WorldWideScience

Sample records for winter maintenance hosts

  1. Winter maintenance performance measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Winter Performance Index is a method of quantifying winter storm events and the DOTs response to them. : It is a valuable tool for evaluating the States maintenance practices, performing post-storm analysis, training : maintenance personnel...

  2. Measurements for winter road maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Riehm, Mats

    2012-01-01

    Winter road maintenance activities are crucial for maintaining the accessibility and traffic safety of the road network at northerly latitudes during winter. Common winter road maintenance activities include snow ploughing and the use of anti-icing agents (e.g. road salt, NaCl). Since the local weather is decisive in creating an increased risk of slippery conditions, understanding the link between local weather and conditions at the road surface is critically important. Sensors are commonly i...

  3. Prevalence of operator fatigue in winter maintenance operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camden, Matthew C; Medina-Flintsch, Alejandra; Hickman, Jeffrey S; Bryce, James; Flintsch, Gerardo; Hanowski, Richard J

    2018-02-02

    Similar to commercial motor vehicle drivers, winter maintenance operators are likely to be at an increased risk of becoming fatigued while driving due to long, inconsistent shifts, environmental stressors, and limited opportunities for sleep. Despite this risk, there is little research concerning the prevalence of winter maintenance operator fatigue during winter emergencies. The purpose of this research was to investigate the prevalence, sources, and countermeasures of fatigue in winter maintenance operations. Questionnaires from 1043 winter maintenance operators and 453 managers were received from 29 Clear Road member states. Results confirmed that fatigue was prevalent in winter maintenance operations. Over 70% of the operators and managers believed that fatigue has a moderate to significant impact on winter maintenance operations. Approximately 75% of winter maintenance operators reported to at least sometimes drive while fatigued, and 96% of managers believed their winter maintenance operators drove while fatigued at least some of the time. Furthermore, winter maintenance operators and managers identified fatigue countermeasures and sources of fatigue related to winter maintenance equipment. However, the countermeasures believed to be the most effective at reducing fatigue during winter emergencies (i.e., naps) were underutilized. For example, winter maintenance operators reported to never use naps to eliminate fatigue. These results indicated winter maintenance operations are impacted by operator fatigue. These results support the increased need for research and effective countermeasures targeting winter maintenance operator fatigue. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Highway user expectations for ITD winter maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Providing a high Level of Service (LOS) to ensure the safety and mobility for the traveling public is a key objective for winter : maintenance operations. The goal of this research was to obtain a better understanding of Idaho highway users expect...

  5. Quantifying uncertainty in real time performance measurement for highway winter maintenance operations - phase 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Winter weather in Iowa is often unpredictable and can have an adverse impact on traffic flow. The Iowa Department of : Transportation (Iowa DOT) attempts to lessen the impact of winter weather events on traffic speeds with various proactive : mainten...

  6. Guidelines to Facilitate the Evaluation of Brines for Winter Roadway Maintenance Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-19

    This document presents guidelines to facilitate the evaluation of brines for winter weather roadway maintenance applications in Texas. Brines are used in anti-icing applications which typically consist of placing liquid snow and ice control chemicals...

  7. Tow plows could help Michigan save time and money on winter maintenance : research spotlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    As winter maintenance costs rise, MDOT is looking into innovative approaches to increase snow removal efficiency. As part of this effort, the department recently estimated the costs and benefits of incorporating tow plows into its equipment fleet. Re...

  8. Using Genetic Algorithm For Winter Maintenance Operations: Multi Depot K-Chinese Postman Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Zeki Akyurt

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the assignment and routing problem of one of Istanbul’s winter maintenance activities, salt pouring, was scrutinized. The starting point of the study considers the high cost of winter maintenance work, a shrinking assigned budget, high numbers of vehicles and streets to service that the increase in difficulty to solve the problem due to their high numbers. In this respect, the problem was modeled as multi depot k-Chinese postman problem, a type of arc routing problem. This mathematical model was solved by genetic algorithm. For comparison, the current solution, Clarke and Wright Algorithm and Sweep Algorithm were used.

  9. Host and viral ecology determine bat rabies seasonality and maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, D.B.; Webb, C.T.; Farnsworth, Matthew L.; O'Shea, T.J.; Bowen, R.A.; Smith, D.L.; Stanley, T.R.; Ellison, L.E.; Rupprecht, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    Rabies is an acute viral infection that is typically fatal. Most rabies modeling has focused on disease dynamics and control within terrestrial mammals (e.g., raccoons and foxes). As such, rabies in bats has been largely neglected until recently. Because bats have been implicated as natural reservoirs for several emerging zoonotic viruses, including SARS-like corona viruses, henipaviruses, and lyssaviruses, understanding how pathogens are maintained within a population becomes vital. Unfortunately, little is known about maintenance mechanisms for any pathogen in bat populations. We present a mathematical model parameterized with unique data from an extensive study of rabies in a Colorado population of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) to elucidate general maintenance mechanisms. We propose that life history patterns of many species of temperate-zone bats, coupled with sufficiently long incubation periods, allows for rabies virus maintenance. Seasonal variability in bat mortality rates, specifically low mortality during hibernation, allows long-term bat population viability. Within viable bat populations, sufficiently long incubation periods allow enough infected individuals to enter hibernation and survive until the following year, and hence avoid an epizootic fadeout of rabies virus. We hypothesize that the slowing effects of hibernation on metabolic and viral activity maintains infected individuals and their pathogens until susceptibles from the annual birth pulse become infected and continue the cycle. This research provides a context to explore similar host ecology and viral dynamics that may explain seasonal patterns and maintenance of other bat-borne diseases.

  10. New Role of Thermal Mapping in Winter Maintenance with Principal Components Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Marchetti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal mapping uses IR thermometry to measure road pavement temperature at a high resolution to identify and to map sections of the road network prone to ice occurrence. However, measurements are time-consuming and ultimately only provide a snapshot of road conditions at the time of the survey. As such, there is a need for surveys to be restricted to a series of specific climatic conditions during winter. Typically, five to six surveys are used, but it is questionable whether the full range of atmospheric conditions is adequately covered. This work investigates the role of statistics in adding value to thermal mapping data. Principal components analysis is used to interpolate between individual thermal mapping surveys to build a thermal map (or even a road surface temperature forecast, for a wider range of climatic conditions than that permitted by traditional surveys. The results indicate that when this approach is used, fewer thermal mapping surveys are actually required. Furthermore, comparisons with numerical models indicate that this approach could yield a suitable verification method for the spatial component of road weather forecasts—a key issue currently in winter road maintenance.

  11. Large-scale gene expression reveals different adaptations of Hyalopterus persikonus to winter and summer host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Na; Yang, Peng-Cheng; Guo, Kun; Kang, Le; Cui, Feng

    2017-06-01

    Host alternation, an obligatory seasonal shifting between host plants of distant genetic relationship, has had significant consequences for the diversification and success of the superfamily of aphids. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, the molecular mechanism of host alternation was explored through a large-scale gene expression analysis of the mealy aphid Hyalopterus persikonus on winter and summer host plants. More than four times as many unigenes of the mealy aphid were significantly upregulated on summer host Phragmites australis than on winter host Rosaceae plants. In order to identify gene candidates related to host alternation, the differentially expressed unigenes of H. persikonus were compared to salivary gland expressed genes and secretome of Acyrthosiphon pisum. Genes involved in ribosome and oxidative phosphorylation and with molecular functions of heme-copper terminal oxidase activity, hydrolase activity and ribosome binding were potentially upregulated in salivary glands of H. persikonus on the summer host. Putative secretory proteins, such as detoxification enzymes (carboxylesterases and cytochrome P450s), antioxidant enzymes (peroxidase and superoxide dismutase), glutathione peroxidase, glucose dehydrogenase, angiotensin-converting enzyme, cadherin, and calreticulin, were highly expressed in H. persikonus on the summer host, while a SCP GAPR-1-like family protein and a salivary sheath protein were highly expressed in the aphids on winter hosts. These results shed light on phenotypic plasticity in host utilization and seasonal adaptation of aphids. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  12. Treg cell-IgA axis in maintenance of host immune homeostasis with microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Ting; Elson, Charles O.; Cong, Yingzi

    2010-01-01

    The intestine is the home to a vast diversity of microbiota and a complex of mucosal immune system. Multiple regulatory mechanisms control host immune responses to microbiota and maintain intestinal immune homeostasis. This mini review will provide evidence indicating a Treg cell-IgA axis and such axis playing a major role in maintenance of intestinal homeostasis.

  13. Lack of host specialization on winter annual grasses in the fungal seed bank pathogen Pyrenophora semeniperda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julie Beckstead; Susan E. Meyer; Toby S. Ishizuka; Kelsey M. McEvoy; Craig E. Coleman

    2016-01-01

    Generalist plant pathogens may have wide host ranges, but many exhibit varying degrees of host specialization, with multiple pathogen races that have narrower host ranges. These races are often genetically distinct, with each race causing highest disease incidence on its host of origin. We examined host specialization in the seed pathogen Pyrenophora...

  14. Off-host survival and reproductive success of adult female winter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Winter tick is an important pest of moose which affects the physical and physiological well-being of moose. All moose in Alberta become infested with winter ticks every year and suffer morbidity and mortality from the infestation. The ticks are acquired in autumn in the habitats of EINP during search for food and other ...

  15. Ecology and evolution in microbial systems: the generation and maintenance of diversity in phage-host interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, Christine M; Forde, Samantha E

    2008-06-01

    Insights gained from studying the interactions between viruses and bacteria have important implications for the ecology and evolution of virus-host interactions in many environments and for pathogen-host and predator-prey interactions in general. Here, we focus on the generation and maintenance of diversity, highlighting recent laboratory and field experiments with microorganisms.

  16. [FEATURES OF THE ORGANIZATION OF SANITARY-EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SURVEILLANCE DURING THE PERIOD OF PREPARATION AND HOSTING OF THE XXII OLYMPIC WINTER GAMES AND XI PARALYMPIC WINTER GAMES IN THE RESORT CITY OF SOCHI IN 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G; Popova, A Iu; Kuzkin, B P; Guskova, A S; Ivanov, G E; Pakskina, N D; Klindukhov, V P; Nikolaevich, P N; Grechanaia, T V; Balaeva, M I; Biriukov, V A; Bozhko, I I; Tesheva, S Ch; Daragan, Iu G; Parkhomenko, V V; Rafeenko, G K; Kulichenko, A N; Manin, E A; Maletskaia, O V; Vasilenko, N F; Efremenko, D V; Orobeĭ, V G; Eldinova, V E; Pilikova, O M; Malaĭ, V I; Iunicheva, Iu V

    2015-01-01

    In the paper there are presented the basic principles of the organization of activities for the assurance ofthe sanitary- epidemiological welfare in the period ofpreparation and hosting of the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games of 2014 in the Resort City of Sochi. There are considered features of the organization ofepidemiological surveillance in the pre-Olympic period, the period of the games and the state of the morbidity rate in the region after the Olympics. There are presented data on certain directions of the work of organs and institutions of the Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare on the disease control of the event.

  17. Is Hosting the Games Enough to Win? A predictive economic model of medal wins at 2014 Winter Olympics

    OpenAIRE

    Wladimir Andreff

    2012-01-01

    An econometric model which has first been estimated on medal wins at Summer Olympics and has predicted 88% of medal distribution at Beijing Games 2008, is revisited for Winter Olympics. After changing some variables to take into account the winter sports specificity, the model is estimated again on all Winter Games since 1964.Then it is used to predict (forecast) the medal distribution per country at the 2014 Sochi Winter Olympics.

  18. Maintenance of host DNA integrity in field-preserved mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) blood meals for identification by DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Lawrence E; Holderman, Chris J; Gillett-Kaufman, Jennifer L; Kawahara, Akito Y; Kaufman, Phillip E

    2016-09-15

    Determination of the interactions between hematophagous arthropods and their hosts is a necessary component to understanding the transmission dynamics of arthropod-vectored pathogens. Current molecular methods to identify hosts of blood-fed arthropods require the preservation of host DNA to serve as an amplification template. During transportation to the laboratory and storage prior to molecular analysis, genetic samples need to be protected from nucleases, and the degradation effects of hydrolysis, oxidation and radiation. Preservation of host DNA contained in field-collected blood-fed specimens has an additional caveat: suspension of the degradative effects of arthropod digestion on host DNA. Unless effective preservation methods are implemented promptly after blood-fed specimens are collected, host DNA will continue to degrade. Preservation methods vary in their efficacy, and need to be selected based on the logistical constraints of the research program. We compared four preservation methods (cold storage at -20 °C, desiccation, ethanol storage of intact mosquito specimens and crushed specimens on filter paper) for field storage of host DNA from blood-fed mosquitoes across a range of storage and post-feeding time periods. The efficacy of these techniques in maintaining host DNA integrity was evaluated using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect the presence of a sufficient concentration of intact host DNA templates for blood meal analysis. We applied a logistic regression model to assess the effects of preservation method, storage time and post-feeding time on the binomial response variable, amplification success. Preservation method, storage time and post-feeding time all significantly impacted PCR amplification success. Filter papers and, to a lesser extent, 95 % ethanol, were the most effective methods for the maintenance of host DNA templates. Amplification success of host DNA preserved in cold storage at -20 °C and desiccation was poor. Our data

  19. Winter prevalence of obligate aphid pathogen Pandora neoaphidis mycosis in the host Myzus persicae populations in southern China: modeling description and biocontrol implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhou

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pandora neoaphidis overwintering had been investigated by monitoring its prevalence in Myzus persicae populations in open fields. Cabbage plants in field plots were weekly taken after mycosis initiation, to count and examine the living and dead aphids infected by P. neoaphidis. Based on the field data, infection levels (I varied with field temperature (T, relative humidity (RH and aphid count (numbers of living aphids per plant, N over days (D, fitting well to the modified logistic equation I=0.91/[1+exp(8.5+(2.0H T H RH-20.2NI0D] (r²=0.897, where H T indicated daily hours of low temperature (90% RH and I0 primary infection level. The model demonstrated the abiotic and biotic factors influencing P. neoaphidis mycosis development in winter, and also verifies the fungal overwintering by infecting available host aphids without a resting stage. Ultimately, P. neoaphidis mycosis reduced 81.4% of aphid populations, presenting great potential for biocontrol.

  20. Maintenance decision support system deployment guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    This is a guide for transportation professionals on why and how to deploy winter Maintenance Decision Support Systems (MDSS). Adverse winter weather can cause traffic delays and crashes. Treating the effects of winter weather can also have impacts on...

  1. Winter Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education Centers Harwood Training Grants Videos E-Tools Winter Storms Plan. Equip. Train To prevent injuries, illnesses and Fatalities during winter storms. This page requires that javascript be enabled ...

  2. Winter MVC

    OpenAIRE

    Castellón Gadea, Pasqual

    2013-01-01

    Winter MVC és un framework de presentació basat en Spring MVC que simplifica la metodologia de configuracions. Winter MVC es un framework de presentación basado en Spring MVC que simplifica la metodología de configuraciones. Winter MVC is a presentation framework that simplifies Spring MVC configuration methodology.

  3. Contribution of a winter wheat cover crop to the maintenance of Pratylenchus penetrans populations in the raspberry production system with management considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the primary production challenges red raspberry growers in the Pacific Northwest confront is root lesion nematode (RLN; Pratylenchus penetrans). In this perennial production system, raspberry serves as a sustained host for RLN. When a raspberry planting is slated for removal in the fall, a ne...

  4. Helminth parasites of the bufflehead duck, Bucephala albeola, wintering in the Chihuahua Desert with a checklist of helminth parasites reported from this host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladden, Beverly W; Canaris, A G

    2009-02-01

    The bufflehead duck (Bucephala albeola) (Mergini) ranges from Alaska and Canada to the United States and Mexico. Buffleheads ingest invertebrates as a major component of their food throughout life. Puddle ducks (Anatinae) change mainly to vegetable foods at an early age. Loss of helminth parasite species and abundance in the fall migration has been reported for puddle ducks. This change in food has been hypothesized to cause some of the parasite loss. Nothing was known about helminth community dynamics in wintering buffleheads, including possible loss of helminths evident in puddle ducks. Helminth communities of the buffleheads were compared between wintering localities in the Chihuahua Desert of Texas and Mexico and to results from a nesting locality in Manitoba, Canada. There were no significant differences for average helminth species richness, prevalence, or abundance between the nesting and wintering grounds. Replenishment of helminths occurred in wintering buffleheads, and abundance of some helminth species increased significantly over time. The majority of helminth life cycles were indirect. These results were mostly related to the bufflehead's continued ingestion of invertebrate foods. Seven of the 41 helminth species present in buffleheads were in common to the 3 localities. Helminth community similarities between Manitoba and Texas and Manitoba and Mexico were much lower than similarity between Texas and Mexico. The dissimilarities were mostly attributable to differences in habitats but may also indicate loss of helminth species with subsequent infections with other species. The component community of the bufflehead from the Chihuahua Desert in Texas (n = 41) consisted of 23 species of helminths (10 species of cestodes, 7 trematodes, 4 nematodes, and 2 acanthocephalans) for a total of 4,008 individual specimens. Cestodes accounted for 69% of the total abundance. The component community of B. albeola from the Chihuahua Desert in Mexico (n = 26) consisted

  5. Winter Wonderlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Listening to people complain about the hardships of winter and the dreariness of the nearly constant gray sky prompted the author to help her sixth graders recognize and appreciate the beauty that surrounds them for nearly five months of the year in western New York. The author opines that if students could see things more artistically, the winter…

  6. Identifying performance based measures for winter maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    One of the Vermont Agency of : Transportations (VTrans) primary missions is to keep Vermont state highways open and safe : for the transportation network users, while managing the system in a cost : - : effective and environmentally sensitive mann...

  7. A winter severity index for the state of Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Winter maintenance in the Sate of Maine consumes around twenty percent of the Bureau of : Maintenance and Operations budget each year. Costs are directly related to the length and severity : of a winter season. In addition, the cost of materials and ...

  8. WINTER SAECULUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Mihalina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Accumulated imbalances in the economy and on the markets cause specific financial market dynamics that have formed characteristic patterns kept throughout long financial history. In 2008 Authors presented their expectations of key macroeconomic and selected asset class markets developments for period ahead based on Saeculum theory. Use of term Secular describes a specific valuation environment during prolonged period. If valuations as well as selected macro variables are considered as a tool for understanding business cycles then market cycles become much more obvious and easily understandable. Therefore over the long run, certain asset classes do better in terms of risk reward profile than others. Further on, there is no need for frequent portfolio rebalancing and timing of specific investment positions within a particular asset class market. Current stage in cycle development suggests a need for reassessment of trends and prevailing phenomena due to cyclical nture of long lasting Saeculums. Paper reviews developments in recognizable patterns of selected metrics in current Winter Saeculum dominated with prevailing forces of delivering, deflation and decrease in velocity of money.

  9. Winter Weather: Frostbite

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety During Fire Cleanup Wildfires PSAs Related Links Winter Weather About Winter Weather Before a Storm Prepare Your Home Prepare Your Car Winter Weather Checklists During a Storm Indoor Safety During ...

  10. Roadside maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Roadside Maintenance is a unique element within the highway maintenance program because much of the work involves caring for and/or controlling vegetation. Roadside vegetation, if managed properly, can become more naturally self-sustaining over time ...

  11. Winter Weather Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health ... Although there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect ...

  12. Winter weather demand considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Winter weather has varied effects on travel behavior. Using 418 survey responses from the Northern Virginia : commuting area of Washington, D.C. and binary logit models, this study examines travel related changes under : different types of winter wea...

  13. Maintenance methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchis, H.; Aucher, P.

    1990-01-01

    The maintenance method applied at the Hague is summarized. The method was developed in order to solve problems relating to: the different specialist fields, the need for homogeneity in the maintenance work, the equipment diversity, the increase of the materials used at the Hague's new facilities. The aim of the method is to create a knowhow formalism, to facilitate maintenance, to ensure the running of the operations and to improve the estimation of the maintenance cost. One of the method's difficulties is the demonstration of the profitability of the maintenance operations [fr

  14. Winter therapy for the accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    Hundreds of people are hard at work during the year-end technical stop as all the accelerators are undergoing maintenance, renovation and upgrade operations in parallel.   The new beam absorber on its way to Point 2 before being lowered into the LHC tunnel for installation. The accelerator teams didn’t waste any time before starting their annual winter rejuvenation programme over the winter. At the end of November, as the LHC ion run was beginning, work got under way on the PS Booster, where operation had already stopped. On 14 December, once the whole complex had been shut down, the technical teams turned their attention to the other injectors and the LHC. The year-end technical stop (YETS) provides an opportunity to carry out maintenance work on equipment and repair any damage as well as to upgrade the machines for the upcoming runs. Numerous work projects are carried out simultaneously, so good coordination is crucial. Marzia Bernardini's team in the Enginee...

  15. Winter-to-winter variations in indoor radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mose, D.G.; Mushrush, G.W.; Kline, S.W.

    1989-01-01

    Indoor radon concentrations in northern Virginia and central Maryland show a strong dependence on weather. Winter tends to be associated with higher than average indoor radon, and summer with lower than average. However, compared to the winter of 1986-1987, the winter of 1987-1988 was warmer and drier. Consequently, winter-to-winter indoor radon decreased by about 25%. This winter-to-winter decrease is unexpectedly large, and simulates winter-to-summer variations that have been reported

  16. Home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games 1976-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Darryl; Ramchandani, Girish

    2017-01-01

    There is a limited amount of home advantage research concerned with winter sports. There is also a distinct lack of studies that investigate home advantage in the context of para sport events. This paper addresses this gap in the knowledge by examining home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games. Using a standardised measure of success, we compared the performances of host nations at home with their own performances away from home between 1976 and 2014. Both country level and individual sport level analysis is conducted for this time period. Comparisons are also drawn with the Winter Olympic Games since 1992, the point from which both the Winter Olympic Games and the Winter Paralympic Games have been hosted by the same nations and in the same years. Clear evidence of a home advantage effect in the Winter Paralympic Games was found at country level. When examining individual sports, only alpine skiing and cross country skiing returned a significant home advantage effect. When comparing home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games with the Winter Olympic Games for the last seven host nations (1992-2014), we found that home advantage was generally more pronounced (although not a statistically significant difference) in the case of the former. The causes of home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games are unclear and should be investigated further.

  17. Performance of the auxotrophic Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741 as host for the production of IL-1β in aerated fed-batch reactor: role of ACA supplementation, strain viability, and maintenance energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zueco Jesus

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741 is an auxotrophic commonly used strain. In this work it has been used as host for the expression and secretion of human interleukin-1β (IL1β, using the cell wall protein Pir4 as fusion partner. To achieve high cell density and, consequently, high product yield, BY4741 [PIR4-IL1β] was cultured in an aerated fed-batch reactor, using a defined mineral medium supplemented with casamino acids as ACA (auxotrophy-complementing amino acid source. Also the S. cerevisiae mutant BY4741 Δyca1 [PIR4-IL1β], carrying the deletion of the YCA1 gene coding for a caspase-like protein involved in the apoptotic response, was cultured in aerated fed-batch reactor and compared to the parental strain, to test the effect of this mutation on strain robustness. Viability of the producer strains was examined during the runs and a mathematical model, which took into consideration the viable biomass present in the reactor and the glucose consumption for both growth and maintenance, was developed to describe and explain the time-course evolution of the process for both, the BY4741 parental and the BY4741 Δyca1 mutant strain. Results Our results show that the concentrations of ACA in the feeding solution, corresponding to those routinely used in the literature, are limiting for the growth of S. cerevisiae BY4741 [PIR4-IL1β] in fed-batch reactor. Even in the presence of a proper ACA supplementation, S. cerevisiae BY4741 [PIR4-IL1β] did not achieve a high cell density. The Δyca1 deletion did not have a beneficial effect on the overall performance of the strain, but it had a clear effect on its viability, which was not impaired during fed-batch operations, as shown by the kd value (0.0045 h-1, negligible if compared to that of the parental strain (0.028 h-1. However, independently of their robustness, both the parental and the Δyca1 mutant ceased to grow early during fed-batch runs, both strains using most of the

  18. Maintenance Mentor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jacobs, John

    2003-01-01

    Maintenance Mentor (MXM) is a research effort conducted by a joint AFRL/HESR and Northrop Grumman Information Technology team to identify the basic, high-level requirements necessary for improving flight line diagnostic capabilities...

  19. Winters fuels report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The outlook for distillate fuel oil this winter is for increased demand and a return to normal inventory patterns, assuming a resumption of normal, cooler weather than last winter. With industrial production expected to grow slightly from last winter's pace, overall consumption is projected to increase 3 percent from last winter, to 3.4 million barrels per day during the heating season (October 1, 1995-March 31, 1996). Much of the supply win come from stock drawdowns and refinery production. Estimates for the winter are from the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) 4th Quarter 1995 Short-Tenn Energy Outlook (STEO) Mid-World Oil Price Case forecast. Inventories in place on September 30, 1995, of 132 million barrels were 9 percent below the unusually high year-earlier level. Inventories of high-sulfur distillate fuel oil, the principal type used for heating, were 13 percent lower than a year earlier. Supply problems are not anticipated because refinery production and the ready availability of imports should be adequate to meet demand. Residential heating off prices are expected to be somewhat higher than last winter's, as the effects of lower crude oil prices are offset by lower distillate inventories. Heating oil is forecast to average $0.92 per gallon, the highest price since the winter of 1992-93. Diesel fuel (including tax) is predicted to be slightly higher than last year at $1.13 per gallon. This article focuses on the winter assessment for distillate fuel oil, how well last year's STEO winter outlook compared to actual events, and expectations for the coming winter. Additional analyses include regional low-sulfur and high-sulfur distillate supply, demand, and prices, and recent trends in distillate fuel oil inventories

  20. Evaluation of renewable energy alternatives for highway maintenance facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    A considerable annual energy budget is used for heating, lighting, cooling and operating ODOT : maintenance facilities. Such facilities contain vehicle repair and garage bays, which are large open : spaces with high heating demand in winter. The main...

  1. Employment and winter construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2011-01-01

    Reduced seasonal building activity in the construction sector is often assumed to be related to hard winter conditions for building activities and poor working conditions for construction workers, resulting in higher costs and poor quality of building products, particularly in the northern...... hemisphere. Can climatic conditions alone explain the sizeable difference in reduction in building activity in the construction sector in European countries in the winter months, or are other factors such as technology, economic cycles and schemes for financial compensation influential as well? What...... possibilities exist for reducing seasonal variation in employment? In addition to a literature review related to winter construction, European and national employment and meteorological data were studied. Finally, ministerial acts, ministerial orders or other public policy documents related to winter...

  2. Deer Wintering Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Deer winter habitat is critical to the long term survival of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Vermont. Being near the northern extreme of the...

  3. Winter Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Winter Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1992 and covered offshore areas from the Mid-Atlantic to Georges Bank. Inshore strata were covered...

  4. ICD Complex Operations and Maintenance Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, P. L.

    2007-06-25

    This Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Plan describes how the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) conducts operations, winterization, and startup of the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (ICDF) Complex. The ICDF Complex is the centralized INL facility responsible for the receipt, storage, treatment (as necessary), and disposal of INL Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation waste.

  5. The nuclear winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velikhow, Y.P.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear winter is an example of possible secondary effects, and if we speak of secondary we are thinking of small-scale second-order effects, but a nuclear winter is not a second-order effect. If you calculate the amount of heat produced by a nuclear explosion, it is a very small amount which does not have any chance of changing the Earth's climate, but a nuclear explosion drives or stars some new mechanism - the mechanism of nuclear winter - after 100 megatons of dust are transferred to the upper atmosphere. Another example of such amplification is radioactive fall-out, especially long-life radioactive fall-out after the possible elimination of the nuclear power industry, nuclear storage and distribution of storage waste around the globe. This is a very powerful amplification mechanism

  6. Opportune maintenance and predictive maintenance decision support

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas , Edouard; Levrat , Eric; Iung , Benoît; Cocheteux , Pierre

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Conventional maintenance strategies on a single component are being phased out in favour of more predictive maintenance actions. These new kinds of actions are performed in order to control the global performances of the whole industrial system. They are anticipative in nature, which allows a maintenance expert to consider non-already-planned maintenance actions. Two questions naturally emerge: when to perform a predictive maintenance action; how a maintenance expert c...

  7. Winter Weather Response Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) has been given statutory authority for the : planning, design, construction, operation, and maintenance of the State Highway System. With : few new highways being constructed, the operation and maintenan...

  8. Network maintenance

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    A site-wide network maintenance operation has been scheduled for Saturday 28 February. Most of the network devices of the general purpose network will be upgraded to a newer software version, in order to improve our network monitoring capabilities. This will result in a series of short (2-5 minutes) random interruptions everywhere on the CERN sites throughout the day. This upgrade will not affect the Computer Centre itself, Building 613, the Technical Network and the LHC experiments, dedicated networks at the pits. For further details of this intervention, please contact Netops by phone 74927 or e-mail mailto:Netops@cern.ch. IT/CS Group

  9. Network maintenance

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    A site wide network maintenance has been scheduled for Saturday 28 February. Most of the network devices of the General Purpose network will be upgraded to a newer software version, in order to improve our network monitoring capabilities. This will result in a series of short (2-5 minutes) random interruptions everywhere on the CERN sites along this day. This upgrade will not affect: the Computer centre itself, building 613, the Technical Network and the LHC experiments dedicated networks at the pits. Should you need more details on this intervention, please contact Netops by phone 74927 or email mailto:Netops@cern.ch. IT/CS Group

  10. Titan's Emergence from Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flasar, F. Michael; Achterberg, Richard; Jennings, Donald; Schinder, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We summarize the changes in Titans thermal structure derived from Cassini CIRS and radio-occultation data during the transition from winter to early spring. Titan's surface, and middle atmosphere show noticeable seasonal change, whereas that in most of the troposphere is mated. This can be understood in terms of the relatively small radiative relaxation time in the middle atmosphere and much larger time scale in the troposphere. The surface exhibits seasonal change because the heat capacity in an annual skin depth is much smaller than that in the lowest scale height of the troposphere. Surface temperatures rise 1 K at raid and high latitudes in the winter northern hemisphere and cool in the southern hemisphere. Changes in in the middle atmosphere are more complicated. Temperatures in the middle stratosphere (approximately 1 mbar) increase by a few kelvin at mid northern latitudes, but those at high latitudes first increase as that region moves out of winter shadow, and then decrease. This probably results from the combined effect of increased solar heating as the suit moves higher in the sky and the decreased adiabatic warming as the sinking motions associated with the cross-equatorial meridional cell weaken. Consistent with this interpretation, the warm temperatures observed higher up at the winter polar stratopause cool significantly.

  11. Optimizing preventive maintenance with maintenance templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dozier, I.J.

    1996-01-01

    Rising operating costs has caused maintenance professionals to rethink their strategy for preventive maintenance (PM) programs. Maintenance Templates are pre-engineered PM task recommendations for a component type based on application of the component. Development of the maintenance template considers the dominant failure cause of the component and the type of preventive maintenance that can predict or prevent the failure from occurring. Maintenance template development also attempts to replace fixed frequency tasks with condition monitoring tasks such as vibration analysis or thermography. For those components that have fixed frequency PM intervals, consideration is given to the maintenance drivers such as criticality, environment and usage. This helps to maximize the PM frequency intervals and maximize the component availability. Maintenance Templates have been used at PECO Energy's Limerick Generating Station during the Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) Process to optimize their PM program. This paper describes the development and uses of the maintenance templates

  12. Editorial - The winter Atomiades

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    As we wrote in our previous editorial, the Staff Association gives direct support to sports events, such as the Atomiades, a section of the Association of Sports Communities of European Research Institutes, which brings together sportsmen and women from 38 European research centres in 13 countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, United Kingdom, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Luxemburg, the Netherlands, Russia, and Switzerland). The summer Atomiades take place between the months of June and September every three years. Thirteen such events have taken place since 1973, the last one in June 2009 in Berlin. As far as the winter Atomiades are concerned, also organized every three years, and alternating with the summer Atomiades, there have been eleven since 1981, the last one at the end of January this year in neighbouring France. The following article tells the wonderful adventure of the CERN staff who took part in this event. A positive outcome for CERN skiers at the winter Atomiades The 11t...

  13. Winter is losing its cool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, S.

    2017-12-01

    Winter seasons have significant societal impacts across all sectors ranging from direct human health to ecosystems, transportation, and recreation. This study quantifies the severity of winter and its spatial-temporal variations using a newly developed winter severity index and daily temperature, snowfall and snow depth. The winter severity and the number of extreme winter days are decreasing across the global terrestrial areas during 1901-2015 except the southeast United States and isolated regions in the Southern Hemisphere. These changes are dominated by winter warming, while the changes in daily snowfall and snow depth played a secondary role. The simulations of multiple CMIP5 climate models can well capture the spatial and temporal variations of the observed changes in winter severity and extremes during 1951-2005. The models are consistent in projecting a future milder winter under various scenarios. The winter severity is projected to decrease 60-80% in the middle-latitude Northern Hemisphere under the business-as-usual scenario. The winter arrives later, ends earlier and the length of winter season will be notably shorter. The changes in harsh winter in the polar regions are weak, mainly because the warming leads to more snowfall in the high latitudes.

  14. Legal Regulation of Trade Activity during Sochi Preparation of XXII Winter Olympic and XI Paralympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Ivneva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the topical issues of legal regulation of social trade relations in the Russian Federation during Sochi preparation and hosting of XXII Winter Olympic and XI Paralympic Games.

  15. Winter visitor use planning in Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Sacklin; Kristin L. Legg; M. Sarah Creachbaum; Clifford L. Hawkes; George Helfrich

    2000-01-01

    Winter use in Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks increased dramatically in the 1980s and early 1990s. That increase and the emphasis on snowmobiles as the primary mode of transportation brought into focus a host of winter-related issues, including air pollution, unwanted sound, wildlife impacts and the adequacy of agency budgets, staff and infrastructure to...

  16. Decontamination and winter conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quenild, C.; Tveten, U.

    1984-12-01

    The report deals with two decontamonation experiments under winter conditions. A snow-covered parking lot was contaminated, and the snow was subsequently removed using standard snow-moving equipment. The snow left behind was collected and the content of contaminant was determined. A non-radioactive contaminant was used. A decontamination factor exceeding 100 was obtained. Although the eksperimental conditions were close to ideal, it is reason to believe that extremely efficient removal of deposited materials on a snow surface is achivable. In another investigation, run-off from agricultural surface, contaminated while covered with snow, was measured A lycimeter was used in this experiment. A stable layer of ice and snow was allowed to form before contamination. The run-off water was collected at each thaw period until all snow and ice was gone. Cs-134 was used as contaminant. Roughly 30% of the Cs-134 with which the area was contaminated ran off with the melt water. Following a reactor accident situation, this would have given a corresponding reduction in the long term doses. Both of these experiments show that consequence calculation assumptions, as they are currently applied to large accident assessment, tend to overestimate the consequences resulting from accidents taking place under winter conditions

  17. Winter School Les Houches

    CERN Document Server

    Lannoo, Michel; Bastard, Gérald; Voos, Michel; Boccara, Nino

    1986-01-01

    The Winter School held in Les Houches on March 12-21, 1985 was devoted to Semiconductor Heterojunctions and Superlattices, a topic which is recognized as being now one of the most interesting and active fields in semiconductor physics. In fact, following the pioneering work of Esaki and Tsu in 1970, the study of these two-dimensional semiconductor heterostructures has developed rapidly, both from the point of view of basic physics and of applications. For instance, modulation-doped heterojunctions are nowadays currently used to investigate the quantum Hall effect and to make very fast transistors. This book contains the lectures presented at this Winter School, showing in particular that many aspects of semiconductor heterojunctions and super­ lattices were treated, extending from the fabrication of these two-dimensional systems to their basic properties and applications in micro-and opto-electron­ ics. Among the subjects which were covered, one can quote as examples: molecular beam epitaxy and metallorgani...

  18. Maintenance Business Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matt

    2002-01-01

    Discusses maintenance business plans, statements which provide accountability for facilities maintenance organizations' considerable budgets. Discusses the plan's components: statement of plan objectives, macro and detailed description of the facility assets, maintenance function descriptions, description of key performance indicators, milestone…

  19. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-29

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the United States and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. 27 figs, 12 tabs.

  20. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-17

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide consise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: Distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; Natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s as well as selected National average prices; Residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; Crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and A 6-10 Day and 30-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree days by city.

  1. Winter fuels report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD's I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD's, as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 day, 30-Day, and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city

  2. Stamena winter wheat variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišić Todor

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Stamena is a winter wheat variety developed at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad, Yugoslavia. It was released by the Federal Commission for varietals Approval in 1999. Stamena was developed by crossing genetically divergent and highly productive parents Lasta and Rodna (Breeders: T. Mišić. N. Mladenov, Z. Jerković and R. Jevtić. Spike is white, smooth, awn less, medium compact with 18-21 spike lets. The grain is vitreous and dark red (Triticum aestivum L. ssp. vulgar e var. lutescens. Stamena is a medium early variety, 1 day earlier than Partizanka and 3 days earlier than Jugoslavija (Table 4. It has excellent resistance to winterkilling, as in very winter hardy Partizanka. The average stem height is 78 cm, with a good resistance to lodging. Stamena has field resistance to leaf rust (Pucce, recondita tritict, horizontal resistance, which is the type of resistance that modern wheat breeding is interested in. The resistance to stem rust (Pucce, graminis tritict is good and to powdery mildew (Erysiphegraminis tritici very good. The 1000 grain mass is about 32 g and volume grain mass 81.3 kg/hi. (Table 2. Stamena is classified in the subgroup A-l. It has excellent milling and baking quality and it belong to the 1st technological group (quality enhancer. The quantity of dry gluten is about 9%. The variety Stamena is a very productive, with the genetic potential for grain above 11 t/ha suitable for growing on fertile and less fertile soils. It has started to be grown commercially in 2000.

  3. A Situational Maintenance Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luxhoj, James T.; Thorsteinsson, Uffe; Riis, Jens Ove

    1997-01-01

    An overview of trend in maintenance management and presentation of a situational model and an analytical tools for identification of managerial efforts in maintenance.......An overview of trend in maintenance management and presentation of a situational model and an analytical tools for identification of managerial efforts in maintenance....

  4. Optimal Cross Hedging Winter Canola

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seon-Woong; Brorsen, B. Wade; Yoon, Byung-Sam

    2014-01-01

    Winter canola in the southern Great Plains has shown large price fluctuations and there have been questions about which futures market could be used to reduce price risk. Our results indicate that the optimal futures contract to cross hedge winter canola is soybean oil futures.

  5. Influence of Selected Cultural Practices on Winter Survival of Pratylenchus brachyurus and Subsequent Effects on Soybean Yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenning, S R; Schmitt, D P; Barker, K R

    1985-10-01

    Planting date of soybean, Glycine max, influenced winter survival of Pratylenchus brachyurus in microplots at two locations in North Carolina. Delayed planting resulted in a linear decrease (P = 0.05) in the numbers of P. brachyurus at soybean harvest. Effects of planting date on nematode numbers persisted over winter, indicating that survival in the absence of a host is density independent. Compared with winter fallow, winter wheat, Triticum aestivum, reduced winter survival of P. brachyurus. Subsequent soybean yields were suppressed by the overwintering population of this nematode at one location but not at another.

  6. Cryogenics maintenance strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruzat, Fabiola

    2012-09-01

    ALMA is an interferometer composed of 66 independent systems, with specific maintenance requirements for each subsystem. To optimize the observation time and reduce downtime maintenance, requirements are very demanding. One subsystem with high maintenance efforts is cryogenics and vacuum. To organize the maintenance, the Cryogenic and Vacuum department is using and implementing different tools. These are monitoring and problem reporting systems and CMMS. This leads to different maintenance approaches: Preventive Maintenance, Corrective Maintenance and Condition Based Maintenance. In order to coordinate activities with other departments the preventive maintenance schedule is kept as flexible as systems allow. To cope with unavoidable failures, the team has to be prepared to work under any condition with the spares on time. Computerized maintenance management system (CMMS) will help to manage inventory control for reliable spare part handling, the correct record of work orders and traceability of maintenance activities. For an optimized approach the department is currently evaluating where preventive or condition based maintenance applies to comply with the individual system demand. Considering the change from maintenance contracts to in-house maintenance will help to minimize costs and increase availability of parts. Due to increased number of system and tasks the cryo team needs to grow. Training of all staff members is mandatory, in depth knowledge must be built up by doing complex maintenance activities in the Cryo group, use of advanced computerized metrology systems.

  7. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-04

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition, underground storage, and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. This report will be published weekly by the EIA starting the first week in October 1990 and will continue until the first week in April 1991. The data will also be available electronically after 5:00 p.m. on Thursday during the heating season through the EIA Electronic Publication System (EPUB). 12 tabs.

  8. Klaus Winter (1930 - 2015)

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    We learned with great sadness that Klaus Winter passed away on 9 February 2015, after a long illness.   Klaus was born in 1930 in Hamburg, where he obtained his diploma in physics in 1955. From 1955 to 1958 he held a scholarship at the Collège de France, where he received his doctorate in nuclear physics under the guidance of Francis Perrin. Klaus joined CERN in 1958, where he first participated in experiments on π+ and K0 decay properties at the PS, and later became the spokesperson of the CHOV Collaboration at the ISR. Starting in 1976, his work focused on experiments with the SPS neutrino beam. In 1984 he joined Ugo Amaldi to head the CHARM experiment, designed for detailed studies of the neutral current interactions of high-energy neutrinos, which had been discovered in 1973 using the Gargamelle bubble chamber at the PS. The unique feature of the detector was its target calorimeter, which used large Carrara marble plates as an absorber material. From 1984 to 1991, Klau...

  9. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-13

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD`s I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s, as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 day, 30-Day, and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city.

  10. Winter Safety Tips for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter Safety Tips for Older Adults Expert Information from Healthcare Professionals Who Specialize in the Care of ... thick clothing. Think about getting your thermals! –Essential winter wears: hats, gloves or preferably mittens, winter coat, ...

  11. Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vitamin D Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter Winter sports enthusiasts are at increased risk for overexposure ... associated with sun exposure. "It's easy to associate winter with frostbite and windburn, but most people are ...

  12. A single, plastic population of Mycosphaerella pinodes causes ascochyta blight on winter and spring peas (Pisum sativum) in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le May, Christophe; Guibert, Michèle; Leclerc, Aurélie; Andrivon, Didier; Tivoli, Bernard

    2012-12-01

    Plant diseases are caused by pathogen populations continuously subjected to evolutionary forces (genetic flow, selection, and recombination). Ascochyta blight, caused by Mycosphaerella pinodes, is one of the most damaging necrotrophic pathogens of field peas worldwide. In France, both winter and spring peas are cultivated. Although these crops overlap by about 4 months (March to June), primary Ascochyta blight infections are not synchronous on the two crops. This suggests that the disease could be due to two different M. pinodes populations, specialized on either winter or spring pea. To test this hypothesis, 144 pathogen isolates were collected in the field during the winter and spring growing seasons in Rennes (western France), and all the isolates were genotyped using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Furthermore, the pathogenicities of 33 isolates randomly chosen within the collection were tested on four pea genotypes (2 winter and 2 spring types) grown under three climatic regimes, simulating winter, late winter, and spring conditions. M. pinodes isolates from winter and spring peas were genetically polymorphic but not differentiated according to the type of cultivars. Isolates from winter pea were more pathogenic than isolates from spring pea on hosts raised under winter conditions, while isolates from spring pea were more pathogenic than those from winter pea on plants raised under spring conditions. These results show that disease developed on winter and spring peas was initiated by a single population of M. pinodes whose pathogenicity is a plastic trait modulated by the physiological status of the host plant.

  13. Reproduction of Plant-parasitic Nematodes on Winter Rapeseed (Brassica napus ssp. oleiferas)

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard, E. C.; Montgomery-Dee, M. E.

    1993-01-01

    The reproduction of isolates of five plant-parasitic nematode species on the winter rapeseed cultivars Bridger, Gorzanski, H-47, Lindora, and Viking was evaluated. Each cultivar was a good host for Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus, Meloidogyne hapla, and M. incognita, All rapeseed cultivars were poor hosts for Pratylenchus scribneri, in comparison with a susceptible reference host. Heterodera glycines females rarely developed on any cultivar, but low numbers of juveniles invaded roots and males...

  14. Winter/Summer Monsoon Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Winter/Summer Monsoon Experiment (MONEX) was conducted during the First Global GARP (Global Atmospheric Research Program) Experiment (FGGE). An international...

  15. Unsurfaced Road Maintenance Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    This draft manual describes an unsurfaced road maintenance management system for use on military installations. This system is available in either a manual or computerized mode (Micro PAVER). The maintenance standards prescribed should protect Govern...

