as lateral arms ... the anterior edge of the eighth abdominal segment. In allocating type material, the following ..... Ventral view ofaedeagus and juxta. Figures 23-25 preparation GP 012. figures 26-29 preparation OP 011.

  18. Studies on African zygaenoid moths (Lepidoptera: Zygaenoidea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genus Psycharium is revised for the first time. Until now, only a drawing of the female type species was known. The male and female of the type species, P. pellucens Herrich-Schaffer, and four new species, montanum, kammanassiense, bamardi and natalense,are comprehensively described. A key to the species of ...

  19. Blood, sweat, and tears: a review of the hematophagous, sudophagous, and lachryphagous Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, David; Goddard, Jerome

    2013-12-01

    Although adult Lepidoptera are not often considered medically relevant, some butterflies and moths are notorious for their consumption of mammalian body fluids. These Lepidoptera can be blood-feeding (hematophagous), tear-feeding (lachryphagous), or sweat-feeding (we use the term "sudophagous"). Blood-feeding Lepidoptera have been observed piercing the skin of their hosts during feeding, while tear-feeding Lepidoptera have been observed frequenting the eyes of hosts in order to directly obtain lachrymal fluid. These behaviors have negative human health implications and some potential for disease transmission. In this study, articles concerning feeding behavior of blood, sweat, and tear-feeding Lepidoptera were reviewed, with emphasis on correlations between morphological characters and feeding behaviors. Harmful effects and vector potential of these Lepidoptera are presented and discussed. © 2013 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  20. Biology and host range of Tecmessa elegans (Lepidoptera:Notodontidae) a leaf-feeding moth evaluated as a potential biological control agent for Schinus terebinthifolius (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    During surveys for natural enemies that could potentially be used as classical biological control agents of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Brazilian pepper) which is invasive in the USA, the caterpillar, Tecmessa elegans Schaus (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae), was recorded feeding on the leaves of the ...

  1. Spatial variability in the level of infestation of the leaves of horse chestnut by the horse chestnut leaf miner, Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) and in the number of adult moths and parasitoids emerging form leaf litter in an urban environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopačka, Michal; Zemek, Rostislav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 114, JAN 27 (2017), s. 42-52 E-ISSN 1802-8829 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 8G15006 Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 063/2013/Z Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Lepidoptera * Gracillariidae * Aesculus hippocastanum Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 1.167, year: 2016

  2. Occurrence of Parthenogenesis in Potato Tuber Moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Hu, Chun-Hua; Wang, Chun-Ya; Xiong, Yan; Li, Zong-Kai; Xiao, Chun

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Parthenogenesis, a natural form of asexual reproduction produced from unfertilized eggs, occurs in many insects in Hemiptera and Hymenoptera, but very rarely in Lepidoptera. The current study aimed to test the larval density dependent occurrence of parthenogenesis in potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller; Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) under laboratory conditions. More than 10% of females out of 25 tested females that developed from the high larval density treatment at 45 larvae per tuber were capable to reproduce asexually. Both male and female offspring were produced parthenogenetically. The sexually reproductive offspring of a laboratory parthenogenetic population had a lower egg hatch rate, shorter larval stage, and shorter male life span when compared with the non-parthenogenetic population. This suggests that the sexually reproductive offspring of parthenogenetic population have a decreased overall fitness compared to the sexually reproductive offspring of non-parthenogenetic population.

  3. Effect of Pheromone Trap Density on Mass Trapping of Male Potato Tuber Moth Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, and Level of Damage on Potato Tubers Efecto de la Densidad de Trampas de Feromona en Masiva de Machos de Polilla de la Papa, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, y en el Nivel de Daño a los Tubérculos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Larraín S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Potato tuber moth (PTM, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller, is one of the pests that cause the most damage to potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. in both field crops and storage, especially in regions where summers are hot and dry. Larvae develop in the foliage and tubers of potatoes and cause direct losses of edible product. The use of synthetic pheromones that interfere with insect mating for pest control has been widely demonstrated in numerous Lepidoptera and other insect species. An experiment was carried out during the 2004-2005 season in Valle del Elqui, Coquimbo Region, Chile, to evaluate the effectiveness of different pheromone trap densities to capture P. operculella males for future development of a mass trapping technique, and a subsequent decrease in insect reproduction. The study evaluated densities of 10, 20, and 40 traps ha-1, baited with 0.2 mg of PTM sexual pheromone, and water-detergent for captures. Results indicated that larger numbers of male PTM were captured per trap with densities of 20 and 40 traps per hectare, resulting in a significant reduction (P La polilla de la papa, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller, es una de las plagas que causan mayor daño a la papa (Solanum tuberosum L., tanto a los cultivos en campo como a los tubérculos almacenados, especialmente en zonas de climas cálidos y secos. Las larvas de este insecto se desarrollan en el follaje y tubérculos de papa causando pérdidas directas del producto a comercializar. La utilización de feromonas sintéticas, como una herramienta que interfiere con el apareamiento, ha sido ampliamente demostrada en innumerables especies de polillas y otros insectos. Con el fin de evaluar la efectividad de diferentes densidades de trampas de feromona en la captura de machos de P. operculella, para su futura utilizacióncomo técnica de trampeo masivo y consecuente disminución de la reproducción del insecto, se realizó un estudio durante la temporada 2004-2005, en el Valle del Elqui

  4. Dose responses of in vivo- and in vitro-produced strains of gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) applied with and without the virus enhancer Blankophor BBH

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Podgwaite; James M. Slavicek; Kevin W. Thorpe; Ralph E. Webb; Roger W. Fuester; Vincent D' Amico; Randel A. Peiffer; Michael A. Valenti

    2013-01-01

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L., nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) product Gypchek is a microbial pesticide produced by the USDA Forest Service. Gypchek is a mixture of LdMNPV genotypes produced in vivo. Commercial interests prefer to develop a stable, high-potency genotype that can be produced at low cost, preferably in vitro. We sprayed 2 LdMNPV...

  5. Monitoring codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in sex phermone-treated orchards with (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene or pear ester in combination with codlemone and acetic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traps baited with ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) or (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT) in two- or three-way combinations with the sex pheromone (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone) and acetic acid (AA) were evaluated for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). All studies were conduct...

  6. Control and monitoring of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in walnut orchards treated with novel high-load, low-density “meso” dispensers of sex pheromone and pear ester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novel low-density per ha “meso” dispensers loaded with both pear ester, ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, kairomone and codlemone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol, the sex pheromone of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L)., were evaluated versus meso dispensers loaded with pheromone-alone for their mating disru...

  7. Variability of Lepidoptera communities (moths and butterflies) along an altitudinal gradient of peat bogs from the Třeboň Basin up to the Bohemian Forest (South Bohemia, Central Europe)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jaroš, Josef; Spitzer, Karel; Zikmundová, Hana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2014), s. 55-95 ISSN 1211-7420 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : moths and butterflies * peatlands * communities Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour http://www.npsumava.cz/ gallery /27/8381-sg_20_2_jarosetal.pdf

  8. Moth pollination of Metaplexis japonica (Apocynaceae): pollinaria transfer on the tip of the proboscis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Shinji; Yamazaki, Kazuo

    2005-08-01

    Asclepiad pollinaria (including pollen masses) attach to diverse body parts of flower visitors in many ways. In this paper, we observed nocturnal moths (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae and Noctuidae) transporting the pollinaria of the Japanese species Metaplexis japonica (Thunb.) Makino (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae) on the tip of the proboscis. Flowers of this species may induce nectar-feeding moths to pull out the proboscis along a guide rail (anther slit), thus clipping the pollinaria onto the tip of the proboscis and transferring the pollinaria to the next flower. The transfer of pollinaria on the unique vector of a moth proboscis tip is an interesting pollination mechanism among previously reported entomophiles.

  9. Comparing Behavior and Clock Gene Expression between Caterpillars, Butterflies, and Moths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niepoth, N.; Ke, G.; de Roode, J.C.; Groot, A.T.

    Circadian behavior is widely observed in insects; however, the mechanisms that drive its evolution remain a black box. While circadian activity rhythms are well characterized in adults within the order Lepidoptera (i.e., most butterfly species are day active, while most moths are night active), much

  10. Field Attraction of Carob Moth to Host Plants and Conspecific Females

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosseini, S.A.; Goldansaz, S.H.; Menken, S.B.J.; van Wijk, M.; Roessingh, P.; Groot, A.T.

    2017-01-01

    The carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller; Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a devastating pest in high-value crops around the world. An efficient sex pheromone attractant is still missing for the management of this pest, because the major pheromone component is unstable. Host plant volatiles attract

  11. Interactions between an injected polydnavirus and per os baculovirus in gypsy moth larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    V. D' Amico; J.D. Podgwaite; R. Zerillo; P. Taylor; R. Fuester

    2013-01-01

    Larval gypsy moths, Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera:Lymantriidae) were co-infected with the L. dispar nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) and the Cotesia melanoscela (Hymenoptera:Braconidae) polydnavirus (CmeBV). CmeBV was given along with a parasitoid egg and calyx products in a stinging event, or in the form of an...

  12. Factors affecting the field performance of an attracticide against the codling moth Cydia pomonella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lösel, P.M.; Potting, R.P.J.; Ebbinghaus, D.; Scherkenbeck, J.

    2002-01-01

    Factors affecting the efficacy of an attracticide strategy for the control of the codling moth Cydia pomonella L (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) were investigated using laboratory and field experiments. The sex-pheromone-based insect-control strategy utilises 100-?l droplets of a sticky, paste-like

  13. Intraspecific variation in female sex pheromone of the codling moth Cydia pomonella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duménil, C.; Judd, G.J.R.; Bosch, D.; Baldessari, M.; Gemeno, C.; Groot, A.T.

    2014-01-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae), is a major pest of apple, pear and walnut orchards worldwide. This pest is often controlled using the biologically friendly control method known as pheromone-based mating disruption. Mating disruption likely exerts selection on the

  14. Seasonal pattern of infestation by the carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae in pomegranate cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosseini, S.A.; Goldansaz, S.H.; Fotoukkiaii, S.M.; Menken, S.B.J.; Groot, A.T.

    2017-01-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) orchards in the Middle East are typically composed of a mix of different cultivars in which variation in fruit infestation by carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) has been observed. However, seasonal variation in infestation and

  15. LepNet: The Lepidoptera of North America Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltmann, Katja C; Cobb, Neil S; Gall, Lawrence F; Bartlett, Charles R; Basham, M Anne; Betancourt, Isabelle; Bills, Christy; Brandt, Benjamin; Brown, Richard L; Bundy, Charles; Caterino, Michael S; Chapman, Caitlin; Cognato, Anthony; Colby, Julia; Cook, Stephen P; Daly, Kathryn M; Dyer, Lee A; Franz, Nico M; Gelhaus, Jon K; Grinter, Christopher C; Harp, Charles E; Hawkins, Rachel L; Heydon, Steve L; Hill, Geena M; Huber, Stacey; Johnson, Norman; Kawahara, Akito Y; Kimsey, Lynn S; Kondratieff, Boris C; Krell, Frank-Thorsten; Leblanc, Luc; Lee, Sangmi; Marshall, Christopher J; McCabe, Lindsie M; McHugh, Joseph V; Menard, Katrina L; Opler, Paul A; Palffy-Muhoray, Nicole; Pardikes, Nick; Peterson, Merrill A; Pierce, Naomi E; Poremski, Andre; Sikes, Derek S; Weintraub, Jason D; Wikle, David; Zaspel, Jennifer M; Zolnerowich, Gregory

    2017-03-23

    The Lepidoptera of North America Network, or LepNet, is a digitization effort recently launched to mobilize biodiversity data from 3 million specimens of butterflies and moths in United States natural history collections (http://www.lep-net.org/). LepNet was initially conceived as a North American effort but the project seeks collaborations with museums and other organizations worldwide. The overall goal is to transform Lepidoptera specimen data into readily available digital formats to foster global research in taxonomy, ecology and evolutionary biology.

  16. Moths behaving like butterflies. Evolutionary loss of long range attractant pheromones in castniid moths: a Paysandisia archon model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarto i Monteys, Víctor; Acín, Patricia; Rosell, Glòria; Quero, Carmen; Jiménez, Miquel A; Guerrero, Angel

    2012-01-01

    In the course of evolution butterflies and moths developed two different reproductive behaviors. Whereas butterflies rely on visual stimuli for mate location, moths use the 'female calling plus male seduction' system, in which females release long-range sex pheromones to attract conspecific males. There are few exceptions from this pattern but in all cases known female moths possess sex pheromone glands which apparently have been lost in female butterflies. In the day-flying moth family Castniidae ("butterfly-moths"), which includes some important crop pests, no pheromones have been found so far. Using a multidisciplinary approach we described the steps involved in the courtship of P. archon, showing that visual cues are the only ones used for mate location; showed that the morphology and fine structure of the antennae of this moth are strikingly similar to those of butterflies, with male sensilla apparently not suited to detect female-released long range pheromones; showed that its females lack pheromone-producing glands, and identified three compounds as putative male sex pheromone (MSP) components of P. archon, released from the proximal halves of male forewings and hindwings. This study provides evidence for the first time in Lepidoptera that females of a moth do not produce any pheromone to attract males, and that mate location is achieved only visually by patrolling males, which may release a pheromone at short distance, putatively a mixture of Z,E-farnesal, E,E-farnesal, and (E,Z)-2,13-octadecadienol. The outlined behavior, long thought to be unique to butterflies, is likely to be widespread in Castniidae implying a novel, unparalleled butterfly-like reproductive behavior in moths. This will also have practical implications in applied entomology since it signifies that the monitoring/control of castniid pests should not be based on the use of female-produced pheromones, as it is usually done in many moths.

  17. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 3. A new species of Aleptina Dyar, 1902 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Amphipyrinae, Psaphidini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Eric H.; Forbes, Gregory S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In 2006 the US National Park Service initiated a long-term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico. Aleptina arenaria sp. n., described here, was discovered in 2008, the second year of the study. The adult moths and male and female genitalia are illustrated. PMID:22207800

  18. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 4. A new species of Schinia Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Heliothinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Metzler

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2006 the U.S. National Park Service initiated a long term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico. Schinia poguei sp. n., described here, was discovered in 2007, the second year of the study. The male and female adult moths and genitalia are illustrated.

  19. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 4. A new species of Schinia Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Heliothinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Eric H.; Forbes, Gregory S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In 2006 the U.S. National Park Service initiated a long term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico. Schinia poguei sp. n., described here, was discovered in 2007, the second year of the study. The male and female adult moths and genitalia are illustrated. PMID:22207801

  20. Is the expansion of the pine processionary moth, due to global warming, impacting the endangered Spanish moon moth through an induced change in food quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbert, Charles-Edouard; Goussard, Francis; Roques, Alain

    2012-06-01

    Recent climate change is known to affect the distribution of a number of insect species, resulting in a modification of their range boundaries. In newly colonized areas, novel interactions become apparent between expanding and endemic species sharing the same host. The pine processionary moth is a highly damaging pine defoliator, extending its range northwards and upwards in response to winter warming. Its expansion in the Alps has resulted in an invasion into the range of the Spanish moon moth, a red listed species developing on Scots pine. Pine processionary moth larvae develop during winter, preceding those of the moon moth, which hatch in late spring. Using pine trees planted in a clonal design, we experimentally tested the effect of previous winter defoliation by pine processionary moth larvae upon the survival and development of moon moth larvae. Feeding on foliage of heavily defoliated trees (>50%) resulted in a significant increase in the development time of moon moth larvae and a decrease in relative growth rate compared to feeding on foliage of undefoliated trees. Dry weight of pupae also decreased when larvae were fed with foliage of defoliated trees, and might, therefore, affect imago performances. However, lower defoliation degrees did not result in significant differences in larval performances compared to the control. Because a high degree of defoliation by pine processionary moth is to be expected during the colonization phase, its arrival in subalpine pine stands might affect the populations of the endangered moon moth. © 2012 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  1. New data on the Pterophoridae fauna of Liberia (Lepidoptera: Pterophoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustjuzhanin, Petr; Kovtunovich, Vasily; Sáfián, Szabolcs

    2017-03-27

    There have been no special studies on plume moths of Liberia until recently. In the World Catalogue of Insects (Gielis 2003) only two species are reported from Liberia: Agdistis tamaricis (Zeller, 1847) and Megalorhipida leucodactyla (Fabricius, 1794) despite its well-known richness for other Lepidoptera groups (Fox et al. 1965, Larsen 2005) and its biogeographic position in the centre of the Upper Guinean biodiversity hotspot (Myers et al. 2000).

  2. Launching and steering flagship Lepidoptera for conservation benefit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.R. New

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lepidoptera, particularly butterflies and large moths, are popular targets for conservation efforts and as flagship species can help to publicize the need for habitat and resource protection and the ecological value of invertebrates. Here I present an overview of the relevant issues in selecting and promoting flagship species, and discuss how local community support for conservation may be encouraged, using examples from Australia.

  3. Effect of dietary cowpea trypsin inhibitor (CpTI) on the growth and development of the tomato moth Lacanobia oleracea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and on the success of the gregarious ectoparasitoid Eulophus pennicornis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, H A; Fitches, E C; Down, R E; Ford, L; Marris, G C; Edwards, J P; Gatehouse, J A; Gatehouse, A M

    2001-01-01

    Cowpea trypsin inhibitor (CpTI) was shown to have a deleterious effect on the growth and development of larvae of the tomato moth, Lacanobia oleracea, when incorporated in artificial diet (2.0% of soluble protein) and expressed in transgenic potato leaf (up to 1.0% of soluble protein). The effect of CpTI on parasitism of L oleracea by the ectoparasitoid Eulophus pennicornis was investigated. The parasitic success of the wasp was reduced by the presence of CpTI in the diet of the host and, in the case of transgenic potato leaves expressing the transgene protein, was collated with the length of time the host fed on the diet prior to parasitism. In all cases the proportion of hosts parasitised when fed CpTI-containing diets was reduced when compared with controls, although these differences were only significant when hosts were fed from the third instar on the transgenic potato leaves. Parasitoid progeny that developed on L oleracea reared on CpTI-containing diets, however, were not adversely affected. These results show that, whilst expression of CpTI in transgenic potato plants confers resistance to the lepidopterous pest L oleracea, adverse effects on the ability of the ectoparasitoid E pennicornis to parasitise this moth species successfully may also occur. These results are discussed in relation to the potential impact of transgenic crops on beneficial biological control agents.

  4. Synergistic behavioral responses of female oriental fruit moths (Lepidoptera:Tortricidae) to synthetic host plant-derived mixtures are mirrored by odor-evoked calcium activity in their antennal lobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero, Jaime C; Giovanni Galizia, C; Dorn, Silvia

    2008-02-01

    Attraction of many gravid female herbivore insects to suitable host plants is mediated largely by olfactory cues. Behaviorally, synergism among odor mixtures constituents underlies this attraction in some systems. Yet, the representation of synergistic odor-mixture effects is unknown in the antennal lobe, the first processing center for olfactory information in insect brains. Using both behavioral and physiological data we demonstrate that in the oriental fruit moth, Cydia (Grapholita) molesta, a minor constituent of a plant-derived synthetic mixture plays a key role in behavioral discrimination and in neural representation of mixtures. Behaviorally, minute amounts of benzonitrile added to an unattractive 4-compound mixture resulted in a bioactive 5-compound mixture that was as attractive to mated female moths as the natural blend. Physiologically, the bioactive benzonitrile-containing mixture elicited strong activation of one additional, new type of glomerulus that showed specific synergisms for this mixture. The specific pattern of activated glomeruli elicited by the addition of benzonitrile demonstrates a physiological correlate to the behaviorally observed synergism, and emphasizes the key role of a minor component of a complex mixture. While minor constituents of mixtures are often overlooked, they may, as conclusively documented here, be determinant for successful recognition and behavioral discrimination of suitable host plants by herbivore insects.

  5. First record of Ectomyelois muriscis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on physic nut (Jatropha curcas), a biofuel plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    The natural infestation of fruits and stems of Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) by larvae of the pyralid moth Ectomyelois muriscis (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is reported for the first time. Populations of E. muriscis on J. curcas were observed in various parts of the state of Chiapas, souther...

  6. Impact of temperature and relative humidity on life history parameters of adult Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a pest of stored corn, Zea mays L., and other grains throughout the world. S. cerealella are routinely exposed to temperatures below 20°C in regions of the U.S. where corn is grown, yet there are no data describi...

  7. Een ontdekking in de Peel: de uil Xestia stigmatica nieuw voor Nederland (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, F.A.H.E.

    2007-01-01

    A discovery in De Peel: the noctuid moth Xestia stigmatica new for the Netherlands (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Xestia stigmatica is present all over Europe, but was not recorded in the Netherlands. In 2001 a single female was caught at light, in the commune of Deurne (province of Noord-Brabant). The

  8. Host range of Secusio extensa (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae), and potential for biological control of Senecio madagascariensis (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. M. Ramadan; K. T. Murai; T. Johnson

    2010-01-01

    Secusio extensa (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) was evaluated as a potential biological control agent for Madagascar fireweed, Senecio madagascariensis (Asteraceae), which has invaded over 400 000 acres of rangeland in the Hawaiian Islands and is toxic to cattle and horses. The moth was introduced from southeastern Madagascar...

  9. Laboratory Assessment of the Effects of Bacillus thuringiensis on Native Lepidoptera

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Peacock; Dale F. Schweitzer; Jane L. Carter; Normand R. Dubois

    1998-01-01

    The effect of 2 formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (Foray 48B and Dipel 8AF) was evaluated on 42 species of native Lepidoptera in laboratory bioassays using instars that are present in the field at the time of gypsy moth suppression applications. Mortality was significant for 27 of the 42 species evaluated...

  10. Current and Future Potential Risk of Establishment of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a primary pest of stone fruits in many countries, including the United States. The distribution of this pest is concentrated in areas receiving higher than lower rainfall. It prefers sites where stone fruits and apple...

  11. Postharvest irradiation treatment for quarantine control of the invasive Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of irradiation on egg, larval, and pupal development in European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were examined. Eggs, neonates, third instars, fifth instars, and early and late stage pupae were irradiated at target doses of 50, 100, 150, or 200 Gy or left untr...

  12. Multisensory integration in Lepidoptera: Insights into flower-visitor interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Michiyo; Stewart, Finlay J; Ômura, Hisashi

    2017-04-01

    As most work on flower foraging focuses on bees, studying Lepidoptera can offer fresh perspectives on how sensory capabilities shape the interaction between flowers and insects. Through a combination of innate preferences and learning, many Lepidoptera persistently visit particular flower species. Butterflies tend to rely on their highly developed sense of colour to locate rewarding flowers, while moths have evolved sophisticated olfactory systems towards the same end. However, these modalities can interact in complex ways; for instance, butterflies' colour preference can shift depending on olfactory context. The mechanisms by which such cross-modal interaction occurs are poorly understood, but the mushroom bodies appear to play a central role. Because of the diversity seen within Lepidoptera in terms of their sensory capabilities and the nature of their relationships with flowers, they represent a fruitful avenue for comparative studies to shed light on the co-evolution of flowers and flower-visiting insects. © 2017 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The impact of brick (Agrochola circellaris Hufn. and owlet moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae on the health of seeds of field elms (Ulmus minor Mill. in the landscape parks of the Świętokrzyskie Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bąk-Badowska Jolanta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the period of 2012-2013, a research was conducted to investigate the insects damaging the seeds of field elm (Ulmus minor Mill.. The aim of the research was to specify the damages to field elm seeds caused mainly by the brick (Agrochola circellaris and to indicate the possible dependence between the number of damaged seeds by the caterpillars of this moth and stand density. The research was conducted in the areas of Cisów-Orłowiny Landscape Park (C-OLP and Nida Landscape Park (NLP in the Świętokrzyskie Province. In both parks, there were two test stands situated, each of which covered the material collected from the trees. The number of field elms ranged from four to six. Furthermore, a sample of 300 seeds were randomly collected from each tree. The elms in Cisów-Orłowiny Landscape Park were observed in full density stands (fully stocked stands; however, these trees in Nida Landscape Park were growing in loose density stands (under-stocked stands. In total, there were 12,000 seeds collected from 20 trees. The analysis of the collected research material demonstrated that 436 seeds from the field elms (Ulmus minor were damaged by the brick (Agrochola circellaris. It constituted 3.6% of the total number of collected samples (Table 1. In the seed samples collected from the test stands in Cisów-Orłowiny Landscape Park, the damages caused by the caterpillars of the brick moth ranged between 0.8% and 2.9%. In the case of seed samples collected from Nida Landscape Park, the damages caused by the caterpillars of the brick moth were greater and ranged between 4.1% and 6.5%. The percentage of undamaged seeds ranged between 94.4% in Cisów-Orłowiny Landscape Park and 84.7% in Nida Landscape Park, which constituted, on an average, 89.5% for both parks. The 6.8% of the seeds were also damaged by other insects. The results of the research showed the dependence between the number of field elm seeds damaged by the brick Agrochola circellaris and the

  14. Cold hardiness and supercooling capacity in the overwintering larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khani, Abbas; Moharramipour, Saeid

    2010-01-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a worldwide apple pest, is classified as a freeze-intolerant organism and one of the most cold-tolerant pests. The objectives of this study were to examine the supercooling point of overwintering and non-diapausing larvae of C. pomonella as an index of its cold hardiness, and to assess larval mortality following 24 h exposure to extreme low temperatures ranging from -5 to -25 degrees C. The mean (+/-SE) supercooling point for feeding larvae (third through fifth instars) was -12.4 +/- 1.1 degrees C. The mean supercooling point for cocooned, non-diapausing larvae (i.e., non-feeding stages) decreased as the days that the arvae were cocooned increased and changed between -15.1 +/- 1.2 degrees C for one to two day cocooned arvae and -19.2 +/- 1.8 degrees C for less than five day cocooned larvae. The mean (+/-SE) supercooling point for other non-feeding stages containing pupae and overwintering larvae were -19.9 +/- 1.0 degrees C and -20.2 +/- 0.2 degrees C, respectively. Mean supercooling points of C. pomonella larvae were significantly lower during the winter months than the summer months, and sex had no effect on the supercooling point of C. pomonella larvae. The mortality of larvae increased significantly after individuals were exposed to temperatures below the mean supercooling point of the population. The supercooling point was a good predictor of cold hardiness.

  15. Model Predicts a Future Pine Processionary Moth Risk in Artvin and Adjacent Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahraman İpekdal

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, climate change has been receiving a lot of attention from researchers as it is believed to be proceeding at an extraordinary rate during the last 1,300 years and many studies have attempted to document and predict its environmental effects. Eastern winter pine processionary moth (PPM, Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae, an economically important pest of pines in the Eastern Mediterranean Basin, distributed through almost all coastal regions within Turkey. Even though, its European sister species, T. pityocampa is known to be an aggressive invader under global warming in Europe and proved to expand its range towards northern latitudes; there is a lack of knowledge about species current and future status through Turkey, especially Artvin and adjacent regions (Eastern Black Sea Region where it has not have much effect yet. In this study, we aimed to predict PPM’s current and future distribution through Artvin and adjacent regions by using Maximum Entropy Modeling (Maxent software. We used 65 sampling points in conjunction with 7 climatic variables that were least inter-correlated and with greatest significant contribution to the distribution model. As the statistical tests showed that the fit of the generated model is good, we further carried on using this model for future predictions. Our results indicated that PPM would expand its range towards Artvin and adjacent regions. Even though, currently this region is not under risk of PPM invasion, models suggest that future climatic conditions might trigger PPM invasion in near future - by 2050 - 2080.

  16. Do female life span and fecundity of small ermine moth increase with multiple mating and adult nutrition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parker, K.; Roessingh, P.; Menken, S.B.J.

    2013-01-01

    Several evolutionary explanations for multiple mating in insects have been proposed, and it has been suggested that Lepidoptera benefit from the energy contained in nuptial gifts. In two closely related species of small ermine moths, Yponomeuta cagnagellus (Hübner) and Yponomeuta padellus (L.), we

  17. Impact of the defoliating moth Hypena opulenta on invasive swallow-worts (Vincetoxicum species) under different light environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black and pale swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum nigrum and V. rossicum, Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae) are twining vines from Europe that have become invasive in the northeastern USA and southeastern Canada. Hypena opulenta (Christoph) (Lepidoptera: Erebidae), a defoliating forest moth from the Ukraine, ha...

  18. Anti-bat tiger moth sounds: Form and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron J. CORCORAN, William E. CONNER, Jesse R. BARBER

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The night sky is the venue of an ancient acoustic battle between echolocating bats and their insect prey. Many tiger moths (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae answer the attack calls of bats with a barrage of high frequency clicks. Some moth species use these clicks for acoustic aposematism and mimicry, and others for sonar jamming, however, most of the work on these defensive functions has been done on individual moth species. We here analyze the diversity of structure in tiger moth sounds from 26 species collected at three locations in North and South America. A principal components analysis of the anti-bat tiger moth sounds reveals that they vary markedly along three axes: (1 frequency, (2 duty cycle (sound production per unit time and frequency modulation, and (3 modulation cycle (clicks produced during flexion and relaxation of the sound producing tymbal structure. Tiger moth species appear to cluster into two distinct groups: one with low duty cycle and few clicks per modulation cycle that supports an acoustic aposematism function, and a second with high duty cycle and many clicks per modulation cycle that is consistent with a sonar jamming function. This is the first evidence from a community-level analysis to support multiple functions for tiger moth sounds. We also provide evidence supporting an evolutionary history for the development of these strategies. Furthermore, cross-correlation and spectrogram correlation measurements failed to support a “phantom echo” mechanism underlying sonar jamming, and instead point towards echo interference [Current Zoology 56 (3: 358–369, 2010].

