WorldWideScience

Sample records for winter growth lines

  1. Impact of warm winters on microbial growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgander, Johanna; Rousk, Johannes; Axel Olsson, Pål

    2014-05-01

    Growth of soil bacteria has an asymmetrical response to higher temperature with a gradual increase with increasing temperatures until an optimum after which a steep decline occurs. In laboratory studies it has been shown that by exposing a soil bacterial community to a temperature above the community's optimum temperature for two months, the bacterial community grows warm-adapted, and the optimum temperature of bacterial growth shifts towards higher temperatures. This result suggests a change in the intrinsic temperature dependence of bacterial growth, as temperature influenced the bacterial growth even though all other factors were kept constant. An intrinsic temperature dependence could be explained by either a change in the bacterial community composition, exchanging less tolerant bacteria towards more tolerant ones, or it could be due to adaptation within the bacteria present. No matter what the shift in temperature tolerance is due to, the shift could have ecosystem scale implications, as winters in northern Europe are getting warmer. To address the question of how microbes and plants are affected by warmer winters, a winter-warming experiment was established in a South Swedish grassland. Results suggest a positive response in microbial growth rate in plots where winter soil temperatures were around 6 °C above ambient. Both bacterial and fungal growth (leucine incorporation, and acetate into ergosterol incorporation, respectively) appeared stimulated, and there are two candidate explanations for these results. Either (i) warming directly influence microbial communities by modulating their temperature adaptation, or (ii) warming indirectly affected the microbial communities via temperature induced changes in bacterial growth conditions. The first explanation is in accordance with what has been shown in laboratory conditions (explained above), where the differences in the intrinsic temperature relationships were examined. To test this explanation the

  2. Variability in winter climate and winter extremes reduces population growth of an alpine butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Jens; Matter, Stephen F

    2013-01-01

    We examined the long-term, 15-year pattern of population change in a network of 21 Rocky Mountain populations of Parnassius smintheus butterflies in response to climatic variation. We found that winter values of the broadscale climate variable, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) index, were a strong predictor of annual population growth, much more so than were endogenous biotic factors related to population density. The relationship between PDO and population growth was nonlinear. Populations declined in years with extreme winter PDO values, when there were either extremely warm or extremely cold sea surface temperatures in the eastern Pacific relative to that in the western Pacific. Results suggest that more variable winters, and more frequent extremely cold or warm winters, will result in more frequent decline of these populations, a pattern exacerbated by the trend for increasingly variable winters seen over the past century.

  3. Winter Wheat Root Growth and Nitrogen Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Irene Skovby

    in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L). Field experiments on the effect of sowing date, N fertilization and cultivars were conducted on a sandy loam soil in Taastrup, Denmark. The root studies were conducted by means of the minirhizotron method. Also, a field experiment on the effect of defoliation and N...

  4. Effect of winter nutritional levels on subsequent growth of beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of winter nutritional levels on subsequent growth of beef heifers in the. Highland Sourveld of Natal. A. van Niekerk* and R. Kernick. Department of Agriculture and Water Supply, Private Bag X9059, Pietermaritzburg 3200, Republic of South Africa. A.W. Lishman. Department of Animal Science, University of Natal, P.O. ...

  5. Water relations of Eucalyptus pauciflora near the alpine tree line in winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, P M; Slatyer, R O

    1988-03-01

    Water potential measurements were made, over three winter seasons, on Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieb. ex Spreng. at four elevations extending up to 200 m above the natural tree line in the Snowy Mountains area of southeastern Australia. Shoot water potentials were lowest in winter but never approached lethal levels. Contrary to expectations, there was no gradient of water potential with elevation. This was attributed primarily to the absence of a gradient of soil temperatures once snowpack had developed. Lowest water potentials were observed at air temperatures several degrees above zero, suggesting that transpiration and absorption may be differently affected, with temperatures above and below these values causing higher water potentials. The results suggest that shoot dieback in winter, which is a common phenomenon at alpine tree lines, is not caused by low water potentials in southeastern Australia.

  6. Winter sowing of adapted lines as a potential yield increase strategy in lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrios, A.; Aparicio, T.; Rodríguez, M.J.; Pérez de la Vega, M.; Caminero, C.

    2016-11-01

    Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. subsp. culinaris) is a traditional crop in Spain although current grain yield in Spain is relatively low and unstable. The effect of an early sowing date (winter sowing) on yield in the Spanish Central Plateau (meseta) was analyzed comparing it to the traditional spring sowing. Yield from eleven cultivars currently available for sowing in Spain and two F6:7 populations of recombinant inbred lines (RIL), ´Precoz´ × ´WA8649041´ (89 lines) and ´BGE016365´ × ´ILL1918´ (118 lines), was evaluated in winter and spring sowing dates for three seasons (2005/06, 2006/07 and 2007/08) and two localities. Yield and stability were assessed by the method of consistency of performance with some modifications. When comparing with the best currently available cultivars sown in the traditional spring sowing date, (with an estimated average yield of 43.9 g/m in our experimental conditions), winter sowing using adapted breeding lines proved to be a suitable strategy for increasing lentil yield and yield stability in the Spanish meseta, with an average yield increase of 111% (reaching an estimated yield of 92.8 g/m). Results point to that lentil production can greatly increase in the Spanish meseta if adequate plant materials, such as some of the lines analyzed, are sown at late fall. (Author)

  7. Estimation of winter wheat canopy nitrogen density at different growth stages based on Multi-LUT approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenhai; Li, Na; Li, Zhenhong; Wang, Jianwen; Liu, Chang

    2017-10-01

    Rapid real-time monitoring of wheat nitrogen (N) status is crucial for precision N management during wheat growth. In this study, Multi Lookup Table (Multi-LUT) approach based on the N-PROSAIL model parameters setting at different growth stages was constructed to estimating canopy N density (CND) in winter wheat. The results showed that the estimated CND was in line with with measured CND, with the determination coefficient (R2) and the corresponding root mean square error (RMSE) values of 0.80 and 1.16 g m-2, respectively. Time-consuming of one sample estimation was only 6 ms under the test machine with CPU configuration of Intel(R) Core(TM) i5-2430 @2.40GHz quad-core. These results confirmed the potential of using Multi-LUT approach for CND retrieval in winter wheat at different growth stages and under variables climatic conditions.

  8. Root growth in field-grown winter wheat: Some effects of soil conditions, season and genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkinson, L; Dodd, I C; Binley, A; Ashton, R W; White, R P; Watts, C W; Whalley, W R

    2017-11-01

    This work compared root length distributions of different winter wheat genotypes with soil physical measurements, in attempting to explain the relationship between root length density and soil depth. Field experiments were set up to compare the growth of various wheat lines, including near isogenic lines (Rht-B1a Tall NIL and Rht-B1c Dwarf NIL) and wheat lines grown commercially (cv. Battalion, Hystar Hybrid, Istabraq, and Robigus). Experiments occurred in two successive years under rain fed conditions. Soil water content, temperature and penetrometer resistance profiles were measured, and soil cores taken to estimate vertical profiles of pore distribution, and root number with the core-break method and by root washing. Root length distributions differed substantially between years. Wetter soil in 2014/2015 was associated with shallower roots. Although there was no genotypic effect in 2014/2015, in 2013/2014 the dwarf wheat had the most roots at depth. In the shallower layers, some wheat lines, especially Battalion, seemed better at penetrating non-structured soil. The increase in penetrometer resistance with depth was a putative explanation for the rapid decrease in root length density with depth. Differences between the two years in root profiles were greater than those due to genotype, suggesting that comparisons of different genotypic effects need to take account of different soil conditions and seasonal differences. We also demonstrate that high yields are not necessarily linked to resource acquisition, which did not seem to be limiting in the low yielding dwarf NIL.

  9. Snow line analysis in the Romanian Carpathians under the influence of winter warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micu, Dana; Cosmin Sandric, Ionut

    2013-04-01

    The Romanian Carpathians are subject to winter warming as statistically proved by station measurements over a 47 year period (1961-2007). Herein, the snow season is considered to last from the 1st of November to the 30th of April, when snowpack usually reaches the highest stability and thickness. This paper investigates the signals of winter temperature and precipitation change at 17 mountain station located above 1,000 m, as being considered the main triggering factors of large fluctuations in snow amount and duration in these mountains. Fewer snowfalls were recorded all over the Romanian Carpathians after the mid 80s and over large mountain areas (including the alpine ones) the frequency of positive temperature extremes became higher (e.g. winter heat waves). Late Fall snowfalls and snowpack onsets (mainly in mid elevation areas, located below 1,700 m) and particularly the shifts towards early Spring snowmelts (at all the sites) were statistically proved to explain the decline of snow cover duration across the Carpathians. However, the sensitivity of snow cover duration to recent winter warming is still blurred in the high elevation areas (above 2,000 m). The trends in winter climate variability observed in the Romanian Carpathians beyond 1,000 m altitude are fairly comparable to those estimated in other European mountain ranges from observational data (e.g. the Swiss Alps, the French Alps and the Tatra Mts.). In relation to the climate change signals derived from observational data provided by low density mountain meteorological network (of about 3.3 stations per km2 in the areas above 1,000 m), the paper analysis the spatial probability and evolution trends of snow line in each winter season across the Romanian Carpathians, based on Landsat satellite data (MSS, TM and ETM+), with sufficiently high spatial (30 to 60 m) and temporal resolutions (850 images), over the 1973-2011 period. The Landsat coverage was considered suitable enough to enable an objective

  10. Effect of winter nutritional levels on subsequent growth of beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Die invloed van verskillende wintervoedingspeile op die prestasie van 300 Simmentalerspeenverse (sewe maande oud) op somerveld, is oor 'n periode van drie jaar ondersoek. Gedurende die tweede winter na speen (as 18-maande-oud diere) is die verse gevoer om 'n dekmassa van 330 kg (op 26 maande) te bereik.

  11. Seedling establishment at the alpine tree line - Can there be too much winter protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lett, S.; Wardle, D.; Nilsson, M. C.; Dorrepaal, E.

    2014-12-01

    Alpine and arctic tree line expansion relies on tree seedling survival above the tree line, where the environment is harsh and protection by snow during winter is essential. Above the tree line, bryophytes are dominant; they may act as thermal insulators but their insulating ability differs between species. Apart from these positive effects, both snow and bryophytes may have negative effects on seedlings via shortening of the growing season or competition, respectively. Snow depth and duration are expected to change due to climate change, leading in some places to more snow and in others to less. What is the role of bryophytes insulating properties for seedling establishment under changing winter conditions at the alpine tree line? We hypothesized that protecting effects of snow and bryophytes would be more important for seedling survival in harsh climate (high elevation) than in milder climate (low elevation) (interactions: bryophyte*elevation and snow*elevation) and that negative effects of less snow would be ameliorated by well-insulating bryophytes (interaction: bryophyte*snow). To test this, we transplanted cores of three bryophyte species of differing insulation capacity and bare soil (control) from the subarctic tree line (~600m asl.) to 700 and 350 m asl. We transplanted 10 seedlings of two common tree line tree species (Betula pubescens and Pinus sylvestris) into each core in late summer. Cores were subjected to one of three snow treatments: autumn and spring snow removal or addition, or no manipulation. After the winter we scored seedling survival. The snow treatments had different effects at the two elevations (elevation* snow: Pbryophytes did not (elevation*bryophyte: n.s). In the harsh climate, snow addition generally enhanced seedling survival. In contrast, at the milder climate site, snow addition only increased survival in the bare soil treatment but decreased survival of seedlings in the bryophyte cores (bryophyte*snow: P=0.053). Our data show that

  12. [Effects of irrigation time on the growth and water- and fertilizer use efficiencies of winter wheat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Jian-You; Pei, Xue-Xia; Wang, Jiao-Ai; Zhang, Jing; Cao, Yong; Zhang, Ding-Yi

    2012-10-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of irrigation time before wintering (November 10th, November 25th, and December 10th) and in spring (March 5th, re-greening stage; and April 5th, jointing stage) on the growth, dry matter translocation, water use efficiency (WUE), and fertilizer use efficiency (FUE) of winter wheat after returning corn straw into soil. The irrigation time before wintering mainly affected the wheat population size before wintering and at jointing stage, whereas the irrigation time in spring mainly affected the spike number, grain yield, dry matter translocation, WUE, and FUE. The effects of irrigation time before wintering to the yield formation of winter wheat were closely related to the irrigation time in spring. When the irrigation time in spring was at re-greening stage, the earlier the irrigation time before wintering, the larger the spike number and the higher the grain yield; when the irrigation time in spring was at jointing stage, the delay of the irrigation time before wintering made the spike number and grain yield decreased after an initial increase, the kernel number per plant increased, while the 1000-kernel mass was less affected. The WUE, nutrition uptake, and FUE all decreased with the delay of the irrigation time before wintering, but increased with the delay of the irrigation time in spring. Therefore, under the conditions of returning corn straw into soil and sowing when the soil had enough moisture, to properly advance the irrigation time before wintering could make the soil more compacted, promote the tillering and increase the population size before winter, and in combining the increased irrigation at jointing stage, could control the invalid tillering in early spring, increase the spiking rate, obtain stable kernel mass, and thus, increase the WUE and FUE, realizing water-saving and high efficiency for winter wheat cultivation.

  13. [Effects of water deficit and nitrogen fertilization on winter wheat growth and nitrogen uptake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, You-Ling; Zhang, Fu-Cang; Li, Kai-Feng

    2009-10-01

    Winter wheat plants were cultured in vitro tubes to study their growth and nitrogen uptake under effects of water deficit at different growth stages and nitrogen fertilization. Water deficit at any growth stages could obviously affect the plant height, leaf area, dry matter accumulation, and nitrogen uptake. Jointing stage was the most sensitive stage of winter wheat growth to water deficit, followed by flowering stage, grain-filling stage, and seedling stages. Rewatering after the water deficit at seedling stage had a significant compensation effect on winter wheat growth, and definite compensation effect was observed on the biomass accumulation and nitrogen absorption when rewatering was made after the water deficit at flowering stage. Under the same nitrogen fertilization levels, the nitrogen accumulation in root with water deficit at seedling, jointing, flowering, and grain-filling stages was reduced by 25.82%, 55.68%, 46.14%, and 16.34%, and the nitrogen accumulation in aboveground part was reduced by 33.37%, 51.71%, 27.01%, and 2.60%, respectively, compared with no water deficit. Under the same water deficit stages, the nitrogen content and accumulation of winter wheat decreased with decreasing nitrogen fertilization level, i. e., 0.3 g N x kg(-1) FM > 0.2 g N x kg(-1) FM > 0.1 g N x kg(-1) FM. Nitrogen fertilization had obvious regulation effect on winter wheat plant growth, dry matter accumulation, and nitrogen uptake under water stress.

  14. Performance of winter-rapeseed lines with an improved fatty acid composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraeling, K.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: High levels of linoleic (C18:2) and low content of linolenic acid (C18:3) are desired traits for rapeseed. Induced mutants with an improved fatty acid composition derived from the spring-rapeseed variety Oro were crossed with a winter-rapeseed line exhibiting an increased C18:2 content and backcrossed two times with several high yielding cultivars of winter-rapeseed. After each cross the F 2 was screened by gaschromatography for the mutant-type. After the second backcross from each of 118 lines (BC 2 -F 3 ) an observation plot (9.4 m 2 ) was sown. Results show that through backcrossing it was possible to develop lines with a high proportion of C18:2 and a reduced level of C18:3, whereas C18:1 remained unchanged, demonstrating new combinations different from the usual positive correlation between C18:2 and C18:3. Yield increased continuously with decreasing portion of the mutant genome. Relatively low genotype x location interaction for fatty acids was found. (author)

  15. The impact of atmospheric ammonia and temperature on growth and nitrogen metabolism of winter wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clement, J.M A M; Loorbach, J; Meijer, J; van Hasselt, P.R; Stulen, G

    The effect of atmospheric ammonia in combination with low and moderate growth temperature on growth and nitrogen metabolism of winter wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Urban) was investigated. Plants were exposed to 0, 1000 and 2000 nl l(-1) NH3 for 1 week at moderate day/night temperatures

  16. Tissue- and Cell-Specific Cytokinin Activity in Populus × canescens Monitored by ARR5::GUS Reporter Lines in Summer and Winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Shanty; Wildhagen, Henning; Janz, Dennis; Teichmann, Thomas; Hänsch, Robert; Polle, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Cytokinins play an important role in vascular development. But knowledge on the cellular localization of this growth hormone in the stem and other organs of woody plants is lacking. The main focus of this study was to investigate the occurrence and cellular localization of active cytokinins in leaves, roots, and along the stem of Populus × canescens and to find out how the pattern is changed between summer and winter. An ARR5::GUS reporter construct was used to monitor distribution of active cytokinins in different tissues of transgenic poplar lines. Three transgenic lines tested under outdoor conditions showed no influence of ARR5::GUS reporter construct on the growth performance compared with the wild-type, but one line lost the reporter activity. ARR5::GUS activity indicated changes in the tissue- and cell type-specific pattern of cytokinin activity during dormancy compared with the growth phase. ARR5::GUS activity, which was present in the root tips in the growing season, disappeared in winter. In the stem apex ground tissue, ARR5::GUS activity was higher in winter than in summer. Immature leaves from tissue-culture grown plants showed inducible ARR5::GUS activity. Leaf primordia in summer showed ARR5::GUS activity, but not the expanded leaves of outdoor plants or leaf primordia in winter. In stem cross sections, the most prominent ARR5::GUS activity was detected in the cortex region and in the rays of bark in summer and in winter. In the cambial zone the ARR5::GUS activity was more pronounced in the dormant than in growth phase. The pith and the ray cells adjacent to the vessels also displayed ARR5::GUS activity. In silico analyses of the tissue-specific expression patterns of the whole PtRR type-A family of poplar showed that PtRR10, the closest ortholog to the Arabidopsis ARR5 gene, was usually the most highly expressed gene in all tissues. In conclusion, gene expression and tissue-localization indicate high activity of cytokinins not only in summer, but

  17. [Effects of sprinkler irrigation amount on winter wheat growth, water consumption, and water use efficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Li-Peng; Huang, Guan-Hua; Liu, Hai-Jun; Wang, Xiang-Ping; Wang, Ming-Qiang

    2010-08-01

    In 2006-2008, a field experiment was conducted at the Tongzhou Experimental Base for Water-Saving Irrigation Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, aimed to study the effects of sprinkler irrigation amount on the growth, grain yield, water consumption, and water use efficiency of winter wheat. Different treatments were installed, with the irrigation amounts expressed by the multiples of the evaporation (E) from a standard 20-cm diameter pan placed above winter wheat canopy. The grain yield was the highest in treatment 0.75 E in 2006-2007 and in treatment 0.625 E in 2007-2008. In treatments with irrigation amount less than 0.25 E, winter wheat growth was subjected to water stress, and the yield loss was larger than 25%. The water consumption of winter wheat in the two growth seasons was in the range of 219-486 mm, and increased with increasing irrigation amount. The relationships between the grain yield and the water consumption and water use efficiency could be described by quadratic function. Sprinkler irrigation with an amount of 0.50-0.75 E was recommended for the winter wheat growth after its turning green stage in Beijing area.

  18. Winter Arctic sea ice growth: current variability and projections for the coming decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, A.; Boisvert, L.; Webster, M.; Holland, M. M.; Bailey, D. A.; Kurtz, N. T.; Markus, T.

    2017-12-01

    Arctic sea ice increases in both extent and thickness during the cold winter months ( October to May). Winter sea ice growth is an important factor controlling ocean ventilation and winter water/deep water formation, as well as determining the state and vulnerability of the sea ice pack before the melt season begins. Key questions for the Arctic community thus include: (i) what is the current magnitude and variability of winter Arctic sea ice growth and (ii) how might this change in a warming Arctic climate? To address (i), our current best guess of pan-Arctic sea ice thickness, and thus volume, comes from satellite altimetry observations, e.g. from ESA's CryoSat-2 satellite. A significant source of uncertainty in these data come from poor knowledge of the overlying snow depth. Here we present new estimates of winter sea ice thickness from CryoSat-2 using snow depths from a simple snow model forced by reanalyses and satellite-derived ice drift estimates, combined with snow depth estimates from NASA's Operation IceBridge. To address (ii), we use data from the Community Earth System Model's Large Ensemble Project, to explore sea ice volume and growth variability, and how this variability might change over the coming decades. We compare and contrast the model simulations to observations and the PIOMAS ice-ocean model (over recent years/decades). The combination of model and observational analysis provide novel insight into Arctic sea ice volume variability.

  19. [Effects of different irrigation modes in winter wheat growth season on the grain yield and water use efficiency of winter wheat-summer maize].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-xia; Li, Yu-yi; Ren, Tian-zhi; Pang, Huan-cheng

    2011-07-01

    Three irrigation modes in winter wheat growth season were carried out in Heilonggang basin of North China Plain to investigate their effects on the grain yield, water consumption, and water use efficiency (WUE) of winter wheat-summer maize. The three irrigation modes included irrigation before sowing (75 mm, W1), irrigation before sowing and at jointing stage (75 mm + 90 mm, W2), and irrigation before sowing, at jointing stage, and at filling stage (75 mm + 90 mm + 60 mm, W3). With the irrigation modes W2 and W3, the increment of the annual yield of winter wheat-summer maize was 8.7% and 12.5% higher than that with W1, respectively. The water consumption in winter wheat growth season decreased with increasing irrigation amount, while that in summer maize growth season increased with the increasing irrigation amount in winter wheat growth season. The WUE of winter wheat with the irrigation mode W2 was 11.1% higher than that with W3, but the WUE of summer maize had less difference between irrigation modes W2 and W3. The annual WUE (WUE(T)) of W2 and W1 was 21.28 and 21.60 kg(-1) x mm x hm(-2), being 7.8% and 9.4% higher than that of W3, respectively. Considering the annual yield, water consumption, and WUE, irrigation mode W2 could be the advisable mode for water-saving and high-yielding.

  20. Dependence of photosynthesis and energy dissipation activity upon growth form and light environment during the winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, W W; Demmig-Adams, B; Rosenstiel, T N; Ebbert, V

    2001-01-01

    Two very distinctive responses of photosynthesis to winter conditions have been identified. Mesophytic species that continue to exhibit growth during the winter typically exhibit higher maximal rates of photosynthesis during the winter or when grown at lower temperatures compared to individuals examined during the summer or when grown at warmer temperatures. In contrast, sclerophytic evergreen species growing in sun-exposed sites typically exhibit lower maximal rates of photosynthesis in the winter compared to the summer. On the other hand, shaded individuals of those same sclerophytic evergreen species exhibit similar or higher maximal rates of photosynthesis in the winter compared to the summer. Employment of the xanthophyll cycle in photoprotective energy dissipation exhibits similar characteristics in the two groups of plants (mesophytes and shade leaves of sclerophytic evergreens) that exhibit upregulation of photosynthesis during the winter. In both, zeaxanthin + antheraxanthin (Z + A) are retained and PS II remains primed for energy dissipation only on nights with subfreezing temperatures, and this becomes rapidly reversed upon exposure to increased temperatures. In contrast, Z + A are retained and PS II remains primed for energy dissipation over prolonged periods during the winter in sun leaves of sclerophytic evergreen species, and requires days of warming to become fully reversed. The rapid disengagement of this energy dissipation process in the mesophytes and shade sclerophytes apparently permits a rapid return to efficient photosynthesis and increased activity on warmer days during the winter. This may be associated with a decreasing opportunity for photosynthesis in source leaves relative to the demand for photosynthesis in the plant's sinks. In contrast, the sun-exposed sclerophytes - with a relatively high source to sink ratio - maintain PS II in a state primed for high levels of energy dissipation activity throughout much of the winter. Independent

  1. Variability of snow line elevation, snow cover area and depletion in the main Slovak basins in winters 2001–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krajčí Pavel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal variability of snow line (SL elevation, snow cover area (SCA and depletion (SCD in winters 2001–2014 is investigated in ten main Slovak river basins (the Western Carpathians. Daily satellite snow cover maps from MODIS Terra (MOD10A1, V005 and Aqua (MYD10A1, V005 with resolution 500 m are used.

  2. Growth and Yield Stimulation of Winter Oilseed Rape (Brasssica Napus L. by Mg-Titanit Fertiliser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kováčik Peter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effort to achieve higher yields at the required qualitative level has led to the intensive studying the problems of the rational usage of the titanium containing fertilisers by the agricultural research in the course the previous thirty years. Therefore, the objective of the experiment was to evaluate the impact of two doses of Mg-Titanit (0.2 l/ha and 0.4 l/ha on the formation of the aboveground and underground phytomass, also on the total chlorophyll in leaves, on the titanium and nitrogen content in the seeds and straw, on the quantity and quality of winter rape yield. The doses were applied two or three times on the leaves of winter rape (BBCH 50-52, BBCH 59, BBCH 66-67. The experiment was realized on the Haplic Chernozem (48°42´ N, 17°70´ E - Western Slovakia during two farming years (2009/2010 and 2010/2011. The results showed that all three applications of Mg-Titanit in both doses stimulated the formation of aboveground and underground phytomass of winter rape. The highest growth of phytomass was detected after the second application. The application of Mg-Titanit in the growth phases BBCH 50-52 and BBCH 59 increased the contents of both chlorophylls (a and b, where the growth of chlorophyll b content was more considerable than the growth of chlorophyll a content. The third spraying by Mg-Titanit decreased the content of the total chlorophyll. The application of Mg-Titanit had the positive impact on the yield of seeds, straw and fat content in the winter oilseed rape seeds.

  3. Modeling Root Growth, Crop Growth and N Uptake of Winter Wheat Based on SWMS_2D: Model and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejun Yang

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Simulations for root growth, crop growth, and N uptake in agro-hydrological models are of significant concern to researchers. SWMS_2D is one of the most widely used physical hydrologically related models. This model solves equations that govern soil-water movement by the finite element method, and has a public access source code. Incorporating key agricultural components into the SWMS_2D model is of practical importance, especially for modeling some critical cereal crops such as winter wheat. We added root growth, crop growth, and N uptake modules into SWMS_2D. The root growth model had two sub-models, one for root penetration and the other for root length distribution. The crop growth model used was adapted from EU-ROTATE_N, linked to the N uptake model. Soil-water limitation, nitrogen limitation, and temperature effects were all considered in dry-weight modeling. Field experiments for winter wheat in Bouwing, the Netherlands, in 1983-1984 were selected for validation. Good agreements were achieved between simulations and measurements, including soil water content at different depths, normalized root length distribution, dry weight and nitrogen uptake. This indicated that the proposed new modules used in the SWMS_2D model are robust and reliable. In the future, more rigorous validation should be carried out, ideally under 2D situations, and attention should be paid to improve some modules, including the module simulating soil N mineralization.

  4. A Study of Estimating Winter Wheat Yields by Using Satellite Data Assimilation with Crop Growth Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwata, K.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate information of crop yield is important for production planning in agriculture. Crop growth model is a effective tool to comprehend crop growth situation. Accordingly, we use the MOSIS data for two types of utilization to provide necessary information for DSSAT. The objective of this study is developing a method of estimating winter wheat yield without adequate information of the field. The first use is estimation of solar radiation, which is required as input data into DSSAT. Since MODIS is observing the earth everyday, solar radiation can be estimated in a region where a climate observation system is not developed. The second use is data assimilation that provides appropriate parameter of cultivation management to DSSAT. MODIS LAI and Dry Matter Production (DMP) estimated from MODIS GPP are assimilated into DSSAT. Before developing data assimilation, we have accomplished sensitivity analysis of DSSAT. As the result of the analysis, we found that planting date and amount of applied fertilizer have correlated strongly with LAI and Dry Matter (DM) for specific growth period. Based on the result, we estimated winter wheat yield by assimilating MODIS LAI and DMP observed during the specific period. In contrast, previous study estimated crop yield by assimilating satellite data observed for the whole growth period. Three different assimilation schemes were tested to verify the accuracy of our method. Our results showed that the estimated winter wheat yield agreed very well with the Japanese agricultural experiment station data. Among different assimilating scenarios, the best result was obtained when MODIS LAI and DMP observed for specific growth period; the Root Square Mean Error (RMSE) was 406.52 kg ha2. The distribution map of full year incident PAR in Asia. Estimated Winter Wheat Yield in Japan In the case 1, detail information gathered by experiment reports.In the case 2, all management parameters are determined by reference to cultivation manuals.In the

  5. The effect of tillage intensity on soil structure and winter wheat root/shoot growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Hansen, Elly Møller; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2008-01-01

    of this study was to investigate the effect of tillage intensity on crop growth dynamics and soil structure. A tillage experiment was established in autumn 2002 on two Danish sandy loams (Foulum and Flakkebjerg) in a cereal-based crop rotation. The tillage systems included in this study were direct drilling (D...... with decreasing tillage intensity for the first year winter wheat at Foulum. In general ploughing resulted in the highest grain yields. This study highlights the important interaction between soil structure and crop growth dynamics....... was followed during the growing seasons using spectral reflectance and mini-rhizotron measurements, respectively. A range of soil physical properties were measured. We found decreased early season shoot and root growth with decreasing tillage intensity. Differences diminished later in the growing season...

  6. Estimating growth status of winter wheat based on aerial images and hyperspectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yunxia; Li, Minzan; Jia, Liangliang; Zhang, Xijie; Zhang, Fusuo

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to estimate the growth status and yield of winter wheat using aerial images and hyperspectral data obtained by unmanned aircraft, and then to perform precision management to the crop. The test farm was divided into 48 cells. Twenty-four cells were selected as variable rate fertilization area, and the other 24 cells were used as contrast area with low fertilization in growth season. In 2004, the aerial images of winter wheat canopy were measured from an unmanned aircraft. The SPAD value of crop leaf was acquired using a SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter, and then the hyperspectral reflectance of the crop canopy was measured by a handheld spectroradiometer. The vegetation indices, NDVI and DVI, were calculated from the hyperspectral data. The characteristics of the aerial images were used to evaluate the growth status. The RGB values of all cells were calculated from aerial images. The result showed that total nitrogen had better correlation with SPAD, NDVI, DVI, and RGB. NDVI and DVI had high correlation with the growth condition, and R/(R+G+B) and G/(R+G+B) had good correlation with the growth status and yield. The variable rate fertilization based on aerial images and NDVI was executed in the experimental cells. The yield map showed that the spatial variation of the yield was reduced and the total yield was increased. While in contrast cells, the spatial variation of the yield is greater than in experimental cells because of the spatial variation of the field nutrition. Therefore, it is practical to use aerial images and hyperspectral data of the crop canopy in estimation of the crop growth status.

  7. Growth indices of winter wheat as affected by irrigation regimes under Iran conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazy, Hamid Dehghanzadeh; Poor, Mohammad Reza Khajeh; Abad, Hossain Heidari Sharif; Soleimani, Ali

    2007-12-15

    An experiment was conducted during 2004-2006 at the Agricultural Research Station, Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch, Isfahan, Iran. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of irrigation regimes on growth indices of three bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes. A split plot layout with a randomized complete block design with four replications was used. Irrigation treatments (irrigation after 70 (I1), 90 (I2) and 110 (I3) mm cumulative evaporation from class A evaporation pan) were considered as the main plot and three wheat genotypes (Mahdavy, Ghods and Roshan-Backcross) as subplots. The I1 and I2 did not differ significantly for all growth indices, total dry matter and grain yield. Delay in irrigation from the I2 to I3 significantly reduced growth indices, total dry matter and grain yield. Trend of changes in Leaf Area Index (LAI), Total Dry Matter (TDM), Net Assimilation Rate (NAR) and Crop Growth Rate (CGR) were similar in the I1 and the I2. In all samplings, delay in irrigation from the I2 to I3 reduced all growth indices. The trend of changes in crop growth rate was more similar to leaf area index, than to net assimilation rate. Genotypes were not significantly different in respect to growth indices. The results indicate that irrigation after 90 mm cumulative evaporation from class A evaporation pan might be suitable for winter wheat production under conditions similar to this experiment where irrigation water during spring is not abundant.

  8. Effects of Magnetized Saline on Growth and Development of Winter Wheat Seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Dandan LIU; Yan SHI

    2013-01-01

    In order to explore the effects of magnetized saline solution treatment on crop growth and development, with Jimai 22 as experimental material, this experiment studied the effects of magnetized water solution of 0.3% NaCl and 0.5% NaCl, groundwater solution of 0.3% NaCl and 0.5% NaCl on SPAD value, soluble protein content and activities of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) of winter wheat. The results showed that, under the conditions of this experiment, the wheat of the magnetize...

  9. Effect of extended photoperiod during winter on growth and onset of puberty in Murrah buffalo heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwani Kumar Roy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the effect of extended photoperiod on growth rate, hormonal levels, and puberty in Murrah heifers. Materials and Methods: About 14 Murrah buffalo heifers were divided into normal day photoperiod (NDP; n=7 and extended NDP (ENDP; n=7 groups. The ENDP group was exposed to 4 h of extended photoperiod with artificial light (160 lux after sunset for 3 months during winter. Results: Group, age and group-by-age interaction effects on plasma glucose concentrations were non-significant (p>0.05. A significant effect of age on non-esterified fatty acids (p0.05 while significant (p0.05. Average daily gain and dry matter intake of heifers were nonsignificant between the NDP and ENDP groups but were comparatively higher in ENDP group. By the end of the experiment, 6 out of 7 heifers attained puberty in ENDP group in comparison to 4 out of 7 in NDP group. Conclusion: Extending the photoperiod by artificial light for 4 h during winter season resulted in better growth rate and early onset of puberty in Murrah buffalo heifers.

  10. Winter warming as an important co-driver for Betula nana growth in western Greenland during the past century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollesen, Jørgen; Buchwal, Agata; Rachlewicz, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Growing season conditions are widely recognized as the main driver for tundra shrub radial growth, but the effects of winter warming and snow remain an open question. Here, we present a more than 100years long Betulanana ring-width chronology from Disko Island in western Greenland that demonstrates...... and spring soil temperatures have increased significantly suggesting that the most recent increase in Betulanana radial growth is primarily triggered by warmer winter and spring air temperatures causing earlier snowmelt that allows the soils to drain and warm quicker. The presented results may help...... to explain the recently observed greening of the Arctic' which may further accelerate in future years due to both direct and indirect effects of winter warming....

  11. Pollen germination and pollen tube growth in ZP maize lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerović Radosav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on the in vitro pollen germination at 26°, 28°, 32° and 35°C for 24h of male parental lines, pollen tube growth in vivo in cross pollination of female and male parental lines that make couples in four hybrids: ZP 504 su (♀ ZPPL 51 × ♂ ZPPL 67; ZP 677 (♀ ZPPL 17 × ♂ ZPPL 201; ZP 704 (♀ ZPPL 109 × ♂ ZPPL 79, ZP 611 k (♀ ZPPL 126 × ♂ ZPPL 105, and the open pollination of female parental lines of the above mentioned hybrids. Pollen germination in vitro and pollen tube growth dynamics in vivo showed different genotypic specificities with the tests applied. The obtained results were discussed in the context of reproductive biology of ZP maize lines and aimed to create the preconditions for successful management and direction of the process in practice - seed production in certain environmental conditions.

  12. Winter Growth of Carps under Different Semi-Intensive Culture Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Nazish* and Abdul Mateen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was planned to observe the influence of different semi intensive culture conditions i.e. organic and inorganic fertilizer with rice polish on the growth of carps during winter season. Two earthen ponds were selected and each pond was stocked with Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Rohu (Labeo rohita and Mori (Cirrhinus mrigala at the ratio of 1:2:1 respectively with a total number of 44 fishes. Pond 1 was treated with poultry dropping and urea while pond 2 was treated with poultry dropping, urea and rice polish. The ponds were treated with at the rate of 0.2 g N/100g of wet body weight of fish. Fertilizers were added on weekly basis while rice polish was added daily. Total net fish production of pond 1 and pond 2 was remained 797.3 and 1033.0 kg/ha/year. The pond treated with fertilizer and artificial feed (rice polish showed 3.6% more fish production than the pond treated only with fertilizer. The physico-chemical parameters were measured on weekly basis. Temperature, light penetration, pH and planktonic biomass showed non-significant difference in both ponds. Pond 2 which was treated with poultry dropping, urea and rice polish showed 1.26 times greater fish growth than pond 1 which was treated with poultry dropping and urea.

  13. THE YIELD OF LETTUCE BREEDING LINE UNDER LED LAMPS IN WINTER GREENHOUSE IN THE NORTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Dalke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. is widely known and favorite vegetable crop among people. In Europe the main production of lettuce is performed on protected ground with application of  artificial  light  sources. The artificially-lighted  culture  of salad became very actually acquired in the north. Previously, on the basis of multi-year studies on yield registration and experiments with different regimes of lighting we have defined the appropriate parameters of supplementary lighting for lettuce with sodium high-pressure lamps that provided the production in different seasons per year. The aim was to study the accumulation of biomass and yield quality in lettuce ‘Aphytsion’ being grown in winter rotation under light-emitting diodes lamps. The accumulation of biomass and yield quality was studied in ‘Aphytsion’,  grown in winter rotation under lightemitting diodes lamps ECOLED-BIO-112-185WD120 UniversaLED (ООО ‘GK’  ‘CET’, Perm, in  industrial greenhouse OOO ‘Prigorodniy’  at Syktyvkar city. The commodity  output  was obtained  for  two  cycle  of  cultivation, November-December  and  December-January.  Yield  of foliage biomass was 2.4 kg/m2 with flow density PAR (Photosynthetically active radiation about 90 μmole quantum/m2  s. at 20 W/m2 with total light energy 54 MJ/m2  supplied to plants from LED lamps. The plants produced about 0.5 g. of dry weight calculated on one mole of spent light energy. Energy efficiency of PAR was 3% that corresponded with data observed earlier with sodium high-pressure lamps. The conclusion was made about the suitableness of this type of light-emitting diode lamps for lettuce cultivation in winter rotation in first photic zone. It was recommended to increase duration of supplemental lighting up to 22-24 hours in December and up to 20-22 hours in January to improve the productivity and biological value of plant output. It enables to raise RAP income in plants by 35 %, on

  14. Analysis of Yield and Yield Related Traits Variability of Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Cv. Izolda and Double Haploid Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozdój Janusz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The yield-forming potential of winter wheat is determined by several factors, namely total number of shoots per plant and total number of spikelets per spike. The field experiments were conducted during three vegetation seasons at the Plant Breeding and Acclimatization Institute – National Research Institute (PBAI–NRI, located in Radzików, Poland. The objective of this study was a comparative analysis of the structural yield-forming factor levels, which determine grain yield per spike and per plant of the DH lines and standard Izolda cultivar. Results indicate that several DH lines showed some differences in tested morphological structures of plant, yield factor levels and in grain yield per spike and per plant in comparison to standard Izolda, regardless of the year. Mean grain yield per plant of DH lines was 26.5% lower in comparison to standard Izolda only in the second year of study. It was caused by a reduction of productive tillers number. Structural yield-forming potential of DH lines was used in 38% and 59% and in case of Izolda in 47% and 61% (the second and the third year of experiment, respectively. The mean grain yield per spike of DH lines was 14.8% lower than Izolda cultivar only in third year of experiment and it was caused by about 12% lower number of grains per spike. Structural yield-forming potential of DH spikes was used in 82.4%, 85.4% and 84.9% and in case of Izolda in 83.8%, 87% and 89.5% (the first, the second and the third year of experiment, respectively. The grain yield per winter wheat plant (both DH lines and standard Izolda was significantly correlated with the number of productive tillers per plant (r = 0.80. The grain yield per winter wheat spike (both DH lines and Izolda cultivar was significantly and highly correlated with the number of grains per spike (r = 0.96, number of fertile spikelets per spike (r = 0.87 and the spike length (r = 0.80. Variation of spike and plant structural yield-forming factors

  15. [Effects of ground cover and water-retaining agent on winter wheat growth and precipitation utilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ji-Cheng; Guan, Xiu-Juan; Yang, Yong-Hui

    2011-01-01

    An investigation was made at a hilly upland in western Henan Province to understand the effects of water-retaining agent (0, 45, and 60 kg x hm(-2)), straw mulching (3000 and 6000 kg x hm(-2)), and plastic mulching (thickness straw- or plastic mulching was combined with the use of water-retaining agent. Comparing with the control, all the measures increased the soil moisture content at different growth stages by 0.1%-6.5%. Plastic film mulching had the best water-retention effect before jointing stage, whereas water-retaining agent showed its best effect after jointing stage. Soil moisture content was the lowest at flowering and grain-filling stages. Land cover increased the grain yield by 2.6%-20.1%. The yield increment was the greatest (14.2%-20.1%) by the combined use of straw mulching and water-retaining agent, followed by plastic mulching combined with water-retaining agent (11.9% on average). Land cover also improved the precipitation use efficiency (0.4-3.2 kg x mm(-1) x hm(-2)) in a similar trend as the grain yield. This study showed that land cover and water-retaining agent improved soil moisture and nutrition conditions and precipitation utilization, which in turn, promoted the tillering of winter wheat, and increased the grain number per ear and the 1000-grain mass.

  16. Shift of the Magnetopause Reconnection Line to the Winter Hemisphere Under Southward IMF Conditions: Geotail and MMS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, N.; Hasegawa, H.; Saito, Y.; Shinohara, I.; Yokota, S.; Nagai, T.; Pollock, C. J.; Giles, B. L.; Moore, T. E.; Dorelli, J. C.; hide

    2016-01-01

    At 02:13 UT on 18 November 2015 when the geomagnetic dipole was tilted by -27deg, the MMS spacecraft observed southward reconnection jets near the subsolar magnetopause under southward and dawnward interplanetary magnetic field conditions. Based on four-spacecraft estimations of the magnetic field direction near the separatrix and the motion and direction of the current sheet, the location of the reconnection line was estimated to be approx.1.8 R(sub E) or further northward of MMS. The Geotail spacecraft at GSM Z approx. 1.4 R(sub E) also observed southward reconnection jets at the dawnside magnetopause 30-40 min later. The estimated reconnection line location was northward of GSM Z approx.2 R(sub E). This crossing occurred when MMS observed purely southward magnetic fields in the magnetosheath. The simultaneous observations are thus consistent with the hypothesis that the dayside magnetopause reconnection line shifts from the subsolar point toward the northem (winter) hemisphere due to the effect of geomagnetic dipole tilt.

  17. Winter warming as an important co-driver for Betula nana growth in western Greenland during the past century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollesen, Jørgen; Buchwal, Agata; Rachlewicz, Grzegorz; Hansen, Birger U; Hansen, Marc O; Stecher, Ole; Elberling, Bo

    2015-06-01

    Growing season conditions are widely recognized as the main driver for tundra shrub radial growth, but the effects of winter warming and snow remain an open question. Here, we present a more than 100 years long Betula nana ring-width chronology from Disko Island in western Greenland that demonstrates a highly significant and positive growth response to both summer and winter air temperatures during the past century. The importance of winter temperatures for Betula nana growth is especially pronounced during the periods from 1910-1930 to 1990-2011 that were dominated by significant winter warming. To explain the strong winter importance on growth, we assessed the importance of different environmental factors using site-specific measurements from 1991 to 2011 of soil temperatures, sea ice coverage, precipitation and snow depths. The results show a strong positive growth response to the amount of thawing and growing degree-days as well as to winter and spring soil temperatures. In addition to these direct effects, a strong negative growth response to sea ice extent was identified, indicating a possible link between local sea ice conditions, local climate variations and Betula nana growth rates. Data also reveal a clear shift within the last 20 years from a period with thick snow depths (1991-1996) and a positive effect on Betula nana radial growth, to a period (1997-2011) with generally very shallow snow depths and no significant growth response towards snow. During this period, winter and spring soil temperatures have increased significantly suggesting that the most recent increase in Betula nana radial growth is primarily triggered by warmer winter and spring air temperatures causing earlier snowmelt that allows the soils to drain and warm quicker. The presented results may help to explain the recently observed 'greening of the Arctic' which may further accelerate in future years due to both direct and indirect effects of winter warming. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons

  18. Simulation of winter wheat yield and its variability in different climates of Europe: A comparison of eight crop growth models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palosuo, Taru; Kersebaum, Kurt Christian; Angulo, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    We compared the performance of eight widely used, easily accessible and well-documented crop growth simulation models (APES, CROPSYST, DAISY, DSSAT, FASSET, HERMES, STICS and WOFOST) for winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) during 49 growing seasons at eight sites in northwestern, Central and sout......We compared the performance of eight widely used, easily accessible and well-documented crop growth simulation models (APES, CROPSYST, DAISY, DSSAT, FASSET, HERMES, STICS and WOFOST) for winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) during 49 growing seasons at eight sites in northwestern, Central...... values were lowest (1428 and 1603 kg ha−1) and the index of agreement (0.71 and 0.74) highest. CROPSYST systematically underestimated yields (MBE – 1186 kg ha−1), whereas HERMES, STICS and WOFOST clearly overestimated them (MBE 1174, 1272 and 1213 kg ha−1, respectively). APES, DAISY, HERMES, STICS...

  19. Ring-widths of the above tree-line shrub Rhododendron reveal the change of minimum winter temperature over the past 211 years in Southwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yingfeng; Xu, Jianchu; Yang, Jinchao; Li, Zongshan; Gebrekirstos, Aster; Liang, Eryuan; Zhang, Shibao; Yang, Yang; Yang, Yongping; Yang, Xuefei

    2017-06-01

    Changes in minimum winter temperature (MWT) and their potential effects on plant growth and development have been gaining increased scientific attention. To better understand these changes across long temporal scales, the present study used dendroclimatological techniques to assess variations in MWT in Southwestern China. Using data from Rhododendron species distributed in areas above the tree-line, a regional composite chronology was generated for a 341-year period. Based on the significant negative correlation between MWT values and ring-width, the most reliable parts of this chronological data were then used to reconstruct MWT values for the past 211 years. This reconstructed MWT series showed decadal to multi-decadal fluctuations. Three distinct cold periods prevailed during 1823-1858, 1882-1891 and 1922-1965, while four warm intervals occurred in 1800-1822, 1858-1881, 1892-1921 and 1966-2011. Our reconstructed MWT reveals a warming trend over the most recent eight decades, which is in agreement with instrumental observations. However, the MWT values and rate of warming over the past seven decades did not exceed those found in the reconstructed temperature data for the past 211 years. Spatial correlations reveal that the MWT in Southwest China is strongly associated with regional temperatures in the Eastern and Central Himalaya, Northern China, and the Indian Peninsula. Larger scale climate oscillations of the Western Pacific and Northern Indian Ocean as well as the North Atlantic Oscillation probably influenced the region's temperature in the past.

  20. Genetic Variation in Deep Root Growth of North-European Winter Wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ytting, Nanna Karkov

    traits were found to vary between modern North-European winter wheat cultivars including variation in depth penetration rate and root density in the deepest part of the root system. Wheat was shown to be capable of using deep N resources. After three to six weeks of root proliferation in the N rich...... the total N content of the shoots. Overall the results show, that variation exists for deeper root traits in existing elite germplasm adapted to North Europe. This opens the way for wider screening to assess the value in breeding for deeper roots in winter wheat. Deeper rooting, but not necessarily higher...... subsoil root density, has the potential to increase deep N utilization by winter wheat....

  1. Crop growth and nitrogen turnover under increased temperatures and low autumn and winter light intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Lægdsmand, Mette; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2010-01-01

    a soil cover of winter wheat or a ryegrass catch crop would be able to take up the extra N mineralized during autumn and winter under the low light conditions in Northern Europe, both at current average temperatures (T0) and at 4 °C (T+4) and 8 °C (T+8) above average. The crops were grown in pots...... pots in November, December and February. Reference pots with bare soil were included. N mineralization clearly increased with higher temperatures with, respectively, 22% and 80% more N mineralized in bare soil at T+4 and T+8 than at T0 after 136 days. The ryegrass catch crop emptied the soil......The rise in mean annual temperatures under the projected climate change will affect both soil organic matter turnover and cropping patterns in agriculture. Nitrogen (N) mineralization may be higher during autumn and winter and may increase the risk of nitrate leaching. Our study tested whether...

  2. Combined effects of elevated temperature and CO2 enhance threat from low temperature hazard to winter wheat growth in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kaiyan; Zhou, Guangsheng; Lv, Xiaomin; Guo, Jianping; Ren, Sanxue

    2018-03-12

    We examined the growth and yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) in response to the predicted elevated CO 2 concentration and temperature to determine the mechanism of the combined impacts in North China Plain. An elevated treatment (CO 2 : 600 μmol mol -1 , temperature: +2.5~3.0 °C, ECTI) and a control treatment (ambient CO 2 and temperature, CK) were conducted in open-top chambers from October 2013 to June 2016. Post-winter growth stages of winter wheat largely advanced and shifted to a cooler period of nature season under combined impact of elevated CO 2 and temperature during the entire growing season. The mean temperature and accumulated photosynthetic active radiations (PAR) over the post-winter growing period in ECTI decreased by 0.8-1.5 °C and 10-13%, respectively compared with that in CK, negatively impacted winter wheat growth. As a result, winter wheat in ECTI suffered from low temperature hazards during critical period of floret development and anthesis and grain number per ear was reduced by 10-31% in the three years. Although 1000-kernel weight in ECTI increased by 8-9% mainly due to elevated CO 2 , increasing CO 2 concentration from 400 to 600 μmol mol -1 throughout the growth stage was not able to offset the adverse effect of warming on winter wheat growth and yield.

