WorldWideScience

Sample records for winter months due

  1. Comparison of Performance Measurements of Photovoltaic Modules during Winter Months in Taxila, Pakistan

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    Muhammad Anser Bashir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the comparative performance evaluation of three commercially available photovoltaic modules (monocrystalline, polycrystalline, and single junction amorphous silicon in Taxila, Pakistan. The experimentation was carried out at outdoor conditions for winter months. Power output, module efficiency, and performance ratio were calculated for each module and the effect of module temperature and solar irradiance on these parameters was investigated. Module parameters showed strong dependence on the solar irradiance and module temperature. Monocrystalline and polycrystalline modules showed better performance in high irradiance condition whereas it decreased suddenly with decrease in irradiance. Amorphous solar module also showed good performance in low irradiance due to its better light absorbing characteristics and thus showed higher average performance ratio. Monocrystalline photovoltaic module showed higher monthly average module efficiency and was found to be more efficient at this site. Module efficiency and performance ratio showed a decreasing trend with increase of irradiance and photovoltaic module back surface temperature.

  2. Forecasting and Analysis of Monthly Rainfalls in Ardabil Province by Arima, Autoregrressive, and Winters Models

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    B. Salahi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rainfall has the highest variability at time and place scale. Rainfall fluctuation in different geographical areas reveals the necessity of investigating this climate element and suitable models to forecast the rate of precipitation for regional planning. Ardabil province has always faced rainfall fluctuations and shortage of water supply. Precipitation is one of the most important features of the environment. The amount of precipitation over time and in different places is subject to large fluctuations which may be periodical. Studies show that, due to the certain complexities of rainfall, the models which used to predict future values will also need greater accuracy and less error. Among the forecasting models, Arima has more applications and it has replaced with other models. Materials and Methods: In this research, through order 2 Autoregrressive, Winters, and Arima models, monthly rainfalls of Ardabil synoptic station (representing Ardabil province for a 31-year period (1977-2007 were investigated. To assess the presence or absence of significant changes in mean precipitation of Ardabil synoptic station, rainfall of this station was divided into two periods: 1977-1993 and 1994-2010. T-test was used to statistically examine the difference between the two periods. After adjusting the data, descriptive statistics were applied. In order to model the total monthly precipitation of Ardabil synoptic station, Winters, Autoregressive, and Arima models were used. Among different models, the best options were chosen to predict the time series including the mean absolute deviation (MAD, the mean squared errors (MSE, root mean square errors (RMSE and mean absolute percentage errors (MAPE. In order to select the best model among the available options under investigation, the predicted value of the deviation of the actual value was utilized for the months of 2006-2010. Results and Discussion: Statistical characteristics of the total monthly

  3. Probability of occurrence of monthly and seasonal winter precipitation over Northwest India based on antecedent-monthly precipitation

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    Nageswararao, M. M.; Mohanty, U. C.; Dimri, A. P.; Osuri, Krishna K.

    2018-05-01

    Winter (December, January, and February (DJF)) precipitation over northwest India (NWI) is mainly associated with the eastward moving mid-latitude synoptic systems, western disturbances (WDs), embedded within the subtropical westerly jet (SWJ), and is crucial for Rabi (DJF) crops. In this study, the role of winter precipitation at seasonal and monthly scale over NWI and its nine meteorological subdivisions has been analyzed. High-resolution (0.25° × 0.25°) gridded precipitation data set of India Meteorological Department (IMD) for the period of 1901-2013 is used. Results indicated that the seasonal precipitation over NWI is below (above) the long-term mean in most of the years, when precipitation in any of the month (December/January/February) is in deficit (excess). The contribution of December precipitation (15-20%) to the seasonal (DJF) precipitation is lesser than January (35-40%) and February (35-50%) over all the subdivisions. December (0.60), January (0.57), and February (0.69) precipitation is in-phase (correlation) with the corresponding winter season precipitation. However, January precipitation is not in-phase with the corresponding December (0.083) and February (-0.03) precipitation, while December is in-phase with the February (0.21). When monthly precipitation (December or January or December-January or February) at subdivision level over NWI is excess (deficit); then, the probability of occurrence of seasonal excess (deficit) precipitation is high (almost nil). When antecedent-monthly precipitation is a deficit or excess, the probability of monthly (January or February or January + February) precipitation to be a normal category is >60% over all the subdivisions. This study concludes that the December precipitation is a good indicator to estimate the performance of January, February, January-February, and the seasonal (DJF) precipitation.

  4. Neurosensory and vascular function after 14 months of military training comprising cold winter conditions.

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    Carlsson, Daniel; Pettersson, Hans; Burström, Lage; Nilsson, Tohr; Wahlström, Jens

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of 14 months of military training comprising cold winter conditions on neurosensory and vascular function in the hands and feet. Military conscripts (N=54) were assessed with quantitative sensory testing comprising touch, temperature, and vibration perception thresholds and finger systolic blood pressure (FSBP) after local cooling and a questionnaire on neurosensory and vascular symptoms at both baseline and follow-up. Ambient air temperature was recorded with body worn temperature loggers. The subjects showed reduced sensitivity to perception of touch, warmth, cold and vibrations in both the hands and feet except from vibrotactile perception in digit two of the right hand (right dig 2). Cold sensations, white fingers, and pain/discomfort when exposed to cold as well as pain increased in both prevalence and severity. There were no statistically significant changes in FSBP after local cooling. Fourteen months of winter military training comprising cold winter conditions reduced sensation from touch, warmth, cold, and vibrotactile stimulus in both hands and feet and increased the severity and prevalence of symptoms and pain. The vascular function in the hands, measured by FSBP after local cooling, was not affected.

  5. Talent identification and deliberate programming in skeleton: ice novice to Winter Olympian in 14 months.

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    Bullock, Nicola; Gulbin, Jason P; Martin, David T; Ross, Angus; Holland, Terry; Marino, Frank

    2009-02-15

    The aims of this study were to talent transfer, rapidly develop, and qualify an Australian female athlete in the skeleton event at the 2006 Torino Winter Olympic Games and quantify the volume of skeleton-specific training and competition that would enable this to be achieved. Initially, 26 athletes were recruited through a talent identification programme based on their 30-m sprint time. After attending a selection camp, 10 athletes were invited to undertake an intensified skeleton training programme. Four of these athletes were then selected to compete for Australia on the World Cup circuit. All completed runs and simulated push starts were documented over a 14-month period. The athlete who eventually represented Australia at the Torino Winter Olympic Games did so following approximately 300 start simulations and about 220 training/competition runs over a period of 14 months. Using a deliberate programming model, these findings provide a guide to the minimum exposure required for a novice skeleton athlete to reach Olympic representative standard following intensified sport-specific training. The findings of this study are discussed in the context of the deliberate practice theory and offer the term "deliberate programming" as an alternative way of incorporating all aspects of expert development.

  6. Observed decreases in the Canadian outdoor skating season due to recent winter warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damyanov, Nikolay N; Mysak, Lawrence A; Damon Matthews, H

    2012-01-01

    Global warming has the potential to negatively affect one of Canada’s primary sources of winter recreation: hockey and ice skating on outdoor rinks. Observed changes in winter temperatures in Canada suggest changes in the meteorological conditions required to support the creation and maintenance of outdoor skating rinks; while there have been observed increases in the ice-free period of several natural water bodies, there has been no study of potential trends in the duration of the season supporting the construction of outdoor skating rinks. Here we show that the outdoor skating season (OSS) in Canada has significantly shortened in many regions of the country as a result of changing climate conditions. We first established a meteorological criterion for the beginning, and a proxy for the length of the OSS. We extracted this information from daily maximum temperature observations from 1951 to 2005, and tested it for significant changes over time due to global warming as well as due to changes in patterns of large-scale natural climate variability. We found that many locations have seen a statistically significant decrease in the OSS length, particularly in Southwest and Central Canada. This suggests that future global warming has the potential to significantly compromise the viability of outdoor skating in Canada. (letter)

  7. Observed decreases in the Canadian outdoor skating season due to recent winter warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damyanov, Nikolay N.; Damon Matthews, H.; Mysak, Lawrence A.

    2012-03-01

    Global warming has the potential to negatively affect one of Canada’s primary sources of winter recreation: hockey and ice skating on outdoor rinks. Observed changes in winter temperatures in Canada suggest changes in the meteorological conditions required to support the creation and maintenance of outdoor skating rinks; while there have been observed increases in the ice-free period of several natural water bodies, there has been no study of potential trends in the duration of the season supporting the construction of outdoor skating rinks. Here we show that the outdoor skating season (OSS) in Canada has significantly shortened in many regions of the country as a result of changing climate conditions. We first established a meteorological criterion for the beginning, and a proxy for the length of the OSS. We extracted this information from daily maximum temperature observations from 1951 to 2005, and tested it for significant changes over time due to global warming as well as due to changes in patterns of large-scale natural climate variability. We found that many locations have seen a statistically significant decrease in the OSS length, particularly in Southwest and Central Canada. This suggests that future global warming has the potential to significantly compromise the viability of outdoor skating in Canada.

  8. Ducks change wintering patterns due to changing climate in the important wintering waters of the Odra River Estuary

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    Dominik Marchowski

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Some species of birds react to climate change by reducing the distance they travel during migration. The Odra River Estuary in the Baltic Sea is important for wintering waterfowl and is where we investigated how waterbirds respond to freezing surface waters. The most abundant birds here comprise two ecological groups: bottom-feeders and piscivores. Numbers of all bottom-feeders, but not piscivores, were negatively correlated with the presence of ice. With ongoing global warming, this area is increasing in importance for bottom-feeders and decreasing for piscivores. The maximum range of ice cover in the Baltic Sea has a weak and negative effect on both groups of birds. Five of the seven target species are bottom-feeders (Greater Scaup Aythya marila, Tufted Duck A. fuligula, Common Pochard A. ferina, Common Goldeneye Bucephala clangula and Eurasian Coot Fulica atra, and two are piscivores (Smew Mergellus albellus and Goosander Mergus merganser. Local changes at the level of particular species vary for different reasons. A local decline of the Common Pochard may simply be a consequence of its global decline. Climate change is responsible for some of the local changes in the study area, disproportionately favoring some duck species while being detrimental to others.

  9. European seasonal mortality and influenza incidence due to winter temperature variability

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    Rodó, X.; Ballester, J.; Robine, J. M.; Herrmann, F. R.

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies have vividly emphasized the lack of consensus on the degree of vulnerability (sensu IPCC) of European societies to current and future winter temperatures. Here we consider several climate factors, influenza incidence and daily numbers of deaths to characterize the relationship between winter temperature and mortality in a very large ensemble of European regions representing more than 400 million people. Analyses highlight the strong association between the year-to-year fluctuations in winter mean temperature and mortality, with higher seasonal cases during harsh winters, in all of the countries except the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and Belgium. This spatial distribution contrasts with the well-documented latitudinal orientation of the dependency between daily temperature and mortality within the season. A theoretical framework is proposed to reconcile the apparent contradictions between recent studies, offering an interpretation to regional differences in the vulnerability to daily, seasonal and long-term winter temperature variability. Despite the lack of a strong year-to-year association between winter mean values in some countries, it can be concluded that warmer winters will contribute to the decrease in winter mortality everywhere in Europe. More information in Ballester J, et al. (2016) Nature Climate Change 6, 927-930, doi:10.1038/NCLIMATE3070.

  10. High resolution reconstruction of monthly autumn and winter precipitation of Iberian Peninsula for last 150 years.

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    Cortesi, N.; Trigo, R.; González-Hidalgo, J. C.; Ramos, A.

    2012-04-01

    Precipitation over Iberian Peninsula (IP) presents large values of interannual variability and large spatial contrasts between wet mountainous regions in the north and dry regions in the southern plains. Unlike other European regions, IP was poorly monitored for precipitation during 19th century. Here we present a new approach to fill this gap. A set of 26 atmospheric circulation weather types (Trigo R.M. and DaCamara C.C., 2000) derived from a recent SLP dataset, the EMULATE (European and North Atlantic daily to multidecadal climate variability) Project, was used to reconstruct Iberian monthly precipitation from October to March during 1851-1947. Principal Component Regression Analysis was chosen to develop monthly precipitation reconstruction back to 1851 and calibrated over 1948-2003 period for 3030 monthly precipitation series of high-density homogenized MOPREDAS (Monthly Precipitation Database for Spain and Portugal) database. Validation was conducted over 1920-1947 at 15 key site locations. Results show high model performance for selected months, with a mean coefficient of variation (CV) around 0.6 during validation period. Lower CV values were achieved in western area of IP. Trigo, R. M., and DaCamara, C.C., 2000: "Circulation weather types and their impact on the precipitation regime in Portugal". Int. J. Climatol., 20, 1559-1581.

  11. Cushing Syndrome in a 6-Month-Old Infant due to Adrenocortical Tumor

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    Volmar KeithE

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Cushing syndrome is rare in infancy and usually due to an adrenocortical tumor (ACT. We report an infant with Cushing syndrome due to adrenocortical carcinoma. The patient presented at six months of age with a three-month history of growth failure, rapid weight gain, acne, and irritability. Physical examination showed obesity, hypertension, and Cushingoid features. Biochemical evaluation showed very high serum cortisol, mildly elevated testosterone, and suppressed ACTH. Abdominal MRI revealed a heterogeneous right adrenal mass extending into the inferior vena cava. Evaluation for metastases was negative. The tumor was removed surgically en bloc. Pathologic examination demonstrated low mitotic rate, but capsular and vascular invasion. She received no adjuvant therapy. Her linear growth has improved and Cushingoid features resolved. Hormonal markers and quarterly PET scans have been negative for recurrence 24 months postoperatively. In conclusion, adrenocortical neoplasms in children are rare, but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of Cushing syndrome.

  12. Burden, duration and costs of hospital bed closures due to acute gastroenteritis in England per winter, 2010/11-2015/16.

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    Sandmann, F G; Jit, M; Robotham, J V; Deeny, S R

    2017-09-01

    Bed closures due to acute gastroenteritis put hospitals under pressure each winter. In England, the National Health Service (NHS) has monitored the winter situation for all acute trusts since 2010/11. To estimate the burden, duration and costs of hospital bed closures due to acute gastroenteritis in winter. A retrospective analysis of routinely collected time-series data of bed closures due to diarrhoea and vomiting was conducted for the winters 2010/11 to 2015/16. Two key issues were addressed by imputing non-randomly missing values at provider level, and filtering observations to a range of dates recorded in all six winters. The lowest and highest values imputed were taken to represent the best- and worst-case scenarios. Bed-days were costed using NHS reference costs, and potential staff absence costs were based on previous studies. In the best-to-worst case, a median of 88,000-113,000 beds were closed due to gastroenteritis each winter. Of these, 19.6-20.4% were unoccupied. On average, 80% of providers were affected, and had closed beds for a median of 15-21 days each winter. Hospital costs of closed beds were £5.7-£7.5 million, which increased to £6.9-£10.0 million when including staff absence costs due to illness. The median number of hospital beds closed due to acute gastroenteritis per winter was equivalent to all general and acute hospital beds in England being unavailable for a median of 0.88-1.12 days. Costs for hospitals are high but vary with closures each winter. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Bioclimatic conditions of the winter months in Western Kazakhstan and their dynamics in relation to climate change

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    Nyssanbayeva, Aiman S.; Cherednichenko, Alexandr V.; Cherednichenko, Vladimir S.; Abayev, Nurlan N.; Madibekov, Azamat S.

    2018-03-01

    The territory of West Kazakhstan is an intensively developing region. The main oil and gas fields are concentrated there. In addition, this region is well-known as a region of nomad cattle breeding. Both of industry and agriculture demand a lot of employees, working in the open air in wintertime. Severe winter conditions, primary very low temperatures, and strong winds characterize the region. In this work, we calculated and analyzed the spatial and temporal distributions of effective temperatures in the region and their dynamics due to the global warming in the last decades. To calculate the equivalent temperature (WCET) was used the method of OFCM 2003. Nowadays, it is known as a common method for similar studies. It was shown that in the observed region, WCET is significantly lower than the ambient temperature. Repeatability of WCET, corresponding to «increasing risk», «high risk» is high in the main part of the region. Global warming in the region results in returning extremely high temperatures of the air, decreasing repeatability of the average gradation of WCET approximately on 4%, but there is no any visible changing repeatability of extreme WCET. Obtained results can be used for planning any construction work in the open air and agriculture branches.

  14. Longitude-dependent decadal ozone changes and ozone trends in boreal winter months during 1960–2000

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    D. H. W. Peters

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the longitude-dependent decadal changes and trends of ozone for the boreal winter months during the period of 1960–2000. These changes are caused primarily by changes in the planetary wave structure in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The decadal changes and trends over 4 decades of geopotential perturbations, defined as a deviation from the zonal mean, are estimated by linear regression with time. The decadal changes in longitude-dependent ozone were calculated with a simple transport model of ozone based on the known planetary wave structure changes and prescribed zonal mean ozone gradients. For December of the 1960s and 1980s a statistically significant Rossby wave track appeared over the North Atlantic and Europe with an anticyclonic disturbance over the Eastern North Atlantic and Western Europe, flanked by cyclonic disturbances. In the 1970s and 1990s statistically significant cyclonic disturbances appeared over the Eastern North Atlantic and Europe, surrounded by anticyclonic anomalies over Northern Africa, Central Asia and Greenland. Similar patterns have been found for January. The Rossby wave track over the North Atlantic and Europe is stronger in the 1980s than in the 1960s. For February, the variability of the regression patterns is higher. For January we found a strong alteration in the modelled decadal changes in total ozone over Central and Northern Europe, showing a decrease of about 15 DU in the 1960s and 1980s and an increase of about 10 DU in the 1970s and 1990s. Over Central Europe the positive geopotential height trend (increase of 2.3 m/yr over 40 years is of the same order (about 100 m as the increase in the 1980s alone. This is important to recognize because it implies a total ozone decrease over Europe of the order of 14 DU for the 1960–2000 period, for January, if we use the standard change regression relation that about a 10-m geopotential height increase at 300 hPa is related to

  15. Characterizing and predicting ultrafine particle counts in Canadian classrooms during the winter months: model development and evaluation.

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    Weichenthal, Scott; Dufresne, André; Infante-Rivard, Claire; Joseph, Lawrence

    2008-03-01

    School classrooms are potentially important micro-environments for childhood exposures owing to the large amount of time children spend in these locations. While a number of airborne contaminants may be present in schools, to date few studies have examined ultrafine particle (0.02-1 microm) (UFP) levels in classrooms. In this study, our objective was to characterize UFP counts (cm(-3)) in classrooms during the winter months and to develop a model to predict such exposures based on ambient weather conditions and outdoor UFPs, as well as classroom characteristics such as size, temperature, relative humidity, and carbon dioxide levels. In total, UFP count data were collected on 60 occasions in 37 occupied classrooms at one elementary school and one secondary school in Pembroke, Ontario. On average, outdoor UFP levels exceeded indoor measures by 8989 cm(-3) (95% confidence interval (CI): 6382, 11596), and classroom UFP counts were similar at both schools with a combined average of 5017 cm(-3) (95% CI: 4300, 5734). Of the variables examined only wind speed and outdoor UFPs were important determinants of classrooms UFP levels. Specifically, each 10 km/h increase in wind speed corresponded to an 1873 cm(-3) (95% CI: 825, 2920) decrease in classroom UFP counts, and each 10000 cm(-3) increase in outdoor UFPs corresponded to a 1550 cm(-3) (95% CI: 930, 2171) increase in classroom UFP levels. However, high correlations between these two predictors meant that the independent effects of wind speed and outdoor UFPs could not be separated in multivariable models, and only outdoor UFP counts were included in the final predictive model. To evaluate model performance, classroom UFP counts were collected for 8 days at two new schools and compared to predicted values based on outdoor UFP measures. A moderate correlation was observed between measured and predicted classroom UFP counts (r=0.63) for both schools combined, but this relationship was not valid on days in which a strong

  16. Characterizing and predicting ultrafine particle counts in Canadian classrooms during the winter months: Model development and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weichenthal, Scott; Dufresne, Andre; Infante-Rivard, Claire; Joseph, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    School classrooms are potentially important micro-environments for childhood exposures owing to the large amount of time children spend in these locations. While a number of airborne contaminants may be present in schools, to date few studies have examined ultrafine particle (0.02-1 μm) (UFP) levels in classrooms. In this study, our objective was to characterize UFP counts (cm -3 ) in classrooms during the winter months and to develop a model to predict such exposures based on ambient weather conditions and outdoor UFPs, as well as classroom characteristics such as size, temperature, relative humidity, and carbon dioxide levels. In total, UFP count data were collected on 60 occasions in 37 occupied classrooms at one elementary school and one secondary school in Pembroke, Ontario. On average, outdoor UFP levels exceeded indoor measures by 8989 cm -3 (95% confidence interval (CI): 6382, 11 596), and classroom UFP counts were similar at both schools with a combined average of 5017 cm -3 (95% CI: 4300, 5734). Of the variables examined only wind speed and outdoor UFPs were important determinants of classrooms UFP levels. Specifically, each 10 km/h increase in wind speed corresponded to an 1873 cm -3 (95% CI: 825, 2920) decrease in classroom UFP counts, and each 10 000 cm -3 increase in outdoor UFPs corresponded to a 1550 cm -3 (95% CI: 930, 2171) increase in classroom UFP levels. However, high correlations between these two predictors meant that the independent effects of wind speed and outdoor UFPs could not be separated in multivariable models, and only outdoor UFP counts were included in the final predictive model. To evaluate model performance, classroom UFP counts were collected for 8 days at two new schools and compared to predicted values based on outdoor UFP measures. A moderate correlation was observed between measured and predicted classroom UFP counts (r=0.63) for both schools combined, but this relationship was not valid on days in which a strong indoor UFP

  17. Absorbed Dose in the Uterus of a Three Months Pregnant Woman Due to 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega-Carrillo, Hector Rene; Manzanares-Acuna, Eduardo; Hernandez-Davila, Victor Martin; Arcos-Pichardo, Areli; Barquero, Raquel; Iniguez, M. Pilar

    2006-01-01

    The use of 131I is widely used in diagnostic and treatment of patients. If the patient is pregnant the 131I presence in the thyroid it becomes a source of constant exposition to other organs and the fetus. In this study the absorbed dose in the uterus of a 3 months pregnant woman with 131I in her thyroid gland has been calculated. The dose was determined using Monte Carlo methods in which a detailed model of the woman has been developed. The dose was also calculated using a simple procedure that was refined including the photons' attenuation in the woman organs and body. To verify these results an experiment was carried out using a neck phantom with 131I. Comparing the results it was found that the simple calculation tend to overestimate the absorbed dose, by doing the corrections due to body and organs photon attenuation the dose is 0.14 times the Monte Carlo estimation

  18. [Children less than 3 months hospitalised due to acute febrile syndrome. 5 years clinical experience].

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    Méndez Espinola, Benigno Miguel; Herrera Labarca, Patricio

    2015-01-01

    Acute fever of unknown origin (AFUO) is established when the anamnesis and physical examination cannot identify the cause. In infants less than 3 months-old this is situation for concern, due to the risk of a serious bacterial infection. To describe the clinical and laboratory variable of patients with AFUO, in order to look for clues in order to base studies on the decisions arising drom this problem. A report is presented on a retrospective study conducted on a cohort of children less than three months-old admitted to the Hospital Roberto del Río (2007-2011) due to an AFUO. Clinical histories were reviewed and the patients were grouped, according to the severity of the admission diagnosis, into severe and non-severe. They were compared in strata determined by the variables of clinical interest. A total of 550 children were admitted with AFUO during the study period. There was low agreement between the severity on admission and at discharge (kappa=0.079; P=.26). There were 23.8% of children in the severe group and 76.2% in the non-severe group. Urinary tract infection predominated in the severe group (68.7%) and 40.7% with acute febrile syndrome in the non-severe group. The cut-off levels for C-reactive protein, white cells, and neutrophils per mm(3), to calculate the fixed and variable indices, only showed negative predictive values of some use for ruling out serious bacterial infection. The ROC curves with white cell and neutrophil counts and C-reactive protein, did not provide andy fixed indices of clinical use. More than one-third (34.6%) of lumbar punctures were traumatic or failures. According to the results of this study, there is an obvious excess of hospital admissions, little usefulness in the examinations to identify serious bacterial infection, a high percentage lumbar punctures traumatic and lumbar punctures failures, and an excess of antibiotic treatments. A review of clinical criteria and procedures is needed. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de

  19. A 1-month-old infant with chylomicronemia due to gene mutation treated by plasmapheresis

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    Mo Kyung Jung

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chylomicronemia is a severe type of hypertriglyceridemia characterized by chylomicron accumulation that arises from a genetic defect in intravascular lipolysis. It requires urgent and proper management, because serious cases can be accompanied by pancreatic necrosis or persistent multiple organ failure. We present the case of a 1-month-old infant with chylomicronemia treated by plasmapheresis. His chylomicronemia was discovered incidentally when lactescent plasma was noticed during routine blood sampling during a hospital admission for fever and irritability. Laboratory investigation revealed marked triglyceridemia (>5,000 mg/dL with high chylomicron levels. We therefore decided to perform a therapeutic plasmapheresis to prevent acute pancreatitis. Sequence analysis revealed a homozygous novel mutation in exon 4 of GPIHBP1: c.476delG (p.Gly159Alafs. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored high density lipoprotein-binding protein 1 (GPIHBP1 stabilizes the binding of chylomicrons near lipoprotein lipase and supports lipolysis. Mutations of GPIHBP1, the most recently discovered gene, can lead to severe hyperlipidemia and are known to make up only 2% of the monogenic mutations associated with chylomicronemia. The patient maintains mild hypertriglyceridemia without rebound after single plasmapheresis and maintenance fibrate medication so far. Here, we report an infant with chylomicronemia due to GPIHBP1 mutation, successfully treated by plasmapheresis.

  20. Winter Wonderlands

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    Coy, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Listening to people complain about the hardships of winter and the dreariness of the nearly constant gray sky prompted the author to help her sixth graders recognize and appreciate the beauty that surrounds them for nearly five months of the year in western New York. The author opines that if students could see things more artistically, the winter…

  1. A study of urban heat island and its association with particulate matter during winter months over Delhi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Puneeta; Kumar, Dinesh; Prakash, Amit; Masih, Jamson; Singh, Manoj; Kumar, Surendra; Jain, Vinod Kumar; Kumar, Krishan

    2012-01-01

    Day and night time thermal mapping of Delhi has been done with MODIS satellite data for the months of November and December for years 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010. The study reveals the formation of day time “cool island” over central parts of Delhi which are found to be cooler by a maximum of 4–6 °C than the surrounding rural areas. During the night time, however, the central parts of Delhi are found to be warmer by a maximum of 4–7 °C or even more than the surrounding rural areas thus confirming the formation of nocturnal urban heat island over Delhi. Measurements of solar spectral irradiance over Delhi reveal significantly lower values as compared to a rural site located south-west of Delhi, during the low wind conditions in the months of November and December. Analysis of average monthly temporal data of surface wind speed and particulate matter concentration over Delhi reveals a strong anti-correlation between wind speed and particulate matter concentration. High values of particulate matter during low wind conditions seem to favor the so called “cool island” over Delhi. Analysis of radiosonde data of 975 hPa and 850 hPa temperatures over Delhi during November and December from 1973 to 2010 reveals a warming trend at the 850 hPa level and an overall declining trend of ∆T between 975 hPa temperatures and 850 hPa temperatures, thus indicating a weakening of vertical thermal gradients over Delhi during these months. The study suggests that urban areas behave more like moderators of diurnal temperature variation in low wind conditions. - Highlights: ► Daytime cool island forms over central parts of Delhi in November and December. ► Central parts of Delhi are cooler by a maximum of 4–6 °C during daytime and warmer by a maximum of 4–7 °C during night. ► Significant negative correlations exist between daytime surface temperatures and AOD levels. ► Land use parameters have significant correlations with surface temperatures. ► The day time

  2. Analysis of monthly, winter, and annual temperatures in Zagreb, Croatia, from 1864 to 2010: the 7.7-year cycle and the North Atlantic Oscillation

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    Sen, Asok K.; Ogrin, Darko

    2016-02-01

    Long instrumental records of meteorological variables such as temperature and precipitation are very useful for studying regional climate in the past, present, and future. They can also be useful for understanding the influence of large-scale atmospheric circulation processes on the regional climate. This paper investigates the monthly, winter, and annual temperature time series obtained from the instrumental records in Zagreb, Croatia, for the period 1864-2010. Using wavelet analysis, the dominant modes of variability in these temperature series are identified, and the time intervals over which these modes may persist are delineated. The results reveal that all three temperature records exhibit low-frequency variability with a dominant periodicity at around 7.7 years. The 7.7-year cycle has also been observed in the temperature data recorded at several other stations in Europe, especially in Northern and Western Europe, and may be linked to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and/or solar/geomagnetic activity.

  3. Changes in the zonal mean flow, temperature, and planetary waves observed in the Northern Hemisphere mid-winter months during the last decades

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    Rakushina, E. V.; Ermakova, T. S.; Pogoreltsev, A. I.

    2018-06-01

    Four sets of data: the UK Met Office, Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), Japanese 55-year Reanalysis data (JRA-55), and ERA-Interim data (ERA) have been used to estimate the climatic variability of the zonal mean flow, temperature, and Stationary Planetary Waves (SPW1, SPW2) from the troposphere up to the lower mesosphere levels. The composites of the meteorological fields during mid-winter month have been averaged over the first (1995-2005) and second (2006-2016) 11 years intervals and have been compared mainly paying attention to interannual and intraseasonal variability. Results show that changes in the mean fields and SPW2 are weaker and statistical significance of these changes is lower in comparison with the changes observed in the intraseasonal variability of these characteristics. All data sets demonstrate a decrease of SPW1 amplitude at the higher-middle latitudes in the lower stratosphere and opposite effect in the upper stratosphere. However, there is an increase of the intraseasonal variability for all meteorological parameters and this rise is statistically significant. The results obtained show that UK Met Office data demonstrate stronger changes and increase of the intraseasonal variability in comparison with other data sets.

  4. Reduced-fat Gouda-type cheese enriched with vitamin D3 effectively prevents vitamin D deficiency during winter months in postmenopausal women in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Mavrogianni, Christina; van den Heuvel, Eghm; Singh-Povel, Cécile M; Kiely, Mairead; Cashman, Kevin D

    2017-10-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of daily consumption of vitamin D 3 -enriched, reduced-fat Gouda-type cheese on 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration in postmenopausal women. Health-related quality of life (HRQL) indices were examined as secondary outcomes. This is a single-blinded (i.e., to study participants), randomized, controlled food-based dietary intervention study. A sample of 79 postmenopausal women (55-75 years old) was randomized either to a control group (CG: n = 39) or an intervention group (IG: n = 40) that consumed, as part of their usual diet, 60 g of either non-enriched or vitamin D 3 enriched Gouda-type cheese, respectively, for eight consecutive weeks (i.e., from January to March 2015). Sixty grams of enriched cheese provided a daily dose of 5.7 μg of vitamin D 3 . There was a differential response of mean (95 % CI) serum 25(OH)D levels in the IG and CG, with the former increasing and the latter decreasing significantly over the eight weeks of the trial [i.e., by 5.1 (3.4, 6.9) nmol/L vs. -4.6 (-6.4, -2.8) nmol/L, P D levels  0.1). Consumption of 60 g of vitamin D 3 -enriched, reduced-fat Gouda-type cheese provided a daily dose of 5.7 μg of additional vitamin D 3 and was effective in increasing mean serum 25(OH)D concentration and in counteracting vitamin D deficiency during winter months in postmenopausal women in Greece.

  5. Cooled Radiofrequency Ablation of the Genicular Nerves for Chronic Pain due to Knee Osteoarthritis: Six-Month Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Zachary L; Korn, Marc; Reddy, Rajiv; Marcolina, Austin; Dayanim, David; Mattie, Ryan; Cushman, Daniel; Bhave, Meghan; McCarthy, Robert J; Khan, Dost; Nagpal, Geeta; Walega, David R

    2017-09-01

    Determine outcomes of cooled radiofrequency ablation (C-RFA) of the genicular nerves for treatment of chronic knee pain due to osteoarthritis (OA). Cross-sectional survey. Academic pain medicine center. Consecutive patients with knee OA and 50% or greater pain relief following genicular nerve blocks who underwent genicular nerve C-RFA. Survey administration six or more months after C-RFA. Pain numeric rating scale (NRS), Medication Quantification Scale III (MQSIII), Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC), and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) data were collected. Logistic regression was used to identify factors that predicted treatment success. Thirty-three patients (52 discrete knees) met inclusion criteria. Thirty-five percent (95% confidence interval [CI] = 22-48) of procedures resulted in the combined outcome of 50% or greater reduction in NRS score, reduction of 3.4 or more points in MQSIII score, and PGIC score consistent with "very much improved/improved." Nineteen percent (95% CI = 10-33) of procedures resulted in complete pain relief. Greater duration of pain and greater than 80% pain relief from diagnostic blocks were identified as predictors of treatment success. The accuracy of the model was 0.88 (95% CI = 0.78-0.97, P  <   0.001). Genicular C-RFA demonstrated a success rate of 35% based on a robust combination of outcome measures, and 19% of procedures resulted in complete relief of pain at a minimum of six months of follow-up. Report of 80% or greater relief from diagnostic blocks and duration of pain of less than five years are associated with high accuracy in predicting treatment success. Further prospective study is needed to optimize the patient selection protocol and success rate of this procedure. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  6. Intravitreal bevacizumab for macular edema due to proton beam radiotherapy: Favorable results shown after eighteen months follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Loukianou

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Eleni Loukianou, Dimitrios Brouzas, Eleni Georgopoulou, Chrysanthi Koutsandrea, Michael ApostolopoulosEye Department, University of Athens, Athens, GreecePurpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of intravitreal injections of bevacizumab (Avastin® as a treatment option for radiation maculopathy secondary to proton beam radiotherapy for choroidal melanoma.Case: A 61-year-old woman presented with a gradual decrease in left eye visual acuity (VA 29 months after proton beam radiotherapy for choroidal melanoma. On presentation, her best-corrected VA (BCVA was 2/10 in the left eye and the intraocular pressure was 15 mmHg. Fundoscopy revealed cystoid macular edema, intraretinal hemorrhages, epiretinal membrane in the posterior pole, and residual tumor scar with exudative retinal detachment and hard exudates in the periphery of the superotemporal quadrant. A treatment with intravitreal injections of bevacizumab (Avastin® was recommended. The injections were performed on a six-weekly basis.Results: The central retinal thickness prior to the treatment was 458 μm. After the first intravitreal injection of bevacizumab, the retinal thickness at the centre of the fovea was reduced to 322 μm. After the third injection, the central retinal thickness was 359 μm and 18 months after presentation, it reduced to 334 μm. The BCVA increased to 3/10 after the intravitreal injections of bevacizumab and remained stable during the follow-up period. The intraocular pressure was within normal range during the follow-up period.Conclusion: Bevacizumab should be regarded as a treatment option for macular edema due to proton beam radiotherapy for choroidal melanoma. By reducing the central retinal thickness, intravitreal bevacizumab can improve VA or ameliorate further decline caused by radiation maculopathy.Keywords: bevacizumab (Avastin®, choroidal melanoma, macular edema, radiation retinopathy

  7. Liver stiffness becomes stable in patients with chronic hepatitis C three months after ALT normalization due to antiviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Feikai

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the time for liver stiffness measurement (LSM to become stable in chronic hepatitis C (CHC patients with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels after ALT normalization due to antiviral therapy. MethodsCHC patients who sought initial treatment at Peking University People′s Hospital were screened for elevated ALT levels from May 2011. Liver stiffness was determined by FibroScan. A total of 29 patients had been included in the study by September 2012, who were followed up regularly after antiviral treatment. ALT tests were repeated every four weeks and LSM every eight weeks until their medians did not change significantly. Comparisons of matched data at two adjacent time points were made with the non-parametric Wilcoxon test, while multiple comparisons of repeated measurements were performed using Bonferroni correction. Correlation between two variables was analyzed with the Spearman rank test. ResultsPatients were followed up until 24 weeks after antiviral treatment, and 24 patients were included in analysis. The median ALT levels were 64, 26, 21, 20, and 22 U/L at baseline and 4, 8, 12, and 24 weeks, respectively (P= 0.000, 0.006, 0.337, and 0.109 for comparisons between two adjacent values. ALT decreased significantly below 1 ULN at 4 weeks after antiviral therapy and stabilized at 8 weeks. The median LSM values were 8.7, 7.8, 6.8, and 6.7 kPa at baseline and 8, 16, and 24 weeks, respectively (P= 0.009, 0.001, and 0188 for comparisons between two adjacent values. LSM decreased significantly within 16 weeks after antiviral therapy and stabilized afterwards. LSM stabilized 12 weeks after ALT normalization. ConclusionLSM becomes stable in CHC patients with elevated ALT levels three months after ALT normalization due to antiviral therapy.

  8. Lethal Ultra-Early Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Due to Rupture of De Novo Aneurysm 5 Months After Primary Aneurysmatic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Johannes; Unterberg, Andreas W; Zweckberger, Klaus

    2018-05-01

    Approximately 1% of all patients surviving rupture of a cerebral aneurysm suffer from a second aneurysmatic subarachnoid hemorrhage later in their lives, 61% of which are caused by rupture of a de novo aneurysm. Latency between bleedings is usually many years, and younger patients tend to achieve better outcomes from a second subarachnoid hemorrhage. We report an unusual case of lethal ultra-early rupture of a de novo aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery only 5 months after the initial subarachnoid hemorrhage and complete coiling in a young, healthy male patient. Despite complete aneurysm obliteration, young age, and good recovery, patients may be subjected to secondary subarachnoid hemorrhages from de novo aneurysms after only a few months of the initial bleeding. Early-control magnetic resonance angiography might hence be advisable. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Substantial N2O emission during the initial period of the wheat season due to the conversion of winter-flooded paddy to rice-wheat rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Lin, Shan; Wu, Lei; Zhao, Jingsong; Wang, Milan; Zhu, Bo; Mo, Yongliang; Hu, Ronggui; Chadwick, Dave; Shaaban, Muhammad

    2017-12-01

    Winter-flooded paddy is a typical rice-based cropping system to conserve water for the next rice growing season. Conversion of winter-flooded paddy to rice-wheat rotation has been widely adopted with the development of the water conservation infrastructure and the government's encouragement of winter agriculture in China in recent decades. However, the effects of this conversion on N2O emission are still not clear. Three winter-flooded paddy fields were studied in a split-plot design. One-half of each field was converted to rice-wheat rotation (RW), and the other half remained winter-flooded as rice-fallow (RF). Each plot of RW and RF was further divided into four subplots: three subplots for conventional N fertilizer application (RW-NC and RF-NC) and one for unfertilized treatment (RW-N0 and RF-N0). Conversion of RF-NC to RW-NC increased the N2O emission up to 6.6-fold in the first year and 4.4-fold in the second year. Moreover, N2O emissions for the entire wheat season were 1.74-3.74 kg N ha-1 and 0.24-0.31 kg N ha-1 from RW-NC and RW-N0, respectively, and accounted for 78%-94% and 78%-97% of the total annual amount. N2O emitted during the first 11-21 days of the wheat season from RW-NC was 1.48-3.28 kg N ha-1 and that from RW-N0 was 0.14-0.17 kg N ha-1, which contributed to 66%-82% and 45%-71% of the total annual amount, respectively. High N2O fluxes occurred when the soil water-filled pore space (WFPS) was in the range of 68%-72% and the ratio of available carbon to nitrogen in the soil was organic carbon (DOC) explained most of the variation of the N2O fluxes compared with the other measured environmental and soil factors. These findings suggest that the conversion of winter-flooded paddy to rice-wheat rotation increased N2O emissions that could be mitigated by controlling the soil moisture and ratio of available soil carbon to nitrogen.

  10. WINTER SAECULUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Mihalina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Accumulated imbalances in the economy and on the markets cause specific financial market dynamics that have formed characteristic patterns kept throughout long financial history. In 2008 Authors presented their expectations of key macroeconomic and selected asset class markets developments for period ahead based on Saeculum theory. Use of term Secular describes a specific valuation environment during prolonged period. If valuations as well as selected macro variables are considered as a tool for understanding business cycles then market cycles become much more obvious and easily understandable. Therefore over the long run, certain asset classes do better in terms of risk reward profile than others. Further on, there is no need for frequent portfolio rebalancing and timing of specific investment positions within a particular asset class market. Current stage in cycle development suggests a need for reassessment of trends and prevailing phenomena due to cyclical nture of long lasting Saeculums. Paper reviews developments in recognizable patterns of selected metrics in current Winter Saeculum dominated with prevailing forces of delivering, deflation and decrease in velocity of money.

  11. Severe gastrointestinal tract bleeding in a two-month-old infant due to congenital intrahepatic arterioportal fistula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarts, R. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center St. Radboud, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Ijland, M.M. [Department of Pediatrics, University Medical Center St. Radboud, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Blaauw, I. de [Department of Pediatric Surgery, University Medical Center St. Radboud, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Hoogeveen, Y. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center St. Radboud, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Boetes, C. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center St. Radboud, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: C.Boetes@rad.umcn.nl; van Proosdij, M. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center St. Radboud, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2006-07-15

    A 2-month-old boy was referred for assessment of severe upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding and melena. On physical examination, a continuous murmur was heard over the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. A splenomegaly and dilated veins were also noted on the abdominal wall. Liver functions were normal. There was no history of trauma or jaundice. Doppler ultrasonography, magnetic resonance arteriography and angiography suggested the presence of an intrahepatic arteriovenous fistula between the phrenic artery and the portal vein. Management consisted of successful embolization by coiling of the phrenic artery. To our knowledge this is the first documented case report of a congenital fistula between the phrenic artery and the portal vein.

  12. Severe gastrointestinal tract bleeding in a two-month-old infant due to congenital intrahepatic arterioportal fistula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarts, R.; Ijland, M.M.; Blaauw, I. de; Hoogeveen, Y.; Boetes, C.; van Proosdij, M.

    2006-01-01

    A 2-month-old boy was referred for assessment of severe upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding and melena. On physical examination, a continuous murmur was heard over the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. A splenomegaly and dilated veins were also noted on the abdominal wall. Liver functions were normal. There was no history of trauma or jaundice. Doppler ultrasonography, magnetic resonance arteriography and angiography suggested the presence of an intrahepatic arteriovenous fistula between the phrenic artery and the portal vein. Management consisted of successful embolization by coiling of the phrenic artery. To our knowledge this is the first documented case report of a congenital fistula between the phrenic artery and the portal vein

  13. Winter Season Mortality: Will Climate Warming Bring Benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Patrick L; Schwartz, Joel; Pascal, Mathilde; Petkova, Elisaveta; Tertre, Alain Le; Medina, Sylvia; Vautard, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Extreme heat events are associated with spikes in mortality, yet death rates are on average highest during the coldest months of the year. Under the assumption that most winter excess mortality is due to cold temperature, many previous studies have concluded that winter mortality will substantially decline in a warming climate. We analyzed whether and to what extent cold temperatures are associated with excess winter mortality across multiple cities and over multiple years within individual cities, using daily temperature and mortality data from 36 US cities (1985-2006) and 3 French cities (1971-2007). Comparing across cities, we found that excess winter mortality did not depend on seasonal temperature range, and was no lower in warmer vs. colder cities, suggesting that temperature is not a key driver of winter excess mortality. Using regression models within monthly strata, we found that variability in daily mortality within cities was not strongly influenced by winter temperature. Finally we found that inadequate control for seasonality in analyses of the effects of cold temperatures led to spuriously large assumed cold effects, and erroneous attribution of winter mortality to cold temperatures. Our findings suggest that reductions in cold-related mortality under warming climate may be much smaller than some have assumed. This should be of interest to researchers and policy makers concerned with projecting future health effects of climate change and developing relevant adaptation strategies.

  14. Impact of warm winters on microbial growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgander, Johanna; Rousk, Johannes; Axel Olsson, Pål

    2014-05-01

    Growth of soil bacteria has an asymmetrical response to higher temperature with a gradual increase with increasing temperatures until an optimum after which a steep decline occurs. In laboratory studies it has been shown that by exposing a soil bacterial community to a temperature above the community's optimum temperature for two months, the bacterial community grows warm-adapted, and the optimum temperature of bacterial growth shifts towards higher temperatures. This result suggests a change in the intrinsic temperature dependence of bacterial growth, as temperature influenced the bacterial growth even though all other factors were kept constant. An intrinsic temperature dependence could be explained by either a change in the bacterial community composition, exchanging less tolerant bacteria towards more tolerant ones, or it could be due to adaptation within the bacteria present. No matter what the shift in temperature tolerance is due to, the shift could have ecosystem scale implications, as winters in northern Europe are getting warmer. To address the question of how microbes and plants are affected by warmer winters, a winter-warming experiment was established in a South Swedish grassland. Results suggest a positive response in microbial growth rate in plots where winter soil temperatures were around 6 °C above ambient. Both bacterial and fungal growth (leucine incorporation, and acetate into ergosterol incorporation, respectively) appeared stimulated, and there are two candidate explanations for these results. Either (i) warming directly influence microbial communities by modulating their temperature adaptation, or (ii) warming indirectly affected the microbial communities via temperature induced changes in bacterial growth conditions. The first explanation is in accordance with what has been shown in laboratory conditions (explained above), where the differences in the intrinsic temperature relationships were examined. To test this explanation the

  15. Response of vascular pigment epithelium detachment due to age-related macular degeneration to monthly treatment with ranibizumab: the prospective, multicentre RECOVER study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Christoph R; Wolf, Armin; Alten, Florian; Milojcic, Carolin; Heiduschka, Peter; Eter, Nicole

    2017-11-01

    μm ± 185.6). In group A, 10 patients developed a RPE tear (25%) after a mean of 3.6 injections. No tear was documented in group B. Lesion height, ratio of CNV size to PED size and presence of hyperreflective lines differed significantly between patients with and without RPE tear development. Serous vascular PED lesions showed an improvement regarding BCVA and morphologic characteristics unless an RPE tear occurred. In fPED lesions, a functional and morphological stabilization was observed. Monthly ranibizumab injections are an effective treatment regarding the resorption of subretinal fluid in vPED due to AMD. Patients should be screened for the presence of morphologic risk factors for RPE tear development before and during treatment. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Editorial - The winter Atomiades

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    As we wrote in our previous editorial, the Staff Association gives direct support to sports events, such as the Atomiades, a section of the Association of Sports Communities of European Research Institutes, which brings together sportsmen and women from 38 European research centres in 13 countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, United Kingdom, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Luxemburg, the Netherlands, Russia, and Switzerland). The summer Atomiades take place between the months of June and September every three years. Thirteen such events have taken place since 1973, the last one in June 2009 in Berlin. As far as the winter Atomiades are concerned, also organized every three years, and alternating with the summer Atomiades, there have been eleven since 1981, the last one at the end of January this year in neighbouring France. The following article tells the wonderful adventure of the CERN staff who took part in this event. A positive outcome for CERN skiers at the winter Atomiades The 11t...

  17. Estimation of ingestion dose due to I-131 in the initial month by using food-monitoring data after the Fukushima nuclear disaster in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Ichiro [National Institute of Public Health, Department of Environmental Health, Wako, Saitama (Japan)

    2012-11-15

    The committed equivalent dose to the thyroid caused by I-131 and the effective dose caused by I-131, Cs-134 and Cs-137 due to ingestion immediately after the accidental releases following the Fukushima nuclear disaster in March 2011 were estimated retrospectively by using measured food data. A food monitoring dataset provided by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) up to April 18, 2011 (N=1,752) was used for this study. Information on food consumption by 99 food categories was made available by using the original data of the Japanese National Food Consumption Survey, which was conducted in 2009 (N=9,942). Food concentration every 4 days and food consumption in each food category was randomly picked up (N=100,000). The levels of radioactive iodine and cesium were summed for one month and then converted to equivalent doses to the thyroid and effective doses. These doses in the first month after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident were evaluated by using the food monitoring dataset provided by the MHLW. Assuming that food was randomly extracted from monitored food samples and food restrictions were fully implemented, the 90%tile of the equivalent doses to the thyroid and the effective doses in 1- to 6-year-old children were estimated to be around 1 mSv and 0.07 mSv, respectively. Several different methods should be considered to reduce limitations of this estimation. (author)

  18. The Effect of Exclusive Breastfeeding on Hospital Stay and Morbidity due to Various Diseases in Infants under 6 Months of Age: A Prospective Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarpreet Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mother’s milk is the best for the babies. Protective and preventive role of breast milk was evaluated in this study by assessing the relation of type of feeding and duration of hospital stay or morbidity. Methods. This prospective study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital and 232 infants in the age group of 14 weeks to 6 months formed the sample. There are two groups of infants, that is, one for breastfed and one for top fed infants. Statistical analysis was done and results were calculated up to 95% to 99% level of significance to find effect of feeding pattern on hospital stay due to various diseases and morbidity. Results. Prolonged hospital stay, that is, >7 days, was lesser in breastfed infants and results were statistically significant in case of gastroenteritis (p value < 0.001, bronchopneumonia (p value = 0.0012, bronchiolitis (p value = 0.005, otitis media (p value = 0.003, and skin diseases (p value = 0.047. Lesser morbidity was seen in breastfed infants with gastroenteritis (p value 0.0414, bronchopneumonia (p value 0.03705, bronchiolitis (p value 0.036706, meningitis (p value 0.043, and septicemia (p value 0.04. Conclusions. Breastfed infants have shorter hospital stay and lesser morbidity in regard to various diseases as compared to top fed infants.

  19. Winter survival of Scots pine seedlings under different snow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domisch, Timo; Martz, Françoise; Repo, Tapani; Rautio, Pasi

    2018-04-01

    Future climate scenarios predict increased air temperatures and precipitation, particularly at high latitudes, and especially so during winter. Soil temperatures, however, are more difficult to predict, since they depend strongly on the fate of the insulating snow cover. 'Rain-on-snow' events and warm spells during winter can lead to thaw-freeze cycles, compacted snow and ice encasement, as well as local flooding. These adverse conditions could counteract the otherwise positive effects of climatic changes on forest seedling growth. In order to study the effects of different winter and snow conditions on young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings, we conducted a laboratory experiment in which 80 1-year-old Scots pine seedlings were distributed between four winter treatments in dasotrons: ambient snow cover (SNOW), compressed snow and ice encasement (ICE), flooded and frozen soil (FLOOD) and no snow (NO SNOW). During the winter treatment period and a 1.5-month simulated spring/early summer phase, we monitored the needle, stem and root biomass of the seedlings, and determined their starch and soluble sugar concentrations. In addition, we assessed the stress experienced by the seedlings by measuring chlorophyll fluorescence, electric impedance and photosynthesis of the previous-year needles. Compared with the SNOW treatment, carbohydrate concentrations were lower in the FLOOD and NO SNOW treatments where the seedlings had almost died before the end of the experiment, presumably due to frost desiccation of aboveground parts during the winter treatments. The seedlings of the ICE treatment showed dead needles and stems only above the snow and ice cover. The results emphasize the importance of an insulating and protecting snow cover for small forest tree seedlings, and that future winters with changed snow patterns might affect the survival of tree seedlings and thus forest productivity.

  20. Spirit Scans Winter Haven

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    At least three different kinds of rocks await scientific analysis at the place where NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit will likely spend several months of Martian winter. They are visible in this picture, which the panoramic camera on Spirit acquired during the rover's 809th sol, or Martian day, of exploring Mars (April 12, 2006). Paper-thin layers of light-toned, jagged-edged rocks protrude horizontally from beneath small sand drifts; a light gray rock with smooth, rounded edges sits atop the sand drifts; and several dark gray to black, angular rocks with vesicles (small holes) typical of hardened lava lie scattered across the sand. This view is an approximately true-color rendering that combines images taken through the panoramic camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters.

  1. Seasonal variation in orthopedic health services utilization in Switzerland: the impact of winter sport tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matter-Walstra, Klazien; Widmer, Marcel; Busato, André

    2006-03-03

    Climate- or holiday-related seasonality in hospital admission rates is well known for many diseases. However, little research has addressed the impact of tourism on seasonality in admission rates. We therefore investigated the influence of tourism on emergency admission rates in Switzerland, where winter and summer leisure sport activities in large mountain regions can generate orthopedic injuries. Using small area analysis, orthopedic hospital service areas (HSAo) were evaluated for seasonality in emergency admission rates. Winter sport areas were defined using guest bed accommodation rate patterns of guest houses and hotels located above 1000 meters altitude that show clear winter and summer peak seasons. Emergency admissions (years 2000-2002, n = 135'460) of local and nonlocal HSAo residents were evaluated. HSAo were grouped according to their area type (regular or winter sport area) and monthly analyses of admission rates were performed. Of HSAo within the defined winter sport areas 70.8% show a seasonal, summer-winter peak hospital admission rate pattern and only 1 HSAo outside the defined winter sport areas shows such a pattern. Seasonal hospital admission rates in HSAo in winter sport areas can be up to 4 times higher in winter than the intermediate seasons, and they are almost entirely due to admissions of nonlocal residents. These nonlocal residents are in general -and especially in winter- younger than local residents, and nonlocal residents have a shorter length of stay in winter sport than in regular areas. The overall geographic distribution of nonlocal residents admitted for emergencies shows highest rates during the winter as well as the summer in the winter sport areas. Small area analysis using orthopedic hospital service areas is a reliable method for the evaluation of seasonality in hospital admission rates. In Switzerland, HSAo defined as winter sport areas show a clear seasonal fluctuation in admission rates of only nonlocal residents, whereas

  2. Winter Weather Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health problems, including ... there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect yourself. ...

  3. Winter maintenance performance measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Winter Performance Index is a method of quantifying winter storm events and the DOTs response to them. : It is a valuable tool for evaluating the States maintenance practices, performing post-storm analysis, training : maintenance personnel...

  4. Winter weather demand considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Winter weather has varied effects on travel behavior. Using 418 survey responses from the Northern Virginia : commuting area of Washington, D.C. and binary logit models, this study examines travel related changes under : different types of winter wea...