  19. Biology and host range of Tecmessa elegans (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae), a leaf-feeding moth evaluated as a potential biological control agent for Schinus terebinthifolius (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleiro, Marina; Mc Kay, Fernando; Wheeler, Gregory S

    2011-06-01

    During surveys for natural enemies that could be used as classical biological control agents of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Brazilian pepper), the caterpillar, Tecmessa elegans Schaus (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae), was recorded feeding on the leaves of the shrub in South America. The biology and larval and adult host range of this species were examined to determine the insect's suitability for biological control of this invasive weed in North America and Hawaii. Biological observations indicate that the larvae have five instars. When disturbed, the late instar larvae emit formic acid from a prothoracic gland that may protect larvae from generalist predators. Larval host range tests conducted both in South and North America indicated that this species feeds and completes development primarily on members of the Anacardiaceae within the tribe Rhoeae. Oviposition tests indicated that when given a choice in large cages the adults will select the target weed over Pistacia spp. However, considering the many valued plant species in its host range, especially several North American natives, this species will not be considered further for biological control of S. terebinthifolius in North America.

  20. Winter is coming: Diapause in the subtropical swallowtail butterfly Euryades corethrus (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae) is triggered by the shortening of day length and reinforced by low temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporale, Andressa; Romanowski, Helena Piccoli; Mega, Nicolás Oliveira

    2017-04-01

    Diapause is modulated by genetic responses to some environmental cues. The most common stimulus to trigger diapause is photoperiod, but temperature and humidity can also be important. Subtropical grasslands insects are overexposed to seasonality and can use diapause as strategy to overcome harsh conditions, avoiding freezing winter temperatures and drought summer conditions. Here, we investigate if photoperiod, temperature, and humidity can induce and terminate dormancy using the model Euryades corethrus, a butterfly from Pampa that diapause as pupae. We hypothesize that photoperiod, temperature, and humidity can induce dormancy; to test the hypothesis, individuals from a stock population were subjected to experiments controlling these three factors. Photoperiod and temperature interactions were also tested. To evaluate if the removal of the harsh factor that induced diapause trigger diapause termination, 50% of dormant pupae in each experiment were exposed to amenable conditions. The results indicated that diapause is mainly induced by short photophases, while temperature and humidity separately do not increase dormancy frequency. Short photoperiods and low temperatures interact with each other, increasing dormancy in experimental populations. The evidences suggest that diapause is trigger by short-day lengths and boosted by low temperatures as winter approaches. The incidence of obligatory summer diapause was not supported, but the occurrence of dormant pupae in high-temperature treatments suggests that high temperatures produce facultative diapause. Regarding diapause termination, the softening of harsh conditions that induced diapause was not sufficient to reverse the dormancy state, suggesting that diapause termination is more complex than previously thought, probably involving internal clocks. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Apple and sugar feeding in adult codling moths, Cydia pomonella: effects on longevity, fecundity, and egg fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenninger, Erik J; Landolt, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    Attraction of adult codling moths, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to sweet baits has been well documented. However, beneficial effects of sugar feeding on moth fitness have not been demonstrated. Longevity, fecundity, and egg fertility were examined for female/male pairs of moths maintained with the following food regimens: water, sucrose water, honey water, apple juice, apple flesh, or starved, i.e., no food or water provided. Longevity and total fecundity were enhanced in all treatments relative to the starved treatment moths. Sucrose water, honey water, and apple juice treatments yielded the highest longevity, but total fecundity was highest for moths maintained on honey water or apple juice. Total egg fertility did not differ among treatments. However, egg fertility declined more gradually over the female lifespan for the three aqueous solution diets of sucrose water, honey water, and apple juice. Similarly, fecundity per day declined more gradually over time for honey water and apple juice treatments. Performance of moths maintained with apple flesh was generally intermediate between that of moths with water and the three aqueous solution treatments. This suggests that moths benefit from feeding on ripe apple flesh, although apple may be more difficult to ingest or its nutrients less concentrated compared to aqueous solutions. The results presented here may explain attraction of adult moths to sweet baits as well as to odors from ripe fruit, which may be a natural source of food in the fall.

  2. A study on the spreading ability of radiation-sterilized male moth of bombyx mandarin in field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Rongxin; Xia Darong; Gu Weiping; Zhang Yanjun

    1998-01-01

    The mulberry wild silkworm (MWS), belong to the Bombycidae of Lepidoptera, is serious pest of sericulture. The female moth of MWS is sterile and the male moth is sub-sterile when they were treated with 250 Gy 60 Co γ-ray (dose rate: 1.05 Gy/min), and their filial generations was sterile. The spreading ability of male moth of MWS in field and retrieving the marked MWS male moth with the trapping method was studied. The trapping solution was composed of sugar, vinegar, wine and alive female moth. The retrieving rate of MWS male moth amounted to 12.6%∼13.5% of released moth in field. The spreading range in 24 hours for sterile MWS male moth reached to 700 m, and 90.8% of MWS male moth was in an area of 5 m radius from the releasing centre. It is concluded that thirty releasing centres per hectare are needed to make the irradiated sterilized insects spread for controlling the MWS in field

  3. Pollination by nocturnal Lepidoptera, and the effects of light pollution: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Callum J; Pocock, Michael J O; Fox, Richard; Evans, Darren M

    2015-01-01

    1. Moths (Lepidoptera) are the major nocturnal pollinators of flowers. However, their importance and contribution to the provision of pollination ecosystem services may have been under-appreciated. Evidence was identified that moths are important pollinators of a diverse range of plant species in diverse ecosystems across the world. 2. Moth populations are known to be undergoing significant declines in several European countries. Among the potential drivers of this decline is increasing light pollution. The known and possible effects of artificial night lighting upon moths were reviewed, and suggest how artificial night lighting might in turn affect the provision of pollination by moths. The need for studies of the effects of artificial night lighting upon whole communities of moths was highlighted. 3. An ecological network approach is one valuable method to consider the effects of artificial night lighting upon the provision of pollination by moths, as it provides useful insights into ecosystem functioning and stability, and may help elucidate the indirect effects of artificial light upon communities of moths and the plants they pollinate. 4. It was concluded that nocturnal pollination is an ecosystem process that may potentially be disrupted by increasing light pollution, although the nature of this disruption remains to be tested. PMID:25914438

  4. Pollination by nocturnal Lepidoptera, and the effects of light pollution: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Callum J; Pocock, Michael J O; Fox, Richard; Evans, Darren M

    2015-06-01

    1. Moths (Lepidoptera) are the major nocturnal pollinators of flowers. However, their importance and contribution to the provision of pollination ecosystem services may have been under-appreciated. Evidence was identified that moths are important pollinators of a diverse range of plant species in diverse ecosystems across the world. 2. Moth populations are known to be undergoing significant declines in several European countries. Among the potential drivers of this decline is increasing light pollution. The known and possible effects of artificial night lighting upon moths were reviewed, and suggest how artificial night lighting might in turn affect the provision of pollination by moths. The need for studies of the effects of artificial night lighting upon whole communities of moths was highlighted. 3. An ecological network approach is one valuable method to consider the effects of artificial night lighting upon the provision of pollination by moths, as it provides useful insights into ecosystem functioning and stability, and may help elucidate the indirect effects of artificial light upon communities of moths and the plants they pollinate. 4. It was concluded that nocturnal pollination is an ecosystem process that may potentially be disrupted by increasing light pollution, although the nature of this disruption remains to be tested.

  5. Pheromone-based disruption of Eucosma sonomana and Rhyacionia zozana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) using aerially applied microencapsulated pheromone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy E. Gillette; John D. Stein; Donald R. Owen; Jeffrey N. Webster; Sylvia R. Mori

    2006-01-01

    Two aerial applications of microencapsulated pheromone were conducted on five 20.2 ha plots to disrupt western pine shoot borer (Eucosma sonomana Kearfott) and ponderosa pine tip moth (Rhyacionia zowna (Kearfott): Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) orientation to pheromones and oviposition in ponderosa pine plantations in 2002 and 2004...

  6. Antenna elicitation and behavioral responses of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta, to allyl cinnamate

    OpenAIRE

    Giner Gil, Marta; Balcells Fluvià, Mercè; Avilla Hernández, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Female sex pheromones have been used in pest control since the 90s; attracting males to baited traps (mass-trapping and monitoring) or avoiding (or reducing) mating in fields under mating disruption. By contrast, little is done among the use of male sex pheromones in pest control. Allyl cinnamate was evaluated as potential oriental fruit moth (Grapholita molesta, Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) behaviour modifier, after recording positive electroantenographical responses in both male and fe...

  7. Note on gynandromorphism in the eucalyptus defoliator Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll, 1782 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline S. Bernardino

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The brown moth Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll, 1872 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae is an important pest in Brazilian eucalyptus plantations. A gynandromorph individual of T. arnobia was found in a population of this pest in a laboratory rearing and it is described.A mariposa marrom Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll, 1872 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae é uma praga importante em plantios de eucalipto no Brasil. Um indivíduo ginandromorfo de T. arnobia foi encontrado em uma população desta praga em criação de laboratório e descrito nesta nota.

  8. Evaluación de algunos insecticidas para el control de la «polilla del tomate», Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae y su efecto residual sobre el parasitoide Trichogrammatoidea bactrae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae Efficacy of insecticides against the «tomato moth», Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae and their residual effects on the parasitoid Trichogrammatoidea bactrae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María B. Riquelme Virgala

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La «polilla del tomate», Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, es una plaga clave de este cultivo en Argentina. Su manejo integrado debería incluir una selección de productos fitosanitarios que sean eficaces para su control y, al mismo tiempo, selectivos respecto de sus enemigos naturales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la capacidad de control de los insecticidas triflumurón, clorfenapir, abamectin y una cepa experimental de Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt sobre la plaga, y el poder residual de los mismos sobre Trichogrammatoidea bactrae Nagaraja. Se registró la mortalidad de la polilla cada cuatro días, desde la aplicación hasta la emergencia de los adultos. El efecto sobre el parasitoide, se evaluó a través del número de huevos parasitados por hembra expuesta durante 48 horas a folíolos tratados, y su mortalidad luego de 1, 3, 7, 14 y 30 días de la pulverización. Todos los productos ocasionaron una mortalidad de T. absoluta mayor al 65% después de 12 días de aplicados. El Bt fue el único insecticida que no afectó la supervivencia y el parasitismo de T. bactrae . Estos resultados aportan información de interés para la selección de plaguicidas, a emplearse en programas de manejo integrado.The «tomato moth», Tuta absoluta (Meyrick is one of the key pests of tomato crops in Argentina. The compatible use of chemical and biological control is the main purpose of integrated pest management. Selective pesticides that can be successfully used to control pest without adverse side effects on natural enemies are highly required. The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of control of T. absoluta and the residual effect on the oophagous parasitoid, Trichogrammatoidea bactrae Nagaraja of the following insecticides: triflumuron, abamectin, chlorfenapyr, and an experimental strain of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt. Mortality of T. absoluta was evaluated every 4 days from pesticide spraying until adult emergency. The effect of pesticides on

  9. The value of woody hedgerows for moth diversity on organic and conventional farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, C; Baril, A; McCabe, S K; Martin, P A; Guy, M

    2011-06-01

    Habitat destruction and degradation are important drivers of biodiversity loss within agro-ecosystems. However, little is known about the effect of farming practices and the value of woody hedgerows on Lepidoptera in North America. The purpose of this work was to study moth diversity in woody hedgerows and croplands of organic and conventional farms. In addition, the influence of vegetation composition and abiotic variables on species richness, abundance, and composition was examined. Moths were sampled with light traps during six weeks in the summer of 2001. Vegetation data and abiotic variables were obtained for all sites. In total, 26,020 individuals from 12 families and 408 species were captured. Most species were uncommon. Only 35 species included >100 individuals while for 71% of species hedgerows harbored more species and in greater number than croplands. There was no significant difference in moth diversity between organic and conventional farms, except that the Notodontidae were significantly more species rich in organic than in conventional sites. Results show that species richness, abundance, and composition were greatly influenced by habitat types (hedgerow versus crop field) and abiotic variables (minimum temperature which was correlated to moon illumination, rainfall, and cloud cover). Moth species composition was significantly correlated to vegetation composition. This study broadens our understanding of the factors driving moth diversity and expands our knowledge of their geographic range. The maintenance of noncrop habitats such as woody hedgerows within agro-ecosystems seems paramount to preserving the biodiversity and abundance of many organisms, including moths.

  10. Extinction cascades partially estimate herbivore losses in a complete Lepidoptera--plant food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Ian S; Altermatt, Florian

    2013-08-01

    The loss of species from an ecological community can have cascading effects leading to the extinction of other species. Specialist herbivores are highly diverse and may be particularly susceptible to extinction due to host plant loss. We used a bipartite food web of 900 Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) herbivores and 2403 plant species from Central Europe to simulate the cascading effect of plant extinctions on Lepidoptera extinctions. Realistic extinction sequences of plants, incorporating red-list status, range size, and native status, altered subsequent Lepidoptera extinctions. We compared simulated Lepidoptera extinctions to the number of actual regional Lepidoptera extinctions and found that all predicted scenarios underestimated total observed extinctions but accurately predicted observed extinctions attributed to host loss (n = 8, 14%). Likely, many regional Lepidoptera extinctions occurred for reasons other than loss of host plant alone, such as climate change and habitat loss. Ecological networks can be useful in assessing a component of extinction risk to herbivores based on host loss, but further factors may be equally important.

  11. Costs of insecticide resistance in Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopka, Joanna K; Scott, Ian M; McNeil, Jeremy N

    2012-06-01

    The obvious benefits associated with insecticide resistance for pest species may come at a cost to other life-history traits. In this study, we compared the larval and pupal developmental times, pupal mass wing surface area and wing fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in insecticide resistant and control strains of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), collected from apple (Malus spp.) orchards in central Canada. Resistant strains had significantly longer larval developmental times and lower pupal masses compared with the susceptible strain. Although the forewings of resistant moths were smaller in resistant than control strain, no difference in wing FA was detected. Longer developmental times could increase exposure time to natural enemies, and reduced adult size could affect longevity and total reproductive output.

  12. Development of genetic sexing strains in Lepidoptera: from traditional to transgenic approaches

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marec, František; Neven, L. G.; Robinson, A. S.; Vreysen, M.; Goldsmith, M. R.; Nagaraju, J.; Franz, G.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 2 (2005), s. 248-259 ISSN 0022-0493 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6007307 Grant - others:IAEA(AT) 12055/R; IAEA(AT) 12619/R Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Lepidoptera * codling moth * sterile insect technique Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.205, year: 2005

  13. Parasitoids and Hyperparasitoids of Erannis Defoliaria CL. (Lepidoptera, Geometridae) in Oak Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Glavendekić, Milka

    2010-01-01

    The research on biology and ecology of Mottled Umber Moth–Erannis defoliaria Cl. (Lepidoptera, Geometridae) was carried out in the period 1985–2009 in oak forests in Serbia. Mottled Umber Moth was mainly in the latency during the investigation. Only at the locality Miroč in East Serbia and in Forest unit Zlatica (National Park Djerdap), it was dominant in the complex of early defoliators. Natural enemies ofE. defoliariaand especially parasitoids and hyperparasitoids are important mortality fa...

  14. Death of the Moth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Woolf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The image of moths gathering around a source of light recurs in Woolf’s private writings and becomes an import motif also in her novels and essays. It is most probably the description of moths in her sister’s letter that become an initial inspiration for writing of The Waves, Woolf’s most radical experiment in novelistic form, where she strives to create a subject-less perspective. On the other hand The Death of The Moth, a 1927 essay, whose first translation into Polish comes together with the present commentary from the translator, is a crystal-clear description of the world as seen by the writer/narrator at her desk, surrounded by exuberant life but witnessing death. 

  15. Communication disruption of guava moth (Coscinoptycha improbana) using a pheromone analog based on chain length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, D M; Dymock, J J; Park, K C; Wakelin, R H; Jamieson, L E

    2013-09-01

    The guava moth, Coscinoptycha improbana, an Australian species that infests fruit crops in commercial and home orchards, was first detected in New Zealand in 1997. A four-component pheromone blend was identified but is not yet commercially available. Using single sensillum recordings from male antennae, we established that the same olfactory receptor neurons responded to two guava moth sex pheromone components, (Z)-11-octadecen-8-one and (Z)-12-nonadecen-9-one, and to a chain length analog, (Z)-13-eicosen-10-one, the sex pheromone of the related peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii. We then field tested whether this non-specificity of the olfactory neurons might enable disruption of sexual communication by the commercially available analog, using male catch to synthetic lures in traps in single-tree, nine-tree and 2-ha plots. A disruptive pheromone analog, based on chain length, is reported for the first time. Trap catches for guava moth were disrupted by three polyethylene tubing dispensers releasing the analog in single-tree plots (86% disruption of control catches) and in a plots of nine trees (99% disruption). Where peach fruit moth pheromone dispensers were deployed at a density of 1000/ha in two 2-ha areas, pheromone traps for guava moth were completely disrupted for an extended period (up to 470 days in peri-urban gardens in Mangonui and 422 days in macadamia nut orchards in Kerikeri). In contrast, traps in untreated areas over 100 m away caught 302.8 ± 128.1 moths/trap in Mangonui and 327.5 ± 78.5 moths/ trap in Kerikeri. The longer chain length in the pheromone analog has greater longevity than the natural pheromone due to its lower volatility. Chain length analogs may warrant further investigation for mating disruption in Lepidoptera, and screening using single-sensillum recording is recommended.

  16. Longevity of the Adult Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella, and the Obliquebanded Leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana, in Washington Apple Orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Vincent P.; Wiman, Nik G.

    2008-01-01

    The longevity of adult codling moth (Cydia pomonella (L.) Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and obliquebanded leafroller (Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) held in shaded vials in the tree canopy was measured during the normal flight periods during 2004 and 2005. In both years all codling moths were dead by 130 degree-days (DD) (21 d) in the spring and 121 DD (8 d) in the summer. On a degree-day basis, data were similar across sex, generation, and year, and a common curve adequately predicted the survival distribution. For the obliquebanded leafroller, there were longevity differences between the sexes, but not between generations or years. Use of empirical quantile-quantile plots showed that the female obliquebanded leafroller lived an average of 32% longer than males. Maximum longevity observed in these studies for obliquebanded leafrollers was 117 DD (11 d) across both generations. The implications of these data for population biology studies and quarantine requirements are discussed. PMID:20337564

  17. Can sunspot activity and ultraviolet-B radiation explain cyclic outbreaks of forest moth pest species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selås, Vidar; Hogstad, Olav; Kobro, Sverre; Rafoss, Trond

    2004-09-22

    Cyclic outbreaks of forest moth pest species have long remained a puzzle for foresters and ecologists. This paper presents time-series exhibiting a strong negative relationship between sunspot numbers and population indices of autumnal and winter moths, both in a mountain birch forest in central Norway and in a mixed lowland forest in southern Norway. In the latter area, also the population level of a moth species feeding entirely on lichens was negatively related to sunspot numbers. Low sunspot activity leads to a thinner ozone layer and thus higher surface ultraviolet (UV)-B radiation. As winter moth larvae prefer leaves subjected to enhanced UV-B radiation, we suggest that the causal relationship between sunspots and moths is that the metabolic costs of producing UV-B-protective pigments during periods of low sunspot activity reduce trees' and lichens' resistance to herbivores, and thus increase the survival of moth larvae. Higher peak densities of moth cycles in mountain forests could be explained by the general higher UV-B radiation at higher altitudes.

  18. Eficiência do Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Berliner, 1915 no controle da traça da cera Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus, 1758 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae Efficiency of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Berliner, 1915 for control of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus, 1758 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deodoro Magno Brighenti

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a eficiência do Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Berliner no controle de Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus. Os experimentos foram realizados no Laboratório de Biologia de Insetos do Departamento de Entomologia da Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA, Lavras, MG, a 28±2ºC, UR 70±10% e fotofase de 12 horas. Aplicou-se formulação comercial de B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki por meio de pulverização, imersão dos favos e também foi incorporada à dieta artificial fornecida às lagartas de terceiro ínstar da traça da cera. A aplicação do produto fitossanitário por meio da pulverização dos favos mostrou-se eficiente no controle de lagartas, atingindo níveis iguais ou superiores a 85% de mortalidade quando foram utilizados 5 g/100 mL de água. Na aplicação por imersão dos favos, todas as dosagens testadas foram eficientes atingindo até 100% de mortalidade. Adicionada à dieta artificial, a concentração com maior porcentagem de mortalidade foi de 10g/60g de dieta. Sintomas de infecção pelo B. thuringiensis foram identificados nas lagartas e o isolamento da bactéria, por meio de uma cultura de Bacillus, comprovou a causa da morte desses insetos em todas as dosagens da formulação comercial do B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki utilizadas.This research aim at evaluating the efficiency of Bacillus thruringiensis var. kurstaki (Berliner in the control of Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus.The experiments were conducted in the Insect Biology Laboratory of the Entomology Department of the Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA, Lavras, MG, Brazil, at 28±2ºC, RH 70±10% and 12-hour photophase. Commercial formulation of B. thuringiensis. var. kurstaki was applied through spraying, comb soaking and also incorporated into the artificial diet fed to third instar caterpillars of the greater wax moth. Application of B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki through the spraying of the combs was efficient for control, reaching levels

  19. sur Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera : Plutellidae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficacité d'extraits de feuilles de neem Azadirachta indica (Sapindale) sur Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera : Plutellidae), Hellula undalis (Lepidoptera : Pyralidae) et Lipaphis erysimi (Hemiptera : Aphididae) du chou Brassica oleracea (Brassicaceae) da.

  20. An unusual food plant for Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Salinas-Castro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An unusual food plant for Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae in Mexico. Larvae of Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus, 1758 were discovered on floral cones of Magnolia schiedeana (Schltdl, 1864 near the natural reserve of La Martinica, Veracruz, México. Magnolia represents an unusual host for this moth species, which is known throughout the world as the "codling moth", a serious pest of fruits of Rosaceae, especially apples. The larvae were identified using taxonomic keys, and identification was corroborated using molecular markers. Further sampling resulted in no additional larvae, hence, the observation was probably that of an ovipositional error by the female, and M. schiedeana is not at risk of attack by this important moth pest.

  1. Molecular divergence of the W chromosomes in pyralid moths (Lepidoptera)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vítková, Magda; Vrbová, Iva; Kubíčková, S.; Marec, František

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 7 (2007), s. 917-930 ISSN 0967-3849 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/06/1860; GA ČR GD521/03/H160 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : CGH * chromosome painting * evolution Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.469, year: 2007

  2. A major gene controls mimicry and crypsis in butterflies and moths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Nicola J.; Pardo-Diaz, Carolina; Whibley, Annabel; Supple, Megan; Saenko, Suzanne V.; Wallbank, Richard W. R.; Wu, Grace C.; Maroja, Luana; Ferguson, Laura; Hanly, Joseph J.; Hines, Heather; Salazar, Camilo; Merrill, Richard; Dowling, Andrea; ffrench-Constant, Richard; Llaurens, Violaine; Joron, Mathieu; McMillan, W. Owen; Jiggins, Chris D.

    2016-01-01

    The wing patterns of butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) are diverse and striking examples of evolutionary diversification by natural selection1,2. Lepidopteran wing colour patterns are a key innovation, consisting of arrays of coloured scales. We still lack a general understanding of how these patterns are controlled and if there is any commonality across the 160,000 moth and 17,000 butterfly species. Here, we identify a gene, cortex, through fine-scale mapping using population genomics and gene expression analyses, which regulates pattern switches in multiple species across the mimetic radiation in Heliconius butterflies. cortex belongs to a fast evolving subfamily of the otherwise highly conserved fizzy family of cell cycle regulators3, suggesting that it most likely regulates pigmentation patterning through regulation of scale cell development. In parallel with findings in the peppered moth (Biston betularia)4, our results suggest that this mechanism is common within Lepidoptera and that cortex has become a major target for natural selection acting on colour and pattern variation in this group of insects. PMID:27251285

  3. The gene cortex controls mimicry and crypsis in butterflies and moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Nicola J; Pardo-Diaz, Carolina; Whibley, Annabel; Supple, Megan A; Saenko, Suzanne V; Wallbank, Richard W R; Wu, Grace C; Maroja, Luana; Ferguson, Laura; Hanly, Joseph J; Hines, Heather; Salazar, Camilo; Merrill, Richard M; Dowling, Andrea J; ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Llaurens, Violaine; Joron, Mathieu; McMillan, W Owen; Jiggins, Chris D

    2016-06-02

    The wing patterns of butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) are diverse and striking examples of evolutionary diversification by natural selection. Lepidopteran wing colour patterns are a key innovation, consisting of arrays of coloured scales. We still lack a general understanding of how these patterns are controlled and whether this control shows any commonality across the 160,000 moth and 17,000 butterfly species. Here, we use fine-scale mapping with population genomics and gene expression analyses to identify a gene, cortex, that regulates pattern switches in multiple species across the mimetic radiation in Heliconius butterflies. cortex belongs to a fast-evolving subfamily of the otherwise highly conserved fizzy family of cell-cycle regulators, suggesting that it probably regulates pigmentation patterning by regulating scale cell development. In parallel with findings in the peppered moth (Biston betularia), our results suggest that this mechanism is common within Lepidoptera and that cortex has become a major target for natural selection acting on colour and pattern variation in this group of insects.

  4. Impact of Lateral Transfers on the Genomes of Lepidoptera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drezen, Jean-Michel; Josse, Thibaut; Bézier, Annie; Gauthier, Jérémy; Huguet, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Transfer of DNA sequences between species regardless of their evolutionary distance is very common in bacteria, but evidence that horizontal gene transfer (HGT) also occurs in multicellular organisms has been accumulating in the past few years. The actual extent of this phenomenon is underestimated due to frequent sequence filtering of “alien” DNA before genome assembly. However, recent studies based on genome sequencing have revealed, and experimentally verified, the presence of foreign DNA sequences in the genetic material of several species of Lepidoptera. Large DNA viruses, such as baculoviruses and the symbiotic viruses of parasitic wasps (bracoviruses), have the potential to mediate these transfers in Lepidoptera. In particular, using ultra-deep sequencing, newly integrated transposons have been identified within baculovirus genomes. Bacterial genes have also been acquired by genomes of Lepidoptera, as in other insects and nematodes. In addition, insertions of bracovirus sequences were present in the genomes of certain moth and butterfly lineages, that were likely corresponding to rearrangements of ancient integrations. The viral genes present in these sequences, sometimes of hymenopteran origin, have been co-opted by lepidopteran species to confer some protection against pathogens. PMID:29120392

  5. Impact of Lateral Transfers on the Genomes of Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Drezen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Transfer of DNA sequences between species regardless of their evolutionary distance is very common in bacteria, but evidence that horizontal gene transfer (HGT also occurs in multicellular organisms has been accumulating in the past few years. The actual extent of this phenomenon is underestimated due to frequent sequence filtering of “alien” DNA before genome assembly. However, recent studies based on genome sequencing have revealed, and experimentally verified, the presence of foreign DNA sequences in the genetic material of several species of Lepidoptera. Large DNA viruses, such as baculoviruses and the symbiotic viruses of parasitic wasps (bracoviruses, have the potential to mediate these transfers in Lepidoptera. In particular, using ultra-deep sequencing, newly integrated transposons have been identified within baculovirus genomes. Bacterial genes have also been acquired by genomes of Lepidoptera, as in other insects and nematodes. In addition, insertions of bracovirus sequences were present in the genomes of certain moth and butterfly lineages, that were likely corresponding to rearrangements of ancient integrations. The viral genes present in these sequences, sometimes of hymenopteran origin, have been co-opted by lepidopteran species to confer some protection against pathogens.

  6. Pheromone transduction in moths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Stengl

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Calling female moths attract their mates late at night with intermittent release of a species-specific sex-pheromone blend. Mean frequency of pheromone filaments encodes distance to the calling female. In their zig-zagging upwind search male moths encounter turbulent pheromone blend filaments at highly variable concentrations and frequencies. The male moth antennae are delicately designed to detect and distinguish even traces of these sex pheromones amongst the abundance of other odors. Its olfactory receptor neurons sense even single pheromone molecules and track intermittent pheromone filaments of highly variable frequencies up to about 30 Hz over a wide concentration range. In the hawkmoth Manduca sexta brief, weak pheromone stimuli as encountered during flight are detected via a metabotropic PLCβ-dependent signal transduction cascade which leads to transient changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. Strong or long pheromone stimuli, which are possibly perceived in direct contact with the female, activate receptor-guanylyl cyclases causing long-term adaptation. In addition, depending on endogenous rhythms of the moth´s physiological state, hormones such as the stress hormone octopamine modulate second messenger levels in sensory neurons. High octopamine levels during the activity phase maximize temporal resolution cAMP-dependently as a prerequisite to mate location. Thus, I suggest that sliding adjustment of odor response threshold and kinetics is based upon relative concentration ratios of intracellular Ca2+ and cyclic nucleotide levels which gate different ion channels synergistically. In addition, I propose a new hypothesis for the cyclic nucleotide-dependent ion channel formed by insect olfactory receptor/coreceptor complexes. Instead of being employed for an ionotropic mechanism of odor detection it is proposed to control subthreshold membrane potential oscillation of sensory neurons, as a basis for temporal encoding of odors.