  16. Movable bridge maintenance monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Movable bridges have particular maintenance issues, which cost considerably more than those of fixed bridges, : mostly because of the complex interaction of the mechanical, electrical and structural components. In order to track : maintenance and ope...

  17. The meaning of nuclear winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper the author reviews the history and origins of the basic ideas underlying nuclear winter; and findings and predictions of several groups regarding this topic. The author reviews some of the further developments and scientific analyses regarding nuclear winter since the initial announcements of 1983, touching on some of the revisions and controversies and trying to indicate the current status of the field

  18. Weather Support for the 2002 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horel, J.; Potter, T.; Dunn, L.; Steenburgh, W. J.; Eubank, M.; Splitt, M.; Onton, D. J.

    2002-02-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games will be hosted by Salt Lake City, Utah, during February-March 2002. Adverse weather during this period may delay sporting events, while snow and ice-covered streets and highways may impede access by the athletes and spectators to the venues. While winter snowstorms and other large-scale weather systems typically have widespread impacts throughout northern Utah, hazardous winter weather is often related to local terrain features (the Wasatch Mountains and Great Salt Lake are the most prominent ones). Examples of such hazardous weather include lake-effect snowstorms, ice fog, gap winds, downslope windstorms, and low visibility over mountain passes.A weather support system has been developed to provide weather information to the athletes, games officials, spectators, and the interested public around the world. This system is managed by the Salt Lake Olympic Committee and relies upon meteorologists from the public, private, and academic sectors of the atmospheric science community. Weather forecasting duties will be led by National Weather Service forecasters and a team of private, weather forecasters organized by KSL, the Salt Lake City NBC television affiliate. Other government agencies, commercial firms, and the University of Utah are providing specialized forecasts and support services for the Olympics. The weather support system developed for the 2002 Winter Olympics is expected to provide long-term benefits to the public through improved understanding,monitoring, and prediction of winter weather in the Intermountain West.

  19. Optimization of surface maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeverland, E.

    1990-01-01

    The present conference paper deals with methods of optimizing the surface maintenance of steel-made offshore installations. The paper aims at identifying important approaches to the problems regarding the long-range planning of an economical and cost effective maintenance program. The methods of optimization are based on the obtained experiences from the maintenance of installations on the Norwegian continental shelf. 3 figs

  20. Modern electronic maintenance principles

    CERN Document Server

    Garland, DJ

    2013-01-01

    Modern Electronic Maintenance Principles reviews the principles of maintaining modern, complex electronic equipment, with emphasis on preventive and corrective maintenance. Unfamiliar subjects such as the half-split method of fault location, functional diagrams, and fault finding guides are explained. This book consists of 12 chapters and begins by stressing the need for maintenance principles and discussing the problem of complexity as well as the requirements for a maintenance technician. The next chapter deals with the connection between reliability and maintenance and defines the terms fai

  1. EPR design for maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krugmann, U.

    1998-01-01

    Preventive maintenance is very important in achieving high plant availability. For the European Pressurized Reactor (EPR) preventive maintenance has been carefully addressed in the design stage. This is particularly necessary because of the traditionally different maintenance strategies employed in France and Germany. This paper emphasizes the following features introduced in the ERP design to minimize the duration of the refueling outage: (1) containment accessibility during power operation; (2) overall plant layout to facilitate inspections and maintenances within the containment; and (3) safety system design for enabling preventive maintenance during power operation. (author)

  2. Maintenance management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohan, M. de

    1989-01-01

    This paper is concerned principally with Maintenance Management systems and their effective introduction into organisations. Maintenance improvement is basically a problem of managing the maintenance department in the broadest sense. Improvement does not only lie in the area of special techniques, systems or procedures; although they are valuable tools, but rather in a balanced attack, carefully guided by management. Over recent years, maintenance systems have received the major emphasis and in many instances the selection of the system has become a pre-occupation, whereas the importance of each maintenance function must be recognised and good management practices applied to all maintenance activities. The ingredients for success in the implementation of maintenance management systems are summarised as: having a management committee, clear objectives, project approach using project management techniques and an enthusiastic leader, user managed and data processing supported project, realistic budget and an understanding of the financial audit requirements. (author)

  3. Knowledge based maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturm, A. [Hamburgische Electacitaets-Werke AG Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The establishment of maintenance strategies is of crucial significance for the reliability of a plant and the economic efficiency of maintenance measures. Knowledge about the condition of components and plants from the technical and business management point of view therefore becomes one of the fundamental questions and the key to efficient management and maintenance. A new way to determine the maintenance strategy can be called: Knowledge Based Maintenance. A simple method for determining strategies while taking the technical condition of the components of the production process into account to the greatest possible degree which can be shown. A software with an algorithm for Knowledge Based Maintenance leads the user during complex work to the determination of maintenance strategies for this complex plant components. (orig.)

  4. Wintering bird response to fall mowing of herbaceous buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, P.J.; Parks, J.R.; Dively, G.P.

    2011-01-01

    Herbaceous buffers are strips of herbaceous vegetation planted between working agricultural land and streams or wetlands. Mowing is a common maintenance practice to control woody plants and noxious weeds in herbaceous buffers. Buffers enrolled in Maryland's Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP) cannot be mowed during the primary bird nesting season between 15 April and 15 August. Most mowing of buffers in Maryland occurs in late summer or fall, leaving the vegetation short until the following spring. We studied the response of wintering birds to fall mowing of buffers. We mowed one section to 10-15 cm in 13 buffers and kept another section unmowed. Ninety-two percent of birds detected in buffers were grassland or scrub-shrub species, and 98% of all birds detected were in unmowed buffers. Total bird abundance, species richness, and total avian conservation value were significantly greater in unmowed buffers, and Savannah Sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis), Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia), and White-throated Sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis) were significantly more abundant in unmowed buffers. Wintering bird use of mowed buffers was less than in unmowed buffers. Leaving herbaceous buffers unmowed through winter will likely provide better habitat for wintering birds. ?? 2011 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  5. Genetic analysis of a rabies virus host shift event reveals within-host viral dynamics in a new host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Denise A; Horton, Daniel L; Nunez, Javier; Ellis, Richard J; Orton, Richard J; Johnson, Nicholas; Banyard, Ashley C; McElhinney, Lorraine M; Freuling, Conrad M; Fırat, Müge; Ünal, Nil; Müller, Thomas; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Fooks, Anthony R

    2017-07-01

    Host shift events play an important role in epizootics as adaptation to new hosts can profoundly affect the spread of the disease and the measures needed to control it. During the late 1990s, an epizootic in Turkey resulted in a sustained maintenance of rabies virus (RABV) within the fox population. We used Bayesian inferences to investigate whole genome sequences from fox and dog brain tissues from Turkey to demonstrate that the epizootic occurred in 1997 (±1 year). Furthermore, these data indicated that the epizootic was most likely due to a host shift from locally infected domestic dogs, rather than an incursion of a novel fox or dog RABV. No evidence was observed for genetic adaptation to foxes at consensus sequence level and dN/dS analysis suggested purifying selection. Therefore, the deep sequence data were analysed to investigate the sub-viral population during a host shift event. Viral heterogeneity was measured in all RABV samples; viruses from the early period after the host shift exhibited greater sequence variation in comparison to those from the later stage, and to those not involved in the host shift event, possibly indicating a role in establishing transmission within a new host. The transient increase in variation observed in the new host species may represent virus replication within a new environment, perhaps due to increased replication within the CNS, resulting in a larger population of viruses, or due to the lack of host constraints present in the new host reservoir.

  6. Traveling to Canada for the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggie, Travis W

    2009-07-01

    The 21st Winter Olympic Games will be held in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada from February 12 to 28, 2010. Following the Winter Olympic Games, the Winter Paralympic Games will be held from March 12 to 21, 2010. There will be 86 winter sporting events hosted in Vancouver with 5500 athletes staying in two Olympic Villages. Another 2800 members of the media, 25,000 volunteers, and 1 million spectators are expected in attendance. This paper reviews health and safety issues for all travelers to Canada for the 2010 Vancouver Winter Olympic Games with a specific focus on pre-travel planning, road and transportation safety in British Columbia, natural and environmental hazards, Olympic medical facilities, safety and security, and infectious disease.

  7. Innovation for maintenance technology improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shives, T. R. (Editor); Willard, W. A. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    A group of 34 submitted entries (32 papers and 2 abstracts) from the 33rd meeting of the Mechanical Failures Prevention Group whose subject was maintenance technology improvement through innovation. Areas of special emphasis included maintenance concepts, maintenance analysis systems, improved maintenance processes, innovative maintenance diagnostics and maintenance indicators, and technology improvements for power plant applications.

  8. Random maintenance policies

    CERN Document Server

    Nakagawa, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    Exploring random maintenance models, this book provides an introduction to the implementation of random maintenance, and it is one of the first books to be written on this subject.  It aims to help readers learn new techniques for applying random policies to actual reliability models, and it provides new theoretical analyses of various models including classical replacement, preventive maintenance and inspection policies. These policies are applied to scheduling problems, backup policies of database systems, maintenance policies of cumulative damage models, and reliability of random redundant systems. Reliability theory is a major concern for engineers and managers, and in light of Japan’s recent earthquake, the reliability of large-scale systems has increased in importance. This also highlights the need for a new notion of maintenance and reliability theory, and how this can practically be applied to systems. Providing an essential guide for engineers and managers specializing in reliability maintenance a...

  9. Improved management of winter operations to limit subsurface contamination with degradable deicing chemicals in cold regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    French, H.K.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of management considerations required for better control of deicing chemicals in the unsaturated zone at sites with winter maintenance operations in cold regions. Degradable organic deicing chemicals are the main focus. The importance of the heterogeneity of both the

  10. Reliability-Centered Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-12-29

    C. Mentzer, who directed khe pioneering studies of maintenance policy at United Airlines, and to the Federal Aviation Administration for creating...ANALYSIS 425 D-3 INFORMATION SCIENCi AND DECISION ANALYSIS 427 D-4 MAINTENANCE THEORY AND PHILOSOPHY 430 D-5 MAINTENANCE APPLUCATIONS 436 D-6 A GUIDE...occupants N Operational consequences, which involve an indirect economic loss as well as the direct cost of repair l Nonoperational consequences, which

  11. Status of fusion maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Effective maintenance will be an essential ingredient in determining fusion system productivity. This level of productivity will result only after close attention is paid to the entire system as an entity and appropriate integration of the elements is made. The status of fusion maintenance is reviewed in the context of the entire system. While there are many challenging developmental tasks ahead in fusion maintenance, the required technologies are available in several high-technology industries, including nuclear fission

  12. Software evolution and maintenance

    CERN Document Server

    Tripathy, Priyadarshi

    2014-01-01

    Software Evolution and Maintenance: A Practitioner's Approach is an accessible textbook for students and professionals, which collates the advances in software development and provides the most current models and techniques in maintenance.Explains two maintenance standards: IEEE/EIA 1219 and ISO/IEC14764Discusses several commercial reverse and domain engineering toolkitsSlides for instructors are available onlineInformation is based on the IEEE SWEBOK (Software Engineering Body of Knowledge)

  13. Interactive videodisc in maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwingelstein, G.; Nguyen Van Nghi, B.

    1986-01-01

    After a recall of the videodisc characteristics, this paper presents its utilization by Electricite de France in the framework of training and maintenance. The SICMA (Interactive Communication System in Maintenance) developed and tested by Electricte de France is presented as also its utilization. It has been tested on the sites of Dampierre and Paluel in the cases of training and maintenance (deconnexion of drive rods of control elements); the conclusions of this experimentation are finally given. 4 refs [fr

  14. Turbine maintenance and modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unga, E. [Teollisuuden Voima Oy, Olkiluoto (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The disturbance-free operation of the turbine plant plays an important role in reaching good production results. In the turbine maintenance of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant the lifetime and efficiency of turbine components and the lifetime costs are taken into account in determining the turbine maintenance and modernization/improvement program. The turbine maintenance program and improvement/modernization measures taken in the plant units are described in this presentation. (orig.)

  15. Impact of change in winter strategy of one parasitoid species on the diversity and function of a guild of parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Thiago Oliveira; Krespi, Liliane; Bonnardot, Valérie; van Baaren, Joan; Outreman, Yannick

    2016-03-01

    The rise of temperatures may enable species to increase their activities during winter periods and to occupy new areas. In winter, resource density is low for most species and an increased number of active consumers during this season may produce heightened competitive pressure. In Western France, the aphid parasitoid species Aphidius avenae Haliday has been known to adopt a winter diapausing strategy adjacent to newly sown cereal crops, until recent reports of active winter populations in cereal crops. We investigate how the addition of this species to the winter guild of parasitoids may change the structure of the aphid-parasitoid food web and the host-exploitation strategies of previously occurring parasitoids. We showed that in winter, Aphidius avenae was mostly associated with two aphid species, Sitobion avenae Fabricius and Metopolophium dirhodum Walker, while the generalist species Aphidius rhopalosiphi was restricted to the aphid species Rhopalosiphum padi L. in the presence of Aphidius avenae. Due to this new competition, winter food webs present a higher degree of compartmentalization and lower proportional similarity index values than spring ones. Parasitoid and aphid abundances responded significantly to changes in daily high temperatures, suggesting that the host-parasitoid community structure can be partly predicted by climate. This study demonstrates how a change in the winter strategy of one species of a guild can modify complex interspecific relationships in host-parasitoid systems.

  16. Analysis of maintenance strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laakso, K.; Simola, K.

    1998-01-01

    The main topics of the presentation include: (1) an analysis model and methods to evaluate maintenance action programs and the support decision to make changes in them and (2) to understand the maintenance strategies in a systems perspective as a basis for future developments. The subproject showed how systematic models for maintenance analysis and decision support, utilising computerised and statistical tool packages, can be taken into use for evaluation and optimisation of maintenance of active systems from the safety and economic point of view

  17. Army Maintenance System Transformation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilbertson, Frank V

    2006-01-01

    .... Used in conjunction with pertinent historical data and developed with Army transformation goals in mind, General Systems thinking can provide the framework for guiding maintenance transformation...

  18. Industrial Maintenance Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajjad Akbar

    2006-01-01

    Industrial plants have become more complex due to technological advancement. This has made the task of maintenance more difficult. The maintenance costs in terms of resources and downtime loss are so high that maintenance function has become a critical factor in a plant's profitability. Industry should devote as much forethought to the management of maintenance function as to production. Maintenance has grown from an art to a precise, technical engineering science. Planning, organizing scheduling and control of maintenance using modern techniques pays dividends in the form of reduced costs and increased reliability. The magnitude and the dimension of maintenance have multiplied due to development in the engineering technologies. Production cost and capacities are directly affected by the breakdown time. Total operating cost including the maintenance cost plays an important role in replacement dimension. The integrated system approach would bring forth the desired results of high maintenance standards. The standards once achieved and sustained, would add to the reliability of the plan and relieve heavy stresses and strains on the engineering logistic support. (author)

  19. Remote Maintenance Monitoring System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Remote Maintenance and Monitoring System (RMMS) is a collection of subsystems that includes telecommunication components, hardware, and software, which serve to...

  20. IDRC Bulletin — Winter 2017

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-01-16

    Jan 16, 2018 ... In this issue, read the research results from our Safe and Inclusive Cities program and don't forget that the Joint Canada-Israel Health Research Program 2018 call is now open. IDRC Bulletin logo IDRC Bulletin — Winter 2017. Featured this month. View of Port-au-Prince in Haiti, March 30, 2016. Safe and ...

  1. Learning through a Winter's Tale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidotto, Kristie

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experience during the final semester of Year 11 Theatre Studies when she performed a monologue about Hermione from "The Winter's Tale". This experience was extremely significant to her because it nearly made her lose faith in one of the most important parts of her life, drama. She believes this…

  2. Winter School on Coding Theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 8. Winter School on Coding Theory. Information and Announcements Volume 8 Issue 8 August 2003 pp 111-111. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/008/08/0111-0111. Resonance ...

  3. Nuclear Winter: The Continuing Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-23

    prospect of human annihilation. Speculation about the environmental results of a ’long darkness’ were considered by Paul Ehrlich .10 The term nuclear winter...Washington D.C., 1983 The Cold and the Dark: The World after Nuclear War, by Paul Ehrlich , et al. New York: Norton, 1984. (QH545 N83 C66 1983k Caldicott

  4. Environmental problems related to winter traffic safety conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Hääl, Maire-Liis; Sürje, Peep

    2006-01-01

    The changeable Nordic climate has added problems to road maintenance and the environment to ensure traffic safety under winter conditions. The widespread use of salt (NaCl) for snow and ice removal from roads has resulted in environmental impacts in many areas. Some of the problems associated with the use of NaCl are the corrosion of bridges, road surfaces and vehicles and damage to roadside vegetation and aquatic system that are affected by water from de-iced roads. Accumulation of hard meta...

  5. Automating Contextualized Maintenance Documentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornneef, H.; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Curran, Ricky; Borsato, M.; Wognum, N.; Peruzzini, M.; Stjepandić, J.; Verhagen, W.J.C.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, task support information in aircraft maintenance is mostly provided using paper-based solutions, which are burdensome, slow and prone to error. Aircraft maintenance documentation contains vast amounts of information irrelevant for the task at hand and even for the simplest tasks multiple

  6. Maintenance optimization with AREVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostroun, Frank; Herzing, Karl-Heinz; Buschart, Rufus [AREVA NP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    2009-04-15

    Driven by the economic expectations of an energy market that becomes increasingly unregulated, the optimization of the maintenance in a nuclear power plant is a more demand practice. This paper describes on three exemplary product lines of AREVA, how AREVA can support its customers optimizing its maintenance.

  7. Maintenance Trades Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, Theodore J.

    2008-01-01

    In 2002, APPA published "Maintenance Staffing Guidelines for Educational Facilities," the first building maintenance trades staffing guideline designed to assist educational facilities professionals with their staffing needs. addresses how facilities professionals can determine the appropriate size and mix of their organization. Contents…

  8. Winter movement dynamics of black brant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Mark S.; Ward, David H.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Roser, John

    2007-01-01

    Although North American geese are managed based on their breeding distributions, the dynamics of those breeding populations may be affected by events that occur during the winter. Birth rates of capital breeding geese may be influenced by wintering conditions, mortality may be influenced by timing of migration and wintering distribution, and immigration and emigration among breeding populations may depend on winter movement and timing of pair formation. We examined factors affecting movements of black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) among their primary wintering sites in Mexico and southern California, USA, (Mar 1998–Mar 2000) using capture–recapture models. Although brant exhibited high probability (>0.85) of monthly and annual fidelity to the wintering sites we sampled, we observed movements among all wintering sites. Movement probabilities both within and among winters were negatively related to distance between sites. We observed a higher probability both of southward movement between winters (Mar to Dec) and northward movement between months within winters. Between-winter movements were probably most strongly affected by spatial and temporal variation in habitat quality as we saw movement patterns consistent with contrasting environmental conditions (e.g., La Niña and El Niño southern oscillation cycles). Month-to-month movements were related to migration patterns and may also have been affected by differences in habitat conditions among sites. Patterns of winter movements indicate that a network of wintering sites may be necessary for effective conservation of brant.

  9. Wintering ecology of adult North American ospreys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Brian E.; Martell, Mark S.; Bierregaard, Richard O.; Henny, Charles J.; Dorr, Brian S.; Olexa, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    North American Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) typically migrate long distances to their wintering grounds in the tropics. Beyond the general distribution of their wintering range (i.e., the Caribbean, South America, and Central America), very little is known about the wintering ecology of these birds. We used satellite telemetry to determine the duration of wintering period, to examine the characteristics of wintering areas used by Ospreys, and to quantify space use and activity patterns of wintering Ospreys. Adult Ospreys migrated to wintering sites and exhibited high wintering site fidelity among years. Overall, Ospreys wintered on river systems (50.6%) more than on lakes (19.0%), and use of coastal areas was (30.4%) intermediate. Ospreys remained on their wintering grounds for an average of 154 d for males and 167 d for females. Locations of wintering Ospreys obtained via GPS-capable satellite telemetry suggest these birds move infrequently and their movements are very localized (i.e., 2 and 1.4 km2, respectively. Overall, our findings suggest wintering adult North American Ospreys are very sedentary, demonstrating a pattern of limited daily movements and high fidelity to a few select locations (presumably roosts). We suggest this wintering strategy might be effective for reducing the risk of mortality and maximizing energy conservation.

  10. Physical and Chemical Implications of Mid-Winter Pumping of Trunda Lakes - North Slope, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinzman, Larry D. (University of Alaska Fairbanks, Water and Environmental Research Center); Lilly, Michael R. (Geo-Watersheds Scientific); Kane, Douglas L. (University of Alaska Fairbanks, Water and Environmental Research Center); Miller, D. Dan (University of Alaska Fairbanks, Water and Environmental Research Center); Galloway, Braden K. (University of Alaska Fairbanks, Water and Environmental Research Center); Hilton, Kristie M. (Geo-Watersheds Scientific); White, Daniel M. (University of Alaska Fairbanks, Water and Environmental Research Center)

    2005-09-30

    Tundra lakes on the North Slope, Alaska, are an important resource for energy development and petroleum field operations. A majority of exploration activities, pipeline maintenance, and restoration activities take place on winter ice roads that depend on water availability at key times of the winter operating season. These same lakes provide important fisheries and ecosystem functions. In particular, overwintering habitat for fish is one important management concern. This study focused on the evaluation of winter water use in the current field operating areas to provide a better understanding of the current water use practices. It found that under the current water use practices, there were no measurable negative effects of winter pumping on the lakes studied and current water use management practices were appropriately conservative. The study did find many areas where improvements in the understanding of tundra lake hydrology and water usage would benefit industry, management agencies, and the protection of fisheries and ecosystems.

  11. Maintenance improvement program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derbonne, D.R.; Plunkett, T.F.; Simpson, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    During fuel cycle 1 at River Bend station, considerable effort was expended to reduce corrective maintenance work orders (MWOs) to <1,000. This was done by complementing the plant staff with costly contract personnel. Coming out of the first refueling outage, most contract personnel were released. The change in MWO backlog started a steady rise. It became readily apparent that to avoid costly contract staff time, a maintenance improvement program (MIP) was necessary. The MIP Was primarily directed at two areas: crew efficiency improvements and improved preplanned MWO packages. The overall effect of the MIP was to achieve significant productivity improvements with reduced operation and maintenance cost by providing frequent accountability to all levels of maintenance supervision. The MIP also produced a feeling of pride among the maintenance department employees that had not really existed before. This was the best benefit of all

  12. Classification guide: Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games classification guide is designed to provide National Paralympic Committees (NPCs) and International Federations (IFs) with information about the classification policies and procedures that will apply to the Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games.

  13. Maintenance Process Strategic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasiulewicz-Kaczmarek, M.; Stachowiak, A.

    2016-08-01

    The performance and competitiveness of manufacturing companies is dependent on the availability, reliability and productivity of their production facilities. Low productivity, downtime, and poor machine performance is often linked to inadequate plant maintenance, which in turn can lead to reduced production levels, increasing costs, lost market opportunities, and lower profits. These pressures have given firms worldwide the motivation to explore and embrace proactive maintenance strategies over the traditional reactive firefighting methods. The traditional view of maintenance has shifted into one of an overall view that encompasses Overall Equipment Efficiency, Stakeholders Management and Life Cycle assessment. From practical point of view it requires changes in approach to maintenance represented by managers and changes in actions performed within maintenance area. Managers have to understand that maintenance is not only about repairs and conservations of machines and devices, but also actions striving for more efficient resources management and care for safety and health of employees. The purpose of the work is to present strategic analysis based on SWOT analysis to identify the opportunities and strengths of maintenance process, to benefit from them as much as possible, as well as to identify weaknesses and threats, so that they could be eliminated or minimized.

  14. Leadership in American Indian Communities: Winter Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metoyer, Cheryl A.

    2010-01-01

    Winter lessons, or stories told in the winter, were one of the ways in which tribal elders instructed and directed young men and women in the proper ways to assume leadership responsibilities. Winter lessons stressed the appropriate relationship between the leader and the community. The intent was to remember the power and purpose of that…

  15. Program integration of predictive maintenance with reliability centered maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong, D.K. Jr; Wray, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses improving the safety and reliability of power plants in a cost-effective manner by integrating the recently developed reliability centered maintenance techniques with the traditional predictive maintenance techniques of nuclear power plants. The topics of the paper include a description of reliability centered maintenance (RCM), enhancing RCM with predictive maintenance, predictive maintenance programs, condition monitoring techniques, performance test techniques, the mid-Atlantic Reliability Centered Maintenance Users Group, test guides and the benefits of shared guide development

  16. Framework for Maintenance Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, C. Guedes; Duarte, J. Caldeira; Garbatov, Y.

    2010-01-01

    the design and during the whole life span of operational use, within an integrated framework founded on risk and reliability based techniques. The document addresses designers, decision makers and professionals responsible for or involved in establishing maintenance plans. The purpose of this document...... is to present maintenance as an integrated approach that needs to be planned, designed, engineered, and controlled by proper qualitative and quantitative techniques. This document outlines the basic premises for maintenance planning and provides the general philosophies that can be followed and points to a best...

  17. Mobile network maintenance (GSM)

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    Maintenance work will be carried out on the CERN mobile network infrastructure (GSM) on the 23 and 24 July from 6 p.m. to 6 a.m. in order to replace discontinued equipment and to increase the bandwidth capacity of the GSM mobile network. All CERN GSM emitters (40 units) will be moved one by one to the new infrastructure during the maintenance. The call of a user connected to an emitter at the time of its maintenance will be cut off. However, the general overlapping of the GSM radio coverage should mean that users are able immediately to call again should their call be interrupted. IT/CS/CS

  18. Winter to winter recurrence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia and its impact on winter surface air temperature anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xia; Yang, Guang

    2017-01-01

    The persistence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia shows a winter to winter recurrence (WTWR) phenomenon. Seasonal variations in sea level pressure anomalies and surface wind anomalies display significantly different characteristics between WTWR and non-WTWR years. The WTWR years are characterized by the recurrence of both a strong (weak) anomalous Siberian High and an East Asian winter monsoon over two successive winters without persistence through the intervening summer. However, anomalies during the non-WTWR years have the opposite sign between the current and ensuing winters. The WTWR of circulation anomalies contributes to that of surface air temperature anomalies (SATAs), which is useful information for improving seasonal and interannual climate predictions over East Asia and China. In the positive (negative) WTWR years, SATAs are cooler (warmer) over East Asia in two successive winters, but the signs of the SATAs are opposite in the preceding and subsequent winters during the non-WTWR years.

  19. Telomeres and viruses: common themes of genome maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhong; Wang, Zhuo; Lieberman, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    Genome maintenance mechanisms actively suppress genetic instability associated with cancer and aging. Some viruses provoke genetic instability by subverting the host’s control of genome maintenance. Viruses have their own specialized strategies for genome maintenance, which can mimic and modify host cell processes. Here, we review some of the common features of genome maintenance utilized by viruses and host chromosomes, with a particular focus on terminal repeat (TR) elements. The TRs of cellular chromosomes, better known as telomeres, have well-established roles in cellular chromosome stability. Cellular telomeres are themselves maintained by viral-like mechanisms, including self-propagation by reverse transcription, recombination, and retrotransposition. Viral TR elements, like cellular telomeres, are essential for viral genome stability and propagation. We review the structure and function of viral repeat elements and discuss how they may share telomere-like structures and genome protection functions. We consider how viral infections modulate telomere regulatory factors for viral repurposing and can alter normal host telomere structure and chromosome stability. Understanding the common strategies of viral and cellular genome maintenance may provide new insights into viral–host interactions and the mechanisms driving genetic instability in cancer. PMID:23293769

  20. Thermal balance of cattle grazing winter range: model application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren, E N; Olson, B E

    2006-05-01

    Beef cattle grazing semiarid foothill rangeland of the Northern Rockies during winter may be exposed to cold temperatures and high winds while grazing pastures with low nutritional value. Cattle can physiologically and behaviorally respond to the changing environment to lower their metabolic requirements and reduce the effects of cold exposure. Requirements of grazing cattle may be overpredicted with models developed in controlled settings that do not account for energy-conserving behaviors. We refined a simple thermal balance equation to model heat exchange of free-ranging cattle. We accounted for the complex interactions between animal behavior and the changing natural environment by applying the insulation characteristics of the cattle's tissue and coat to a simple geometric shape of an asymmetric ellipsoid at different orientations to the sun and wind. We compared the model predictions with heat production measured in 3 studies, and in all cases the model predictions were similar to those reported. Model simulations indicate behaviors, such as lying and orientation to the sun, mitigated the effects of extreme weather. For many combinations of winter weather variables, metabolic requirements increased only slightly due to cold exposure of mature beef cattle in a near-maintenance state. The results indicate that solar radiation contributes strongly to the thermal balance of a cow. Thus, previous models that do not account for the irradiative environment may overestimate metabolic requirements of cattle acclimated to grazing winter range.

  1. Experimental Winter Coccidiosis in Sheltered and Unsheltered Calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niilo, L.

    1970-01-01

    Hereford calves, seven months old, were inoculated orally with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria bovis and E. zurnii and housed in a heated building together with uninoculated animals. Duplicate groups of similarly treated animals were left unsheltered in cold winter weather. Clinical coccidiosis developed in most of the inoculated calves, sheltered and unsheltered. There was no marked difference in the severity of the infections. The sheltered uninoculated contact animals remained clinically unaffected, but mild coccidiosis developed in the unsheltered controls. The results suggest that cold may increase the host's susceptibility to clinical coccidiosis, but may not increase the severity of the signs once the clinical infection is established. PMID:4245999

  2. Evaluation of maintenance strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    In the mid1990s, the Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT) initiated the Maintenance Cost : Effectiveness study (SPR 371) with the development of plans and an experiment design to evaluate the : effectiveness of a variety of asphalt pavement...

  3. Experts' meeting: Maintenance '83

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The brochure presents, in full wording, 20 papers read at the experts' meeting ''Maintenance '83'' in Wiesbaden. Most of the papers discuss reliability data (acquisition, evaluation, processing) of nearly all fields of industry. (RW) [de

  4. Excellence through maintenance mastering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamarche, M.; Guillot, M.; Monier, M.

    1987-01-01

    To improve the overall availability factor of nuclear power plants you have to cut either the forced outage role and the planned outage time or you need to reduce simultaneously the failures and the efforts devoted to avoiding them. Among other results, this goal leads to a decrease in the number of real or anticipated problems. Electricite de France policy, in this matter, is to focus on decreasing the compoents' maintenance needs through a comprehensive modification program, targeted to eliminating the weak points as revealed by the operation. Thereby one may reach, for simple equipment, a nearly maintenance-free condition in which the only maintenance needed is surveillance, which provides assurance that everything is operating properly. A good example of this type of equipment is the family of static components, drums, and pipes whose corrective maintenance is almost nil when their initial condition is good

  5. Biology, spread, and biological control of winter moth in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Elkinton; George Boettner; Andrew Liebhold; Rodger. Gwiazdowski

    2015-01-01

    The winter moth (Operophtera brumata L.; Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is an inchworm caterpillar that hatches coincident with bud-break on its hosts and feeds on a wide range of deciduous trees. It is one of a group of geometrid species that feed in early spring and then pupate in the top layer of the soil or litter beginning in mid-May. As postulated...

  6. Factors Influencing Army Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Harz (1981), reports the results of questioning largc- numbers of Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) involved in the maintenance process. The second type of...identified maintenance problems (e.g., Kokenes, 1987; Harz , 1981). The second step was the identificatl i of demand factors that affect the actual...Kokenes, 1987; Harz , 1981). Second, if any of the data on which allocations are based are faulty, or budgetary decisions require a cutback in

  7. Predictive maintenance primer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flude, J.W.; Nicholas, J.R.

    1991-04-01

    This Predictive Maintenance Primer provides utility plant personnel with a single-source reference to predictive maintenance analysis methods and technologies used successfully by utilities and other industries. It is intended to be a ready reference to personnel considering starting, expanding or improving a predictive maintenance program. This Primer includes a discussion of various analysis methods and how they overlap and interrelate. Additionally, eighteen predictive maintenance technologies are discussed in sufficient detail for the user to evaluate the potential of each technology for specific applications. This document is designed to allow inclusion of additional technologies in the future. To gather the information necessary to create this initial Primer the Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center (NMAC) collected experience data from eighteen utilities plus other industry and government sources. NMAC also contacted equipment manufacturers for information pertaining to equipment utilization, maintenance, and technical specifications. The Primer includes a discussion of six methods used by analysts to study predictive maintenance data. These are: trend analysis; pattern recognition; correlation; test against limits or ranges; relative comparison data; and statistical process analysis. Following the analysis methods discussions are detailed descriptions for eighteen technologies analysts have found useful for predictive maintenance programs at power plants and other industrial facilities. Each technology subchapter has a description of the operating principles involved in the technology, a listing of plant equipment where the technology can be applied, and a general description of the monitoring equipment. Additionally, these descriptions include a discussion of results obtained from actual equipment users and preferred analysis techniques to be used on data obtained from the technology. 5 refs., 30 figs

  8. Maintenance of scientific instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucero, E.

    1986-01-01

    During the last years Colombia has increased the use of nuclear techniques, instruments and equipment in ambitious health programs, as well as in research centers, industry and education; this has resulted in numerous maintenance problems. As an alternative solution IAN has established a Central Maintenance Laboratory for nuclear instruments within an International Atomic Energy Agency program for eight Latin American and nine Asian Countries. Established strategies and some results are detailed in this writing

  9. TFTR remote maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonanos, P.; Lontai, L.

    1977-01-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is the first tokamak designed to utilize tritium plasmas and achieve significant neutron yields. Tritium operations are scheduled for the early 1980's at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Complex operations of unprecedented scale must be performed remotely. The design of TFTR and the maintenance system supporting it are developing in parallel. The nature of the problem and a proposed set of maintenance tools are described

  10. Remote maintenance development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zook, C.R.

    1979-01-01

    The concept of remote maintenance as it pertains to nuclear fuel fabrication facilities is quite unique. The future may require completely remote facilities where maintenance will be performed by hybrid manipulators/robots. These units will be capable of being preprogrammed for automatic operation or manually operated with the operator becoming a part of the closed loop control system. These robots will mesh television, computer control, and direct force feedback manual control in a usable new concept of robotics

  11. Road salt application planning tool for winter de-icing operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenouth, William R.; Gharabaghi, Bahram; Perera, Nandana

    2015-05-01

    Road authorities, who are charged with the task of maintaining safe, driveable road conditions during severe winter storm events are coming under increasing pressure to protect salt vulnerable areas (SVAs). For the purpose of modelling urban winter hydrology, the temperature index method was modified to incorporate ploughing and salting considerations and was calibrated using winter field data from two sites in Southern Ontario and validated using data collected from a section of Highway 401 - Canada's busiest highway. The modified temperature index model (MTIM) accurately predicted salt-induced melt (R2 = 0.98 and 0.99, RMSE = 19.9 and 282.4 m3, CRM = -0.003 and 0.006 for calibration and validation sites respectively), and showed a demonstrable ability to calculate the Bare Pavement Regain Time (BPRT). The BPRT is a key factor on road safety and the basis for many winter maintenance performance standards for different classes of highways. Optimizing salt application rate scenarios can be achieved using the MTIM with only two meteorological forecast inputs for the storm event - readily available on-line through the Road Weather Information System (RWIS) - and can serve as a simple yet effective tool for winter road maintenance practitioners seeking to optimize salt application rates for a given storm event in salt vulnerable areas.

  12. Mechanical configuration and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.G.; Casini, G.; Churakov, G.F.

    1982-01-01

    The INTOR engineering design has been strongly influenced by considerations for assembly and maintenance. A maintenance philosophy was established at the outset of the conceptual design to insure that the tokamak configuration would be developed to accommodate maintenance requirements. The main features of the INTOR design are summarized in this paper with primary emphasis on the impact of maintenance considerations. The most apparent configuration design feature is the access provided for torus maintenance. Particular attention was given to the size and location of superconducting magnets and the location of vacuum boundaries. All of the poloidal field (PF) coils are placed outside of the bore of the toroidal field (TF) coils and located above and below an access opening between adjacent TF coils through which torus sectors are removed. A magnet structural configuration consisting of mechanically attached reinforcing members has been designed which facilitates the open access space for torus sector removal. For impurity control, a single null poloidal divertor was selected over a double null design in order to maintain sufficient access for pumping and maintenance of the collector. A double null divertor was found to severely limit access to the torus with the addition of divertor collectors and pumping at the top. For this reason, a single null concept was selected in spite of the more difficult design problems associated with the required asymmetric PF system and higher particle loadings

  13. Communicating Certainty About Nuclear Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, A.

    2013-12-01

    I have been spending much of my time in the past several years trying to warn the world about the continuing danger of nuclear weapons, and that the solution is a rapid reduction in the nuclear arsenal. I feel that a scientist who discovers dangers to society has an ethical duty to issue a warning, even if the danger is so scary that it is hard for people to deal with. The debate about nuclear winter in the 1980s helped to end the nuclear arms race, but the planet still has enough nuclear weapons, even after reductions planned for 2017 under the New START treaty, to produce nuclear winter, with temperatures plunging below freezing in the summer in major agricultural regions, threatening the food supply for most of the planet. New research by myself, Brian Toon, Mike Mills, and colleagues over the past six years has found that a nuclear war between any two countries, such as India and Pakistan, using 50 atom bombs each of the size dropped on Hiroshima could produce climate change unprecedented in recorded human history, and a world food crisis because of the agricultural effects. This is much less than 1% of the current global arsenal. Communicating certainty - what we know for sure - has been much more effective than communicating uncertainty. The limited success I have had has come from persistence and serendipity. The first step was to do the science. We have published peer-reviewed articles in major journals, including Science, Nature, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Journal of Geophysical Research, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Physics Today, and Climatic Change. But policymakers do not read these journals. Through fairly convoluted circumstances, which will be described in this talk, we were able to get papers published in Scientific American and the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists. I have also published several encyclopedia articles on the subject. As a Lead Author of Chapter 8 (Radiative Forcing) of the recently published Fifth Assessment

  14. Building relationships for better maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hackman Hon Yin; Scott, David

    2009-02-01

    Effective management of building maintenance is a vital ingredient in ensuring a high quality built environment for any building's occupiers. However, maintenance is not high on the list of priorities for most organisations. Communication between top management personnel looking at maintenance issues from a strategic standpoint and maintenance staff considering them at an operational level is often not as good as it should be. When planning maintenance activities maintenance personnel often draw too heavily on their technical experience and expertise without taking sufficient account of wider organisational objectives or consulting effectively with top management. Senior managers also regularly complain about lack of managerial input from maintenance departments. Such barriers contribute to communication difficulties between top management at a strategic level and maintenance personnel at an operational level. Identifying where the key differences lie in senior managers' and maintenance personnel's viewpoints on maintenance strategy can prove invaluable in achieving some convergence of opinions and optimising the efficiency of the overall building maintenance process.

  15. Differing antidepressant maintenance methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safer, Daniel J

    2017-10-01

    The principle evidence that antidepressant medication (ADM) is an effective maintenance treatment for adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) is from placebo substitution trials. These trials enter responders from ADM efficacy trials into randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled (RDBPC) effectiveness trials to measure the rate of MDD relapse over time. However, other randomized maintenance trial methodologies merit consideration and comparison. A systematic review of ADM randomized maintenance trials included research reports from multiple databases. Relapse rate was the main effectiveness outcome assessed. Five ADM randomized maintenance methodologies for MDD responders are described and compared for outcome. These effectiveness trials include: placebo-substitution, ADM/placebo extension, ADM extension, ADM vs. psychotherapy, and treatment as usual. The placebo-substitution trials for those abruptly switched to placebo resulted in unusually high (46%) rates of relapse over 6-12months, twice the continuing ADM rate. These trials were characterized by selective screening, high attrition, an anxious anticipation of a switch to placebo, and a risk of drug withdrawal symptoms. Selectively screened ADM efficacy responders who entered into 4-12month extension trials experienced relapse rates averaging ~10% with a low attrition rate. Non-industry sponsored randomized trials of adults with multiple prior MDD episodes who were treated with ADM maintenance for 1-2years experienced relapse rates averaging 40%. Placebo substitution trial methodology represents only one approach to assess ADM maintenance. Antidepressant maintenance research for adults with MDD should be evaluated for industry sponsorship, attrition, the impact of the switch to placebo, and major relapse differences in MDD subpopulations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Evaluation of winter temperatures on apple budbreak using grafted twigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando José Hawerroth

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Temperature is the main climate factor related to induction, maintenance and dormancy release in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.. The inadequate chilling exposure in apples causes budbreak problems, resulting in decrease in yield potential. Thus, the knowledge of physiological principles and environmental factors determining the dormancy phenomenon, especially winter temperature effects, it is necessary for the efficient selection of cultivars in a productive region. In addition, it is indispensable to adapt the orchard management aiming to decrease the problems caused by lack chilling during winter. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different thermal conditions during the dormancy period on budbreak of apple cultivars. One-year-old twigs of 'Castel Gala' and 'Royal Gala' cultivars, grafted on M7 rootstock, were submitted to temperatures of 5, 10 and 15ºC for different exposure periods (168; 336; 672; 1,008 and 1,344 hours. After treatments execution, the plants were kept in a greenhouse at 25ºC. Budbreak was quantified when accumulated 3,444; 6,888; 10,332; 13,776; 17,220 and 20,664 GDHºC after temperature treatments. The cultivars responded differently to temperature effect during the winter period. The temperature of 15ºC during winter shows a greater effectiveness on 'Castel Gala' apple budbreak while in the 'Royal Gala' apples the temperatures of 5 and 10ºC show better performance. 'Castel Gala' cultivar (low chilling requirement may supply its physiological necessities, may be capable to budburst, even when subjected to higher temperatures in relation to 'Royal Gala' apples (high chilling requirement.

  17. JRR-3 maintenance program utilizing accumulated maintenance data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumo, Hironobu; Kato, Tomoaki; Kinase, Masami; Torii, Yoshiya; Murayama, Yoji

    2007-07-01

    JRR-3(Japan Research Reactor No.3) has been operated for more than 15 years after the modification, without significant troubles by carrying out maintenance such as the preventive maintenance (mainly time-based maintenance) for the safety-grade equipments and the breakdown maintenance for the non-safety-grade equipments. Unscheduled shutdowns causes by aged non-safety-grade equipments have been increasing, and the resources such as budgets have been decreasing year by year. In this situation, JRR-3 maintenance program was reviewed about safety, reliability and economic efficiency. This report offers the policy of the maintenance review and the future direction of maintenance programs. (author)

  18. Immune evasion by gammaherpesvirus genome maintenance proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Neil

    2010-04-01

    Viruses that establish lifelong latent infections must ensure that the viral genome is maintained within the latently infected cell throughout the life of the host, yet at the same time must also be capable of avoiding elimination by the immune surveillance system. Gammaherpesviruses, which include the human viruses Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, establish latent infections in lymphocytes. Infection of this dynamic host-cell population requires that the viruses have appropriate strategies for enabling the viral genome to persist while these cells go through rounds of mitosis, but at the same time must avoid detection by host CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). The majority of gammaherpesviruses studied have been found to encode a specific protein that is critical for maintenance of the viral genome within latently infected cells. This protein is termed the genome maintenance protein (GMP). Due to its vital role in long-term latency, this offers the immune system a crucial target for detection and elimination of virus-infected cells. GMPs from different gammaherpesviruses have evolved related strategies that allow the protein to be present within latently infected cells, but to remain effectively hidden from circulating CD8(+) CTLs. In this review, I will summarize the role of the GMPs and highlight the available data describing the immune-evasion properties of these proteins.