  5. Disease Progression in Mild Dementia due to Alzheimer Disease in an 18-Month Observational Study (GERAS): The Impact on Costs and Caregiver Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Roy W; Lebrec, Jeremie; Kahle-Wrobleski, Kristin; Dell'Agnello, Grazia; Bruno, Giuseppe; Vellas, Bruno; Argimon, Josep M; Dodel, Richard; Haro, Josep Maria; Wimo, Anders; Reed, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    We assessed whether cognitive and functional decline in community-dwelling patients with mild Alzheimer disease (AD) dementia were associated with increased societal costs and caregiver burden and time outcomes. Cognitive decline was defined as a ≥3-point reduction in the Mini-Mental State Examination and functional decline as a decrease in the ability to perform one or more basic items of the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study Activities of Daily Living Inventory (ADCS-ADL) or ≥20% of instrumental ADL items. Total societal costs were estimated from resource use and caregiver hours using 2010 costs. Caregiver burden was assessed using the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI); caregiver supervision and total hours were collected. Of 566 patients with mild AD enrolled in the GERAS study, 494 were suitable for the current analysis. Mean monthly total societal costs were greater for patients showing functional (+61%) or cognitive decline (+27%) compared with those without decline. In relation to a typical mean monthly cost of approximately EUR 1,400 at baseline, this translated into increases over 18 months to EUR 2,254 and 1,778 for patients with functional and cognitive decline, respectively. The number of patients requiring supervision doubled among patients showing functional or cognitive decline compared with those not showing decline, while caregiver total time increased by 70 and 33%, respectively and ZBI total score by 5.3 and 3.4 points, respectively. Cognitive and, more notably, functional decline were associated with increases in costs and caregiver outcomes in patients with mild AD dementia.

  6. Winter-to-winter variations in indoor radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mose, D.G.; Mushrush, G.W.; Kline, S.W.

    1989-01-01

    Indoor radon concentrations in northern Virginia and central Maryland show a strong dependence on weather. Winter tends to be associated with higher than average indoor radon, and summer with lower than average. However, compared to the winter of 1986-1987, the winter of 1987-1988 was warmer and drier. Consequently, winter-to-winter indoor radon decreased by about 25%. This winter-to-winter decrease is unexpectedly large, and simulates winter-to-summer variations that have been reported

  7. Prevalence of operator fatigue in winter maintenance operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camden, Matthew C; Medina-Flintsch, Alejandra; Hickman, Jeffrey S; Bryce, James; Flintsch, Gerardo; Hanowski, Richard J

    2018-02-02

    Similar to commercial motor vehicle drivers, winter maintenance operators are likely to be at an increased risk of becoming fatigued while driving due to long, inconsistent shifts, environmental stressors, and limited opportunities for sleep. Despite this risk, there is little research concerning the prevalence of winter maintenance operator fatigue during winter emergencies. The purpose of this research was to investigate the prevalence, sources, and countermeasures of fatigue in winter maintenance operations. Questionnaires from 1043 winter maintenance operators and 453 managers were received from 29 Clear Road member states. Results confirmed that fatigue was prevalent in winter maintenance operations. Over 70% of the operators and managers believed that fatigue has a moderate to significant impact on winter maintenance operations. Approximately 75% of winter maintenance operators reported to at least sometimes drive while fatigued, and 96% of managers believed their winter maintenance operators drove while fatigued at least some of the time. Furthermore, winter maintenance operators and managers identified fatigue countermeasures and sources of fatigue related to winter maintenance equipment. However, the countermeasures believed to be the most effective at reducing fatigue during winter emergencies (i.e., naps) were underutilized. For example, winter maintenance operators reported to never use naps to eliminate fatigue. These results indicated winter maintenance operations are impacted by operator fatigue. These results support the increased need for research and effective countermeasures targeting winter maintenance operator fatigue. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dose in the uterus of a woman, with three months of pregnancy, due to the 131 I accumulated in her thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega C, H.R.; Manzanares A, E.; Hernandez D, V.M.; Arcos P, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this study the absorbed dose by the uterus of a woman with three months of pregnancy to who was applied a dose of 131 I that was accumulated in the thyroid gland is determined. The absorbed dose was obtained by means of Monte Carlo calculations developing a detailed three-dimensional model of the pregnant one, where they have been included most of the organs. The absorbed dose also was calculated by means of a simple procedure. To verify the calculated results it was carried out an experiment where was constructed a phantom of the neck, in this was included the thyroid with 131 I and the exposure was measured at different distances of the neck; this was related with the dose. Of the Monte Carlo calculation is obtained that for each mCi of 131 I that is retained in the mother's thyroid, the uterus absorbs a dose of 6.80 E(-11) Gy. When comparing the results, it was found that the simple calculation throws a result 29 times superior to that of the dose obtained by means of Monte Carlo. When applying a correction for the effect of the absorption of the gamma photons by the mother's body an absorbed dose in the uterus was obtained that is 0.16 times superior to the Monte Carlo calculation. Of the experimental phase it is verified that the values calculated by means of the simple method are equal to those experimentally measured. (Author)

  9. Mapping monthly rainfall erosivity in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballabio, C; Meusburger, K; Klik, A

    2017-01-01

    to Eastern Europe. The maps also show a clear delineation of areas with different erosivity seasonal patterns, whose spatial outline was evidenced by cluster analysis. The monthly erosivity maps can be used to develop composite indicators that map both intra-annual variability and concentration of erosive...... and seasonal R-factor maps and assess rainfall erosivity both spatially and temporally. During winter months, significant rainfall erosivity is present only in part of the Mediterranean countries. A sudden increase of erosivity occurs in major part of European Union (except Mediterranean basin, western part...... selected among various statistical models to perform the spatial interpolation due to its excellent performance, ability to model non-linearity and interpretability. The monthly prediction is an order more difficult than the annual one as it is limited by the number of covariates and, for consistency...

  10. Gaz de France first quarter 2007 sales: an 11 per cent drop due to an exceptionally warm winter: a 1.3 per cent increase on an average-climate basis. Non-audited IFRS data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Paris, May 14 2007 - For the first quarter 2007, Gaz de France Group posted euro 9,053 million in consolidated sales. This 11 per cent decrease on the same period in 2006 is a direct result of the extremely warm weather conditions in France and Europe this winter. In contrast, under average climate conditions sales improved by 1.3 per cent. In France, where the winter of 2006/2007 was the warmest in fifty years, sales were impacted by 18 billion kWh in the quarter compared to a quarter with average-climate conditions and 32 billion kWh compared to the first quarter 2006 which, in contrast, was colder than normal. The impact of the weather had similar effects on sales outside France. The highly unusual weather conditions also had an indirect impact on the market and, consequently, on both gas production and the arbitrage activities. Not withstanding these effects, the Group continued to consolidate its position in foreign markets, with sales outside France reaching euro 3,341 million. The share of sales outside France increased by 3 points in the first quarter of 2007 versus first quarter 2006 to 37 per cent as at end March 2007. The group reiterates the 2007 financial objective as presented at the full year 2006 results: '2007 will be a year of consolidation and the EBITDA should be in line with that of 2006'.

  11. Gaz de France first quarter 2007 sales: an 11 per cent drop due to an exceptionally warm winter: a 1.3 per cent increase on an average-climate basis. Non-audited IFRS data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Paris, May 14 2007 - For the first quarter 2007, Gaz de France Group posted euro 9,053 million in consolidated sales. This 11 per cent decrease on the same period in 2006 is a direct result of the extremely warm weather conditions in France and Europe this winter. In contrast, under average climate conditions sales improved by 1.3 per cent. In France, where the winter of 2006/2007 was the warmest in fifty years, sales were impacted by 18 billion kWh in the quarter compared to a quarter with average-climate conditions and 32 billion kWh compared to the first quarter 2006 which, in contrast, was colder than normal. The impact of the weather had similar effects on sales outside France. The highly unusual weather conditions also had an indirect impact on the market and, consequently, on both gas production and the arbitrage activities. Not withstanding these effects, the Group continued to consolidate its position in foreign markets, with sales outside France reaching euro 3,341 million. The share of sales outside France increased by 3 points in the first quarter of 2007 versus first quarter 2006 to 37 per cent as at end March 2007. The group reiterates the 2007 financial objective as presented at the full year 2006 results: '2007 will be a year of consolidation and the EBITDA should be in line with that of 2006'

  12. Winters fuels report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The outlook for distillate fuel oil this winter is for increased demand and a return to normal inventory patterns, assuming a resumption of normal, cooler weather than last winter. With industrial production expected to grow slightly from last winter's pace, overall consumption is projected to increase 3 percent from last winter, to 3.4 million barrels per day during the heating season (October 1, 1995-March 31, 1996). Much of the supply win come from stock drawdowns and refinery production. Estimates for the winter are from the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) 4th Quarter 1995 Short-Tenn Energy Outlook (STEO) Mid-World Oil Price Case forecast. Inventories in place on September 30, 1995, of 132 million barrels were 9 percent below the unusually high year-earlier level. Inventories of high-sulfur distillate fuel oil, the principal type used for heating, were 13 percent lower than a year earlier. Supply problems are not anticipated because refinery production and the ready availability of imports should be adequate to meet demand. Residential heating off prices are expected to be somewhat higher than last winter's, as the effects of lower crude oil prices are offset by lower distillate inventories. Heating oil is forecast to average $0.92 per gallon, the highest price since the winter of 1992-93. Diesel fuel (including tax) is predicted to be slightly higher than last year at $1.13 per gallon. This article focuses on the winter assessment for distillate fuel oil, how well last year's STEO winter outlook compared to actual events, and expectations for the coming winter. Additional analyses include regional low-sulfur and high-sulfur distillate supply, demand, and prices, and recent trends in distillate fuel oil inventories

  13. Mapping monthly rainfall erosivity in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballabio, Cristiano; Borrelli, Pasquale; Spinoni, Jonathan; Meusburger, Katrin; Michaelides, Silas; Beguería, Santiago; Klik, Andreas; Petan, Sašo; Janeček, Miloslav; Olsen, Preben; Aalto, Juha; Lakatos, Mónika; Rymszewicz, Anna; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Tadić, Melita Perčec; Diodato, Nazzareno; Kostalova, Julia; Rousseva, Svetla; Banasik, Kazimierz; Alewell, Christine; Panagos, Panos

    2017-02-01

    Rainfall erosivity as a dynamic factor of soil loss by water erosion is modelled intra-annually for the first time at European scale. The development of Rainfall Erosivity Database at European Scale (REDES) and its 2015 update with the extension to monthly component allowed to develop monthly and seasonal R-factor maps and assess rainfall erosivity both spatially and temporally. During winter months, significant rainfall erosivity is present only in part of the Mediterranean countries. A sudden increase of erosivity occurs in major part of European Union (except Mediterranean basin, western part of Britain and Ireland) in May and the highest values are registered during summer months. Starting from September, R-factor has a decreasing trend. The mean rainfall erosivity in summer is almost 4 times higher (315MJmmha -1 h -1 ) compared to winter (87MJmmha -1 h -1 ). The Cubist model has been selected among various statistical models to perform the spatial interpolation due to its excellent performance, ability to model non-linearity and interpretability. The monthly prediction is an order more difficult than the annual one as it is limited by the number of covariates and, for consistency, the sum of all months has to be close to annual erosivity. The performance of the Cubist models proved to be generally high, resulting in R 2 values between 0.40 and 0.64 in cross-validation. The obtained months show an increasing trend of erosivity occurring from winter to summer starting from western to Eastern Europe. The maps also show a clear delineation of areas with different erosivity seasonal patterns, whose spatial outline was evidenced by cluster analysis. The monthly erosivity maps can be used to develop composite indicators that map both intra-annual variability and concentration of erosive events. Consequently, spatio-temporal mapping of rainfall erosivity permits to identify the months and the areas with highest risk of soil loss where conservation measures should be

  14. Winter Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Winter Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1992 and covered offshore areas from the Mid-Atlantic to Georges Bank. Inshore strata were covered...

  15. Deer Wintering Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Deer winter habitat is critical to the long term survival of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Vermont. Being near the northern extreme of the...

  16. Winter Dew Harvest in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arias-Torres Jorge Ernesto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents experimental and theoretical results of winter dew harvest in México City in terms of condensation rate. A simplified theoretical model based on a steady-state energy balance on a radiator-condenser was fitted, as a function of the ambient temperature, the relative humidity and the wind velocity. A glass sheet and aluminum sheet white-painted were used as samples over the outdoor experiments. A good correlation was obtained between the theoretical and experimental data. The experimental results show that there was condensation in 68% of the winter nights on both condensers. The total winter condensed mass was 2977 g/m2 and 2888 g/m2 on the glass sheet and aluminum sheet white-painted, respectively. Thus, the condensed mass on the glass was only 3% higher than that on the painted surface. The maximum nightly dew harvests occurred during December, which linearly reduced from 50 g/m2 night to 22 g/m2 night as the winter months went by. The condensation occurred from 1:00 a.m. to 9:00 a.m., with maximum condensation rates between 6:00 a.m. and 7:00 a.m. The dew harvest can provide a partial alternative to the winter water shortage in certain locations with similar climates to the winter in Mexico City, as long as pollution is not significant.

  17. Measuring Transpiration to Regulate Winter Irrigation Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelson, Lisa [Auburn University

    2006-11-08

    Periodic transpiration (monthly sums) in a young loblolly pine plantation between ages 3 and 6 was measured using thermal dissipation probes. Fertilization and fertilization with irrigation were better than irrigation alone in increasing transpiration of young loblolly pines during winter months, apparently because of increased leaf area in fertilized trees. Irrigation alone did not significantly increase transpiration compared with the non-fertilized and non-irrigated control plots.

  18. The influence of sowing period and seeding norm on autumn vegetation, winter hardiness and yield of winter cereal crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potapova G. N.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available the winter wheat and triticale in the middle part of the Ural Mountains haven’t been seeded before. The technology of winter crop cultivation should be improved due to the production of new varieties of winter rye. Winter hardiness and yield of winter rye are higher in comparison with winter triticale and especially with winter wheat. The sowing period and the seeding rate influence the amount of yield and winter hardiness. The winter hardiness of winter cereals and the yield of the rye variety Iset sowed on August 25 and the yield of the triticale variety Bashkir short-stalked and wheat Kazanskaya 560 sowed on August 15 were higher. It is important to sow winter grain in local conditions in the second half of August. The sowing this period allows to provide plants with the necessary amount of positive temperatures (450–500 °C. This helps the plants to form 3–4 shoots of tillering and a mass of 10 dry plants reaching 3–5 grams. The winter grain crops in the middle part of the Ural Mountains should be sown with seeding rates of 6 and 7 million of sprouting grains per 1 ha, and the seeds must be cultivated with fungicidal preparation before seeding.

  19. Barriers to wheelchair use in the winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripat, Jacquie D; Brown, Cara L; Ethans, Karen D

    2015-06-01

    To test the hypothesis that challenges to community participation posed by winter weather are greater for individuals who use scooters, manual and power wheelchairs (wheeled mobility devices [WMDs]) than for the general ambulatory population, and to determine what WMD users identify as the most salient environmental barriers to community participation during the winter. Cross-sectional survey organized around 5 environmental domains: technological, natural, physical, social/attitudinal, and policy. Urban community in Canada. Convenience sample of WMD users or their proxy (N=99). Not applicable. Not applicable. Forty-two percent identified reduced outing frequency in winter months, associated with increased age (χ(3)=6.4, P=.04), lack of access to family/friends for transportation (χ(2)=8.1, P=.04), and primary type of WMD used in the winter (scooter χ(2)=8.8, P=.003). Most reported tires/casters becoming stuck in the snow (95%) or slipping on the ice (91%), difficulty ascending inclines/ramps (92%), and cold hands while using controls or pushing rims (85%); fewer identified frozen wheelchair/scooter batteries, seat cushions/backrests, or electronics. Sidewalks/roads were reported to be problematic by 99%. Eighty percent reported needing additional help in the winter. Limited community access in winter led to a sense of loneliness/isolation, and fear/anxiety related to safety. Respondents identified policies that limited participation during winter. People who use WMDs decrease their community participation in cold weather because of multiple environmental barriers. Clinicians, researchers, and policymakers can take a multidimensional approach to mitigate these barriers in order to enhance community participation by WMD users in winter. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The nuclear winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velikhow, Y.P.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear winter is an example of possible secondary effects, and if we speak of secondary we are thinking of small-scale second-order effects, but a nuclear winter is not a second-order effect. If you calculate the amount of heat produced by a nuclear explosion, it is a very small amount which does not have any chance of changing the Earth's climate, but a nuclear explosion drives or stars some new mechanism - the mechanism of nuclear winter - after 100 megatons of dust are transferred to the upper atmosphere. Another example of such amplification is radioactive fall-out, especially long-life radioactive fall-out after the possible elimination of the nuclear power industry, nuclear storage and distribution of storage waste around the globe. This is a very powerful amplification mechanism

  1. Incorporating Yearly Derived Winter Wheat Maps Into Winter Wheat Yield Forecasting Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skakun, S.; Franch, B.; Roger, J.-C.; Vermote, E.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Justice, C.; Santamaría-Artigas, A.

    2016-01-01

    Wheat is one of the most important cereal crops in the world. Timely and accurate forecast of wheat yield and production at global scale is vital in implementing food security policy. Becker-Reshef et al. (2010) developed a generalized empirical model for forecasting winter wheat production using remote sensing data and official statistics. This model was implemented using static wheat maps. In this paper, we analyze the impact of incorporating yearly wheat masks into the forecasting model. We propose a new approach of producing in season winter wheat maps exploiting satellite data and official statistics on crop area only. Validation on independent data showed that the proposed approach reached 6% to 23% of omission error and 10% to 16% of commission error when mapping winter wheat 2-3 months before harvest. In general, we found a limited impact of using yearly winter wheat masks over a static mask for the study regions.

  2. Evidence of social deprivation on the spatial patterns of excess winter mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almendra, Ricardo; Santana, Paula; Vasconcelos, João

    2017-11-01

    The aims of this study are to identify the patterns of excess winter mortality (due to diseases of the circulatory system) and to analyse the association between the excess winter deaths (EWD) and socio-economic deprivation in Portugal. The number of EWD in 2002-2011 was estimated by comparing the number of deaths in winter months with the average number in non-winter months. The EWD ratio of each municipality was calculated by following the indirect standardization method and then compared with two deprivation indexes (socio-material and housing deprivation index) through ecological regression models. This study found that: (1) the EWD ratio showed considerable asymmetry in its geography; (2) there are significant positive associations between the EWD ratio and both deprivation indexes; and (3) at the higher level of deprivation, housing conditions have a stronger association with EWD than socio-material conditions. The significant association between two deprivation dimensions (socio-material and housing deprivation) and EWDs suggests that EWD geographical pattern is influenced by deprivation.

  3. Drinking behaviour in sows kept outdoors during the winter months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Heidi Mai-Lis; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2014-01-01

    alive, stillborn and weaned piglets were recorded. The recordingperiod was divided into two temperature categories; control days (CD) with daily averageair temperature at or above 0◦C and frosty days (FD) with daily average air temperaturebelow 0◦C. The FD included data from 22 days representing 11 sows...

  4. Numerical simulation of a rare winter hailstorm event over Delhi, India on 17 January 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevuturi, A.; Dimri, A. P.; Gunturu, U. B.

    2014-12-01

    This study analyzes the cause of the rare occurrence of a winter hailstorm over New Delhi/NCR (National Capital Region), India. The absence of increased surface temperature or low level of moisture incursion during winter cannot generate the deep convection required for sustaining a hailstorm. Consequently, NCR shows very few cases of hailstorms in the months of December-January-February, making the winter hail formation a question of interest. For this study, a recent winter hailstorm event on 17 January 2013 (16:00-18:00 UTC) occurring over NCR is investigated. The storm is simulated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) microphysics scheme with two different options: hail and graupel. The aim of the study is to understand and describe the cause of hailstorm event during over NCR with a comparative analysis of the two options of GCE microphysics. Upon evaluating the model simulations, it is observed that the hail option shows a more similar precipitation intensity with the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) observation than the graupel option does, and it is able to simulate hail precipitation. Using the model-simulated output with the hail option; detailed investigation on understanding the dynamics of hailstorm is performed. The analysis based on a numerical simulation suggests that the deep instability in the atmospheric column led to the formation of hailstones as the cloud formation reached up to the glaciated zone promoting ice nucleation. In winters, such instability conditions rarely form due to low level available potential energy and moisture incursion along with upper level baroclinic instability due to the presence of a western disturbance (WD). Such rare positioning is found to be lowering the tropopause with increased temperature gradient, leading to winter hailstorm formation.

  5. Numerical simulation of a winter hailstorm event over Delhi, India on 17 January 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevuturi, A.; Dimri, A. P.; Gunturu, U. B.

    2014-09-01

    This study analyzes the cause of rare occurrence of winter hailstorm over New Delhi/NCR (National Capital Region), India. The absence of increased surface temperature or low level of moisture incursion during winter cannot generate the deep convection required for sustaining a hailstorm. Consequently, NCR shows very few cases of hailstorms in the months of December-January-February, making the winter hail formation a question of interest. For this study, recent winter hailstorm event on 17 January 2013 (16:00-18:00 UTC) occurring over NCR is investigated. The storm is simulated using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) microphysics scheme with two different options, hail or graupel. The aim of the study is to understand and describe the cause of hailstorm event during over NCR with comparative analysis of the two options of GCE microphysics. On evaluating the model simulations, it is observed that hail option shows similar precipitation intensity with TRMM observation than the graupel option and is able to simulate hail precipitation. Using the model simulated output with hail option; detailed investigation on understanding the dynamics of hailstorm is performed. The analysis based on numerical simulation suggests that the deep instability in the atmospheric column led to the formation of hailstones as the cloud formation reached upto the glaciated zone promoting ice nucleation. In winters, such instability conditions rarely form due to low level available potential energy and moisture incursion along with upper level baroclinic instability due to the presence of WD. Such rare positioning is found to be lowering the tropopause with increased temperature gradient, leading to winter hailstorm formation.

  6. Numerical simulation of a rare winter hailstorm event over Delhi, India on 17 January 2013

    KAUST Repository

    Chevuturi, A.

    2014-12-19

    This study analyzes the cause of the rare occurrence of a winter hailstorm over New Delhi/NCR (National Capital Region), India. The absence of increased surface temperature or low level of moisture incursion during winter cannot generate the deep convection required for sustaining a hailstorm. Consequently, NCR shows very few cases of hailstorms in the months of December-January-February, making the winter hail formation a question of interest. For this study, a recent winter hailstorm event on 17 January 2013 (16:00–18:00 UTC) occurring over NCR is investigated. The storm is simulated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) microphysics scheme with two different options: hail and graupel. The aim of the study is to understand and describe the cause of hailstorm event during over NCR with a comparative analysis of the two options of GCE microphysics. Upon evaluating the model simulations, it is observed that the hail option shows a more similar precipitation intensity with the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) observation than the graupel option does, and it is able to simulate hail precipitation. Using the model-simulated output with the hail option; detailed investigation on understanding the dynamics of hailstorm is performed. The analysis based on a numerical simulation suggests that the deep instability in the atmospheric column led to the formation of hailstones as the cloud formation reached up to the glaciated zone promoting ice nucleation. In winters, such instability conditions rarely form due to low level available potential energy and moisture incursion along with upper level baroclinic instability due to the presence of a western disturbance (WD). Such rare positioning is found to be lowering the tropopause with increased temperature gradient, leading to winter hailstorm formation.

  7. Employment and winter construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2011-01-01

    Reduced seasonal building activity in the construction sector is often assumed to be related to hard winter conditions for building activities and poor working conditions for construction workers, resulting in higher costs and poor quality of building products, particularly in the northern hemisp...... of contracts for workers is more likely to explain differences in seasonal activity than climatic or technological factors....

  8. Titan's Emergence from Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flasar, F. Michael; Achterberg, Richard; Jennings, Donald; Schinder, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We summarize the changes in Titans thermal structure derived from Cassini CIRS and radio-occultation data during the transition from winter to early spring. Titan's surface, and middle atmosphere show noticeable seasonal change, whereas that in most of the troposphere is mated. This can be understood in terms of the relatively small radiative relaxation time in the middle atmosphere and much larger time scale in the troposphere. The surface exhibits seasonal change because the heat capacity in an annual skin depth is much smaller than that in the lowest scale height of the troposphere. Surface temperatures rise 1 K at raid and high latitudes in the winter northern hemisphere and cool in the southern hemisphere. Changes in in the middle atmosphere are more complicated. Temperatures in the middle stratosphere (approximately 1 mbar) increase by a few kelvin at mid northern latitudes, but those at high latitudes first increase as that region moves out of winter shadow, and then decrease. This probably results from the combined effect of increased solar heating as the suit moves higher in the sky and the decreased adiabatic warming as the sinking motions associated with the cross-equatorial meridional cell weaken. Consistent with this interpretation, the warm temperatures observed higher up at the winter polar stratopause cool significantly.

  9. Severe European winters in a secular perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Andreas; Hänsel, Stephanie

    2017-04-01

    Temperature conditions during the winter time are substantially shaped by a strong year-to-year variability. European winters since the late 1980s - compared to previous decades and centuries - were mainly characterised by a high temperature level, including recent record-warm winters. Yet, comparably cold winters and severe cold spells still occur nowadays, like recently observed from 2009 to 2013 and in early 2017. Central England experienced its second coldest December since start of observations more than 350 years ago in 2010, and some of the lowest temperatures ever measured in northern Europe (below -50 °C in Lapland) were recorded in January 1999. Analysing thermal characteristics and spatial distribution of severe (historical) winters - using early instrumental data - helps expanding and consolidating our knowledge of past weather extremes. This contribution presents efforts towards this direction. We focus on a) compiling and assessing a very long-term instrumental, spatially widespread and well-distributed, high-quality meteorological data set to b) investigate very cold winter temperatures in Europe from early measurements until today. In a first step, we analyse the longest available time series of monthly temperature averages within Europe. Our dataset extends from the Nordic countries up to the Mediterranean and from the British Isles up to Russia. We utilise as much as possible homogenised times series in order to ensure reliable results. Homogenised data derive from the NORDHOM (Scandinavia) and HISTALP (greater alpine region) datasets or were obtained from national weather services and universities. Other (not specifically homogenised) data were derived from the ECA&D dataset or national institutions. The employed time series often start already during the 18th century, with Paris & Central England being the longest datasets (from 1659). In a second step, daily temperature averages are involved. Only some of those series are homogenised, but

  10. Winter barley mutants created in the Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayats, O.M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Increasing fodder and protein production is one of the objectives of the development of agriculture in Ukraine. Higher productivity of fodder crops, due to new highly productive varieties, is the means to meet this aim. Winter barley is an important crop for fodder purposes. The climate of the Ukraine is favourable for growing this crop. The areas used for the growth of winter barley are however, small (500,000-550,000 ha) and there is a shortage of good quality varieties. The main aim of the work was therefore to create new varieties of highly productive winter barley, of good quality. The new varieties and mutation lines of winter barley were created under the influence of water solutions of N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMH - 0,012, 0,005%), N-nitroso-N-ethylurea (NEH - 0,05; 0.025; 0,012%) ethyleneimine (EI - 0,02; 0,01; 0,005%) on winter barley seeds of the varieties of local and foreign selections. On the basis of many years of investigations (1984-94) the following mutations were described: hard-grained, winter-hardiness, earliness, middle-maturity, late-maturity, wide and large leaves, narrow leaves, multinodal, great number of leaves, great number of flowers, strong stem (lodging resistant), tallness, semi-dwarfness, dwarfness, and high productivity. Particularly valuable are mutants with high productivity of green bulk. Their potential yield is 70 t/ha. As a result of the work two varieties of winter barley 'Shyrokolysty' and 'Kormovy' were released into the State register of plant varieties of the Ukraine. The other valuable mutant genotypes are used in cross breeding programmes. (author)

  11. Winter is losing its cool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, S.

    2017-12-01

    Winter seasons have significant societal impacts across all sectors ranging from direct human health to ecosystems, transportation, and recreation. This study quantifies the severity of winter and its spatial-temporal variations using a newly developed winter severity index and daily temperature, snowfall and snow depth. The winter severity and the number of extreme winter days are decreasing across the global terrestrial areas during 1901-2015 except the southeast United States and isolated regions in the Southern Hemisphere. These changes are dominated by winter warming, while the changes in daily snowfall and snow depth played a secondary role. The simulations of multiple CMIP5 climate models can well capture the spatial and temporal variations of the observed changes in winter severity and extremes during 1951-2005. The models are consistent in projecting a future milder winter under various scenarios. The winter severity is projected to decrease 60-80% in the middle-latitude Northern Hemisphere under the business-as-usual scenario. The winter arrives later, ends earlier and the length of winter season will be notably shorter. The changes in harsh winter in the polar regions are weak, mainly because the warming leads to more snowfall in the high latitudes.

  12. Payment mechanisms for winter road maintenance services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Abdi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In countries with severe winters a major part of the annual budget for road maintenance is allocated on performance of winter road maintenance tasks. Finding appropriate remuneration forms to compensate entrepreneurs for performed road measures during winter is not an easy task in order to minimise or eliminate disputes and satisfy both client organisations and contractors. On the other hand improper reimbursement models lead either to the client’s annual budget imbalance due to unnecessary cost overruns or affect contractor’s cash-flow. Such cases in turn affect just-in-time winter road maintenance and then traffic safety. To solve such problems, a number of countries in cold regions like Sweden have developed different remuneration models based more on weather data called Weather Index. Therefore the objective of this paper is to investigate and evaluate the payment models applied in Sweden. The study uses a number of approaches namely; domestic questionnaire survey, analysis of a number of contract documents, a series of meetings with the project managers and an international benchmarking. The study recognised four remuneration models for winter maintenance service of which one based on weather data statistics. The study reveals the payment model based on weather data statistics is only applied for the roads with higher traffic flow and the model generates most uncertainty.

  13. Winter Frost and Fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This somewhat oblique blue wide angle Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the 174 km (108 mi) diameter crater, Terby, and its vicinity in December 2004. Located north of Hellas, this region can be covered with seasonal frost and ground-hugging fog, even in the afternoon, despite being north of 30oS. The subtle, wavy pattern is a manifestation of fog. Location near: 28oS, 286oW Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

  14. Increased body mass of ducks wintering in California's Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleskes, Joseph P.; Yee, Julie L.; Yarris, Gregory S.; Loughman, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    Waterfowl managers lack the information needed to fully evaluate the biological effects of their habitat conservation programs. We studied body condition of dabbling ducks shot by hunters at public hunting areas throughout the Central Valley of California during 2006–2008 compared with condition of ducks from 1979 to 1993. These time periods coincide with habitat increases due to Central Valley Joint Venture conservation programs and changing agricultural practices; we modeled to ascertain whether body condition differed among waterfowl during these periods. Three dataset comparisons indicate that dabbling duck body mass was greater in 2006–2008 than earlier years and the increase was greater in the Sacramento Valley and Suisun Marsh than in the San Joaquin Valley, differed among species (mallard [Anas platyrhynchos], northern pintail [Anas acuta], America wigeon [Anas americana], green-winged teal [Anas crecca], and northern shoveler [Anas clypeata]), and was greater in ducks harvested late in the season. Change in body mass also varied by age–sex cohort and month for all 5 species and by September–January rainfall for all except green-winged teal. The random effect of year nested in period, and sometimes interacting with other factors, improved models in many cases. Results indicate that improved habitat conditions in the Central Valley have resulted in increased winter body mass of dabbling ducks, especially those that feed primarily on seeds, and this increase was greater in regions where area of post-harvest flooding of rice and other crops, and wetland area, has increased. Conservation programs that continue to promote post-harvest flooding and other agricultural practices that benefit wintering waterfowl and continue to restore and conserve wetlands would likely help maintain body condition of wintering dabbling ducks in the Central Valley of California.

  15. Attribution of UK Winter Floods to Anthropogenic Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, N.; Alison, K.; Sparrow, S. N.; Otto, F. E. L.; Massey, N.; Vautard, R.; Yiou, P.; van Oldenborgh, G. J.; van Haren, R.; Lamb, R.; Huntingford, C.; Crooks, S.; Legg, T.; Weisheimer, A.; Bowery, A.; Miller, J.; Jones, R.; Stott, P.; Allen, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    Many regions of southern UK experienced severe flooding during the 2013/2014 winter. Simultaneously, large areas in the USA and Canada were struck by prolonged cold weather. At the time, the media and public asked whether the general rainy conditions over northern Europe and the cold weather over North America were caused by climate change. Providing an answer to this question is not trivial, but recent studies show that probabilistic event attribution is feasible. Using the citizen science project weather@home, we ran over 40'000 perturbed initial condition simulations of the 2013/2014 winter. These simulations fall into two categories: one set aims at simulating the world with climate change using observed sea surface temperatures while the second set is run with sea surface temperatures corresponding to a world that might have been without climate change. The relevant modelled variables are then downscaled by a hydrological model to obtain river flows. First results show that anthropogenic climate change led to a small but significant increase in the fractional attributable risk for 30-days peak flows for the river Thames. A single number can summarize the final result from probabilistic attribution studies indicating, for example, an increase, decrease or no change to the risk of the event occurring. However, communicating this to the public, media and other scientists remains challenging. The assumptions made in the chain of models used need to be explained. In addition, extreme events, like the UK floods of the 2013/2014 winter, are usually caused by a range of factors. While heavy precipitation events can be caused by dynamic and/or thermodynamic processes, floods occur only partly as a response to heavy precipitation. Depending on the catchment, they can be largely due to soil properties and conditions of the previous months. Probabilistic attribution studies are multidisciplinary and therefore all aspects need to be communicated properly.

  16. Daddy Months

    OpenAIRE

    Volker Meier; Helmut Rainer

    2014-01-01

    We consider a bargaining model in which husband and wife decide on the allocation of time and disposable income. Since her bargaining power would go down otherwise more strongly, the wife agrees to having a child only if the husband also leaves the labor market for a while. The daddy months subsidy enables the couple to overcome a hold-up problem and thereby improves efficiency. However, the same ruling harms cooperative couples and may also reduce welfare in an endogenous taxation framework.

  17. Decontamination and winter conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quenild, C.; Tveten, U.

    1984-12-01

    The report deals with two decontamonation experiments under winter conditions. A snow-covered parking lot was contaminated, and the snow was subsequently removed using standard snow-moving equipment. The snow left behind was collected and the content of contaminant was determined. A non-radioactive contaminant was used. A decontamination factor exceeding 100 was obtained. Although the eksperimental conditions were close to ideal, it is reason to believe that extremely efficient removal of deposited materials on a snow surface is achivable. In another investigation, run-off from agricultural surface, contaminated while covered with snow, was measured A lycimeter was used in this experiment. A stable layer of ice and snow was allowed to form before contamination. The run-off water was collected at each thaw period until all snow and ice was gone. Cs-134 was used as contaminant. Roughly 30% of the Cs-134 with which the area was contaminated ran off with the melt water. Following a reactor accident situation, this would have given a corresponding reduction in the long term doses. Both of these experiments show that consequence calculation assumptions, as they are currently applied to large accident assessment, tend to overestimate the consequences resulting from accidents taking place under winter conditions

  18. Spirit's Winter Work Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version This portion of an image acquired by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera shows the Spirit rover's winter campaign site. Spirit was parked on a slope tilted 11 degrees to the north to maximize sunlight during the southern winter season. 'Tyrone' is an area where the rover's wheels disturbed light-toned soils. Remote sensing and in-situ analyses found the light-toned soil at Tyrone to be sulfate rich and hydrated. The original picture is catalogued as PSP_001513_1655_red and was taken on Sept. 29, 2006. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project and built the spacecraft. The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment is operated by the University of Arizona, Tucson, and the instrument was built by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corp., Boulder, Colo.

  19. Winter School Les Houches

    CERN Document Server

    Lannoo, Michel; Bastard, Gérald; Voos, Michel; Boccara, Nino

    1986-01-01

    The Winter School held in Les Houches on March 12-21, 1985 was devoted to Semiconductor Heterojunctions and Superlattices, a topic which is recognized as being now one of the most interesting and active fields in semiconductor physics. In fact, following the pioneering work of Esaki and Tsu in 1970, the study of these two-dimensional semiconductor heterostructures has developed rapidly, both from the point of view of basic physics and of applications. For instance, modulation-doped heterojunctions are nowadays currently used to investigate the quantum Hall effect and to make very fast transistors. This book contains the lectures presented at this Winter School, showing in particular that many aspects of semiconductor heterojunctions and super­ lattices were treated, extending from the fabrication of these two-dimensional systems to their basic properties and applications in micro-and opto-electron­ ics. Among the subjects which were covered, one can quote as examples: molecular beam epitaxy and metallorgani...

  20. Effects of altitude and beehive bottom board type on wintering losses of honeybee colonies under subtropical climatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ucak-Koc, A.

    2014-06-01

    The effects of altitude and beehive bottom board types (BBBT) on the wintering performance of honeybee colonies were investigated in the South Aegean Region of Turkey: Experiment I (E-I), with 32 colonies, in 2010-2011, and Experiment II (E-II), with 20 colonies, in 2011-2012. Each lowland (25 m) and highland (797 m) colony was divided randomly into two BBBT subgroups, open screen floor (OSF) and normal bottom floor (NBF), and wintered for about three months. In E-I, the local genotype Aegean ecotype of Anatolian bee (AE) and Italian race (ItR) were used, while in E-II, only the AE genotype was present. In E-I, the effect of wintering altitudes on the number of combs covered with bees (NCCB), and the effects of BBBT on brood area (BA) and the NCCB were found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05), but the effects of genotype on BA and NCCB were statistically insignificant (p > 0.05). In the E-II, the effect of wintering altitude on beehive weight was found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05), while its effect on the NCCB was statistically insignificant (p > 0.05). The wintering losses in the highland and lowland groups in E-I were determined to be 25% and 62.5% respectively. In contrast to this result, no loss was observed in E-II for both altitudes. In E-I, the wintering losses for both OSF and NBF groups were the same (43.75%). In conclusion, under subtropical climatic conditions, due to variations from year to year, honeybee colonies can be wintered more successfully in highland areas with OSF bottom board type. (Author)

  1. Nuclear Winter: The implications for civil defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chester, C.V.; Perry, A.M.; Hobbs, B.F.

    1987-01-01

    ''Nuclear Winter'' is the term given to hypothesized cooling in the northern hemisphere following a nuclear war due to injection of smoke from burning cities into the atmosphere. The voluminous literature on this subject produced since the original paper in 1983 by Turco, Toon, Ackerman, Pollack, and Sagen (TTAPS) has been reviewed. The widespread use of 3-dimensional global circulation models have resulted in reduced estimates of cooling; 15 to 25 0 C for a summer war and a few degrees for a winter war. More serious may be the possibility of suppression of convective precipitation by the altered temperature profiles in the atmosphere. However, very large uncertainties remain in input parameters, the models, and the results of calculations. We believe the state of knowledge about nuclear winter is sufficiently developed to conclude: Neither cold nor drought are likely to be direct threats to human survival for populations with the wherewithal to survive normal January temperatures; The principal threat from nuclear winter is to food production, and could present problems to third parties without food reserves; and Loss of a crop year is neither a new nor unexpected threat from nuclear war to the US and the Soviet Union. Both have at least a year's food reserve at all times. Both face formidable organizational problems in distributing their reserves in a war-damaged environment. The consequences of nuclear winter could be expected to fall more heavily on the Soviet Union than the US due to its higher latitude and less productive agriculture. This may be especially true if disturbances of rainfall amounts and distribution persist for more than a year. 6 refs

  2. Winter fuels report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD's I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD's, as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 day, 30-Day, and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city

  3. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-29

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the United States and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. 27 figs, 12 tabs.

  4. On the relation between ionospheric winter anomalies and solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumi, G.C.

    2001-01-01

    There are two different winter anomalies. A small one that appears in connection with ionization at relatively low latitudes in the bottom of the D-region of the ionosphere. There, the electron densities in the winter happen to be less than should be expected. On the other hand, the classic winter anomaly is present when in the winter the upper D-region, again at relatively low latitudes, has more ionization than should be expected. Both these effects are due to the slant compression of the geomagnetic field produced by the solar wind in the wind in the winter season (which is, of course, the summer season when reference is made to events in the other hemisphere). It is shown that the small winter anomaly is a consequence of a hemispheric imbalance in the flux of galactic cosmic rays determined by the obliquely distorted geomagnetic field. It is shown that the standard winter anomaly can be ascribed to the influx of a super solar wind, which penetrates into the Earth's polar atmosphere down to E-region, heights and, duly concentrated through a funneling action at the winter pole of the distorted geomagnetic field, slows down the winter polar vortex. An equatorward motion of the polar air with its content of nitric oxide brings about the excess of ionization in the upper D-region at lower latitudes. The experimentally observed rhythmic recurrence of the upper winter anomaly is correlated to a possible rhythmic recurrence of the super solar wind. The actual detection of the upper winter anomaly could yield some information on the velocity of the basic solar wind. A by-product of the present analysis, the determination of Γ, the coefficient of collisional detachment of the electrons from the O 2 - ions, is presented in the Appendix

  5. On the relation between ionospheric winter anomalies and solar wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumi, G.C. [Lecco, (Italy)

    2001-06-01

    There are two different winter anomalies. A small one that appears in connection with ionization at relatively low latitudes in the bottom of the D-region of the ionosphere. There, the electron densities in the winter happen to be less than should be expected. On the other hand, the classic winter anomaly is present when in the winter the upper D-region, again at relatively low latitudes, has more ionization than should be expected. Both these effects are due to the slant compression of the geomagnetic field produced by the solar wind in the wind in the winter season (which is, of course, the summer season when reference is made to events in the other hemisphere). It is shown that the small winter anomaly is a consequence of a hemispheric imbalance in the flux of galactic cosmic rays determined by the obliquely distorted geomagnetic field. It is shown that the standard winter anomaly can be ascribed to the influx of a super solar wind, which penetrates into the Earth's polar atmosphere down to E-region, heights and, duly concentrated through a funneling action at the winter pole of the distorted geomagnetic field, slows down the winter polar vortex. An equatorward motion of the polar air with its content of nitric oxide brings about the excess of ionization in the upper D-region at lower latitudes. The experimentally observed rhythmic recurrence of the upper winter anomaly is correlated to a possible rhythmic recurrence of the super solar wind. The actual detection of the upper winter anomaly could yield some information on the velocity of the basic solar wind. A by-product of the present analysis, the determination of {gamma}, the coefficient of collisional detachment of the electrons from the O{sub 2} {sup -} ions, is presented in the Appendix.

  6. Nuclear winter or nuclear fall?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, André

    Climate is universal. If a major modern nuclear war (i.e., with a large number of small-yield weapons) were to happen, it is not even necessary to have a specific part of the world directly involved for there to be cause to worry about the consequences for its inhabitants and their future. Indeed, smoke from fires ignited by the nuclear explosions would be transported by winds all over the world, causing dark and cold. According to the first study, by Turco et al. [1983], air surface temperature over continental areas of the northern mid-latitudes (assumed to be the nuclear war theatre) would fall to winter levels even in summer (hence the term “nuclear winter”) and induce drastic climatic conditions for several months at least. The devastating effects of a nuclear war would thus last much longer than was assumed initially. Discussing to what extent these estimations of long-term impacts on climate are reliable is the purpose of this article.

  7. The impact of winter cold weather on acute myocardial infarctions in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, João; Freire, Elisabete; Almendra, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Mortality due to cardiovascular diseases shows a seasonal trend that can be associated with cold weather. Portugal is the European country with the highest excess winter mortality, but nevertheless, the relationship between cold weather and health is yet to be assessed. The main aim of this study is to identify the contribution of cold weather to cardiovascular diseases within Portugal. Poisson regression analysis based on generalized additive models was applied to estimate the influence of a human-biometeorological index (PET) on daily hospitalizations for myocardial infarction. The main results revealed a negative effect of cold weather on acute myocardial infarctions in Portugal. For every degree fall in PET during winter, there was an increase of up to 2.2% (95% CI = 0.9%; 3.3%) in daily hospital admissions. This paper shows the need for public policies that will help minimize or, indeed, prevent exposure to cold. -- Highlights: ► We model the relationship between daily hospitalizations due to myocardial infarctions and cold weather in Portugal. ► We use Physiological Equivalent temperature (PET) as main explanatory variable. ► We adjust the models to confounding factors such as influenza and air pollution. ► Daily hospitalizations increased up to 2.2% per degree fall of PET during winter. ► Exposure to cold weather has a negative impact on human health in Portugal. -- There is an increase of up to 2.2% in daily hospitalizations due to acute myocardial infarctions per degree fall of thermal index during the winter months in Portugal

  8. Novel psychrotolerant picocyanobacteria isolated from Chesapeake Bay in the winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongle; Jiao, Nianzhi; Chen, Feng

    2015-08-01

    Picocyanobacteria are major primary producers in the ocean, especially in the tropical or subtropical oceans or during warm seasons. Many "warm" picocyanobacterial species have been isolated and characterized. However, picocyanobacteria in cold environments or cold seasons are much less studied. In general, little is known about the taxonomy and ecophysiology of picocyanobacteria living in the winter. In this study, 17 strains of picocyanobacteria were isolated from Chesapeake Bay, a temperate estuarine ecosystem, during the winter months. These winter isolates belong to five distinct phylogenetic lineages, and are distinct from the picocyanobacteria previously isolated from the warm seasons. The vast majority of the winter isolates were closely related to picocyanobacteria isolated from other cold environments like Arctic or subalpine waters. The winter picocyanobacterial isolates were able to maintain slow growth or prolonged dormancy at 4°C. Interestingly, the phycoerythrin-rich strains outperformed the phycocyanin-rich strains at cold temperature. In addition, winter picocyanobacteria changed their morphology when cultivated at 4°C. The close phylogenetic relationship between the winter picocyanobacteria and the picocyanobacteria living in high latitude cold regions indicates that low temperature locations select specific ecotypes of picocyanobacteria. © 2015 Phycological Society of America.

  9. Nuclear Winter: Implications for civil defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chester, C.V.; Perry, A.M.; Hobbs, B.F.

    1988-05-01

    ''Nuclear Winter'' is the term given to the cooling hypothesized to occur in the Northern Hemisphere following a nuclear war as the result of the injection of smoke from burning cities into the atmosphere. The voluminous literature on this subject produced since the paper was published in 1983 by Turco, Toon, Ackerman, Pollack, and Sagen (TTAPS) has been reviewed. Three-dimensional global circulation models have resulted in reduced estimates of cooling---15 to 25/degree/C for a summer war and a few degrees for a winter war. More serious may be the possibility of suppression of convective precipitation by the altered temperature profiles in the atmosphere. However, very large uncertainties remain in input parameters, the models, and the results of calculations. We believe the state of knowledge about nuclear winter is sufficiently developed to conclude: Neither cold nor drought is likely to be a direct threat to human survival for populations with the wherewithal to survive normal January temperatures. The principal threat from nuclear winter is to food production, and this could present problems to third parties who are without food reserves. Loss of a crop year is neither a new nor an unexpected threat from nuclear war to the United States and the Soviet Union. Both have at least a year's food reserve at all times. Both face formidable organizational problems in distributing their reserves in a war-damaged environment. The consequences of nuclear winter could be expected to fall more heavily on the Soviet Union than the United States due to its higher latitude and less productive agriculture. This may be especially true if disturbances of rainfall amounts and distribution persist for more than a year.

  10. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-13

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD`s I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s, as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 day, 30-Day, and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city.

  11. Klaus Winter (1930 - 2015)

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    We learned with great sadness that Klaus Winter passed away on 9 February 2015, after a long illness.   Klaus was born in 1930 in Hamburg, where he obtained his diploma in physics in 1955. From 1955 to 1958 he held a scholarship at the Collège de France, where he received his doctorate in nuclear physics under the guidance of Francis Perrin. Klaus joined CERN in 1958, where he first participated in experiments on π+ and K0 decay properties at the PS, and later became the spokesperson of the CHOV Collaboration at the ISR. Starting in 1976, his work focused on experiments with the SPS neutrino beam. In 1984 he joined Ugo Amaldi to head the CHARM experiment, designed for detailed studies of the neutral current interactions of high-energy neutrinos, which had been discovered in 1973 using the Gargamelle bubble chamber at the PS. The unique feature of the detector was its target calorimeter, which used large Carrara marble plates as an absorber material. From 1984 to 1991, Klau...

  12. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-04

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition, underground storage, and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. This report will be published weekly by the EIA starting the first week in October 1990 and will continue until the first week in April 1991. The data will also be available electronically after 5:00 p.m. on Thursday during the heating season through the EIA Electronic Publication System (EPUB). 12 tabs.

  13. Excess mortality in winter in Finnish intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinikainen, M; Uusaro, A; Ruokonen, E; Niskanen, M

    2006-07-01

    In the general population, mortality from acute myocardial infarctions, strokes and respiratory causes is increased in winter. The winter climate in Finland is harsh. The aim of this study was to find out whether there are seasonal variations in mortality rates in Finnish intensive care units (ICUs). We analysed data on 31,040 patients treated in 18 Finnish ICUs. We measured severity of illness with acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) scores and intensity of care with therapeutic intervention scoring system (TISS) scores. We assessed mortality rates in different months and seasons and used logistic regression analysis to test the independent effect of various seasons on hospital mortality. We defined 'winter' as the period from December to February, inclusive. The crude hospital mortality rate was 17.9% in winter and 16.4% in non-winter, P = 0.003. Even after adjustment for case mix, winter season was an independent risk factor for increased hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio 1.13, 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.22, P = 0.005). In particular, the risk of respiratory failure was increased in winter. Crude hospital mortality was increased during the main holiday season in July. However, the severity of illness-adjusted risk of death was not higher in July than in other months. An increase in the mean daily TISS score was an independent predictor of increased hospital mortality. Severity of illness-adjusted hospital mortality for Finnish ICU patients is higher in winter than in other seasons.

  14. Winter/Summer Monsoon Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Winter/Summer Monsoon Experiment (MONEX) was conducted during the First Global GARP (Global Atmospheric Research Program) Experiment (FGGE). An international...

  15. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus and climate change: Importance of winter forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thrine Moen Heggberget

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of increasing greenhouse gas concentrations, climate change is predicted to be particularly pronounced, although regionally variable, in the vast arctic, sub-arctic and alpine tundra areas of the northern hemisphere. Here, we review winter foraging conditions for reindeer and caribou (Rangifer tarandus living in these areas, and consider diet, forage quality and distribution, accessibility due to snow variation, and effects of snow condition on reindeer and caribou populations. Finally, we hypothesise how global warming may affect wild mountain reindeer herds in South Norway. Energy-rich lichens often dominate reindeer and caribou diets. The animals also prefer lichens, and their productivity has been shown to be higher on lichen-rich than on lichen-poor ranges. Nevertheless, this energy source appears to be neither sufficient as winter diet for reindeer or caribou (at least for pregnant females nor necessary. Some reindeer and caribou populations seem to be better adapted to a non-lichen winter diet, e.g. by a larger alimentary tract. Shrubs appear to be the most common alternative winter forage, while some grasses appear to represent a good, nutritionally-balanced winter diet. Reindeer/caribou make good use of a wide variety of plants in winter, including dead and dry parts that are digested more than expected based on their fibre content. The diversity of winter forage is probably important for the mineral content of the diet. A lichen-dominated winter diet may be deficient in essential dietary elements, e.g. minerals. Sodium in particular may be marginal in inland winter ranges. Our review indicates that most Rangifer populations with lichen-dominated winter diets are either periodically or continuously heavily harvested by humans or predators. However, when population size is mainly limited by food, accessible lichen resources are often depleted. Plant studies simulating climatic change indicate that a warmer, wetter

  16. Comparison of the decomposition VOC profile during winter and summer in a moist, mid-latitude (Cfb climate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shari L Forbes

    Full Text Available The investigation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs associated with decomposition is an emerging field in forensic taphonomy due to their importance in locating human remains using biological detectors such as insects and canines. A consistent decomposition VOC profile has not yet been elucidated due to the intrinsic impact of the environment on the decomposition process in different climatic zones. The study of decomposition VOCs has typically occurred during the warmer months to enable chemical profiling of all decomposition stages. The present study investigated the decomposition VOC profile in air during both warmer and cooler months in a moist, mid-latitude (Cfb climate as decomposition occurs year-round in this environment. Pig carcasses (Sus scrofa domesticus L. were placed on a soil surface to decompose naturally and their VOC profile was monitored during the winter and summer months. Corresponding control sites were also monitored to determine the natural VOC profile of the surrounding soil and vegetation. VOC samples were collected onto sorbent tubes and analyzed using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography--time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOFMS. The summer months were characterized by higher temperatures and solar radiation, greater rainfall accumulation, and comparable humidity when compared to the winter months. The rate of decomposition was faster and the number and abundance of VOCs was proportionally higher in summer. However, a similar trend was observed in winter and summer demonstrating a rapid increase in VOC abundance during active decay with a second increase in abundance occurring later in the decomposition process. Sulfur-containing compounds, alcohols and ketones represented the most abundant classes of compounds in both seasons, although almost all 10 compound classes identified contributed to discriminating the stages of decomposition throughout both seasons. The advantages of GC × GC-TOFMS were

  17. The meaning of nuclear winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper the author reviews the history and origins of the basic ideas underlying nuclear winter; and findings and predictions of several groups regarding this topic. The author reviews some of the further developments and scientific analyses regarding nuclear winter since the initial announcements of 1983, touching on some of the revisions and controversies and trying to indicate the current status of the field

  18. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  19. Petroleum supply monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  20. [Incidence of admissions due to pneumonia in children under 24 months old before and after the introduction of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine into the National Immunization Program of Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández V, José Pablo; Goecke H, Carola; von Borries, Cecilia; Tapia R, Natalia; Santolaya de P, María Elena

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of bacterial pneumonia in children, especially in the hospitalized population. The 10-valent pneumococcal vaccine was included in the National Immunization Program of Chile in 2011. This study aims to evaluate the incidence of pneumonia in hospitalized children<24 months of age in the Luis Calvo Mackenna Hospital before and after the introduction of the pneumococcal vaccine into the National Immunization Program. Passive surveillance study. Patients<24 months with discharge diagnosis of bacterial pneumonia from Luis Calvo Mackenna Hospital were studied between 2009 and 2013. Data were obtained from the Luis Calvo Mackenna Hospital's Statistical Service. The incidence of pneumonia was evaluated in the pre-vaccination period (2009-2010) and in the post-vaccination period (2012-2013). During the study period, an average of 4,321 discharges/year was observed in children<24 months (range: 3,587-4,702), with a significant decrease from pre- to post-vaccination vaccine period (4,644 vs 4,013, P<.001). The average incidence of pneumonia ranged from 3.4/100,000 to 1.5/100,000 in the pre- and post-vaccine period, respectively (P=.009), with an annual mean of 157 cases of pneumonia in the pre- vaccine period, and 62 cases in the postvaccine period (P<.001) and a decrease in incidence between the two periods of 56%. This study confirms information previously obtained in other countries, which show a decrease in the incidence of pneumonia associated with the implementation of a pneumococcal vaccine at the population level. Ongoing surveillance is required to evaluate if this effect is maintained over time and expands to older populations. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. STIMULATION OF RESISTANCE OF BEE FAMILIES DURING WINTERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    nicolae eremia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Honey bees use as food nectar, honey, pollen and bee bread. They collect nectar and pollen on flowers, that process in food - honey and bee bread. Food provides the bees body with energy due to carbohydrates, proteins, enzymes, lipids, vitamins, minerals. The goal of the studies was to stimulate the bees’ resistance during wintering against nesemosa disease in bee families’ survival after winter time and productivity increasing. There was established that the optimal dose of feed additive Pramix Bionorm P (symbiotic complex, in reserves supplementing of food of bee families during autumn is 150 mg of sugar syrup. There was revealed that using of the feed additive Pramix Bionorm P (symbiotic complex, in bees feeding for reserves supplementing of bees food ensures a stimulating of resistance at wintering of bees, decreases the quantity of used honey during wintering at one space between honey combs populated with bees, as well increases the productivity.