  7. Key biosynthetic gene subfamily recruited for pheromone production prior to the extensive radiation of Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson Tomas

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Moths have evolved highly successful mating systems, relying on species-specific mixtures of sex pheromone components for long-distance mate communication. Acyl-CoA desaturases are key enzymes in the biosynthesis of these compounds and to a large extent they account for the great diversity of pheromone structures in Lepidoptera. A novel desaturase gene subfamily that displays Δ11 catalytic activities has been highlighted to account for most of the unique pheromone signatures of the taxonomically advanced ditrysian species. To assess the mechanisms driving pheromone evolution, information is needed about the signalling machinery of primitive moths. The currant shoot borer, Lampronia capitella, is the sole reported primitive non-ditrysian moth known to use unsaturated fatty-acid derivatives as sex-pheromone. By combining biochemical and molecular approaches we elucidated the biosynthesis paths of its main pheromone component, the (Z,Z-9,11-tetradecadien-1-ol and bring new insights into the time point of the recruitment of the key Δ11-desaturase gene subfamily in moth pheromone biosynthesis. Results The reconstructed evolutionary tree of desaturases evidenced two ditrysian-specific lineages (the Δ11 and Δ9 (18C>16C to have orthologs in the primitive moth L. capitella despite being absent in Diptera and other insect genomes. Four acyl-CoA desaturase cDNAs were isolated from the pheromone gland, three of which are related to Δ9-desaturases whereas the fourth cDNA clusters with Δ11-desaturases. We demonstrated that this transcript (Lca-KPVQ exclusively accounts for both steps of desaturation involved in pheromone biosynthesis. This enzyme possesses a Z11-desaturase activity that allows transforming the palmitate precursor (C16:0 into (Z-11-hexadecenoic acid and the (Z-9-tetradecenoic acid into the conjugated intermediate (Z,Z-9,11-tetradecadienoic acid. Conclusion The involvement of a single Z11-desaturase in pheromone

  8. SIT for codling moth eradication in British Columbia, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloem, Kenneth A.; Bloem, Stephanie

    2000-01-01

    The codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is considered the key pest of apples and pears in the fruit growing regions of south central British Columbia. This region includes about 18,000 acres of commercial production, as well as several urban centres with abundant backyard fruit trees and ornamental crab apples. Now, after 30 years of research and planning, an eradication programme using the sterile insect technique (SIT) has been implemented against CM. This article reviews the progress that the programme has made and how well reality has met expectations in key areas. Proverbs (1982) and Proverbs et al. (1982) reviewed the techniques for mass rearing, sterilising and releasing CM, DeBiasio (1988) developed the initial implementation plan and Dyck et al. (1993) reviewed the history and development of the programme up to 1992 when it became operational

  9. Evaluation of Lepidoptera population suppression by radiation induced sterility. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    This publication results from the second FAO/IAEA Research Co-ordination Project (CRP) on Inherited Sterility in Lepidoptera (caterpillars of moths). The present CRP and a previous one entitled 'Radiation Induced F 1 Sterility in Lepidoptera for Area-Wide Control' were initiated in response to requests from Member States for the development of environment friendly alternatives to current control of moth pests. The first five-year CRP (1987-1991) dealt primarily with aspects such as determining the effects of various radiation dose levels on the resulting sterility in the treated parents and their F 1 progeny in different Lepidoptera species. In addition, models were developed on the suppressive effects of F 1 sterility on field populations, and some studies were conducted in laboratory or field cages to assess the impact of inherited sterility on pest suppression. The research results were published in 1993 in the IAEA Panel Proceedings Series. This follow-up CRP (1994-1998) has built on the results of the first CRP and has focused on addressing a more challenging phase, consisting of rearing key pest moths and evaluating their application for pest control purposes. The specific objective of the CRP was therefore to assess the potential of suppressing populations of caterpillar pests in the field by inherited sterility methods, i.e. by rearing and releasing irradiated moths and/or their progeny in combination with other biological control methods. The ultimate goal is to have alternative environment-friendly control methods available to be able to reduce the vast quantities of insecticide that are used in agriculture to combat Lepidoptera pests and that adversely affect the trade balance of developing countries because they must use hard currency to import them. The two FAO/IAEA sponsored Lepidoptera CRPs have resulted in expanded research and implementation programmes on F 1 sterility in combination with natural enemies. Such programmes are under way in Tunisia

  10. Dogwood Borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) Abundance and Seasonal Flight Activity in Apple Orchards, Urban Landscapes, and Woodlands in Five Eastern States

    OpenAIRE

    Bergh, J. C.; Leskey, T. C.; Walgenbach, J. F.; Klingeman, W. E.; Kain, D. P.; Zhang, A.

    2017-01-01

    The relative abundance and seasonal flight activity of dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula Harris (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), was measured using weekly records from traps baited with its sex pheromone and deployed in apple orchards, urban landscapes, and native woodland sites in New York, West Virginia, Virginia, North Carolina, and Tennessee in 2005 and 2006. The mean total number of moths captured per site in apple orchards was 3,146 ± 644 and 3095 ± 584 SE in 2005 and 2006, respectively, excee...

  11. Effect of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Wise) Brown and Smith(Ascomycota: Hypocreales) alone or in combination with diatomaceous earth against Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera:Tenebrionidae) and Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalaki, M P; Athanassiou, C G; Steenberg, Tove

    2007-01-01

    moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The fungus was added in stored wheat at two dose rates, 200 and 400 ppm, at two temperature levels, 20 and 25 °C alone or in combination with the diatomaceous earth formulation SilicoSec®. Mortality of the exposed individuals was measured after...

  12. Chromosomal evolution in tortricid moths: conserved karyotypes with diverged features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jindra Síchová

    Full Text Available Moths of the family Tortricidae constitute one of the major microlepidopteran groups in terms of species richness and economic importance. Yet, despite their overall significance, our knowledge of their genome organization is very limited. In order to understand karyotype evolution in the family Tortricidae, we performed detailed cytogenetic analysis of Grapholita molesta, G. funebrana, Lobesia botrana, and Eupoecilia ambiguella, representatives of two main tortricid subfamilies, Olethreutinae and Tortricinae. Besides standard cytogenetic methods, we used fluorescence in situ hybridization for mapping of major rRNA and histone gene clusters and comparative genomic hybridization to determine the level of molecular differentiation of the W and Z sex chromosomes. Our results in combination with available data in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, and other tortricids allow us a comprehensive reconstruction of chromosomal evolution across the family Tortricidae. The emerging picture is that the karyotype of a common ancestor of Tortricinae and Olethreutinae differentiated from the ancestral lepidopteran chromosome print of n = 31 by a sex chromosome-autosome fusion. This rearrangement resulted in a large neo-sex chromosome pair and a karyotype with n = 30 conserved in most Tortricinae species, which was further reduced to n = 28 observed in Olethreutinae. Comparison of the tortricid neo-W chromosomes showed differences in their structure and composition presumably reflecting stochasticity of molecular degeneration of the autosomal part of the neo-W chromosome. Our analysis also revealed conservative pattern of the histone distribution, which is in contrast with high rDNA mobility. Despite the dynamic evolution of rDNA, we can infer a single NOR-chromosome pair as an ancestral state not only in tortricids but probably in all Lepidoptera. The results greatly expand our knowledge of the genome architecture in tortricids, but also contribute

  13. Overview: Pyraloidea adults (Insecta: Lepidoptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are over 16,000 species of pyraloid or snout moths worldwide and many are pests of crops and stored products. The purpose of this video is twofold: to provide an overview of the current, modern classification of snout moths and to provide tools using morphology to identify adult snout moths t...

  14. Impact of Cultivation and Subsequent Burial on Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Conotrachelus nenuphar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughman, William B; Nelson, Peter N; Grieshop, Matthew J

    2015-06-01

    We assessed the efficacy of cultivation as a potential management strategy for codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in apple orchards. Cocooned codling moth pupae and thinning apples infested with plum curculio larvae were cultivated over in the field. Emergence, percent burial, damage to buried fruit, and depth of burial was recorded. In the laboratory, both insects were buried at variable depths in sand and potting soil and emergence was measured. A greater proportion of plum curculio larvae buried in infested fruit under laboratory conditions survived to adulthood compared with unburied infested fruit, down to 15 cm. No codling moth adults emerged from under 1 cm or more of sand. Buried codling moth larvae experienced drastically reduced survival to adulthood compared with unburied larvae. These results indicate that strip cultivation may negatively impact codling moth diapausing larvae and pupae on the ground, but not likely to negatively impact plum curculio in infested dropped apples. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  15. Mating behaviors of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) as influenced by sex pheromone in electrostatic powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J; Stelinski, L L; Gut, L J

    2010-12-01

    Entostat is an electrostatically charged wax powder that can adhere strongly to insect cuticle, making it an ideal carrier to deliver pheromone for pheromone-based confusion techniques. We investigated the attractiveness of Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) males treated with pheromone-laden Entostat powder to naive conspecifics as well as mating behaviors of males after such treatment in a laboratory flight tunnel. Male moths exposed to Entostat containing 1% E,E-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone) acquired and retained the largest amount of the powder and became more attractive as point sources to naive moths compared with those treated with powder containing 5 or 10% codlemone. All Entostat-exposed males remained as attractive as a 0.1-mg codlemone lure for up to 24 h in flight tunnel investigations. Male moth orientation to normally attractive sources of codlemone was completely disrupted directly after treatment with Entostat powder. Males' ability to orient to 0.1-mg lures recovered progressively over a 6-d postexposure interval; however, their responses never reached the levels observed with untreated control moths. Entostat-exposed moths retained detectable amounts of codlemone up to 4 d. Our laboratory flight tunnel results suggest that the mode of action of Entostat powder as an autodissemination control tactic may be due to creating both attractive false point sources after exposure to the powder as well as directly inhibiting contaminated males' capability to orient to pheromone.

  16. Anholts sommerfugle (Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsholt, Ole; Bygebjerg, Rune; Meedom, Peter

    2008-01-01

      The Lepidoptera fauna of the Danish island of Anholt is surveyed, and 1160 species are recorded. Anholt is situated in Kattegat 44 km from Denmark and 47 km from Sweden. The history and environment of the island are briefly discussed, with special focus on the flora, and earlier studies...... of the Lepidopterera fauna of Anholt are dealt with. The present study is in first hand based on material collected by the late Ebbe Schmidt Nielsen and the authors, partly in the 1970's and partly in more recent years. The material do not permit a general comparison between the status of the Lepidoptera fauna...

  17. Şanlıurfa ili nar bahçelerinde Harnup güvesi, Apomyelois ceratoniae Zell. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)’nin ergin popülasyon gelişimi ve zarar oranının belirlenmesi

    OpenAIRE

    MAMAY, Mehmet; ÜNLÜ, Levent

    2013-01-01

    Summary This study was performed in pomegranate orchards of Central, Siverek and Suruç County of Şanlıurfa province during the 2009 and 2010 growing seasons. This is the first study on Carob moth [Apomyelois (=Ectomyelois) ceratoniae Zell. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)] in the region after commissioning Southeast Anatolia Project. Because pomegranate orchards have increased and Carob moth has been more trouble after that date. In the study, it was intended to determine first adult emergence, ma...

  18. Mapping of single-copy genes by TSA-FISH in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabajal Paladino, Leonela Z; Nguyen, Petr; Síchová, Jindra; Marec, František

    2014-01-01

    We work on the development of transgenic sexing strains in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Tortricidae), which would enable to produce male-only progeny for the population control of this pest using sterile insect technique (SIT). To facilitate this research, we have developed a number of cytogenetic and molecular tools, including a physical map of the codling moth Z chromosome using BAC-FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization with bacterial artificial chromosome probes). However, chromosomal localization of unique, single-copy sequences such as a transgene cassette by conventional FISH remains challenging. In this study, we adapted a FISH protocol with tyramide signal amplification (TSA-FISH) for detection of single-copy genes in Lepidoptera. We tested the protocol with probes prepared from partial sequences of Z-linked genes in the codling moth. Using a modified TSA-FISH protocol we successfully mapped a partial sequence of the Acetylcholinesterase 1 (Ace-1) gene to the Z chromosome and confirmed thus its Z-linkage. A subsequent combination of BAC-FISH with BAC probes containing anticipated neighbouring Z-linked genes and TSA-FISH with the Ace-1 probe allowed the integration of Ace-1 in the physical map of the codling moth Z chromosome. We also developed a two-colour TSA-FISH protocol which enabled us simultaneous localization of two Z-linked genes, Ace-1 and Notch, to the expected regions of the Z chromosome. We showed that TSA-FISH represents a reliable technique for physical mapping of genes on chromosomes of moths and butterflies. Our results suggest that this technique can be combined with BAC-FISH and in the future used for physical localization of transgene cassettes on chromosomes of transgenic lines in the codling moth or other lepidopteran species. Furthermore, the developed protocol for two-colour TSA-FISH might become a powerful tool for synteny mapping in non-model organisms.

  19. Intraspecific Variation in Female Sex Pheromone of the Codling Moth Cydia pomonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duménil, Claire; Judd, Gary J R; Bosch, Dolors; Baldessari, Mario; Gemeno, César; Groot, Astrid T

    2014-09-26

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae), is a major pest of apple, pear and walnut orchards worldwide. This pest is often controlled using the biologically friendly control method known as pheromone-based mating disruption. Mating disruption likely exerts selection on the sexual communication system of codling moth, as male and female moths will persist in their attempt to meet and mate. Surprisingly little is known on the intraspecific variation of sexual communication in this species. We started an investigation to determine the level of individual variation in the female sex pheromone composition of this moth and whether variation among different populations might be correlated with use of mating disruption against those populations. By extracting pheromone glands of individual females from a laboratory population in Canada and from populations from apple orchards in Spain and Italy, we found significant between- and within-population variation. Comparing females that had been exposed to mating disruption, or not, revealed a significant difference in sex pheromone composition for two of the minor components. Overall, the intraspecific variation observed shows the potential for a shift in female sexual signal when selection pressure is high, as is the case with continuous use of mating disruption.

  20. A predicted sex pheromone receptor of codling moth Cydia pomonella detects the plant volatile pear ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas M Bengtsson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant volatiles mediate host discrimination and host finding in phytophagous insects. Understanding how insects recognize these signals is a current challenge in chemical ecology research. Pear ester, ethyl (E,Z-2,4-decadienoate, is a powerful, bisexual attractant of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae and strongly synergizes the male response to female-produced sex pheromone. We show here that the codling moth odorant receptor (OR CpomOR3 is dedicated to detecting this plant volatile. Heterologous expression of CpomOR3 in Drosophila T1 trichoid and ab3A basiconic sensilla, followed by a screening with codling moth pheromone compounds and known plant volatile attractants, confirms that CpomOR3 binds to pear ester. Although CpomOR3 does not respond to any of the pheromone components tested, a phylogenetic analysis of lepidopteran chemosensory receptor genes reveals a close relationship of CpomOR3 with pheromone receptors (PRs in moths. This corroborates the interaction of ecological and social chemosensory cues during premating communication. The finding that a plant volatile compound, pear ester, is a specific ligand for a PR-like lepidopteran receptor adds to our understanding of insect-plant interactions and emphasizes the interaction of natural and sexual selection during the phylogenetic divergence of insect herbivores.

  1. Intraspecific Variation in Female Sex Pheromone of the Codling Moth Cydia pomonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Duménil

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae, is a major pest of apple, pear and walnut orchards worldwide. This pest is often controlled using the biologically friendly control method known as pheromone-based mating disruption. Mating disruption likely exerts selection on the sexual communication system of codling moth, as male and female moths will persist in their attempt to meet and mate. Surprisingly little is known on the intraspecific variation of sexual communication in this species. We started an investigation to determine the level of individual variation in the female sex pheromone composition of this moth and whether variation among different populations might be correlated with use of mating disruption against those populations. By extracting pheromone glands of individual females from a laboratory population in Canada and from populations from apple orchards in Spain and Italy, we found significant between- and within-population variation. Comparing females that had been exposed to mating disruption, or not, revealed a significant difference in sex pheromone composition for two of the minor components. Overall, the intraspecific variation observed shows the potential for a shift in female sexual signal when selection pressure is high, as is the case with continuous use of mating disruption.

  2. Moths smell with their antennae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Thomas; Ballard, Matthew; Alexeev, Alexander; Hu, David

    2015-11-01

    Moths are reported to smell each other from over 6 miles away, locating each other with just 200 airborne molecules. In this study, we investigate how the structure of the antennae influences particle capture. We measure the branching patterns of over 40 species of moths, across two orders of magnitude in weight. We find that moth antennae have 3 levels of hierarchy, with dimensions on each level scaling with body size. We perform lattice-Boltzman simulations to determine optimal flow patterns around antennae branches allowing for capture of small particles.

  3. Predicting codling moth (Cydia pomonella) phenology in North Carolina on the basis of temperature and improved generation turnover estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Thomas M; Kennedy, George G; Walgenbach, James F

    2015-10-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major worldwide pest of apples, pears and walnuts. A temperature-driven phenological model of codling moth, developed in Michigan, has been utilized in North Carolina and other states for decades. Systematic inaccuracy of this model in predicting moth emergence in North Carolina suggests that the relationship between emergence and temperature differs between the American midwest and southeast, or that additional factors may influence the system. A method was developed to optimize the estimation of generation turnover intervals. Emergence was modeled as a function of heat unit accumulation. Significant differences between emergence predictions based on the resultant model and the existing model developed in Michigan were found. A new model of codling moth emergence, incorporating improved estimates for generation turnover for North Carolina, offers predictive improvement with practical importance to management. Differences between the emergence of susceptible and resistant moth populations were also investigated, leading to the suggestion that resistance to insecticides should be considered in future studies of emergence phenology. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Historical Gypsy Moth Defoliation Frequency

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Gypsy moth populations may exist for many years at low densities such that it may be difficult to find any life stages. Then, for reasons that are not completely...

  5. Gamma rays control coding moths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarris, L.

    Gamma rays are being tested as a means of controlling codling moths, Cydia pomonella (L.), under fruit storage conditions where fumigation will not work. Preliminary tests have shown that gamma radiation kills all exposed codling moth larvae, including larvae in the dormant stage. There is no carryover of radiation in the fruit and minimal effect on the fruit. Gamma irradiation of food is considered safe for human consumption at doses of 1 kilogray (10 kilorads) or less.

  6. Lonomia obliqua Walker (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae: hemostasis implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviane Maggi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary In southern Brazil, since 1989, several cases of accidents produced by unwilling contact with the body of poisonous caterpillars of the moth species Lonomia obliqua Walker, 1855 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae, were described. L. obliqua caterpillars have gregarious behavior and feed on leaves of host trees during the night, staying grouped in the trunk during the day, which favors the occurrence of accidents with the species. This caterpillar has the body covered with bristles that on contact with the skin of individuals, breaks and release their contents, inoculating the venom into the victim. The basic constitution of the venom is protein and its components produce physiological changes in the victim, which include disturbances in hemostasis. Hemorrhagic syndrome associated with consumption coagulopathy, intravascular hemolysis and acute renal failure are some of the possible clinical manifestations related to poisoning by L. obliqua. Specific laboratory tests for diagnosis of poisoning have not been described previously. The diagnosis of poisoning is made based on the patient's medical history, clinical manifestations, erythrocyte levels, and, primarily, parameters that evaluate blood coagulation. Treatment is performed with the use of supportive care and the administration of specific hyperimmune antivenom. Poisoning can be serious and even fatal.

  7. Effect of different mowing regimes on butterflies and diurnal moths on road verges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valtonen, A.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In northern and central Europe road verges offer alternative habitats for declining plant and invertebrate species of semi-natural grasslands. The quality of road verges as habitats depends on several factors, of which the mowing regime is one of the easiest to modify. In this study we compared the Lepidoptera communities on road verges that underwent three different mowing regimes regarding the timing and intensity of mowing; mowing in mid-summer, mowing in late summer, and partial mowing (a narrow strip next to the road. A total of 12,174 individuals and 107 species of Lepidoptera were recorded. The mid-summer mown verges had lower species richness and abundance of butterflies and lower species richness and diversity of diurnal moths compared to the late summer and partially mown verges. By delaying the annual mowing until late summer or promoting mosaic-like mowing regimes, such as partial mowing, the quality of road verges as habitats for butterflies and diurnal moths can be improved.

  8. A phylogenomic analysis of lichen-feeding tiger moths uncovers evolutionary origins of host chemical sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott Chialvo, Clare H; Chialvo, Pablo; Holland, Jeffrey D; Anderson, Timothy J; Breinholt, Jesse W; Kawahara, Akito Y; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Shanlin; Zaspel, Jennifer M

    2018-04-01

    Host species utilize a variety of defenses to deter feeding, including secondary chemicals. Some phytophagous insects have evolved tolerance to these chemical defenses, and can sequester secondary defense compounds for use against their own predators and parasitoids. While numerous studies have examined plant-insect interactions, little is known about lichen-insect interactions. Our study focused on reconstructing the evolution of lichen phenolic sequestration in the tiger moth tribe Lithosiini (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae), the most diverse lineage of lichen-feeding moths, with 3000 described species. We built an RNA-Seq dataset and examined the adult metabolome for the presence of lichen-derived phenolics. Using the transcriptomic dataset, we recover a well-resolved phylogeny of the Lithosiini, and determine that the metabolomes within species are more similar than those among species. Results from an initial ancestral state reconstruction suggest that the ability to sequester phenolics produced by a single chemical pathway preceded generalist sequestration of phenolics produced by multiple chemical pathways. We conclude that phenolics are consistently and selectively sequestered within Lithosiini. Furthermore, sequestration of compounds from a single chemical pathway may represent a synapomorphy of the tribe, and the ability to sequester phenolics produced by multiple pathways arose later. These findings expand on our understanding of the interactions between Lepidoptera and their lichen hosts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Edible Lepidoptera in Mexico: Geographic distribution, ethnicity, economic and nutritional importance for rural people

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we reported the butterflies and moths that are consumed in Mexico. We identified 67 species of Lepidoptera that are eaten principally in their larval stage in 17 states of Mexico. These species belong to 16 families: Arctiidae, Bombycidae, Castniidae, Cossidae, Geometridae, Hepialidae, Hesperiidae, Lasiocampidae, Noctuidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Pyralidae, Saturniidae, Sesiidae, and Sphingidae. Saturniidae, Pieridae, Noctuidae and Nymphalidae were the more species consumed with 16, 11, 9, and 8 species, respectively. The genera with the largest numbers of species were: Phassus, Phoebis, Hylesia and Spodoptera, with three species. Their local distribution, corresponding to each state of Mexico, is also presented. PMID:21211040

  10. Edible Lepidoptera in Mexico: Geographic distribution, ethnicity, economic and nutritional importance for rural people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliva-Rivera Héctor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we reported the butterflies and moths that are consumed in Mexico. We identified 67 species of Lepidoptera that are eaten principally in their larval stage in 17 states of Mexico. These species belong to 16 families: Arctiidae, Bombycidae, Castniidae, Cossidae, Geometridae, Hepialidae, Hesperiidae, Lasiocampidae, Noctuidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Pyralidae, Saturniidae, Sesiidae, and Sphingidae. Saturniidae, Pieridae, Noctuidae and Nymphalidae were the more species consumed with 16, 11, 9, and 8 species, respectively. The genera with the largest numbers of species were: Phassus, Phoebis, Hylesia and Spodoptera, with three species. Their local distribution, corresponding to each state of Mexico, is also presented.

  11. Huevo, larva en primer estadio y aparato genital femenino de la mariposa Chabuata castanea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela A Rodríguez

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el huevo, larva de primer estadio y aparato genital de la hembra de Chabuata castanea con material proveniente de Talcahuano, VIII región, Chile y de huevos obtenidos en laboratorio. Se fotografiaron los huevos con microscopia electrónica de barrido para analizar las variaciones entre micropila, celdas primarias y secundarias, concluyéndose que las diferencias permiten una identificación al nivel de especie.Egg, first larval stage and female genitalia of the moth Chabuata castanea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. Egg, first larval stage, and female genitalia of the widely distributed moth Chabuata castanea are described, based on material from Talcahuano, VIII region, Chile. Egg microestructures are illustrated with scannig electron microscope images which show that egg morphology allows identification to species level. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (2: 659-664. Epub 2007 June, 29.

  12. Resurgence of minor pests following the implementation of mating disruption against Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) in Sherry vineyards (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Gallardo, A.; López, M. Á.; Lara, M.; Maistrello, L.; Molejón, A.; Ocete, R.

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of the mating disruption technique against the grape berry moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae), in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Sherry vineyards (Andalusia, South-western Spain) reduced the number of chemical treatments required to manage this serious pest. In order to verify the long term consequences of this type of management on the minor pests of vineyards, a study was carried out over nine years to compare the population leve...

  13. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 2. Rediscovery and description of Sparkia immacula (Grote, 1883) (Noctuidae, Noctuinae, Hadenini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Eric H.; Forbes, Gregory S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In 2006 the U.S. National Park Service initiated a long term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico. Sparkia immacula (Grote, 1883), previously known only from historical specimens collected in Arizona and New Mexico, was discovered in the Monument in 2007 during the second year of the study. The adult moths and male and female genitalia are illustrated for the first time. PMID:22207799

  14. Winter Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education Centers Harwood Training Grants Videos E-Tools Winter Storms Plan. Equip. Train To prevent injuries, illnesses and Fatalities during winter storms. This page requires that javascript be enabled ...

  15. Effect of gamma radiation and entomopathogenic nematodes on greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus) [Lep., Pyralidae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, R.M.S.

    2008-01-01

    The greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.), is a lepidoptera insect; its larval stage, feeds on wax and pollen stored in combs of active honey bee colonies (Milam, 1970). It does not attack adult bees but destructs combs of a weak colony by chewing the comb; spinning silk-lined tunnels through the cell wall and over the face of the comb, which prevent the bees to emerge by their abdomen from their cell, so they die by starvation as they unable to escape from their cell. They also eat out a place to spin their cocoons in the soft wood of the bee hive. Galleria mellonella can also destroy stored honey combs. Therefore, it is considered a major pest of the honeybee. Damage will vary with the level of infestation and the time that has elapsed since the infestation first began. In time, stored combs may be completely destroyed and the frames and combs become filled with a mass of tough, silky web. In ideal conditions for wax moth development, a box (super) of combs may be rendered useless in about a week. Damage occurs mainly in the warm and hot months of the year when wax moths are most active. However, considerable damage can still occur during the cool part of late autumn and early spring as greater wax moth can produce a large amount of metabolic heat which can raise the immediate temperature around them by up to 25 degree C above the normal environment temperature. At the time of storage, combs that are apparently free of wax moth may contain eggs that will hatch later. They should be monitored

  16. Cherry Scallop Shell Moth Pest Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Omer; Debra Allen-Reid

    1996-01-01

    The cherry scallop shell moth, Hydria prunivorata (Ferguson) is a defoliator of black cherry, and occasional other native cherries throughout its range in eastern North America. The moth?s name is derived from the pattern of alternating dark and light scalloped lines on the wings. The adults which emerge from late May to early August, have a wingspread of about 37mm....

  17. Winter MVC

    OpenAIRE

    Castellón Gadea, Pasqual

    2013-01-01

    Winter MVC és un framework de presentació basat en Spring MVC que simplifica la metodologia de configuracions. Winter MVC es un framework de presentación basado en Spring MVC que simplifica la metodología de configuraciones. Winter MVC is a presentation framework that simplifies Spring MVC configuration methodology.

  18. Worldwide host plants of the highly polyphagous, invasive Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockerhoff, E G; Suckling, D M; Ecroyd, C E; Wagstaff, S J; Raabe, M C; Dowell, R V; Wearings, C H

    2011-10-01

    The light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a highly successful biological invader. It was accidentally introduced to several countries including New Zealand, Hawaii, England, and California. Light brown apple moth attacks a wide range of crop plants and other woody and herbaceous plants, but a more comprehensive analysis of its host range is needed for risk assessments, to evaluate the likely economic and environmental impacts, and to enable targeting of particular plant species for detection surveys and treatments. We reviewed and synthesized the host range and host selection behavior of light brown apple moth by using information from Australia and invaded countries. The host range of light brown apple moth is determined by the behavior of both adult females and larvae. Females use visual, chemical and physical cues to choose host plants. Larvae are capable of limited active dispersal by walking and longer range dispersal by ballooning on silken strands; therefore, larvae also may need to select host plants. We review larval performance indicators across a range of plants. Based on our review, there are at least 545 plant species in 363 genera from 121 families that have been reported as hosts of light brown apple moth. Some plants were reported only once and need verification. Nevertheless, many host plant species and their wide phylogenetic range (from ferns to higher dicotyledons) indicates that light brown apple moth is one of the most polyphagous insects known. This information and our categorization of frequency of host use are valuable for incursion response and pest management activities.