  3. The relationship between growth and development of above ground organs with roots of winter wheat using 32P tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhifen; Chen Xueliu; Yu Meiyan

    1997-01-01

    The relationship of growth and development between above ground organs and roots of winter wheat, Lumai-14, was studied using 32 P tracer. The results showed that before the spike formation, dry matter accumulation in roots, stems and leaves were synchronous, and after that they were asynchronous. The dry matter accumulation in stems and leaves were significantly related to that of roots throughout the whole growing period of winter wheat. After the spike formation, the dry matter accumulation in spikes was not related to that of roots. The 32 P distribution in stems and leaves were related to that of roots significantly, however, the relationship between spikes and roots was not obviously related, which was consistent with the dry matter accumulations in various organs. The metabolic activities of stems, leaves and spike were significantly related to that of roots respectively

  4. Research on the Effects of Water Stress on Growth Traits and Water Use Efficiency of Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Shuhong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research about the effects of water stress at different growth stages on the crop growth traits has a practical significance in guiding water-saving irrigation. The box test method is adopted to test the water stress of winter wheat at different stages, observe the plant height, leaf area and yield, and analyze the water use efficiency under the condition of water stress. The results show that the water stress in each growth period will play an inhibiting role in the plant height and leaf area of winter wheat; the water stress duration at a single stage is relatively short, and rehydration crop has a certain compensatory growth without making a big difference; the continuous water stress stage plays a significantly inhibiting role in the plant height and leaf area.; water stress has a largest effect on the plant height in the elongation period; the heading period suffers from water stress, so the leaf area decreases rapidly; water stress at a single stage in the appropriate period can increase water use efficiency. Regulated deficit irrigation can reduce luxury water consumption, which has a little effect on the yield and plays a guiding role in water saving and stable yield.

  5. Implications of being born late in the active season for growth, fattening, torpor use, winter survival and fecundity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlert, Britta; Gerritsmann, Hanno; Stalder, Gabrielle; Ruf, Thomas; Zahariev, Alexandre; Blanc, Stéphane

    2018-01-01

    For hibernators, being born late in the active season may have important effects on growth and fattening, hence on winter survival and reproduction. This study investigated differences in growth, fattening, energetic responses, winter survival and fecundity between early-born (‘EB’) and late-born (‘LB’) juvenile garden dormice (Eliomys quercinus). LB juveniles grew and gained mass twice as fast as EB individuals. Torpor use was low during intensive growth, that are, first weeks of body mass gain, but increased during pre-hibernation fattening. LB juveniles showed higher torpor use, reached similar body sizes but lower fat content than EB individuals before hibernation. Finally, LB individuals showed similar patterns of hibernation, but higher proportion of breeders during the following year than EB dormice. These results suggest that torpor is incompatible with growth but promotes fattening and consolidates pre-hibernation fat depots. In garden dormice, being born late in the reproductive season is associated with a fast life history. PMID:29458712

  6. Growth, yield and composition of four winter cereals. 1. Biomass, grain yield and yield formation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellen, J.

    1993-01-01

    A field experiment with 3 cultivars of each of 4 winter cereals (wheat, rye, triticale and barley), sown at about 320 plants/msuperscript 2, was conducted on a fertile clay soil in the central Netherlands. The N fertilizer was split-dressed: 120 kg/ha in total for wheat and triticale, and 60 kg/ha

  7. Metabolic changes associated with the long winter fast dominate the liver proteome in 13-lined ground squirrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Allyson G; Grabek, Katharine R; Epperson, L Elaine; Karimpour-Fard, Anis; Martin, Sandra L

    2014-05-15

    Small-bodied hibernators partition the year between active homeothermy and hibernating heterothermy accompanied by fasting. To define molecular events underlying hibernation that are both dependent and independent of fasting, we analyzed the liver proteome among two active and four hibernation states in 13-lined ground squirrels. We also examined fall animals transitioning between fed homeothermy and fasting heterothermy. Significantly enriched pathways differing between activity and hibernation were biased toward metabolic enzymes, concordant with the fuel shifts accompanying fasting physiology. Although metabolic reprogramming to support fasting dominated these data, arousing (rewarming) animals had the most distinct proteome among the hibernation states. Instead of a dominant metabolic enzyme signature, torpor-arousal cycles featured differences in plasma proteins and intracellular membrane traffic and its regulation. Phosphorylated NSFL1C, a membrane regulator, exhibited this torpor-arousal cycle pattern; its role in autophagosome formation may promote utilization of local substrates upon metabolic reactivation in arousal. Fall animals transitioning to hibernation lagged in their proteomic adjustment, indicating that the liver is more responsive than preparatory to the metabolic reprogramming of hibernation. Specifically, torpor use had little impact on the fall liver proteome, consistent with a dominant role of nutritional status. In contrast to our prediction of reprogramming the transition between activity and hibernation by gene expression and then within-hibernation transitions by posttranslational modification (PTM), we found extremely limited evidence of reversible PTMs within torpor-arousal cycles. Rather, acetylation contributed to seasonal differences, being highest in winter (specifically in torpor), consistent with fasting physiology and decreased abundance of the mitochondrial deacetylase, SIRT3. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Metabolic changes associated with the long winter fast dominate the liver proteome in 13-lined ground squirrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Allyson G.; Grabek, Katharine R.; Epperson, L. Elaine; Karimpour-Fard, Anis

    2014-01-01

    Small-bodied hibernators partition the year between active homeothermy and hibernating heterothermy accompanied by fasting. To define molecular events underlying hibernation that are both dependent and independent of fasting, we analyzed the liver proteome among two active and four hibernation states in 13-lined ground squirrels. We also examined fall animals transitioning between fed homeothermy and fasting heterothermy. Significantly enriched pathways differing between activity and hibernation were biased toward metabolic enzymes, concordant with the fuel shifts accompanying fasting physiology. Although metabolic reprogramming to support fasting dominated these data, arousing (rewarming) animals had the most distinct proteome among the hibernation states. Instead of a dominant metabolic enzyme signature, torpor-arousal cycles featured differences in plasma proteins and intracellular membrane traffic and its regulation. Phosphorylated NSFL1C, a membrane regulator, exhibited this torpor-arousal cycle pattern; its role in autophagosome formation may promote utilization of local substrates upon metabolic reactivation in arousal. Fall animals transitioning to hibernation lagged in their proteomic adjustment, indicating that the liver is more responsive than preparatory to the metabolic reprogramming of hibernation. Specifically, torpor use had little impact on the fall liver proteome, consistent with a dominant role of nutritional status. In contrast to our prediction of reprogramming the transition between activity and hibernation by gene expression and then within-hibernation transitions by posttranslational modification (PTM), we found extremely limited evidence of reversible PTMs within torpor-arousal cycles. Rather, acetylation contributed to seasonal differences, being highest in winter (specifically in torpor), consistent with fasting physiology and decreased abundance of the mitochondrial deacetylase, SIRT3. PMID:24642758

  9. Contribution of Nitrogen Uptake and Retranslocation during Reproductive Growth to the Nitrogen Efficiency of Winter Oilseed-Rape Cultivars (Brassica napus L. Differing in Leaf Senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Koeslin-Findeklee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Genotypic variation in N efficiency defined as high grain yield under limited nitrogen (N supply of winter oilseed-rape line-cultivars has been predominantly attributed to N uptake efficiency (NUPT through maintained N uptake during reproductive growth related to functional stay-green. For investigating the role of stay-green, N retranslocation and N uptake during the reproductive phase for grain yield formation, two line cultivars differing in N starvation-induced leaf senescence were grown in a field experiment without mineral N (N0 and with 160 kg N·ha−1 (N160. Through frequent harvests from full flowering until maturity N uptake, N utilization and apparent N remobilization from vegetative plant parts to the pods could be calculated. NUPT proved being more important than N utilization efficiency (NUE for grain yield formation under N-limiting (N0 conditions. For cultivar differences in N efficiency, particularly N uptake during flowering (NUPT and biomass allocation efficiency (HI to the grains, were decisive. Both crop traits were related to delayed senescence of the older leaves. Remobilization of N particularly from stems and leaves was more important for pod N accumulation than N uptake after full flowering. Pod walls (high N concentrations and stems (high biomass mainly contributed to the crop-residue N at maturity. Decreasing the crop-inherent high N budget surplus of winter oilseed-rape requires increasing the low N remobilization efficiency particularly of pod-wall N to the grains. Addressing this conclusion, multi-year and -location field experiments with an extended range of cultivars including hybrids are desirable.

  10. Assessing the impact of time of spring vegetation renewal on growth, development and productivity of soft winter wheat varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Л. Уліч

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of study focusing on impact of environmental factor – time of spring vegetation renewal (TSVR of soft winter wheat on growth and development of plants, crop productivity and modern varieties response are presented. It is found that in the central part of the Right-Bank of Forest-Steppe of Ukraine this factor is important and it should be considered in planning of spring and summer care techniques, fertilizer system, especially at spring fertilizing, use of pesticides and growth regulators, in taking a decision on reseeding or underseeding of space plants. At the same time, it was determined that the environmental effect of TSVR was not occurred every year, thus it is not always possible to forecast the type of plant development. But in such years it is possible to influence the processes of plants growth, development and survival in spring and summer periods and the formation of their productivity by introducing such intensive technologies as differential crop tending, mineral nutrition optimization, the use of plant growth regulators, trace nutrients, weed, pest and disease control agents.

  11. Effect of the New Plant Growth Biostimulants Based on Amino Acids on Yield and Grain Quality of Winter Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popko, Małgorzata; Michalak, Izabela; Wilk, Radosław; Gramza, Mateusz; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Górecki, Henryk

    2018-02-21

    Field and laboratory experiments were carried out in 2012-2013, aimed at evaluating the influence of new products stimulating plant growth based on amino acids on crop yield, characteristics of grain and content of macro- and micronutrients in winter wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.). The tests included two formulations produced in cooperation with INTERMAG Co. (Olkusz, Poland)-AminoPrim and AminoHort, containing 15% and 20% amino acids, respectively, and 0.27% and 2.1% microelements, respectively. Field experiments showed that the application of products based on amino acids influenced the increase of grain yield of winter wheat (5.4% and 11%, respectively, for the application of AminoPrim at a dose 1.0 L/ha and AminoHort at dose 1.25 L/ha) when compared to the control group without biostimulant. Laboratory tests showed an increase of technological characteristics of grain such as ash content, Zeleny sedimentation index and content of protein. The use of the tested preparations at different doses also contributed to the increase of the nutrients content in grains, in particular copper (ranging 31-50%), as well as sodium (35-43%), calcium (4.3-7.9%) and molybdenum (3.9-16%). Biostimulants based on amino acids, tested in the present study, can be recommended for an efficient agricultural production.

  12. Influence of gamma-irradiation, growth retardants and coatings on the shelf life of winter guava fruits (Psidium guajava L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, S.K.; Joshua, Jean E.; Bisen; Abhav

    2010-01-01

    Experiment was conducted to study the effect of gamma irradiation, growth retardants and coatings (coconut oil, mustard oil and liquid paraffin) on shelf life of winter guava fruits during storage. The results revealed that the superiority of coconut oil coating over other post harvest treatments. Physiological loss in weight (7.1%), marketable fruits retained over control (86.7%), total soluble solid (16.1%), ascorbic acid (195 mg/100 g pulp) and total sugar (10%) of fruit were positively influenced by coconut oil coating up to 12 days of storage. The treatment was found significantly effective in increasing the post harvest life of fruits for 12 days over control without adversely affecting the fruit quality. Coconut oil coating gave highest consumer acceptability while, maintaining sufficient level of total soluble solids and sugar content in fruits. (author)

  13. Ostertagia ostertagi in calves: growth, nitrogen balance and digestibility studies conducted during winter feeding following different fenbendazole therapy programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkins, J J; Bairden, K; Armour, J

    1982-01-01

    Observations of growth, nitrogen (N) balance and digestibility were made during the first winter housing period upon three groups of calves which had previously been naturally infected with Ostertagia ostertagi and which were left either untreated (A) or treated with fenbendazole on three occasions (B) or every two weeks during the entire grazing season (C). The diet given contained sufficient metabolisable energy but only about 60 per cent of the recommended crude protein to sustain a daily growth rate of 0.5 kg. Growth rates were only 50 per cent of that expected on a basis of metabolisable energy input with untreated calves A being poorest. Water intake and output was greatest in group A. There were no significant differences in digestibility between groups although group A had the lowest apparent crude protein digestibility. N balance was always lowest in group A and highest in group C but group B demonstrated a marked increase in N retention with time after housing. Differences in N retention were mainly accounted for by increased urinary N excretion. It is concluded that, under conditions of suboptimal protein intake, nematode infection in the growing calf can markedly affect production even after efficient anthelmintic treatment.

  14. The influence of growth regulators on membrane permeability in cultures of winter wheat cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filek, M.; KoĽcielniak, J.; Marcińska, I.; Macháčková, Ivana; Krekule, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 59, 9/10 (2004), s. 673-678 ISSN 0939-5075 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS5038352 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : growth regulators * cells * permeability Subject RIV: GC - Agronomy Impact factor: 0.715, year: 2004

  15. The effect of plant growth regulators and their interaction with electric current on winter wheat development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Biesaga-Koscielniak, J.; Koscielniak, J.; Filek, M.; Marcinska, I.; Krekule, Jan; Macháčková, Ivana; Kubon, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 5 (2010), s. 987-995 ISSN 0137-5881 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : In vitro culture * Plant growth regulators * Electric current Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.344, year: 2010

  16. Short-term winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cover crop grazing influence on calf growth, grain yield, and soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter cover cropping has many agronomic benefits and can provide forages base for spring livestock grazing. Winter cover crop grazing has shown immediate economic benefits through increased animal production. Winter wheat pasture grazing is common in beef cow-calf production and stocker operations....

  17. Proteome Analysis of Cold Response in Spring and Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Crowns Reveals Similarities in Stress Adaptation and Differences in Regulatory Processes between the Growth Habits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kosová, K.; Vítámvás, P.; Planchon, S.; Renaut, J.; Vaňková, Radomíra; Prášil, I.T.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 11 (2013), s. 4830-4845 ISSN 1535-3893 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/09/2058 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : 2D-DIGE analysis * cold stress * spring and winter growth habit Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 5.001, year: 2013

  18. Impacts of climate change on growth period and planting boundaries of winter wheat in China under RCP4.5 scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Z.; Jia, S. F.; Lv, A. F.; Yang, K. J.; Svensson, J.; Gao, Y. C.

    2015-10-01

    This paper advances understanding of the impacts of climate change on crops in China by moving from ex-post analysis to forecasting, and by demonstrating how the effects of climate change will affect the growth period and the planting boundaries of winter wheat. Using a multiple regression model based on agricultural meteorological observations and the IPCC AR5 GCMs simulations, we find that the sowing date of winter wheat in the base period, 2040s and 2070s, shows a gradually delayed trend from north to south and the growth period of winter wheat in China will be shortened under climate change. The simulation results also show that (i) the north planting boundaries of winter wheat in China will likely move northward and expand westward in the future, while the south planting boundary will rise and spread in south Hainan and Taiwan; and (ii) the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region will have the largest increases in planting areas in 2040s and 2070s. Our simulation implies that Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia are more sensitive to climate change than other regions in China and priority should be given to design adaptation strategies for winter wheat planting for these provinces.

  19. Genetic Variation in Deep Root Growth of North-European Winter Wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ytting, Nanna Karkov

    can be a limiting factor for effective deep water utilization. Root length density was reduced by 42 % at low subsoil N levels and especially the length of large and medium sized roots (diameter > 0.25 mm) was reduced. At these low subsoil N levels, it appeared that increased root density reduced......Increased rooting depth in crops is known to enhance nitrogen use from deep soil layers and increase drought tolerance. Both parameters are known to increase productivity when natural occurring topsoil resources are scarce and input to the agricultural system is limited. Problems with nitrogen...... and scientists wish to develop screening methods that allow breeding for genotypes with increased deep root growth for effective N uptake. The study revealed that tube rhizotrons allows for screening of root traits in close-to-field conditions. It is important to perform the screening in relevant seasons...

  20. Higher Ammonium Transamination Capacity Can Alleviate Glutamate Inhibition on Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Root Growth under High Ammonium Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Gao, Jingwen; Liu, Yang; Tian, Zhongwei; Muhammad, Abid; Zhang, Yixuan; Jiang, Dong; Cao, Weixing; Dai, Tingbo

    2016-01-01

    Most of the studies about NH4+ stress mechanism simply address the effects of free NH4+, failing to recognize the changed nitrogen assimilation products. The objective of this study was to elucidate the effects of glutamate on root growth under high ammonium (NH4+) conditions in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Hydroponic experiments were conducted using two wheat cultivars, AK58 (NH4+-sensitive) and Xumai25 (NH4+-tolerant) with either 5 mM NH4+ nitrogen (AN) as stress treatment or 5 mM nitrate (NO3-) nitrogen as control. To evaluate the effects of NH4+-assimilation products on plant growth, 1 μM L-methionine sulfoximine (MSO) (an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase (GS)) and 1 mM glutamates (a primary N assimilation product) were added to the solutions, respectively. The AN significantly reduced plant biomass, total root length, surface area and root volume in both cultivars, but less effect was observed in Xumai25. The inhibition effects were alleviated by the application of MSO but strengthened by the application of glutamate. The AN increased the activities of GS, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) in both cultivars, resulting in higher glutamate contents. However, its contents were decreased by the application of MSO. Compared to AK58, Xumai25 showed lower glutamate contents due to its higher activities of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT). With the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) contents decreasing in roots, the ratio of shoot to root in IAA was increased, and further increased by the application of glutamate, and reduced by the application of MSO, but the ratio was lower in Xumai25. Meanwhile, the total soluble sugar contents and its root to shoot ratio also showed similar trends. These results indicate that the NH4+-tolerant cultivar has a greater transamination ability to prevent glutamate over-accumulation to maintain higher IAA transport ability, and consequently promoted soluble sugar transport to roots, further

  1. The Impact of Moisture Intrusions from Lower Latitudes on Arctic Net Surface Radiative Fluxes and Sea Ice Growth in Fall and Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegyi, B. M.; Taylor, P. C.

    2017-12-01

    The fall and winter seasons mark an important period in the evolution of Arctic sea ice, where energy is transferred away from the surface to facilitate the cooling of the surface and the growth of Arctic sea ice extent and thickness. Climatologically, these seasons are characterized by distinct periods of increased and reduced surface cooling and sea ice growth. Periods of reduced sea ice growth and surface cooling are associated with cloudy conditions and the transport of warm and moist air from lower latitudes, termed moisture intrusions. In the research presented, we explore the regional and Arctic-wide impact of moisture intrusions on the surface net radiative fluxes and sea ice growth for each fall and winter season from 2000/01-2015/16, utilizing MERRA2 reanalysis data, PIOMAS sea ice thickness data, and daily CERES radiative flux data. Consistent with previous studies, we find that positive anomalies in downwelling longwave surface flux are associated with increased temperature and water vapor content in the atmospheric column contained within the moisture intrusions. Interestingly, there are periods of increased downwelling LW flux anomalies that persist for one week or longer (i.e. longer than synoptic timescales) that are associated with persistent poleward flux of warm, moist air from lower latitudes. These persistent anomalies significantly reduce the regional growth of Arctic sea ice, and may in part explain the interannual variability of fall and winter Arctic sea ice growth.

  2. Indoor Heating Drives Water Bacterial Growth and Community Metabolic Profile Changes in Building Tap Pipes during the Winter Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Han; Chen, Sheng-Nan; Huang, Ting-Lin; Shang, Pan-Lu; Yang, Xiao; Ma, Wei-Xing

    2015-10-27

    The growth of the bacterial community harbored in indoor drinking water taps is regulated by external environmental factors, such as indoor temperature. However, the effect of indoor heating on bacterial regrowth associated with indoor drinking water taps is poorly understood. In the present work, flow cytometry and community-level sole-carbon-source utilization techniques were combined to explore the effects of indoor heating on water bacterial cell concentrations and community carbon metabolic profiles in building tap pipes during the winter season. The results showed that the temperature of water stagnated overnight ("before") in the indoor water pipes was 15-17 °C, and the water temperature decreased to 4-6 °C after flushing for 10 min ("flushed"). The highest bacterial cell number was observed in water stagnated overnight, and was 5-11 times higher than that of flushed water. Meanwhile, a significantly higher bacterial community metabolic activity (AWCD590nm) was also found in overnight stagnation water samples. The significant "flushed" and "taps" values indicated that the AWCD590nm, and bacterial cell number varied among the taps within the flushed group (p heating periods.

  3. Ideotype population exploration: growth, photosynthesis, and yield components at different planting densities in winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ni; Yuan, Jinzhan; Li, Ming; Li, Jun; Zhang, Liyan; Liu, Lixin; Naeem, Muhammad Shahbaz; Zhang, Chunlei

    2014-01-01

    Rapeseed is one of the most important edible oil crops in the world and the seed yield has lagged behind the increasing demand driven by population growth. Winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is widely cultivated with relatively low yield in China, so it is necessary to find the strategies to improve the expression of yield potential. Planting density has great effects on seed yield of crops. Hence, field experiments were conducted in Wuhan in the Yangtze River basin with one conventional variety (Zhongshuang 11, ZS11) and one hybrid variety (Huayouza 9, HYZ9) at five planting densities (27.0×10(4), 37.5×10(4), 48.0×10(4), 58.5×10(4), 69.0×10(4) plants ha(-1)) during 2010-2012 to investigate the yield components. The physiological traits for high-yield and normal-yield populations were measured during 2011-2013. Our results indicated that planting densities of 58.5×10(4) plants ha(-1) in ZS11 and 48.0×10(4) plants ha(-1) in HYZ9 have significantly higher yield compared with the density of 27.0×10(4) plants ha(-1) for both varieties. The ideal silique numbers for ZS11 and HYZ9 were ∼0.9×10(4) (n m(-2)) and ∼1×10(4) (n m(-2)), respectively, and ideal primary branches for ZS11 and HYZ9 were ∼250 (n m(-2)) and ∼300 (n m(-2)), respectively. The highest leaf area index (LAI) and silique wall area index (SAI) was ∼5.0 and 7.0, respectively. Moreover, higher leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and water use efficiency (WUE) were observed in the high-yield populations. A significantly higher level of silique wall photosynthesis and rapid dry matter accumulation were supposed to result in the maximum seed yield. Our results suggest that increasing the planting density within certain range is a feasible approach for higher seed yield in winter rapeseed in China.

  4. [Effects of irrigation and planting patterns on photosynthetic characteristics of flag leaf and yield at late growth stages of winter wheat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hao; Bi, Jun; Xia, Guang-Li; Zhou, Xun-Bo; Chen, Yu-Hai

    2014-08-01

    High-yield winter wheat cultivar Jimai 22 was used to study effects of irrigation and planting patterns on water consumption characteristics and photosynthetic characteristics of winter wheat in field from 2009 to 2011. Three different planting patterns (uniform row, wide-narrow row and furrow) and four irrigation schedules (W0, no irrigation; W1, irrigation at jointing stage; W2, irrigations at jointing and anthesis stages; W3, irrigation at jointing, anthesis and milking stages. Each irrigation rate was 60 mm) were designed in the experiment. Results showed that, with the increasing of irrigation amount, flag leaf area, net photosynthesis rate, maximum photochemical efficiency and actual light transformation efficiency at late growth stages of winter wheat increased. Compared with W0 treatment, the other irrigation treatments had higher grain yields, but lower water use efficiencies. Under the same irrigation condition, the flag leaf net photosynthesis, maximum photochemical efficiency and actual light transformation efficiency were much higher in furrow pattern. Grain yields of winter wheat under furrow pattern and W2 treatment were significantly higher than that of the other treatments. Taking grain yield and WUE into consideration, furrow pattern combined with irrigation at jointing and anthesis stages might be the optimal water-saving and planting mode for the winter wheat production in North China Plain.

  5. Identifying anti-growth factors for human cancer cell lines through genome-scale metabolic modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghaffari, Pouyan; Mardinoglu, Adil; Asplund, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Human cancer cell lines are used as important model systems to study molecular mechanisms associated with tumor growth, hereunder how genomic and biological heterogeneity found in primary tumors affect cellular phenotypes. We reconstructed Genome scale metabolic models (GEMs) for eleven cell lines...... based on RNA-Seq data and validated the functionality of these models with data from metabolite profiling. We used cell line-specific GEMs to analyze the differences in the metabolism of cancer cell lines, and to explore the heterogeneous expression of the metabolic subsystems. Furthermore, we predicted...... for inhibition of cell growth may provide leads for the development of efficient cancer treatment strategies....

  6. Higher Ammonium Transamination Capacity Can Alleviate Glutamate Inhibition on Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Root Growth under High Ammonium Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Tian, Zhongwei; Muhammad, Abid; Zhang, Yixuan; Jiang, Dong; Cao, Weixing; Dai, Tingbo

    2016-01-01

    Most of the studies about NH4+ stress mechanism simply address the effects of free NH4+, failing to recognize the changed nitrogen assimilation products. The objective of this study was to elucidate the effects of glutamate on root growth under high ammonium (NH4+) conditions in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Hydroponic experiments were conducted using two wheat cultivars, AK58 (NH4+-sensitive) and Xumai25 (NH4+-tolerant) with either 5 mM NH4+ nitrogen (AN) as stress treatment or 5 mM nitrate (NO3-) nitrogen as control. To evaluate the effects of NH4+-assimilation products on plant growth, 1 μM L-methionine sulfoximine (MSO) (an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase (GS)) and 1 mM glutamates (a primary N assimilation product) were added to the solutions, respectively. The AN significantly reduced plant biomass, total root length, surface area and root volume in both cultivars, but less effect was observed in Xumai25. The inhibition effects were alleviated by the application of MSO but strengthened by the application of glutamate. The AN increased the activities of GS, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) in both cultivars, resulting in higher glutamate contents. However, its contents were decreased by the application of MSO. Compared to AK58, Xumai25 showed lower glutamate contents due to its higher activities of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT). With the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) contents decreasing in roots, the ratio of shoot to root in IAA was increased, and further increased by the application of glutamate, and reduced by the application of MSO, but the ratio was lower in Xumai25. Meanwhile, the total soluble sugar contents and its root to shoot ratio also showed similar trends. These results indicate that the NH4+-tolerant cultivar has a greater transamination ability to prevent glutamate over-accumulation to maintain higher IAA transport ability, and consequently promoted soluble sugar transport to roots, further

  7. Higher Ammonium Transamination Capacity Can Alleviate Glutamate Inhibition on Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Root Growth under High Ammonium Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wang

    Full Text Available Most of the studies about NH4+ stress mechanism simply address the effects of free NH4+, failing to recognize the changed nitrogen assimilation products. The objective of this study was to elucidate the effects of glutamate on root growth under high ammonium (NH4+ conditions in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. Hydroponic experiments were conducted using two wheat cultivars, AK58 (NH4+-sensitive and Xumai25 (NH4+-tolerant with either 5 mM NH4+ nitrogen (AN as stress treatment or 5 mM nitrate (NO3- nitrogen as control. To evaluate the effects of NH4+-assimilation products on plant growth, 1 μM L-methionine sulfoximine (MSO (an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase (GS and 1 mM glutamates (a primary N assimilation product were added to the solutions, respectively. The AN significantly reduced plant biomass, total root length, surface area and root volume in both cultivars, but less effect was observed in Xumai25. The inhibition effects were alleviated by the application of MSO but strengthened by the application of glutamate. The AN increased the activities of GS, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH in both cultivars, resulting in higher glutamate contents. However, its contents were decreased by the application of MSO. Compared to AK58, Xumai25 showed lower glutamate contents due to its higher activities of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT. With the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA contents decreasing in roots, the ratio of shoot to root in IAA was increased, and further increased by the application of glutamate, and reduced by the application of MSO, but the ratio was lower in Xumai25. Meanwhile, the total soluble sugar contents and its root to shoot ratio also showed similar trends. These results indicate that the NH4+-tolerant cultivar has a greater transamination ability to prevent glutamate over-accumulation to maintain higher IAA transport ability, and consequently promoted soluble sugar transport to roots

  8. Growth arrest lines and intra-epiphyseal silhouettes: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, John W; Irwin, Greg J; Huntley, James S

    2014-01-10

    Growth arrest lines can develop within the skeleton after physiological stress or trauma. They are usually evident on radiographs as transverse lines in the metaphyses and have been used in fields from palaeontology to orthopaedics. This report consists of three cases, two of which describe growth arrest lines in an intra-epiphyseal site hitherto rarely documented, and a third demonstrating their clinical application. Case 1 describes a 9-year-old who suffered a knee hyperflexion injury requiring anterior cruciate ligament and posterior cruciate ligament reattachments. She subsequently developed a marked distal femoral intra-epiphyseal arrest silhouette, as well as metaphyseal arrest lines in the femur, tibia and fibula. Case 2 describes an 8-year-old who sustained a tibial spine fracture and underwent open reduction and internal fixation. Subsequent imaging shows a further example of femoral intra-epiphyseal arrest silhouette as well as tibia and fibula metaphyseal arrest lines. Case 3 describes a 10-year-old who sustained a distal tibia fracture which was managed with open reduction and internal fixation. Subsequently the metaphyseal growth arrest line was parallel to the physis, suggesting no growth arrest (a danger with such a fracture). This case series describes two examples of rarely described intra-epiphyseal growth arrest silhouettes and demonstrates the usefulness of arrest lines when assessing for growth plate damage.

  9. Growth lines within the beak microstructure of the Octopus octopus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1797 is commercially the most important species in the central-eastern Atlantic cephalopod fishery. The estimation of growth parameters in wild octopus populations is essential to management of the fishery. As there are problems with methods based on length-frequency modal analyses for ...

  10. Winter Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education Centers Harwood Training Grants Videos E-Tools Winter Storms Plan. Equip. Train To prevent injuries, illnesses and Fatalities during winter storms. This page requires that javascript be enabled ...

  11. Expression of growth factor receptors and targeting of EGFR in cholangiocarcinoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Ling; Hausmann, Martin; Dietmaier, Wolfgang; Kellermeier, Silvia; Pesch, Theresa; Stieber-Gunckel, Manuela; Lippert, Elisabeth; Klebl, Frank; Rogler, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is a malignant neoplasm of the bile ducts or the gallbladder. Targeting of growth factor receptors showed therapeutic potential in palliative settings for many solid tumors. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of seven growth factor receptors in CC cell lines and to assess the effect of blocking the EGFR receptor in vitro. Expression of EGFR (epithelial growth factor receptor), HGFR (hepatocyte growth factor receptor) IGF1R (insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor), IGF2R (insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor) and VEGFR1-3 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1-3) were examined in four human CC cell lines (EGI-1, HuH28, OZ and TFK-1). The effect of the anti-EGFR-antibody cetuximab on cell growth and apoptosis was studied and cell lines were examined for KRAS mutations. EGFR, HGFR and IGFR1 were present in all four cell lines tested. IGFR2 expression was confirmed in EGI-1 and TFK-1. No growth-inhibitory effect was found in EGI-1 cells after incubation with cetuximab. Cetuximab dose-dependently inhibited growth in TFK-1. Increased apoptosis was only seen in TFK-1 cells at the highest cetuximab dose tested (1 mg/ml), with no dose-response-relationship at lower concentrations. In EGI-1 a heterozygous KRAS mutation was found in codon 12 (c.35G>A; p.G12D). HuH28, OZ and TFK-1 lacked KRAS mutation. CC cell lines express a pattern of different growth receptors in vitro. Growth factor inhibitor treatment could be affected from the KRAS genotype in CC. The expression of EGFR itself does not allow prognoses on growth inhibition by cetuximab

  12. Nighttime Supplemental LED Inter-lighting Improves Growth and Yield of Single-Truss Tomatoes by Enhancing Photosynthesis in Both Winter and Summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewolde, Fasil T; Lu, Na; Shiina, Kouta; Maruo, Toru; Takagaki, Michiko; Kozai, Toyoki; Yamori, Wataru

    2016-01-01

    Greenhouses with sophisticated environmental control systems, or so-called plant factories with solar light, enable growers to achieve high yields of produce with desirable qualities. In a greenhouse crop with high planting density, low photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) at the lower leaves tends to limit plant growth, especially in the winter when the solar altitude and PPFD at the canopy are low and day length is shorter than in summer. Therefore, providing supplemental lighting to the lower canopy can increase year-round productivity. However, supplemental lighting can be expensive. In some places, the cost of electricity is lower at night, but the effect of using supplemental light at night has not yet been examined. In this study, we examined the effects of supplemental LED inter-lighting (LED inter-lighting hereafter) during the daytime or nighttime on photosynthesis, growth, and yield of single-truss tomato plants both in winter and summer. We used LED inter-lighting modules with combined red and blue light to illuminate lower leaves right after the first anthesis. The PPFD of this light was 165 μmol m(-2) s(-1) measured at 10 cm from the LED module. LED inter-lighting was provided from 4:00 am to 4:00 pm for the daytime treatments and from 10:00 pm to 10:00 am for the nighttime treatments. Plants exposed only to solar light were used as controls. Daytime LED inter-lighting increased the photosynthetic capacity of middle and lower canopy leaves, which significantly increased yield by 27% in winter; however, photosynthetic capacity and yield were not significantly increased during summer. Nighttime LED inter-lighting increased photosynthetic capacity in both winter and summer, and yield increased by 24% in winter and 12% in summer. In addition, nighttime LED inter-lighting in winter significantly increased the total soluble solids and ascorbic acid content of the tomato fruits, by 20 and 25%, respectively. Use of nighttime LED inter-lighting was also

  13. Nighttime Supplemental LED Inter-lighting Improves Growth and Yield of Single-Truss Tomatoes by Enhancing Photosynthesis in Both Winter and Summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewolde, Fasil T.; Lu, Na; Shiina, Kouta; Maruo, Toru; Takagaki, Michiko; Kozai, Toyoki; Yamori, Wataru

    2016-01-01

    Greenhouses with sophisticated environmental control systems, or so-called plant factories with solar light, enable growers to achieve high yields of produce with desirable qualities. In a greenhouse crop with high planting density, low photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) at the lower leaves tends to limit plant growth, especially in the winter when the solar altitude and PPFD at the canopy are low and day length is shorter than in summer. Therefore, providing supplemental lighting to the lower canopy can increase year-round productivity. However, supplemental lighting can be expensive. In some places, the cost of electricity is lower at night, but the effect of using supplemental light at night has not yet been examined. In this study, we examined the effects of supplemental LED inter-lighting (LED inter-lighting hereafter) during the daytime or nighttime on photosynthesis, growth, and yield of single-truss tomato plants both in winter and summer. We used LED inter-lighting modules with combined red and blue light to illuminate lower leaves right after the first anthesis. The PPFD of this light was 165 μmol m-2 s-1 measured at 10 cm from the LED module. LED inter-lighting was provided from 4:00 am to 4:00 pm for the daytime treatments and from 10:00 pm to 10:00 am for the nighttime treatments. Plants exposed only to solar light were used as controls. Daytime LED inter-lighting increased the photosynthetic capacity of middle and lower canopy leaves, which significantly increased yield by 27% in winter; however, photosynthetic capacity and yield were not significantly increased during summer. Nighttime LED inter-lighting increased photosynthetic capacity in both winter and summer, and yield increased by 24% in winter and 12% in summer. In addition, nighttime LED inter-lighting in winter significantly increased the total soluble solids and ascorbic acid content of the tomato fruits, by 20 and 25%, respectively. Use of nighttime LED inter-lighting was also more

  14. Indoor Heating Drives Water Bacterial Growth and Community Metabolic Profile Changes in Building Tap Pipes during the Winter Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Han Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The growth of the bacterial community harbored in indoor drinking water taps is regulated by external environmental factors, such as indoor temperature. However, the effect of indoor heating on bacterial regrowth associated with indoor drinking water taps is poorly understood. In the present work, flow cytometry and community-level sole-carbon-source utilization techniques were combined to explore the effects of indoor heating on water bacterial cell concentrations and community carbon metabolic profiles in building tap pipes during the winter season. The results showed that the temperature of water stagnated overnight (“before” in the indoor water pipes was 15–17 °C, and the water temperature decreased to 4–6 °C after flushing for 10 min (“flushed”. The highest bacterial cell number was observed in water stagnated overnight, and was 5–11 times higher than that of flushed water. Meanwhile, a significantly higher bacterial community metabolic activity (AWCD590nm was also found in overnight stagnation water samples. The significant “flushed” and “taps” values indicated that the AWCD590nm, and bacterial cell number varied among the taps within the flushed group (p < 0.01. Heatmap fingerprints and principle component analyses (PCA revealed a significant discrimination bacterial community functional metabolic profiles in the water stagnated overnight and flushed water. Serine, threonine, glucose-phosphate, ketobutyric acid, phenylethylamine, glycerol, putrescine were significantly used by “before” water samples. The results suggested that water stagnated at higher temperature should be treated before drinking because of bacterial regrowth. The data from this work provides useful information on reasonable utilization of drinking water after stagnation in indoor pipes during indoor heating periods.

  15. Winter MVC

    OpenAIRE

    Castellón Gadea, Pasqual

    2013-01-01

    Winter MVC és un framework de presentació basat en Spring MVC que simplifica la metodologia de configuracions. Winter MVC es un framework de presentación basado en Spring MVC que simplifica la metodología de configuraciones. Winter MVC is a presentation framework that simplifies Spring MVC configuration methodology.

  16. Deepened winter snow increases stem growth and alters stem δ13C and δ15N in evergreen dwarf shrub Cassiope tetragona in high-arctic Svalbard tundra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blok, Daan; Michelsen, Anders; Elberling, Bo; Weijers, Stef; Löffler, Jörg; Welker, Jeffrey M; Cooper, Elisabeth J

    2015-01-01

    Deeper winter snow is hypothesized to favor shrub growth and may partly explain the shrub expansion observed in many parts of the arctic during the last decades, potentially triggering biophysical feedbacks including regional warming and permafrost thawing. We experimentally tested the effects of winter snow depth on shrub growth and ecophysiology by measuring stem length and stem hydrogen (δ 2 H), carbon (δ 13 C), nitrogen (δ 15 N) and oxygen (δ 18 O) isotopic composition of the circumarctic evergreen dwarf shrub Cassiope tetragona growing in high-arctic Svalbard, Norway. Measurements were carried out on C. tetragona individuals sampled from three tundra sites, each representing a distinct moisture regime (dry heath, meadow, moist meadow). Individuals were sampled along gradients of experimentally manipulated winter snow depths in a six-year old snow fence experiment: in ambient (c. 20 cm), medium (c. 100 cm), and deep snow (c. 150 cm) plots. The deep-snow treatment consistently and significantly increased C. tetragona growth during the 2008–2011 manipulation period compared to growth in ambient-snow plots. Stem δ 15 N and stem N concentration values were significantly higher in deep-snow individuals compared to individuals growing in ambient-snow plots during the course of the experiment, suggesting that soil N-availability was increased in deep-snow plots as a result of increased soil winter N mineralization. Although inter-annual growing season-precipitation δ 2 H and stem δ 2 H records closely matched, snow depth did not change stem δ 2 H or δ 18 O, suggesting that water source usage by C. tetragona was unaltered. Instead, the deep insulating snowpack may have protected C. tetragona shrubs against frost damage, potentially compensating the detrimental effects of a shortened growing season and associated phenological delay on growth. Our findings suggest that an increase in winter precipitation in the High Arctic, as predicted by climate models, has

  17. The Growth of Bosnian Pine (Pinus hedreichii Christ. at Tree-Line Locations from Kosovo and its Response to Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Bojaxhi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Pinus heldreichii Christ. is a sub-endemic species occurring at tree-line locations in Kosovo and covering an area of 2500 ha. In high elevation sites radial growth is mainly controlled by low temperatures. The main purpose of this study was the analysis of radial growth of P. heldreichii and its response to local climate conditions. Materials and Methods: Research sites comprise of three high elevation stands of P. heldreichii with specific site conditions. Core samples were collected from 98 healthy dominant and co-dominant trees at breast height using increment borer. They were prepared and cross-dated using standard dendrochronological methods, while tree-ring widths were measured to the nearest 0.001 mm using the TSAP software. The ARSTAN program was used to standardize the tree-ring widths and to calculate dendrochronological statistical parameters. The growth-climate relationship was investigated using bootstrapped correlation function analysing the residual chronologies of each sampled site as a dependent variable and the climatic data from May of the (n-1 year up to the October of the n year for the common period 1951-2013 as an independent variable. Results: The length of Bosnian pine chronologies ranged from 175 to 541 years. All chronologies had high values of first-order autocorrelation indicating that radial growth of P. heldreichii is affected by the climate conditions of the previous growing year. Koritnik chronology had the highest values of the mean sensitivity due to the influence of drought stress. This conclusion is also supported by the result of growth-climate relationship where radial growth is negatively correlated with June temperatures and positively associated with July and August precipitation. We found that radial growth of young trees from Koritnik site is limited by the combined effect of temperatures and summer drought stress. In high elevation sites, temperature is expected to control the

  18. Kickstarting forest growth : seismic lines given step in right direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, L.

    2010-01-01

    The recently formed Oil Sands Leadership Initiative (OSLI) has started a program, known as Faster Forests, to replace trees cut down during seismic exploration in the Athabasca oil sands region. The focus is on in-situ areas where steam-assisted gravity drainage development has taken place. To date, 300,000 seedlings have been planted. Over many decades, seismic lines were cut into the boreal forest to explore for oil and gas, and the remediation practices of the past, or the lack thereof, left the forest damaged. The OSLI's five founding companies, all major players in the oil and gas industry, are committed to landscaping and replanting their areas, regardless of whether they were actually responsible for the damage, in order to facilitate the reforestation of the Wood Buffalo region. In consultation with a forestry company, strains of seedlings that are more successful are being selected for planting. The formation of OSLI is part of a commitment to improving the oil sands industry's reputation by demonstrating and communicating environmental, social, and economic performance. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  19. Genome-Wide Association Studies and Comparison of Models and Cross-Validation Strategies for Genomic Prediction of Quality Traits in Advanced Winter Wheat Breeding Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter S. Kristensen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the this study was to identify SNP markers associated with five important wheat quality traits (grain protein content, Zeleny sedimentation, test weight, thousand-kernel weight, and falling number, and to investigate the predictive abilities of GBLUP and Bayesian Power Lasso models for genomic prediction of these traits. In total, 635 winter wheat lines from two breeding cycles in the Danish plant breeding company Nordic Seed A/S were phenotyped for the quality traits and genotyped for 10,802 SNPs. GWAS were performed using single marker regression and Bayesian Power Lasso models. SNPs with large effects on Zeleny sedimentation were found on chromosome 1B, 1D, and 5D. However, GWAS failed to identify single SNPs with significant effects on the other traits, indicating that these traits were controlled by many QTL with small effects. The predictive abilities of the models for genomic prediction were studied using different cross-validation strategies. Leave-One-Out cross-validations resulted in correlations between observed phenotypes corrected for fixed effects and genomic estimated breeding values of 0.50 for grain protein content, 0.66 for thousand-kernel weight, 0.70 for falling number, 0.71 for test weight, and 0.79 for Zeleny sedimentation. Alternative cross-validations showed that the genetic relationship between lines in training and validation sets had a bigger impact on predictive abilities than the number of lines included in the training set. Using Bayesian Power Lasso instead of GBLUP models, gave similar or slightly higher predictive abilities. Genomic prediction based on all SNPs was more effective than prediction based on few associated SNPs.

  20. Estimation of Winter Wheat Yield with the Assimilation of FY-3 MERSI Data into the WOFOST Crop Growth Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenbo; Fan, Jinlong

    2014-11-01

    Taking the winter wheat planting area Taihang piedmont as object of the study, and based on WOFST model and FY Satellite 250m-resolution MERSI data, this article launched the assimilation yield estimation study on winter wheat. Firstly, MERSI-LAI data is inversed from the measured biophysics data and MERSI data of winter wheat in growing season within the study area; next, WOFOST model sensitivity analysis was developed and conduct assimilation yield estimation through MERSI-LAI built by SCE algorithm and the minimum cost function of model simulation LAI; finally, conduct comparison validation between the estimation results and MODIS-LAI assimilation yield estimation results as well as the statistical data. The conclusion has been drawn that the estimation accuracy based on FY-3 MERSI data assimilation is higher than that based on MODIS data assimilation, with the RMES being reduced by 750.20kg/ha, and the yield being closer to the statistics.

  1. Growth recovery lines are more common in infants at high vs. low risk for abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapala, Matthew A.; Tsai, Andy; Kleinman, Paul K.

    2016-01-01

    Growth recovery lines, also known as growth arrest lines, are transverse radiodense metaphyseal bands that develop due to a temporary arrest of endochondral ossification caused by local or systemic insults. To determine if growth recovery lines are more common in infants at high risk versus low risk for abuse. Reports of American College of Radiology compliant skeletal surveys (1999-2013) were reviewed with clinical records. Infants at low risk for abuse had a skull fracture without significant intracranial injury, history of a fall and clinical determination of low risk (child protection team/social work assessment). Infants at high risk had significant intracranial injury, retinal hemorrhages, other skeletal injuries and clinical determination of high risk. There were 52 low-risk infants (mean: 4.7 months, range: 0.4-12 months) and 21 high-risk infants (mean: 4.2 months, range: 0.8-9.1 months). Two blinded radiologists independently evaluated the skeletal survey radiographs of the knees/lower legs for the presence of at least one growth recovery line. When growth recovery lines are scored as probably present or definitely present, their prevalence in the low-risk group was 38% (standard deviation [SD] = 8%; reader 1 = 17/52, reader 2 = 23/52) vs. 71% (SD = 7%; reader 1 = 16/21, reader 2 = 14/21) in the high-risk group (P < 0.001; odds ratio 4.0, 95% CI: 1.7-9.5). Growth recovery lines are encountered at a significantly higher rate in infants at high risk vs. low risk for abuse. This suggests that abused infants are prone to a temporary disturbance in endochondral ossification as a result of episodic physiological stresses. (orig.)

  2. Life in Ice: Microbial Growth Dynamics and Greenhouse Gas Production During Winter in a Thermokarst Bog Revealed by Stable Isotope Probing Targeted Metagenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazewicz, S.; White, R. A., III; Tas, N.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Mcfarland, J. W.; Jansson, J.; Waldrop, M. P.

    2016-12-01

    Permafrost contains a reservoir of frozen C estimated to be twice the size of the current atmospheric C pool. In response to changing climate, permafrost is rapidly warming which could result in widespread seasonal thawing. When permafrost thaws, soils that are rich in ice and C often transform into thermokarst wetlands with anaerobic conditions and significant production of atmospheric CH4. While most C flux research in recently thawed permafrost concentrates on the few summer months when seasonal thaw has occurred, there is mounting evidence that sizeable portions of annual CO2 and CH4 efflux occurs over winter or during a rapid burst of emissions associated with seasonal thaw. A potential mechanism for such efflux patterns is microbial activity in frozen soils over winter where gasses produced are partially trapped within ice until spring thaw. In order to better understand microbial transformation of soil C to greenhouse gas over winter, we applied stable isotope probing (SIP) targeted metagenomics combined with process measurements and field flux data to reveal activities of microbial communities in `frozen' soil from an Alaskan thermokarst bog. Field studies revealed build-up of CO2 and CH4 in frozen soils suggesting that microbial activity persisted throughout the winter in soils poised just below the freezing point. Laboratory incubations designed to simulate in-situ winter conditions (-1.5 °C and anaerobic) revealed continuous CH4 and CO2 production. Strikingly, the quantity of CH4 produced in 6 months in frozen soil was equivalent to approximately 80% of CH4 emitted during the 3 month summer `active' season. Heavy water SIP targeted iTag sequencing revealed growing bacteria and archaea in the frozen anaerobic soil. Growth was primarily observed in two bacterial phyla, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, suggesting that fermentation was likely the major C mineralization pathway. SIP targeted metagenomics facilitated characterization of the primary metabolic

  3. Expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor in human small cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damstrup, L; Rygaard, K; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1992-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor expression was evaluated in a panel of 21 small cell lung cancer cell lines with radioreceptor assay, affinity labeling, and Northern blotting. We found high-affinity receptors to be expressed in 10 cell lines. Scatchard analysis of the binding data...... lung cancer cell lines express the EGF receptor....... of EGF receptor mRNA in all 10 cell lines that were found to be EGF receptor-positive and in one cell line that was found to be EGF receptor-negative in the radioreceptor assay and affinity labeling. Our results provide, for the first time, evidence that a large proportion of a broad panel of small cell...

  4. AZD1480 blocks growth and tumorigenesis of RET- activated thyroid cancer cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana P Couto

    Full Text Available Persistent RET activation is a frequent event in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC and medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC. In these cancers, RET activates the ERK/MAPK, the PI3K/AKT/mTOR and the JAK/STAT3 pathways. Here, we tested the efficacy of a JAK1/2- inhibitor, AZD1480, in the in vitro and in vivo growth of thyroid cancer cell lines expressing oncogenic RET. Thyroid cancer cell lines harboring RET/PTC1 (TPC-1, RET M918T (MZ-CRC1 and RET C634W (TT alterations, as well as TPC-1 xenografts, were treated with JAK inhibitor, AZD1480. This inhibitor led to growth inhibition and/or apoptosis of the thyroid cancer cell lines in vitro, as well as to tumor regression of TPC-1 xenografts, where it efficiently blocked STAT3 activation in tumor and stromal cells. This inhibition was associated with decreased proliferation, decreased blood vessel density, coupled with increased necrosis. However, AZD1480 repressed the growth of STAT3- deficient TPC-1 cells in vitro and in vivo, demonstrating that its effects in this cell line were independent of STAT3 in the tumor cells. In all cell lines, the JAK inhibitor reduced phospho-Y1062 RET levels, and mTOR effector phospho-S6, while JAK1/2 downregulation by siRNA did not affect cell growth nor RET and S6 activation. In conclusion, AZD1480 effectively blocks proliferation and tumor growth of activated RET- thyroid cancer cell lines, likely through direct RET inhibition in cancer cells as well as by modulation of the microenvironment (e.g. via JAK/phospho-STAT3 inhibition in endothelial cells. Thus, AZD1480 should be considered as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of RET- activated thyroid cancers.