  19. Building Maintenance, Management, and Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawsey, M. R.

    1982-01-01

    Australian methods and formulas for funding building maintenance and management are outlined and found to be haphazard. Discussed are: ultimate costs of deferred maintenance, major plant replacements, life cycle costing, types of maintenance programs (including full preventive maintenance), use of computer programs for planning, and organization…

  20. The MERC maintenance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izquierdo, J.J.; Chauvire, P.; Plessis, L.

    1991-01-01

    Maintenance in the modern commercial reprocessing plants is a subject of the highest priority in order to guarantee availability for the whole life of the plant. The design concept of the UP3 reprocessing plant at La Hague identified several categories of equipment according to their maintenance design principles. Among them, Standard Process Equipment such as pumps, valves, ejectors and filters which need periodic maintenance. These equipment items are designed in removable modular form to avoid the need to disconnect piping. Removal is performed under shielding and without breach of containment through the use of a transfer cask that is connected to the cell containing the equipment to be removed. This transfer cask is called MERC (Mobile Equipment Replacement Cask). Containment is preserved by an air-tight system consisting of coupled doors, with a special connecting gasket. This system can remove and replace failed equipment, without spreading contamination to work areas. (author)

  1. Maintenance metabolism and carbon fluxes in Bacillus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decasper Seraina

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selection of an appropriate host organism is crucial for the economic success of biotechnological processes. A generally important selection criterion is a low maintenance energy metabolism to reduce non-productive consumption of substrate. We here investigated, whether various bacilli that are closely related to Bacillus subtilis are potential riboflavin production hosts with low maintenance metabolism. Results While B. subtilis exhibited indeed the highest maintenance energy coefficient, B. licheniformis and B. amyloliquefaciens exhibited only statistically insignificantly reduced maintenance metabolism. Both B. pumilus and B. subtilis (natto exhibited irregular growth patterns under glucose limitation such that the maintenance metabolism could not be determined. The sole exception with significantly reduced maintenance energy requirements was the B. licheniformis strain T380B. The frequently used spo0A mutation significantly increased the maintenance metabolism of B. subtilis. At the level of 13C-detected intracellular fluxes, all investigated bacilli exhibited a significant flux through the pentose phosphate pathway, a prerequisite for efficient riboflavin production. Different from all other species, B. subtilis featured high respiratory tricarboxylic acid cycle fluxes in batch and chemostat cultures. In particular under glucose-limited conditions, this led to significant excess formation of NADPH of B. subtilis, while anabolic consumption was rather balanced with catabolic NADPH formation in the other bacilli. Conclusion Despite its successful commercial production of riboflavin, B. subtilis does not seem to be the optimal cell factory from a bioenergetic point of view. The best choice of the investigated strains is the sporulation-deficient B. licheniformis T380B strain. Beside a low maintenance energy coefficient, this strain grows robustly under different conditions and exhibits only moderate acetate overflow, hence

  2. Maintenance simulation: Software issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luk, C.H.; Jette, M.A.

    1995-07-01

    The maintenance of a distributed software system in a production environment involves: (1) maintaining software integrity, (2) maintaining and database integrity, (3) adding new features, and (4) adding new systems. These issues will be discussed in general: what they are and how they are handled. This paper will present our experience with a distributed resource management system that accounts for resources consumed, in real-time, on a network of heterogenous computers. The simulated environments to maintain this system will be presented relate to the four maintenance areas.

  3. Training of maintenance personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabouhams, J.

    1986-01-01

    This lecture precises the method and means developed by EDF to ensure the training of maintenance personnel according to their initial educational background and their experience. The following points are treated: General organization of the training for maintenance personnel in PWR and GCR nuclear power stations and in Creys Malville fast breeder reactor; Basic nuclear training and pedagogical aids developed for this purpose; Specific training and training provided by contractors; complementary training taking into account the operation experience and feedback; Improvement of velocity, competence and safety during shut-down operations by adapted training. (orig.)

  4. An Economical Method for the Maintenance of Schistosome Life ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schistosomiasis is a major health problem in many tropical countries. Methods described in the literature for the maintenance of schistosome life cycles are usually cumbersome and require large financial and manpower investment. A method is presented here for the culture of large numbers of intermediate snail hosts and ...

  5. Seasonal alterations in host range and fidelity in the polyphagous mirid bug, Apolygus lucorum (Heteroptera: Miridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongsheng Pan

    Full Text Available In herbivorous insects, host plant switching is commonly observed and plays an important role in their annual life cycle. However, much remains to be learned about seasonal host switching of various pestiferous arthropods under natural conditions. From 2006 until 2012, we assessed Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür host plant use in successive spring, summer and winter seasons at one single location (Langfang, China. Data were used to quantify changes in host plant breadth and host fidelity between seasons. Host fidelity of A. lucorum differed between seasons, with 87.9% of spring hosts also used in the summer and 36.1% of summer hosts used in winter. In contrast, as little as 25.6% host plant species were shared between winter and spring. Annual herbaceous plants are most often used for overwintering, while perennial woody plants are relatively important for initial population build-up in the spring. Our study contributes to an improved understanding of evolutionary interactions between A. lucorum and its host plants and lays the groundwork for the design of population management strategies for this important pest in myriad crops.

  6. Diesel Vehicle Maintenance Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braswell, Robert; And Others

    Designed to provide a model set of competencies, this manual presents tasks which were identified by employers, employees, and teachers as important in a postsecondary diesel vehicle maintenance curriculum. The tasks are divided into seven major component areas of instruction: chassis and suspension, diesel engines, diesel fuel, electrical,…

  7. Maintenance and environmental qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.S.; Austin, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    The design of today's nuclear generating plants involves many detailed design considerations. This includes comprehensive look at aging effects on plant components over their expected lifetimes. This is important to ensuring that the plant operates safely throughout its life. The effects of aging are required to be documented in detail in today's designs. This documentation provides assurance that safe operating conditions are maintained throughout the station life cycle. This requirement is analogous to the longer standing requirement to ensure pressure boundary integrity. The pressure boundary integrity requirement has existed in the industry since its inception. The subject of plant aging effects and the maintenance of functionality is known as Environmental Qualification (EQ). This paper will attempt to explain the wisdom of EQ and the potential for optimizing maintenance activities (to move from reactive to proactive activities), within the context of the overall maintenance program. It is the author's intent to encourage the active involvement of maintenance professionals in the effective implementation of the ongoing EQ program so that the benefits are maximized

  8. CH Packaging Maintenance Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington TRU Solutions

    2002-01-01

    This procedure provides instructions for performing inner containment vessel (ICV) and outer containment vessel (OCV) maintenance and periodic leakage rate testing on the following packaging seals and corresponding seal surfaces using a nondestructive helium (He) leak test. In addition, this procedure provides instructions for performing ICV and OCV structural pressure tests

  9. Maintenance: problem and solution

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2012-01-01

    Equipment that is often unique, machines that are as old as the Laboratory, continuous and demanding performance requirements: these are the challenges faced by CERN’s accelerator maintenance teams. There are some twenty such teams, attached to different departments. A new project aims to standardise their procedures to make their work easier, and you can be a part of it.   “For the past year or so, the Accelerator and Technologies Sector and the GS Department have been working together on identifying the needs of the different teams that perform maintenance on CERN’s equipment. We are now ready to provide computer support with detailed specifics about the processes that need to be set up,” explains Goran Perinić, one of the leaders in CERN’s new Maintenance Management project (MMP). Since the LHC entered operation, the responsibilities of the technical teams have been broadened to cover maintenance of the collider and that of its injectors...

  10. Building Maintenance Syllabus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Joseph; Messier, Joseph

    Building maintenance is a basic two-year trade education course requiring 2 1/2 hours of study on each of 160 teaching days per year. Student abilities should range from those capable of the simplest custodial work to those who may eventually be superintendents of building complexes. The syllabus is organized in sections by traditional skills…

  11. Telephone Exchange Maintenance

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Urgent maintenance work on CERN telephone exchanges will be performed on 24 March from 6 a.m. to 8 a.m. Telephone services may be disrupted or even interrupted during this time. For more details, please contact us by email at Standard.Telephone@cern.ch.

  12. Little languages : little maintenance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Deursen (Arie); P. Klint (Paul)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractSo-called little, or domain-specific languages (DSLs), have the potential to make software maintenance simpler: domain-experts can directly use the DSL to make required routine modifications. At the negative side, however, more substantial changes may become more difficult: such changes

  13. Operations and maintenance philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DUNCAN, G.P.

    1999-01-01

    This Operations and Maintenance (O and M) Philosophy document is intended to establish a future O and M vision, with an increased focus on minimizing worker exposure, ensuring uninterrupted retrieval operations, and minimizing operation life-cycle cost. It is intended that this document would incorporate O and M lessons learned into on-going and future project upgrades

  14. Maintenance in sustainable manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Stuchly

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sustainable development is about reaching a balance between economic, social, and environmental goals, as well as people's participation in the planning process in order to gain their input and support. For a company, sustainable development means adoption of such business strategy and actions that contribute to satisfying present needs of company and stakeholders, as well as simultaneous protection, maintenance and strengthening of human and environmental potential which will be needed in the future. This new approach forces manufacturing companies to change their previous management paradigms. New management paradigm should include new issues and develop innovative methods, practices and technologies striving for solving problem of shortages of resources, softening environment overload and enabling development of environment-friendly lifecycle of products. Hence, its realization requires updating existing production models as they are based on previously accepted paradigm of unlimited resources and unlimited regeneration capabilities. Maintenance plays a crucial role because of its impact on availability, reliability, quality and life cycle cost, thus it should be one of the main pillars of new business running model.  Material and methods: The following paper is a result of research on the literature and observation of practices undertaken by a company within maintenance area. Results and conclusions: The main message is that considering sustainable manufacturing requires considerable expanding range of analysis and focusing on supporting processes. Maintenance offers numerous opportunities of decreasing influence of business processes on natural environment and more efficient resources utilization. The goal of maintenance processes realizing sustainable development strategy is increased profitability of exploitation and optimization of total lifecycle cost without disturbing safety and environmental issues. 

  15. Advances in safety related maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-03-01

    The maintenance of systems, structures and components in nuclear power plants (NPPs) plays an important role in assuring their safe and reliable operation. Worldwide, NPP maintenance managers are seeking to reduce overall maintenance costs while maintaining or improving the levels of safety and reliability. Thus, the issue of NPP maintenance is one of the most challenging aspects of nuclear power generation. There is a direct relation between safety and maintenance. While maintenance alone (apart from modifications) will not make a plant safer than its original design, deficient maintenance may result in either an increased number of transients and challenges to safety systems or reduced reliability and availability of safety systems. The confidence that NPP structures, systems and components will function as designed is ultimately based on programmes which monitor both their reliability and availability to perform their intended safety function. Because of this, approaches to monitor the effectiveness of maintenance are also necessary. An effective maintenance programme ensures that there is a balance between the improvement in component reliability to be achieved and the loss of component function due to maintenance downtime. This implies that the safety level of an NPP should not be adversely affected by maintenance performed during operation. The nuclear industry widely acknowledges the importance of maintenance in NPP safety and operation and therefore devotes great efforts to develop techniques, methods and tools to aid in maintenance planning, follow-up and optimization, and in assuring the effectiveness of maintenance

  16. 33 CFR 100.109 - Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME. 100.109 Section 100.109 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.109 Winter Harbor...

  17. No evidence that migratory geese disperse avian influenza viruses from breeding to wintering ground.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenglai Yin

    Full Text Available Low pathogenic avian influenza virus can mutate to a highly pathogenic strain that causes severe clinical signs in birds and humans. Migratory waterfowl, especially ducks, are considered the main hosts of low pathogenic avian influenza virus, but the role of geese in dispersing the virus over long-distances is still unclear. We collected throat and cloaca samples from three goose species, Bean goose (Anser fabalis, Barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis and Greater white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons, from their breeding grounds, spring stopover sites, and wintering grounds. We tested if the geese were infected with low pathogenic avian influenza virus outside of their wintering grounds, and analysed the spatial and temporal patterns of infection prevalence on their wintering grounds. Our results show that geese were not infected before their arrival on wintering grounds. Barnacle geese and Greater white-fronted geese had low prevalence of infection just after their arrival on wintering grounds in the Netherlands, but the prevalence increased in successive months, and peaked after December. This suggests that migratory geese are exposed to the virus after their arrival on wintering grounds, indicating that migratory geese might not disperse low pathogenic avian influenza virus during autumn migration.

  18. Animals in Winter. Young Discovery Library Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sairigne, Catherine

    This book is written for children 5 through 10. Part of a series designed to develop their curiosity, fascinate them and educate them, this volume introduces the habits of a variety of animals during the winter. Topics include: (1) surviving during winter, including concepts such as migration, hibernation, and skin color change; (2) changing…

  19. How to Have a Healthy Winter | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Without a doubt, winter is here. Between the icy weather and the recent hustle and bustle of the holidays, everyone is at an increased risk of getting sick. With that in mind, Occupational Health Services has a few simple tips for staying healthy this winter.

  20. Belichten Zantedeschia in winter biedt perspectief

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van P.J.; Trompert, J.P.T.

    2011-01-01

    Zantedeschia produceert in de Nederlandse winter geen bloemen. In de praktijk wordt met assimilatiebelichting wel bloei in de winter verkregen met de cultivar 'Crystal Blush'. Onderzoek door PPO laat zien welke hoeveelheid licht nodig is en dat ook gekleurde Zantedeschia's van een goede kwaliteit

  1. Nuclear Winter: Scientists in the Political Arena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badash, Lawrence

    2001-03-01

    The nuclear winter phenomenon is used to illustrate the many paths by which scientific advice reaches decision makers in the United States government. Because the Reagan administration was hostile to the strategic policy that the scientific discovery seemed to demand, the leading proponent of nuclear winter, Carl Sagan, used his formidable talent for popularization to reach a larger audience.

  2. 43 CFR 423.37 - Winter activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Winter activities. 423.37 Section 423.37 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE....37 Winter activities. (a) You must not tow persons on skis, sleds, or other sliding devices with a...

  3. 36 CFR 1002.19 - Winter activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Winter activities. 1002.19... RECREATION § 1002.19 Winter activities. (a) Skiing, snowshoeing, ice skating, sledding, innertubing.... (c) Failure to abide by area designations or activity restrictions established under this section is...

  4. 36 CFR 2.19 - Winter activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Winter activities. 2.19... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.19 Winter activities. (a) Skiing, snowshoeing, ice... designations or activity restrictions established under this section is prohibited. ...

  5. Chapter 7: Migration and winter ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Jeffrey F. Kelly; Jean-Luc E. Cartron

    2000-01-01

    The willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii) is a Neotropical migrant that breeds in North America, but winters in Central and northern South America. Little specific information is known about migration and wintering ecology of the southwestern willow flycatcher (E. t. extimus) (Yong and Finch 1997). Our report applies principally...

  6. Interim Report 'Winter smog and traffic'.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, H.; Blom, T.; Bogaard, van den C.; Boluyt, N.; Bree, van L.; Brunekreef, B.; Hoek, G.; Zee, van der S.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents a halfway score of the research project "Winter smog and Traffic", one of the themes of the research programme "Air Pollution and Health". A state of the art is presented of the health effects associated with exposure to winter smog and of the toxicological effects caused by the

  7. Migration confers winter survival benefits in a partially migratory songbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga, Daniel; Gager, Yann; Kokko, Hanna; Fudickar, Adam Michael; Schmidt, Andreas; Naef-Daenzer, Beat; Wikelski, Martin

    2017-01-01

    To evolve and to be maintained, seasonal migration, despite its risks, has to yield fitness benefits compared with year-round residency. Empirical data supporting this prediction have remained elusive in the bird literature. To test fitness related benefits of migration, we studied a partial migratory population of European blackbirds (Turdus merula) over 7 years. Using a combination of capture-mark-recapture and radio telemetry, we compared survival probabilities between migrants and residents estimated by multi-event survival models, showing that migrant blackbirds had 16% higher probability to survive the winter compared to residents. A subsequent modelling exercise revealed that residents should have 61.25% higher breeding success than migrants, to outweigh the survival costs of residency. Our results support theoretical models that migration should confer survival benefits to evolve, and thus provide empirical evidence to understand the evolution and maintenance of migration. PMID:29157357

  8. Interval of Routine Maintenance and Maintenance Performance: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Au-Yong Cheong Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In high-rise residential buildings, the quality of facilities management services is significant to the normal operation of the facilities. Unfortunately, lack of concern towards building maintenance, especially preventive maintenance, happens in domestic housing industry in Malaysia. Majority of the maintenance operations of condominiums suffer from lack of planning, lack of proactive maintenance plan, and lack of proper implementation. Thus, this paper reviews the implementation of preventive maintenance strategy, routine maintenance in specific. An extensive review of literature published in 1987 to 2014 is performed for the purpose of this research. The publications are sourced from journal articles, conference proceedings and books. The literature analysis confirms that the routine maintenance of facilities and building services is vital and it can be influential towards the maintenance performance. Subsequently, a theoretical framework is developed, which shows the relationship between routine maintenance of building facilities & services and maintenance performance. The building facilities & services are divided into two categories. They are essential facilities & services that ensure the safety, health, habitability, and operability of buildings; while value-added facilities & services deal with property value, return on investment, and quality living of buildings. Based on the findings, a future research is proposed, which aims to identify the appropriate routine of maintenance for the facilities and services in high-rise residential buildings to improve the maintenance performance.

  9. Selection of maintenance tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, B.; Rombos, P.

    1995-10-01

    Two methodologies for maintenance task selection, Reliability Centre Maintenance (RCM) and Degradation Mode Analysis (DMA), are compared with regard to application in the nuclear industry and potential for application at CANDU nuclear power plants. RCM is the favoured one of the two methodologies. It is more thorough than DMA, is well supported within the US nuclear industry, and - with experience in application - is gaining cost effectiveness. There is interest in the use of RCM in other nations, including France and Japan, and it is already being implemented at Bruce A NGS and Bruce B NGS in Canada. DMA lags behind RCM in development and currently there is little experience to support claims of major benefits at reduced cost. Significant advantages over RCM need to be demonstrated if DMA is to gain acceptance in the nuclear industry. (author). 41 refs., 7 tabs., 8 figs

  10. Maintenance, a global approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmejane, P.

    2001-01-01

    Maintenance is an important economic activity, it can represent up to 40% of operating costs in some fabrication units. The opening of energy markets to competition has led main operators to center their activities on their basis business and to sub-contract subsidiary activities. Subcontracting with strong engagements from the sub-contractor about results, time allowed and costs is now currently applied in nuclear industry. (A.C.)

  11. Computerized plant maintenance management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozusko, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    The evolution of the computer has and continues to have a great impact on industry. We are in an adjustment cycle with the current computer evolution, and will need to adapt to make the changes for the coming decade. Hardware and software are continually being enhanced. Computers are becoming more powerful and will eventually provide an effective man-machine interface. This paper shares experiences encountered during implementations of computerized maintenance systems

  12. Flight Crew Health Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullett, C. C.

    1970-01-01

    The health maintenance program for commercial flight crew personnel includes diet, weight control, and exercise to prevent heart disease development and disability grounding. The very high correlation between hypertension and overweight in cardiovascular diseases significantly influences the prognosis for a coronary prone individual and results in a high rejection rate of active military pilots applying for civilian jobs. In addition to physical fitness the major items stressed in pilot selection are: emotional maturity, glucose tolerance, and family health history.

  13. Preventive maintenance study : interim report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This interim report details the performance of 69 test sites treated with various preventive maintenance treatments. The maintenance treatments applied included crack sealing, full lane chip sealing, wheel path chip sealing, dig outs (mill and fill),...

  14. Data management in maintenance outsourcing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, D.N.P.; Karim, M.R.; Ahmadi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Most businesses view maintenance as tasks carried out by technicians and the data collected is mostly cost related. There is a growing trend towards outsourcing of maintenance and the data collection issues are not addressed properly in most maintenance service contracts. Effective maintenance management requires proper data management - data collection and analysis for decision-making. This requires a proper framework and when maintenance is outsourced it raises several issues and challenges. The paper develops a framework for data management when maintenance is outsourced and looks at a real case study that highlights the need for proper data management. - Highlights: • Framework for data management in maintenance outsourcing. • Black-box to grey-box approaches for modelling. • Improvements to maintenance decision-making. • Case study to illustrate the approaches and the shortcomings in data collection

  15. Echinococcus multilocularis and Its Intermediate Host: A Model of Parasite-Host Interplay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Angèle Vuitton

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Host-parasite interactions in the E. multilocularis-intermediate host model depend on a subtle balance between cellular immunity, which is responsible for host's resistance towards the metacestode, the larval stage of the parasite, and tolerance induction and maintenance. The pathological features of alveolar echinococcosis. the disease caused by E. multilocularis, are related both to parasitic growth and to host's immune response, leading to fibrosis and necrosis, The disease spectrum is clearly dependent on the genetic background of the host as well as on acquired disturbances of Th1-related immunity. The laminated layer of the metacestode, and especially its carbohydrate components, plays a major role in tolerance induction. Th2-type and anti-inflammatory cytokines, IL-10 and TGF-β, as well as nitric oxide, are involved in the maintenance of tolerance and partial inhibition of cytotoxic mechanisms. Results of studies in the experimental mouse model and in patients suggest that immune modulation with cytokines, such as interferon-α, or with specific antigens could be used in the future to treat patients with alveolar echinococcosis and/or to prevent this very severe parasitic disease.

  16. Summer hot snaps and winter conditions: modelling white syndrome outbreaks on Great Barrier Reef corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott F Heron

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are under increasing pressure in a changing climate, one such threat being more frequent and destructive outbreaks of coral diseases. Thermal stress from rising temperatures has been implicated as a causal factor in disease outbreaks observed on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, and elsewhere in the world. Here, we examine seasonal effects of satellite-derived temperature on the abundance of coral diseases known as white syndromes on the Great Barrier Reef, considering both warm stress during summer and deviations from mean temperatures during the preceding winter. We found a high correlation (r(2 = 0.953 between summer warm thermal anomalies (Hot Snap and disease abundance during outbreak events. Inclusion of thermal conditions during the preceding winter revealed that a significant reduction in disease outbreaks occurred following especially cold winters (Cold Snap, potentially related to a reduction in pathogen loading. Furthermore, mild winters (i.e., neither excessively cool nor warm frequently preceded disease outbreaks. In contrast, disease outbreaks did not typically occur following warm winters, potentially because of increased disease resistance of the coral host. Understanding the balance between the effects of warm and cold winters on disease outbreak will be important in a warming climate. Combining the influence of winter and summer thermal effects resulted in an algorithm that yields both a Seasonal Outlook of disease risk at the conclusion of winter and near real-time monitoring of Outbreak Risk during summer. This satellite-derived system can provide coral reef managers with an assessment of risk three-to-six months in advance of the summer season that can then be refined using near-real-time summer observations. This system can enhance the capacity of managers to prepare for and respond to possible disease outbreaks and focus research efforts to increase understanding of environmental impacts on coral disease in

  17. Reducing maintenance costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaiss, W.; Reuschle, K.; Baier, B.

    2002-01-01

    The increasingly more expensive maintenance measures, cuts in the cost budget, and the loss of know-how on the part of vendors all require a change of policy with respect to maintenance concepts of the part of operators. This also applies to the existing valve concepts, the drives included. Under these aspects, the current drive, which is self-actuated and actuated by outside media, for a parallel-plate valve of a nomial width of 700 was reconsidered. The effort served to reduce maintenance costs and, at the same time, simplify the drive concept as well as cut back on the number of in-service inspections. Moreover, the number of active components were to be minimized and installation conditions in the plant were to be improved. When the boundary conditions to be observed with respect to process technology had been laid down, the competent technical department developed a concept of modification of the drive. A major constituent part was the demonstration of the functioning capability of the new drive under accident conditions. It was achieved mainly by an analytical approach. In the resultant drive concept, the same control valves are employed to actuate a driving cylinder by means of self-actuation or by an outside medium as a function of pressure. (orig.) [de

  18. Maintenance in dental implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Póvoa Gomes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In implants, maintenance is a decisive factor for obtaining success when implant supported overdentures and dentures are used. The present stud presents, a clinical case of a patient, a 70 year-old white man, with a completely edentulous mandibular alveolar ridge, severe bone resorption with presence of basal bone only, and absence of vestibule. Initially, treatment consisted of the placement of a mandibular overdenture, supported on three implants in the anterior inter-foramen region, as the left implant was transfixed in the basal bone of 2 to 3 millimeters. Eleven years later, another two implants were placed in the anterior area and an immediate load was performed up to the first molars, for the placement of an implant supported fixed. Throughout the entire treatment, meticulous maintenance was carried out, with follow-up for fourteen years, interrupted by the patient’s death. From the third month after the opening the three implants initially placed, the presence of keratinized mucosa, definition of the vestibule, maturation of the alveolar ridge and bone formation in the mento region were observed. It was concluded that good planning, allied to mastery of the technique and adequate maintenance were the prerequisites necessary for obtaining favorable results, success of the present case, and for the patient to have a better quality of life.

  19. Blue Creek Winter Range : Wildlife Mitigation Project : Final Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs; Spokane Tribe of the Spokane Reservation, Washington

    1994-11-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund that portion of the Washington Wildlife Agreement pertaining to the Blue Creek Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project (Project) in a cooperative effort with the Spokane Tribe, Upper Columbia United Tribes, and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). If fully implemented, the proposed action would allow the sponsors to protect and enhance 2,631 habitat units of big game winter range and riparian shrub habitat on 2,185 hectares (5,400 acres) of Spokane Tribal trust lands, and to conduct long term wildlife management activities within the Spokane Indian Reservation project area. This Final Environmental Assessment (EA) examines the potential environmental effects of securing land and conducting wildlife habitat enhancement and long term management activities within the boundaries of the Spokane Indian Reservation. Four proposed activities (habitat protection, habitat enhancement, operation and maintenance, and monitoring and evaluation) are analyzed. The proposed action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wildlife habitat adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee Dam and its reservoir.

  20. Blue Creek Winter Range: Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund that portion of the Washington Wildlife Agreement pertaining to the Blue Creek Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project (Project) in a cooperative effort with the Spokane Tribe, Upper Columbia United Tribes, and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). If fully implemented, the proposed action would allow the sponsors to protect and enhance 2,631 habitat units of big game winter range and riparian shrub habitat on 2,185 hectares (5,400 acres) of Spokane Tribal trust lands, and to conduct long term wildlife management activities within the Spokane Indian Reservation project area. This Final Environmental Assessment (EA) examines the potential environmental effects of securing land and conducting wildlife habitat enhancement and long term management activities within the boundaries of the Spokane Indian Reservation. Four proposed activities (habitat protection, habitat enhancement, operation and maintenance, and monitoring and evaluation) are analyzed. The proposed action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wildlife habitat adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee Dam and its reservoir

  1. Managed maintenance, the next step in power plant maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterworth, G.; Anderson, T.M.

    1984-01-01

    The Westinghouse Nuclear Services Integration Division managed maintenance services are described. Essential to the management and control of a total plant maintenance programme is the development of a comprehensive maintenance specification. During recent years Westinghouse has jointly developed total plant engineering-based maintenance specifications with a number of utilities. The process employed and the experience to date are described. To efficiently implement the maintenance programme Westinghouse has developed a computer software program specifically designed for day to day use at the power plant by maintenance personnel. This program retains an equipment maintenance history, schedules maintenance activities, issues work orders and performs a number of sophisticated analyses of the maintenance backlog and forecast, equipment failure rates, etc. The functions of this software program are described and details of Westinghouse efforts to support the utilities in reducing outage times through development of predefined outage plans for critical report maintenance activities are given. Also described is the experience gained in the training of specialized maintenance personnel, employing competency-based training techniques and equipment mock-ups, and the benefits experienced, in terms of improved quality and productivity of maintenance performed. The success experienced with these methods has caused Westinghouse to expand the use of these training techniques to the more routine skill areas of power plant maintenance. A significant reduction in the operating costs of nuclear power plants will only be brought about by a significant improvement in the quality of maintenance. Westinghouse intends to effect this change by expanding its international service capabilities and to make major investments in order to promote technological developments in the area of power plant maintenance. (author)

  2. Aluminium toxicity in winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabó A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium is the most frequent metal of the earth crust; it occurs mainly as biologically inactive, insoluble deposit. Environmental problems, industrial contaminations and acid rains increase the soil acidity, leading to the mobilization of Al. Half of the world’s potential arable lands are acidic; therefore, Al-toxicity decreases crop productivity. Wheat is a staple food for 35% of the world population. The effects of Al-stress (0.1 mM were studied on winter wheat; seedlings were grown hydroponically, at acidic pH. After two weeks, the root weight was decreased; a significant difference was found in the P- and Ca-content. The shoot weight and element content changed slightly; Al-content in the root was one magnitude higher than in the shoot, while Al-translocation was limited. The root plasma membrane H+-ATPase has central role in the uptake processes; Al-stress increased the Mg2+-ATPase activity of the microsomal fraction.

  3. A comparison of pine and spruce in recovery from winter stress; changes in recovery kinetics, and the abundance and phosphorylation status of photosynthetic proteins during winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, Ryan; Jerrard, Jacob; Frebault, Julia; Verhoeven, Amy

    2017-09-01

    During winter evergreens maintain a sustained form of thermal energy dissipation that results in reduced photochemical efficiency measured using the chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fv/Fm. Eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) and white spruce [Picea glauca (Moench) Voss] have been shown to differ in their rate of recovery of Fv/Fm from winter stress. The goal of this study was to monitor changes in photosynthetic protein abundance and phosphorylation status during winter recovery that accompany these functional changes. An additional goal was to determine whether light-dependent changes in light harvesting complex II (LHCII) phosphorylation occur during winter conditions. We used a combination of field measurements and recovery experiments to monitor chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic protein content and phosphorylation status. We found that pine recovered three times more slowly than spruce, and that the kinetics of recovery in spruce included a rapid and slow component, while in pine there was only a rapid component to recovery. Both species retained relatively high amounts of the light harvesting protein Lhcb5 (CP26) and the PsbS protein during winter, suggesting a role for these proteins in sustained thermal dissipation. Both species maintained high phosphorylation of LHCII and the D1 protein in darkness during winter. Pine and spruce differed in the kinetics of the dephosphorylation of LHCII and D1 upon warming, suggesting the rate of dephosphorylation of LHCII and D1 may be important in the rapid component of recovery from winter stress. Finally, we demonstrated that light-dependent changes in LHII phosphorylation do not continue to occur on subzero winter days and that needles are maintained in a phosphorylation pattern consistent with the high light conditions to which those needles are exposed. Our results suggest a role for retained phosphorylation of both LHCII and D1 in maintenance of the photosynthetic machinery in a winter conformation

  4. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE. PROGRAM OUTLINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    INFORMATIONAL TOPICS COVERED IN THE TEXT MATERIALS AND SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILMS FOR A 2-YEAR, 55 MODULE PROGRAM IN AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE ARE GIVEN. THE 30 MODULES FOR "AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1" ARE AVAILABLE AS VT 005 655 - VT 005 684, AND THE 25 MODULES FOR "AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2" ARE AVAILABLE…

  5. The seesaw effect of winter temperature change on the recruitment of cotton bollworms Helicoverpa armigera through mismatched phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Gadi V P; Shi, Peijian; Hui, Cang; Cheng, Xiaofei; Ouyang, Fang; Ge, Feng

    2015-12-01

    Knowing how climate change affects the population dynamics of insect pests is critical for the future of integrated pest management. Rising winter temperatures from global warming can drive increases in outbreaks of some agricultural pests. In contrast, here we propose an alternative hypothesis that both extremely cold and warm winters can mismatch the timing between the eclosion of overwintering pests and the flowering of key host plants. As host plants normally need higher effective cumulative temperatures for flowering than insects need for eclosion, changes in flowering time will be less dramatic than changes in eclosion time, leading to a mismatch of phenology on either side of the optimal winter temperature. We term this the "seesaw effect." Using a long-term dataset of the Old World cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in northern China, we tested this seesaw hypothesis by running a generalized additive model for the effects of the third generation moth in the preceding year, the winter air temperature, the number of winter days below a critical temperature and cumulative precipitation during winter on the demography of the overwintering moth. Results confirmed the existence of the seesaw effect of winter temperature change on overwintering populations. Pest management should therefore consider the indirect effect of changing crop phenology (whether due to greenhouse cultivation or to climate change) on pest outbreaks. As arthropods from mid- and high latitudes are actually living in a cooler thermal environment than their physiological optimum in contrast to species from lower latitudes, the effects of rising winter temperatures on the population dynamics of arthropods in the different latitudinal zones should be considered separately. The seesaw effect makes it more difficult to predict the average long-term population dynamics of insect pests at high latitudes due to the potential sharp changes in annual growth rates

  6. Winter color polymorphisms identify global hot spots for evolutionary rescue from climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, L Scott; Bragina, Eugenia V; Kumar, Alexander V; Zimova, Marketa; Lafferty, Diana J R; Feltner, Jennifer; Davis, Brandon M; Hackländer, Klaus; Alves, Paulo C; Good, Jeffrey M; Melo-Ferreira, José; Dietz, Andreas; Abramov, Alexei V; Lopatina, Natalia; Fay, Kairsten

    2018-03-02

    Maintenance of biodiversity in a rapidly changing climate will depend on the efficacy of evolutionary rescue, whereby population declines due to abrupt environmental change are reversed by shifts in genetically driven adaptive traits. However, a lack of traits known to be under direct selection by anthropogenic climate change has limited the incorporation of evolutionary processes into global conservation efforts. In 21 vertebrate species, some individuals undergo a seasonal color molt from summer brown to winter white as camouflage against snow, whereas other individuals remain brown. Seasonal snow duration is decreasing globally, and fitness is lower for winter white animals on snowless backgrounds. Based on 2713 georeferenced samples of known winter coat color-from eight species across trophic levels-we identify environmentally driven clinal gradients in winter coat color, including polymorphic zones where winter brown and white morphs co-occur. These polymorphic zones, underrepresented by existing global protected area networks, indicate hot spots for evolutionary rescue in a changing climate. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  7. Winter temperature affects the prevalence of ticks in an Arctic seabird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Descamps

    Full Text Available The Arctic is rapidly warming and host-parasite relationships may be modified by such environmental changes. Here, I showed that the average winter temperature in Svalbard, Arctic Norway, explained almost 90% of the average prevalence of ticks in an Arctic seabird, the Brünnich's guillemot Uria lomvia. An increase of 1°C in the average winter temperature at the nesting colony site was associated with a 5% increase in the number of birds infected by these ectoparasites in the subsequent breeding season. Guillemots were generally infested by only a few ticks (≤5 and I found no direct effect of tick presence on their body condition and breeding success. However, the strong effect of average winter temperature described here clearly indicates that tick-seabird relationships in the Arctic may be strongly affected by ongoing climate warming.

  8. The oceanography of winter leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morison, J. H.; McPhee, M. G.; Curtin, T. B.; Paulson, C. A.

    1992-07-01

    Leads in pack ice have long been considered important to the thermodynamics of the polar regions. A winter lead affects the ocean around it because it is a density source. As the surface freezes, salt is rejected and forms more dense water which sinks under the lead. This sets up a circulation with freshwater flowing in from the sides near the surface and dense water flowing away from the lead at the base of the mixed layer. If the mixed layer is fully turbulent, this pattern may not occur; rather, the salt rejected at the surface may simply mix into the surface boundary layer. In either event the instability produced at the surface of leads is the primary source of unstable buoyancy flux and, as such, exerts a strong influence on the mixed layer. Here as many as possible of the disparate and almost anecdotal observations of lead oceanography are assembled and combined with theoretical arguments to predict the form and scale of oceanographic disturbances caused by winter leads. The experimental data suggest the velocity disturbances associated with lead convection are about 1-5 cm s-1. These appear as jets near the surface and the base of the mixed layer when ice velocities across the lead are less than about 5 cm s-1. The salinity disturbances are about 0.01 to 0.05 psu. Scaling arguments suggest that the geostrophic currents set up by the lead density disturbances are also of the order of 1-5 cm s-1. The disturbances are most obvious when freezing is rapid and ice velocity is low because the salinity and velocity disturbances in the upper ocean are not smeared out by turbulence. In this vein, lead convection may be characterized at one extreme as free convection in which the density disturbance forces the circulation. At the other extreme, lead convection may be characterized as forced convection in which the density disturbance is mixed rapidly by boundary layer turbulence. The lead number Lo, which is the ratio of the pressure term to the turbulence term in the

  9. Half a Century of Schladming Winter Schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietschmann, H.

    2012-01-01

    The Schladming Winter Schools have started as early as in 1962. Over the times the yearly Schools have closely followed the actual developments in nuclear, particle, or more generally, in theoretical physics. Several new achievements have first been dealt with in length in the lectures at the Schladming Winter School. It has seen very prominent lecturers, among them a series of Nobel laureates (some of them reporting on their works even before they got their Nobel prizes). I will try to highlight the role of the Schladming Winter Schools in pro- mulgating new developments of theoretical physics in depth at the lectures given over the past 50 years. (author)

  10. Motorway maintenance work

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    Built 20 years ago, the airport section of the Geneva motorway bypass is now in need of maintenance work and alterations to bring it into line with the new standards. Two-lane traffic will be maintained in both directions during the work, which will be carried out in 2006 and 2007, but there will be various temporary special traffic arrangements in force. We should like to thank you in advance for your understanding. Civil Engineering Department, DAEL, State of Geneva More information: tel. 163 or www.autoroute-aeroport.ch Fewer cars, fewer traffic jams, with www.covoiturage.ch

  11. Managing and controlling maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez, G.; Perla, H.F.

    1980-01-01

    A well-planned maintenance-management program can bring organized yet flexible scheduling, improved productivity, and a ready-access data bank. The system detailed in the article, developed for a nuclear power plant, has application to any equipment-intensive facility. Key features of the system include: documentation of all work requirements and their completion; automated prioritizing of work orders; automatic generation of work orders for repetitive work, when due; work lists in priority sequence; deferred, standby, and outage work reports; labor and work-order backlog information; equipment work histories and cumulative failure data

  12. Field installation and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prebble, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    The use of a neutron moisture meter for the determination of the water content of soil necessitates the installation of an access tube down which the probe can be lowered. Errors in neutron count rate will be introduced if water enters the air gap between a loose fitting tube and the soil. Errors may also be caused by changes in the soil structure resulting from the techniques for soil removal and from driving the access hole. Access tube materials and dimensions, methods of installation and maintenance of the site are discussed

  13. The 13th Winter Conference on Medicinal and Bioorganic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Scott D

    2017-04-06

    The Medicinal and Bioorganic Chemistry Foundation (MBCF) hosted its 13 th biannual Winter Conference on Medicinal and Bioorganic Chemistry (WCMBC) this past January 22 nd -26 th in Steamboat Springs, Colorado (USA). The gathering this year kept true to the tradition of this conference series, with an impressive lineup of presenters from both academia and industry. With about 125 delegates, the conference took all the advantages of a mid-sized gathering: a sufficiently wide spectrum of scientists in attendance, yet an intimate atmosphere conducive to solid networking and frank, open discussions. This conference report summarizes the presentations that were given this year. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Unusial winter 2011/2012 in Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Faško, P.; Lapin, M.; Matejovič, P.; Pecho, Jozef

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2012), s. 19-26 ISSN 1335-339X Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : winter characteristics * climate variabilit * climate change * global warming Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  15. Habitat characteristics of wintering Wood Warbler Phylloscopus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Habitat characteristics of wintering Wood Warbler Phylloscopus sibilatrix in the Centre Region of Cameroon: conservation implications. Taku Awa II, Tsi A Evaristus, Robin C Whytock, Tsetagho Guilain, John Mallord ...

  16. VT Mean Winter Precipitation - 1971-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) ClimatePrecip_PRECIPW7100 includes mean winter precipitation data (October through March) for Vermont (1971-2000). It's a raster dataset derived...

  17. Winter cooling in the northern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Prasad, T.G.

    The upper thermo-haline structure and the surface meteorological parameters of the central and eastern Arabian Sea during the inter-monsoon (April-May, 1994) and winter monsoon (February-March, 1995) periods, were analysed to understand physical...

  18. Overview of climatic effects of nuclear winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.M.; Malone, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    A general description of the climatic effects of a nuclear war are presented. This paper offers a short history of the subject, a discussion of relevant parameters and physical processes, and a description of plausible nuclear winter scenario. 9 refs

  19. The Labor Market Effects of the Salt Lake City Winter Olympics

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Baumann; Bryan Engelhardt; Victor Matheson

    2010-01-01

    The local, state, and federal governments, along with the Salt Lake City Organizing Committee, spent roughly $1.9 billion in direct costs related to planning and hosting the 2002 Winter Olympic Games. In this paper, we investigate whether these expenditures increased employment. At the state level, we find strong evidence it increased employment in leisure related industries in the short run and potentially in the long run. However, the results indicate it had no long term impact on employmen...

  20. Towards automated traceability maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäder, Patrick; Gotel, Orlena

    2012-10-01

    Traceability relations support stakeholders in understanding the dependencies between artifacts created during the development of a software system and thus enable many development-related tasks. To ensure that the anticipated benefits of these tasks can be realized, it is necessary to have an up-to-date set of traceability relations between the established artifacts. This goal requires the creation of traceability relations during the initial development process. Furthermore, the goal also requires the maintenance of traceability relations over time as the software system evolves in order to prevent their decay. In this paper, an approach is discussed that supports the (semi-) automated update of traceability relations between requirements, analysis and design models of software systems expressed in the UML. This is made possible by analyzing change events that have been captured while working within a third-party UML modeling tool. Within the captured flow of events, development activities comprised of several events are recognized. These are matched with predefined rules that direct the update of impacted traceability relations. The overall approach is supported by a prototype tool and empirical results on the effectiveness of tool-supported traceability maintenance are provided.

  1. Maintenance and management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Yasumasa.

    1992-01-01

    Since highly reliable operation is required in a nuclear power plant, monitoring during operation and periodical inspection are conducted carefully. The present invention provides maintenance and management systems for providing an aid so that these systems are combined effectively and operated rationally based on unified information management. That is, the system contains data bases comprising information for the design of the equipments and pipelines of a plant, information for the exchange of equipment parts, information for the history of plant operation, information for the monitoring and inspection, and information for the management of repair operation. In addition, it has an equipment part history management sub-system for managing equipment part exchange information, an operation history management sub-system for managing the operation state of the plant, an operation history management sub-system for managing equipment monitoring inspection data and operation management sub-system for managing periodical inspection/ repairing operation. These sub-systems are collectively combined to manage the maintenance and management jobs of the plant unitarily. (I.S.)

  2. Drought and Winter Drying (Pest Alert)

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA Forest Service

    Drought and winter drying have periodically caused major damage to trees. Drought reduces the amount of water available in the soil. In the case of winter drying, the water may be in the soil, but freezing of the soil makes the water unavailable to the tree. In both cases, more water is lost through transpiration than is available to the plant. Symptoms of drought and...

  3. Coming to grips with nuclear winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherr, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    This editorial examines the politics related to the concept of nuclear winter which is a term used to describe temperature changes brought on by the injection of smoke into the atmosphere by the massive fires set off by nuclear explosions. The climate change alone could cause crop failures and lead to massive starvation. The author suggests that the prospect of a nuclear winter should be a deterrent to any nuclear exchange

  4. Wet winter pore pressures in railway embankments

    OpenAIRE

    Briggs, Kevin M; Smethurst, Joel A; Powrie, William; O'Brien, Anthony S

    2013-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the influence of extreme wet winter weather on pore water pressures within clay fill railway embankments, using field monitoring data and numerical modelling. Piezometer readings taken across the London Underground Ltd network following the wet winter of 2000/2001 were examined, and showed occurrences of hydrostatic pore water pressure within embankments but also many readings below this. A correlation was found between the maximum pore water pressures and the permeabi...

  5. Maintenance Activity Planning by Reability Centered Maintenance II Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachmad Hidayat

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This research discuss maintenance activity by using RCM II method to determine failure function risk at compresor screw. Calculation is given to magnitude optimum time maintenance interval by considering the cost maintenance and the cost reparation. From the research results with RPN points out that critical component that needs to get main priority in give maintenance on compresor screw are bust logistic on timeworn piston, and on filter's sponge airs to come out damage that gets RPN 45. Optimum maintenance interval point one that acquired to prevent failure on compresor screw smaller than appreciative MTTF which indicate optimum maintenance interval in avoiding its bust happening logistic component before happening damage.