  19. New Fossil Lepidoptera (Insecta: Amphiesmenoptera) from the Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation of Northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiting; Shih, Chungkun; Labandeira, Conrad C.; Sohn, Jae-Cheon; Davis, Donald R.; Santiago-Blay, Jorge A.; Flint, Oliver; Ren, Dong

    2013-01-01

    Background The early history of the Lepidoptera is poorly known, a feature attributable to an inadequate preservational potential and an exceptionally low occurrence of moth fossils in relevant mid-Mesozoic deposits. In this study, we examine a particularly rich assemblage of morphologically basal moths that contribute significantly toward the understanding of early lepidopteran biodiversity. Methodology/Principal Findings Our documentation of early fossil moths involved light- and scanning electron microscopic examination of specimens, supported by various illumination and specimen contrast techniques. A total of 20 moths were collected from the late Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation in Northeastern China. Our principal results were the recognition and description of seven new genera and seven new species assigned to the Eolepidopterigidae; one new genus with four new species assigned to the Mesokristenseniidae; three new genera with three new species assigned to the Ascololepidopterigidae fam. nov.; and one specimen unassigned to family. Lepidopteran assignment of these taxa is supported by apomorphies of extant lineages, including the M1 vein, after separation from the M2 vein, subtending an angle greater than 60 degrees that is sharply angulate at the junction with the r–m crossvein (variable in Trichoptera); presence of a foretibial epiphysis; the forewing M vein often bearing three branches; and the presence of piliform scales along wing veins. Conclusions/Significance The diversity of these late Middle Jurassic lepidopterans supports a conclusion that the Lepidoptera–Trichoptera divergence occurred by the Early Jurassic. PMID:24278142

  20. Mortality in hibernating turnip moth larvae, Agrotis segetum, caused by Tolypocladium cylindrosporum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, Tove; Øgaard, Leif

    2000-01-01

    At one sampling site an entomopathogenic fungus, tentatively identified as Tolypocladium cylindrosporum, was found to severely reduce populations of hibernating turnip moth larvae (Agrotis segetum) in consecutive winters, while it was never recorded from other collection sites. It produced...... mouldy smell. The infectivity of the fungus was tested in a semi-field trial, where suspensions of conidia were applied to hibernating turnip moth larvae in plastic buckets. The experiment also included buckets with larvae and/or soil from the infested site in order to study the natural fungal...... studies with 10 insect species indicated that the fungus is probably specific to hibernating cutworms....

  1. Chemical modulators of the innate immune response alter gypsy moth larval susceptibility to Bacillus thuringiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broderick Nichole A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gut comprises an essential barrier that protects both invertebrate and vertebrate animals from invasion by microorganisms. Disruption of the balanced relationship between indigenous gut microbiota and their host can result in gut bacteria eliciting host responses similar to those caused by invasive pathogens. For example, ingestion of Bacillus thuringiensis by larvae of some species of susceptible Lepidoptera can result in normally benign enteric bacteria exerting pathogenic effects. Results We explored the potential role of the insect immune response in mortality caused by B. thuringiensis in conjunction with gut bacteria. Two lines of evidence support such a role. First, ingestion of B. thuringiensis by gypsy moth larvae led to the depletion of their hemocytes. Second, pharmacological agents that are known to modulate innate immune responses of invertebrates and vertebrates altered larval mortality induced by B. thuringiensis. Specifically, Gram-negative peptidoglycan pre-treated with lysozyme accelerated B. thuringiensis-induced killing of larvae previously made less susceptible due to treatment with antibiotics. Conversely, several inhibitors of the innate immune response (eicosanoid inhibitors and antioxidants increased the host's survival time following ingestion of B. thuringiensis. Conclusions This study demonstrates that B. thuringiensis infection provokes changes in the cellular immune response of gypsy moth larvae. The effects of chemicals known to modulate the innate immune response of many invertebrates and vertebrates, including Lepidoptera, also indicate a role of this response in B. thuringiensis killing. Interactions among B. thuringiensis toxin, enteric bacteria, and aspects of the gypsy moth immune response may provide a novel model to decipher mechanisms of sepsis associated with bacteria of gut origin.

  2. Evolution of extreme proboscis lengths in Neotropical Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauder, J. A.-S.; Warren, A. D.; Krenn, H. W.

    2015-01-01

    Exaggerated morphologies have evolved in insects as adaptations to nectar feeding by natural selection. For example, the suctorial mouthparts of butterflies enable these insects to gain access to floral nectar concealed inside deep floral tubes. Proboscis length in Lepidoptera is known to scale with body size, but whether extreme absolute proboscis lengths of nectar feeding butterflies result from a proportional or disproportional increase with body size that differs between phylogenetic lineages remains unknown. We surveyed the range of variation that occurs in scaling relationships between proboscis length and body size against a phylogenetic background among Costa Rican Hesperiidae. We obtained a new record holder for the longest proboscis in butterflies and showed that extremely long proboscides evolved at least three times independently within Neotropical Hesperiidae. We conclude that the evolution of extremely long proboscides results from allometric scaling with body size, as demonstrated in hawk moths. We hypothesize that constraints on the evolution of increasingly long butterfly proboscides may come from (1) the underlying scaling relationships, i.e., relative proboscis length, combined with the butterfly’s flight style and flower-visiting behaviour and/or (2) developmental constraints during the pupal phase. Lastly, we discuss why butterflies did not evolve similar scaling relationships as hawk moths. PMID:25937673

  3. Moth hearing and sound communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2015-01-01

    Active echolocation enables bats to orient and hunt the night sky for insects. As a counter-measure against the severe predation pressure many nocturnal insects have evolved ears sensitive to ultrasonic bat calls. In moths bat-detection was the principal purpose of hearing, as evidenced by compar......Active echolocation enables bats to orient and hunt the night sky for insects. As a counter-measure against the severe predation pressure many nocturnal insects have evolved ears sensitive to ultrasonic bat calls. In moths bat-detection was the principal purpose of hearing, as evidenced......, revealing a bias towards what humans can sense, when studying (acoustic) communication in animals....

  4. Comparing Behavior and Clock Gene Expression between Caterpillars, Butterflies, and Moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niepoth, Natalie; Ke, Gao; de Roode, Jacobus C; Groot, Astrid T

    2018-02-01

    Circadian behavior is widely observed in insects; however, the mechanisms that drive its evolution remain a black box. While circadian activity rhythms are well characterized in adults within the order Lepidoptera (i.e., most butterfly species are day active, while most moths are night active), much less is known about daily activity and clock gene expression in the larval stage. Additionally, direct comparison of clock gene expression between day-active and night-active species reared together has not been quantified. Our study characterized the daily rhythms of caterpillar feeding and activity in addition to the gene expression of 2 central circadian clock genes, period ( per) and timeless ( tim), in larvae and adults of the day-active butterfly Danaus plexippus and the night-active moth Heliothis virescens. We found that neither Danaus nor Heliothis caterpillars are strictly diurnal or nocturnal like their adult counterparts; however, we found that slight rhythms in feeding and activity can arise in response to external forces, such as temperature and host plant. Expression levels differed between genes, between butterfly larvae and adults, and between butterfly and moth species, even though expression levels of both per and tim oscillated with a similar phase over 24 hours across all treatments. Our study, the first of its kind to investigate circadian timekeeper gene expression in 2 life stages and 2 species, highlights interesting differences in core clock gene expression patterns that could have potential downstream effects on circadian rhythms.

  5. Consultants Group Meeting on Improvement of Codling Moth SIT to Facilitate Expansion of Field Application. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    SIT currently has only limited application in Lepidoptera control. Prospects for improvement of the technique however are good, and the species with the best immediate prospect is the codling moth (Cydia pomonella). Codling moth is the key pest of most apple and pear orchards in the world and the cause of intensive insecticide use during the whole fruiting season. As a result of increasing development of insecticide resistance in codling moth, the banning of essential insecticides, as well as public concerns about the environment and food safety, the Subprogramme continues to receive enquiries from a number of countries as to the applicability of SIT as a suppression method for this species. SIT is currently used as part of areawide codling moth control in British Columbia, Canada and in the border area with Washington State, USA. The SIT can be integrated with a number of other techniques, including mating disruption as in the trial in Washington State. The Canadian programme is co-funded by growers, local and national government. The programme is proving effective at controlling the moth in an environmental friendly way. Currently the programme is only financially attractive with government subsidy although in view of the replacement of insecticide use with SIT, growers will be able to access the rapidly growing and very lucrative market for organic fruit. A new CRP is proposed with the objective of improving the efficiency of all stages of the SIT for codling moth. This will cover reducing the cost of production, product and process quality control, genetic sexing, strain compatibility and field monitoring among others.

  6. Control of Cydia pomonella L. and Cydia molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera Tortricidae) in pome-fruit orchards with Ecodian sex pheromone dispensers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anfora, G; Baldessari, M; Maines, R; Trona, F; Reggiori, F; Angeli, G

    2007-01-01

    A mating disruption approach using high densities of pheromone dispensers, has been recently proposed for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Cydia molesta (Busck.), (Lepidoptera Tortricidae), control. Ecodian Star dispensers, made of low-cost biodegradable material and easy to apply, were formulated with 10 mg of codlemone (E8,E10-12OH) and 10 mg of grapamone (Z8-12OH) and placed at a rate of 1,400-2,000 dispensers/ha. The pheromone release rates from new and field aged dispensers were evaluated by hexane extraction of the residual attractant (indirectly) and gas-chromatographic analysis. The release rate of field-aged dispensers decreased over time with a good linearity; they released a significant amount of synthetic sex pheromones over the entire season. Dispensers elicited close-range approaches of codling moth males in wind tunnel irrespective of their age. Field trials carried out from 2003 to 2004 confirmed the efficacy of Ecodian Star dispensers for codling moth and oriental fruit moth control, regardless the size of the treated area. Our results demonstrate that Ecodian dispensers achieved a good level of activity and longevity over the season. The potential of this strategy for the control of the moths is discussed.

  7. Evolutionary escalation: the bat-moth arms race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Hofstede, Hannah M; Ratcliffe, John M

    2016-06-01

    Echolocation in bats and high-frequency hearing in their insect prey make bats and insects an ideal system for studying the sensory ecology and neuroethology of predator-prey interactions. Here, we review the evolutionary history of bats and eared insects, focusing on the insect order Lepidoptera, and consider the evidence for antipredator adaptations and predator counter-adaptations. Ears evolved in a remarkable number of body locations across insects, with the original selection pressure for ears differing between groups. Although cause and effect are difficult to determine, correlations between hearing and life history strategies in moths provide evidence for how these two variables influence each other. We consider life history variables such as size, sex, circadian and seasonal activity patterns, geographic range and the composition of sympatric bat communities. We also review hypotheses on the neural basis for anti-predator behaviours (such as evasive flight and sound production) in moths. It is assumed that these prey adaptations would select for counter-adaptations in predatory bats. We suggest two levels of support for classifying bat traits as counter-adaptations: traits that allow bats to eat more eared prey than expected based on their availability in the environment provide a low level of support for counter-adaptations, whereas traits that have no other plausible explanation for their origination and maintenance than capturing defended prey constitute a high level of support. Specific predator counter-adaptations include calling at frequencies outside the sensitivity range of most eared prey, changing the pattern and frequency of echolocation calls during prey pursuit, and quiet, or 'stealth', echolocation. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. How do tiger moths jam bat sonar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Aaron J; Barber, Jesse R; Hristov, Nickolay I; Conner, William E

    2011-07-15

    The tiger moth Bertholdia trigona is the only animal in nature known to defend itself by jamming the sonar of its predators - bats. In this study we analyzed the three-dimensional flight paths and echolocation behavior of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) attacking B. trigona in a flight room over seven consecutive nights to determine the acoustic mechanism of the sonar-jamming defense. Three mechanisms have been proposed: (1) the phantom echo hypothesis, which states that bats misinterpret moth clicks as echoes; (2) the ranging interference hypothesis, which states that moth clicks degrade the bats' precision in determining target distance; and (3) the masking hypothesis, which states that moth clicks mask the moth echoes entirely, making the moth temporarily invisible. On nights one and two of the experiment, the bats appeared startled by the clicks; however, on nights three through seven, the bats frequently missed their prey by a distance predicted by the ranging interference hypothesis (∼15-20 cm). Three-dimensional simulations show that bats did not avoid phantom targets, and the bats' ability to track clicking prey contradicts the predictions of the masking hypothesis. The moth clicks also forced the bats to reverse their stereotyped pattern of echolocation emissions during attack, even while bats continued pursuit of the moths. This likely further hinders the bats' ability to track prey. These results have implications for the evolution of sonar jamming in tiger moths, and we suggest evolutionary pathways by which sonar jamming may have evolved from other tiger moth defense mechanisms.

  9. Managing the forest for more than the trees: effects of experimental timber harvest on forest Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerville, Keith S

    2011-04-01

    Studies of the effects of timber harvest on forest insect communities have rarely considered how disturbance from a range of harvest levels interacts with temporal variation in species diversity to affect community resistance to change. Here I report the results of a landscape-scale, before-and-after, treatment-control experiment designed to test how communities of forest Lepidoptera experience (1) changes in species richness and composition and (2) shifts in species dominance one year after logging. I sampled Lepidoptera from 20 forest stands allocated to three harvest treatments (control, even-aged shelterwood or clearcuts, and uneven-aged group selection cuts) within three watersheds at Morgan-Monroe State Forest, Indiana, USA. Moths were sampled from all forest stands one year prior to harvest in 2007 and immediately post-harvest in 2009. Species composition was most significantly affected by temporal variation between years, although uneven-aged management also caused significant changes in lepidopteran community structure. Furthermore, species richness of Lepidoptera was higher in 2007 compared to 2009 across all watersheds and forest stands. The decrease in species richness between years, however, was much larger in even-aged and uneven-aged management units compared to the control. Furthermore, matrix stands within the even-aged management unit demonstrated the highest resistance to species loss within any management unit. Species dominance was highly resistant to effects of timber harvest, with pre- and post-harvest values for Simpson diversity nearly invariant. Counter to prediction, however, the suite of dominant taxa differed dramatically among the three management units post-harvest. My results suggest that temporal variation may have strong interactions with timber harvest, precipitating loss of nearly 50% species richness from managed stands regardless of harvest level. Even-aged management, however, appeared to leave the smallest "footprint" on moth

  10. Stress Responses of Small Heat Shock Protein Genes in Lepidoptera Point to Limited Conservation of Function across Phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Zheng, Jincheng; Peng, Yu; Liu, Xiaoxia; Hoffmann, Ary A; Ma, Chun-Sen

    2015-01-01

    The small heat shock protein (sHsp) family is thought to play an important role in protein refolding and signal transduction, and thereby protect organisms from stress. However little is known about sHsp function and conservation across phylogenies. In the current study, we provide a comprehensive assessment of small Hsp genes and their stress responses in the oriental fruit moth (OFM), Grapholita molesta. Fourteen small heat shock proteins of OFM clustered with related Hsps in other Lepidoptera despite a high level of variability among them, and in contrast to the highly conserved Hsp11.1. The only known lepidopteran sHsp ortholog (Hsp21.3) was consistently unaffected under thermal stress in Lepidoptera where it has been characterized. However the phylogenetic position of the sHsps within the Lepidoptera was not associated with conservation of induction patterns under thermal extremes or diapause. These findings suggest that the sHsps have evolved rapidly to develop new functions within the Lepidoptera.

  11. Stress Responses of Small Heat Shock Protein Genes in Lepidoptera Point to Limited Conservation of Function across Phylogeny.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    Full Text Available The small heat shock protein (sHsp family is thought to play an important role in protein refolding and signal transduction, and thereby protect organisms from stress. However little is known about sHsp function and conservation across phylogenies. In the current study, we provide a comprehensive assessment of small Hsp genes and their stress responses in the oriental fruit moth (OFM, Grapholita molesta. Fourteen small heat shock proteins of OFM clustered with related Hsps in other Lepidoptera despite a high level of variability among them, and in contrast to the highly conserved Hsp11.1. The only known lepidopteran sHsp ortholog (Hsp21.3 was consistently unaffected under thermal stress in Lepidoptera where it has been characterized. However the phylogenetic position of the sHsps within the Lepidoptera was not associated with conservation of induction patterns under thermal extremes or diapause. These findings suggest that the sHsps have evolved rapidly to develop new functions within the Lepidoptera.

  12. Area-wide population suppression of codling moth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calkins, C.O.; Knight, A.L.; Richardson, G.; Bloem, K.A.

    2000-01-01

    The area-wide pest population control concept began with E.F. Knipling (1979) in the 1970s. Control of a pest population on individual fields does little to control the overall pest population because only a portion of the population is being affected. Expanding control tactics beyond individual farms tends to suppress the population on a wider scale and frequently results in suppression of the population for more than one year. The Agriculture Research Service (ARS) believes that this concept has not been addressed with the focus and support that it deserves. The ARS Administration made a conscious decision in 1994 to create a series of area-wide programmes funded out of ARS-based funds that had previously been used for pilot tests. These programmes involve a coordinated effort among ARS and university scientists, growers, and fieldmen for agriculture supply centres and fruit packing houses. The first area-wide programme supported by ARS was the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) suppression programme. The codling moth is the key pest of pome fruit throughout the western United States (Beers et al. 1993). About half of the insecticides applied on these crops are directed toward this pest. A non-insecticidal control technique, mating disruption (MD), is available to replace the organophosphates. Removal of the hard pesticides directed against this pest would do the most to allow natural enemies to survive and reproduce in the orchards, which in turn would have the effect of reducing secondary pests. Elimination of the pesticides would also remove much of the health risks to workers and would minimise buildup of pesticide resistance. The objectives of the Codling Moth Area-wide Program are to enhance the efficacy of the non-pesticide approach, to demonstrate that mating disruption will work if conducted properly, to develop biological technology to lower costs of control that complement mating disruption, to implement effective

  13. Decline of a Rare Moth at Its Last Known English Site: Causes and Lessons for Conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Baker

    Full Text Available The conditions required by rare species are often only approximately known. Monitoring such species over time can help refine management of their protected areas. We report population trends of a rare moth, the Dark Bordered Beauty Epione vespertaria (Linnaeus, 1767 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae at its last known English site on a protected lowland heath, and those of its host-plant, Salix repens (L. (Malpighiales: Salicaceae. Between 2007 and 2014, adult moth density reduced by an average of 30-35% annually over the monitored area, and its range over the monitored area contracted in concert. By comparing data from before this decline (2005 with data taken in 2013, we show that the density of host-plants over the monitored area reduced three-fold overall, and ten-fold in the areas of highest host-plant density. In addition, plants were significantly smaller in 2013. In 2005, moth larvae tended to be found on plants that were significantly larger than average at the time. By 2013, far fewer plants were of an equivalent size. This suggests that the rapid decline of the moth population coincides with, and is likely driven by, changes in the host-plant population. Why the host-plant population has changed remains less certain, but fire, frost damage and grazing damage have probably contributed. It is likely that a reduction in grazing pressure in parts of the site would aid host-plant recovery, although grazing remains an important site management activity. Our work confirms the value of constant monitoring of rare or priority insect species, of the risks posed to species with few populations even when their populations are large, of the potential conflict between bespoke management for species and generic management of habitats, and hence the value of refining our knowledge of rare species' requirements so that their needs can be incorporated into the management of protected areas.

  14. Overwintering strategy and mechanisms of cold tolerance in the codling moth (Cydia pomonella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Rozsypal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The codling moth (Cydia pomonella is a major insect pest of apples worldwide. Fully grown last instar larvae overwinter in diapause state. Their overwintering strategies and physiological principles of cold tolerance have been insufficiently studied. No elaborate analysis of overwintering physiology is available for European populations. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We observed that codling moth larvae of a Central European population prefer to overwinter in the microhabitat of litter layer near the base of trees. Reliance on extensive supercooling, or freeze-avoidance, appears as their major strategy for survival of the winter cold. The supercooling point decreases from approximately -15.3 °C during summer to -26.3 °C during winter. Seasonal extension of supercooling capacity is assisted by partial dehydration, increasing osmolality of body fluids, and the accumulation of a complex mixture of winter specific metabolites. Glycogen and glutamine reserves are depleted, while fructose, alanine and some other sugars, polyols and free amino acids are accumulated during winter. The concentrations of trehalose and proline remain high and relatively constant throughout the season, and may contribute to the stabilization of proteins and membranes at subzero temperatures. In addition to supercooling, overwintering larvae acquire considerable capacity to survive at subzero temperatures, down to -15 °C, even in partially frozen state. CONCLUSION: Our detailed laboratory analysis of cold tolerance, and whole-winter survival assays in semi-natural conditions, suggest that the average winter cold does not represent a major threat for codling moth populations. More than 83% of larvae survived over winter in the field and pupated in spring irrespective of the overwintering microhabitat (cold-exposed tree trunk or temperature-buffered litter layer.

  15. Overwintering strategy and mechanisms of cold tolerance in the codling moth (Cydia pomonella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozsypal, Jan; Koštál, Vladimír; Zahradníčková, Helena; Šimek, Petr

    2013-01-01

    The codling moth (Cydia pomonella) is a major insect pest of apples worldwide. Fully grown last instar larvae overwinter in diapause state. Their overwintering strategies and physiological principles of cold tolerance have been insufficiently studied. No elaborate analysis of overwintering physiology is available for European populations. We observed that codling moth larvae of a Central European population prefer to overwinter in the microhabitat of litter layer near the base of trees. Reliance on extensive supercooling, or freeze-avoidance, appears as their major strategy for survival of the winter cold. The supercooling point decreases from approximately -15.3 °C during summer to -26.3 °C during winter. Seasonal extension of supercooling capacity is assisted by partial dehydration, increasing osmolality of body fluids, and the accumulation of a complex mixture of winter specific metabolites. Glycogen and glutamine reserves are depleted, while fructose, alanine and some other sugars, polyols and free amino acids are accumulated during winter. The concentrations of trehalose and proline remain high and relatively constant throughout the season, and may contribute to the stabilization of proteins and membranes at subzero temperatures. In addition to supercooling, overwintering larvae acquire considerable capacity to survive at subzero temperatures, down to -15 °C, even in partially frozen state. Our detailed laboratory analysis of cold tolerance, and whole-winter survival assays in semi-natural conditions, suggest that the average winter cold does not represent a major threat for codling moth populations. More than 83% of larvae survived over winter in the field and pupated in spring irrespective of the overwintering microhabitat (cold-exposed tree trunk or temperature-buffered litter layer).

  16. Female sex pheromone secreted by Carmenta mimosa (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), a biological control agent for an invasive weed in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vang, Le Van; Khanh, Chau Nguyen Quoc; Shibasaki, Hiroshi; Ando, Tetsu

    2012-01-01

    Larvae of the clearwing moth, Carmenta mimosa (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), bore into the trunk of Mimosa pigra L., which is one of the most invasive weeds in Vietnam. GC-EAD and GC-MS analyses of a pheromone gland extract revealed that the female moths produced (3Z,13Z)-3,13-octadecadienyl acetate. A lure baited with the synthetic acetate alone successfully attracted C. mimosa males in a field test. While the addition of a small amount of the corresponding alcohol did not strongly diminish the number of captured males, a trace of the aldehyde derivative or the (3E,13Z)-isomer markedly inhibited the attractiveness of the acetate. The diurnal males were mainly attracted from 6:00 am to 12:00 am.

  17. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 9. A new species of Givira Walker (Cossidae, Hypoptinae) dedicated to Delinda Mix, including a list of species of Cossidae recorded from the Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Eric H.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The U.S. National Park Service initiated a 10-year study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico in late 2006. Givira delindae sp. n., discovered in 2007 during the first year of study, is described here. The male and female adult moths and genitalia are illustrated. The name is dedicated to Delinda Mix, mother of Steve Mix. The species of Cossidae recorded from the Monument during the study are listed. PMID:28331399

  18. Analysis of evolution in the lower Lepidoptera (Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Lower Lepidoptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Mutuura, Akira

    1991-01-01

    The evolutionary mechanism in Lepidoptera is discussed. As a result of the comparison of evolution between the Microptergidae and the typical Lepidoptera, two different kinds of evolution are recognized. ・・・

  19. The chemistry of antipredator defense by secondary compounds in neotropical lepidoptera: facts, perspectives and caveats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trigo José R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical defense against predation in butterflies and moths has been studied since nineteenth century. A classical example is that of the larvae of the monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus, which feed on leaves of Asclepias curassavica (Asclepiadaceae, sequestering cardenolides. The adults are protected against predation by birds. Several other substances may be involved in chemical defense, such as iridoid glycosides, cyanogenic glycosides, glucosinolates, pyrrolizidine and tropane alkaloids, aristolochic acids, glycosidase inhibitors and pyrazines. The acquisition of these substances by lepidopterans can be due to sequestration from larval or adult host plants or de novo biosynthesis. Many Lepidoptera are known to be unpalatable, including the butterflies Troidini (Papilionidae, Pierinae (Pieridae, Eurytelinae, Melitaeinae, Danainae, Ithomiinae, Heliconiinae and Acraeinae (Nymphalidae, and Arctiidae moths, but knowledge of the chemical substances responsible for property is often scarce. This review discusses mainly three topics: field and laboratory observations on rejection of butterflies and moths by predators, correlation between unpalatability and chemicals found in these insects, and bioassays that test the activity of these chemicals against predators. Perspectives and future directions are suggested for this subject.

  20. Neurometamorphosis of the ear in the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, and its homologue in the earless forest tent caterpillar moth, Malacosoma disstria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, F P; Fullard, J H

    1996-10-01

    The adult gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Lymantriidae: Noctuoidea) has a pair of metathoracic tympanic ears that each contain a two-celled auditory chordotonal organ (CO). The earless forest tent caterpillar moth, Malacosoma disstria (Lasiocampidae: Bombycoidea), has a homologous pair of three-celled, nonauditory hindwing COs in their place. The purpose of our study was to determine whether the adult CO in both species arises from a preexisting larval organ or if it develops as a novel structure during metamorphosis. We describe the larval metathoracic nervous system of L. dispar and M. disstria, and identify a three-celled chordotonal organ in the anatomically homologous site as the adult CO. If the larval CO is severed from the homologue of the adult auditory nerve (IIIN1b1) in L. dispar prior to metamorphosis, the adult develops an ear lacking an auditory organ. Axonal backfills of the larval IIIN1b1 nerve in both species reveal three chordotonal sensory neurons and one nonchordotonal multipolar cell. The axons of these cells project into tracts of the central nervous system putatively homologous with those of the auditory pathway in adult L. dispar. Following metamorphosis, M. disstria moths retain all four cells (three CO and one multipolar) while L. dispar adults possess two cells that service the auditory CO and one nonauditory, multipolar cell. We conclude that the larval IIIN1b1 CO is the precursor of both the auditory organ in L. dispar and the putative proprioceptor CO in M. disstria and represents the premetamorphic condition of these insects. The implications of our results in understanding the evolution of the ear in the Lepidoptera and insects in general are discussed.

  1. Sampling low-density gypsy moth populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    William E. Wallner; Clive G. Jones; Joseph S. Elkinton; Bruce L. Parker

    1991-01-01

    The techniques and methodology for sampling gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L., at low densities, less than 100 egg masses/ha (EM/ha), are compared. Forest managers have constraints of time and cost, and need a useful, simple predictable means to assist them in sampling gypsy moth populations. A comparison of various techniques coupled with results of...

  2. Leading edge gypsy moth population dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. R. Carter; F. W. Ravlin; M. L. McManus

    1991-01-01

    Leading edge gypsy moth populations have been the focus of several intervention programs (MDIPM, AIPM). Knowledge of gypsy moth population dynamics in leading edge area is crucial for effective management. Populations in these areas tend to reach outbreak levels (noticeable defoliation) within three to four years after egg masses are first detected. Pheromone traps...

  3. Forecasting gypsy moth egg-mass density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert W. Campbell; Robert W. Campbell

    1973-01-01

    Several multiple regression models for gypsy moth egg-mass density were developed from data accumulated in eastern New England between 1911 and 1931. Analysis of these models indicates that: (1) The gypsy moth population system was relatively stable in either the OUTBREAK phase or the INNOCUOUS one; (2) Several naturally occurring processes that could terminate the...

  4. Mapping global biodiversity connections with DNA barcodes: Lepidoptera of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashfaq, Muhammad; Akhtar, Saleem; Rafi, Muhammad Athar; Mansoor, Shahid; Hebert, Paul D N

    2017-01-01

    Sequences from the DNA barcode region of the mitochondrial COI gene are an effective tool for specimen identification and for the discovery of new species. The Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) (www.boldsystems.org) currently hosts 4.5 million records from animals which have been assigned to more than 490,000 different Barcode Index Numbers (BINs), which serve as a proxy for species. Because a fourth of these BINs derive from Lepidoptera, BOLD has a strong capability to both identify specimens in this order and to support studies of faunal overlap. DNA barcode sequences were obtained from 4503 moths from 329 sites across Pakistan, specimens that represented 981 BINs from 52 families. Among 379 species with a Linnaean name assignment, all were represented by a single BIN excepting five species that showed a BIN split. Less than half (44%) of the 981 BINs had counterparts in other countries; the remaining BINs were unique to Pakistan. Another 218 BINs of Lepidoptera from Pakistan were coupled with the 981 from this study before being compared with all 116,768 BINs for this order. As expected, faunal overlap was highest with India (21%), Sri Lanka (21%), United Arab Emirates (20%) and with other Asian nations (2.1%), but it was very low with other continents including Africa (0.6%), Europe (1.3%), Australia (0.6%), Oceania (1.0%), North America (0.1%), and South America (0.1%). This study indicates the way in which DNA barcoding facilitates measures of faunal overlap even when taxa have not been assigned to a Linnean species.