  5. Assessment of water-limited winter wheat yield potential at spatially contrasting sites in Ireland using a simple growth and development model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynch J.P.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Although Irish winter wheat yields are among the highest globally, increases in the profitability of this crop are required to maintain its economic viability. However, in order to determine if efforts to further increase Irish wheat yields are likely to be successful, an accurate estimation of the yield potential is required for different regions within Ireland. A winter wheat yield potential model (WWYPM was developed, which estimates the maximum water-limited yield achievable, within the confines of current genetic resources and technologies, using parameters for winter wheat growth and development observed recently in Ireland and a minor amount of daily meteorological input (maximum and minimum daily temperature, total daily rainfall and total daily incident radiation. The WWYPM is composed of three processes: (i an estimation of potential green area index, (ii an estimation of light interception and biomass accumulation and (iii an estimation of biomass partitioning to grain yield. Model validation indicated that WWYPM estimations of water-limited yield potential (YPw were significantly related to maximum yields recorded in variety evaluation trials as well as regional average and maximum farm yields, reflecting the model’s sensitivity to alterations in the climatic environment with spatial and seasonal variations. Simulations of YPw for long-term average weather data at 12 sites located at spatially contrasting regions of Ireland indicated that the typical YPw varied between 15.6 and 17.9 t/ha, with a mean of 16.7 t/ha at 15% moisture content. These results indicate that the majority of sites in Ireland have the potential to grow high-yielding crops of winter wheat when the effects of very high rainfall and other stresses such as disease incidence and nutrient deficits are not considered.

  6. Winter barley mutants created in the Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayats, O.M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Increasing fodder and protein production is one of the objectives of the development of agriculture in Ukraine. Higher productivity of fodder crops, due to new highly productive varieties, is the means to meet this aim. Winter barley is an important crop for fodder purposes. The climate of the Ukraine is favourable for growing this crop. The areas used for the growth of winter barley are however, small (500,000-550,000 ha) and there is a shortage of good quality varieties. The main aim of the work was therefore to create new varieties of highly productive winter barley, of good quality. The new varieties and mutation lines of winter barley were created under the influence of water solutions of N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMH - 0,012, 0,005%), N-nitroso-N-ethylurea (NEH - 0,05; 0.025; 0,012%) ethyleneimine (EI - 0,02; 0,01; 0,005%) on winter barley seeds of the varieties of local and foreign selections. On the basis of many years of investigations (1984-94) the following mutations were described: hard-grained, winter-hardiness, earliness, middle-maturity, late-maturity, wide and large leaves, narrow leaves, multinodal, great number of leaves, great number of flowers, strong stem (lodging resistant), tallness, semi-dwarfness, dwarfness, and high productivity. Particularly valuable are mutants with high productivity of green bulk. Their potential yield is 70 t/ha. As a result of the work two varieties of winter barley 'Shyrokolysty' and 'Kormovy' were released into the State register of plant varieties of the Ukraine. The other valuable mutant genotypes are used in cross breeding programmes. (author)

  7. Study growth kinetics in fluidized bed granulation with at-line FBRM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xinhui; Cunningham, John C; Winstead, Denita

    2008-01-22

    In this study, a novel at-line focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) technique was developed to investigate granule growth in a fluidized bed granulation (FBG). The chord length distribution (CLD) measured by the FBRM was used to represent granule particle size distribution (PSD). Through a systematic study, it was proved that the trends of the chord length measured by the at-line FBRM technique were identical to those measured by a laser diffraction instrument and sieve analysis in spite of different measurement mechanisms. The portable at-line FBRM technique was successfully applied to a granule growth kinetics study for a fluidized bed granulation performed in a Glatt GPCG-1 granulator. Granule size evolution was clearly exhibited by the at-line FBRM. Spray rate was found to be the most significant factor on the granule growth compared with the other two factors: binder solution concentration and intra- to extra-granular microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) ratio for the formulation studied in this work. The CLD evolution measured by the FBRM confirmed that the granule agglomeration was mainly dominated by the binder on the granule surface. The at-line FBRM enables us to select appropriate process parameters and effectively control the fluid bed granulation process.

  8. A dual immunocytochemical assay for oestrogen and epidermal growth factor receptors in tumour cell lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.K. Sharma (Anisha K.); J.H. Horgan; R.L. McClelland (Robyn); A.G. Douglas-Jones (A.); T. van Agthoven (Ton); L.C.J. Dorssers (Lambert); R.I. Nicholson (R.)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractA new dual immunocytochemical assay for oestrogen receptor (ER) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been developed. It has been tested in a variety of conditions using cell culture lines and the results correlate well with those obtained from single immunocytochemical assays.

  9. Inheritance of emergence time and seedling growth at low temperatures in four lines of maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagles, H A

    1982-03-01

    The improvement of rate of seedling emergence and early seedling growth of maize (Zea mays L.) under cool conditions has been an objective of breeding programs in cool regions for many years. To study inheritance of emergence time, and to determine if differences in emergence time were due to differences in seedling growth, F1, F2 and backcross generations of a diallel cross of two rapidly emerging lines from CIMMYT Pool 5, 5-113 and 5-154, and two elite Corn Belt Dent lines, A619 and A632, were grown in controlled environment rooms at low temperatures.The lines from Pool 5 emerged significantly faster than A619 and A632 over a range of low temperature conditions. This difference occurred both when the lines themselves were tested and when the lines were tested as male and female parents in crosses. The Pool 5 lines converted a higher proportion of their original seed to new root and shoot tissue than did A619 and A632, indicating that they had a faster seedling growth rate. Primarily this was due to a faster loss of seed reserve, rather than a more efficient conversion process.A significant difference occurred between A619 and A632 for emergence time, but this was not due to a difference in seedling growth rate.Reciprocal differences occurred only in the F1 generation in crosses involving A619, and then marked effects could be attributed to the male parent. Reciprocal differences tended to disappear in the F2. This suggested that the genotype of the embryo and endosperm was of much greater importance than the genotype of the maternal parent in determining differences of time to emergence and seedling growth.Mid-parent heterosis occurred for time to emergence and seed loss, a measure of mean rate of utilization of seed reserve, in all crosses. High parent heterosis occurred in several crosses for these traits. High parent heterosis occurred in all crosses for efficiency of utilization of seed reserve.A generation means analysis indicated that both additive and

  10. Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Griller-Type Broilers of Four Genetic Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JA Barbosa Filho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Griller-type chickens are broilers slaughtered between27and 29 days old weighing 1.3 to 1.5 kg and sold as a whole carcasses. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality of female broilers of four genetic lines reared for the production of griller-type chickens. A total of 960 broiler chicks was allotted in a randomized block design with four treatments and eight replicates of 30 birds per experimental plot. Each experimental treatment consisted of four different commercial lines, identified as A, B, C and D. The analyzed parameters were weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, livability, production efficiency index, carcass and cut yields, and meat quality according to breast meat color (L*, a*, b*, water-holding capacity (WHC, cooking losses, and shear force. Weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and livability were different (p<0.05 among the lines; however, no differences were observed for the production efficiency index. Results show that lines presented similar performance; however, lines A, B, and C had a better carcass and breast yield, and line A, the best meat quality. Therefore, line A would be the most suitable for the production of griller-type chickens.

  11. A study of the growth for the microalga Chlorella vulgaris by photo-bio-calorimetry and other on-line and off-line techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patino, R.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Stockar, von U.

    2007-01-01

    Calorimetry and other on-line techniques are used for the first time as complement to the traditional off-line methods in order to follow the growth of the green Chlorella vulgaris microalgae. A 2-L photo-bio-reactor was adapted from a commercial calorimeter used previously to study heterotrophic

  12. Modulation of Regorafenib effects on HCC cell lines by epidermal growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Rosalba; Refolo, Maria Grazia; Lippolis, Catia; Carella, Nicola; Messa, Caterina; Cavallini, Aldo; Carr, Brian Irving

    2015-06-01

    Blood platelet numbers are correlated to growth and aggressiveness of several tumor types, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We previously found that platelet lysates (hPLs) also stimulated growth and migration, and antagonized the growth-inhibitory and apoptotic effects of both Sorafenib and Regorafenib, two multikinase inhibitors, on three HCC cell lines. In this study, in vitro function of human epidermal growth factor (EGF) with and without Sorafenib or Regorafenib was investigated. An ELISA kit was used to evaluate the EGF concentrations in hPLs. In vitro function of EGF was assessed with proliferation MTT test. Apoptosis assay, scratch assays, and Transwell assays were performed for apoptosis, invasion, and migration, respectively. MAPK Activation Kit was used to explore MAPK phosphorylation. EGF antagonized the growth inhibition of Regorafenib on three HCC cell lines. Regorafenib-mediated growth inhibition was blocked by 70 % when the cells were pre-treated with EGF. EGF also blocked Regorafenib-induced apoptosis, as well as Regorafenib-induced decreases in cell migration and invasion. The EGF effects were in turn antagonized by concomitant addition to the cultures of EGF receptor antagonist Erlotinib, showing that the EGF receptor was involved in the mechanisms of EGF-mediated blocking of Regorafenib effects. Erlotinib also partially blocked the effects of hPLs in antagonizing Regorafenib-mediated growth inhibition, showing that EGF was an important component of hPL actions. All these results show that EGF antagonized Regorafenib-mediated growth and migration inhibition and apoptosis induction in HCC cells and reinforce the idea that microenvironment can influence cancer drug actions.

  13. The first winter solstice observed at the meridian line of Santa Maria degli Angeli in Rome. (Italian Title: Il primo solstizio d'inverno alla meridiana di S. Maria degli Angeli in Roma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigismondi, C.

    2014-09-01

    The great meridian line in the Basilica of Santa Maria degli Angeli in Rome was built in 1701/1702 with the scope to measure the Obliquity of the Earth's orbit in the following eight centuries, upon the will of pope Clement XI. During the winter solstice of 1701 the first measurements of the obliquity have been realized by Francesco Bianchini, the astronomer who designed the meridian line, upgrading the similar instrument realized by Giandomenico Cassini in San Petronio, Bononia. In this paper the accuracy of the data observed by Francesco Bianchini is discussed and compared with up-to-date ephemerides. The modern situation of this historical instrument is also presented.

  14. Effect of NCAM-transfection on growth and invasion of a human cancer cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvardsen, K; Bock, E; Jirus, S

    1997-01-01

    A cDNA encoding the human transmembrane 140 kDa isoform of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) was transfected into the highly invasive MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell line. Transfectants with a homogeneous expression of NCAM showed a restricted capacity for penetration of an artificial...... basement membrane. However, when injected into nude mice, both control and NCAM-expressing cell lines produced equally invasive tumors. Tumors generated from NCAM-transfected cells were heterogeneous, containing NCAM-positive as well as NCAM-negative areas, indicating the existence of host factors capable...... of modulating NCAM expression in vivo. In nude mice, NCAM-transfected cells developed tumors with longer latency periods and slower growth rates than tumors induced by NCAM-negative control cells, implying that NCAM may be involved not only in adhesive and motile behavior of tumor cells but also in their growth...

  15. Seedling growth of maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines affected by seed treatment with pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Tamindžić, Gordana D.; Nikolić, Zorica T.; Savić, Jasna Ž.; Milošević, Dragana N.; Petrović, Gordana R.; Ivanović, Dragana D.; Ignjatov, Maja V.

    2016-01-01

    Seed treatment is a common way of fungicide and insecticide use nowadays, since this way of pesticide application can provide the best protection in the vicinity of the future plant. The aim of research was to evaluate the effects of different seed treatments on germination and seedling growth in three maize inbred lines. The research included the seed treatment with several combinations of a fungicide Maxim XL 035-FS (a.i. metalaxil-M + fludioxonil) and ne...

  16. Winter Wonderlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Listening to people complain about the hardships of winter and the dreariness of the nearly constant gray sky prompted the author to help her sixth graders recognize and appreciate the beauty that surrounds them for nearly five months of the year in western New York. The author opines that if students could see things more artistically, the winter…

  17. Herbicide impact on the growth and reproduction of characteristic and rare arable weeds of winter cereal fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotchés-Ribalta, Roser; Boutin, Céline; Blanco-Moreno, José M; Carpenter, David; Sans, F Xavier

    2015-07-01

    The decline of arable species characteristic of winter cereal fields has often been attributed to different factors related to agricultural intensification but most importantly to herbicide use. Herbicide phytotoxicity is most frequently assessed using short-term endpoints, primarily aboveground biomass. However, short-term sensitivity is usually not sufficient to detect actual effects because plants may or may not recover over time following sublethal herbicide exposures. Therefore, it is important to assess the long-term effects of herbicide applications. Annual species rely on renewable seed production to ensure their persistence; hence, assessment of herbicide sensitivity is more accurately estimated through effects on reproduction. Here we aim to assess the phytotoxicity of two commonly used herbicides: tribenuron and 2,4-D on eight plant species belonging to four families, each with one rare and one more common species. Specifically we examined the pattern of sensitivity using short-term and long-term endpoints (total aboveground biomass, total seed biomass and number of seeds) of these species; we determined the levels of and time to recovery in terms of stem length and fruit number, and assessed whether their rarity relates to their sensitivity to herbicide application. Our results suggest that although differences in herbicide sensitivity are not a direct cause of rarity for all species, it may be an important driver of declining arable plants.

  18. Opioid and nicotine receptors affect growth regulation of human lung cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maneckjee, R.; Minna, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Using specific radioactively-labeled ligands, the authors find that lung cancer cell lines of diverse histologic types express multiple, high-affinity membrane receptors for μ, δ, and κ opioid agonists and for nicotine and α-bungarotoxin. These receptors are biologically active because cAMP levels decreased in lung cancer cells after opioid and nicotine application. Nicotine at concentrations found in the blood of smokers had no effect on in vitro lung cancer cell growth, whereas μ, δ, and κ opioid agonists at low concentrations inhibited lung cancer growth in vitro. They also found that lung cancer cells expressed various combinations of immunoreactive opioid peptides (β-endorphin, enkephalin, or dynorphin), suggesting the participation of opioids in a negative autocrine loop or tumor-suppressing system. Due to the almost universal exposure of patients with lung cancer to nicotine, they tested whether nicotine affected the response of lung cancer cell growth to opioids and found that nicotine at concentrations of 100-200 nM partially or totally reversed opioid-induced growth inhibition in 9/14 lung cancer cell lines. These in vitro results for lung cancer cells suggest that opioids could function as part of a tumor suppressor system and that nicotine can function to circumvent this system in the pathogenesis of lung cancer

  19. Opioid and nicotine receptors affect growth regulation of human lung cancer cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maneckjee, R.; Minna, J.D. (National Cancer Institute-Navy Medical Oncology Branch, Bethesda, MD (USA) Uniformed Services Univ. of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Using specific radioactively-labeled ligands, the authors find that lung cancer cell lines of diverse histologic types express multiple, high-affinity membrane receptors for {mu}, {delta}, and {kappa} opioid agonists and for nicotine and {alpha}-bungarotoxin. These receptors are biologically active because cAMP levels decreased in lung cancer cells after opioid and nicotine application. Nicotine at concentrations found in the blood of smokers had no effect on in vitro lung cancer cell growth, whereas {mu}, {delta}, and {kappa} opioid agonists at low concentrations inhibited lung cancer growth in vitro. They also found that lung cancer cells expressed various combinations of immunoreactive opioid peptides ({beta}-endorphin, enkephalin, or dynorphin), suggesting the participation of opioids in a negative autocrine loop or tumor-suppressing system. Due to the almost universal exposure of patients with lung cancer to nicotine, they tested whether nicotine affected the response of lung cancer cell growth to opioids and found that nicotine at concentrations of 100-200 nM partially or totally reversed opioid-induced growth inhibition in 9/14 lung cancer cell lines. These in vitro results for lung cancer cells suggest that opioids could function as part of a tumor suppressor system and that nicotine can function to circumvent this system in the pathogenesis of lung cancer.

  20. Persistent reduction of segment growth and photosynthesis in a widespread and important sub-Arctic moss species after cessation of three years of experimental winter warming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bjerke, J.W.; Bokhorst, S.F.; Callaghan, T.V.; Phoenix, G.K.

    2017-01-01

    Winter is a period of dormancy for plants of cold environments. However, winter climate is changing, leading to an increasing frequency of stochastic warm periods (winter warming events) and concomitant reductions in snow cover. These conditions can break dormancy for some plants and expose them to

  1. The Long Intron 1 of Growth Hormone Gene from Reeves' Turtle (Chinemys reevesii) Correlates with Negatively Regulated GH Expression in Four Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Sheng; Ma, Jing-E; Li, Wei-Xia; Zhang, Jin-Ge; Wang, Juan; Nie, Qing-Hua; Qiu, Feng-Fang; Fang, Mei-Xia; Zeng, Fang; Wang, Xing; Lin, Xi-Ran; Zhang, Li; Chen, Shao-Hao; Zhang, Xi-Quan

    2016-04-12

    Turtles grow slowly and have a long lifespan. Ultrastructural studies of the pituitary gland in Reeves' turtle (Chinemys reevesii) have revealed that the species possesses a higher nucleoplasmic ratio and fewer secretory granules in growth hormone (GH) cells than other animal species in summer and winter. C. reevesii GH gene was cloned and species-specific similarities and differences were investigated. The full GH gene sequence in C. reevesii contains 8517 base pairs (bp), comprising five exons and four introns. Intron 1 was found to be much longer in C. reevesii than in other species. The coding sequence (CDS) of the turtle's GH gene, with and without the inclusion of intron 1, was transfected into four cell lines, including DF-1 chicken embryo fibroblasts, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, human embryonic kidney 293FT cells, and GH4C1 rat pituitary cells; the turtle growth hormone (tGH) gene mRNA and protein expression levels decreased significantly in the intron-containing CDS in these cell lines, compared with that of the corresponding intronless CDS. Thus, the long intron 1 of GH gene in Reeves' turtle might correlate with downregulated gene expression.

  2. The Long Intron 1 of Growth Hormone Gene from Reeves’ Turtle (Chinemys reevesii Correlates with Negatively Regulated GH Expression in Four Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Sheng Liu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Turtles grow slowly and have a long lifespan. Ultrastructural studies of the pituitary gland in Reeves’ turtle (Chinemys reevesii have revealed that the species possesses a higher nucleoplasmic ratio and fewer secretory granules in growth hormone (GH cells than other animal species in summer and winter. C. reevesii GH gene was cloned and species-specific similarities and differences were investigated. The full GH gene sequence in C. reevesii contains 8517 base pairs (bp, comprising five exons and four introns. Intron 1 was found to be much longer in C. reevesii than in other species. The coding sequence (CDS of the turtle’s GH gene, with and without the inclusion of intron 1, was transfected into four cell lines, including DF-1 chicken embryo fibroblasts, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells, human embryonic kidney 293FT cells, and GH4C1 rat pituitary cells; the turtle growth hormone (tGH gene mRNA and protein expression levels decreased significantly in the intron-containing CDS in these cell lines, compared with that of the corresponding intronless CDS. Thus, the long intron 1 of GH gene in Reeves’ turtle might correlate with downregulated gene expression.

  3. Inhibitory Effects of Probiotic Lactobacillus on the Growth of Human Colonic Carcinoma Cell Line HT-29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhung-Yuan; Hsieh, You-Miin; Huang, Chun-Chih; Tsai, Cheng-Chih

    2017-01-10

    This study was conducted to investigate the inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus cells and supernatants on the growth of the human colon cancer cell line HT-29. Our study results indicated that the PM153 strain exhibits the best adhesion ability and the highest survival in the gastrointestinal tract simulation experiment. Furthermore, after an 8-h co-culture of PM153 and HT-29 cells, the PM153 strain can induce the secretion of nitric oxide from the HT-29 cells. In addition, after the co-culture of the BCRC17010 strain (10⁸ cfu/mL) and HT-29 cells, the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in the HT-29 cells was 1.19, which showed a significant difference from the other control and LAB groups ( p strain exerts a pro-apoptotic effect on the HT-29 cells. Upon co-culture with HT-29 cells for 4, 8 and 12 h, the BCRC14625 strain (10⁸ cfu/mL) demonstrated a significant increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity ( p strains have ability to inhibit the growth of the colorectal cancer cell line HT-29 Bax/Bcl-2 pathway or NO production. In summary, we demonstrated that the BCRC17010 strain, good abilities of adhesion and increased LDH release, was the best probiotic potential for inhibition of HT-29 growth amongst the seven LAB strains tested in vitro.

  4. Effects of light-emitting diode supplementary lighting on the winter growth of greenhouse plants in the Yangtze River Delta of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Lu, Wei; Hu, Guyue; Wang, Xiao Chan; Zhang, Yu; Sun, Guo Xiang; Fang, Zhichao

    2016-12-01

    The winter in the Yangtze River Delta area of China involves more than 1 month of continuous low temperature and poor light (CLTL) weather conditions, which impacts horticultural production in an unheated greenhouse; however, few greenhouses in this area are currently equipped with a heating device. The low-cost and long-living light-emitting diode (LED) was used as an artificial light source to explore the effects of supplementary lighting during the dark period in CLTL winter on the vegetative characteristics, early yield, and physiology of flowering for pepper plants grown in a greenhouse without heating. Two LED lighting sets were employed with different light source to provide 65 μmol m -2  s -1 at night: (1) LED-A: red LEDs (R, peak wavelength 660 nm) and blue LEDs (B, peak wavelength 460 nm) with an R:B ratio of 6:3; and (2) LED-B: R and B LEDs at an R:B ratio of 8:1. Plants growth parameters and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics were compared between lighting treatments and the control group. Plants' yield and photosynthesis ability were improved by LED-A. Pepper grown under the LED-A1 strategy showed a 303.3 % greater fresh weight of fruits and a 501.3 % greater dry mass compared with the control group. Plant leaves under LED-A1 showed maximum efficiency of the light quantum yield of PSII, electron transfer rate, and the proportion of the open fraction of PSII centers, with values 113.70, 114.34, and 211.65 % higher than those of the control group, respectively, and showed the lowest rate constant of thermal energy dissipation of all groups. LED-B was beneficial to the plant height and stems diameter of the pepper plants more than LED-A. These results can serve as a guide for environment control and for realizing low energy consumption for products grown in a greenhouse in the winter in Southern China.

  5. [Inhibition of rhodiola on the growth of EVC-304 cell line].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Xiu-lan; Yang, Feng; Chen, Rong-hua; Ga, Bu; Yan, Hui; Zhang, Shi-fu; Zhang, Jing-ling

    2006-07-01

    To observe the effect of rhodiola on human umbilical vein endothelial cell line EVC-304. EVC-304 was cultured and divided into two groups: control group and rhodiola-treated group. Three days after treatment, cell survival rate-drug concentration curve was obtained by counting the survival cells, and cells in each group were stained by Wright's stain and observed under microscope. Cell cycle was determined by flow cytometry (FCM). The survival cells in rhodiola-treated group was much less than those in control group. More cells in rhodiola-treated group stayed in G(1) phase while less in S phase when compared with those in control group by FCM. Rhodiola can inhibit the growth of human endothelial cell line EVC-304, perhaps through inhibiting the proliferation of the cells. This may lay the foundation for the mechanism study and clinical application of rhodiola in prevention of pulmonary artery hypertension.

  6. Estrogen Receptor β Agonists Differentially Affect the Growth of Human Melanoma Cell Lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Marzagalli

    Full Text Available Cutaneous melanoma is an aggressive malignancy; its incidence is increasing worldwide and its prognosis remains poor. Clinical observations indicate that estrogen receptor β (ERβ is expressed in melanoma tissues and its expression decreases with tumor progression, suggesting its tumor suppressive function. These experiments were performed to investigate the effects of ERβ activation on melanoma cell growth.Protein expression was analyzed by Western blot and immunofluorescence assays. Cell proliferation was assessed by counting the cells by hemocytometer. ERβ transcriptional activity was evaluated by gene reporter assay. Global DNA methylation was analyzed by restriction enzyme assay and ERβ isoforms were identified by qRT-PCR. We demonstrated that ERβ is expressed in a panel of human melanoma cell lines (BLM, WM115, A375, WM1552. In BLM (NRAS-mutant cells, ERβ agonists significantly and specifically inhibited cell proliferation. ERβ activation triggered its cytoplasmic-to-nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity. Moreover, the antiproliferative activity of ERβ agonists was associated with an altered expression of G1-S transition-related proteins. In these cells, global DNA was found to be hypomethylated when compared to normal melanocytes; this DNA hypomethylation status was reverted by ERβ activation. ERβ agonists also decreased the proliferation of WM115 (BRAF V600D-mutant cells, while they failed to reduce the growth of A375 and WM1552 (BRAF V600E-mutant cells. Finally, we could observe that ERβ isoforms are expressed at different levels in the various cell lines. Specific oncogenic mutations or differential expression of receptor isoforms might be responsible for the different responses of cell lines to ERβ agonists.Our results demonstrate that ERβ is expressed in melanoma cell lines and that ERβ agonists differentially regulate the proliferation of these cells. These data confirm the notion that melanoma is a

  7. Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Griller-Type Broilers of Four Genetic Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa Filho, JA; Almeida, M; Shimokomaki, M; Pinheiro, JW; Silva, CA; Michelan Filho, T; Bueno, FR; Oba, A

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Griller-type chickens are broilers slaughtered between27and 29 days old weighing 1.3 to 1.5 kg and sold as a whole carcasses. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality of female broilers of four genetic lines reared for the production of griller-type chickens. A total of 960 broiler chicks was allotted in a randomized block design with four treatments and eight replicates of 30 birds per experimental plot. Each experimental ...

  8. [Effects of starvation and refeeding in winter on the growth, survival, and biochemical composition of different size Ruditapes philippinarum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xi-wu; Yao, Tuo; Zhang, Yue-huan; Huo, Zhong-ming; Zhao, Yue; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Guo-fan

    2009-12-01

    From December 2007 to April 2008, a laboratory experiment was conducted to study the effects of various starvation periods followed by the same refeeding period on the growth, survival, and biochemical composition of different size Ruditapes philippinarum at water temperature 3.0 degrees C-4.2 degrees C, salinity 25-27, and pH 7.90-8.16. No significant differences in the growth characteristics of R. philippinarum at low temperatures were observed among different size groups. The tolerance to starvation increased with increasing size, while the survival rate decreased with increasing starvation period, point-of-no return (PNR50) was not observed during the study period. For the larger size group (7 mm), the body moisture and lipid concentrations generally decreased with increasing starvation period. During starvation, the body protein content increased initially as a result of lipid being utilized for energy, but decreased thereafter when the lipid was depleting. Ash content remained unchanged during the study period, and was not affected by starvation or refeeding.

  9. LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Bakalchev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of elements in a system often creates their interdependence, interconditionality, and suppression. The lines from a basic geometrical element have become the model of a reductive world based on isolation according to certain criteria such as function, structure, and social organization. Their traces are experienced in the contemporary world as fragments or ruins of a system of domination of an assumed hierarchical unity. How can one release oneself from such dependence or determinism? How can the lines become less “systematic” and forms more autonomous, and less reductive? How is a form released from modernistic determinism on the new controversial ground? How can these elements or forms of representation become forms of action in the present complex world? In this paper, the meaning of lines through the ideas of Le Corbusier, Leonidov, Picasso, and Hitchcock is presented. Spatial research was made through a series of examples arising from the projects of the architectural studio “Residential Transformations”, which was a backbone for mapping the possibilities ranging from playfulness to exactness, as tactics of transformation in the different contexts of the contemporary world.

  10. A novel cell growth-promoting factor identified in a B cell leukemia cell line, BALL-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dao, T.; Holan, V.; Minowada, J.

    1993-01-01

    A novel leukemia cell growth-promoting activity has been identified in the culture supernatant from a human B cell leukemia cell line, BALL-1. The supernatant from unstimulated cultures of the BALL-1 cells significantly promoted the growth of 16 out of 24 leukemia/lymphoma cell lines of different lineages (T, B and non-lymphoid) in a minimal concentration of fetal bovine serum (FBS), and 5 out of 12 cases of fresh leukemia cells in FBS-free medium. The growth-promoting sieve filtration and dialysis. The MW of the factor was less than 10 kDa. The growth-promoting activity was heat and acid stable and resistant to trypsin treatment. The factor isolated from the BALL-1 supernatant was distinct from known polypeptide growth factors with MW below 10 kDa, such as epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor α, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), IGF-II and insulin, as determine by specific antibodies and by cell-growth-promoting tests. The factor is the BALL-1 supernatant did not promote the proliferation of normal human fresh peripheral blood lymphocytes or mouse fibroblast cell line, BALB/C 3T3. In addition to the BALL-1 supernatant, a similar growth-promoting activity was found in the culture supernatant from 13 of 17 leukemia/lymphoma cell lines tested. The activity in these culture supernatant promoted the growth of leukemia/lymphoma cell lines in autocrine and/or paracrine fashions. These observations suggest that the low MW cell growth-promoting activity found in the BALL-1 culture supernatant is mediated by a novel factor which may be responsible for the clonal expansion of particular leukemic clones. (author)

  11. Study of failures in a rabbit line selected for growth rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Naturil-Alfonso

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Selection for growth rate is negatively related with reproductive fitness. The aim of this work was to analyse the causes of fertility failure in rabbit does selected for growth rate and characterised for reproductive deficiencies (line R. In the experiment, 82 does were divided into 2 groups: naturally mated (NM and artificially inseminated (AI, to relate luteinizing hormone (LH concentration with ovulation induction and pregnancy rate by laparoscopic determination. Additionally, in 38 of these females ovulation rate and metabolites determination (leptin, NEFA, BOHB and glucose were analysed and perirenal fat thickness measurement and live body weight (LBW determined. The results showed that all ovulated does (both NM and AI presented higher concentrations of LH than non-ovulated females. In addition, non-ovulated females showed high levels of leptin and BOHB, as well as LBW. Females from line R have an inherit reduced fertility due to ovulation failure as a consequence of a reduction in LH release, which could be explained by a heavier body weight and higher leptin concentrations.

  12. Incorporating dynamic root growth enhances the performance of Noah-MP at two contrasting winter wheat field sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayler, Sebastian; Wöhling, Thomas; Ingwersen, Joachim; Wizemann, Hans-Dieter; Warrach-Sagi, Kirsten; Attinger, Sabine; Streck, Thilo; Wulmeyer, Volker

    2014-05-01

    Interactions between the soil, the vegetation, and the atmospheric boundary layer require close attention when predicting water fluxes in the hydrogeosystem, agricultural systems, weather and climate. However, land-surface schemes used in large scale models continue to show deficits in consistently simulating fluxes of water and energy from the subsurface through vegetation layers to the atmosphere. In this study, the multi-physics version of the Noah land-surface model (Noah-MP) was used to identify the processes, which are most crucial for a simultaneous simulation of water and heat fluxes between land-surface and the lower atmosphere. Comprehensive field data sets of latent and sensible heat fluxes, ground heat flux, soil moisture, and leaf area index from two contrasting field sites in South-West Germany are used to assess the accuracy of simulations. It is shown that an adequate representation of vegetation-related processes is the most important control for a consistent simulation of energy and water fluxes in the soil-plant-atmosphere system. In particular, using a newly implemented sub-module to simulate root growth dynamics has enhanced the performance of Noah-MP at both field sites. We conclude that further advances in the representation of leaf area dynamics and root/soil moisture interactions are the most promising starting points for improving the simulation of feedbacks between the sub-soil, land-surface and atmosphere in fully-coupled hydrological and atmospheric models.

  13. Rhodiola crenulata induces death and inhibits growth of breast cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yifan; Roberts, Louis; Shetty, Kalidas; Schneider, Sallie Smith

    2008-09-01

    Diverse compounds from many different chemical classes are currently targeted in preclinical analyses for their ability to act as both chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents. Phenolic phytochemicals from Rhodiola crenulata has such potential. This Rhodiola species is a perennial plant that grows in the Tundra, Siberia, and high-elevation regions of Tibet. The phenolic secondary metabolites isolated from R. crenulata were recently analyzed in a preclinical setting for their ability to treat lymphosarcomas and superficial bladder cancers. However, the effects of R. crenulata have yet to be examined for its implications in breast cancer prevention or for its chemotherapeutic abilities. Therefore this study investigated the effects of R. crenulata on breast cancer both in vivo and in vitro. Experiments using aggressive human-derived MDA-MB-231 and mouse-derived V14 breast cancer cell lines demonstrated that phenolic-enriched R. crenulata extract was capable of inhibiting the proliferation, motility, and invasion of these cells. In addition, the extracts induced autophagic-like vesicles in all cell lines, eventually leading to death of the tumor cell lines but not the immortal or normal human mammary epithelial cells. Finally, an in vivo experiment showed that phenolic-enriched dietary R. crenulata is effective in preventing the initiation of tumors and slowing down the tumor growth in mice bearing tumor grafts, thereby further demonstrating its possible potential for treatment of breast cancer progression and metastasis.

  14. High-Throughput Screening of Myxoid Liposarcoma Cell Lines: Survivin Is Essential for Tumor Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke A. de Graaff

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Myxoid liposarcoma (MLS is a soft tissue sarcoma characterized by a recurrent t(12;16 translocation. Although tumors are initially radio- and chemosensitive, the management of inoperable or metastatic MLS can be challenging. Therefore, our aim was to identify novel targets for systemic therapy. We performed an in vitro high-throughput drug screen using three MLS cell lines (402091, 1765092, DL-221, which were treated with 273 different drugs at four different concentrations. Cell lines and tissue microarrays were used for validation. As expected, all cell lines revealed a strong growth inhibition to conventional chemotherapeutic agents, such as anthracyclines and taxanes. A good response was observed to compounds interfering with Src and the mTOR pathway, which are known to be affected in these tumors. Moreover, BIRC5 was important for MLS survival because a strong inhibitory effect was seen at low concentration using the survivin inhibitor YM155, and siRNA for BIRC5 decreased cell viability. Immunohistochemistry revealed abundant expression of survivin restricted to the nucleus in all 32 tested primary tumor specimens. Inhibition of survivin in 402-91 and 1765-92 by YM155 increased the percentage S-phase but did not induce apoptosis, which warrants further investigation before application in the treatment of metastatic MLS. Thus, using a 273-compound drug screen, we confirmed previously identified targets (mTOR, Src in MLS and demonstrate survivin as essential for MLS survival.

  15. Inhibitory Effects of Probiotic Lactobacillus on the Growth of Human Colonic Carcinoma Cell Line HT-29

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhung-Yuan Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus cells and supernatants on the growth of the human colon cancer cell line HT-29. Our study results indicated that the PM153 strain exhibits the best adhesion ability and the highest survival in the gastrointestinal tract simulation experiment. Furthermore, after an 8-h co-culture of PM153 and HT-29 cells, the PM153 strain can induce the secretion of nitric oxide from the HT-29 cells. In addition, after the co-culture of the BCRC17010 strain (109 cfu/mL and HT-29 cells, the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in the HT-29 cells was 1.19, which showed a significant difference from the other control and LAB groups (p < 0.05, which therefore led to the inference that the BCRC17010 strain exerts a pro-apoptotic effect on the HT-29 cells. Upon co-culture with HT-29 cells for 4, 8 and 12 h, the BCRC14625 strain (109 cfu/mL demonstrated a significant increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity (p < 0.05, causing harm to the HT-29 cell membrane; further, after an 8-h co-culture with the HT-29 cells, it induced the secretion of nitric oxide (NO from the HT-29 cells. Some lactic acid bacteria (LAB strains have ability to inhibit the growth of the colorectal cancer cell line HT-29 Bax/Bcl-2 pathway or NO production. In summary, we demonstrated that the BCRC17010 strain, good abilities of adhesion and increased LDH release, was the best probiotic potential for inhibition of HT-29 growth amongst the seven LAB strains tested in vitro.

  16. Comparative growth performance in different Japanese quail lines: the effect of muscle DNA content and fiber morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Y M; Sarah, D; Shin, S; Wick, M P; Kim, B C; Lee, K

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the DNA content and morphological characteristics of muscle fibers, and their relation to the growth performance in random bred control (RBC) and heavy weight (HW) Japanese quail lines. The 2 lines were of similar embryo size at 6 and 8 d of incubation; however, HW quail were significantly larger than their counterparts after 10 d of incubation (P quail line was approximately 1.3-fold higher than the RBC quail line (P quail lines. The RBC line showed a faster rate of increase in PMW (2.7- vs. 2.1-fold) and total DNA mass (2.2- vs. 1.6-fold) between 0 and 4 d posthatch. The HW line exhibited a greater rate of the PMW (33.0- vs. 12.9-fold) and total DNA mass (10.3- vs. 4.0-fold) between 4 and 15 d posthatch than the RBC line. Moreover, the greatest increase in total DNA mass occurred between 0 and 8 d posthatch for the RBC line and 4 to 15 d posthatch for the HW line. These differences in the DNA content indicate a difference in the hypertrophic potential of muscle fibers between the 2 quail lines. The cross-sectional area of muscle fibers was 1.3-fold greater in the HW line compared with the RBC line at 8 d posthatch (158.5 vs. 97.11 μm(2), P quail lines are between 0 to 8 d and 4 to 15 d posthatch, respectively. Rapid muscle growth rate and a greater muscle mass in the HW quail line may be partially due to the hypertrophic potential of muscle fibers, which is characterized by larger fiber size.

  17. Acetoacetate reduces growth and ATP concentration in cancer cell lines which over-express uncoupling protein 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quadros Edward V

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence suggests that several human cancers are capable of uncoupling of mitochondrial ATP generation in the presence of intact tricarboxylic acid (TCA enzymes. The goal of the current study was to test the hypothesis that ketone bodies can inhibit cell growth in aggressive cancers and that expression of uncoupling protein 2 is a contributing factor. The proposed mechanism involves inhibition of glycolytic ATP production via a Randle-like cycle while increased uncoupling renders cancers unable to produce compensatory ATP from respiration. Methods Seven aggressive human cancer cell lines, and three control fibroblast lines were grown in vitro in either 10 mM glucose medium (GM, or in glucose plus 10 mM acetoacetate [G+AcA]. The cells were assayed for cell growth, ATP production and expression of UCP2. Results There was a high correlation of cell growth with ATP concentration (r = 0.948 in a continuum across all cell lines. Controls demonstrated normal cell growth and ATP with the lowest density of mitochondrial UCP2 staining while all cancer lines demonstrated proportionally inhibited growth and ATP, and over-expression of UCP2 (p Conclusion Seven human cancer cell lines grown in glucose plus acetoacetate medium showed tightly coupled reduction of growth and ATP concentration. The findings were not observed in control fibroblasts. The observed over-expression of UCP2 in cancer lines, but not in controls, provides a plausible molecular mechanism by which acetoacetate spares normal cells but suppresses growth in cancer lines. The results bear on the hypothesized potential for ketogenic diets as therapeutic strategies.

  18. The transcriptional network that controls growth arrest and differentiation in a human myeloid leukemia cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suzuki, Harukazu; Forrest, Alistair R R; van Nimwegen, Erik

    2009-01-01

    , we identified the key transcription regulators, their time-dependent activities and target genes. Systematic siRNA knockdown of 52 transcription factors confirmed the roles of individual factors in the regulatory network. Our results indicate that cellular states are constrained by complex networks......Using deep sequencing (deepCAGE), the FANTOM4 study measured the genome-wide dynamics of transcription-start-site usage in the human monocytic cell line THP-1 throughout a time course of growth arrest and differentiation. Modeling the expression dynamics in terms of predicted cis-regulatory sites...... involving both positive and negative regulatory interactions among substantial numbers of transcription factors and that no single transcription factor is both necessary and sufficient to drive the differentiation process....

  19. Transpiration Response and Growth in Pearl Millet Parental Lines and Hybrids Bred for Contrasting Rainfall Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Medina

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Under conditions of high vapor pressure deficit (VPD and soil drying, restricting transpiration is an important avenue to gain efficiency in water use. The question we raise in this article is whether breeding for agro-ecological environments that differ for the rainfall have selected for traits that control plant water use. These are measured in pearl millet materials bred for zones varying in rainfall (8 combinations of parent and F1-hybrids, 18 F1-hybrids and then 40 F1-hybrids. In all cases, we found an agro-ecological variation in the slope of the transpiration response to increasing VPD, and parental line variation in the transpiration response to soil drying within hybrids/parent combinations. The hybrids adapted to lower rainfall had higher transpiration response curves than those from the highest rainfall zones, but showed no variation in how transpiration responded to soil drying. The genotypes bred for lower rainfall zones showed lower leaf area, dry matter, thicker leaves, root development, and exudation, than the ones bred for high rainfall zone when grown in the low VPD environment of the greenhouse, but there was no difference in their root length neither on the root/shoot index in these genotypes. By contrast, when grown under high VPD conditions outdoors, the lower rainfall hybrids had the highest leaf, tiller, and biomass development. Finally, under soil drying the genotypes from the lower rainfall accumulated less biomass than the ones from higher rainfall zone, and so did the parental lines compared to the hybrids. These differences in the transpiration response and growth clearly showed that breeding for different agro-ecological zones also bred for different genotype strategies in relation to traits related to plant water use.Highlights:• Variation in transpiration response reflected breeding for agro-ecological zones• Different growth strategies depended on the environmental conditions• Different ideotypes reflected

  20. Growth inhibitory activity of Ankaferd hemostat on primary melanoma cells and cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyhan Turk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ankaferd hemostat is the first topical hemostatic agent about the red blood cell–fibrinogen relations tested in the clinical trials. Ankaferd hemostat consists of standardized plant extracts including Alpinia officinarum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Thymus vulgaris, Urtica dioica, and Vitis vinifera. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Ankaferd hemostat on viability of melanoma cell lines. Methods: Dissimilar melanoma cell lines and primary cells were used in this study. These cells were treated with different concentrations of Ankaferd hemostat to assess the impact of different dosages of the drug. All cells treated with different concentrations were incubated for different time intervals. After the data had been obtained, one-tailed T-test was used to determine whether the Ankaferd hemostat would have any significant inhibitory impact on cell growth. Results: We demonstrated in this study that cells treated with Ankaferd hemostat showed a significant decrease in cell viability compared to control groups. The cells showed different resistances against Ankaferd hemostat which depended on the dosage applied and the time treated cells had been incubated. We also demonstrated an inverse relationship between the concentration of the drug and the incubation time on one hand and the viability of the cells on the other hand, that is, increasing the concentration of the drug and the incubation time had a negative impact on cell viability. Conclusion: The findings in our study contribute to our knowledge about the anticancer impact of Ankaferd hemostat on different melanoma cells.

  1. Catalase reverses tumorigenicity in a malignant cell line by an epidermal growth factor receptor pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Joanne S; Tome, Margaret E; Kwei, Kevin A; Bowden, G Tim

    2006-03-01

    We have used a keratinocyte in vivo/in vitro cell model to test the hypothesis that hydrogen peroxide acts as a signaling molecule, contributing to proliferation and tumorigenesis. A cell line, 6M90, that produces squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), has high levels of ROS and low levels of catalase. A new cell line, MTOC2, generated from parental 6M90 cells by introduction of a Tet-responsive catalase transgene, effectively expressed higher peroxisomal catalase. Increased catalase expression diminished constitutive ROS and enhanced viability after treatment with hydrogen peroxide. Protein tyrosine phosphatase activity was higher in the MTOC2 cells with high catalase, consistent with detection of a lower level of phosphorylation at tyrosine 1068 of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R). Transcription of downstream c-fos, AP-1 transactivation and cell proliferation were higher in the low catalase cells. An EGF-R inhibitor, AG1478, blocks the higher AP-1 transactivation and cell proliferation of the low catalase 6M90 cells. Tumorigenesis in SCID mice was greatly diminished in the high catalase cells. Our data suggest that hydrogen peroxide functions as a signaling molecule that can modulate activity of a protein tyrosine phosphatase/(s) resulting in phosphorylation of tryrosine/(s) on the EGF-R. Therefore, catalase acts as a tumor-suppressor gene in part by decreasing EGF-R signaling.

  2. WINTER SAECULUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Mihalina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Accumulated imbalances in the economy and on the markets cause specific financial market dynamics that have formed characteristic patterns kept throughout long financial history. In 2008 Authors presented their expectations of key macroeconomic and selected asset class markets developments for period ahead based on Saeculum theory. Use of term Secular describes a specific valuation environment during prolonged period. If valuations as well as selected macro variables are considered as a tool for understanding business cycles then market cycles become much more obvious and easily understandable. Therefore over the long run, certain asset classes do better in terms of risk reward profile than others. Further on, there is no need for frequent portfolio rebalancing and timing of specific investment positions within a particular asset class market. Current stage in cycle development suggests a need for reassessment of trends and prevailing phenomena due to cyclical nture of long lasting Saeculums. Paper reviews developments in recognizable patterns of selected metrics in current Winter Saeculum dominated with prevailing forces of delivering, deflation and decrease in velocity of money.

  3. Effect of Aspirin on Cell Growth of Human MG-63 Osteosarcoma Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. De Luna-Bertos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are commonly used in bone tissue repair treatment for their pharmacological action. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of aspirin, on osteoblast growth, using MG63 cell line as osteoblast model. MTT spectrophotometry results showed that 20, 100, and 1000 μM aspirin doses have an inhibitory effect on growth. Cell cycle analysis revealed that aspirin doses of 100 and 1000 μM arrest the cell cycle in phase GO/G1. Parallel apoptosis/necrosis studies showed no changes in comparison to control cells after treatment with 1 or 10 μM aspirin but a significantly increased percentage of cells in apoptosis at doses of 20, 100, and 1000 μM. We highlight that treatment of osteoblast-like cells with 1000 μM aspirin increased not only the percentage of cells in apoptosis but also the percentage of necrotic cells, which was not observed in aspirin treatments at lower doses.

  4. Winter Weather: Frostbite

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety During Fire Cleanup Wildfires PSAs Related Links Winter Weather About Winter Weather Before a Storm Prepare Your Home Prepare Your Car Winter Weather Checklists During a Storm Indoor Safety During ...

  5. Comparison of growth performance and immune parameters of three commercial chicken lines used in organic production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjærup, R B; Juul-Madsen, H R; Norup, L R; Sørensen, P; Dalgaard, T S

    2017-05-01

    levels than the Bovans. How the differences observed in growth and immune parameters in the three chicken lines influence the immune protection against infection needs to be studied further. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Changes of Winter Oilseed Rape Plant Survival During Vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balodis Oskars

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. significance among field crops is unchangeable in Latvia in the last decade. Plant density of winter oilseed rape during growth period is influenced by plant development in autumn and plant wintering. The aim of four year (2008 – 2011 research in the LLU Research and Study farm “Vecauce” was to investigate the influence of agronomical factors (sowing date, sowing rate, fungicide (metkonazole application and meteorological factors on two type (line, hybrid winter oilseed rape varieties plant density changes from sowing till harvesting. Plant density in autumn, spring and during harvesting was influenced also by meteorological parameters such as air temperature and precipitation. On four year average, field germination was observed from 66% to 95%. Sowing date significantly (p0.05 influenced by fungicide as growth regulator application in autumn in any trial year. Influence of sowing date and sowing rate on the total plant density at harvest time was significant in all trial years (p<0.05 for both varieties. At higher sowing rate the plant loss during growing period was higher than at lower rates.

  7. Growth suppression by transforming growth factor beta 1 of human small-cell lung cancer cell lines is associated with expression of the type II receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, P; Damstrup, L; Rygaard, K

    1994-01-01

    the growth-suppressive effect of TGF-beta 1, the expression of functional pRb, as characterised by nuclear localisation, was examined by immunocytochemistry. Nuclear association of pRb was only seen in two of the five TGF-beta 1-responsive cell lines. These results indicate that in SCLC pRb is not required...

  8. The Growth of Bosnian Pine (Pinus hedreichii Christ.) at Tree-Line Locations from Kosovo and its Response to Climate

    OpenAIRE

    Bojaxhi, Faruk; Toromani, Elvin

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Pinus heldreichii Christ. is a sub-endemic species occurring at tree-line locations in Kosovo and covering an area of 2500 ha. In high elevation sites radial growth is mainly controlled by low temperatures. The main purpose of this study was the analysis of radial growth of P. heldreichii and its response to local climate conditions. Materials and Methods: Research sites comprise of three high elevation stands of P. heldreichii with specific site conditions. Core sa...