  6. Maintenance of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This Guide covers the organizational and procedural aspects of maintenance but does not give detailed technical advice on the maintenance of particular plant items. It gives guidance on preventive and remedial measures necessary to ensure that all structures, systems and components important to safety are capable of performing as intended. The Guide covers the organizational and administrative requirements for establishing and implementing preventive maintenance schedules, repairing defective plant items, providing maintenance facilities and equipment, procuring stores and spare parts, selecting and training maintenance personnel, reviewing and controlling plant modifications arising from maintenance, and for generating, collecting and retaining maintenance records. Maintenance shall be subject to quality assurance in all aspects important to safety. Because quality assurance has been dealt with in detail in other Safety Guides, it is only included here in specific instances where emphasis is required. Maintenance is considered to include functional and performance testing of plant, surveillance and in-service inspection, where these are necessary either to support other maintenance activities or to ensure continuing capability of structures, systems and components important to safety to perform their intended functions

  7. CANDU plant maintenance: Recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlebois, P.

    2000-01-01

    CANDU units have long been recognized for their exceptional safety and reliability. Continuing development in the maintenance area has played a key role in achieving this performance level. For over two decades, safety system availability has been monitored closely and system maintenance programs adjusted accordingly to maintain high levels of performance. But as the plants approach mid life in a more competitive environment and component aging becomes a concern, new methods and techniques are necessary. As a result, recent developments are moving the maintenance program largely from a corrective and preventive approach to predictive and condition based maintenance. The application of these techniques is also being extended to safety related systems. These recent developments include use of reliability centred methods to define system maintenance requirements and strategies. This approach has been implemented on a number of systems at Canadian CANDU plants with positive results. The pilot projects demonstrated that the overall maintenance effort remained relatively constant while the system performance improved. It was also possible to schedule some of the redundant component maintenance during plant operation without adverse impact on system availability. The probabilistic safety assessment was found to be useful in determining the safety implications of component outages. These new maintenance strategies are now making use of predictive and condition based maintenance techniques to anticipate equipment breakdown and schedule preventive maintenance as the need arises rather than time based. Some of these techniques include valve diagnostics, vibration monitoring, oil analysis, thermography. Of course, these tools and techniques must form part of an overall maintenance management system to ensure that maintenance becomes a living program. To facilitate this process and contain costs, new information technology tools are being introduced to provide system engineers

  8. Winter predation by insectivorous birds and consequences for arthropods and plants in summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Nicholas A; Wouk, Jennifer

    2012-12-01

    Top-down effects of predators can have important consequences for ecosystems. Insectivorous birds frequently have strong predation effects on herbivores and other arthropods, as well as indirect effects on herbivores' host plants. Diet studies have shown that birds in temperate ecosystems consume arthropods in winter as well as in summer, but experimental studies of bird predation effects have not attempted to quantitatively separate winter predation impacts from those in summer. To understand if winter foraging by insectivorous birds has consequences for arthropods or plants, we performed a meta-analysis of published bird exclusion studies in temperate forest and shrubland habitats. We categorized 85 studies from 41 publications by whether birds were excluded year-round or only in summer, and analyzed arthropod and plant response variables. We also performed a manipulative field experiment in which we used a factorial design to exclude birds from Quercus velutina Lam. saplings in winter and summer, and censused arthropods and herbivore damage in the following growing season. In the meta-analysis, birds had stronger negative effects on herbivores in studies that included winter exclusion, and this effect was not due to study duration. However, this greater predation effect did not translate to a greater impact on plant damage or growth. In the field experiment, winter exclusion did not influence herbivore abundance or their impacts on plants. We have shown that winter feeding by temperate insectivorous birds can have important consequences for insect herbivore populations, but the strength of these effects may vary considerably among ecosystems. A full understanding of the ecological roles of insectivorous birds will require explicit consideration of their foraging in the non-growing season, and we make recommendations for how future studies can address this.

  9. Soilborne fungi have host affinity and host-specific effects on seed germination and survival in a lowland tropical forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Janzen-Connell (JC) hypothesis provides a powerful framework for explaining the maintenance of tree diversity in tropical forests. Its central tenet -- that recruits experience high mortality near conspecifics and at high densities -- assumes a degree of host specialization in interactions betwe...

  10. Improving estimates of real-time traffic speeds during weather for winter maintenance performance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Vianey Leos Barajas (orcid.org/0000-0001-8016-773X), Zhonglei Wang (orcid.org/0000-0001-6712-0750), Mark Kaiser (orcid.org/0000-0003-0449-0388), and Zhengyuan Zhu (orcid.org/0000-0002-2266-0646) : This report describes two related projects, the secon...

  11. Evaluation and analysis of liquid deicers for winter maintenance : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT) uses mechanical and chemical methods to keep the roads safe during snow and ice events. Chemical solutions are available on the market to assist ODOT in preventing snow from bonding to the road surface as ...

  12. Assessment of the Performance of Several Roadway Mixes under Rain, Snow, and Winter Maintenance Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Flintsch, Gerardo W.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relative functional performance, including skid resistance and splash and spray, of five hot-mix-asphalt (HMA) surfaces and a tinned portland cement concrete highway surface during controlled wet and wintry weather events. The study compared the way that these surfaces respond to various deicing and anti-icing snow removal and ice control techniques under artificial wintry conditions. In addition, the splash and spray characteristics of the surfaces...

  13. Automated vehicle location, data recording, friction measurement and applicator control for winter road maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    The first part of this project conducted a detailed evaluation of the ability of a new friction measurement system to : provide an accurate measure of road conditions. A system that records friction coefficient as a function of road : location was de...

  14. Fuzzy Logic Reliability Centered Maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felecia .

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliability Centered Maintenence (RCM is a systematic maintenence strategy based on system reliability. Application of RCM process will not always come out with a binary output of “yes” and “no”. Most of the time they are not supported with available detail information to calculate system reliability. The fuzzy logic method attempts to eliminate the uncertainty by providing “truth” in different degrees.Data and responses from maintenance department will be processed using the two methods (reliability centered maintenance and fuzzy logic to design maintenance strategy for the company. The results of the fuzzy logic RCM application are maintenance strategy which fit with current and future condition.

  15. Experience in scheduled maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, M.T.

    1985-01-01

    As outage management affects both the cost and reliability of a nuclear power plant, performance of a scheduled maintenance outage in an efficient and effective manner is an important task in the operation of nuclear power plant. This paper covers the experience gained in the past ten refueling outages for the two BWR units at the First Nuclear Power Station of Taipower. The key to optimizing both the cost and schedule of a refueling outage is to maintain a high level of quality workmanship. The outage management in planning, scheduling, preparation, coordination, and cooperation, accompanied by the qualified in-house capability and sufficient outside support, have placed the refueling outages at the FNPS in a well controlled situation and have established the capacity factors of these two BWR units at a level which is 20% higher than the world average in the past years

  16. Subcontracting Railway Maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thommesen, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    railway infrastructure manager (InfraMan), whichis subcontracting maintenance tasks to other companies. InfraMan has implemented various central elements in managing their subcontractors. The latter are required to present a safety plan as part of their bid, they must be approved if they are to be awarded...... the informal competencies, and a dilemma in options for sanctioning unsafe behavior. These and other dilemmas faced by the Danish railway company are analyzed as general challenges related to subcontracting and compared to similar experiences in other industries. Note: the study reported here, while partly......In several European countries, national railway operators have been dismantled and partly privatized to create new contractual relations where operations originally performed internally are now outsourced to several companies. Breaking up work across several independent organizational...

  17. Cofrentes maintenance. Life essence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sala, J.

    2009-01-01

    Even though it may seem like something much more complex, maintenance is not more than the seed of continuity, the alchemy of eternal youth or the key to combating the cruel passage of time that haunts us all. Little does it matter where you are from or where you are going; it is irrelevant whether you are man, woman or machine. If you do not have a more or less sensible strategy of survival, reality can take you by surprise, without prior warning, at the wrong place and the wrong time. It is sad to see how what we thought was eternal, and thus do not care for and pamper as we should, eventually loses its qualities and functions over the years and fades away like a vague memory. (Author)

  18. Risk-based maintenance modeling. Prioritization of maintenance importances and quantification of maintenance effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesely, W.E.; Rezos, J.T. [Science Applications International Corp., Dublin, OH (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This report describes methods for prioritizing the risk importances of maintenances using a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). Approaches then are described for quantifying their reliability and risk effects. Two different PRA importance measures, minimal cutset importances and risk reduction importances, were used to prioritize maintenances; the findings show that both give similar results if appropriate criteria are used. The justifications for the particular importance measures also are developed. The methods developed to quantify the reliability and risk effects of maintenance actions are extensions of the usual reliability models now used in PRAs. These extended models consider degraded states of the component, and quantify the benefits of maintenance in correcting degradations and preventing failures. The negative effects of maintenance, including downtimes, also are included. These models are specific types of Markov models. The data for these models can be obtained from plant maintenance logs and from the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System (NPRDS). To explore the potential usefulness of these models, the authors analyzed a range of postulated values of input data. These models were used to examine maintenance effects on a components reliability and performance for various maintenance programs and component data. Maintenance schedules were analyzed to optimize the component`s availability. In specific cases, the effects of maintenance were found to be large.

  19. IT capabilities in ERP maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Hecht, Sonja;Wittges, Holger;Krcmar, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    With the maturing use of ERP systems, the management of their post-implementation phase is receiving increased attention. There is a need to understand how to manage post-implementation activities like ERP maintenance. ERP maintenance is a critical IT service provided by IT organizations in the ERP post-implementation phase, including activities to support and extend existing ERP systems. The extant research has focused on tasks related to ERP maintenance, but it lacks studies that provide in...

  20. Buildings Lean Maintenance Implementation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Antonio; Calado, João; Requeijo, José

    2016-11-01

    Nowadays, companies in global markets have to achieve high levels of performance and competitiveness to stay "alive".Within this assumption, the building maintenance cannot be done in a casual and improvised way due to the costs related. Starting with some discussion about lean management and building maintenance, this paper introduces a model to support the Lean Building Maintenance (LBM) approach. Finally based on a real case study from a Portuguese company, the benefits, challenges and difficulties are presented and discussed.

  1. Maintenance management for nuclear power plant 'Integrated valve maintenance'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerner, P.; Zanner, G.

    2001-01-01

    The deregulation of Europe's power market does force many utilities, and especially nuclear power plant operators, to introduce extensive cost-cutting measures in order to be able to compete within this new environment. The optimization of plant outages provides considerable potential for raising plant availability but can also lower operating costs by reducing e.g. expenditure on maintenance. Siemens Nuclear Power GmbH, in cooperation with plant operators, is currently implementing new and improved service concepts which can have a major effect on the way in which maintenance will be performed in the future. Innovative service packages for maintenance in nuclear power plants are available which can be used to perform a time- and cost-effective maintenance. The concepts encompass optimization of the overall sequence from planning in advance to the individual measures including reduction of the scope of maintenance activities, identification of cost cutting potential and bundling of maintenance activities. The main features of these maintenance activities are illustrated here using the examples of outage planning and integrated valve maintenance. In nuclear power plants approx. 5000 valves are periodically preventively, condition-based or breakdown-based maintained. Because of this large number of valves to be maintained a high potential of improvements and cost reductions can be achieved by performing an optimized, cost-effective maintenance based on innovative methods and tools. Siemens Nuclear Power GmbH has developed and qualified such tools which allow to reduce service costs while maintaining high standards of safety and availability. By changing from preventive to predictive (condition-based) maintenance - the number of valves to be maintained may be reduced considerably. The predictive maintenance is based on the Siemens Nuclear Power GmbH diagnostic and evaluation method (ADAM). ADAM is used to monitor the operability of valves by analytical verification of

  2. Winter barley mutants created in the Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayats, O.M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Increasing fodder and protein production is one of the objectives of the development of agriculture in Ukraine. Higher productivity of fodder crops, due to new highly productive varieties, is the means to meet this aim. Winter barley is an important crop for fodder purposes. The climate of the Ukraine is favourable for growing this crop. The areas used for the growth of winter barley are however, small (500,000-550,000 ha) and there is a shortage of good quality varieties. The main aim of the work was therefore to create new varieties of highly productive winter barley, of good quality. The new varieties and mutation lines of winter barley were created under the influence of water solutions of N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMH - 0,012, 0,005%), N-nitroso-N-ethylurea (NEH - 0,05; 0.025; 0,012%) ethyleneimine (EI - 0,02; 0,01; 0,005%) on winter barley seeds of the varieties of local and foreign selections. On the basis of many years of investigations (1984-94) the following mutations were described: hard-grained, winter-hardiness, earliness, middle-maturity, late-maturity, wide and large leaves, narrow leaves, multinodal, great number of leaves, great number of flowers, strong stem (lodging resistant), tallness, semi-dwarfness, dwarfness, and high productivity. Particularly valuable are mutants with high productivity of green bulk. Their potential yield is 70 t/ha. As a result of the work two varieties of winter barley 'Shyrokolysty' and 'Kormovy' were released into the State register of plant varieties of the Ukraine. The other valuable mutant genotypes are used in cross breeding programmes. (author)

  3. Remote maintenance development for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tada, Eisuke [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi

    1998-04-01

    This paper describes the overall ITER remote maintenance design concept developed mainly for in-vessel components such as diverters and blankets, and outlines the ITER R and D program to develop remote handling equipment and radiation hard components. Reactor structures inside the ITER cryostat must be maintained remotely due to DT operation, making remote handling technology basic to reactor design. The overall maintenance scenario and design concepts have been developed, and maintenance design feasibility, including fabrication and testing of full-scale in-vessel remote maintenance handling equipment and tool, is being verified. (author)

  4. Nuclear maintenance and management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaji, Yoshihiro; Abe, Norihiko

    2000-01-01

    The Mitsubishi Electric Co., Ltd. has developed to introduce various computer systems for desk-top business assistance in a power plant such as system isolation assisting system, operation parameter management system, and so on under aiming at business effectiveness since these ten and some years. Recently, by further elapsed years of the plants when required for further cost reduction and together with change of business environment represented by preparation of individual personal computer, further effectiveness, preparation of the business environment, and upgrading of maintenance in power plant business have been required. Among such background, she has carried out various proposals and developments on construction of a maintenance and management system integrated the business assistant know-hows and the plant know-hows both accumulated previously. They are composed of three main points on rationalization of business management and document management in the further effectiveness, preparation of business environment, TBM maintenance, introduction of CBM maintenance and introduction of maintenance assistance in upgrading of maintenance. Here was introduced on system concepts aiming at the further effectiveness of the nuclear power plant business, preparation of business environment, upgrading of maintenance and maintenance, and so on, at a background of environment around maintenance business in the nuclear power plants (cost-down, highly elapsed year of the plant, change of business environment). (G.K)

  5. IMIS: Integrated Maintenance Information System. A maintenance information delivery concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonholle, Joseph C.

    1987-01-01

    The Integrated Maintenance Information System (IMIS) will optimize the use of available manpower, enhance technical performance, improve training, and reduce the support equipment and documentation needed for deployment. It will serve as the technician's single, integrated source of all the technical information required to perform modern aircraft maintenance.

  6. Condition based maintenance in the context of opportunistic maintenance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koochaki, Javid; Bokhorst, Jos A. C.; Wortmann, Hans; Klingenberg, Warse

    2012-01-01

    Condition based maintenance (CBM) uses the operating condition of a component to predict a failure event. Compared to age based replacement (ABR), CBM usually results in higher availability and lower maintenance costs, since it tries to prevent unplanned downtime and avoid unnecessary preventive

  7. Estimating winter survival of winter wheat by simulations of plant frost tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergjord Olsen, A.K.; Persson, T.; Wit, de A.; Nkurunziza, L.; Sindhøj, E.; Eckersten, H.

    2018-01-01

    Based on soil temperature, snow depth and the grown cultivar's maximum attainable level of frost tolerance (LT50c), the FROSTOL model simulates development of frost tolerance (LT50) and winter damage, thereby enabling risk calculations for winter wheat survival. To explore the accuracy of this

  8. Host Identity Protocol Proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmela, Patrik; Melén, Jan

    The Host Identity Protocol (HIP) is one of the more recent designs that challenge the current Internet architecture. The main features of HIP are security and the identifier-locator split, which solves the problem of overloading the IP address with two separate tasks. This paper studies the possibility of providing HIP services to legacy hosts via a HIP proxy. Making a host HIP enabled requires that the IP-stack of the host is updated to support HIP. From a network administrator's perspective this can be a large obstacle. However, by providing HIP from a centralized point, a HIP proxy, the transition to begin using HIP can be made smoother. This and other arguments for a HIP proxy will be presented in this paper along with an analysis of a prototype HIP proxy and its performance.

  9. Key areas for wintering North American herons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikuska, T.; Kushlan, J.A.; Hartley, S.

    1998-01-01

    Nearly all North American heron populations are migratory, but details of where they winter are little known. Locations where North American herons winter were identified using banding recovery data. North American herons winter from Canada through northern South America but especially in eastern North America south of New York, Florida, California, Louisiana, Texas, Mexico and Cuba, these areas accounting for 63% of winter recoveries. We identified regions where recoveries for various species clustered as 'key areas.' These forty-three areas constitute a network of areas that hold sites that likely are important to wintering herons. The relative importance of each area and site within the network must be evaluated by further on the ground inventory. Because of biases inherent in the available data, these hypothesized key areas are indicative rather than exhaustive. As a first cut, this network of areas can serve to inform further inventory activities and can provide an initial basis to begin planning for the year-round conservation of North American heron populations.

  10. Contribution of allelopathy and competition to weed suppression by winter wheat, triticale and winter rye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiss, Antje; Fomsgaard, Inge S.; Mathiassen, Solvejg Kopp

    of competitive traits, such as early vigour, crop height and leaf area index and presence of phytotoxic compounds of the group of benzoxazinoids to weed suppression. Four cultivars of each of the winter cereals wheat, triticale and rye were grown in field experiments at two locations. Soil samples were taken...... 2016. Competitive traits were measured throughout the growing season. Partial least squares regression with weed biomass as response variable was used for modelling. Competitive traits, as well as benzoxazinoid concentrations contributed significantly to the models on winter wheat, winter triticale...... and winter rye data and explained 63, 69 and 58% of the variance in weed biomass in the first two components, respectively. Consequently, it can be concluded that competitive, as well as allelopathic traits, contributed significantly to weed suppressive outcome in winter cereals. This knowledge...

  11. Root development of fodder radish and winter wheat before winter in relation to uptake of nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlström, Ellen Margrethe; Hansen, Elly Møller; Mandel, A.

    2015-01-01

    The nitrate (N) present in soil at the end of autumn is prone to leach during winter and spring in temperate climates if not taken up by plants. In Denmark catch crops are used as a regulatory tool to reduce N leaching and therefore a shift from winter cereals to spring cereals with catch crops has...... occurred. Quantitative data is missing on N leaching of a catch crop compared to a winter cereal in a conventional cereal-based cropping system. The aim of the study was to investigate whether fodder radish (Raphanus sativus L.) (FR) would be more efficient than winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (WW......) at depleting the soil of mineral nitrogen (Nmin) before winter. A secondary aim was to study the agreement between three different root measuring methods: root wash (RW), core break (CB) and minirhizotron (MR). The third aim of the was to correlate the N uptake of FR and WW with RLD. An experiment was made...

  12. Variability in winter climate and winter extremes reduces population growth of an alpine butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Jens; Matter, Stephen F

    2013-01-01

    We examined the long-term, 15-year pattern of population change in a network of 21 Rocky Mountain populations of Parnassius smintheus butterflies in response to climatic variation. We found that winter values of the broadscale climate variable, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) index, were a strong predictor of annual population growth, much more so than were endogenous biotic factors related to population density. The relationship between PDO and population growth was nonlinear. Populations declined in years with extreme winter PDO values, when there were either extremely warm or extremely cold sea surface temperatures in the eastern Pacific relative to that in the western Pacific. Results suggest that more variable winters, and more frequent extremely cold or warm winters, will result in more frequent decline of these populations, a pattern exacerbated by the trend for increasingly variable winters seen over the past century.

  13. Winter refuge for Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes in Hanoi during Winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, Takashi; Cuong, Tran Chi; Dong, Tran Duc; Yen, Nguyen Thi; Le, Nguyen Hoang; Phong, Tran Vu; Minakawa, Noboru

    2014-01-01

    Dengue occurs throughout the year in Hanoi, Vietnam, despite winter low temperatures density drastically decreased in winter. Aedes aegypti preferred concrete tanks and this preference increased in winter. Even in winter, the lowest water temperature found in concrete tanks was >14°C, exceeding the developmental zero point of Ae. aegypti. Although jars, drums and concrete tanks were the dominant containers previously (1994-97) in Hanoi, currently the percentage of residences with concrete tanks was still high while jars and drums were quite low. Our study showed that concrete tanks with broken lids allowing mosquitoes access were important winter refuge for Ae. aegypti. We also indicate a concern about concrete tanks serving as foci for Ae. aegypti to expand their distribution in cooler regions.

  14. Metabolic response to lipid infusion in fasting winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks (Aptenodytes patagonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teulier, Loïc; Tornos, Jérémy; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Rey, Benjamin; Roussel, Damien

    2013-05-01

    During the cold austral winter, king penguin chicks are infrequently fed by their parents and thus experience severe nutritional deprivation under harsh environmental conditions. These energetic constraints lead to a range of energy sparing mechanisms balanced by the maintenance of efficient thermogenic processes. The present work investigated whether the high thermogenic capacities exhibited by winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks could be related to an increase in lipid substrate supply and oxidation in skeletal muscle, the main site of thermogenesis in birds. To test this hypothesis, we examined i) the effect of an experimental rise in plasma triglyceride on the whole metabolic rate in winter-acclimatized (WA) and de-acclimatized king penguin chicks kept at thermoneutrality (TN), and ii) investigated the fuel preference of muscle mitochondria. In vivo, a perfusion of a lipid emulsion induced a small 10% increase of metabolic rate in WA chicks but not in TN group. In vitro, the oxidation rate of muscle mitochondria respiring on lipid-derived substrate was +40% higher in WA chicks than in TN, while no differences were found between groups when mitochondria oxidized carbohydrate-derived substrate or succinate. Despite an enhanced fuel selection towards lipid oxidation in skeletal muscle, a rise of circulating lipids per se was not sufficient to fully unravel the thermogenic capacity of winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Landscaping With Maintenance in Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Randy

    2000-01-01

    Examines school ground landscape design that enhances attractive of the school and provides for easier maintenance. Landscape design issues discussed include choice of grass, trees, and shrubs; irrigation; and safety and access. Other considerations for lessening maintenance problems for facility managers are also highlighted. (GR)

  16. The Nordic maintenance care program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myburgh, Corrie; Brandborg-Olsen, Dorthe; Albert, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    To describe and interpret Danish Chiropractors' perspectives regarding the purpose and rationale for using MC (maintenance care), its content, course and patient characteristics.......To describe and interpret Danish Chiropractors' perspectives regarding the purpose and rationale for using MC (maintenance care), its content, course and patient characteristics....

  17. Maintenance Planning for Historic Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Plian

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The key to good maintenance of historic buildings is a long-range maintenance plan. Long-range planning recognizes a responsibility to the future to prolong the useful life of a building by preserving it in its present condition and preventing or slowing deterioration and damage from natural or other causes.

  18. The engineering approach to winter sports

    CERN Document Server

    Cheli, Federico; Maldifassi, Stefano; Melzi, Stefano; Sabbioni, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    The Engineering Approach to Winter Sports presents the state-of-the-art research in the field of winter sports in a harmonized and comprehensive way for a diverse audience of engineers, equipment and facilities designers, and materials scientists. The book examines the physics and chemistry of snow and ice with particular focus on the interaction (friction) between sports equipment and snow/ice, how it is influenced by environmental factors, such as temperature and pressure, as well as by contaminants and how it can be modified through the use of ski waxes or the microtextures of blades or ski soles. The authors also cover, in turn, the different disciplines in winter sports:  skiing (both alpine and cross country), skating and jumping, bob sledding and skeleton, hockey and curling, with attention given to both equipment design and on the simulation of gesture and  track optimization.

  19. Remote maintenance development for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tada, Eisuke; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi

    1997-01-01

    This paper both describes the overall design concept of the ITER remote maintenance system, which has been developed mainly for use with in-vessel components such as divertor and blanket, and outlines of the ITER R and D program, which has been established to develop remote handling equipment/tools and radiation hard components. In ITER, the reactor structures inside cryostat have to be maintained remotely because of activation due to DT operation. Therefore, remote-handling technology is fundamental, and the reactor-structure design must be made consistent with remote maintainability. The overall maintenance scenario and design concepts of the required remote handling equipment/tools have been developed according to their maintenance classification. Technologies are also being developed to verify the feasibility of the maintenance design and include fabrication and testing of a fullscale remote-handling equipment/tools for in-vessel maintenance. (author)

  20. Native aphids of New Zealand--diversity and host associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teulon, D A J; Stufkens, M A W; Drayton, G M; Maw, H E L; Scott, I A W; Bulman, S R; Carver, M; Von Dohlen, C D; Eastop, V F; Foottit, R G

    2013-01-01

    At least 15 species of aphids are now recognised as New Zealand natives and most of these are very likely to be endemic. Most native aphids belong in the subfamily Aphidinae (Aphidini), with a possible single species in Aphidinae-Macrosiphini, at least two in Neophyllaphidinae and one in Taiwanaphidinae. With one exception, native aphids are restricted to a single host plant genus, and these hosts are from 13 genera and 12 plant families in the Pinales and Angiospermae-Eudicotyledonae, suggesting that the aphids are a remnant fauna. No known native aphids have host plants from the Pteridophyta or Angiospermae-Monocotyledonae, with the possible exception of two possibly native species extracted from native tussock grassland turfs. Most host plant genera have some degree of Gondwanan distribution, but only two indigenous species are found on large forest trees and only one host is deciduous. Native aphids have been recorded from sea level to the subalpine zone, reflecting their host plant distributions. Sexual reproduction, followed by several parthenogenetic generations on the same host plant, appears to be the norm for most species. Eggs appear to be used for surviving winter conditions in some species and summer conditions in others. Native aphid distribution and abundance varies with five species considered to be scarce, one species localised, two species sparse and three relatively common based on current knowledge.

  1. FORMATION OF HYGROTHERMAL CONDITIONS IN A DEEP-LITTER BARN IN A WINTER SEASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Sokołowski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In free stall, the maintenance of animals in the deep litter, the measurements of temperature and relative humidity of indoor air, temperature and relative humidity of the outside air were conducted. Observation also covered the thermal conditions of litter and its thickness. The study covered the winter period from 1st of December to 28th of February. The study showed that during the winter there is a slight risk of unfavorable thermal conditions for dairy cattle in the barn. The analysis of the obtained results showed a significant effect of the number of animals present in the barn on thermal conditions and humidity. The increase in stocking density in the barn affects the increase of the internal temperature and relative humidity.

  2. Improving the TRIGA facility maintenance by predictive maintenance techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preda, M.; Sabau, C.; Barbalata, E.

    1997-01-01

    This work deals with the specific operation of equipment in radioactive environment or in conditions allowing radioactive contamination. The requirements of remote operation ensuring the operators' protection are presented. Also, the requirements of international standards issued by IAEA-Vienna are reviewed. The organizational withdraws of the maintenance activities, based on the standards and maintenance and repair directives still in force, are shown. It is emphasized the fact that this type of maintenance was adequate to a given level of technical development, characteristic for pre-computerized industry, but, at present, it is obsolete and uneconomic both in utilization and maintenance. Such a system constitutes already a burden hindering the efforts of maximizing the availability, maintenance, prolongation the service life of equipment and utilities, finally, of increasing the efficiency of complex installations. Moreover, the predictive maintenance techniques are strongly requested by the character of radioactive installations precluding the direct access in given zones (a potential risk of irradiation or radioactive contamination) of installations during operation. The results obtained by applying the predictive maintenance techniques in the operation of the double circuit irradiation loop, used in the TRIGA reactors, are presented

  3. [Winter sport injuries in childhood (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausbrandt, D; Höllwarth, M; Ritter, G

    1979-01-01

    3374 accidents occurring on the field of sport during the years 1975--1977 accounted for 19% of all accidents dealt with at the Institute of Kinderchirurgie in Graz. 51% of the accidents were caused by the typical winter sports: skiing, tobogganing, ice-skating and ski-jumping with skiing accounting for 75% of the accidents. The fracture localization typical of the different kinds of winter sport is dealt with in detail. The correct size and safety of the equipment were found to be particularly important in the prevention of such accidents in childhood.

  4. Severe European winters in a secular perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Andreas; Hänsel, Stephanie

    2017-04-01

    Temperature conditions during the winter time are substantially shaped by a strong year-to-year variability. European winters since the late 1980s - compared to previous decades and centuries - were mainly characterised by a high temperature level, including recent record-warm winters. Yet, comparably cold winters and severe cold spells still occur nowadays, like recently observed from 2009 to 2013 and in early 2017. Central England experienced its second coldest December since start of observations more than 350 years ago in 2010, and some of the lowest temperatures ever measured in northern Europe (below -50 °C in Lapland) were recorded in January 1999. Analysing thermal characteristics and spatial distribution of severe (historical) winters - using early instrumental data - helps expanding and consolidating our knowledge of past weather extremes. This contribution presents efforts towards this direction. We focus on a) compiling and assessing a very long-term instrumental, spatially widespread and well-distributed, high-quality meteorological data set to b) investigate very cold winter temperatures in Europe from early measurements until today. In a first step, we analyse the longest available time series of monthly temperature averages within Europe. Our dataset extends from the Nordic countries up to the Mediterranean and from the British Isles up to Russia. We utilise as much as possible homogenised times series in order to ensure reliable results. Homogenised data derive from the NORDHOM (Scandinavia) and HISTALP (greater alpine region) datasets or were obtained from national weather services and universities. Other (not specifically homogenised) data were derived from the ECA&D dataset or national institutions. The employed time series often start already during the 18th century, with Paris & Central England being the longest datasets (from 1659). In a second step, daily temperature averages are involved. Only some of those series are homogenised, but

  5. Nuclear winter: The evidence and the risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, O.

    1985-01-01

    Global concern over nuclear extinction, centered on the holocaust itself, now has turned to the more terrifying consequences of a post-war nuclear winter: ''the long-term effects - destruction of the environment, spread of epidemic diseases, contamination by radioactivity, and ... collapse of agriculture-[that] would spread famine and death to every country.'' Nuclear Winter, the latest in a series of studies by a number of different groups is clinical, analytical, systematic, and detailed. Two physicists and biologist analyze the effects on the climate, plants, animals, and living systems; the human costs; the policy implications

  6. Mechanical weed control in organic winter wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Euro Pannacci; Francesco Tei; Marcello Guiducci

    2017-01-01

    Three field experiments were carried out in organic winter wheat in three consecutive years (exp. 1, 2005-06; exp. 2, 2006- 07; exp. 3, 2007-08) in central Italy (42°57’ N - 12°22’ E, 165 m a.s.l.) in order to evaluate the efficacy against weeds and the effects on winter wheat of two main mechanical weed control strategies: i) spring tine harrowing used at three different application times (1 passage at T1, 2 passages at the time T1, 1 passage at T1 followed by 1 passage at T1 + 14 days) in t...

  7. Nuclear winter: The evidence and the risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, O.

    1985-01-01

    Global concern over nuclear extinction, centered on the holocaust itself, now has turned to the more terrifying consequences of a post-war nuclear winter: ''the long-term effects - destruction of the environment, spread of epidemic diseases, contamination by radioactivity, and ... collapse of agriculture-(that) would spread famine and death to every country.'' Nuclear Winter, the latest in a series of studies by a number of different groups is clinical, analytical, systematic, and detailed. Two physicists and biologist analyze the effects on the climate, plants, animals, and living systems; the human costs; the policy implications.

  8. Host genotype is an important determinant of the cereal phyllosphere mycobiome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapkota, Rumakanta; Knorr, Kamilla; Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup

    2015-01-01

    The phyllosphere mycobiome in cereals is an important determinant of crop health. However, an understanding of the factors shaping this community is lacking. Fungal diversity in leaves from a range of cultivars of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum), winter and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare...... treatment (13%) and location (4%). Indicator species, including plant pathogens, responding to factors such as crop species, location and treatment were identified. Host genotype at both the species and cultivar level is important in shaping phyllosphere fungal communities, whereas fungicide treatment...... and location have minor effects. We found many host-specific fungal pathogens, but also a large diversity of fungi that were relatively insensitive to host genetic background, indicating that host-specific pathogens live in a 'sea' of nonspecific fungi....

  9. Assessing maintenance contracts when preventive maintenance is outsourced

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Shaomin

    2012-01-01

    In some companies, corrective maintenance is conducted in-house but preventive maintenance might be outsourced. This raises a need to optimise some parameters such as the number of contracts from a perspective of the equipment owner. This paper considers a maintenance policy for such a situation, analyses the roles of the parameters in a PM model, proposes approaches to defining bonus functions, and finally discusses special cases of both the PM policy and the bonus function. Numerical examples are also given to explore the impact of parameters on the expected lifecycle cost rate.

  10. Remote maintenance for DEMO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tremethick, T.; Bastow, R.; Iglesias, D.; Cooper, D.

    2015-01-01

    The EUROfusion Road-map to the Realisation of Fusion Energy outlines a European programme to produce concepts for a demonstration power plant, known as DEMO. It is the successor to the 13 billion ITER machine, currently being built in Cadarache, France. ITER will be the first fusion experiment to deliver a significant net output of energy. DEMO will build upon the experience gained in ITER and will demonstrate the technologies needed to deliver electricity to the grid. To be successful, a commercially viable power station requires high availability and must meet stringent nuclear safety requirements. However, due to neutron damage to materials, a fusion power station such as DEMO will also require the periodic exchange of the plasma facing components. To meet these requirements, components must be exchanged rapidly and in a highly controlled, safe manner. These requirements are met by the use of Remote Handling technologies, but present significant challenges due to the component scale and the hostile environment. RACE, the UKAEA's centre of excellence for remote handling, is leading a work package for EUROfusion to develop technologies for DEMO. The current scheme for blanket replacement is described in this poster. Blankets will be extracted through the upper ports on the tokamak using a cask system. This keeps the radioactive components isolated from the wider environment during maintenance. The vertical transporter is the major component of the interface cask. This has the capability to carry interchangeable end-effectors. Recovery and rescue scenarios are also improved due to the modular nature of the system and the access points created by the transport cask apertures

  11. Stay Safe and Healthy This Winter!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-11-23

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics offer some simple ways to stay safe and healthy during the winter holiday season.  Created: 11/23/2010 by CDC Office of Women’s Health.   Date Released: 11/23/2010.

  12. Music Activities for Lemonade in Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2014-01-01

    "Lemonade in Winter: A Book About Two Kids Counting Money" is a children's book about math; however, when sharing it in the music classroom, street cries and clapping games emerge. Jenkins' and Karas' book provides a springboard to lessons addressing several music elements, including form, tempo, and rhythm, as well as…

  13. Winter Video Series Coming in January | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Scientific Library’s annual Summer Video Series was so successful that it will be offering a new Winter Video Series beginning in January. For this inaugural event, the staff is showing the eight-part series from National Geographic titled “American Genius.” 

  14. Winter Wheat Root Growth and Nitrogen Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Irene Skovby

    in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L). Field experiments on the effect of sowing date, N fertilization and cultivars were conducted on a sandy loam soil in Taastrup, Denmark. The root studies were conducted by means of the minirhizotron method. Also, a field experiment on the effect of defoliation and N...

  15. Winter chemistry of North Slope lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, M. K.; White, D. M.; Lilly, M. R.; Hinzman, L. D.; Hilton, K. M.; Busey, R.

    2006-12-01

    Lakes are important water resources on the North Slope of Alaska. Oilfield exploration and production requires water for facility use as well as transportation. Ice road construction requires winter extraction of fresh water. Since most North Slope lakes are relatively shallow, the quantity and quality of the water remaining under the ice by the end of the winter are important environmental management issues. Currently permits are based on the presence of overwintering fish populations and their sensitivity to low oxygen. Sampling during the winter of 2004 2005 sheds light on the winter chemistry of several pumped lakes and one unpumped lake on the North Slope. Dissolved oxygen, conductivity, pH, and temperature profiles were taken along with ice thickness and water depth measurements. Water samples were extracted and analyzed for Na, Ca, K, Mg, Fe, DOC, and alkalinity in the laboratory. Lake properties, rather than pumping activities, were the best predictors of oxygen depletion, with the highest levels of dissolved oxygen maintained in the lake with the least dissolved constituents. As would be expected, specific conductance increased with depth in the lake while dissolved oxygen decreased with depth. Dissolved oxygen and specific conductance data suggested that the lakes began to refresh in May. The summarized data provides a view of North Slope lake chemistry trends, while continued studies investigate the chemical impacts of pumping North Slope lakes through continued sampling and modeling efforts.

  16. Modeling winter moth Operophtera brumata egg phenology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salis, Lucia; Lof, Marjolein; Asch, van Margriet; Visser, Marcel E.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between an insect's developmental rate and temperature is crucial to forecast insect phenology under climate change. In the winter moth Operophtera brumata timing of egg-hatching has severe fitness consequences on growth and reproduction as egg-hatching has to match

  17. How marketers handled deliveries last winter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-01

    A special study on how fuel oil marketers handled deliveries last winter is presented. A questionnaire was sent to the marketers asking how many fuel oil trucks they had, how penalties for small deliveries are assessed, and if many customers are calling for a summer fill. The results of the questionnaire are presented.

  18. Impact of warm winters on microbial growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgander, Johanna; Rousk, Johannes; Axel Olsson, Pål

    2014-05-01

    Growth of soil bacteria has an asymmetrical response to higher temperature with a gradual increase with increasing temperatures until an optimum after which a steep decline occurs. In laboratory studies it has been shown that by exposing a soil bacterial community to a temperature above the community's optimum temperature for two months, the bacterial community grows warm-adapted, and the optimum temperature of bacterial growth shifts towards higher temperatures. This result suggests a change in the intrinsic temperature dependence of bacterial growth, as temperature influenced the bacterial growth even though all other factors were kept constant. An intrinsic temperature dependence could be explained by either a change in the bacterial community composition, exchanging less tolerant bacteria towards more tolerant ones, or it could be due to adaptation within the bacteria present. No matter what the shift in temperature tolerance is due to, the shift could have ecosystem scale implications, as winters in northern Europe are getting warmer. To address the question of how microbes and plants are affected by warmer winters, a winter-warming experiment was established in a South Swedish grassland. Results suggest a positive response in microbial growth rate in plots where winter soil temperatures were around 6 °C above ambient. Both bacterial and fungal growth (leucine incorporation, and acetate into ergosterol incorporation, respectively) appeared stimulated, and there are two candidate explanations for these results. Either (i) warming directly influence microbial communities by modulating their temperature adaptation, or (ii) warming indirectly affected the microbial communities via temperature induced changes in bacterial growth conditions. The first explanation is in accordance with what has been shown in laboratory conditions (explained above), where the differences in the intrinsic temperature relationships were examined. To test this explanation the

  19. Maintenance and Revitalization of Gallo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nolan, J. Shaun

    2018-01-01

    This chapter examines the current state of maintenance and revitalization of eastern Brittany’s Oïl language variety, Gallo. Following a description of the sociolinguistic context of regional languages in France today, this chapter focuses on maintenance and revitalization efforts for Gallo. Gallo...... promotion organizations comprising teachers, linguists, enthusiasts, and activists are working hard at a local and regional level to ensure that there is a greater awareness of the existence of this language variety and to foster an appreciation of the importance of its maintenance and revitalization...

  20. Remote handling maintenance of ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haange, R.

    1999-01-01

    The remote maintenance strategy and the associated component design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) have reached a high degree of completeness, especially with respect to those components that are expected to require frequent or occasional remote maintenance. Large-scale test stands, to demonstrate the principle feasibility of the remote maintenance procedures and to develop the required equipment and tools, were operational at the end of the Engineering Design Activities (EDA) phase. The initial results are highly encouraging: major remote equipment deployment and component replacement operations have been successfully demonstrated. (author)

  1. Maintenance of radiation monitoring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Kei

    2001-01-01

    As the safety and quality of atomic power facilities are more strongly required, the reliability improvement and preventive maintenance of radiation monitoring systems are important. This paper describes the maintenance of radiation monitoring systems delivered by Fuji Electric and the present status of preventive maintenance technology. Also it introduces the case that we developed a fault diagnosis function adopting a statistics technique and artificial intelligence (AI) and delivered a radiation monitoring system including this function. This system can output a fault analysis result and a countermeasure from the computer in real time. (author)

  2. Nuclear Winter: The implications for civil defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chester, C.V.; Perry, A.M.; Hobbs, B.F.

    1987-01-01

    ''Nuclear Winter'' is the term given to hypothesized cooling in the northern hemisphere following a nuclear war due to injection of smoke from burning cities into the atmosphere. The voluminous literature on this subject produced since the original paper in 1983 by Turco, Toon, Ackerman, Pollack, and Sagen (TTAPS) has been reviewed. The widespread use of 3-dimensional global circulation models have resulted in reduced estimates of cooling; 15 to 25 0 C for a summer war and a few degrees for a winter war. More serious may be the possibility of suppression of convective precipitation by the altered temperature profiles in the atmosphere. However, very large uncertainties remain in input parameters, the models, and the results of calculations. We believe the state of knowledge about nuclear winter is sufficiently developed to conclude: Neither cold nor drought are likely to be direct threats to human survival for populations with the wherewithal to survive normal January temperatures; The principal threat from nuclear winter is to food production, and could present problems to third parties without food reserves; and Loss of a crop year is neither a new nor unexpected threat from nuclear war to the US and the Soviet Union. Both have at least a year's food reserve at all times. Both face formidable organizational problems in distributing their reserves in a war-damaged environment. The consequences of nuclear winter could be expected to fall more heavily on the Soviet Union than the US due to its higher latitude and less productive agriculture. This may be especially true if disturbances of rainfall amounts and distribution persist for more than a year. 6 refs

  3. Nuclear Winter: Implications for civil defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chester, C.V.; Perry, A.M.; Hobbs, B.F.

    1988-05-01

    ''Nuclear Winter'' is the term given to the cooling hypothesized to occur in the Northern Hemisphere following a nuclear war as the result of the injection of smoke from burning cities into the atmosphere. The voluminous literature on this subject produced since the paper was published in 1983 by Turco, Toon, Ackerman, Pollack, and Sagen (TTAPS) has been reviewed. Three-dimensional global circulation models have resulted in reduced estimates of cooling---15 to 25/degree/C for a summer war and a few degrees for a winter war. More serious may be the possibility of suppression of convective precipitation by the altered temperature profiles in the atmosphere. However, very large uncertainties remain in input parameters, the models, and the results of calculations. We believe the state of knowledge about nuclear winter is sufficiently developed to conclude: Neither cold nor drought is likely to be a direct threat to human survival for populations with the wherewithal to survive normal January temperatures. The principal threat from nuclear winter is to food production, and this could present problems to third parties who are without food reserves. Loss of a crop year is neither a new nor an unexpected threat from nuclear war to the United States and the Soviet Union. Both have at least a year's food reserve at all times. Both face formidable organizational problems in distributing their reserves in a war-damaged environment. The consequences of nuclear winter could be expected to fall more heavily on the Soviet Union than the United States due to its higher latitude and less productive agriculture. This may be especially true if disturbances of rainfall amounts and distribution persist for more than a year.

  4. Confined Disposal Facility and Maintenance Dredging of the Les Cheneaux Island Federal Navigation Channels, Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    coliform index greater than 0.0 per 100 ml. Finally, in my opinion, the dumping of dredgings from Les Cheneaux Harbor on the sites mentioned in your...Dolomite" and outcrops in many places within a few milk , of Cedarville. 3. The highway intersection is heavily salted at times during the winter to melt...maintenance quantity of 40,000 cubic yards, plus 70,000 cubic yards of backlog. In addition, maintenance dredging would include another 18,000 cubic yards

  5. Overview of maintenance principles and regulatory supervision of maintenance activities at nuclear power plants in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohar, S.; Cepcek, S.

    1997-01-01

    The maintenance represents one of the most important tools to ensure safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants. The emphasis of Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic to the maintenance issue is expressed by requirements in the regulations. The current practice of maintenance management in operated nuclear power plants in Slovak Republic is presented. Main aspects of maintenance, as maintenance programme, organization of maintenance, responsibilities for maintenance are described. Activities of nuclear regulatory authority in maintenance process are presented too. (author)

  6. High diversity and low genetic structure of feather mites associated with a phenotypically variable bird host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-González, Sofía; Pérez-Rodríguez, Antón; Proctor, Heather C; De la Hera, Iván; Pérez-Tris, Javier

    2018-01-17

    Obligate symbionts may be genetically structured among host individuals and among phenotypically distinct host populations. Such processes may in turn determine within-host genetic diversity of symbionts, which is relevant for understanding symbiont population dynamics. We analysed the population genetic structure of two species of feather mites (Proctophyllodes sylviae and Trouessartia bifurcata) in migratory and resident blackcaps Sylvia atricapilla that winter sympatrically. Resident and migratory hosts may provide mites with habitats of different qualities, what might promote specialization of mite populations. We found high genetic diversity of within-host populations for both mite species, but no sign of genetic structure of mites between migratory and resident hosts. Our results suggest that, although dispersal mechanisms between hosts during the non-breeding season are unclear, mite populations are not limited by transmission bottlenecks that would reduce genetic diversity among individuals that share a host. Additionally, there is no evidence that host phenotypic divergence (associated with the evolution of migration and residency) has promoted the evolution of host-specialist mite populations. Unrestricted dispersal among host types may allow symbiotic organisms to avoid inbreeding and to persist in the face of habitat heterogeneity in phenotypically diverse host populations.