  5. Giving eyespots a shiner: Pharmacologic manipulation of the Io moth wing pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sourakov, Andrei

    2017-01-01

    Our knowledge of wing pattern formation in Lepidoptera has advanced significantly in recent years due to the careful examination of several groups of butterflies. The eyespot is a prominent feature of Lepidoptera wing pattern, especially in the family Saturniidae. The present study examined how sulfated polysaccharides affected the wing pattern formation of the Io moth, Automeris io (Saturniidae).  Prepupae and pupae of this species were subjected to injections of heparin and cold shock. While the cold shock had little to no effect on wing pattern, the aberrations resulting from heparin injections were moderate to profound and depended on the dose and the stage at which injection was made. The changes consisted of expansion of the black ring around the dorsal hindwing eyespots and distortion of discal spots on both dorsal and ventral sides of forewings, suggesting a possible link between genetic controls of these elements. Several different types of scales form the normal color pattern of Automeris io , and heparin-induced changes correspond to changes in shape of scales. The resulting aberrations are dubbed 'Black Eye' and 'Comet Eye.' Other known aberrations of Automeris io eyespots are summarized, illustrated, and named.

  6. Winter Wonderlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Listening to people complain about the hardships of winter and the dreariness of the nearly constant gray sky prompted the author to help her sixth graders recognize and appreciate the beauty that surrounds them for nearly five months of the year in western New York. The author opines that if students could see things more artistically, the winter…

  7. Evolution of Two Receptors detecting the Same Pheromone Compound in Crop Pest Moths of the Genus Spodoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur ede Fouchier

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In moths, mate finding strongly rely on the detection of sex pheromones by pheromone receptors. Any modification in the functional properties of these receptors can have a drastic impact on reproduction. In the course of characterizing candidate pheromone receptors in the noctuid moth Spodoptera littoralis, we expressed them in Drosophila olfactory sensory neurons and stimulated them with a large panel of moth pheromone compounds. We found that two pheromone receptors detect (Z,E-9,12-14:OAc, a minor component of the female pheromone blend. Whereas SlitOR6 is highly specific to this component, SlitOR13 is less sensitive and not strictly specific as it also detects (Z9-14:OAc, another minor component of the sex pheromone. Interestingly, SlitOR13 expression is restricted to the distal part of male antennae, where we could identify a novel functional class of pheromone-sensitive neurons whose response spectrum matches that of SlitOR13. Based on a phylogenetic analysis of Lepidoptera pheromone receptors, we built an evolutionary scenario in which four different paralogous lineages emerged through gene duplications. The ability to bind (Z,E-9,12-14:OAc appeared independently within three of these lineages, and an analysis of selective pressures revealed sites under positive selection that could have played a role in the emergence of functional properties of OR6 and OR13 in Spodoptera species.

  8. Age-based mating success in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, and the obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Vincent P; Wiman, Nik G

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the passage of spermatophores was examined between 1-day-old males mated in no-choice situations with females 0, 2, 4, or 6 days old and the converse for both the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and the obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris). For C. pomonella, female age had no effect on the passage of spermatophores from males, and only 6-day-old female C. rosaceana had reduced spermatophore number. The ages of moths at the time of mating had a greater effect on males, with C. pomonella males older than 2 days showing significant reductions in the ability to successfully pass a spermatophore to 1-day-old females. For C. rosaceana, 2- and 6-day-old males were significantly less likely to pass a spermatophore, but reduced transfer from 4-day-old males did not reach statistical significance. Wind-tunnel assays were used to evaluate the ability of 1- or 4-day-old males to fly upwind and successfully contact a young calling female. Four-day-old males were more likely to initiate flight upwind, but were less efficient at finding and contacting the females than younger males. This study suggests that evaluation of multiple components of the mating process are required to understand the effect of age at the time of mating on population dynamics of these moths.

  9. CpSAT-1, a transcribed satellite sequence from the codling moth, Cydia pomonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Věchtová, Pavlína; Dalíková, Martina; Sýkorová, Miroslava; Žurovcová, Martina; Füssy, Zoltán; Zrzavá, Magda

    2016-08-01

    Satellite DNA (satDNA) is a non-coding component of eukaryotic genomes, located mainly in heterochromatic regions. Relevance of satDNA began to emerge with accumulating evidence of its potential yet hardly comprehensible role that it can play in the genome of many organisms. We isolated the first satDNA of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella, Tortricidae, Lepidoptera), a species with holokinetic chromosomes and a single large heterochromatic element, the W chromosome in females. The satDNA, called CpSAT-1, is located on all chromosomes of the complement, although in different amounts. Surprisingly, the satellite is almost missing in the heterochromatic W chromosome. Additionally, we isolated mRNA from all developmental stages (1st-5th instar larva, pupa, adult), both sexes (adult male and female) and several tissues (Malpighian tubules, gut, heart, testes, and ovaries) of the codling moth and showed the CpSAT-1 sequence was transcribed in all tested samples. Using CpSAT-1 specific primers we amplified, cloned and sequenced 40 monomers from cDNA and gDNA, respectively. The sequence analysis revealed a high mutation rate and the presence of potentially functional motifs, mainly in non-conserved regions of the monomers. Both the chromosomal distribution and the sequence analysis suggest that CPSAT-1 has no function in the C. pomonella genome.

  10. Convergent patterns of long-distance nocturnal migration in noctuid moths and passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alerstam, Thomas; Chapman, Jason W; Bäckman, Johan; Smith, Alan D; Karlsson, Håkan; Nilsson, Cecilia; Reynolds, Don R; Klaassen, Raymond H G; Hill, Jane K

    2011-10-22

    Vast numbers of insects and passerines achieve long-distance migrations between summer and winter locations by undertaking high-altitude nocturnal flights. Insects such as noctuid moths fly relatively slowly in relation to the surrounding air, with airspeeds approximately one-third of that of passerines. Thus, it has been widely assumed that windborne insect migrants will have comparatively little control over their migration speed and direction compared with migrant birds. We used radar to carry out the first comparative analyses of the flight behaviour and migratory strategies of insects and birds under nearly equivalent natural conditions. Contrary to expectations, noctuid moths attained almost identical ground speeds and travel directions compared with passerines, despite their very different flight powers and sensory capacities. Moths achieved fast travel speeds in seasonally appropriate migration directions by exploiting favourably directed winds and selecting flight altitudes that coincided with the fastest air streams. By contrast, passerines were less selective of wind conditions, relying on self-powered flight in their seasonally preferred direction, often with little or no tailwind assistance. Our results demonstrate that noctuid moths and passerines show contrasting risk-prone and risk-averse migratory strategies in relation to wind. Comparative studies of the flight behaviours of distantly related taxa are critically important for understanding the evolution of animal migration strategies.

  11. Comparison of three dispenser distribution patterns for pheromone mating disruption of Paralobesia viteana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Rufus; Mason, Keith S; Teixeira, Luis A F; Loeb, Greg; Hesler, Steve; Weigle, Tim; Muza, Andy; Timer, Jody; Saunders, Michael

    2012-06-01

    Over two growing seasons, Isomate GBM-Plus tube-type dispensers releasing the major pheromone component of grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were evaluated in vineyards (Vitis spp.) in Michigan, New York, and Pennsylvania. Dispensers were deployed in three different density-arrangement treatments: 124 dispensers per ha, 494 dispensers per ha, and a combined treatment with 124 dispensers per ha in the vineyard interior and 988 dispensers per ha at the vineyard border, equivalent to an overall density of 494 dispensers per ha. Moth captures and cluster infestation levels were compared at the perimeter and interior of vineyards receiving these different pheromone treatments and in vineyards receiving no pheromone. Orientation of male moths to pheromone-baited traps positioned at the perimeter and interior of vineyards was reduced as a result of mating disruption treatments compared with the nontreated control. These findings were consistent over both years of the study. Disruption of male moth captures in traps varied from 93 to 100% in treated vineyards, with the 494 dispensers per ha application rates providing significantly higher level of disruption than the 124 dispensers per ha rate, but only in 2007. Measurements of percentage of cluster infestation indicated much higher infestation at perimeters than in the interior of the vineyards in all three regions, but in both sample positions there was no significant effect of dispenser density on cluster infestation levels in either year. The contrasting results of high disruption of moth orientation to traps in vineyards that also had low levels of crop protection from this pheromone treatment are discussed in the context of strategies to improve mating disruption of this tortricid pest.

  12. Overview: Pyraloidea larvae (Insecta: Lepidoptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The larvae of pyraloid or snout moths are pests to many crops and stored products and rank as among the most destructive pests to graminaceous crops such as corn, sugarcane, and rice. On the other hand, some larvae have been investigated and used for the biological control of noxious terrestrial a...

  13. Population Dynamics and Flight Phenology Model of Codling Moth Differ between Commercial and Abandoned Apple Orchard Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Neelendra K; Rajotte, Edwin G; Naithani, Kusum J; Krawczyk, Greg; Hull, Larry A

    2016-01-01

    Apple orchard management practices may affect development and phenology of arthropod pests, such as the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), which is a serious internal fruit-feeding pest of apples worldwide. Estimating population dynamics and accurately predicting the timing of CM development and phenology events (for instance, adult flight, and egg-hatch) allows growers to understand and control local populations of CM. Studies were conducted to compare the CM flight phenology in commercial and abandoned apple orchard ecosystems using a logistic function model based on degree-days accumulation. The flight models for these orchards were derived from the cumulative percent moth capture using two types of commercially available CM lure baited traps. Models from both types of orchards were also compared to another model known as PETE (prediction extension timing estimator) that was developed in 1970s to predict life cycle events for many fruit pests including CM across different fruit growing regions of the United States. We found that the flight phenology of CM was significantly different in commercial and abandoned orchards. CM male flight patterns for first and second generations as predicted by the constrained and unconstrained PCM (Pennsylvania Codling Moth) models in commercial and abandoned orchards were different than the flight patterns predicted by the currently used CM model (i.e., PETE model). In commercial orchards, during the first and second generations, the PCM unconstrained model predicted delays in moth emergence compared to current model. In addition, the flight patterns of females were different between commercial and abandoned orchards. Such differences in CM flight phenology between commercial and abandoned orchard ecosystems suggest potential impact of orchard environment and crop management practices on CM biology.

  14. Population dynamics and flight phenology model of codling moth differ between commercial and abandoned apple orchard ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelendra K Joshi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Apple orchard management practices may affect development and phenology of arthropod pests, such as the codling moth (CM, Cydia pomonella (L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, which is a serious internal fruit-feeding pest of apples worldwide. Estimating population dynamics and accurately predicting the timing of CM development and phenology events (for instance, adult flight and egg-hatch allows growers to understand and control local populations of CM. Studies were conducted to compare the CM flight phenology in commercial and abandoned apple orchard ecosystems using a logistic function model based on degree-days accumulation. The flight models for these orchards were derived from the cumulative percent moth capture using two types of commercially available CM lure baited traps. Models from both types of orchards were also compared to another model known as PETE (prediction extension timing estimator that was developed in 1970s to predict life cycle events for many fruit pests including CM across different fruit growing regions of the United States. We found that the flight phenology of CM was significantly different in commercial and abandoned orchards. CM male flight patterns for first and second generations as predicted by the constrained and unconstrained PCM (Pennsylvania Codling Moth models in commercial and abandoned orchards were different than the flight patterns predicted by the currently used CM model (i.e.,1970’s model. In commercial orchards, during the first and second generations, the PCM unconstrained model predicted delays in moth emergence compared to current model. In addition, the flight patterns of females were different between commercial and abandoned orchards. Such differences in CM flight phenology between commercial and abandoned orchard ecosystems suggest potential impact of orchard environment and crop management practices on CM biology.

  15. Resolving Relationships among the Megadiverse Butterflies and Moths with a Novel Pipeline for Anchored Phylogenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breinholt, Jesse W; Earl, Chandra; Lemmon, Alan R; Lemmon, Emily Moriarty; Xiao, Lei; Kawahara, Akito Y

    2018-01-01

    The advent of next-generation sequencing technology has allowed for thecollection of large portions of the genome for phylogenetic analysis. Hybrid enrichment and transcriptomics are two techniques that leverage next-generation sequencing and have shown much promise. However, methods for processing hybrid enrichment data are still limited. We developed a pipeline for anchored hybrid enrichment (AHE) read assembly, orthology determination, contamination screening, and data processing for sequences flanking the target "probe" region. We apply this approach to study the phylogeny of butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera), a megadiverse group of more than 157,000 described species with poorly understood deep-level phylogenetic relationships. We introduce a new, 855 locus AHE kit for Lepidoptera phylogenetics and compare resulting trees to those from transcriptomes. The enrichment kit was designed from existing genomes, transcriptomes, and expressed sequence tags and was used to capture sequence data from 54 species from 23 lepidopteran families. Phylogenies estimated from AHE data were largely congruent with trees generated from transcriptomes, with strong support for relationships at all but the deepest taxonomic levels. We combine AHE and transcriptomic data to generate a new Lepidoptera phylogeny, representing 76 exemplar species in 42 families. The tree provides robust support for many relationships, including those among the seven butterfly families. The addition of AHE data to an existing transcriptomic dataset lowers node support along the Lepidoptera backbone, but firmly places taxa with AHE data on the phylogeny. Combining taxa sequenced for AHE with existing transcriptomes and genomes resulted in a tree with strong support for (Calliduloidea $+$ Gelechioidea $+$ Thyridoidea) $+$ (Papilionoidea $+$ Pyraloidea $+$ Macroheterocera). To examine the efficacy of AHE at a shallow taxonomic level, phylogenetic analyses were also conducted on a sister group representing

  16. POSSIBILITIES FOR MONITORING GUATEMALAN POTATO TUBER MOTH TECIA SOLANIVORA (POVOLNY AND POTATO TUBERWORM PHTHORIMAEA OPERCULELLA (ZELLER BY PHEROMONE TRAPS IN ZONA 1 OF ECUADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristina Kutinkova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Guatemalan moth (GTPM, Tecia solanivora Povolny (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, was first registered in Guatemala and most recently invaded and became a key pest of the potato, Solanum tuberosum L., in Central and South America. Larvae feed exclusively on potato tubers, in the field and in store. Tuber quality is much reduced and heavily infested tubers can no longer be used for human or animal consumption. Stocks can be totally destroyed in less than 3 months. The potato tuber moth (PTM, Phthorimaea operculella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is one of the most damaging pests of potatoes in field and storage and is generally of greatest importance in warmer climates. After pest detection, synthetic sex pheromones are principally used to monitor population levels and trigger applications of chemicals or other control methods. In this article we described our results for using pheromone traps Delta VI of the company of Trécé Inc. USA for monitoring of the both pests in a Carchi province in Zona 1 in Ecuador. We give conclusions and recommendation for using these pheromone traps for detection and monitoring of these very important pests on Solanaceae crops.

  17. Molecular phylogeny and population structure of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella) in Central Europe: I. Ancient clade splitting revealed by mitochondrial haplotype markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meraner, A; Brandstätter, A; Thaler, R; Aray, B; Unterlechner, M; Niederstätter, H; Parson, W; Zelger, R; Dalla Via, J; Dallinger, R

    2008-09-01

    The codling moth (Cydia pomonella L., Tortricidae, Lepidoptera) is an important pest of pome fruit with global distribution. It has adapted successfully to different habitats by forming various ecotypes and populations, often termed strains, which differ among each other in several morphological, developmental, and physiological features. Many strains of Cydia pomonella have developed resistance against a broad range of chemically different pesticides. Obviously, pesticide-resistant strains must have a genetic basis inherent to the gene pool of codling moth populations, and this deserves our particular attention. The primary intention of the present study was to contribute novel information regarding the evolutionary phylogeny and phylogeography of codling moth populations in Central Europe. In addition, we aimed at testing the hypothesis that differential biological traits and response patterns towards pesticides in codling moth populations may be reflected at a mitochondrial DNA level. In particular, we wanted to test if pesticide resistance in codling moths is associated repeatedly and independently with more than one mitochondrial haplotype. To this end, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA and constructed phylogenetic trees based on three mitochondrial genes: cytochrome oxidase I (COI), the A+T-rich region of the control region (CR), and the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 5 (ND5). The results indicate that Central European populations of Cydia pomonella are clearly divided in two ancient clades. As shown by means of a molecular clock approach, the splitting of the two clades can be dated to a time period between the lower and middle Pleistocene, about 1.29-0.20 million years ago. It is assumed that the cyclic changes of warm and cold periods during Pleistocene may have lead to the geographic separation of codling moth populations due to glaciation, giving rise to the formation of the two separate refugial clades, as already shown for many

  18. Evolutionary diversification of aminopeptidase N in Lepidoptera by conserved clade-specific amino acid residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Austin L

    2014-07-01

    Members of the aminopepidase N (APN) gene family of the insect order Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) bind the naturally insecticidal Cry toxins produced by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. Phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences of seven lepidopteran APN classes provided strong support for the hypothesis that lepidopteran APN2 class arose by gene duplication prior to the most recent common ancestor of Lepidoptera and Diptera. The Cry toxin-binding region (BR) of lepidopteran and dipteran APNs was subject to stronger purifying selection within APN classes than was the remainder of the molecule, reflecting conservation of catalytic site and adjoining residues within the BR. Of lepidopteran APN classes, APN2, APN6, and APN8 showed the strongest evidence of functional specialization, both in expression patterns and in the occurrence of conserved derived amino acid residues. The latter three APN classes also shared a convergently evolved conserved residue close to the catalytic site. APN8 showed a particularly strong tendency towards class-specific conserved residues, including one of the catalytic site residues in the BR and ten others in close vicinity to the catalytic site residues. The occurrence of class-specific sequences along with the conservation of enzymatic function is consistent with the hypothesis that the presence of Cry toxins in the environment has been a factor shaping the evolution of this multi-gene family. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Multiple origins of the yucca-yucca moth association.

    OpenAIRE

    Bogler, D J; Neff, J L; Simpson, B B

    1995-01-01

    The association of species of yucca and their pollinating moths is considered one of the two classic cases of obligate mutualism between floral hosts and their pollinators. The system involves the active collection of pollen by females of two prodoxid moth genera and the subsequent purposeful placement of the pollen on conspecific stigmas of species of Yucca. Yuccas essentially depend on the moths for pollination and the moths require Yucca ovaries for oviposition. Because of the specificity ...

  20. Nocturnal activity positively correlated with auditory sensitivity in noctuoid moths

    OpenAIRE

    ter Hofstede, Hannah M; Ratcliffe, John M; Fullard, James H

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between predator detection threshold and antipredator behaviour in noctuoid moths. Moths with ears sensitive to the echolocation calls of insectivorous bats use avoidance manoeuvres in flight to evade these predators. Earless moths generally fly less than eared species as a primary defence against predation by bats. For eared moths, however, there is interspecific variation in auditory sensitivity. At the species level, and when controlling for shared evolutio...

  1. Flavin-dependent monooxygenases as a detoxification mechanism in insects: new insights from the arctiids (lepidoptera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Sehlmeyer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Insects experience a wide array of chemical pressures from plant allelochemicals and pesticides and have developed several effective counterstrategies to cope with such toxins. Among these, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are crucial in plant-insect interactions. Flavin-dependent monooxygenases (FMOs seem not to play a central role in xenobiotic detoxification in insects, in contrast to mammals. However, the previously identified senecionine N-oxygenase of the arctiid moth Tyria jacobaeae (Lepidoptera indicates that FMOs have been recruited during the adaptation of this insect to plants that accumulate toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Identification of related FMO-like sequences of various arctiids and other Lepidoptera and their combination with expressed sequence tag (EST data and sequences emerging from the Bombyx mori genome project show that FMOs in Lepidoptera form a gene family with three members (FMO1 to FMO3. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that FMO3 is only distantly related to lepidopteran FMO1 and FMO2 that originated from a more recent gene duplication event. Within the FMO1 gene cluster, an additional gene duplication early in the arctiid lineage provided the basis for the evolution of the highly specific biochemical, physiological, and behavioral adaptations of these butterflies to pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-producing plants. The genes encoding pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-N-oxygenizing enzymes (PNOs are transcribed in the fat body and the head of the larvae. An N-terminal signal peptide mediates the transport of the soluble proteins into the hemolymph where PNOs efficiently convert pro-toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids into their non-toxic N-oxide derivatives. Heterologous expression of a PNO of the generalist arctiid Grammia geneura produced an N-oxygenizing enzyme that shows noticeably expanded substrate specificity compared with the related enzyme of the specialist Tyria jacobaeae. The data about the evolution of FMOs within lepidopteran insects

  2. The Influence of Selected Companion Crops on Diamond Black Moth (Plutella Xylostella): Development and Investation on Cabbage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raini, R.K

    2002-01-01

    Diamond black moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) is the most serious pest of brassica in Kenya. Resistance to chemicals has been reported from various parts of the country. This research investigated brassica and non-brassica crops potential in 'push-pull' strategy toward developing an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program for DBM in Kenya. The study focused on evaluating the potential influence of selected crops on DBM oviposition, development and infestation on cabbage. Results indicate that DBM preferred to oviposition on brassica crops. No significant differences were observed on DBM development on host plants that supported full development. Minimum development was recorded on non-brassica crop Cleome gynandra, L. In field trials, the mustard, cloeme and coriander intercrops recorded significantly low infestation compared to other intercrops and demonstrated qulities which could be utilized in the development of IPM-option for the DBM

  3. Moths are not silent, but whisper ultrasonic courtship songs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakano, R; Takanashi, T; Fujii, T

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasonic hearing is widespread among moths, but very few moth species have been reported to produce ultrasounds for sexual communication. In those that do, the signals are intense and thus well matched for long distance communication. By contrast, males of the Asian corn borer moth (Crambidae) ...

  4. DNA diagnostics to identify internal feeders (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) of pome fruits of quarantine importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcenas, N M; Unruh, T R; Neven, L G

    2005-04-01

    A diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method is presented for differentiating among the North American internal apple-feeding pests codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.); oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck); lesser appleworm, Grapholita prunivora (Walsh); and cherry fruitworm, Grapholita packardi Zeller. An approximately 470-bp fragment of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) was sequenced in three to six specimens of each species. Consistent and diagnostic differences were observed among the species in two regions of COI from which forward and reverse primers were designed to amplify a 112-116-bp segment of the gene. The primer sets were used to selectively amplify DNA from specimens of diverse geographic origin for each corresponding target species. Protocols were adapted for conventional and quantitative PCR, the latter being substantially faster. The method was validated as a decision-making tool for quarantine identifications for Mexico by representatives of their phytosanitary agency (Sanidad Vegetal). The method can facilitate identification of intercepted internal feeding Lepidoptera in apple and pear for many other importing nations.

  5. Whole-farm mating disruption to manage Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in diversified New Jersey orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollerup, Kris E; Rucker, Ann; Shearer, Peter W

    2012-10-01

    Fruit orchards in New Jersey are usually isolated from neighboring farms and diversified, often containing separate plantings of peach (Prunus spp.) and apple (Malus spp.). These crops can suffer significant damage from oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). This study evaluated the effect of managing G. molesta by using sex pheromone-based mating disruption applied to both peaches and apples (whole-farm mating disruption) rather than treating either crop alone. In year 1 of the experiment, G. molesta mating disruption applied to the adjacent peach and apple blocks provided better control than treating peaches or apples alone. During year 2, treating these adjacent blocks or only treating apples controlled G. molesta equally well. G. molesta populations were so low at the end of year 2 that mating disruption was not applied against this pest during year 3. This allowed us to determine whether applying mating disruption for two consecutive years controlled G. molesta well enough that it eliminated the need mating disruption for three consecutive years. The mean cumulative number of G. molesta captured in plots where both peaches and apples had been treated did not exceed two moths per trap in the third year of this experiment. In contrast, G. molesta capture rebounded during August in peaches and apples that had not been treated with mating disruption the previous 2 yr. Implications for managing G. molesta by using mating disruption as a "whole-farm" tactic as well applying it for two consecutive years and not a third year are discussed.

  6. An Expressed Sequence Tag collection from the male antennae of the Noctuid moth Spodoptera littoralis: a resource for olfactory and pheromone detection research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maïbèche-Coisné Martine

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nocturnal insects such as moths are ideal models to study the molecular bases of olfaction that they use, among examples, for the detection of mating partners and host plants. Knowing how an odour generates a neuronal signal in insect antennae is crucial for understanding the physiological bases of olfaction, and also could lead to the identification of original targets for the development of olfactory-based control strategies against herbivorous moth pests. Here, we describe an Expressed Sequence Tag (EST project to characterize the antennal transcriptome of the noctuid pest model, Spodoptera littoralis, and to identify candidate genes involved in odour/pheromone detection. Results By targeting cDNAs from male antennae, we biased gene discovery towards genes potentially involved in male olfaction, including pheromone reception. A total of 20760 ESTs were obtained from a normalized library and were assembled in 9033 unigenes. 6530 were annotated based on BLAST analyses and gene prediction software identified 6738 ORFs. The unigenes were compared to the Bombyx mori proteome and to ESTs derived from Lepidoptera transcriptome projects. We identified a large number of candidate genes involved in odour and pheromone detection and turnover, including 31 candidate chemosensory receptor genes, but also genes potentially involved in olfactory modulation. Conclusions Our project has generated a large collection of antennal transcripts from a Lepidoptera. The normalization process, allowing enrichment in low abundant genes, proved to be particularly relevant to identify chemosensory receptors in a species for which no genomic data are available. Our results also suggest that olfactory modulation can take place at the level of the antennae itself. These EST resources will be invaluable for exploring the mechanisms of olfaction and pheromone detection in S. littoralis, and for ultimately identifying original targets to fight against moth

  7. WINTER SAECULUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Mihalina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Accumulated imbalances in the economy and on the markets cause specific financial market dynamics that have formed characteristic patterns kept throughout long financial history. In 2008 Authors presented their expectations of key macroeconomic and selected asset class markets developments for period ahead based on Saeculum theory. Use of term Secular describes a specific valuation environment during prolonged period. If valuations as well as selected macro variables are considered as a tool for understanding business cycles then market cycles become much more obvious and easily understandable. Therefore over the long run, certain asset classes do better in terms of risk reward profile than others. Further on, there is no need for frequent portfolio rebalancing and timing of specific investment positions within a particular asset class market. Current stage in cycle development suggests a need for reassessment of trends and prevailing phenomena due to cyclical nture of long lasting Saeculums. Paper reviews developments in recognizable patterns of selected metrics in current Winter Saeculum dominated with prevailing forces of delivering, deflation and decrease in velocity of money.

  8. Habitat impact on ultraviolet reflectance in moths

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zapletalová, Lenka; Zapletal, Michal; Konvička, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 5 (2016), s. 1300-1305 ISSN 0046-225X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-33733S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Lepidoptera * ultraviolet reflectance * mimicry Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.601, year: 2016

  9. Modeling evolution of resistance of sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to transgenic Bt corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J; Huang, F; Onstad, D W

    2014-08-01

    Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is a target pest of transgenic corn expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protein, and the first evidence of resistance by D. saccharalis to Cry1Ab corn was detected in a field population in northeast Louisiana in 2004. We used a model of population dynamics and genetics of D. saccharalis to 1) study the effect of interfield dispersal, the first date that larvae enter diapause for overwintering, toxin mortality, the proportion of non-Bt corn in the corn patch, and the area of a crop patch on Bt resistance evolution; and 2) to identify gaps in empirical knowledge for managing D. saccharalis resistance to Bt corn. Increasing, the proportion of corn refuge did not always improve the durability of Bt corn if the landscape also contained sugarcane, sorghum, or rice. In the landscape, which consisted of 90% corn area, 5% sorghum area, and 5% rice area, the durability of single-protein Bt corn was 40 yr when the proportion of corn refuge was 0.2 but 16 yr when the proportion of corn refuge was 0.5. The Bt resistance evolution was sensitive to a change (from Julian date 260 to 272) in the first date larvae enter diapause for overwintering and moth movement. In the landscapes with Bt corn, non-Bt corn, sugarcane, sorghum, and rice, the evolution of Bt resistance accelerated when larvae entered diapause for overwintering early. Intermediate rates of moth movement delayed evolution of resistance more than either extremely low or high rates. This study suggested that heterogeneity in the agrolandscapes may complicate the strategy for managing Bt resistance in D. saccharalis, and designing a Bt resistance management strategy for D. saccharalis is challenging because of a lack of empirical data about overwintering and moth movement.