  2. Learning at old age: a study on winter bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Behrends

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Ageing is often accompanied by a decline in learning and memory abilities across the animal kingdom. Understanding age-related changes in cognitive abilities is therefore a major goal of current research. The honey bee is emerging as a novel model organism for age-related changes in brain function, because learning and memory can easily be studied in bees under controlled laboratory conditions. In addition, genetically similar workers naturally display life expectancies from six weeks (summer bees to six months (winter bees. We studied whether in honey bees, extreme longevity leads to a decline in cognitive functions. Six-month-old winter bees were conditioned either to odours or to tactile stimuli. Afterwards, long-term memory and discrimination abilities were analysed. Winter bees were kept under different conditions (flight /no flight opportunity to test for effects of foraging activity on learning performance. Despite their extreme age, winter bees did not display an age-related decline in learning or discrimination abilities, but had a slightly impaired olfactory long-term memory. The opportunity to forage indoors led to a slight decrease in learning performance. This suggests that in honey bees, unlike in most other animals, age per se does not impair associative learning. Future research will show which mechanisms protect winter bees from age-related deficits in learning.

  3. Moonlight Drives Ocean-Scale Mass Vertical Migration of Zooplankton during the Arctic Winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Last, Kim S; Hobbs, Laura; Berge, Jørgen; Brierley, Andrew S; Cottier, Finlo

    2016-01-25

    In extreme high-latitude marine environments that are without solar illumination in winter, light-mediated patterns of biological migration have historically been considered non-existent [1]. However, diel vertical migration (DVM) of zooplankton has been shown to occur even during the darkest part of the polar night, when illumination levels are exceptionally low [2, 3]. This paradox is, as yet, unexplained. Here, we present evidence of an unexpected uniform behavior across the entire Arctic, in fjord, shelf, slope and open sea, where vertical migrations of zooplankton are driven by lunar illumination. A shift from solar-day (24-hr period) to lunar-day (24.8-hr period) vertical migration takes place in winter when the moon rises above the horizon. Further, mass sinking of zooplankton from the surface waters and accumulation at a depth of ∼50 m occurs every 29.5 days in winter, coincident with the periods of full moon. Moonlight may enable predation of zooplankton by carnivorous zooplankters, fish, and birds now known to feed during the polar night [4]. Although primary production is almost nil at this time, lunar vertical migration (LVM) may facilitate monthly pulses of carbon remineralization, as they occur continuously in illuminated mesopelagic systems [5], due to community respiration of carnivorous and detritivorous zooplankton. The extent of LVM during the winter suggests that the behavior is highly conserved and adaptive and therefore needs to be considered as "baseline" zooplankton activity in a changing Arctic ocean [6-9]. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. The influence of snowmobile trails on coyote movements during winter in high-elevation landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M Gese

    Full Text Available Competition between sympatric carnivores has long been of interest to ecologists. Increased understanding of these interactions can be useful for conservation planning. Increased snowmobile traffic on public lands and in habitats used by Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis remains controversial due to the concern of coyote (Canis latrans use of snowmobile trails and potential competition with lynx. Determining the variables influencing coyote use of snowmobile trails has been a priority for managers attempting to conserve lynx and their critical habitat. During 2 winters in northwest Wyoming, we backtracked coyotes for 265 km to determine how varying snow characteristics influenced coyote movements; 278 km of random backtracking was conducted simultaneously for comparison. Despite deep snow (>1 m deep, radio-collared coyotes persisted at high elevations (>2,500 m year-round. All coyotes used snowmobile trails for some portion of their travel. Coyotes used snowmobile trails for 35% of their travel distance (random: 13% for a mean distance of 149 m (random: 59 m. Coyote use of snowmobile trails increased as snow depth and penetrability off trails increased. Essentially, snow characteristics were most influential on how much time coyotes spent on snowmobile trails. In the early months of winter, snow depth was low, yet the snow column remained dry and the coyotes traveled off trails. As winter progressed and snow depth increased and snow penetrability increased, coyotes spent more travel distance on snowmobile trails. As spring approached, the snow depth remained high but penetrability decreased, hence coyotes traveled less on snowmobile trails because the snow column off trail was more supportive. Additionally, coyotes traveled closer to snowmobile trails than randomly expected and selected shallower snow when traveling off trails. Coyotes also preferred using snowmobile trails to access ungulate kills. Snow compaction from winter recreation influenced

  5. The influence of snowmobile trails on coyote movements during winter in high-elevation landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gese, Eric M; Dowd, Jennifer L B; Aubry, Lise M

    2013-01-01

    Competition between sympatric carnivores has long been of interest to ecologists. Increased understanding of these interactions can be useful for conservation planning. Increased snowmobile traffic on public lands and in habitats used by Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) remains controversial due to the concern of coyote (Canis latrans) use of snowmobile trails and potential competition with lynx. Determining the variables influencing coyote use of snowmobile trails has been a priority for managers attempting to conserve lynx and their critical habitat. During 2 winters in northwest Wyoming, we backtracked coyotes for 265 km to determine how varying snow characteristics influenced coyote movements; 278 km of random backtracking was conducted simultaneously for comparison. Despite deep snow (>1 m deep), radio-collared coyotes persisted at high elevations (>2,500 m) year-round. All coyotes used snowmobile trails for some portion of their travel. Coyotes used snowmobile trails for 35% of their travel distance (random: 13%) for a mean distance of 149 m (random: 59 m). Coyote use of snowmobile trails increased as snow depth and penetrability off trails increased. Essentially, snow characteristics were most influential on how much time coyotes spent on snowmobile trails. In the early months of winter, snow depth was low, yet the snow column remained dry and the coyotes traveled off trails. As winter progressed and snow depth increased and snow penetrability increased, coyotes spent more travel distance on snowmobile trails. As spring approached, the snow depth remained high but penetrability decreased, hence coyotes traveled less on snowmobile trails because the snow column off trail was more supportive. Additionally, coyotes traveled closer to snowmobile trails than randomly expected and selected shallower snow when traveling off trails. Coyotes also preferred using snowmobile trails to access ungulate kills. Snow compaction from winter recreation influenced coyote

  6. Early Season Large-Area Winter Crop Mapping Using MODIS NDVI Data, Growing Degree Days Information and a Gaussian Mixture Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skakun, Sergii; Franch, Belen; Vermote, Eric; Roger, Jean-Claude; Becker-Reshef, Inbal; Justice, Christopher; Kussul, Nataliia

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge on geographical location and distribution of crops at global, national and regional scales is an extremely valuable source of information applications. Traditional approaches to crop mapping using remote sensing data rely heavily on reference or ground truth data in order to train/calibrate classification models. As a rule, such models are only applicable to a single vegetation season and should be recalibrated to be applicable for other seasons. This paper addresses the problem of early season large-area winter crop mapping using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time-series and growing degree days (GDD) information derived from the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA-2) product. The model is based on the assumption that winter crops have developed biomass during early spring while other crops (spring and summer) have no biomass. As winter crop development is temporally and spatially non-uniform due to the presence of different agro-climatic zones, we use GDD to account for such discrepancies. A Gaussian mixture model (GMM) is applied to discriminate winter crops from other crops (spring and summer). The proposed method has the following advantages: low input data requirements, robustness, applicability to global scale application and can provide winter crop maps 1.5-2 months before harvest. The model is applied to two study regions, the State of Kansas in the US and Ukraine, and for multiple seasons (2001-2014). Validation using the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Crop Data Layer (CDL) for Kansas and ground measurements for Ukraine shows that accuracies of greater than 90% can be achieved in mapping winter crops 1.5-2 months before harvest. Results also show good correspondence to official statistics with average coefficients of determination R(exp. 2) greater than 0.85.

  7. Spectrum of winter dermatoses in rural Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kamel, Mohamed A

    2016-05-01

    Surveys that have been carried out to determine the prevalence of skin diseases in rural Yemen are scarce or not available. To investigate the spectrum of winter dermatoses in a rural Yemeni community. A retrospective study was conducted at the dermatology outpatient clinic of the Al-Helal Specialized Hospital (Radaa' district of Al Bayda' Governorate) using data analysis of 700 selected records of patients managed during four months of the 2013-14 winter season. Seven hundred patients with 730 diseases were reported in this study; the major bulk of patients (46.57%) were in the >18-40-year age group, and females outnumbered males. By far, dermatitis, eczematous, and allergic disorders (38.49%) topped the list of the most frequent skin disorders groups, followed by skin infections and infestations (20%) and the pigmentary disorders (13.70%) group. Contact dermatitis (10.68%) was the most prevalent skin disorder, followed by hyperpigmentations (8.77%), acne (8.08%), viral infections (5.75%), atopic dermatitis (5.62%), and parasitic infestations (5.34%). This survey has documented the spectrum of winter dermatoses in a rural Yemeni community but also reflects the pattern of common dermatoses in the whole country. Dermatitis, eczematous, and allergic disorders, skin infections, and pigmentary disorders are the commonest groups. Contact dermatitis is the most prevalent disorder, and leishmaniasis is the most prevalent skin infectious disease. Climate, occupational, social, and environmental factors are the main contributors. Such statistics can form an important basis for community-based health policies. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  8. Aspen Winter Conferences on High Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2011-02-12

    The 2011 Aspen Winter Conference on Particle Physics was held at the Aspen Center for Physics from February 12 to February 18, 2011. Ninety-four participants from ten countries, and several universities and national labs attended the workshop titled, "New Data From the Energy Frontier." There were 54 formal talks, and a considerable number of informal discussions held during the week. The week's events included a public lecture ("The Hunt for the Elusive Higgs Boson" given by Ben Kilminster from Ohio State University) and attended by 119 members of the public, and a physics cafe geared for high schoolers that is a discussion with physicists. The 2011 Aspen Winter Conference on Astroparticle physics held at the Aspen Center for Physics was "Indirect and Direct Detection of Dark Matter." It was held from February 6 to February 12, 2011. The 70 participants came from 7 countries and attended 53 talks over five days. Late mornings through the afternoon are reserved for informal discussions. In feedback received from participants, it is often these unplanned chats that produce the most excitement due to working through problems with fellow physicists from other institutions and countries or due to incipient collaborations. In addition, Blas Cabrera of Stanford University gave a public lecture titled "What Makes Up Dark Matter." There were 183 members of the general public in attendance. Before the lecture, 45 people attended the physics cafe to discuss dark matter. This report provides the attendee lists, programs, and announcement posters for each event.

  9. Learning through a Winter's Tale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidotto, Kristie

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experience during the final semester of Year 11 Theatre Studies when she performed a monologue about Hermione from "The Winter's Tale". This experience was extremely significant to her because it nearly made her lose faith in one of the most important parts of her life, drama. She believes this…

  10. Impact of Month of Birth on the Risk of Development of Autoimmune Addison's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazderska, Agnieszka; Fichna, Marta; Mitchell, Anna L; Napier, Catherine M; Gan, Earn; Ruchała, Marek; Santibanez-Koref, Mauro; Pearce, Simon H

    2016-11-01

    The pathogenesis of autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) is thought to be due to interplay of genetic, immune, and environmental factors. A month-of-birth effect, with increased risk for those born in autumn/winter months, has been described in autoimmune conditions such as type 1 diabetes and autoimmune thyroid disease. Month-of-birth effect was investigated in 2 independent cohorts of AAD subjects. The monthly distribution of birth in AAD patients was compared with that of the general population using the cosinor test. A total of 415 AAD subjects from the United Kingdom cohort were compared with 8 180 180 United Kingdom births, and 231 AAD subjects from the Polish cohort were compared with 2 421 384 Polish births. Association between month of birth and the susceptibility to AAD. In the entire cohort of AAD subjects, month-of-birth distribution analysis showed significant periodicity with peak of births in December and trough in May (P = .028). Analysis of the odds ratio distribution based on month of birth in 2 cohorts of patients with AAD versus the general population revealed a December peak and May trough, and January peak and July trough, in the United Kingdom and Polish cohorts, respectively. For the first time, we demonstrate that month of birth exerts an effect on the risk of developing AAD, with excess risk in individuals born in winter months and a protective effect when born in the summer. Exposure to seasonal viral infections in the perinatal period, coupled with vitamin D deficiency, could lead to dysregulation of innate immunity affecting the risk of developing AAD.

  11. Stay Warm in Winter (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-02-26

    Hypothermia occurs when the core body temperature is less than 95 degrees. This podcast discusses strategies to prevent hypothermia due to frigid winters temperatures.  Created: 2/26/2015 by MMWR.   Date Released: 2/26/2015.

  12. Due diligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanghera, G.S.

    1999-01-01

    The Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) Act requires that every employer shall ensure the health and safety of workers in the workplace. Issues regarding the practices at workplaces and how they should reflect the standards of due diligence were discussed. Due diligence was described as being the need for employers to identify hazards in the workplace and to take active steps to prevent workers from potentially dangerous incidents. The paper discussed various aspects of due diligence including policy, training, procedures, measurement and enforcement. The consequences of contravening the OHS Act were also described

  13. Wintering Map for Honey Bee Colonies in El-Behera Governorate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The geographical information system (GIS) has been used successfully in many studies to solve apicultural problems. The winter season is considered as a challenge for honey bee colonies due to the cold weather which cause the forfeiture of many colonies. The good wintering of honey bee colonies depends mainly on ...

  14. 36 CFR 1002.19 - Winter activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RECREATION § 1002.19 Winter activities. (a) Skiing, snowshoeing, ice skating, sledding, innertubing, tobogganing and similar winter sports are prohibited on Presidio Trust roads and in parking areas open to...

  15. Classification guide: Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games classification guide is designed to provide National Paralympic Committees (NPCs) and International Federations (IFs) with information about the classification policies and procedures that will apply to the Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games.

  16. Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weekend Warriors expand/collapse Vitamin D Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter Winter sports enthusiasts are ... skiing! Be Mindful of Time Spent in the Sun, Regardless of the Season If possible, ski early ...

  17. Winter active bumblebees (Bombus terrestris achieve high foraging rates in urban Britain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph J Stelzer

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Foraging bumblebees are normally associated with spring and summer in northern Europe. However, there have been sightings of the bumblebee Bombus terrestris during the warmer winters in recent years in southern England. But what floral resources are they relying upon during winter and how much winter forage can they collect?To test if urban areas in the UK provide a rich foraging niche for bees we set up colonies of B. terrestris in the field during two late winter periods (2005/6 & 2006/7 in London, UK, and measured their foraging performance. Fully automatic radio-frequency identification (RFID technology was used in 2006/7 to enable us to record the complete foraging activity of individually tagged bees. The number of bumblebees present during winter (October 2007 to March 2008 and the main plants they visited were also recorded during transect walks. Queens and workers were observed throughout the winter, suggesting a second generation of bee colonies active during the winter months. Mass flowering shrubs such as Mahonia spp. were identified as important food resources. The foraging experiments showed that bees active during the winter can attain nectar and pollen foraging rates that match, and even surpass, those recorded during summer.B. terrestris in the UK are now able to utilise a rich winter foraging resource in urban parks and gardens that might at present still be under-exploited, opening up the possibility of further changes in pollinator phenology.

  18. Winter active bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) achieve high foraging rates in urban Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzer, Ralph J; Chittka, Lars; Carlton, Marc; Ings, Thomas C

    2010-03-05

    Foraging bumblebees are normally associated with spring and summer in northern Europe. However, there have been sightings of the bumblebee Bombus terrestris during the warmer winters in recent years in southern England. But what floral resources are they relying upon during winter and how much winter forage can they collect? To test if urban areas in the UK provide a rich foraging niche for bees we set up colonies of B. terrestris in the field during two late winter periods (2005/6 & 2006/7) in London, UK, and measured their foraging performance. Fully automatic radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology was used in 2006/7 to enable us to record the complete foraging activity of individually tagged bees. The number of bumblebees present during winter (October 2007 to March 2008) and the main plants they visited were also recorded during transect walks. Queens and workers were observed throughout the winter, suggesting a second generation of bee colonies active during the winter months. Mass flowering shrubs such as Mahonia spp. were identified as important food resources. The foraging experiments showed that bees active during the winter can attain nectar and pollen foraging rates that match, and even surpass, those recorded during summer. B. terrestris in the UK are now able to utilise a rich winter foraging resource in urban parks and gardens that might at present still be under-exploited, opening up the possibility of further changes in pollinator phenology.

  19. Excess winter mortality and cold temperatures in a subtropical city, Guangzhou, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Quan Ou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A significant increase in mortality was observed during cold winters in many temperate regions. However, there is a lack of evidence from tropical and subtropical regions, and the influence of ambient temperatures on seasonal variation of mortality was not well documented. METHODS: This study included 213,737 registered deaths from January 2003 to December 2011 in Guangzhou, a subtropical city in Southern China. Excess winter mortality was calculated by the excess percentage of monthly mortality in winters over that of non-winter months. A generalized linear model with a quasi-Poisson distribution was applied to analyze the association between monthly mean temperature and mortality, after controlling for other meteorological measures and air pollution. RESULTS: The mortality rate in the winter was 26% higher than the average rate in other seasons. On average, there were 1,848 excess winter deaths annually, with around half (52% from cardiovascular diseases and a quarter (24% from respiratory diseases. Excess winter mortality was higher in the elderly, females and those with low education level than the young, males and those with high education level, respectively. A much larger winter increase was observed in out-of-hospital mortality compared to in-hospital mortality (45% vs. 17%. We found a significant negative correlation of annual excess winter mortality with average winter temperature (rs=-0.738, P=0.037, but not with air pollution levels. A 1 °C decrease in monthly mean temperature was associated with an increase of 1.38% (95% CI:0.34%-2.40% and 0.88% (95% CI:0.11%-1.64% in monthly mortality at lags of 0-1 month, respectively. CONCLUSION: Similar to temperate regions, a subtropical city Guangzhou showed a clear seasonal pattern in mortality, with a sharper spike in winter. Our results highlight the role of cold temperature on the winter mortality even in warm climate. Precautionary measures should be strengthened to mitigate

  20. Leadership in American Indian Communities: Winter Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metoyer, Cheryl A.

    2010-01-01

    Winter lessons, or stories told in the winter, were one of the ways in which tribal elders instructed and directed young men and women in the proper ways to assume leadership responsibilities. Winter lessons stressed the appropriate relationship between the leader and the community. The intent was to remember the power and purpose of that…

  1. 46 CFR 45.73 - Winter freeboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Winter freeboard. 45.73 Section 45.73 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Freeboards § 45.73 Winter freeboard. The minimum winter freeboard (fw) in inches is obtained by the formula: fw=f(s)+T s...

  2. Winter to winter recurrence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia and its impact on winter surface air temperature anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xia; Yang, Guang

    2017-01-01

    The persistence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia shows a winter to winter recurrence (WTWR) phenomenon. Seasonal variations in sea level pressure anomalies and surface wind anomalies display significantly different characteristics between WTWR and non-WTWR years. The WTWR years are characterized by the recurrence of both a strong (weak) anomalous Siberian High and an East Asian winter monsoon over two successive winters without persistence through the intervening summer. However, anomalies during the non-WTWR years have the opposite sign between the current and ensuing winters. The WTWR of circulation anomalies contributes to that of surface air temperature anomalies (SATAs), which is useful information for improving seasonal and interannual climate predictions over East Asia and China. In the positive (negative) WTWR years, SATAs are cooler (warmer) over East Asia in two successive winters, but the signs of the SATAs are opposite in the preceding and subsequent winters during the non-WTWR years.

  3. Interdecadal variability of winter precipitation in Southeast China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, L.; Zhu, X.; Fraedrich, K.; Sielmann, F.; Zhi, X.

    2014-01-01

    Interdecadal variability of observed winter precipitation in Southeast China (1961–2010) is characterized by the first empirical orthogonal function of the three-monthly Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) subjected to a 9-year running mean. For interdecadal time scales the dominating spatial modes represent monopole features involving the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and the sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies. Dynamic composite analysis (based on NCEP/NCAR reanalyzes) reveals the followin...

  4. Hibernation in an antarctic fish: on ice for winter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamish A Campbell

    Full Text Available Active metabolic suppression in anticipation of winter conditions has been demonstrated in species of mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians, but not fish. This is because the reduction in metabolic rate in fish is directly proportional to the decrease in water temperature and they appear to be incapable of further suppressing their metabolic rate independently of temperature. However, the Antarctic fish (Notothenia coriiceps is unusual because it undergoes winter metabolic suppression irrespective of water temperature. We assessed the seasonal ecological strategy by monitoring swimming activity, growth, feeding and heart rate (f(H in N. coriiceps as they free-ranged within sub-zero waters. The metabolic rate of wild fish was extrapolated from f(H recordings, from oxygen consumption calibrations established in the laboratory prior to fish release. Throughout the summer months N. coriiceps spent a considerable proportion of its time foraging, resulting in a growth rate (G(w of 0.18 +/- 0.2% day(-1. In contrast, during winter much of the time was spent sedentary within a refuge and fish showed a net loss in G(w (-0.05 +/- 0.05% day(-1. Whilst inactive during winter, N. coriiceps displayed a very low f(H, reduced sensory and motor capabilities, and standard metabolic rate was one third lower than in summer. In a similar manner to other hibernating species, dormancy was interrupted with periodic arousals. These arousals, which lasted a few hours, occurred every 4-12 days. During arousal activity, f(H and metabolism increased to summer levels. This endogenous suppression and activation of metabolic processes, independent of body temperature, demonstrates that N. coriiceps were effectively 'putting themselves on ice' during winter months until food resources improved. This study demonstrates that at least some fish species can enter a dormant state similar to hibernation that is not temperature driven and presumably provides seasonal energetic

  5. Report 3 energy market barometer - Winter 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, Joachim; Cateura, Olivier; Faure, Corinne; Jacob, Jojo; Javaudin, Laurent; Molecke, Greg; Olsthoorn, Mark; Pinkse, Jonatan; Shomali, Azadeh; Vernay, Anne-Lorene

    2015-01-01

    This Winter 2014 edition of the Grenoble Ecole de Management (GEM) Energy Market Barometer documents the French energy experts' estimates of the future electricity mix in France and in the European Union, their assessment of the regulatory conditions in France for investments in energy technologies, and their expectations about the development of energy and CO_2-certificate prices. Key findings: - Fewer than one in four experts believes that the target to decrease nuclear power's share of the French power mix to 50% by 2025 will be met; - The share of renewable energy sources (other than hydropower) in the French power mix is expected to almost quadruple by 2030; - Renewable energy sources (other than hydropower) are believed to become the dominating source of electricity in the EU in 2030; - About two thirds of the experts think that current regulatory conditions in France are particularly accommodating for investments in energy efficiency and renewable energies; - Experts are divided over how supportive current and future regulatory conditions are for encouraging investments in nuclear power in France; - Electricity prices are expected to remain stable over the next six months but to increase over the next 5 years; - Oil prices are expected to continue to decrease over the next six month, but increase over the next 5 years; - CO_2 certificate prices are expected to rise only in the medium to longer term but levels remain rather low

  6. Can GRACE detect winter snows in Japan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heki, Kosuke

    2010-05-01

    Current spatial resolution of the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites is 300-400 km, and so its hydrological applications have been limited to continents and large islands. The Japanese Islands have width slightly smaller than this spatial resolution, but are known to show large amplitude seasonal changes in surface masses due mainly to winter snow. Such loads are responsible for seasonal crustal deformation observed with GEONET, a dense array of GPS (Global Positioning System) receivers in Japan (Heki, 2001). There is also a dense network of surface meteorological sensors for, e.g. snow depths, atmospheric pressures, etc. Heki (2004) showed that combined effects of surface loads, i.e. snow (predominant), atmosphere, soil moisture, dam impoundment, can explain seasonal crustal deformation observed by GPS to a large extent. The total weight of the winter snow in the Japanese Islands in its peak season may reach ~50 Gt. This is comparable to the annual loss of mountain glaciers in the Asian high mountains (Matsuo & Heki, 2010), and is above the detection level of GRACE. In this study, I use GRACE Level-2 Release-4 data from CSR, Univ. Texas, up to 2009 November, and evaluated seasonal changes in surface loads in and around the Japanese Islands. After applying a 350 km Gaussian filter and a de-striping filter, the peak-to-peak change of the water depth becomes ~4 cm in northern Japan. The maximum value is achieved in February-March. The region of large winter load spans from Hokkaido, Japan, to northeastern Honshu, which roughly coincides with the region of deep snow in Japan. Next I compiled snow depth data from surface meteorological observations, and converted them to loads using time-dependent snow density due to compaction. By applying the same spatial filter as the GRACE data, its spatial pattern becomes similar to the GRACE results. The present study suggests that GRACE is capable of detecting seasonal mass changes in an island arc not

  7. Communicating Certainty About Nuclear Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, A.

    2013-12-01

    I have been spending much of my time in the past several years trying to warn the world about the continuing danger of nuclear weapons, and that the solution is a rapid reduction in the nuclear arsenal. I feel that a scientist who discovers dangers to society has an ethical duty to issue a warning, even if the danger is so scary that it is hard for people to deal with. The debate about nuclear winter in the 1980s helped to end the nuclear arms race, but the planet still has enough nuclear weapons, even after reductions planned for 2017 under the New START treaty, to produce nuclear winter, with temperatures plunging below freezing in the summer in major agricultural regions, threatening the food supply for most of the planet. New research by myself, Brian Toon, Mike Mills, and colleagues over the past six years has found that a nuclear war between any two countries, such as India and Pakistan, using 50 atom bombs each of the size dropped on Hiroshima could produce climate change unprecedented in recorded human history, and a world food crisis because of the agricultural effects. This is much less than 1% of the current global arsenal. Communicating certainty - what we know for sure - has been much more effective than communicating uncertainty. The limited success I have had has come from persistence and serendipity. The first step was to do the science. We have published peer-reviewed articles in major journals, including Science, Nature, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Journal of Geophysical Research, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Physics Today, and Climatic Change. But policymakers do not read these journals. Through fairly convoluted circumstances, which will be described in this talk, we were able to get papers published in Scientific American and the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists. I have also published several encyclopedia articles on the subject. As a Lead Author of Chapter 8 (Radiative Forcing) of the recently published Fifth Assessment

  8. Comparison of Selected Morphological, Rheological and Biochemical Parameters of Winter Swimmers' Blood at the End of One Winter Swimming Season and at the Beginning of Another.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teległów, Aneta; Marchewka, Jakub; Tabarowski, Zbigniew; Rembiasz, Konrad; Głodzik, Jacek; Scisłowska-Czarnecka, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine potential differences in the morphological, rheological and biochemical blood parameters of winter swimmers who remained physically active during the period between the end of one winter swimming season and the beginning of another. The study included a group of healthy winter swimmers (n = 17, all between 30 and 60 years of age). Six months following the end of winter season, the levels of mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and mean corpuscular hemoglobin turned out to be significantly higher, while erythrocyte count and hematocrit level significantly lower than at the baseline. Moreover, the break in winter swimming was reflected by a significant increase in median erythrocyte elongation index at all shear stress levels ≥ 1.13 Pa. The only significant changes in biochemical parameters of the blood pertained to an increase in the concentration of transferrin and to a decrease in the total protein, albumin and beta-1 globulin concentrations. Seasonal effort of winter swimmers between the end of one winter swimming season and the beginning of another has a positive influence on morphological, rheological and biochemical blood parameters.

  9. Vancouver winters: Environmental influences on inpatient adult orthopaedic trauma demographics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noordin, S.; Masri, B. A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare the pattern of adult inpatient orthopaedic injuries admitted at three Vancouver hospitals following one of the worst winter snowstorms in the region with the preceding control winter period. Methods: The surveillance study was conducted at the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada, 2007 to 2010. Inpatient adult admissions for orthopaedic injuries at three hospitals were recorded, including age, gender, anatomic location of injury, type of fracture (open or closed), fixation method (internal versus external fixation), and length of acute care hospital stay. Comparisons between admissions during this weather pattern and admission during a previous winter with minimal snow were made. SPSS 19 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the 511 patients admitted under Orthopaedic trauma service during the significant winter snowstorms of December 2008 - January 2009, 100 (19.6%) (CI: 16.2%-23.2%) were due to ice and snow, whereas in the preceding mild winter only 18 of 415 (4.3%) (CI: 2.5%-6.8%) cases were related to snow (p<0.05). Ankle and wrist fractures were the most frequent injuries during the index snow storm period (p<0.05). At all the three institutions, 97 (96.5%) fractures were closed during the snowstorm as opposed to 17 (95%) during the control winter period. Internal fixation in 06 (89%) fractures as opposed to external fixation in 12 (11%) patients was the predominant mode of fixation across the board during both time periods. Conclusion: The study demonstrated a significantly higher inpatient orthopaedic trauma volume during the snowstorm more rigorous prospective studies need to be designed to gain further insight to solving these problems from a public health perspective. (author)

  10. Winter therapy for the accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    Hundreds of people are hard at work during the year-end technical stop as all the accelerators are undergoing maintenance, renovation and upgrade operations in parallel.   The new beam absorber on its way to Point 2 before being lowered into the LHC tunnel for installation. The accelerator teams didn’t waste any time before starting their annual winter rejuvenation programme over the winter. At the end of November, as the LHC ion run was beginning, work got under way on the PS Booster, where operation had already stopped. On 14 December, once the whole complex had been shut down, the technical teams turned their attention to the other injectors and the LHC. The year-end technical stop (YETS) provides an opportunity to carry out maintenance work on equipment and repair any damage as well as to upgrade the machines for the upcoming runs. Numerous work projects are carried out simultaneously, so good coordination is crucial. Marzia Bernardini's team in the Enginee...

  11. Winter warming from large volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, Alan; Mao, Jianping

    1992-01-01

    An examination of the Northern Hemisphere winter surface temperature patterns after the 12 largest volcanic eruptions from 1883-1992 shows warming over Eurasia and North America and cooling over the Middle East which are significant at the 95-percent level. This pattern is found in the first winter after tropical eruptions, in the first or second winter after midlatitude eruptions, and in the second winter after high latitude eruptions. The effects are independent of the hemisphere of the volcanoes. An enhanced zonal wind driven by heating of the tropical stratosphere by the volcanic aerosols is responsible for the regions of warming, while the cooling is caused by blocking of incoming sunlight.

  12. Winter ecology of the Porcupine caribou herd, Yukon: Part III, Role of day length in determining activity pattern and estimating percent lying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Russell

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Data on the activity pattern, proportion of time spent lying and the length of active and lying periods in winter are presented from a 3 year study on the Porcupine caribou herd. Animals were most active at sunrise and sunset resulting in from one (late fall, early and mid winter to two (early fall and late winter to three (spring intervening lying periods. Mean active/lying cycle length decreased from late fall (298 mm to early winter (238 min, increased to a peak in mid winter (340 min then declined in late winter (305 min and again in spring (240 min. Mean length of the lying period increased throughout the 3 winter months from 56 min m early winter to 114 min in mid winter and 153 min in late winter. The percent of the day animals spent lying decreased from fall to early winter, increased throughout the winter and declined in spring. This pattern was related, in part, to day length and was used to compare percent lying among herds. The relationship is suggested to be a means of comparing quality of winter ranges.

  13. Summer fallow soil management - impact on rainfed winter wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Fucui; Wang, Zhaohui; Dai, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Summer fallow soil management is an important approach to improve soil and crop management in dryland areas. In the Loess Plateau regions, the annual precipitation is low and varies annually and seasonally, with more than 60% concentrated in the summer months from July to September, which...... is the summer fallow period in the winter wheat-summer fallow cropping system. With bare fallow in summer as a control, a 3-year location-fixed field experiment was conducted in the Loess Plateau to investigate the effects of wheat straw retention (SR), green manure (GM) planting, and their combination on soil...... water retention (WR) during summer fallow, winter wheat yield, and crop water use and nitrogen (N) uptake. The results showed that SR increased soil WR during summer fallow by 20 mm on average compared with the control over 3 experimental years but reduced the grain yield by 8% in the third year...

  14. Time-lapse imagery of Adélie penguins reveals differential winter strategies and breeding site occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Caitlin; Southwell, Colin; Emmerson, Louise; Lunn, Daniel; Hart, Tom

    2018-01-01

    Polar seabirds adopt different over-wintering strategies to survive and build condition during the critical winter period. Penguin species either reside at the colony during the winter months or migrate long distances. Tracking studies and survey methods have revealed differences in winter migration routes among penguin species and colonies, dependent on both biotic and abiotic factors present. However, scan sampling methods are rarely used to reveal non-breeding behaviors during winter and little is known about presence at the colony site over this period. Here we show that Adélie penguins on the Yalour Islands in the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) are present year-round at the colony and undergo a mid-winter peak in abundance during winter. We found a negative relationship between daylight hours and penguin abundance when either open water or compact ice conditions were present, suggesting that penguins return to the breeding colony when visibility is lowest for at-sea foraging and when either extreme low or high levels of sea ice exist offshore. In contrast, Adélie penguins breeding in East Antarctica were not observed at the colonies during winter, suggesting that Adélie penguins undergo differential winter strategies in the marginal ice zone on the WAP compared to those in East Antarctica. These results demonstrate that cameras can successfully monitor wildlife year-round in areas that are largely inaccessible during winter.

  15. Time-lapse imagery of Adélie penguins reveals differential winter strategies and breeding site occupation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwell, Colin; Emmerson, Louise; Lunn, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Polar seabirds adopt different over-wintering strategies to survive and build condition during the critical winter period. Penguin species either reside at the colony during the winter months or migrate long distances. Tracking studies and survey methods have revealed differences in winter migration routes among penguin species and colonies, dependent on both biotic and abiotic factors present. However, scan sampling methods are rarely used to reveal non-breeding behaviors during winter and little is known about presence at the colony site over this period. Here we show that Adélie penguins on the Yalour Islands in the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) are present year-round at the colony and undergo a mid-winter peak in abundance during winter. We found a negative relationship between daylight hours and penguin abundance when either open water or compact ice conditions were present, suggesting that penguins return to the breeding colony when visibility is lowest for at-sea foraging and when either extreme low or high levels of sea ice exist offshore. In contrast, Adélie penguins breeding in East Antarctica were not observed at the colonies during winter, suggesting that Adélie penguins undergo differential winter strategies in the marginal ice zone on the WAP compared to those in East Antarctica. These results demonstrate that cameras can successfully monitor wildlife year-round in areas that are largely inaccessible during winter. PMID:29561876

  16. Monthly and diurnal variations of limnological conditions of two ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AKM Fazlur Rahaman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A study on monthly and diurnal changes of limnological conditions of two ponds was conducted in the Bangladesh Agricultural University campus, Mymensingh. The research work was performed by studying the limnological parameters such as transparency, temperature, dissolved oxygen, free carbon dioxide, pH, total alkalinity, nitrate-nitrogen, phosphate-phosphorus and plankton. Diurnal variations of physico-chemical factors were studied fortnightly at 6 hrs intervals at 6 a.m., 12 noon, 6 p.m. and 12 midnight. The amounts of transparency, dissolved oxygen and pH were higher during winter months than in summer months in both the ponds. Transparency, water temperature, total alkalinity, NO3-N and PO4-P were higher during summer months than in winter months in both the ponds. But the amount of free carbon dioxide was higher during winter months than in summer months in pond 1 while in pond 2 the amount of free carbon dioxide was higher during summer months than in winter months. Qualitative and quantitative monthly variations of phytoplankton and zooplankton were observed in both the ponds during the study period. The highest amount of dissolved oxygen, pH and total alkalinity were recorded at 6 p.m. and the lowest amounts of those at 6 a.m. in both the ponds. The highest temperature was recorded at 12 noon and the lowest at 12 midnight. But the highest amount of free carbon dioxide was recorded at 6 a.m. and the lowest at 6 p.m. in both the ponds. All the factors showed appreciable diel variations throughout the study period, which indicate that the ponds are productive.

  17. Experimental log hauling through a traditional caribou wintering area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold G. Cumming

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available A 3-year field experiment (fall 1990-spring 1993 showed that woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou altered their dispersion when logs were hauled through their traditional wintering area. Unlike observations in control years 1 and 3, radio-collared caribou that had returned to the study area before the road was plowed on January 6 of the experimental year 2, moved away 8-60 km after logging activities began. Seasonal migration to Lake Nipigon islands usually peaked in April, but by February 22 of year 2, 4 of the 6 had returned. The islands provide summer refuge from predation, but not when the lake is frozen. Tracks in snow showed that some caribou remained but changed locations. They used areas near the road preferentially in year 1, early year 2, and year 3, but moved away 2-5 km after the road was plowed in year 2. In a nearby undisturbed control area, no such changes occurred. Caribou and moose partitioned habitat on a small scale; tracks showed gray wolf (Canis lupus remote from caribou but close to moose tracks. No predation on caribou was observed within the wintering area; 2 kills were found outside it. Due to the possibility of displacing caribou from winter refugia to places with higher predation risk, log hauling through important caribou winter habitat should be minimized.

  18. Wintering the common viper (Vipera berus with embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korosov Andrey Victorovich

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available For the Vipers from Karelia phenomenon wintering females with embryos and the annual breeding were found. They were very large and heavy females (L.t. > 62 cm, W > 160 g, for which the mass loss due to pregnancy are not significant. Analysis of the size of 1450 individuals in a Kizhi population of viper showed that the proportion of females that can hibernate from embryos amounts to less than 3%.

  19. Global characteristics of extreme winters from a multi-millennial simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, B.G. [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, PO Box 1, Aspendale (Australia)

    2011-10-15

    Output from a multi-millennial simulation with the CSIRO Mark 2 coupled global climatic model has been analysed to determine the principal characteristics of extreme winters over the globe for ''present conditions''. Thus, this study is not concerned with possible changes in winter conditions associated with anthropogenically induced climatic change. Defining an extreme winter as having a surface temperature anomaly of below -2 standard deviations (sd) revealed a general occurrence rate over the globe of between 100 and 200 over a 6,000-year period of the simulation, with somewhat higher values over northwest North America. For temperature anomalies below -3 sd the corresponding occurrence rate drops to about 10. Spatial correlation studies revealed that extreme winters over regions in Europe, North America or Asia were very limited geographically, with time series of the surface temperature anomalies for these regions having mutual correlation coefficients of about 0.2. The temporal occurrence rates of winters (summers) having sd below -3 (above +3) were very asymmetric and sporadic, suggesting that such events arise from stochastic influences. Multi-year sequences of extreme winters were comparatively rare events. Detailed analysis revealed that the temporal and spatial evolution of the monthly surface temperature anomalies associated with an individual extreme winter were well replicated in the simulation, as were daily time series of such anomalies. Apart from an influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation on extreme winters in Europe, other prominent climatic oscillations were very poorly correlated with such winters. Rather modest winter temperature anomalies were found in the southern hemisphere. (orig.)

  20. SOME RECENT ISSUES REGARDING THE BEHAVIOR OF THE ROMANIAN TOWNSPEOPLE DURING THE WINTER HOLIDAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TOMA ANDREI

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present several aspects of the behavior of the Romanian townspeople in the recent years, on the occasion of the winter holidays. I made an indirect research, based on secondary data sources. Many sources I used are from past years. Sometimes, the secondary sources can provide very valuable data at a national level. The most important Romanian holidays are the winter ones (Saint Nicholas, Christmas, New Year's Eve. There are also other winter holidays, but of lesser importance. The Romanians are traditionalists; they cherish the winter holidays and the family. Giving holiday gifts (sweets, clothing, footwear, perfumes, cosmetics, toys to family members and to close relatives is a feature of Romanian townspeople behavior during the main winter holidays. Most Romanian townspeople spend the winter holidays at home or at friends. During the economic crisis, reduction of costs included also the expenses intended for winter holidays. Changes in the behavior of Romanian tourists, due to the economic crisis, included especially the reduction in the number of holidays, the reduction of the duration of the holiday, avoidance of foreign destinations. This paper does not refer to all the aspects of the purchasing behavior or consumption of the Romanians townspeople on the occasion of winter holidays, but only to some aspects.

  1. 33 CFR 100.109 - Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME. 100.109 Section 100.109 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.109 Winter Harbor...

  2. Exceptional Arctic warmth of early winter 2016 and attribution to global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oldenborgh, Geert Jan; Macias-Fauria, Marc; King, Andrew; Uhe, Peter; Philip, Sjoukje; Kew, Sarah; Karoly, David; Otto, Friederike; Allen, Myles; Cullen, Heidi

    2017-04-01

    The dark polar winters usually sport the coldest extremes on Earth, however this winter, the North Pole and the surrounding Arctic region have experienced record high temperatures in November and December, with daily means reaching 15 °C (27 °F) above normal and a November monthly mean that was 13 °C (23 °F) above normal on the pole. November also saw a brief retreat of sea-ice that was virtually unprecedented in nearly 40 years of satellite records, followed by a record low in November sea ice area since 1850. Unlike the Antarctic, Arctic lands are inhabited and their socio-economic systems are greatly affected by the impacts of extreme and unprecedented sea ice dynamics and temperatures, such as for example, the timing of marine mammal migrations, and refreezing rain on snow that prevents reindeer from feeding. Here we report on our multi-method rapid attribution analysis of North Pole November-December temperatures. To quantify the rarity of the event, we computed the November-December averaged temperature around the North Pole (80-90 °N) in the (short but North-pole covering) ERA-interim reanalysis. To put the event in context of natural variability, we use a longer and closely related time series based on the northern most meteorological observations on land (70-80 °N). This allows for a reconstruction of Arctic temperatures back to about 1900. We also perform a multi-method analysis of North Pole temperatures with two sets of climate models: the CMIP5 multi-model ensemble, and a large ensemble of model runs in the so-called Weather@Home project. Physical mechanisms that are responsible for temperature and sea ice variability in the North Pole region are also discussed. The observations and the bias-corrected CMIP5 ensemble point to a return period of about 50 to 200 years in the present climate, i.e., the probability of such an extreme is about 0.5% to 2% every year, with a large uncertainty. The observations show that November-December temperatures

  3. Winter diet and food selection of the Black-necked Crane Grus nigricollis in Dashanbao, Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Yan Dong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Black-necked Crane Grus nigricollis is a globally vulnerable species whose food is the factor determining its long-term survival. Understanding dietary habits, food preferences, and related factors will facilitate the development of effective conservation plans for the protection of this vulnerable species. For this purpose, we used video recordings and sampling of food availability to examine the dietary composition and temporal variation in food selection of Black-necked Cranes wintering in the Dashanbao National Nature Reserve, China. The Black-necked Crane’s diet consists primarily of domestic food crops such as grains (74% and potatoes (8%, in addition to invertebrates (14%. A much smaller proportion of the diet was comprised of turnips and wild herbaceous plants and tubers. There was monthly variation in food selection, partially related to food availability. Grains were most available in November and decreased through the winter, whereas invertebrates were more available in November and February than in December and January. Grain consumption was lowest in November but higher from December through February. Invertebrate consumption was highest in November and February. The cranes preferred to eat grains throughout winter months, while they mainly selected invertebrates in November and February. We suggested invertebrate populations sharply declined in December and January due to the low temperature. In addition, grain consumption was negatively associated with invertebrate availability. In November, when invertebrates were most abundant, and despite a concomitant peak in grain abundance, we suggested cranes exhibited a preference for invertebrates over grains. We recommend that the protection administration provide appropriate supplemental foods for cranes during freezing weather.

  4. Monthly Weather Review

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Supplements to the Monthly Weather Review publication. The Weather Bureau published the Monthly weather review Supplement irregularly from 1914 to 1949. The...

  5. Interim Report 'Winter smog and traffic'.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, H.; Blom, T.; Bogaard, van den C.; Boluyt, N.; Bree, van L.; Brunekreef, B.; Hoek, G.; Zee, van der S.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents a halfway score of the research project "Winter smog and Traffic", one of the themes of the research programme "Air Pollution and Health". A state of the art is presented of the health effects associated with exposure to winter smog and of the toxicological effects caused by the

  6. Nuclear Winter: Scientists in the Political Arena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badash, Lawrence

    2001-03-01

    The nuclear winter phenomenon is used to illustrate the many paths by which scientific advice reaches decision makers in the United States government. Because the Reagan administration was hostile to the strategic policy that the scientific discovery seemed to demand, the leading proponent of nuclear winter, Carl Sagan, used his formidable talent for popularization to reach a larger audience.

  7. How to Have a Healthy Winter | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Without a doubt, winter is here. Between the icy weather and the recent hustle and bustle of the holidays, everyone is at an increased risk of getting sick. With that in mind, Occupational Health Services has a few simple tips for staying healthy this winter.

  8. Chapter 7: Migration and winter ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Jeffrey F. Kelly; Jean-Luc E. Cartron

    2000-01-01

    The willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii) is a Neotropical migrant that breeds in North America, but winters in Central and northern South America. Little specific information is known about migration and wintering ecology of the southwestern willow flycatcher (E. t. extimus) (Yong and Finch 1997). Our report applies principally...

  9. Monthly Rainfall Erosivity Assessment for Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Simon; Meusburger, Katrin; Alewell, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Water erosion is crucially controlled by rainfall erosivity, which is quantified out of the kinetic energy of raindrop impact and associated surface runoff. Rainfall erosivity is often expressed as the R-factor in soil erosion risk models like the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and its revised version (RUSLE). Just like precipitation, the rainfall erosivity of Switzerland has a characteristic seasonal dynamic throughout the year. This inter-annual variability is to be assessed by a monthly and seasonal modelling approach. We used a network of 86 precipitation gauging stations with a 10-minute temporal resolution to calculate long-term average monthly R-factors. Stepwise regression and Monte Carlo Cross Validation (MCCV) was used to select spatial covariates to explain the spatial pattern of R-factor for each month across Switzerland. The regionalized monthly R-factor is mapped by its individual regression equation and the ordinary kriging interpolation of its residuals (Regression-Kriging). As covariates, a variety of precipitation indicator data has been included like snow height, a combination of hourly gauging measurements and radar observations (CombiPrecip), mean monthly alpine precipitation (EURO4M-APGD) and monthly precipitation sums (Rhires). Topographic parameters were also significant explanatory variables for single months. The comparison of all 12 monthly rainfall erosivity maps showed seasonality with highest rainfall erosivity in summer (June, July, and August) and lowest rainfall erosivity in winter months. Besides the inter-annual temporal regime, a seasonal spatial variability was detectable. Spatial maps of monthly rainfall erosivity are presented for the first time for Switzerland. The assessment of the spatial and temporal dynamic behaviour of the R-factor is valuable for the identification of more susceptible seasons and regions as well as for the application of selective erosion control measures. A combination with monthly vegetation

  10. Studying the extinction coefficient due to aerosol particles at different spectral bands in some regions at great Cairo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaltout, M.A. Mosalam; Tadros, M.T.Y.; El-Metwally, M.

    2000-01-01

    Extinction coefficient due to aerosol has been estimated by Pyrheliometric and Gorgie type Actinometric measurements in the industrial, urban areas and compared with agricultural areas. The measurements distributed over one year from June 1992 to May 1993 were made under clear sky for five spectral bands. The results show two maxima in hot wet and spring months and minimum in winter months, but there is a fluctuation in urban area. Diurnal variations show maximum at noon especially in the industrial area. Level of extinction coefficient in the industrial and urban area is greater that that of the agricultural area, except for hot wet months is due to the increase of water vapor content in agricultural area. Spectral distribution of the extinction coefficient decreases monotonically with wavelength. Size of particles in industrial area is greater than in urban and agricultural areas. The temperature and water vapor content have important rules in increasing the extinction coefficient of aerosols. (Author)

  11. 76 FR 27843 - National Building Safety Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... organizations and the public and private sectors--to implement effective standards and codes that sustain safe... and fire prevention codes help us withstand, mitigate, and rapidly recover from hurricanes, winter... Building Safety Month. I encourage citizens, government agencies, private businesses, nonprofit...

  12. [Population trends and behavioral observations of wintering common cranes (Grus grus) in Yancheng Nature Reserve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong-Qiu; Wang, Zhi; Ge, Chen

    2013-10-01

    To understand the population status and behavioural features of wintering common cranes in the Yancheng Nature Reserve, two transects were established and population trends were monitored every month over five recent winters from 2008 to 2013. Wintering behaviours were also observed in order to explore the possible effects of family size and age on time budgets. Results indicated that the populations were stable with a range of 303 to 707 individuals. Negative effects of coastal developments were not found on the wintering population of common cranes, which might be related to their diets and preference for artificial wetland habitats. We found a significant effect of age on time budgets, with juveniles spending more time feeding and less time alerting, which might be related to the needs of body development and skill learning. Family size did not affect the time budgets of the cranes, which indicated that adults did not increase vigilance investment even when raising a larger family.

  13. Aspects of the winter predator--prey relationship between sauger and threadfin shad in Watts Bar Reservoir, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGee, M.V.; Griffith, J.S.; McLean, R.B.

    1978-04-01

    This study sought to determine the impact of cold-induced mortality and impingement of threadfin shad (Dorsoma petenense) on the food consumption and prey selection of sauger (Stizostedion canadense), and to estimate the ability of sauger to digest meals consumed at low temperatures in winter. Prey selection of sauger was monitored from November 1976 through April 1977. Stomach contents of 536 sauger indicated threadfin provided the entire forage base for sauger through January. Food consumption of sauger was reduced and prey selection shifted to other species after January due to the combined effects of predation, impingement, and natural mortality of cold-stressed threadfin. Threadfin shad of a size available to most sauger were virtually eliminated by February. From February through April some sauger utilized alternate prey species. Laboratory digestion rate studies of sauger indicated digestion of force-fed meals of 4 to 7 g fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) could proceed to 90 percent completion in 54 h at 5 C, 47 hr at 10 C, and 25 hr at 15 C. Conclusions of this study are: (1) that threadfin shad were the most abundant and vulnerable prey species available to and utilized by sauger during the late fall and winter months; (2) extensive mortalities of threadfin due to cold-stress increased sauger predation on four alternate prey species; (3) sauger continued feeding and digesting meals at temperatures between 5 and 15 C every 1 to 3 days; (4) sauger stored excess energy available from threadfin early in the winter as visceral fat which was available later when food consumption was reduced.

  14. Aspects of the winter predator--prey relationship between sauger and threadfin shad in Watts Bar Reservoir, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGee, M.V.; Griffith, J.S.; McLean, R.B.

    1978-01-01

    This study sought to determine the impact of cold-induced mortality and impingement of threadfin shad (Dorsoma petenense) on the food consumption and prey selection of sauger (Stizostedion canadense), and to estimate the ability of sauger to digest meals consumed at low temperatures in winter. Prey selection of sauger was monitored from November 1976 through April 1977. Stomach contents of 536 sauger indicated threadfin provided the entire forage base for sauger through January. Food consumption of sauger was reduced and prey selection shifted to other species after January due to the combined effects of predation, impingement, and natural mortality of cold-stressed threadfin. Threadfin shad of a size available to most sauger were virtually eliminated by February. From February through April some sauger utilized alternate prey species. Laboratory digestion rate studies of sauger indicated digestion of force-fed meals of 4 to 7 g fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) could proceed to 90 percent completion in 54 h at 5 C, 47 hr at 10 C, and 25 hr at 15 C. Conclusions of this study are: (1) that threadfin shad were the most abundant and vulnerable prey species available to and utilized by sauger during the late fall and winter months; (2) extensive mortalities of threadfin due to cold-stress increased sauger predation on four alternate prey species; (3) sauger continued feeding and digesting meals at temperatures between 5 and 15 C every 1 to 3 days; (4) sauger stored excess energy available from threadfin early in the winter as visceral fat which was available later when food consumption was reduced

  15. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-15

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  16. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  17. A Case Study of the Effects of Dredging in Narrgansett Bay (RI, USA) on Winter Flounder Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasonal dredging constraints have been established in several northeastern U.S. estuaries with the intent to protect winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus). A major source of concern is impacts on demersal eggs due to elevated sedimentation rates during the winter-earl...

  18. Upper lethal temperatures in three cold-tolerant insects are higher in winter than in summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Henry M; Duman, John G

    2017-08-01

    Upper lethal temperatures (ULTs) of cold-adapted insect species in winter have not been previously examined. We anticipated that as the lower lethal temperatures (LLTs) decreased (by 20-30°C) with the onset of winter, the ULTs would also decrease accordingly. Consequently, given the recent increases in winter freeze-thaw cycles and warmer winters due to climate change, it became of interest to determine whether ambient temperatures during thaws were approaching ULTs during the cold seasons. However, beetle Dendroides canadensis (Coleoptera: Pyrochroidae) larvae had higher 24 and 48 h ULT 50 (the temperature at which 50% mortality occurred) in winter than in summer. The 24 and 48 h ULT 50 for D. canadensis in winter were 40.9 and 38.7°C, respectively. For D. canadensis in summer, the 24 and 48 h ULT 50 were 36.7 and 36.4°C. During the transition periods of spring and autumn, the 24 h ULT 50 was 37.3 and 38.5°C, respectively. While D. canadensis in winter had a 24 h LT 50 range between LLT and ULT of 64°C, the summer range was only 41°C. Additionally, larvae of the beetle Cucujus clavipes clavipes (Coleoptera: Cucujidae) and the cranefly Tipula trivittata (Diptera: Tipulidae) also had higher ULTs in winter than in summer. This unexpected phenomenon of increased temperature survivorship at both lower and higher temperatures in the winter compared with that in the summer has not been previously documented. With the decreased high temperature tolerance as the season progresses from winter to summer, it was observed that environmental temperatures are closest to upper lethal temperatures in spring. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Impacts of climate change for Swiss winter and summer tourism: a general equilibrium analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Thurm, Boris; Vielle, Marc; Vöhringer, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Tourism could be greatly affected by climate change due to its strong dependence on weather. In Switzerland, the sector represents an appreciable share of the economy. Thus, studying climate effects on tourism is necessary for developing adequate adaptation strategies. While most of the studies focused on winter tourism, we investigate the climate change impacts on both winter and summer tourism in Switzerland. Using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, we simulate the impacts of tem...

  20. Analysis of nutritional supply for personnel wintering-over at Syowa Station, Antarctica(JARE-39

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiyo Nakao

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional supply of wintering personnel at Syowa Station was analyzed throughout the year 1998. Analysis was performed employing digital pictures of food chosen and consumed by one of the station personnel (medical doctor: male throughout the year. Food consumption was estimated from the pictures, and energy and nutrient consumption were determined using food-content software. The average daily food value was calculated for every month, and compared with the nutritional standard for normal Japanese citizens. Mean energy consumption was significantly higher in January, when outdoor activities were required, and significantly lower in June, when outdoor activities were lower due to the polar night. Protein (P and fat (F intake were higher and carbohydrate (C was less than the Recommended Daily Amounts for Japanese throughout the year. The consumption of Vitamin C was highest in April, and showed lower values after June. Sodium chloride intake showed an increasing trend throughout the year, possibly due to increased use of preserved food. The supply of fiber was about 50% of the recommended amount for Japanese, possibly due to the limited supply of fresh vegetables and fruit.