  7. Toward enabling winter occupations: testing a winter coat designed for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Stephanie L; Boger, Jennifer N; Mihailidis, Alex

    2011-02-01

    Previous research indicates that older adults have difficulties using winter clothing, which contributes to their risk of isolation during winter. Research has also shown that a winter coat that requires less flexibility, strength, and dexterity would help support this population. This pilot study evaluated the measured and perceived effectiveness of a winter coat prototype that had a funnel sleeve design. Eight older adults trialed three coats (the participant's own coat, a coat fitted with sleeve gripper, and the prototype coat), which were evaluated though shoulder range of motion measurements and by the participant completing a survey. Less shoulder range of motion was used to put on the prototype coat. Survey findings support range of motion data that Sleeve Gripper has limited utility. A funnel sleeve design may require less range of motion at the shoulder compared to other coats.

  8. Hellsgate Winter Range: Wildlife mitigation project. Final environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the Hellsgate Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project (Project) in a cooperative effort with the Colville Confederated Tribes and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). The proposed action would allow the sponsors to secure property and conduct wildlife management activities within the boundaries of the Colville Indian Reservation. This Final Environmental Assessment (EA) examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and managing property for wildlife and wildlife habitat within a large project area. This area consists of several separated land parcels, of which 2,000 hectares (4,943 acres) have been purchased by BPA and an additional 4,640 hectares (11,466 acres) have been identified by the Colville Confederated Tribes for inclusion in the Project. Four proposed activities (habitat protection, habitat enhancement, operation and maintenance, and monitoring and evaluation) are analyzed. The proposed action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wildlife habitat that was adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams and their reservoirs

  9. Hellsgate Winter Range : Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-03-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the Hellsgate Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project (Project) in a cooperative effort with the Colville Confederated Tribes and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). The proposed action would allow the sponsors to secure property and conduct wildlife management activities within the boundaries of the Colville Indian Reservation. This Final Environmental Assessment (EA) examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and managing property for wildlife and wildlife habitat within a large project area. This area consists of several separated land parcels, of which 2,000 hectares (4,943 acres) have been purchased by BPA and an additional 4,640 hectares (11,466 acres) have been identified by the Colville Confederated Tribes for inclusion in the Project. Four proposed activities (habitat protection, habitat enhancement, operation and maintenance, and monitoring and evaluation) are analyzed. The proposed action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wildlife habitat that was adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams and their reservoirs.

  10. Maintenance training - who needs it?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, H.

    1988-01-01

    The author's job responsibilities at Rocky Flats include preventive maintenance, training to meet the needs of maintenance personnel, training for special projects such as welding and metal fabrication, and reporting to the manager of plant maintenance engineers. He notes that many old-line manufacturers are becoming high-tech companies, emphasizing the role of automation in production and quality control. He lists and discusses changes at Rocky Flats, along with the attendant preventive maintenance program the changes necessitate. He observes estimates that training costs to companies over the next 10 years will exceed 10% of their revenues - that in 1986, American companies spent $210 billion on training at all levels. But, if you think training is expensive, try placing a cost on ignorance. 9 figures

  11. Preventative maintenance program for bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The Kentucky Transportation Cabinets (KYTC) bridge inventory is rapidly aging. As such, the Cabinet : needs to identify and implement relevant preventative maintenance (PM) actions to extend the useful : service lives of those structures. Maintena...

  12. Context Awareness And Railway Maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Villarejo, Roberto; Galar, Diego; Johansson, Carl-Anders; Menendez, Manuel; Perales, Numan

    2014-01-01

    A railway is an extremely complex system requiring maintenancedecision support systems to gather data from many disparatesources. These sources include traditional maintenanceinformation like condition monitoring or work records, as well astraffic information, given the criticality of maintenance inavoiding traffic disruptions and the need to minimise the trackpossession time for maintenance.A methodology is required if maintainers are to understand thedata as a whole. Context engines try to ...

  13. Towards a maintenance semantic architecture.

    OpenAIRE

    Hedi Karray, Mohamed; Chebel-Morello, Brigitte; Zerhouni, Noureddine

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Technological and software progress with the evolution of processes within company have highlighted the need to evolve systems of maintenance process from autonomous systems to cooperative and sharing information system based on software platform. However, this need gives rise to various maintenance platforms. The first part of this study investigates the different types of existing industrial platforms and characterizes them compared to two criteria namely : informati...

  14. Host-Pathogen Coupled Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-04

    describe bacterial proliferation in the host (and the host’s immune response), and molecular-level models describing the subversion of the molecular...the pathogen is endocytosed by host immune cells, and in the course of infection can escape back into the tissue or bloodstream of the host. During...host’s overall ( immune ) response. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Mathematical model, signaling pathways, bacterial infection, macrophage, immune system 16. SECURITY

  15. A parasitoid wasp induces overwintering behaviour in its spider host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Korenko

    Full Text Available Parasites and parasitoids control behaviors of their hosts. However, the origin of the behavior evoked by the parasitic organism has been rarely identified. It is also not known whether the manipulation is universal or host-specific. Polysphinctine wasps, koinobiont ectoparasitoids of several spider species that manipulate host web-spinning activity for their own protection during pupation, provide an ideal system to reveal the origin of the evoked behavior. Larva of Zatypota percontatoria performed species-specific manipulation of theridiid spiders, Neottiura bimaculata and Theridion varians, shortly before pupation. Parasitized N. bimaculata produced a dense web, whereas parasitized T. varians built a cupola-like structure. The larva pupated inside of either the dense web or the cupola-like structure. We discovered that unparasitized N. bimaculata produce an analogous dense web around their eggsacs and for themselves during winter, while T. varians construct an analogous 'cupola' only for overwintering. We induced analogous manipulation in unparasitized hosts by altering ambient conditions. We discovered that the behavior evoked by larvae in two hosts was functionally similar. The larva evoked protective behaviors that occur in unparasitized hosts only during specific life-history periods.

  16. A parasitoid wasp induces overwintering behaviour in its spider host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenko, Stanislav; Pekár, Stano

    2011-01-01

    Parasites and parasitoids control behaviors of their hosts. However, the origin of the behavior evoked by the parasitic organism has been rarely identified. It is also not known whether the manipulation is universal or host-specific. Polysphinctine wasps, koinobiont ectoparasitoids of several spider species that manipulate host web-spinning activity for their own protection during pupation, provide an ideal system to reveal the origin of the evoked behavior. Larva of Zatypota percontatoria performed species-specific manipulation of theridiid spiders, Neottiura bimaculata and Theridion varians, shortly before pupation. Parasitized N. bimaculata produced a dense web, whereas parasitized T. varians built a cupola-like structure. The larva pupated inside of either the dense web or the cupola-like structure. We discovered that unparasitized N. bimaculata produce an analogous dense web around their eggsacs and for themselves during winter, while T. varians construct an analogous 'cupola' only for overwintering. We induced analogous manipulation in unparasitized hosts by altering ambient conditions. We discovered that the behavior evoked by larvae in two hosts was functionally similar. The larva evoked protective behaviors that occur in unparasitized hosts only during specific life-history periods.

  17. Dispersal of solitary bees and bumblebees in a winter oilseed rape field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calabuig, Isabel

    2000-01-01

    Dispersal distributions of solitary bees and bumblebees were studied in a winter oilseed rape field. Window-traps were placed in the rape field along a line transect perpendicular to the field edge. 19 species of solitary bees were recorded and all but four species are polylectic, including...... Brassicaceae as host-plant family. Through non-linear regression, the decline in solitary bee individuals versus distance from field edge significantly fitted a steep two-parameter exponential decay function. Activity of solitary bees was clearly highest within 30 metres from the field edge. Apparently......, solitary bees do not play any noteworthy role in the pollination of winter oilseed rape in Denmark. The traps yielded ten species of bumblebees, and a significant linear correlation was found between numbers of individuals and distance from the field edge. This result is attributed to bumblebee foraging...

  18. Testing local host adaptation and phenotypic plasticity in a herbivore when alternative related host plants occur sympatrically.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Ruiz-Montoya

    Full Text Available Host race formation in phytophagous insects can be an early stage of adaptive speciation. However, the evolution of phenotypic plasticity in host use is another possible outcome. Using a reciprocal transplant experiment we tested the hypothesis of local adaptation in the aphid Brevicoryne brassicae. Aphid genotypes derived from two sympatric host plants, Brassica oleracea and B. campestris, were assessed in order to measure the extent of phenotypic plasticity in morphological and life history traits in relation to the host plants. We obtained an index of phenotypic plasticity for each genotype. Morphological variation of aphids was summarized by principal components analysis. Significant effects of recipient host on morphological variation and life history traits (establishment, age at first reproduction, number of nymphs, and intrinsic growth rate were detected. We did not detected genotype × host plant interaction; in general the genotypes developed better on B. campestris, independent of the host plant species from which they were collected. Therefore, there was no evidence to suggest local adaptation. Regarding plasticity, significant differences among genotypes in the index of plasticity were detected. Furthermore, significant selection on PC1 (general aphid body size on B. campestris, and on PC1 and PC2 (body length relative to body size on B. oleracea was detected. The elevation of the reaction norm of PC1 and the slope of the reaction norm for PC2 (i.e., plasticity were under directional selection. Thus, host plant species constitute distinct selective environments for B. brassicae. Aphid genotypes expressed different phenotypes in response to the host plant with low or nil fitness costs. Phenotypic plasticity and gene flow limits natural selection for host specialization promoting the maintenance of genetic variation in host exploitation.

  19. India Annual Winter Cropped Area, 2001-2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — India Annual Winter Cropped Area, 2001 - 2016 consists of annual winter cropped areas for most of India (except the Northeastern states) from 2000-2001 to 2015-2016....

  20. Maintenance of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migaud, D.; Hutin, J.P.; Jouette, I.; Eymond, P.; Devie, P.; Cudelou, C.; Magnier, S.; Frydman, M.

    2016-01-01

    This document gathers different articles concerning the maintenance of the French nuclear power plants. The first article analyses the impact of the recent law on the energetic transition that sets the share of nuclear power at 50% of the electricity produced by 2025. A consequence may be the decommissioning of 17 to 20 reactors by 2025 and the huge maintenance program called 'Grand Carenage' whose aim is to extend operating life over 40 years will have to be re-considered in order to avoid useless expenses. The second article shows that in 2015 the French nuclear reactor fleet got very good results in terms of availability and safety. There were 49 scheduled outages and among them some ended ahead of time. The third article describes the specificities of the maintenance of a nuclear power plant, for instance the redundancy of some systems implies that maintenance has to deal with systems that have never functioned but must be ready to operate at any moment. Another specificity is the complexity of a nuclear power plant that implies an essential phase of preparation for maintenance operations. Because of safety requirements any maintenance operation has to be controlled, checked and may provide feedback. The fourth article presents the 'Grand Carenage' maintenance program that involves the following operations: the replacement of steam generators, the re-tubing of condensers, the replacement of the filtering drums used for cooling water, the testing of the reactor building, the hydraulic test of the primary circuit and the inspection of the reactor vessel. The fifth article focuses on the organization of the work-site for maintenance operations and the example of the Belleville-sur-Loire is described in the sixth article. Important maintenance operations like 'Grand Carenage' requires a strong collaboration with a network of specialized enterprises and as no reactor (except Flamanville EPR) is being built in France, maintenance

  1. AGA predicts winter jump in residential gas price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The American Gas Association predicts the average heating bill for residential gas consumers could increase by as much as 18% this winter. AGA Pres. Mike Baly said, Last year's winter was warmer than normal. If the 1992-93 winter is similar, AGA projects that residential natural gas heating bills will go up about 6%. If we see a return to normal winter weather, our projection show the average bill could rise by almost 18%

  2. Seed wintering and deterioration characteristics between weedy and cultivated rice

    OpenAIRE

    Baek, Jung-Sun; Chung, Nam-Jin

    2012-01-01

    Background Incidences of weedy rice continuously occurred in paddy fields because its shattering seeds were able to over-winter. In this research, the seed deterioration of weedy rice was investigated compared with cultivated rice, and the wintering characteristics of these two types of rice were investigated with the field wintering test, freezing resistance test, and accelerated aging test. Results For the wintering test, the seeds of weedy rice were placed on the soil surface of a paddy wi...

  3. Measuring Transpiration to Regulate Winter Irrigation Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelson, Lisa [Auburn University

    2006-11-08

    Periodic transpiration (monthly sums) in a young loblolly pine plantation between ages 3 and 6 was measured using thermal dissipation probes. Fertilization and fertilization with irrigation were better than irrigation alone in increasing transpiration of young loblolly pines during winter months, apparently because of increased leaf area in fertilized trees. Irrigation alone did not significantly increase transpiration compared with the non-fertilized and non-irrigated control plots.

  4. Catastrophic winter storms. An escalating problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Changnon, S.A. [Changnon Climatologist, Mahomet, IL 61853 (United States)

    2007-09-15

    Winter storms are a major weather problem in the USA and their losses have been rapidly increasing. A total of 202 catastrophic winter storms, each causing more than $1 million in damages, occurred during 1949-2003, and their losses totaled $35.2 billion (2003 dollars). Catastrophic winter storms occurred in most parts of the contiguous USA, but were concentrated in the eastern half of the nation where 88% of all storm losses occurred. They were most frequent in the Northeast climate district (95 storms), and were least frequent in the West district (14 catastrophic storms). The annual average number of storms is 3.7 with a 1-year high of 9 storms, and 1 year had no storms. Temporal distributions of storms and their losses exhibited considerable spatial variability across the nation. For example, when storms were very frequent in the Northeast, they were infrequent elsewhere, a result of spatial differences in storm-producing synoptic weather conditions over time. The time distribution of the nation's 202 storms during 1949-2003 had a sizable downward trend, whereas the nation's storm losses had a major upward trend for the 55-year period. This increase over time in losses, given the decrease in storm incidences, was a result of significant temporal increases in storm sizes and storm intensities. Increases in storm intensities were small in the northern sections of the nation, but doubled across the southern two-thirds of the nation, reflecting a climatic shift in conditions producing intense winter storms.

  5. Postharvest tillage reduces Downy Brome infestations in winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Pacific Northwest, downy brome continues to infest winter wheat producing regions especially in low-rainfall areas where the winter wheat-summer fallow rotation is the dominate production system. In Washington, a study was conducted for 2 years at each of two locations in the winter wheat -su...

  6. An NOy Algorithm for Arctic Winter 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenstein, M.; Jost, H.; Greenblatt, J. B.; Podolske, J. R.; Gao, R. S.; Popp, P. J.; Toon, G. C.; Webster, C. R.; Herman, R. L.; Hurst, D. F.; hide

    2000-01-01

    NOy, total reactive nitrogen, and the long-lived tracer N2O, nitrous oxide, were measured by both in situ and remote sensing instruments during the Arctic winter 1999-2000 SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE). The correlation function NOy:N2O observed before the winter Arctic vortex forms, which is known as NOy(sup), is an important reference relationship for conditions in the evolving vortex. NOy(sup) can, with suitable care, be used to quantify vortex denitrification by sedimentation of polar stratospheric cloud particles when NOy data is taken throughout the winter. Observed NOy values less than the reference value can be interpreted in terms of semi-permanent removal of active nitrogen by condensation and sedimentation processes. In this paper we present a segmented function representing NOy(sup) applicable over the full range of altitudes sampled during SOLVE. We also assess the range of application of this function and some of its limitations.

  7. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  8. Maintenance proficiency evaluation test bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, Loran

    2003-01-01

    The Maintenance Proficiency Evaluation Test Bank (MPETB) is an Electric Power Research Institute- (EPRJ-) operated, utility-sponsored means of developing, maintaining, and disseminating secure, high-quality written and performance maintenance proficiency tests. EPRTs charter is to ensure that all tests and test items that go into the Test Bank have been validated, screened for reliability, and evaluated to high standards of psychometric excellence. Proficiency tests of maintenance personnel.(mechanics, electricians, and instrumentation and control [I and C] technicians) are most often used to determine if an experienced employee is capable of performing maintenance tasks without further training. Such tests provide objective evidence for decisions to exempt an employee from what, for the employee, is unnecessary training. This leads to considerable savings in training costs and increased productivity because supervisors can assign personnel to tasks at which their competence is proven. The ultimate objective of proficiency evaluation is to ensure that qualified maintenance personnel are available to meet the maintenance requirements of the plant Numerous task-specific MPE tests (both written and performance) have been developed and validated using the EPRI MPE methodology by the utilities participating in the MPETB project A task-specific MPE consists of a multiple-choice written examination and a multi-step performance evaluation that can be used to assess an individual's present knowledge and skill level for a given maintenance task. The MPETB contains MPEs and test items for the mechanical, electrical, and I and C classifications that are readily available to participating utilities. Presently, utilities are placing emphasis on developing MPEs to evaluate outage-related maintenance tasks that demonstrate the competency and qualifications of plant and contractor personnel before the start of outage work. Utilities are also using the MPE methodology and process to

  9. Maintenance analysis method and operational feedback: a comprehensive maintenance management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieu Riou; Victor Planchon

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Current periodic inspections program carried out on the COGEMA LOGISTICS casks is required by regulations and approved by the competent Authority. Thus, Safety and casks conformity to the according certificate of approval are guaranteed. Nonetheless, based on experience it appeared that some maintenance operations did not seem relevant or were redundant. Then, it was decided to rethink completely our maintenance program to reach the following objectives: - Set up the 'a minima' required inspection operations required to guarantee Safety and conformity to the certificate of approval, - Optimize criteria and periodicities of inspections taking into account: operational feedback, routine inspections carried out for each transport, regulations, environmental impact (ALARA, waste reduction,...), cost-effectiveness (reduction of cask's immobilization period,...). - Set up a maintenance program in Safety Analysis Reports that: stands alone (no need to check the specification or the certificate of approval to have the complete list of inspections mandatory to guarantee Safety), gives objectives instead of means of controls. This approach needs then to be re-evaluated by the competent Authority. Study's scope has been limited to the TN TM 12 cask family which is intensely used. COGEMA LOGISTICS has a high operational feedback on these casks. After Authority agreement, and in accordance with its requirements, study will then be extended to the other casks belonging to the COGEMA LOGISTICS cask fleet. Actually, the term 'maintenance' is linked to 'Base maintenance' and 'Main maintenance' and implicitly means that the cask is immobilized for a given period. To emphasize the modifications, the term 'maintenance' is no longer used and is substituted by 'periodic upkeep'. By changing the name, COGEMA LOGISTICS wants to emphasize that: some operations can for instance be realized while the cask is unloaded, periodicities are thought in terms of

  10. Could behaviour and not physiological thermal tolerance determine winter survival of aphids in cereal fields?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Alford

    Full Text Available Traits of physiological thermotolerance are commonly measured in the laboratory as predictors of the field success of ectotherms at unfavourable temperatures (e.g. during harsh winters, heatwaves, or under conditions of predicted global warming. Due to being more complicated to measure, behavioural thermoregulation is less commonly studied, although both physiology and behaviour interact to explain the survival of ectotherms. The aphids Metopolophium dirhodum, Rhopalosiphum padi and Sitobion avenae are commercially important pests of temperate cereal crops. Although coexisting, these species markedly differ in winter success, with R. padi being the most abundant species during cold winters, followed by S. avenae and lastly M. dirhodum. To better understand the thermal physiology and behavioural factors contributing to differential winter success, the lethal temperature (physiological thermotolerance and the behaviour of aphids in a declining temperature regime (behavioural thermotolerance of these three species were investigated. Physiological thermotolerance significantly differed between the three species, with R. padi consistently the least cold tolerant and S. avenae the most cold tolerant. However, although the least cold tolerant of the study species, significantly more R. padi remained attached to the host plant at extreme sub-zero temperatures than S. avenae and M. dirhodum. Given the success of anholocyclic R. padi in harsh winters compared to its anholocyclic counterparts, this study illustrates that behavioural differences could be more important than physiological thermotolerance in explaining resistance to extreme temperatures. Furthermore it highlights that there is a danger to studying physiological thermotolerance in isolation when ascertaining risks of ectotherm invasions, the establishment potential of exotic species in glasshouses, or predicting species impacts under climate change scenarios.

  11. TPX remote maintenance and shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rennich, M.J.; Nelson, B.E.

    1994-01-01

    The Tokamak Physics Experiment machine design incorporates comprehensive planning for efficient and safe component maintenance. Three programmatic decisions have been made to insure the successful implementation of this objective. First, the tokamak incorporates radiation shielding to reduce activation of components and limit the dose rate to personnel working on the outside of the machine. This allows most of the ex-vessel equipment to be maintained through conventional ''hands-on'' procedures. Second, to the maximum extent possible, low activation materials will be used inside the shielding volume. This resulted in the selection of Titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) for the vacuum vessel and PFC structures. The third decision stipulated that the primary in-vessel components will be replaced or repaired via remote maintenance tools specifically provided for the task. The component designers have been given the responsibility of incorporating maintenance design and for proving the maintainability of the design concepts in full-scale mockup tests prior to the initiation of final fabrication. Remote maintenance of the TPX machine is facilitated by general purpose tools provided by a special purpose design team. Major tools will include an in-vessel transporter, a vessel transfer system and a large component transfer container. In addition, tools such as manipulators and remotely operable impact wrenches will be made available to the component designers by this group. Maintenance systems will also provide the necessary controls for this equipment

  12. Maintenance therapy in multiple myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc Harousseau

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of multiple myeloma (MM has changed dramatically in the past twenty years with the introduction of high-dose therapy plus autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT in younger patients and, more recently, of three novel agents (thalidomide, bortezomib, and lenalidomide. When conventional chemotherapy was the only available possibility, complete responses (CR were very rare and the objective of maintenance was to prolong remission duration by continuing the same type of treatment that induced the initial response. With recent therapeutic improvements, CR achievement becomes a realistic goal that, in most cases, is significantly correlated with the outcome (1. Therefore, both the nature and the impact of maintenance therapy have changed. Maintenance therapy is based currently on novel agents, and its objective is not only to control the clone but also to further decrease the tumor burden and improve the quality of response. A number of randomized studies show a benefit from maintenance therapy with novel agents (until now, mostly thalidomide, at least in terms of response rate and progression-free survival (PFS. However, there is still a debate as concerns the impact on overall survival (OS and the optimal administration of maintenance therapy.

  13. Home advantage in the Winter Olympics (1908-1998).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmer, N J; Nevill, A M; Williams, A M

    2001-02-01

    We obtained indices of home advantage, based on the medals won by competing nations, for each event held at the Winter Olympics from 1908 to 1998. These indices were designed to assess home advantage while controlling for nation strength, changes in the number of medals on offer and the performance of 'non-hosting' nations. Some evidence of home advantage was found in figure skating, freestyle skiing, ski jumping, alpine skiing and short track speed skating. In contrast, little or no home advantage was observed in ice hockey, Nordic combined, Nordic skiing, bobsled, luge, biathlon or speed skating. When all events were combined, a significant home advantage was observed (P = 0.029), although no significant differences in the extent of home advantage were found between events (P > 0.05). When events were grouped according to whether they were subjectively assessed by judges, significantly greater home advantage was observed in the subjectively assessed events (P = 0.037). This was a reflection of better home performances, suggesting that judges were scoring home competitors disproportionately higher than away competitors. Familiarity with local conditions was shown to have some effect, particularly in alpine skiing, although the bobsled and luge showed little or no advantage over other events. Regression analysis showed that the number of time zones and direction of travel produced no discernible trends or differences in performance.

  14. The influence of sowing period and seeding norm on autumn vegetation, winter hardiness and yield of winter cereal crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potapova G. N.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available the winter wheat and triticale in the middle part of the Ural Mountains haven’t been seeded before. The technology of winter crop cultivation should be improved due to the production of new varieties of winter rye. Winter hardiness and yield of winter rye are higher in comparison with winter triticale and especially with winter wheat. The sowing period and the seeding rate influence the amount of yield and winter hardiness. The winter hardiness of winter cereals and the yield of the rye variety Iset sowed on August 25 and the yield of the triticale variety Bashkir short-stalked and wheat Kazanskaya 560 sowed on August 15 were higher. It is important to sow winter grain in local conditions in the second half of August. The sowing this period allows to provide plants with the necessary amount of positive temperatures (450–500 °C. This helps the plants to form 3–4 shoots of tillering and a mass of 10 dry plants reaching 3–5 grams. The winter grain crops in the middle part of the Ural Mountains should be sown with seeding rates of 6 and 7 million of sprouting grains per 1 ha, and the seeds must be cultivated with fungicidal preparation before seeding.

  15. Design of Preventive Maintenance Scheduling Model for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maintenance has gained in importance as a support function for ensuring equipment availability. Adoption of effective preventive maintenance culture in an industry can drastically reduce the cost of premature or over delayed maintenance, while accurate maintenance action can sustain continuous and reliable operation of ...

  16. 46 CFR 122.702 - Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maintenance. 122.702 Section 122.702 Shipping COAST..., Maintenance, and Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 122.702 Maintenance. (a) The manufacturer's instructions for onboard maintenance of survival craft, rescue boats, and launching appliances, manufactured on or...

  17. 23 CFR 633.208 - Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maintenance. 633.208 Section 633.208 Highways FEDERAL... PROVISIONS Federal-Aid Contracts (Appalachian Contracts) § 633.208 Maintenance. Maintenance of all highway... responsibility of the State. The State may arrange for maintenance of such roads or portions thereof, by...

  18. 46 CFR 185.702 - Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maintenance. 185.702 Section 185.702 Shipping COAST...) OPERATIONS Operational Readiness, Maintenance, and Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 185.702 Maintenance. (a) The manufacturer's instructions for onboard maintenance of survival craft, rescue boats, and...

  19. 18 CFR 367.81 - Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maintenance. 367.81... Expense Instructions § 367.81 Maintenance. (a) The cost of maintenance chargeable to the various operating... maintenance work. A list of work operations applicable generally to service company property is included in...

  20. Lifetime oriented maintenance planning in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straub, A.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we set up a framework for lifetime oriented maintenance planning as an outcome and input for strategic housing stock management. The maintenance planning holds maintenance activities and costs in the longer term. We consider the maintenance planning as a tool to calculate and implement

  1. Value of wild feedstuffs for pen-reared bobwhite quail in winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, R.B.; Bailey, W.W.; Martin, A.C.; McClure, H.E.

    1945-01-01

    During the winters of 1939-40 and 1940-41, two experiments involving 456 bobwhite quail, were conducted at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Bowie, Maryland, to determine the palatability and comparative feeding value of 20 common wild quail-foods when offered as a part of a maintenance diet....2. Mortality was low on all diets, the highest occurring on that containing a mixture of bayberry and wax myrtle fruits. On all diets the birds showed increases in weight during the early winter. These gains were better maintained by birds on the wild foods than those on control diets composed entirely of cultivated feedstuffs.....3. There were statistically significant differences between the quantities of the various diets eaten.....4. For palatability and acceptability, seeds of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) and of shrub lespedeza (Lespedeza bicolor) were the preferred wild foods.....5. It is concluded that pen-reared bobwhite quail can be maintained successfully through winters in the vicinity of Washington, D. C., on diets containing 50 per cent of any one of the wild foods listed and 50 per cent of a high-caloric commercial seed mixture with yellow corn as the principal cereal.....6. The results of these 'cafeteria' studies, although interesting and indicative of the preferences of quail in confinement, do not necessarily represent selections that might be. made by bobwhites in the wild.

  2. Olympic Health Legacy; Essentials for Lasting Development of Host City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Hee; Kim, Jung Moon

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of the Olympic Games should be to contribute to the social development by leaving behind economic, cultural and environmental legacies to the hosting region. While tangible examples such as venues are often recognized as representative legacies of the Olympics, intangible aspects such as the environment, culture, policy and human resources have been gaining in importance. The Olympic Games, at its most fundamental level, is a sporting event. Sports not only is closely related to the physical health, but is also instrumental to fostering mental health through inspiration. One of the most important sports legacies was the general change in the population's perception on sports and physical activities; due to such change, people were able to enjoy sports as part of healthy and active everyday life and benefit physically. However, compared to tangible legacies such as the facilities, social legacies such as the general health and their planning, execution and achievements are hard to monitor. Therefore, for the Olympics to leave behind socio-cultural legacies that contribute to the development of the hosting region, there must be a thorough business plan that takes into account region-specific purpose, and is divided into stages such as before, during and after the Games. Should the 2018 Winter Olympic Games hope to create continuing contribution to its hosting region, it must leave behind 'Health Legacies' that will enhance the happiness of the hosting region's population. To this end, establishment of region-specific purpose and systematic promotion of business via detailed analysis of precedents are a must. This article aim to review the health legacy endeavors of past host cities and suggest the appropriate forms of health legacy of 2018 Pyeongchang Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games.

  3. Olympic Health Legacy; Essentials for Lasting Development of Host City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Hee; Kim, Jung Moon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the Olympic Games should be to contribute to the social development by leaving behind economic, cultural and environmental legacies to the hosting region. While tangible examples such as venues are often recognized as representative legacies of the Olympics, intangible aspects such as the environment, culture, policy and human resources have been gaining in importance. The Olympic Games, at its most fundamental level, is a sporting event. Sports not only is closely related to the physical health, but is also instrumental to fostering mental health through inspiration. One of the most important sports legacies was the general change in the population’s perception on sports and physical activities; due to such change, people were able to enjoy sports as part of healthy and active everyday life and benefit physically. However, compared to tangible legacies such as the facilities, social legacies such as the general health and their planning, execution and achievements are hard to monitor. Therefore, for the Olympics to leave behind socio-cultural legacies that contribute to the development of the hosting region, there must be a thorough business plan that takes into account region-specific purpose, and is divided into stages such as before, during and after the Games. Should the 2018 Winter Olympic Games hope to create continuing contribution to its hosting region, it must leave behind ‘Health Legacies’ that will enhance the happiness of the hosting region’s population. To this end, establishment of region-specific purpose and systematic promotion of business via detailed analysis of precedents are a must. This article aim to review the health legacy endeavors of past host cities and suggest the appropriate forms of health legacy of 2018 Pyeongchang Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games. PMID:26064832

  4. Sensitivities in Structural Maintenance Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Michael Havbro; Kroon, I.B.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1996-01-01

    A general description of optimal inspection and maintenance planning based on the classical decision theory and the modern reliability theory is given. A number of simplifications to this description is given leading to more appropriate formulations for practical applications. Sensitivities of both...... optimal inspection and maintenance plans as well as the associated costs are given with respect to the assumptions on which the planning has been performed. These sensitivities indicate the significance of the individual assumptions and may be used as a decision tool to reject particular optimal...... inspection and maintenance plans showing too large sensitivity. An example from the offshore industry is given to indicate how the methodologies can be used in practical applications....

  5. Diverless maintenance in deep water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hals, B.E. [Oceaneering International Services, (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    The topic of diverless maintenance will address subsea production facilities in this paper. The major factors that determine diverless maintainability are development economics, maintenance philosophy, subsea hardware design, subsea intervention hardware, and compatibility of subsea hardware and remote work capabilities. The opportunity for developing and implementing low cost diverless installable and maintenable subsea facilities exist. Designs, hardwares, and procedures exist althoughmany of these have been combined into powerful solutions. This paper addresses the issues that need to be considered and provides one set of solutions. There are a number of other solutions that can be combined in a different set to provide a parallel but different solution. The challenge is to establish a process that defines the requirement, identifies the resources/capabilities, executes the work. 3 refs., 10 figs.

  6. Impacts of Pacific SSTs on California Winter Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myoung, B.; Kafatos, M.

    2017-12-01

    Consecutive below-normal precipitation years and resulted multi-year droughts are critical issues as the recent 2012-2015 drought of California caused tremendous socio-economic damages. However, studies on the causes of the multi-year droughts lack. In this study, focusing on the three multi-year droughts (1999-2002, 2007-2009, and 2012-2015) in California during the last two decades, we investigated the atmospheric and oceanic characteristics of the three drought events for winter (December-February, DJF) in order to understand large-scale circulations that are responsible for initiation, maintenance, and termination of the droughts. It was found that abnormally developed upper-tropospheric ridges over the North Pacific are primarily responsible for precipitation deficits and then droughts. These ridges developed when negative sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTs) including La Niña events are pervasive in the tropical Pacific. After 3 or 4 years, the droughts ended under the opposite conditions; upper-tropospheric troughs in the North Pacific with El Niño events in the tropics. Results of Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis for the 41-year (1974/75-2014/15) 500 hPa geopotential height in DJF revealed that, during the drought periods, the positive phases of the first and second EOF mode (EOF1+ and EOF2+, respectively) were active one by one, positioning upper-tropospheric ridges over the North Pacific. While EOF1+ is associated with cold tropical central Pacific and negative Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), EOF2+ is associated with the tropical east-west SST dipole pattern (i.e., warm western tropical Pacific and cool eastern tropical Pacific near the southern Peru). Based on these results, we developed a regression model for winter precipitation. While dominant SST factors differ by decades, for the recent two decades (1994/1995-2014/2015), 56% variability of DJF precipitation is explained by the tropical east-west SST dipole pattern and PDO (NINO3

  7. Maintenance as a corporate strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, D

    2000-11-01

    As we move towards the 21st century, those Manufacturing Industries that survive, will have changed their "efficiency" focus away from the conventional wisdom of "efficient individual tasks", to focus on the "effectiveness of a total manufacturing process". This seemingly insignificant change of emphasis, (from task to process) must include "the integration of process plant maintenance into the production process". Manufacturing companies, which do not include an effective plant maintenance strategy into their business strategy, will not survive the business environment of the 21st Century.

  8. NWCF maintenance features and capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.R.; Bingham, G.E.

    A New Waste Calcining Facility is being built at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant to replace the existing Waste Calcining Facility which was built to demonstrate fluidized-bed solidification of highly radioactive liquid wastes. The new facility is being designed to provide a higher waste throughput, more corrosion resistant materials of construction, more effective cleanup of effluent streams, and extensive remote maintenance and equipment replacement capability. The facility will also contain extensive decontamination capability should contact maintenance become necessary. The facility is presently in construction and is scheduled for hot operation in 1980

  9. A probabilistic maintenance model for diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathirana, Shan; Abeygunawardane, Saranga Kumudu

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a probabilistic maintenance model is developed for inspection based preventive maintenance of diesel engines based on the practical model concepts discussed in the literature. Developed model is solved using real data obtained from inspection and maintenance histories of diesel engines and experts' views. Reliability indices and costs were calculated for the present maintenance policy of diesel engines. A sensitivity analysis is conducted to observe the effect of inspection based preventive maintenance on the life cycle cost of diesel engines.

  10. Ecology of Culiseta Melanura and Other Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from Walton County, FL, During Winter Period 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D; Bingham, Andrea M; Hunt, Brenda; Morse, Gary; Unnasch, Thomas R

    2015-09-01

    Winter ecology of putative vectors of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV) in northern Florida was investigated at field locations with evidence of historic EEEV winter transmission. Light traps and resting shelters were used to sample the mosquito community in the vicinity of eight sentinel flocks throughout the winter period (November-April) of 2013 and 2014 in Walton County, FL. Overall mosquito activity was relatively low, although mosquitoes were captured during each week of the study period. Mosquito activity was linked to morning temperature, and females were captured when ambient morning temperatures were quite low (1-5°C). Anopheles crucians Wiedemann, Culex erraticus (Dyar and Knab), Culex territans Walker, and Culiseta melanura (Coquillett) were the most commonly collected mosquito species (of 20 total species). Analysis of blood-engorged mosquitoes revealed a number of mosquito species feeding upon chickens, other birds, amphibians, and domestic and wild mammals. Cs. melanura fed primarily upon chickens and songbirds (Passeriformes), suggesting that this mosquito species is the likely winter vector of EEEV to sentinel chickens in northern Florida. Both resident and nonresident songbird species were fed upon, constituting 63.9 and 36.1% of total songbird meals, respectively. Our results suggest important roles for Cs. melanura and songbird hosts for the winter transmission of EEEV in northern Florida. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Proceedings of the workshop on better nuclear plant maintenance: improving human and organisational performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    A significant proportion of nuclear plant events is attributable to failures that take place during maintenance and periodic testing. Human and organisational factors are frequently identified as making a major contribution to these events. Despite this recognition, licensee and regulatory oversight in the human and organisational area has tended to focus more on operational matters than maintenance. Owing to the importance of human and organisational performance on nuclear plant maintenance, the CSNI Special Experts' Group on Human and Organisational Factors (SEGHOF) hosted a workshop entitled 'Better nuclear plant maintenance: improving human and organisational performance'. The workshop provided an international forum for staff from nuclear plants, research bodies, and regulators to discuss human and organisational challenges to maintenance, and initiatives to support effective performance. Over 60 participants from about 20 countries participated. The workshop was divided into five sessions: 1) International guidance to improve maintenance performance; 2) Lessons learned through maintenance operating experience; 3) Licensee initiatives to support reliable maintenance; 4) Regulatory approaches to assuring effective licensee maintenance; and 5) Recent trends and their impact on maintenance. Sessions commenced with oral presentations of papers followed by break-out and plenary discussions. Session 4 on regulatory approaches included short presentations from ten regulatory bodies and was followed by discussion comparing these approaches. The main findings of the workshop concern: the retirements of experienced staff; the increasing use of contractors to perform maintenance activities; the use of skill-broadening in maintenance; the role of supervisors at the plant level; the organisational changes that are used to optimise the use of plant staff resources; the effective planning of maintenance tasks; the time allowed to complete maintenance tasks; the development

  12. Host niches and defensive extended phenotypes structure parasitoid wasp communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Bailey

    2009-08-01

    spatiotemporal traits on community structure can be high, reaching 62% in one analysis. The observed patterns derive mainly from partial niche specialisation of highly generalist parasitoids with broad host ranges (>20 hosts, rather than strict separation of enemies with narrower host ranges, and so may contribute to maintenance of the richness of generalist parasitoids in gallwasp communities. Though evolutionary escape from parasitoids might most effectively be achieved via changes in host oak taxon, extreme conservatism in this trait for gallwasps suggests that selection is more likely to have acted on gall morphology and location. Any escape from parasitoids associated with evolutionary shifts in these traits has probably only been transient, however, due to subsequent recruitment of parasitoid species already attacking other host galls with similar trait combinations.

  13. Host Niches and Defensive Extended Phenotypes Structure Parasitoid Wasp Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Richard; Schönrogge, Karsten; Cook, James M.; Melika, George; Csóka, György; Thuróczy, Csaba; Stone, Graham N.

    2009-01-01

    traits on community structure can be high, reaching 62% in one analysis. The observed patterns derive mainly from partial niche specialisation of highly generalist parasitoids with broad host ranges (>20 hosts), rather than strict separation of enemies with narrower host ranges, and so may contribute to maintenance of the richness of generalist parasitoids in gallwasp communities. Though evolutionary escape from parasitoids might most effectively be achieved via changes in host oak taxon, extreme conservatism in this trait for gallwasps suggests that selection is more likely to have acted on gall morphology and location. Any escape from parasitoids associated with evolutionary shifts in these traits has probably only been transient, however, due to subsequent recruitment of parasitoid species already attacking other host galls with similar trait combinations. PMID:19707266

  14. HostPhinder: A Phage Host Prediction Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Villarroel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The current dramatic increase of antibiotic resistant bacteria has revitalised the interest in bacteriophages as alternative antibacterial treatment. Meanwhile, the development of bioinformatics methods for analysing genomic data places high-throughput approaches for phage characterization within reach. Here, we present HostPhinder, a tool aimed at predicting the bacterial host of phages by examining the phage genome sequence. Using a reference database of 2196 phages with known hosts, HostPhinder predicts the host species of a query phage as the host of the most genomically similar reference phages. As a measure of genomic similarity the number of co-occurring k-mers (DNA sequences of length k is used. Using an independent evaluation set, HostPhinder was able to correctly predict host genus and species for 81% and 74% of the phages respectively, giving predictions for more phages than BLAST and significantly outperforming BLAST on phages for which both had predictions. HostPhinder predictions on phage draft genomes from the INTESTI phage cocktail corresponded well with the advertised targets of the cocktail. Our study indicates that for most phages genomic similarity correlates well with related bacterial hosts. HostPhinder is available as an interactive web service [1] and as a stand alone download from the Docker registry [2].

  15. Comparing mechanisms of host manipulation across host and parasite taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Shaw, Jenny C.

    2013-01-01

    Parasites affect host behavior in several ways. They can alter activity, microhabitats or both. For trophically transmitted parasites (the focus of our study), decreased activity might impair the ability of hosts to respond to final-host predators, and increased activity and altered microhabitat choice might increase contact rates between hosts and final-host predators. In an analysis of trophically transmitted parasites, more parasite groups altered activity than altered microhabitat choice. Parasites that infected vertebrates were more likely to impair the host’s reaction to predators, whereas parasites that infected invertebrates were more likely to increase the host’s contact with predators. The site of infection might affect how parasites manipulate their hosts. For instance, parasites in the central nervous system seem particularly suited to manipulating host behavior. Manipulative parasites commonly occupy the body cavity, muscles and central nervous systems of their hosts. Acanthocephalans in the data set differed from other taxa in that they occurred exclusively in the body cavity of invertebrates. In addition, they were more likely to alter microhabitat choice than activity. Parasites in the body cavity (across parasite types) were more likely to be associated with increased host contact with predators. Parasites can manipulate the host through energetic drain, but most parasites use more sophisticated means. For instance, parasites target four physiological systems that shape behavior in both invertebrates and vertebrates: neural, endocrine, neuromodulatory and immunomodulatory. The interconnections between these systems make it difficult to isolate specific mechanisms of host behavioral manipulation.

  16. The maintenance management framework models and methods for complex systems maintenance

    CERN Document Server

    Crespo Márquez, Adolfo

    2010-01-01

    “The Maintenance Management Framework” describes and reviews the concept, process and framework of modern maintenance management of complex systems; concentrating specifically on modern modelling tools (deterministic and empirical) for maintenance planning and scheduling. It will be bought by engineers and professionals involved in maintenance management, maintenance engineering, operations management, quality, etc. as well as graduate students and researchers in this field.

  17. TMS 3000 high pressure spray system. A new concept for stationary prevention of winter-induced dangers on roads and highways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodard, P.A. [Boschung Mecatronic SA (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    The BOSCHUNG products for winter service are in use world-wide with great success. Fixed and mobile equipments for both surface condition assessment (on-board sensors or Ice early warning systems) and surface treatment (snow plows, salt spreaders or fixed automated spray technology), as well as state-of-the-art data display and management software are all part of the unique product range of the Boschung group of companies. With nearly 50 years of experience in the machinery and over 30 years of experience in the electronics, Boschung clearly paves the way of winter maintenance equipment. (orig.)

  18. [Potential role of winter rape weeds in the extension of broomrape in Poitou-Charentes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibot-Leclerc, Stéphanie; Brault, Marianne; Pinochet, Xavier; Sallé, Georges

    2003-07-01

    In the Poitou-Charentes district, among the 82 species of winter rape weeds identified, 22 displayed a strong affinity for this crop (Brassica napus L.). In fields, 50% of these weeds were parasitized by Orobanche ramosa, playing the role of host plants. Greenhouse co-cultures (weed/Orobanche ramosa) showed that weeds non-parasitized in fields could be attacked by broomrape, developing a more or less complete cycle. In vitro co-cultures (weed/Orobanche ramosa) revealed that root exudates of non-parasitized weeds, in fields or in greenhouse co-cultures, could induce Orobanche ramosa seed germination, but not attachment. These weeds could play the role of false hosts.

  19. Spectrum of winter dermatoses in rural Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kamel, Mohamed A

    2016-05-01

    Surveys that have been carried out to determine the prevalence of skin diseases in rural Yemen are scarce or not available. To investigate the spectrum of winter dermatoses in a rural Yemeni community. A retrospective study was conducted at the dermatology outpatient clinic of the Al-Helal Specialized Hospital (Radaa' district of Al Bayda' Governorate) using data analysis of 700 selected records of patients managed during four months of the 2013-14 winter season. Seven hundred patients with 730 diseases were reported in this study; the major bulk of patients (46.57%) were in the >18-40-year age group, and females outnumbered males. By far, dermatitis, eczematous, and allergic disorders (38.49%) topped the list of the most frequent skin disorders groups, followed by skin infections and infestations (20%) and the pigmentary disorders (13.70%) group. Contact dermatitis (10.68%) was the most prevalent skin disorder, followed by hyperpigmentations (8.77%), acne (8.08%), viral infections (5.75%), atopic dermatitis (5.62%), and parasitic infestations (5.34%). This survey has documented the spectrum of winter dermatoses in a rural Yemeni community but also reflects the pattern of common dermatoses in the whole country. Dermatitis, eczematous, and allergic disorders, skin infections, and pigmentary disorders are the commonest groups. Contact dermatitis is the most prevalent disorder, and leishmaniasis is the most prevalent skin infectious disease. Climate, occupational, social, and environmental factors are the main contributors. Such statistics can form an important basis for community-based health policies. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  20. Does Zoning Winter Recreationists Reduce Recreation Conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Aubrey D.; Vaske, Jerry J.; Squires, John R.; Olson, Lucretia E.; Roberts, Elizabeth K.