  10. Assessment of SPLAT formulations to control Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in a Brazilian apple orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano João Arioli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mating disruption is a technique that uses synthetic copies of sex pheromones to control insect pests. We aimed to control Oriental fruit moth (OFM Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae with formulations of SPLAT Grafo (SG and SPLAT Grafo Attract and Kill (SGAK in small (1 ha apple (Malus domestica Borkh. orchards. Our experiment was conducted in a commercial orchard with 'Gala' trees (spacing 1.5 x 4.5 m in Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. We evaluated the effect of four treatments on G. molesta population densities: a SG at 1 kg ha-1 (300 point sources of 3.3 g each, b SGAK at 1 kg ha-1 (1000 point sources of 1 g each, c insecticides as recommended by Integrated Apple Production (IAP, and d untreated control (no treatment. Specialized Pheromone and Lure Application Technology (SPLAT treatments were applied on 1 August 2004 and reapplied after 120 d (1 December 2004. The treatment effect was evaluated by weekly counts of males captured in Delta traps baited with commercial synthetic sex pheromone lures (eight traps per treatment. We assessed fruit damage caused by G. molesta in eight replicates of 200 fruits each on 26 October, 30 November 2004, and 5 and 31 January 2005. Applying 1 kg ha-1 of SG and SGAK in August and December 2004 significantly reduced the number of male moths caught in Delta traps. Damage to fruits at harvest, however, did not differ significantly from the control. This indicates a decline in the efficacy of mating disruption when SG and SGAK are used to protect small areas (1 ha under high Oriental fruit moth pressure.

  11. Winter Weather: Frostbite

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety During Fire Cleanup Wildfires PSAs Related Links Winter Weather About Winter Weather Before a Storm Prepare Your Home Prepare Your Car Winter Weather Checklists During a Storm Indoor Safety During ...

  12. Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on soybean treated with resistance inducers. P Vinicius de Souza, BR Machado, M Mueller de Freitas, F Correa, A Cirilo de Sousa Almeida, FG de Jesus ...

  13. Phylogeny and Evolution of Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitter, Charles; Davis, Donald R; Cummings, Michael P

    2017-01-31

    Until recently, deep-level phylogeny in Lepidoptera, the largest single radiation of plant-feeding insects, was very poorly understood. Over the past two decades, building on a preceding era of morphological cladistic studies, molecular data have yielded robust initial estimates of relationships both within and among the ∼43 superfamilies, with unsolved problems now yielding to much larger data sets from high-throughput sequencing. Here we summarize progress on lepidopteran phylogeny since 1975, emphasizing the superfamily level, and discuss some resulting advances in our understanding of lepidopteran evolution.

  14. Application of Cydia pomonella expressed sequence tags: Identification and expression of three general odorant binding proteins in codling moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garczynski, Stephen F; Coates, Brad S; Unruh, Thomas R; Schaeffer, Scott; Jiwan, Derick; Koepke, Tyson; Dhingra, Amit

    2013-10-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella, is one of the most important pests of pome fruits in the world, yet the molecular genetics and the physiology of this insect remain poorly understood. A combined assembly of 8 341 expressed sequence tags was generated from Roche 454 GS-FLX sequencing of eight tissue-specific cDNA libraries. Putative chemosensory proteins (12) and odorant binding proteins (OBPs) (18) were annotated, which included three putative general OBP (GOBP), one more than typically reported for other Lepidoptera. To further characterize CpomGOBPs, we cloned cDNA copies of their transcripts and determined their expression patterns in various tissues. Cloning and sequencing of the 698 nt transcript for CpomGOBP1 resulted in the prediction of a 163 amino acid coding region, and subsequent RT-PCR indicated that the transcripts were mainly expressed in antennae and mouthparts. The 1 289 nt (160 amino acid) CpomGOBP2 and the novel 702 nt (169 amino acid) CpomGOBP3 transcripts are mainly expressed in antennae, mouthparts, and female abdomen tips. These results indicate that next generation sequencing is useful for the identification of novel transcripts of interest, and that codling moth expresses a transcript encoding for a new member of the GOBP subfamily. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. Influences of Cry1Ac broccoli on larval survival and oviposition of diamondback moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Dengxia; Cui, Shusong; Yang, Limei; Fang, Zhiyuan; Liu, Yumei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong

    2015-01-01

    Larval survival and oviposition behavior of three genotypes of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), (homozygous Cry1Ac-susceptibile, Cry1Ac-resistant, and their F1 hybrids), on transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) broccoli expressing different levels of Cry1Ac protein were evaluated in laboratory. These Bt broccoli lines were designated as relative low, medium, and high, respectively, according to the Cry1Ac content. Untransformed brocccoli plants were used as control. Larval survival of diamondback moth on non-Bt leaves was not significantly different among the three genotypes. The Cry1Ac-resistant larvae could survive on the low level of Bt broccoli plants, while Cry1Ac-susceptible and F1 larvae could not survive on them. The three genotypes of P. xylostella larvae could not survive on medium and high levels of Bt broccoli. In oviposition choice tests, there was no significant difference in the number of eggs laid by the three P. xylostella genotypes among different Bt broccoli plants. The development of Cry1Ac-susceptible and Cry1Ac-resistant P. xylostella on intact Bt plants was also tested in greenhouse. All susceptible P. xylostella larvae died on all Bt plants, while resistant larvae could survive on broccoli, which expresses low Cry1Ac protein under greenhouse conditions. The results of the greenhouse trials were similar to that of laboratory tests. This study indicated that high dose of Bt toxins in broccoli cultivars or germplasm lines is required for effective resistance management. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  16. Aerial application of pheromones for mating disruption of an invasive moth as a potential eradication tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eckehard G Brockerhoff

    Full Text Available Biological invasions can cause major ecological and economic impacts. During the early stages of invasions, eradication is desirable but tactics are lacking that are both effective and have minimal non-target effects. Mating disruption, which may meet these criteria, was initially chosen to respond to the incursion of light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (LBAM; Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, in California. The large size and limited accessibility of the infested area favored aerial application. Moth sex pheromone formulations for potential use in California or elsewhere were tested in a pine forest in New Zealand where LBAM is abundant. Formulations were applied by helicopter at a target rate of 40 g pheromone per ha. Trap catch before and after application was used to assess the efficacy and longevity of formulations, in comparison with plots treated with ground-applied pheromone dispensers and untreated control plots. Traps placed at different heights showed LBAM was abundant in the upper canopy of tall trees, which complicates control attempts. A wax formulation and polyethylene dispensers were most effective and provided trap shut-down near ground level for 10 weeks. Only the wax formulation was effective in the upper canopy. As the pheromone blend contained a behavioral antagonist for LBAM, 'false trail following' could be ruled out as a mechanism explaining trap shutdown. Therefore, 'sensory impairment' and 'masking of females' are the main modes of operation. Mating disruption enhances Allee effects which contribute to negative growth of small populations and, therefore, it is highly suitable for area-wide control and eradication of biological invaders.

  17. A monitoring system for gypsy moth management

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. William Ravlin; S. J. Fleischer; M. R. Carter; E. A. Roberts; M. L. McManus

    1991-01-01

    Within the last ten years considerable research has been directed toward the development of a gypsy moth monitoring system for project planning at a regional level and for making control decisions at a local level. Pheromones and pheromone-baited traps have been developed and widely used and several egg mass sampling techniques have also been developed. Recently these...

  18. Electroantennogram responses of the potato tuber moth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH

    Compounds belonging to the fatty acid derivatives class appear to be important for an oligophagous pest such as the potato tuber moth and the findings are discussed in relation to host plant selection in this species. [Das P D, Raina R, ..... The ability of both males and females to detect the odours presented is probably due ...

  19. The Prominent moth, Disphragis notabilis Schaus, in Costa Rica (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The four described taxa in the Disphragis notabilis species group are reviewed including the types and their dissected genitalia. D. hemicera st. rev.is elevated to species rank. D. nomula is retained as a synonym of D. notabilis. D. sobialis is confirmed as distinct from D. hemicera and D. bi...

  20. W-enriched satellite sequence in the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dalíková, Martina; Zrzavá, Magda; Kubíčková, S.; Marec, František

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 25, 3-4 (2017), s. 241-252 ISSN 0967-3849 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22765S; GA ČR(CZ) GA17-13713S Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA17-17211S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : satellite DNA * sex chromosomes * transcription Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Genetics and heredity (medical genetics to be 3) Impact factor: 2.385, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10577-017-9558-8

  1. New Records of Five Ennomine Moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae; Ennominae from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi, Sei-Woong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The subfamily Ennominae is one of the most species-rich taxa of Geometridae that include more than 9,700 species worldwide and over 280 species in South Korea. Herein, we present the first report of five species of Ennominae. Abraxas flavisinuata can be characterized by the white wings, a thick black postmedial line that is medially and dorsally broken with an orange band, large rounded black discal dots on the forewing, and a black dotted postmedial line on the hindwing. Lomographa claripennis can be characterized by the whitish wings, the black undulating postmedial line as well as the minute blackish discal dot on the forewing, and the black undulating postmedial line with a minute black discal dot on the hindwing. Arichanna tetrica can be characterized by the grayish forewings, thick black transverse ante- and postmedial lines, a large blackish discal dot, whitish apical streak on the forewing, and scattered black dots on the whitish hindwing. Apocleora rimosa can be characterized by the brown ground color of the fore- and hindwings, the black slanted ante- and postmedial lines of the forewing, and two black medial lines on the hindwing. Ourapteryx japonica can be characterized by the white wings, the dark brown transverse ante- and postmedial lines with a long discal dot on the forewing, and the dark brownish transverse antemedial line as well as a termen that has a sharp white tail with one large dark reddish dot and one small black dot on the hindwing.

  2. Geographic variation in diapause induction: The grape berry moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jody Timer; Patrick C. Tobin; Michael C. Saunders

    2010-01-01

    Diapause in insects occurs in response to environmental cues, such as changes in photoperiod, and it is a major adaptation by which insects synchronize their activity with biotic resources and environmental constraints. For multivoltine agricultural insect pests, diapause initiation is an important consideration in management decisions, particularly toward the end of...

  3. Linkage map of the peppered moth, Biston betularia (Lepidoptera, Geometridae): a model of industrial melanism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Van’t Hof, A. E.; Nguyen, Petr; Dalíková, Martina; Edmonds, N.; Marec, František; Saccheri, I. J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 3 (2013), s. 283-295 ISSN 0018-067X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600960925 Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 137/2010/P Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : synteny mapping * Biston betularia * Bombyx mori Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.804, year: 2013

  4. Developmental inhibition of gamma irradiation on the peach fruit moth Carposina sasakii (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jihoon; Ahn, Jun-Young; Sik Lee, Seung; Lee, Ju-Woon; Lee, Kyeong-Yeoll

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing irradiation is a useful technique for disinfestation under plant quarantine as well as post-harvest management. Effects of gamma irradiation treatment were tested on different developmental events of Carposina sasakii, which is a serious pest of various orchard crops. Apple fruits infested by C. sasakii were irradiated by gamma rays ranging from 0 to 300 Gy. Inhibition rates were determined on behavioral events related to development, including larval exit from apples, cocoon formation, adult eclosion, and oviposition. Failure rates of all these developmental events increased with increasing doses of irradiation. Rates of larval exit from apples and cocoon formation decreased to 13.2% and 1.7%, respectively, at 300 Gy. However, the adult eclosion rate decreased to 5.4% at 100 Gy and was completely inhibited at doses greater than 150 Gy. LD99 values for the inhibition of cocoon formation and adult emergence was estimated into 313.4 and 191.0 Gy. Furthermore, adults developed from irradiated larvae completely failed to lay eggs. Thus, irradiation of infested apples at doses of 200 Gy and higher completely inhibited the next generation of C. sasakii. Our results suggest that gamma irradiation treatment would be a promising technique for the control of C. sasakii.

  5. RECORDS OF 20 NEW MOTH (NOCTUIDAE: LEPIDOPTERA SPECIES FOR TURKISH THRACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal OKYAR

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in 2009 and 2010 in 4 different habitats in Edirne Province in order to determine the seasonal distribution of Noctuids in the study area. Specimens were collected 3 times a month during a 12 months period using a Robinson light trap. Twenty of the species identified in the study are new records for Turkish Thrace.

  6. Evolutionary dynamics of rDNA clusters on chromosomes of moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nguyen, Petr; Sahara, K.; Yoshido, A.; Marec, František

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 138, č. 3 (2010), s. 343-354 ISSN 0016-6707 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/06/1860; GA AV ČR IAA600960925 Grant - others:Student Grant Agency of the Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia(CZ) SGA2006/01; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science(JP) 18380037; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science(JP) 191114; GA ČR(CZ) 521/08/H042 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : ribosomal DNA * nucleolar organizer region * chromosome fusion Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.358, year: 2010

  7. Rapid thermal responses and thermal tolerance in adult codling moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidawanyika, Frank; Terblanche, John S

    2011-01-01

    In order to preserve key activities or improve survival, insects facing variable and unfavourable thermal environments may employ physiological adjustments on a daily basis. Here, we investigate the survival of laboratory-reared adult Cydia pomonella at high or low temperatures and their responses to pre-treatments at sub-lethal temperatures over short time-scales. We also determined critical thermal limits (CTLs) of activity of C. pomonella and the effect of different rates of cooling or heating on CTLs to complement the survival assays. Temperature and duration of exposure significantly affected adult C. pomonella survival with more extreme temperatures and/or longer durations proving to be more lethal. Lethal temperatures, explored between -20 °C to -5 °C and 32 °C to 47 °C over 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4h exposures, for 50% of the population of adult C. pomonella were -12 °C for 2h and 44 °C for 2h. Investigation of rapid thermal responses (i.e. hardening) found limited low temperature responses but more pronounced high temperature responses. For example, C. pomonella pre-treated for 2h at 5 °C improved survival at -9 °C for 2h from 50% to 90% (ppomonella, but limited acute low temperature responses. We discuss these results in the context of local agroecosystem microclimate recordings. These responses are significant to pest control programmes presently underway and have implications for understanding the evolution of thermal tolerance in these and other insects. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Modeling population dynamics and dispersion of Codling moth Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Gharehkhani, Gholamhossein

    2009-01-01

    The study of insect dispersal plays an essential role in estimating the spread of damage caused by a newly invaded pest or the spatial distribution of an insect during the active period in growing season. Moreover concerning dispersal, quantitative information performs a crucial role in the evaluation and implementation of pest control. Since rearing clean and healthy insects in sufficient numbers is the most important prerequisite for many basic research programs and for developing pest cont...

  9. Oospila bulava, a new emerald geometrid moth from South America (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Geometrinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindt, Aare; Viidalepp, Jaan

    2015-12-15

    Warren (1897) described the genus Oospila for Phorodesma trilunaria Guenée, 1857 from Brazil. Prout (1912; 1932-1933) revised the genus, listing 48 species in the first publication and 58 species in the latter one, in Oospila. Cook and Scoble (1995) grouped eight related genera under Oospila, including 73 species and dividing these into 13 species groups. Pitkin (1996) relied on this revision while publishing a monographic review of the Neotropical geometrine genera. Parsons et al. (1999) attributed the same species that in Cook and Scoble (1995) to the genus. Two species are described later (Viidalepp, 2002; Lévèque & Viidalepp, 2015). While revising collections from the Neotropical region during the last decade, the authors of the present article have found several undescribed taxa: cryptic species are frequently overlooked in large-scale works (Vodă et al., 2014). The result of one case study is published in this article. The primary and subsequent descriptions of relevant taxa are consulted.

  10. Histone H4 acetylation on the W chromosome of the flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dalíková, Martina; Marec, František

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 15, suppl. 2 (2007), s. 23-24 ISSN 0967-3849. [International Chromosome Conference /16./. 25.08.2007-29.08.2007, Amsterdam] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Ephestia kuehniella Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  11. Towards a global barcode library for Lymantria (Lepidoptera: Lymantriinae) tussock moths of biosecurity concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy R. deWaard; Andrew Mitchell; Melody A. Keena; David Gopurenko; Laura M. Boykin; Karen F. Armstrong; Michael G. Pogue; Joao Lima; Robin Floyd; Robert H. Hanner; Leland M. Humble

    2010-01-01

    This study demonstrates the efficacy of DNA barcodes for diagnosing species of Lymantria and reinforces the view that the approach is an under-utilized resource with substantial potential for biosecurity and surveillance. Biomonitoring agencies currently employing the NB restriction digest system would gather more information by transitioning to the...

  12. Genetic structure of fragmented November moth (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) populations in farmland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wynne, Ian Robert; Loxdale, Hugh D.; Brookes, Cliff P.

    2003-01-01

    allozymes, conservation genetics, Epirrita dilutata, Epirrita christyi, molecular markers, habitat fragmentation, population genetic structure......allozymes, conservation genetics, Epirrita dilutata, Epirrita christyi, molecular markers, habitat fragmentation, population genetic structure...

  13. Nontarget lepidoptera species found in the pheromone traps for selected Tortricid species in 2002 and 2003 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Hrudová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Pheromone traps were used to monitor the following tortricid moths, i.e. Adoxophyes orana, Archips podanus, A. rosanus, Hedya nubiferana, Pandemis heparana, Spilonota ocellana, Cydia pomonella, Cydia funebrana and Cydia molesta in the localities Brno-Tuřany (Brno-město, Nebovidy (Brno-venkov and Prakšice (Uherské Hradiště. Other Lepidoptera non-target species were present in these target-species pheromone traps, i.e. Adoxophyes orana, Agrotis segetum, Amphipoea oculaea, Archips rosanus, Celypha striana, Cydia coronillana, Enarmonia formosana, Epiblema scutulanum, Epinotia huebneriana, Eucosma fervidana, Euxoa tritici, Hedya pruniana, H. nubiferana, Lymantria dispar, Noctua pronuba, Notocelia rosaecolana, N. roborana, Pammene albuginana, P. suspectana, Pandemis cerasana, Pyrausta rectefascialis, P. aurata, Spilonota ocellana, Yponomeuta malinellus and Zygaena purpuralis.

  14. Comparison of Lures Loaded with Codlemone and Pear Ester for Capturing Codling Moths, Cydia pomonella, in Apple and Pear Orchards using Mating Disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, D.E.; Cichón, L.; Garrido, S.; Ribes-Dasi, M.; Avilla, J.

    2010-01-01

    Studies were conducted in apple, Malus domestica Borkhausen and pear, Pyrus communis L. (Rosales: Rosaceae), orchards to evaluate the attractiveness of grey halobutyl septa loaded with 1 (L2) and 10 (Mega) mg of codlemone, 8E, 10E-dodecadien-1-ol, 3 mg of pear ester, ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (DA2313), and 3 mg of pear ester plus 3 mg of codlemone (Combo) to adult codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). All studies were conducted in orchards treated with pheromone mating disruption. All four lures were tested on diamond-shaped sticky traps placed in 60 plots of apple and 40 plots of pears in 2003/04, and in 62 plots of apples and 30 of pears in 2004–05. Combo lures attracted significantly more moths (males + females) than all the others in both years. Comparisons among flights showed significant differences mainly for flight 1 and 2, but not always for flight 3. Mega lures provided no significant improvement compared with L2 lures during both seasons regarding the total number of moths. Combo and DA2313 lures attracted fewer females than males during the whole season. For most sample dates, more virgin than mated females were attracted to Combo lures, except during the third flight, and the overall ratio was 60:40, although the difference was not statistically significant. We conclude that the Combo lures are better indicators of codling moth activity in pheromone treated orchards, regardless of pest population level, when compared with similar lures containing codlemone or pear ester alone. PMID:20883133

  15. Protected species of butterflies (Lepidoptera in the National Nature Park “Velyky Lug”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Goloborodko

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Velyky Lug is a unique natural complex which has a large biogeographical, ecological, environmental, historical and recreational value. The National Nature Park “Velyky Lug” was only created as recently as 2006.The park is located in Zaporizhzhya region, 15–18 km south of the city Zaporizhzhya, within the limits of floodplain area of the Dnepr river, which broadens to a width of over 20 kmbetween Bilen’ke and Vasilivka (north-eastern part of the Kakhovskoe reservoir. This enormous expansion of the floodplain (about 80,000 ha which is situated between the Dnepr river and its tributary the Kins’ka was in historical times was called the Kin’ski Floodplain or Great Meadow. In modern times this territory is almost completely flooded by the waters of the Kakhovskoe reservoir. Remnants of natural habitats have been preserved along the river banks – in the form of little valleys and ravines which extend all the shore and also islands which appeared in 1956 when the reservoir was flooded. The overall area of the park “Velyky Lug” is 16,756 ha. Within the territory of the park “Velyky Lug” we have recorded 27 species of Lepidoptera which have various levels of conservation status. The taxonomical structure of the complex varies and included representatives of all basic families of moth and day butterflies which have species that are protected by law. In a taxonomical relation this complex is formed by the representatives of 11 families (Zygaenidae, Saturniidae, Sphingidae, Noctuidae, Arctiidae, Hesperiidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Nymphalidae, Satyridae, Lycaenidae. Zoogeographical analysis of the species that are protected in the territory of the park can be classified into 5 basic groups (Palearctic – 26%, Pontokazach – 26%, Mediterranean– 22%, Eurosiberian – 15%, European – 11%. Analysis of the biotopic advantages of the protected Lepidoptera species present in the territory of the park showed representatives from all

  16. New approaches for the management of European grapevine moth (Lobesia botrana Den. & Schiff.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altindisli Ferhunde Ozlem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available European Grapevine Moth (EGVM, Lobesia botrana (Den. & Schiff. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae is the key pest of grape in Turkey. It damages grape berries directly and requires strict control measures producing 3 or 4 generations per year. Since the ‘80s, farmers often preferred chemical control with organophosphorus insecticides against the pest because it is wieldy, very effective and cheap. Tendency to use environmentally friendly pesticides began at the beginning of the nineties because chemicals sprayed next to grape harvest threaten environment and consumer health, causing residue problem in export. Consequently, a bioinsecticide, Bacillus thuringiensis Berl., was put into practice against the pest. Forecasting System timing according to the larvicides against EGVM was reviewed as a result of the registration of an ovicide at the end of nineties. Modifications have been made in standard biological efficacy test method and Forecasting System taking the biological stages of EGVM into account to get optimal results from ovicides. Mating disruption and auto-confusion techniques against EGVM were tested and put into practice for the first time in the Aegean Region to decrease insecticide applications. Since 2005, mating disruption has been gradually preferred by the growers and firms because it is very effective and easy to apply.

  17. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of Zanthoxylum armatum against diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vishal; Reddy, S G Eswara; Chauhan, Urvashi; Kumar, Neeraj; Singh, Bikram

    2016-01-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) is the most serious pest of cruciferous crops grown in the world causing economic yield loss. Several synthetic insecticides have been used against P. xylostella but satisfactory control was not achieved due to development of resistance to insecticides. Therefore, the present study was carried out to screen different fractions of Zanthoxylum armatum for their insecticidal activities against second instar larvae of P. xylostella. Results indicate, all the fractions showed activity to P. xylostella. However, n-hexane fraction of Z. armatum showed maximum larvicidal activity with minimum LC50 value of 2988.6 ppm followed by ethanol (LC50 = 12779.7 ppm) and methanol fraction (LC50 = 12908.8 ppm) whereas chloroform fraction was least toxic (LC50 = 16750.6 ppm). The GC-MS analysis of n-hexane fraction of leaf extract showed maximum larvicidal activity, which may be due to two major compounds i.e. 2-undecanone (19.75%) and 2-tridecanone (11.76%).

  18. Attachment ability of the codling moth Cydia pomonella L. to rough substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Bitar, Loris; Voigt, Dagmar; Zebitz, Claus P W; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2010-12-01

    Host plant surfaces of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae), vary in microtopography, which can affect its attachment, locomotion, and oviposition behaviour. This study was performed to investigate the effect of surface roughness on the attachment ability of adult insects. Using a centrifugal force device, friction forces of both sexes were assessed on six epoxy resin substrates differing only in the dimensions of their surface asperities, ranging from 0 μm to 12 μm. Surface topography significantly affected friction forces. Maximal force was measured on the smooth substrate whereas minimal force was assessed on microrough substrates with 0.3 μm and 1.0 μm size of asperities. On the remaining rough substrates, friction forces were significantly higher but still lower than on the smooth substrate. Both sexes generated similar forces on the same substrate, in spite of the considerable difference in their body mass. Thus, it is expected that both sexes can attach effectively to differently structured plant substrates in their habitat. However, since smooth surfaces have been reported previously to be the most favorable substrates for ovipositing females of C. pomonella, it is possible that they use their attachment system to sense the substrate texture and prefer those substrates to which their arolia attach the best. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Novaluron Causes Reduced Egg Hatch After Treating Adult Codling Moths, Cydia pomenella: Support for Transovarial Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Hoon S.; Wise, John C.; Gökçe, Avhan; Whalon, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a primary pest of apples throughout the United States. Reliance on broad spectrum organophosphates has been declining with the slated cancellation and has shifted towards narrow spectrum insecticides. Novaluron, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, has primarily been used for its ovicidal and larvacidal activities. However, recent studies have demonstrated a transovarial effect after exposure to adults. The effects of novaluron were studied to determine if reduced egg hatch occurs after exposure of different sexes to this compound. Effects of this compound through horizontal transfer were also compared with a topical application to C. pomonella eggs. Results from independent exposure of different sexes to novaluron were different than the control for all three exposure types; male only, female only, and both treated. The horizontal transfer experiment yielded no significant difference while the topical application of novaluron on eggs showed significantly lower egg hatch. Although novaluron has no direct toxicity to adults, the results of this study demonstrate that the delayed lethal activity of this compound reduces hatching of eggs laid by treated adults. Along with the direct ovicidal and larvicidal properties of novaluron, the delayed lethal activity provides an important contribution to the overall control seen in the field. PMID:22239717

  20. Efficacy of Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria Bassiana and Gamma Irradiation Against the Greater Date Moth, Arenipses Sabella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhaiel, A.A.; Abul Fadl, H.A.A.

    2011-01-01

    The fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) was isolated locally from dead larvae of the greater date moth, Arenipses sabella (Hampson) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The effect of three exposure methods and two environmental factors (temperature and relative humidity) on pathogenicity of the fungus with different concentrations to A. sabella second instar larvae were examined. The study demonstrated that the entomopathogenic fungus was most efficient in the control of second instar larvae at 25 degree C and 100% humidity and the percent of mortality was increased when increasing the concentration of fungus. The mode of exposure of fungus to larvae directly sprayed, larvae exposed to the treated dates or larvae both sprayed and exposed to the treated dates showed 56.66, 26.66 and 75% mortality, respectively, at concentration 1x10 10 spores/ml and three days post-treatment. The F1 larvae resulting from irradiated male pupae with 150 Gy were more susceptible to pathogenic fungus at low concentration ((1x10 8 spores/ml) than non-irradiated ones. The scanning electron microscope was used to delineate the morphological stages of fungus to the germinated conidia and the hyphae penetrating the larva cuticle.

  1. Differential transcriptome analysis reveals genes related to cold tolerance in seabuckthorn carpenter moth, Eogystia hippophaecolus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingming Cui

    Full Text Available Seabuckthorn carpenter moth, Eogystia hippophaecolus (Lepidoptera: Cossidae, is an important pest of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides, which is a shrub that has significant ecological and economic value in China. E. hippophaecolus is highly cold tolerant, but limited studies have been conducted to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying its cold resistance. Here we sequenced the E. hippophaecolus transcriptome using RNA-Seq technology and performed de novo assembly from the short paired-end reads. We investigated the larval response to cold stress by comparing gene expression profiles between treatments. We obtained 118,034 unigenes, of which 22,161 were annotated with gene descriptions, conserved domains, gene ontology terms, and metabolic pathways. These resulted in 57 GO terms and 193 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways. By comparing transcriptome profiles for differential gene expression, we identified many differentially expressed proteins and genes, including heat shock proteins and cuticular proteins which have previously been reported to be involved in cold resistance of insects. This study provides a global transcriptome analysis and an assessment of differential gene expression in E. hippophaecolus under cold stress. We found seven differential expressed genes in common between developmental stages, which were verified with qPCR. Our findings facilitate future genomic studies aimed at improving our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the response of insects to low temperatures.

  2. TRPA5, an Ankyrin Subfamily Insect TRP Channel, is Expressed in Antennae of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Multiple Splice Variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Alberto Maria; Bengtsson, Jonas Martin; Montagné, Nicolas; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle; Rota-Stabelli, Omar; Salvagnin, Umberto; Bassoli, Angela; Witzgall, Peter; Anfora, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are an ancient family of cation channels, working as metabotropic triggers, which respond to physical and chemical environmental cues. Perception of chemical signals mediate reproductive behaviors and is therefore an important target for sustainable management tactics against the codling moth Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). However, olfactory behavior strongly depends on diel periodicity and correlation of chemical with physical cues, like temperature, and physical cues thus essentially contribute to the generation of behavioral response. From an antennal transcriptome generated by next generation sequencing, we characterized five candidate TRPs in the codling moth. The coding DNA sequence of one of these was extended to full length, and phylogenetic investigation revealed it to be orthologous of the TRPA5 genes, reported in several insect genomes as members of the insect TRPA group with unknown function but closely related to the thermal sensor pyrexia Reverse transcription PCR revealed the existence of five alternate splice forms of CpTRPA5. Identification of a novel TRPA and its splice forms in codling moth antennae open for investigation of their possible sensory roles and implications in behavioral responses related to olfaction. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  3. Transcriptome Analysis and Identification of Major Detoxification Gene Families and Insecticide Targets in Grapholita Molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanqiong; Chai, Yanping; Zhang, Lijun; Zhao, Zhiguo; Gao, Ling-Ling; Ma, Ruiyan

    2017-01-01

    The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is an important pest of most stone and pome fruits and causes serious damage to the fruit industry worldwide. This insect pest has been primarily controlled through the application of insecticides; as a result, G. molesta has developed resistance to many different types of insecticides. To identify detoxification genes, we have, de novo, sequenced the transcriptome of G. molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and yielded 58,970 unigenes of which 26,985 unigenes matched to known proteins. In total, 2,040 simple sequence repeats have been identified. The comprehensive transcriptome data set has permitted us to identify members of important gene families related to detoxification in G. molesta, including 77 unigenes of putative cytochrome P450s, 28 of glutathione S-transferases, 46 of Carboxylesterases, and 31 of insecticide targets. Orthologs of some of these unigenes have shown to play a pivotal role in insecticide resistance in other insect species and those unigenes likely have similar functions in G. molesta. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  4. Ancient Expansion of the Hox Cluster in Lepidoptera Generated Four Homeobox Genes Implicated in Extra-Embryonic Tissue Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, William R.; Gibbs, Melanie; Breuker, Casper J.; Holland, Peter W. H.