  9. USO DE REGULADOR DE CRESCIMENTO EM CULTIVARES DE FEIJÃO DE INVERNO PLANT GROWTH STIMULANT APPLICATION ON WINTER COMMON BEAN CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salatiér Buzetti

    2011-04-01

    contradictory. For that reason, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of plant growth stimulant application on components and grains yield of two winter common bean cultivars under Brazilian savannah conditions. The experiment was conducted during the 2007 fall-winter season, at the Unesp experimental farm, Ilha Solteira campus, in Selvíria, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks, in a strips scheme, with four replications. The treatments consisted of a combination of five plant growth stimulant doses (0 L ha-1; 0.5 L ha-1; 1.0 L ha-1; 1.5 L ha-1; and 2.0 L ha-1, composed of three vegetable hormones (kinetin, gibberellic acid, and indolbutyric acid, in two application periods: at the vegetative stage (V4 and at the reproductive stage (R5. Vegetative characteristics such as plant height, first pod insertion height, number of grains per pod, and weight of 100 grains were not affected by the product application. However, its application at the reproductive stage (R5 increased the number of grains per plant and grain yield of the Carioca Precoce and IAC Apuã bean cultivars. For that increase, 2 L ha-1 was the best plant growth stimulant dose.

    KEY-WORDS: Phaseolus vulgaris; yield components; application period.

  10. International strategies for growth : monetizing gas reserves to add value to the bottom line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihaichuk, G.

    1998-01-01

    The direction taken by oil and gas companies, including TransCanada International, in their strategy for growth in global energy markets was discussed. The role that gas plays in meeting the objectives was examined and the different ways in which gas reserves and investments in the gas sector are being turned into high-performing vehicles for adding value to the bottom line were described. Deregulation of, and competition within, the gas and electric power industries are the driving factors for changes within the energy industries. Natural gas will be a winner because it is the first choice for new power generation. Many companies have entered the international playing field to take advantage of the opportunities in international markets. The problems and solutions to monetizing natural gas reserves, some of the international political issues such as regulatory uncertainty, cross-border disputes, lack of regional integration, and sanctions, and how these adverse effects may be mitigated through mergers, acquisitions, or joint ventures, are explored. 14 figs

  11. Low emittance growth in a low energy beam transport line with un-neutralized section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prost, L.; Carneiro, J.-P.; Shemyakin, A.

    2018-02-01

    In a low energy beam transport line (LEBT), the emittance growth due to the beam's space charge is typically suppressed by way of neutralization from either electrons or ions, which originate from ionization of the background gas. In cases where the beam is chopped, the neutralization pattern usually changes throughout the beginning of the pulse, causing the Twiss parameters to differ significantly from their steady state values, which, in turn, may result in beam losses downstream. For a modest beam perveance, there is an alternative solution, in which the beam is kept un-neutralized in the portion of the LEBT that contains the chopper. The emittance can be nearly preserved if the transition to the un-neutralized section occurs where the beam exhibits low transverse tails. This report introduces the rationale for the proposed scheme and formulates the physical arguments for it as well as its limitations. An experimental realization of the scheme was carried out at Fermilab's PIP2IT where low beam emittance dilution was demonstrated for a 5 mA, 30 keV H- beam.

  12. Identification of ubiquitin in bovine milk and its growth inhibitory effects on human cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiburghaus, C; Welinder, C; Tjörnstad, U; Lindmark-Månsson, H; Paulsson, M; Oredsson, S

    2010-08-01

    Bovine milk is associated with improved health and reduced risk of several diseases, among them cancer. Milk is a complex mixture of known and unknown components. The components and the mechanisms that contribute to the cancer-preventive effects are largely unknown. We set out to find new peptides in milk and identified ubiquitin (Ub) using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and Western blot. Using quantitative Western blot, we estimated the Ub concentration to be about 0.003 micromol/L in milk. We then decided to investigate the effect of treating human colon cancer CaCo-2 cells with Ub, using higher concentrations than in milk. CaCo-2 cells treated with 0.02 to 2.0 micromol/L Ub showed significantly decreased proliferation compared with untreated control cells. A higher growth inhibitory effect than in CaCo-2 cells was found in the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y treated with 0.02 to 0.2 micromol/L Ub. A bromodeoxyuridine DNA flow cytometric method was used to study cell cycle kinetics in Ub-treated CaCo-2 cells. The data point toward a prolongation of the G(1) phase. The levels of several cell cycle regulatory proteins were affected. Our data point to Ub possibly being one of the components in milk reducing the risk of cancer. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Paclitaxel and trastuzumab treatment affects insulin growth factor I expression in breast cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Xian Qian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common type of cancers and second primary cause of death among women. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1 signaling pathway plays a vital role in cancer cell survival, proliferation, chemotaxis and angiogenesis. In this study, the effect of combination of two drugs, paclitaxel and trastuzumab on IGF signaling and cell cycle arrest in breast cancer cell lines, T47D and Hs0578T were explored. The interaction of paclitaxel and trastuzumab on IGF-1 signaling pathway was studied with IGF-1 and phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor, LY294002. The protein expression of IGF signaling molecules were reduced in the drug treated cancer cells. LY294002 and IGF-1 with paclitaxel and trastuzumab treatment inhibited phosphorylated Akt. During G0/G1 phase, cell cycle arrest and accumulation of apoptotic cells were observed in drug treated cancer cells. The synergistic effect of paclitaxel and trastuzumab decreased the multiplication of breast cancer cells by altering the expression of IGF-I signaling molecules. This combination proves to be one of the useful methods to treat breast cancer.

  14. Suppression of vascular endothelial growth factor expression by cannabinoids in a canine osteosarcoma cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueiredo AS

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Andreza S Figueiredo,1 Hiram J García-Crescioni,1 Sandra C Bulla,1 Matthew K Ross,2 Chelsea McIntosh,1 Kari Lunsford,3 Camilo Bulla11Department of Pathobiology and Population Medicine, 2Department of Basic Sciences, 3Department of Clinical Sciences and Animal Health Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS, USAAbstract: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is a key regulator in both physiologic and pathologic angiogenesis, and cannabinoids decrease VEGF release in human and murine cancer cells. The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro effects of a synthetic cannabinoid, WIN-55,212-2, on the expression of the proangiogenic factor VEGF-A in the canine osteosarcoma cell line 8. After analysis of gene expression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, the compound decreased VEGF-A expression by 35% ± 10% (P < 0.0001 as compared with the control. This synthetic cannabinoid shows promise as a potential inhibitor of angiogenesis, and further studies are warranted to investigate its in vivo effects and to explore the potential of this and related compounds as adjuvant cancer therapy in the dog.Keywords: dog, cancer, angiogenesis, cannabinoids

  15. RNA sequencing for global gene expression associated with muscle growth in a single male modern broiler line compared to a foundational Barred Plymouth Rock chicken line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Byung-Whi; Hudson, Nicholas; Seo, Dongwon; Lee, Seok; Khatri, Bhuwan; Lassiter, Kentu; Cook, Devin; Piekarski, Alissa; Dridi, Sami; Anthony, Nicholas; Bottje, Walter

    2017-01-13

    Modern broiler chickens exhibit very rapid growth and high feed efficiency compared to unselected chicken breeds. The improved production efficiency in modern broiler chickens was achieved by the intensive genetic selection for meat production. This study was designed to investigate the genetic alterations accumulated in modern broiler breeder lines during selective breeding conducted over several decades. To identify genes important in determining muscle growth and feed efficiency in broilers, RNA sequencing (RNAseq) was conducted with breast muscle in modern pedigree male (PeM) broilers (n = 6 per group), and with an unselected foundation broiler line (Barred Plymouth Rock; BPR). The RNAseq analysis was carried out using Ilumina Hiseq (2 x 100 bp paired end read) and raw reads were assembled with the galgal4 reference chicken genome. With normalized RPM values, genes showing >10 average read counts were chosen and genes showing 1.3 fold change were considered as differentially expressed (DE) between PeM and BPR. DE genes were subjected to Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) for bioinformatic functional interpretation. The results indicate that 2,464 DE genes were identified in the comparison between PeM and BPR. Interestingly, the expression of genes encoding mitochondrial proteins in chicken are significantly biased towards the BPR group, suggesting a lowered mitochondrial content in PeM chicken muscles compared to BPR chicken. This result is inconsistent with more slow muscle fibers bearing a lower mitochondrial content in the PeM. The molecular, cellular and physiological functions of DE genes in the comparison between PeM and BPR include organismal injury, carbohydrate metabolism, cell growth/proliferation, and skeletal muscle system development, indicating that cellular mechanisms in modern broiler lines are tightly associated with rapid growth and differential muscle fiber contents compared to the unselected BPR line. Particularly, PDGF (platelet derived

  16. Radiosensitivity of different human tumor cells lines grown as multicellular spheroids determined from growth curves and survival data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwachoefer, J.H.C.; Crooijmans, R.P.; van Gasteren, J.J.; Hoogenhout, J.; Jerusalem, C.R.; Kal, H.B.; Theeuwes, A.G.

    1989-01-01

    Five human tumor cell lines were grown as multicellular tumor spheroids (MTS) to determine whether multicellular tumor spheroids derived from different types of tumors would show tumor-type dependent differences in response to single-dose irradiation, and whether these differences paralleled clinical behavior. Multicellular tumor spheroids of two neuroblastoma, one lung adenocarcinoma, one melanoma, and a squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue, were studied in terms of growth delay, calculated cell survival, and spheroid control dose50 (SCD50). Growth delay and cell survival analysis for the tumor cell lines showed sensitivities that correlated well with clinical behavior of the tumor types of origin. Similar to other studies on melanoma multicellular tumor spheroids our spheroid control dose50 results for the melanoma cell line deviated from the general pattern of sensitivity. This might be due to the location of surviving cells, which prohibits proliferation of surviving cells and hence growth of melanoma multicellular tumor spheroids. This study demonstrates that radiosensitivity of human tumor cell lines can be evaluated in terms of growth delay, calculated cell survival, and spheroid control dose50 when grown as multicellular tumor spheroids. The sensitivity established from these evaluations parallels clinical behavior, thus offering a unique tool for the in vitro analysis of human tumor radiosensitivity

  17. Characterization of morphology and resistance to Blumeria graminis of winter triticale monosomic addition lines with chromosome 2D of Aegilops tauschii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majka, M; Kwiatek, M; Belter, J; Wiśniewska, H

    2016-10-01

    Allocation of the chromosome 2D of Ae. tauschii in triticale background resulted in changes of its organization, what is related to varied expression of genes determining agronomically important traits. Monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) are crucial for transfer of genes from wild relatives into cultivated varieties. This kind of genetic stocks is used for physical mapping of specific chromosomes and analyzing alien genes expression. The main aim of our study is to improve hexaploid triticale by transferring D-genome chromatin from Aegilops tauschii × Secale cereale (2n = 4x = 28, DDRR). In this paper, we demonstrate the molecular cytogenetics analysis and SSR markers screening combined with phenotype analysis and evaluation of powdery mildew infection of triticale monosomic addition lines carrying chromosome 2D of Ae. tauschii. We confirmed the inheritance of chromosome 2D from the BC2F4 to the BC2F6 generation of triticale hybrids. Moreover, we unveiled a high variable region on the short arm of chromosome 2D, where chromosome rearrangements were mapped. These events had direct influence on plant height of hybrids what might be connected with changes at Rht8 loci. We obtained 20 semi-dwarf plants of BC2F6 generation carrying 2D chromosome with the powdery mildew resistance, without changes in spike morphology, which can be used in the triticale breeding programs.

  18. An animal component free medium that promotes the growth of various animal cell lines for the production of viral vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rourou, Samia; Ben Ayed, Yousr; Trabelsi, Khaled; Majoul, Samy; Kallel, Héla

    2014-05-19

    IPT-AFM is a proprietary animal component free medium that was developed for rabies virus (strain LP 2061) production in Vero cells. In the present work, we demonstrated the versatility of this medium and its ability to sustain the growth of other cell lines and different virus strains. Here, three models were presented: Vero cells/rabies virus (strain LP 2061), MRC-5 cells/measles virus (strain AIK-C) and BHK-21 cells/rabies virus (strain PV-BHK21). The cell lines were first adapted to grow in IPT-AFM, by progressive reduction of the amount of serum in the culture medium. After their adaptation, BHK-21 cells grew in suspension by forming clumps, whereas MRC-5 cells remained adherent. Then, kinetics of cell growth were studied in agitated cultures for both cell lines. In addition, kinetics of virus replication were investigated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Inactivation of the transforming growth factor beta type II receptor in human small cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, S; Nørgaard, P; Abrahamsen, N

    1999-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) exerts a growth inhibitory effect on many cell types through binding to two types of receptors, the type I and II receptors. Resistance to TGF-beta due to lack of type II receptor (RII) has been described in some cancer types including small cell lung...... cancer (SCLC). The purpose of this study was to examine the cause of absent RII expression in SCLC cell lines. Northern blot analysis showed that RII RNA expression was very weak in 16 of 21 cell lines. To investigate if the absence of RII transcript was due to mutations, we screened the poly-A tract...... for mutations, but no mutations were detected. Additional screening for mutations of the RII gene revealed a GG to TT base substitution in one cell line, which did not express RII. This mutation generates a stop codon resulting in predicted synthesis of a truncated RII of 219 amino acids. The nature...

  20. In vitro selective growth inhibition of breast adenocarcinoma cell lines by Pseudomonas sp. UW4 metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maedeh Pasiar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is a malignant proliferation of epithelial cells that lining the ducts or lobules of the breast. It is the second common cancer, after lung cancer in women. Since growth inhibition is an important strategy in cancer treatment, many attempts are in program to find new apoptotic inducer agents. Today there is some reports about effect of metabolites of Pseudomonas on cancer cells, hence, metabolites of Pseudomonas sp. UW4, were isolated and anti-cancer and anti-microbial activity of these metabolites was studied. Methods: This experimental study was performed in cellular and developmental biology of Shahrekord Islamic Azad University from April 2015 to August 2015. Anti-microbial activity of metabolites of Pseudomonas sp. UW4 was tested against a pathogenic bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. For anti-cancer activity, in this study SKBR3 cells and normal fibroblast cells (HU-02 were cultured in DMEM medium with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS. The cells were treated by various concentrations of these metabolites 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg/ml for 24, 48 and 72 h. Cell viability was assessed by MTS assay. Cells were seeded at 5×103 cells/ml in 96 well plates and incubated for 24 hr. Then metabolites of bacteria were added, after indicated times MTS (20 µl was added and the absorbance was measured at 492 nm using ELISA plate reader. Results: Pseudomonas sp. UW4 was able to produce antimicrobial metabolites against Staphylococcus aureus. Metabolites decreases the viability of SKBR3 cell line in a time and dose dependent manner, so that the most effective concentration of this substance was 20 mg/ml and 72 h after treatment (P< 0.01. While Pseudomonas sp. UW4 in various concentrations had no significant effect on normal fibroblast cells (P= 0.24. Conclusion: Bioactive compounds produced by of Pseudomonas sp. UW4 could be used for elimination of infections and treatment of breast cancer SK

  1. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor I exert different effects on plasminogen activator production or cell growth in the ovine thyroid cell line OVNIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degryse, B; Maisonobe, F; Hovsépian, S; Fayet, G

    1991-11-01

    Insulin and Insulin-like Growth Factor I (IGF-I) are evaluated for their capacity to affect cell proliferation and plasminogen activator (PA) activity production in an ovine thyroid cell line OVNIS. Insulin at physiological and supraphysiological doses induces cell proliferation and increases PA activity. IGF-I, which is also clearly mitogenic for these cells, surprisingly does not modulate PA activity. The results indicate that the growth promoting effect is mediated through the insulin and IGF-I receptors whereas PA activity is solely regulated via the insulin receptors.

  2. Sequence and ionomic analysis of divergent strains of maize inbred line B73 with an altered growth phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascher, Martin; Gerlach, Nina; Gahrtz, Manfred; Bucher, Marcel; Scholz, Uwe; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays) is the most widely grown crop species in the world and a classical model organism for plant research. The completion of a high-quality reference genome sequence and the advent of high-throughput sequencing have greatly empowered re-sequencing studies in maize. In this study, plants of maize inbred line B73 descended from two different sets of seed material grown for several generations either in the field or in the greenhouse were found to show a different growth phenotype and ionome under phosphate starvation conditions and moreover a different responsiveness towards mycorrhizal fungi of the species Glomus intraradices (syn: Rhizophagus irregularis). Whole genome re-sequencing of individuals from both sets and comparison to the B73 reference sequence revealed three cryptic introgressions on chromosomes 1, 5 and 10 in the line grown in the greenhouse summing up to a total of 5,257 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Transcriptome sequencing of three individuals from each set lent further support to the location of the introgression intervals and confirmed them to be fixed in all sequenced individuals. Moreover, we identified >120 genes differentially expressed between the two B73 lines. We thus have found a nearly-isogenic line (NIL) of maize inbred line B73 that is characterized by an altered growth phenotype under phosphate starvation conditions and an improved responsiveness towards symbiosis with mycorrhizal fungi. Through next-generation sequencing of the genomes and transcriptomes we were able to delineate exact introgression intervals. Putative de novo mutations appeared approximately uniformly distributed along the ten maize chromosomes mainly representing G:C -> A:T transitions. The plant material described in this study will be a valuable tool both for functional studies of genes differentially expressed in both B73 lines and for research on growth behavior especially in response to symbiosis between maize and mycorrhizal fungi.

  3. Sequence and ionomic analysis of divergent strains of maize inbred line B73 with an altered growth phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Mascher

    Full Text Available Maize (Zea mays is the most widely grown crop species in the world and a classical model organism for plant research. The completion of a high-quality reference genome sequence and the advent of high-throughput sequencing have greatly empowered re-sequencing studies in maize. In this study, plants of maize inbred line B73 descended from two different sets of seed material grown for several generations either in the field or in the greenhouse were found to show a different growth phenotype and ionome under phosphate starvation conditions and moreover a different responsiveness towards mycorrhizal fungi of the species Glomus intraradices (syn: Rhizophagus irregularis. Whole genome re-sequencing of individuals from both sets and comparison to the B73 reference sequence revealed three cryptic introgressions on chromosomes 1, 5 and 10 in the line grown in the greenhouse summing up to a total of 5,257 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Transcriptome sequencing of three individuals from each set lent further support to the location of the introgression intervals and confirmed them to be fixed in all sequenced individuals. Moreover, we identified >120 genes differentially expressed between the two B73 lines. We thus have found a nearly-isogenic line (NIL of maize inbred line B73 that is characterized by an altered growth phenotype under phosphate starvation conditions and an improved responsiveness towards symbiosis with mycorrhizal fungi. Through next-generation sequencing of the genomes and transcriptomes we were able to delineate exact introgression intervals. Putative de novo mutations appeared approximately uniformly distributed along the ten maize chromosomes mainly representing G:C -> A:T transitions. The plant material described in this study will be a valuable tool both for functional studies of genes differentially expressed in both B73 lines and for research on growth behavior especially in response to symbiosis between maize and

  4. Human metastatic melanoma cell lines express high levels of growth hormone receptor and respond to GH treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sustarsic, Elahu G. [Edison Biotechnology Institute, 1 Watertower Drive, Athens, OH (United States); Department of Biological Sciences, Ohio University, Athens, OH (United States); Junnila, Riia K. [Edison Biotechnology Institute, 1 Watertower Drive, Athens, OH (United States); Kopchick, John J., E-mail: kopchick@ohio.edu [Edison Biotechnology Institute, 1 Watertower Drive, Athens, OH (United States); Department of Biological Sciences, Ohio University, Athens, OH (United States); Department of Biomedical Sciences, Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine, Ohio University, Athens, OH (United States)

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: •Most cancer types of the NCI60 have sub-sets of cell lines with high GHR expression. •GHR is highly expressed in melanoma cell lines. •GHR is elevated in advanced stage IV metastatic tumors vs. stage III. •GH treatment of metastatic melanoma cell lines alters growth and cell signaling. -- Abstract: Accumulating evidence implicates the growth hormone receptor (GHR) in carcinogenesis. While multiple studies show evidence for expression of growth hormone (GH) and GHR mRNA in human cancer tissue, there is a lack of quantification and only a few cancer types have been investigated. The National Cancer Institute’s NCI60 panel includes 60 cancer cell lines from nine types of human cancer: breast, CNS, colon, leukemia, melanoma, non-small cell lung, ovarian, prostate and renal. We utilized this panel to quantify expression of GHR, GH, prolactin receptor (PRLR) and prolactin (PRL) mRNA with real-time RT qPCR. Both GHR and PRLR show a broad range of expression within and among most cancer types. Strikingly, GHR expression is nearly 50-fold higher in melanoma than in the panel as a whole. Analysis of human metastatic melanoma biopsies confirmed GHR gene expression in melanoma tissue. In these human biopsies, the level of GHR mRNA is elevated in advanced stage IV tumor samples compared to stage III. Due to the novel finding of high GHR in melanoma, we examined the effect of GH treatment on three NCI60 melanoma lines (MDA-MB-435, UACC-62 and SK-MEL-5). GH increased proliferation in two out of three cell lines tested. Further analysis revealed GH-induced activation of STAT5 and mTOR in a cell line dependent manner. In conclusion, we have identified cell lines and cancer types that are ideal to study the role of GH and PRL in cancer, yet have been largely overlooked. Furthermore, we found that human metastatic melanoma tumors express GHR and cell lines possess active GHRs that can modulate multiple signaling pathways and alter cell proliferation. Based on

  5. Human metastatic melanoma cell lines express high levels of growth hormone receptor and respond to GH treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sustarsic, Elahu G.; Junnila, Riia K.; Kopchick, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Most cancer types of the NCI60 have sub-sets of cell lines with high GHR expression. •GHR is highly expressed in melanoma cell lines. •GHR is elevated in advanced stage IV metastatic tumors vs. stage III. •GH treatment of metastatic melanoma cell lines alters growth and cell signaling. -- Abstract: Accumulating evidence implicates the growth hormone receptor (GHR) in carcinogenesis. While multiple studies show evidence for expression of growth hormone (GH) and GHR mRNA in human cancer tissue, there is a lack of quantification and only a few cancer types have been investigated. The National Cancer Institute’s NCI60 panel includes 60 cancer cell lines from nine types of human cancer: breast, CNS, colon, leukemia, melanoma, non-small cell lung, ovarian, prostate and renal. We utilized this panel to quantify expression of GHR, GH, prolactin receptor (PRLR) and prolactin (PRL) mRNA with real-time RT qPCR. Both GHR and PRLR show a broad range of expression within and among most cancer types. Strikingly, GHR expression is nearly 50-fold higher in melanoma than in the panel as a whole. Analysis of human metastatic melanoma biopsies confirmed GHR gene expression in melanoma tissue. In these human biopsies, the level of GHR mRNA is elevated in advanced stage IV tumor samples compared to stage III. Due to the novel finding of high GHR in melanoma, we examined the effect of GH treatment on three NCI60 melanoma lines (MDA-MB-435, UACC-62 and SK-MEL-5). GH increased proliferation in two out of three cell lines tested. Further analysis revealed GH-induced activation of STAT5 and mTOR in a cell line dependent manner. In conclusion, we have identified cell lines and cancer types that are ideal to study the role of GH and PRL in cancer, yet have been largely overlooked. Furthermore, we found that human metastatic melanoma tumors express GHR and cell lines possess active GHRs that can modulate multiple signaling pathways and alter cell proliferation. Based on

  6. Differential effects of natural flavonoids on growth and iodide content in a human Na*/I- symporter-transfected follicular thyroid carcinoma cell line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder-van der Elst, Janny P.; van der Heide, Daan; Romijn, Johannes A.; Smit, Jan W. A.

    2004-01-01

    Natural flavonoids (plant pigments) have been shown to inhibit thyroid peroxidase (TPO) in vitro and the growth of thyroid cancer cell lines. We have studied the role of flavonoids on the iodide transport and the growth of the human follicular thyroid cancer cell line (FTC133) which was stably

  7. SRC drives growth of antiestrogen resistant breast cancer cell lines and is a marker for reduced benefit of tamoxifen treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sarah L; Laenkholm, Anne-Vibeke; Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine

    2015-01-01

    effect on tamoxifen resistant cell growth, whereas dasatinib in combination with tamoxifen had no additive inhibitory effect on fulvestrant resistant growth. When performing immunohistochemical staining on 268 primary tumors from breast cancer patients who had received tamoxifen as first line endocrine...... treatment, we found that membrane expression of Src in the tumor cells was significant associated with reduced disease-free and overall survival. In conclusion, Src was identified as target for treatment of antiestrogen resistant T47D breast cancer cells. For tamoxifen resistant T47D cells, combined...

  8. Pyranoxanthones: Synthesis, growth inhibitory activity on human tumor cell lines and determination of their lipophilicity in two membrane models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goncalves de Azavedo, Carlos M. B. P.; Afonso, C. M.; Soares, J. X.

    2013-01-01

    The benzopyran and dihydrobenzopyran moieties can be considered as "privileged motifs" in drug discovery being good platforms for the search of new bioactive compounds. These moieties are commonly found fused to the xanthonic scaffold belonging to the biologically important family of the generally...... hard to be established. Accordingly, with the aim of rationalizing the importance of the fused ring orientation and oxygenation pattern in pyranoxanthones, this study describes the synthesis of 14 new pyranoxanthones and evaluation of their cell growth inhibitory activity in four human tumor cell lines...... as particularly promising, presenting a potent cell growth inhibitory activity and suitable drug-like lipophilicity....

  9. Comparing the epidermal growth factor interaction with four different cell lines: intriguing effects imply strong dependency of cellular context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Björkelund

    Full Text Available The interaction of the epidermal growth factor (EGF with its receptor (EGFR is known to be complex, and the common over-expression of EGF receptor family members in a multitude of tumors makes it important to decipher this interaction and the following signaling pathways. We have investigated the affinity and kinetics of (125I-EGF binding to EGFR in four human tumor cell lines, each using four culturing conditions, in real time by use of LigandTracer®.Highly repeatable and precise measurements show that the overall apparent affinity of the (125I-EGF - EGFR interaction is greatly dependent on cell line at normal culturing conditions, ranging from K(D ≈ 200 pM on SKBR3 cells to K(D≈8 nM on A431 cells. The (125I-EGF - EGFR binding curves (irrespective of cell line have strong signs of multiple simultaneous interactions. Furthermore, for the cell lines A431 and SKOV3, gefitinib treatment increases the (125I-EGF - EGFR affinity, in particular when the cells are starved. The (125I-EGF - EGFR interaction on cell line U343 is sensitive to starvation while as on SKBR3 it is insensitive to gefitinib and starvation.The intriguing pattern of the binding characteristics proves that the cellular context is important when deciphering how EGF interacts with EGFR. From a general perspective, care is advisable when generalizing ligand-receptor interaction results across multiple cell-lines.

  10. Winter Weather Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health ... Although there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect ...

  11. Winter maintenance performance measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Winter Performance Index is a method of quantifying winter storm events and the DOTs response to them. : It is a valuable tool for evaluating the States maintenance practices, performing post-storm analysis, training : maintenance personnel...

  12. Winter weather demand considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Winter weather has varied effects on travel behavior. Using 418 survey responses from the Northern Virginia : commuting area of Washington, D.C. and binary logit models, this study examines travel related changes under : different types of winter wea...

  13. Phenotype-dependent effects of EpCAM expression on growth and invasion of human breast cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martowicz Agnieszka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM has been shown to be overexpressed in breast cancer and stem cells and has emerged as an attractive target for immunotherapy of breast cancer patients. This study analyzes the effects of EpCAM on breast cancer cell lines with epithelial or mesenchymal phenotype. Methods For this purpose, shRNA-mediated knockdown of EpCAM gene expression was performed in EpCAMhigh breast cancer cell lines with epithelial phenotype (MCF-7, T47D and SkBR3. Moreover, EpCAMlow breast carcinoma cell lines with mesenchymal phenotype (MDA-MB-231, Hs578t and inducible overexpression of EpCAM were used to study effects on proliferation, migration and in vivo growth. Results In comparison to non-specific silencing controls (n/s-crtl knockdown of EpCAM (E#2 in EpCAMhigh cell lines resulted in reduced cell proliferation under serum-reduced culture conditions. Moreover, DNA synthesis under 3D culture conditions in collagen was significantly reduced. Xenografts of MCF-7 and T47D cells with knockdown of EpCAM formed smaller tumors that were less invasive. EpCAMlow cell lines with tetracycline-inducible overexpression of EpCAM showed no increased cell proliferation or migration under serum-reduced growth conditions. MDA-MB-231 xenografts with EpCAM overexpression showed reduced invasion into host tissue and more infiltrates of chicken granulocytes. Conclusions The role of EpCAM in breast cancer strongly depends on the epithelial or mesenchymal phenotype of tumor cells. Cancer cells with epithelial phenotype need EpCAM as a growth- and invasion-promoting factor, whereas tumor cells with a mesenchymal phenotype are independent of EpCAM in invasion processes and tumor progression. These findings might have clinical implications for EpCAM-based targeting strategies in patients with invasive breast cancer.

  14. Phenotype-dependent effects of EpCAM expression on growth and invasion of human breast cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martowicz, Agnieszka; Spizzo, Gilbert; Gastl, Guenther; Untergasser, Gerold

    2012-01-01

    The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) has been shown to be overexpressed in breast cancer and stem cells and has emerged as an attractive target for immunotherapy of breast cancer patients. This study analyzes the effects of EpCAM on breast cancer cell lines with epithelial or mesenchymal phenotype. For this purpose, shRNA-mediated knockdown of EpCAM gene expression was performed in EpCAM high breast cancer cell lines with epithelial phenotype (MCF-7, T47D and SkBR3). Moreover, EpCAM low breast carcinoma cell lines with mesenchymal phenotype (MDA-MB-231, Hs578t) and inducible overexpression of EpCAM were used to study effects on proliferation, migration and in vivo growth. In comparison to non-specific silencing controls (n/s-crtl) knockdown of EpCAM (E#2) in EpCAM high cell lines resulted in reduced cell proliferation under serum-reduced culture conditions. Moreover, DNA synthesis under 3D culture conditions in collagen was significantly reduced. Xenografts of MCF-7 and T47D cells with knockdown of EpCAM formed smaller tumors that were less invasive. EpCAM low cell lines with tetracycline-inducible overexpression of EpCAM showed no increased cell proliferation or migration under serum-reduced growth conditions. MDA-MB-231 xenografts with EpCAM overexpression showed reduced invasion into host tissue and more infiltrates of chicken granulocytes. The role of EpCAM in breast cancer strongly depends on the epithelial or mesenchymal phenotype of tumor cells. Cancer cells with epithelial phenotype need EpCAM as a growth- and invasion-promoting factor, whereas tumor cells with a mesenchymal phenotype are independent of EpCAM in invasion processes and tumor progression. These findings might have clinical implications for EpCAM-based targeting strategies in patients with invasive breast cancer

  15. SRC drives growth of antiestrogen resistant breast cancer cell lines and is a marker for reduced benefit of tamoxifen treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Sarah L; Laenkholm, Anne-Vibeke; Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine; Bak, Martin; Lykkesfeldt, Anne E; Kirkegaard, Tove

    2015-01-01

    The underlying mechanisms leading to antiestrogen resistance in estrogen-receptor α (ER)-positive breast cancer is still poorly understood. The aim of this study was therefore to identify biomarkers and novel treatments for antiestrogen resistant breast cancer. We performed a kinase inhibitor screen on antiestrogen responsive T47D breast cancer cells and T47D-derived tamoxifen and fulvestrant resistant cell lines. We found that dasatinib, a broad-spectrum kinase inhibitor, inhibited growth of the antiestrogen resistant cells compared to parental T47D cells. Furthermore western blot analysis showed increased expression and phosphorylation of Src in the resistant cells and that dasatinib inhibited phosphorylation of Src and also signaling via Akt and Erk in all cell lines. Immunoprecipitation revealed Src: ER complexes only in the parental T47D cells. In fulvestrant resistant cells, Src formed complexes with the Human Epidermal growth factor Receptor (HER)1 and HER2. Neither HER receptors nor ER were co-precipitated with Src in the tamoxifen resistant cell lines. Compared to treatment with dasatinib alone, combined treatment with dasatinib and fulvestrant had a stronger inhibitory effect on tamoxifen resistant cell growth, whereas dasatinib in combination with tamoxifen had no additive inhibitory effect on fulvestrant resistant growth. When performing immunohistochemical staining on 268 primary tumors from breast cancer patients who had received tamoxifen as first line endocrine treatment, we found that membrane expression of Src in the tumor cells was significant associated with reduced disease-free and overall survival. In conclusion, Src was identified as target for treatment of antiestrogen resistant T47D breast cancer cells. For tamoxifen resistant T47D cells, combined treatment with dasatinib and fulvestrant was superior to treatment with dasatinib alone. Src located at the membrane has potential as a new biomarker for reduced benefit of tamoxifen.

  16. SRC drives growth of antiestrogen resistant breast cancer cell lines and is a marker for reduced benefit of tamoxifen treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L Larsen

    Full Text Available The underlying mechanisms leading to antiestrogen resistance in estrogen-receptor α (ER-positive breast cancer is still poorly understood. The aim of this study was therefore to identify biomarkers and novel treatments for antiestrogen resistant breast cancer. We performed a kinase inhibitor screen on antiestrogen responsive T47D breast cancer cells and T47D-derived tamoxifen and fulvestrant resistant cell lines. We found that dasatinib, a broad-spectrum kinase inhibitor, inhibited growth of the antiestrogen resistant cells compared to parental T47D cells. Furthermore western blot analysis showed increased expression and phosphorylation of Src in the resistant cells and that dasatinib inhibited phosphorylation of Src and also signaling via Akt and Erk in all cell lines. Immunoprecipitation revealed Src: ER complexes only in the parental T47D cells. In fulvestrant resistant cells, Src formed complexes with the Human Epidermal growth factor Receptor (HER1 and HER2. Neither HER receptors nor ER were co-precipitated with Src in the tamoxifen resistant cell lines. Compared to treatment with dasatinib alone, combined treatment with dasatinib and fulvestrant had a stronger inhibitory effect on tamoxifen resistant cell growth, whereas dasatinib in combination with tamoxifen had no additive inhibitory effect on fulvestrant resistant growth. When performing immunohistochemical staining on 268 primary tumors from breast cancer patients who had received tamoxifen as first line endocrine treatment, we found that membrane expression of Src in the tumor cells was significant associated with reduced disease-free and overall survival. In conclusion, Src was identified as target for treatment of antiestrogen resistant T47D breast cancer cells. For tamoxifen resistant T47D cells, combined treatment with dasatinib and fulvestrant was superior to treatment with dasatinib alone. Src located at the membrane has potential as a new biomarker for reduced benefit of

  17. Src Drives Growth of Antiestrogen Resistant Breast Cancer Cell Lines and Is a Marker for Reduced Benefit of Tamoxifen Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Sarah L.; Laenkholm, Anne-Vibeke; Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine; Bak, Martin; Lykkesfeldt, Anne E.; Kirkegaard, Tove

    2015-01-01

    The underlying mechanisms leading to antiestrogen resistance in estrogen-receptor α (ER)-positive breast cancer is still poorly understood. The aim of this study was therefore to identify biomarkers and novel treatments for antiestrogen resistant breast cancer. We performed a kinase inhibitor screen on antiestrogen responsive T47D breast cancer cells and T47D-derived tamoxifen and fulvestrant resistant cell lines. We found that dasatinib, a broad-spectrum kinase inhibitor, inhibited growth of the antiestrogen resistant cells compared to parental T47D cells. Furthermore western blot analysis showed increased expression and phosphorylation of Src in the resistant cells and that dasatinib inhibited phosphorylation of Src and also signaling via Akt and Erk in all cell lines. Immunoprecipitation revealed Src: ER complexes only in the parental T47D cells. In fulvestrant resistant cells, Src formed complexes with the Human Epidermal growth factor Receptor (HER)1 and HER2. Neither HER receptors nor ER were co-precipitated with Src in the tamoxifen resistant cell lines. Compared to treatment with dasatinib alone, combined treatment with dasatinib and fulvestrant had a stronger inhibitory effect on tamoxifen resistant cell growth, whereas dasatinib in combination with tamoxifen had no additive inhibitory effect on fulvestrant resistant growth. When performing immunohistochemical staining on 268 primary tumors from breast cancer patients who had received tamoxifen as first line endocrine treatment, we found that membrane expression of Src in the tumor cells was significant associated with reduced disease-free and overall survival. In conclusion, Src was identified as target for treatment of antiestrogen resistant T47D breast cancer cells. For tamoxifen resistant T47D cells, combined treatment with dasatinib and fulvestrant was superior to treatment with dasatinib alone. Src located at the membrane has potential as a new biomarker for reduced benefit of tamoxifen. PMID

  18. Growth inhibitory activity for cancer cell lines of lapachol and its natural and semi-synthetic derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorito, Serena; Epifano, Francesco; Bruyère, Céline; Mathieu, Véronique; Kiss, Robert; Genovese, Salvatore

    2014-01-15

    A series of 17 selected natural and semisynthetic 1,4-naphthoquinones were synthesized, and their growth inhibitory activity was evaluated in vitro. The compounds were tested on six human cancer cell lines using the MTT colorimetric assay. The data revealed that of the chemicals under study only lapachol, its acetate and 3-geranyllawsone displayed the highest activity, recording mean IC50 values ranging from 15 to 22 μM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Magnetic fields produced by power lines do not affect growth, serum melatonin, leukocytes and fledging success in wild kestrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Omo, Giacomo; Costantini, David; Lucini, Valeria; Antonucci, Giovanni; Nonno, Romolo; Polichetti, Alessandro

    2009-09-01

    Nesting on high voltage transmission line towers exposes birds to electric and magnetic fields for long periods. Nestlings are exposed from their development in ovo until fledging. This is a critical period for them because the quality of the developmental environment may affect their fitness at adulthood. We carried out a field study on Eurasian kestrels, Falco tinnunculus, to compare chicks from pairs nesting on high voltage power lines vs. those nesting in control sites in similar habitats. The magnetic field (MF) was measured in each nest-box and analysed in relation to growth curves, melatonin levels, leukocyte counts, and fledging success. None of the variables differed between exposed and control nestlings. Wing length (proxy of age) showed a negative covariation with serum melatonin concentration. Our findings suggest that exposure to MFs produced by high voltage power lines during the embryonic and post-hatching period (until fledging) does not have significant short-term physiological effects on kestrel nestlings.

  20. Forced Trefoil Factor Family Peptide 3 (TFF3) Expression Reduces Growth, Viability, and Tumorigenicity of Human Retinoblastoma Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Große-Kreul, Jan; Busch, Maike; Winter, Claudia; Pikos, Stefanie; Stephan, Harald; Dünker, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Trefoil factor family (TFF) peptides have been shown to effect cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion of normal cells and various cancer cell lines. In the literature TFF peptides are controversially discussed as tumor suppressors and potential tumor progression factors. In the study presented, we investigated the effect of TFF3 overexpression on growth, viability, migration and tumorigenicity of the human retinoblastoma cell lines Y-79, WERI-Rb1, RBL-13 and RBL-15. As revealed by WST-1 and TUNEL assays as well as DAPI and BrdU cell counts, recombinant human TFF3 significantly lowers retinoblastoma cell viability and increases apoptosis levels. Transient TFF3 overexpression likewise significantly increases RB cell apoptosis. Stable, lentiviral TFF3 overexpression lowers retinoblastoma cell viability, proliferation and growth and significantly increases cell death in retinoblastoma cells. Blockage experiments using a broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor and capase-3 immunocytochemistry revealed the involvement of caspases in general and of caspase-3 in particular in TFF3 induced apoptosis in retinoblastoma cell lines. Soft agarose and in ovo chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assays revealed that TFF3 overexpression influences anchorage independent growth and significantly decreases the size of tumors forming from retinoblastoma cells. Our study demonstrates that forced TFF3 expression exerts a significant pro-apoptotic, anti-proliferative, and tumor suppressive effect in retinoblastoma cells, setting a starting point for new additive chemotherapeutic approaches in the treatment of retinoblastoma.

  1. Expression and autoregulation of transforming growth factor beta receptor mRNA in small-cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, P; Spang-Thomsen, M; Poulsen, H S

    1996-01-01

    In small-cell lung cancer cell lines resistance to growth inhibition by transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta 1, was previously shown to correlate with lack of TGF-beta receptor I (RI) and II (RII) proteins. To further investigate the role of these receptors, the expression of mRNA for RI, RII...... and beta-glycan (RIII) was examined. The results showed that loss of RII mRNA correlated with TGF-beta 1 resistance. In contrast, RI-and beta-glycan mRNA was expressed by all cell lines, including those lacking expression of these proteins. According to Southern blot analysis, the loss of type II m......RNA was not due to gross structural changes in the gene. The effect of TGF-beta 1 on expression of TGF-beta receptor mRNA (receptor autoregulation) was examined by quantitative Northern blotting in four cell lines with different expression of TGF-beta receptor proteins. In two cell lines expressing all three TGF...

  2. Effects of Transport Duration and Environmental Conditions in Winter or Summer on the Concentrations of Insulin-Like Growth Factors and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-Binding Proteins in the Plasma of Market-Weight Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Wirthgen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In previous work using market-weight pigs, we had demonstrated that insulin-like growth factors (IGFs and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs are regulated during shipment characterized by changing conditions of stress due to loading or unloading, transportation, lairage, and slaughter. In addition, we found in a previous study that IGFBP-2 concentrations were lower in pigs transported for longer periods of time. Therefore, we performed a more detailed study on the effects of transport duration and season on the plasma concentrations of IGFs and IGFBPs in adult pigs. For the study, exsanguination blood was collected from 240 market-weight barrows that were transported for 6, 12, or 18 h in January or July. IGF-I and -II were detected using commercial ELISAs whereas IGFBPs were quantified by quantitative Western ligand blotting. In addition, established markers of stress and metabolism were studied in the animals. The results show that plasma concentrations of IGFBP-3 were significantly reduced after 18 h of transport compared to shorter transport durations (6 and 12 h; p < 0.05. The concentrations of IGF-I in plasma were higher (p < 0.001 in pigs transported 12 h compared to shorter or longer durations. Season influenced plasma concentrations of IGFBP-3 and IGF-II (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively. Neither transport duration nor differential environmental conditions of winter or summer had an effect on glucocorticoids, albumin, triglycerides, or glucose concentrations (p > 0.05. However, low-density lipoprotein concentrations decreased after 18 h compared to 6 h of transport (p < 0.05, whereas high-density lipoprotein concentrations were higher (p < 0.05 in pigs transported for 12 or 18 h compared to those transported for only 6 h. Our findings indicate differential regulation of IGF-compounds in response to longer transport duration or seasonal changes and support current evidence

  3. Human metastatic melanoma cell lines express high levels of growth hormone receptor and respond to GH treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustarsic, Elahu G; Junnila, Riia K; Kopchick, John J

    2013-11-08

    Accumulating evidence implicates the growth hormone receptor (GHR) in carcinogenesis. While multiple studies show evidence for expression of growth hormone (GH) and GHR mRNA in human cancer tissue, there is a lack of quantification and only a few cancer types have been investigated. The National Cancer Institute's NCI60 panel includes 60 cancer cell lines from nine types of human cancer: breast, CNS, colon, leukemia, melanoma, non-small cell lung, ovarian, prostate and renal. We utilized this panel to quantify expression of GHR, GH, prolactin receptor (PRLR) and prolactin (PRL) mRNA with real-time RT qPCR. Both GHR and PRLR show a broad range of expression within and among most cancer types. Strikingly, GHR expression is nearly 50-fold higher in melanoma than in the panel as a whole. Analysis of human metastatic melanoma biopsies confirmed GHR gene expression in melanoma tissue. In these human biopsies, the level of GHR mRNA is elevated in advanced stage IV tumor samples compared to stage III. Due to the novel finding of high GHR in melanoma, we examined the effect of GH treatment on three NCI60 melanoma lines (MDA-MB-435, UACC-62 and SK-MEL-5). GH increased proliferation in two out of three cell lines tested. Further analysis revealed GH-induced activation of STAT5 and mTOR in a cell line dependent manner. In conclusion, we have identified cell lines and cancer types that are ideal to study the role of GH and PRL in cancer, yet have been largely overlooked. Furthermore, we found that human metastatic melanoma tumors express GHR and cell lines possess active GHRs that can modulate multiple signaling pathways and alter cell proliferation. Based on this data, GH could be a new therapeutic target in melanoma. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Design of System and Control Engineering Education Curriculum Based on the Growth of Line Tracer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Yasuyuki; Ohtsuka, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Yoshiichi; Matsumoto, Tsutomu; Kawaji, Shigeyasu

    There have been literatures that have focused limited topics of teaching material, educational robots etc. There have been also literatures to teach control engineering in the robotics. It seems to be no reports that have discussed the framework, curriculum for system control engineering education. The present paper describes the design of curriculum for system control engineering of technical college in Japan. The feature of the curriculum is line tracer oriented. In the proposed curriculum, basic line tracers are developed to high technology tracers as grade in college advanced. Basic tracers are developed with simple logic devices. High technology tracers are controlled by microcomputers, such as H8. Students can develop line tracers based on the course programme, and it is expected that students will be more aggressive in learning technology. The paper introduces basic concept of a line tracer oriented curriculum and shows educational perspective for embedded technology. The proposed idea in the paper can be applied to other education sectors.

  5. Winter-to-winter variations in indoor radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mose, D.G.; Mushrush, G.W.; Kline, S.W.

    1989-01-01

    Indoor radon concentrations in northern Virginia and central Maryland show a strong dependence on weather. Winter tends to be associated with higher than average indoor radon, and summer with lower than average. However, compared to the winter of 1986-1987, the winter of 1987-1988 was warmer and drier. Consequently, winter-to-winter indoor radon decreased by about 25%. This winter-to-winter decrease is unexpectedly large, and simulates winter-to-summer variations that have been reported

  6. Normal growth, altered growth? Study of the relationship between harris lines and bone form within a post-medieval plague cemetery (Dendermonde, Belgium, 16th Century).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucherie, Alexandra; Castex, Dominique; Polet, Caroline; Kacki, Sacha

    2017-01-01

    Harris lines (HLs) are defined as transverse, mineralized lines associated with temporary growth arrest. In paleopathology, HLs are used to reconstruct health status of past populations. However, their etiology is still obscure. The aim of this article is to test the reliability of HLs as an arrested growth marker by investigating their incidence on human metrical parameters. The study was performed on 69 individuals (28 adults, 41 subadults) from the Dendermonde plague cemetery (Belgium, 16th century). HLs were rated on distal femora and both ends of tibiae. Overall prevalence and age-at-formation of each detected lines were calculated. ANOVA analyses were conducted within subadult and adult samples to test if the presence of HLs did impact size and shape parameters of the individuals. At Dendermonde, 52% of the individuals had at least one HL. The age-at-formation was estimated between 5 and 9 years old for the subadults and between 10 and 14 years old for the adults. ANOVA analyses showed that the presence of HLs did not affect the size of the individuals. However, significant differences in shape parameters were highlighted by HL presence. Subadults with HLs displayed slighter shape parameters than the subadults without, whereas the adults with HLs had larger measurements than the adults without. The results suggest that HLs can have a certain impact on shape parameters. The underlying causes can be various, especially for the early formed HLs. However, HLs deposited around puberty are more likely to be physiological lines reflecting hormonal secretions. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 29:e22885, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Distribution of 131I labelled hormone of growth in mice of high and low cancer lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patokin, S.V.; Bobrov, Yu.F.; Dil'man, V.M.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of the somatotropic harmone (STH) labelled with 131 I on the formation and development of mammary gland tumors in mice, is investigated. It is shown that the accumulation of labelled STH in mammary gland tissues in mice of the high C3H cancer line is higher than in mice of low C57BL and CC57BR cancer lines. The accumulation of labelled substance in mammary gland tumors in C3H mice is 30% higher than in mammary glands without any visible tumor

  8. Effect of NCAM-transfection on growth and invasion of a human cancer cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvardsen, K; Bock, E; Jirus, S

    1997-01-01

    A cDNA encoding the human transmembrane 140 kDa isoform of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) was transfected into the highly invasive MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell line. Transfectants with a homogeneous expression of NCAM showed a restricted capacity for penetration of an artificial...... basement membrane. However, when injected into nude mice, both control and NCAM-expressing cell lines produced equally invasive tumors. Tumors generated from NCAM-transfected cells were heterogeneous, containing NCAM-positive as well as NCAM-negative areas, indicating the existence of host factors capable...

  9. A candidate gene association study for growth performance in an improved giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii ) culture line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyungtaek; Lyons, Russell E; Li, Yutao; Thanh, Nguyen Minh; Dinh, Hung; Hurwood, David A; Salin, Krishna R; Mather, Peter B

    2014-04-01

    A candidate gene approach using type I single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers can provide an effective method for detecting genes and gene regions that underlie phenotypic variation in adaptively significant traits. In the absence of available genomic data resources, transcriptomes were recently generated in Macrobrachium rosenbergii to identify candidate genes and markers potentially associated with growth. The characterisation of 47 candidate loci by ABI re-sequencing of four cultured and eight wild samples revealed 342 putative SNPs. Among these, 28 SNPs were selected in 23 growth-related candidate genes to genotype in 200 animals selected for improved growth performance in an experimental GFP culture line in Vietnam. The associations between SNP markers and individual growth performance were then examined. For additive and dominant effects, a total of three exonic SNPs in glycogen phosphorylase (additive), heat shock protein 90 (additive and dominant) and peroxidasin (additive), and a total of six intronic SNPs in ankyrin repeats-like protein (additive and dominant), rolling pebbles (dominant), transforming growth factor-β induced precursor (dominant), and UTP-glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase 2 (dominant) genes showed significant associations with the estimated breeding values in the experimental animals (P =0.001-0.031). Individually, they explained 2.6-4.8 % of the genetic variance (R²=0.026-0.048). This is the first large set of SNP markers reported for M. rosenbergii and will be useful for confirmation of associations in other samples or culture lines as well as having applications in marker-assisted selection in future breeding programs.