    2017-01-01

    Parks and protected area managers use zoning to decrease interpersonal conflict between recreationists. Zoning, or segregation, of recreation—often by non-motorized and motorized activity—is designed to limit physical interaction while providing recreation opportunities to both groups. This article investigated the effectiveness of zoning to reduce recreation conflict in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area in Colorado, USA. Despite a zoning management system, established groomed travel routes were used by both non-motorized recreationists (backcountry skiers, snowboarders, snowshoers) and motorized recreationists (snowmobilers). We hypothesized that persistent recreation conflict reported by non-motorized recreationists was the result of recreation occurring in areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use, mostly along groomed routes. We performed a geospatial analysis of recreation [from Global Positioning System (GPS) points, n = 1,233,449] in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area to identify areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use. We then surveyed non-motorized recreationists ( n = 199) to test whether reported conflict is higher for respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with respondents traveling outside areas of mixed-use. Results from the geospatial analysis showed that only 0.7 % of the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area contained recreation from both groups, however that area contained 14.8 % of all non-motorized recreation and 49.1 % of all motorized recreation. Survey analysis results showed higher interpersonal conflict for all five standard conflict variables among non-motorized respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with those traveling outside mixed-use areas. Management implications and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of zoning are provided.

  1. CARROT SEED GROWING THROUGH WINTERING SEEDLINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Zvedenuk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of research work on carrot seed growing through wintering seedlings carried out at laboratory of seed studies and seed production of Transnistrian Research Institute of Agriculture, on the soil of the first terrace at the rive Dniester were presented in the article. Seed bearing plants of garden carrot ‘Krasavka’ were the object of the study. The seeds were sown to produce the seedlings on 15-16 August. In the first decade of December the plants were covered with white agrotextile with density 23g/m2 that was removed at the beginning of April. The proportion of plant that passed the winter depending on a year of cultivation was 95-100% under argotextile, and 50-80% in open plot. The plants under agrotextile reached 28 cm a high and had 5-7 well-developed leaves, while those on the open plot were at phase of active foliage growing about 10-13 cm. long. Thus, for early mechanized planting in optimal terms the wintering seedlings grown under agrotextile had the best biometrical characteristics. Moreover the outcome of carrot seedlings was 1.2-1.25 million per hectare. Such quantity of seedlings was sufficient to plant 9-10 ha of carrot plants, where the coefficient of multiplication reached 9-10, and only 3 when growing seeds through mother plant as biennial culture. Viability of seed plants grown through seedlings was 100%. Losses of plant with weight 120-150 grams from damage caused by diseases was 23%. The seed yield, when growing seedlings was 639 kg/ha, but growing through plants was 332 kg/ha. The seed outcome suitable for precise mechanized sowing through seedling growing was 77%, where seed germination was 90%, with seed fraction 1.51 and >2.0 mm. It was essentially improved their yielding characteristics. Seed outcome from this fraction obtained through planting method was 32%. The proportion of seeds in fraction 1-1.5 mm was 68%. For mechanized single-seed sowing, the seeds can be used only after mini-coating. The seed

  2. Efficiency of foliar dressing of winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Л. В. Худолій

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To elaborate winter wheat cultivation technologies based on balanced fertilizer system that combines application of mineral fertilizers and the increase of their efficiency by the use of preparations with microelements. Methods. Field and laboratory studies, mathematical and statistical analysis. Results. During 2011–2013, the effect of cultivation technologies on the formation of yield and quality of winter wheat varie­ty ‘Benefis’ (pea is a predecessor was studied. In case of alternative technologies that provided adding only by-products of the predecessor, the yield of winter wheat was 3.73 t/ha when using integrated protection system, and it was increased to 4.22 t/ha with grain quality of the 4th–5th class of the group B when foliar dressing was applied. Resource saving technologies of cultivation with restricted use of fertilizers (Р45К45N30(II+30(IV provided productivity at the level of 5.19–5.61 t/ha with grain quality of the 2nd–3rd class of the group A. Grain yield of 6.27 t/ha of the 2nd class quality was obtained by the use of intensive cultivation technology, which included application of mineral fertilizers (Р90К90N30(II+60(IV+30(VIII in addition to the use of predecessor’s by-products and foliar dressing. The highest yield of grain (6.71 t/ha on average during all years of the study with the 1st class of the group A quality was provided by energy-intensive technology, which included application of P135K135N60(II+75(IV+45(VIII with embedding of predecessor’s by-products into the soil and foliar dressing. Conclusions. It was established that in the northern part of the Forest-Steppe zone of Ukraine the highest productivity of winter wheat was obtained in dark gray podzolic soils using the energy-intensive technology with application of P135K135N60(II+75(IV+45(VIII against the background of predecessor’s by-products embedded into the soil in case of integrated plant protection, and foliar dres

  3. Mechanical weed control in organic winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euro Pannacci

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Three field experiments were carried out in organic winter wheat in three consecutive years (exp. 1, 2005-06; exp. 2, 2006- 07; exp. 3, 2007-08 in central Italy (42°57’ N - 12°22’ E, 165 m a.s.l. in order to evaluate the efficacy against weeds and the effects on winter wheat of two main mechanical weed control strategies: i spring tine harrowing used at three different application times (1 passage at T1, 2 passages at the time T1, 1 passage at T1 followed by 1 passage at T1 + 14 days in the crop sowed at narrow (traditional row spacing (0.15 m; and ii split-hoeing and finger-weeder, alone and combined at T1, in the crop sowed at wider row spacing (0.30 m. At the time T1 winter wheat was at tillering and weeds were at the cotyledons-2 true leaves growth stage. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replicates. Six weeks after mechanical treatments, weed ground cover (% was rated visually using the Braun-Blanquet coverabundance scale; weeds on three squares (0.6×0.5 m each one per plot were collected, counted, weighed, dried in oven at 105°C to determine weed density and weed above-ground dry biomass. At harvest, wheat ears density, grain yield, weight of 1000 seeds and hectolitre weight were recorded. Total weed flora was quite different in the three experiments. The main weed species were: Polygonum aviculare L. (exp. 1 and 2, Fallopia convolvulus (L. Á. Löve (exp. 1 and 3, Stachys annua (L. L. (exp. 1, Anagallis arvensis L. (exp. 2, Papaver rhoeas L. (exp.3, Veronica hederifolia L. (exp. 3. In the winter wheat sowed at narrow rows, 2 passages with spring-tine harrowing at the same time seems to be the best option in order to reconcile a good efficacy with the feasibility of treatment. In wider rows spacing the best weed control was obtained by split hoeing alone or combined with finger-weeder. The grain yield, on average 10% higher in narrow rows, the lower costs and the good selectivity of spring-tine harrowing

  4. NS Pudarka: A new winter wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-yielding, medium late winter wheat cultivar NS Pudarka was developed by crossing genetic divergent parents: line NMNH-07 and cv. NS 40S and Simonida. In cultivar NS Pudarka genes responsible for high yield potential, very good technological quality, resistance to lodging, low temperature and diseases, were successfully combined. It was registered by Ministry of agriculture, forestry and water management of Serbia Republic in 2013. This cultivar has wide adaptability and stability of yield that enable growing in different environments with optimal agricultural practice. On the base of technological quality this cultivar belongs to the second quality class, A2 farinograph subgroup and second technological group.

  5. Maintenance Sourcebook: Landscaping and Grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macht, Carol; Gomulka, Ken; Harper, Wayne; Conry, Terry

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that facility managers need continual education in many subjects to keep their campuses in excellent condition, highlighting four areas related to landscaping and maintenance: landscaping care; athletic field care; grounds care; and equipment care. Lists of relevant professional organizations are included. (SM)

  6. Maintenance of CERN telephone exchanges

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    A maintenance of CERN telephone exchanges will be performed on 21st, 22nd, 23rd, 24th of September from 7 p.m. to 9 p.m. Disturbances or even interruptions of telephony services may occur during this lapse of time. We apology in advance for any inconveniences that this may cause.

  7. Child Custody, Visitation and Maintenance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigussie Afesha

    2017-12-30

    Dec 30, 2017 ... Abstract. Although divorce disrupts the marital bond thereby terminating marital rights and obligations, each parent's obligations to the wellbeing and upbringing of children (custody, visitation rights, and maintenance) persists. This article examines the practice of courts with regard to child custody, visitation ...

  8. Maintenance as a safety issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jim

    2008-11-01

    Because safety is related to electrical power systems maintenance, it seems reasonable to assume there could be legal issues if maintenance is not performed. OSHA has not yet taken the stand that not performing maintenance as required by the manufacturer, NFPA 70B, or ANSI/NETA MTS-07 constitutes a willful violation. OSHA defines a willful citation as one where: "the employer knowingly commits with plain indifference to the law. The employer either knows that what he or she is doing constitutes a violation, or is aware that a hazardous condition existed and made no reasonable effort to eliminate it". However, NFPA 70E 2009 requires this maintenance, and OSHA has stated on its Web site that NFPA 70E is "a guide for meeting the requirements of the OSHA electrical regulations". In addition, federal courts have found that NFPA 70E is "standard industry practice." Once a company receives and accepts a willful citation, especially if received as the result of an accident investigation, its worker's compensation protection no longer shields it. One definition given by a trial attorney for a willful citation was that it is equal to negligent behavior. Be smart: Maintain that equipment and save yourself major problems, including unscheduled shutdowns and possible litigation.

  9. Computer-Assisted School Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mike

    2012-01-01

    At thousands of schools and universities, years of economic troubles have led to repeated budget cuts. The reductions typically fall disproportionately on maintenance departments, where cuts are viewed as less critical than those that directly affect classroom instruction. And so nearly every facility manager at an education institution faces a…

  10. Electrical Mechanical Maintenance. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Clara County Superintendent of Schools, San Jose, CA.

    This instructor's guide describes the development of a sixteen-week postsecondary course in electrical mechanical maintenance. Following introductory sections that provide background information and a course summary, the third section describes the instructional model used in the course. Section 4 presents an overview of instructional media used…

  11. The Nordic maintenance care program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmqvist, Stefan; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    Maintenance care is a well known concept among chiropractors, although there is little knowledge about its exact definition, its indications and usefulness. As an initial step in a research program on this phenomenon, it was necessary to identify chiropractors' rationale for their use of maintena...

  12. Building Maintenance. Student Learning Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm Beach County Board of Public Instruction, West Palm Beach, FL.

    This student learning guide contains one module for completing a course in building maintenance. It is designed especially for use in secondary schools in Palm Beach County, Florida. The module covers one task, and consists of a purpose, performance objective, enabling objectives, learning activities keyed to resources, information sheets, student…

  13. Afrikaans Language Maintenance in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatoss, Aniko; Starks, Donna; van Rensburg, Henriette Janse

    2011-01-01

    Changes in the political climate in the home country have resulted in the emigration of South Africans to English speaking countries such as Britain, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Despite the scale of movement of the South African population, language maintenance in these diasporic contexts has received little consideration. This paper…

  14. Project Surveillance and Maintenance Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    The Project Surveillance and Maintenance Plan (PSMP) describes the procedures that will be used by the US Department of Energy (DOE), or other agency as designated by the President to verify that inactive uranium tailings disposal facilities remain in compliance with licensing requirements and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for remedial actions. The PSMP will be used as a guide for the development of individual Site Surveillance and Maintenance Plans (part of a license application) for each of the UMTRA Project sites. The PSMP is not intended to provide minimum requirements but rather to provide guidance in the selection of surveillance measures. For example, the plan acknowledges that ground-water monitoring may or may not be required and provides the [guidance] to make this decision. The Site Surveillance and Maintenance Plans (SSMPs) will form the basis for the licensing of the long-term surveillance and maintenance of each UMTRA Project site by the NRC. Therefore, the PSMP is a key milestone in the licensing process of all UMTRA Project sites. The Project Licensing Plan (DOE, 1984a) describes the licensing process. 11 refs., 22 figs., 8 tabs

  15. Maintenance optimisation at Rovno NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, R.

    2008-01-01

    The presentation gives up-to-date information about the implementations of the maintenance activities. 20+ Energoatom personnel trained have been in the RCM methodology. Make Up Water and Boric Acid Regulation System RCM analysis is complete. RCM Report, including RCM Software output, is complete. Supporting Safety Submission to SNRCU is currently being drafted. Comprehensive assessment of RNPP Condition Monitoring capabilities is near completion

  16. Proceedings of the Canadian Nuclear Society CANDU maintenance conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The conference proceedings comprise 51 papers on the following aspects of maintenance of CANDU reactors: Major maintenance projects, maintenance planning and preparation, maintenance effectiveness, future maintenance issues, safety and radiation protection. The individual papers have been abstracted separately

  17. Estimating contribution of anthocyanin pigments to osmotic adjustment during winter leaf reddening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Nicole M; Carpenter, Kaylyn L; Cannon, Jonathan G

    2013-01-15

    The association between plant water stress and synthesis of red, anthocyanin pigments in leaves has led some plant biologists to propose an osmotic function of leaf reddening. According to this hypothesis, anthocyanins function as a solute in osmotic adjustment (OA), contributing to depression of osmotic potential (Ψ(π)) and maintenance of turgor pressure during drought-stressed conditions. Here we calculate the percent contribution of anthocyanin to leaf Ψ(π) during OA in two angiosperm evergreen species, Galax urceolata and Gaultheria procumbens. Both species exhibit dramatic leaf reddening under high light during winter, concomitant with declines in leaf water potential and accumulation of solutes. Data previously published by the authors on osmotic potential at full turgor (Ψ(π,100)) of G. urceolata and G. procumbens leaves before and after leaf reddening were used to estimate OA. In vivo molar concentrations of anthocyanin, glucose, fructose, and sucrose measured from the same individuals were converted to pressure equivalents using the Ideal Gas Law, and percent contribution to OA was estimated. Estimated mean OA during winter was -0.7MPa for G. urceolata and -0.8MPa for G. procumbens. In vivo concentrations of anthocyanin (3-10mM) were estimated to account for ∼2% of OA during winter, and comprised <0.7% of Ψ(π,100) in both species. Glucose, fructose, and sucrose combined accounted for roughly 50 and 80% of OA for G. urceolata and G. procumbens, respectively, and comprised ∼20% of Ψ(π,100). We observed that a co-occurring, acyanic species (Vinca minor) achieved similar OA without synthesizing anthocyanin. We conclude that anthocyanins represent a measurable, albeit meager, component of OA in red-leafed evergreen species during winter. However, due to their low concentrations, metabolic costliness relative to other osmolytes, and striking red color (unnecessary for an osmotic function), it is unlikely that they are synthesized solely for an

  18. Remote maintenance systems requirements are being developed to provide design guidelines for machine components, to define maintenance interfaces, and to quantify maintenance equipment and procedures needed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spampinato, P.T.; Tabor, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    Remote maintenance systems requirements are being developed to provide design guidelines for machine components, to define maintenance interfaces, and to quantify maintenance equipment and procedures needed

  19. Maintenance-Ready Web Application Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IVAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paper tackles the subject of developing maintenance-ready web applications. Maintenance is presented as a core stage in a web application’s lifecycle. The concept of maintenance-ready is defined in the context of web application development. Web application maintenance tasks types are enunciated and suitable task types are identified for further analysis. The research hypothesis is formulated based on a direct link between tackling maintenance in the development stage and reducing overall maintenance costs. A live maintenance-ready web application is presented and maintenance related aspects are highlighted. The web application’s features, that render it maintenance-ready, are emphasize. The cost of designing and building the web-application to be maintenance-ready are disclosed. The savings in maintenance development effort facilitated by maintenance ready features are also disclosed. Maintenance data is collected from 40 projects implemented by a web development company. Homogeneity and diversity of collected data is evaluated. A data sample is presented and the size and comprehensive nature of the entire dataset is depicted. Research hypothesis are validated and conclusions are formulated on the topic of developing maintenance-ready web applications. The limits of the research process which represented the basis for the current paper are enunciated. Future research topics are submitted for debate.

  20. The Drosophila melanogaster host model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igboin, Christina O.; Griffen, Ann L.; Leys, Eugene J.

    2012-01-01

    The deleterious and sometimes fatal outcomes of bacterial infectious diseases are the net result of the interactions between the pathogen and the host, and the genetically tractable fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has emerged as a valuable tool for modeling the pathogen–host interactions of a wide variety of bacteria. These studies have revealed that there is a remarkable conservation of bacterial pathogenesis and host defence mechanisms between higher host organisms and Drosophila. This review presents an in-depth discussion of the Drosophila immune response, the Drosophila killing model, and the use of the model to examine bacterial–host interactions. The recent introduction of the Drosophila model into the oral microbiology field is discussed, specifically the use of the model to examine Porphyromonas gingivalis–host interactions, and finally the potential uses of this powerful model system to further elucidate oral bacterial-host interactions are addressed. PMID:22368770

  1. Host genetics affect microbial ecosystems via host immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kafsi, Hela; Gorochov, Guy; Larsen, Martin

    2016-10-01

    Genetic evolution of multicellular organisms has occurred in response to environmental challenges, including competition for nutrients, climate change, physical and chemical stressors, and pathogens. However, fitness of an organism is dependent not only on defense efficacy, but also on the ability to take advantage of symbiotic organisms. Indeed, microbes not only encompass pathogenicity, but also enable efficient nutrient uptake from diets nondegradable by the host itself. Moreover, microbes play important roles in the development of host immunity. Here we review associations between specific host genes and variance in microbiota composition and compare with interactions between microbes and host immunity. Recent genome-wide association studies reveal that symbiosis between host and microbiota is the exquisite result of genetic coevolution. Moreover, a subset of microbes from human and mouse microbiota have been identified to interact with humoral and cellular immunity. Interestingly, microbes associated with both host genetics and host immunity are taxonomically related. Most involved are Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Akkermansia, which are dually associated with both host immunity and host genetics. We conclude that future therapeutics targeting microbiota in the context of chronic inflammatory diseases need to consider both immune and genetic host features associated with microbiota homeostasis.

  2. Warmed Winter Water Temperatures Alter Reproduction in Two Fish Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firkus, Tyler; Rahel, Frank J; Bergman, Harold L; Cherrington, Brian D

    2018-02-01

    We examined the spawning success of Fathead Minnows (Pimephales promelas) and Johnny Darters (Etheostoma nigrum) exposed to elevated winter water temperatures typical of streams characterized by anthropogenic thermal inputs. When Fathead Minnows were exposed to temperature treatments of 12, 16, or 20 °C during the winter, spawning occurred at 16 and 20 °C but not 12 °C. Eggs were deposited over 9 weeks before winter spawning ceased. Fathead Minnows from the three winter temperature treatments were then exposed to a simulated spring transition. Spawning occurred at all three temperature treatments during the spring, but fish from the 16° and 20 °C treatment had delayed egg production indicating a latent effect of warm winter temperatures on spring spawning. mRNA analysis of the egg yolk protein vitellogenin showed elevated expression in female Fathead Minnows at 16 and 20 °C during winter spawning that decreased after winter spawning ceased, whereas Fathead Minnows at 12 °C maintained comparatively low expression during winter. Johnny Darters were exposed to 4 °C to represent winter temperatures in the absence of thermal inputs, and 12, 16, and 20 °C to represent varying degrees of winter thermal pollution. Johnny Darters spawned during winter at 12, 16, and 20 °C but not at 4 °C. Johnny Darters at 4 °C subsequently spawned following a simulated spring period while those at 12, 16, and 20 °C did not. Our results indicate elevated winter water temperatures common in effluent-dominated streams can promote out-of-season spawning and that vitellogenin expression is a useful indicator of spawning readiness for fish exposed to elevated winter temperatures.

  3. Warmed Winter Water Temperatures Alter Reproduction in Two Fish Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firkus, Tyler; Rahel, Frank J.; Bergman, Harold L.; Cherrington, Brian D.

    2018-02-01

    We examined the spawning success of Fathead Minnows ( Pimephales promelas) and Johnny Darters ( Etheostoma nigrum) exposed to elevated winter water temperatures typical of streams characterized by anthropogenic thermal inputs. When Fathead Minnows were exposed to temperature treatments of 12, 16, or 20 °C during the winter, spawning occurred at 16 and 20 °C but not 12 °C. Eggs were deposited over 9 weeks before winter spawning ceased. Fathead Minnows from the three winter temperature treatments were then exposed to a simulated spring transition. Spawning occurred at all three temperature treatments during the spring, but fish from the 16° and 20 °C treatment had delayed egg production indicating a latent effect of warm winter temperatures on spring spawning. mRNA analysis of the egg yolk protein vitellogenin showed elevated expression in female Fathead Minnows at 16 and 20 °C during winter spawning that decreased after winter spawning ceased, whereas Fathead Minnows at 12 °C maintained comparatively low expression during winter. Johnny Darters were exposed to 4 °C to represent winter temperatures in the absence of thermal inputs, and 12, 16, and 20 °C to represent varying degrees of winter thermal pollution. Johnny Darters spawned during winter at 12, 16, and 20 °C but not at 4 °C. Johnny Darters at 4 °C subsequently spawned following a simulated spring period while those at 12, 16, and 20 °C did not. Our results indicate elevated winter water temperatures common in effluent-dominated streams can promote out-of-season spawning and that vitellogenin expression is a useful indicator of spawning readiness for fish exposed to elevated winter temperatures.

  4. Historical Way of Sochi Development: From Resort to Olympic Games Host City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina N. Markaryan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article traces historical way of destination development from resort to Winter Olympic Games host city, discloses the unusual method of natural resources use both for resort treatment and winter sports development. The characteristic of unique natural and climatic conditions and curative factors of the resort, such as mineral springs, landscapes, climate, Esto Sadok, Roza Khutor, Krasnaya Ployana, Laura ski resorts is presented. The article analyzes sports facilities and the use of Sochi as a center for athletes’ rehabilitation. The future use of Olympic facilities, both exhibition, shopping and entertainment and business centers is revealed. The zone of international hospitality will enable Sochi to develop as international resort.

  5. Maximum host survival at intermediate parasite infection intensities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Stjernman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although parasitism has been acknowledged as an important selective force in the evolution of host life histories, studies of fitness effects of parasites in wild populations have yielded mixed results. One reason for this may be that most studies only test for a linear relationship between infection intensity and host fitness. If resistance to parasites is costly, however, fitness may be reduced both for hosts with low infection intensities (cost of resistance and high infection intensities (cost of parasitism, such that individuals with intermediate infection intensities have highest fitness. Under this scenario one would expect a non-linear relationship between infection intensity and fitness. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using data from blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus in southern Sweden, we investigated the relationship between the intensity of infection of its blood parasite (Haemoproteus majoris and host survival to the following winter. Presence and intensity of parasite infections were determined by microscopy and confirmed using PCR of a 480 bp section of the cytochrome-b-gene. While a linear model suggested no relationship between parasite intensity and survival (F = 0.01, p = 0.94, a non-linear model showed a significant negative quadratic effect (quadratic parasite intensity: F = 4.65, p = 0.032; linear parasite intensity F = 4.47, p = 0.035. Visualization using the cubic spline technique showed maximum survival at intermediate parasite intensities. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that failing to recognize the potential for a non-linear relationship between parasite infection intensity and host fitness may lead to the potentially erroneous conclusion that the parasite is harmless to its host. Here we show that high parasite intensities indeed reduced survival, but this effect was masked by reduced survival for birds heavily suppressing their parasite intensities. Reduced survival among hosts with low

  6. Blue Creek Winter Range: Wildlife Mitigation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This preliminary Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of securing land and conducting wildlife habitat enhancement and long term management activities within the boundaries of the Spokane Indian Reservation. Four proposed activities are analyzed: Habitat protection; Habitat enhancement; Operation and maintenance; and Monitoring and evaluation. The proposed action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wildlife habitat adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee Dam and its reservoir

  7. Aspen Winter Conferences on High Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2011-02-12

    The 2011 Aspen Winter Conference on Particle Physics was held at the Aspen Center for Physics from February 12 to February 18, 2011. Ninety-four participants from ten countries, and several universities and national labs attended the workshop titled, "New Data From the Energy Frontier." There were 54 formal talks, and a considerable number of informal discussions held during the week. The week's events included a public lecture ("The Hunt for the Elusive Higgs Boson" given by Ben Kilminster from Ohio State University) and attended by 119 members of the public, and a physics cafe geared for high schoolers that is a discussion with physicists. The 2011 Aspen Winter Conference on Astroparticle physics held at the Aspen Center for Physics was "Indirect and Direct Detection of Dark Matter." It was held from February 6 to February 12, 2011. The 70 participants came from 7 countries and attended 53 talks over five days. Late mornings through the afternoon are reserved for informal discussions. In feedback received from participants, it is often these unplanned chats that produce the most excitement due to working through problems with fellow physicists from other institutions and countries or due to incipient collaborations. In addition, Blas Cabrera of Stanford University gave a public lecture titled "What Makes Up Dark Matter." There were 183 members of the general public in attendance. Before the lecture, 45 people attended the physics cafe to discuss dark matter. This report provides the attendee lists, programs, and announcement posters for each event.

  8. Regional greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of winter wheat and winter rapeseed for biofuels in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsgaard, Lars; Olesen, Jørgen E; Hermansen, John Erik

    2013-01-01

    by such regional factors as soil conditions, climate and input of agrochemicals. Here we analysed at a regional scale the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with cultivation of winter wheat for bioethanol and winter rapeseed for rapeseed methyl ester (RME) under Danish conditions. Emitted CO2 equivalents...... (CO2eq) were quantified from the footprints of CO2, CH4 and N2O associated with cultivation and the emissions were allocated between biofuel energy and co-products. Greenhouse gas emission at the national level (Denmark) was estimated to 22.1 g CO2eq MJ−1 ethanol for winter wheat and 26.0 g CO2eq MJ−1...... RME for winter rapeseed. Results at the regional level (level 2 according to the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics [NUTS]) ranged from 20.0 to 23.9 g CO2eq MJ−1 ethanol and from 23.5 to 27.6 g CO2eq MJ−1 RME. Thus, at the regional level emission results varied by up to 20%. Differences...

  9. Winter-APK voor bijen : Helpt u deze winter mee bij het praktijkonderzoek?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Som de Cerff, B.; Cornelissen, B.; Moens, F.

    2013-01-01

    Om de risico’s van een aanrijding bij sneeuw en gladheid te verminderen, laten steeds meer automobilisten bij het monteren van winterbanden ook een wintercontrole uitvoeren. Zou een dergelijke controle voor de winter ook schade aan onze volken in de vorm van wintersterfte kunnen verminderen? Dat zou

  10. Using heuristic search for optimizing maintenance plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutanen, Teemu

    2012-01-01

    This work addresses the maintenance action selection process. Maintenance personnel need to evaluate maintenance actions and costs to keep the machines in working condition. Group of actions are evaluated together as maintenance plans. The maintenance plans as output provide information to the user about which actions to take if any and what future actions should be prepared for. The heuristic search method is implemented as part of general use toolbox for analysis of measurements from movable work machines. Impacts from machine's usage restrictions and maintenance activities are analysed. The results show that once put on a temporal perspective, the prioritized order of the actions is different and provide additional information to the user.

  11. Status of online maintenance in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumachi, Wataru; Kobayashi, Masahide

    2009-01-01

    In many countries, online maintenance has been already introduced. Especially in US, online maintenance has been introduced to many nuclear plants which has (N+1) redundant safety systems as Japanese plants. There experience will contribute us to discuss how to introduce online maintenance in Japan. In IAEA's nuclear safety criteria and guidance, it is recognized that the outage of one safety system for maintenance is usual operation. This is normal sense in the world. In US, the risk when online maintenance is done is controlled mainly by PRA. We have to discuss how to introduce online maintenance in JAPAN under these conditions in the world. (author)

  12. Depot Maintenance: Executed Workload and Maintenance Operations at DOD Depots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-03

    software. This enclosure provides detailed information about each of the 17 depots on executed workload, personnel, capital investments, process...services’ depots from fiscal year 2012 through 2015, and provides detailed information for each of the 17 depots, on executed workload, personnel...Depot Maintenance: Additional Information Needed to Meet DOD’s Core Capability Reporting Requirements, GAO-13-194 (Washington, D.C.: Feb. 11, 2013

  13. Performance Centered Maintenance as a Core Policy in Strategic Maintenance Control

    OpenAIRE

    Apallius de Vos, Jack I.; van Dongen, Leonardus Adriana Maria

    2015-01-01

    Rolling stock maintenance in the Netherlands traditionally is performed on several levels of complexity and therefore on levels of non-availability and cost. The challenge in optimizing performance and cost of rolling stock maintenance is to integrate the policy on maintenance concepts, maintenance locations and maintenance intervals (what, when & where). NedTrain as a subsidiary of the Netherlands Railways is developing and implementing this improved concept of maintenance. On one hand maint...

  14. ARF6, PI3-kinase and host cell actin cytoskeleton in Toxoplasma gondii cell invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira da Silva, Claudio; Alves da Silva, Erika; Costa Cruz, Mario; Chavrier, Philippe; Arruda Mortara, Renato

    2009-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infects a variety of different cell types in a range of different hosts. Host cell invasion by T. gondii occurs by active penetration of the host cell, a process previously described as independent of host actin polymerization. Also, the parasitophorous vacuole has been shown to resist fusion with endocytic and exocytic pathways of the host cell. ADP-ribosylation factor-6 (ARF6) belongs to the ARF family of small GTP-binding proteins. ARF6 regulates membrane trafficking and actin cytoskeleton rearrangements at the plasma membrane. Here, we have observed that ARF6 is recruited to the parasitophorous vacuole of tachyzoites of T. gondii RH strain and it also plays an important role in the parasite cell invasion with activation of PI3-kinase and recruitment of PIP 2 and PIP 3 to the parasitophorous vacuole of invading parasites. Moreover, it was verified that maintenance of host cell actin cytoskeleton integrity is important to parasite invasion.

  15. The cryptic role of biodiversity in the emergence of host-microbial mutualisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Pradeep; Gouhier, Tarik C; Vollmer, Steven V

    2014-11-01

    The persistence of mutualisms in host-microbial - or holobiont - systems is difficult to explain because microbial mutualists, who bear the costs of providing benefits to their host, are always prone to being competitively displaced by non-mutualist 'cheater' species. This disruptive effect of competition is expected to be particularly strong when the benefits provided by the mutualists entail costs such as reduced competitive ability. Using a metacommunity model, we show that competition between multiple cheaters within the host's microbiome, when combined with the spatial structure of host-microbial interactions, can have a constructive rather than a disruptive effect by allowing the emergence and maintenance of mutualistic microorganisms within the host. These results indicate that many of the microorganisms inhabiting a host's microbiome, including those that would otherwise be considered opportunistic or even potential pathogens, play a cryptic yet critical role in promoting the health and persistence of the holobiont across spatial scales. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  16. CHILD MAINTENANCE IN TURKISH LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Bilge Sarihan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of alimony; the dictionary defines as, the whole of what is needed to make a living; as the legal sense is defined as connected with one month to one court decision that obliged to provide for. Family members of a moral rule, first of all to help each other. This moral without often any coercion parties in the framework adapts to this rule, but in this case the legislator for the processing always smoothly, has made it a statutory duty by going to road regulations to help each other for certain family members. Assistance in the form of alimony and child support maintenance can be divided into two main groups. Support resulting from family law, commonly referred to as maintenance support. Maintenance alimony; temporary alimony, child maintenance and poverty alimony. The care and upbringing of children in the marital union is entitled to custody of the mother and father in the framework. Mother and father use custody together. Custody of minors and adult children must sometimes restricted to persons, about paying attention to both the goods and to represent them as a whole of the rights and obligations of the law have been installed on the parents. Common life of the spouses or by court order issued at the end of separation has occurred judge may give custody to one of the spouses. side with custody of children have been left to him is obliged to look after and educate them. However, not given custody of his side, must participate in their child's care and education expenses amount to be determined by the judge according to financial strength. Associates alimony, separation or nullity or divorce, child custody as a result of which he had left his wife, child care and the financial strength to participate in the rate training expenses. Associates alimony, not a liability connected to custody, is a natural consequence of being parents. Because spouses are obliged to take care of children's care and upbringing. Child maintenance is

  17. Fungal sensing of host environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunsdorf, C; Mailänder-Sánchez, D; Schaller, M

    2016-09-01

    To survive inside a host, fungi have to adapt to a changing and often hostile environment and therefore need the ability to recognize what is going on around them. To adapt to different host niches, they need to sense external conditions such as temperature, pH and to recognize specific host factors. The ability to respond to physiological changes inside the host, independent of being in a commensal, pathogenic or even symbiotic context, implicates mechanisms for sensing of specific host factors. Because the cell wall is constantly in contact with the surrounding, fungi express receptors on the surface of their cell wall, such as pheromone receptors, which have important roles, besides mediating chemotropism for mating. We are not restricting the discussion to the human host because the receptors and mechanisms used by different fungal species to sense their environment are often similar even for plant pathogens. Furthermore, the natural habitat of opportunistic pathogenic fungi with the potential to cause infection in a human host is in soil and on plants. While the hosts' mechanisms of sensing fungal pathogens have been addressed in the literature, the focus of this review is to fill the gap, giving an overview on fungal sensing of a host-(ile) environment. Expanding our knowledge on host-fungal interactions is extremely important to prevent and treat diseases of pathogenic fungi, which are important issues in human health and agriculture but also to understand the delicate balance of fungal symbionts in our ecosystem. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Review paper: Host-pathogen interactions in the kidney during chronic leptospirosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, A M; Callanan, J J; Nally, J E

    2009-09-01

    Pathogenic species of Leptospira cause leptospirosis, a global zoonotic disease. Leptospira colonize renal tubules of chronically infected maintenance hosts, from where they are shed in urine to the environment and survive in suitable moist conditions. Transmission of disease to new hosts is facilitated by contact with contaminated urine or water sources, because Leptospira can penetrate broken skin or mucosal surfaces of new hosts. Infection of new hosts may be asymptomatic, as with chronically infected maintenance hosts, or may result in an acute disease process in which clinical signs can include fever, jaundice, renal failure, and pulmonary hemorrhage. Those factors that determine if an animal will suffer an acute or a chronic infection are not fully understood but include host animal species, infecting serovar, and infecting dose. During chronic infection, renal colonization and leptospiruria persist despite cellular and humoral responses by the host. Tubulointerstitial nephritis is the most common lesion associated with chronic infection, and this may progress to fibrosis and subsequent renal failure. This review aims to address how Leptospira cause tubulointerstitial nephritis during chronic leptospirosis and to summarize the mechanisms by which Leptospira might evade host immune responses during chronic colonization of the renal tubule.

  19. Simulation of Winter Wheat Yield with WOFOST in County Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Shangjie; Pei, Zhiyuan; He, Yajuan; Wang, Lianlin; Ma, Zhiping

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Winter wheat is mainly planted in water shortage area, such as North China and Northwest China. As a key field management measure, irrigation plays an important role in the production of winter wheat. This paper focuses on the improvement of regional winter wheat yield estimation technique in county scale by adjusting the irrigation management measure in crop growth model. The WOFOST (World Food Study) model was used by dividing the whole county into a number of EMUs (...

  20. Wintering bald eagle trends in northern Arizona, 1975-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teryl G. Grubb

    2003-01-01

    Between 1975 and 2000, 4,525 sightings of wintering bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) were recorded at Mormon Lake in northern Arizona. Numbers of wintering eagles fluctuated little in the 20 years from 1975 through 1994 (5.5 ± 3.0 mean sightings per day). However, during the winters of 1995 through 1997 local record highs of 59 to 118 eagles...

  1. Evaluation and Economic Value of Winter Weather Forecasts

    OpenAIRE

    Snyder, Derrick William

    2014-01-01

    State and local highway agencies spend millions of dollars each year to deploy winter operation teams to plow snow and de-ice roadways. Accurate and timely weather forecast information is critical for effective decision making. Students from Purdue University partnered with the Indiana Department of Transportation to create an experimental winter weather forecast service for the 2012-2013 winter season in Indiana to assist in achieving these goals. One forecast product, an hourly timeline of ...

  2. Maintenance training - a modern necessity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushall, W.

    1987-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in technically advanced systems and equipment and a need for highly skilled and knowledgeable maintenance technicians to maintain them. To implement an effective training program, training groups' and plant staffs' key to success must be cooperation and creativity. This paper deals with plant staff interface and how to effectively conduct performance-based training while holding the line on costs. This paper includes cost effective and innovative measures to produce performance-based training for maintenance disciplines including: Using the plants staff as a resource as subject matter experts in the development and verification of training materials. Using the plant staff as a resource for the construction of training aids. Using salvage and surplus to produce high quality, low cost training aids. Using cutaways for better understanding of he theory of equipment operation. These cost saving practices are currently being used at Gulf States Utilities' River Bend Nuclear Station

  3. Maintenance facilities, stores and records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, K.

    1986-01-01

    The topics of this report are: on-site or off-site facilities. On-site facilities: workshops and special facilities. KWU's Service Center, a typical off-site supporting facility in Germany, capabilities and activities. A pool for special tools and equipment: devices for plugging of nozzles, for handling of RPU-studs and RPU internals etc. Devices for and management of radiological protection on-site for typical outage work. Spare parts and spare part management on site, typical examples. KWU's centralized spare part pools for components, generators and turbines etc. A computerized system for spare parts storage and maintenance planning. A system for mutual exchange of operational experience with respect to maintenance and repair activities. Systematic evaluation of failures and statistical results. (orig./GL)

  4. Procedures for maintenance and repairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickel, E.

    1981-01-01

    After a general review of the operation experience in the history of more than 12 operating years, the organization in the plant will be shown with special aspect to quality assurance, capacity of the workshops and connected groups as radiation protection, chemical laboratories etc. The number, time intervals and manpower effort for the repeating tests will be discussed. Reasons and examples for back-fitting activities in the plant are given. Besides special repair and maintenance procedures as repair of the steam generators, in-service inspection of the reactor pressure vessel, repair of a feed-water pipe and repair of the core structure in the pressure vessel, the general system to handle maintenance and repair-work in the KWO-plant will be shown. This includes also the detailed planning of the annual refueling and revision of the plant. (orig./RW)

  5. Mining Surveillance and Maintenance Dollars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MARTINEZ, R.

    2000-01-01

    Accelerating site cleanup to reduce facility risks to the workers, the public and the environment during a time of declining federal budgets represents a significant technical and economic challenge to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Operations Offices and their respective contractors. A significant portion of a facility's recurring annual expenses are associated with routine, long-term surveillance and maintenance (S and M) activities. However, ongoing S and M activities do nothing to reduce risks and basically spend money that could be reallocated towards facility deactivation. This paper discusses the background around DOE efforts to reduce surveillance and maintenance costs, one approach used to perform cost reviews, lessons learned from field implementation and what assistance is available to assist DOE sites in performing these evaluations

  6. The History of Winter: teachers as scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, L.; Courville, Z.; Wasilewski, P. J.; Gow, T.; Bender, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    The History of Winter (HOW) is a NASA Goddard Space Flight Center-funded teacher enrichment program that was started by Dr. Peter Wasilewski (NASA), Dr. Robert Gabrys (NASA) and Dr. Tony Gow (Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, or CRREL) in 2001 and continues with support and involvement of scientists from both the NASA Cryospheric Sciences Laboratory and CREEL. The program brings educators mostly from middle and high schools but also from state parks, community colleges and other institutions from across the US to the Northwood School (a small, private boarding school) in Lake Placid, NY for one week to learn about several facets of winter, polar, and snow research, including the science and history of polar ice core research, lake ice formation and structure, snow pack science, winter ecology, and remote sensing including current and future NASA cryospheric missions. The program receives support from the Northwood School staff to facilitate the program. The goal of the program is to create 'teachers as scientists' which is achieved through several hands-on field experiences in which the teachers have the opportunity to work with polar researchers from NASA, CRREL and partner Universities to dig and sample snow pits, make ice thin sections from lake ice, make snow shelters, and observe under-ice lake ecology. The hands-on work allows the teachers to use the same tools and techniques used in polar research while simultaneously introducing science concepts and activities to support their classroom work. The ultimate goal of the program is to provide the classroom teachers with the opportunity to learn about current and timely cryospheric research as well as to engage in real fieldwork experiences. The enthusiasm generated during the week-long program is translated into classroom activities with guidance from scientists, teachers and educational professionals. The opportunity to engage with polar researchers, both young investigators and renowned

  7. Vocabulary Maintenance Task Group Report

    OpenAIRE

    Baskauf, Steve

    2016-01-01

    This was a presentation at the TDWG Annual Meeting in Costa Rica, 2016-12-08 in a Task Group report session.  Abstract: The Vocabulary Maintenance Task Group has completed drafts of a Standards Documentation Specification and a Vocabulary Management Specification (https://github.com/tdwg/vocab). This session will outline the important aspects of the specifications and answer questions about their content and implementation.

  8. Croatian Language Maintenance in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana Petrović

    2017-01-01

    Although the topic of language maintenance has received considerable attention from linguists around the world, there are still many aspects of this language-contact phenomenon that could be examined further. This paper aims to contribute to the existing body of knowledge by exploring the state of Croatian as a heritage language in Canada. The aim of the paper is two-fold. The first is to describe the demographic characteristics of the Croatian community by investigating the number of people ...

  9. Design for maintenance during operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, P.H.; Lyerly, H.D.

    1976-01-01

    Design of a nuclear power plant for safe, reliable and efficient operation involves much more than theory, regulations, regulatory guides, procedures, inspectors, and even quality assurance. It also involves a full knowledge and understanding of the activities which must be carried out to operate and maintain the plant. It must be remembered that a nuclear power plant is different from fossil designs and the designer must constantly keep in mind that access by people to every component is required for maintenance

  10. Fleet equipment performance measure preventive maintenance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    The Texas Department of Transportation : (TxDOT) operates a large fleet of on-road and : off-road equipment. Consequently, fleet : maintenance procedures (specifically preventive : maintenance such as oil changes) represent a : significant cost to th...

  11. Maintenance practices for stormwater runoff - phase 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Seven wet detention ponds possessing severe maintenance issues were selected from disparate FDOT : districts. The maintenance problems ranged from excess littoral zone growth and intense algal blooms : to bank erosion and sediment accumulation. Inten...

  12. Railroad decision support tools for track maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    North American railroads spend billions of dollars each year on track maintenance. With : expenditures of this level, incremental improvements in planning or execution of maintenance projects can result in either substantial savings or the ability to...

  13. Dynamic contracting mechanism for pavement maintenance management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirel, H.C.; De Ridder, H.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Technological advances, financial possibilities and changes of demands have increasingly affected the pavement maintenance environment for outsourcing in recent years. This induces complexity in the contracting methods of pavement maintenance activities. Despite the fact that current contracting

  14. Machine maintenance: the rules of the game

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2013-01-01

    GCO, GMIO, GSPO – ever heard of them? These acronyms stand for the “roles” that best practices identify as vital to successful maintenance management. CERN’s Maintenance Management Project (MMP) team is working with the technical departments to ensure that they implement these procedures when they deal with the maintenance of the collider and its injectors and infrastructure.   The participants of the workshop on asset and maintenance management (AMMW2013), which took place at CERN in November. Since its creation in 2012, CERN’s Maintenance Framework Implementation Office (MFIO) has been promoting the deployment of harmonised maintenance management methods across the BE, GS, EN and TE Departments. “The definition and identification of the Group Coding Officers (GCO), Group Maintenance Information Officers (GMIO) and Group Spare Part Officers (GSPO) are one of the best practices that should be adopted each time a maintenance programme...