    2014-01-01

    Gene duplications within the conserved Hox cluster are rare in animal evolution, but in Lepidoptera an array of divergent Hox-related genes (Shx genes) has been reported between pb and zen. Here, we use genome sequencing of five lepidopteran species (Polygonia c-album, Pararge aegeria, Callimorpha dominula, Cameraria ohridella, Hepialus sylvina) plus a caddisfly outgroup (Glyphotaelius pellucidus) to trace the evolution of the lepidopteran Shx genes. We demonstrate that Shx genes originated by tandem duplication of zen early in the evolution of large clade Ditrysia; Shx are not found in a caddisfly and a member of the basally diverging Hepialidae (swift moths). Four distinct Shx genes were generated early in ditrysian evolution, and were stably retained in all descendent Lepidoptera except the silkmoth which has additional duplications. Despite extensive sequence divergence, molecular modelling indicates that all four Shx genes have the potential to encode stable homeodomains. The four Shx genes have distinct spatiotemporal expression patterns in early development of the Speckled Wood butterfly (Pararge aegeria), with ShxC demarcating the future sites of extraembryonic tissue formation via strikingly localised maternal RNA in the oocyte. All four genes are also expressed in presumptive serosal cells, prior to the onset of zen expression. Lepidopteran Shx genes represent an unusual example of Hox cluster expansion and integration of novel genes into ancient developmental regulatory networks. PMID:25340822

  5. Multimodal floral signals and moth foraging decisions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A Riffell

    Full Text Available Combinations of floral traits - which operate as attractive signals to pollinators - act on multiple sensory modalities. For Manduca sexta hawkmoths, how learning modifies foraging decisions in response to those traits remains untested, and the contribution of visual and olfactory floral displays on behavior remains unclear.Using M. sexta and the floral traits of two important nectar resources in southwestern USA, Datura wrightii and Agave palmeri, we examined the relative importance of olfactory and visual signals. Natural visual and olfactory cues from D. wrightii and A. palmeri flowers permits testing the cues at their native intensities and composition - a contrast to many studies that have used artificial stimuli (essential oils, single odorants that are less ecologically relevant. Results from a series of two-choice assays where the olfactory and visual floral displays were manipulated showed that naïve hawkmoths preferred flowers displaying both olfactory and visual cues. Furthermore, experiments using A. palmeri flowers - a species that is not very attractive to hawkmoths - showed that the visual and olfactory displays did not have synergistic effects. The combination of olfactory and visual display of D. wrightii, however - a flower that is highly attractive to naïve hawkmoths - did influence the time moths spent feeding from the flowers. The importance of the olfactory and visual signals were further demonstrated in learning experiments in which experienced moths, when exposed to uncoupled floral displays, ultimately chose flowers based on the previously experienced olfactory, and not visual, signals. These moths, however, had significantly longer decision times than moths exposed to coupled floral displays.These results highlight the importance of specific sensory modalities for foraging hawkmoths while also suggesting that they learn the floral displays as combinatorial signals and use the integrated floral traits from their memory

  6. Multimodal Floral Signals and Moth Foraging Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffell, Jeffrey A.; Alarcón, Ruben

    2013-01-01

    Background Combinations of floral traits – which operate as attractive signals to pollinators – act on multiple sensory modalities. For Manduca sexta hawkmoths, how learning modifies foraging decisions in response to those traits remains untested, and the contribution of visual and olfactory floral displays on behavior remains unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings Using M. sexta and the floral traits of two important nectar resources in southwestern USA, Datura wrightii and Agave palmeri, we examined the relative importance of olfactory and visual signals. Natural visual and olfactory cues from D. wrightii and A. palmeri flowers permits testing the cues at their native intensities and composition – a contrast to many studies that have used artificial stimuli (essential oils, single odorants) that are less ecologically relevant. Results from a series of two-choice assays where the olfactory and visual floral displays were manipulated showed that naïve hawkmoths preferred flowers displaying both olfactory and visual cues. Furthermore, experiments using A. palmeri flowers – a species that is not very attractive to hawkmoths – showed that the visual and olfactory displays did not have synergistic effects. The combination of olfactory and visual display of D. wrightii, however – a flower that is highly attractive to naïve hawkmoths – did influence the time moths spent feeding from the flowers. The importance of the olfactory and visual signals were further demonstrated in learning experiments in which experienced moths, when exposed to uncoupled floral displays, ultimately chose flowers based on the previously experienced olfactory, and not visual, signals. These moths, however, had significantly longer decision times than moths exposed to coupled floral displays. Conclusions/Significance These results highlight the importance of specific sensory modalities for foraging hawkmoths while also suggesting that they learn the floral displays as

  7. Winter Weather Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health ... Although there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect ...

  8. Winter maintenance performance measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Winter Performance Index is a method of quantifying winter storm events and the DOTs response to them. : It is a valuable tool for evaluating the States maintenance practices, performing post-storm analysis, training : maintenance personnel...

  9. Winter weather demand considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Winter weather has varied effects on travel behavior. Using 418 survey responses from the Northern Virginia : commuting area of Washington, D.C. and binary logit models, this study examines travel related changes under : different types of winter wea...

  10. Dogwood borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) abundance and seasonal flight activity in apple orchards, urban landscapes, and woodlands in five eastern states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergh, J C; Leskey, T C; Walgenbach, J F; Klingeman, W E; Kain, D P; Zhang, A

    2009-06-01

    The relative abundance and seasonal flight activity of dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula Harris (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), was measured using weekly records from traps baited with its sex pheromone and deployed in apple orchards, urban landscapes, and native woodland sites in New York, West Virginia, Virginia, North Carolina, and Tennessee in 2005 and 2006. The mean total number of moths captured per site in apple orchards was 3,146 +/- 644 and 3095 +/- 584 SE in 2005 and 2006, respectively, exceeding captures at urban sites by 16 and 13 times and at woodland sites by 210 and 206 times in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Mean total captures at urban sites exceeded those in woodland habitats by 13 and 16 times in 2005 and 2006, respectively. The mean duration (wk) of the flight period did not differ significantly between apple orchards (22.6 +/- 0.6 SE) and urban sites (20.3 +/- 1.2 SE). The onset of flight was somewhat later in New York (around early June) than further south (around early to mid-May), but moth captures continued into October in all states. Captures in apple orchards and at urban sites with higher populations were essentially continuous throughout the flight period, with substantial weekly fluctuations, and tended to show a bimodal pattern with peaks from late May through mid-July and from late August through mid-September. Captures at woodland sites tended to occur predominantly from mid-May through about mid-June and were very sporadic thereafter.

  11. Molecular diversity of Wolbachia in Lepidoptera: Prevalent allelic content and high recombination of MLST genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilinsky, Yury; Kosterin, Oleg E

    2017-04-01

    Wolbachia are common endosymbiotic bacteria of Arthropoda and Nematoda that are ordinarily transmitted vertically in host lineages through the egg cytoplasm. Despite the great interest in the Wolbachia symbiont, many issues of its biology remain unclear, including its evolutionary history, routes of transfer among species, and the molecular mechanisms underlying the symbiont's effect on its host. In this report, we present data relating to Wolbachia infection in 120 species of 13 Lepidoptera families, mostly butterflies, from West Siberian localities based on Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and the wsp locus and perform a comprehensive survey of the distribution of Wolbachia and its genetic diversity in Lepidoptera worldwide. We observed a high infection incidence in the studied region; this finding is probably also true for other temperate latitude regions because many studied species have broad Palearctic and even Holarctic distribution. Although 40 new MLST alleles and 31 new STs were described, there was no noticeable difference in the MLST allele content in butterflies and probably also in moths worldwide. A genetic analysis of Wolbachia strains revealed the MLST allele core in lepidopteran hosts worldwide, viz. the ST-41 allele content. The key finding of our study was the detection of rampant recombination among MLST haplotypes. High rates of homologous recombination between Wolbachia strains indicate a substantial contribution of genetic exchanges to the generation of new STs. This finding should be considered when discussing issues related to the reconstruction of Wolbachia evolution, divergence time, and the routes of Wolbachia transmission across arthropod hosts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Winter-to-winter variations in indoor radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mose, D.G.; Mushrush, G.W.; Kline, S.W.

    1989-01-01

    Indoor radon concentrations in northern Virginia and central Maryland show a strong dependence on weather. Winter tends to be associated with higher than average indoor radon, and summer with lower than average. However, compared to the winter of 1986-1987, the winter of 1987-1988 was warmer and drier. Consequently, winter-to-winter indoor radon decreased by about 25%. This winter-to-winter decrease is unexpectedly large, and simulates winter-to-summer variations that have been reported

  13. Evaluation of Some Botanicals to Control Potato Tuber Moth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in all treatments and non-significant differences were observed among them. From this study it can be conclude that Lantana camara, Eucalyptus globules and Pyretherum flowers could be used to protect seed potatoes from potato tuber moth damage in diffused light storage. Keywords: Seed Potato; Potato Tuber Moth; ...

  14. Analysis of spatial density dependence in gypsy moth mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Liebhold; Joseph S. Elkinton

    1991-01-01

    The gypsy moth is perhaps the most widely studied forest insect in the world and much of this research has focused on various aspects of population dynamics. But despite this voluminous amount of research we still lack a good understanding of which, if any, natural enemy species regulate gypsy moth populations. The classical approach to analyzing insect population...

  15. Evolution of deceptive and true courtship songs in moths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonic mating signals in moths are argued to have evolved via exploitation of the receivers' sensory bias towards bat echolocation calls. We have demonstrated that female moths of the Asian corn borer are unable to distinguish between the male courtship song and bat calls. Females react to bo...

  16. Control of moth pests by mating disruption: Successes and constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardé, R.T.; Minks, A.K.

    1995-01-01

    Male moths generally find their mates by following the females' pheromone plume to its source. A formulated copy of this message is used to regulate mating of many important pests, including pink bollworm Pectinophora gossypiella, oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta and tomato pinworm Keiferia

  17. Using Ferula assafoetida essential oil as adult carob moth repellent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Lep.: Pyralidae), is the key pest of pomegranate fruits in most countries like Iran. Chemical insecticides cannot be used for the control of carob moth because they have biological and behavioral traits. Other control methods have no sufficient efficiency. So it is necessary to use new ...

  18. Effects of short photoperiod on codling moth diapause and survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential presence of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., in apples shipped to countries within the 30th latitudes has raised concerns that this pest could establish and spread in these countries. Previous research demonstrated that codling moth in apples handled under simulated commercial cold st...

  19. RNA Interference in Moths: Mechanisms, Applications, and Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of lepidopterans, about 90%, are moths. Some moths, particularly their caterpillars, are major agricultural and forestry pests in many parts of the world. However, some other members of moths, such as the silkworm Bombyx mori, are famous for their economic value. Fire et al. in 1998 initially found that exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA can silence the homolog endogenous mRNA in organisms, which is called RNA interference (RNAi. Soon after, the RNAi technique proved to be very promising not only in gene function determination but also in pest control. However, later studies demonstrate that performing RNAi in moths is not as straightforward as shown in other insect taxa. Nevertheless, since 2007, especially after 2010, an increasing number of reports have been published that describe successful RNAi experiments in different moth species either on gene function analysis or on pest management exploration. So far, more than 100 peer-reviewed papers have reported successful RNAi experiments in moths, covering 10 families and 25 species. By using classic and novel dsRNA delivery methods, these studies effectively silence the expression of various target genes and determine their function in larval development, reproduction, immunology, resistance against chemicals, and other biological processes. In addition, a number of laboratory and field trials have demonstrated that RNAi is also a potential strategy for moth pest management. In this review, therefore, we summarize and discuss the mechanisms and applications of the RNAi technique in moths by focusing on recent progresses.

  20. Biology and population dynamics of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, was a successful biological control agent against prickly pear cacti in Australia in the 1920’s. Since then, it was introduced to other countries including the Carribean islands. In 1989, the cactus moth was reported in Florida and has continued to spread nort...

  1. Allee effects and pulsed invasion by the gypsy moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derk M. Johnson; Andrew M. Liebhold; Patrick C. Tobin; Ottar N. Bjornstad

    2006-01-01

    Biological invasions pose considerable threats to the world's ecosystems and cause substantial economic losses. A prime example is the invasion of the gypsy moth in the United States, for which more than $194 million was spent on management and monitoring between 1985 and 2004 alone. The spread of the gypsy moth across eastern North America is, perhaps, the most...

  2. The Gypsy Moth Event Monitor for FVS: a tool for forest and pest managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt W. Gottschalk; Anthony W. Courter

    2007-01-01

    The Gypsy Moth Event Monitor is a program that simulates the effects of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), within the confines of the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS). Individual stands are evaluated with a susceptibility index system to determine the vulnerability of the stand to the effects of gypsy moth. A gypsy moth outbreak is scheduled in the...

  3. Nocturnal activity positively correlated with auditory sensitivity in noctuoid moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Hofstede, Hannah M; Ratcliffe, John M; Fullard, James H

    2008-06-23

    We investigated the relationship between predator detection threshold and antipredator behaviour in noctuoid moths. Moths with ears sensitive to the echolocation calls of insectivorous bats use avoidance manoeuvres in flight to evade these predators. Earless moths generally fly less than eared species as a primary defence against predation by bats. For eared moths, however, there is interspecific variation in auditory sensitivity. At the species level, and when controlling for shared evolutionary history, nocturnal flight time and auditory sensitivity were positively correlated in moths, a relationship that most likely reflects selection pressure from aerial-hawking bats. We suggest that species-specific differences in the detection of predator cues are important but often overlooked factors in the evolution and maintenance of antipredator behaviour.

  4. (JE Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) annually cause enormous loss to the producers and their combat has become a worldwide challenge mainly due to several reports of pesticides resistance. Today, one of the best alternatives used in this combat is the application of natural insecticides such ...

  5. Contributions of gut bacteria to Bacillus thuringiensis-induced mortality vary across a range of Lepidoptera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Nichole A; Robinson, Courtney J; McMahon, Matthew D; Holt, Jonathan; Handelsman, Jo; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2009-01-01

    Background Gut microbiota contribute to the health of their hosts, and alterations in the composition of this microbiota can lead to disease. Previously, we demonstrated that indigenous gut bacteria were required for the insecticidal toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis to kill the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar. B. thuringiensis and its associated insecticidal toxins are commonly used for the control of lepidopteran pests. A variety of factors associated with the insect host, B. thuringiensis strain, and environment affect the wide range of susceptibilities among Lepidoptera, but the interaction of gut bacteria with these factors is not understood. To assess the contribution of gut bacteria to B. thuringiensis susceptibility across a range of Lepidoptera we examined larval mortality of six species in the presence and absence of their indigenous gut bacteria. We then assessed the effect of feeding an enteric bacterium isolated from L. dispar on larval mortality following ingestion of B. thuringiensis toxin. Results Oral administration of antibiotics reduced larval mortality due to B. thuringiensis in five of six species tested. These included Vanessa cardui (L.), Manduca sexta (L.), Pieris rapae (L.) and Heliothis virescens (F.) treated with a formulation composed of B. thuringiensis cells and toxins (DiPel), and Lymantria dispar (L.) treated with a cell-free formulation of B. thuringiensis toxin (MVPII). Antibiotics eliminated populations of gut bacteria below detectable levels in each of the insects, with the exception of H. virescens, which did not have detectable gut bacteria prior to treatment. Oral administration of the Gram-negative Enterobacter sp. NAB3, an indigenous gut resident of L. dispar, restored larval mortality in all four of the species in which antibiotics both reduced susceptibility to B. thuringiensis and eliminated gut bacteria, but not in H. virescens. In contrast, ingestion of B. thuringiensis toxin (MVPII) following antibiotic treatment

  6. Host and phenology shifts in the evolution of the social moth genus Thaumetopoea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Simonato

    Full Text Available The genus Thaumetopoea contains the processionary moths, a group of lepidopteran associated with forest trees, well known for the social behaviour of the larvae and for carrying urticating setae. The taxonomy of the genus is partly unresolved and a phylogenetic approach is lacking. The goal of this work is to produce a phylogeny for Thaumetopoea and to identify the main traits driving the evolution of this group. Eighteen mitochondrial and three nuclear genes were fully/partly sequenced. Markers were aligned and analysed singularly or in various combinations. Phylogenetic analyses were performed according to maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods. Trees obtained from largest data sets provided identical topologies that received strong statistical support. Three main clades were identified within Thaumetopoea and were further supported by several signatures located in the mitochondrial tRNAs and intergenic spacers. The reference topology was used to investigate the evolution of life history traits related to biogeography, host plant, ecology, and morphology. A multigenic approach allowed to produce a robust phylogenetic analysis of the genus Thaumetopoea, with the identification of three major clades linked to different ecological and life history traits. The first clade is associated with Angiosperm host plants and has a fast spring development of larvae on young foliage. The other clades have originated by one event of host plant shift to Gymnosperm Pinaceae, which implied a longer larval developmental time due to the lower nutritional quality of leaves. These clades showed different adaptations to such a constraint, the first with a switch of larval feeding to cold season (winter pine processionary moths, and the second with a retraction to high altitude and latitude and a development cycle extended over two years (summer pine processionary moths. Recent global warming is affecting all species and seems able to further shape the

  7. Population dynamics of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) was investigated at three farms on the Western side of the Sydney Basin, Australia, from November 2003 to October 2004. Adult populations were monitored fortnightly by counting the number that was trapped on ...

  8. Phylogeographic structure in the bogus yucca moth Prodoxus quinquepunctellus (Prodoxidae): comparisons with coexisting pollinator yucca moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, D M; Groman, J D; Segraves, K A; Pellmyr, O

    2001-10-01

    The pollination mutualism between yucca moths and yuccas highlights the potential importance of host plant specificity in insect diversification. Historically, one pollinator moth species, Tegeticula yuccasella, was believed to pollinate most yuccas. Recent phylogenetic studies have revealed that it is a complex of at least 13 distinct species, eight of which are specific to one yucca species. Moths in the closely related genus Prodoxus also specialize on yuccas, but they do not pollinate and their larvae feed on different plant parts. Previous research demonstrated that the geographically widespread Prodoxus quinquepunctellus can rapidly specialize to its host plants and may harbor hidden species diversity. We examined the phylogeographic structure of P. quinquepunctellus across its range to compare patterns of diversification with six coexisting pollinator yucca moth species. Morphometric and mtDNA cytochrome oxidase I sequence data indicated that P. quinquepunctellus as currently described contains two species. There was a deep division between moth populations in the eastern and the western United States, with limited sympatry in central Texas; these clades are considered separate species and are redescribed as P. decipiens and P. quinquepunctellus (sensu stricto), respectively. Sequence data also showed a lesser division within P. quinquepunctellus s.s. between the western populations on the Colorado Plateau and those elsewhere. The divergence among the three emerging lineages corresponded with major biogeographic provinces, whereas AMOVA indicated that host plant specialization has been relatively unimportant in diversification. In comparison, the six pollinator species comprise three lineages, one eastern and two western. A pollinator species endemic to the Colorado Plateau has evolved in both of the western lineages. The east-west division and the separate evolution of two Colorado Plateau pollinator species suggest that similar biogeographic factors have

  9. An annotated list of the Lepidoptera of Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Pohl

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This checklist documents the 2367 Lepidoptera species reported to occur in the province of Alberta, Canada, based on examination of the major public insect collections in Alberta and the Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids and Nematodes. Records from relevant literature sources published since 1950 and from selected older works are also included. The entry for each species includes the scientific name, the author and year of publication of the original description, occurrence status, provincial distribution (according to ecoclimatic region, and adult phenology. The most recent taxonomic references are given, and common names are listed for butterflies and conspicuous moth species. The sources of specimen- and literature-based records are provided for each species. An additional 138 species whose occurrence in Alberta is probable are appended to the list. For 1524 of the listed species and subspecies, annotations are given, with selected information on taxonomy, nomenclature, distribution, habitat, and biology. An additional section provides details on 171 species erroneously reported from Alberta in previous works. Introductory sections to the volume provide a general overview of the order Lepidoptera and review the natural regions of Alberta, the state of knowledge of their Lepidoptera faunas, and the history and current state of knowledge of Alberta Lepidoptera. Each of the 63 families (and selected subfamilies occurring in Alberta is briefly reviewed, with information on distinguishing features, general appearance, and general biology. A bibliography and an index of genus-level, species-level, and subspecies-level names are provided. The list is accompanied by an appendix of proposed nomenclature changes, consisting of revised status for 25 taxa raised from synonymy to species level, and new synonymy for 20 species-level and one genus-level taxa here considered to be subjective synonyms, with resultant revised synonymy for one

  10. Moth sex pheromone receptors and deceitful parapheromones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingxi Xu

    Full Text Available The insect's olfactory system is so selective that male moths, for example, can discriminate female-produced sex pheromones from compounds with minimal structural modifications. Yet, there is an exception for this "lock-and-key" tight selectivity. Formate analogs can be used as replacement for less chemically stable, long-chain aldehyde pheromones, because male moths respond physiologically and behaviorally to these parapheromones. However, it remained hitherto unknown how formate analogs interact with aldehyde-sensitive odorant receptors (ORs. Neuronal responses to semiochemicals were investigated with single sensillum recordings. Odorant receptors (ORs were cloned using degenerate primers, and tested with the Xenopus oocyte expression system. Quality, relative quantity, and purity of samples were evaluated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We identified olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs housed in trichoid sensilla on the antennae of male navel orangeworm that responded equally to the main constituent of the sex pheromone, (11Z,13Z-hexadecadienal (Z11Z13-16Ald, and its formate analog, (9Z,11Z-tetradecen-1-yl formate (Z9Z11-14OFor. We cloned an odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco and aldehyde-sensitive ORs from the navel orangeworm, one of which (AtraOR1 was expressed specifically in male antennae. AtraOR1•AtraOrco-expressing oocytes responded mainly to Z11Z13-16Ald, with moderate sensitivity to another component of the sex pheromone, (11Z,13Z-hexadecadien-1-ol. Surprisingly, this receptor was more sensitive to the related formate than to the natural sex pheromone. A pheromone receptor from Heliothis virescens, HR13 ( = HvirOR13 showed a similar profile, with stronger responses elicited by a formate analog than to the natural sex pheromone, (11Z-hexadecenal thus suggesting this might be a common feature of moth pheromone receptors.

  11. Abundance, age structure, and voltinism of light brown apple moth populations in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buergi, L P; Roltsch, W J; Mills, N J

    2011-12-01

    The light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), is native to Australia and first was detected in California in 2006. In this study, we regularly sampled populations on Leptospermum laevigatum (Gaertn.) F.Muell. at two sites in San Francisco and on Arctostaphylos densiflora M.S. Baker at two sites in Santa Cruz over a 2-yr period to monitor the abundance, age structure, and voltinism of this potential pest in relation to degree-days. Our results showed that larval abundance declined at two sites, cycled with peaks in midsummer at one site, and remained steady at one site. Generations overlapped at all four sites with the full range of larval instars being present for most of the year, although populations during the winter were predominantly mid to late instars. Accumulated degree-days predict an average of 3.27 and 4.58 generations per year in San Francisco and Santa Cruz, respectively, which matched our observed peaks of late-instar larvae in the field remarkably well. This new information on light brown apple moth phenology in coastal California will be invaluable for the development of effective monitoring and management strategies for this new invader in the studied region.

  12. Coding and interaction of sex pheromone and plant volatile signals in the antennal lobe of the codling moth Cydia pomonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trona, Federica; Anfora, Gianfranco; Bengtsson, Marie; Witzgall, Peter; Ignell, Rickard

    2010-12-15

    In the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) plant volatiles attract males and females by upwind flight and synergise the male response to the female-produced sex pheromone, indicating a close relationship between the perception of social and environmental olfactory signals. We have studied the anatomical and functional organisation of the antennal lobe (AL), the primary olfactory centre, of C. pomonella with respect to the integration of sex pheromone and host-plant volatile information. A three-dimensional reconstruction of the glomerular structure of the AL revealed 50±2 and 49±2 glomeruli in males and females, respectively. These glomeruli are functional units involved in the coding of odour quality. The glomerular map of the AL was then integrated with electrophysiological recordings of the response of individual neurons in the AL of males and females to sex pheromone components and behaviourally active plant volatiles. By means of intracellular recordings and stainings, we physiologically characterised ca. 50 neurons in each sex, revealing complex patterns of activation and a wide variation in response dynamics to these test compounds. Stimulation with single chemicals and their two-component blends produced both synergistic and inhibitory interactions in projection neurons innervating ordinary glomeruli and the macroglomerular complex. Our results show that the sex pheromone and plant odours are processed in an across-fibre coding pattern. The lack of a clear segregation between the pheromone and general odour subsystems in the AL of the codling moth suggests a level of interaction that has not been reported from other insects.

  13. Current and Future Potential Risk of Establishment of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neven, Lisa G; Kumar, Sunil; Yee, Wee L; Wakie, Tewodros

    2018-02-17

    The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a primary pest of stone fruits that cause significant economic damage. Larvae, which enter the host plant through shoot tips, damage shoots, and ripe fruits. Native to Asia, this pest now occurs in many fruit-growing countries, including the United States and Canada. Though the pest was previously reported from many states within the United States, its current distribution and the environmental variables that influence its distribution are not properly identified. The objectives of this study were to 1) identify the environmental factors associated with G. molesta current distribution, 2) predict the current distribution of G. molesta in Washington State (WA) using Maxent and Climex models, 3) identify those areas within WA best suited for establishment of pest free zones, areas of low pest prevalence, and pest free production areas, and 4) identify regions most at risk for further expansion of G. molesta populations as a function of climate change. The current models predicted a small portion of central WA is suitable to support G. molesta, which is consistent with observed distributions. However, climate change models predict that more areas will become suitable for the pest. These results indicate that action should be taken to monitor and reduce current populations of G. molesta to stem its potential expansion into the major commercial tree fruit production areas in the state.

  14. Three new species of Fancy Case caterpillars from threatened forests of Hawaii (Lepidoptera, Cosmopterigidae, Hyposmocoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Akito Y.; Rubinoff, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The endemic Hawaiian moth genus Hyposmocoma includes 348 described species and perhaps twice as many that remain undescribed. The genus is unusual within Lepidoptera in that its larvae create distinctive silk cases in which they perambulate while protected and camouflaged. An extraordinary diversity of case types exists, and to date more than ten different types have been identified, each corresponding roughly to a separate evolutionary lineage. In this study, we describe three new species of Hyposmocoma: Hyposmocoma ipohapuu sp. n. from Big Island, Hyposmocoma makawao sp. n. from Makawao Forest Reserve in Mauiand Hyposmocoma tantala sp. n. from Mt. Tantalus, Oahu, all of which produce tubular purse cases during their larval stage. We also describe the female of Hyposmocoma inversella Walsingham, which was previously undescribed, and re-describe two closely related species, Hyposmocoma auropurpurea Walsingham and Hyposmocoma nebulifera Walsingham, neither which have been formally described in recent years. We present for the first time, primer sequences for a 705 bp fragment of CAD, designed for Hyposmocoma and relatives. The molecular phylogeny based on mitochondrial and nuclear loci demonstrates that all are distinct species. The discovery of a new, endemic species from Mt. Tantalus, an area with many invasive species, suggests that even relatively degraded areas in Hawaii would be worthy of active conservation efforts. PMID:22408378

  15. Three new species of Fancy Case caterpillars from threatened forests of Hawaii (Lepidoptera, Cosmopterigidae, Hyposmocoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akito Kawahara

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The endemic Hawaiian moth genus Hyposmocoma includes 348 described species and perhaps twice as many that remain undescribed. The genus is unusual within Lepidoptera in that its larvae create distinctive silk cases in which they perambulate while protected and camouflaged. An extraordinary diversity of case types exists, and to date more than ten different types have been identified, each corresponding roughly to a separate evolutionary lineage. In this study, we describe three new species of Hyposmocoma: H. ipohapuu sp. n. from Big Island, H. makawao sp. n. from Makawao Forest Reserve in Maui and H. tantala sp. n. from Mt. Tantalus, Oahu, all of which produce tubular purse cases during their larval stage. We also describe the female of H. inversella Walsingham, which was previously undescribed, and re-describe two closely related species, H. auropurpurea Walsingham and H. nebulifera Walsingham, neither which have been formally described in recent years. We present for the first time, the CAD primer sequences for Hyposmocoma and relatives. The molecular phylogeny based on mitochondrial and nuclear loci demonstrates that all are distinct species. The discovery of a new, endemic species from Mt. Tantalus, an area with many invasive species, suggests that even relatively degraded areas in Hawaii would be worthy of active conservation efforts.