  10. Effect of pond depth and lining plastic color on growth and nitrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cyanobacteria are a cheap source of nitrogen and quite suitable for farmers of developing countries. Although, they live in a diverse range of environments, different environmental variables influence their nitrogen fixing ability. Thus, this study evaluated the effect of pond depth and lining plastic colors on nitrogen fixing ...

  11. Synergistic inhibitory effects of curcumin and 5-fluorouracil on the growth of the human colon cancer cell line HT-29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Boyu; Jiang, Liping; Xia, Quan; Zhong, Laifu

    2006-01-01

    The synergistic effect of combination treatment with COX-2 inhibitors and chemotherapy may be another promising therapy regimen in the future treatment of colorectal cancer. Curcumin, a major yellow pigment in turmeric which is used widely all over the world, inhibits the growth of human colon cancer cell line HT-29 significantly and specifically inhibits the expression of COX-2 protein. However, the worldwide exposure of populations to curcumin raised the question of whether this agent would enhance or inhibit the effects of chemotherapy. In this report, we evaluated the growth-inhibitory effect of curcumin and a traditional chemotherapy agent, 5-FU, against the proliferation of a human colon cancer cell line (HT-29). The combination effect was quantitatively determined using the method of median-effect principle and the combination index. The inhibition of COX-2 expression after treatment with the curcumin-5-FU combination was also evaluated by Western blot analysis. The IC(50) value in the HT-29 cells for curcumin was 15.9 +/- 1.96 microM and for 5-FU it was 17.3 +/- 1.85 microM. When curcumin and 5-FU were used concurrently, synergistic inhibition of growth was quantitatively demonstrated. The level of COX-2 protein expression was reduced almost 6-fold after the combination treatment. Our results demonstrate synergism between curcumin and 5-FU at higher doses against the human colon cancer cell line HT-29. This synergism was associated with the decreased expression of COX-2 protein. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Comparison of growth performance and immune parameters of three commercial chicken lines used in organic production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærup, Rikke Brødsgaard; Juul-Madsen, Helle Risdahl; Norup, Liselotte Rothmann

    2017-01-01

    Owing to the higher demands for avoiding medication and antibiotics, health status of the production animals plays an important role in the poultry industry, especially in organic poultry systems. Immunity plays a major role in keeping the host free from disease, and it is evident that the host......’s genetic make-up influences immunity and disease resistance/susceptibility in chickens. Previously, breeding strategies aimed at selection for resistance against specific diseases with the risk of creating less disease resistance against other pathogens. Changing breeding strategies towards selection...... commercial layer lines used in organic production. The Hellevad chickens were found to have higher body weight at the end of the experiment (17 weeks of age) than the other two lines. Furthermore, Hellevad and Hisex chickens were found to have higher levels of humoral innate immunity with regard to sample...

  13. Suppression subtractive hybridization profiles of radial growth phase and metastatic melanoma cell lines reveal novel potential targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espreafico Enilza M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melanoma progression occurs through three major stages: radial growth phase (RGP, confined to the epidermis; vertical growth phase (VGP, when the tumor has invaded into the dermis; and metastasis. In this work, we used suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH to investigate the molecular signature of melanoma progression, by comparing a group of metastatic cell lines with an RGP-like cell line showing characteristics of early neoplastic lesions including expression of the metastasis suppressor KISS1, lack of αvβ3-integrin and low levels of RHOC. Methods Two subtracted cDNA collections were obtained, one (RGP library by subtracting the RGP cell line (WM1552C cDNA from a cDNA pool from four metastatic cell lines (WM9, WM852, 1205Lu and WM1617, and the other (Met library by the reverse subtraction. Clones were sequenced and annotated, and expression validation was done by Northern blot and RT-PCR. Gene Ontology annotation and searches in large-scale melanoma expression studies were done for the genes identified. Results We identified 367 clones from the RGP library and 386 from the Met library, of which 351 and 368, respectively, match human mRNA sequences, representing 288 and 217 annotated genes. We confirmed the differential expression of all genes selected for validation. In the Met library, we found an enrichment of genes in the growth factors/receptor, adhesion and motility categories whereas in the RGP library, enriched categories were nucleotide biosynthesis, DNA packing/repair, and macromolecular/vesicular trafficking. Interestingly, 19% of the genes from the RGP library map to chromosome 1 against 4% of the ones from Met library. Conclusion This study identifies two populations of genes differentially expressed between melanoma cell lines from two tumor stages and suggests that these sets of genes represent profiles of less aggressive versus metastatic melanomas. A search for expression profiles of melanoma in

  14. Suppression subtractive hybridization profiles of radial growth phase and metastatic melanoma cell lines reveal novel potential targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Josane F; Espreafico, Enilza M

    2008-01-01

    Melanoma progression occurs through three major stages: radial growth phase (RGP), confined to the epidermis; vertical growth phase (VGP), when the tumor has invaded into the dermis; and metastasis. In this work, we used suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) to investigate the molecular signature of melanoma progression, by comparing a group of metastatic cell lines with an RGP-like cell line showing characteristics of early neoplastic lesions including expression of the metastasis suppressor KISS1, lack of αvβ3-integrin and low levels of RHOC. Two subtracted cDNA collections were obtained, one (RGP library) by subtracting the RGP cell line (WM1552C) cDNA from a cDNA pool from four metastatic cell lines (WM9, WM852, 1205Lu and WM1617), and the other (Met library) by the reverse subtraction. Clones were sequenced and annotated, and expression validation was done by Northern blot and RT-PCR. Gene Ontology annotation and searches in large-scale melanoma expression studies were done for the genes identified. We identified 367 clones from the RGP library and 386 from the Met library, of which 351 and 368, respectively, match human mRNA sequences, representing 288 and 217 annotated genes. We confirmed the differential expression of all genes selected for validation. In the Met library, we found an enrichment of genes in the growth factors/receptor, adhesion and motility categories whereas in the RGP library, enriched categories were nucleotide biosynthesis, DNA packing/repair, and macromolecular/vesicular trafficking. Interestingly, 19% of the genes from the RGP library map to chromosome 1 against 4% of the ones from Met library. This study identifies two populations of genes differentially expressed between melanoma cell lines from two tumor stages and suggests that these sets of genes represent profiles of less aggressive versus metastatic melanomas. A search for expression profiles of melanoma in available expression study databases allowed us to point to a

  15. Epidermal growth factor inhibits glycylsarcosine transport and hPepT1 expression in a human intestinal cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C U; Amstrup, J; Steffansen, B

    2001-01-01

    The human intestinal cell line Caco-2 was used as a model system to study the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on peptide transport. EGF decreased apical-to-basolateral fluxes of [(14)C]glycylsarcosine ([(14)C]Gly-Sar) up to 50.2 +/- 3.6% (n = 6) of control values. Kinetic analysis......) in cells treated with EGF. Western blotting indicated a decrease in hPepT1 protein in cell lysates. We conclude that EGF treatment decreases Gly-Sar transport in Caco-2 cells by decreasing the number of peptide transporter molecules in the apical membrane....

  16. On-line study of growth kinetics of single hyphae of Aspergillus oryzae in a flow-through cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Torben; Spohr, Anders Bendsen; Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1999-01-01

    Using image analysis the growth kinetics of the single hyphae of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae has been determined on-line in a flow-through cell at different glucose concentrations in the range from 26 mg L-1 to 20 g L-1. The tip extension rate of the individual hyphae can be described...... with saturation type kinetics with respect to the length of the hyphae. The maximum tip extension rate is constant for all hyphae measured at the same glucose concentration, whereas the saturation constant for the hyphae varies significantly between the hyphae even within the same hyphal element. When apical...... branching occurs, it is observed that the tip extension rate decreases temporarily. The number of branches formed on a hypha is proportional to the length of the hypha that exceeds a certain minimum length required to support the growth of a new branch. The observed kinetics has been used to simulate...

  17. A Turnstile Mechanism for the Controlled Growth of Biosynthetic Intermediates on Assembly Line Polyketide Synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Brian; Li, Xiuyuan; Robbins, Thomas; Cane, David E; Khosla, Chaitan

    2016-01-27

    Vectorial polyketide biosynthesis on an assembly line polyketide synthase is the most distinctive property of this family of biological machines, while providing the key conceptual tool for the bioinformatic decoding of new antibiotic pathways. We now show that the action of the entire assembly line is synchronized by a previously unrecognized turnstile mechanism that prevents the ketosynthase domain of each module from being acylated by a new polyketide chain until the product of the prior catalytic cycle has been passed to the downstream module from the corresponding acyl carrier protein domain. The turnstile is closed by virtue of tight coupling to the signature decarboxylative condensation reaction catalyzed by the ketosynthase domain of each polyketide synthase module. Reopening of the turnstile is coupled to the eventual chain translocation step that vacates the module. At the maximal rate of substrate turnover, one would expect the chain release step to initiate a cascade of chain translocation events that sequentially migrate back upstream, thereby repriming each module and setting up the assembly line for the next round of polyketide chain elongation.

  18. The effects of combined treatment with sevoflurane and cisplatin on growth and invasion of human adenocarcinoma cell line A549.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hua; Wang, Han Bing; Liu, Hong Zhen; Wen, Xian Jie; Zhou, Qiao Ling; Yang, Cheng Xiang

    2013-07-01

    Sevoflurane, an inhalational anesthetic, and cisplatin (DDP)-based chemotherapy have been widely used during lung cancer surgery. However, the effect of sevoflurane on the sensitivity of lung cancer cells to DDP chemotherapy remains unclear. In this study, the effects of combined treatment with sevoflurane and cisplatin on the growth and invasion of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line have been investigated. The underlying mechanism has also been explored. In our experiment, A549 cells were treated with 2.5% sevoflurane, 10μmol/L DDP, or the co-treatment of sevoflurane and DDP for 4h, respectively. Cell proliferation was evaluated by the MTT assay and colony formation assay. Apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry. Cell invasion was detected by Transwell assay. The expressions of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), Survivin, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 were determined by western blotting. Our results showed that sevoflurane combined with DDP resulted in a more pronounced inhibition of tumor cells growth and invasion as compared with either drug alone. Besides, XIAP, Survivin, MMP-2, and MMP-9 were downregulated more significantly by the co-treatment of the two drugs as compared to sevoflurane treatment or DDP treatment alone. Taken together, the growth-inhibitory and invasion-inhibitory synergy between sevoflurane and DDP in human adenocarcinoma A549 cell line was found in this study. Furthermore, we showed that the growth-inhibitory synergy between sevoflurane and DDP might be associated with the downregulation of XIAP and Survivin, and the invasion-inhibitory synergy between sevoflurane and DDP might be involved in the downregulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Skeletal muscle characterization of Japanese quail line selectively bred for lower body weight as an avian model of delayed muscle growth with hypoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young Min; Suh, Yeunsu; Shin, Sangsu; Lee, Kichoon

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to extensively characterize the skeletal muscle development in the low weight (LW) quail selected from random bred control (RBC) Japanese quail in order to provide a new avian model of impaired and delayed growth in physically normal animals. The LW line had smaller embryo and body weights than the RBC line in all age groups (Pquail lines diminished with increasing age from 42 to 75 d post-hatch. This delayed muscle growth in the LW line is accompanied by higher levels of myogenin expression at 42 d (Pquail line provided a well-characterized avian model for future identification of the responsible genes and for studying mechanisms of hypoplasia and delayed muscle growth.

  20. Subcloning the MAC-T bovine mammary epithelial cell line: morphology, growth properties, and cytogenetic analysis of clonal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavizion, B; Gorewit, R C; Politis, I

    1995-03-01

    The objectives of the present study were 1) to determine the heterogeneity of the MAC-T cell line; 2) to examine whether homogeneous clones could be derived from MAC-T cells; and 3) to examine cell morphology, cytoskeletal characteristics, size, colony-forming ability, growth characteristics, beta-casein production, response to oxytocin, and cytogenetic properties of the clones. Three clonal cells, designated CU-1, CU-2, and CU-3, were derived from MAC-T cells. CU-1 and CU-2 cells were morphologically homogeneous. CU-3 cells were heterogeneous and contained two distinct subtypes. All clones contained cytokeratin 14 and 18. CU-2 and CU-3 cells were 30 and 18% larger, respectively, than CU-1 cells. CU-1 cells did not grow in serum-free medium. Doubling times for MAC-T, CU-2, and CU-3 were 46, 48, and 78 h, respectively, in serum-free medium. MAC-T cells and clones constitutively expressed beta-casein in culture ranging from .1 to .3 micrograms/ml per 24 h. Cytogenetic analyses revealed Robertsonian translocations and isochromosomes in the clonal lines. We conclude that parental MAC-T cells are heterogeneous in morphology, growth, and cytogenetic characteristics.

  1. Histamine modulates cell growth, reactive oxygen species production and activity of antioxidant enzymes in human cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, V.; Cricco, G.; Garbarino, G.; Nunez, M.; Martin, G.; Cocca, C.; Bergoc, R.M.; Rivera, E.S.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: In the present work, the capacity of Histamine (HA) to modulate cell proliferation and ROS production as well as the receptors involved in this response was investigated. Mammary normal (HBL-100) and malignant cell lines (MDA-MB-231, MCF- 7) was employed. The levels of the free radicals superoxide (O 2 - ) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and intracellular HA content were determined by flow cytometry. The activity of antioxidant enzymes, super-oxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were determined by kinetic spectrophotometric techniques. Cell proliferation was evaluated by the clonogenic assay. Cell lines presented intracellular levels of HA directly correlated with their malignancy. In MDA-MB-231, HA via H 2 R increased cAMP levels (EC 50 0.45 μM) producing in turn a significant inhibition on cell proliferation (p 1 R, stimulated cell growth. H 2 O 2 levels resulted inversely correlated with cell proliferation while O 2 - remained unchanged. Furthermore, HA significantly modified the activity of SOD and CAT. In normal HBL-100, HA modulates cell proliferation but in exactly the opposite range of doses. The effect on cell growth was inversely correlated with H 2 O 2 levels. The present data indicate that histamine can modulate cell proliferation via H 1 R and H 2 R. This effect is exerted in part by the modulation of antioxidant enzymes and ROS production. (author)

  2. Comparison of growth factor signalling pathway utilisation in cultured normal melanocytes and melanoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Eun; Stones, Clare; Joseph, Wayne R; Leung, Euphemia; Finlay, Graeme J; Shelling, Andrew N; Phillips, Wayne A; Shepherd, Peter R; Baguley, Bruce C

    2012-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K-PKB), mitogen activated protein kinase (MEK-ERK) and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR- p70S6K), are thought to regulate many aspects of tumour cell proliferation and survival. We have examined the utilisation of these three signalling pathways in a number of cell lines derived from patients with metastatic malignant melanoma of known PIK3CA, PTEN, NRAS and BRAF mutational status. Western blotting was used to compare the phosphorylation status of components of the PI3K-PKB, MEK-ERK and mTOR-p70S6K signalling pathways, as indices of pathway utilisation. Normal melanocytes could not be distinguished from melanoma cells on the basis of pathway utilisation when grown in the presence of serum, but could be distinguished upon serum starvation, where signalling protein phosphorylation was generally abrogated. Surprisingly, the differential utilisation of individual pathways was not consistently associated with the presence of an oncogenic or tumour suppressor mutation of genes in these pathways. Utilisation of the PI3K-PKB, MEK-ERK and mTOR-p70S6K signalling pathways in melanoma, as determined by phosphorylation of signalling components, varies widely across a series of cell lines, and does not directly reflect mutation of genes coding these components. The main difference between cultured normal melanocytes and melanoma cells is not the pathway utilisation itself, but rather in the serum dependence of pathway utilisation

  3. In vitro growth inhibition and cytotoxicity of Euphorbia caducifolia against four human cancer cell lines and its phytochemical characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bano, Shaista; Siddiqui, Bina Shaheen; Farooq, Ahsana Dar; Begum, Sabira; Siddiqui, Faheema; Kashif, Muhammad; Azhar, Mudassar

    2017-12-01

    Several Euphorbia species have been used in folklore as cancer remedies, however, scientific studies on the cytotoxicity (in vitro studies) of Euphorbia caducifolia are lacking. In present study, anticancer potential of E. caducifolia aerial parts ethanol extract and its fractions were evaluated against human lung (NCI-H460), breast (MCF-7), prostate (PC-3) and cervical (HeLa) cancer cell lines, using sulphorhodamine-B in vitro cytotoxicity (in vitro studies) assay. The ethanol extract demonstrated growth inhibitory effect against all aforementioned cancer cell lines with IC 50 , 19-135 μg/mL and LC 50 , ~220 μg/mL, and its petroleum ether fraction obtained on bioactivity guided fraction showed highest activity with IC 50 , 28-70 μg/mL and LC 50 , 71 μg/mL against NCI-H460 and MCF-7 cell lines. Its phytochemicals were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The present study provides scientific justification for its traditional use against cancer.

  4. On-Line Measurement of The Shape and Growth Rates of Organic Crystals in Reactors: Advances and Perspectives for Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xue Z.

    2007-01-01

    Organic crystals grown from solution are known to exhibit multiple morphology and habits which are of great importance to the end use property of the product such as the bioavailability and down stream processing such as in filtration and drying. The crystal morphology can also dictate other quality measures such as the size. This paper reviews recent developments in on-line crystal morphology measurement and control using various techniques including on-line imaging and image analysis, and XRD. On-line imaging was found to be the most promising technique in capturing with high fidelity crystal shape and polymorphic transitions in real-time. Process in imaging and image analysis techniques will also be reviewed for extracting the crystals from the image background especially for images with uneven background intensity, of needle-like crystals and of high concentration slurries. Discussion will be given to shape descriptors and automatic shape recognition. Preliminary results and challenges for estimating crystal growth rates and kinetics parameters for different crystal facets will also be discussed. Future research directions for obtaining 3D instead of 2D dimensional information using imaging and image analysis techniques will be explored. Finally a framework integrating morphology modeling, multi-dimensional population balance and computational fluid dynamics, with 3D imaging and image analysis will be presented which provides the basis for model predictive automatic control of the morphology of growing crystals

  5. Winters fuels report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The outlook for distillate fuel oil this winter is for increased demand and a return to normal inventory patterns, assuming a resumption of normal, cooler weather than last winter. With industrial production expected to grow slightly from last winter's pace, overall consumption is projected to increase 3 percent from last winter, to 3.4 million barrels per day during the heating season (October 1, 1995-March 31, 1996). Much of the supply win come from stock drawdowns and refinery production. Estimates for the winter are from the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) 4th Quarter 1995 Short-Tenn Energy Outlook (STEO) Mid-World Oil Price Case forecast. Inventories in place on September 30, 1995, of 132 million barrels were 9 percent below the unusually high year-earlier level. Inventories of high-sulfur distillate fuel oil, the principal type used for heating, were 13 percent lower than a year earlier. Supply problems are not anticipated because refinery production and the ready availability of imports should be adequate to meet demand. Residential heating off prices are expected to be somewhat higher than last winter's, as the effects of lower crude oil prices are offset by lower distillate inventories. Heating oil is forecast to average $0.92 per gallon, the highest price since the winter of 1992-93. Diesel fuel (including tax) is predicted to be slightly higher than last year at $1.13 per gallon. This article focuses on the winter assessment for distillate fuel oil, how well last year's STEO winter outlook compared to actual events, and expectations for the coming winter. Additional analyses include regional low-sulfur and high-sulfur distillate supply, demand, and prices, and recent trends in distillate fuel oil inventories

  6. The effect of Isosorbide Dinitrate on vascular endothelial growth factor production by human leukemic cell lines in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajighasemi F

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF has mitogenic effect for endothelial cells and is an important mediator of tumor expansion, metastasis and angiogenesis in vivo. Isosorbide dinitrate, as a nitric oxide donor, has been widely used in treatment of many cardiovascular diseases such as congestive heart failure and acute coronary syndromes. Furthermore this drug was found to have inhibitory effect on angiogenesis, tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. In the present study we evaluated the isosorbide effect on the VEGF production using some human leukemic cell lines. "nMethods: Human leukemic MOLT-4, JURKAT and U937 cells were cultured in complete RPMI medium. The cells at the exponential growth phase were then incubated with different concentrations of Isosorbide (4´10-7 -4´10-4 M in the presence or absence of PMA (25ng/ml for 24 hours. The VEGF concentrations in the culture supernatants were measured by enzyme immunoassay kits (R&D systems according to the manufacturer's instructions. "nResults: The level of VEGF produced by the human leukemic cell lines which was treated with different concentrations of isosorbide, did not show any significant difference with untreated control cells. "nConclusions: The results of this study showed that isosorbide had no significant effect on VEGF production. Our findings suggest that anti-angiogenesis effect of isosorbide could be mediated through VEGF-independent mechanism(s. Further studies are warranted to determine definite isosorbide effect on VEGF and other angiogenic factors production in patients as well as animal models.

  7. Comparison of growth performance and immune parameters of three commercial chicken lines used in organic production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærup, Rikke Brødsgaard; Juul-Madsen, Helle Risdahl; Norup, Liselotte Rothmann

    2017-01-01

    ’s genetic make-up influences immunity and disease resistance/susceptibility in chickens. Previously, breeding strategies aimed at selection for resistance against specific diseases with the risk of creating less disease resistance against other pathogens. Changing breeding strategies towards selection...... of chickens with a more general and broad disease resistance or robustness may therefore improve the overall health status, animal welfare, and food security in the poultry production. The aim of this study was therefore to compare the immunocompetence of the presumed “robust” Hellevad chickens with two...... chicken lines widely used in organic production, Bovans Brown (Bovans) and Hisex White (Hisex). The chickens were subjected to a routine vaccination program comprising one parasite and four viral vaccines. The current study indicates that considerable differences in immunocompetence may exist between...

  8. The quantitation of human growth hormone by a radioreceptor assay using an established human cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nederman, Thore; Sjoedin, Lars

    1987-01-01

    Membrane receptors on cultured human lymphocytes (IM-9) have been shown to bind human growth hormone (hGH) in a specific manner. The aim of the present study was to develop an in vitro assay of hGH based on this binding. The binding of [ 125 I]hGH was studied as a function of time, temperature, cell density, tracer concentration and the concentration of unlabelled hGH and other related hormones. Also, the dissociation of bound hGH and the chemical stability of hGH in the incubation medium were studied. From these studies, the conditions for an appropriate radioreceptor assay were determined. Briefly, 1.5-3.0 x 10 7 cells ml -1 were incubated with 5-20 x 10 -12 M [ 125 I]hGH and three different concentrations of unlabelled hGH chosen from the linear part of the [ 125 I]hGH displacement curve. The results were analyzed according to general pharmacopoeial principles. The mean values for growth hormone activity tested by radioreceptor assay were within the fiducial limits (P = 0.05) of the corresponding activity determined by the hypophysectomized rat body-weight gain assay. The in vitro assay was found to be more precise and less resource demanding than the in vivo bioassay of hGH. It is concluded that the in vitro bioassay described here is well suited as a screening method for potency determination of hGH preparations. (author)

  9. Transforming growth factor-β impairs glucocorticoid activity in the A549 lung adenocarcinoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, S; Harris, T; Mok, J S L; Li, M Y S; Keenan, C R; Schuliga, M J; Stewart, A G

    2012-08-01

    The lung adenocarcinoma cell line, A549, undergoes epithelial-mesenchymal cell transition (EMT) in response to TGF-β. Glucocorticoids do not prevent the EMT response, but TGF-β induced resistance to the cytokine-regulatory action of glucocorticoids. We sought to characterize the impairment of glucocorticoid response in A549 cells. A549 cells were exposed to TGF-β for up to 96 h before glucocorticoid treatment and challenge with IL-1α to assess glucocorticoid regulation of IL-6 and CXCL8 production. Nuclear localization of the glucocorticoid receptor α (GRα) was ascertained by immunofluorescence and Western blotting. Transactivation of the glucocorticoid response element (GRE) was measured with a transfected GRE-secreted human placental alkaline phosphatase reporter. TGF-β (40-400 pM) reduced the maximum inhibitory effect of dexamethasone on IL-1α-induced IL-6 and CXCL8 production. The impaired glucocorticoid response was detected with 4 h of TGF-β (40 pM) exposure (and 4 h IL-1α to induce CXCL8 expression) and therefore was not secondary to EMT, a process that requires longer incubation periods and higher concentrations of TGF-β. TGF-β also impaired dexamethasone regulation of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in thrombin-stimulated BEAS-2B epithelial cells. Impaired regulation of CXCL8 was associated with markedly reduced GRE transactivation and reduced induction of mRNA for IκBα, the glucocorticoid-inducible leucine zipper and the epithelial sodium channel (SCNN1A). The expression, cellular levels and nuclear localization of GRα were reduced by TGF-β. We have identified mechanisms underlying the impairment of responses to glucocorticoids by TGF-β in the A549 and BEAS-2B cell lines. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  10. Activation of ErbB3, EGFR and Erk is essential for growth of human breast cancer cell lines with acquired resistance to fulvestrant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frogne, Thomas; Benjaminsen, Rikke V; Sonne-Hansen, Katrine

    2008-01-01

    Seven fulvestrant resistant cell lines derived from the estrogen receptor alpha positive MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line were used to investigate the importance of epidermal growth factor receptor (ErbB1-4) signaling. We found an increase in mRNA expression of EGFR and the ErbB3/ErbB4 ligand...... activation was observed only in the parental MCF-7 cells. The downstream kinases pAkt and pErk were increased in five of seven and in all seven resistant cell lines, respectively. Treatment with the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib preferentially inhibited growth and reduced the S phase fraction in the resistant...

  11. Differential growth inhibition of cancer cell lines and antioxidant activity of extracts of red, brown, and green marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Kavitha; Iyer, Vidhya V

    2013-05-01

    As the use of various anticancer drugs is associated with many undesirable side effects, there is an urgent need for the discovery of new, better, and specific anticancer compounds. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities as well as effects on cell morphology were investigated for methanol (M), chloroform (C), ethyl acetate (E), and aqueous (A) extracts of Caulerpa peltata, Gelidiella acerosa, Padina gymnospora, and Sargassum wightii using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging, ferrous ion chelation, and resazurin-based growth inhibition (in A549, HCT-15, MG-63, and PC-3 cell lines) assays. A general trend was the greater extraction of phenols and flavonoids by chloroform and ethyl acetate, which showed higher activity in many assays. These non-polar C and E extracts showed higher DPPH radical-scavenging and growth inhibitory activities in A549, HCT-15, and PC-3 cells. However, higher ferrous ion chelation (A extracts) and growth inhibition in MG-63 cells (M and A extracts) were seen for the polar extracts. Furthermore, P. gymnospora and C. peltata emerged as promising sources for antiproliferative agents that could be explored for their own activity and as leads for the development of other compounds.

  12. Bcl-2 and N-Myc Coexpression Increases IGF-IR and Features of Malignant Growth in Neuroblastoma Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama Jasty

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The bcl-2 and c-myc oncogenes cooperate to transform multiple cell types. In the pediatric malignancy NB2, Bcl2 is highly expressed. In tumors with a poor prognosis, N-Myc, a protein homologous to c-Myc, is overexpressed as a result of gene amplification. The present study was designed to determine whether Bcl-2 cooperates with N-Myc to bestow a tumorigenic phenotype to neuroblastoma (NB cells. NB cell lines that at baseline express neither Bcl-2 nor N-Myc were stably transfected to express these gene products. In this model, we found Bcl-2 rescues N-Myc-expressing cells from apoptosis induced by serum withdrawal. Coexpression of Bcl-2 and N-Myc supports growth in low serum conditions and anchorage-independent growth in soft agar. Similarly, in vivo tumorigenic and angiogenic activity was dependent on coexpression. Our data further suggests that the mechanism underlying these changes involves the receptor for insulin growth factor type I (IGF-IR.

  13. U.S., Canadian pipelines producers lining up to meet Mexican gas demand growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koen, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on prospects for continued strong growth in Mexican demand for natural gas imports that have U.S. and Canadian producers and pipelines queueing up to serve expected demand. In 1991, more than 25 U.S. companies exported a combined 61.7 bcf of gas into Mexico, an increase of more than 390% from 1990's total of 15.7 bcf. According to the Department of Energy Office of Fuels Programs (OFP), about 27.5 bcf of gas left the U.S. for Mexico in fourth quarter 1991 alone, an average 299 MMcfd. DOE has granted short term authorization to more than 65 countries to export gas into Mexico. Another 25 companies have short term export applications pending

  14. Feedback effects of boundary-layer meteorological factors on cumulative explosive growth of PM2.5 during winter heavy pollution episodes in Beijing from 2013 to 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Junting; Zhang, Xiaoye; Dong, Yunsheng; Wang, Yaqiang; Liu, Cheng; Wang, Jizhi; Zhang, Yangmei; Che, Haochi

    2018-01-01

    In January 2013, February 2014, December 2015 and December 2016 to 10 January 2017, 12 persistent heavy aerosol pollution episodes (HPEs) occurred in Beijing, which received special attention from the public. During the HPEs, the precise cause of PM2.5 explosive growth (mass concentration at least doubled in several hours to 10 h) is uncertain. Here, we analyzed and estimated relative contributions of boundary-layer meteorological factors to such growth, using ground and vertical meteorological data. Beijing HPEs are generally characterized by the transport stage (TS), whose aerosol pollution formation is primarily caused by pollutants transported from the south of Beijing, and the cumulative stage (CS), in which the cumulative explosive growth of PM2.5 mass is dominated by stable atmospheric stratification characteristics of southerly slight or calm winds, near-ground anomalous inversion, and moisture accumulation. During the CSs, observed southerly weak winds facilitate local pollutant accumulation by minimizing horizontal pollutant diffusion. Established by TSs, elevated PM2.5 levels scatter more solar radiation back to space to reduce near-ground temperature, which very likely causes anomalous inversion. This surface cooling by PM2.5 decreases near-ground saturation vapor pressure and increases relative humidity significantly; the inversion subsequently reduces vertical turbulent diffusion and boundary-layer height to trap pollutants and accumulate water vapor. Appreciable near-ground moisture accumulation (relative humidity > 80 %) would further enhance aerosol hygroscopic growth and accelerate liquid-phase and heterogeneous reactions, in which incompletely quantified chemical mechanisms need more investigation. The positive meteorological feedback noted on PM2.5 mass explains over 70 % of cumulative explosive growth.

  15. A hepatoprotective Lindera obtusiloba extract suppresses growth and attenuates insulin like growth factor-1 receptor signaling and NF-kappaB activity in human liver cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stroh Thorsten

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In traditional Chinese and Korean medicine, an aqueous extract derived from wood and bark of the Japanese spice bush Lindera obtusiloba (L.obtusiloba is applied to treat inflammations and chronic liver diseases including hepatocellular carcinoma. We previously demonstrated anti-fibrotic effects of L.obtusiloba extract in hepatic stellate cells. Thus, we here consequently examine anti-neoplastic effects of L.obtusiloba extract on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC cell lines and the signaling pathways involved. Methods Four human HCC cell lines representing diverse stages of differentiation were treated with L.obtusiloba extract, standardized according to its known suppressive effects on proliferation and TGF-β-expression. Beside measurement of proliferation, invasion and apoptosis, effects on signal transduction and NF-κB-activity were determined. Results L.obtusiloba extract inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in all HCC cell lines and provoked a reduced basal and IGF-1-induced activation of the IGF-1R signaling cascade and a reduced transcriptional NF-κB-activity, particularly in the poorly differentiated SK-Hep1 cells. Pointing to anti-angiogenic effects, L.obtusiloba extract attenuated the basal and IGF-1-induced expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α, vascular endothelial growth factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Conclusions The traditional application of the extract is confirmed by our experimental data. Due to its potential to inhibit critical receptor tyrosine kinases involved in HCC progression via the IGF-1 signaling pathway and NF-κB, the standardized L.obtusiloba extract should be further analysed for its active compounds and explored as (complementary treatment option for HCC.

  16. Modulation of integrin-linked kinase (ILK expression in human oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines by the EGF and TGFβ1 growth factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veale Robin B

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integrin-linked kinase (ILK is a ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that has emerged as one of the points of convergence between integrin- and growth factor-signalling pathways. Results In this study we identify the ILK isoform expressed in five human oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines of South African origin as ILK1, and demonstrate its cellular distribution. ILK expression, although similar in the majority of the cell lines, did show variation. Furthermore, the ILK expressed was shown to be catalytically functional. The effect of growth factors on ILK expression was examined. An increase in ILK expression, following EGF and TGFβ1 exposure, was a trend across all the five oesophageal carcinoma cell lines tested. Conclusion These results suggest that growth factor modulation of ILK expression relies on the internalisation/recycling of growth factor receptors and stimulation of the PI3K pathway, which may have implications with regards to cell adhesion and tumourigenesis.

  17. Growth inhibition and cell cycle arrest effects of epigallocatechin gallate in the NBT-II bladder tumour cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J J; Ye, Z-Q; Koo, M W L

    2004-05-01

    To examine the growth inhibition and cell cycle arrest effects of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major constituent of green tea polyphenols, on the NBT-II bladder tumour cell line. Growth inhibition and cell cycle arrest effects of EGCG were evaluated by the tetrazolium assay, flow cytometry and apoptotic DNA ladder tests. The cell cycle-related oncogene and protein expressions in NBT-II bladder tumour cells, when incubated with EGCG, were detected with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis. EGCG inhibited growth of the NBT-II bladder tumour cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Flow cytometry showed a G0/G1 arrest in cells when cultured with EGCG at doses of 10, 20 or 40 micro mol/L for 48 or 72 h. The apoptotic DNA ladder test showed that EGCG at 10 micro mol/L induced early apoptosis after 48 h of incubation. A down-regulation of cyclin D1 was detected by RT-PCR when the cells were incubated with EGCG (20 micro mol/L for 48 h. EGCG also down-regulated protein expression of cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 and phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein, in both a time- and dose-dependent manner, when detected by Western blot. EGCG had growth inhibition and cell-cycle arrest effects in NBT-II bladder tumour cells by down-regulating the cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 and retinoblastoma protein machinery for regulating cell-cycle progression.

  18. Establishment of functioning human corneal endothelial cell line with high growth potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Yokoi

    Full Text Available Hexagonal-shaped human corneal endothelial cells (HCEC form a monolayer by adhering tightly through their intercellular adhesion molecules. Located at the posterior corneal surface, they maintain corneal translucency by dehydrating the corneal stroma, mainly through the Na(+- and K(+-dependent ATPase (Na(+/K(+-ATPase. Because HCEC proliferative activity is low in vivo, once HCEC are damaged and their numbers decrease, the cornea begins to show opacity due to overhydration, resulting in loss of vision. HCEC cell cycle arrest occurs at the G1 phase and is partly regulated by cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CKIs in the Rb pathway (p16-CDK4/CyclinD1-pRb. In this study, we tried to activate proliferation of HCEC by inhibiting CKIs. Retroviral transduction was used to generate two new HCEC lines: transduced human corneal endothelial cell by human papillomavirus type E6/E7 (THCEC (E6/E7 and transduced human corneal endothelial cell by Cdk4R24C/CyclinD1 (THCEH (Cyclin. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis of gene expression revealed little difference between THCEC (E6/E7, THCEH (Cyclin and non-transduced HCEC, but cell cycle-related genes were up-regulated in THCEC (E6/E7 and THCEH (Cyclin. THCEH (Cyclin expressed intercellular molecules including ZO-1 and N-cadherin and showed similar Na(+/K(+-ATPase pump function to HCEC, which was not demonstrated in THCEC (E6/E7. This study shows that HCEC cell cycle activation can be achieved by inhibiting CKIs even while maintaining critical pump function and morphology.

  19. [Characteristics of farmland eco-environment at the intercropping stage of maize intercropped with winter wheat and their effects on seedling growth of summer maize].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuan-gang; Li, Hong-jie; Cui, Xin-yan; Jia, Chun-lan; Yang, Jin-sheng; Liu, Shao-kun; Zhang, Ji-wang; Dong, Shu-ting

    2015-07-01

    To study the farmland eco-environment of intercropping maize with wheat at the intercropping stage and its influence on maize seedling growth, two summer maize cultivars, Zhengdan 958 and Denghai 661, were either intercropped with wheat or directly seeded. The result demonstrated that there was little difference for the soil water content of the farmland between the two cultivation methods. The highest soil temperature of intercropped maize was 4.8-5.2 °C lower than the soil temperature of directly-seeded maize, and the lowest temperature of the intercropped maize was 1.4-1.7 °C lower. But, the temperatures for both planting methods met the requirement for seed germination. Light intensity on the ground surface of the intercropped maize was 4.4%-10.6% less than natural light, and insufficient light was the main reason for the weak and late seedling. Compared to the directly-seeded maize, the speeds of seed germination and accumulation of dry matters of the intercropped maize were relatively slow. On the whole, the seedling of intercropped maize was not strong, which presented small leaves, short height and low chlorophyll content. The restraint on the growth of intercropped maize was enhanced with the extension of intercropping period. For farm planting, direct-seeding could improve the seed germination and seedling growth of summer maize.

  20. Inhibition of DNA topoisomerase I and growth inhibition of human cancer cell lines by an oleanane from Junellia aspera (Verbenaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pungitore, C R; Padron, J M; Leon, L G; Garcia, C; Ciuffo, G M; Martin, V S; Tonn, C E

    2007-05-15

    DNA topoisomerases and DNA polymerases are enzymes that play a crucial role in DNA metabolism events such as replication, transcription, recombination, and chromosome segregation during mitosis. Thus, DNA topoisomerases and DNA polymerases inhibitors could be expected to have antitumor effects. Naturally occurring triterpenoids isolated from Junellia aspera (Gillies & Hook; Moldenke) (Verbenaceae) were assayed for human DNA topoisomerase I and Taq DNA polymerase inhibitory activities. Maslinic acid (2) and its diacetyl derivative (7) showed human DNA topoisomerase I inhibitory activity with IC50 values in the range of 76-80 microM and growth inhibition against various human solid tumour cell lines with GI50 values in the range of 5-18 microM. The triterpene frames could be used for screening new inhibitors of the enzyme, and computer-simulated drug design using the frame and pocket structure of enzyme may in theory be a possible approach to develop new inhibitors.

  1. Epidermal growth factor inhibits glycylsarcosine transport and hPepT1 expression in a human intestinal cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C U; Amstrup, J; Steffansen, B

    2001-01-01

    The human intestinal cell line Caco-2 was used as a model system to study the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on peptide transport. EGF decreased apical-to-basolateral fluxes of [(14)C]glycylsarcosine ([(14)C]Gly-Sar) up to 50.2 +/- 3.6% (n = 6) of control values. Kinetic analysis......(max) decreased from 2.61 +/- 0.4 to 1.06 +/- 0.1 nmol x cm(-2) x min(-1) (n = 3, P T1 mRNA (using glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase mRNA as control......) in cells treated with EGF. Western blotting indicated a decrease in hPepT1 protein in cell lysates. We conclude that EGF treatment decreases Gly-Sar transport in Caco-2 cells by decreasing the number of peptide transporter molecules in the apical membrane....

  2. GnRH receptor activation competes at a low level with growth signaling in stably transfected human breast cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, Kevin; Meyer, Colette; Miller, Nicola; Sims, Andrew H; Cagnan, Ilgin; Faratian, Dana; Harrison, David J; Millar, Robert P; Langdon, Simon P

    2011-01-01

    Gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs lower estrogen levels in pre-menopausal breast cancer patients. GnRH receptor (GnRH-R) activation also directly inhibits the growth of certain cells. The applicability of GnRH anti-proliferation to breast cancer was therefore analyzed. GnRH-R expression in 298 primary breast cancer samples was measured by quantitative immunofluorescence. Levels of functional GnRH-R in breast-derived cell lines were assessed using 125 I-ligand binding and stimulation of 3 H-inositol phosphate production. Elevated levels of GnRH-R were stably expressed in cells by transfection. Effects of receptor activation on in vitro cell growth were investigated in comparison with IGF-I and EGF receptor inhibition, and correlated with intracellular signaling using western blotting. GnRH-R immunoscoring was highest in hormone receptor (triple) negative and grade 3 breast tumors. However prior to transfection, functional endogenous GnRH-R were undetectable in four commonly studied breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, ZR-75-1, T47D and MDA-MB-231). After transfection with GnRH-R, high levels of cell surface GnRH-R were detected in SVCT and MDA-MB-231 clones while low-moderate levels of GnRH-R occurred in MCF-7 clones and ZR-75-1 clones. MCF-7 sub-clones with high levels of GnRH-R were isolated following hygromycin phosphotransferase transfection. High level cell surface GnRH-R enabled induction of high levels of 3 H-inositol phosphate and modest growth-inhibition in SVCT cells. In contrast, growth of MCF-7, ZR-75-1 or MDA-MB-231 clones was unaffected by GnRH-R activation. Cell growth was inhibited by IGF-I or EGF receptor inhibitors. IGF-I receptor inhibitor lowered levels of p-ERK1/2 in MCF-7 clones. Washout of IGF-I receptor inhibitor resulted in transient hyper-elevation of p-ERK1/2, but co-addition of GnRH-R agonist did not alter the dynamics of ERK1/2 re-phosphorylation. Breast cancers exhibit a range of GnRH-R immunostaining, with higher levels of

  3. Elucidating the Mechanism of Regulation of Transforming Growth Factor β Type II Receptor Expression in Human Lung Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil K. Halder

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Lung carcinogenesis in humans involves an accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes that lead to alterations in normal lung epithelium, to in situ carcinoma, and finally to invasive and metastatic cancers. The loss of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β-induced tumor suppressor function in tumors plays a pivotal role in this process, and our previous studies have shown that resistance to TGF-β in lung cancers occurs mostly through the loss of TGF-β type II receptor expression (TβRII. However, little is known about the mechanism of down-regulation of TβRII and how histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors (HDIs can restore TGF-β-induced tumor suppressor function. Here we show that HDIs restore TβRII expression and that DNA hypermethylation has no effect on TβRII promoter activity in lung cancer cell lines. TGF-β-induced tumor suppressor function is restored by HDIs in lung cancer cell lines that lack TβRII expression. Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway by either activated Ras or epidermal growth factor signaling is involved in the down-regulation of TβRII through histone deacetylation. We have immunoprecipitated the protein complexes by biotinylated oligonucleotides corresponding to the HDI-responsive element in the TβRII promoter (−127/(−75 and identified the proteins/factors using proteomics studies. The transcriptional repressor Meis1/2 is involved in repressing the TβRII promoter activity, possibly through its recruitment by Sp1 and NF-YA to the promoter. These results suggest a mechanism for the downregulation of TβRII in lung cancer and that TGF-β tumor suppressor functions may be restored by HDIs in lung cancer patients with the loss of TβRII expression.

  4. Ability of Group IVB metallocene polyethers containing dienestrol to arrest the growth of selected cancer cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Monomeric Group IVB (Ti, Zr and Hf) metallocenes represent a new class of antitumor compounds. There is literature on the general biological activities of some organotin compounds. Unfortunately, there is little information with respect to the molecular level activity of these organotin compounds. We recently started focusing on the anti-cancer activity of organotin polymers that we had made for other purposes and as part of our platinum anti-cancer effort. Methods For this study, we synthesized a new series of metallocene-containing compounds coupling the metallocene unit with dienestrol, a synthetic, nonsteroidal estrogen. This is part of our effort to couple known moieties that offer antitumor activity with biologically active units hoping to increase the biological activity of the combination. The materials were confirmed to be polymeric using light scattering photometry and the structural repeat unit was verified employing matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy results. Results The polymers demonstrated the ability to suppress the growth of a series of tumor cell lines originating from breast, colon, prostrate, and lung cancers at concentrations generally lower than those required for inhibition of cell growth by the commonly used antitumor drug cisplatin. Conclusion These drugs show great promise in vitro against a number of cancer cell lines and due to their polymeric nature will most likely be less toxic than currently used metal-containing drugs such as cisplatin. These drugs also offer several addition positive aspects. First, the reactants are commercially available so that additional synthetic steps are not needed. Second, synthesis of the polymer is rapid, occurring within about 15 seconds. Third, the interfacial synthetic system is already industrially employed in the synthesis of aromatic nylons and polycarbonates. Thus, the ability to synthesize large amounts of the drugs is straight

  5. Ability of Group IVB metallocene polyethers containing dienestrol to arrest the growth of selected cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashida Yuki

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monomeric Group IVB (Ti, Zr and Hf metallocenes represent a new class of antitumor compounds. There is literature on the general biological activities of some organotin compounds. Unfortunately, there is little information with respect to the molecular level activity of these organotin compounds. We recently started focusing on the anti-cancer activity of organotin polymers that we had made for other purposes and as part of our platinum anti-cancer effort. Methods For this study, we synthesized a new series of metallocene-containing compounds coupling the metallocene unit with dienestrol, a synthetic, nonsteroidal estrogen. This is part of our effort to couple known moieties that offer antitumor activity with biologically active units hoping to increase the biological activity of the combination. The materials were confirmed to be polymeric using light scattering photometry and the structural repeat unit was verified employing matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy results. Results The polymers demonstrated the ability to suppress the growth of a series of tumor cell lines originating from breast, colon, prostrate, and lung cancers at concentrations generally lower than those required for inhibition of cell growth by the commonly used antitumor drug cisplatin. Conclusion These drugs show great promise in vitro against a number of cancer cell lines and due to their polymeric nature will most likely be less toxic than currently used metal-containing drugs such as cisplatin. These drugs also offer several addition positive aspects. First, the reactants are commercially available so that additional synthetic steps are not needed. Second, synthesis of the polymer is rapid, occurring within about 15 seconds. Third, the interfacial synthetic system is already industrially employed in the synthesis of aromatic nylons and polycarbonates. Thus, the ability to synthesize large amounts of

  6. Ability of Group IVB metallocene polyethers containing dienestrol to arrest the growth of selected cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roner, Michael R; Carraher, Charles E Jr; Shahi, Kimberly; Ashida, Yuki; Barot, Girish

    2009-01-01

    Monomeric Group IVB (Ti, Zr and Hf) metallocenes represent a new class of antitumor compounds. There is literature on the general biological activities of some organotin compounds. Unfortunately, there is little information with respect to the molecular level activity of these organotin compounds. We recently started focusing on the anti-cancer activity of organotin polymers that we had made for other purposes and as part of our platinum anti-cancer effort. For this study, we synthesized a new series of metallocene-containing compounds coupling the metallocene unit with dienestrol, a synthetic, nonsteroidal estrogen. This is part of our effort to couple known moieties that offer antitumor activity with biologically active units hoping to increase the biological activity of the combination. The materials were confirmed to be polymeric using light scattering photometry and the structural repeat unit was verified employing matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy results. The polymers demonstrated the ability to suppress the growth of a series of tumor cell lines originating from breast, colon, prostrate, and lung cancers at concentrations generally lower than those required for inhibition of cell growth by the commonly used antitumor drug cisplatin. These drugs show great promise in vitro against a number of cancer cell lines and due to their polymeric nature will most likely be less toxic than currently used metal-containing drugs such as cisplatin. These drugs also offer several addition positive aspects. First, the reactants are commercially available so that additional synthetic steps are not needed. Second, synthesis of the polymer is rapid, occurring within about 15 seconds. Third, the interfacial synthetic system is already industrially employed in the synthesis of aromatic nylons and polycarbonates. Thus, the ability to synthesize large amounts of the drugs is straight forward

  7. Employment and winter construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2011-01-01

    Reduced seasonal building activity in the construction sector is often assumed to be related to hard winter conditions for building activities and poor working conditions for construction workers, resulting in higher costs and poor quality of building products, particularly in the northern...... hemisphere. Can climatic conditions alone explain the sizeable difference in reduction in building activity in the construction sector in European countries in the winter months, or are other factors such as technology, economic cycles and schemes for financial compensation influential as well? What...... possibilities exist for reducing seasonal variation in employment? In addition to a literature review related to winter construction, European and national employment and meteorological data were studied. Finally, ministerial acts, ministerial orders or other public policy documents related to winter...

  8. Deer Wintering Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Deer winter habitat is critical to the long term survival of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Vermont. Being near the northern extreme of the...

  9. Winter Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Winter Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1992 and covered offshore areas from the Mid-Atlantic to Georges Bank. Inshore strata were covered...

  10. Muscle hypertrophy in heavy weight Japanese quail line: delayed muscle maturation and continued muscle growth with prolonged upregulation of myogenic regulatory factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Y M; Suh, Y; Ahn, J; Lee, K

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the temporal expression of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms, Pax7, and myogenic regulatory factors (MRF) between heavy weight (HW) and random bred control (RBC) Japanese quail lines during muscle development to better understand the mechanisms leading to increased skeletal muscle mass in the HW quail line selected for a greater BW at 4 wk of age separated from RBC quail. Expression of neonatal MyHC isoform began at 3 and 7 d posthatch in RBC and HW quail lines, respectively. In the RBC quail line, adult MyHC isoform, as a marker for muscle maturation, was expressed at 28 d posthatch with sustained expression through 75 d posthatch, whereas this protein was detected only at 75 d posthatch in the HW quail line. Moreover, Pax7 expression continued from embryonic ages to 14 d posthatch in the HW quail line and to 7 d posthatch in the RBC quail line. These expression patterns of MyHC isoforms and Pax7 in the HW quail line were accompanied by delayed muscle maturation and prolonged growth compared with the RBC quail line. Temporal expressions of the primary MRF showed that higher expression levels of MyoD and Myf-5 were observed at 9 and 11 d embryo in the HW quail line compared with the RBC quail line (P muscle development is associated with delayed maturation and continued muscle growth, which consequently would permit muscle hypertrophic potentials in the HW quail line compared with the RBC quail line. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. Simulation of Winter Wheat Yield with WOFOST in County Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Shangjie; Pei, Zhiyuan; He, Yajuan; Wang, Lianlin; Ma, Zhiping

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Winter wheat is mainly planted in water shortage area, such as North China and Northwest China. As a key field management measure, irrigation plays an important role in the production of winter wheat. This paper focuses on the improvement of regional winter wheat yield estimation technique in county scale by adjusting the irrigation management measure in crop growth model. The WOFOST (World Food Study) model was used by dividing the whole county into a number of EMUs (...