  15. Maintenance of nuclear medicine instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambro, P.

    1992-01-01

    Maintenance of instruments is generally of two kinds: (a) corrective maintenance, on a non-scheduled basis, to restore equipment to a functional status by repairs; (b) preventive maintenance, to keep equipment in a specified functional condition by providing systematic inspection, quality control, detection and correction of early malfunctions. Most of the instruments used in nuclear medicine are rather complex systems built from mechanical, electrical and electronic parts. Any one of these components is liable to fail at some time or other. Repair could be done only by a specialist who is able to evaluate the condition of the various parts ranging from cables to connectors, from scintillators to photomultipliers, from microprocessors to microswitches. The knowledge of the intricacies of the various electronic components required for their repairs is quite wide and varied. The electronics industry turns out more and more multi-purpose chips which can carry out the functions of many parts used in the instruments of the earlier generation. This provides protection against unauthorized copying of the circuits but it serves another purpose as well of inhibiting repairs by non-factory personnel. These trends of the instrument design should be taken into consideration when a policy has to be developed for the repairs of the hospital based equipment

  16. Maintenance program, organization and procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schegk, J.R.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Elektrizitaetswerk AG (RWE) operates two pressurized water reactors (PWR) with 1.200 MW and 1.300 MW and two boiling water reactors (BWR) with an electrical output of 1.300 MW each. The PWR were commissioned in 1975 and 1977 respectively and have so far achieved a cumulative availability of 72%. The BWR started operating in 1984 and 1985. Since than they have been generating with a cumulative availability of 88%. The reliability of the nuclear power stations resulted in a trouble-free operation. For the last two years, the unscheduled non-availability amounted to 3,7% and 6,5% for the PWR and the BWR respectively. These favourable operating results derive inter alia from systematic preventive maintenance and consistent outage management. Apart from the personnel structure in the power stations the functional sequence of planning, control, performance as well as evaluation of maintenance results constitute a closed cycle. In order to ensure and support an effective cooperation of the above mentioned four functional sequences of a cycle, uniform and computer-assisted information and planning aids have been introduced such as task lists, job ordering, time scheduling and materials management. As a result of this preventive maintenance system the average refueling outage period is 35 to 42 days. (orig.)

  17. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among captive Asian Elephants Elephas maximus: effect of season, host demography, and management systems in Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Vanitha

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of wild animals in captivity is fraught with numerous challenges, including the control of disease. This study evaluates the effect of season, host demography (age-sex, and differing management systems on the prevalence of intestinal parasites among elephants managed in three captive systems: temple, private, and forest department, in Tamil Nadu. In addition, the study also assessed the availability of veterinary care for elephants in these systems. The parasitic prevalence was evaluated by direct microscopic identification of helminth eggs in faecal samples (n = 115 collected from different age/sex classes of elephants. Of the 115 elephants examined, 37% showed positive results, being infected only with Strongyles sp. The prevalence rate varied significantly across seasons, with the highest rate during summer (49% followed by monsoon (41% and the lowest rate during winter (15%. While males had a significantly lower parasite prevalence compared to females (29% vs. 40%, age classes showed no significant difference. Despite the fact that the proportion of animals receiving veterinary care was higher under the forest department system (100% compared to the private system (26%, parasite prevalence was significantly higher under the former (48% than the latter (31% system. The difference in the proportion of animals with parasitic prevalence among the three systems could be due to differing management practices (i.e. in solitary versus groups and the details are discussed.

  18. Host City Contract operational requirements

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The Host City Contract - Operational Requirements (the “HCC Operational Requirements”) are an important part of the Host City Contract, detailing a set of core elements for the project, which provide Olympic quality conditions for the athletes and all participants, while at the same time allowing potential host cities to responsibly match their Games concepts to their own sport, economic, social, and environmental long-term planning needs.

  19. Road maintenance planning using network flow modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Chao; Remenyte-Prescott, Rasa; Andrews, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a road maintenance planning model that can be used to balance out maintenance cost and road user cost, since performing road maintenance at night can be convenient for road users but costly for highway agency. Based on the platform of the network traffic flow modelling, the traffic through the worksite and its adjacent road links is evaluated. Thus, maintenance arrangements at a worksite can be optimized considering the overall network performance. In addition, genetic alg...

  20. Development of preventive maintenance procedures and schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlenker, H.V.; Hammel, J.

    1977-01-01

    An outline of the procedures and schedules developed for preventive maintenance in power stations within the Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Elektrizitaetswerk (RWE) is presented. After an introduction of maintenance in general the different kinds of preventive maintenance activities are described. This includes also the prerequisite identification systems. The aims of preventive maintenance and the measures are explained that have to be taken, if these aims are to be achieved. A number of examples from actual practice are cited. (orig.) [de

  1. Energy market barometer report - Winter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, Joachim; Cartel, Melodie; Shao, Evan; Vernay, Anne-Lorene

    2017-01-01

    This Winter 2016 edition of the Grenoble Ecole de Management (GEM) Energy Market Barometer explores the opinion of French energy experts about the decentralization of the electricity sector in France. French experts were also asked where the focus of French energy policy should be in the next five years. Key findings: - French energy experts sense a clear trend toward the decentralization of the French electricity system; - Technology innovation and self-sufficiency for corporations and municipalities are the two major promises of decentralization; - The major barriers to faster decentralization in France are the high price of energy storage systems and the lack of political will; - 74% of experts believe that energy efficiency should be a top priority for French energy policy in the next five years; - Reducing greenhouse gas emissions and facilitating the decentralization of the electricity sector should also be a top priority for French energy policy in the next five years; - Experts are divided over the future of nuclear energy

  2. Landsat Science Team: 2016 winter meeting summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Todd; Loveland, Thomas; Wulder, Michael A.; Irons, James R.

    2016-01-01

    The winter meeting of the joint U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)–NASA Landsat Science Team (LST) was held January 12-14, 2016, at Virginia Tech University in Blacksburg, VA. LST co-chairs Tom Loveland [USGS’s Earth Resources Observation and Science Data Center (EROS)—Senior Scientist] and Jim Irons [NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC)—Landsat 8 Project Scientist] welcomed more than 50 participants to the three-day meeting. The main objectives of this meeting focused on identifying priorities and approaches to improve the global moderate-resolution satellite record. Overall, the meeting was geared more towards soliciting team member recommendations on several rapidly evolving issues, than on providing updates on individual research activities. All the presentations given at the meeting are available at landsat.usgs. gov//science_LST_january2016.php.

  3. Chemical profile of Taxodium distichum winter cones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đapić Nina M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is concerned with the chemical profile of Taxodium distichum winter cones. The extract obtained after maceration in absolute ethanol was subjected to qualitative analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and quantification was done by gas chromatography/ flame ionization detector. The chromatogram revealed the presence of 53 compounds, of which 33 compounds were identified. The extract contained oxygenated monoterpenes (12.42%, sesquiterpenes (5.18%, oxygenated sesquiterpenes (17.41%, diterpenes (1.15%, and oxygenated diterpenes (30.87%, while the amount of retinoic acid was 0.32%. Monoacylglycerols were detected in the amount of 4.32%. The most abundant compounds were: caryophyllene oxide (14.27%, 6,7-dehydro-ferruginol (12.49%, bornyl acetate (10.96%, 6- deoxy-taxodione (9.50% and trans-caryophyllene (4.20%.

  4. Cereal aphid colony turnover and persistence in winter wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linton Winder

    Full Text Available An understanding of spatial and temporal processes in agricultural ecosystems provides a basis for rational decision-making with regards to the management and husbandry of crops, supporting the implementation of integrated farming strategies. In this study we investigated the spatial and temporal distribution of aphid pests (Sitobion avenae and Metopolophium dirhodum within winter wheat fields. Using an intensive sampling programme we investigated distributions at both the small (single shoot and large (field scales. Within two fields, a grid with 82 locations was established (area 120 m by 168 m. At each location, 25 shoots were individually marked and aphid counts by observation conducted on 21 and 22 occasions as the crop matured, resulting in 43,050 and 45,100 counts being conducted in the two fields respectively. We quantified field scale spatial distributions, demonstrating that spatial pattern generally emerged, with temporal stability being both species- and field- dependent. We then measured turnover of colonies at the small (individual shoot and large (field scales by comparing consecutive pairs of sampling occasions. Four turnover categories were defined: Empty (no aphids recorded on either occasion; Colonised (aphids recorded on the second occasion but not the first; Extinction (aphids recorded on the first occasion but not the second; Stable (aphids recorded on both occasions. At the field scale, population stability soon established, but, at the small scale there was a consistently high proportion of unoccupied shoots with considerable colonisation and extinction and low stability. The redistribution of aphids within the crop at the local scale is a vulnerability which could be used to disrupt population development--by mediating exposure to ground-active natural enemies and by incurring a metabolic cost caused by the physiological demands to re-establish on a nearby host plant.

  5. Structuring AHP-based maintenance policy selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, Adriaan; Basten, Robertus Johannes Ida; Hummel, J. Marjan; van der Wegen, Leonardus L.M.

    2015-01-01

    We aim to structure the maintenance policy selection process for ships, using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). Maintenance is an important contributor to reach the intended life-time of capital technical assets, and it is gaining increasing interest and relevance. A maintenance policy is a

  6. Laboratory services series: a programmed maintenance system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuxbury, D.C.; Srite, B.E.

    1980-01-01

    The diverse facilities, operations and equipment at a major national research and development laboratory require a systematic, analytical approach to operating equipment maintenance. A computer-scheduled preventive maintenance program is described including program development, equipment identification, maintenance and inspection instructions, scheduling, personnel, and equipment history.

  7. Proving maintenance practices at France's CETIC facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    CETIC, a PWR maintenance testing, training and validation centre became operational in September 1986. It is designed to meet the following basic requirements: development of plant maintenance processes to reduce work time, validation of tools for use during maintenance, training and qualification of teams for performing high-technology, high-risk operations in nuclear power plants. (U.K.)

  8. 49 CFR 195.420 - Valve maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valve maintenance. 195.420 Section 195.420 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Operation and Maintenance § 195.420 Valve maintenance. (a) Each operator shall maintain each valve...

  9. 50 CFR 80.17 - Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maintenance. 80.17 Section 80.17 Wildlife... WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS § 80.17 Maintenance. The State is responsible for maintenance of all capital improvements acquired or constructed with Wildlife and Sport Fish...

  10. 41 CFR 101-39.303 - Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Maintenance. 101-39.303... Maintenance. In order to ensure uninterrupted operation of GSA Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles, safety and preventive maintenance inspections will be performed at regularly scheduled intervals...

  11. 40 CFR 86.001-25 - Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance. 86.001-25 Section 86.001...-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.001-25 Maintenance. Section 86.001-25 includes text... engines. (2) Maintenance performed on vehicles, engines, subsystems, or components used to determine...

  12. 49 CFR 37.203 - Lift maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lift maintenance. 37.203 Section 37.203... DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.203 Lift maintenance. (a) The entity shall establish a system of regular and frequent maintenance checks of lifts sufficient to determine if they are operative...

  13. 49 CFR 192.749 - Vault maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vault maintenance. 192.749 Section 192.749 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.749 Vault maintenance. (a) Each vault...

  14. 47 CFR 87.69 - Maintenance tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maintenance tests. 87.69 Section 87.69... Operating Requirements and Procedures Operating Requirements § 87.69 Maintenance tests. The licensee may make routine maintenance tests on equipment other than emergency locator transmitters if there is no...

  15. 23 CFR 1.27 - Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maintenance. 1.27 Section 1.27 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL § 1.27 Maintenance... maintenance of projects shall be carried out in accordance with policies and procedures issued by the...

  16. 47 CFR 80.96 - Maintenance tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maintenance tests. 80.96 Section 80.96... MARITIME SERVICES Operating Requirements and Procedures Operating Procedures-General § 80.96 Maintenance tests. Stations are authorized to engage in test transmissions necessary for maintenance of the station...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1725-99 - Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance. 86.1725-99 Section 86....1725-99 Maintenance. The provisions of § 86.094-25 and subsequent model year provisions apply to this... are subject to the applicable Otto-cycle or diesel engine maintenance requirements of § 86.094-25 (b...

  18. 40 CFR 68.56 - Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance. 68.56 Section 68.56... ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Program 2 Prevention Program § 68.56 Maintenance. (a) The owner or operator... maintenance procedures. (b) The owner or operator shall train or cause to be trained each employee involved in...

  19. 5 CFR 850.302 - Record maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Record maintenance. 850.302 Section 850... (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT SYSTEMS MODERNIZATION Records § 850.302 Record maintenance. (a) The retirement and..., for the initiation and maintenance of records, evidence, or other information described in this title...

  20. A COMPUTER BASED MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... programs to schedule for maintenance or replacement of machines has been designed such that it enables the maintenance department control all jobs associated with plant maintenance and breakdown. It predicts the time to failure of designated plants and caters for the replacement analysis of some capital equipment.

  1. Maintenance considerations of the STARFIRE commercial tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trachsel, C.A.; Zahn, H.S.; Field, R.E.; Stevens, H.C.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents the maintenance approach, the commercial tokamak design features that enhance maintenance and preliminary repair time and required mean-time-between-failures for major subsystems. Reactor hall building and maintenance equipment requirements including hot cells, coil rewinding, and cranes are discussed

  2. Deficiency within pavement Maintenance Organization in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses the current state of the road network, funding acquisition for maintenance, the institutional framework within the maintenance and management system and finally concludes with a recommendation of initiatives for the improvement of the maintenance system in Tanzania. Journal of Civil Engineering ...

  3. Building Maintenance Management System for Heritage Museum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Azree Othuman Mydin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An investment in the building maintenance aspect is massive throughout the world. In most of the countries, it signifies approximately 50% of the entire revenue of the construction industry. The value of buildings depends on the eminence of the maintenance invested in them. Maintenance management engages obtaining utmost advantage from the investment made on the maintenance activities. At the moment, maintenance in buildings in Malaysia is on the increase in spite of size, category, location, and ownership. This study focuses on Building Maintenance Management System for Heritage Museum, which consists of two case studies in Penang State Museum and Art Gallery, Malaysia and Museum of Perak, Malaysia. The aim of this study is to propose methods to improve the maintenance management system for heritage museum. From the results, the common problem occurs during the implementation for the maintenance of each building is the budget for the maintenance and worker’s skill. The department of each museum must have their own maintenance unit to keep an eye on the maintenance activities for their buildings in order to improve the maintenance management system in their building.

  4. A Predictive Maintenance Model for Railway Tracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rui; Wen, Min; Salling, Kim Bang

    2015-01-01

    For the modern railways, maintenance is critical for ensuring safety, train punctuality and overall capacity utilization. The cost of railway maintenance in Europe is high, on average between 30,000 – 100,000 Euro per km per year [1]. Aiming to reduce such maintenance expenditure, this paper...

  5. An effective manpower planning approach for maintenance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The level of maintenance activities of a cocoa processing factory in Nigeria was studied. Data on critical machine parts involved in the maintenance work were collected and the different jobs carried out according to sections and nature of the activities were classified. The workloads for each type of maintenance activities ...

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF A MAINTENANCE SCHEDULING MODEL FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The method is capable of stating the overhaul frequency of each machine within this time period. For convenience in the formulation of the model, maintenance schedule was divided into two parts, namely minor and major maintenance schedules. During a minor maintenance, an individual machine is checked and reset, ...

  7. 14 CFR 145.217 - Contract maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contract maintenance. 145.217 Section 145...) A certificated repair station may contract a maintenance function pertaining to an article to an...) A certificated repair station may contract a maintenance function pertaining to an article to a...

  8. Collaborative learning in condition based maintenance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koochaki, J.; Ao, SI; Gelman, L; Hukins, DWL; Hunter, A; Korsunsky, AM

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the importance of reliable and consistent production equipments has increased. As a result, companies are shifting their maintenance policy from preventive maintenance towards Condition Based Maintenance (CBM). Despite the growing trend in this area and success stories of CBM

  9. Quantifying Heterogeneity in Host-Vector Contact: Tsetse (Glossina swynnertoni and G. pallidipes Host Choice in Serengeti National Park, Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Auty

    Full Text Available Identifying hosts of blood-feeding insect vectors is crucial in understanding their role in disease transmission. Rhodesian human African trypanosomiasis (rHAT, also known as acute sleeping sickness is caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and transmitted by tsetse flies. The disease is commonly associated with wilderness areas of east and southern Africa. Such areas hold a diverse range of species which form communities of hosts for disease maintenance. The relative importance of different wildlife hosts remains unclear. This study quantified tsetse feeding preferences in a wilderness area of great host species richness, Serengeti National Park, Tanzania, assessing tsetse feeding and host density contemporaneously.Glossina swynnertoni and G. pallidipes were collected from six study sites. Bloodmeal sources were identified through matching Cytochrome B sequences amplified from bloodmeals from recently fed flies to published sequences. Densities of large mammal species in each site were quantified, and feeding indices calculated to assess the relative selection or avoidance of each host species by tsetse.The host species most commonly identified in G. swynnertoni bloodmeals, warthog (94/220, buffalo (48/220 and giraffe (46/220, were found at relatively low densities (3-11/km2 and fed on up to 15 times more frequently than expected by their relative density. Wildebeest, zebra, impala and Thomson's gazelle, found at the highest densities, were never identified in bloodmeals. Commonly identified hosts for G. pallidipes were buffalo (26/46, giraffe (9/46 and elephant (5/46.This study is the first to quantify tsetse host range by molecular analysis of tsetse diet with simultaneous assessment of host density in a wilderness area. Although G. swynnertoni and G. pallidipes can feed on a range of species, they are highly selective. Many host species are rarely fed on, despite being present in areas where tsetse are abundant. These feeding patterns

  10. HOST liner cyclic facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, D.

    1983-01-01

    The HOST Liner Cyclic Program is utilizing two types of test apparatus, rectangular box rigs and a full annular rig. To date two quartz lamp cyclic box rigs have been tested and a third is to begin testing in late October 1983. The box rigs are used to evaluate 5x8 inch rectangular linear samples. A 21 inch diameter outer liner simulator is also being built up for testing beginning in April 1984. All rigs are atmospheric rigs. The first box rig, a three 6-kVA lamp installation, was operated under adverse conditions to determine feasibility of using quartz lamps for cyclic testing. This work was done in December 1981 and looked promising. The second box rig, again using three 6-kVA lamps, was operated to obtain instrumentation durability information and initial data input to a Finite Element Model. This limited test program was conducted in August 1983. Five test plates were run. Instrumentation consisted of strain gages, thermocouples and thermal paint. The strain gages were found to fail at 1200 F as expected though plates were heated to 1700 F. The third box rig, containing four 6-kVA lamps, is in build up for testing to begin in late October 1983. In addition to 33 percent greater power input, this rig has provision for 400 F backside line cooling air and a viewing port suitable for IR camera viewing. The casing is also water cooled for extended durability.

  11. Maintenance rule: a system to guarantee maintenance effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torralbo, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    In the last few years, maintenance activities in nuclear plants have been given prime attention in view of their repercussion on the performance of such plants. One of the results of that attention is a new rule published in the U.S. known as M aintenance Rule . The paper describes the philosophy and main guidelines of the new regulation, and presents the procedure brought into action by the nuclear industry in Spain so to make their application contribute to a real improvement of safety and performance in nuclear plants. (Author)

  12. An Intelligent Fleet Condition-Based Maintenance Decision Making Method Based on Multi-Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the demand for condition-based maintenance online decision making among a mission oriented fleet, an intelligent maintenance decision making method based on Multi-agent and heuristic rules is proposed. The process of condition-based maintenance within an aircraft fleet (each containing one or more Line Replaceable Modules based on multiple maintenance thresholds is analyzed. Then the process is abstracted into a Multi-Agent Model, a 2-layer model structure containing host negotiation and independent negotiation is established, and the heuristic rules applied to global and local maintenance decision making is proposed. Based on Contract Net Protocol and the heuristic rules, the maintenance decision making algorithm is put forward. Finally, a fleet consisting of 10 aircrafts on a 3-wave continuous mission is illustrated to verify this method. Simulation results indicate that this method can improve the availability of the fleet, meet mission demands, rationalize the utilization of support resources and provide support for online maintenance decision making among a mission oriented fleet.

  13. On the relation between ionospheric winter anomalies and solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumi, G.C.

    2001-01-01

    There are two different winter anomalies. A small one that appears in connection with ionization at relatively low latitudes in the bottom of the D-region of the ionosphere. There, the electron densities in the winter happen to be less than should be expected. On the other hand, the classic winter anomaly is present when in the winter the upper D-region, again at relatively low latitudes, has more ionization than should be expected. Both these effects are due to the slant compression of the geomagnetic field produced by the solar wind in the wind in the winter season (which is, of course, the summer season when reference is made to events in the other hemisphere). It is shown that the small winter anomaly is a consequence of a hemispheric imbalance in the flux of galactic cosmic rays determined by the obliquely distorted geomagnetic field. It is shown that the standard winter anomaly can be ascribed to the influx of a super solar wind, which penetrates into the Earth's polar atmosphere down to E-region, heights and, duly concentrated through a funneling action at the winter pole of the distorted geomagnetic field, slows down the winter polar vortex. An equatorward motion of the polar air with its content of nitric oxide brings about the excess of ionization in the upper D-region at lower latitudes. The experimentally observed rhythmic recurrence of the upper winter anomaly is correlated to a possible rhythmic recurrence of the super solar wind. The actual detection of the upper winter anomaly could yield some information on the velocity of the basic solar wind. A by-product of the present analysis, the determination of Γ, the coefficient of collisional detachment of the electrons from the O 2 - ions, is presented in the Appendix

  14. Performance Centered Maintenance as a Core Policy in Strategic Maintenance Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apallius de Vos, Jack I.; van Dongen, Leonardus Adriana Maria

    2015-01-01

    Rolling stock maintenance in the Netherlands traditionally is performed on several levels of complexity and therefore on levels of non-availability and cost. The challenge in optimizing performance and cost of rolling stock maintenance is to integrate the policy on maintenance concepts, maintenance

  15. Optimal immunity meets natural variation: the evolutionary biology of host defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, A L

    2013-11-01

    This editorial introduces the seven articles that comprise the Parasite Immunology special issue on the Evolutionary Biology of Host Defence. The rationale for an evolutionary approach to immunoparasitology is briefly outlined, and then the articles are placed in that broader context. A central aim of each article is to explain the generation and maintenance of immunological heterogeneity among hosts in nature. The authors describe new tools and approaches that enable unprecedented insight into evolutionary and immunological processes in both the laboratory and the wild. The examples discussed include insects, birds and mammals (as hosts) and trypanosomes, apicomplexans and nematodes (as parasites). © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Castrating parasites and colonial hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartikainen, H; Okamura, B

    2012-04-01

    Trajectories of life-history traits such as growth and reproduction generally level off with age and increasing size. However, colonial animals may exhibit indefinite, exponential growth via modular iteration thus providing a long-lived host source for parasite exploitation. In addition, modular iteration entails a lack of germ line sequestration. Castration of such hosts by parasites may therefore be impermanent or precluded, unlike the general case for unitary animal hosts. Despite these intriguing correlates of coloniality, patterns of colonial host exploitation have not been well studied. We examined these patterns by characterizing the responses of a myxozoan endoparasite, Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, and its colonial bryozoan host, Fredericella sultana, to 3 different resource levels. We show that (1) the development of infectious stages nearly always castrates colonies regardless of host condition, (2) castration reduces partial mortality and (3) development of transmission stages is resource-mediated. Unlike familiar castrator-host systems, this system appears to be characterized by periodic rather than permanent castration. Periodic castration may be permitted by 2 key life history traits: developmental cycling of the parasite between quiescent (covert infections) and virulent infectious stages (overt infections) and the absence of germ line sequestration which allows host reproduction in between bouts of castration.

  17. CAN WINTER DEPRESSION BE PREVENTED BY LIGHT TREATMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MEESTERS, Y; LAMBERS, PA; JANSEN, JHC; BOUHUYS, AL; BEERSMA, DGM; VANDENHOOFDAKKER, RH

    1991-01-01

    The administration of light at the development of the first signs of a winter depression appears to prevent it from developing into a full-blown depression. No patient from a group of 10 treated in this way developed any signs of depression during the rest of the winter season, while five of seven

  18. Changes occurring in plain, straining and winter yoghurt during the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, winter yoghurt, straining yoghurt and yoghurt samples produced from homogenized and non-homogenized sheep and a mixture of sheep and cows milks were evaluated during the storage periods. Winter yoghurt, straining yoghurt and yoghurt samples were stored in sterile jars in the refrigerator (4°C).

  19. Can winter depression be prevented by light treatment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, Ybe; Lambers, Petrus A.; Jansen, Jacob; Bouhuys, Antoinette L.; Beersma, Domien G.M.; Hoofdakker, Rutger H. van den

    1991-01-01

    The administration of light at the development of the first signs of a winter depression appears to prevent it from developing into a full-blown depression. No patient from a group of 10 treated in this way developed any signs of depression during the rest of the winter season, while five of seven

  20. The decline in winter excess mortality in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunst, A. E.; Looman, C. W.; Mackenbach, J. P.

    1991-01-01

    In most countries, numbers of deaths rise considerably during the winter season. This winter excess in mortality has, however, been declining during recent decades. The causes of this decline are hardly known. This paper attempts to derive a number of hypotheses on the basis of a detailed

  1. The elusive gene for keratolytic winter erythema | Hull | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keratolytic winter erythema (KWE), also known as Oudtshoorn skin disease, is characterised by a cyclical disruption of normal epidermal keratinisation affecting primarily the palmoplantar skin with peeling of the palms and soles, which is worse in the winter. It is a rare monogenic, autosomal dominant condition of unknown ...

  2. Zimbabwean fourth social workers conference and winter school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Such steps include running the Annual Social Workers Conference & Winter School. This annual observance creates a platform to showcase the goals and accomplishments of diverse social work professionals in the country, give a report on progress and convening a social work winter school for exchanging professional ...

  3. AGROTECHNOLOGY OF WINTER CABBAGE SEED PRODUCTION IN CONDITION OF DAGESTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Velizhanov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil-climatic conditions of the South region of Dagestan are suitable for growing of winter cabbage. The yield of winter cab-bage in Dagestan farms is still very low because of low quality of seeds and non'observance of rules of cabbage seed production.

  4. Baraitser–Winter syndrome: An additional Arab patient | Henedy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Baraitser–Winter syndrome: An additional Arab patient. MMA Henedy, MJ Marafie, SJ Abulhasan. Abstract. An Arab child is presented herein with a phenotype that fits the rare Baraitser–Winter syndrome. Her clinical features included a unilateral iris coloboma, ptosis, hypertelorism, epicanthic folds, broad nasal bridge, full ...

  5. Overhead irrigation increased winter chilling and floral bud ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus nitens requires a sufficiently cold winter to produce flower buds. In areas in South Africa where E. nitens commercial plantations as well as breeding and production seed orchards are located, winter chilling is often insufficient for floral bud initiation. Hence, under such conditions, E. nitens floral bud and seed ...

  6. Prevalence of hematozoa infections among breeding and wintering Rusty Blackbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    William H. Barnard; Claudia Mettke-Hofmann; Steven M. Matsuoka

    2010-01-01

    The Rusty Blackbird (Euphagus carolinus) has declined precipitously over the past several decades,and stressors on both the breeding and wintering grounds are suspected causes. Over 3 years, we collected blood samples from breeding birds in Alaska and Maine and from wintering birds in Mississippi and Arkansas to determine the prevalence of hematozoan infections at...

  7. The phenotypic diversity and fruit characterization of winter squash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-01-11

    Jan 11, 2010 ... Winter squash are one of the most important Cucurbit crops in Turkey. Winter squash populations show great diversity in morphological characteristics, particularly fruit length, fruit diameter, fruit shape, fruit brightness, skin thickness , flesh thickness and colour in the Black Sea region of. Turkey. In this ...

  8. Changes occurring in plain, straining and winter yoghurt during the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-28

    Feb 28, 2011 ... Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Yuzuncu Yil University, 65080 Van, Turkey. Accepted 18 January ... cow milk for production of winter yoghurt, which is one of the most liked traditional .... Changes occurring in winter yoghurt samples during the storage periods. Impact factor. Factor.

  9. Controls on winter ecosystem respiration in temperate and boreal ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. Wang; P. Ciais; S.L. Piao; C. Ottle; P. Brender; F. Maignan; A. Arain; A. Cescatti; D. Gianelle; C. Gough; L Gu; P. Lafleur; T. Laurila; B. Marcolla; H. Margolis; L. Montagnani; E. Moors; N. Saigusa; T. Vesala; G. Wohlfahrt; C. Koven; A. Black; E. Dellwik; A. Don; D. Hollinger; A. Knohl; R. Monson; J. Munger; A. Suyker; A. Varlagin; S. Verma

    2011-01-01

    Winter CO2 fluxes represent an important component of the annual carbon budget in northern ecosystems. Understanding winter respiration processes and their responses to climate change is also central to our ability to assess terrestrial carbon cycle and climate feedbacks in the future. However, the factors influencing the spatial and temporal...

  10. Comparing effects of Winter Universiade (2011) and European ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... both positive and negative effects of these two events have high averages. In other words, positive and negative effects were detected in both the Winter Universiade held in Erzurum and the European Youth Olympic Festival held in Trabzon. Key words: Mega sport events; Local spectator impressions; Winter Universiade; ...

  11. Controls on winter ecosystem respiration in temperate and boreal ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciais, P.; Wang, T.; Piao, S.L.; Ottlé, C.; Brender, P.; Moors, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Winter CO2 fluxes represent an important component of the annual carbon budget in northern ecosystems. Understanding winter respiration processes and their responses to climate change is also central to our ability to assess terrestrial carbon cycle and climate feedbacks in the future. However, the

  12. Downtown People Mover (DPM) Winterization Test Demonstration : Otis Elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The Otis Elevator Company Transportation Technology Division (OTIS-TTD) Downtown People Mover (DPM) Winterization Test Demonstration Final Report covers the 1978-79 and 1979-80 winter periods. Tests were performed at the Otis test track in Denver, Co...

  13. Weed seed germination in winter cereals under contrasting tillage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scherner, Ananda

    2015-01-01

    Grass weeds and Gallium aparine are major weed problems in North European arable cropping systems with high proportions of winter crops, especially winter wheat (Clarke et al., 2000; Melander et al., 2008). Problems are accentuated where inverting tillage is omitted, as weed seeds tend to accumul...

  14. Identifying the potential wintering sites of the globally threatened ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Aquatic Warbler is a threatened Afro-Palaearctic migrant with a largely unknown distribution in the winter (non-breeding) season. Protection of wintering sites may be crucial for the conservation of the species. Previous studies have identified extensive areas of north-western sub-Saharan Africa that could potentially be ...

  15. Relationships between host body condition and immunocompetence, not host sex, best predict parasite burden in a bat-helminth system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Elizabeth M; Pearl, Christopher A; Vonhof, Maarten J

    2016-06-01

    Sex-biased parasitism highlights potentially divergent approaches to parasite resistance resulting in differing energetic trade-offs for males and females; however, trade-offs between immunity and self-maintenance could also depend on host body condition. We investigated these relationships in the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus, to determine if host sex or body condition better predicted parasite resistance, if testosterone levels predicted male parasite burdens, and if immune parameters could predict male testosterone levels. We found that male and female hosts had similar parasite burdens and female bats scored higher than males in only one immunological measure. Top models of helminth burden revealed interactions between body condition index and agglutination score as well as between agglutination score and host sex. Additionally, the strength of the relationships between sex, agglutination, and helminth burden is affected by body condition. Models of male parasite burden provided no support for testosterone predicting helminthiasis. Models that best predicted testosterone levels did not include parasite burden but instead consistently included month of capture and agglutination score. Thus, in our system, body condition was a more important predictor of immunity and worm burden than host sex.

  16. Pacific Northwest Laboratory Maintenance Implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bright, J.D.

    1992-06-01

    This Maintenance Implementation plan has been developed for Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) Nuclear Facilities: 306W, 324, 325, 327 and 329NMF. It is based on a graded approach, self-assessment of the existing maintenance program(s) per the requirements specified by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4330.4A, Chapter II, Change number-sign 3. The results of this assessment were evaluated to determine needed improvements in PNL Craft Services' current maintenance program. The objective of this implementation plan is to provide baseline information for compliance to the DOE 4330.4A, and for needed improvements. The prime consideration in applying a graded approach to the Order has been to maintain safe and reliable operations, environmental compliance, safeguards and security, programmatic mission, facility preservation, and/or other facility-specific requirements. Using the results of the self-assessment, PNL has selected nine of the 18 elements of the Maintenance Program defined by DOE Order 4330.4A for improvement. The elements selected for improvement are Training and Qualification of Maintenance Personnel; Maintenance Procedures; Planning, Scheduling, and Coordination of Maintenance; Control of Maintenance Activities; Post-Maintenance Testing; Facility Condition Inspection; Management Involvement; Maintenance History; and Additional Maintenance Requirements. Based upon graded approach and current funding, those elements considered most important have been selected as goals for earliest compliance. Commitment dates for these elements have been established for compliance. The remaining elements of noncompliance will be targeted for implementation during later budget periods

  17. Electric motor predictive and preventive maintenance guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, J.A.

    1992-07-01

    Electric motor performance is vital to the reliable and efficient operation of power plants. The failure of one or more critical motors could cause lost capacity and excessive repair and maintenance cost. However, existing maintenance recommendations proposed by vendors for electric motors have sometimes encouraged many overly conservative maintenance practices. These practices have lead to excessive maintenance activities and costs which have provided no extra margin of operability. EPRI has sponsored RP2814-35 to develop a guide which provides power plants with information and guidance for establishing an effective maintenance program which will aid in preventing unexpected motor failures and assist in planning motor maintenance efforts. The guide includes a technical description which summarizes technical data relative to the four basic types of motors and their components in general use in power plants. The significant causes of motor failures are investigated and described in detail and methods to optimize service life and minimize maintenance cost through appropriate preventive maintenance and conditioning program are presented. This guide provides a foundation for an effective electric motor maintenance program and simplifies the selection of predictive and preventive maintenance tasks. Its use will enable maintenance personnel in nuclear and fossil plants to plan motor repairs during scheduled outages and avoid costly unexpected failures

  18. Organisational challenges of maintenance work at NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiman, T.; Oedewald, P.

    2004-01-01

    The proper working of the machinery is critical to NPP safety and productivity. Because maintenance routines and plant modifications are the activities that intervene most with the machinery, they are also the dominant sources of faults. Most of the human factor studies have relied on this fact. Due to the diversity, the temporal and spatial separation of the maintenance tasks, and the numerous competence requirements, focusing on a single task, special situation or a single psychological problem can only partially explain the requirements of maintenance work and the organisational challenges of effective maintenance. We have applied a cultural approach to maintenance work. Our aim has been to model the maintenance task and its psychological requirements and to characterise the features of organisational cultures in three NPP maintenance units. Results imply similarities and differences in the cultures and in the emphasis on the maintenance task. Maintenance activities have been under various restructuring initiatives. These changes have been experienced as stressful among the personnel. The effect of changes on the reliability of maintenance should be considered. A challenge for maintenance is to be able to build organisational structures and practices that would facilitate the fulfilment of the psychological work characteristics. (orig.)

  19. Pacific Northwest Laboratory Maintenance Implementation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bright, J.D.

    1992-06-01

    This Maintenance Implementation plan has been developed for Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) Nuclear Facilities: 306W, 324, 325, 327 and 329NMF. It is based on a graded approach, self-assessment of the existing maintenance program(s) per the requirements specified by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4330.4A, Chapter II, Change {number sign}3. The results of this assessment were evaluated to determine needed improvements in PNL Craft Services' current maintenance program. The objective of this implementation plan is to provide baseline information for compliance to the DOE 4330.4A, and for needed improvements. The prime consideration in applying a graded approach to the Order has been to maintain safe and reliable operations, environmental compliance, safeguards and security, programmatic mission, facility preservation, and/or other facility-specific requirements. Using the results of the self-assessment, PNL has selected nine of the 18 elements of the Maintenance Program defined by DOE Order 4330.4A for improvement. The elements selected for improvement are Training and Qualification of Maintenance Personnel; Maintenance Procedures; Planning, Scheduling, and Coordination of Maintenance; Control of Maintenance Activities; Post-Maintenance Testing; Facility Condition Inspection; Management Involvement; Maintenance History; and Additional Maintenance Requirements. Based upon graded approach and current funding, those elements considered most important have been selected as goals for earliest compliance. Commitment dates for these elements have been established for compliance. The remaining elements of noncompliance will be targeted for implementation during later budget periods.

  20. Pacific Northwest Laboratory Maintenance Implementation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bright, J.D.

    1992-06-01

    This Maintenance Implementation plan has been developed for Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s (PNL) Nuclear Facilities: 306W, 324, 325, 327 and 329NMF. It is based on a graded approach, self-assessment of the existing maintenance program(s) per the requirements specified by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4330.4A, Chapter II, Change {number_sign}3. The results of this assessment were evaluated to determine needed improvements in PNL Craft Services` current maintenance program. The objective of this implementation plan is to provide baseline information for compliance to the DOE 4330.4A, and for needed improvements. The prime consideration in applying a graded approach to the Order has been to maintain safe and reliable operations, environmental compliance, safeguards and security, programmatic mission, facility preservation, and/or other facility-specific requirements. Using the results of the self-assessment, PNL has selected nine of the 18 elements of the Maintenance Program defined by DOE Order 4330.4A for improvement. The elements selected for improvement are Training and Qualification of Maintenance Personnel; Maintenance Procedures; Planning, Scheduling, and Coordination of Maintenance; Control of Maintenance Activities; Post-Maintenance Testing; Facility Condition Inspection; Management Involvement; Maintenance History; and Additional Maintenance Requirements. Based upon graded approach and current funding, those elements considered most important have been selected as goals for earliest compliance. Commitment dates for these elements have been established for compliance. The remaining elements of noncompliance will be targeted for implementation during later budget periods.

  1. Susquehanna SES maintenance supervisor training and certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deckman, M.

    1991-01-01

    Susquehanna's program targets all Supervisors, Supervisor Candidates, and Temporary Supervisors that are responsible for in-plant maintenance or maintenance support activities, including: mechanical maintenance; electrical maintenance; maintenance support (labor support, radwaste, etc.); mobile construction support (mechanical and electrical); chemistry; health physics; maintenance planning; and instrument and controls. The program integrates the three major areas of direct Supervisory responsibilities: (1) Leadership and Management - Skills that require interpersonal activities that are typically humanistic and subjective; such as coaching, motivating, communications, etc. (2) Technical and Administrative - Knowledge that is directly related to the job of Supervising from the production, regulatory, accountability perspective. These topics are very objective and include training on topics such as workpackages, plant chemistry parameters, radiological concerns, etc. (3) Technical Skills - Ensure each Supervisor is technically competent in the plant systems, components, or equipment he/she is tasked with maintaining or overseeing. Typical skills found in this area are, circuit breaker maintenance, primary system sampling, or overhauling pumps

  2. Lean thinking for a maintenance process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance process shares significant operating costs in an organisation. Lean thinking can be incorporated into maintenance activities through applying its principles and practices/tools. Lean maintenance (LM is a prerequisite for lean manufacturing systems. This research proposes a new structure for LM process based on a systematic literature review of a significant number of related articles that were published on LM. The process structure is designed based on the five lean principles to guide and support organisations to pursue maintenance excellence. This study establishes a scheme for LM tools that are structured into 2 level 4 bundles and 26 lean practices/tools and develops a House of Waste (HoW to demonstrate the association between maintenance wastes and the LM tools. With a successful accomplishment of the proposed scheme, the performance of a maintenance department can create more improvement opportunities over time to reach the maintenance excellence status.

  3. Development of blanket remote maintenance system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakudate, Satoshi; Nakahira, Masataka; Oka, Kiyoshi; Taguchi, Kou [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-04-01

    ITER in-vessel components such as blankets are scheduled maintenance components, including complete shield blanket replacement for breeding blankets. In-vessel components are activated by 14 MeV neutrons, so blanket maintenance requires remote handling equipment and tools able to handle heavy payloads of about 4 tons within a positioning accuracy of 2 mm under intense gamma radiation. To facilitate remote maintenance, blankets are segmented into 730 modules and rail-mounted vehicle remote maintenance was developed. According to the ITER R and D program, critical technology related to blanket maintenance was developed extensively through joint efforts of the Japan, EU, and U.S. home teams. This paper summarizes current blanket maintenance technology conducted by the Japan Home Team, including development of full-scale remote handling equipment and tools for blanket maintenance. (author)

  4. Development of divertor remote maintenance system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Nobukazu; Oka, Kiyoshi; Akou, Kentaro; Takiguchi, Yuji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-04-01

    The ITER divertor is categorized as a scheduled maintenance component because of extreme heat and particle loads it is exposed to by plasma. It is also highly activated by 14 MeV neutrons. Reliable remote handling equipment and tools are required for divertor maintenance under intense gamma radiation. To facilitate remote maintenance, the divertor is segmented into 60 cassettes, and each cassette weighing about 25 tons and maintained and replaced through four maintenance ports each 90 degrees. Divertor cassettes must be transported toroidally and radially for replacement through maintenance ports. Remote handling involving cassette movers and carriers for toroidal and radial transport has been developed. Under the ITER R and D program, technology critical to divertor cassette maintenance is being developed jointly by Japan, E.U., and U.S. home teams. This paper summarizes divertor remote maintenance design and the status of technology development by the Japan Home Team. (author)

  5. Development of divertor remote maintenance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Nobukazu; Oka, Kiyoshi; Akou, Kentaro; Takiguchi, Yuji

    1998-01-01

    The ITER divertor is categorized as a scheduled maintenance component because of extreme heat and particle loads it is exposed to by plasma. It is also highly activated by 14 MeV neutrons. Reliable remote handling equipment and tools are required for divertor maintenance under intense gamma radiation. To facilitate remote maintenance, the divertor is segmented into 60 cassettes, and each cassette weighing about 25 tons and maintained and replaced through four maintenance ports each 90 degrees. Divertor cassettes must be transported toroidally and radially for replacement through maintenance ports. Remote handling involving cassette movers and carriers for toroidal and radial transport has been developed. Under the ITER R and D program, technology critical to divertor cassette maintenance is being developed jointly by Japan, E.U., and U.S. home teams. This paper summarizes divertor remote maintenance design and the status of technology development by the Japan Home Team. (author)

  6. Host relation, size and reproduction in the burrowing barnacle Trypetesa lampas (Hancock) (Crustacea Cirripedia Acrothoracica)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofie Katrine Dam; Høeg, Jens Thorvald; Yusa, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the population biology of the burrowing barnacle Trypetesa lampas, a symbiont of hermit crabs and representing the little known cirripede group Acrothoracica. We put special emphasis on the hostbarnacle relation and reproduction. A total of 341 hermit crabs....... Reproduction seems to occur throughout the year. We found ovigerous females also in winter, although less frequently than in summer, and no difference in the number of dwarf males between the summer and winter samples. The data from the present study site deviates in many respects (prevalence, female and male...... load, reproductive cycle, host relation) from previous studies on this and closely related acrothoracican species. This emphasizes that a basic lack of knowledge still exists concerning most aspects of acrothoracican reproduction, life cycles and host relation....

  7. Intercultural Competence in Host Students?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egekvist, Ulla Egidiussen; Lyngdorf, Niels Erik; Du, Xiangyun

    2016-01-01

    Although substantial work in intercultural education has been done on the intercultural competences of mobile students engaging in international study visits, there is a need to explore intercultural competences in host students. This chapter seeks to answer questions about the challenges and pos...... experience. The study suggests that challenges and possibilities are found within the following categories: (1) Experiential learning, (2) Stereotypes and (3) Coping strategies and support.......Although substantial work in intercultural education has been done on the intercultural competences of mobile students engaging in international study visits, there is a need to explore intercultural competences in host students. This chapter seeks to answer questions about the challenges......-secondary students hosting same-age Chinese students in homestays during a four-day study visit to Denmark in 2012. Qualitative data from student portfolios and focus group interviews are analysed with a focus on host students’ pre-understandings, experiences during the visit and overall reflections on the host...

  8. Larval helminths in intermediate hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredensborg, Brian Lund; Poulin, R

    2005-01-01

    Density-dependent effects on parasite fitness have been documented from adult helminths in their definitive hosts. There have, however, been no studies on the cost of sharing an intermediate host with other parasites in terms of reduced adult parasite fecundity. Even if larval parasites suffer...... transmission to their bird definitive host by predation. In experimental infections, we found an intensity-dependent establishment success, with a decrease in the success rate of cercariae developing into infective metacercariae with an increasing dose of cercariae applied to each amphipod. In natural...... the two species. Our results thus indicate that the infracommunity of larval helminths in their intermediate host is interactive and that any density-dependent effect in the intermediate host may have lasting effects on individual parasite fitness....

  9. Proactive maintenance for mechanical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fitch, EC

    1992-01-01

    Written by Dr. E.C. Fitch, the book contains over 340 double column pages which include 400 figures and tables, a comprehensive bibliography, and index. There is no root cause of mechanical failure, known to the author, that has been ignored or left out. Nowhere in the world is this information put together in such a concise and comprehensive manner, and the book will serve as a reference and guide to designers, practising engineers, maintenance technicians, plant managers and operators who must design, maintain and operate fluid-dependent mechanical systems.