  1. A Fleet of Low-Cost Sensor Based Air Quality Monitors Is Used to Measure Carbon Dioxide and Carbon Monoxide in Two Settings: In the Ambient Environment to Explore the Regional-Scale Spatial Variability of These Compounds Via a Distributed Network, and in Homes to Investigate How Heating during Winter Months can Impact Indoor Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, J. G.; Hannigan, M.; Collier, A. M.; Coffey, E.; Piedrahita, R.

    2016-12-01

    Affordable, small, portable, quiet tools to measure atmospheric trace gases and air quality enable novel experimental design and new findings. Members of the Hannigan Lab at the University of Colorado in Boulder have been working over the last few years to integrate emerging affordable gas sensors into such an air quality monitor. Presented here are carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements from two field experiments that utilized these tools. In the first experiment, ten air quality monitors were located northeast of Boulder throughout the Denver Julesburg oil and gas basin. The Colorado Department of Health and Environment has several air quality monitoring sites in this broader region, each in an Urban center. One goal of the experiment was to determine whether or not significant spatial variability of EPA criteria pollutants like CO, exists on a sub-regulatory monitoring grid scale. Another goal of the experiment was to compare rural sampling locations with urban sites. The monitors collected continuous data (sampling every 15 seconds) at each location over the course of several months. Our sensor calibration procedures are presented along with our observations and an analysis of the spatial and temporal variability in CO and CO2. In the second experiment, we used eight of our air quality monitors to better understand how home heating fuel type can impact indoor air quality in two communities on the Navajo Nation. We sought to compare air quality in homes using one of four different fuels for heat (wood, wood plus coal, pellet, and gas). There are many factors that contribute to indoor air quality and the impact of an emission source, like a woodstove, within a home. Having multiple, easily deployable, air quality monitors allowed us to account for many of these factors. We sampled four homes at a time, aiming for one home from each of our fuel groups in each sampling period. We sampled inside and outside of each home for a period of 3-4 days

  2. Sting jets in intense winter North-Atlantic windstorms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-Alvarado, Oscar; Gray, Suzanne L; Clark, Peter A; Catto, Jennifer L

    2012-01-01

    Extratropical cyclones dominate autumn and winter weather over western Europe. The strongest cyclones, often termed windstorms, have a large socio-economic impact due to the strong surface winds and associated storm surges in coastal areas. Here we show that sting jets are a common feature of windstorms; up to a third of the 100 most intense North-Atlantic winter windstorms over the last two decades satisfy conditions for sting jets. The sting jet is a mesoscale descending airstream that can cause strong near-surface winds in the dry slot of the cyclone, a region not usually associated with strong winds. Despite their localized transient nature, these sting jets can cause significant damage, a prominent example being the storm that devastated southeast England on 16 October 1987. We present the first regional climatology of windstorms with sting jets. Previously analysed sting-jet cases appear to have been exceptional in their track over northwest Europe rather than in their strength. (letter)

  3. Contrasting Seasonal Survivorship of Two Migratory Songbirds Wintering in Threatened Mangrove Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Calvert

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-distance migrants wintering in tropical regions face a number of critical conservation threats throughout their lives, but seasonal estimates of key demographic parameters such as winter survival are rare. Using mist-netting-based mark-recapture data collected in coastal Costa Rica over a six-year period, we examined variation in within- and between-winter survivorship of the Prothonotary Warbler (Protonotaria citrea; 753 young and 376 adults banded, a declining neotropical habitat specialist that depends on threatened mangrove forests during the nonbreeding season. We derived parallel seasonal survivorship estimates for the Northern Waterthrush (Seiurus noveboracensis; 564 young and 93 adults banded, a cohabitant mangrove specialist that has not shown the same population decline in North America, to assess whether contrasting survivorship might contribute to the observed differences in the species’ population trajectories. Although average annual survival probability was relatively similar between the two species for both young and adult birds, monthly estimates indicated that relative to Northern Waterthrush, Prothonotary Warblers exhibited: greater interannual variation in survivorship, especially within winters; greater variation in survivorship among the three study sites; lower average between-winter survivorship, particularly among females, and; a sharp decline in between-winter survivorship from 2003 to 2009 for both age groups and both sexes. Rather than identifying one seasonal vital rate as a causal factor of Prothonotary Warbler population declines, our species comparison suggests that the combination of variable within-winter survival with decreasing between-winter survival demands a multi-seasonal approach to the conservation of this and other tropical-wintering migrants.

  4. Intraspecific variation in Pinus pinaster PSII photochemical efficiency in response to winter stress and freezing temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcuera, Leyre; Gil-Pelegrin, Eustaquio; Notivol, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    As part of a program to select maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) genotypes for resistance to low winter temperatures, we examined variation in photosystem II activity by chlorophyll fluorescence. Populations and families within populations from contrasting climates were tested during two consecutive winters through two progeny trials, one located at a continental and xeric site and one at a mesic site with Atlantic influence. We also obtained the LT₅₀, or the temperature that causes 50% damage, by controlled freezing and the subsequent analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence in needles and stems that were collected from populations at the continental trial site.P. pinaster showed sensitivity to winter stress at the continental site, during the colder winter. The combination of low temperatures, high solar irradiation and low precipitation caused sustained decreases in maximal photochemical efficiency (F(v)/F(m)), quantum yield of non-cyclic electron transport (Φ(PSII)) and photochemical quenching (qP). The variation in photochemical parameters was larger among families than among populations, and population differences appeared only under the harshest conditions at the continental site. As expected, the environmental effects (winter and site) on the photochemical parameters were much larger than the genotypic effects (population or family). LT₅₀ was closely related to the minimum winter temperatures of the population's range. The dark-adapted F(v)/F(m) ratio discriminated clearly between interior and coastal populations.In conclusion, variations in F(v)/F(m), Φ(PSII), qP and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) in response to winter stress were primarily due to the differences between the winter conditions and the sites and secondarily due to the differences among families and their interactions with the environment. Populations from continental climates showed higher frost tolerance (LT₅₀) than coastal populations that typically experience mild winters

  5. Natural gas monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the Natural Gas Monthly features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  6. Effect of Severe Winter Cold on the Photosynthetic Potentials of Three Co-occurring Evergreen Woody Species in a Mediterranean Forest, Catalonia (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperlich, Dominik; Gracia, Carlos; Peñuelas, Josep; Sabaté, Santi

    2013-04-01

    Evergreen tree species in the Mediterranean region have to cope with a wide range of environmental stress conditions from summer drought to winter cold. The winter period can lead to photoinhibition due to a combination of high solar irradiances and chilling temperatures which can reduce the light saturation point. However, Mediterranean winter mildness can lead periodically to favourable environmental conditions above the threshold for positive carbon balance benefitting evergreen woody species in contrast to winter deciduous species. The advantage of being able to photosynthesis all year round with a significant fraction in the winter month is compensating for the lower photosynthetic potentials during spring and summer in comparison to deciduous species. In this work, we investigated the physiological behaviour of three evergreen tree species (Quercus ilex, Pinus halepensis, Arbutus undeo) co-occurring in a natural and mature Mediterranean forest after a period of mild winter conditions and their response to a sudden period of intense cold weather. Therefore, we examined in each period the photosynthetic potentials by estimating the maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax) and the maximum electron transport rate (Jmax) through gas exchange measurements. The results indicate that all species exhibited extraordinary high photosynthetic potentials during the first period of measurement as a response to the mild conditions. However, the sudden cold period affected negatively the photosynthetic potentials of Quercus ilex and A. unedo with reduction ranging between 37 to 45 %, whereas they were observed to be only insignificantly reduced in Pinus halepensis. Our results can be explained by previous classifications into photoinhibition-avoiding (P. halpensis) and photoinhibition-tolerant (Q. ilex, A. undeo) species on the basis of their susceptibility to dynamic photoinhibition (Martinez Ferri 2000). Photoinhibition tolerant species are characterised with a more dynamic

  7. Winter Survival of Individual Honey Bees and Honey Bee Colonies Depends on Level of Varroa destructor Infestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dooremalen, Coby; Gerritsen, Lonne; Cornelissen, Bram; van der Steen, Jozef J. M.; van Langevelde, Frank; Blacquière, Tjeerd

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent elevated winter loss of honey bee colonies is a major concern. The presence of the mite Varroa destructor in colonies places an important pressure on bee health. V. destructor shortens the lifespan of individual bees, while long lifespan during winter is a primary requirement to survive until the next spring. We investigated in two subsequent years the effects of different levels of V. destructor infestation during the transition from short-lived summer bees to long-lived winter bees on the lifespan of individual bees and the survival of bee colonies during winter. Colonies treated earlier in the season to reduce V. destructor infestation during the development of winter bees were expected to have longer bee lifespan and higher colony survival after winter. Methodology/Principal Findings Mite infestation was reduced using acaricide treatments during different months (July, August, September, or not treated). We found that the number of capped brood cells decreased drastically between August and November, while at the same time, the lifespan of the bees (marked cohorts) increased indicating the transition to winter bees. Low V. destructor infestation levels before and during the transition to winter bees resulted in an increase in lifespan of bees and higher colony survival compared to colonies that were not treated and that had higher infestation levels. A variety of stress-related factors could have contributed to the variation in longevity and winter survival that we found between years. Conclusions/Significance This study contributes to theory about the multiple causes for the recent elevated colony losses in honey bees. Our study shows the correlation between long lifespan of winter bees and colony loss in spring. Moreover, we show that colonies treated earlier in the season had reduced V. destructor infestation during the development of winter bees resulting in longer bee lifespan and higher colony survival after winter. PMID:22558421

  8. Energy market barometer report - Winter 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, Joachim; Cartel, Melodie; Javaudin, Laurent; Molecke, Greg; Olsthoorn, Mark; Vernay, Anne-Lorene

    2016-01-01

    This Winter 2015 edition of the Grenoble Ecole de Management (GEM) Energy Market Barometer gauged the expectations of French energy experts regarding the low oil price and its consequences on alternative energy technologies. The experts were also asked about the investment climate for energy technologies in France. Key findings: - The energy experts consider the current low oil price a temporary phenomenon. The price of a barrel of crude oil (Brent) to reach US$ 55 at the end of the year (2016). About three quarters of respondents expect the price of oil to increase in 5 years and to exceed US$ 100 per barrel within 10 years. - The current weak price of crude oil is thought to have an adverse impact on the amount of investment in renewables for heat generation, in biofuels, and in energy efficiency technologies. - The experts view the current regulatory environment in France for investments in renewables, e-mobility, smart grids and energy efficiency favorably. They expect it to continue to improve over the next 5 years. However, nuclear energy and natural gas will not see their investment climate improved. - The recent developments on the global and national political stage have not moved most energy and CO_2 price expectations. The experts chart a progressive yet under-whelming raise in the price of CO_2 certificates in the medium to long term, from currently 8.5 euro/ton to euro 10-15 euro/ton in 5 years and 20-25 euro/ton in 10 years. - Prices of electricity, oil and natural gas are expected to rise in the medium term but remain stable over the next six months temporary phenomenon. Coal is the only energy carrier for which experts expect a decrease in price over the next five years

  9. Winter Ground Temperatures Control Snowmelt DOC Export From a Discontinuous Permafrost Watershed: A Multi-Year Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, S. K.

    2006-12-01

    For discontinuous and continuous permafrost watersheds, the largest mass flux of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) occurs during the snowmelt period. During this time, available allochtonous organic carbon that has accumulated over the winter in frozen organic soils is rapidly flushed to the basin outlet. While this process has been observed now in many river systems of different size and location, there have been few inter-annual reports on the mass of DOC loss and the factors controlling its variability during freshet. Hydrological and DOC fluxes were recorded for the 2002, 2003 and 2006 snowmelt season with supplementary over-winter data for an 8 square kilometer sub-basin (Granger Basin) of the Wolf Creek Research Basin, Yukon Territory, Canada. Granger Basin is an alpine catchment above treeline underlain with discontinuous permafrost (approximately 70 %) and has widespread surface organic soils up to 0.4 m in thickness. Pre-melt snow water equivalent varied widely throughout the basin, yet was greatest in 2006, followed by 2002 and 2003. Ground temperatures were notably colder throughout the 2003 winter compared with 2006 and 2002. For all years, discharge began in mid-May, and was a continuous event in 2002 and 2006. In 2003 four distinct melt-periods were observed due to rising and falling temperatures. During freshet, stream DOC concentration increased rapidly from 15 mg C/L on the first ascending limb of the hydrograph in each year. In 2003, DOC was largely flushed from the catchment several weeks prior to peak freshet. DOC concentration in wells and piezometers followed a similar pattern to streamflow DOC, with 2003 groundwater DOC concentrations less than 2002 and 2006. The total mass flux of DOC during freshet was 0.85, 0.45 and 1.01 g C/m2 for 2002, 2003 and 2006 respectively. Despite differences in pre-melt snow accumulation, the timing of melt and the volume of discharge, it appears that spring DOC export is largely controlled by over-winter ground

  10. Limited dietary overlap amongst resident Arctic herbivores in winter: complementary insights from complementary methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Niels M; Mosbacher, Jesper B; Vesterinen, Eero J; Roslin, Tomas; Michelsen, Anders

    2018-04-26

    Snow may prevent Arctic herbivores from accessing their forage in winter, forcing them to aggregate in the few patches with limited snow. In High Arctic Greenland, Arctic hare and rock ptarmigan often forage in muskox feeding craters. We therefore hypothesized that due to limited availability of forage, the dietary niches of these resident herbivores overlap considerably, and that the overlap increases as winter progresses. To test this, we analyzed fecal samples collected in early and late winter. We used molecular analysis to identify the plant taxa consumed, and stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen to quantify the dietary niche breadth and dietary overlap. The plant taxa found indicated only limited dietary differentiation between the herbivores. As expected, dietary niches exhibited a strong contraction from early to late winter, especially for rock ptarmigan. This may indicate increasing reliance on particular plant resources as winter progresses. In early winter, the diet of rock ptarmigan overlapped slightly with that of muskox and Arctic hare. Contrary to our expectations, no inter-specific dietary niche overlap was observed in late winter. This overall pattern was specifically revealed by combined analysis of molecular data and stable isotope contents. Hence, despite foraging in the same areas and generally feeding on the same plant taxa, the quantitative dietary overlap between the three herbivores was limited. This may be attributable to species-specific consumption rates of plant taxa. Yet, Arctic hare and rock ptarmigan may benefit from muskox opening up the snow pack, thereby allowing them to access the plants.

  11. 'Downward control' of the mean meridional circulation and temperature distribution of the polar winter stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Rolando R.; Boville, Byron A.

    1994-01-01

    According to the 'downward control' principle, the extratropical mean vertical velocity on a given pressure level is approximately proportional to the meridional gradient of the vertically integrated zonal force per unit mass exerted by waves above that level. In this paper, a simple numerical model that includes parameterizations of both planetary and gravity wave breaking is used to explore the influence of gravity wave breaking in the mesosphere on the mean meridional circulation and temperature distribution at lower levels in the polar winter stratosphere. The results of these calculations suggest that gravity wave drag in the mesosphere can affect the state of the polar winter stratosphere down to altitudes below 30 km. The effect is most important when planetary wave driving is relatively weak: that is, during southern winter and in early northern winter. In southern winter, downwelling weakens by a factor of 2 near the stratospause and by 20% at 30 km when gravity wave drag is not included in the calculations. As a consequence, temperatures decrease considerably throughout the polar winter stratosphere (over 20 K above 40 km and as much as 8 K at 30 km, where the effect is enhanced by the long radiative relaxation timescale). The polar winter states obtained when gravity wave drag is omitted in this simple model resemble the results of simulations with some general circulation models and suggest that some of the shortcomings of the latter may be due to a deficit in mesospheric momentum deposition by small-scale gravity waves.

  12. Temperature characteristics of winter roost-sites for birds and mammals: tree cavities and anthropogenic alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüebler, Martin U.; Widmer, Silv; Korner-Nievergelt, Fränzi; Naef-Daenzer, Beat

    2014-07-01

    The microclimate of potential roost-sites is likely to be a crucial determinant in the optimal roost-site selection of endotherms, in particular during the winter season of temperate zones. Available roost-sites for birds and mammals in European high trunk orchards are mainly tree cavities, wood stacks and artificial nest boxes. However, little is known about the microclimatic patterns inside cavities and thermal advantages of using these winter roost-sites. Here, we simultaneously investigate the thermal patterns of winter roost-sites in relation to winter ambient temperature and their insulation capacity. While tree cavities and wood stacks strongly buffered the daily cycle of temperature changes, nest boxes showed low buffering capacity. The buffering effect of tree cavities was stronger at extreme ambient temperatures compared to temperatures around zero. Heat sources inside roosts amplified Δ T (i.e., the difference between inside and outside temperatures), particularly in the closed roosts of nest boxes and tree cavities, and less in the open wood stacks with stronger circulation of air. Positive Δ T due to the installation of a heat source increased in cold ambient temperatures. These results suggest that orchard habitats in winter show a spatiotemporal mosaic of sites providing different thermal benefits varying over time and in relation to ambient temperatures. At cold temperatures tree cavities provide significantly higher thermal benefits than nest boxes or wood stacks. Thus, in winter ecology of hole-using endotherms, the availability of tree cavities may be an important characteristic of winter habitat quality.

  13. Progress report, 24 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    The work performed during the past 12 months (months 13 – 24) of the project has included the conclusion of Task 1 – Fundamental Studies and Task 2 – Multimirror Cutting Head Design. Work on Task 3 – Compact Cutting Head Design, and Task 4 – Interface Design has been carried out and the tests...... of the multimirror cutting head have been started....

  14. Progress report, 36 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    The work performed during the past 12 months (months 13 – 24) of the project has included the conclusion of Task 1 – Fundamental Studies and Task 2 – Multimirror Cutting Head Design. Work on Task 3 – Compact Cutting Head Design, and Task 4 – Interface Design has been carried out and the tests...... of the multimirror cutting head have been started....

  15. Advanced decision support for winter road maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This document provides an overview of the Federal Highway Administration's winter Maintenance Decision Support System (MDSS). The MDSS is a decision support tool that has the ability to provide weather predictions focused toward the road surface. The...

  16. Overview of climatic effects of nuclear winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.M.; Malone, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    A general description of the climatic effects of a nuclear war are presented. This paper offers a short history of the subject, a discussion of relevant parameters and physical processes, and a description of plausible nuclear winter scenario. 9 refs

  17. Unusial winter 2011/2012 in Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Faško, P.; Lapin, M.; Matejovič, P.; Pecho, Jozef

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2012), s. 19-26 ISSN 1335-339X Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : winter characteristics * climate variabilit * climate change * global warming Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  18. SERSO: Summer sun against winter ice; SERSO: Mit Sommer-Sonne gegen Winter-Glatteis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eugster, W J [Polydynamics Engineering, Zuerich (Switzerland); Hess, K [Polydynamics Engineering, Bremgarten-Bern (Switzerland); Hopkirk, R J [Polydynamics Engineering, Maennedorf (Switzerland)

    1997-12-01

    Road surfaces absorb energy from the incoming solar radiation in the summer months. The SERSO project was conceived to collect this energy, store it and reuse it during the following winter period to eliminate ice formation on those same road surfaces. The acronym SERSO (Sonnenenergierueckgewinnung aus Strassenoberflaechen) means `solar energy recuperation from road surfaces`. This pilot unit having been conceived, researched an applied to a bridge on the Swiss national expressway A8 near Daerligen on the south side of the lake of Thun was officially opened on 22nd August 1994. Heat exchanger tubes carrying a water/glycol heat transfer fluid were built into the roadbed on the bridge, covering a total area of some 1`300 m{sup 2}. In summer these collect heat from the exposed carriageways, which is then transported in a closed hydraulic circuit to the neighbouring cylindrical underground rock heat storage volume. Within a diameter of 31.5 m and a depth of 65 m heat is exchanged between the heat transfer fluid and the rock via an array of 91 borehole heat exchangers. The operation of the pilot plant has been accompanied by detailed measurement campaign, whereby a total of 132 sensors are interrogated by remote datalogger. The data consist of temperature measurements at several depths and positions both in the roadbed and in the rock storage volume, of energy fluxes in the hydraulic system and of relevant meteorological data. The experiences gianed during the first two years of operation have shown that sufficient heat can indeed be collected in summer to maintain the bridge free of ice during the following winter. Moreover the energy balances derived from the measurements in the low temperature rock heat store have confirmed the predicted storage efficiency. (orig./AKF) [Deutsch] cVerkehrsflaechen heizen sich im Sommer durch Sonneneinstrahlung stark auf. Diese Sommerwaerme zu sammeln, zwischenzuspeichern und im Winter zur Verhinderung von Glatteisbildung wieder zu

  19. Drought and Winter Drying (Pest Alert)

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA Forest Service

    Drought and winter drying have periodically caused major damage to trees. Drought reduces the amount of water available in the soil. In the case of winter drying, the water may be in the soil, but freezing of the soil makes the water unavailable to the tree. In both cases, more water is lost through transpiration than is available to the plant. Symptoms of drought and...

  20. Coming to grips with nuclear winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherr, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    This editorial examines the politics related to the concept of nuclear winter which is a term used to describe temperature changes brought on by the injection of smoke into the atmosphere by the massive fires set off by nuclear explosions. The climate change alone could cause crop failures and lead to massive starvation. The author suggests that the prospect of a nuclear winter should be a deterrent to any nuclear exchange

  1. Winter fidelity and apparent survival of lesser snow goose populations in the Pacific flyway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C.K.; Samuel, M.D.; Baranyuk, Vasily V.; Cooch, E.G.; Kraege, Donald K.

    2008-01-01

    The Beringia region of the Arctic contains 2 colonies of lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) breeding on Wrangel Island, Russia, and Banks Island, Canada, and wintering in North America. The Wrangel Island population is composed of 2 subpopulations from a sympatric breeding colony but separate wintering areas, whereas the Banks Island population shares a sympatric wintering area in California, USA, with one of the Wrangel Island subpopulations. The Wrangel Island colony represents the last major snow goose population in Russia and has fluctuated considerably since 1970, whereas the Banks Island population has more than doubled. The reasons for these changes are unclear, but hypotheses include independent population demographics (survival and recruitment) and immigration and emigration among breeding or wintering populations. These demographic and movement patterns have important ecological and management implications for understanding goose population structure, harvest of admixed populations, and gene flow among populations with separate breeding or wintering areas. From 1993 to 1996, we neckbanded molting birds at their breeding colonies and resighted birds on the wintering grounds. We used multistate mark-recapture models to evaluate apparent survival rates, resighting rates, winter fidelity, and potential exchange among these populations. We also compared the utility of face stain in Wrangel Island breeding geese as a predictor of their wintering area. Our results showed similar apparent survival rates between subpopulations of Wrangel Island snow geese and lower apparent survival, but higher emigration, for the Banks Island birds. Males had lower apparent survival than females, most likely due to differences in neckband loss. Transition between wintering areas was low (exchange between the Banks and northern Wrangel Island populations. Face staining was an unreliable indicator of wintering area. Our findings suggest that northern and southern

  2. Analysis of winter climate simulations performed with ARPEGE-Climat (T63) in the framework of PROVOST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parey, S.; Dichampt-Martineu, Ch.; Caneill, J.Y. [Electricite de France, 78 - Chatou (France). Research Branch, Environment

    1997-12-01

    The interest of EDF for seasonal forecasting is a consequence of the high sensitivity of electricity consumption to temperature, especially during the winter season. That is why the Research branch of EDF is involved in the PROVOST project (PRediction Of climate Variations On Seasonal and inter-annual Timescales). Two sets of simulations are studied. The first one was calculated apart from the PROVOST experiments with the LMD model covering the 1970 to 1992 winters with eleven simulations per winter. The second one was calculated at EDF in the framework of PROVOST with ARPEGE-Climat model, covering the 1979 to 1994 winters (nine simulations per winter). The probabilistic formulation of climatic scenarios in function of the seasonal simulations with ARPEGE-Climat gives good results if the monthly mean temperature is taken into account. (R.P.) 3 refs.

  3. New winter hardy winter bread wheat cultivar (Triticum aestivum L. Voloshkova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Л. М. Голик

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Creation of Initial raw for breeding of winter wheat by change of the development type under low temperatures influence was described. Seeds of spring wheat were vernalized in aluminum weighting bottle. By using low temperatures at sawing of M2-6 at the begin ind of optimal terms of sawing of winter wheat, new winter-hardy variety of Voloshkova was bred.

  4. Winter- and summertime continental influences on tropospheric O3 and CO observed by TES over the western North Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Talbot

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The distributions of tropospheric ozone (O3 and carbon monoxide (CO, and the synoptic factors regulating these distributions over the western North Atlantic Ocean during winter and summer were investigated using profile retrievals from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES for 2004–2006. Seasonal composites of TES retrievals, reprocessed to remove the influence of the a priori on geographical and seasonal structure, exhibited strong seasonal differences. At the 681 hPa level during winter months of December, January and February (DJF the composite O3 mixing ratios were uniformly low (~45 ppbv, but continental export was evident in a channel of enhanced CO (100–110 ppbv flowing eastward from the US coast. In summer months June, July, and August (JJA O3 mixing ratios were variable (45–65 ppbv and generally higher due to increased photochemical production. The summer distribution also featured a channel of enhanced CO (95–105 ppbv flowing northeastward around an anticyclone and exiting the continent over the Canadian Maritimes around 50° N. Offshore O3-CO slopes were generally 0.15–0.20 mol mol−1 in JJA, indicative of photochemical O3 production. Composites for 4 predominant synoptic patterns or map types in DJF suggested that export to the lower free troposphere (681 hPa level was enhanced by the warm conveyor belt airstream of mid-latitude cyclones while stratospheric intrusions increased TES O3 levels at 316 hPa. A major finding in the DJF data was that offshore 681 hPa CO mixing ratios behind cold fronts could be enhanced up to >150 ppbv likely by lofting from the surface via shallow convection resulting from rapid destabilization of cold air flowing over much warmer ocean waters. In JJA composites for 3 map types showed that the general export pattern of the seasonal composites was associated with a synoptic pattern featuring the Bermuda High. However, weak cyclones and frontal troughs could enhance offshore 681 hPa CO

  5. Baraitser–Winter syndrome: An additional Egyptian patient with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabah M. Shawky

    2015-05-08

    May 8, 2015 ... Abstract We report a 3.5 year old male child, second in order of birth of non consanguineous ... in this syndrome, bilateral congenital ptosis, hypertelorism, moderate mental .... ged from 2 month to 14 years and it may be intractable in some ... retardation: Baraitser–Winter syndrome or Noonan syndrome? J.

  6. Seasonal overturning circulation in the Red Sea: 2. Winter circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Fengchao; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Pratt, Larry J.; Bower, Amy S.; Köhl, Armin; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh; Rivas, David

    2014-04-01

    The shallow winter overturning circulation in the Red Sea is studied using a 50 year high-resolution MITgcm (MIT general circulation model) simulation with realistic atmospheric forcing. The overturning circulation for a typical year, represented by 1980, and the climatological mean are analyzed using model output to delineate the three-dimensional structure and to investigate the underlying dynamical mechanisms. The horizontal model circulation in the winter of 1980 is dominated by energetic eddies. The climatological model mean results suggest that the surface inflow intensifies in a western boundary current in the southern Red Sea that switches to an eastern boundary current north of 24°N. The overturning is accomplished through a cyclonic recirculation and a cross-basin overturning circulation in the northern Red Sea, with major sinking occurring along a narrow band of width about 20 km along the eastern boundary and weaker upwelling along the western boundary. The northward pressure gradient force, strong vertical mixing, and horizontal mixing near the boundary are the essential dynamical components in the model's winter overturning circulation. The simulated water exchange is not hydraulically controlled in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb; instead, the exchange is limited by bottom and lateral boundary friction and, to a lesser extent, by interfacial friction due to the vertical viscosity at the interface between the inflow and the outflow.

  7. Seasonal forecasts of northern hemisphere winter 2009/10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fereday, D R; Maidens, A; Arribas, A; Scaife, A A; Knight, J R

    2012-01-01

    Northern hemisphere winter 2009/10 was exceptional for atmospheric circulation: the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index was the lowest on record for over a century. This contributed to cold conditions over large areas of Eurasia and North America. Here we use two versions of the Met Office GloSea4 seasonal forecast system to investigate the predictability of this exceptional winter. The first is the then operational version of GloSea4, which uses a low top model and successfully predicted a negative NAO in forecasts produced in September, October and November 2009. The second uses a new high top model, which better simulates sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs). This is particularly relevant for 2009/10 due to its unusual combination of a strong El Niño and an easterly quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) phase, favouring SSW development. SSWs are shown to play an influential role in surface conditions, producing a stronger sea level pressure signal and improving predictions of the 2009/10 winter. (letter)

  8. Volcanos and el Nino - signal separation in Winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, I.; Graf, H.F.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study is the detection of climate signals following violent volcanic eruptions in relation to those forced by El Nino during winter in higher latitudes of the northern hemisphere. The applied statistical methods are a combination of the local t-test statistics and signal detection methods based on Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOFs). The observed effect of local cooling due to the volcanic reduction of shortwave radiation over large land areas (like Asia) in subtropical regions, the observed advective warming over Eurasia and the advective cooling over Greenland is well simulated in the model. The radiative cooling near the surface is important for the volcano signal in the subtropics, but it is only weak in high latitudes during winter. The local anomalies in the El Nino forcing region in the tropics, and the warming over North America in middle and high latitudes are simulated as observed. The combination of high stratospheric aerosol loading and El Nino leads to a climate perturbation stronger than for forcing with El Nino or stratospheric aerosol alone. Over Europe, generally the volcanic signal dominates, and in the Pacific region the El Nino forcing determines the observed and the simulated anomalies in winter. (orig./KW)

  9. Volcanos and el Nino - signal separation in Winter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchner, I.; Graf, H.F.

    1993-12-01

    The aim of this study is the detection of climate signals following violent volcanic eruptions in relation to those forced by El Nino during winter in higher latitudes of the northern hemisphere. The applied statistical methods are a combination of the local t-test statistics and signal detection methods based on Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOFs). The observed effect of local cooling due to the volcanic reduction of shortwave radiation over large land areas (like Asia) in subtropical regions, the observed advective warming over Eurasia and the advective cooling over Greenland is well simulated in the model. The radiative cooling near the surface is important for the volcano signal in the subtropics, but it is only weak in high latitudes during winter. The local anomalies in the El Nino forcing region in the tropics, and the warming over North America in middle and high latitudes are simulated as observed. The combination of high stratospheric aerosol loading and El Nino leads to a climate perturbation stronger than for forcing with El Nino or stratospheric aerosol alone. Over Europe, generally the volcanic signal dominates, and in the Pacific region the El Nino forcing determines the observed and the simulated anomalies in winter. (orig./KW)

  10. Migration patterns and wintering range of common loons breeding in the Northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenow, K.P.; Adams, D.; Schoch, N.; Evers, D.C.; Hanson, W.; Yates, D.; Savoy, L.; Fox, T.J.; Major, A.; Kratt, R.; Ozard, J.

    2009-01-01

    A study, using satellite telemetry, was conducted to determine the precise migration patterns and wintering locations of Common Loons (Gavia immer) breeding in the northeastern United States. Transmitters were implanted in 17 loons (16 adults and one juvenile) that were captured on breeding lakes in New York, New Hampshire, and Maine during the summers of 2003, 2004, and 2005. Transmitters from ten of the birds provided adequate location data to document movement to wintering areas. Most adult loons appeared to travel non-stop from breeding lakes, or neighboring lakes (within 15 km), to the Atlantic coast. Adult loons marked in New Hampshire and Maine wintered 152 to 239 km from breeding lakes, along the Maine coast. Adult loons marked in the Adirondack Park of New York wintered along the coasts of Massachusetts (414 km from breeding lake), Rhode Island (362 km), and southern New Jersey (527 km). Most of the loons remained relatively stationary throughout the winter, but the size of individual wintering areas of adult loons ranged from 43 to 1,159 km 2, based on a 95% fixed kernel utilization distribution probability. A juvenile bird from New York made a number of stops at lakes and reservoirs en route to Long Island Sound (325 km from breeding lake). Maximum functional life of transmitters was about 12 months, providing an opportunity to document spring migration movements as well. This work provides essential information for development and implementation of regional Common Loon conservation strategies in the Northeastern U.S.

  11. Frequent arousals from winter torpor in Rafinesque's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joseph S; Lacki, Michael J; Thomas, Steven C; Grider, John F

    2012-01-01

    Extensive use of torpor is a common winter survival strategy among bats; however, data comparing various torpor behaviors among species are scarce. Winter torpor behaviors are likely to vary among species with different physiologies and species inhabiting different regional climates. Understanding these differences may be important in identifying differing susceptibilities of species to white-nose syndrome (WNS) in North America. We fitted 24 Rafinesque's big-eared bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) with temperature-sensitive radio-transmitters, and monitored 128 PIT-tagged big-eared bats, during the winter months of 2010 to 2012. We tested the hypothesis that Rafinesque's big-eared bats use torpor less often than values reported for other North American cave-hibernators. Additionally, we tested the hypothesis that Rafinesque's big-eared bats arouse on winter nights more suitable for nocturnal foraging. Radio-tagged bats used short (2.4 d ± 0.3 (SE)), shallow (13.9°C ± 0.6) torpor bouts and switched roosts every 4.1 d ± 0.6. Probability of arousal from torpor increased linearly with ambient temperature at sunset (Pdata show Rafinesque's big-eared bat is a shallow hibernator and is relatively active during winter. We hypothesize that winter activity patterns provide Corynorhinus species with an ecological and physiological defense against the fungus causing WNS, and that these bats may be better suited to withstand fungal infection than other cave-hibernating bat species in eastern North America.

  12. No evidence that migratory geese disperse avian influenza viruses from breeding to wintering ground.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenglai Yin

    Full Text Available Low pathogenic avian influenza virus can mutate to a highly pathogenic strain that causes severe clinical signs in birds and humans. Migratory waterfowl, especially ducks, are considered the main hosts of low pathogenic avian influenza virus, but the role of geese in dispersing the virus over long-distances is still unclear. We collected throat and cloaca samples from three goose species, Bean goose (Anser fabalis, Barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis and Greater white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons, from their breeding grounds, spring stopover sites, and wintering grounds. We tested if the geese were infected with low pathogenic avian influenza virus outside of their wintering grounds, and analysed the spatial and temporal patterns of infection prevalence on their wintering grounds. Our results show that geese were not infected before their arrival on wintering grounds. Barnacle geese and Greater white-fronted geese had low prevalence of infection just after their arrival on wintering grounds in the Netherlands, but the prevalence increased in successive months, and peaked after December. This suggests that migratory geese are exposed to the virus after their arrival on wintering grounds, indicating that migratory geese might not disperse low pathogenic avian influenza virus during autumn migration.

  13. Vulnerability and resilience of the carbon exchange o a subarctic peatland to an extreme winter event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmentier, Frans-Jan W.; Rasse, Daniel P.; Lund, Magnus

    2018-01-01

    impact of this event. Our results indicate that gross primary production (GPP) exhibited a delayed response to temperature following snowmelt. From snowmelt up to the peak of summer, this reduced carbon uptake by 14 (0-24) g Cm-2 (similar to 12% of GPP in that period)-similar to the effect of interannual......Extreme winter events that damage vegetation are considered an important climatic cause of arctic browning-a reversal of the greening trend of the region-and possibly reduce the carbon uptake of northern ecosystems. Confirmation of a reduction in CO2 uptake due to winter damage, however, remains...... event. The warm summer also increased ecosystem respiration, which limited net carbon uptake. This study shows that damage from a single extreme winter event can have an ecosystem-wide impact on CO2 uptake, and highlights the importance of including winter-induced shrub damage in terrestrial ecosystem...

  14. TARP Monthly Housing Scorecard

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Treasury — Treasury and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) jointly produce a Monthly Housing Scorecard on the health of the nation’s housing market. The...

  15. Molecule of the Month

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Molecule of the Month - Adamantane - A Plastic Piece of Diamond. J Chandrasekhar. Volume 16 Issue 12 ... Keywords. Adamantane; diamondoid systems; plastic crystals. ... Resonance – Journal of Science Education | News. © 2017 Indian ...

  16. Oceanographic Monthly Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Monthly Summary contains sea surface temperature (SST) analyses on both regional and ocean basin scales for the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans....

  17. Winter: Public Enemy #1 for Accessibility EXPLORING NEW SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Morales

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Winter is expensive. For countries situated in the northern hemisphere, closer to the north pole, such as Canada, Russia and Scandinavia, winter requires the acquisition of special clothing, car tires, and sports equipment, snow removal or plowing from the streets, and is associated with the presence of ice patches, along with accidents and illnesses associated with cold weather. Fall-related injuries due to winter conditions have been estimated to cost the Canadian health care system $ 2.8 billion a year. However, the greatest cost snow entails every year is the social isolation of seniors as well as wheelchair and walker users. This results from the lack of accessibility, as it is difficult to circulate on snow-covered streets even for the able-bodied. Social isolation has been associated with other negative consequences such as depression and even suicide. This exploratory pilot study aimed at finding possible and feasible design solutions for improving the accessibility of sidewalks during winter conditions. For this project we used a Co-Design methodology. Stakeholders (City of Quebec representatives, designers, urban planners, occupational therapists, and adults with motor, visual and aural disabilities were invited to participate in the design process. In order to meet the objectives, two main steps were carried out: 1. Conception of the design solutions (through Co-design sessions in a Focus-group format with seniors, designers and researchers; and 2. Validation of the design solutions (consultation with experts and stakeholders. The results are a wide variety of possible and feasible solutions, including the reorganisation of the snow-removal procedure and the development of heated curb cuts. This project was funded by the City of Quebec in partnership with the Centre interdisciplinaire de recherche en réadaptation et intégration sociale (CIRRIS. Ultimately, the project sought to explore possible solutions to be implemented

  18. Correlation analyses of Baltic Sea winter water mass formation and its impact on secondary and tertiary production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörn Schmidt

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The thermal stratification of the upper water layers in the BalticSea varies seasonally in response to the annual cycle of solarheating and wind-induced mixing. In winter, the stratificationdown to the halocline is almost completely eroded by convectionand strong wind mixing. Monthly averaged temperature profilesobtained from the ICES hydrographic database were used to studythe long-term variability (1950 to 2005 of winter water massformation in different deep basins of the Baltic Sea east ofthe island of Bornholm. Besides strong interannual variabilityof deep winter water temperatures, the last two decades showa positive trend (increase of 1-1.5°C. Correlationsof winter surface temperatures to temperatures of the winterwater body located directly above or within the top of the haloclinewere strongly positive until the autumn months. Such a closecoupling allows sea surface temperatures in winter to be usedto forecast the seasonal development of the thermal signaturein deeper layers with a high degree of confidence. The most significantimpact of winter sea surface temperatures on the thermal signaturein this depth range can be assigned to February/March. Strongersolar heating during spring and summer results in thermal stratificationof the water column leading to a complete decoupling of surfaceand deep winter water temperatures. Based on laboratory experiments,temperature-dependent relationships were utilised to analyseinterannual variations of biological processes with special emphasison the upper trophic levels (e.g., stage-specific developmentalrates of zooplankton and survival rates of fish eggs.

  19. Monthly variations of diurnal rainfall in north coast of West Java Indonesia during boreal winter periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulihastin, E.; Trismidianto

    2018-05-01

    Diurnal rainfall during the active monsoon period is usually associated with the highest convective activity that often triggers extreme rainfall. Investigating diurnal rainfall behavior in the north coast of West Java is important to recognize the behavioral trends of data leading to such extreme events in strategic West Java because the city of Jakarta is located in this region. Variability of diurnal rainfall during the period of active monsoon on December-January-February (DJF) composite during the 2000-2016 period was investigated using hourly rainfall data from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 3B41RT dataset. Through the Empirical Mode Decomposition method was appears that the diurnal rain cycle during February has increased significantly in its amplitude and frequency. It is simultaneously shows that the indication of extreme rainfall events is related to diurnal rain divergences during February shown through phase shifts. The diurnal, semidiurnal, and terdiurnal cycles appear on the characteristics of the DJF composite rainfall data during the 2000-2016 period.The significant increases in amplitude occurred during February are the diurnal (IMF 3) and terdiurnal (IMF 1) of rainfall cycles.

  20. Examining winter visitor use in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mae A. Davenport; Wayne A. Freimund; William T. Borrie; Robert E. Manning; William A. Valliere; Benjamin Wang

    2000-01-01

    This research was designed to assist the managers of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) in their decision making about winter visitation. The focus of this report is on winter use patterns and winter visitor preferences. It is the author’s hope that this information will benefit both the quality of winter experiences and the stewardship of the park resources. This report...

  1. Body mass, wing length, and condition of wintering ducks relative to hematozoa infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleskes, Joseph; Ramey, Andrew M.; Reeves, Andrew; Yee, Julie L.

    2017-01-01

    Waterfowl managers lack information regarding factors that may be reducing the positive response of waterfowl body condition to habitat improvements. Protozoan blood parasites (i.e., hematozoa) are commonly found in birds and have been related to reduced body mass, wing length, and body condition. We studied relationships between 12 measures of hematozoa infection and body mass, wing length, and body mass divided by wing length (i.e., body condition index [BCI]) of the five most common duck species (northern pintail [Anas acuta], mallard [A. platyrhynchos], green-winged teal [A. crecca], American wigeon [A. Americana], northern shoveler [A. clypeata]) wintering in the Central Valley of California during October 2006-January 2007. After accounting for variation due to species, age-sex cohort, Central Valley region, and month; wing length, body mass, and BCI were found to be negatively related to infection by Leucocytozoon and by "any hematozoa" but not related to infection by only Plasmodium or Haemoproteus, or coinfections of greater than one genera or parasite haplotype (albeit, few ducks had Plasmodium or Haemoproteus infection or coinfections). Evidence of a negative relationship with infection was stronger for body mass and BCI than for wing length and indicated that the relationships varied among species, age-sex cohorts, regions, and months. Compared to uninfected ducks, hematozoa-infected duck body mass, wing length, and BCI was -1.63% (85% CI = -2.79%- -0.47%), -0.12% (-0.41%- +0.17%), and -1.38% (-2.49%- -0.26%), respectively. Although, seemingly small, the -1.63% difference in body mass represents a large percentage (e.g., 38% for northern pintail) of the observed increase in wintering duck body mass associated with Central Valley habitat improvements. Because infection prevalence and relationship to body condition might change over time due to climate or other factors, tracking hematozoa infection prevalence might be important to inform and accurately

  2. Dynamical Predictability of Monthly Means.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, J.

    1981-12-01

    We have attempted to determine the theoretical upper limit of dynamical predictability of monthly means for prescribed nonfluctuating external forcings. We have extended the concept of `classical' predictability, which primarily refers to the lack of predictability due mainly to the instabilities of synoptic-scale disturbances, to the predictability of time averages, which are determined by the predictability of low-frequency planetary waves. We have carded out 60-day integrations of a global general circulation model with nine different initial conditions but identical boundary conditions of sea surface temperature, snow, sea ice and soil moisture. Three of these initial conditions are the observed atmospheric conditions on 1 January of 1975, 1976 and 1977. The other six initial conditions are obtained by superimposing over the observed initial conditions a random perturbation comparable to the errors of observation. The root-mean-square (rms) error of random perturbations at all the grid points and all the model levels is 3 m s1 in u and v components of wind. The rms vector wind error between the observed initial conditions is >15 m s1.It is hypothesized that for a given averaging period, if the rms error among the time averages predicted from largely different initial conditions becomes comparable to the rms error among the time averages predicted from randomly perturbed initial conditions, the time averages are dynamically unpredictable. We have carried out the analysis of variance to compare the variability, among the three groups, due to largely different initial conditions, and within each group due to random perturbations.It is found that the variances among the first 30-day means, predicted from largely different initial conditions, are significantly different from the variances due to random perturbations in the initial conditions, whereas the variances among 30-day means for days 31-60 are not distinguishable from the variances due to random initial

  3. Estimating winter survival of winter wheat by simulations of plant frost tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergjord Olsen, A.K.; Persson, T.; Wit, de A.; Nkurunziza, L.; Sindhøj, E.; Eckersten, H.

    2018-01-01

    Based on soil temperature, snow depth and the grown cultivar's maximum attainable level of frost tolerance (LT50c), the FROSTOL model simulates development of frost tolerance (LT50) and winter damage, thereby enabling risk calculations for winter wheat survival. To explore the accuracy of this

  4. Root development of fodder radish and winter wheat before winter in relation to uptake of nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlström, Ellen Margrethe; Hansen, Elly Møller; Mandel, A.

    2015-01-01

    occurred. Quantitative data is missing on N leaching of a catch crop compared to a winter cereal in a conventional cereal-based cropping system. The aim of the study was to investigate whether fodder radish (Raphanus sativus L.) (FR) would be more efficient than winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (WW...

  5. Risk management model of winter navigation operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdez Banda, Osiris A.; Goerlandt, Floris; Kuzmin, Vladimir; Kujala, Pentti; Montewka, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    The wintertime maritime traffic operations in the Gulf of Finland are managed through the Finnish–Swedish Winter Navigation System. This establishes the requirements and limitations for the vessels navigating when ice covers this area. During winter navigation in the Gulf of Finland, the largest risk stems from accidental ship collisions which may also trigger oil spills. In this article, a model for managing the risk of winter navigation operations is presented. The model analyses the probability of oil spills derived from collisions involving oil tanker vessels and other vessel types. The model structure is based on the steps provided in the Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and adapted into a Bayesian Network model. The results indicate that ship independent navigation and convoys are the operations with higher probability of oil spills. Minor spills are most probable, while major oil spills found very unlikely but possible. - Highlights: •A model to assess and manage the risk of winter navigation operations is proposed. •The risks of oil spills in winter navigation in the Gulf of Finland are analysed. •The model assesses and prioritizes actions to control the risk of the operations. •The model suggests navigational training as the most efficient risk control option.

  6. Monthly progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-06-01

    This monthly report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the surveillance of radioactivity in the environment: atmospheric dusts(air at ground level, high altitude air), rainwater, surface water, underground water, irrigation water, drinking water, food chain (milk, plants, cattle, fish), sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables ( 7 Be, 95 Zr and 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 131 I, 137 Cs, 140 Ba and 140 La, 90 Sr, 106 Ru and 106 Rh, 226 Ra, 54 Mn, U and T). A monthly bibliographic selection is also presented [fr

  7. Monthly progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-03-01

    This monthly report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the surveillance of radioactivity in the environment: atmospheric dusts (air at ground level, high altitude air), rainwater, surface water, underground water, irrigation water, drinking water, food chain (milk, plants, cattle, fish), sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables ( 7 Be, 95 Zr and 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 131 I, 137 Cs, 140 Ba and 140 La, 90 Sr, 106 Ru and 106 Rh, 226 Ra, 54 Mn, U and T). A monthly bibliographic selection is also presented [fr

  8. 24-month fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenstein, R.G.; Sipes, D.E.; Beall, R.H.; Donovan, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-four month reload cycles can potentially lessen total power generation costs. While 24-month cores increase purchased fuel costs, the longer cycles reduce the number of refueling outages and thus enhance plant availability; men-rem exposure to site personnel and other costs associated with reload core design and licensing are also reduced. At dual unit sites an operational advantage can be realized by refueling each plant alternately on a 1-year offset basis. This results in a single outage per site per year which can be scheduled for off-peak periods or when replacement power costs are low

  9. Monthly progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-04-01

    This monthly report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the surveillance of radioactivity in the environment: atmospheric dusts (air at ground level, high altitude air), rainwater, surface water, underground water, irrigation water, drinking water, food chain (milk plants, cattle, fish), seawater around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables ( 7 Be, 95 Zr and 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 131 I, 137 Cs, 140 Ba and 140 La, 90 Sr, 106 Ru and 106 Rh, 226 Ra, 54 Mn U and T). A monthly bibliographic selection is also presented [fr

  10. Monthly progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This monthly report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the surveillance of radioactivity in the environment: atmospheric dusts (air at ground level, high altitude air), rainwater, surface water, underground water, irrigation water, drinking water, food chain (milk, plants, cattle, fish), sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables ( 7 Be, 95 Zr and 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 131 I, 137 Cs, 140 Ba and 140 La, 90 Sr, 106 Ru and 106 Rh, 226 Ra, 54 Mn, U and T). A monthly bibliographic selection is also presented [fr

  11. Monthly progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-02-01

    This monthly report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the surveillance of radioactivity in the environment: atmospheric dusts (air at ground level, high altitude air), rainwater, surface water, underground water, irrigation water, drinking water, food chain (milk, plants, cattle, fish), sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables ( 7 Be, 95 Zr and 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 131 I, 137 Cs, 140 Ba and 140 La, 90 Sr, 106 Ru and 106 Rh, 226 Ra, 54 Mn, U and T). A monthly bibliographic selection is also presented [fr

  12. Mortality impact of extreme winter temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Julio; García, Ricardo; López, César; Linares, Cristina; Tobías, Aurelio; Prieto, Luis

    2005-01-01

    During the last few years great attention has been paid to the evaluation of the impact of extreme temperatures on human health. This paper examines the effect of extreme winter temperature on mortality in Madrid for people older than 65, using ARIMA and GAM models. Data correspond to 1,815 winter days over the period 1986 1997, during which time a total of 133,000 deaths occurred. The daily maximum temperature (Tmax) was shown to be the best thermal indicator of the impact of climate on mortality. When total mortality was considered, the maximum impact occured 7 8 days after a temperature extreme; for circulatory diseases the lag was between 7 and 14 days. When respiratory causes were considered, two mortality peaks were evident at 4 5 and 11 days. When the impact of winter extreme temperatures was compared with that associated with summer extremes, it was found to occur over a longer term, and appeared to be more indirect.

  13. The engineering approach to winter sports

    CERN Document Server

    Cheli, Federico; Maldifassi, Stefano; Melzi, Stefano; Sabbioni, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    The Engineering Approach to Winter Sports presents the state-of-the-art research in the field of winter sports in a harmonized and comprehensive way for a diverse audience of engineers, equipment and facilities designers, and materials scientists. The book examines the physics and chemistry of snow and ice with particular focus on the interaction (friction) between sports equipment and snow/ice, how it is influenced by environmental factors, such as temperature and pressure, as well as by contaminants and how it can be modified through the use of ski waxes or the microtextures of blades or ski soles. The authors also cover, in turn, the different disciplines in winter sports:  skiing (both alpine and cross country), skating and jumping, bob sledding and skeleton, hockey and curling, with attention given to both equipment design and on the simulation of gesture and  track optimization.

  14. Dispersion of atmospheric air pollution in summer and winter season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichowicz, Robert; Wielgosiński, Grzegorz; Fetter, Wojciech

    2017-11-04

    Seasonal variation of air pollution is associated with variety of seasons and specificity of particular months which form the so-called summer and winter season also known as the "heating" season. The occurrence of higher values of air pollution in different months of a year is associated with the type of climate, and accordingly with different atmospheric conditions in particular months, changing state of weather on a given day, and anthropogenic activity. The appearance of these conditions results in different levels of air pollution characteristic for a given period. The study uses data collected during a seven-year period (2009-2015) in the automatic measuring station of immissions located in Eastern Wielkopolska. The analysis concerns the average and maximum values of air pollution (i.e., particulate matter PM10, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and ozone) from the perspective of their occurrence in particular seasons and months or in relation to meteorological actors such as temperature, humidity, and wind speed.

  15. Molecule of the Month

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 2. Molecule of the Month Isomers of Benzene - Still Pursuing Dreams. J Chandrasekhar. Feature Article Volume 1 Issue 2 February 1996 pp 80-83. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  16. Molecule of the Month

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 12. Molecule of the Month - A Stable Dibismuthene - A Compound with a Bi-Bi Double Bond. V Chandrasekhar. Volume 16 ... Author Affiliations. V Chandrasekhar1. Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208 016, India.

  17. Monthly energy review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This document presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors.

  18. Photos of the month

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira

    Congratulations to Adele Rimoldi, ATLAS physicist from Pavia, who ran her first marathon in New York last month. Adele completed the 42.2 km in a time of 4:49:19. She sure makes it look easy!!! The ATLAS pixel service quarter panel in SR1

  19. Molecule of the Month

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 5. Molecule of the Month Molecular–Chameleon: Solvatochromism at its Iridescent Best! Photon Rao. Feature Article Volume 2 Issue 5 May 1997 pp 69-72. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  20. Radiation use efficiency and yield of winter wheat under deficit irrigation in North China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, H.; Li, Z.; Ning, T.; Bai, M.; Zhang, X.; Shan, Y.

    2008-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in North China to investigate the effects of deficit irrigation and winter wheat varieties on the photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) capture ration, PAR utilization and grain yield. Field experiments involved Jimai 20 (J; high yield variety) and Lainong 0153 (L; dryland variety) with non-irrigation and irrigated at the jointing stage. The results showed that whether irrigated at jointing stage or not, there was no significant difference between J and L with respect to the amount of PAR intercepted by the winter wheat canopies. However, significant differences were observed between the varieties with respect to the amount of PAR intercepted by plants that were 60-80 cm above the ground surface. This result was mainly caused by the changes in the vertical distributions of leaf area index. As a result, the effects of the varieties and deficit irrigation on the radiation use efficiency (RUE) and grain yield of winter wheat were due to the vertical distribution of PAR in the winter wheat canopies. During the late growing season of winter wheat, irrespective of the irrigation regime, the RUE and grain yield of J were significantly higher than those of L. These results suggest that a combination of deficit irrigation and a suitable winter wheat variety should be applied in North China

  1. Effect of Postsowing Compaction on Cold and Frost Tolerance of North China Plain Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiyun Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Improper postsowing compaction negatively affects soil temperature and thereby cold and frost tolerance, particularly in extreme cold weather. In North China Plain, the temperature falls to 5 degrees below zero, even lower in winter, which is period for winter wheat growing. Thus improving temperature to promote wheat growth is important in this area. A field experiment from 2013 to 2016 was conducted to evaluate effects of postsowing compaction on soil temperature and plant population of wheat at different stages during wintering period. The effect of three postsowing compaction methods—(1 compacting wheel (CW, (2 crosskill roller (CR, and (3 V-shaped compacting roller after crosskill roller (VCRCR—on winter soil temperatures and relation to wheat shoot growth parameters were measured. Results showed that the highest soil midwinter temperature was in the CW treatment. In the 20 cm and 40 cm soil layer, soil temperatures were ranked in the following order of CW > VCRCR > CR. Shoot numbers under CW, CR, and VCRCR treatments were statistically 12.40% and 8.18% higher under CW treatment compared to CR or VCRCR treatments at the end of wintering period. The higher soil temperature under CW treatment resulted in higher shoot number at the end of wintering period, apparently due to reduced shoot death by cold and frost damage.