  12. Characterization of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 overexpression in the human breast cancer cell line SUM-52PE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannheimer, Stacey L; Rehemtulla, Alnawaz; Ethier, Stephen P

    2000-01-01

    The fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR)2 gene has been shown to be amplified in 5-10% of breast cancer patients. A breast cancer cell line developed in our laboratory, SUM-52PE, was shown to have a 12-fold amplification of the FGFR2 gene, and FGFR2 message was found to be overexpressed 40-fold in SUM-52PE cells as compared with normal human mammary epithelial (HME) cells. Both human breast cancer (HBC) cell lines and HME cells expressed two FGFR2 isoforms, whereas SUM-52PE cells overexpressed those two isoforms, as well as several unique FGFR2 polypeptides. SUM-52PE cells expressed exclusively FGFR2-IIIb isoforms, which are high-affinity receptors for fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-1 and FGF-7. Differences were identified in the expression of the extracellular Ig-like domains, acid box and carboxyl termini, and several variants not previously reported were isolated from these cells. The FGFR family of receptor tyrosine kinases includes four members, all of which are highly alternatively spliced and glycosylated. For FGFR2, alternative splicing of the second half of the third Ig-like domain, involving exons IIIb and IIIc, is a mutually exclusive choice that affects ligand binding specificity and affinity [1,2,3]. It appears that the second half of the third Ig-like domain can dictate high affinity for FGF-2 or keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), whereas affinity for FGF-1 appears to remain the same [3]. Alternative splicing of the carboxyl terminus has been shown to involve at least two different exons that can produce at least three different variants. The C1-type and C2-type carboxyl termini are encoded by the same exon, and have two different splice acceptor sites, whereas the C3-type carboxyl terminus is encoded by a separate exon [4]. The biologic significance of the C1 carboxyl terminus, as compared with the shorter C3 variant found primarily in tumorigenic samples, has been studied in NIH3T3 transfection assays, in which C3 variants were able to produce

  13. Effect of TH-lines and clones on the growth and differentiation of B cell clones in microculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotloff, D B; Cebra, J J

    1988-02-01

    Antibody isotype expression by B cell clones was analyzed using in vitro microcultures containing low numbers of hapten-gelatin-enriched B cells and higher numbers of hemocyanin-specific helper T cell lines or clones. Twenty-eight to sixty-three percent of clones grown in microculture with haptenated hemocyanin and T cells from established lines expressed IgG and/or IgA isotypes in random mixtures, almost always accompanied by IgM. Helper T cells from hemocyanin-specific clones also supported the expression of non-IgM isotypes by the B cell clones, suggesting that a single specificity of T cell can provide sufficient growth and differentiation factors for the display of isotype switching. A positive correlation between the antibody output of clones and the expression of non-IgM isotypes indicated that the switching process may be associated with cell division. Although memory B cells that give clones expressing IgG and/or IgA in the absence of IgM are also enriched on haptenated gelatin, they are not stimulable under conditions of this microculture assay.

  14. Influence of sex and castration on growth performance and carcass quality of crossbred pigs from 2 Large White sire lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, J I; Cámara, L; Berrocoso, J D; López, J P; Mateos, G G; Serrano, M P

    2011-11-01

    In total, 360 pigs slaughtered at 125 kg of BW and destined for the dry-cured industry were used to study the influence of sex and castration [immunocastrated males (IMC), surgically castrated males (CM), and intact females (IF)] in 2 terminal Large White sire lines [Top York (TY) and Tempo (TE)] on growth performance and carcass and meat quality. The female line was Large White × Landrace. The IMC pigs were immunized against gonadotropin-releasing factor (GnRF) with Improvac at 78 (experimental d 16) and 126 (experimental d 64, 48 d before slaughter) d of age. Each of the 6 treatments was replicated 6 times (10 pigs/pen). Through the day of the first Improvac injection (62 to 78 d of age), IMC and IF grew at a slower rate (P ham yields than CM, with IMC being intermediate. Crossbreds from TE sires grew at a faster rate (P ham yield, but less (P ham yield compared with crossbreds from TY sires. Immunocastrated pigs can replace CM for the production of heavy pigs destined for the dry-cured industry. Because of increased carcass weight, crossbreds from TE sires may have an advantage over crossbreds from TY sires.

  15. [Alternatively activated macrophages/mononuclear phagocytes promote growth and invasion of breast cancer cell line SKBR3].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ju-jiang; Su, Feng-xi; Yao, He-rui; Chen, Ji-sheng

    2007-04-01

    To study the effect of alternatively activated macrophages /mononuclear phagocytes(MNP) on breast cancer cells and explore the mechanisms for the action of tumor-associated macrophages in breast cancer. Human peripheral blood monocytes were isolated and cultured in vitro and divided into 3 groups, namely classically activated monocytes (CAM) which were induced by lipopolysaccharide, alternatively activated monocytes (AAM) induce by IL-4, and control cells treated with the culture medium only. After cell culture for 48-72 h, the mRNA of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), alternative monocytes activation- associated CC-chemokine 1 (AMAC-1), and beta-actin of the 3 groups were extracted for RT-PCR, or the cells were cocultured with breast cancer cell line SKBR3, or seeded in chicken chorioallantoic membrane along with SKBR3. TNF-alpha mRNA was significantly increased in CAM, and AMAC-1 was highly expressed in AAM. The coculture experiments showed that CAM exhibited obvious inhibitory effect on SKBR3 cells after a 3-day culture whereas AAM significantly promoted the growth of SKBR3 cells after a 5-day culture. In chicken on chorioallantoic membrane experiment, the macrophages promoted tumor angiogenesis and AAM showed the most obvious effect. IL-4 induces high expression of AMAC-1, a molecular marker of AAM, in the macrophages, and AAM can promote the growth of SKBR3 cells and tumor angiogenesis.

  16. Estradiol and corticosterone stimulate the proliferation of a GH cell line, MtT/S: Proliferation of growth hormone cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogami, Haruo; Hiraoka, Yoshiki; Aiso, Sadakazu

    2016-08-01

    Estrogens are known as a potent growth-stimulator of the anterior pituitary cells such as prolactin cells and somatomammotroph cell lines, while glucocorticoids often inhibit cellular proliferation in the pituitary gland as well as in the extra-pituitary tissues. In this study, the involvement of these steroid hormones in the regulation of proliferation was examined in the MtT/S cells, secreting growth hormone (GH). Effects of estrogens and glucocorticoids were examined in MtT/S cells grown in the medium containing dextran-coated charcoal treated serum. The relative cell density after culture was estimated by the Cell Titer-Glo Luminescent Cell Viability Assay System, and the proliferation rate was determined by the BrdU incorporation method. The mRNA levels were determined by real-time PCR. Estradiol and the specific agonist for both estrogen receptor (ER) α and ERβ stimulated MtT/S growth at a dose dependent manner. The membrane impermeable estrogen, 17β-estradiol-bovine serum albumin conjugate also stimulated the MtT/S proliferation. The effects of all estrogens were inhibited by an estrogen receptor antagonist, ICI182780. Corticosterone stimulated the proliferation of MtT/S cells at doses lower than 10nM without stimulating GH gene transcription, whereas it did not change the proliferation rate at 1μM. The effects of corticosterone were inhibited by glucocorticoid receptor inhibitor, RU486, but not by the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, spironolactone. Both estrogens and glucocorticoids were found to stimulate the proliferation of MtT/S, increasing the mRNA expression of cyclins D1, D3, and E. The results suggest that estrogens and glucocorticoids may be involved in the mechanisms responsible for the proliferation of GH cells in the course of pituitary development, to maintain the population of GH cells in the adult pituitary gland, and also in the promotion of GH cell tumors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Modeling winter moth Operophtera brumata egg phenology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salis, Lucia; Lof, Marjolein; Asch, van Margriet; Visser, Marcel E.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between an insect's developmental rate and temperature is crucial to forecast insect phenology under climate change. In the winter moth Operophtera brumata timing of egg-hatching has severe fitness consequences on growth and reproduction as egg-hatching has to match

  18. Specific receptors for epidermal growth factor in human bone tumour cells and its effect on synthesis of prostaglandin E2 by cultured osteosarcoma cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Y.; Uchihashi, M.; Nakashima, H.; Fujita, T.; Matsukura, S.; Matsui, K.

    1984-01-01

    Using tumour cell lines derived from human bone tumours, specific binding sites for epidermal growth factor (EGF), a potent growth stimulator in many tissues, and its effect on synthesis of prostaglandin (PG) E 2 , a potent bone-resorbing factor, by cultured osteosarcoma cell line were studied. Three tumour cell lines, one osteosarcoma (HOSO) and two giant cell tumours of the bone (G-1 and G-2), all possessed specific binding sites for 125 I-labelled EGF: the apparent dissociation constant was approximately 4-10 x 10 -10 M and the maximal binding capacity was 50 000-80 000 sites/cell. EGF had no mitogenic effect in these cell lines. However, these cell lines did not have specific binding sites for 125 I-labelled parathyroid hormone (PTH) or calcitonin. HOSO line produced and secreted PGE 2 into medium, while no significant amount of PGE 2 was demonstrated in G-1 or G-2 line. EGF significantly stimulated PGE 2 production in HOSO line in a dose-dependent manner (0.5-50 ng/ml); its stimulatory effect was completely abolished by indomethacin, an inhibitor of PG biosynthesis. Exogenous PGE 1 significantly stimulated cyclic AMP formation in HOSO line, whereas PGFsub(2α) PTH, calcitonin, or EGF had no effect. None of these calcium-regulating hormones affected cyclic AMP generation in either G-1 of G-2 line. These data indicate that human bone tumour cells have specific EGF receptors unrelated to cell growth, and suggest that EGF may be involved in bone resorption through a PGE 2 -mediated process in human osseous tissues. (author)

  19. Effect of Planting Term on Growth and Flowering of Two Cultivars of Lachenalia Produced in A Greenhouse as Potting Plants During Winter Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapczyńska Anna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A greenhouse experiment was carried out on lachenalia plants to determine the effect of different bulb planting terms (from October to January on the growth and flowering of cultivars ‘Ronina’ and ‘Rupert’, in the natural light conditions. From every planted bulb emerged stems and flowers, but the time of flow–ering was dependent on the planting term and genotype. Irrespective of the planting term, plants of ‘Rupert’ were taller than those of ‘Ronina’. The planting term had an influence on the length of the inflorescence in ‘Rupert’, but did not affect in ‘Ronina’. The bulbs of ‘Rupert’ produced more than twice as many florets as ‘Ronina’ bulbs. Irrespective of the genotype, the bulbs planted the earliest produced the thinnest stems. The two tested cultivars were long-lasting flowering pot plants - their inflorescences remained decorative for over 20 days.

  20. The nuclear winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velikhow, Y.P.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear winter is an example of possible secondary effects, and if we speak of secondary we are thinking of small-scale second-order effects, but a nuclear winter is not a second-order effect. If you calculate the amount of heat produced by a nuclear explosion, it is a very small amount which does not have any chance of changing the Earth's climate, but a nuclear explosion drives or stars some new mechanism - the mechanism of nuclear winter - after 100 megatons of dust are transferred to the upper atmosphere. Another example of such amplification is radioactive fall-out, especially long-life radioactive fall-out after the possible elimination of the nuclear power industry, nuclear storage and distribution of storage waste around the globe. This is a very powerful amplification mechanism

  1. In vitro invasion of small-cell lung cancer cell lines correlates with expression of epidermal growth factor receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damstrup, L; Rude Voldborg, B; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1998-01-01

    receptor (EGFR) in a panel of 21 small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines. We have previously reported that ten of these cell lines expressed EGFR protein detected by radioreceptor and affinity labelling assays. In 11 small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines, EGFR mRNA was detected by Northern blot...... analysis. In vitro invasion in a Boyden chamber assay was found in all EGFR-positive cell lines, whereas no invasion was detected in the EGFR-negative cell lines. Quantification of the in vitro invasion in 12 selected SCLC cell lines demonstrated that, in the EGFR-positive cell lines, between 5% and 16......-PCR). However, in vitro invasive SCLC cell lines could not be distinguished from non-invasive cell lines based on the expression pattern of these molecules. In six SCLC cell lines, in vitro invasion was also determined in the presence of the EGFR-neutralizing monoclonal antibody mAb528. The addition...

  2. Effects of an EPSPS-transgenic soybean line ZUTS31 on root-associated bacterial communities during field growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Gui-Hua; Tang, Cheng-Yi; Hua, Xiao-Mei; Cheng, Jing; Wang, Gu-Hao; Zhu, Yin-Ling; Zhang, Li-Ya; Shou, Hui-Xia; Qi, Jin-Liang; Yang, Yong-Hua

    2018-01-01

    The increased worldwide commercial cultivation of transgenic crops during the past 20 years is accompanied with potential effects on the soil microbial communities, because many rhizosphere and endosphere bacteria play important roles in promoting plant health and growth. Previous studies reported that transgenic plants exert differential effects on soil microbial communities, especially rhizobacteria. Thus, this study compared the soybean root-associated bacterial communities between a 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase -transgenic soybean line (ZUTS31 or simply Z31) and its recipient cultivar (Huachun3 or simply HC3) at the vegetative, flowering, and seed-filling stages. High-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene (16S rDNA) V4 hypervariable region amplicons via Illumina MiSeq and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) were performed. Our results revealed no significant differences in the overall alpha diversity of root-associated bacterial communities at the three developmental stages and in the beta diversity of root-associated bacterial communities at the flowering stage between Z31 and HC3 under field growth. However, significant differences in the beta diversity of rhizosphere bacterial communities were found at the vegetative and seed-filling stages between the two groups. Furthermore, the results of next generation sequencing and qPCR showed that the relative abundances of root-associated main nitrogen-fixing bacterial genera, especially Bradyrhizobium in the roots, evidently changed from the flowering stage to the seed-filling stage. In conclusion, Z31 exerts transitory effects on the taxonomic diversity of rhizosphere bacterial communities at the vegetative and seed-filling stages compared to the control under field conditions. In addition, soybean developmental change evidently influences the main symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterial genera in the roots from the flowering stage to the seed-filling stage.

  3. Allelopathy of winter cover straws on the initial maize growthAlelopatia de palhadas de coberturas de inverno sobre o crescimento inicial de milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Senen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In agricultural crops is common planting the main crop on the remains of straw harvesting the crop earlier due to no-tillage system. The straw remaining in the soil can exert positive or negative influence on the main crop through the release of organic compounds that carry allelopathy on plants of the subsequent growing. This experiment consisted of mixing and blending of different types of turnip (Brassica rapa L., oats (Avena sativa L., crambe (Crambe abyssinica Hochst. Ex RE Fries, Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. and rapeseed (Brassica napus L . var in soil and placed in plastic trays where they planted the seeds of maize. The experimental design was completely randomized design with six treatments and three repetições. As ratings were: emergence, rate of emergence, shoot length, root length, root dry weight, dry weight of shoots. The cover crops canola and safflower showed a positive effect, as crambe, turnips and oats had a negative effect on initial growth of maize seedlings, are not suitable for cover crop to maize sowing.Nas lavouras agrícolas é comum o cultivo da cultura principal sobre os restos de palha da colheita do cultivo anterior em decorrência do sistema de plantio direto. A palhada remanescente no solo pode exercer influência positiva ou negativa sobre a cultura principal pela liberação de compostos orgânicos que exercem alelopatia sobre as plantas da cultura subsequente. Este experimento constou da mistura e homogeneização das palhas de nabo (Brassica rapa L., aveia (Avena sativa L., crambe (Crambe abyssinica Hochst. ex R. E. Fries, cartamo (Carthamus tinctorius L. e canola (Brassica napus L.var no solo, que foi colocado em bandejas plásticas onde semeou-se o milho. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizados com seis tratamentos e três repetições. As características analizadas foram: emergência, índice de velocidade de emergência, comprimento de parte aérea, comprimento de raiz, massa

  4. Growth Arrest Line Mimicking Lymphoma Involvement: The Findings of (99m)Tc-MDP Bone SPECT/CT and Serial Bone Scan in a Child with Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chanwoo; Kim, Ji Young; Choi, Yun Young; Lee, Seunghun; Lee, Young-Ho

    2016-06-01

    Growth arrest lines appear as dense sclerotic lines parallel to the growth plate of long bones on radiography. We describe the case of a 9-year-old female with growth arrest lines initially masquerading as lymphoma involvement on (99m)Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy who had been treated with chemotherapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma about 3 years previously. Subsequent regional bone SPECT/CT clearly diagnosed the growth arrest lines, and retrograde review of previous bone scintigraphy demonstrated line migration in this patient. Growth arrest lines should be considered a possible diagnosis on bone scintigraphy, especially in the surveillance of children who have experienced severe childhood infections, malnutrition, immobilization, or treatment with immunosuppressive or chemotherapeutic drugs that may inhibit bone growth.

  5. Growth arrest line mimicking lymphoma involvement: The findings of 99mTc-MDP bone SPECT/CT and serial bone scan in a child with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chan Woo; Kim, Ji Young; Choi, Yun Young; Lee, Seung Hun; Lee, Young Ho

    2016-01-01

    Growth arrest lines appear as dense sclerotic lines parallel to the growth plate of long bones on radiography. We describe the case of a 9-year-old female with growth arrest lines initially masquerading as lymphoma involvement on 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy who had been treated with chemotherapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma about 3 years previously. Subsequent regional bone SPECT/CT clearly diagnosed the growth arrest lines, and retrograde review of previous bone scintigraphy demonstrated line migration in this patient. Growth arrest lines should be considered a possible diagnosis on bone scintigraphy, especially in the surveillance of children who have experienced severe childhood infections, malnutrition, immobilization, or treatment with immunosuppressive or chemotherapeutic drugs that may inhibit bone growth

  6. Growth arrest line mimicking lymphoma involvement: The findings of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP bone SPECT/CT and serial bone scan in a child with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chan Woo; Kim, Ji Young; Choi, Yun Young; Lee, Seung Hun; Lee, Young Ho [Hanyang University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Growth arrest lines appear as dense sclerotic lines parallel to the growth plate of long bones on radiography. We describe the case of a 9-year-old female with growth arrest lines initially masquerading as lymphoma involvement on {sup 99m}Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy who had been treated with chemotherapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma about 3 years previously. Subsequent regional bone SPECT/CT clearly diagnosed the growth arrest lines, and retrograde review of previous bone scintigraphy demonstrated line migration in this patient. Growth arrest lines should be considered a possible diagnosis on bone scintigraphy, especially in the surveillance of children who have experienced severe childhood infections, malnutrition, immobilization, or treatment with immunosuppressive or chemotherapeutic drugs that may inhibit bone growth.

  7. Selection for increased adult body weight in mouse lines with and without the rat growth hormone transgene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, J; Lin, C Y; Sabour, P

    1993-01-12

    Four lines of mice with and without the rat growth hormone (rGH) transgene were developed to measure responses to selection for increased 42-day body weight and evaluate fitness of mice with and without the rGH transgene. Each line contained selected and unselected (control) sublines. At the last three generations of selection (Generations 12-14), selected sublines differed from unselected controls by 3.8 to 4.7 g (14.8 to 19.8%) in 42-day weight, -0.5 to -8.3% in fertility, and 0.5 to 1.6 in litter size at birth. The origin of the lines (W: previously selected for 42-day weight and C: unselected) affected 42-day weight, i. e. 42-day weight of mice originating from W was significantly (P transgene that increased 63-day weight by 54% was not found at Generation 12. The unexpected loss of rGH transgene was due to poor fitness of mice with the rGH transgene. Mice with the transgene had lower fertility rate than those without the transgene (50.0 to 73.7% vs. 95.0%), smaller litter size (6.8 to 7.8 vs. 8.6) and poorer survival of the progeny (69.2 to 74.5% vs. 88.3%). Based on these data, selective advantage/disadvantage of the rGH transgene in the fitness traits was estimated quantitatively. The results from the study on growth and reproductive traits suggest that desirable effects of gene transfer on a specific trait (42- and 63-day weight in the present study) might be offset by undesirable effects on other traits (e. g., reproduction and survival) in some cases of transgenic animals. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Selektion auf hohes adultes Gewicht in Mäuselinien mit und ohne Rattenwachstumshormon-Transgenen Vier Mäuselinien mit und ohne das Rattenwachstumshormon (rGH) Transgen wurden zur Messung des Selektionserfolges auf gesteigertes 42-Tage-Körpergewicht entwickelt, um auch Fitneß zu prüfen. Jede Linie bestand aus einer selektierten und aus einer unselektierten (Kontroll-)Unterlinie. In den drei letzten Selektionsgenerationen (Generationen 12-14) unterschieden sich die

  8. Titan's Emergence from Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flasar, F. Michael; Achterberg, Richard; Jennings, Donald; Schinder, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We summarize the changes in Titans thermal structure derived from Cassini CIRS and radio-occultation data during the transition from winter to early spring. Titan's surface, and middle atmosphere show noticeable seasonal change, whereas that in most of the troposphere is mated. This can be understood in terms of the relatively small radiative relaxation time in the middle atmosphere and much larger time scale in the troposphere. The surface exhibits seasonal change because the heat capacity in an annual skin depth is much smaller than that in the lowest scale height of the troposphere. Surface temperatures rise 1 K at raid and high latitudes in the winter northern hemisphere and cool in the southern hemisphere. Changes in in the middle atmosphere are more complicated. Temperatures in the middle stratosphere (approximately 1 mbar) increase by a few kelvin at mid northern latitudes, but those at high latitudes first increase as that region moves out of winter shadow, and then decrease. This probably results from the combined effect of increased solar heating as the suit moves higher in the sky and the decreased adiabatic warming as the sinking motions associated with the cross-equatorial meridional cell weaken. Consistent with this interpretation, the warm temperatures observed higher up at the winter polar stratopause cool significantly.

  9. A feeder-cell independent subpopulation of the PICM-19 pig liver stem cell line capable of long-term growth and extensive expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    A method for the feeder-independent culture of PICM-19 pig liver stem cell line was recently devised, but the cell line’s growth was finite and the cells essentially ceased dividing after approximately 20 passages over a one year culture period. Here we report the isolation, continuous culture, and...

  10. Growth regulation of simian and human AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma cell lines by TGF-β1 and IL-6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy Laura S

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (AIDS-NHL is the second most frequent cancer associated with AIDS, and is a frequent cause of death in HIV-infected individuals. Experimental analysis of AIDS-NHL has been facilitated by the availability of an excellent animal model, i.e., simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (SAIDS in the rhesus macaque consequent to infection with simian immunodeficiency virus. A recent study of SAIDS-NHL demonstrated a lymphoma-derived cell line to be sensitive to the growth inhibitory effects of the ubiquitous cytokine, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta. The authors concluded that TGF-beta acts as a negative growth regulator of the lymphoma-derived cell line and, potentially, as an inhibitory factor in the regulatory network of AIDS-related lymphomagenesis. The present study was conducted to assess whether other SAIDS-NHL and AIDS-NHL cell lines are similarly sensitive to the growth inhibitory effects of TGF-beta, and to test the hypothesis that interleukin-6 (IL-6 may represent a counteracting positive influence in their growth regulation. Methods Growth stimulation or inhibition in response to cytokine treatment was quantified using trypan blue exclusion or colorimetric MTT assay. Intracellular flow cytometry was used to analyze the activation of signaling pathways and to examine the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins and distinguishing hallmarks of AIDS-NHL subclass. Apoptosis was quantified by flow cytometric analysis of cell populations with sub-G1 DNA content and by measuring activated caspase-3. Results Results confirmed the sensitivity of LCL8664, an immunoblastic SAIDS-NHL cell line, to TGF-beta1-mediated growth inhibition, and further demonstrated the partial rescue by simultaneous treatment with IL-6. IL-6 was shown to activate STAT3, even in the presence of TGF-beta1, and thereby to activate proliferative and anti-apoptotic pathways. By comparison, human AIDS-NHL cell lines

  11. Expression of functional growth hormone receptor in a mouse L cell line infected with recombinant vaccinia virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strous, G J; van Kerkhof, P; Verheijen, C; Rossen, J W; Liou, W; Slot, J W; Roelen, C A; Schwartz, A L

    The growth hormone receptor is a member of a large family of receptors including the receptors for prolactin and interleukins. Upon binding to one molecule of growth hormone two growth hormone receptor polypeptides dimerize. We have expressed the rabbit growth hormone receptor DNA in transfected

  12. Growth-Inhibitory and Apoptosis-Inducing Effects of Punica granatum L. var. spinosa (Apple Punice) on Fibrosarcoma Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sineh Sepehr, Koushan; Baradaran, Behzad; Mazandarani, Masoumeh; Yousefi, Bahman; Abdollahpour Alitappeh, Meghdad; Khori, Vahid

    2014-12-01

    Punica granatum L. var. granatum (Pomegranate), an herbaceous plant found in Iran, The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic effects, induction of apoptosis, and the mechanism of cell death of ethanol extract from Punica granatum L. var. spinosa on the mouse fibrosarcoma cell line, WEHI-164. Various parts of the herbs were extracted from fruit using ethanol as the solvent, and the cytotoxicity and cell viability of the ethanolic extract were determined by the MTT assay. To determine whether necrosis or apoptosis is the predominant cause of cell death, cell death detection was performed using the ELISA method. The induction of apoptosis was confirmed using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase- (TdT-) mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Moreover, a sensitive immunoblotting technique was used to examine the production of Caspase-3 and Bcl2 proteins. Our findings suggested that the ethalonic extract of Punica granatum L. var. spinosa altered cell morphology, decreased cell viability, suppressed cell proliferation and induced cell death in a time- and dose-dependent manner in WEHI-164 cells (IC50 = 229.024μg/ml), when compared to a chemotherapeutic anticancer drug, Toxol (Vesper Pharmaceuticals), with increased nucleosome production from apoptotic cells. Induction of apoptosis by the plant extract was proved by the decrease of pro-Caspase-3 and Bcl2 proteins and quantitatively confirmed by Immunoblotting analysis. The results obtained from the present study have demonstrated the growth-inhibitory effect of Ethanol Extracts from Punica granatum L. var. spinosa, and clearly showed that apoptosis was the major mechanism of in-vitro cell death induced by the extract.

  13. Growth of diploid, Epstein-Barr virus-carrying human lymphoblastoid cell lines heterotransplanted into nude mice under immunologically privileged conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanella, B; Nilsson, K; Zech, L; Yim, O; Klein, G; Stehlin, J S

    1979-07-15

    Human Epstein-Barr virus-carrying lymphoid cell lines which have been classified on the basis of studies on clonality and morphological, chromosomal and functional parameters as lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) of presumed non-neoplastic origin were inoculated intracerebrally into nude mice. All eighteen of them grew, killing the host mice within 7 to 25 days, except for 2 which grew more slowly. At autopsy, the brain of the nudes was found to be invaded by infiltrating lymphomas. Sixteen of these lymphomas, when recultured in vitro, gave rise to cell lines with growth properties and morphology indistinguishable from those of the inoculated LCL. Chromosomal examinations showed that 3/7 cell lines injected, which grew as lymphomas in the brain, were still normal diploid on reexplantation whereas the remaining four had become aneuploid. Four lines derived from intracerebral lymphomas (2 diploid, 1 aneuploid and 1 untested) were inoculated subcutaneously into adult nude mice. None of them grew. When the corresponding four original LCL lines were inoculated subcutaneously into newborn nude mice, they grew rapidly, but failed to do so in newborn normal mice or intracerebrally in adult normal mice. One such line, U-1450, was treated with anti-lymphocyte serum (ALS). Small nodules developed at the site of inoculation. From one nodule a cell line was cultured, 1450 ALSAD. It was morphologically indistinguishable from the line of origin. The lines obtained from nude mice inoculated with polyclonal LCL seem to have a restricted clonal representation, but were not monoclonal, as evidenced by analyses of their pattern of immunoglobulin synthesis.

  14. Editorial - The winter Atomiades

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    As we wrote in our previous editorial, the Staff Association gives direct support to sports events, such as the Atomiades, a section of the Association of Sports Communities of European Research Institutes, which brings together sportsmen and women from 38 European research centres in 13 countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, United Kingdom, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Luxemburg, the Netherlands, Russia, and Switzerland). The summer Atomiades take place between the months of June and September every three years. Thirteen such events have taken place since 1973, the last one in June 2009 in Berlin. As far as the winter Atomiades are concerned, also organized every three years, and alternating with the summer Atomiades, there have been eleven since 1981, the last one at the end of January this year in neighbouring France. The following article tells the wonderful adventure of the CERN staff who took part in this event. A positive outcome for CERN skiers at the winter Atomiades The 11t...

  15. Winter is losing its cool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, S.

    2017-12-01

    Winter seasons have significant societal impacts across all sectors ranging from direct human health to ecosystems, transportation, and recreation. This study quantifies the severity of winter and its spatial-temporal variations using a newly developed winter severity index and daily temperature, snowfall and snow depth. The winter severity and the number of extreme winter days are decreasing across the global terrestrial areas during 1901-2015 except the southeast United States and isolated regions in the Southern Hemisphere. These changes are dominated by winter warming, while the changes in daily snowfall and snow depth played a secondary role. The simulations of multiple CMIP5 climate models can well capture the spatial and temporal variations of the observed changes in winter severity and extremes during 1951-2005. The models are consistent in projecting a future milder winter under various scenarios. The winter severity is projected to decrease 60-80% in the middle-latitude Northern Hemisphere under the business-as-usual scenario. The winter arrives later, ends earlier and the length of winter season will be notably shorter. The changes in harsh winter in the polar regions are weak, mainly because the warming leads to more snowfall in the high latitudes.

  16. The Effect of Irrigation and Nitrogen on Growth Attributes and Chlorophyll Content of Garlic in Line Source Sprinkler Irrigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    rahim motalebifard

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: With 12 million tons production per year, garlic is the fourth important crop in world. In addition to its medical value, it has been used in food industry. The Hamedan province with 1900 ha cultivation area and 38 percent of production is one of the most important garlic area productions in Iran. Few studies on water use and management of garlic exist in the world. Garlic is very sensitive to water deficit especially in tubers initiation and ripening periods. The current research was done because of scarce research on garlic production under water deficit condition in Iran and importance of plant nutrition and nutrients especially nitrogen on garlic production under stressful conditions. Nitrogen is necessary and important element for increasing the yield and quality of garlic. Application of nitrogen increases the growth trend of garlic such as number of leaves, leaf length and plant body. Reports have shown that garlic has high nitrogen requirement, particularly in the early stages of growth. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted for evaluating the combined effects of nitrogen and irrigation on the yield and quality of garlic (Allium sativumL.. The study was performed as a split-block based on randomized complete blocks design with factors of irrigation at four levels (0-3(normal irrigation, 3-6 (slight water deficit, 6-9 (moderate water deficit and 9-12 (sever water deficit meters distance from main line source sprinkler system, nitrogen at four levels (0, 50,100 and 150 kg nitrogen per ha using three replications and line source sprinkler irrigation system. The total water of irrigation levels was measured by boxes that were fixed in meddle of each plot. The statistical analysis of results were performed using themethod described by Hanks (1980. The chlorophyll index was measured using the chlorophyll meter 502 (Minolta, Spain. The chlorophyll a and bwas measured by the method described by Arnon (1946 and Gross (1991

  17. Effects of Transport Duration and Environmental Conditions in Winter or Summer on the Concentrations of Insulin-Like Growth Factors and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-Binding Proteins in the Plasma of Market-Weight Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirthgen, Elisa; Goumon, Sébastien; Kunze, Martin; Walz, Christina; Spitschak, Marion; Tuchscherer, Armin; Brown, Jennifer; Höflich, Christine; Faucitano, Luigi; Hoeflich, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    In previous work using market-weight pigs, we had demonstrated that insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) are regulated during shipment characterized by changing conditions of stress due to loading or unloading, transportation, lairage, and slaughter. In addition, we found in a previous study that IGFBP-2 concentrations were lower in pigs transported for longer periods of time. Therefore, we performed a more detailed study on the effects of transport duration and season on the plasma concentrations of IGFs and IGFBPs in adult pigs. For the study, exsanguination blood was collected from 240 market-weight barrows that were transported for 6, 12, or 18 h in January or July. IGF-I and -II were detected using commercial ELISAs whereas IGFBPs were quantified by quantitative Western ligand blotting. In addition, established markers of stress and metabolism were studied in the animals. The results show that plasma concentrations of IGFBP-3 were significantly reduced after 18 h of transport compared to shorter transport durations (6 and 12 h; p   0.05). However, low-density lipoprotein concentrations decreased after 18 h compared to 6 h of transport ( p  animal-based indicators of psycho-social or metabolic stress in pigs.

  18. Phase III randomized study comparing docetaxel plus trastuzumab with vinorelbine plus trastuzumab as first-line therapy of metastatic or locally advanced human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer: the HERNATA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Michael; Lidbrink, Elisabeth; Bjerre, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate docetaxel or vinorelbine, both with trastuzumab, as first-line therapy of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive advanced breast cancer.......To evaluate docetaxel or vinorelbine, both with trastuzumab, as first-line therapy of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive advanced breast cancer....

  19. Probing the importance of clonality: Single cell subcloning of clonally derived CHO cell lines yields widely diverse clones differing in growth, productivity, and product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Peggy; Misaghi, Shahram; Hu, Zhilan; Zhan, Dejin; Tsukuda, Joni; Yim, Mandy; Sanford, Mark; Shaw, David; Shiratori, Masaru; Snedecor, Brad; Laird, Michael; Shen, Amy

    2017-12-11

    In the past few decades, a large variety of therapeutic antibodies and proteins have been expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. This mammalian expression system is robust, scalable, relatively inexpensive, and importantly allows for post-translational modifications that are important for some therapeutic proteins. Historically, CHO cell lines were derived from colonies of cells grown in semi-solid or liquid plates using either serum-containing or serum-free media. Current advancements in cell sorting and imaging technologies have allowed for isolating and imaging single cell progenitors at the seeding step, significantly increasing the probability of isolating clonally derived cell lines. However, it is debatable how much population heterogeneity can be eliminated when clonally derived cell lines, originated from a single cell progenitor, are scaled up. To further investigate this phenomenon, we subcloned two different clonally derived (day 0 imaged and visually inspected) cell lines expressing antibody-X. The results showed that when six randomly chosen subclones of each line were evaluated in a production assay, these subclones displayed a range of variation in titer, specific productivity, growth, and product quality attributes. Some subclones displayed variations in transgene copy numbers. Additionally, clonal derivation did not assure stability of the derived cell lines. Our findings show that cell heterogeneity exists in a population even when derived from a single cell progenitor. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  20. Combination effects of epidermal growth factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor on the in vitro developmental potential of porcine oocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valleh, Mehdi Vafaye; Rasmussen, Mikkel Aabech; Hyttel, Poul

    2016-01-01

    of improving this issue, the single and combined effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) on oocyte developmental competence were investigated. Porcine cumulus–oocyte cell complexes (COCs) were matured in serum-free medium supplemented with EGF (0, 10...... with the combination of EGF and GDNF was shown to significantly improve oocyte competence in terms of blastocyst formation, blastocyst cell number and blastocyst hatching rate (P

  1. Combination treatment of glioblastoma multiforme cell lines with the anti-malarial artesunate and the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor OSI-774.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efferth, Thomas; Ramirez, Tzutzuy; Gebhart, Erich; Halatsch, Marc-Eric

    2004-05-01

    New drugs and combination modalities for otherwise non-responsive brain tumors are urgently required. The anti-malarial artesunate (ART) and the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor OSI-774 reveal profound cytotoxic activity. The effectiveness of a combination treatment and the underlying molecular determinants of cellular response are unknown. In the present investigation, we studied ART and OSI-774 in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell lines. Supra-additive inhibition of cell growth was observed in U-87MG.DeltaEGFR cells transduced with a deletion-mutant constitutively active EGFR gene, while additive effects were present in cells transduced with wild-type EGFR (U-87MG.WT-2N), kinase-deficient EGFR (U-87MG.DK-2N), mock vector controls (U-87MG.LUX), or non-transduced parental U-87MG cells. Among nine other non-transduced GBM cell lines, supra-additive effects were found in two cell lines (G-210GM, G-599GM), while ART and OSI-774 acted in an additive manner in the other seven cell lines (G-211GM, G-750GM, G-1163GM, G-1187GM, G-1265GM, G-1301GM, and G-1408GM). Sub-additive or antagonistic effects were not observed. Genomic gains and losses of genetic material in the non-transduced cell lines as assessed by comparative genomic hybridization were correlated with the IC(50) values for ART and OSI-774 and subsequently subjected to hierarchical cluster analysis and cluster image mapping. A genomic profile of imbalances was detected that predicted cellular response to ART and OSI-774. The genes located at the genomic imbalances of interest may serve as candidate resistance genes of GBM cells towards ART and OSI-774. In conclusion, the combination treatment of ART and OSI-774 resulted in an increased growth inhibition of GBM cell lines as compared to each drug alone.

  2. Decontamination and winter conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quenild, C.; Tveten, U.

    1984-12-01

    The report deals with two decontamonation experiments under winter conditions. A snow-covered parking lot was contaminated, and the snow was subsequently removed using standard snow-moving equipment. The snow left behind was collected and the content of contaminant was determined. A non-radioactive contaminant was used. A decontamination factor exceeding 100 was obtained. Although the eksperimental conditions were close to ideal, it is reason to believe that extremely efficient removal of deposited materials on a snow surface is achivable. In another investigation, run-off from agricultural surface, contaminated while covered with snow, was measured A lycimeter was used in this experiment. A stable layer of ice and snow was allowed to form before contamination. The run-off water was collected at each thaw period until all snow and ice was gone. Cs-134 was used as contaminant. Roughly 30% of the Cs-134 with which the area was contaminated ran off with the melt water. Following a reactor accident situation, this would have given a corresponding reduction in the long term doses. Both of these experiments show that consequence calculation assumptions, as they are currently applied to large accident assessment, tend to overestimate the consequences resulting from accidents taking place under winter conditions

  3. Winter School Les Houches

    CERN Document Server

    Lannoo, Michel; Bastard, Gérald; Voos, Michel; Boccara, Nino

    1986-01-01

    The Winter School held in Les Houches on March 12-21, 1985 was devoted to Semiconductor Heterojunctions and Superlattices, a topic which is recognized as being now one of the most interesting and active fields in semiconductor physics. In fact, following the pioneering work of Esaki and Tsu in 1970, the study of these two-dimensional semiconductor heterostructures has developed rapidly, both from the point of view of basic physics and of applications. For instance, modulation-doped heterojunctions are nowadays currently used to investigate the quantum Hall effect and to make very fast transistors. This book contains the lectures presented at this Winter School, showing in particular that many aspects of semiconductor heterojunctions and super­ lattices were treated, extending from the fabrication of these two-dimensional systems to their basic properties and applications in micro-and opto-electron­ ics. Among the subjects which were covered, one can quote as examples: molecular beam epitaxy and metallorgani...

  4. Characterization of growth and Oryctes rhinoceros nudivirus production in attached cultures of the DSIR-HA-1179 coleopteran insect cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushparajan, Charlotte; Claus, Juan Daniel; Marshall, Sean David Goldie; Visnovsky, Gabriel

    2013-12-01

    The DSIR-HA-1179 coleopteran cell line is a susceptible and permissive host to the Oryctes rhinoceros nudivirus (OrNV), which has been used as a biocontrol agent against the coconut rhinoceros beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros); a pest of palms in the Asia-Pacific region. However, little is known about growth and metabolism of this cell line, knowledge of which is necessary to develop an in vitro large-scale OrNV production process. The strong anchorage-dependent characteristics of the cell line, its particular fragility and its tendency to form dense clumps when manipulated, are the most likely reasons that have precluded further development of the cell line. In order to characterize DSIR-HA-1179 cells, there was first a need for a reliable technique to count the cells. A homogenous cell suspension suitable for enumeration could be produced by treatment with TrypLE Express™ with optimum mean time for cell release calculated as 30 min. The cell line was adapted to grow in four serum-supplemented culture media namely TC-100, IPL-41, Sf-900 II and Sf-900 III and cell growth, glucose consumption, lactate and ammonia production were assessed from static-batch cultures. The maximum viable cell density was reached in Sf-900 II (17.9 × 10(5) cells/ml), with the maximum specific growth rate observed in this culture medium as well (0.0074 h(-1)). Higher production of OrNV was observed in IPL-41 and TC-100 (4.1 × 10(7) TCID50/ml) than in cultures infected in Sf-900 III (2.0 × 10(7) TCID50/ml) and Sf-900 II (1.4 × 10(7) TCID50/ml). At the end of the growth period, glucose was completely consumed in cultures grown in TC-100, while remained in excess in the other three culture media. The cell line produced lactate and ammonia to very low levels in the TC-100 culture medium which is a promising aspect for its cultivation at large-scale.

  5. Growth-inhibitory effects of the chemopreventive agent indole-3-carbinol are increased in combination with the polyamine putrescine in the SW480 colon tumour cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, E Ann; Howells, Lynne M; Gallacher-Horley, Barbara; Fox, Louise H; Gescher, Andreas; Manson, Margaret M

    2003-01-01

    Background Many tumours undergo disregulation of polyamine homeostasis and upregulation of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity, which can promote carcinogenesis. In animal models of colon carcinogenesis, inhibition of ODC activity by difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) has been shown to reduce the number and size of colon adenomas and carcinomas. Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) has shown promising chemopreventive activity against a range of human tumour cell types, but little is known about the effect of this agent on colon cell lines. Here, we investigated whether inhibition of ODC by I3C could contribute to a chemopreventive effect in colon cell lines. Methods Cell cycle progression and induction of apoptosis were assessed by flow cytometry. Ornithine decarboxylase activity was determined by liberation of CO2 from 14C-labelled substrate, and polyamine levels were measured by HPLC. Results I3C inhibited proliferation of the human colon tumour cell lines HT29 and SW480, and of the normal tissue-derived HCEC line, and at higher concentrations induced apoptosis in SW480 cells. The agent also caused a decrease in ODC activity in a dose-dependent manner. While administration of exogenous putrescine reversed the growth-inhibitory effect of DFMO, it did not reverse the growth-inhibition following an I3C treatment, and in the case of the SW480 cell line, the effect was actually enhanced. In this cell line, combination treatment caused a slight increase in the proportion of cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, and increased the proportion of cells undergoing necrosis, but did not predispose cells to apoptosis. Indole-3-carbinol also caused an increase in intracellular spermine levels, which was not modulated by putrescine co-administration. Conclusion While indole-3-carbinol decreased ornithine decarboxylase activity in the colon cell lines, it appears unlikely that this constitutes a major mechanism by which the agent exerts its antiproliferative effect, although accumulation

  6. Growth-inhibitory effects of the chemopreventive agent indole-3-carbinol are increased in combination with the polyamine putrescine in the SW480 colon tumour cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gescher Andreas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many tumours undergo disregulation of polyamine homeostasis and upregulation of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC activity, which can promote carcinogenesis. In animal models of colon carcinogenesis, inhibition of ODC activity by difluoromethylornithine (DFMO has been shown to reduce the number and size of colon adenomas and carcinomas. Indole-3-carbinol (I3C has shown promising chemopreventive activity against a range of human tumour cell types, but little is known about the effect of this agent on colon cell lines. Here, we investigated whether inhibition of ODC by I3C could contribute to a chemopreventive effect in colon cell lines. Methods Cell cycle progression and induction of apoptosis were assessed by flow cytometry. Ornithine decarboxylase activity was determined by liberation of CO2 from 14C-labelled substrate, and polyamine levels were measured by HPLC. Results I3C inhibited proliferation of the human colon tumour cell lines HT29 and SW480, and of the normal tissue-derived HCEC line, and at higher concentrations induced apoptosis in SW480 cells. The agent also caused a decrease in ODC activity in a dose-dependent manner. While administration of exogenous putrescine reversed the growth-inhibitory effect of DFMO, it did not reverse the growth-inhibition following an I3C treatment, and in the case of the SW480 cell line, the effect was actually enhanced. In this cell line, combination treatment caused a slight increase in the proportion of cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, and increased the proportion of cells undergoing necrosis, but did not predispose cells to apoptosis. Indole-3-carbinol also caused an increase in intracellular spermine levels, which was not modulated by putrescine co-administration. Conclusion While indole-3-carbinol decreased ornithine decarboxylase activity in the colon cell lines, it appears unlikely that this constitutes a major mechanism by which the agent exerts its antiproliferative

  7. Simulation of over-winter soil water and soil temperature with SHAW and RZ-SHAW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correct simulation of over-winter condition is important for the growth of winter crops and for initial growth of spring crops. RZ-SHAW (RZWQM-SHAW) is a newly developed model by coupling the Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM) and the Simultaneous Heat and Water (SHAW) model. The objective of thi...

  8. Measurements for winter road maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Riehm, Mats

    2012-01-01

    Winter road maintenance activities are crucial for maintaining the accessibility and traffic safety of the road network at northerly latitudes during winter. Common winter road maintenance activities include snow ploughing and the use of anti-icing agents (e.g. road salt, NaCl). Since the local weather is decisive in creating an increased risk of slippery conditions, understanding the link between local weather and conditions at the road surface is critically important. Sensors are commonly i...

  9. Second-line single-agent chemotherapy in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative metastatic breast cancer: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, Fabio; Rea, Daniel; Kroes, Michel A; Pronzato, Paolo

    2016-02-01

    No 'gold standard' exists for single-agent chemotherapy of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-negative) metastatic breast cancer (MBC) in the second-line. The objective of this systematic review is to identify and appraise overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), time to progression (TTP) and Grade ≥3 adverse event evidence for single-agent chemotherapy in this setting. MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched to October 2013, and PubMed October 2013 to November 2014. Electronic database searches were supplemented with hand searching of reference lists and conferences. Eligible randomised controlled trials (RCTs) employed at least one single-agent chemotherapy treatment, enrolled HER2-negative or unselected MBC patients who had progressed following first-line chemotherapy within the metastatic setting, and reported outcomes of interest for the second-line setting. Fifty-three RCTs were included in total, with most containing mixed populations by HER2 status and treatment line. Fourteen studies reported data specifically for second- and later-line treatment within the metastatic setting. Median overall survival (OS) in most trials was 8-13 months. Only one trial reported a significant difference between studied interventions in the second-line metastatic setting: nab-paclitaxel (n=131) conferred a statistically significant OS advantage vs. three-weekly paclitaxel (n=136) (median OS 13.0 vs. 10.7 months, respectively; hazard ratio 0.73, p=0.024) and improved overall safety. One RCT demonstrated significant benefit in this setting in confirmed HER2-negative MBC alongside favourable safety. Treatment line terminology was imprecise. To reliably inform patient treatment decisions, quality-of-life data are needed and precise OS estimation according to underlying patient characteristics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of growth inhibition profiles and mechanisms of apoptosis induction in human colon cancer cell lines by isothiocyanates and indoles from Brassicaceae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappa, Gerlinde [Division of Toxicology and Cancer Risk Factors, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Lichtenberg, Maike [Division of Toxicology and Cancer Risk Factors, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Iori, Renato [Consiglio per la Ricerca e la Sperimentazione in Agricoltura, Istituto Sperimentale Colture Industriali, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Barillari, Jessica [Consiglio per la Ricerca e la Sperimentazione in Agricoltura, Istituto Sperimentale Colture Industriali, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Bartsch, Helmut [Division of Toxicology and Cancer Risk Factors, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Gerhaeuser, Clarissa [Division of Toxicology and Cancer Risk Factors, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)]. E-mail: c.gerhauser@dkfz.de

    2006-07-25

    The isothiocyanates sulforaphane and PEITC ({beta}-phenethyl isothiocyanate) as well as the indoles indole-3-carbinol and its condensation product 3,3'-diindolylmethane are known to inhibit cancer cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. In this study, we compared the cell growth inhibitory potential of the four compounds on the p53 wild type human colon cancer cell line 40-16 (p53{sup +/+}) and its p53 knockout derivative 379.2 (p53{sup -/-}) (both derived from HCT116). Using sulforhodamin B staining to assess cell proliferation, we found that the isothiocyanates were strongly cytotoxic, whereas the indoles inhibited cell growth in a cytostatic manner. Half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of all four compounds in both cell lines ranged from 5-15 {mu}M after 24, 48 and 72 h of treatment. Apoptosis induction was analyzed by immunoblotting of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP). Treatment with sulforaphane (15 {mu}M), PEITC (10 {mu}M), indole-3-carbinol (10 {mu}M) and 3,3'-diindolylmethane (10 {mu}M) induced PARP cleavage after 24 and 48 h in both 40-16 and the 379.2 cell lines, suggestive of a p53-independent mechanism of apoptosis induction. In cultured 40-16 cells, activation of caspase-9 and -7 detected by Western blotting indicated involvement of the mitochondrial pathway. We detected time- and concentration-dependent changes in protein expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-x{sub L} as well as pro-apoptotic Bax and Bak proteins. Of note is that for sulforaphane only, ratios of pro- to anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family protein levels directly correlated with apoptosis induction measured by PARP cleavage. Taken together, we demonstrated that the glucosinolate breakdown products investigated in this study have distinct profiles of cell growth inhibition, potential to induce p53-independent apoptosis and to modulate Bcl-2 family protein expression in human colon cancer cell lines.