  10. Handy help for maintenance workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, T.

    1994-01-01

    Lightweight, low-cost, color-coded job cards packed with technical reference information and geared to specific types of maintenance and troubleshooting efficiency in nuclear as well as other types of power plants. Developed in conjunction with EPRI's counterpart in Japan, job card sets have been pilot-tested at two operating U.S. nuclear plants and are also being evaluated by Japanese utilities. In addition to their potential for utility customization, job cards could become a new line of EPRI information product that is used directly by the people who inspect and repair equipment in utility power plants

  11. Chromatin replication and epigenome maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alabert, Constance; Groth, Anja

    2012-01-01

    Stability and function of eukaryotic genomes are closely linked to chromatin structure and organization. During cell division the entire genome must be accurately replicated and the chromatin landscape reproduced on new DNA. Chromatin and nuclear structure influence where and when DNA replication...... initiates, whereas the replication process itself disrupts chromatin and challenges established patterns of genome regulation. Specialized replication-coupled mechanisms assemble new DNA into chromatin, but epigenome maintenance is a continuous process taking place throughout the cell cycle. If DNA...... synthesis is perturbed, cells can suffer loss of both genome and epigenome integrity with severe consequences for the organism....

  12. Mobile robotics for CANDU maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipsett, M.G.; Rody, K.H.

    1996-01-01

    Although robotics researchers have been promising that robotics would soon be performing tasks in hazardous environments, the reality has yet to live up to the hype. The presently available crop of robots suitable for deployment in industrial situations are remotely operated, requiring skilled users. This talk describes cases where mobile robots have been used successfully in CANDU stations, discusses the difficulties in using mobile robots for reactor maintenance, and provides near-term goals for achievable improvements in performance and usefulness. (author) 5 refs., 2 ills

  13. Peace maintenance and political messages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAtackney, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The role of wall murals – as both territorial markers and as a means of maintaining and reinforcing identity – has been a frequent subject of study as a way of understanding the recent conflict in Northern Ireland, euphemistically known as ‘the Troubles’ (c. 1969–c. 1998). Whilst the heightened p......-essentializing their existence. It is suggested that there is a need to contextualize and consider the current and potential role of walls in the maintenance of peace and facilitating a ‘new’ Northern Ireland....

  14. NIF Maintenance Plan March 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wonterghem, Bruno M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-01-30

    Ensuring the reliability of the NIF, including its support systems and utilities, is essential to ensuring the availability of the NIF in its support of laser operations. This document identifies the policies and procedures necessary to perform and support the maintenance of the NIF’s systems. These systems are all encompassing and include the facility, beampath, Line Replaceable Units (LRUs), Safety Interlock System (SIS), and diagnostics and utilities that create the environments within the beampath consisting of vacuum, argon, or clean dry air.

  15. [Maintenance care for dental implant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamoi, K

    1989-10-01

    Dental implant has tried at the early stage in 19th century recovering an oral function and esthetics. Technological revolutions in biochemical and new materials have developed on the remarkable change in the dental implants, nowadays we call the three generation therapy for dental implantology. There are many kinds of methods and techniques in dental implants, however a lot of troublesome complication on the process of surgical phase, construction of prothodontics and prognosis of maintenance care. In the proceedings of this symposium, I would like to propose you how to manage the maintenance care for various kind of dental implants through the methodology and case presentations. Tendenay and future for dental implants The current outlook of dental implant has increasing supply and demand not only dentists but also patients. According to Japanese Welfare Ministry's report in 1987, average missing teeth over sixty years old generations are approximately 42% in accordance with NIDR (U.S.A.) research. They are missed on ten over teeth in full 28th teeth dentitions owing to dental caries and periodontal diseases. Generally speaking, latent implant patients are occupied on the same possibility of needs for dental implants both Japan and U.S.A. Management of maintenance care The patients hardly recognized the importance of plaque control for the maintenance care in the intraoral condition after implantation. Dentists and dental staffs must be instruct patients for importance of plaque removal and control, because they already had forgotten the habit of teeth cleaning, especially in the edenturous conditions. 1) Concept of establishment in oral hygiene. Motivation and instruction for patients include very important factors in dental implants as well as in periodontal diseases. Patients who could not achieve on good oral hygiene levels obtained no good results in the long term observations. To establish good oral hygiene are how to control supra plaque surrounding tissues

  16. Intensity of parasitic mite infection decreases with hibernation duration of the host snail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeussler, E M; Pizá, J; Schmera, D; Baur, B

    2012-07-01

    Temperature can be a limiting factor on parasite development. Riccardoella limacum, a haematophagous mite, lives in the mantle cavity of helicid land snails. The prevalence of infection by R. limacum in populations of the land snail Arianta arbustorum is highly variable (0-78%) in Switzerland. However, parasitic mites do not occur in host populations at altitudes of 1290 m or higher. It has been hypothesized that the host's hibernation period might be too long at high elevations for mites and their eggs to survive. To test this hypothesis, we experimentally infected snails and allowed them to hibernate at 4°C for periods of 4-7 months. Winter survival of host snails was negatively affected by R. limacum. The intensity of mite infection decreased with increasing hibernation duration. Another experiment with shorter recording intervals revealed that mites do not leave the host when it buries in the soil at the beginning of hibernation. The number of mites decreased after 24 days of hibernation, whereas the number of eggs attached to the lung tissue remained constant throughout hibernation. Thus, R. limacum survives the winter in the egg stage in the host. Low temperature at high altitudes may limit the occurrence of R. limacum.

  17. Migration effects of Olympic siting: A pooled time series cross-sectional analysis of host regions

    OpenAIRE

    Dawn D. Thilmany; Travis J. Lybbert

    2000-01-01

    There has been considerable opposition to the 2002 Winter Olympics, to be held in the Salt Lake City metro area. This opposition stems primarily from fears of increased population growth due to the international attention. Proponents maintain that the Games will enhance the quality and quantity of jobs in the local economy, mitigating any undesirable impacts. This paper analyzes the experiences of past North American Olympic host regions, rather than the single case of Salt Lake City, to dete...

  18. The ITER remote maintenance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesini, A.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: ITER is a joint international research and development project that aims to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion power. As soon as the plasma operation begins using tritium, the replacement of the vacuum vessel internal components will need to be done with remote handling techniques. To accomplish these operations ITER has equipped itself with a Remote Maintenance System; this includes the Remote Handling equipment set and the Hot Cell facility. Both need to work in a cooperative way, with the aim of minimizing the machine shutdown periods and to maximize the machine availability. The ITER Remote Handling equipment set is required to be available, robust, reliable and retrievable. The machine components, to be remotely handle-able, are required to be designed simply so as to ease their maintenance. The baseline ITER Remote Handling equipment is described. The ITER Hot Cell Facility is required to provide a controlled and shielded area for the execution of repair operations (carried out using dedicated remote handling equipment) on those activated components which need to be returned to service, inside the vacuum vessel. The Hot Cell provides also the equipment and space for the processing and temporary storage of the operational and decommissioning rad-waste. A conceptual ITER Hot Cell Facility is described. (authors)

  19. The ITER remote maintenance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesini, A.; Palmer, J.

    2007-01-01

    ITER is a joint international research and development project that aims to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion power. As soon as the plasma operation begins using tritium, the replacement of the vacuum vessel internal components will need to be done with remote handling techniques. To accomplish these operations ITER has equipped itself with a Remote Maintenance System; this includes the Remote Handling equipment set and the Hot Cell facility. Both need to work in a cooperative way, with the aim of minimizing the machine shutdown periods and to maximize the machine availability. The ITER Remote Handling equipment set is required to be available, robust, reliable and retrievable. The machine components, to be remotely handle-able, are required to be designed simply so as to ease their maintenance. The baseline ITER Remote Handling equipment is described. The ITER Hot Cell Facility is required to provide a controlled and shielded area for the execution of repair operations (carried out using dedicated remote handling equipment) on those activated components which need to be returned to service, inside the vacuum vessel. The Hot Cell provides also the equipment and space for the processing and temporary storage of the operational and decommissioning radwaste. A conceptual ITER Hot Cell Facility is described. (orig.)

  20. Ontology Maintenance using Textual Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassine Gargouri

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Ontologies are continuously confronted to evolution problem. Due to the complexity of the changes to be made, a maintenance process, at least a semi-automatic one, is more and more necessary to facilitate this task and to ensure its reliability. In this paper, we propose a maintenance ontology model for a domain, whose originality is to be language independent and based on a sequence of text processing in order to extract highly related terms from corpus. Initially, we deploy the document classification technique using GRAMEXCO to generate classes of texts segments having a similar information type and identify their shared lexicon, agreed as highly related to a unique topic. This technique allows a first general and robust exploration of the corpus. Further, we apply the Latent Semantic Indexing method to extract from this shared lexicon, the most associated terms that has to be seriously considered by an expert to eventually confirm their relevance and thus updating the current ontology. Finally, we show how the complementarity between these two techniques, based on cognitive foundation, constitutes a powerful refinement process.

  1. Reducing costs by clustering maintenance activities for multiple critical units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, Bram; Klingenberg, Warse; Teunter, Ruud; Tinga, Tiedo

    Advances in sensor technology have enabled companies to make significant progress towards achieving condition-based maintenance (CBM). CBM provides the opportunity to perform maintenance actions more effectively. However, scheduling maintenance at the unit level may imply a high maintenance

  2. Reducing costs by clustering maintenance activities for multiple critical units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, Bram; Klingenberg, Warse; Teunter, Ruud; Tinga, Tiedo

    2015-01-01

    Advances in sensor technology have enabled companies to make significant progress towards achieving condition-based maintenance (CBM). CBM provides the opportunity to perform maintenance actions more effectively. However, scheduling maintenance at the unit level may imply a high maintenance

  3. Winter Is Coming: Seasonal Variation in Resting Metabolic Rate of the European Badger (Meles meles).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClune, David W; Kostka, Berit; Delahay, Richard J; Montgomery, W Ian; Marks, Nikki J; Scantlebury, David M

    2015-01-01

    Resting metabolic rate (RMR) is a measure of the minimum energy requirements of an animal at rest, and can give an indication of the costs of somatic maintenance. We measured RMR of free-ranging European badgers (Meles meles) to determine whether differences were related to sex, age and season. Badgers were captured in live-traps and placed individually within a metabolic chamber maintained at 20 ± 1°C. Resting metabolic rate was determined using an open-circuit respirometry system. Season was significantly correlated with RMR, but no effects of age or sex were detected. Summer RMR values were significantly higher than winter values (mass-adjusted mean ± standard error: 2366 ± 70 kJ⋅d(-1); 1845 ± 109 kJ⋅d(-1), respectively), with the percentage difference being 24.7%. While under the influence of anaesthesia, RMR was estimated to be 25.5% lower than the combined average value before administration, and after recovery from anaesthesia. Resting metabolic rate during the autumn and winter was not significantly different to allometric predictions of basal metabolic rate for mustelid species weighing 1 kg or greater, but badgers measured in the summer had values that were higher than predicted. Results suggest that a seasonal reduction in RMR coincides with apparent reductions in physical activity and body temperature as part of the overwintering strategy ('winter lethargy') in badgers. This study contributes to an expanding dataset on the ecophysiology of medium-sized carnivores, and emphasises the importance of considering season when making predictions of metabolic rate.

  4. Low clouds suppress Arctic air formation and amplify high-latitude continental winter warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Timothy W; Tziperman, Eli

    2015-09-15

    High-latitude continents have warmed much more rapidly in recent decades than the rest of the globe, especially in winter, and the maintenance of warm, frost-free conditions in continental interiors in winter has been a long-standing problem of past equable climates. We use an idealized single-column atmospheric model across a range of conditions to study the polar night process of air mass transformation from high-latitude maritime air, with a prescribed initial temperature profile, to much colder high-latitude continental air. We find that a low-cloud feedback--consisting of a robust increase in the duration of optically thick liquid clouds with warming of the initial state--slows radiative cooling of the surface and amplifies continental warming. This low-cloud feedback increases the continental surface air temperature by roughly two degrees for each degree increase of the initial maritime surface air temperature, effectively suppressing Arctic air formation. The time it takes for the surface air temperature to drop below freezing increases nonlinearly to ∼ 10 d for initial maritime surface air temperatures of 20 °C. These results, supplemented by an analysis of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 climate model runs that shows large increases in cloud water path and surface cloud longwave forcing in warmer climates, suggest that the "lapse rate feedback" in simulations of anthropogenic climate change may be related to the influence of low clouds on the stratification of the lower troposphere. The results also indicate that optically thick stratus cloud decks could help to maintain frost-free winter continental interiors in equable climates.

  5. Observed decreases in the Canadian outdoor skating season due to recent winter warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damyanov, Nikolay N; Mysak, Lawrence A; Damon Matthews, H

    2012-01-01

    Global warming has the potential to negatively affect one of Canada’s primary sources of winter recreation: hockey and ice skating on outdoor rinks. Observed changes in winter temperatures in Canada suggest changes in the meteorological conditions required to support the creation and maintenance of outdoor skating rinks; while there have been observed increases in the ice-free period of several natural water bodies, there has been no study of potential trends in the duration of the season supporting the construction of outdoor skating rinks. Here we show that the outdoor skating season (OSS) in Canada has significantly shortened in many regions of the country as a result of changing climate conditions. We first established a meteorological criterion for the beginning, and a proxy for the length of the OSS. We extracted this information from daily maximum temperature observations from 1951 to 2005, and tested it for significant changes over time due to global warming as well as due to changes in patterns of large-scale natural climate variability. We found that many locations have seen a statistically significant decrease in the OSS length, particularly in Southwest and Central Canada. This suggests that future global warming has the potential to significantly compromise the viability of outdoor skating in Canada. (letter)

  6. 32th Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The 32nd edition of the Winter Workshop will be held 28 February - 5 March 2016, Hotel Resort Fort Royal Guadeloupe in Guadeloupe a French overseas territory, is an island group in the southern Caribbean Sea. As with previous years, the workshop will bring together scientists from all fields of nuclear physics for engaging and friendly exchanges of ideas. Much emphasis will be on the recent LHC, RHIC and SPS heavy ion results, but advances in the ongoing and future programs at FAIR, FRIB, EIC, JLab and NICA and will also be featured. The meeting will start with a welcome reception on the evening of Sunday, February 28. The workshop program will commence on Monday morning and run until Saturday. We recommend to arrive on Sunday and leave on Sunday. Talks will be as usual 25+5 minutes, there will be no parallel sessions. If you are interested in presenting your work, please fill out the registration form prior to the registration deadline. After the program committee has met we will confirm your talk via indivi...

  7. Geophysical forecast: industry expects busy winter season

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwick, J.

    1997-11-01

    Survey results by the Canadian Association of Geophysical Contractors were discussed. According to the survey, all of the sector`s 65 crews will be fully utilized this winter, although no activity records are expected. Charges are likely to be slightly higher than last year. At least some of the increase will go towards increased pay to attract more workers into the field in an effort to counter the labour shortage in the seismic industry. Contractors must compete with other sectors such as construction, which is booming as a result of Alberta`s burgeoning economy. The Slave Lake and Rocky Mountain House regions are expected to be the hottest in Alberta. Southeastern Saskatchewan also promises to be the site of increased activity due to the growing interest in the Red River oil play. Another reason for the increased activity may be the use of innovative technology such as that employed by Enertec Geophysical Service Limited. It will pilot-test its newly acquired PowerProbe technology, which is said to be able to immediately detect the presence of hydrocarbons.

  8. Comparison of East Asian winter monsoon indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Hui

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Four East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM indices are compared in this paper. In the research periods, all the indices show similar interannual and decadal-interdecadal variations, with predominant periods centering in 3–4 years, 6.5 years and 9–15 years, respectively. Besides, all the indices show remarkable weakening trends since the 1980s. The correlation coefficient of each two indices is positive with a significance level of 99%. Both the correlation analyses and the composites indicate that in stronger EAWM years, the Siberian high and the higher-level subtropical westerly jet are stronger, and the Aleutian low and the East Asia trough are deeper. This circulation pattern is favorable for much stronger northwesterly wind and lower air temperature in the subtropical regions of East Asia, while it is on the opposite in weaker EAWM years. Besides, EAWM can also exert a remarkable leading effect on the summer monsoon. After stronger (weaker EAWM, less (more summer precipitation is seen over the regions from the Yangtze River valley of China to southern Japan, while more (less from South China Sea to the tropical western Pacific.

  9. Report 3 energy market barometer - Winter 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, Joachim; Cateura, Olivier; Faure, Corinne; Jacob, Jojo; Javaudin, Laurent; Molecke, Greg; Olsthoorn, Mark; Pinkse, Jonatan; Shomali, Azadeh; Vernay, Anne-Lorene

    2015-01-01

    This Winter 2014 edition of the Grenoble Ecole de Management (GEM) Energy Market Barometer documents the French energy experts' estimates of the future electricity mix in France and in the European Union, their assessment of the regulatory conditions in France for investments in energy technologies, and their expectations about the development of energy and CO 2 -certificate prices. Key findings: - Fewer than one in four experts believes that the target to decrease nuclear power's share of the French power mix to 50% by 2025 will be met; - The share of renewable energy sources (other than hydropower) in the French power mix is expected to almost quadruple by 2030; - Renewable energy sources (other than hydropower) are believed to become the dominating source of electricity in the EU in 2030; - About two thirds of the experts think that current regulatory conditions in France are particularly accommodating for investments in energy efficiency and renewable energies; - Experts are divided over how supportive current and future regulatory conditions are for encouraging investments in nuclear power in France; - Electricity prices are expected to remain stable over the next six months but to increase over the next 5 years; - Oil prices are expected to continue to decrease over the next six month, but increase over the next 5 years; - CO 2 certificate prices are expected to rise only in the medium to longer term but levels remain rather low

  10. Estimating Maintenance Cost for Web Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IVAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paper tackles the issue of determining a method for estimating maintenance costs for web applications. The current state of research in the field of web application maintenance is summarized and leading theories and results are highlighted. The cost of web maintenance is determined by the number of man-hours invested in maintenance tasks. Web maintenance tasks are categorized into content maintenance and technical maintenance. Research is centered on analyzing technical maintenance tasks. The research hypothesis is formulated on the assumption that the number of man-hours invested in maintenance tasks can be assessed based on the web application’s user interaction level, complexity and content update effort. Data regarding the costs of maintenance tasks is collected from 24 maintenance projects implemented by a web development company that tackles a wide area of web applications. Homogeneity and diversity of collected data is submitted for debate by presenting a sample of the data and depicting the overall size and comprehensive nature of the entire dataset. A set of metrics dedicated to estimating maintenance costs in web applications is defined based on conclusions formulated by analyzing the collected data and the theories and practices dominating the current state of research. Metrics are validated with regards to the initial research hypothesis. Research hypothesis are validated and conclusions are formulated on the topic of estimating the maintenance cost of web applications. The limits of the research process which represented the basis for the current paper are enunciated. Future research topics are submitted for debate.

  11. HybHyp--hybridizing the host: the long reach of parasite genes. A new hypothesis to explain host-parasite interrelationships in plant hybrid complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissemann, Volker

    2010-12-01

    Ever since existence of sexuality in plants was accepted in around 1700, questions centred about the role and maintenance of sexual reproduction in general, leading to a number of hypotheses like the Vicar of Bray, the Ratchet or the Hitch-hiker theory. Bell (The masterpiece of nature. The evolution and genetics of sexuality. University of California Press, Berkeley, LA, 1982) formulated the Red Queen Hypothesis (RQH) which explains the persistence of sexual reproduction as an outcome of a coevolutionary arms race between hosts and parasites. By sexual recombination and genetic diversification hosts minimize the risk of pathogen infection. Since virulence of pathogens is genetically determined and often species specific, parasites are mostly adapted to common host genotypes, whereas rare and divergent genotypes are less infected and therefore have a selective advantage. Employing Dawkins (The extended phenotype. The long reach of the gene, 1999) central theorem of the extended phenotype to the RQH, mating systems in hosts might be a result of the long reach of the parasites genes. Here now the hypothesis is proposed, that evolution by hybridisation and polyploidy in host plants is an extended phenotype of parasites, a response of hosts triggered by the parasites genes to slow down the effects of the Red Queen strategy of plants. Thus, hybridisation and polyploidy might have evolved by parasite pressure and not by host strategy. This hypothesis is called the "hybridisation-of-the-host-hypothesis".

  12. Novel psychrotolerant picocyanobacteria isolated from Chesapeake Bay in the winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongle; Jiao, Nianzhi; Chen, Feng

    2015-08-01

    Picocyanobacteria are major primary producers in the ocean, especially in the tropical or subtropical oceans or during warm seasons. Many "warm" picocyanobacterial species have been isolated and characterized. However, picocyanobacteria in cold environments or cold seasons are much less studied. In general, little is known about the taxonomy and ecophysiology of picocyanobacteria living in the winter. In this study, 17 strains of picocyanobacteria were isolated from Chesapeake Bay, a temperate estuarine ecosystem, during the winter months. These winter isolates belong to five distinct phylogenetic lineages, and are distinct from the picocyanobacteria previously isolated from the warm seasons. The vast majority of the winter isolates were closely related to picocyanobacteria isolated from other cold environments like Arctic or subalpine waters. The winter picocyanobacterial isolates were able to maintain slow growth or prolonged dormancy at 4°C. Interestingly, the phycoerythrin-rich strains outperformed the phycocyanin-rich strains at cold temperature. In addition, winter picocyanobacteria changed their morphology when cultivated at 4°C. The close phylogenetic relationship between the winter picocyanobacteria and the picocyanobacteria living in high latitude cold regions indicates that low temperature locations select specific ecotypes of picocyanobacteria. © 2015 Phycological Society of America.

  13. Relationship of deer and moose populations to previous winters' snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; McRoberts, R.E.; Peterson, R.O.; Page, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    (1) Linear regression was used to relate snow accumulation during single and consecutive winters with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn:doe ratios, mosse (Alces alces) twinning rates and calf:cow ratios, and annual changes in deer and moose populations. Significant relationships were found between snow accumulation during individual winters and these dependent variables during the following year. However, the strongest relationships were between the dependent variables and the sums of the snow accumulations over the previous three winters. The percentage of the variability explained was 36 to 51. (2) Significant relationships were also found between winter vulnerability of moose calves and the sum of the snow accumulations in the current, and up to seven previous, winters, with about 49% of the variability explained. (3) No relationship was found between wolf numbers and the above dependent variables. (4) These relationships imply that winter influences on maternal nutrition can accumulate for several years and that this cumulative effect strongly determines fecundity and/or calf and fawn survivability. Although wolf (Canis lupus L.) predation is the main direct mortality agent on fawns and calves, wolf density itself appears to be secondary to winter weather in influencing the deer and moose populations.

  14. Autumn Weather and Winter Increase in Cerebrovascular Disease Mortality

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonagh, R

    2016-11-01

    Mortality from cerebrovascular disease increases in winter but the cause is unclear. Ireland’s oceanic climate means that it infrequently experiences extremes of weather. We examined how weather patterns relate to stroke mortality in Ireland. Seasonal data for Sunshine (% of average), Rainfall (% of average) and Temperature (degrees Celsius above average) were collected for autumn (September-November) and winter (December-February) using official Irish Meteorological Office data. National cerebrovascular mortality data was obtained from Quarterly Vital Statistics. Excess winter deaths were calculated by subtracting (nadir) 3rd quarter mortality data from subsequent 1st quarter data. Data for 12 years were analysed, 2002-2014. Mean winter mortality excess was 24.7%. Winter mortality correlated with temperature (r=.60, p=0.04). Rise in winter mortality correlated strongly with the weather in the preceding autumn (Rainfall: r=-0.19 p=0.53, Temperature: r=-0.60, p=0.03, Sunshine, r=0.58, p=0.04). Winter cerebrovascular disease mortality appears higher following cool, sunny autum

  15. Sage-grouse habitat selection during winter in Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Jennifer L.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Boyce, Mark S.

    2010-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) are dependent on sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) for food and shelter during winter, yet few studies have assessed winter habitat selection, particularly at scales applicable to conservation planning. Small changes to availability of winter habitats have caused drastic reductions in some sage-grouse populations. We modeled winter habitat selection by sage-grouse in Alberta, Canada, by using a resource selection function. Our purpose was to 1) generate a robust winter habitat-selection model for Alberta sage-grouse; 2) spatially depict habitat suitability in a Geographic Information System to identify areas with a high probability of selection and thus, conservation importance; and 3) assess the relative influence of human development, including oil and gas wells, in landscape models of winter habitat selection. Terrain and vegetation characteristics, sagebrush cover, anthropogenic landscape features, and energy development were important in top Akaike's Information Criterionselected models. During winter, sage-grouse selected dense sagebrush cover and homogenous less rugged areas, and avoided energy development and 2-track truck trails. Sage-grouse avoidance of energy development highlights the need for comprehensive management strategies that maintain suitable habitats across all seasons. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  16. Winter season mortality: will climate warming bring benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Patrick L.; Schwartz, Joel; Pascal, Mathilde; Petkova, Elisaveta; Le Tertre, Alain; Medina, Sylvia; Vautard, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Extreme heat events are associated with spikes in mortality, yet death rates are on average highest during the coldest months of the year. Under the assumption that most winter excess mortality is due to cold temperature, many previous studies have concluded that winter mortality will substantially decline in a warming climate. We analyzed whether and to what extent cold temperatures are associated with excess winter mortality across multiple cities and over multiple years within individual cities, using daily temperature and mortality data from 36 US cities (1985-2006) and 3 French cities (1971-2007). Comparing across cities, we found that excess winter mortality did not depend on seasonal temperature range, and was no lower in warmer vs. colder cities, suggesting that temperature is not a key driver of winter excess mortality. Using regression models within monthly strata, we found that variability in daily mortality within cities was not strongly influenced by winter temperature. Finally we found that inadequate control for seasonality in analyses of the effects of cold temperatures led to spuriously large assumed cold effects, and erroneous attribution of winter mortality to cold temperatures. Our findings suggest that reductions in cold-related mortality under warming climate may be much smaller than some have assumed. This should be of interest to researchers and policy makers concerned with projecting future health effects of climate change and developing relevant adaptation strategies.

  17. Unexpected winter phytoplankton blooms in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacour, L.; Ardyna, M.; Stec, K. F.; Claustre, H.; Prieur, L.; Poteau, A.; D'Alcala, M. Ribera; Iudicone, D.

    2017-11-01

    In mid- and high-latitude oceans, winter surface cooling and strong winds drive turbulent mixing that carries phytoplankton to depths of several hundred metres, well below the sunlit layer. This downward mixing, in combination with low solar radiation, drastically limits phytoplankton growth during the winter, especially that of the diatoms and other species that are involved in seeding the spring bloom. Here we present observational evidence for widespread winter phytoplankton blooms in a large part of the North Atlantic subpolar gyre from autonomous profiling floats equipped with biogeochemical sensors. These blooms were triggered by intermittent restratification of the mixed layer when mixed-layer eddies led to a horizontal transport of lighter water over denser layers. Combining a bio-optical index with complementary chemotaxonomic and modelling approaches, we show that these restratification events increase phytoplankton residence time in the sunlight zone, resulting in greater light interception and the emergence of winter blooms. Restratification also caused a phytoplankton community shift from pico- and nanophytoplankton to phototrophic diatoms. We conclude that transient winter blooms can maintain active diatom populations throughout the winter months, directly seeding the spring bloom and potentially making a significant contribution to over-winter carbon export.

  18. Wintering Golden Eagles on the coastal plain of South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukovich, Mark [USDA Forest Service-Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Turner, Kelsey L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab. (SREL); Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States); Grazia, Tracy E. [USDA Forest Service, New Ellenton, SC (United States). Savannah River; Mims, Thiomas [USDA Forest Service, New Ellenton, SC (United States). Savannah River; Beasley, James C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab. (SREL); Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States); Kilgo, John C. [USDA Forest Service-Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) are rare winter residents in eastern North America, with most found along the Appalachian Mountains and few reported on the coastal plain of the Carolinas. We used remote cameras baited with wild pig (Sus scrofa) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) carcasses to detect, age, and individually identify Golden Eagles on the U.S. Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site on the coastal plain of South Carolina. We identified eight individual Golden Eagles during the winters of 2013–2014 and 2014–2015, with one detected during both winters. We detected eagles for 19 and 66 calendar days during the winters of 2013–2014 and 2014–2015, respectively, with two adult eagles detected for 30 and 31 calendar days in 2014–2015. Eagles typically scavenged on carcasses for a few days, left, and then returned when cameras were baited with another carcass, suggesting they had remained in the area. These observations suggest that large tracts of forests on the coastal plain may be important wintering areas for some Golden Eagles and, further, that other areas in the coastal plain of the southeastern United States may also harbor wintering eagles. Identification of wintering areas of Golden Eagles in the east will be an important step in the conservation of this protected species, and camera traps baited with carcasses can be an effective tool for such work.

  19. Establishment and maintenance of aphid endosymbionts after horizontal transfer is dependent on host genotype

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Parker, B. J.; McLean, A. H. C.; Hrček, Jan; Gerardo, N. M.; Godfray, H. C. J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 5 (2017), č. článku 20170016. ISSN 1744-9561 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : endosymbionts * horizontal transfer * pea aphid Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 3.089, year: 2016 http://rsbl.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/13/5/20170016.long

  20. Regional greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of winter wheat and winter rapeseed for biofuels in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsgaard, Lars; Olesen, Joergen E.; Hermansen, John E.; Kristensen, Inge T.; Boergesen, Christen D. [Dept. of Agroecology, Aarhus Univ., Tjele (Denmark)], E-mail: lars.elsgaard@agrsci.dk

    2013-04-15

    Biofuels from bioenergy crops may substitute a significant part of fossil fuels in the transport sector where, e.g., the European Union has set a target of using 10% renewable energy by 2020. Savings of greenhouse gas emissions by biofuels vary according to cropping systems and are influenced by such regional factors as soil conditions, climate and input of agrochemicals. Here we analysed at a regional scale the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with cultivation of winter wheat for bioethanol and winter rapeseed for rapeseed methyl ester (RME) under Danish conditions. Emitted CO{sub 2} equivalents (CO{sub 2}eq) were quantified from the footprints of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O associated with cultivation and the emissions were allocated between biofuel energy and co-products. Greenhouse gas emission at the national level (Denmark) was estimated to 22.1 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} ethanol for winter wheat and 26.0 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} RME for winter rapeseed. Results at the regional level (level 2 according to the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics [NUTS]) ranged from 20.0 to 23.9 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} ethanol and from 23.5 to 27.6 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} RME. Thus, at the regional level emission results varied by up to 20%. Differences in area-based emissions were only 4% reflecting the importance of regional variation in yields for the emission result. Fertilizer nitrogen production and direct emissions of soil N{sub 2}O were major contributors to the final emission result and sensitivity analyses showed that the emission result depended to a large extent on the uncertainty ranges assumed for soil N{sub 2}O emissions. Improvement of greenhouse gas balances could be pursued, e.g., by growing dedicated varieties for energy purposes. However, in a wider perspective, land-use change of native ecosystems to bioenergy cropping systems could compromise the CO{sub 2} savings of bioenergy production and challenge the targets set for biofuel

  1. Winter chilling speeds spring development of temperate butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stålhandske, Sandra; Gotthard, Karl; Leimar, Olof

    2017-07-01

    Understanding and predicting phenology has become more important with ongoing climate change and has brought about great research efforts in the recent decades. The majority of studies examining spring phenology of insects have focussed on the effects of spring temperatures alone. Here we use citizen-collected observation data to show that winter cold duration, in addition to spring temperature, can affect the spring emergence of butterflies. Using spatial mixed models, we disentangle the effects of climate variables and reveal impacts of both spring and winter conditions for five butterfly species that overwinter as pupae across the UK, with data from 1976 to 2013 and one butterfly species in Sweden, with data from 2001 to 2013. Warmer springs lead to earlier emergence in all species and milder winters lead to statistically significant delays in three of the five investigated species. We also find that the delaying effect of winter warmth has become more pronounced in the last decade, during which time winter durations have become shorter. For one of the studied species, Anthocharis cardamines (orange tip butterfly), we also make use of parameters determined from previous experiments on pupal development to model the spring phenology. Using daily temperatures in the UK and Sweden, we show that recent variation in spring temperature corresponds to 10-15 day changes in emergence time over UK and Sweden, whereas variation in winter duration corresponds to 20 days variation in the south of the UK versus only 3 days in the south of Sweden. In summary, we show that short winters delay phenology. The effect is most prominent in areas with particularly mild winters, emphasising the importance of winter for the response of ectothermic animals to climate change. With climate change, these effects may become even stronger and apply also at higher latitudes. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.

  2. Mistletoe ecophysiology: Host-parasite interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Glatzel; B. W. Geils

    2009-01-01

    Mistletoes are highly specialized perennial flowering plants adapted to parasitic life on aerial parts of their hosts. In our discussion on the physiological interactions between parasite and host, we focus on water relations, mineral nutrition, and the effect of host vigour. When host photosynthesis is greatest, the xylem water potential of the host is most negative....

  3. Maintenance evaluation using risk based criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres Valle, A.

    1996-01-01

    The maintenance evaluation is currently performed by using economic and, in some case, technical equipment failure criteria, however this is done to a specific equipment level. In general, when statistics are used the analysis for maintenance optimization are made isolated and whit a post mortem character; The integration provided by mean of Probabilistic Safety assessment (PSA) together with the possibilities of its applications, allow for evaluation of maintenance on the basis of broader scope criteria in regard to those traditionally used. The evaluate maintenance using risk based criteria, is necessary to follow a dynamic and systematic approach, in studying the maintenance strategy, to allow for updating the initial probabilistic models, for including operational changes that often take place during operation of complex facilities. This paper proposes a dynamic evaluation system of maintenance task. The system is illustrated by means of a practical example

  4. Reliability centered maintenance mini-seminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laakso, K.; Simola, K. (eds.) [VTT Automation, Espoo (Finland)

    2000-10-01

    In the Earlier NKS-project RAK-1 (1994-1997), the sub-project RAK-1.4, 'Maintenance Strategies and Ageing' focused on development of methodologies and tools for improving maintenance strategies. In the NKS/SOS-2 project (1998-2001), the maintenance related Nordic co-operation is continued. For exchange of information and as background and for discussions related to maintenance decisions in the NKS/SOS-2 project, a mini-seminar on maintenance strategies with an emphasis on reliability centred maintenance (RCM) approaches was arranged 14.10.1999. The report summarises the topics of the presentations and discussions at the seminar. The transparencies presented at the mini-seminar are enclosed in this report. (au)

  5. Second Line of Defense: Electronic Maintenance Reports, Local Maintenance Provider User Guide, Rev. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, Richard J.

    2012-09-01

    The Electronic Maintenance Report forms allow Local Maintenance Providers (LMP) and other program staff to enter maintenance information into a simple and secure system. This document describes the features and information required to complete the Maintenance Report forms. It is expected that all Corrective Maintenance Reports from LMPs will be submitted electronically into the SLD Portal. As an exception (e.g., when access to the SLD Portal is unavailable), Maintenance Reports can be submitted via a secure Adobe PDF form available through the Sustainability Manager assigned to each country.

  6. Maintenance of a healthy trajectory of the intestinal microbiome during aging: a dietary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Marco; Biagi, Elena; Brigidi, Patrizia; O'Toole, Paul W; De Vos, Willem M

    2014-01-01

    Sharing an intense transgenomic metabolism with the host, the intestinal microbiota is an essential factor for several aspects of the human physiology. However, several age-related factors, such as changes diet, lifestyle, inflammation and frailty, force the deterioration of this intestinal microbiota-host mutualistic interaction, compromising the possibility to reach longevity. In this scenario, the NU-AGE project involves the development of dietary interventions specifically tailored to the maintenance of a healthy trajectory of the intestinal microbiome, counteracting all processes connected to the pathophysiology of the human aging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Efficiency and relevancy of nuclear power plant maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Kenneth

    2001-12-01

    SKI has the intention to further develop the inspection activities to understand if maintenance is managed and developed efficiently. The task has been to identify criteria important to maintenance efficiency. The maintenance process has been reviewed to find steps in the process where maintenance efficiency preferably can be determined. The most important criteria for efficient maintenance, based on SKI regulations, are linked to the development of the maintenance program and to the follow up of already implemented maintenance programs. To achieve efficient maintenance there should be criteria and judgements at the development of the maintenance program to decide if structures, systems and components (SSK) fulfil their functions. If the deviations are maintenance related, a special maintenance program should be developed and implemented together with the regular maintenance program. To achieve efficient maintenance, the experience from already implemented maintenance, experience from other plant units and external experience should be methodically used at the development of the maintenance program

  8. Digbeth hosts the Big Bang

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Birminham museum of science and discovery, Thinktank, is hosting 'Building The Universe', a free exhibition about the work undertaken at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics, in Geneva (3 paragraphs).

  9. The divertor remote maintenance project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisonnier, D.; Martin, E.; Akou, K.

    2001-01-01

    Remote replacement of the ITER divertor will be required several times during the life of ITER. To facilitate its regular exchange, the divertor is assembled in the ITER vacuum vessel from 60 cassettes. Radial movers transport each cassette along radial rails through the handling ports and into the vessel where a toroidal mover lifts and transports the cassette around a pair of toroidal rails. Once at its final position the cassette is locked to the toroidal rails and is accurately aligned in both poloidal and toroidal directions. A further requirement on the divertor is to minimise the amount of activated waste to be sent to a repository. To this end the cassettes have been designed to allow the remote replacement, in a hot cell, of their plasma facing components. The paper describes the two facilities built at ENEA Brasimone, Italy, whose aim is to demonstrate the reliable remote maintenance of the divertor cassettes. (author)

  10. Simulated maintenance a virtual reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lirvall, P.

    1995-01-01

    The article describes potential applications of personal computer-based virtual reality software. The applications are being investigated by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's (AECL) Chalk River Laboratories for the Canadian deuterium-uranium (Candu) reactor. Objectives include: (1) reduction of outage duration and improved safety, (2) cost-effective and safe maintenance of equipment, (3) reduction of exposure times and identification of overexposure situations, (4) cost-effective training in a virtual control room simulator, (5) human factors evaluation of design interface, and (6) visualization of conceptual and detailed designs of critical nuclear field environments. A demonstration model of a typical reactor control room, the use of virtual reality in outage planning, and safety issues are outlined

  11. Methadone Maintenance as Last Resort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Järvinen, Margaretha; Miller, Gale

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on qualitative interviews with drug addicts in Copenhagen, Denmark, this article offers a phenomenological reading of a methadone maintenance program. The program is set within the principles of harm reduction, meaning that its aim is not to cure the participants’ addiction but to keep them...... neoliberal ideals of self-governance and self-development. While the program increases the participants’ sense of stability by providing them with methadone and by allowing them to better address their economic, housing, and other needs of everyday life, it also represents a context of physical, emotional......, and social dependence. The interviews cast the program as a paradox that simultaneously increases participants’ sense of stability and vulnerability. In essence, the Danish methadone program has the effect of both helping the participants by reducing the drug-related harm in their lives and of fostering...

  12. The divertor remote maintenance project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisonnier, D.; Martin, E.; Akou, K.

    1999-01-01

    Remote replacement of the ITER divertor will be required several times during the life of ITER. To facilitate its regular exchange, the divertor is assembled in the ITER vacuum vessel from 60 cassettes. Radial movers transport each cassette along radial rails through the handling ports and into the vessel where a toroidal mover lifts and transports the cassette around a pair of toroidal rails. Once at its final position the cassette is locked to the toroidal rails and is accurately aligned in both poloidal and toroidal directions. A further requirement on the divertor is to minimise the amount of activated waste to be sent to a repository. To this end the cassettes have been designed to allow the remote replacement, in a hot cell, of their plasma facing components. The paper describes the two facilities built at ENEA Brasimone, Italy, whose aim is to demonstrate the reliable remote maintenance of the divertor cassettes. (author)

  13. Quantifying Subsidence in the 1999-2000 Arctic Winter Vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B.; Jost, Hans-juerg; Loewenstein, Max; Podolske, James R.; Bui, T. Paul; Elkins, James W.; Moore, Fred L.; Ray, Eric A.; Sen, Bhaswar; Margitan, James J.; hide

    2000-01-01

    Quantifying the subsidence of the polar winter stratospheric vortex is essential to the analysis of ozone depletion, as chemical destruction often occurs against a large, altitude-dependent background ozone concentration. Using N2O measurements made during SOLVE on a variety of platforms (ER-2, in-situ balloon and remote balloon), the 1999-2000 Arctic winter subsidence is determined from N2O-potential temperature correlations along several N2O isopleths. The subsidence rates are compared to those determined in other winters, and comparison is also made with results from the SLIMCAT stratospheric chemical transport model.

  14. Notes on winter feeding behavior and molt in Wilson's phalaropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, J.; Howe, M.

    1975-01-01

    Wilson's Phalaropes, Steganopus tricolor, migrate in late summer from the prairie regions of North America to their wintering grounds in the highlands of Peru and the inland and coastal waters of Chile, Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Argentina (Holmes 1939, Meyer de Schauensee 1970). Reports on these birds from their wintering habitat are few. This paper describes numbers, feeding behavior, and molt of Wilson's Phalaropes wintering in a freshwater marsh in central Argentina. Fieldwork in Argentina was conducted by the senior author. The junior author analyzed molt patterns of birds collected there and added data he collected in North Dakota in 1968 and 1969.

  15. Consolidating Air Force Maintenance Occupational Specialties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    these questions, the impact of AFS consolidation on active duty KC-135 maintenance personnel at MacDill, McConnell , and Fairchild Air Force Bases...readiness? The analysis presented here considers the impact of AFS consolidation on active-duty KC- 135 maintenance personnel at MacDill, McConnell ... Concept for Air Force Maintenance: Conclusions from Analysis of C-130, F-16, and KC-135 Fleets, Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation, MG-919-AF, 2010

  16. Machinery prognostics and prognosis oriented maintenance management

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Jihong

    2014-01-01

    This book gives a complete presentatin of the basic essentials of machinery prognostics and prognosis oriented maintenance management, and takes a look at the cutting-edge discipline of intelligent failure prognosis technologies for condition-based maintenance.  Latest research results and application methods are introduced for signal processing, reliability moelling, deterioration evaluation, residual life prediction and maintenance-optimization as well as applications of these methods.

  17. Trends and Perspective in Industrial Maintenance Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luxhoj, James T.; Thorsteinsson, Uffe; Riis, Jens Ove

    1997-01-01

    With increased global competition for manufacturing, many companies are seeking ways to gain competitative advanges with respect to cost, service, quality and on-time deliveries. The role that effective maintenance management plays in contributing to overall organizational productivity has received...... increased attention. Trends and perspective in industrial maintenance are presented. The result of benchmarking studies from Scandinavia and United States are also presented and compared. Case studies that examine maintenance methods, knowledge, organization and information systems in three Danish...

  18. National infrastructure maintenance strategy for South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available for their strategic infrastructure (if not for all of their infrastructure), maintenance budgets are adequate (even if they could always do with more funding), capacities and skills are adequate, and their leadership has a strong maintenance ethic. OR... in improved motivations for additional funding for maintenance, a prerequisite for receiving increased funding. In terms of the Government Immovable Asset Management Act (“GIAMA”) (South Africa 2007), passed into law early in 2008, it is now obligatory...

  19. Inspection of licensee - Maintenance programme and activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    An effective maintenance programme is critical to sustained safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants. The Working Group on Inspection Practices (WGIP) concluded that when a licensee has an effective maintenance programme, the overall operating safety of the plant is improved and the protection of public health and safety enhanced. All Regulatory Bodies (RB) consider maintenance to be an important area for oversight. Although a variety of inspection practices are being used; RB are actively monitoring licensee performance. Specifically the following conclusions were reached and commendable practices identified: - Maintenance oversight by regulators appears to be in a stable continuous improvement state. Most regulators are executing inspection oversight based on an existing regulatory framework. - The performance of a licensee's maintenance programme is recognized as important part of maintaining nuclear safety. The result of the maintenance program assessment is included in the overall performance assessment of a license. - Maintenance inspection activities are recognized as an important part of the regulatory oversight process. Inspection activities are based on the safety significance and nature of work being performed by the licensee. - The effectiveness of the maintenance inspection activities is recognized to rely on properly qualified inspectors; who are adequately supported by specialists. Training and qualification of inspectors should be based on how the RB reviews and inspects licensee maintenance programmes. - Reporting requirements are identified to provide information on the licensees maintenance programme, and to help guide inspection activities. - Performance Indicators are recognized as a useful tool for helping focus regulatory activities. Basic PI are identified and tracked by the RB, and use of PI by the licensee is monitored. - Inspections are designed to confirm that the licensee is planning and scheduling maintenance with due

  20. Strategic Maintenance Development in Manufacturing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Salonen, Antti

    2011-01-01

    Industrial maintenance is a substantial financial post. The total value of maintenance budgets in Europe has been estimated to be approximately 1500 billion € per year. At the same time, there are indications that about a third of these costs are wasted due to poor planning, overtime costs, inferior use of preventive maintenance and so forth. However, the diversity between different types of industry is substantial. While the process industry, which is rather vulnerable to disturbances, has a...