  16. Effect of varying dispenser point source density on mating disruption of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lame, Frédérique M; Epstein, David; Gut, Larry J; Goldfarb, Heidi; Miller, James R

    2010-08-01

    Hand-applied dispensers are successfully used in mating disruption programs, but cost of labor to apply these dispensers limits their adoption. Creating hand-applied dispensers that release larger amounts of pheromone and that can be applied at lower densities per hectare could reduce the cost of mating disruption and increase its use. The effect of reducing the number of point sources per hectare while keeping the amount of pheromone applied per hectare constant on the success of Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) mating disruption was investigated with Confuse-OFM, paraffin disk, and Isomate-M Rosso dispensers. For all dispensers, as point source density decreased, numbers of moths captured increased, percentage of orientation disruption to traps decreased, and variability in these measures increased. Decreasing point source density, even while keeping the amount of pheromone applied per hectare constant is not a viable option for reducing the cost of G. molesta mating disruption with hand-applied dispensers. Puffers (aerosol dispensers) are applied at 2.5-5 dispensers per ha for G. molesta control. However, hand-applied dispensers fail when clumped at such low numbers of release sites. Potential explanations for the success of Puffers and the failure of hand-applied dispensers at very low point source densities are presented. The utility of paraffin disk dispensers as experimental devices also is discussed.

  17. Flight attraction of Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae to cotton headspace and synthetic volatile blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe eBorrero-Echeverry

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The insect olfactory system discriminates odor signals of different biological relevance, which drive innate behavior. Identification of stimuli that trigger upwind flight attraction towards host plants is a current challenge, and is essential in developing new, sustainable plant protection methods, and for furthering our understanding of plant-insect interactions. Using behavioral, analytical and electrophysiological studies, we here show that both females and males of the Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, use blends of volatile compounds to locate their host plant, cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (Malvales, Malvaceae. Female S. littoralis were engaged in upwind orientation flight in a wind tunnel when headspace collected from cotton plants was delivered through a piezoelectric sprayer. Although males took off towards cotton headspace significantly fewer males than females flew upwind towards the sprayed headspace. Subsequent assays with antennally active synthetic compounds revealed that a blend of nonanal, (Z-3 hexenyl acetate, (E-β-ocimene, and (R-(+-limonene was as attractive as cotton headspace to females and more attractive to males. DMNT and (R-(--linalool, both known plant defense compounds may have reduced the flight attraction of both females and males; more moths were attracted to blends without these two compounds. Our findings provide a platform for further investigations on host plant signals mediating innate behavior, and for the development of novel insect plant protection strategies against S. littoralis.

  18. The role of the spiracles in gas exchange during development of Samia cynthia (Lepidoptera, Saturniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetz, Stefan K

    2007-12-01

    Spiracles and the tracheal system of insects allow effective delivery of respiratory gases. During development, holometabolous insects encounter large changes in the functional morphology of gas exchange structures. To investigate changes in respiratory patterns during development, CO2-release was measured in larvae, pre-pupae and pupae of Samia cynthia (Lepidoptera, Saturniidae). Gas exchange patterns showed great variability. Caterpillars had high metabolic rates and released carbon dioxide continuously. Pre-pupae and pupae showed typical discontinuous gas exchange cycles (DGC) at reduced metabolic rates. Changes in gas exchange patterns can partly be explained with low metabolic rates during pupation. Sequential blocking of spiracles in pre-pupae and pupae reduced spiracle conductance with tracheal conductance remaining unaffected. Analysis of gas exchange patterns indicates that caterpillars and pre-pupae use more than 14 spiracles simultaneously while pupae only use 8 to 10 spiracles. Total conductance is not a simple multiple of single spiracles, but may be gradually adaptable to gas exchange demands. Surprisingly, moth pupae showed a DGC if all except one spiracle were blocked. The huge conductance of single spiracles is discussed as a pre-adaptation to high metabolic demands at the beginning and the end of the pupal as well as in the adult stage.

  19. Lioptilodes friasi (Lepidoptera: Pterophoridae) Niche Breadth in the Chilean Mediterranean Matorral Biome: Trophic and Altitudinal Dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Héctor A; Rasmann, Sergio; Ramirez-Verdugo, Pamela; Villagra, Cristian A

    2018-02-01

    Understanding the factors driving the diet breadth of phytophagous insects remains one of the main questions in ecological research. In this study we explored the diet breadth and plant-insect associations in the plume moth Lioptilodes friasi Vargas & Parra (Lepidoptera: Pterophoridae). This phytophagous insect was originally described in association with a single host species, Haplopappus foliosus (Asteraceae), a native shrub of the Chilean Mediterranean matorral. In order to address the breadth of host plant choice, we surveyed other Haplopappus species growing along the elevation gradient of central Chile from sea level to 2600 m. We were able to obtain L. friasi adults from five additional Haplopappus species: Haplopappus chrysantemifolius and Haplopappus decurrens from the coastal zone, Haplopappus multifolius and Haplopappus schumanii from the mid-elevation zone, and Haplopappus scrobiculatus at high elevation. Our results demonstrate that the genus-specialized endophagous herbivore L. friasi has a wider distribution and climatic tolerance than previously described. Its biogeographical range extends from the lowland coastal habitats up to the Andean subnival level. We propose that shared flower phenotypic traits such as morphology and chemical composition may have allowed the colonization of closely related Haplopappus species in central Chile, the expansion of which is limited by the harsh high elevation conditions.

  20. The moth as an allusion to (symbol of?) mother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shengold, L

    1996-07-01

    The meanings of the image of the moth are examined. The use of the moth as both victim and predator, with allusive and symbolic reference to parent and child, is elucidated. My emphasis is on the equation of the moth by children with their intrapsychic registration of a destructive yet vulnerable parent (usually mother) whom the child both wants to destroy and feels it cannot live without. This simple thesis is made use of chiefly to explicate aspects of the life and works of the great American writer, Elizabeth Bishop.

  1. Comparing the genetic structure of codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.) from Greece and France: long distance gene-flow in a sedentary pest species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voudouris, C Ch; Franck, P; Olivares, J; Sauphanor, B; Mamuris, Z; Tsitsipis, J A; Margaritopoulos, J T

    2012-04-01

    Codling moth Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is the most important insect pest of apple production in Europe. Despite the economic importance of this pest, there is not information about the genetic structure of its population in Greece and the patterns of gene-flow which might affect the success of control programs. In this study, we analysed nine samples from apple, pear and walnut from various regions of mainland Greece using 11 microsatellite loci. Six samples from the aforementioned hosts from southern France were also examined for comparison. Bayesian clustering and genetic distance analyses separated the codling moth samples in two genetic clusters. The first cluster consisted mainly of the individuals from Greece, and the second of those from France, although admixture and miss-classified individuals were also observed. The low genetic differentiation among samples within each country was also revealed by F(ST) statistics (0.009 among Greek samples and 0.0150 among French samples compared to 0.050 global value among all samples and 0.032 the mean of the pair-wise values between the two countries). These F(ST) values suggest little structuring at large geographical scales in agreement with previous published studies. The host species and local factors (climatic conditions, topography, pest control programs) did not affect the genetic structure of codling moth populations within each country. The results are discussed in relation to human-made activities that promote gene-flow even at large geographic distances. Possible factors for the genetic differentiation between the two genetic clusters are also discussed.

  2. A review of the genus Ogdoconta Butler (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Condicinae, Condicini) from North America north of Mexico with descriptions of three new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Eric H.; Knudson, Edward C.; Poole, Robert W.; J. Donald Lafontaine; Pogue, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The species of the genus Ogdoconta Butler, 1891 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Condicinae, Condicini) from North America north of Mexico are reviewed, and a description of the genus is given. Ogdoconta satana Metzler, Knudson & Poole, sp. n., is described from New Mexico and Texas, Ogdoconta rufipenna Metzler, Knudson & Poole, sp. n., is described from Arizona, and Ogdoconta fergusoni Metzler & Lafontaine, sp. n., is described from Florida, Mississippi, and Louisiana. A key to the species of Ogdoconta of North America north of Mexico is provided. Adult moths and male and female genitalia of Ogdoconta satana, Ogdoconta rufipenna, Ogdoconta fergusoni, Ogdoconta cinereola (Guenée, 1852), Ogdoconta moreno Barnes, 1907, Ogdoconta sexta Barnes & McDunnough, 1913, Ogdoconta altura Barnes, 1904, and Ogdoconta tacna (Barnes, 1904) are illustrated. PMID:23717183

  3. Revision of Cryptaspasma Walsingham 1900 (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diakonoff, A.

    1959-01-01

    The genus Cryptaspasma comprises moths of moderate or rather large size, mostly of a "dark and earthy appearance", as Edward Meyrick once characterized them. These insects usually are of different shades of purplebrown to bronze-brown, with suffused blackish spots or retination. Although distributed

  4. Urticaria caused by the slug (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    00 caterpillar venoms. In: Venomous animals and their venomS. Vol. 3, (OOs) Bilcher~ W. & Buck:]ey, f.E. Academic Press, New York. PINHEY, E.C.G. 1975. Moths of Southem Africa. Tafelbcrg Publishers,. Cape Town, South Africa. ROTHSCHILD, M., VON EUW, 1. & REICHSTEfN, T. 1972. Some problems connected with ...

  5. Characterizing the interaction between the bogus yucca moth and yuccas: do bogus yucca moths impact yucca reproductive success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, David M; Segraves, Kari A; Sparks, Jed P

    2004-07-01

    Yucca moths are most well known for their obligate pollination mutualism with yuccas, where pollinator moths provide yuccas with pollen and, in exchange, the moth larvae feed on a subset of the developing yucca seeds. The pollinators, however, comprise only two of the three genera of yucca moths. Members of the third genus, Prodoxus, are the "bogus yucca moths" and are sister to the pollinator moths. Adult Prodoxus lack the specialized mouthparts used for pollination and the larvae feed on plant tissues other than seeds. Prodoxus larvae feed within the same plants as pollinator larvae and have the potential to influence yucca reproductive success directly by drawing resources away from flowers and fruit, or indirectly by modifying the costs of the mutualism with pollinators. We examined the interaction between the scape-feeding bogus yucca moth, Prodoxus decipiens, and one of its yucca hosts, Yucca filamentosa, by comparing female reproductive success of plants with and without moth larvae. We determined reproductive success by measuring a set of common reproductive traits such as flowering characteristics, seed set, and seed germination. In addition, we also quantified the percent total nitrogen in the seeds to determine whether the presence of larvae could potentially reduce seed quality. Flowering characteristics, seed set, and seed germination were not significantly different between plants with and without bogus yucca moth larvae. In contrast, the percent total nitrogen content of seeds was significantly lower in plants with P. decipiens larvae, and nitrogen content was negatively correlated with the number of larvae feeding within the inflorescence scape. Surveys of percent total nitrogen at three time periods during the flowering and fruiting of Y. filamentosa also showed that larval feeding decreased the amount of nitrogen in fruit tissue. Taken together, the results suggest that although P. decipiens influences nitrogen distribution in Y. filamentosa, this

  6. Winters fuels report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The outlook for distillate fuel oil this winter is for increased demand and a return to normal inventory patterns, assuming a resumption of normal, cooler weather than last winter. With industrial production expected to grow slightly from last winter's pace, overall consumption is projected to increase 3 percent from last winter, to 3.4 million barrels per day during the heating season (October 1, 1995-March 31, 1996). Much of the supply win come from stock drawdowns and refinery production. Estimates for the winter are from the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) 4th Quarter 1995 Short-Tenn Energy Outlook (STEO) Mid-World Oil Price Case forecast. Inventories in place on September 30, 1995, of 132 million barrels were 9 percent below the unusually high year-earlier level. Inventories of high-sulfur distillate fuel oil, the principal type used for heating, were 13 percent lower than a year earlier. Supply problems are not anticipated because refinery production and the ready availability of imports should be adequate to meet demand. Residential heating off prices are expected to be somewhat higher than last winter's, as the effects of lower crude oil prices are offset by lower distillate inventories. Heating oil is forecast to average $0.92 per gallon, the highest price since the winter of 1992-93. Diesel fuel (including tax) is predicted to be slightly higher than last year at $1.13 per gallon. This article focuses on the winter assessment for distillate fuel oil, how well last year's STEO winter outlook compared to actual events, and expectations for the coming winter. Additional analyses include regional low-sulfur and high-sulfur distillate supply, demand, and prices, and recent trends in distillate fuel oil inventories

  7. Controle químico da Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae na cultura do pessegueiro Chemical control of Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in peach orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano João Arioli

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A mariposa oriental Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae é a principal praga da cultura do pessegueiro no Brasil. O controle do inseto depende basicamente do emprego de inseticidas de alta toxicidade e baixa seletividade aos inimigos naturais. Este trabalho avaliou os inseticidas etofemprox (Trebon 100 SC, 100 e 150mL 100L-1, benzoato de emamectina (Proclaim 5 SG, 10 e 15g 100L-1 + óleo mineral (Assist, 250mL 100L-1, metoxyfenozide (Intrepid 240 SC, 40 e 60mL 100L-1 e spinosad (Tracer 480 SC, 15 e 25mL 100L-1 para o controle da G. molesta na cultura do pessegueiro. No experimento de laboratório, somente o etofemprox apresentou baixa mortalidade (±50% de lagartas. Em pomar comercial, todos os inseticidas e doses testadas reduziram o nível de injúria nos ponteiros em nível superior a 80%. Os inseticidas avaliados apresentam características desejáveis para uso no manejo integrado da G. molesta, destacando-se a baixa toxicidade e reduzida dose de aplicação, o que minimiza os riscos ao homem e ambiente.Oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae is the most important peach pest in Brazil. Pest management is based on chemical control using insecticides with high toxicity and low selectivity to natural enemies. Etofemprox (Trebon 100 SC, 100 and 150mL 100L-1, emamectin benzoato (Proclaim 5 SG, 10 and 15g 100L-1 associated to mineral oil (Assist, 250mL 100L-1, metoxyfenozide (Intrepid 240 SC 40 and 60mL 100L-1, spinosad (Tracer 480 SC, 15 and 25mL 100L-1 and fosmet (Imidan 500 PM, 200g 100L-1 were evaluated in laboratory and field conditions to G. molesta control. In laboratory, only etofemprox resulted in low mortality (± 50% in residual bioassay. In commercial peach orchards, all insecticides reduced pest damage (> 80%. All insecticides shows characteristics for use in the integrated management of G. molesta including low toxicity and reduced application dose.

  8. Resistance of diamondback moth to insecticides in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Resistance of diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.) to insecticides applied for its control on cabbage was evaluated. DBM populations were tested for susceptibility to three pyrethroids (delatamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, cypermethrin) and an organophosphate (chlorpyrifos-methyl) insecticide using larvae

  9. Impact of small mammal predators on gypsy moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph S. Elkinton; Harvey R. Smith; Andrew M. Liebhold

    1991-01-01

    Research in western Massachusetts, on Cape Cod, and on Bryant Mountain in Vermont conducted over the past decade has confirmed the importance of mortality during the late larval and pupal stages to gypsy moth population dynamics.

  10. Forecasting defoliation by the gypsy moth in oak stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert W. Campbell; Joseph P. Standaert

    1974-01-01

    A multiple-regression model is presented that reflects statistically significant correlations between defoliation by the gypsy moth, the dependent variable, and a series of biotic and physical independent variables. Both possible uses and shortcomings of this model are discussed.

  11. Artificial light at night inhibits mating in a Geometrid moth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geffen, Koert G.; van Eck, Emiel; de Boer, Rens A.; van Grunsven, Roy H.A.; Salis, Lucia; Berendse, Frank; Veenendaal, Elmar M.

    2015-01-01

    * Levels of artificial night lighting are increasing rapidly worldwide, subjecting nocturnal organisms to a major change in their environment. Many moth species are strongly attracted to sources of artificial night lighting, with potentially severe, yet poorly studied, consequences for development,

  12. Gypsy moth larval defense mechanisms against pathogenic microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen S. Shields; Tariq M. Butt

    1991-01-01

    We investigated the response of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, larval hemocytes to L. dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdMNPV) administered per os and by injection, and to injected hyphal bodies and natural protoplasts of some entomopathogenic, entomophthoralean fungi.

  13. Carpenterworm Moths and Cerambycid Hardwood Borers Caught in Light Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. D. Solomon; L. Newsome; W. N. Darwin

    1972-01-01

    A portable, battery-operated light trap was used in hardwood stands in Mississippi. Ten species of hardwood borers were captured with carpenterworm moths being taken in the greatest numbers. Many cerambycid borers were also captured.

  14. Multifaceted biological insights from a draft genome sequence of the tobacco hornworm moth, Manduca sexta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanost, Michael R.; Arrese, Estela L.; Cao, Xiaolong; Chen, Yun-Ru; Chellapilla, Sanjay; Goldsmith, Marian R; Grosse-Wilde, Ewald; Heckel, David G.; Herndon, Nicolae; Jiang, Haobo; Papanicolaou, Alexie; Qu, Jiaxin; Soulages, Jose L.; Vogel, Heiko; Walters, James; Waterhouse, Robert M.; Ahn, Seung-Joon; Almeida, Francisca C.; An, Chunju; Aqrawi, Peshtewani; Bretschneider, Anne; Bryant, William B.; Bucks, Sascha; Chao, Hsu; Chevignon, Germain; Christen, Jayne M.; Clarke, David F.; Dittmer, Neal T.; Ferguson, Laura C.F.; Garavelou, Spyridoula; Gordon, Karl H.J.; Gunaratna, Ramesh T.; Han, Yi; Hauser, Frank; He, Yan; Heidel-Fischer, Hanna; Hirsh, Ariana; Hu, Yingxia; Jiang, Hongbo; Kalra, Divya; Klinner, Christian; König, Christopher; Kovar, Christie; Kroll, Ashley R.; Kuwar, Suyog S.; Lee, Sandy L.; Lehman, Rüdiger; Li, Kai; Li, Zhaofei; Liang, Hanquan; Lovelace, Shanna; Lu, Zhiqiang; Mansfield, Jennifer H.; McCulloch, Kyle J.; Mathew, Tittu; Morton, Brian; Muzny, Donna M.; Neunemann, David; Ongeri, Fiona; Pauchet, Yannick; Pu, Ling-Ling; Pyrousis, Ioannis; Rao, Xiang-Jun; Redding, Amanda; Roesel, Charles; Sanchez-Gracia, Alejandro; Schaack, Sarah; Shukla, Aditi; Tetreau, Guillaume; Wang, Yang; Xiong, Guang-Hua; Traut, Walther; Walsh, Tom K.; Worley, Kim C.; Wu, Di; Wu, Wenbi; Wu, Yuan-Qing; Zhang, Xiufeng; Zou, Zhen; Zucker, Hannah; Briscoe, Adriana D.; Burmester, Thorsten; Clem, Rollie J.; Feyereisen, René; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J.P; Hamodrakas, Stavros J.; Hansson, Bill S.; Huguet, Elisabeth; Jermiin, Lars S.; Lan, Que; Lehman, Herman K.; Lorenzen, Marce; Merzendorfer, Hans; Michalopoulos, Ioannis; Morton, David B.; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Oakeshott, John G.; Palmer, Will; Park, Yoonseong; Passarelli, A. Lorena; Rozas, Julio; Schwartz, Lawrence M.; Smith, Wendy; Southgate, Agnes; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Vogt, Richard; Wang, Ping; Werren, John; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Brown, Susan J.; Scherer, Steven E.; Richards, Stephen; Blissard, Gary W.

    2016-01-01

    Manduca sexta, known as the tobacco hornworm or Carolina sphinx moth, is a lepidopteran insect that is used extensively as a model system for research in insect biochemistry, physiology, neurobiology, development, and immunity. One important benefit of this species as an experimental model is its extremely large size, reaching more than 10 g in the larval stage. M. sexta larvae feed on solanaceous plants and thus must tolerate a substantial challenge from plant allelochemicals, including nicotine. We report the sequence and annotation of the M. sexta genome, and a survey of gene expression in various tissues and developmental stages. The Msex_1.0 genome assembly resulted in a total genome size of 419.4 Mbp. Repetitive sequences accounted for 25.8% of the assembled genome. The official gene set is comprised of 15,451 protein-coding genes, of which 2498 were manually curated. Extensive RNA-seq data from many tissues and developmental stages were used to improve gene models and for insights into gene expression patterns. Genome wide synteny analysis indicated a high level of macrosynteny in the Lepidoptera. Annotation and analyses were carried out for gene families involved in a wide spectrum of biological processes, including apoptosis, vacuole sorting, growth and development, structures of exoskeleton, egg shells, and muscle, vision, chemosensation, ion channels, signal transduction, neuropeptide signaling, neurotransmitter synthesis and transport, nicotine tolerance, lipid metabolism, and immunity. This genome sequence, annotation, and analysis provide an important new resource from a well-studied model insect species and will facilitate further biochemical and mechanistic experimental studies of many biological systems in insects. PMID:27522922

  15. Mastrus ridibundus parasitoids eavesdrop on cocoon-spinning codling moth, Cydia pomonella, larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumean, Zaid; Unruh, Tom; Gries, Regine; Gries, Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    Cocoon-spinning larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae) employ a pheromone that attracts or arrests conspecifics seeking pupation sites. Such intraspecific communication signals are important cues for illicit receivers such as parasitoids to exploit. We tested the hypothesis that the prepupal C. pomonella parasitoid Mastrus ridibundus Gravenhorst (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) exploits the larval aggregation pheromone to locate host prepupae. In laboratory olfactometer experiments, female M. ridibundus were attracted to 3-day-old cocoons containing C. pomonella larvae or prepupae. Older cocoons containing C. pomonella pupae, or larvae and prepupae excised from cocoons, were not attractive. In gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analyses of bioactive Porapak Q extract of cocoon-derived airborne semiochemicals, ten compounds elicited responses from female M. ridibundus antennae. Comparative GC-mass spectrometry of authentic standards and cocoon-volatiles determined that these compounds were 3-carene, myrcene, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, decanal, (E)-2-octenal, (E)-2-nonenal, sulcatone, and geranylacetone. A synthetic 11-component blend consisting of these ten EAD-active compounds plus EAD-inactive (+)-limonene (the most abundant cocoon-derived volatile) was as effective as Porapak Q cocoon extract in attracting both female M. ridibundus and C. pomonella larvae seeking pupation sites. Only three components could be deleted from the 11-component blend without diminishing its attractiveness to M. ridibundus, which underlines the complexity of information received and processed during foraging for hosts. Mastrus ridibundus obviously “eavesdrop” on the pheromonal communication signals of C. pomonella larvae that reliably indicate host presence.

  16. Fossilized biophotonic nanostructures reveal the original colors of 47-million-year-old moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Maria E; Briggs, Derek E G; Orr, Patrick J; Wedmann, Sonja; Noh, Heeso; Cao, Hui

    2011-11-01

    Structural colors are generated by scattering of light by variations in tissue nanostructure. They are widespread among animals and have been studied most extensively in butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera), which exhibit the widest diversity of photonic nanostructures, resultant colors, and visual effects of any extant organism. The evolution of structural coloration in lepidopterans, however, is poorly understood. Existing hypotheses based on phylogenetic and/or structural data are controversial and do not incorporate data from fossils. Here we report the first example of structurally colored scales in fossil lepidopterans; specimens are from the 47-million-year-old Messel oil shale (Germany). The preserved colors are generated by a multilayer reflector comprised of a stack of perforated laminae in the scale lumen; differently colored scales differ in their ultrastructure. The original colors were altered during fossilization but are reconstructed based upon preserved ultrastructural detail. The dorsal surface of the forewings was a yellow-green color that probably served as a dual-purpose defensive signal, i.e. aposematic during feeding and cryptic at rest. This visual signal was enhanced by suppression of iridescence (change in hue with viewing angle) achieved via two separate optical mechanisms: extensive perforation, and concave distortion, of the multilayer reflector. The fossils provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, for the function of structural color in fossils and demonstrate the feasibility of reconstructing color in non-metallic lepidopteran fossils. Plastic scale developmental processes and complex optical mechanisms for interspecific signaling had clearly evolved in lepidopterans by the mid-Eocene.

  17. Fossilized biophotonic nanostructures reveal the original colors of 47-million-year-old moths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria E McNamara

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Structural colors are generated by scattering of light by variations in tissue nanostructure. They are widespread among animals and have been studied most extensively in butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera, which exhibit the widest diversity of photonic nanostructures, resultant colors, and visual effects of any extant organism. The evolution of structural coloration in lepidopterans, however, is poorly understood. Existing hypotheses based on phylogenetic and/or structural data are controversial and do not incorporate data from fossils. Here we report the first example of structurally colored scales in fossil lepidopterans; specimens are from the 47-million-year-old Messel oil shale (Germany. The preserved colors are generated by a multilayer reflector comprised of a stack of perforated laminae in the scale lumen; differently colored scales differ in their ultrastructure. The original colors were altered during fossilization but are reconstructed based upon preserved ultrastructural detail. The dorsal surface of the forewings was a yellow-green color that probably served as a dual-purpose defensive signal, i.e. aposematic during feeding and cryptic at rest. This visual signal was enhanced by suppression of iridescence (change in hue with viewing angle achieved via two separate optical mechanisms: extensive perforation, and concave distortion, of the multilayer reflector. The fossils provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, for the function of structural color in fossils and demonstrate the feasibility of reconstructing color in non-metallic lepidopteran fossils. Plastic scale developmental processes and complex optical mechanisms for interspecific signaling had clearly evolved in lepidopterans by the mid-Eocene.

  18. Fossilized Biophotonic Nanostructures Reveal the Original Colors of 47-Million-Year-Old Moths

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Maria E.; Briggs, Derek E. G.; Orr, Patrick J.; Wedmann, Sonja; Noh, Heeso; Cao, Hui

    2011-01-01

    Structural colors are generated by scattering of light by variations in tissue nanostructure. They are widespread among animals and have been studied most extensively in butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera), which exhibit the widest diversity of photonic nanostructures, resultant colors, and visual effects of any extant organism. The evolution of structural coloration in lepidopterans, however, is poorly understood. Existing hypotheses based on phylogenetic and/or structural data are controversial and do not incorporate data from fossils. Here we report the first example of structurally colored scales in fossil lepidopterans; specimens are from the 47-million-year-old Messel oil shale (Germany). The preserved colors are generated by a multilayer reflector comprised of a stack of perforated laminae in the scale lumen; differently colored scales differ in their ultrastructure. The original colors were altered during fossilization but are reconstructed based upon preserved ultrastructural detail. The dorsal surface of the forewings was a yellow-green color that probably served as a dual-purpose defensive signal, i.e. aposematic during feeding and cryptic at rest. This visual signal was enhanced by suppression of iridescence (change in hue with viewing angle) achieved via two separate optical mechanisms: extensive perforation, and concave distortion, of the multilayer reflector. The fossils provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, for the function of structural color in fossils and demonstrate the feasibility of reconstructing color in non-metallic lepidopteran fossils. Plastic scale developmental processes and complex optical mechanisms for interspecific signaling had clearly evolved in lepidopterans by the mid-Eocene. PMID:22110404

  19. Cloning, ligand-binding, and temporal expression of ecdysteroid receptors in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Baozhen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae, is a devastating pest of cruciferous crops worldwide, and has developed resistance to a wide range of insecticides, including diacylhydrazine-based ecdysone agonists, a highly selective group of molt-accelerating biopesticides targeting the ecdysone receptors. Result In this study, we cloned and characterized the ecdysone receptors from P. xylostella, including the two isoforms of EcR and a USP. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis showed striking conservations among insect ecdysone receptors, especially between P. xylostella and other lepidopterans. The binding affinity of ecdysteroids to in vitro-translated receptor proteins indicated that PxEcRB isoform bound specifically to ponasterone A, and the binding affinity was enhanced by co-incubation with PxUSP (Kd =3.0±1.7 nM. In contrast, PxEcRA did not bind to ponasterone A, even in the presence of PxUSP. The expression of PxEcRB were consistently higher than that of PxEcRA across each and every developmental stage, while the pattern of PxUSP expression is more or less ubiquitous. Conclusions Target site insensitivity, in which the altered binding of insecticides (ecdysone agonists to their targets (ecdysone receptors leads to an adaptive response (resistance, is one of the underlying mechanisms of diacylhydrazine resistance. Given the distinct differences at expression level and the ligand-binding capacity, we hypothesis that PxEcRB is the ecdysone receptor that controls the remodeling events during metamorphosis. More importantly, PxEcRB is the potential target site which is modified in the ecdysone agonist-resistant P. xylostella.

  20. Economic Analysis of the Gypsy Moth Problem in the Northeast: IV. Forest Stand Hazard Ratings for Gypsy Moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A. Gansner; Owen W. Herrick; William B. White

    1978-01-01

    Provides a practical method for rating the potential hazard of impending gypsy moth attacks to forest stands. Stepwise multiple regression analysis is used to develop equations for estimating tree mortality from easy-to-measure key characteristics of stand condition.