  11. Progesterone-induced inhibition of growth and differential regulation of gene expression in PRA- and/or PRB-expressing endometrial cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid-Koopman, Ellen; Kuhne, Liesbeth C M; Hanekamp, Eline E; Gielen, Susanne C J P; De Ruiter, Petra E; Grootegoed, J Anton; Helmerhorst, Theo J M; Burger, Curt W; Brinkmann, Albert O; Huikeshoven, Frans J; Blok, Leen J

    2005-05-01

    Progesterone plays an important role in controlling proliferation and differentiation of the human endometrium. Because there are two progesterone receptor isoforms (PRA and PRB), it was important to generate tools to be able to study the role of these two progesterone receptors separately. Using stable transfection techniques, both human progesterone receptor isoforms (hPRA and hPRB) were reintroduced into a hPR-negative subclone of the well-differentiated endometrial cancer cell line Ishikawa. Several Ishikawa subcell lines were constructed, each expressing different levels of hPRA, hPRB, or hPRA and hPRB, respectively. These Ishikawa subcell lines showed a marked progesterone-induced growth inhibition with induction of apoptosis after long-term culture in the presence of hormone. Upon measuring gene regulation, a clear difference in regulation of expression of the selected genes by progesterone treatment was observed between the PRA-, PRB-, or PRA/B-expressing cell lines. Integrin beta4 (ITGB4) was only regulated in PRA-expressing cells; amphiregulin was highly regulated in PRB-expressing cells; insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) was only regulated in PRB- and PRA/B-expressing cells; and metallothionein 1L (MT1L) was highly regulated in PRA/B-expressing cells. Interestingly, based on literature data, these genes can be implicated in induction of apoptosis, but are modulated here in such a way that suggests induction of resistance against apoptosis. Reintroduction of PRs into Ishikawa cells rescued progesterone responsiveness in these cells. Furthermore, using these human endometrial cancer subcell lines, clear and distinct functional differences between the PR isoforms were observed.

  12. A protocol to correct for intra- and interspecific variation in tail hair growth to align isotope signatures of segmentally cut tail hair to a common time line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnik Šturm, Martina; Pukazhenthi, Budhan; Reed, Dolores; Ganbaatar, Oyunsaikhan; Sušnik, Stane; Haymerle, Agnes; Voigt, Christian C; Kaczensky, Petra

    2015-06-15

    In recent years, segmental stable isotope analysis of hair has been a focus of research in animal dietary ecology and migration. To correctly assign tail hair segments to seasons or even Julian dates, information on tail hair growth rates is a key parameter, but is lacking for most species. We (a) reviewed the literature on tail hair growth rates in mammals; b) made own measurements of three captive equid species; (c) measured δ(2)H, δ(13)C and δ(15)N values in sequentially cut tail hairs of three sympatric, free-ranging equids from the Mongolian Gobi, using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS); and (d) collected environmental background data on seasonal variation by measuring δ(2)H values in precipitation by IRMS and by compiling pasture productivity measured by remote sensing via the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Tail hair growth rates showed significant inter- and intra-specific variation making temporal alignment problematic. In the Mongolian Gobi, high seasonal variation of δ(2)H values in precipitation results in winter lows and summer highs of δ(2)H values of available water sources. In water-dependent equids, this seasonality is reflected in the isotope signatures of sequentially cut tails hairs. In regions which are subject to strong seasonal patterns we suggest identifying key isotopes which show strong seasonal variation in the environment and can be expected to be reflected in the animal tissue. The known interval between the maxima and minima of these isotope values can then be used to correctly temporally align the segmental stable isotope signature for each individual animal. © 2015 The Authors. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) enhances sympathetic neurite growth in rat hearts at early developmental stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miwa, Keiko; Lee, Jong-Kook; Takagishi, Yoshiko; Opthof, Tobias; Fu, Xianming; Kodama, Itsuo

    2010-01-01

    Molecular signaling of sympathetic innervation of myocardium is an unresolved issue. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of neurotrophic factors on sympathetic neurite growth towards cardiomyocytes. Cardiomyocytes (CMs) and sympathetic neurons (SNs) were isolated from neonatal

  14. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-29

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the United States and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. 27 figs, 12 tabs.

  15. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-17

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide consise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: Distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; Natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s as well as selected National average prices; Residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; Crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and A 6-10 Day and 30-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree days by city.

  16. Winter fuels report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD's I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD's, as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 day, 30-Day, and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city

  17. Expression and autoregulation of transforming growth factor beta receptor mRNA in small-cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, P; Spang-Thomsen, M; Poulsen, H S

    1996-01-01

    and beta-glycan (RIII) was examined. The results showed that loss of RII mRNA correlated with TGF-beta 1 resistance. In contrast, RI-and beta-glycan mRNA was expressed by all cell lines, including those lacking expression of these proteins. According to Southern blot analysis, the loss of type II m......RNA was not due to gross structural changes in the gene. The effect of TGF-beta 1 on expression of TGF-beta receptor mRNA (receptor autoregulation) was examined by quantitative Northern blotting in four cell lines with different expression of TGF-beta receptor proteins. In two cell lines expressing all three TGF...

  18. Partially Purified Extracts of Sea Anemone Anemonia viridis Affect the Growth and Viability of Selected Tumour Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Bulati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, marine species have been investigated for the presence of natural products with anticancer activity. Using reversed phase chromatography, low molecular weight proteins were fractionated from the sea anemone Anemonia viridis. Four different fractions were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity by means of erythrocyte haemolysis test, MTS, and LDH assays. Finally, the antiproliferative activities of three of these fractions were studied on PC3, PLC/PRF/5, and A375 human cancer cell lines. Our analysis revealed that the four fractions showed different protein contents and diverse patterns of activity towards human PBMC and cancer cell lines. Interestingly, fractions III and IV exerted cytotoxic effects on human cells. Conversely, fractions I and II displayed very low toxic effects associated with antiproliferative activities on cancer cell lines.

  19. Complete spontaneous avascular necrosis of the adult navicula associated with Mee's growth arrest lines of the great and second toenails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dishan; Ferrerro, Andrea

    2014-03-01

    Spontaneous total avascular necrosis of the tarsal navicula has been well documented in children (Kohler's disease) but is uncommon in adults where partial necrosis is usually seen after trauma or in Müller-Weiss disease. A case of spontaneous complete navicular osteonecrosis in a 46 year old female is described; she had accompanying Mee's leuchonychial lines in the toenails of the great and second toes only; the lines resolved after 9 months. She has been treated with an excision of the navicula and interpositional iliac crest bone graft talo-cuneiform fusion with resolution of her pain. It is postulated that the combination of the Mee's lines and avascular necrosis of the navicula indicates an occlusion of the dorsalis pedis in a predisposed individual. Copyright © 2013 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Stamena winter wheat variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišić Todor

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Stamena is a winter wheat variety developed at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad, Yugoslavia. It was released by the Federal Commission for varietals Approval in 1999. Stamena was developed by crossing genetically divergent and highly productive parents Lasta and Rodna (Breeders: T. Mišić. N. Mladenov, Z. Jerković and R. Jevtić. Spike is white, smooth, awn less, medium compact with 18-21 spike lets. The grain is vitreous and dark red (Triticum aestivum L. ssp. vulgar e var. lutescens. Stamena is a medium early variety, 1 day earlier than Partizanka and 3 days earlier than Jugoslavija (Table 4. It has excellent resistance to winterkilling, as in very winter hardy Partizanka. The average stem height is 78 cm, with a good resistance to lodging. Stamena has field resistance to leaf rust (Pucce, recondita tritict, horizontal resistance, which is the type of resistance that modern wheat breeding is interested in. The resistance to stem rust (Pucce, graminis tritict is good and to powdery mildew (Erysiphegraminis tritici very good. The 1000 grain mass is about 32 g and volume grain mass 81.3 kg/hi. (Table 2. Stamena is classified in the subgroup A-l. It has excellent milling and baking quality and it belong to the 1st technological group (quality enhancer. The quantity of dry gluten is about 9%. The variety Stamena is a very productive, with the genetic potential for grain above 11 t/ha suitable for growing on fertile and less fertile soils. It has started to be grown commercially in 2000.

  1. Evaluation of Nitrogen Uptake and Growth Performance of Advanced Mutant Lines MR219-4 and MR219-9 Grown Under Aerobic Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyful Azizi Abdul Rahman; Abdul Rahim Harun; Rusli Ibrahim; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim

    2014-01-01

    Developing a good crop production management package; drought resistance variety, effective water and nutrient management in rice production practices is crucial for global climate change adaptation. A research project under IAEA RAS5065 (Supporting Climate-Proofing Rice Production Systems (CRiPS) Based on Nuclear Applications) was conducted from 2012 to 2013, in collaboration with MARDI. Two advanced mutant lines, MR219-4 and MR219-9 were used in this research project to evaluate growth, yield potential and fertilizer uptake under different water input condition (flooded and aerobic). The advanced mutant line MR219-9 showed comparable growth, yield and nitrogen uptake under both flooded and aerobic conditions. The yield and yield components are not significantly different from the parent variety (MR219) but total N uptake was lower than MR219 regardless of water regime. The field trial showed that MR219-9 has a better total N content which is comparable to the aerobic rice variety (MRIA 1) and this indicates that this advance mutant line MR219-9 is a potential aerobic rice variety. (author)

  2. Autocrine growth induced by the insulin-related factor in the insulin-independent teratoma cell line 1246-3A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Yukio; Serrero, G.

    1988-01-01

    An insulin-independent teratoma-derived cell line, called 1246-3A, has been isolated from the adipogenic cell line 1246, which stringently requires insulin for proliferation. The 1246-3A cell line, which can proliferate in the absence of exogenous insulin, produces in its conditioned medium a growth factor similar to pancreatic insulin by its biological and immunological properties. This factor, called insulin-related factor (IRF), was purified and iodinated to study its binding to cell surface receptors. 125 I-labeled IRF binding to intact 1246-3A cells is lower than to 1246 cells. Cell surface binding can be restored by culturing the 1246-3A cells in the presence of an anti-porcine insulin monoclonal antibody of by acid prewash of the cells prior to performing the binding. Scatchard analysis of binding indicates that IRF secreted by the 1246-3A cells partially occupies high-affinity binding sites on the producer cells. Moreover, insulin monoclonal antibody inhibits the proliferation of the IRF-producing 1246-3A cells, suggesting that these cells are dependent on the secreted IRF for growth in culture. The authors conclude that the insulin-related factor secreted by the insulin-independent 1246-3A cells stimulates their proliferation in an autocrine fashion

  3. Epidermal Growth Factor-like Domain 7 Predicts Response to First-Line Chemotherapy and Bevacizumab in Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben Frøstrup; Nielsen, Boye Schnack; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2014-01-01

    The number of approved antiangiogenic drugs is constantly growing and emphasizes the need for predictive biomarkers. The aim of this study was to analyze the predictive value of epidermal growth factor-like domain 7 (EGFL7) and microRNA-126 (miR126) to first-line chemotherapy combined with bevaci......The number of approved antiangiogenic drugs is constantly growing and emphasizes the need for predictive biomarkers. The aim of this study was to analyze the predictive value of epidermal growth factor-like domain 7 (EGFL7) and microRNA-126 (miR126) to first-line chemotherapy combined...... in responding patients of 4 [95% confidence interval (CI), 4-6] compared with 8.5 (95% CI, 7-11) in nonresponders, P = 0.0008. This difference translated into a borderline significant difference in PFS (P = 0.06). Furthermore, a significant relationship between high EGFL7 VA and KRAS mutation was detected (P...... = 0.049). The results showed no significant relationship between the miR126 VA and the clinical endpoints. Our study suggests a predictive value of EGFL7 in regard to first-line chemotherapy and bevacizumab in patients with mCRC and supports the mechanism of a dual blocking of the vascular endothelial...

  4. Adaptation and cultivation of permanent fish cell line CCO in serum-free medium and influence of protein hydrolysates on growth performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radošević, Kristina; Dukić, Bogdanka; Andlar, Martina; Slivac, Igor; Gaurina Srček, Višnja

    2016-01-01

    In this work we describe the adaptation of channel catfish ovary (CCO) cell line to commercially available Ultra Culture serum-free medium by gradual reduction of serum concentration from 10 to 0 %. With this approach we obtained CCO cells fully adapted to serum-free conditions in 32 days. Growth, nutritional and morphological characteristics of these cells remained unchanged when compared to the control group kept in the presence of serum. Additionally, three commercially available protein hydrolysates were tested for the effects on growth performance of the newly serum-free adapted CCO cells. Supplementation with wheat gluten hydrolysate resulted in growth similar to serum free medium solely, while yeast and soy hydrolysates showed inhibitory effects on the cell growth. Taken together, the successful adaptation of CCO cells to serum-free conditions indicates their potential to be used in cytotoxicity assays when serum omission is demanded or for developing serum free bioprocesses using CCO cells. However, a more extended study on nutrient supplementation is still required to further boost the cell growth in a serum free culture.

  5. Ginsenoside Rg3 enhances radiosensitization of hypoxic oesophageal cancer cell lines through vascular endothelial growth factor and hypoxia inducible factor 1α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xiaolin; Zhen, Fuxi; Yang, Baixia; Yang, Xi; Cai, Jing; Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Sheng; Cao, Yuandong; Ma, Jianxin; Cheng, Hongyan; Sun, Xinchen

    2014-06-01

    To determine if the pretreatment of hypoxic human oesophageal carcinoma cell lines (EC109, TE1 and KYSE170) with ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3) increases their radiosensitivity to X-rays. The growth inhibitory effect of different Rg3 concentrations was measured using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Radiation sensitivity was measured using a clone formation assay and flow cytometry was used to measure the effects of Rg3 on radiation-induced apoptosis. Western blot analysis was used to measure the effects of Rg3 on the levels of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Rg3 inhibited EC109, TE1 and KYSE170 cell growth in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Pretreatment with 10 µmol/ml Rg3 increased EC109, TE1 and KYSE170 radiosensitivity. Rg3 plus radiation significantly increased the apoptosis rate compared with radiation alone. Rg3 also decreased VEGF and HIF-1α protein levels in EC109 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The combination of Rg3 and radiation increased the fragmentation of double-stranded DNA. Rg3 enhanced the radiosensitivity of human oesophageal carcinoma cell lines cultured under hypoxic conditions possibly by downregulating VEGF and HIF-1α protein levels. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  6. Growth-Inhibitory and Apoptosis-Inducing Effects of Punica granatum L. var. spinosa (Apple Punice) on Fibrosarcoma Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Sineh Sepehr, Koushan; Baradaran, Behzad; Mazandarani, Masoumeh; Yousefi, Bahman; Abdollahpour Alitappeh, Meghdad; Khori, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Punica granatum L. var. granatum (Pomegranate), an herbaceous plant found in Iran, The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic effects, induction of apoptosis, and the mechanism of cell death of ethanol extract from Punica granatum L. var. spinosa on the mouse fibrosarcoma cell line, WEHI-164.

  7. Human metastatic melanoma cell lines express high levels of growth hormone receptor and respond to GH treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sustarsic, Elahu G; Junnila, Riia K; Kopchick, John J.

    2013-01-01

    biopsies, the level of GHR mRNA is elevated in advanced stage IV tumor samples compared to stage III. Due to the novel finding of high GHR in melanoma, we examined the effect of GH treatment on three NCI60 melanoma lines (MDA-MB-435, UACC-62 and SK-MEL-5). GH increased proliferation in two out of three...

  8. On-line study of fungal morphology during submerged growth in a small flow-through cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spohr, Anders Bendsen; Dam Mikkelsen, C.; Carlsen, Morten

    1998-01-01

    A flow-through cell is designed to measure the growth kinetics of hyphae of Aspergillus oryzae grown submerged in a well controlled environment. The different stages of the growth process are characterized, from the spore to the fully developed hyphal element with up to 60 branches and a total...... is determined. After about 10 h growth at a glucose concentration of 250 mg L-1, 6-7 branches have been set, and both the total hyphal length l(t) and the number of tips increase exponentially with time. The specific growth rate of the hyphae is 0.33 h(-1) while the average rate of the extension of the growing...... tips approaches 55 mu m h(-1). The growth kinetics for all the branches on the main hypha have also been found. The main hypha and all the branches grow at a rate which can be modeled by saturation kinetics with respect to the branch length and with nearly equal final tip speeds (160 mu m h(-1...

  9. Evaluation of in-line spatial filter velocimetry as PAT monitoring tool for particle growth during fluid bed granulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burggraeve, A; Van Den Kerkhof, T; Hellings, M; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C; De Beer, T

    2010-09-01

    In this study, the feasibility of spatial filter velocimetry (SFV) as process analytical technology tool for the in-line monitoring of the particle size distribution during top spray fluidized bed granulation was examined. The influence of several process (inlet air temperature during spraying and drying) and formulation variables (HPMC and Tween 20 concentration) upon the particle size distribution during processing, and the end product particle size distribution, tapped density and Hausner ratio was examined using a design of experiments (DOE) (2-level full factorial design, 19 experiments). The trend in end granule particle size distributions of all DOE batches measured with in-line SFV was similar to the off-line laser diffraction (LD) data. Analysis of the DOE results showed that mainly the HPMC concentration and slightly the inlet air temperature during drying had a positive effect on the average end granule size. The in-line SFV particle size data, obtained every 10s during processing, further allowed to explain and better understand the (in)significance of the studied DOE variables, which was not possible based on the LD data as this technique only supplied end granule size information. The variation in tapped density and Hausner ratio among the end granules of the different DOE batches could be explained by their difference in average end granule size. Univariate, multivariate PLS and multiway N-PLS models were built to relate these end granule properties to the in-line-measured particle size distribution. The multivariate PLS tapped density model and the multiway N-PLS Hausner ratio model showed the highest R(2) values in combination with the lowest RMSEE values (R(2) of 82% with an RMSEE of 0.0279 for tapped density and an R(2) of 52% with an RMSEE of 0.0268 for Hausner ratio, respectively). 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Optimal Cross Hedging Winter Canola

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seon-Woong; Brorsen, B. Wade; Yoon, Byung-Sam

    2014-01-01

    Winter canola in the southern Great Plains has shown large price fluctuations and there have been questions about which futures market could be used to reduce price risk. Our results indicate that the optimal futures contract to cross hedge winter canola is soybean oil futures.

  11. Evaluation of growth characters and yield components for six durum wheat lines (triticum durum deaf) selected from M4 and M5 - irradiated population under drought conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesiem, M. R. A.; Kassem, M. K. M.; Basyouny, M. A. E.

    2012-12-01

    Grain of two durum wheat cultivars, Sohag 3 and Beni Suef 3 were irradiated with gamma ray doses 0, 150, 250 and 350 Gy to obtain new durum wheat lines, characterized by high yielding and drought tolerance. Irradiated grains were cultivated in the field under normal and drought conditions 2005 - 2010 seasons. 20 grain (M 1 ) from each treatment was planed as in the first season. In the second season (M 2 ), grains of 61 plants were selected as thy had the following higher criteria, i.e yield, grain yield / plant, plant height, tillering and 100 grains weight. The selected variants should exceed by 50% or more than control. Grains of the 61 selected plants were individually sown under normal and drought condition. At the end of this season, six selected putative line had superiority over their parents. The S1 and S2 lines had an excellent grain yield per plant under normal condition but S3 and S4 lines had superiority for grain yield per plant under drought condition as compared to parents Sohag3. B1 and B2 lines had the superiority for grain per plant under normal condition comparing with the parent Beni Suef3. In the fourth season (M4),growth, chemical compositions and yield as well as its components of the six putative lines as well as the parents Sohag 3 and Beni Suef 3 were determined under normal and drought conditions. The results showed a significant under normal and drought conditions. The results showed a significant increase in the number of leaves on the main stem and tillering number / plant for S1, S2, B1, B2 as compared with their corresponding parent under normal condition. Also, S3 and S4 line shad the same results comparing with the parent Sohag3 under drought condition. The results of S3 and S4 showed an accumulation of organic protective asmolytes such as sugar, proline and free amino acid. As well as N, P, K, and Ca concentrations in shoots and roots as compared to the parent Sohag 3 . The putative line S1, A2 and B1 showed significant increase

  12. NS Pudarka: A new winter wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-yielding, medium late winter wheat cultivar NS Pudarka was developed by crossing genetic divergent parents: line NMNH-07 and cv. NS 40S and Simonida. In cultivar NS Pudarka genes responsible for high yield potential, very good technological quality, resistance to lodging, low temperature and diseases, were successfully combined. It was registered by Ministry of agriculture, forestry and water management of Serbia Republic in 2013. This cultivar has wide adaptability and stability of yield that enable growing in different environments with optimal agricultural practice. On the base of technological quality this cultivar belongs to the second quality class, A2 farinograph subgroup and second technological group.

  13. Effect of recombinant adenovirus encoding human p53 tumor suppressor gene (rAd-p53) on the growth and radiotherapeutic sensitivity of human lymphoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zeyang; Fan Wo; Li Dongqing; Zhu Ran; Wang Yongqing; Wu Jinchang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the inhibitory effect and radiation sensitization of recombinant adenovirus encoding human p53 tumor suppressor gene (rAd-p53) on human lymphoma cell lines. Methods: Human lymphoma cell lines Raji and Daudi were treated with rAd-p53, radiation therapy and combined treatment, respectively. The cell growth inhibition was assessed by MTT. The p53 protein expression was detected by Western blotting, and p53 mRNA was detected by BT-PCB. Results: The MTT results showed that the inhibitory effect and radiosensitivity enhancement of rAd-p53 on human lymphoma cell lines were not obvious [Raji: (27.5±4.1)%; Daudi: (28.1±1.6)%]. The results of Western blotting and BT-PCB showed that extrinsic p53 protein and p53 mRNA were expressed to some degree, but not at high-level. In addition, the results didn't demonstrate obvious radiosensitivity enhancement. Conclusions: The role of inhibition and radiosensitivity enhancement of rAd-p53 was not significant on human lymphoma cell lines. (authors)

  14. Protein and energy metabolism in two lines of chickens selected for growth on high or low protein diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André; Eggum, B O; Sørensen, Peter

    1983-01-01

    studied 10 years previously. There was no difference in nitrogen retention between groups, although relative growth rate of group B birds was higher. Heat productions relative to gross energy intake were 0.38 (group B) and 0.45 (group A). Energy retentions relative to gross energy intake were 0.39 (group...... B) and 0.35 (group A); the difference being primarily due to higher fat retention in group B. Using a common maintenance requirement for metabolisable energy, group B utilised metabolisable energy for growth (0.78) better than did group A (0.71). At 53 d of age plasma glucose (10%) and insulin (50...

  15. Novel psychrotolerant picocyanobacteria isolated from Chesapeake Bay in the winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongle; Jiao, Nianzhi; Chen, Feng

    2015-08-01

    Picocyanobacteria are major primary producers in the ocean, especially in the tropical or subtropical oceans or during warm seasons. Many "warm" picocyanobacterial species have been isolated and characterized. However, picocyanobacteria in cold environments or cold seasons are much less studied. In general, little is known about the taxonomy and ecophysiology of picocyanobacteria living in the winter. In this study, 17 strains of picocyanobacteria were isolated from Chesapeake Bay, a temperate estuarine ecosystem, during the winter months. These winter isolates belong to five distinct phylogenetic lineages, and are distinct from the picocyanobacteria previously isolated from the warm seasons. The vast majority of the winter isolates were closely related to picocyanobacteria isolated from other cold environments like Arctic or subalpine waters. The winter picocyanobacterial isolates were able to maintain slow growth or prolonged dormancy at 4°C. Interestingly, the phycoerythrin-rich strains outperformed the phycocyanin-rich strains at cold temperature. In addition, winter picocyanobacteria changed their morphology when cultivated at 4°C. The close phylogenetic relationship between the winter picocyanobacteria and the picocyanobacteria living in high latitude cold regions indicates that low temperature locations select specific ecotypes of picocyanobacteria. © 2015 Phycological Society of America.

  16. Unexpected winter phytoplankton blooms in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacour, L.; Ardyna, M.; Stec, K. F.; Claustre, H.; Prieur, L.; Poteau, A.; D'Alcala, M. Ribera; Iudicone, D.

    2017-11-01

    In mid- and high-latitude oceans, winter surface cooling and strong winds drive turbulent mixing that carries phytoplankton to depths of several hundred metres, well below the sunlit layer. This downward mixing, in combination with low solar radiation, drastically limits phytoplankton growth during the winter, especially that of the diatoms and other species that are involved in seeding the spring bloom. Here we present observational evidence for widespread winter phytoplankton blooms in a large part of the North Atlantic subpolar gyre from autonomous profiling floats equipped with biogeochemical sensors. These blooms were triggered by intermittent restratification of the mixed layer when mixed-layer eddies led to a horizontal transport of lighter water over denser layers. Combining a bio-optical index with complementary chemotaxonomic and modelling approaches, we show that these restratification events increase phytoplankton residence time in the sunlight zone, resulting in greater light interception and the emergence of winter blooms. Restratification also caused a phytoplankton community shift from pico- and nanophytoplankton to phototrophic diatoms. We conclude that transient winter blooms can maintain active diatom populations throughout the winter months, directly seeding the spring bloom and potentially making a significant contribution to over-winter carbon export.

  17. A Vitex agnus-castus extract inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in prostate epithelial cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, M; Schaffner, W; Jundt, G; Sulser, T; Wyler, S; Tullberg-Reinert, H

    2005-10-01

    Extracts of Vitex agnus-castus fruits (VACF) are described to have beneficial effects on disorders related to hyperprolactinemia (cycle disorders, premenstrual syndrome). A VACF extract has recently been shown to exhibit antitumor activities in different human cancer cell lines. In the present study, we explored the antiproliferative effects of a VACF extract with a particular focus on apoptosis-inducing and potential cytotoxic effects. Three different human prostate epithelial cell lines (BPH-1, LNCaP, PC-3) representing different disease stages and androgen responsiveness were chosen. The action of VACF on cell viability was assessed using the WST-8-tetrazolium assay. Cell proliferation in cells receiving VACF alone or in combination with a pan-caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD-fmk) was quantified using a Crystal Violet assay. Flow cytometric cell cycle analysis and measurement of DNA fragmentation using an ELISA method were used for studying the induction of apoptosis. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was determined as a marker of cytotoxicity. The extract inhibited proliferation of all three cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner with IC (50) values below 10 microg/mL after treatment for 48 h. Cell cycle analysis and DNA fragmentation assays suggest that part of the cells were undergoing apoptosis. The VACF-induced decrease in cell number was partially inhibited by Z-VAD-fmk, indicating a caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death. However, the concentration-dependent LDH activity of VACF treated cells indicated cytotoxic effects as well. These data suggest that VACF contains components that inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in human prostate epithelial cell lines. The extract may be useful for the prevention and/or treatment not only of benign prostatic hyperplasia but also of human prostate cancer.

  18. Verrucarin A, a protein synthesis inhibitor, induces growth inhibition and apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and T47D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanivel, Kandasamy; Kanimozhi, Veerasamy; Kadalmani, Balamuthu; Akbarsha, Mohammad Abdulkader

    2013-09-01

    Verrucarin A (VA), a protein synthesis inhibitor, derived from the pathogen fungus Myrothecium verrucaria, inhibits growth of leukemia cell lines and activates caspases and apoptosis and inflammatory signaling in macrophages. We have investigated VA-induced growth inhibition in breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 and T47D and, particularly, the mechanism of VA-induced apoptosis. VA treatment brought about apoptotic cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manner which was associated with chromatin condensation, cell shrinkage, nuclear fragmentation and intracellular ROS production. Mitochondrial membrane depolarization, activation of caspase-3, down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression and up-regulation of Bax and p53 expression were observed. VA thus affects the viability of both the breast cancer cells by triggering ROS-mediated intrinsic mechanism of apoptosis.

  19. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-04

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition, underground storage, and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. This report will be published weekly by the EIA starting the first week in October 1990 and will continue until the first week in April 1991. The data will also be available electronically after 5:00 p.m. on Thursday during the heating season through the EIA Electronic Publication System (EPUB). 12 tabs.

  20. Klaus Winter (1930 - 2015)

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    We learned with great sadness that Klaus Winter passed away on 9 February 2015, after a long illness.   Klaus was born in 1930 in Hamburg, where he obtained his diploma in physics in 1955. From 1955 to 1958 he held a scholarship at the Collège de France, where he received his doctorate in nuclear physics under the guidance of Francis Perrin. Klaus joined CERN in 1958, where he first participated in experiments on π+ and K0 decay properties at the PS, and later became the spokesperson of the CHOV Collaboration at the ISR. Starting in 1976, his work focused on experiments with the SPS neutrino beam. In 1984 he joined Ugo Amaldi to head the CHARM experiment, designed for detailed studies of the neutral current interactions of high-energy neutrinos, which had been discovered in 1973 using the Gargamelle bubble chamber at the PS. The unique feature of the detector was its target calorimeter, which used large Carrara marble plates as an absorber material. From 1984 to 1991, Klau...

  1. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-13

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD`s I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s, as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 day, 30-Day, and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city.

  2. Differential growth of U and M type infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus in a rainbow trout–derived cell line, RTG-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurath, Gael; Purcell, Maureen K.; Wargo, Andrew; Park, Jeong Woo; Moon, Chang Hoon

    2010-01-01

    Infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is one of the most important viral pathogens of salmonids. In rainbow trout, IHNV isolates in the M genogroup are highly pathogenic, while U genogroup isolates are significantly less pathogenic. We show here that, at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1, a representative U type strain yielded 42-fold less infectious virus than an M type strain in the rainbow trout–derived RTG-2 cell line at 24 h post-infection (p.i.). However, at an MOI of 10, there was only fivefold difference in the yield of infectious virus between the U and M strains. Quantification of extracellular viral genomic RNA suggested that the number of virus particles released from cells infected with the U strain at a MOI of 1 was 47-fold lower than from M-infected cells, but U and M virions were equally infectious by particle to infectivity ratios. At an MOI of 1, U strain intracellular viral genome accumulation and transcription were 37- and 12-fold lower, respectively, than those of the M strain at 24 h p.i. Viral nucleocapsid (N) protein accumulation in U strain infections was fivefold lower than in M strain infections. These results suggest that the block in U type strain growth in RTG-2 cells was because of the effects of reduced genome replication and transcription. The reduced growth of the U strain does not seem to be caused by defective genes, because the U and M strains grew equally well in the permissive epithelioma papulosum cyprini cell line at an MOI of 1. This suggests that host-specific factors in RTG-2 cells control the growth of the IHNV U and M strains differently, leading to growth restriction of the U type virus during the RNA synthesis step.

  3. Vitamin E analogue, D-alpha tocopherol succinate, enhances x-ray induced growth delay of human adenocarcinoma cancer cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaworska, A.; Ottesen, T.E.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of d-alpha Tocopherol succinate (alpha-TS) in modifying radiation-induced viability reduction and apoptosis occurrence in the model for normal and cancer cells. Our hypothesis was that alpha-TS enhances the growth-inhibitory effect of x-irradiation in cancer cells and that the effect is more pronounced in these cells than in normal cells. Murine NIH 3T3 Swiss albino embryonic cells and HT29 human Caucasian colon adenocarcinoma cells were used in the experiments. Alpha-TS was added to the cultures 1 h prior to irradiation with doses of 2 or 5Gy of x-ray. After irradiation cells were incubated for 73 h. Trypan blue exclusion viability test and estimation of apoptosis and necrosis were made. Apoptotic and necrotic cells were counted in fluorescence microscope using fluorescence dyes: propidium iodide and Hoechst 33342. For experiments with the dose of 5 Gy at least five series of experiments were performed. At lower doses (up to approximately 25μM/ml) treatment with alpha-TS alone enhanced growth of both cell lines. At higher doses treatment with alpha-TS alone delayed the growth of the cell cultures, accompanied by 20-25% necrosis. At the concentrations higher than 25μM/mL alpha-TS alone caused growth delay of both cell cultures, being much more pronounced for the cancer cell line HT29. At the concentrations of 50 μM/mL, responsible for about 30-60% of growth delay, there was observed a synergy effect for x-rays and alpha-TS for both cell lines. The effect was more pronounced for HT29 cells (DMF=0.48 for HT29 versus DMF=0.73 for NIH 3T3). These results may confirm the views of the literature reports suggesting that use of vitamin E together with radiation could be favorable for colon cancer treatment; however, more experiments using more advanced techniques are needed

  4. Use of HT-29, a cultured human colon cancer cell line, to study the effect of fermented milks on colon cancer cell growth and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baricault, L; Denariaz, G; Houri, J J; Bouley, C; Sapin, C; Trugnan, G

    1995-02-01

    Epidemiological and in vivo and in vitro experimental studies have suggested that fermented milks may interfere with the emergence and/or the development of colon cancer. The results, however, remain inconclusive. This prompted us to develop a new approach based on the use of HT-29, a cultured human colon cancer cell line, to study at the cellular level the effect of fermented milks on colon cancer cell growth and differentiation characteristics. Undifferentiated HT-29 cells have been grown in the continuous presence of milks fermented by one of the following bacterial populations: Lactobacillus helveticus, Bifidobacterium, L.acidophilus or a mix of Streptococcus thermophilus and L. bulgaricus. Penicillin G was added to the cell culture medium, resulting in a complete blockade of bacterial growth without significant effect on bacterial viability. One out of the four bacteria species studied, namely L.acidophilus, was without effect on both cell growth and differentiation. The three other bacterial strains induced a significant, although variable, reduction in the growth rate of HT-29 cells, which resulted in a 10-50% decrease in the cell number at steady-state (i.e. at cell confluency). The most efficient strains in lowering the HT-29 growth rate were L. helveticus and Bifidobacterium. Concomitantly, the specific activities of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV), a sensitive and specific marker of HT-29 cell differentiation, and that of three other brush border enzymes (sucrase, aminopeptidase N and alkaline phosphatase) were significantly increased, thus suggesting that these cells may have entered a differentiation process. Altogether, these results indicate that the use of cultured colon cancer cells may be a useful tool to further study the effect of fermented milks on colon cancer and that bacterial strains may exert a different and specific effect on cancer cell growth and differentiation when used in fermented milk products.

  5. Sustainable use of winter Durum wheat landraces under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the two checks cultivars. Bi- plot analysis showed that some promising lines with reasonable grain yields, good quality parameters, winter hardiness and drought tolerances among yellow rust resistance durum wheat landraces can be selected for semiarid conditions of Mediterranean countries for sustainable production.

  6. Winter Safety Tips for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter Safety Tips for Older Adults Expert Information from Healthcare Professionals Who Specialize in the Care of ... thick clothing. Think about getting your thermals! –Essential winter wears: hats, gloves or preferably mittens, winter coat, ...

  7. Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vitamin D Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter Winter sports enthusiasts are at increased risk for overexposure ... associated with sun exposure. "It's easy to associate winter with frostbite and windburn, but most people are ...

  8. Influence of climate on radial growth of Pinus cembra within the alpine timberline ecotone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhuber, Walter

    2004-03-01

    Radial growth variability and response to interannual climate variation of Cembran pine (Pinus cembra L.) were studied in the timberline ecotone on Mt. Patscherkofel (2246 m a.s.l.). The study area, which is in the inner alpine dry region of the Central Austrian Alps, is characterized by a continental climate with minimum precipitation in winter (about 150 mm during December-February) and frequent occurrence of warm dry winds (Föhn) in early spring. The hypothesis that spatial and temporal variability of radial growth is caused by site-related differences in sensitivity to winter stress (i.e., desiccation) was examined by applying dendroclimatological techniques. Ordination methods applied to tree ring time series revealed that spatial variability in radial growth is influenced by the local site factors elevation and slope aspect. Growth-climate relationships were explored using Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients and multiple regression analysis. Radial growth at the timberline was positively correlated with temperature in July and was also strongly correlated with mild temperatures in the previous autumn and high precipitation in winter (January-March). At the tree line, temperatures in the previous autumn and precipitation in late winter (March) also controlled radial growth, whereas July temperature was not significantly correlated with ring width. Because previous autumn temperature and winter precipitation were the main growth-determining factors at the timberline and the tree line, and both of these climate variables are known to influence susceptibility of trees to winter stress, the results support the working hypothesis. Analysis of climatic conditions in extreme growth years confirmed the high sensitivity of tree ring growth to precipitation in late winter (March) at the tree line plots. Furthermore, extent of growth reduction and release varied spatially and temporarily, with south- and west-facing stands showing a higher sensitivity to

  9. Bioactive chemical constituents of Curcuma longa L. rhizomes extract inhibit the growth of human hepatoma cell line (HepG2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Lateef Ezzat

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to identify the chemical constituents of the methanolic extract of Curcuma longa L. rhizomes and their inhibitory effect on a hepatoma cell line. The methanolic extract was subjected to GC-MS analysis to identify the volatile constituents and the other part of the same extract was subjected to liquid column chromatographic separation to isolate curcumin. The inhibition of cell growth in the hepatoma cell line and the cytopathological changes were studied. GC-MS analysis showed the presence of fifty compounds in the methanolic extract of C. longa. The major compounds were ar-turmerone (20.50 %, β-sesquiphellandrene (5.20 % and curcumenol (5.11 %. Curcumin was identified using IR, 1H and 13C NMR. The inhibition of cell growth by curcumin (IC50 = 41.69 ± 2.87 μg mL-1 was much more effective than that of methanolic extract (IC50 = 196.12 ± 5.25 μg mL-1. Degenerative and apoptotic changes were more evident in curcumin- treated hepatoma cells than in those treated with the methanol extract. Antitumor potential of the methanolic extract may be attributed to the presence of sesquiterpenes and phenolic constituents including curcumin (0.051 %, 511.39 μg g-1 dried methanol extract in C. longa rhizomes.

  10. Bioactive chemical constituents of Curcuma longa L. rhizomes extract inhibit the growth of human hepatoma cell line (HepG2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Lateef, Ezzat; Mahmoud, Faten; Hammam, Olfat; El-Ahwany, Eman; El-Wakil, Eman; Kandil, Sherihan; Abu Taleb, Hoda; El-Sayed, Mortada; Hassenein, Hanaa

    2016-09-01

    The present study was designed to identify the chemical constituents of the methanolic extract of Curcuma longa L. rhizomes and their inhibitory effect on a hepatoma cell line. The methanolic extract was subjected to GC-MS analysis to identify the volatile constituents and the other part of the same extract was subjected to liquid column chromatographic separation to isolate curcumin. The inhibition of cell growth in the hepatoma cell line and the cytopathological changes were studied. GC-MS analysis showed the presence of fifty compounds in the methanolic extract of C. longa. The major compounds were ar-turmerone (20.50 %), β-sesquiphellandrene (5.20 %) and curcumenol (5.11 %). Curcumin was identified using IR, 1H and 13C NMR. The inhibition of cell growth by curcumin (IC50 = 41.69 ± 2.87 μg mL-1) was much more effective than that of methanolic extract (IC50 = 196.12 ± 5.25 μg mL-1). Degenerative and apoptotic changes were more evident in curcumin- treated hepatoma cells than in those treated with the methanol extract. Antitumor potential of the methanolic extract may be attributed to the presence of sesquiterpenes and phenolic constituents including curcumin (0.051 %, 511.39 μg g-1 dried methanol extract) in C. longa rhizomes.

  11. MicroRNA-26a/cyclin-dependent kinase 5 axis controls proliferation, apoptosis and in vivo tumor growth of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Floriana Maria; Inguscio, Alessandra; Kunderfranco, Paolo; Cortesi, Alice; Elia, Leonardo; Quintavalle, Manuela

    2017-06-22

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most frequent type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Despite a favorable therapeutic response to first-line chemo-immunotherapy, still 30-40% of patients is refractory, or relapse after this treatment. Thus, alternative strategies must be sought. Previous studies have indicated that cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5), a serine/threonine protein kinase, is involved in tumor development and progression, and it may represent a potential therapeutic target. However, its role in modulating DLBCL growth and progression remains largely unexplored. In this study, we show that CDK5 and its activator, cyclin-dependent kinase 5 activator 1 (CDK5R1 or p35), are overexpressed in DLBCL cell lines and that signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation and activity is dependent on CDK5 expression in DLBCL. Using public data sets, we also demonstrate that patients with DLBCL show a higher expression of CDK5 compared with healthy individuals. By using loss-of-function approaches, we demonstrate that CDK5's activity regulates proliferation and survival of DLBCL cells. MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are small noncoding RNAs that negatively regulating gene expression and are involved in cancer initiation and progression. We identify miR-26a as direct regulator of p35 expression and CDK5 activity. We show that miR-26a expression is lower in DLBCL cell lines compared to B lymphocytes and that its ectopic expression leads to a drastic reduction of DLBCL tumor growth in vivo and decreased proliferation, cell-cycle progression, and survival in vitro. Remarkably, concomitant overexpression of a 3'-UTR-truncated form of p35 promoted tumor growth in vivo and cell proliferation, cell-cycle progression, and cell survival in vitro. In conclusion, these results demonstrate an important role for miR-26a and CDK5 together in the survival and growth of DLBCL cells, suggesting the existence of potential novel therapeutic targets for the

  12. Antimicrobial Activity, Growth Inhibition of Human Tumour Cell Lines, and Phytochemical Characterization of the Hydromethanolic Extract Obtained from Sapindus saponaria L. Aerial Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled N. Rashed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydromethanolic extract of Sapindus saponaria L. aerial parts was investigated for antimicrobial activity (against several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi and capacity to inhibit the growth of different human tumor cell lines as also nontumor liver cells. The evaluated extract was further characterized in terms of phytochemicals using UV, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and MS spectroscopic tools. The extract has shown a significant antimicrobial activity on all tested bacterial and fungal species. The best activity was achieved against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus among bacteria and against all three Penicillium species tested. It also revealed cytotoxicity against human colon (HCT-15, cervical (HeLa, breast (MCF-7, and lung (NCI-H460 carcinoma cell lines, with HeLa being the most susceptible tumor cell line. The extract was not toxic for nontumor liver cells. Chromatographic separation of the extract resulted in the isolation and identification of stigmasterol, oleanolic acid, luteolin, luteolin 8-C-β-glucoside (orientin, luteolin 6-C-β-glucoside (isoorientin, luteolin 7-O-β-glucuronide, and rutin. The results of the present findings may be useful for the discovery of novel antitumor and antimicrobial agents from plant origin.

  13. Antimicrobial activity, growth inhibition of human tumour cell lines, and phytochemical characterization of the hydromethanolic extract obtained from Sapindus saponaria L. aerial parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, Khaled N; Ćirić, Ana; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Soković, Marina

    2013-01-01

    The hydromethanolic extract of Sapindus saponaria L. aerial parts was investigated for antimicrobial activity (against several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi) and capacity to inhibit the growth of different human tumor cell lines as also nontumor liver cells. The evaluated extract was further characterized in terms of phytochemicals using UV, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, and MS spectroscopic tools. The extract has shown a significant antimicrobial activity on all tested bacterial and fungal species. The best activity was achieved against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus among bacteria and against all three Penicillium species tested. It also revealed cytotoxicity against human colon (HCT-15), cervical (HeLa), breast (MCF-7), and lung (NCI-H460) carcinoma cell lines, with HeLa being the most susceptible tumor cell line. The extract was not toxic for nontumor liver cells. Chromatographic separation of the extract resulted in the isolation and identification of stigmasterol, oleanolic acid, luteolin, luteolin 8-C-β-glucoside (orientin), luteolin 6-C-β-glucoside (isoorientin), luteolin 7-O-β-glucuronide, and rutin. The results of the present findings may be useful for the discovery of novel antitumor and antimicrobial agents from plant origin.

  14. Winter/Summer Monsoon Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Winter/Summer Monsoon Experiment (MONEX) was conducted during the First Global GARP (Global Atmospheric Research Program) Experiment (FGGE). An international...

  15. Over-winter ecology of Oncorhynchus nerka in the Sawtooth Valley Lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhart, G.B.; Wurtsbaugh, W.A.

    1996-01-01

    Included in this section of the report on limnology of Lakes in the Snake River Plain are descriptions of winter limnological conditions and kokanee growth characteristics from 1993 to 1995. The winter is usually a very harsh period for animals, and little is know about the over-winter ecology os sockeye salmon. They are active a temperatures below 4 F. The chapter discusses methods and results. 14 figs, 4 tabs

  16. Over-winter ecology of Oncorhynchus nerka in the Sawtooth Valley Lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinhart, G.B.; Wurtsbaugh, W.A.

    1996-05-01

    Included in this section of the report on limnology of Lakes in the Snake River Plain are descriptions of winter limnological conditions and kokanee growth characteristics from 1993 to 1995. The winter is usually a very harsh period for animals, and little is know about the over-winter ecology os sockeye salmon. They are active a temperatures below 4 F. The chapter discusses methods and results. 14 figs, 4 tabs.

  17. Genetic architecture of winter hardiness and frost tolerance in triticale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxin Liu

    Full Text Available Abiotic stress experienced by autumn-sown crops during winter is of great economic importance as it can have a severe negative impact on yield. In this study, we investigated the genetic architecture of winter hardiness and frost tolerance in triticale. To this end, we used a large mapping population of 647 DH lines phenotyped for both traits in combination with genome-wide marker data. Employing multiple-line cross QTL mapping, we identified nine main effect QTL for winter hardiness and frost tolerance of which six were overlapping between both traits. Three major QTL were identified on chromosomes 5A, 1B and 5R. In addition, an epistasis scan revealed the contribution of epistasis to the genetic architecture of winter hardiness and frost tolerance in triticale. Taken together, our results show that winter hardiness and frost tolerance are complex traits that can be improved by phenotypic selection, but also that genomic approaches hold potential for a knowledge-based improvement of these important traits in elite triticale germplasm.

  18. Austenite Grain Growth Kinetics in API X65 and X70 Line-Pipe Steels during Isothermal Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asiful Hossain Seikh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to investigate the microstructural behavior of austenite grain size (AGS during the reheating process of two different API steel grades (X65 and X70. The steel samples were austenitized at 1150°C, 1200°C, and 1250°C for various holding times from 10 to 60 minutes and quenched in ice water. The samples were then annealed at 500°C for 24 hours to reveal the prior AGS using optical microscopy. It was noticed that the AGS in X65 grade is coarser than that of X70 grade. Additionally, the grain size increases with increasing the reheating temperature and time for both steels. The kinetics of grain growth was studied using the equation dn-d0n=Atexp-Q/RT , where d is the measured grain size, do is the initial grain size, n is the grain size exponent, t is the heating time, T is the heating temperature, Q is the activation energy, R is the gas constant, and A is a constant. To characterize the grain growth process the values of n, Q, and A were determined. Good agreement is obtained between the prediction of the model and the experimental grain size values.

  19. [Adenovirus-mediated delivery of nm23-H1 gene inhibits growth of colorectal carcinoma cell line Lovo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; He, Xueling; Liu, Yan; Yin, Hailin

    2010-12-01

    This experimental study sought to find out the inhibitory effects of Ad-GFP-nm23-H1 on proliferation and metastasis of human colorectal carcinoma cell line Lovo, and, further, to gain an insight into some theoretical and methodical basis for instituting nm23-H1 gene therapy of cancers. MTT assay and Transwell chamber were used to detect the rates of proliferation and invasion as well as the adhesion of Lovo cells in vitro. The results demonstrated that the proliferation inhibition rates of Lovo cells treated with Ad-GFP-nm23-H1 of 10(10) PFU/ml, 10(9) PFU/ml and 10(8) PFU/ml were 84.9% +/- 1.51%, 48.5% +/- 7.23% and 22.5% +/- 5.47%, that the adherence inhibition rates of Lovo cells treated with Ad-GFP-nm23-H1 of 10(10) PFU/ml, 10(9) PFU/ml and 10(8) PFU/ml were 70.3% +/- 2.40%, 60.1% +/- 5.68% and 18.5% +/- 3.61%, and that the invasiveness inhibition rates of Lovo cells treated with Ad-GFP-nm23-H1 of 10(10) PFU/ml, 10(9) PFU/ml and 10(8) PFU/ml were 83.2% +/- 5.71%, 52.2% +/- 6.94% and 28.1% +/- 8.21%. These data suggested that Ad-GFP-nm23-H1 exerted significant inhibitory effects on the proliferation and metastasis of human colorectal carcinoma cell line Lovo in a dose-dependent way.

  20. Characterization of rPEPT2-mediated Gly-Sar transport parameters in the rat kidney proximal tubule cell line SKPT-0193 cl.2 cultured in basic growth media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bravo, Silvina A; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Frokjaer, Sven

    2005-01-01

    The rat proximal kidney tubule cell line SKPT-0193 cl.2 (SKPT) expresses the di-/tripeptide transporter PEPT2 (rPEPT2) and has been used to study PEPT2-mediated transport. Traditionally, SKPT cells have been cultured in growth media supplemented with epidermal growth factor (EGF), apotransferrin,...