  2. Nuclear winter - a calculative experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, V.B.; Stenchikov, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    Using a hydrodynamic model of the Earth climate the climatic consequences following carbon dioxide concentration augmentation in the Earth atmosphere, effects of aerosol contamination and solar constant variation due to the use of nuclear weapon are studied. Results of studying the sensitivity of average annual climatic regime of the atmosphere and ocean general circulation to a sudde extremely strong, long-term change in optical properties of the air in the short-wave portion of the spectrum are discussed. These changes could be caused by contamination of the atmosphere with dust during a nuclear conflict and soot resulting from fires. It is shown, that after nuclear war according to practically any scenario, people who would survive the first blow will find themselves in conditions of a severe cold, darkness, absence of water, food and fuel under the effect of a powerful radiation, contaminants, diseases and under extreme pycological stress

  3. [Winter sport injuries in childhood (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausbrandt, D; Höllwarth, M; Ritter, G

    1979-01-01

    3374 accidents occurring on the field of sport during the years 1975--1977 accounted for 19% of all accidents dealt with at the Institute of Kinderchirurgie in Graz. 51% of the accidents were caused by the typical winter sports: skiing, tobogganing, ice-skating and ski-jumping with skiing accounting for 75% of the accidents. The fracture localization typical of the different kinds of winter sport is dealt with in detail. The correct size and safety of the equipment were found to be particularly important in the prevention of such accidents in childhood.

  4. Mechanical weed control in organic winter wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Euro Pannacci; Francesco Tei; Marcello Guiducci

    2017-01-01

    Three field experiments were carried out in organic winter wheat in three consecutive years (exp. 1, 2005-06; exp. 2, 2006- 07; exp. 3, 2007-08) in central Italy (42°57’ N - 12°22’ E, 165 m a.s.l.) in order to evaluate the efficacy against weeds and the effects on winter wheat of two main mechanical weed control strategies: i) spring tine harrowing used at three different application times (1 passage at T1, 2 passages at the time T1, 1 passage at T1 followed by 1 passage at T1 + 14 days) in t...

  5. Nuclear winter: The evidence and the risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, O.

    1985-01-01

    Global concern over nuclear extinction, centered on the holocaust itself, now has turned to the more terrifying consequences of a post-war nuclear winter: ''the long-term effects - destruction of the environment, spread of epidemic diseases, contamination by radioactivity, and ... collapse of agriculture-(that) would spread famine and death to every country.'' Nuclear Winter, the latest in a series of studies by a number of different groups is clinical, analytical, systematic, and detailed. Two physicists and biologist analyze the effects on the climate, plants, animals, and living systems; the human costs; the policy implications.

  6. Nuclear winter: The evidence and the risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, O.

    1985-01-01

    Global concern over nuclear extinction, centered on the holocaust itself, now has turned to the more terrifying consequences of a post-war nuclear winter: ''the long-term effects - destruction of the environment, spread of epidemic diseases, contamination by radioactivity, and ... collapse of agriculture-[that] would spread famine and death to every country.'' Nuclear Winter, the latest in a series of studies by a number of different groups is clinical, analytical, systematic, and detailed. Two physicists and biologist analyze the effects on the climate, plants, animals, and living systems; the human costs; the policy implications

  7. Simulating the influences of various fire regimes on caribou winter habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, T. Scott; Olson, Mark; Adams, Layne G.; Dale, Bruce W.; Joly, Kyle; Henkelman, Jonathan; Collins, William B.; Starfield, Anthony M.

    2006-01-01

    Caribou are an integral component of high‐latitude ecosystems and represent a major subsistence food source for many northern people. The availability and quality of winter habitat is critical to sustain these caribou populations. Caribou commonly use older spruce woodlands with adequate terrestrial lichen, a preferred winter forage, in the understory. Changes in climate and fire regime pose a significant threat to the long‐term sustainability of this important winter habitat. Computer simulations performed with a spatially explicit vegetation succession model (ALFRESCO) indicate that changes in the frequency and extent of fire in interior Alaska may substantially impact the abundance and quality of winter habitat for caribou. We modeled four different fire scenarios and tracked the frequency, extent, and spatial distribution of the simulated fires and associated changes to vegetation composition and distribution. Our results suggest that shorter fire frequencies (i.e., less time between recurring fires) on the winter range of the Nelchina caribou herd in eastern interior Alaska will result in large decreases of available winter habitat, relative to that currently available, in both the short and long term. A 30% shortening of the fire frequency resulted in a 3.5‐fold increase in the area burned annually and an associated 41% decrease in the amount of spruce–lichen forest found on the landscape. More importantly, simulations with more frequent fires produced a relatively immature forest age structure, compared to that which currently exists, with few stands older than 100 years. This age structure is at the lower limits of stand age classes preferred by caribou from the Nelchina herd. Projected changes in fire regime due to climate warming and/or additional prescribed burning could substantially alter the winter habitat of caribou in interior Alaska and lead to changes in winter range use and/or population dynamics.

  8. Bulimia and anorexia nervosa in winter depression: lifetime rates in a clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, N P; Dilsaver, S C

    1996-01-01

    Symptoms of an eating disorder (hyperphagia, carbohydrate craving, and weight gain) are characteristic of wintertime depression. Recent findings suggest that the severity of bulimia nervosa peaks during fall and winter months, and that persons with this disorder respond to treatment with bright artificial light. However, the rates of eating disorders among patients presenting for the treatment of winter depression are unknown. This study was undertaken to determine these rates among 47 patients meeting the DSM-III-R criteria for major depression with a seasonal pattern. All were evaluated using standard clinical interviews and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R. Twelve (25.5%) patients met the DSM-III-R criteria for an eating disorder. Eleven patients had onset of mood disorder during childhood or adolescence. The eating disorder followed the onset of the mood disorder. Clinicians should inquire about current and past symptoms of eating disorders when evaluating patients with winter depression. PMID:8580121

  9. Influence of age and sex on winter site fidelity of sanderlings Calidris alba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro M. Lourenço

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Many migratory bird species show high levels of site fidelity to their wintering sites, which confers advantages due to prior knowledge, but may also limit the ability of the individual to move away from degrading sites or to detect alternative foraging opportunities. Winter site fidelity often varies among age groups, but sexual differences have seldom been recorded in birds. We studied a population of individually colour-marked sanderlings wintering in and around the Tejo estuary, a large estuarine wetland on the western coast of Portugal. For 160 individuals, sighted a total of 1,249 times between November 2009 and March 2013, we calculated the probability that they moved among five distinct wintering sites and how this probability is affected by distance between them. To compare site fidelity among age classes and sexes, as well as within the same winter and over multiple winters, we used a Site Fidelity Index (SFI. Birds were sexed using a discriminant function based on biometrics of a large set of molecularly sexed sanderlings (n = 990. The vast majority of birds were observed at one site only, and the probability of the few detected movements between sites was negatively correlated with the distance among each pair of sites. Hardly any movements were recorded over more than 15 km, suggesting small home ranges. SFI values indicated that juveniles were less site-faithful than adults which may reflect the accumulated knowledge and/or dominance of older animals. Among adults, females were significantly less site faithful than males. A sexual difference in winter site fidelity is unusual in shorebirds. SFI values show site-faithfulness is lower when multiple winters were considered, and most birds seem to chose a wintering site early in the season and use that site throughout the winter. Sanderlings show a very limited tendency to explore alternative wintering options, which might have implications for their survival when facing habitat change

  10. Regionalization of monthly rainfall erosivity patternsin Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Simon; Alewell, Christine; Panagos, Panos; Meusburger, Katrin

    2016-10-01

    One major controlling factor of water erosion is rainfall erosivity, which is quantified as the product of total storm energy and a maximum 30 min intensity (I30). Rainfall erosivity is often expressed as R-factor in soil erosion risk models like the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and its revised version (RUSLE). As rainfall erosivity is closely correlated with rainfall amount and intensity, the rainfall erosivity of Switzerland can be expected to have a regional characteristic and seasonal dynamic throughout the year. This intra-annual variability was mapped by a monthly modeling approach to assess simultaneously spatial and monthly patterns of rainfall erosivity. So far only national seasonal means and regional annual means exist for Switzerland. We used a network of 87 precipitation gauging stations with a 10 min temporal resolution to calculate long-term monthly mean R-factors. Stepwise generalized linear regression (GLM) and leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) were used to select spatial covariates which explain the spatial and temporal patterns of the R-factor for each month across Switzerland. The monthly R-factor is mapped by summarizing the predicted R-factor of the regression equation and the corresponding residues of the regression, which are interpolated by ordinary kriging (regression-kriging). As spatial covariates, a variety of precipitation indicator data has been included such as snow depths, a combination product of hourly precipitation measurements and radar observations (CombiPrecip), daily Alpine precipitation (EURO4M-APGD), and monthly precipitation sums (RhiresM). Topographic parameters (elevation, slope) were also significant explanatory variables for single months. The comparison of the 12 monthly rainfall erosivity maps showed a distinct seasonality with the highest rainfall erosivity in summer (June, July, and August) influenced by intense rainfall events. Winter months have the lowest rainfall erosivity. A proportion of 62 % of

  11. Impact of change in winter strategy of one parasitoid species on the diversity and function of a guild of parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Thiago Oliveira; Krespi, Liliane; Bonnardot, Valérie; van Baaren, Joan; Outreman, Yannick

    2016-03-01

    The rise of temperatures may enable species to increase their activities during winter periods and to occupy new areas. In winter, resource density is low for most species and an increased number of active consumers during this season may produce heightened competitive pressure. In Western France, the aphid parasitoid species Aphidius avenae Haliday has been known to adopt a winter diapausing strategy adjacent to newly sown cereal crops, until recent reports of active winter populations in cereal crops. We investigate how the addition of this species to the winter guild of parasitoids may change the structure of the aphid-parasitoid food web and the host-exploitation strategies of previously occurring parasitoids. We showed that in winter, Aphidius avenae was mostly associated with two aphid species, Sitobion avenae Fabricius and Metopolophium dirhodum Walker, while the generalist species Aphidius rhopalosiphi was restricted to the aphid species Rhopalosiphum padi L. in the presence of Aphidius avenae. Due to this new competition, winter food webs present a higher degree of compartmentalization and lower proportional similarity index values than spring ones. Parasitoid and aphid abundances responded significantly to changes in daily high temperatures, suggesting that the host-parasitoid community structure can be partly predicted by climate. This study demonstrates how a change in the winter strategy of one species of a guild can modify complex interspecific relationships in host-parasitoid systems.

  12. Electric power monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Sandra R.; Johnson, Melvin; McClevey, Kenneth; Calopedis, Stephen; Bolden, Deborah

    1992-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, new generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  13. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  14. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PPM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o. b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  15. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  16. Electric power monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Electric Power Monthly (EPM) for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source, consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead.

  17. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Illness Prevention and Sun Safety. “Sun Safety.” https:// phc.amedd.army.mil/ topics /discond/hipss/Pages/ SunSafety.aspx. Accessed on 7 December 2016. 22...febrile illness; however, after its wide- spread introduction into immunologically MSMR Vol. 23 No. 12 December 2016 Page 8 naïve populations, a...October 2016 (data as of 22 November 2016) MSMR’s Invitation to Readers Medical Surveillance Monthly Report (MSMR) invites readers to submit topics for

  18. Impact of the Dominant Large-scale Teleconnections on Winter Temperature Variability over East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Young-Kwon; Kim, Hae-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Monthly mean geopotential height for the past 33 DJF seasons archived in Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications reanalysis is decomposed into the large-scale teleconnection patterns to explain their impacts on winter temperature variability over East Asia. Following Arctic Oscillation (AO) that explains the largest variance, East Atlantic/West Russia (EA/WR), West Pacific (WP) and El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are identified as the first four leading modes that significantly explain East Asian winter temperature variation. While the northern part of East Asia north of 50N is prevailed by AO and EA/WR impacts, temperature in the midlatitudes (30N-50N), which include Mongolia, northeastern China, Shandong area, Korea, and Japan, is influenced by combined effect of the four leading teleconnections. ENSO impact on average over 33 winters is relatively weaker than the impact of the other three teleconnections. WP impact, which has received less attention than ENSO in earlier studies, characterizes winter temperatures over Korea, Japan, and central to southern China region south of 30N mainly by advective process from the Pacific. Upper level wave activity fluxes reveal that, for the AO case, the height and circulation anomalies affecting midlatitude East Asian winter temperature is mainly located at higher latitudes north of East Asia. Distribution of the fluxes also explains that the stationary wave train associated with EA/WR propagates southeastward from the western Russia, affecting the East Asian winter temperature. Investigation on the impact of each teleconnection for the selected years reveals that the most dominant teleconnection over East Asia is not the same at all years, indicating a great deal of interannual variability. Comparison in temperature anomaly distributions between observation and temperature anomaly constructed using the combined effect of four leading teleconnections clearly show a reasonable consistency between

  19. Physical activity levels of community-dwelling older adults are influenced by winter weather variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G R; Brandon, C; Gill, D P

    2017-07-01

    Winter weather conditions may negatively influence participation of older adults in daily physical activity (PA). Assess the influence of winter meteorological variables, day-time peak ambient temperature, windchill, humidity, and snow accumulation on the ground to accelerometer measured PA values in older adults. 50 community-dwelling older adults (77.4±4.7yrs; range 71-89; 12 females) living in Southwestern Ontario (Latitude 42.9°N Longitude 81.2° W) Canada, wore a waist-borne accelerometer during active waking hours (12h) for 7 consecutive days between February and April 2007. Hourly temperature, windchill, humidity, and snowfall accumulation were obtained from meteorological records and time locked to hourly accelerometer PA values. Regression analysis revealed significant relationships between time of day, ambient daytime high temperature and a humidity for participation in PA. Windchill temperature added no additional influence over PA acclamation already influenced by ambient day-time temperature and the observed variability in PA patterns relative to snow accumulation over the study period was too great to warrant its inclusion in the model. Most PA was completed in the morning hours and increased as the winter month's transitioned to spring (February through April). An equation was developed to adjust for winter weather conditions using temperature, humidity and time of day. Accurate PA assessment during the winter months must account for the ambient daytime high temperatures, humidity, and time of day. These older adults were more physically active during the morning hours and became more active as the winter season transitioned to spring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Winter cooling in the northern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Prasad, T.G.

    forcing that leads to the observed high productivity during winter in the northern Arabian Sea. The weak northerly winds and increased solar insolation during the inter-monsoon period, led to the development of a highly stratified upper layer with warm sea...

  1. Winter mortality in relation to climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keatinge, W. R.; Donaldson, G. C.; Bucher, K.; Jendritzky, G.; Cordioli, E.; Martinelli, M.; Katsouyanni, K.; Kunst, A. E.; McDonald, C.; Näyhä, S.; Vuori, I.

    2000-01-01

    We report further details of the Eurowinter survey of cold related mortalities and protective measures against cold in seven regions of Europe, and review these with other evidence on the relationship of winter mortality to climate. Data for the oldest subject group studied, aged 65-74, showed that

  2. Come back on the french gas winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The document analyzes the french gas market behavior during the winter 2005/2006: the gas consumption, the imports decrease was offset by the the liquefied natural gas supply increase at Fos, the stocks levels and the transparency of the information. (A.L.B.)

  3. Winter Wheat Root Growth and Nitrogen Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Irene Skovby

    in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L). Field experiments on the effect of sowing date, N fertilization and cultivars were conducted on a sandy loam soil in Taastrup, Denmark. The root studies were conducted by means of the minirhizotron method. Also, a field experiment on the effect of defoliation and N...

  4. Stay Safe and Healthy This Winter!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-11-23

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics offer some simple ways to stay safe and healthy during the winter holiday season.  Created: 11/23/2010 by CDC Office of Women’s Health.   Date Released: 11/23/2010.

  5. Winter Video Series Coming in January | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Scientific Library’s annual Summer Video Series was so successful that it will be offering a new Winter Video Series beginning in January. For this inaugural event, the staff is showing the eight-part series from National Geographic titled “American Genius.” 

  6. Music Activities for Lemonade in Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2014-01-01

    "Lemonade in Winter: A Book About Two Kids Counting Money" is a children's book about math; however, when sharing it in the music classroom, street cries and clapping games emerge. Jenkins' and Karas' book provides a springboard to lessons addressing several music elements, including form, tempo, and rhythm, as well as…

  7. Winter Secrets: An Instant Lesson Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collyer, Cam

    1997-01-01

    Outdoor lesson plan aims to stimulate student interest in animals' adaptations to winter and the various signs and clues to animal behavior. Includes questions for class discussion, tips for guiding the hike, and instructions for two games that illustrate the predator-prey relationship. Notes curriculum connections to the East York (Ontario) Board…

  8. Modeling winter moth Operophtera brumata egg phenology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salis, Lucia; Lof, Marjolein; Asch, van Margriet; Visser, Marcel E.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between an insect's developmental rate and temperature is crucial to forecast insect phenology under climate change. In the winter moth Operophtera brumata timing of egg-hatching has severe fitness consequences on growth and reproduction as egg-hatching has to match

  9. Rule Optimization monthly reservoir operation Salvajina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval Garcia, Maria Clemencia; Santacruz Salazar, Santiago; Ramirez Callejas, Carlos A

    2007-01-01

    In the present study a model was designed for the optimization of the rule for monthly operation of the Salvajina dam (Colombia) based in the technology) of dynamic programming. The model maximizes the benefits for electric power generation, ensuring at the same time flood regulation in winter and pollution relief during the summer. For the optimization of the rule of operation, it was necessary to define the levels and volumes of reserve and holding required for the control of flood zones in the Cauca river and to provide an effluent minimal flow and assure a daily flow at the Juanchito station (located 141 km downstream from the dam) of the Cauca river, 90 % of the time during the most critical summer periods.

  10. Interannual control of plankton communities by deep winter mixing and prey/predator interactions in the NW Mediterranean: Results from a 30-year 3D modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, P. A.; Ulses, C.; Estournel, C.; Stemmann, L.; Somot, S.; Diaz, F.

    2014-05-01

    A realistic modeling approach is designed to address the role of winter mixing on the interannual variability of plankton dynamics in the north-western (NW) Mediterranean basin. For the first time, a high-resolution coupled hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model (Eco3m-S) covering a 30-year period (1976-2005) is validated on available in situ and satellite data for the NW Mediterranean. In this region, cold, dry winds in winter often lead to deep convection and strong upwelling of nutrients into the euphotic layer. High nutrient contents at the end of winter then support the development of a strong spring bloom of phytoplankton. Model results indicate that annual primary production is not affected by winter mixing due to seasonal balance (minimum in winter and maximum in spring). However, the total annual water column-integrated phytoplankton biomass appears to be favored by winter mixing because zooplankton grazing activity is low in winter and early spring. This reduced grazing is explained here by the rarefaction of prey due to both light limitation and the effect of mixing-induced dilution on prey/predator interactions. A negative impact of winter mixing on winter zooplankton biomass is generally simulated except for mesozooplankton. This difference is assumed to stem from the lower parameterized mortality, top trophic position and detritivorous diet of mesozooplankton in the model. Moreover, model suggests that the variability of annual mesozooplankton biomass is principally modulated by the effects of winter mixing on winter biomass. Thus, interannual variability of winter nutrient contents in the euphotic layer, resulting from winter mixing, would control spring primary production and thus annual mesozooplankton biomass. Our results show a bottom-up control of mesozooplankton communities, as observed at a coastal location of the Ligurian Sea.

  11. Winter Arctic sea ice growth: current variability and projections for the coming decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, A.; Boisvert, L.; Webster, M.; Holland, M. M.; Bailey, D. A.; Kurtz, N. T.; Markus, T.

    2017-12-01

    Arctic sea ice increases in both extent and thickness during the cold winter months ( October to May). Winter sea ice growth is an important factor controlling ocean ventilation and winter water/deep water formation, as well as determining the state and vulnerability of the sea ice pack before the melt season begins. Key questions for the Arctic community thus include: (i) what is the current magnitude and variability of winter Arctic sea ice growth and (ii) how might this change in a warming Arctic climate? To address (i), our current best guess of pan-Arctic sea ice thickness, and thus volume, comes from satellite altimetry observations, e.g. from ESA's CryoSat-2 satellite. A significant source of uncertainty in these data come from poor knowledge of the overlying snow depth. Here we present new estimates of winter sea ice thickness from CryoSat-2 using snow depths from a simple snow model forced by reanalyses and satellite-derived ice drift estimates, combined with snow depth estimates from NASA's Operation IceBridge. To address (ii), we use data from the Community Earth System Model's Large Ensemble Project, to explore sea ice volume and growth variability, and how this variability might change over the coming decades. We compare and contrast the model simulations to observations and the PIOMAS ice-ocean model (over recent years/decades). The combination of model and observational analysis provide novel insight into Arctic sea ice volume variability.

  12. Food preferences of winter bird communities in different forest types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swen C Renner

    Full Text Available Food availability for forest birds is a function of habitat type, forest management regime, and season. In winter, it is also impacted by variations in the weather. In the current study we assessed the food preferences of wild bird populations in two types of forest (spruce and beech during the months of November 2010 to April 2011 in the Schwäbische Alb Biodiversity Exploratory, south-western Germany. Our aim was to investigate whether local bird communities preferred fat-rich, carbohydrate-rich or wild fruits and to determine how forest structure, seasonality and local weather conditions affected food preferences. We found higher bird activity in beech forests for the eleven resident species. We observed a clear preference for fat-rich food for all birds in both forest types. Snow cover affected activity at food stations but did not affect food preferences. Periods of extreme low temperatures increased activity.

  13. Winter flooding of California rice fields reduces immature populations of Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in the spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaee, Mohammad-Amir; Godfrey, Larry D

    2017-07-01

    In California, rice fields are flooded over the winter months (November to March) to facilitate degradation of post-harvest rice straw and to provide temporary habitat for migratory waterfowl. Prior research showed that winter flood rice fields had fewer rice water weevil (Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus), larvae and pupae during the rice production season than fields that were left unflooded in the winter. A series of experiments were conducted to provide further support for these trends under controlled conditions and to find a mechanism for this phenomenon. Under winter flooded conditions there was a 50% reduction in populations of weevil immatures compared with the untreated control (no straw or winter flood). These same conditions corresponded to a 20% increase in the amount of silicon found in plant tissues in 2014 and a 39 to 90% decrease in methane production in the soil from 2013 to 2014, respectively. Evidence from previous field research and these controlled studies supports winter flooding as an appropriate tactic for controlling L. oryzophilus populations in the spring. However, the mechanism that would explain why winter flooding adversely affects L. oryzophilus immatures remains unclear. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Sex-specific responses to winter flooding, spring waterlogging and post-flooding recovery in Populus deltoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Ling-Feng; Yang, Fan; Han, Chun-Yu; Pu, Yu-Jin; Ding, Yang; Zhang, Li-Jia

    2017-05-31

    Winter flooding events are common in some rivers and streams due to dam constructions, and flooding and waterlogging inhibit the growth of trees in riparian zones. This study investigated sex-specific morphological, physiological and ultrastructural responses to various durations of winter flooding and spring waterlogging stresses, and post-flooding recovery characteristics in Populus deltoides. There were no significant differences in the morphological, ultrastructural and the majority of physiological traits in trees subjected to medium and severe winter flooding stresses, suggesting that males and females of P. deltoides were winter flooding tolerant, and insensitive to winter flooding duration. Males were more tolerant to winter flooding stress in terms of photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence than females. Females displayed greater oxidative damage due to flooding stress than males. Males developed more efficient antioxidant enzymatic systems to control reactive oxygen species. Both sexes had similarly strong post-flooding recovery capabilities in terms of plant growth, and physiological and ultrastructural parameters. However, Males had better recovery capabilities in terms of pigment content. These results increase the understanding of poplars's adaptation to winter flooding stress. They also elucidate sex-specific differences in response to flooding stress during the dormant season, and during post-flooding recovery periods.

  15. Winter-swimming as a building-up body resistance factor inducing adaptive changes in the oxidant/antioxidant status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubkowska, Anna; Dołęgowska, Barbara; Szyguła, Zbigniew; Bryczkowska, Iwona; Stańczyk-Dunaj, Małgorzata; Sałata, Daria; Budkowska, Marta

    2013-01-01

    The aim of our research was to examine whether winter-swimming for five consecutive months results in adaptational changes improving tolerance to stress induced by exposure to cryogenic temperatures during whole-body cryostimulation (WBC). The research involved 15 healthy men, with normal bodyweight, who had never been subjected to either WBC or cold water immersion. During the experiment, the participants were twice subjected to WBC (3 min/- 130°C), namely before the winter-swimming season and after the season. Blood was taken seven times: In the morning before each cryostimulation, 30 min after each cryostimulation and the next morning. Additionally, control blood was collected in the middle of the winter season, in February. Our analysis concerned changes in hematological parameters as well as in reduced glutathione and oxidized glutathione, total oxidant status, total antioxidant status and in components of the antioxidant system: Superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase and 8-Isoprostanes as a sensitive indicator of oxidative stress. We found significant changes in hemoglobin concentration, the number of red blood cells, the hematocrit index and mean corpuscular volume of red blood cell and the percentage of monocytes and granulocytes after the winter swimming season. The response to cryogenic temperatures was milder after five months of winter-swimming. The obtained results may indicate positive adaptive changes in the antioxidant system of healthy winter-swimmers. These changes seem to increase the readiness of the human body to stress factors.

  16. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data.

  17. Simulating the impact of the entrainment of winter flounder larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, K.W.; Sissenwine, M.P.; Saila, S.B.

    1975-01-01

    The transport of winter flounder larvae around the Millstone Point, Conn. Area by the action of tidal currents and diffusion was simulated by computer to predict the numbers which could be entrained during the operation of a local nuclear power station. A tidal hydrodynamic model with variable depth was employed to simulate currents and water levels. These techniques provided input to a transport model which simulated the concentration of larvae. A larval source in a tributary river was simulated for twenty tidal cycles, with and without entrainment. The results indicated that the reduction in winter flounder larvae near Millstone Point at the end of the pelagic stage (period during which larvae are likely to be entrained) was less than 1 percent when it was assumed that larvae have little chance of returning once lost from Millstone bight. In order to assess the effect of a 1 percent reduction in recruitment of winter flounder larvae to the benthic phase of their life cycle, the local population was simulated by a model in which year-classes and the total egg production were represented by compartments. Each year-class grew, produced eggs, suffered natural and fishing mortality according to information derived from the literature. The effect of power plant entrainment was incorporated by reducing the number of recruits to year-class I that would normally result from a specific level of egg production. For a 1 percent reduction in recruitment due to power plant entrainment, a potential 6 percent decrease in total population size following 35 years of operation was indicated. (U.S.)

  18. Seasonal overturning circulation in the Red Sea: 2. Winter circulation

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Fengchao

    2014-04-01

    The shallow winter overturning circulation in the Red Sea is studied using a 50 year high-resolution MITgcm (MIT general circulation model) simulation with realistic atmospheric forcing. The overturning circulation for a typical year, represented by 1980, and the climatological mean are analyzed using model output to delineate the three-dimensional structure and to investigate the underlying dynamical mechanisms. The horizontal model circulation in the winter of 1980 is dominated by energetic eddies. The climatological model mean results suggest that the surface inflow intensifies in a western boundary current in the southern Red Sea that switches to an eastern boundary current north of 24N. The overturning is accomplished through a cyclonic recirculation and a cross-basin overturning circulation in the northern Red Sea, with major sinking occurring along a narrow band of width about 20 km along the eastern boundary and weaker upwelling along the western boundary. The northward pressure gradient force, strong vertical mixing, and horizontal mixing near the boundary are the essential dynamical components in the model\\'s winter overturning circulation. The simulated water exchange is not hydraulically controlled in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb; instead, the exchange is limited by bottom and lateral boundary friction and, to a lesser extent, by interfacial friction due to the vertical viscosity at the interface between the inflow and the outflow. Key Points Sinking occurs in a narrow boundary layer along the eastern boundary Surface western boundary current switches into an eastern boundary current Water exchange in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb is not hydraulically controlled © 2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Long-term variability in Northern Hemisphere snow cover and associations with warmer winters

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Gregory J.; Wolock, David M.

    2010-01-01

    A monthly snow accumulation and melt model is used with gridded monthly temperature and precipitation data for the Northern Hemisphere to generate time series of March snow-covered area (SCA) for the period 1905 through 2002. The time series of estimated SCA for March is verified by comparison with previously published time series of SCA for the Northern Hemisphere. The time series of estimated Northern Hemisphere March SCA shows a substantial decrease since about 1970, and this decrease corresponds to an increase in mean winter Northern Hemisphere temperature. The increase in winter temperature has caused a decrease in the fraction of precipitation that occurs as snow and an increase in snowmelt for some parts of the Northern Hemisphere, particularly the mid-latitudes, thus reducing snow packs and March SCA. In addition, the increase in winter temperature and the decreases in SCA appear to be associated with a contraction of the circumpolar vortex and a poleward movement of storm tracks, resulting in decreased precipitation (and snow) in the low- to mid-latitudes and an increase in precipitation (and snow) in high latitudes. If Northern Hemisphere winter temperatures continue to warm as they have since the 1970s, then March SCA will likely continue to decrease.

  20. Bar-tailed Godwits Limosa l. lapponica eat polychaete worms wherever they winter in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijns, Sjoerd; Hidayati, Nur Annis; Piersma, Theunis

    2013-01-01

    Capsule: Across the European wintering range Bar-tailed Godwits Limosa lapponica lapponica selected polychaete worms and especially Ragworms Hediste diversicolor, with differences between areas due to variations in prey availability. Aims: To determine the diet of Bar-tailed Godwits across their

  1. Winter climate variability and classification in the Bulgarian Mountainous Regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkova, Nadezhda; Koleva, Ekaterina

    2004-01-01

    The problems of snowiness and thermal conditions of winters are of high interest of investigations because of the more frequent droughts, occurred in the region. In the present study an attempt to reveal tendencies existing during the last 70 years of 20 th century in the course winter precipitation and,temperature as well as in some of the snow cover parameters. On the base of mean winter air temperature winters in the Bulgarian mountains were analyzed and classified. The main results of the study show that winter precipitation has decrease tendencies more significant in the highest parts of the mountains. On the other hand winter air temperature increases. It shows a relatively well-established maximum at the end of the studied period. In the Bulgarian mountains normal winters are about 35-40% of all winters. (Author)

  2. Sex-specific responses to winter flooding, spring waterlogging and post-flooding recovery in Populus deltoides

    OpenAIRE

    Ling-Feng Miao; Fan Yang; Chun-Yu Han; Yu-Jin Pu; Yang Ding; Li-Jia Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Winter flooding events are common in some rivers and streams due to dam constructions, and flooding and waterlogging inhibit the growth of trees in riparian zones. This study investigated sex-specific morphological, physiological and ultrastructural responses to various durations of winter flooding and spring waterlogging stresses, and post-flooding recovery characteristics in Populus deltoides. There were no significant differences in the morphological, ultrastructural and the majority of ph...

  3. AGA predicts winter jump in residential gas price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The American Gas Association predicts the average heating bill for residential gas consumers could increase by as much as 18% this winter. AGA Pres. Mike Baly said, Last year's winter was warmer than normal. If the 1992-93 winter is similar, AGA projects that residential natural gas heating bills will go up about 6%. If we see a return to normal winter weather, our projection show the average bill could rise by almost 18%

  4. Sources and contributions of wood smoke during winter in London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crilley, Leigh; Bloss, William; Yin, Jianxin; Beddows, David; Harrison, Roy; Zotter, Peter; Prevot, Andre; Green, David

    2014-05-01

    Determining the contribution of wood smoke in large urban centres such as London is becoming increasingly important with the changing nature of domestic heating partly due to the installation of biomass burning heaters to meet renewable energy targets imposed by the EU and also a rise in so-called recreational burning for aesthetic reasons (Fuller et al., 2013). Recent work in large urban centres (London, Paris and Berlin) has demonstrated an increase in the contribution of wood smoke to ambient particles during winter that can at times exceed traffic emissions. In Europe, biomass burning has been identified as a major cause of exceedances of European air quality limits during winter (Fuller et al., 2013). In light of the changing nature of emissions in urban areas there is a need for on-going measurements to assess the impact of biomass burning in cities like London. Therefore we aimed to determine quantitatively the contribution of biomass burning in London and surrounding rural areas. We also aimed to determine whether local emissions or regional sources were the main source of biomass burning in London. Sources of wood smoke during winter in London were investigated at an urban background site (North Kensington) and two surrounding rural sites (Harwell and Detling) by analysing selected wood smoke chemical tracers. Concentrations of levoglucosan, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC) and K+ were generally well correlated, indicating a similar source of these species at the three sites. Based on the conversion factor for levoglucosan, mean wood smoke mass at Detling, North Kensington and Harwell was 0.78, 0.87 and 1.0 µg m-3, respectively. At all the sites, biomass burning was found to be a source of OC and EC, with the largest source of OC and EC found to be secondary organic aerosols and traffic emissions, respectively. Peaks in levoglucosan concentrations at the sites were observed to coincide with low ambient temperature, suggesting domestic heating as

  5. Benchmarking monthly homogenization algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venema, V. K. C.; Mestre, O.; Aguilar, E.; Auer, I.; Guijarro, J. A.; Domonkos, P.; Vertacnik, G.; Szentimrey, T.; Stepanek, P.; Zahradnicek, P.; Viarre, J.; Müller-Westermeier, G.; Lakatos, M.; Williams, C. N.; Menne, M.; Lindau, R.; Rasol, D.; Rustemeier, E.; Kolokythas, K.; Marinova, T.; Andresen, L.; Acquaotta, F.; Fratianni, S.; Cheval, S.; Klancar, M.; Brunetti, M.; Gruber, C.; Prohom Duran, M.; Likso, T.; Esteban, P.; Brandsma, T.

    2011-08-01

    The COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) Action ES0601: Advances in homogenization methods of climate series: an integrated approach (HOME) has executed a blind intercomparison and validation study for monthly homogenization algorithms. Time series of monthly temperature and precipitation were evaluated because of their importance for climate studies and because they represent two important types of statistics (additive and multiplicative). The algorithms were validated against a realistic benchmark dataset. The benchmark contains real inhomogeneous data as well as simulated data with inserted inhomogeneities. Random break-type inhomogeneities were added to the simulated datasets modeled as a Poisson process with normally distributed breakpoint sizes. To approximate real world conditions, breaks were introduced that occur simultaneously in multiple station series within a simulated network of station data. The simulated time series also contained outliers, missing data periods and local station trends. Further, a stochastic nonlinear global (network-wide) trend was added. Participants provided 25 separate homogenized contributions as part of the blind study as well as 22 additional solutions submitted after the details of the imposed inhomogeneities were revealed. These homogenized datasets were assessed by a number of performance metrics including (i) the centered root mean square error relative to the true homogeneous value at various averaging scales, (ii) the error in linear trend estimates and (iii) traditional contingency skill scores. The metrics were computed both using the individual station series as well as the network average regional series. The performance of the contributions depends significantly on the error metric considered. Contingency scores by themselves are not very informative. Although relative homogenization algorithms typically improve the homogeneity of temperature data, only the best ones improve precipitation data

  6. The seesaw effect of winter temperature change on the recruitment of cotton bollworms Helicoverpa armigera through mismatched phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Gadi V P; Shi, Peijian; Hui, Cang; Cheng, Xiaofei; Ouyang, Fang; Ge, Feng

    2015-12-01

    Knowing how climate change affects the population dynamics of insect pests is critical for the future of integrated pest management. Rising winter temperatures from global warming can drive increases in outbreaks of some agricultural pests. In contrast, here we propose an alternative hypothesis that both extremely cold and warm winters can mismatch the timing between the eclosion of overwintering pests and the flowering of key host plants. As host plants normally need higher effective cumulative temperatures for flowering than insects need for eclosion, changes in flowering time will be less dramatic than changes in eclosion time, leading to a mismatch of phenology on either side of the optimal winter temperature. We term this the "seesaw effect." Using a long-term dataset of the Old World cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in northern China, we tested this seesaw hypothesis by running a generalized additive model for the effects of the third generation moth in the preceding year, the winter air temperature, the number of winter days below a critical temperature and cumulative precipitation during winter on the demography of the overwintering moth. Results confirmed the existence of the seesaw effect of winter temperature change on overwintering populations. Pest management should therefore consider the indirect effect of changing crop phenology (whether due to greenhouse cultivation or to climate change) on pest outbreaks. As arthropods from mid- and high latitudes are actually living in a cooler thermal environment than their physiological optimum in contrast to species from lower latitudes, the effects of rising winter temperatures on the population dynamics of arthropods in the different latitudinal zones should be considered separately. The seesaw effect makes it more difficult to predict the average long-term population dynamics of insect pests at high latitudes due to the potential sharp changes in annual growth rates

  7. Characteristics of foraging sites and protein status in wintering muskoxen: insights from isotopes of nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustine, David D.; Barboza, Perry S.; Lawler, James P.; Arthur, Stephen M.; Shults, Brad S.; Persons, Kate; Adams, Layne G.

    2011-01-01

    Identifying links between nutritional condition of individuals and population trajectories greatly enhances our understanding of the ecology, conservation, and management of wildlife. For northern ungulates, the potential impacts of a changing climate to populations are predicted to be nutritionally mediated through an increase in the severity and variance in winter conditions. Foraging conditions and the availability of body protein as a store for reproduction in late winter may constrain productivity in northern ungulates, yet the link between characteristics of wintering habitats and protein status has not been established for a wild ungulate. We used a non‐invasive proxy of protein status derived from isotopes of N in excreta to evaluate the influence of winter habitats on the protein status of muskoxen in three populations in Alaska (2005–2008). Multiple regression and an information‐theoretic approach were used to compare models that evaluated the influence of population, year, and characteristics of foraging sites (components of diet and physiography) on protein status for groups of muskoxen. The observed variance in protein status among groups of muskoxen across populations and years was partially explained (45%) by local foraging conditions that affected forage availability. Protein status improved for groups of muskoxen as the amount of graminoids in the diet increased (−0.430 ± 0.31, β± 95% CI) and elevation of foraging sites decreased (0.824 ± 0.67). Resources available for reproduction in muskoxen are highly dependent upon demographic, environmental, and physiographic constraints that affect forage availability in winter. Due to their very sedentary nature in winter, muskoxen are highly susceptible to localized foraging conditions; therefore, the spatial variance in resource availability may exert a strong effect on productivity. Consequently, there is a clear need to account for climate–topography effects in winter at multiple scales

  8. Winter predation by insectivorous birds and consequences for arthropods and plants in summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Nicholas A; Wouk, Jennifer

    2012-12-01

    Top-down effects of predators can have important consequences for ecosystems. Insectivorous birds frequently have strong predation effects on herbivores and other arthropods, as well as indirect effects on herbivores' host plants. Diet studies have shown that birds in temperate ecosystems consume arthropods in winter as well as in summer, but experimental studies of bird predation effects have not attempted to quantitatively separate winter predation impacts from those in summer. To understand if winter foraging by insectivorous birds has consequences for arthropods or plants, we performed a meta-analysis of published bird exclusion studies in temperate forest and shrubland habitats. We categorized 85 studies from 41 publications by whether birds were excluded year-round or only in summer, and analyzed arthropod and plant response variables. We also performed a manipulative field experiment in which we used a factorial design to exclude birds from Quercus velutina Lam. saplings in winter and summer, and censused arthropods and herbivore damage in the following growing season. In the meta-analysis, birds had stronger negative effects on herbivores in studies that included winter exclusion, and this effect was not due to study duration. However, this greater predation effect did not translate to a greater impact on plant damage or growth. In the field experiment, winter exclusion did not influence herbivore abundance or their impacts on plants. We have shown that winter feeding by temperate insectivorous birds can have important consequences for insect herbivore populations, but the strength of these effects may vary considerably among ecosystems. A full understanding of the ecological roles of insectivorous birds will require explicit consideration of their foraging in the non-growing season, and we make recommendations for how future studies can address this.

  9. Representation of Northern Hemisphere winter storm tracks in climate models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greeves, C.Z.; Pope, V.D.; Stratton, R.A.; Martin, G.M. [Met Office Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Exeter (United Kingdom)

    2007-06-15

    Northern Hemisphere winter storm tracks are a key element of the winter weather and climate at mid-latitudes. Before projections of climate change are made for these regions, it is necessary to be sure that climate models are able to reproduce the main features of observed storm tracks. The simulated storm tracks are assessed for a variety of Hadley Centre models and are shown to be well modelled on the whole. The atmosphere-only model with the semi-Lagrangian dynamical core produces generally more realistic storm tracks than the model with the Eulerian dynamical core, provided the horizontal resolution is high enough. The two models respond in different ways to changes in horizontal resolution: the model with the semi-Lagrangian dynamical core has much reduced frequency and strength of cyclonic features at lower resolution due to reduced transient eddy kinetic energy. The model with Eulerian dynamical core displays much smaller changes in frequency and strength of features with changes in horizontal resolution, but the location of the storm tracks as well as secondary development are sensitive to resolution. Coupling the atmosphere-only model (with semi-Lagrangian dynamical core) to an ocean model seems to affect the storm tracks largely via errors in the tropical representation. For instance a cold SST bias in the Pacific and a lack of ENSO variability lead to large changes in the Pacific storm track. Extratropical SST biases appear to have a more localised effect on the storm tracks. (orig.)

  10. Intraspecific variation in Pinus pinaster PSII photochemical efficiency in response to winter stress and freezing temperatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyre Corcuera

    Full Text Available As part of a program to select maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait. genotypes for resistance to low winter temperatures, we examined variation in photosystem II activity by chlorophyll fluorescence. Populations and families within populations from contrasting climates were tested during two consecutive winters through two progeny trials, one located at a continental and xeric site and one at a mesic site with Atlantic influence. We also obtained the LT₅₀, or the temperature that causes 50% damage, by controlled freezing and the subsequent analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence in needles and stems that were collected from populations at the continental trial site.P. pinaster showed sensitivity to winter stress at the continental site, during the colder winter. The combination of low temperatures, high solar irradiation and low precipitation caused sustained decreases in maximal photochemical efficiency (F(v/F(m, quantum yield of non-cyclic electron transport (Φ(PSII and photochemical quenching (qP. The variation in photochemical parameters was larger among families than among populations, and population differences appeared only under the harshest conditions at the continental site. As expected, the environmental effects (winter and site on the photochemical parameters were much larger than the genotypic effects (population or family. LT₅₀ was closely related to the minimum winter temperatures of the population's range. The dark-adapted F(v/F(m ratio discriminated clearly between interior and coastal populations.In conclusion, variations in F(v/F(m, Φ(PSII, qP and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ in response to winter stress were primarily due to the differences between the winter conditions and the sites and secondarily due to the differences among families and their interactions with the environment. Populations from continental climates showed higher frost tolerance (LT₅₀ than coastal populations that typically experience mild

  11. School in nature from spring to winter

    OpenAIRE

    MLSOVÁ, Martina

    2012-01-01

    The bachelor's thesis "Outdoor school from spring to winter" deals with the influence of field teaching on the locomotor development of preschool children. Based on specialized literature its theoretical part summarizes the influence of the natural environment on the child's development. It describes the benefits of field teaching, it deals with the term "Outdoor school" nowadays and in the past and with the locomotor development of children. The practical part includes an elaborated yearlong...

  12. Postharvest tillage reduces Downy Brome infestations in winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Pacific Northwest, downy brome continues to infest winter wheat producing regions especially in low-rainfall areas where the winter wheat-summer fallow rotation is the dominate production system. In Washington, a study was conducted for 2 years at each of two locations in the winter wheat -su...

  13. Possible over-wintering of bluetongue virus in Culicoides populations in the Onderstepoort area, Gauteng, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumari Steyn

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have demonstrated the ability of certain viruses to overwinter in arthropod vectors. The over-wintering mechanism of bluetongue virus (BTV is unknown. One hypothesis is over-wintering within adult Culicoides midges (Diptera; Ceratopogonidae that survive mild winters where temperatures seldom drop below 10 °C. The reduced activity of midges and the absence of outbreaks during winter may create the impression that the virus has disappeared from an area. Light traps were used in close association with horses to collect Culicoides midges from July 2010 to September 2011 in the Onderstepoort area, in Gauteng Province, South Africa. More than 500 000 Culicoides midges were collected from 88 collections and sorted to species level, revealing 26 different Culicoides species. Culicoides midges were present throughout the 15 month study. Nine Culicoides species potentially capable of transmitting BTV were present during the winter months. Midges were screened for the presence of BTV ribonucleic acid (RNA with the aid of a real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR assay. In total 91.2% of midge pools tested positive for BTV RNA. PCR results were compared with previous virus isolation results (VI that demonstrated the presence of viruses in summer and autumn months. The results indicate that BTV-infected Culicoides vectors are present throughout the year in the study area. Viral RNA-positive midges were also found throughout the year with VI positive midge pools only in summer and early autumn. Midges that survive mild winter temperatures could therefore harbour BTV but with a decreased vector capacity. When the population size, biting rate and viral replication decrease, it could stop BTV transmission. Over-wintering of BTV in the Onderstepoort region could therefore result in re-emergence because of increased vector activity rather than reintroduction from outside the region.

  14. Flowering time control in European winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Martin Langer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Flowering time is an important trait in wheat breeding as it affects adaptation and yield potential. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic architecture of flowering time in European winter bread wheat cultivars. To this end a population of 410 winter wheat varieties was evaluated in multi-location field trials and genotyped by a genotyping-by-sequencing approach and candidate gene markers. Our analyses revealed that the photoperiod regulator Ppd-D1 is the major factor affecting flowering time in this germplasm set, explaining 58% of the genotypic variance. Copy number variation at the Ppd-B1 locus was present but explains only 3.2% and thus a comparably small proportion of genotypic variance. By contrast, the plant height loci Rht-B1 and Rht-D1 had no effect on flowering time. The genome-wide scan identified six QTL which each explain only a small proportion of genotypic variance and in addition we identified a number of epistatic QTL, also with small effects. Taken together, our results show that flowering time in European winter bread wheat cultivars is mainly controlled by Ppd-D1 while the fine tuning to local climatic conditions is achieved through Ppd-B1 copy number variation and a larger number of QTL with small effects.

  15. Arctic sea ice, Eurasia snow, and extreme winter haze in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yufei; Wang, Yuhang; Zhang, Yuzhong; Koo, Ja-Ho

    2017-03-01

    The East China Plains (ECP) region experienced the worst haze pollution on record for January in 2013. We show that the unprecedented haze event is due to the extremely poor ventilation conditions, which had not been seen in the preceding three decades. Statistical analysis suggests that the extremely poor ventilation conditions are linked to Arctic sea ice loss in the preceding autumn and extensive boreal snowfall in the earlier winter. We identify the regional circulation mode that leads to extremely poor ventilation over the ECP region. Climate model simulations indicate that boreal cryospheric forcing enhances the regional circulation mode of poor ventilation in the ECP region and provides conducive conditions for extreme haze such as that of 2013. Consequently, extreme haze events in winter will likely occur at a higher frequency in China as a result of the changing boreal cryosphere, posing difficult challenges for winter haze mitigation but providing a strong incentive for greenhouse gas emission reduction.

  16. Frequent arousals from winter torpor in Rafinesque's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph S Johnson

    Full Text Available Extensive use of torpor is a common winter survival strategy among bats; however, data comparing various torpor behaviors among species are scarce. Winter torpor behaviors are likely to vary among species with different physiologies and species inhabiting different regional climates. Understanding these differences may be important in identifying differing susceptibilities of species to white-nose syndrome (WNS in North America. We fitted 24 Rafinesque's big-eared bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii with temperature-sensitive radio-transmitters, and monitored 128 PIT-tagged big-eared bats, during the winter months of 2010 to 2012. We tested the hypothesis that Rafinesque's big-eared bats use torpor less often than values reported for other North American cave-hibernators. Additionally, we tested the hypothesis that Rafinesque's big-eared bats arouse on winter nights more suitable for nocturnal foraging. Radio-tagged bats used short (2.4 d ± 0.3 (SE, shallow (13.9°C ± 0.6 torpor bouts and switched roosts every 4.1 d ± 0.6. Probability of arousal from torpor increased linearly with ambient temperature at sunset (P<0.0001, and 83% (n=86 of arousals occurred within 1 hr of sunset. Activity of PIT-tagged bats at an artificial maternity/hibernaculum roost between November and March was positively correlated with ambient temperature at sunset (P<0.0001, with males more active at the roost than females. These data show Rafinesque's big-eared bat is a shallow hibernator and is relatively active during winter. We hypothesize that winter activity patterns provide Corynorhinus species with an ecological and physiological defense against the fungus causing WNS, and that these bats may be better suited to withstand fungal infection than other cave-hibernating bat species in eastern North America.

  17. The influence of winter vitamin D supplementation on muscle function and injury occurrence in elite ballet dancers: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyon, Matthew A; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Wolman, Roger; Nevill, Alan M; Allen, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Athletes who train indoors during the winter months exhibit low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations due to a lack of sunlight exposure. This has been linked to impaired exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of oral vitamin D₃ supplementation on selected physical fitness and injury parameters in elite ballet dancers. Controlled prospective study. 24 elite classical ballet dancers (intervention n=17; control n=7) participated in a controlled 4-month oral supplementation of vitamin D₃ (2000 IU per day). Isometric muscular strength and vertical jump height were measured pre and post intervention. Injury occurrence during the intervention period was also recorded by the in-house medical team. Repeated measures ANOVA and Mann-Whitney-U statistical tests were used and significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Significant increases were noted for the intervention group for isometric strength (18.7%, pballet dancers. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Environmental and physiological influences to isotopic ratios of N and protein status in a montane ungulate in winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustine, David D.; Barboza, Perry S.; Adams, Layne G.; Wolf, Nathan B.

    2014-01-01

    Winter severity can influence large herbivore populations through a reduction in maternal proteins available for reproduction. Nitrogen (N) isotopes in blood fractions can be used to track the use of body proteins in northern and montane ungulates. We studied 113 adult female caribou for 13 years throughout a series of severe winters that reduced population size and offspring mass. After these severe winters, offspring mass increased but the size of the population remained low. We devised a conceptual model for routing of isotopic N in blood in the context of the severe environmental conditions experienced by this population. We measured δ15N in three blood fractions and predicted the relative mobilization of dietary and body proteins. The δ15N of the body protein pool varied by 4‰ and 46% of the variance was associated with year. Annual variation in δ15N of body protein likely reflected the fall/early winter diet and winter locations, yet 15% of the isotopic variation in amino acid N was due to body proteins. Consistent isotopic differences among blood N pools indicated that animals tolerated fluxes in diet and body stores. Conservation of body protein in caribou is the result of active exchange among diet and body N pools. Adult females were robust to historically severe winter conditions and prioritized body condition and survival over early investment in offspring. For a vagile ungulate residing at low densities in a predator-rich environment, protein restrictions in winter may not be the primary limiting factor for reproduction.

  19. Regional greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of winter wheat and winter rapeseed for biofuels in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsgaard, Lars; Olesen, Jørgen E; Hermansen, John Erik

    2013-01-01

    Biofuels from bioenergy crops may substitute a significant part of fossil fuels in the transport sector where, e.g., the European Union has set a target of using 10% renewable energy by 2020. Savings of greenhouse gas emissions by biofuels vary according to cropping systems and are influenced...... by such regional factors as soil conditions, climate and input of agrochemicals. Here we analysed at a regional scale the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with cultivation of winter wheat for bioethanol and winter rapeseed for rapeseed methyl ester (RME) under Danish conditions. Emitted CO2 equivalents...

  20. Facts of the month

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glot-Sanchez, N.

    2007-01-01

    This article gathers a lot of information concerning the energy sector at the world scale, it is organized according to the type of energy: electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energies and fossil fuels. The energy bill of France in 2006 has reached 46 milliard euros, it means an increase of +19% compared to 2005. It's worth noting that this increase is completely due to the evolution of the cost of oil since the quantities of oil imports have not changed. In Germany an opinion survey shows that the public is against a nuclear power phaseout unless renewable energies are sufficiently developed to take over. EDF has officially ordered the nuclear part of the new EPR reactor on the Flamanville site to Areva company. Areva company has won 2 bids on the Swedish market: the upgrading contract of the Oskarsham-2 unit and the contract concerning the extension of the operating life of the Ringhals-4 unit. The Paks-2 unit is now operating again after delicate works have been made to repair damage occurred during a maintenance operation in 2003. The 2 oldest operating nuclear power plants in the world have been decommissioned: Dungeness-A and Sizewell-A, both in U.K. and both after a 40 year long operating life. (A.C.)

  1. Does Zoning Winter Recreationists Reduce Recreation Conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Aubrey D.; Vaske, Jerry J.; Squires, John R.; Olson, Lucretia E.; Roberts, Elizabeth K.

    2017-01-01

    Parks and protected area managers use zoning to decrease interpersonal conflict between recreationists. Zoning, or segregation, of recreation—often by non-motorized and motorized activity—is designed to limit physical interaction while providing recreation opportunities to both groups. This article investigated the effectiveness of zoning to reduce recreation conflict in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area in Colorado, USA. Despite a zoning management system, established groomed travel routes were used by both non-motorized recreationists (backcountry skiers, snowboarders, snowshoers) and motorized recreationists (snowmobilers). We hypothesized that persistent recreation conflict reported by non-motorized recreationists was the result of recreation occurring in areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use, mostly along groomed routes. We performed a geospatial analysis of recreation [from Global Positioning System (GPS) points, n = 1,233,449] in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area to identify areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use. We then surveyed non-motorized recreationists ( n = 199) to test whether reported conflict is higher for respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with respondents traveling outside areas of mixed-use. Results from the geospatial analysis showed that only 0.7 % of the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area contained recreation from both groups, however that area contained 14.8 % of all non-motorized recreation and 49.1 % of all motorized recreation. Survey analysis results showed higher interpersonal conflict for all five standard conflict variables among non-motorized respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with those traveling outside mixed-use areas. Management implications and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of zoning are provided.

  2. Spatially explicit modeling of conflict zones between wildlife and snow sports: prioritizing areas for winter refuges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunisch, Veronika; Patthey, Patrick; Arlettaz, Raphaël

    2011-04-01

    Outdoor winter recreation exerts an increasing pressure upon mountain ecosystems, with unpredictable, free-ranging activities (e.g., ski mountaineering, snowboarding, and snowshoeing) representing a major source of stress for wildlife. Mitigating anthropogenic disturbance requires the spatially explicit prediction of the interference between the activities of humans and wildlife. We applied spatial modeling to localize conflict zones between wintering Black Grouse (Tetrao tetrix), a declining species of Alpine timberline ecosystems, and two free-ranging winter sports (off-piste skiing [including snow-boarding] and snowshoeing). Track data (snow-sports and birds' traces) obtained from aerial photographs taken over a 585-km transect running along the timberline, implemented within a maximum entropy model, were used to predict the occurrence of snow sports and Black Grouse as a function of landscape characteristics. By modeling Black Grouse presence in the theoretical absence of free-ranging activities and ski infrastructure, we first estimated the amount of habitat reduction caused by these two factors. The models were then extrapolated to the altitudinal range occupied by Black Grouse, while the spatial extent and intensity of potential conflict were assessed by calculating the probability of human-wildlife co-occurrence. The two snow-sports showed different distribution patterns. Skiers' occurrence was mainly determined by ski-lift presence and a smooth terrain, while snowshoers' occurrence was linked to hiking or skiing routes and moderate slopes. Wintering Black Grouse avoided ski lifts and areas frequented by free-ranging snow sports. According to the models, Black Grouse have faced a substantial reduction of suitable wintering habitat along the timberline transect: 12% due to ski infrastructure and another 16% when adding free-ranging activities. Extrapolating the models over the whole study area results in an overall habitat loss due to ski infrastructure of

  3. Real-Time Teleguidance of a Non-Surgeon Crew Medical Officer Performing Orthopedic Surgery at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station During Winter-Over

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The Amundsen-Scott South Pole Research station located at the geographic South Pole, is the most isolated, permanently inhabited human outpost on Earth. Medical care is provided to station personnel by a non-surgeon crew medical officer (CMO). During the winter-over period from February to October, the station is isolated, with no incoming or outgoing flights due to severe weather conditions. In late June, four months after the station had closed for the austral winter, a 31 year old meteorologist suffered a complete rupture of his patellar tendon while sliding done an embankment. An evacuation was deemed to be too risky to aircrews due to the extreme cold and darkness. A panel of physicians from Massachusetts General Hospital, Johns Hopkins University and the University of Texas Medical Branch were able to assess the patient remotely via telemedicine and agreed that surgery was the only means to restore mobility and prevent long term disability. The lack of a surgical facility and a trained surgical team were overcome by conversion of the clinic treatment area, and intensive preparation of medical laypersons as surgical assistants. The non-surgeon CMO and CMO assistant at South Pole, were guided through the administration of spinal anesthetic, and the two-hour operative repair by medical consultants at Massachusetts General Hospital. Real-time video of the operative field, directions from the remote consultants and audio communication were provided by videoconferencing equipment, operative cameras, and high bandwidth satellite communications. In real-time, opening incision/exposure, tendon relocation, hemostatsis, and operative closure by the CMO was closely monitored and guided and by the remote consultants. The patient s subsequent physical rehabilitation over the ensuing months of isolation was also monitored remotely via telemedicine. This was the first time in South Pole s history that remote teleguidance had been used for surgery and represents a model for

  4. NS Pudarka: A new winter wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-yielding, medium late winter wheat cultivar NS Pudarka was developed by crossing genetic divergent parents: line NMNH-07 and cv. NS 40S and Simonida. In cultivar NS Pudarka genes responsible for high yield potential, very good technological quality, resistance to lodging, low temperature and diseases, were successfully combined. It was registered by Ministry of agriculture, forestry and water management of Serbia Republic in 2013. This cultivar has wide adaptability and stability of yield that enable growing in different environments with optimal agricultural practice. On the base of technological quality this cultivar belongs to the second quality class, A2 farinograph subgroup and second technological group.

  5. Mechanical weed control in organic winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euro Pannacci

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Three field experiments were carried out in organic winter wheat in three consecutive years (exp. 1, 2005-06; exp. 2, 2006- 07; exp. 3, 2007-08 in central Italy (42°57’ N - 12°22’ E, 165 m a.s.l. in order to evaluate the efficacy against weeds and the effects on winter wheat of two main mechanical weed control strategies: i spring tine harrowing used at three different application times (1 passage at T1, 2 passages at the time T1, 1 passage at T1 followed by 1 passage at T1 + 14 days in the crop sowed at narrow (traditional row spacing (0.15 m; and ii split-hoeing and finger-weeder, alone and combined at T1, in the crop sowed at wider row spacing (0.30 m. At the time T1 winter wheat was at tillering and weeds were at the cotyledons-2 true leaves growth stage. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replicates. Six weeks after mechanical treatments, weed ground cover (% was rated visually using the Braun-Blanquet coverabundance scale; weeds on three squares (0.6×0.5 m each one per plot were collected, counted, weighed, dried in oven at 105°C to determine weed density and weed above-ground dry biomass. At harvest, wheat ears density, grain yield, weight of 1000 seeds and hectolitre weight were recorded. Total weed flora was quite different in the three experiments. The main weed species were: Polygonum aviculare L. (exp. 1 and 2, Fallopia convolvulus (L. Á. Löve (exp. 1 and 3, Stachys annua (L. L. (exp. 1, Anagallis arvensis L. (exp. 2, Papaver rhoeas L. (exp.3, Veronica hederifolia L. (exp. 3. In the winter wheat sowed at narrow rows, 2 passages with spring-tine harrowing at the same time seems to be the best option in order to reconcile a good efficacy with the feasibility of treatment. In wider rows spacing the best weed control was obtained by split hoeing alone or combined with finger-weeder. The grain yield, on average 10% higher in narrow rows, the lower costs and the good selectivity of spring-tine harrowing

  6. Hibernating black bears (Ursus americanus) experience skeletal muscle protein balance during winter anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohuis, T D; Harlow, H J; Beck, T D I

    2007-05-01

    Black bears spend four to seven months every winter confined to their den and anorexic. Despite potential for skeletal muscle atrophy and protein loss, bears appear to retain muscle integrity throughout winter dormancy. Other authors have suggested that bears are capable of net protein anabolism during this time. The present study was performed to test this hypothesis by directly measuring skeletal muscle protein metabolism during the summer, as well as early and late hibernation periods. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis of six free-ranging bears in the summer, and from six others early in hibernation and again in late winter. Protein synthesis and breakdown were measured on biopsies using (14)C-phenylalanine as a tracer. Muscle protein, nitrogen, and nucleic acid content, as well as nitrogen stable isotope enrichment, were also measured. Protein synthesis was greater than breakdown in summer bears, suggesting that they accumulate muscle protein during periods of seasonal food availability. Protein synthesis and breakdown were both lower in winter compared to summer but were equal during both early and late denning, indicating that bears are in protein balance during hibernation. Protein and nitrogen content, nucleic acid, and stable isotope enrichment measurements of the biopsies support this conclusion.

  7. Modelling seasonal effects of temperature and precipitation on honey bee winter mortality in a temperate climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switanek, Matthew; Crailsheim, Karl; Truhetz, Heimo; Brodschneider, Robert

    2017-02-01

    Insect pollinators are essential to global food production. For this reason, it is alarming that honey bee (Apis mellifera) populations across the world have recently seen increased rates of mortality. These changes in colony mortality are often ascribed to one or more factors including parasites, diseases, pesticides, nutrition, habitat dynamics, weather and/or climate. However, the effect of climate on colony mortality has never been demonstrated. Therefore, in this study, we focus on longer-term weather conditions and/or climate's influence on honey bee winter mortality rates across Austria. Statistical correlations between monthly climate variables and winter mortality rates were investigated. Our results indicate that warmer and drier weather conditions in the preceding year were accompanied by increased winter mortality. We subsequently built a statistical model to predict colony mortality using temperature and precipitation data as predictors. Our model reduces the mean absolute error between predicted and observed colony mortalities by 9% and is statistically significant at the 99.9% confidence level. This is the first study to show clear evidence of a link between climate variability and honey bee winter mortality. Copyright © 2016 British Geological Survey, NERC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. South-coast cyclone in Japan during El Niño-caused warm winters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Hiroaki; Amagai, Yuusuke; Hayasaki, Masamitsu

    2017-05-01

    La Niña conditions during boreal winter sometimes brings excessive snowfall in Japan, especially on the East Sea/Sea of Japan coastal and mountain areas through intensified northwesterly cold winds caused by La-Niña related atmospheric teleconnection. Meanwhile, snowfall events also increase in the Pacific coast area of Japan during the El Niño state due to extratropical cyclones passing along the south coast of Japan (hereafter referred to as South-coast cyclone). In the present study, we investigated year-to-year snowfall/rainfall variations based on meteorological station data and cyclone tracks identified by using the Japanese 55-year Reanalysis. The result clearly indicates increase of the South-coast cyclone during El Niño-developing winters, which is consistent with excessive snow-fall in the northern part of the Pacific coast. Strong subtropical jet hampers cyclogenesis due to less vertical interaction through the trapping of upper-level eddies. During El Niño-developing winters, the subtropical jet is weakened over East Asia, indicating dynamic linkage to increased cyclone frequency. In addition to this, both the deepening of the upper-tropospheric trough over East Asia and anomalous low-tropospheric northwest anticyclones extending from the Philippines toward Japan are also consistent with the enhancement of cyclogenesis over the East China Sea as well as warm winter in Japan.

  9. Increase in winter haze over eastern China in recent decades: Roles of variations in meteorological parameters and anthropogenic emissions: INCREASE IN WINTER HAZE IN EASTERN CHINA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yang [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Liao, Hong [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing China; Joint International Research Laboratory of Climate and Environment Change, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing China; Lou, Sijia [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA

    2016-11-05

    The increase in winter haze over eastern China in recent decades due to variations in meteorological parameters and anthropogenic emissions was quantified using observed atmospheric visibility from the National Climatic Data Center Global Summary of Day database for 1980–2014 and simulated PM2.5 concentrations for 1985–2005 from the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem). Observed winter haze days averaged over eastern China (105–122.5°E, 20–45°N) increased from 21 d in 1980 to 42 d in 2014, and from 22 to 30 d between 1985 and 2005. The GEOS-Chem model captured the increasing trend of winter PM2.5 concentrations for 1985–2005, with concentrations averaged over eastern China increasing from 16.1 μg m-3 in 1985 to 38.4 μg m-3 in 2005. Considering variations in both anthropogenic emissions and meteorological parameters, the model simulated an increase in winter surface-layer PM2.5 concentrations of 10.5 (±6.2) μg m-3 decade-1 over eastern China. The increasing trend was only 1.8 (±1.5) μg m-3 decade-1 when variations in meteorological parameters alone were considered. Among the meteorological parameters, the weakening of winds by -0.09 m s-1 decade-1 over 1985–2005 was found to be the dominant factor leading to the decadal increase in winter aerosol concentrations and haze days over eastern China during recent decades.

  10. Warmed Winter Water Temperatures Alter Reproduction in Two Fish Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firkus, Tyler; Rahel, Frank J; Bergman, Harold L; Cherrington, Brian D

    2018-02-01

    We examined the spawning success of Fathead Minnows (Pimephales promelas) and Johnny Darters (Etheostoma nigrum) exposed to elevated winter water temperatures typical of streams characterized by anthropogenic thermal inputs. When Fathead Minnows were exposed to temperature treatments of 12, 16, or 20 °C during the winter, spawning occurred at 16 and 20 °C but not 12 °C. Eggs were deposited over 9 weeks before winter spawning ceased. Fathead Minnows from the three winter temperature treatments were then exposed to a simulated spring transition. Spawning occurred at all three temperature treatments during the spring, but fish from the 16° and 20 °C treatment had delayed egg production indicating a latent effect of warm winter temperatures on spring spawning. mRNA analysis of the egg yolk protein vitellogenin showed elevated expression in female Fathead Minnows at 16 and 20 °C during winter spawning that decreased after winter spawning ceased, whereas Fathead Minnows at 12 °C maintained comparatively low expression during winter. Johnny Darters were exposed to 4 °C to represent winter temperatures in the absence of thermal inputs, and 12, 16, and 20 °C to represent varying degrees of winter thermal pollution. Johnny Darters spawned during winter at 12, 16, and 20 °C but not at 4 °C. Johnny Darters at 4 °C subsequently spawned following a simulated spring period while those at 12, 16, and 20 °C did not. Our results indicate elevated winter water temperatures common in effluent-dominated streams can promote out-of-season spawning and that vitellogenin expression is a useful indicator of spawning readiness for fish exposed to elevated winter temperatures.

  11. Warmed Winter Water Temperatures Alter Reproduction in Two Fish Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firkus, Tyler; Rahel, Frank J.; Bergman, Harold L.; Cherrington, Brian D.

    2018-02-01

    We examined the spawning success of Fathead Minnows ( Pimephales promelas) and Johnny Darters ( Etheostoma nigrum) exposed to elevated winter water temperatures typical of streams characterized by anthropogenic thermal inputs. When Fathead Minnows were exposed to temperature treatments of 12, 16, or 20 °C during the winter, spawning occurred at 16 and 20 °C but not 12 °C. Eggs were deposited over 9 weeks before winter spawning ceased. Fathead Minnows from the three winter temperature treatments were then exposed to a simulated spring transition. Spawning occurred at all three temperature treatments during the spring, but fish from the 16° and 20 °C treatment had delayed egg production indicating a latent effect of warm winter temperatures on spring spawning. mRNA analysis of the egg yolk protein vitellogenin showed elevated expression in female Fathead Minnows at 16 and 20 °C during winter spawning that decreased after winter spawning ceased, whereas Fathead Minnows at 12 °C maintained comparatively low expression during winter. Johnny Darters were exposed to 4 °C to represent winter temperatures in the absence of thermal inputs, and 12, 16, and 20 °C to represent varying degrees of winter thermal pollution. Johnny Darters spawned during winter at 12, 16, and 20 °C but not at 4 °C. Johnny Darters at 4 °C subsequently spawned following a simulated spring period while those at 12, 16, and 20 °C did not. Our results indicate elevated winter water temperatures common in effluent-dominated streams can promote out-of-season spawning and that vitellogenin expression is a useful indicator of spawning readiness for fish exposed to elevated winter temperatures.

  12. Winter precipitation characteristics in western US related to atmospheric river landfalls: observations and model evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Guan, B.; Waliser, D. E.; Ferraro, R. D.; Case, J. L.; Iguchi, T.; Kemp, E.; Putman, W.; Wang, W.; Wu, D.; Tian, B.

    2018-01-01

    Winter precipitation (PR) characteristics in western United States (WUS) related to atmospheric river (AR) landfalls are examined using the observation-based PRISM data. The observed AR-related precipitation characteristics are in turn used to evaluate model precipitation data from the NASA MERRA2 reanalysis and from seven dynamical downscaling simulations driven by the MERRA2. Multiple metrics including mean bias, Taylor diagram, and two skill scores are used to measure model performance for three climatological sub-regions in WUS, Pacific Northwest (PNW), Pacific Southwest (PSW) and Great Basin (GB). All model data well represent the winter-mean PR with spatial pattern correlations of 0.8 or higher with PRISM for the three sub-regions. Higher spatial resolutions and/or the use of spectral nudging generally yield higher skill scores in simulating the geographical distribution of PR for the entire winter. The PRISM data shows that the AR-related fraction of winter PR and associated daily PR PDFs in each region vary strongly for landfall locations; AR landfalls in the northern WUS coast (NC) affect mostly PNW while those in the southern WUS coast (SC) affect both PSW and GB. NC (SC) landfalls increase the frequency of heavy PR in PNW (PSW and GB) but reduce it in PSW (PNW). All model data reasonably represent these observed variations in the AR-related winter PR fractions and the daily PR PDFs according to AR landfall locations. However, unlike for the entire winter period, no systematic effects of resolution and/or spectral nudging are identified in these AR-related PR characteristics. Dynamical downscaling in this study generally yield positive added values to the MERRA2 PR in the AR-related PR fraction for most sub-regions and landfall locations, most noticeably for PSW by NU-WRF. The downscaling also generate positive added value in p95 for PNW, but negative values for PSW and GB due to overestimation of heavy precipitation events.

  13. The responses of microbial temperature relationships to seasonal change and winter warming in a temperate grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgander, Johanna; Olsson, Pål Axel; Rousk, Johannes

    2018-01-18

    Microorganisms dominate the decomposition of organic matter and their activities are strongly influenced by temperature. As the carbon (C) flux from soil to the atmosphere due to microbial activity is substantial, understanding temperature relationships of microbial processes is critical. It has been shown that microbial temperature relationships in soil correlate with the climate, and microorganisms in field experiments become more warm-tolerant in response to chronic warming. It is also known that microbial temperature relationships reflect the seasons in aquatic ecosystems, but to date this has not been investigated in soil. Although climate change predictions suggest that temperatures will be mostly affected during winter in temperate ecosystems, no assessments exist of the responses of microbial temperature relationships to winter warming. We investigated the responses of the temperature relationships of bacterial growth, fungal growth, and respiration in a temperate grassland to seasonal change, and to 2 years' winter warming. The warming treatments increased winter soil temperatures by 5-6°C, corresponding to 3°C warming of the mean annual temperature. Microbial temperature relationships and temperature sensitivities (Q 10 ) could be accurately established, but did not respond to winter warming or to seasonal temperature change, despite significant shifts in the microbial community structure. The lack of response to winter warming that we demonstrate, and the strong response to chronic warming treatments previously shown, together suggest that it is the peak annual soil temperature that influences the microbial temperature relationships, and that temperatures during colder seasons will have little impact. Thus, mean annual temperatures are poor predictors for microbial temperature relationships. Instead, the intensity of summer heat-spells in temperate systems is likely to shape the microbial temperature relationships that govern the soil-atmosphere C

  14. Feeding habits of garfish, Belone belone euxini Günther, 1866 in autumn and winter in Turkey’s south–east coast of the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaya, Ş.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We studied the stomach content of Belone belone in the south–east Black Sea during autumn and winter months in 2010–2011. The most frequent feeding items in the diet were insects in autumn and fish in winter. Other items in the diet were mollusks, crustaceans and isopods. Flying ants were mostly consumed by male garfish, particularly the smaller fish, in autumn.

  15. Monitoring water phase dynamics in winter clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Edwin F.; Ware, Randolph; Joe, Paul; Hudak, David

    2014-10-01

    This work presents observations of water phase dynamics that demonstrate the theoretical Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen concepts in mixed-phase winter storms. The work analyzes vertical profiles of air vapor pressure, and equilibrium vapor pressure over liquid water and ice. Based only on the magnitude ranking of these vapor pressures, we identified conditions where liquid droplets and ice particles grow or deplete simultaneously, as well as the conditions where droplets evaporate and ice particles grow by vapor diffusion. The method is applied to ground-based remote-sensing observations during two snowstorms, using two distinct microwave profiling radiometers operating in different climatic regions (North American Central High Plains and Great Lakes). The results are compared with independent microwave radiometer retrievals of vertically integrated liquid water, cloud-base estimates from a co-located ceilometer, reflectivity factor and Doppler velocity observations by nearby vertically pointing radars, and radiometer estimates of liquid water layers aloft. This work thus makes a positive contribution toward monitoring and nowcasting the evolution of supercooled droplets in winter clouds.

  16. Winter-APK voor bijen : Helpt u deze winter mee bij het praktijkonderzoek?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Som de Cerff, B.; Cornelissen, B.; Moens, F.

    2013-01-01

    Om de risico’s van een aanrijding bij sneeuw en gladheid te verminderen, laten steeds meer automobilisten bij het monteren van winterbanden ook een wintercontrole uitvoeren. Zou een dergelijke controle voor de winter ook schade aan onze volken in de vorm van wintersterfte kunnen verminderen? Dat zou

  17. Impacts of winter NPO on subsequent winter ENSO: sensitivity to the definition of NPO index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shangfeng; Wu, Renguang

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the linkage between boreal winter North Pacific Oscillation (NPO) and subsequent winter El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) based on seven different NPO indices. Results show that the influence of winter NPO on the subsequent winter El Niño is sensitive to how the NPO is defined. A significant NPO-El Niño connection is obtained when the NPO-related anomalous cyclone over the subtropical North Pacific extends to near-equatorial regions. The anomalous cyclone induces warm sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies through modulating surface heat fluxes. These warm SST anomalies are able to maintain into the following spring and summer through an air-sea coupled process and in turn induce significant westerly wind anomalies over the tropical western Pacific. In contrast, the NPO-El Niño relationship is unclear when the NPO-related anomalous cyclone over the subtropical North Pacific is confined to off-equatorial regions and cannot induce significant warm SST anomalies over the subtropical North Pacific. The present study suggests that definitions of NPO should be taken into account when using NPO to predict ENSO. In particular, we recommend defining the NPO index based on the empirical orthogonal function technique over appropriate region that does not extend too far north.

  18. Your Baby's Growth: 5 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Your Baby's Growth: 5 Months KidsHealth / For Parents / Your Baby's ... a cause for concern. How Much Will My Baby Grow? By 5 months, your baby's birth weight ...

  19. Your Child's Development: 9 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child's Development: 9 Months Print en español El desarrollo de su hijo: 9 meses Nine-month-olds ... item in each hand at the same time Social and Emotional Development might be fearful of strangers ...

  20. Interhemispheric temperature difference as a predictor of boreal winter ENSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskozub, Jacek; Gutowska, Dorota

    2013-04-01

    We use statistical analysis to show statistically significant relationship between the boreal winter MEI index of ENSO and HadCRUT3 temperature difference between Northern and Southern hemispheres (NH - SH) during the preceding summer. Correlation values increase (in absolute terms) if the correlated time periods are increased from month to seasonal length. For example December and January (DJ) MEI values anticorrelate stronger with the preceding MJJA period than with any of the four months taken separately. We believe this is further evidence that the correlation is caused by a real physical process as increase of the averaging period tends to reduce statistical noise. The motivation for looking for such a relationship comes from review of literature on paleoclimatic ENSO behavior. We have noticed that in many cases relatively cold NH coincided with "strong ENSO" (frequent El Niños), for example the Ice Age periods and Little Ice Age. On the other hand periods of relatively warm NH (the Holocene climate optimum or Medieval Climate Anomaly) are coincident with frequent or even "permanent" La Niñas. This relationship suggest the influence of the position of Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) on the frequency of El Niños. The simplest physical mechanism of the relationship is that the positive (negative) NH-SH temperature difference causes a north (south) shift of ITCZ with a parallel shift of trade wind zones. The North-South orographic difference between the Panama Isthmus and the South America may cause stronger (weaker) trade winds in Eastern Tropical Pacific increasing (decreasing) the thermochemical tilt which, in turn, causes a more negative (positive) ENSO values. Of course this may be only a first approximation of the real mechanism of this "teleconnection". The correlations we have found are not strong even if statistically significant. For example, the MJJA NH-SH temperature vs. DJ MEI correlation has r = -0.28 implying it explains only 8% of boreal

  1. Air pollution episodes associated with East Asian winter monsoons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hien, P.D., E-mail: pdhien@gmail.com [Vietnam Atomic Energy Agency, 59 Ly Thuong Kiet str. Hanoi (Viet Nam); Loc, P.D.; Dao, N.V. [National Hydro-Meteorological Center, 62-A2 Nguyen Chi Thanh str. Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2011-11-01

    A dozen multi-day pollution episodes occur from October to February in Hanoi, Vietnam due to prolonged anticyclonic conditions established after the northeast monsoon surges (cold surges). These winter pollution episodes (WPEs) account for most of the 24-h PM{sub 10} exceedances and the highest concentrations of gaseous pollutants in Hanoi. In this study, WPEs were investigated using continuous air quality monitoring data and information on upper-air soundings and air mass trajectories. The 24-h pollutant concentrations are lowest during cold surges; concurrently rise thereafter reaching the highest levels toward the middle of a monsoon cycle, then decline ahead of the next cold surge. Each monsoon cycle usually proceeds through a dry phase and a humid phase as Asiatic continental cold air arrives in Hanoi through inland China then via the East China Sea. WPEs are associated with nighttime radiation temperature inversions (NRTIs) in the dry phase and subsidence temperature inversions (STIs) in the humid phase. In NRTI periods, the rush hour pollution peak is more pronounced in the evening than in the morning and the pollution level is about two times higher at night than in daytime. In STI periods, broad morning and evening traffic peaks are observed and pollution is as high at night as in daytime. The close association between pollution and winter monsoon meteorology found in this study for the winter 2003-04 may serve as a basis for advance warning of WPEs and for forecasting the 24-h pollutant concentrations. - Highlights: {yields} Dozen pollution episodes from Oct. to Feb in Hanoi associated with anticyclones after monsoon surges. {yields} 24-h concentrations of PM{sub 10}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}, CO rise after surge and decline ahead of the next. {yields} Episodes caused by nighttime radiation and subsidence inversions in dry and humid monsoon phases. {yields} Distinct diurnal variations of pollutant concentrations observed in the two periods. {yields} Close

  2. Monthly energy review, August 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    The Monthly Energy Review for the month of August 1997, presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors.

  3. Yearly, seasonal and monthly daily average diffuse sky radiation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassem, A.S.; Mujahid, A.M.; Turner, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    A daily average diffuse sky radiation regression model based on daily global radiation was developed utilizing two year data taken near Blytheville, Arkansas (Lat. =35.9 0 N, Long. = 89.9 0 W), U.S.A. The model has a determination coefficient of 0.91 and 0.092 standard error of estimate. The data were also analyzed for a seasonal dependence and four seasonal average daily models were developed for the spring, summer, fall and winter seasons. The coefficient of determination is 0.93, 0.81, 0.94 and 0.93, whereas the standard error of estimate is 0.08, 0.102, 0.042 and 0.075 for spring, summer, fall and winter, respectively. A monthly average daily diffuse sky radiation model was also developed. The coefficient of determination is 0.92 and the standard error of estimate is 0.083. A seasonal monthly average model was also developed which has 0.91 coefficient of determination and 0.085 standard error of estimate. The developed monthly daily average and daily models compare well with a selected number of previously developed models. (author). 11 ref., figs., tabs

  4. Wintering bald eagle trends in northern Arizona, 1975-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teryl G. Grubb

    2003-01-01

    Between 1975 and 2000, 4,525 sightings of wintering bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) were recorded at Mormon Lake in northern Arizona. Numbers of wintering eagles fluctuated little in the 20 years from 1975 through 1994 (5.5 ± 3.0 mean sightings per day). However, during the winters of 1995 through 1997 local record highs of 59 to 118 eagles...

  5. The History of Winter: teachers as scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, L.; Courville, Z.; Wasilewski, P. J.; Gow, T.; Bender, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    The History of Winter (HOW) is a NASA Goddard Space Flight Center-funded teacher enrichment program that was started by Dr. Peter Wasilewski (NASA), Dr. Robert Gabrys (NASA) and Dr. Tony Gow (Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, or CRREL) in 2001 and continues with support and involvement of scientists from both the NASA Cryospheric Sciences Laboratory and CREEL. The program brings educators mostly from middle and high schools but also from state parks, community colleges and other institutions from across the US to the Northwood School (a small, private boarding school) in Lake Placid, NY for one week to learn about several facets of winter, polar, and snow research, including the science and history of polar ice core research, lake ice formation and structure, snow pack science, winter ecology, and remote sensing including current and future NASA cryospheric missions. The program receives support from the Northwood School staff to facilitate the program. The goal of the program is to create 'teachers as scientists' which is achieved through several hands-on field experiences in which the teachers have the opportunity to work with polar researchers from NASA, CRREL and partner Universities to dig and sample snow pits, make ice thin sections from lake ice, make snow shelters, and observe under-ice lake ecology. The hands-on work allows the teachers to use the same tools and techniques used in polar research while simultaneously introducing science concepts and activities to support their classroom work. The ultimate goal of the program is to provide the classroom teachers with the opportunity to learn about current and timely cryospheric research as well as to engage in real fieldwork experiences. The enthusiasm generated during the week-long program is translated into classroom activities with guidance from scientists, teachers and educational professionals. The opportunity to engage with polar researchers, both young investigators and renowned

  6. Snow Based Winter Tourism and Kinds of Adaptations to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiling, M.

    2009-04-01

    Austria is the most intensive winter tourism country in the world with some 4% contribution in the national GNP. Snow based winter tourism became the lead economy of mountain areas, covering two thirds of the country and is by far economically more important than agriculture and forestry. While natural snow was the precondition for the establishment of winter tourism, artificial snow is nowadays the precondition to maintain winter tourism in the current economic intensity. Skiing originally low tech, is developing increasingly into high tech. While skiing was comparatively cheap in previous days due to natural snow, skiing is getting more expensive and exclusive for a higher income class due to the relative high production costs. Measures to adapt to a warmer climate can be divided into three principle types: physical adaptation, technical adaptation - where artificial snow production plays a major role - and social adaptation. It will be discussed under which conditions each adaptation type seems feasible in dependence of the level of warming. In particular physical and technical adaptations are related to major investments. Practically every ski resort has to decide about what is an appropriate, economically cost efficient level of adaptation. Adapting too much reduces profits. Adapting too little does not bring enough income. The optimal level is often not clear. In many cases public subsidies help to collect funds for adaptation and to keep skiing profitable. The possibility to adapt on local, regional or on national scales will depend on the degree of warming, the future price of artificial snow production and the public means foreseen to support the winter tourism industry.

  7. Home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games 1976-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Darryl; Ramchandani, Girish

    2017-01-01

    There is a limited amount of home advantage research concerned with winter sports. There is also a distinct lack of studies that investigate home advantage in the context of para sport events. This paper addresses this gap in the knowledge by examining home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games. Using a standardised measure of success, we compared the performances of host nations at home with their own performances away from home between 1976 and 2014. Both country level and individual sport level analysis is conducted for this time period. Comparisons are also drawn with the Winter Olympic Games since 1992, the point from which both the Winter Olympic Games and the Winter Paralympic Games have been hosted by the same nations and in the same years. Clear evidence of a home advantage effect in the Winter Paralympic Games was found at country level. When examining individual sports, only alpine skiing and cross country skiing returned a significant home advantage effect. When comparing home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games with the Winter Olympic Games for the last seven host nations (1992-2014), we found that home advantage was generally more pronounced (although not a statistically significant difference) in the case of the former. The causes of home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games are unclear and should be investigated further.

  8. Winter and spring diving behavior of bowhead whales relative to prey

    KAUST Repository

    Heide-Jø rgensen, Mads; Laidre, Kristin L; Nielsen, Nynne H; Hansen, Rikke G; Rø stad, Anders

    2013-01-01

    There was a marked change in diving behavior from winter through spring and this was likely in response to the changes in sea ice conditions, primary production and potential copepod abundance in the upper part of the water column. Depth and duration of dives changed significantly during this period; however, other dive parameters (for example the proportion of time spent feeding on the bottom of U-dives) remained fairly constant indicating a constant feeding effort. Bowhead whales target copepods at or close to the seabed in winter months in Disko Bay and continue feeding on copepods when they migrate to the surface. However, bowhead whales leave West Greenland before peak abundance of copepods occurs at the surface.

  9. Iowa state heating oil and propane program: 1996--1997 winter heating season. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    The objective of the Iowa State Heating Oil and Propane Program is to develop a state-level, company-specific data collection effort so that retail price information on fuel oil and propane is collected by the staff of the Iowa Department of Natural Resources during the winter heating season. The second objective is to provide specific volume and retail price information to the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Energy Information Administration on No. 2 heating oil and propane on a semi-monthly basis. This report summarizes the results of the residential No. 2 distillate fuel (home heating oil) and liquefied petroleum gas (propane) price survey over the 1996--1997 winter heating season in Iowa. The Iowa Department of Natural Resources conducted the survey under a cooperative financial assistance grant with the DOE Energy Information Administration (EIA)

  10. Industrial, agricultural, and petroleum contaminants in cormorants wintering near the Houston Ship Channel, Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, K.A.; Stafford, C.J.; Cain, B.W.; Mueller, A.J.; Hall, H.D.

    1987-01-01

    Double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus ) collected in the Houston Ship Channel, Texas, USA, in November shortly after their fall migration contained residues of several industrial, agricultural, and petroleum contaminants including polychlorinated styrenes (PCS's), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), DDE, and petroleum hydrocarbons. PCS concentrations in over-wintering birds collected in late February were three times higher than those in birds collected in November. PCB and petroleum concentrations remained at about the same level throughout the 3-month winter period. Petroleum hydrocarbons were present in all cormorants and residues in some individuals exceeded 25 ppm (wet weight). Mean DDE residues in samples collected in November and February were less than 1 ppm. Low concentrations of five other organochlorine compounds, not detected in cormorants collected in November, were recovered in birds collected in February.

  11. Pollution characteristic of VOCs of ambient air in winter and spring in Shijiazhuang City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing CHANG

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to further explore the pollution characteristics of volatile organic compounds in ambient air in winter and spring in Shijiazhuang City, the pollution characteristics of 62 volatile organic compounds (VOCs, monthly and quarterly variation, the correlation between VOCs and PM2.5, and the main sources of VOCs are investigated by using EPA TO-15 method. It shows that 40 organic compounds of the 64 VOCs have been quantitatively determined in winter and spring in the city, which are mainly acetone, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, dichloromethane, toluene, ethyl acetate, etc.. In the no-quantitatively determined components, higher ethanol, butyl acetate, butane etc. are detected. The VOCs concentration has positive correlation with the PM2.5 concentration during haze days.

  12. Maize stubble as foraging habitat for wintering geese and swans in northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Kevin Kuhlmann; Madsen, Jesper; Nolet, Bart, A.

    2018-01-01

    Agricultural crops have become increasingly important foraging habitats to geese and swans in northern Europe, and a recent climate-driven expansion in the area of maize fields has led to a rapid increase in the exploitation of this habitat. However, due to the novelty of maize foraging in this r......Agricultural crops have become increasingly important foraging habitats to geese and swans in northern Europe, and a recent climate-driven expansion in the area of maize fields has led to a rapid increase in the exploitation of this habitat. However, due to the novelty of maize foraging...... in this region, little is known about the abundance and energetic value of this resource to foraging birds. In this study we quantify food availability, intake rates and energetic profitability of the maize stubble habitat, and describe the value of this increasingly cultivated crop to wintering geese and swans...... of geese and swans wintering in northern Europe....

  13. Evaluation of Winter Hardiness in Peppermint (Mentha piperita L. by Electrolyte Leakage Indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nezami

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Peppermint or Mentha is an aromatic, medicinal and perennial herb from Lamiaceae family which has been used for healing a variety of diseases such as common cold, bronchitis, nausea, flatulence, diarrhea, vomiting, indigestion, stomach cramps, menstrual cramps and parasitoids. Peppermint is largely cultivated in Indiana, Mexican and California for the production of peppermint oil. Mentha reveals suitable winter hardiness in warm and temperate regions, But in cold areas, it confronts with winter stresses particularly freezing stress. So recognizing the freeze tolerance of peppermint for successful planting and using of this plant in cold regions such as Mashhad, Iran where peppermint is cultivated now is important. Among the many laboratory methods which have been developed to evaluate freez ing tolerance of plants, electrolyte leakage (EL test is widely used. This test is based on this principle that any damage to the cell membranes results in enhanced leakage of solutes into the apoplastic water, hence measuring the amount of leakage after stress treatments provides an estimation of tissue injury. Often, the 50% level of relative EL, or index of injury, is simply equaled to 50% sample mortality. This study was done to evaluate the freeze tolerance of peppermint organs by electrolyte leakage test and also to determine the winter survival ability of this plant by lethal temperature at which 50% of electrolytes leaked from the cell (LT50el. Materials and methods: In order to evaluate the cold tolerance of peppermint, a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with four replications was carried out under controlled conditions. For this aim samples from stolon and rhizome of peppermint were selected monthly (December 2010 to April 2011 from Research Field, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad and were exposed to low temperatures (from 0 to -20°C with 4°C intervals in a thermo gradient freezer at

  14. Energy market barometer report - Winter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, Joachim; Cartel, Melodie; Shao, Evan; Vernay, Anne-Lorene

    2017-01-01

    This Winter 2016 edition of the Grenoble Ecole de Management (GEM) Energy Market Barometer explores the opinion of French energy experts about the decentralization of the electricity sector in France. French experts were also asked where the focus of French energy policy should be in the next five years. Key findings: - French energy experts sense a clear trend toward the decentralization of the French electricity system; - Technology innovation and self-sufficiency for corporations and municipalities are the two major promises of decentralization; - The major barriers to faster decentralization in France are the high price of energy storage systems and the lack of political will; - 74% of experts believe that energy efficiency should be a top priority for French energy policy in the next five years; - Reducing greenhouse gas emissions and facilitating the decentralization of the electricity sector should also be a top priority for French energy policy in the next five years; - Experts are divided over the future of nuclear energy

  15. Chemical profile of Taxodium distichum winter cones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đapić Nina M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is concerned with the chemical profile of Taxodium distichum winter cones. The extract obtained after maceration in absolute ethanol was subjected to qualitative analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and quantification was done by gas chromatography/ flame ionization detector. The chromatogram revealed the presence of 53 compounds, of which 33 compounds were identified. The extract contained oxygenated monoterpenes (12.42%, sesquiterpenes (5.18%, oxygenated sesquiterpenes (17.41%, diterpenes (1.15%, and oxygenated diterpenes (30.87%, while the amount of retinoic acid was 0.32%. Monoacylglycerols were detected in the amount of 4.32%. The most abundant compounds were: caryophyllene oxide (14.27%, 6,7-dehydro-ferruginol (12.49%, bornyl acetate (10.96%, 6- deoxy-taxodione (9.50% and trans-caryophyllene (4.20%.

  16. Climate change in winter versus the growing-season leads to different effects on soil microbial activity in northern hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, P. O.; Templer, P. H.; Finzi, A.

    2014-12-01

    Mean winter air temperatures have risen by approximately 2.5˚ C per decade over the last fifty years in the northeastern U.S., reducing the maximum depth of winter snowpack by approximately 26 cm over this period and the duration of winter snow cover by 3.6 to 4.2 days per decade. Forest soils in this region are projected to experience a greater number of freeze-thaw cycles and lower minimum winter soil temperatures as the depth and duration of winter snow cover declines in the next century. Climate change is likely to result not only in lower soil temperatures during winter, but also higher soil temperatures during the growing-season. We conducted two complementary experiments to determine how colder soils in winter and warmer soils in the growing-season affect microbial activity in hardwood forests at Harvard Forest, MA and Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, NH. A combination of removing snow via shoveling and buried heating cables were used to induce freeze-thaw events during winter and to warm soils 5˚C above ambient temperatures during the growing-season. Increasing the depth and duration of soil frost via snow-removal resulted in short-term reductions in soil nitrogen (N) production via microbial proteolytic enzyme activity and net N mineralization following snowmelt, prior to tree leaf-out. Declining mass specific rates of carbon (C) and N mineralization associated with five years of snow removal at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest may be an indication of microbial physiological adaptation to winter climate change. Freeze-thaw cycles during winter reduced microbial extracellular enzyme activity and the temperature sensitivity of microbial C and N mineralization during the growing-season, potentially offsetting nutrient and soil C losses due to soil warming in the growing-season. Our multiple experimental approaches show that winter climate change is likely to contribute to reduced microbial activity in northern hardwood forests.

  17. Peritoneal tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium caprae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Nebreda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of tuberculosis in humans due to Mycobacterium caprae is very low and is almost confined to Europe. We report a case of a previously healthy 41-year-old Moroccan with a 6 month history of abdominal pain, weight loss, fatigue and diarrhea. A diagnosis of peritoneal tuberculosis due to M. caprae was made.

  18. Winter Pea: Promising New Crop for Washington's Dryland Wheat-Fallow Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William F. Schillinger

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year tillage-based winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.-summer fallow (WW-SF rotation has been practiced by the vast majority of farmers in the low-precipitation (<300 mm annual rainfed cropping region of east-central Washington and north-central Oregon for 140 years. Until recently, alternative crops (i.e., those other than WW so far tested have not been as economically viable or stable as WW-SF. A 6-year field study was conducted near Ritzville, WA (292 mm avg. annual precipitation to determine the yield and rotation benefits of winter pea (Pisum sativum L. (WP. Two 3-year rotations were evaluated: WP-spring wheat (SW-SF vs. WW-SW-SF. Winter pea yields averaged 2,443 vs. 4,878 kg/ha for WW. No fertilizer was applied to WP whereas 56 kg N and 11 kg S/ha were applied to WW. Winter pea used significantly less soil water than WW. Over the winter months, a lesser percentage of precipitation was stored in the soil following WP compared to WW because: (i very little WP residue remained on the soil surface after harvest compared to WW, and (ii the drier the soil, the more precipitation is stored in the soil over winter. However, soil water content in the spring was still greater following WP vs. WW. Soil residual N in the spring (7 months after the harvest of WP and WW was greater in WP plots despite not applying fertilizer to produce WP. Spring wheat grown after both WP and WW received the identical quantity of N, P, and S fertilizer each year. Average yield of SW was 2,298 and 2,011 kg/ha following WP and WW, respectively (P < 0.01. Adjusted gross economic returns for these two rotation systems were similar. Based partially on the results of this study, numerous farmers in the dry WW-SF region have shown keen interest in WP and acreage planted WP in east-central Washington has grown exponentially since 2013. This paper provides the first report of the potential for WP in the typical WW-SF region of the inland Pacific Northwest (PNW.

  19. Winter fine particulate air quality in Cranbrook, British Columbia, 1973 to 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, L.E.

    2001-06-01

    Fine particulate levels in Cranbrook, BC, are analyzed and reported based on monitoring records which began in 1973. Prior to 1988 the sampler collected all particle sizes, but was subsequently replaced with a selective size inlet to capture only PM 1 0 particles or smaller. A mathematical relationship was produced and used to convert historical total suspended particulates measurements to PM 1 0. It was determined that only monitoring records obtained during the winter months could be reliably converted in this fashion; however, that was not a problem since the winter months happen to correspond to the highest levels of fine particulates. Results of the analysis showed increased levels of PM 1 0 from the early 1970s to the early 1980s; during this time average and maximum annual PM 1 0 levels in Cranbrook were higher than those in Los Angeles in 1999. Winter PM 1 0 levels began to fall through the late 1980s and early 1990s. The lowest average and maximum (18 microgram/cubic metre and 47 microgram/cubic metre, respectively) was recorded in the winter of 1996/1997. Worst conditions were recorded in 1980/1981 when 15 of 21 samples exceeded the current provincial PM 1 0 air quality objective of 50 microgram/cubic metre. In the five winters between 1994/1995 and 1998/1999 only three of 109 samples exceeded the provincial objective. There appears to be no correlation between known changes in industrial and mobile sources of pollutants and historical patterns of fine particulate air pollution in Cranbrook, BC. Observation and experience over three decades suggest that the major source of PM 1 0 in Cranbrook was combustion of wood for home heating. The most probable major cause of the improvements in winter air quality was identified as the gradual conversion from wood to natural gas fired appliances through the 1980s and the 1990s. The 115 per cent increase in the cost of natural gas in the last two years unfortunately, will again make wood an attractive alternative

  20. Modeling influences on winter distribution of caribou in northwestern Alaska through use of satellite telemetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Joly

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available I hypothesize that the distribution of barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti is affected by multiple, interrelated factors. These factors include, but are not limited to, terrain and snow characteristics as well as predation pressure and habitat. To test this hypothesis, I attributed caribou locations derived from satellite telemetry over a 6 year period with terrain (elevation, slope, aspect, and ruggedness, habitat characteristics, and moose density - potentially an index of wolf predation pressure. These locations were compared to random locations, attributed using the same data layers, using logistic regression techniques to develop resource selection functions (RSFs. I found that caribou moved significantly less during mid-winter than early- or late-winter and that cows moved significantly more in April than bulls due to their earlier departure on their spring migration. Distribution was different between cows and bulls. Terrain variables were important factors but were scale-dependent. Cows avoided forested areas, highlighting the importance of tundra habitats, and selected for dwarf shrub, with relatively high lichen cover, and sedge habitat types. Bulls selected for dryas, coniferous forest and dwarf shrub habitats but against lowland sedge, upland shrub and burned tundra. Cow distribution was negatively correlated with moose density at the scale of the Seward Peninsula. My results support the hypothesis that caribou distribution during winter in northwest Alaska is affected by multiple, interrelated factors. These results may be useful for researchers to track and/or model changes in future patterns of range use over winter.

  1. Winter severity and snowiness and their multiannual variability in the Karkonosze Mountains and Jizera Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Grzegorz; Richterová, Dáša; Kliegrová, Stanislava; Zusková, Ilona; Pawliczek, Piotr

    2017-09-01

    This paper analyses winter severity and snow conditions in the Karkonosze Mountains and Jizera Mountains and examines their long-term trends. The analysis used modified comprehensive winter snowiness (WSW) and winter severity (WOW) indices as defined by Paczos (1982). An attempt was also made to determine the relationship between the WSW and WOW indices. Measurement data were obtained from eight stations operated by the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management - National Research Institute (IMGW-PIB), from eight stations operated by the Czech Hydrological and Meteorological Institute (CHMI) and also from the Meteorological Observatory of the University of Wrocław (UWr) on Mount Szrenica. Essentially, the study covered the period from 1961 to 2015. In some cases, however, the period analysed was shorter due to the limited availability of data, which was conditioned, inter alia, by the period of operation of the station in question, and its type. Viewed on a macroscale, snow conditions in the Karkonosze Mountains and Jizera Mountains (in similar altitude zones) are clearly more favourable on southern slopes than on northern ones. In the study area, negative trends have been observed with respect to both the WSW and WOW indices—winters have become less snowy and warmer. The correlation between the WOW and WSW indices is positive. At stations with northern macroexposure, WOW and WSW show greater correlation than at ones with southern macroexposure. This relationship is the weakest for stations that are situated in the upper ranges (Mount Śnieżka and Mount Szrenica).

  2. Molecular cloning and characterization of preproorexin in winter skate (Leucoraja ocellata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Erin E; Volkoff, Hélène

    2010-12-01

    A 815 base pairs (bp) cDNA encoding for preproorexin (preproOX) was cloned in winter skate, a cartilaginous fish. Winter skate preproOX is 159 amino acids (aa) long and contains a 34 aa orexin A and 28 aa orexin B. The amino acid sequence of winter skate preproOX is more similar to tetrapod preproOXs (36-40% identity) than teleost preproOXs (23-33% identity). Whereas orexin B appears relatively well conserved among vertebrates, orexin A displays more variability, in particular due to an "insertion sequence" that is present in teleost fish, but not in skate and tetrapods. RT-PCR studies show that preproOX mRNA has a widespread distribution within the brain and is present in several peripheral tissues, including gastrointestinal tract, heart and testes. Fasting induced increases in preproOX expression in the hypothalamus, suggesting that orexin might play a role in the regulation of food intake in winter skate. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Changing response of the North Atlantic/European winter climate to the 11 year solar cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hedi; Chen, Haishan; Gray, Lesley; Zhou, Liming; Li, Xing; Wang, Ruili; Zhu, Siguang

    2018-03-01

    Recent studies have presented conflicting results regarding the 11 year solar cycle (SC) influences on winter climate over the North Atlantic/European region. Analyses of only the most recent decades suggest a synchronized North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)-like response pattern to the SC. Analyses of long-term climate data sets dating back to the late 19th century, however, suggest a mean sea level pressure (mslp) response that lags the SC by 2-4 years in the southern node of the NAO (i.e. Azores region). To understand the conflicting nature and cause of these time dependencies in the SC surface response, the present study employs a lead/lag multi-linear regression technique with a sliding window of 44 years over the period 1751-2016. Results confirm previous analyses, in which the average response for the whole time period features a statistically significant 2-4 year lagged mslp response centered over the Azores region. Overall, the lagged nature of Azores mslp response is generally consistent in time. Stronger and statistically significant SC signals tend to appear in the periods when the SC forcing amplitudes are relatively larger. Individual month analysis indicates the consistent lagged response in December-January-February average arises primarily from early winter months (i.e. December and January), which has been associated with ocean feedback processes that involve reinforcement by anomalies from the previous winter. Additional analysis suggests that the synchronous NAO-like response in recent decades arises primarily from late winter (February), possibly reflecting a result of strong internal noise.

  4. Response change in winter-wheat types to the pathogen complex under chronic gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budanov, V.E.; Lysenkov, V.I.; Shcherbakov, V.K.

    1975-01-01

    Disease reactions in plants that have been gamma-irradiated are discussed. Damage to different types of soft winter wheat, due to pathogenic fungi, is evaluated. The Mironovski Jubilee variety showed high resistance to the leaf form of powdery mildew, along with the opposite phenomenon of a high susceptibility to the stem form of this disease. Chronic gamma irradiation of plants of this variety increased the susceptibility to this disease

  5. Running Club Warm Up Staves Off Winter's Chill

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Not deterred by winter's chill, over 900 runners met at the CERN Prévesin site for Escalade training. Think the sudden cold snap is a reason to stay indoors? Think again! The CERN running club has just recently had the honour of holding the November 11th Escalade training session, and with over 900 runners present at the Prévessin site it was clear that the chilly temperatures were no barrier whatsoever. The story behind Escalade training starts back in 1977 when a group of running enthusiasts from the Stade Genève club decided to organize a running race in the Old Town in conjunction with the Escalade festivities. They were told that no normal people would think of organizing a running race in the month of December, but fortunately they ignored the advice! From the initial 50 or so runners, these Escalade races have grown into an institution and now attract upwards of 15,000 people of all ages from 5 to over 80 each year. And with over 30% of each year's runners participat...

  6. A checklist of the winter bird community in different habitat types of Rosekandy Tea Estate of Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ahmed

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at preparing an inventory of the avifauna and to document the species composition of birds during winter in different habitat types of Rosekandy Tea Estate of Cachar District of Assam. Four habitat types, viz., tea plantation, ecotone zone, secondary growth forest and water bodies were selected within the tea estate and surveyed from mid-December 2010 (early winter to mid-April 2011 (late winter covering four months of survey. A total of 88 species were recorded during the survey period with the highest number of species in ecotone zone (n=63, followed by secondary forest (n=60, tea plantation (n=48 and water bodies (n=17. The species were further categorized into different feeding and habitat guilds to study the distribution of bird species in different habitat types according to various guilds.

  7. Winter climate limits subantarctic low forest growth and establishment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie A Harsch

    Full Text Available Campbell Island, an isolated island 600 km south of New Zealand mainland (52 °S, 169 °E is oceanic (Conrad Index of Continentality  =  -5 with small differences between mean summer and winter temperatures. Previous work established the unexpected result that a mean annual climate warming of c. 0.6 °C since the 1940's has not led to upward movement of the forest limit. Here we explore the relative importance of summer and winter climatic conditions on growth and age-class structure of the treeline forming species, Dracophyllum longifolium and Dracophyllum scoparium over the second half of the 20th century. The relationship between climate and growth and establishment were evaluated using standard dendroecological methods and local climate data from a meteorological station on the island. Growth and establishment were correlated against climate variables and further evaluated within hierarchical regression models to take into account the effect of plot level variables. Winter climatic conditions exerted a greater effect on growth and establishment than summer climatic conditions. Establishment is maximized under warm (mean winter temperatures >7 °C, dry winters (total winter precipitation <400 mm. Growth, on the other hand, is adversely affected by wide winter temperature ranges and increased rainfall. The contrasting effect of winter warmth on growth and establishment suggests that winter temperature affects growth and establishment through differing mechanisms. We propose that milder winters enhance survival of seedlings and, therefore, recruitment, but increases metabolic stress on established plants, resulting in lower growth rates. Future winter warming may therefore have complex effects on plant growth and establishment globally.

  8. Winter Climate Limits Subantarctic Low Forest Growth and Establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsch, Melanie A.; McGlone, Matt S.; Wilmshurst, Janet M.

    2014-01-01

    Campbell Island, an isolated island 600 km south of New Zealand mainland (52°S, 169°E) is oceanic (Conrad Index of Continentality  = −5) with small differences between mean summer and winter temperatures. Previous work established the unexpected result that a mean annual climate warming of c. 0.6°C since the 1940's has not led to upward movement of the forest limit. Here we explore the relative importance of summer and winter climatic conditions on growth and age-class structure of the treeline forming species, Dracophyllum longifolium and Dracophyllum scoparium over the second half of the 20th century. The relationship between climate and growth and establishment were evaluated using standard dendroecological methods and local climate data from a meteorological station on the island. Growth and establishment were correlated against climate variables and further evaluated within hierarchical regression models to take into account the effect of plot level variables. Winter climatic conditions exerted a greater effect on growth and establishment than summer climatic conditions. Establishment is maximized under warm (mean winter temperatures >7 °C), dry winters (total winter precipitation <400 mm). Growth, on the other hand, is adversely affected by wide winter temperature ranges and increased rainfall. The contrasting effect of winter warmth on growth and establishment suggests that winter temperature affects growth and establishment through differing mechanisms. We propose that milder winters enhance survival of seedlings and, therefore, recruitment, but increases metabolic stress on established plants, resulting in lower growth rates. Future winter warming may therefore have complex effects on plant growth and establishment globally. PMID:24691026

  9. Winter climate limits subantarctic low forest growth and establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsch, Melanie A; McGlone, Matt S; Wilmshurst, Janet M

    2014-01-01

    Campbell Island, an isolated island 600 km south of New Zealand mainland (52 °S, 169 °E) is oceanic (Conrad Index of Continentality  =  -5) with small differences between mean summer and winter temperatures. Previous work established the unexpected result that a mean annual climate warming of c. 0.6 °C since the 1940's has not led to upward movement of the forest limit. Here we explore the relative importance of summer and winter climatic conditions on growth and age-class structure of the treeline forming species, Dracophyllum longifolium and Dracophyllum scoparium over the second half of the 20th century. The relationship between climate and growth and establishment were evaluated using standard dendroecological methods and local climate data from a meteorological station on the island. Growth and establishment were correlated against climate variables and further evaluated within hierarchical regression models to take into account the effect of plot level variables. Winter climatic conditions exerted a greater effect on growth and establishment than summer climatic conditions. Establishment is maximized under warm (mean winter temperatures >7 °C), dry winters (total winter precipitation <400 mm). Growth, on the other hand, is adversely affected by wide winter temperature ranges and increased rainfall. The contrasting effect of winter warmth on growth and establishment suggests that winter temperature affects growth and establishment through differing mechanisms. We propose that milder winters enhance survival of seedlings and, therefore, recruitment, but increases metabolic stress on established plants, resulting in lower growth rates. Future winter warming may therefore have complex effects on plant growth and establishment globally.

  10. Monthly Program Cost Report (MPCR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Monthly Program Cost Report (MPCR) replaces the Cost Distribution Report (CDR). The MPCR provides summary information about Veterans Affairs operational costs,...

  11. Monthly energy review, January 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. Major activities covered include production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for fossil fuels, electricity, and nuclear energy.

  12. Natural gas monthly, August 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-24

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature article is on US Natural Gas Imports and Exports 1994.

  13. Calcium intake in winter pregnancy attenuates impact of vitamin D inadequacy on urine NTX, a marker of bone resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Eileen C; Kilbane, Mark T; McKenna, Malachi J; Segurado, Ricardo; Geraghty, Aisling A; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2018-04-01

    Pregnancy is characterised by increased bone turnover, but high bone turnover with resorption exceeding formation may lead to negative maternal bone remodelling. Recent studies are conflicting regarding the effect of calcium on skeletal health in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to examine the seasonal effect of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and dietary calcium on a marker of bone resorption. This was prospective study of 205 pregnant women [two cohorts; early pregnancy at 13 weeks (n = 96), and late pregnancy at 28 weeks (n = 109)]. Serum 25OHD and urine cross-linked N-telopeptides of type I collagen (uNTX) were measured at both time points. Intakes of vitamin D and calcium were recorded using 3-day food diaries at each trimester. Compared to summer pregnancies, winter pregnancies had significantly lower 25OHD and significantly higher uNTX. Higher calcium intakes were negatively correlated with uNTX in winter, but not summer. In late pregnancy, compared to those reporting calcium intakes ≥1000 mg/day, intakes of <1000 mg/day were associated with a greater increase in uNTX in winter pregnancies than in summer (41.8 vs. 0.9%). Increasing calcium intake in winter by 200 mg/day predicted a 13.3% reduction in late pregnancy uNTX. In late pregnancy, during winter months when 25OHD is inadequate, intakes of dietary calcium <1000 mg/day were associated with significantly increased bone resorption (uNTX). Additional dietary calcium is associated with reduced bone resorption in late pregnancy, with greater effect observed in winter. Further research regarding optimal dietary calcium and 25OHD in pregnancy is required, particularly for women gestating through winter.

  14. Dose in the uterus of a woman, with three months of pregnancy, due to the {sup 131} I accumulated in her thyroid gland; Dosis en el utero de una mujer, con tres meses de embarazo, debida la {sup 131} I acumulado en su glandula tiroides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H R; Manzanares A, E; Hernandez D, V M; Arcos P, A [Unidades Academicas de Estudios Nucleares e Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, C. Cipres 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    In this study the absorbed dose by the uterus of a woman with three months of pregnancy to who was applied a dose of {sup 131} I that was accumulated in the thyroid gland is determined. The absorbed dose was obtained by means of Monte Carlo calculations developing a detailed three-dimensional model of the pregnant one, where they have been included most of the organs. The absorbed dose also was calculated by means of a simple procedure. To verify the calculated results it was carried out an experiment where was constructed a phantom of the neck, in this was included the thyroid with {sup 131} I and the exposure was measured at different distances of the neck; this was related with the dose. Of the Monte Carlo calculation is obtained that for each mCi of {sup 131} I that is retained in the mother's thyroid, the uterus absorbs a dose of 6.80 E(-11) Gy. When comparing the results, it was found that the simple calculation throws a result 29 times superior to that of the dose obtained by means of Monte Carlo. When applying a correction for the effect of the absorption of the gamma photons by the mother's body an absorbed dose in the uterus was obtained that is 0.16 times superior to the Monte Carlo calculation. Of the experimental phase it is verified that the values calculated by means of the simple method are equal to those experimentally measured. (Author)

  15. Chemical composition, sources, and aging process of submicron aerosols in Beijing: Contrast between summer and winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weiwei; Hu, Min; Hu, Wei; Jimenez, Jose L.; Yuan, Bin; Chen, Wentai; Wang, Ming; Wu, Yusheng; Chen, Chen; Wang, Zhibin; Peng, Jianfei; Zeng, Limin; Shao, Min

    2016-02-01

    /ΔCO ratios in winter and summer are 11 and 16 µg m-3 ppm-1, respectively, similar to ratios from western cities. Higher OOA/Ox (= NO2 + O3) ratio (0.49 µg m-3 ppb-1) in winter study than these ratios from western cities (0.03-0.16 µg m-3 ppb-1) was observed, which may be due to the aqueous reaction or extra SOA formation contributed by semivolatile organic compounds from various primary sources (e.g., BBOA or CCOA) in Beijing. The evolution of oxygen to carbon ratio (O/C) with photochemical age allows to estimate an equivalent rate constant for chemical aging of OA in summer as kOH ~ 4.1 × 10-12 cm3 molecule-1 s-1, which is of the same order as obtained in other anthropogenic influenced areas and may be useful for OA modeling.

  16. Controls on winter ecosystem respiration in temperate and boreal ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. Wang; P. Ciais; S.L. Piao; C. Ottle; P. Brender; F. Maignan; A. Arain; A. Cescatti; D. Gianelle; C. Gough; L Gu; P. Lafleur; T. Laurila; B. Marcolla; H. Margolis; L. Montagnani; E. Moors; N. Saigusa; T. Vesala; G. Wohlfahrt; C. Koven; A. Black; E. Dellwik; A. Don; D. Hollinger; A. Knohl; R. Monson; J. Munger; A. Suyker; A. Varlagin; S. Verma

    2011-01-01

    Winter CO2 fluxes represent an important component of the annual carbon budget in northern ecosystems. Understanding winter respiration processes and their responses to climate change is also central to our ability to assess terrestrial carbon cycle and climate feedbacks in the future. However, the factors influencing the spatial and temporal...

  17. Downtown People Mover (DPM) Winterization Test Demonstration : Otis Elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The Otis Elevator Company Transportation Technology Division (OTIS-TTD) Downtown People Mover (DPM) Winterization Test Demonstration Final Report covers the 1978-79 and 1979-80 winter periods. Tests were performed at the Otis test track in Denver, Co...

  18. Seasonal foreign bodies: the dangers of winter holiday ornamentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, Andrew T; Towbin, Alexander J

    2014-12-01

    Foreign bodies, whether ingested, aspirated or retained in the soft tissues, are a particular hazard to pediatric patients. Ornamentation associated with the winter holidays is an uncommon source of foreign bodies in children, and many of these foreign bodies have a distinct appearance on imaging. Knowledge of these appearances and the unusual features of winter holiday foreign bodies might facilitate their identification.

  19. 我的寒假%My Winter Holidays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Winter holidays have about twenty days.During winter holidays, I do all kinds of interesting thing.I like climbing the hill,because it can make me heMthy.I like fishing,it can give me a lot of fun.I like visiting some places of interest, it can enlarge my knowledge.

  20. CAN WINTER DEPRESSION BE PREVENTED BY LIGHT TREATMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MEESTERS, Y; LAMBERS, PA; JANSEN, JHC; BOUHUYS, AL; BEERSMA, DGM; VANDENHOOFDAKKER, RH

    1991-01-01

    The administration of light at the development of the first signs of a winter depression appears to prevent it from developing into a full-blown depression. No patient from a group of 10 treated in this way developed any signs of depression during the rest of the winter season, while five of seven

  1. A winter severity index for the state of Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Winter maintenance in the Sate of Maine consumes around twenty percent of the Bureau of : Maintenance and Operations budget each year. Costs are directly related to the length and severity : of a winter season. In addition, the cost of materials and ...

  2. Changes occurring in plain, straining and winter yoghurt during the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, winter yoghurt, straining yoghurt and yoghurt samples produced from homogenized and non-homogenized sheep and a mixture of sheep and cows milks were evaluated during the storage periods. Winter yoghurt, straining yoghurt and yoghurt samples were stored in sterile jars in the refrigerator (4°C).

  3. Can winter depression be prevented by light treatment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, Ybe; Lambers, Petrus A.; Jansen, Jacob; Bouhuys, Antoinette L.; Beersma, Domien G.M.; Hoofdakker, Rutger H. van den

    1991-01-01

    The administration of light at the development of the first signs of a winter depression appears to prevent it from developing into a full-blown depression. No patient from a group of 10 treated in this way developed any signs of depression during the rest of the winter season, while five of seven

  4. The decline in winter excess mortality in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunst, A. E.; Looman, C. W.; Mackenbach, J. P.

    1991-01-01

    In most countries, numbers of deaths rise considerably during the winter season. This winter excess in mortality has, however, been declining during recent decades. The causes of this decline are hardly known. This paper attempts to derive a number of hypotheses on the basis of a detailed

  5. The elusive gene for keratolytic winter erythema | Hull | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keratolytic winter erythema (KWE), also known as Oudtshoorn skin disease, is characterised by a cyclical disruption of normal epidermal keratinisation affecting primarily the palmoplantar skin with peeling of the palms and soles, which is worse in the winter. It is a rare monogenic, autosomal dominant condition of unknown ...

  6. Zimbabwean fourth social workers conference and winter school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Such steps include running the Annual Social Workers Conference & Winter School. This annual observance creates a platform to showcase the goals and accomplishments of diverse social work professionals in the country, give a report on progress and convening a social work winter school for exchanging professional ...

  7. Effects of prescribed burns on wintering cavity-nesting birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather L. Bateman; Margaret A. O' Connell

    2006-01-01

    Primary cavity-nesting birds play a critical role in forest ecosystems by excavating cavities later used by other birds and mammals as nesting or roosting sites. Several species of cavity-nesting birds are non-migratory residents and consequently subject to winter conditions. We conducted winter bird counts from 1998 to 2000 to examine the abundance and habitat...

  8. Overhead irrigation increased winter chilling and floral bud ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus nitens requires a sufficiently cold winter to produce flower buds. In areas in South Africa where E. nitens commercial plantations as well as breeding and production seed orchards are located, winter chilling is often insufficient for floral bud initiation. Hence, under such conditions, E. nitens floral bud and seed ...

  9. Winter cover crop effect on corn seedling pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crops are an excellent management tool to improve the sustainability of agriculture. Winter rye cover crops have been used successfully in Iowa corn-soybean rotations. Unfortunately, winter rye cover crops occasionally reduce yields of the following corn crop. We hypothesize that one potential...

  10. 46 CFR 42.30-10 - Southern Winter Seasonal Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Island; thence the rhumb line to Black Rock Point on Stewart Island; thence the rhumb line to the point... BY SEA Zones, Areas, and Seasonal Periods § 42.30-10 Southern Winter Seasonal Zone. (a) The northern boundary of the Southern Winter Seasonal Zone is the rhumb line from the east coast of the American...

  11. The role of the tropical West Pacific in the extreme northern hemisphere winter of 2013/14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Peter; Weisheimer, Antje; Knight, Jeff; Palmer, Tim

    2016-04-01

    In the 2013/14 winter, the eastern USA was exceptionally cold, the Bering Strait region was exceptionally warm, California was in the midst of drought and the UK suffered severe flooding. It has been suggested that elevated SSTs in the tropical West Pacific (TWPAC) were partly to blame due to their producing a Rossby wavetrain that propagated into the extratropics. We find that seasonal forecasts with the tropical atmosphere relaxed towards a reanalysis give 2013/14 winter-mean anomalies with strong similarities to those observed in the Northern Hemisphere, indicating that low-latitude anomalies had a role in the development of the extremes. Relaxing just the TWPAC produces a strong wavetrain over the North Pacific and North America in January, but not in the winter-mean. This suggests that anomalies in this region alone had a large influence, but cannot explain the extremes through the whole winter. We also examine the response to applying the observed TWPAC SST anomalies in two atmospheric general circulation models. We find that this does produce winter-mean anomalies in the North Pacific and North America resembling those observed, but that the tropical forcing of Rossby waves due to the applied SST anomalies appears stronger than that in reanalysis, except in January. Therefore both experiments indicate that the TWPAC influence was important, but the true strength of the TWPAC influence is uncertain. None of the experiments indicate a strong systematic impact of the TWPAC anomalies on Europe.

  12. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview February 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-03-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for February 2017. The monthly balance of French exchanges once again passed back in favour of exports in February 2017, despite a fall in nuclear and hydraulic generation. Gross demand was down compared to February 2016, due to milder temperatures. Fossil fuel thermal generation totalled 6.1 TWh, up by 65% compared to February 2016. Due to fluctuating winds, February 2017 recorded both an instantaneous generation peak for the wind and solar sectors (11.3 GW), and a fall in monthly wind generation compared to February 2016. The fall in wind power generation was not uniform over the country: the Southwest experienced stormy episodes boosting generation whereas that in the North-East fell sharply. Market prices were sharply lower Europe-wide. The balance in favour of exports totalled 3.4 TWh in February 2017. 11 installations went into service in this month

  13. [Excess mortality associated with influenza in Spain in winter 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Gómez, Inmaculada; Delgado-Sanz, Concepción; Jiménez-Jorge, Silvia; Flores, Víctor; Simón, Fernando; Gómez-Barroso, Diana; Larrauri, Amparo; de Mateo Ontañón, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    An excess of mortality was detected in Spain in February and March 2012 by the Spanish daily mortality surveillance system and the «European monitoring of excess mortality for public health action» program. The objective of this article was to determine whether this excess could be attributed to influenza in this period. Excess mortality from all causes from 2006 to 2012 were studied using time series in the Spanish daily mortality surveillance system, and Poisson regression in the European mortality surveillance system, as well as the FluMOMO model, which estimates the mortality attributable to influenza. Excess mortality due to influenza and pneumonia attributable to influenza were studied by a modification of the Serfling model. To detect the periods of excess, we compared observed and expected mortality. In February and March 2012, both the Spanish daily mortality surveillance system and the European mortality surveillance system detected a mortality excess of 8,110 and 10,872 deaths (mortality ratio (MR): 1.22 (95% CI:1.21-1.23) and 1.32 (95% CI: 1.29-1.31), respectively). In the 2011-12 season, the FluMOMO model identified the maximum percentage (97%) of deaths attributable to influenza in people older than 64 years with respect to the mortality total associated with influenza (13,822 deaths). The rate of excess mortality due to influenza and pneumonia and respiratory causes in people older than 64 years, obtained by the Serfling model, also reached a peak in the 2011-2012 season: 18.07 and 77.20, deaths per 100,000 inhabitants, respectively. A significant increase in mortality in elderly people in Spain was detected by the Spanish daily mortality surveillance system and by the European mortality surveillance system in the winter of 2012, coinciding with a late influenza season, with a predominance of the A(H3N2) virus, and a cold wave in Spain. This study suggests that influenza could have been one of the main factors contributing to the mortality excess

  14. 2012 Aspen Winter Conferences on High Energy and Astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, John [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Olivier, Dore [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Fox, Patrick [Aspen Center for Physics, CO (United States); Furic, Ivan [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Halkiadakis, Eva [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States); Schmidt, Fabian [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Senatore, Leonardo [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Smith, Kendrick M. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Whiteson, Daniel [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Aspen Center for Physics Project Summary DE-SC0007313 Budget Period: 1/1/2012 to 12/31/2012 The Hunt for New Particles, from the Alps to the Plains to the Rockies The 2012 Aspen Winter Conference on Particle Physics was held at the Aspen Center for Physics from February 11 to February 17, 2012. Sixty-seven participants from nine countries, and several universities and national labs attended the workshop titled, The Hunt for New Particles, from the Alps to the Plains to the Rockies. There were 53 formal talks, and a considerable number of informal discussions held during the week. The weeks events included a public lecture-Hunting the Dark Universe given by Neal Weiner from New York University) and attended by 237 members of the public, and a physics cafe geared for high schoolers that is a discussion with physicists conducted by Spencer Chang (University of Oregon), Matthew Reece (Harvard University) and Julia Shelton (Yale University) and attended by 67 locals and visitors. While there were no published proceedings, some of the talks are posted online and can be Googled. The workshop was organized by John Campbell (Fermilab), Patrick Fox (Fermilab), Ivan Furic (University of Florida), Eva Halkiadakis (Rutgers University) and Daniel Whiteson (University of California Irvine). Additional information is available at http://indico.cern.ch/conferenceDisplay.py?confId=143360. Inflationary Theory and its Confrontation with Data in the Planck Era The 2012 Aspen Winter Conference on Astroparticle physics held at the Aspen Center for Physics was Inflationary Theory and its Confrontation with Data in the Planck Era. It was held from January 30 to February 4, 2012. The 62 participants came from 7 countries and attended 43 talks over five days. Late mornings through the afternoon are reserved for informal discussions. In feedback received from participants, it is often these unplanned chats that produce the most excitement due to working through problems with fellow physicists

  15. Winter to spring variations of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in a temperate estuary (Po River, northern Adriatic Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berto, D; Giani, M; Savelli, F; Centanni, E; Ferrari, C R; Pavoni, B

    2010-07-01

    The light absorbing fraction of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), known as chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) showed wide seasonal variations in the temperate estuarine zone in front of the Po River mouth. DOC concentrations increased from winter through spring mainly as a seasonal response to increasing phytoplankton production and thermohaline stratification. The monthly dependence of the CDOM light absorption by salinity and chlorophyll a concentrations was explored. In 2003, neither DOC nor CDOM were linearly correlated with salinity, due to an exceptionally low Po river inflow. Though the CDOM absorbance coefficients showed a higher content of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in 2004 with respect to 2003, the spectroscopic features confirmed that the qualitative nature of CDOM was quite similar in both years. CDOM and DOC underwent a conservative mixing, only after relevant Po river freshets, and a change in optical features with an increase of the specific absorption coefficient was observed, suggesting a prevailing terrestrial origin of dissolved organic matter. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Quasi-periodic oscillations of aerosol backscatter profiles and surface meteorological parameters during winter nights over a tropical station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Manoj

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric gravity waves, which are a manifestation of the fluctuations in buoyancy of the air parcels, are well known for their direct influence on concentration of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols, and also on oscillations of meteorological variables such as temperature, wind speed, visibility and so on. The present paper reports quasi-periodic oscillations in the lidar backscatter signal strength due to aerosol fluctuations in the nocturnal boundary layer, studied with a high space-time resolution polarimetric micro pulse lidar and concurrent meteorological parameters over a tropical station in India. The results of the spectral analysis of the data, archived on some typical clear-sky conditions during winter months of 2008 and 2009, exhibit a prominent periodicity of 20–40 min in lidar-observed aerosol variability and show close association with those observed in the near-surface temperature and wind at 5% statistical significance. Moreover, the lidar aerosol backscatter signal strength variations at different altitudes, which have been generated from the height-time series of the one-minute interval profiles at 2.4 m vertical resolution, indicate vertical propagation of these waves, exchanging energy between lower and higher height levels. Such oscillations are favoured by the stable atmospheric background condition and peculiar topography of the experimental site. Accurate representation of these buoyancy waves is essential in predicting the sporadic fluctuations of weather in the tropics.

  17. Climate Prediction Center - monthly Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weather Service NWS logo - Click to go to the NWS home page Climate Prediction Center Site Map News Outlooks monthly Climate Outlooks Banner OFFICIAL Forecasts June 2018 [UPDATED MONTHLY FORECASTS SERVICE ) Canonical Correlation Analysis ECCA - Ensemble Canonical Correlation Analysis Optimal Climate Normals

  18. Monthly energy review, January 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  19. Monthly energy review, July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs. 73 tabs.

  20. Monthly energy review, May 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  1. Monthly energy review, March 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 74 tabs.

  2. Monthly energy review, November 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 91 tabs.

  3. Monthly energy review, June 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 36 figs., 61 tabs.

  4. Monthly energy review, February 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 73 tabs.

  5. Monthly energy review, November 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  6. Monthly energy review, October 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  7. ULTRAPLATE 30 month management report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Dahl

    2003-01-01

    In the period from month 24 to month 30 focus has been on the work-package 3 activities concerning optimisation of the newly developed ULTRAPLATE technology towards specific industrial applications. Three main application areas have been pursued: 1) High- speed plating of lead free solder contacts...

  8. Dose in the uterus of a woman, with three months of pregnancy, due to the {sup 131} I accumulated in her thyroid gland; Dosis en el utero de una mujer, con tres meses de embarazo, debida la {sup 131} I acumulado en su glandula tiroides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H.R.; Manzanares A, E.; Hernandez D, V.M.; Arcos P, A. [Unidades Academicas de Estudios Nucleares e Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, C. Cipres 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)]. e-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com

    2006-07-01

    In this study the absorbed dose by the uterus of a woman with three months of pregnancy to who was applied a dose of {sup 131} I that was accumulated in the thyroid gland is determined. The absorbed dose was obtained by means of Monte Carlo calculations developing a detailed three-dimensional model of the pregnant one, where they have been included most of the organs. The absorbed dose also was calculated by means of a simple procedure. To verify the calculated results it was carried out an experiment where was constructed a phantom of the neck, in this was included the thyroid with {sup 131} I and the exposure was measured at different distances of the neck; this was related with the dose. Of the Monte Carlo calculation is obtained that for each mCi of {sup 131} I that is retained in the mother's thyroid, the uterus absorbs a dose of 6.80 E(-11) Gy. When comparing the results, it was found that the simple calculation throws a result 29 times superior to that of the dose obtained by means of Monte Carlo. When applying a correction for the effect of the absorption of the gamma photons by the mother's body an absorbed dose in the uterus was obtained that is 0.16 times superior to the Monte Carlo calculation. Of the experimental phase it is verified that the values calculated by means of the simple method are equal to those experimentally measured. (Author)

  9. Monthly Electrical Energy Overview October 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-11-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for Monthly gross domestic demand fell by 5.2% compared to October 2016, due to above-normal temperatures. The monthly trade balance was in favour of exports. Total demand corrected for climate contingencies remained stable. Demand by heavy industry continued its upward trend. Monthly nuclear generation fell by 3.3% compared to October 2016. The rainfall deficit resulted in a reduction of almost 11% in hydropower production compared to October 2016. Wind power production rose 46.7% compared to October 2016. Photovoltaic production fell by 2.2% compared to October 2016. The solar load factor fell in almost all French regions compared to October 2016. Market prices continued to increase, in particular in Belgium and in France where nuclear availability was strongly reduced. The monthly balance of trade for France was once again positive in October 2017. 15 new installations went into service in October

  10. IOD influence on the early winter tibetan plateau snow cover: diagnostic analyses and an AGCM simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Chaoxia; Tozuka, Tomoki; Yamagata, Toshio [The University of Tokyo, Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Graduate School of Science, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-10-15

    Using diagnostic analyses and an AGCM simulation, the detailed mechanism of Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) influence on the early winter Tibetan Plateau snow cover (EWTPSC) is clarified. In early winter of pure positive IOD years with no co-occurrence of El Nino, the anomalous dipole diabatic heating over the tropical Indian Ocean excites the baroclinic response in the tropics. Since both baroclinic and barotropic components of the basic zonal wind over the Arabian Peninsula increase dramatically in early winter due to the equatorward retreat of the westerly jet, the baroclinic mode excites the barotropic Rossby wave that propagates northeastward and induces a barotropic cyclonic anomaly north of India. This enables the moisture transport cyclonically from the northern Indian Ocean toward the Tibetan Plateau. The convergence of moisture over the plateau explains the positive influence of IOD on the EWTPSC. In contrast, the basic zonal wind over the Arabian Peninsula is weak in autumn. This is not favorable for excitation of the barotropic Rossby wave and teleconnection, even though the IOD-related diabatic heating anomaly in autumn similar to that in early winter exists. This result explains the insignificant (significant positive) partial correlation between IOD and the autumn (early winter) Tibetan Plateau snow cover after excluding the influence of ENSO. The sensitivity experiment forced by the IOD-related SST anomaly within the tropical Indian Ocean well reproduces the baroclinic response in the tropics, the teleconnection from the Arabian Peninsula, and the increased moisture supply to the Tibetan Plateau. Also, the seasonality of the atmospheric response to the IOD is simulated. (orig.)

  11. Climatic potential for tourism in the Black Forest, Germany — winter season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endler, Christina; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2011-05-01

    Climate change, whether natural or human-caused, will have an impact on human life, including recreation and tourism among other things. In this study, methods from biometeorology and tourism climatology are used to assess the effect of a changed climate on tourism and recreation in particular. The study area is the Black Forest mountainous region of south-west Germany, which is well known for its tourist and recreational assets. Climate model projections for the 2021-2050 period based on REMO-UBA simulations with a high spatial resolution of 10 km are compared to a 30-year reference period (1971-2000) using the IPCC emission scenarios A1B and B1. The results show that the mean winter air temperature will increase by up to 1.8°C, which is the most pronounced warming compared to the other seasons. The annual precipitation amount will increase marginally by 5% in the A1B scenario and 10% in the B1 scenario. Winter precipitation contributes about 10% (A1B) and 30% (B1) to variations in annual precipitation. Although the results show that winter precipitation will increase slightly, snow days affecting skiing will be reduced on average by approximately 40% due to regional warming. Cold stress will be reduced on average by up to 25%. The result is that the thermal environment will be advanced, and warmer winters are likely to lead to an upward altitudinal shift of ski resorts and winter sport activities, thus displacing land-use currently dedicated to nature conservation.

  12. Coupled Effects of Climatic and Socio-economic Factors on Winter Cropping in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, M.; Mondal, P.; Galford, G. L.; DeFries, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    India is predicted to be one of the most vulnerable regions in terms of agricultural sensitivity to future climate changes. Approximately 69% of India's population is rural, and over 55% of the working population relies on agriculture for sustenance and livelihoods. Indian smallholder farmers who own less than 2 ha of farmland represent 78% of the total Indian farmers and produce 41% of the country's food crops. These smallholder farmers are among some of the most vulnerable communities to climatic and economic changes due to limited access to technology, infrastructure, markets, and institutional or financial support in the case of adverse climatic events. Baseline information on agricultural sensitivity to climate variability will provide useful information for regional-level, and eventually state- and national-level, strategies and policies that promote adaption to climate variability. We use a decade of remote sensing analysis of cropping patterns and climatic factors along with census data for irrigation and demographic factors to understand winter cropping trajectories across agro-ecological zones in India. Findings from multiple agro-ecological zones indicate that there are three primary trajectories in winter cropping in India - increasing, fluctuating, and decreasing. In the Central Indian Highlands, for example, the most dominant trend is that of fluctuating cropped area, ranging between ~37,300 km2 in 2010 and ~21,100 km2 in 2013, which is associated with village-level access to irrigation and local labor dynamics. Clay soil type and increasing irrigation coverage were associated with intensification. Yet, suitable soil type and access to irrigation do not reduce vulnerability to high daytime temperatures that is negatively associated with winter crop cover. With pronounced winter warming projected in the coming decades, effective adaptation by smallholder farmers would require additional strategies, such as access to fine-scale temperature forecasts

  13. Diplopia due to Dacryops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Duman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dacryops is a lacrimal ductal cyst. It is known that it can cause globe displacement, motility restriction, and proptosis because of the mass effect. Diplopia due to dacryops has not been reported previously. Here, we present a 57-year-old man with binocular horizontal diplopia that occurred during left direction gaze due to dacryops.

  14. Winter Cover Crop Effects on Nitrate Leaching in Subsurface Drainage as Simulated by RZWQM-DSSAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, R. W.; Chu, X.; Ma, L.; Li, L.; Kaspar, T.; Jaynes, D.; Saseendran, S. A.; Thorp, K.; Yu, Q.

    2007-12-01

    Planting winter cover crops such as winter rye (Secale cereale L.) after corn and soybean harvest is one of the more promising practices to reduce nitrate loss to streams from tile drainage systems without negatively affecting production. Because availability of replicated tile-drained field data is limited and because use of cover crops to reduce nitrate loss has only been tested over a few years with limited environmental and management conditions, estimating the impacts of cover crops under the range of expected conditions is difficult. If properly tested against observed data, models can objectively estimate the relative effects of different weather conditions and agronomic practices (e.g., various N fertilizer application rates in conjunction with winter cover crops). In this study, an optimized winter wheat cover crop growth component was integrated into the calibrated RZWQM-DSSAT hybrid model and then we compare the observed and simulated effects of a winter cover crop on nitrate leaching losses in subsurface drainage water for a corn-soybean rotation with N fertilizer application rates over 225 kg N ha-1 in corn years. Annual observed and simulated flow-weighted average nitrate concentration (FWANC) in drainage from 2002 to 2005 for the cover crop treatments (CC) were 8.7 and 9.3 mg L-1 compared to 21.3 and 18.2 mg L-1 for no cover crop (CON). The resulting observed and simulated FWANC reductions due to CC were 59% and 49%. Simulations with the optimized model at various N fertilizer rates resulted in average annual drainage N loss differences between CC and CON to increase exponentially from 12 to 34 kg N ha-1 for rates of 11 to 261 kg N ha-1. The results suggest that RZWQM-DSSAT is a promising tool to estimate the relative effects of a winter crop under different conditions on nitrate loss in tile drains and that a winter cover crop can effectively reduce nitrate losses over a range of N fertilizer levels.

  15. Interannual variability of the stratospheric wave driving during northern winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Kelder

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The strength of the stratospheric wave driving during northern winter is often quantified by the January–February mean poleward eddy heat flux at 100 hPa, averaged over 40°–80° N (or a similar area and period. Despite the dynamical and chemical relevance of the wave driving, the causes for its variability are still not well understood. In this study, ERA-40 reanalysis data for the period 1979–2002 are used to examine several factors that significantly affect the interannual variability of the wave driving. The total poleward heat flux at 100 hPa is poorly correlated with that in the troposphere, suggesting a decoupling between 100 hPa and the troposphere. However, the individual zonal wave-1 and wave-2 contributions to the wave driving at 100 hPa do exhibit a significant coupling with the troposphere, predominantly their stationary components. The stationary wave-1 contribution to the total wave driving significantly depends on the latitude of the stationary wave-1 source in the troposphere. The results suggest that this dependence is associated with the varying ability of stationary wave-1 activity to enter the tropospheric waveguide at mid-latitudes. The wave driving anomalies are separated into three parts: one part due to anomalies in the zonal correlation coefficient between the eddy temperature and eddy meridional wind, another part due to anomalies in the zonal eddy temperature amplitude, and a third part due to anomalies in the zonal eddy meridional wind amplitude. It is found that year-to-year variability in the zonal correlation coefficient between the eddy temperature and the eddy meridional wind is the most dominant factor in explaining the year-to-year variability of the poleward eddy heat flux.

  16. Real-time weed detection, decision making and patch spraying in maize, sugarbeet, winter wheat and winter barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerhards, R; Christensen, Svend

    2003-01-01

    with weed infestation levels higher than the economic weed threshold; a review of such work is provided. This paper presents a system for site-specific weed control in sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.), maize (Zea mays L.), winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), including...

  17. Nuclear medicine solutions in winter sports problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeflin, F.G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The diagnostic workup of acute Winter Sports injuries is done by Conventional X Ray, CT and MRI. Chronic injuries as stress reactions are best investigated by Nuclear Medicine procedures: Snow Boarding: In Snow-Boarding chronic injuries are mostly seen as local increased uptake laterally in the lower third of the Fibula of the front leg together with Tibial increase medially in the other leg. Skiing: Chronic Skiing injuries are less asymmetrical and mostly seen on the apex of the patella. Chronic Feet Problems: A different chronic problem is the reduced blood perfusion in the feet if hard, tightened boots are used for longer time by professional ski instructors and racers. Flow difference between the foot in the boot and the other without boot are dramatic as measured by Nuclear Medicine Procedures and MRI. Pulmonary Embolism: Acute pulmonary embolism caused by thrombi originating at the site of constant pressure on the back rim of ski boots is not uncommon in older skiers (seek and you will find), but never seen in the younger group of Snow-Boarders. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  18. 30th Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The 30th edition of the Winter Workshop will be held April 6-12th, 2014 in Hotel Galvez & Spa, Galveston, Texas, USA. As with previous years, the workshop will bring together scientists from all fields of nuclear physics for engaging and friendly exchanges of ideas.Much emphasis will be on the recent LHC and RHIC heavy ion results, but advances in the ongoing and future programs at FAIR, FRIB, NICA and JLab will also be featured. The meeting will start with a welcome reception on the evening of Sunday, April 6th. The workshop program will commence on Monday morning and run until Saturday evening. We recommend to arrive on Sunday and leave on Sunday. Talks will be as usual 25+5 minutes, there will be no parallel sessions. If you are interested in presenting your work, please fill out the registration form prior to the registration deadline. After the program committee has met we will confirm your talk via individual invitations. We will also work with the talks committees of all relevant experimenta...

  19. Comparison of East Asian winter monsoon indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Hui

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Four East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM indices are compared in this paper. In the research periods, all the indices show similar interannual and decadal-interdecadal variations, with predominant periods centering in 3–4 years, 6.5 years and 9–15 years, respectively. Besides, all the indices show remarkable weakening trends since the 1980s. The correlation coefficient of each two indices is positive with a significance level of 99%. Both the correlation analyses and the composites indicate that in stronger EAWM years, the Siberian high and the higher-level subtropical westerly jet are stronger, and the Aleutian low and the East Asia trough are deeper. This circulation pattern is favorable for much stronger northwesterly wind and lower air temperature in the subtropical regions of East Asia, while it is on the opposite in weaker EAWM years. Besides, EAWM can also exert a remarkable leading effect on the summer monsoon. After stronger (weaker EAWM, less (more summer precipitation is seen over the regions from the Yangtze River valley of China to southern Japan, while more (less from South China Sea to the tropical western Pacific.

  20. 32th Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The 32nd edition of the Winter Workshop will be held 28 February - 5 March 2016, Hotel Resort Fort Royal Guadeloupe in Guadeloupe a French overseas territory, is an island group in the southern Caribbean Sea. As with previous years, the workshop will bring together scientists from all fields of nuclear physics for engaging and friendly exchanges of ideas. Much emphasis will be on the recent LHC, RHIC and SPS heavy ion results, but advances in the ongoing and future programs at FAIR, FRIB, EIC, JLab and NICA and will also be featured. The meeting will start with a welcome reception on the evening of Sunday, February 28. The workshop program will commence on Monday morning and run until Saturday. We recommend to arrive on Sunday and leave on Sunday. Talks will be as usual 25+5 minutes, there will be no parallel sessions. If you are interested in presenting your work, please fill out the registration form prior to the registration deadline. After the program committee has met we will confirm your talk via indivi...

  1. 'McMurdo' Panorama from Spirit's 'Winter Haven'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    to augment this McMurdo panorama view. This beautiful scene reveals a tremendous amount of detail in Spirit's surroundings. Many dark, porous-textured volcanic rocks can be seen around the rover, including many on Low Ridge. Two rocks to the right of center, brighter and smoother-looking in this image and more reflective in infrared observations by Spirit's miniature thermal emission spectrometer, are thought to be meteorites. On the right, 'Husband Hill' on the horizon, the rippled 'El Dorado' sand dune field near the base of that hill, and lighter-toned 'Home Plate' below the dunes provide context for Spirit's travels since mid-2005. Left of center, tracks and a trench dug by Spirit's right-front wheel, which no longer rotates, have exposed bright underlying material. This bright material is evidence of sulfur-rich salty minerals in the subsurface, which may provide clues about the watery past of this part of Gusev Crater. Spirit has stayed busy at Winter Haven during the past six months even without driving. In addition to acquiring this spectacular panorama, the rover team has also acquired significant new assessments of the elemental chemistry and mineralogy of rocks and soil targets within reach of the rover's arm. The team plans soon to have Spirit drive to a very nearby spot on Low Ridge to access different rock and soil samples while maintaining a good solar panel tilt toward the sun for the rest of the Martian winter. Despite the long span of time needed for acquiring this 360-degree view -- a few images at a time every few sols over a total of 119 sols because the available power was so low -- the lighting and color remain remarkably uniform across the mosaic. This fact attests to the repeatability of wintertime sols on Mars in the southern hemisphere. This is the time of year when Mars is farthest from the sun, so there is much less dust storm and dust devil activity than at other times of the year. This is an approximately true-color, red

  2. 'McMurdo' Panorama from Spirit's 'Winter Haven' (Color Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    acquired from either rover. Additional photo coverage of the parts of the rover deck not shown here was completed on sol 980 (Oct. 5 , 2006). The team is completing the processing and mosaicking of those final pieces of the panorama, and that image will be released on the Web shortly to augment this McMurdo panorama view. This beautiful scene reveals a tremendous amount of detail in Spirit's surroundings. Many dark, porous-textured volcanic rocks can be seen around the rover, including many on Low Ridge. Two rocks to the right of center, brighter and smoother-looking in this image and more reflective in infrared observations by Spirit's miniature thermal emission spectrometer, are thought to be meteorites. On the right, 'Husband Hill' on the horizon, the rippled 'El Dorado' sand dune field near the base of that hill, and lighter-toned 'Home Plate' below the dunes provide context for Spirit's travels since mid-2005. Left of center, tracks and a trench dug by Spirit's right-front wheel, which no longer rotates, have exposed bright underlying material. This bright material is evidence of sulfur-rich salty minerals in the subsurface, which may provide clues about the watery past of this part of Gusev Crater. Spirit has stayed busy at Winter Haven during the past six months even without driving. In addition to acquiring this spectacular panorama, the rover team has also acquired significant new assessments of the elemental chemistry and mineralogy of rocks and soil targets within reach of the rover's arm. The team plans soon to have Spirit drive to a very nearby spot on Low Ridge to access different rock and soil samples while maintaining a good solar panel tilt toward the sun for the rest of the Martian winter. Despite the long span of time needed for acquiring this 360-degree view -- a few images at a time every few sols over a total of 119 sols because the available power was so low -- the lighting and color remain remarkably uniform across the mosaic. This fact attests to

  3. 'McMurdo' Panorama from Spirit's 'Winter Haven' (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    mosaicking of those final pieces of the panorama, and that image will be released on the Web shortly to augment this McMurdo panorama view. This beautiful scene reveals a tremendous amount of detail in Spirit's surroundings. Many dark, porous-textured volcanic rocks can be seen around the rover, including many on Low Ridge. Two rocks to the right of center, brighter and smoother-looking in this image and more reflective in infrared observations by Spirit's miniature thermal emission spectrometer, are thought to be meteorites. On the right, 'Husband Hill' on the horizon, the rippled 'El Dorado' sand dune field near the base of that hill, and lighter-toned 'Home Plate' below the dunes provide context for Spirit's travels since mid-2005. Left of center, tracks and a trench dug by Spirit's right-front wheel, which no longer rotates, have exposed bright underlying material. This bright material is evidence of sulfur-rich salty minerals in the subsurface, which may provide clues about the watery past of this part of Gusev Crater. Spirit has stayed busy at Winter Haven during the past six months even without driving. In addition to acquiring this spectacular panorama, the rover team has also acquired significant new assessments of the elemental chemistry and mineralogy of rocks and soil targets within reach of the rover's arm. The team plans soon to have Spirit drive to a very nearby spot on Low Ridge to access different rock and soil samples while maintaining a good solar panel tilt toward the sun for the rest of the Martian winter. Despite the long span of time needed for acquiring this 360-degree view -- a few images at a time every few sols over a total of 119 sols because the available power was so low -- the lighting and color remain remarkably uniform across the mosaic. This fact attests to the repeatability of wintertime sols on Mars in the southern hemisphere. This is the time of year when Mars is farthest from the sun, so there is much less dust storm and dust devil

  4. 'McMurdo' Panorama from Spirit's 'Winter Haven' (False Color)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    , and that image will be released on the Web shortly to augment this McMurdo panorama view. This beautiful scene reveals a tremendous amount of detail in Spirit's surroundings. Many dark, porous-textured volcanic rocks can be seen around the rover, including many on Low Ridge. Two rocks to the right of center, brighter and smoother-looking in this image and more reflective in infrared observations by Spirit's miniature thermal emission spectrometer, are thought to be meteorites. On the right, 'Husband Hill' on the horizon, the rippled 'El Dorado' sand dune field near the base of that hill, and lighter-toned 'Home Plate' below the dunes provide context for Spirit's travels since mid-2005. Left of center, tracks and a trench dug by Spirit's right-front wheel, which no longer rotates, have exposed bright underlying material. This bright material is evidence of sulfur-rich salty minerals in the subsurface, which may provide clues about the watery past of this part of Gusev Crater. Spirit has stayed busy at Winter Haven during the past six months even without driving. In addition to acquiring this spectacular panorama, the rover team has also acquired significant new assessments of the elemental chemistry and mineralogy of rocks and soil targets within reach of the rover's arm. The team plans soon to have Spirit drive to a very nearby spot on Low Ridge to access different rock and soil samples while maintaining a good solar panel tilt toward the sun for the rest of the Martian winter. Despite the long span of time needed for acquiring this 360-degree view -- a few images at a time every few sols over a total of 119 sols because the available power was so low -- the lighting and color remain remarkably uniform across the mosaic. This fact attests to the repeatability of wintertime sols on Mars in the southern hemisphere. This is the time of year when Mars is farthest from the sun, so there is much less dust storm and dust devil activity than at other times of the year. This

  5. Natural gas monthly, May 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``Restructuring energy industries: Lessons from natural gas.`` 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  6. Natural gas monthly, June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is the executive summary from Natural Gas 1994: Issues and Trends. 6 figs., 31 tabs.

  7. Reduction of electricity comsumption during 'high cost' periods in winter 2005 - 2006

    CERN Multimedia

    Mario Batz

    2005-01-01

    In previous years CERN was able to limit its electricity consumption during the winter months sufficiently to be supplied from the Swiss grid. In order to make enough power available for the LHC machine and experiments at the lowest possible cost during the coming winter 2005 / 2006 CERN is supplied from the French grid by EDF (Electricité de France). As a consequence, when the grids are at peak demand during the tariff period 'Effacement Jour de Pointe' (EJP) in France, the energy price is at least four times as high as for the usual winter period. From 1st November until 31st March these increased prices are applicable during twenty-two 18-hour periods, each beginning at 7 a.m. and ending at 1 a.m. the following day. Notice will be given by EDF to the Technical Infrastructure Control Room (TI) at 5 p.m. the previous day. The notice period may be reduced to two hours for days following weekends and public holidays, or omitted entirely for technical reasons. During these days of EJP CERN has a strong fina...

  8. The response of winter wheat to water stress and nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, F.; Qi, M.; Wang, H.; Changjiu, Z.

    1995-01-01

    The response of winter wheat to water stress imposed at different crop growth stages by deficit irrigation and fertilizer use under several schemes of irrigation were evaluated on fine sandy soil and sand loam soil. The results showed that according to grain yield response factor K, the order of sensitive growth stages of winter wheat to water stress in decreasing sequence were booting to flowering ( K= 0.90), winter afterward to booting ( K= 0.69), flowering to milking ( K= 0.44) and milking to ripening ( K= 0.25). Field water efficiency would get 16.7 kg/mm.ha when no water stress in growth period, and when water stress has occurred in some growth stages, the value of it decreased by 5 - 20 percent. It was also found that high fertilizer application rate without split application would not significantly influence the yield on fine sandy soil. But schedule of irrigation affected the translocation of nitrogen in the plant. When water stress occurred in later growth stage, the ratio of NUE in gain to straw decreased, and fertilizer was available for crop only about one month after fertilizer application, excessive fertilizer rate would result in decrease of NUE by leaching of nitrogen in sandy soil. Total recovery of fertilizer at harvest was half amount of application. 6 refs; 10 tabs; ( author)

  9. Radionuclide concentrations in elk that winter on Los Alamos National Laboratory lands. Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresquez, P.R.; Armstrong, D.A.; Salazar, J.G.

    1994-07-01

    Elk spend the winter in areas at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) that may contain radioactivity above natural and/or worldwide fallout levels. This study was initiated to determine the levels of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, and total uranium in various tissues (brain, hair, heart, jawbone, kidneys, leg bone, liver, and muscle) of adult cow elk that use LANL lands during the fall/winter months. No significant differences in radionuclide contents were detected in any of the tissue samples collected from elk on LANL lands as compared with elk collected from off-site locations. The total effective (radiation) dose equivalent a person would receive from consuming 3.2 lb of heart, 5.6 lb of liver, and 226 lb of muscle from elk that winter on LANL lands, after natural background has been subtracted, was 0.00008, 0.0001, and 0.008 mrem/yr, respectively. The highest dose was less than 0.01% of the International Commission on Radiological Protection permissible dose limit for protecting the public

  10. On the statistical connection between tropospheric and stratospheric circulation of the northern hemisphere in winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perlwitz, J.; Graf, H.F.

    1994-01-01

    The associated anomaly patterns of the stratospheric geopotential height field and the tropospheric geopotential and temperature height fields of the northern hemisphere are determined applying the Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA). With this linear multivariate technique the coupled modes of variability of time series of two fields are isolated in the EOF space. The one data set is the 50 hPa geopotential field, the other set consists of different height fields of the tropospheric pressure levels (200 hPa, 500 hPa, 700 hPa, 850 hPa) and the temperature of the 850 hPa pressure level. For the winter months (December, January, February) two natural coupled modes, a barotropic and a baroclinic one, of linear relationship between stratospheric and tropospheric circulation are found. The baroclinic mode describes a connection between the strength of the stratospheric cyclonic winter vortex and the tropospheric circulation over the North Atlantic. The corresponding temperature pattern for an anomalously strong stratospheric cyclonic vortex is characterized by positive temperature anomalies over higher latitudes of Eurasia. These 'Winter Warmings' are observed e.g. after violent volcanic eruptions. The barotropic mode is characterized by a zonal wave number one in the lower stratosphere and by a PNA-like pattern in the troposphere. It was shown by Labitzke and van Loon (1987) that this mode can be enhanced e.g. by El Ninos via the intensification of the Aleutian low. (orig.)

  11. Winter precipitation particle size distribution measurement by Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gwo-Jong; Kleinkort, Cameron; Bringi, V. N.; Notaroš, Branislav M.

    2017-12-01

    From the radar meteorology viewpoint, the most important properties for quantitative precipitation estimation of winter events are 3D shape, size, and mass of precipitation particles, as well as the particle size distribution (PSD). In order to measure these properties precisely, optical instruments may be the best choice. The Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera (MASC) is a relatively new instrument equipped with three high-resolution cameras to capture the winter precipitation particle images from three non-parallel angles, in addition to measuring the particle fall speed using two pairs of infrared motion sensors. However, the results from the MASC so far are usually presented as monthly or seasonally, and particle sizes are given as histograms, no previous studies have used the MASC for a single storm study, and no researchers use MASC to measure the PSD. We propose the methodology for obtaining the winter precipitation PSD measured by the MASC, and present and discuss the development, implementation, and application of the new technique for PSD computation based on MASC images. Overall, this is the first study of the MASC-based PSD. We present PSD MASC experiments and results for segments of two snow events to demonstrate the performance of our PSD algorithm. The results show that the self-consistency of the MASC measured single-camera PSDs is good. To cross-validate PSD measurements, we compare MASC mean PSD (averaged over three cameras) with the collocated 2D Video Disdrometer, and observe good agreements of the two sets of results.

  12. Radionuclide concentrations in elk that winter on Los Alamos National Laboratory lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresquez, P.R.; Armstrong, D.A.; Salazar, J.G.

    1994-07-01

    Elk spend the winter in areas at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) that may contain radioactivity above natural and/or worldwide fallout levels. This study was initiated to determine the levels of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, and total uranium in various tissues (brain, hair, heart, jawbone, kidneys, leg bone, liver, and muscle) of adult cow elk that use LANL lands during the fall/winter months. No significant differences in radionuclide contents were detected in any of the tissue samples collected from elk on LANL lands as compared with elk collected from off-site locations. The total effective (radiation) dose equivalent a person would receive from consuming 3.2 lb of heart, 5.6 lb of liver, and 226 lb of muscle from elk that winter on LANL lands, after natural background has been subtracted, was 0.00008, 0.0001, and 0.008 mrem/yr, respectively. The highest dose was less than 0.01% of the International Commission of Radiological Protection permissible dose limit for protecting the public

  13. Reduction of electricity comsumption during 'high cost' periods in winter 2005 - 2006

    CERN Document Server

    Mario Batz

    2005-01-01

    In previous years CERN was able to sufficiently limit its electricity consumption during the winter months to be supplied from the Swiss grid. In order to make enough power available for the LHC machine and experiments at the lowest possible cost during the coming winter 2005 / 2006, CERN will be supplied from the French grid by EDF (Electricité de France). As a consequence, when the grids are at peak demand during the tariff period 'Effacement Jour de Pointe' (EJP) in France, the energy price is at least four times higher than for the usual winter period. From 1st November until 31st March these increased prices are applicable during twenty-two 18-hour periods, each beginning at 7 a.m. and ending at 1 a.m. the following day. Notice will be given by EDF to the Technical Infrastructure Control Room (TI) at 5 p.m. the previous day. The notice period may be reduced to two hours for days following weekends and public holidays, or omitted entirely for technical reasons. During these days of EJP CERN has a stro...

  14. Liver hypertrophy in winter flounder following exposure to experimentally oiled sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, G L; King, M J; Kiceniuk, J W; Addison, R F

    1982-01-01

    1. Male winter flounder were exposed to sediments contaminated with Venezuelan crude oil in 3 laboratory experiments of 4-5 months duration. 2. Oil exposure resulted in significant increases in liver weight. This was particularly evident in fish weighing less than 400 g. 3. The enlarged livers of the oil-exposed flounder had reduced concentrations of DNA, protein, Na/sup +/ and Zn2/sup +/, and increased concentrations of lipid and phospholipid. 4. The reduced DNA and Na/sup +/ concentrations suggested liver hypertrophy rather than hyperplasia. 5. The increased phospholipid concentrations suggested growth of membrane structures such as endoplasmic reticulum.

  15. PIXE analysis of airborne particulate matter from Xalostoc, Mexico: winter to summer comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores M, J.; Aldape, F.; Diaz, R.V.; Hernandez-Mendez, B.; Garcia G, R.

    1999-01-01

    A study of elemental contents in airborne particulate matter from the industrial city of Xalostoc, Estado de Mexico, was performed using PIXE. The place has a great variety of industries, it is a heavily populated, and it is a part of Mexico City's conurbation, thus contributing significantly to its atmospheric pollution. At present, there is few information available about elemental contents in airborne particulate matter from that region. In this study, two sets of samples of airborne particulate matter were collected daily during periods of four weeks in summer 1996 and winter 1997; two samples a day, 12 h each, night-time and day-time. Results revealed important information about elemental contents in airborne particulate matter from that area, especially in the respirable fraction PM 2.5 . Comparison of night and day figures showed the presence of some elements such as Cu, Zn, and Pb, attributed, as it was expected, to uninterrupted industrial processes. Appearance of some other elements was more consistent only in either day-time or night-time due to diurnal or nocturnal industrial activities, or produced by human activities such as fuel combustion of automotive vehicles. Comparison of winter to summer results showed some other important features such as higher concentrations of pollutants in winter, because of the dry and cold weather, while summer samples exhibited lower concentrations mainly due to the presence of rain showers

  16. Panhypopituitarism Due to Hemochromatosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mesut Özkaya; Kadir Gis; Ali Çetinkaya

    2013-01-01

    Hemochromatosis is an iron storage disease. Panhypopituitarism is a clinical condition in which the anterior pituitary hormones are deficient. Herein, we report a rare case of panhypopituitarism due to hemochromatosis. Turk Jem 2013; 17: 125-6

  17. Comparison of subjective symptoms and cold prevention measures in winter between traffic control workers and construction workers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Ryoichi; Kurokawa, Junichi; Mirbod, Seyed Mohammad

    2009-07-01

    To help making comfortable workplaces and to prevent health disorders induced by the exposure to moderate cold in two different groups of out-door workers, we conducted a survey to compare subjective symptoms and cold prevention measures in winter between traffic control workers and construction workers. The subjects of this study were 98 male traffic control workers and 149 male workers engaged in building construction. Work loads of traffic control workers and construction workers were estimated at RMR1-2 and RMR2-4, respectively. All subjects were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire covering age, occupational career, working figure, present illness, past history of diseases, individual preventive measures to the cold, subjective symptoms in the winter (43 items) and subjective symptoms occurred during daytime working in the winter (6 items). In two parts of the construction workplaces (the place where a morning assembly was held and on the 7th floor of the construction site) dry bulb, wet bulb and globe temperatures were measured in January. Windchill Index (kcal/cm,(2) x h) was calculated by the measured dry bulb temperature and wind velocity. Mean values of dry bulb temperature between 9:00 and 16:30 in the place where a morning assembly was held for three days were between 4.8 +/- 1.2 degrees C at 9:00 am and 9.3 +/- 1.1 degrees C at noon. Mean values of Windchill Index in the place where a morning assembly was held were between 490.8+/-23.9 kcal/cm(2) x h at 9:30 am and 608.2+/-47.3 kcal/cm(2) x h at 2:30 pm. Occupational career, monthly working days, daily working hours, one way commuting hours, and daily smoking numbers of the traffic control workers were significantly shorter than the construction workers (pconstruction workers (0.7%). Prevalence of wearing a warm underwear, body warmer, warm trousers, underpants, warm socks, shoe warmer and muffler in the traffic control workers were significantly higher than the construction workers. The

  18. Dynamical response of the Arctic winter stratosphere to global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpechko, A.; Manzini, E.

    2017-12-01

    Climate models often simulate dynamical warming of the Arctic stratosphere as a response to global warming in association with a strengthening of the deep branch of the Brewer-Dobson circulation; however until now, no satisfactory mechanism for such a response has been suggested. Here we investigate the role of stationary planetary waves in the dynamical response of the Arctic winter stratosphere circulation to global warming by analysing simulations performed with atmosphere-only Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) models driven by prescribed sea surface temperatures (SSTs). We focus on December-February (DJF) because this is the period when the troposphere and stratosphere are strongly coupled. When forced by increased SSTs, all the models analysed here simulate Arctic stratosphere dynamical warming, mostly due to increased upward propagation of quasi-stationary wave number 1, as diagnosed by the meridional eddy heat flux. By analysing intermodel spread in the response we show that the stratospheric warming and increased wave flux to the stratosphere correlate with the strengthening of the zonal winds in subtropics and mid-latitudes near the tropopause- a robust response to global warming. These results support previous studies of future Arctic stratosphere changes and suggest a dynamical warming of the Arctic wintertime polar vortex as the most likely response to global warming.

  19. Baraitser and Winter syndrome with growth hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chentli, Farida; Zellagui, Hadjer

    2014-01-01

    Baraitser-Winter syndrome (BWS), first reported in 1988, is apparently due to genetic abnormalities that are still not well-defined, although many gene abnormalities are already discovered and de novo missense changes in the cytoplasmic actin-encoding genes (called ACTB and ACTG1) have been recently discovered. The syndrome combines facial and cerebral malformations. Facial malformations totally or partially present in the same patient are: Iris coloboma, bilateral ptosis, hypertelorism, broad nasal bridge, and prominent epicanthic folds. The various brain malformations are probably responsible for growth and mental retardation. To the best of our knowledge, the syndrome is very rare as few cases have been reported so far. Our aim was to describe a child with a phenotype that looks like BWS with proved partial growth hormone (GH) deficiency which was not reported before. A girl aged 7-year-old of consanguineous parents was referred for short stature and mental retardation. Clinical examination showed dwarfism and a delay in her mental development. Other clinical features included: Strabismus, epicanthic folds, broad nasal bridge, and brain anomalies such as lissencephaly, bilateral hygroma, and cerebral atrophy. Hormonal assessment showed partial GH deficiency without other endocrine disorders. Our case looks exactly like BWS. However, apart from facial and cerebral abnormalities, there is a partial GH deficiency which can explain the harmonious short stature. This case seems worth to be reported as it adds GH deficiency to the very rare syndrome.

  20. Winter wheat optimizes allocation in response to carbon limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianbei; Hammerbacher, Almuth; Trumbore, Susan; Hartmann, Henrik

    2016-04-01

    • Plant photosynthesis is not carbon-saturated at current atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) thus carbon allocation priority is of critical importance in determining plant response to environmental changes, including increasing [CO2]. • We quantified the percentage of daytime net assimilation (A) allocated to whole-plant nighttime respiration (R) and structural growth (SG), nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) and secondary metabolites (SMs) during winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) vegetative growth (over 4 weeks) at glacial, ambient, and elevated [CO2] (170, 390 and 680 ppm). • We found that R/A remained relatively constant (11-14%) across [CO2] treatments, whereas plants allocated less C to growth and more C to export at low [CO2] than elevated [CO2]; low [CO2] grown plants tended to invest overall less C into NSC and SMs than to SG due to reduced NSC availability; while leaf SMs/NSC was greater at 170 ppm than at 680 ppm [CO2] this was the opposite for root SMs/NSC; biomass, especially NSC, were preferentially allocated to leaves instead of stems and roots, likely to relieve C limitation induced by low [CO2]. • We conclude that C limitation may force plants to reduce C allocation to long-term survival in order to secure short-term survival. Furthermore, they optimized allocation of the available resource by concentrating biomass and storage to those tissues responsible for assimilation.

  1. Deference and Due Process

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeule, Cornelius Adrian

    2015-01-01

    In the textbooks, procedural due process is a strictly judicial enterprise; although substantive entitlements are created by legislative and executive action, it is for courts to decide independently what process the Constitution requires. The notion that procedural due process might be committed primarily to the discretion of the agencies themselves is almost entirely absent from the academic literature. The facts on the ground are very different. Thanks to converging strands of caselaw ...

  2. Autumn Weather and Winter Increase in Cerebrovascular Disease Mortality

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonagh, R

    2016-11-01

    Mortality from cerebrovascular disease increases in winter but the cause is unclear. Ireland’s oceanic climate means that it infrequently experiences extremes of weather. We examined how weather patterns relate to stroke mortality in Ireland. Seasonal data for Sunshine (% of average), Rainfall (% of average) and Temperature (degrees Celsius above average) were collected for autumn (September-November) and winter (December-February) using official Irish Meteorological Office data. National cerebrovascular mortality data was obtained from Quarterly Vital Statistics. Excess winter deaths were calculated by subtracting (nadir) 3rd quarter mortality data from subsequent 1st quarter data. Data for 12 years were analysed, 2002-2014. Mean winter mortality excess was 24.7%. Winter mortality correlated with temperature (r=.60, p=0.04). Rise in winter mortality correlated strongly with the weather in the preceding autumn (Rainfall: r=-0.19 p=0.53, Temperature: r=-0.60, p=0.03, Sunshine, r=0.58, p=0.04). Winter cerebrovascular disease mortality appears higher following cool, sunny autum

  3. Sage-grouse habitat selection during winter in Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Jennifer L.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Boyce, Mark S.

    2010-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) are dependent on sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) for food and shelter during winter, yet few studies have assessed winter habitat selection, particularly at scales applicable to conservation planning. Small changes to availability of winter habitats have caused drastic reductions in some sage-grouse populations. We modeled winter habitat selection by sage-grouse in Alberta, Canada, by using a resource selection function. Our purpose was to 1) generate a robust winter habitat-selection model for Alberta sage-grouse; 2) spatially depict habitat suitability in a Geographic Information System to identify areas with a high probability of selection and thus, conservation importance; and 3) assess the relative influence of human development, including oil and gas wells, in landscape models of winter habitat selection. Terrain and vegetation characteristics, sagebrush cover, anthropogenic landscape features, and energy development were important in top Akaike's Information Criterionselected models. During winter, sage-grouse selected dense sagebrush cover and homogenous less rugged areas, and avoided energy development and 2-track truck trails. Sage-grouse avoidance of energy development highlights the need for comprehensive management strategies that maintain suitable habitats across all seasons. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  4. Relationship of deer and moose populations to previous winters' snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; McRoberts, R.E.; Peterson, R.O.; Page, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    (1) Linear regression was used to relate snow accumulation during single and consecutive winters with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn:doe ratios, mosse (Alces alces) twinning rates and calf:cow ratios, and annual changes in deer and moose populations. Significant relationships were found between snow accumulation during individual winters and these dependent variables during the following year. However, the strongest relationships were between the dependent variables and the sums of the snow accumulations over the previous three winters. The percentage of the variability explained was 36 to 51. (2) Significant relationships were also found between winter vulnerability of moose calves and the sum of the snow accumulations in the current, and up to seven previous, winters, with about 49% of the variability explained. (3) No relationship was found between wolf numbers and the above dependent variables. (4) These relationships imply that winter influences on maternal nutrition can accumulate for several years and that this cumulative effect strongly determines fecundity and/or calf and fawn survivability. Although wolf (Canis lupus L.) predation is the main direct mortality agent on fawns and calves, wolf density itself appears to be secondary to winter weather in influencing the deer and moose populations.

  5. The Unusual Southern Hemisphere Stratosphere Winter of 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.

    2003-01-01

    The southern hemisphere stratospheric winter of 2002 was the most unusual winter yet observed in the southern hemisphere climate record. Temperatures near the edge of the Antarctic polar vortex were considerably warmer than normal over the entire course of the winter. The polar night jet was considerably weaker than normal, and was displaced more poleward than has been observed in previous winters. These record high temperatures and weak jet resulted from a series of wave events that took place over the course of the winter. The first large event occurred on 15 May, and the final warming occurred on 25 October. The propagation of these wave events from the troposphere is diagnosed from time series of Eliassen-Palm flux vectors. The wave events tended to occur irregularly over the course of the winter, and pre-conditioned the polar night jet for the extremely large wave event of 22 September. This large wave event resulted in the first ever observed major stratospheric warming in the southern hemisphere. This wave event split the Antarctic ozone hole. The combined effect of the wave events of the 2002 winter resulted in the smallest ozone hole observed since 1988.

  6. Practical affairs of energy management: Operation management of cooling tower during winter and blow-down

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, H.K. [Cheonsu Industry Co, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-02-01

    In case the cooling tower is used throughout the year, operation managers should be careful to make sure that freezing at the surface of the loop in outside air inlet and the freezing of the reservoir due to the drop of ambient temperature during winter operation, or, freezing of condensed water drops on the interior surface of the fan blower cylinder, does not cause any plight that makes the original function not work to its capacity. To minimize the hindrance from freezing during winter, operation should be fully reviewed at the planning stage of the cooling tower. Those cooling towers used in the north of Central region and Kangwon Province should be especially taken consideration for heavy snowfall and severe cold. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Your Baby's Growth: 12 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Your Baby's Growth: 12 Months KidsHealth / For Parents / Your Baby's ... doubled his or her birth weight. Is My Baby Growing Normally? Babies' growth begins to slow as ...

  8. Developmental milestones record - 4 months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are expected to develop certain physical and mental skills. These skills are called milestones. Information All children develop a ... your child's health care provider. PHYSICAL AND MOTOR SKILLS The typical 4-month-old baby should: Slow ...

  9. Your Child's Development: 1 Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child’s Development: 1 Month Print en español El desarrollo de su hijo: 1 mes Have you ever ... lying on the tummy, holds head up briefly Social and Emotional Development recognizes mother's voice when upset, ...

  10. Your Child's Development: 2 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child's Development: 2 Months Print en español El desarrollo de su hijo: 2 meses Your baby develops ... pose) fists remain unclenched half of the time Social and Emotional Development comforts himself or herself, maybe ...

  11. Your Child's Development: 6 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child's Development: 6 Months Print en español El desarrollo de su hijo: 6 meses Notice your baby ... both ways (back to front, front to back) Social and Emotional Development recognizes and responds happily to ...

  12. Your Child's Development: 15 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child's Development: 15 Months Print en español El desarrollo de su hijo: 15 meses Toddlers this age ... stacks three blocks scribbles with crayon on paper Social and Emotional Development begins to show preference for ...

  13. Monthly energy review, July 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This document presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. Activities covered include: U.S. production, consumption, trade, stock, and prices for petroleum, coal, natural gas, electricity, and nuclear energy.

  14. Developmental milestones record - 12 months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to 2 naps during the day SENSORY AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT The typical 12-month-old: Begins pretend play ( ... Editorial team. Infant and Newborn Development Read more Toddler Development Read more NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more A. ...

  15. Developmental milestones record - 18 months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The typical 18-month-old: Shows affection Has separation anxiety Listens to a story or looks at pictures Can say 10 or more words when asked Kisses parents with lips puckered Identifies one or more parts ...

  16. Monthly energy review, May 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This document is a monthly report of Energy Information Administration on production, consumption, stocks, imports, and prices of the principal energy commodities in the United States. International energy data is also presented. 47 figs., 67 tabs

  17. Winter excess in hospital admissions, in-patient mortality and length of acute hospital stay in stroke: a hospital database study over six seasonal years in Norfolk, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, Phyo K; Vowler, Sarah L; Woodhouse, Peter R; Redmayne, Oliver; Fulcher, Robert A

    2007-01-01

    Several studies have examined the incidence and mortality of stroke in relation to season. However, the evidence is conflicting partly due to variation in the populations (community vs. hospital-based), and in climatic conditions between studies. Moreover, they may not have been able to take into account the age, sex and stroke type of the study population. We hypothesized that the age, sex and type of stroke are major determinants of the presence or absence of winter excess in morbidity and mortality associated with stroke. We analyzed a hospital-based stroke register from Norfolk, UK to examine our prior hypothesis. Using Curwen's method, we performed stratified sex-specific analyses by (1) seasonal year and (2) quartiles of patients' age and stroke subtype and calculated the winter excess for the number of admissions, in-patient deaths and length of acute hospital stay. There were 5,481 patients (men=45%). Their ages ranged from 17 to 105 years (median=78 years). There appeared to be winter excess in hospital admissions, deaths and length of acute hospital stay overall accounting for 3/100,000 extra admissions (winter excess index of 3.4% in men and 7.6% in women) and 1/100,000 deaths (winter excess index of 4.7 and 8.6% in women) due to stroke in winter compared to non-winter periods. Older patients with non-haemorrhagic stroke mainly contribute to this excess. If our findings are replicated throughout England and Wales, it is estimated that there are 1,700 excess admissions, 600 excess in-patient deaths and 24,500 extra acute hospital bed days each winter, related to stroke within the current population of approximately 60 million. Further research should be focused on the determinants of winter excess in morbidity and mortality associated with stroke. This may subsequently reduce the morbidity and mortality by providing effective preventive strategies in future. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Natural gas monthly, October 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  19. Natural gas monthly, May 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  20. Natural gas monthly, June 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  1. Monthly energy review, April 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public.

  2. Electric Power Monthly, March 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and state level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data are presented on generation, fuel consumption, stockpiles, costs, sales, and unusual occurrences. Fuels considered are: coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear power, and hydroelectric power. 4 figs., 48 tabs

  3. Monthly energy review, August 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. 37 figs., 73 tabs.

  4. Natural gas monthly, August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-24

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  5. Natural gas monthly, November 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground state data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information

  6. Regional greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of winter wheat and winter rapeseed for biofuels in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsgaard, Lars; Olesen, Joergen E.; Hermansen, John E.; Kristensen, Inge T.; Boergesen, Christen D. [Dept. of Agroecology, Aarhus Univ., Tjele (Denmark)], E-mail: lars.elsgaard@agrsci.dk

    2013-04-15

    Biofuels from bioenergy crops may substitute a significant part of fossil fuels in the transport sector where, e.g., the European Union has set a target of using 10% renewable energy by 2020. Savings of greenhouse gas emissions by biofuels vary according to cropping systems and are influenced by such regional factors as soil conditions, climate and input of agrochemicals. Here we analysed at a regional scale the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with cultivation of winter wheat for bioethanol and winter rapeseed for rapeseed methyl ester (RME) under Danish conditions. Emitted CO{sub 2} equivalents (CO{sub 2}eq) were quantified from the footprints of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O associated with cultivation and the emissions were allocated between biofuel energy and co-products. Greenhouse gas emission at the national level (Denmark) was estimated to 22.1 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} ethanol for winter wheat and 26.0 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} RME for winter rapeseed. Results at the regional level (level 2 according to the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics [NUTS]) ranged from 20.0 to 23.9 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} ethanol and from 23.5 to 27.6 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} RME. Thus, at the regional level emission results varied by up to 20%. Differences in area-based emissions were only 4% reflecting the importance of regional variation in yields for the emission result. Fertilizer nitrogen production and direct emissions of soil N{sub 2}O were major contributors to the final emission result and sensitivity analyses showed that the emission result depended to a large extent on the uncertainty ranges assumed for soil N{sub 2}O emissions. Improvement of greenhouse gas balances could be pursued, e.g., by growing dedicated varieties for energy purposes. However, in a wider perspective, land-use change of native ecosystems to bioenergy cropping systems could compromise the CO{sub 2} savings of bioenergy production and challenge the targets set for biofuel

  7. Contribution of allelopathy and competition to weed suppression by winter wheat, triticale and winter rye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiss, Antje; Fomsgaard, Inge S.; Mathiassen, Solvejg Kopp

    Above-ground competition and allelopathy are two of the most dominant mechanisms of plants to subdue their competitors in their closest surroundings. In an agricultural perspective, the suppression of weeds by the crop is of particular interest, as weeds represent the largest yield loss potential...... of competitive traits, such as early vigour, crop height and leaf area index and presence of phytotoxic compounds of the group of benzoxazinoids to weed suppression. Four cultivars of each of the winter cereals wheat, triticale and rye were grown in field experiments at two locations. Soil samples were taken...

  8. Winter chilling speeds spring development of temperate butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stålhandske, Sandra; Gotthard, Karl; Leimar, Olof

    2017-07-01

    Understanding and predicting phenology has become more important with ongoing climate change and has brought about great research efforts in the recent decades. The majority of studies examining spring phenology of insects have focussed on the effects of spring temperatures alone. Here we use citizen-collected observation data to show that winter cold duration, in addition to spring temperature, can affect the spring emergence of butterflies. Using spatial mixed models, we disentangle the effects of climate variables and reveal impacts of both spring and winter conditions for five butterfly species that overwinter as pupae across the UK, with data from 1976 to 2013 and one butterfly species in Sweden, with data from 2001 to 2013. Warmer springs lead to earlier emergence in all species and milder winters lead to statistically significant delays in three of the five investigated species. We also find that the delaying effect of winter warmth has become more pronounced in the last decade, during which time winter durations have become shorter. For one of the studied species, Anthocharis cardamines (orange tip butterfly), we also make use of parameters determined from previous experiments on pupal development to model the spring phenology. Using daily temperatures in the UK and Sweden, we show that recent variation in spring temperature corresponds to 10-15 day changes in emergence time over UK and Sweden, whereas variation in winter duration corresponds to 20 days variation in the south of the UK versus only 3 days in the south of Sweden. In summary, we show that short winters delay phenology. The effect is most prominent in areas with particularly mild winters, emphasising the importance of winter for the response of ectothermic animals to climate change. With climate change, these effects may become even stronger and apply also at higher latitudes. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.

  9. Canadian natural gas winter 2005-06 outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    particular reference to weather, storage levels, high crude oil prices, drilling and production, short-term Canadian natural gas price forecast, and the impact of higher natural gas prices on Canadian consumers. It is estimated that an average-sized residential household in Canada may pay up to $370 more for natural gas in the 2005-2006 winter compared to the previous year due to higher natural gas prices. 2 figs

  10. Notes on winter feeding behavior and molt in Wilson's phalaropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, J.; Howe, M.

    1975-01-01

    Wilson's Phalaropes, Steganopus tricolor, migrate in late summer from the prairie regions of North America to their wintering grounds in the highlands of Peru and the inland and coastal waters of Chile, Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Argentina (Holmes 1939, Meyer de Schauensee 1970). Reports on these birds from their wintering habitat are few. This paper describes numbers, feeding behavior, and molt of Wilson's Phalaropes wintering in a freshwater marsh in central Argentina. Fieldwork in Argentina was conducted by the senior author. The junior author analyzed molt patterns of birds collected there and added data he collected in North Dakota in 1968 and 1969.

  11. Winter precipitation and fire in the Sonoran Desert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, G.F.; Vint, M.K.

    1987-01-01

    Historical fire and climate records from the Arizona Upland portion of the Tonto National forest were used to test the hypothesis that fires burn larger areas in the Sonoran Desert after two wet winters than after one. We found that many more hectares burn in years following two winters that are wetter than normal, than during any other years. We agree with other ecologists, that desert fire occurrence is probably related to increased production of winter annual plants, and we suggest ways that the relationship may be clarified.

  12. Resilience of roof-top Plant-Microbial Fuel Cells during Dutch winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helder, Marjolein; Strik, David P.B.T.B.; Timmers, Ruud A.; Raes, Sanne M.T.; Hamelers, Hubertus V.M.; Buisman, Cees J.N.

    2013-01-01

    The Plant-Microbial Fuel Cell (P-MFC) is in theory a technology that could produce sustainable electricity continuously. We operated two designs of the P-MFC under natural roof-top conditions in the Netherlands for 221 days, including winter, to test its resilience. Current and power densities are not stable under outdoor conditions. Highest obtained power density was 88 mW m −2 , which is lower than was achieved under lab-conditions (440 mW m −2 ). Cathode potential was in our case dependent on solar radiation, due to algae growth, making the power output dependent on a diurnal cycle. The anode potential of the P-MFC is influenced by temperature, leading to a decrease in electricity production during low temperature periods and no electricity production during frost periods. Due to freezing of the roots, plants did not survive winter and therefore did not regrow in spring. In order to make a sustainable, stable and weather independent electricity production system of the P-MFC attention should be paid to improving cathode stability and cold insulation of anode and cathode. Only when power output of the Plant-Microbial Fuel Cell can be increased under outdoor conditions and plant-vitality can be sustained over winter, it can be a promising sustainable electricity technology for the future. -- Highlights: ► Plant-Microbial Fuel Cells (P-MFCs) produce sustainable electricity under outdoor conditions. ► During frost periods no electricity is produced in P-MFCs. ► Cathodes limit performance of P-MFCs under outdoor conditions. ► Spartina anglica in P-MFCs does not survive on a roof-top during Dutch winter. ► The P-MFC needs optimization of power output to be a promising sustainable electricity technology

  13. Early Winter Sea Ice Dynamics in the Ross Sea from In Situ and Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksym, T.; Ackley, S. F.; Stammerjohn, S. E.; Tison, J. L.; Hoeppner, K.

    2017-12-01

    The Ross Sea sea ice cover is one of the few regions of the cryosphere that have been expanding in recent decades. However, 2017 saw a significantly delayed autumn ice advance and record low early winter sea ice extent. Understanding the causes and impacts of this variability has been hampered by a lack of in situ observations. A winter cruise into the Ross Sea in April-June 2017 provided some of the only in situ winter observations of sea ice processes in this region in almost 20 years. We present a first look at data from arrays of drifting buoys deployed in the ice pack and outflow from these polynyas, supplemented by a suite of high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. Additional observations included high-resolution sonar imagery of ice deformation features from an autonomous underwater vehicle, shipboard visual observations of sea ice properties, and in situ measurements of snow and thickness and structural properties. These data show that the delay in ice advance led to a thin, highly dynamic sea ice pack, with substantial ice production and export from the Ross Ice Shelf and Terra Nova Bay polynyas. Despite these high rates of ice production, the pack ice remained thin due to rapid export and northward drift. Compared to the only prior winter observations made in 1995 and 1998, the ice was thinner, with less ridging and snow cover, reflecting a younger ice cover. Granular ice was less prevalent than in these prior cruises, particularly in the outer pack, likely due to less snow ice formation and less pancake ice formation at the advancing ice edge. Despite rapid basal ice growth, the buoy data suggest that deformation may be the dominant mechanism for sea ice thickening in the pack once an initial ice cover forms.

  14. Biogeochemical Impact of Snow Cover and Cyclonic Intrusions on the Winter Weddell Sea Ice Pack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tison, J.-L.; Schwegmann, S.; Dieckmann, G.; Rintala, J.-M.; Meyer, H.; Moreau, S.; Vancoppenolle, M.; Nomura, D.; Engberg, S.; Blomster, L. J.; Hendrickx, S.; Uhlig, C.; Luhtanen, A.-M.; de Jong, J.; Janssens, J.; Carnat, G.; Zhou, J.; Delille, B.

    2017-12-01

    Sea ice is a dynamic biogeochemical reactor and a double interface actively interacting with both the atmosphere and the ocean. However, proper understanding of its annual impact on exchanges, and therefore potentially on the climate, notably suffer from the paucity of autumnal and winter data sets. Here we present the results of physical and biogeochemical investigations on winter Antarctic pack ice in the Weddell Sea (R. V. Polarstern AWECS cruise, June-August 2013) which are compared with those from two similar studies conducted in the area in 1986 and 1992. The winter 2013 was characterized by a warm sea ice cover due to the combined effects of deep snow and frequent warm cyclones events penetrating southward from the open Southern Ocean. These conditions were favorable to high ice permeability and cyclic events of brine movements within the sea ice cover (brine tubes), favoring relatively high chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentrations. We discuss the timing of this algal activity showing that arguments can be presented in favor of continued activity during the winter due to the specific physical conditions. Large-scale sea ice model simulations also suggest a context of increasingly deep snow, warm ice, and large brine fractions across the three observational years, despite the fact that the model is forced with a snowfall climatology. This lends support to the claim that more severe Antarctic sea ice conditions, characterized by a longer ice season, thicker, and more concentrated ice are sufficient to increase the snow depth and, somehow counterintuitively, to warm the ice.

  15. Impacts of the EA and SCA patterns on the 20th century NAO-winter precipitation relationship in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comas-Bru, Laia; McDermott, Frank

    2013-04-01

    Much of the 20th century multi-decadal variability in the NAO-winter precipitation relationship over the N. Atlantic / European sector can be ascribed to the combined effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and either the East Atlantic pattern (EA) or the Scandinavian pattern (SCA). The NAO, EA and SCA indices employed here are defined as the three leading vectors of the cross-correlation matrix calculated from monthly sea-level pressure anomalies for 138 complete winters from the 20CRv2 dataset (Compo et al., 2011). Winter precipitation data over Europe for the entire 20th century is derived from the high resolution CRU-TS3.1 climate dataset (Mitchell and Jones, 2005). Here we document for the first time, that different NAO/EA and NAO/SCA combinations systematically influence winter precipitation conditions in Europe as a consequence of NAO dipole migrations. We find that the zero-correlated line of the NAO-winter precipitation relationship migrates southwards when the EA is in the opposite phase to the NAO. This can be related to a south-westwards migration of the NAO dipole under these conditions, as shown by teleconnectivity maps. Similarly, a clockwise movement of the NAO-winter climate correlated areas occurs when the phase of the SCA is opposite to that of the NAO, reflecting a clockwise movement of the NAO dipole under these conditions. An important implication of these migrations is that they influence the spatial and temporal stationarity of climate-NAO relationships. As a result, the link between winter precipitation patterns and the NAO is not straightforward in some regions such as the southern UK, Ireland and France. For instance, much of the inter-annual variability in the N-S winter precipitation gradient in the UK, originally attributed to inter-annual and inter-decadal variability of the NAO, reflects the migration of the NAO dipole, linked to linear combinations of the NAO and the EA. Our results indicate that when the N-S winter

  16. Injury due to thorotrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Takesaburo

    1976-01-01

    A synthetic study was performed on some of those to whom Thorotrast had been injected, in Japan. In the epidemiological study of 147 war woundeds to whom Thorotrast had been injected, it was noted that the Thorotrast injection increased the mortality rate and the incidences of malignant hepatic tumor, liver cirrhosis, and hematological diseases. Clinical study of 44 of them showed that the Thorotrast injection resulted in liver and hematopoietic hypofunctions. Analysis of the dissection of the injected area in 118 cases showed malignant hepatic tumor in 63.5%, liver cirrhosis in 14.4% and hematological diseases in 10.2%. The total of the three types of disease was 88.1%. Histological classification showed that of the malignant hepatic tumors due to Thorotrast, hepatobiliary cancer and hemangioendothelioma of the liver were frequent. By the comparison of the absorbed dose in the liver of the malignant hepatic tumors due to Thorotrast with that of the cancers developed in animal experiments, it was noted that the carcinogenic dose was a mean of 2,000 - 3,000 rad by accumulated dose. It was elucidated that carcinogenesis and fibrination were primary in injury due to Thorotrast, i.e., late injury due to Thorotrast, and that the increase in the accumulated dose in rogans and the increase of the local dose due to the gigantic growth of Thorotrast granules in organs greatly influenced carninogenesis and fibrination. (Chiba, N.)

  17. Anaphylaxis due to caffeine

    OpenAIRE

    Sugiyama, Kumiya; Cho, Tatsurai; Tatewaki, Masamitsu; Onishi, Shogo; Yokoyama, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Naruo; Fujimatsu, Takayoshi; Hirata, Hirokuni; Fukuda, Takeshi; Fukushima, Yasutsugu

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of anaphylaxis due to caffeine intake. A 27-year-old woman suffered her first episode of anaphylaxis and a positive skin prick test suggested that the anaphylaxis was due to an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction to caffeine. She was diagnosed with caffeine allergy and has not had an allergic reaction after avoiding foods and drinks containing caffeine. Although caffeine is known to have antiallergic effects, this case shows that caffeine can be an allergen and cause ...

  18. Quantitative Estimation of the Impact of European Teleconnections on Interannual Variation of East Asian Winter Temperature and Monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Young-Kwon; Kim, Hae-Dong

    2014-01-01

    The impact of European teleconnections including the East AtlanticWest Russia (EA-WR), the Scandinavia (SCA), and the East Atlantic (EA) on East Asian winter temperature variability was quantified and compared with the combined effect of the Arctic Oscillation (AO), the Western Pacific (WP), and the El-Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which are originated in the Northern Hemispheric high-latitudes or the Pacific. Three European teleconnections explained 22-25 percent of the total monthly upper-tropospheric height variance over Eurasia. Regression analysis revealed warming by EA-WR and EA and cooling by SCA over mid-latitude East Asia during their positive phase and vice versa. Temperature anomalies were largely explained by the advective temperature change process at the lower troposphere. The average spatial correlation over East Asia (90-180E, 10-80N) for the last 34 winters between observed and reconstructed temperature comprised of AO, WP and ENSO effect (AWE) was approximately 0.55, and adding the European teleconnection components (ESE) to the reconstructed temperature improved the correlation up to approximately 0.64. Lower level atmospheric structure demonstrated that approximately five of the last 34 winters were significantly better explained by ESE than AWE to determine East Asian seasonal winter temperatures. We also compared the impact between EA-WR and AO on the 1) East Asian winter monsoon, 2) cold surge, and 3) the Siberian high. These three were strongly coupled, and their spatial features and interannual variation were somewhat better explained by EA-WR than AO. Results suggest that the EA-WR impact must be treated more importantly than previously thought for a better understanding of East Asian winter temperature and monsoon variability.

  19. Combined effects of elevated temperature and CO2 enhance threat from low temperature hazard to winter wheat growth in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kaiyan; Zhou, Guangsheng; Lv, Xiaomin; Guo, Jianping; Ren, Sanxue

    2018-03-12

    We examined the growth and yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) in response to the predicted elevated CO 2 concentration and temperature to determine the mechanism of the combined impacts in North China Plain. An elevated treatment (CO 2 : 600 μmol mol -1 , temperature: +2.5~3.0 °C, ECTI) and a control treatment (ambient CO 2 and temperature, CK) were conducted in open-top chambers from October 2013 to June 2016. Post-winter growth stages of winter wheat largely advanced and shifted to a cooler period of nature season under combined impact of elevated CO 2 and temperature during the entire growing season. The mean temperature and accumulated photosynthetic active radiations (PAR) over the post-winter growing period in ECTI decreased by 0.8-1.5 °C and 10-13%, respectively compared with that in CK, negatively impacted winter wheat growth. As a result, winter wheat in ECTI suffered from low temperature hazards during critical period of floret development and anthesis and grain number per ear was reduced by 10-31% in the three years. Although 1000-kernel weight in ECTI increased by 8-9% mainly due to elevated CO 2 , increasing CO 2 concentration from 400 to 600 μmol mol -1 throughout the growth stage was not able to offset the adverse effect of warming on winter wheat growth and yield.

  20. Prediction of thermal behavior of pervious concrete pavements in winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Because application of pervious concrete pavement (PCPs) has extended to cold-climate regions of the United States, the safety and : mobility of PCP installations during the winter season need to be maintained. Timely application of salt, anti-icing,...

  1. Seasonal overturning circulation in the Red Sea: 2. Winter circulation

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Fengchao; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Pratt, Lawrence J.; Bower, Amy S.; Kö hl, Armin; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh; Rivas, David

    2014-01-01

    The shallow winter overturning circulation in the Red Sea is studied using a 50 year high-resolution MITgcm (MIT general circulation model) simulation with realistic atmospheric forcing. The overturning circulation for a typical year, represented

  2. Exploring the Constraint Profile of Winter Sports Resort Tourist Segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priporas, Constantinos-Vasilios; Vassiliadis, Chris A; Bellou, Victoria; Andronikidis, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    Many studies have confirmed the importance of market segmentation both theoretically and empirically. Surprisingly though, no study has so far addressed the issue from the perspective of leisure constraints. Since different consumers face different barriers, we look at participation in leisure activities as an outcome of the negotiation process that winter sports resort tourists go through, to balance between related motives and constraints. This empirical study reports the findings on the applicability of constraining factors in segmenting the tourists who visit winter sports resorts. Utilizing data from 1,391 tourists of winter sports resorts in Greece, five segments were formed based on their constraint, demographic, and behavioral profile. Our findings indicate that such segmentation sheds light on factors that could potentially limit the full utilization of the market. To maximize utilization, we suggest customizing marketing to the profile of each distinct winter sports resort tourist segment that emerged.

  3. Stay Warm in Winter (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    When frigid winter temperatures hit the U.S., the risk for unhealthy exposure to cold increases substantially. In this podcast, Dr. Jonathan Meiman discusses the dangers of exposure to extremely cold temperatures.

  4. NEFSC 2000 Winter Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0001, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objectives of the cruise are to: (1) determine the winter distribution and relative abundance of fish and selected invertebrate species; (2) collect biological...

  5. Evaluation of 14 winter bread wheat genotypes in normal irrigation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of 14 winter bread wheat genotypes in normal irrigation and stress conditions after anthesis stage. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Using biplot graphic method, comparison of indices amounts and mean rating of indices for ...

  6. Comparison of winter temperature profiles in asphalt and concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this research were to 1) determine which pavement type, asphalt or concrete, has : higher surface temperatures in winter and 2) compare the subsurface temperatures under asphalt and : concrete pavements to determine the pavement typ...

  7. JTEL Winter School for Advanced Technologically Enhanced Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glahn, Christian; Gruber, Marion

    2010-01-01

    Glahn, C., & Gruber, M. (2010). JTEL Winter School for Advanced Technologically Enhanced Learning. In ~mail. Das Magazin des Tiroler Bildungsinstituts, 01/10, März (p. 3-4). Innsbruck: Grillhof, Medienzentrum.

  8. zimbabwean fourth social workers conference and winter school

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cswserver

    commercial 4.0 International License. ZIMBABWEAN FOURTH SOCIAL WORKERS CONFERENCE AND WINTER. SCHOOL. Noah Mudenda. The Council of Social Workers (CSW or Council) was established under the Social Workers Act 27:21 ...

  9. Nitrogen uptake in the northeastern Arabian Sea during winter cooling

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kumar, S.; Ramesh, R.; Dwivedi, R.M.; Raman, M.; Sheshshayee, M.S.; DeSouza, W.

    /plain; charset=UTF-8 Hindawi Publishing Corporation International Journal of Oceanography Volume 2010, Article ID 819029, 11 pages doi:10.1155/2010/819029 Research Article Nitrogen Uptake in the Northeastern Arabian Sea during Winter Cooling S. Kumar, 1...

  10. Exploring the Constraint Profile of Winter Sports Resort Tourist Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priporas, Constantinos-Vasilios; Vassiliadis, Chris A.; Bellou, Victoria; Andronikidis, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have confirmed the importance of market segmentation both theoretically and empirically. Surprisingly though, no study has so far addressed the issue from the perspective of leisure constraints. Since different consumers face different barriers, we look at participation in leisure activities as an outcome of the negotiation process that winter sports resort tourists go through, to balance between related motives and constraints. This empirical study reports the findings on the applicability of constraining factors in segmenting the tourists who visit winter sports resorts. Utilizing data from 1,391 tourists of winter sports resorts in Greece, five segments were formed based on their constraint, demographic, and behavioral profile. Our findings indicate that such segmentation sheds light on factors that could potentially limit the full utilization of the market. To maximize utilization, we suggest customizing marketing to the profile of each distinct winter sports resort tourist segment that emerged. PMID:29708114

  11. Winter scene of the Globe of Science and Innovation

    CERN Multimedia

    patrice loiez

    2005-01-01

    CERN's Globe exhibition centre is shown on a Swiss winter day. This wooden building was given to CERN in 2004 as a gift from the Swiss Confederation to mark 50 years since the Organization's foundation.

  12. Nearshore hydrography off Visakhapatnam, East coast of India, during winter

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, B.P.; RameshBabu, V.

    . The near bottom region in the offshore area, rather than the nearshore area, seems to be promising dumping ground for industrial waste material during winter period when the thermal inversion in the water column are major mechanisms of vertical mixing...

  13. AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM OF WINTER AUTOMOBILE-ROAD MAINTENANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Leonovich

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure a rational usage of financial and material resources directed on winter automobile-road maintenance in theRepublicofBelarusan automatic control system of winter maintenance is under its development and introduction.  The main purpose of the system is to obtain and use meteorological information on the state of a road network that allows to take necessary organizational and technological solutions ensuring safety and continuity of traffic during winter. This system also presupposes to ensure constant control over the state of roadway covering, expenditure of anti-glazed frost materials at all levels of management.The paper considers main aspects pertaining to introduction of the automatic control system of winter maintenance

  14. NEFSC 1999 Winter Bottom Trawl Survey (AL9902, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objectives of the cruise are to: (1) determine the winter distribution and relative abundance of fish and selected invertebrate species; (2) collect biological...

  15. NEFSC 2001 Winter Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0102, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objectives of the cruise are to: (1) determine the winter distribution and relative abundance of fish and selected invertebrate species; (2) collect biological...

  16. Winter Steelhead Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for WINTER STEELHEAD contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  17. Winter banding of passerines on the Alaska Peninsula

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Between February 1969 and May 1973, bait traps were operated during winter at Cold Bay (55° 12' N, 162° 43' W), Alaska, headquarters of the Izembek National Wildlife...

  18. Kleptoparasitism by bald eagles wintering in south-central Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorde, Dennis G.; Lingle, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    Kleptoparasitism on other raptors was one means by which Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) secured food along the North Platte and Platte rivers during the winters of 1978-1980. Species kelptoparasitized were Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis), Red-tailed Hawk (B. jamaicensis), Rough-legged Hawk (B. lagopus), Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), and Bald Eagle. Stealing of prey occurred more often during the severe winter of 1978-1979 when ice cover restricted eagles from feeding on fish than during the milder winter of 1979-1980. Kleptoparasitism occurred principally in agricultural habitats where large numbers of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were foraging. Subadults watched adults steal food and participated in food-stealing with adults, which indicated interspecific kleptoparasitism may be a learned behavior. We suggest factors that may favor interspecific kleptoparasitism as a foraging strategy of Bald Eagles in obtaining waterfowl during severe winters.

  19. Electric power monthly, May 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Statistics by company and plant are published on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels.

  20. Electric power monthly, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. This publication provides monthly statistics at the U.S., Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. This April 1994 issue contains 1993 year-end data and data through January 1994.

  1. Electric power monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-13

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  2. Electric power monthly, September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-17

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  3. Winter fuels report. Week ending, January 26, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-23

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: (1) distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a U.S. level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a U.S. level; (2) propane net production, imports and stocks on a U.S. level and for PADD`s I, II, and III; (3) natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the U.S. and consumption for all PADD`s; as well as selected National average prices; (4) residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; (5) crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the U.S. and selected cities; and (6) a 6-10 Day and 30-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and U.S. total heating degree-days by city. The distillate fuel oil and propane supply data are collected and published weekly. The data are based on company submissions for the week ending 7:00 a.m. for the preceding Friday. Weekly data for distillate fuel oil are also published in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report. Monthly data for distillate fuel oil and propane are published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly. The residential pricing information is collected by the EIA and the State Energy Offices on a semimonthly basis for the EIA/State Heating Oil and Propane Program. The wholesale price comparison data are collected daily and are published weekly. Residential heating fuel prices are derived from price quotes for home delivery of No. 2 fuel oil and propane. As such, they reflect prices in effect on the dates shown. Wholesale heating oil and propane prices are estimates using a sample of terminal quotes to represent average State prices on the dates given.

  4. School of Culinary Arts & Food Technology - Winter Newsletter 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, James Peter

    2017-01-01

    The School of Culinary Arts and Food Technology, Winter Newsletter captured the many events, research, awards, significant contributions and special civic and community activities which the students and staff members of the school have successfully completed leading up to the Winter period of 2017. The successful completion of these activities would not be possible without the active and on-going support of the 'INSPIRED' Friends of Culinary Arts (sponsors).

  5. Petroleum marketing monthly, May 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-26

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  6. Natural gas monthly, April 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-06

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. There are two feature articles in this issue: Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends, Executive summary; and Special report: Natural gas 1998: A preliminary summary. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  7. Electric power monthly, April 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-07

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  8. Electric power monthly, June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  9. Electric power monthly, August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-24

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  10. Monthly energy review, June 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the MER and in other EIA publications. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  11. Monthly energy review, July 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the MER and in other EIA publications. 37 figs., 75 tabs.

  12. Natural gas monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-25

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highhghts activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  13. Electric power monthly, May 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-25

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  14. Electric power monthly, July 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-29

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  15. Electric power monthly, November 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended

  16. Vitamin D status and determinants of deficiency in non-supplemented athletes during the winter months in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sghaier-Ayadi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports suggest that hypovitaminosis D in athletes is as common as in the general population. This study was devised to examine vitamin D status and determinants of deficiency in athletes living in a sunny country (Tunisia. One hundred and fifty national elite athletes, training outdoors (n=83 or indoors (n=67, were enrolled from January to February 2012. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D was measured by radioimmunoassay. Concentrations were between 50 and 75 nmol · l -1 in 21.3% of participants, between 25 and 50 nmol · l -1 in 55.3% of participants and <25 nmol · l -1 in 14.7% of participants. The concentrations were significantly lower in indoor athletes than outdoor athletes (36.2±19.0 nmol · l -1 vs. 49.1±19.2 nmol · l -1 ; p<0.001. In multivariate analysis, vitamin D deficiency (25-hydroxyvitamin D <50 nmol · l -1 was associated with indoor sports [multi-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval, 5.03 (1.64-15.4; p=0.005], female gender [3.72 (1.44-9.65; p=0.007] and age < 18 years [2.40 (1.01-5.85; p=0.05]. Athletes living in sun-rich environments are exposed to a high risk of vitamin D inadequacy. Given the importance of vitamin D in health and athletic ability, targeting sufficient levels of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D in athletes is well justified.

  17. Are cold winters in Europe associated with low solar activity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockwood, M; Harrison, R G; Woollings, T; Solanki, S K

    2010-01-01

    Solar activity during the current sunspot minimum has fallen to levels unknown since the start of the 20th century. The Maunder minimum (about 1650-1700) was a prolonged episode of low solar activity which coincided with more severe winters in the United Kingdom and continental Europe. Motivated by recent relatively cold winters in the UK, we investigate the possible connection with solar activity. We identify regionally anomalous cold winters by detrending the Central England temperature (CET) record using reconstructions of the northern hemisphere mean temperature. We show that cold winter excursions from the hemispheric trend occur more commonly in the UK during low solar activity, consistent with the solar influence on the occurrence of persistent blocking events in the eastern Atlantic. We stress that this is a regional and seasonal effect relating to European winters and not a global effect. Average solar activity has declined rapidly since 1985 and cosmogenic isotopes suggest an 8% chance of a return to Maunder minimum conditions within the next 50 years (Lockwood 2010 Proc. R. Soc. A 466 303-29): the results presented here indicate that, despite hemispheric warming, the UK and Europe could experience more cold winters than during recent decades.

  18. Polar vortex evolution during Northern Hemispheric winter 2004/05

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Chshyolkova

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available As a part of the project "Atmospheric Wave Influences upon the Winter Polar Vortices (0–100 km" of the CAWSES program, data from meteor and Medium Frequency radars at 12 locations and MetO (UK Meteorological Office global assimilated fields have been analyzed for the first campaign during the Northern Hemispheric winter of 2004/05. The stratospheric state has been described using the conventional zonal mean parameters as well as Q-diagnostic, which allows consideration of the longitudinal variability. The stratosphere was cold during winter of 2004/05, and the polar vortex was relatively strong during most of the winter with relatively weak disturbances occurring at the end of December and the end of January. For this winter the strongest deformation with the splitting of the polar vortex in the lower stratosphere was observed at the end of February. Here the results show strong latitudinal and longitudinal differences that are evident in the stratospheric and mesospheric data sets at different stations. Eastward winds are weaker and oscillations with planetary wave periods have smaller amplitudes at more poleward stations. Accordingly, the occurrence, time and magnitude of the observed reversal of the zonal mesospheric winds associated with stratospheric disturbances depend on the local stratospheric conditions. In general, compared to previous years, the winter of 2004/05 could be characterized by weak planetary wave activity at stratospheric and mesospheric heights.

  19. Direct evidence for impact winter following the Cretaceous-Paleogene bolide impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellekoop, J.; Sluijs, A.; Smit, J.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2012-12-01

    The Cretaceous/Paleogene (K/Pg) boundary, ~65.5 Ma, marks a mass-extinction event related the impact of a large asteroid on the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico. Model scenarios predict that the explosive injection of dust and sulfate aerosols into the stratosphere blocked incoming solar radiation, resulting in a cooling pulse of months to several decades, a so-called 'impact winter', but thus far, proxy records lack sufficient resolution to evaluate this hypothesis. We report on a major, short-lived drop in sea surface temperatures (SSTs) recorded in an unusually well preserved and stratigraphically expanded K/Pg boundary site in Texas, USA, based on TEX86 paleothermometry. Critically, the cooling directly post-dates impact-related tsunami deposits, and coincides with the deposition of extraterrestrial iridium representing aerosol fall out, restricting the age of the cooling to the first months to decades after impact. We interpret this cooling to reflect the first direct evidence for the "impact winter" at the K/Pg boundary. The combination of darkness and cooling must have been a key contributory element in the extinctions of many biological clades, including the dinosaurs, flying reptiles and marine reptiles.

  20. Retrospective forecasts of the upcoming winter season snow accumulation in the Inn headwaters (European Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Kristian; Hanzer, Florian; Stoll, Elena; Scaife, Adam A.; MacLachlan, Craig; Schöber, Johannes; Huttenlau, Matthias; Achleitner, Stefan; Strasser, Ulrich

    2018-02-01

    This article presents analyses of retrospective seasonal forecasts of snow accumulation. Re-forecasts with 4 months' lead time from two coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (NCEP CFSv2 and MetOffice GloSea5) drive the Alpine Water balance and Runoff Estimation model (AWARE) in order to predict mid-winter snow accumulation in the Inn headwaters. As snowpack is hydrological storage that evolves during the winter season, it is strongly dependent on precipitation totals of the previous months. Climate model (CM) predictions of precipitation totals integrated from November to February (NDJF) compare reasonably well with observations. Even though predictions for precipitation may not be significantly more skilful than for temperature, the predictive skill achieved for precipitation is retained in subsequent water balance simulations when snow water equivalent (SWE) in February is considered. Given the AWARE simulations driven by observed meteorological fields as a benchmark for SWE analyses, the correlation achieved using GloSea5-AWARE SWE predictions is r = 0.57. The tendency of SWE anomalies (i.e. the sign of anomalies) is correctly predicted in 11 of 13 years. For CFSv2-AWARE, the corresponding values are r = 0.28 and 7 of 13 years. The results suggest that some seasonal prediction of hydrological model storage tendencies in parts of Europe is possible.

  1. A WRF sensitivity study for summer ozone and winter PM events in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z.; Chen, J.; Mahmud, A.; Di, P.; Avise, J.; DaMassa, J.; Kaduwela, A. P.

    2014-12-01

    Elevated summer ozone and winter PM frequently occur in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) and the South Coast Air Basin (SCAB) in California. Meteorological conditions, such as wind, temperature and planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) play crucial roles in these air pollution events. Therefore, accurate representation of these fields from a meteorological model is necessary to successfully reproduce these air pollution events in subsequent air quality model simulations. California's complex terrain and land-sea interface can make it challenging for meteorological models to replicate the atmospheric conditions over the SJV and SCAB during extreme pollution events. In this study, the performance of the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) over these two regions for a summer month (July 2012) and a winter month (January 2013) is evaluated with different model configurations and forcing. Different land surface schemes (Pleim-Xiu vs. hybrid scheme), the application of observational and soil nudging, two SST datasets (the Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE) SST vs. the default SST from North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) reanalysis), and two land use datasets (the National Land Cover Data (NLCD) 2006 40-category vs. USGS 24-category land use data) have been tested. Model evaluation will focus on both surface and vertical profiles for wind, temperature, relative humidity, as well as PBLH. Sensitivity of the Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) results to different WRF configurations will also be presented and discussed.

  2. Drifting algae and fish: Implications of tropical Sargassum invasion due to ocean warming in western Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Mami; Aono, Mikina; Ogawa, Naoto; Tanaka, Koichiro; Imoto, Zenji; Nakamura, Yohei

    2014-06-01

    Evidence is accumulating that the invasion and extinction of habitat-forming seaweed species alters coastal community structure and ecological services, but their effects on the pelagic environment have been largely ignored. Thus, we examined the seasonal occurrence patterns of indigenous temperate and invasive tropical drifting algae and associated fish species every month for 2 years (2009-2011) in western Japan (Tosa Bay), where a rapid shift from temperate to tropical Sargassum species has been occurring in the coastal area since the late 1980s due to rising seawater temperatures. Of the 19 Sargassum species (31.6%) in drifting algae, we found that six were tropical species, whereas a study in the early 1980s found only one tropical species among 12 species (8.3%), thereby suggesting an increase in the proportion of tropical Sargassum species in drifting algae during the last 30 years. Drifting temperate algae were abundantly present from late winter to summer, whereas tropical algal clumps occurred primarily during summer. In the warm season, fish assemblages did not differ significantly between drifting temperate and tropical algae, suggesting the low host-algal specificity of most fishes. We also found that yellowtail juveniles frequently aggregated with drifting temperate algae from late winter to spring when drifting tropical algae were unavailable. Local fishermen collect these juveniles for use as aquaculture seed stock; therefore, the occurrence of drifting temperate algae in early spring is important for local fisheries. These results suggest that the further extinction of temperate Sargassum spp. may have negative impacts on the pelagic ecosystem and associated regional fisheries.

  3. Winter distribution, density and size of Mesodesma mactroides (Bivalvia, Mactracea in Monte Hermoso beach (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Marcela Fiori

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The yellow clam Mesodesma mactroides (Deshayes, 1854 is a seasonal migrant that moves in spring to the sandy upper intertidal level. In this paper we analyze the spatial distribution of density and mean shell size of the yellow clam population in Monte Hermoso beach (Argentina in winter 1995, i.e., three months before the mass mortality occurred in November 1995. Sampling covered 32 km of beach, with a regular design of 22 transects. The major environmental gradient in the beach was determined using principal component analysis (PCA on the correlation matrix of the environmental data (beach morphology, slope, and sand granulometry. Correlation analysis was used to assess the relationship between the score of a site (transect on the first and second principal component, and clam mean density and mean shell size. Most of the beach seems to be habitable for clams, their spatial heterogeneity not having been explained by the measured variables since, although the first axis of the PCA has demonstrated an E-W physical gradient, clam density was not in correlation with it. Density was maximum near the piers, even though these are points with high tourist activity. It seems that non-extractive touristic activities do not affect population density but rather mean shell size, probably due to reduction of growth rates. The abundance of the winter population, as compared with the assessment done after the mass mortality of November, strongly suggests that a great part of the population was overwintering in the intertidal fringe.O molusco Mesodesma mactroides (Deshayes, 1854 é uma espécie migrante sazonal que na primavera move-se para o nível entremarés superior da praia. Neste estudo, analisamos a distribuição espacial da densidade e o tamanho médio da população do bivalve na praia de Monte Hermoso (Argentina no inverno de 1995, i. é, três meses antes da mortalidade massiva desses moluscos, acontecida em novembro de 1995. A amostragem cobriu 32

  4. Human due diligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, David; Rouse, Ted

    2007-04-01

    Most companies do a thorough job of financial due diligence when they acquire other companies. But all too often, deal makers simply ignore or underestimate the significance of people issues in mergers and acquisitions. The consequences are severe. Most obviously, there's a high degree of talent loss after a deal's announcement. To make matters worse, differences in decision-making styles lead to infighting; integration stalls; and productivity declines. The good news is that human due diligence can help companies avoid these problems. Done early enough, it helps acquirers decide whether to embrace or kill a deal and determine the price they are willing to pay. It also lays the groundwork for smooth integration. When acquirers have done their homework, they can uncover capability gaps, points of friction, and differences in decision making. Even more important, they can make the critical "people" decisions-who stays, who goes, who runs the combined business, what to do with the rank and file-at the time the deal is announced or shortly thereafter. Making such decisions within the first 30 days is critical to the success of a deal. Hostile situations clearly make things more difficult, but companies can and must still do a certain amount of human due diligence to reduce the inevitable fallout from the acquisition process and smooth the integration. This article details the steps involved in conducting human due diligence. The approach is structured around answering five basic questions: Who is the cultural acquirer? What kind of organization do you want? Will the two cultures mesh? Who are the people you most want to retain? And how will rank-and-file employees react to the deal? Unless an acquiring company has answered these questions to its satisfaction, the acquisition it is making will be very likely to end badly.

  5. Shift of biome patterns due to simulated climate variability and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claussen, M.

    1993-01-01

    The variability of simulated equilibrium-response patterns of biomes caused by simulated climate variability and climate shift is analysed. This investigation is based on various realisations of simulated present-day climate and climate shift. It has been found that the difference between biomes computed from three 10-year climatologies and from the corresponding 30-year climatology, simulated by the Hamburg climate model at T21 resolution, amounts to approximately 6% of the total land area, Antarctica excluded. This difference is mainly due to differences in annual moisture availability and winter temperatures. When intercomparing biomes from the 10-year climatologies a 10% difference is seen, but there is no unique difference pattern. In contrast to the interdecadal variability, the shift of conditions favorable for biomes due to a shift in climate in the next 100 years, caused by an increase in sea-surface temperatures and atmospheric CO 2 , reveals a unique trend pattern. It turns out that the strongest and most significant signal is the north-east shift of conditions for boreal biomes. This signal is caused by an increase of annual temperature sums as well as mean temperatures of the coldest and warmest months. Trends in annual moisture availability are of secondary importance globally. Regionally, a decrease in water availability affects biomes in Central and East Europe and an increase of water availability leads to a potential increase in tropical rain forest. In total, all differences amount to roughly 30% of the total land surface, Antarctica excluded. (orig./KW)

  6. Hepatitis Awareness Month PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-05-11

    May is National Hepatitis Awareness Month. This 30 second PSA discusses hepatitis and encourages listners to talk to their health care professional about getting tested.  Created: 5/11/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention.   Date Released: 5/11/2011.

  7. Monthly energy review, June 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-26

    The Monthly Energy Review presents current data on production, consumption, stocks, imports, exports, and prices of the principal energy commodities in the United States. Also included are data on international production of crude oil, consumption of petroleum products, petroleum stocks, and production of electricity from nuclear-powered facilities.

  8. Electric Power Monthly, July 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-12

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, company and plant level information are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost in fuel. Quantity, quality, and cost of fuel data lag the net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour data by 1 month. This difference in reporting appears in the national, Census division, and State level tables. However, at the plant level, all statistics presented are for the earlier month for the purpose of comparison. 12 refs., 4 figs., 48 tabs.

  9. Monthly energy review, November 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-24

    The Monthly Energy Review gives information on production, distribution, and consumption for various energy sources, e.g. petroleum, natural gas, oil, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Some data is also included on international energy sources and supplies, the import of petroleum products into the US and pricing and reserves data (as applicable) for the various sources of energy listed above.

  10. Natural gas monthly, July 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-03

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. A glossary is included. 7 figs., 33 tabs.

  11. STD Awareness Month PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-19

    April is National STD Awareness Month. STDs can affect anyone. Many STDs don't have symptoms so it's important to get tested.  Created: 4/19/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention.   Date Released: 4/19/2011.

  12. Monthly energy review, November 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    This monthly publication contains statistical data on energy resources in the United States. Petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy are covered. Additional sections include an energy overview, energy consumption, oil and gas resource development and energy prices. This issue includes features on energy-related housing characteristics and the propane-provider fleet

  13. Monthly energy review, January 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This document presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum,natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal metric conversion factors.

  14. Electric power monthly, March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-20

    This report for March 1995, presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead.

  15. Monthly energy review, June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-25

    The Monthly Energy Review provides an overview of the production, distribution, and consumption of energy derived from petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. It also discusses oil and gas resource development, energy prices, and issues relevant to international energy markets.

  16. Monthly energy review, March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-29

    The Monthly Energy Review provides information on production, distribution, consumption, prices, imports, and exports for the following US energy sources: petroleum; petroleum products; natural gas; coal; electricity; and nuclear energy. The section on international energy contains data for world crude oil production and consumption, petroleum stocks in OECD countries, and nuclear electricity gross generation.

  17. Monthly energy review, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-26

    The Monthly Energy Review gives information on production, distribution, and consumption for various energy sources, e.g. petroleum, natural gas, oil, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Some data is also included on international energy sources and supplies, the import of petroleum products into the US and pricing and reserves data (as applicable) for the various sources of energy listed above.

  18. Monthly energy review, December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-22

    This document provides data on monthly energy use and fossil fuels. The following sections are included: Highlights: Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1985--1990; Highlights: assessment of energy use in multibuilding facilities; energy overview; energy consumption; petroleum; natural gas; oil and gas resource development; coal; electricity; nuclear energy; energy prices; and international energy.

  19. Monthly energy review, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The Monthly Energy Review contains statistical data on the following: energy consumption, petroleum, natural gas, oil and gas resource development, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, energy prices, and international energy. In addition, an energy overview is provided, and, for the April issue, Energy use and carbon emissions; Some international comparisons.

  20. Monthly energy review, November 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This document presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. International energy and thermal and metric conversion factors are included.