  1. The meaning of nuclear winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper the author reviews the history and origins of the basic ideas underlying nuclear winter; and findings and predictions of several groups regarding this topic. The author reviews some of the further developments and scientific analyses regarding nuclear winter since the initial announcements of 1983, touching on some of the revisions and controversies and trying to indicate the current status of the field

  2. Up-modulation of the expression of functional keratinocyte growth factor receptors induced by high cell density in the human keratinocyte HaCaT cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, A; Visco, V; Belleudi, F; Marchese, C; Cardinali, G; Bellocci, M; Picardo, M; Frati, L; Torrisi, M R

    2000-11-01

    Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is involved in the control of proliferation and differentiation of human keratinocytes. It binds to, and activates, the tyrosine kinase KGF receptor (KGFR), a splicing transcript variant of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2. We have previously shown (C. Marchese et al., Cell Growth Differ., 8: 989-997, 1997) that differentiation of primary cultured keratinocytes triggered by high Ca2+ concentrations in the growing medium induced up-regulation of KGFR expression, which suggested that KGFR may play a crucial role in the control of the proliferative/differentiative program during transition from basal to suprabasal cells. Here we analyzed the process of modulation of the expression of KGFRs in the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT, widely used as a model to study keratinocyte differentiation. Western blot and double immunofluorescence for KGFR and the K1 differentiation marker showed that cell differentiation and stratification induced by confluence and high cell density correlated with an increase in KGFR expression. KGFRs, present on suprabasal differentiated cells, appeared to be efficiently tyrosine-phosphorylated by KGF, which indicated that the receptors up-regulated by differentiation can be functionally activated by ligand binding. Bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assay revealed that a significant portion of suprabasal differentiated cells expressing KGFR seemed to be still able to synthesize DNA and to proliferate in response to KGF, which suggested that increased KGFR expression may be required for retention of the proliferative activity.

  3. Effect of troglitazone on tumor growth and pulmonary metastasis development of the mouse osteosarcoma cell line LM8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, Junichi; Sakayama, Kenshi; Kamei, Setsuya; Kidani, Teruki; Yamamoto, Haruyasu; Norimatsu, Yoshiaki; Masuno, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Osteosarcoma often develops micrometastases in the lung prior to diagnosis, causing a fatal outcome. Therefore, the prevention of pulmonary metastases is critical for the improvement of the prognosis of patients with osteosarcoma. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether troglitazone (TGZ) is considered as possible therapeutics in the treatment of growth and metastasis of osteosarcoma. LM8 cells were treated for 3 days with various concentrations of TGZ. The effect of TGZ on cell proliferation was determined by DNA measurement in the cultures and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation study. The assay of cell invasion and motility was performed using either the Matrigel-coated cell culture inserts or the uncoated cell culture inserts in the invasion chambers. The effect of TGZ on Akt signaling was assessed by Western blot analysis of Akt and p-Akt. The effects of oral administration of either TGZ (TGZ group) or ethanol (control group) on the growth of primary tumor and the development of pulmonary metastasis were examined in nude mice implanted with LM8 cells on their backs. The expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) within the tumor were determined by immunohistochemistry and zymography. The microvessel density (MVD) within the tumor was determined by immunohistochemistry for CD34. TGZ dose-dependently inhibits cell proliferation. TGZ-treated cells were less invasive and less motile than untreated cells. The activity of MMP-2 secreted by TGZ-treated cells was lower than that secreted by untreated cells. TGZ decreased the level of p-Akt. The primary tumor mass was smaller in the TGZ group than in the control group. The TGZ group had less metastatic tumors in the lung compared with the control group. The expression and activity of MMP-2 within the tumor of the TGZ group were lower than those of the control group. The MVD within the tumor of the TGZ group was lower than that of the control group. Inhibition of Akt signaling by

  4. Radiation-induced p53 protein response in the A549 cell line is culture growth-phase dependent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, N.F.; Gurule, D.M.; Carpenter, T.R.

    1995-12-01

    One role of the p53 tumor suppressor protein has been recently revealed. Kastan, M.B. reported that p53 protein accumulates in cells exposed to ionizing radiation. The accumulation of p53 protein is in response to DNA damage, most importantly double-strand breaks, that results from exposure to ionizing radiation. The rise in cellular p53 levels is necessary for an arrest in the G{sub 1} phase of the cell cycle to provide additional time for DNA repair. The p53 response has also been demonstrated to enhance PCNA-dependent repair. p53 is thus an important regulator of the cellular response to DNA-damaging radiation. From this data, it can be concluded that the magnitude of the p53 response is not dependent on the phase of culture growth.

  5. The effect of light and nutrient availability on growth, nitrogen, and pigment contents of Saccharina latissima (Phaeophyceae) grown in outdoor tanks, under natural variation of sunlight and temperature, during autumn and early winter in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boderskov, Teis; Schmedes, Peter; Bruhn, Annette

    2016-01-01

    counterbalance the loss of biomass, and increase the absolute harvestable amount of protein and pigments. The hypothesis was tested in a land-based, factorial-designed, pilot-scale experiment using whole algae individuals exposed to naturally relevant high or low availability of nutrients and light....... The experiment was conducted during fall/early winter in Grenaa, Denmark, in outdoor tanks, exposed to ambient light and temperature variations. With high nutrient availability, the absolute harvestable amounts of nitrogen, fucoxanthin, and chlorophyll a increased by 50.1–60.1, 21.7–53.7, and 47...

  6. Inhibition of connective tissue growth factor attenuates paraquat-induced lung fibrosis in a human MRC-5 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min; Yang, Huifang; Zhu, Lingqin; Li, Honghui; Zhou, Jian; Zhou, Zhijun

    2016-11-01

    Chronic exposure to Paraquat (PQ) may result in progressive pulmonary fibrosis and subsequent chronic obstructive pulmonary malfunction. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) has been proposed as a key determinant in the development of lung fibrosis. We investigated thus whether knock down of CTGF can prevent human lung fibroblasts (MRC-5) activation and proliferation with the subsequent inhibition of PQ-induced fibrosis. MRC-5 was transfected with CTGF-siRNAs and exposed to different concentrations of PQ. The siRNA-silencing efficacy was evaluated using western blotting analyses, qRT-PCR and flow cytometry. Next, the viability and migration of MRC-5 was determined. MMP-2, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 accumulation were quantified to evaluate the lung fibrosis exposure to PQ. Over expression of CTGF mRNA was observed in human MRC-5 cell as early as 6 h following PQ stimulation. CTGF gene expression in MRC-5 cells was substantially reduced by RNAi, which significantly suppressed the expression of the lung fibrosis markers such as tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) that were stimulated by PQ. Inhibition of CTGF expression suppressed impeded the proliferation and migration ability of MRC-5 cells and resulted in cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) protein accumulation in cells. Our results suggest that CTGF promoted the development of PQ-induced lung fibrosis in collaboration with transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1). Furthermore, the observed arresting effects of CTGF knock down during this process suggested that CTGF is the potential target site for preventing PQ-induced pulmonary fibrosis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1620-1626, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Forest management strategy, spatial heterogeneity, and winter birds in Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. Haveri; A.B. Carey

    2000-01-01

    Ecological management of second-growth forest holds great promise for conservation of biodiversity, yet little experimental evidence exists to compare alternative management approaches. Wintering birds are one of several groups of species most likely to be influenced by forest management activities. We compared species richness and proportion of stand area used over...

  8. The LKB1 tumor suppressor differentially affects anchorage independent growth of HPV positive cervical cancer cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mack, Hildegard I.D.; Munger, Karl, E-mail: kmunger@rics.bwh.harvard.edu

    2013-11-15

    Infection with high-risk human papillomaviruses is causally linked to cervical carcinogenesis. However, most lesions caused by high-risk HPV infections do not progress to cancer. Host cell mutations contribute to malignant progression but the molecular nature of such mutations is unknown. Based on a previous study that reported an association between liver kinase B1 (LKB1) tumor suppressor loss and poor outcome in cervical cancer, we sought to determine the molecular basis for this observation. LKB1-negative cervical and lung cancer cells were reconstituted with wild type or kinase defective LKB1 mutants and we examined the importance of LKB1 catalytic activity in known LKB1-regulated processes including inhibition of cell proliferation and elevated resistance to energy stress. Our studies revealed marked differences in the biological activities of two kinase defective LKB1 mutants in the various cell lines. Thus, our results suggest that LKB1 may be a cell-type specific tumor suppressor. - Highlights: • LKB1 is a tumor suppressor that is linked to Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. • Peutz-Jeghers syndrome patients have a high incidence of cervical cancer. • Cervical cancer is caused by HPV infections. • This study investigates LKB1 tumor suppressor activity in cervical cancer.

  9. The effect of different winter and early spring removal treatments on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lateral tillers developed poorly on all plots mown in early and mid-winter and on those burned in late winter and early spring. Lateral tillers yielded best all over treatment times when cutting was intense (to 5 cm). Herbage yields from lateral growth were higher when treatments were applied in April and August, than when ...

  10. Mapping fall dormancy and winter injury in tetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa is a widely planted perennial forage crop. Dormancy in autumn (fall dormancy) is generally negatively correlated with winter injury in alfalfa. To understand the genetic basis of the two traits, we identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling autumn growth and winter injury using a...

  11. Fusion toxin BLyS-gelonin inhibits growth of malignant human B cell lines in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy A Luster

    Full Text Available B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS is a member of the TNF superfamily of cytokines. The biological activity of BLyS is mediated by three cell surface receptors: BR3/BAFF-R, TACI and BCMA. The expression of these receptors is highly restricted to B cells, both normal and malignant. A BLyS-gelonin fusion toxin (BLyS-gel was generated consisting of the recombinant plant-derived toxin gelonin fused to the N-terminus of BLyS and tested against a large and diverse panel of B-NHL cell lines. Interestingly, B-NHL subtypes mantle cell lymphoma (MCL, diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL and B cell precursor-acute lymphocytic leukemia (BCP-ALL were preferentially sensitive to BLyS-gel mediated cytotoxicity, with low picomolar EC(50 values. BLyS receptor expression did not guarantee sensitivity to BLyS-gel, even though the construct was internalized by both sensitive and resistant cells. Resistance to BLyS-gel could be overcome by treatment with the endosomotropic drug chloroquine, suggesting BLyS-gel may become trapped within endosomal/lysosomal compartments in resistant cells. BLyS-gel induced cell death was caspase-independent and shown to be at least partially mediated by the "ribotoxic stress response." This response involves activation of p38 MAPK and JNK/SAPK, and BLyS-gel mediated cytotoxicity was inhibited by the p38/JNK inhibitor SB203580. Finally, BLyS-gel treatment was shown to localize to sites of disease, rapidly reduce tumor burden, and significantly prolong survival in xenograft mouse models of disseminated BCP-ALL, DLBCL, and MCL. Together, these findings suggest BLyS has significant potential as a targeting ligand for the delivery of cytotoxic "payloads" to malignant B cells.

  12. Glucose, other secretagogues, and nerve growth factor stimulate mitogen-activated protein kinase in the insulin-secreting beta-cell line, INS-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frödin, M; Sekine, N; Roche, E

    1995-01-01

    The signaling pathways whereby glucose and hormonal secretagogues regulate insulin-secretory function, gene transcription, and proliferation of pancreatic beta-cells are not well defined. We show that in the glucose-responsive beta-cell line INS-1, major secretagogue-stimulated signaling pathways...... converge to activate 44-kDa mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. Thus, glucose-induced insulin secretion was found to be associated with a small stimulatory effect on 44-kDa MAP kinase, which was synergistically enhanced by increased levels of intracellular cAMP and by the hormonal secretagogues......-1. Phorbol ester, an activator of protein kinase C, stimulated 44-kDa MAP kinase by both Ca(2+)-dependent and -independent pathways. Nerve growth factor, independently of changes in cytosolic Ca2+, efficiently stimulated 44-kDa MAP kinase without causing insulin release, indicating that activation...

  13. Growth arrest and decrease of alpha-SMA and type I collagen expression by palmitic acid in the rat hepatic stellate cell line PAV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abergel, Armand; Sapin, Vincent; Dif, Nicolas; Chassard, Christophe; Darcha, Claude; Marcand-Sauvant, Julie; Gaillard-Martinie, Brigitte; Rock, Edmond; Dechelotte, Pierre; Sauvant, Patrick

    2006-05-01

    Liver fibrosis is characterized by an activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC). During primary culture HSC evolve from a quiescent into an activated phenotype which is characterized by alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) up-regulation, increase in cell growth, and extracellular matrix secretion. HSC culture with trans-resveratrol can lead to deactivation of myofibroblast-like HSC. We used an HSC line, PAV-1, to check the role of retinol and palmitic acid in the deactivation process of HSC. Using mass and metabolic-based methods, Western blot and immunocytochemistry assays, we demonstrated that treatment with palmitic acid (75 muM) alone or in combination with retinol (2 muM) significantly decreased cell proliferation and alpha-SMA expression. We also established that the association of both compounds strongly decreased collagen type I expression. Our results suggest the potential use of palmitic acid alone or in combination with retinol to induce HSC deactivation.

  14. In ovo temperature manipulation differentially influences limb musculoskeletal development in two lines of chick embryos selected for divergent growth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Musawi, Sara L; Stickland, Neil C; Bayol, Stéphanie A M

    2012-05-01

    Selective breeding has led to diverging phenotypic evolution in layer and broiler chickens through genomic and epigenetic modifications. Here we show that in ovo environmental manipulation differentially influences embryonic limb muscle phenotype in these two breeds. We demonstrate that raising incubation temperature from 37.5 to 38.5°C between embryonic days (ED) 4 and 7 increased motility and body mass in both layer and broiler embryos. In layers, this was accompanied by gastrocnemius muscle hypertrophy, increased fibre and nuclei numbers and a higher nuclei to fibre ratio (ED18), preceded by increased hindlimb Myf5 (ED5-8), Pax7 (ED5-10), BMP4 (ED6-9) and IGF-I (ED9-10, ED18) mRNAs. In broilers, the same temperature treatment led to reduced gastrocnemius cross-sectional area with fewer fibres and nuclei and an unchanged fibre to nuclei ratio (ED18). This was preceded by a delay in the peak of hindlimb Myf5 expression, increased Pax7 (ED5, ED7-10) and BMP4 (ED6-8) but reduced IGF-I (ED8-10) mRNAs. Rather than promoting myogenesis as in layer embryos, the temperature treatment promoted gastrocnemius intramuscular fat deposition in broilers (ED18) preceded by increased hindlimb PPARγ mRNA (ED7-10). The treatment increased tibia/tarsus bone length as well as femur cross-sectional area in both breeds, but femur length and bone to cartilage ratio in the femur and tibia/tarsus were only increased in treated layers (ED18). We conclude that in ovo temperature manipulation differentially affected the molecular regulation of hindlimb myogenic, adipogenic and growth factor expression in broiler and layer embryos, leading to differential changes in muscle phenotype. The underlying interactive mechanisms between genes and the environment need further investigation.

  15. Induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition via activation of epidermal growth factor receptor contributes to sunitinib resistance in human renal cell carcinoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizumoto, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Nakayama, Yuko; Takara, Kohji; Nakagawa, Tsutomu; Hirano, Takeshi; Hirai, Midori

    2015-11-01

    Sunitinib is widely used for treating renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, some patients do not respond to treatment with this drug. We aimed to study the association between sunitinib sensitivity and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) regulation via epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling, which is a mechanism of resistance to anticancer drugs. Three RCC cell lines (786-O, ACHN, and Caki-1) were used, and then we evaluated cell viability, EMT regulatory proteins, and signal transduction with sunitinib treatment. Cell viability of 786-O cells was maintained after treatment with sunitinib. After treatment with sunitinib, EGFR phosphorylation increased in 786-O cells, resulting in an increase in the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, nuclear translocation of β-catenin, and expression of mesenchymal markers. These results suggest that sunitinib induced EMT via activation of EGFR in 786-O cells, but not in ACHN and Caki-1 cells. Caki-1/SN cells, a resistant cell line generated by continuous exposure to sunitinib, displayed increased phosphorylation of EGFR. Cell viability in the presence of sunitinib was decreased by erlotinib, as the selective inhibitor of EGFR, treatment in 786-O and Caki-1/SN cells. Similarly, erlotinib suppressed sunitinib-induced EGFR activation and upregulated mesenchymal markers. Thus, we postulate that resistance to sunitinib in RCC may be associated with EMT caused by activation of EGFR. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  16. Near Infrared Optical Visualization of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors Levels in COLO205 Colorectal Cell Line, Orthotopic Tumor in Mice and Human Biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Lazarovici

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present the applicability of imaging epidermal growth factor (EGF receptor levels in preclinical models of COLO205 carcinoma cells in vitro, mice with orthotopic tumors and ex vivo colorectal tumor biopsies, using EGF-labeled with IRDye800CW (EGF-NIR. The near infrared (NIR bio-imaging of COLO205 cultures indicated specific and selective binding, reflecting EGF receptors levels. In vivo imaging of tumors in mice showed that the highest signal/background ratio between tumor and adjacent tissue was achieved 48 hours post-injection. Dissected colorectal cancer tissues from different patients demonstrated ex vivo specific imaging using the NIR bio-imaging platform of the heterogeneous distributed EGF receptors. Moreover, in the adjacent gastrointestinal tissue of the same patients, which by Western blotting was demonstrated as EGF receptor negative, no labeling with EGF-NIR probe was detected. Present results support the concept of tumor imaging by measuring EGF receptor levels using EGF-NIR probe. This platform is advantageous for EGF receptor bio-imaging of the NCI-60 recommended panel of tumor cell lines including 6–9 colorectal cell lines, since it avoids radioactive probes and is appropriate for use in the clinical setting using NIR technologies in a real-time manner.

  17. Insulin-like growth factor stimulation increases radiosensitivity of a pancreatic cancer cell line through endoplasmic reticulum stress under hypoxic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isohashi, Fumiaki; Endo, Hiroko; Mukai, Mutsuko; Inoue, Masahiro; Inoue, Takehiro

    2008-01-01

    Tumor hypoxia is an obstacle to radiotherapy. Radiosensitivity under hypoxic conditions is determined by molecular oxygen levels, as well as by various biological cellular responses. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling pathway is a widely recognized survival signal that confers radioresistance. However, under hypoxic conditions the role of IGF signaling in radiosensitivity is still poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that IGF-II stimulation decreases clonogenic survival under hypoxic conditions in the pancreatic cancer cell lines AsPC-1 and Panc-1, and in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. IGF treatment under hypoxic conditions suppressed increased radiation sensitivity in these cell lines by pharmacologically inhibiting the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-mammalian target of rapamycin pathway, a major IGF signal-transduction pathway. Meanwhile, IGF-II induced the endoplasmic reticulum stress response under hypoxia, including increased protein levels of CHOP and ATF4, mRNA levels of CHOP, GADD34, and BiP as well as splicing levels of XBP-1. The response was suppressed by inhibiting phosphoinositide 3-kinase and mammalian target of rapamycin activity. Overexpression of CHOP in AsPC-1 cells increased radiation sensitivity by IGF-II simulation under hypoxic conditions, whereas suppression of CHOP expression levels with small hairpin RNA or a dominant negative form of a proline-rich extensin-like receptor protein kinase in hypoxia decreased IGF-induced radiosensitivity. IGF-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress contributed to radiosensitization independent of cell cycle status. Taken together, IGF stimulation increased radiosensitivity through the endoplasmic reticulum stress response under hypoxic conditions. (author)

  18. Apium graveolens Extract Inhibits Cell Proliferation and Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Induces Apoptosis in the Human Prostatic Carcinoma Cell Line LNCaP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köken, Tülay; Koca, Buğra; Özkurt, Mete; Erkasap, Nilüfer; Kuş, Gökhan; Karalar, Mustafa

    2016-12-01

    Apium graveolens has been shown to inhibit the growth of a variety of cancer tissues. In this study, we investigated the anticancer effect of A. graveolens on the human prostatic carcinoma cell line LNCaP. LNCaP cells were treated with increasing concentrations of an ethanolic extract of A. graveolens ranging from 1000 to 3000 μg/mL, and viability was determined after 24 and 48 h using the XTT cell proliferation assay. The levels of cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), one of the best biomarkers of apoptosis, were analyzed. Finally, quantitative gene expression analysis of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a critical mediator of angiogenesis, was performed using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. A. graveolens extract inhibited cell viability in both a time- and dose-dependent manner. Data from cleaved PARP assays suggested that A. graveolens caused induction of apoptosis in these cells. Treatment of cells with A. graveolens also resulted in downregulation of VEGF expression. This study showed that the antiproliferative effect exerted by an ethanolic extract of A. graveolens is triggered by induction of apoptosis. We also demonstrated that VEGF expression was downregulated by treatment with A. graveolens extract.

  19. Identification of QTL controlling meat quality traits in an F2 cross between two chicken lines selected for either low or high growth rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadaf, Javad; Gilbert, Hélène; Pitel, Frédérique; Berri, Cécile M; Feve, Katia; Beaumont, Catherine; Duclos, Michel J; Vignal, Alain; Porter, Tom E; Simon, Jean; Aggrey, Samuel E; Cogburn, Larry A; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    Background Meat technological traits (i.e. meat pH, water retention and color) are important considerations for improving further processing of chicken meat. These quality traits were originally characterized in experimental lines selected for high (HG) and low (LG) growth. Presently, quantitative trait loci (QTL) for these traits were analyzed in an F2 population issued from the HG × LG cross. A total of 698 animals in 50 full-sib families were genotyped for 108 microsatellite markers covering 21 linkage groups. Results The HG and LG birds exhibit large differences in body weight and abdominal fat content. Several meat quality traits [pH at 15 min post-slaughter (pH15) and ultimate pH (pHu), breast color-redness (BCo-R) and breast color-yellowness (BCo-Y)] were lower in HG chickens. In contrast, meat color-lightness (BCo-L) was higher in HG chickens, whereas meat drip loss (DL) was similar in both lines. HG birds were more active on the shackle line. Association analyses were performed using maximum-likelihood interval mapping in QTLMAP. Five genome-wide significant QTLs were revealed: two for pH15 on GGA1 and GGA2, one for DL on GGA1, one for BCo-R and one for BCo-Y both on GGA11. In addition, four suggestive QTLs were identified by QTLMAP for BCo-Y, pHu, pH15 and DL on GGA1, GGA4, GGA12 and GGA14, respectively. The QTL effects, averaged on heterozygous families, ranged from 12 to 31% of the phenotypic variance. Further analyses with QTLExpress confirmed the two genome-wide QTLs for meat color on GGA11, failed to identify the genome-wide QTL for pH15 on GGA2, and revealed only suggestive QTLs for pH15 and DL on GGA1. However, QTLExpress qualified the QTL for pHu on GGA4 as genome-wide. Conclusion The present study identified genome-wide significant QTLs for all meat technological traits presently assessed in these chickens, except for meat lightness. This study highlights the effects of divergent selection for growth rate on some behavioral traits, muscle

  20. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus and climate change: Importance of winter forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thrine Moen Heggberget

    2002-06-01

    climate may cause an altitudinal upward shift in the production of mat-forming lichens in alpine, sub-arctic regions. This is due to an increased potential for lichen growth at high altitudes, combined with increased competition from taller-growing vascular plants at lower altitudes, where the biomass of Betula nana in particular will increase. Matforming lichens dominant on dry, windblown ridges are easily overgrazed at high reindeer densities. This has longterm effects due to lichens’ slow regeneration rate, but may also reduce competition from vascular plants in a long time perspective. Fires may act in a similar way in some forested areas. Accessibility of winter forage depends on plant biomass, snow depth and hardness; ice crusts or exceptionally deep snow may result in starvation and increased animal mortality. Calf recruitment appears to be low and/or highly variable where winter ranges are overgrazed and hard or deep snow is common. Population decline in several Rangifer tarandus spp. has been associated with snow-rich winters. Effects tend to be delayed and cumulative, particularly on calves. This is mainly ascribed to feeding conditions for young animals which later affect age at maturation. Global warming may increase the frequency of deep or hard snow on reindeer ranges in Norway, due to increased precipitation and more frequent mild periods in winter. We hypothesise that potential benefits from increased plant productivity due to global warming will be counteracted by shifts in the distribution of preferred lichen forage, reduction of the areas of suitable winter ranges, and generally reduced forage accessibility in winter.

  1. A Rootstock Provides Water Conservation for a Grafted Commercial Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Line in Response to Mild-Drought Conditions: A Focus on Vegetative Growth and Photosynthetic Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Erik T.; Freeman, Joshua; Grene, Ruth; Tokuhisa, James

    2014-01-01

    The development of water stress resistant lines of commercial tomato by breeding or genetic engineering is possible, but will take considerable time before commercial varieties are available for production. However, grafting commercial tomato lines on drought resistant rootstock may produce drought tolerant commercial tomato lines much more rapidly. Due to changing climates and the need for commercial production of vegetables in low quality fields there is an urgent need for stress tolerant commercial lines of vegetables such as tomato. In previous observations we identified a scion root stock combination (‘BHN 602’ scion grafted onto ‘Jjak Kkung’ rootstock hereafter identified as 602/Jjak) that had a qualitative drought-tolerance phenotype when compared to the non-grafted line. Based on this initial observation, we studied photosynthesis and vegetative above-ground growth during mild-drought for the 602/Jjak compared with another scion-rootstock combination (‘BHN 602’ scion grafted onto ‘Cheong Gang’ rootstock hereafter identified as 602/Cheong) and a non-grafted control. Overall above ground vegetative growth was significantly lower for 602/Jjak in comparison to the other plant lines. Moreover, water potential reduction in response to mild drought was significantly less for 602/Jjak, yet stomatal conductance of all plant-lines were equally inhibited by mild-drought. Light saturated photosynthesis of 602/Jjak was less affected by low water potential than the other two lines as was the % reduction in mesophyll conductance. Therefore, the Jjak Kkung rootstock caused aboveground growth reduction, water conservation and increased photosynthetic tolerance of mild drought. These data show that different rootstocks can change the photosynthetic responses to drought of a high yielding, commercial tomato line. Also, this rapid discovery of one scion-rootstock combination that provided mild-drought tolerance suggests that screening more scion

  2. Winter wheat response to irrigation, nitrogen fertilization, and cold hazards in the Community Land Model 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Winter wheat is a staple crop for global food security, and is the dominant vegetation cover for a significant fraction of earth's croplands. As such, it plays an important role in soil carbon balance, and land-atmosphere interactions in these key regions. Accurate simulation of winter wheat growth is not only crucial for future yield prediction under changing climate, but also for understanding the energy and water cycles for winter wheat dominated regions. A winter wheat growth model has been developed in the Community Land Model 4.5 (CLM4.5), but its responses to irrigation and nitrogen fertilization have not been validated. In this study, I will validate winter wheat growth response to irrigation and nitrogen fertilization at five winter wheat field sites (TXLU, KSMA, NESA, NDMA, and ABLE) in North America, which were originally designed to understand winter wheat response to nitrogen fertilization and water treatments (4 nitrogen levels and 3 irrigation regimes). I also plan to further update the linkages between winter wheat yield and cold hazards. The previous cold damage function only indirectly affects yield through reduction on leaf area index (LAI) and hence photosynthesis, such approach could sometimes produce an unwanted higher yield when the reduced LAI saved more nutrient in the grain fill stage.

  3. High value of the radiobiological parameter Dq correlates to expression of the transforming growth factor beta type II receptor in a panel of small cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, S; Krarup, M; Nørgaard, P

    1998-01-01

    Our panel of SCLC cell lines have previously been examined for their radiobiological characteristics and sensitivity to treatment with TGF beta 1. In this study we examined the possible correlations between radiobiological parameters and the expression of the TGF beta type II receptor (TGF beta......-rII). We have, in other studies, shown that the presence of TGF beta-rII was mandatory for transmitting the growth inhibitory effect of TGF beta. The results showed a statistically significant difference in Dq, i.e. the shoulder width of the survival curve, between cell lines expressing TGF beta......-rII and cell lines which did not express the receptor (P = 0.01). Cell lines expressing TGF beta-rII had a high Dq-value. TGF beta-rII expression did not correlate with any other radiobiological parameters. We suggest that an intact growth inhibitory pathway mediated by the TGF beta-rII may have a significant...

  4. Baseline and Trend of Lymphocyte-to-Monocyte Ratio as Prognostic Factors in Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutant Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Treated with First-Line Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Mu Chen

    Full Text Available Patients with early-stage lung cancer who have a high baseline lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR have a favorable prognosis. However, the prognostic significance of LMR in patients with advanced-stage EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC receiving first-line epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs has not been established. We conducted a retrospective analysis to investigate the influence of LMR on clinical outcomes including progression-free survival (PFS and overall survival (OS in EGFR-mutant patients with NSCLC.Of 1310 lung cancer patients diagnosed between January 2011 and October 2013, 253 patients receiving first-line EGFR-TKIs for EGFR-mutant NSCLC were included. The cut-off values for baseline and the 1-month-to-baseline ratio of LMR (MBR, determined by using receiver operating characteristic curves, were 3.29 and 0.63, respectively. Patients were divided into 3 prognostic groups: high LMR and MBR, high LMR or MBR, and low LMR and MBR.The mean patient age was 65.2 years, and 41% were men. The median PFS and OS were 10.3 and 22.0 months, respectively. The PFS in patients with high LMR and MBR, high LMR or MBR, and low LMR and MBR were 15.4, 7.1, and 2.0 months, respectively (p < 0.001, whereas the OS were 32.6, 13.7, and 5.1 months, respectively (p < 0.001.A combination of baseline and trend of LMR can be used to identify patients with a high mortality risk in EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients receiving first-line EGFR-TKIs.

  5. IDRC Bulletin — Winter 2017

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-01-16

    Jan 16, 2018 ... In this issue, read the research results from our Safe and Inclusive Cities program and don't forget that the Joint Canada-Israel Health Research Program 2018 call is now open. IDRC Bulletin logo IDRC Bulletin — Winter 2017. Featured this month. View of Port-au-Prince in Haiti, March 30, 2016. Safe and ...

  6. Learning through a Winter's Tale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidotto, Kristie

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experience during the final semester of Year 11 Theatre Studies when she performed a monologue about Hermione from "The Winter's Tale". This experience was extremely significant to her because it nearly made her lose faith in one of the most important parts of her life, drama. She believes this…

  7. Winter School on Coding Theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 8. Winter School on Coding Theory. Information and Announcements Volume 8 Issue 8 August 2003 pp 111-111. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/008/08/0111-0111. Resonance ...

  8. Nuclear Winter: The Continuing Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-23

    prospect of human annihilation. Speculation about the environmental results of a ’long darkness’ were considered by Paul Ehrlich .10 The term nuclear winter...Washington D.C., 1983 The Cold and the Dark: The World after Nuclear War, by Paul Ehrlich , et al. New York: Norton, 1984. (QH545 N83 C66 1983k Caldicott

  9. Winter survival of Scots pine seedlings under different snow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domisch, Timo; Martz, Françoise; Repo, Tapani; Rautio, Pasi

    2018-04-01

    Future climate scenarios predict increased air temperatures and precipitation, particularly at high latitudes, and especially so during winter. Soil temperatures, however, are more difficult to predict, since they depend strongly on the fate of the insulating snow cover. 'Rain-on-snow' events and warm spells during winter can lead to thaw-freeze cycles, compacted snow and ice encasement, as well as local flooding. These adverse conditions could counteract the otherwise positive effects of climatic changes on forest seedling growth. In order to study the effects of different winter and snow conditions on young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings, we conducted a laboratory experiment in which 80 1-year-old Scots pine seedlings were distributed between four winter treatments in dasotrons: ambient snow cover (SNOW), compressed snow and ice encasement (ICE), flooded and frozen soil (FLOOD) and no snow (NO SNOW). During the winter treatment period and a 1.5-month simulated spring/early summer phase, we monitored the needle, stem and root biomass of the seedlings, and determined their starch and soluble sugar concentrations. In addition, we assessed the stress experienced by the seedlings by measuring chlorophyll fluorescence, electric impedance and photosynthesis of the previous-year needles. Compared with the SNOW treatment, carbohydrate concentrations were lower in the FLOOD and NO SNOW treatments where the seedlings had almost died before the end of the experiment, presumably due to frost desiccation of aboveground parts during the winter treatments. The seedlings of the ICE treatment showed dead needles and stems only above the snow and ice cover. The results emphasize the importance of an insulating and protecting snow cover for small forest tree seedlings, and that future winters with changed snow patterns might affect the survival of tree seedlings and thus forest productivity.

  10. Mechanical weed control in organic winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euro Pannacci

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Three field experiments were carried out in organic winter wheat in three consecutive years (exp. 1, 2005-06; exp. 2, 2006- 07; exp. 3, 2007-08 in central Italy (42°57’ N - 12°22’ E, 165 m a.s.l. in order to evaluate the efficacy against weeds and the effects on winter wheat of two main mechanical weed control strategies: i spring tine harrowing used at three different application times (1 passage at T1, 2 passages at the time T1, 1 passage at T1 followed by 1 passage at T1 + 14 days in the crop sowed at narrow (traditional row spacing (0.15 m; and ii split-hoeing and finger-weeder, alone and combined at T1, in the crop sowed at wider row spacing (0.30 m. At the time T1 winter wheat was at tillering and weeds were at the cotyledons-2 true leaves growth stage. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replicates. Six weeks after mechanical treatments, weed ground cover (% was rated visually using the Braun-Blanquet coverabundance scale; weeds on three squares (0.6×0.5 m each one per plot were collected, counted, weighed, dried in oven at 105°C to determine weed density and weed above-ground dry biomass. At harvest, wheat ears density, grain yield, weight of 1000 seeds and hectolitre weight were recorded. Total weed flora was quite different in the three experiments. The main weed species were: Polygonum aviculare L. (exp. 1 and 2, Fallopia convolvulus (L. Á. Löve (exp. 1 and 3, Stachys annua (L. L. (exp. 1, Anagallis arvensis L. (exp. 2, Papaver rhoeas L. (exp.3, Veronica hederifolia L. (exp. 3. In the winter wheat sowed at narrow rows, 2 passages with spring-tine harrowing at the same time seems to be the best option in order to reconcile a good efficacy with the feasibility of treatment. In wider rows spacing the best weed control was obtained by split hoeing alone or combined with finger-weeder. The grain yield, on average 10% higher in narrow rows, the lower costs and the good selectivity of spring-tine harrowing

  11. Genome-wide evaluation of genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium in winter and spring triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alheit Katharina V

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent advances in genotyping with high-density markers nowadays enable genome-wide genomic analyses in crops. A detailed characterisation of the population structure and linkage disequilibrium (LD is essential for the application of genomic approaches and consequently for knowledge-based breeding. In this study we used the triticale-specific DArT array to analyze population structure, genetic diversity, and LD in a worldwide set of 161 winter and spring triticale lines. Results The principal coordinate analysis revealed that the first principal coordinate divides the triticale population into two clusters according to their growth habit. The density distributions of the first ten principal coordinates revealed that several show a distribution indicative of population structure. In addition, we observed relatedness within growth habits which was higher among the spring types than among the winter types. The genome-wide analysis of polymorphic information content (PIC showed that the PIC is variable among and along chromosomes and that especially the R genome of spring types possesses a reduced genetic diversity. We also found that several chromosomes showed regions of high genetic distance between the two growth habits, indicative of divergent selection. Regarding linkage disequilibrium, the A and B genomes showed a similar LD of 0.24 for closely linked markers and a decay within approximately 12 cM. LD in the R genome was lower with 0.19 and decayed within a shorter map distance of approximately 5 cM. The extent of LD was generally higher for the spring types compared to the winter types. In addition, we observed strong variability of LD along the chromosomes. Conclusions Our results confirm winter and spring growth habit are the major contributors to population structure in triticale, and a family structure exists in both growth types. The specific patterns of genetic diversity observed within these types, such as the

  12. Production of extracellular bifidogenic growth stimulator (BGS) from Propionibacterium shermanii using a bioreactor system with a microfiltration module and an on-line controller for lactic acid concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouya, Tomoaki; Tobita, Kazuhiro; Horiuchi, Masahito; Nakayama, Eri; Deguchi, Hiroyoshi; Tanaka, Takaaki; Taniguchi, Masayuki

    2008-03-01

    Production of a bifidogenic growth stimulator (BGS) by Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii (Propionibacterium shermanii) using lactic acid as a carbon source was investigated using different cultivation methods. When a continuous bioreactor system with a filtration device was used at a dilution rate of 0.075 h(-1), the average BGS concentration was 2.4 mg/l, which corresponds to a BGS productivity per cultivation time of 1.8 x 10(-1) mg x l(-1) x h(-1). The BGS productivity per cultivation time in continuous cultivation with filtration was 1.9-fold that (9.4 x 10(-2) mg x l(-1).h(-1)) in a conventional batch cultivation. In fed-batch cultivation with feed-back control using an on-line lactic acid controller with a lactic acid biosensor, it was possible to prevent substrate inhibition by maintaining the lactic acid concentration in culture broth low at 3.3 g/l, and an enhanced BGS production (31 mg/l) was successfully attained. The BGS productivity per cultivation time (2.1x10(-1) mg x l(-1) x h(-1)) in the fed-batch cultivation with feed-back control was 2.2-fold that in the conventional batch cultivation. A new bioreactor system was developed by coupling a continuous bioreactor system with a filtration device to an on-line lactic acid controller. Using the new bioreactor system, we produced BGS continuously at a high level of 47 mg/l. The BGS productivities per cultivation time (3.5 mg.l(-1) x h(-1)) and the total volume of medium used (1.7 x 10(-1) mg x l(-1) x h(-1)) obtained in the new bioreactor system were 37-fold and 2.1-fold those in the conventional batch cultivation, respectively. These results described above clearly demonstrate the positive effects of both the continuous filtration for removal of metabolites (propionic and acetic acids) inhibitory to cell growth and feed-back control of lactic acid concentration in the culture broth on BGS production by P. shermanii. This paper is the first report on BGS production by the propionic acid

  13. Winter movement dynamics of black brant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Mark S.; Ward, David H.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Roser, John

    2007-01-01

    Although North American geese are managed based on their breeding distributions, the dynamics of those breeding populations may be affected by events that occur during the winter. Birth rates of capital breeding geese may be influenced by wintering conditions, mortality may be influenced by timing of migration and wintering distribution, and immigration and emigration among breeding populations may depend on winter movement and timing of pair formation. We examined factors affecting movements of black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) among their primary wintering sites in Mexico and southern California, USA, (Mar 1998–Mar 2000) using capture–recapture models. Although brant exhibited high probability (>0.85) of monthly and annual fidelity to the wintering sites we sampled, we observed movements among all wintering sites. Movement probabilities both within and among winters were negatively related to distance between sites. We observed a higher probability both of southward movement between winters (Mar to Dec) and northward movement between months within winters. Between-winter movements were probably most strongly affected by spatial and temporal variation in habitat quality as we saw movement patterns consistent with contrasting environmental conditions (e.g., La Niña and El Niño southern oscillation cycles). Month-to-month movements were related to migration patterns and may also have been affected by differences in habitat conditions among sites. Patterns of winter movements indicate that a network of wintering sites may be necessary for effective conservation of brant.

  14. Wintering ecology of adult North American ospreys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Brian E.; Martell, Mark S.; Bierregaard, Richard O.; Henny, Charles J.; Dorr, Brian S.; Olexa, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    North American Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) typically migrate long distances to their wintering grounds in the tropics. Beyond the general distribution of their wintering range (i.e., the Caribbean, South America, and Central America), very little is known about the wintering ecology of these birds. We used satellite telemetry to determine the duration of wintering period, to examine the characteristics of wintering areas used by Ospreys, and to quantify space use and activity patterns of wintering Ospreys. Adult Ospreys migrated to wintering sites and exhibited high wintering site fidelity among years. Overall, Ospreys wintered on river systems (50.6%) more than on lakes (19.0%), and use of coastal areas was (30.4%) intermediate. Ospreys remained on their wintering grounds for an average of 154 d for males and 167 d for females. Locations of wintering Ospreys obtained via GPS-capable satellite telemetry suggest these birds move infrequently and their movements are very localized (i.e., 2 and 1.4 km2, respectively. Overall, our findings suggest wintering adult North American Ospreys are very sedentary, demonstrating a pattern of limited daily movements and high fidelity to a few select locations (presumably roosts). We suggest this wintering strategy might be effective for reducing the risk of mortality and maximizing energy conservation.

  15. Classification guide: Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games classification guide is designed to provide National Paralympic Committees (NPCs) and International Federations (IFs) with information about the classification policies and procedures that will apply to the Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games.

  16. Comparison of growth performance, carcass components, and meat quality between Mos rooster (Galician indigenous breed) and Sasso T-44 line slaughtered at 10 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, D; Rois, D; Vázquez, J A; Lorenzo, J M

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this research was to make a full study of the meat from Mos-breed roosters (Spanish indigenous chicken). To achieve this purpose, the type of breed (Mos vs. a hybrid line, Sasso T-44) and the effect of finishing treatment in the last month (corn vs. commercial fodder) on growth performance, carcass and meat quality (physicochemical and textural traits), fatty and amino acid profile, and sensorial description were studied. The finishing feeding effect did not modify the growth, but the differences between genotypes were statistically significant (P 0.05) were found, and carcass weight clearly differed between genotypes due to the lower growth rate of Mos roosters. Drumstick, thigh, and wing percentages were greater in Mos breed than in Sasso T-44 birds, whereas breast (15.2%), that is the most highly valued piece of the chicken, was similar for both genotypes. Significant differences in pH, protein, and ash content between genotypes have been found, whereas finishing feeding treatment had an effect on myoglobin and redness index (P meat from roosters fed with corn had a higher luminosity. Despite the fact of the slaughtered age of birds, values of shear force were slightly higher than 2 kg (2.11 kg) for both genotypes, thus it can be classified as very tender meat. Mos breed showed a higher percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (25.90 vs. 22.74; P < 0.001) and a lower percentage of monounsaturated fatty acids (35.14 vs. 38.95; P < 0.001) than Sasso T-44 chicken muscles. Surprisingly, birds finishing with the corn diet (2 times higher in linolenic acid than fodder) did not increase their polyunsaturated fatty acid level in the breast, obtaining in the Mos breed a polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio of 0.69. The amino acid profile of the indigenous-breed breast was not similar to that of the commercial-strain breast; besides, finishing feeding treatment had more of an effect on amino acid profile, affecting the majority of amino acids, with

  17. Expression of Pit-1 in nonsomatotrope cell lines induces human growth hormone locus control region histone modification and hGH-N transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Katherine A; Jefferson, Holly S; Karschner, Vesna A; Shewchuk, Brian M

    2009-07-03

    The POU domain transcription factor Pit-1 is expressed in somatotropes, lactotropes, and thyrotropes of the anterior pituitary. Pit-1 is essential for the establishment of these lineages during development and regulates the expression of genes encoding the peptide hormones secreted by each cell type, including the growth hormone gene expressed in somatotropes. In contrast to rodent growth hormone loci, the human growth hormone (hGH) locus is regulated by a distal locus control region (LCR), which is required in cis for the proper expression of the hGH gene cluster in transgenic mice. The hGH LCR mediates a domain of histone acetylation targeted to the hGH locus that is associated with distal hGH-N activation, and the discrete determinants of this activity coincide with DNaseI hypersensitive site (HS) I of the LCR. The identification of three in vitro Pit-1 binding sites within the HS-I region suggested a model in which Pit-1 binding at HS-I initiates the chromatin modification mechanism associated with hGH LCR activity. To test this hypothesis directly and to determine whether Pit-1 expression is sufficient to confer hGH locus histone acetylation and activate hGH-N transcription from an inactive locus, we expressed Pit-1 in nonpituitary cell types. We show that Pit-1 expression established a domain of histone hyperacetylation at the LCR and hGH-N promoter in these cells similar to that observed in pituitary chromatin. This was accompanied by the activation of hGH-N transcription and an increase in intergenic and CD79b transcripts proximal to HS-I. These effects were coincident with Pit-1 occupancy at HS-I and the hGH-N promoter and were observed irrespective of the basal histone modification status of HS-I in the heterologous cell line. These findings are consistent with a role for Pit-1 as an initiating factor in hGH locus activation during somatotrope ontogeny, acting through binding sites at HS-I of the hGH LCR.

  18. Plant Isoquinoline Alkaloid Berberine Exhibits Chromatin Remodeling by Modulation of Histone Deacetylase To Induce Growth Arrest and Apoptosis in the A549 Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaiarasi, Arunachalam; Anusha, Chidambaram; Sankar, Renu; Rajasekaran, Subbiah; John Marshal, Jayaraj; Muthusamy, Karthikeyan; Ravikumar, Vilwanathan

    2016-12-21

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a group of epigenetic enzymes that control gene expression through their repressive influence on histone deacetylation transcription. HDACs are probable therapeutic targets for cancer treatment, spurring the progress of different types of HDAC inhibitors. Further, natural-source-based derived bioactive compounds possess HDAC inhibitor property. In this way, we hypothesized that plant isoquinoline alkaloid berberine (BBR) could be a HDAC inhibitor in the human lung cancer A549 cell line. BBR represses total HDAC and also class I, II, and IV HDAC activity through hyperacetylation of histones. Furthermore, BBR triggers positive regulation of the sub-G 0 /G 1 cell cycle progression phase in A549 cells. Moreover, BBR-induced A549 cell growth arrest and morphological changes were confirmed using different fluorescence-dye-based microscope techniques. Additionally, BBR downregulates oncogenes (TNF-α, COX-2, MMP-2, and MMP-9) and upregulates tumor suppressor genes (p21 and p53) mRNA and protein expressions. Besides, BBR actively regulates Bcl-2/Bax family proteins and also triggered the caspase cascade apoptotic pathway in A549 cells. Our finding suggests that BBR mediates epigenetic reprogramming by HDAC inhibition, which may be the key mechanism for its antineoplastic activity.

  19. Identification of MicroRNAs Involved in Growth Arrest and Apoptosis in Hydrogen Peroxide-Treated Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Line HepG2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Luo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although both oxidative stress and microRNAs (miRNAs play vital roles in physiological and pathological processes, little is known about the interactions between them. In this study, we first described the regulation of H2O2 in cell viability, proliferation, cycle, and apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. Then, miRNAs expression was profiled after H2O2 treatment. The results showed that high concentration of H2O2 (600 μM could decrease cell viability, inhibit cell proliferation, induce cell cycle arrest, and finally promote cell apoptosis. Conversely, no significant effects could be found under treatment with low concentration (30 μM. miRNAs array analysis identified 131 differentially expressed miRNAs (125 were upregulated and 6 were downregulated and predicted 13504 putative target genes of the deregulated miRNAs. Gene ontology (GO analysis revealed that the putative target genes were associated with H2O2-induced cell growth arrest and apoptosis. The subsequent bioinformatics analysis indicated that H2O2-response pathways, including MAPK signaling pathway, apoptosis, and pathways in cancer and cell cycle, were significantly affected. Overall, these results provided comprehensive information on the biological function of H2O2 treatment in HepG2 cells. The identification of miRNAs and their putative targets may offer new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for liver cancer.

  20. Leadership in American Indian Communities: Winter Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metoyer, Cheryl A.

    2010-01-01

    Winter lessons, or stories told in the winter, were one of the ways in which tribal elders instructed and directed young men and women in the proper ways to assume leadership responsibilities. Winter lessons stressed the appropriate relationship between the leader and the community. The intent was to remember the power and purpose of that…

  1. Improvement of baking quality traits through a diverse soft winter wheat population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeding baking quality improvements into soft winter wheat (SWW) entails crossing lines based on quality traits, assessing new lines, and repeating several times as little is known about the genetics of these traits. Previous research on SWW baking quality focused on quantitative trait locus and ge...

  2. Modulation of nuclear T3 binding by T3 in a human hepatocyte cell-line (Chang-liver) - T3 stimulation of cell growth but not of malic enzyme, glucose-6-phosphatdehydrogenase or 6-phosphogluconate-dehydrogenase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, L E; Kristensen, S R; Kvetny, J

    1991-01-01

    The T3 modulation of nuclear T3 binding (NBT3), the T3 effect on cell growth, and the T3 and insulin effects on malic enzyme (ME), glucose-6-phosphat-dehydrogenase (G6PD) and 6-phosphogluconat-dehydrogenase (G6PD) were studied in a human hepatocyte cell-line (Chang-liver). T3 was bound to a high...

  3. Winter to winter recurrence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia and its impact on winter surface air temperature anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xia; Yang, Guang

    2017-01-01

    The persistence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia shows a winter to winter recurrence (WTWR) phenomenon. Seasonal variations in sea level pressure anomalies and surface wind anomalies display significantly different characteristics between WTWR and non-WTWR years. The WTWR years are characterized by the recurrence of both a strong (weak) anomalous Siberian High and an East Asian winter monsoon over two successive winters without persistence through the intervening summer. However, anomalies during the non-WTWR years have the opposite sign between the current and ensuing winters. The WTWR of circulation anomalies contributes to that of surface air temperature anomalies (SATAs), which is useful information for improving seasonal and interannual climate predictions over East Asia and China. In the positive (negative) WTWR years, SATAs are cooler (warmer) over East Asia in two successive winters, but the signs of the SATAs are opposite in the preceding and subsequent winters during the non-WTWR years.

  4. [Production of auxins by the endophytic bacteria of winter rye].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merzaeva, O V; Shirokikh, I G

    2010-01-01

    The ability of the actinomycetes and coryneform bacteria isolated from the root tissues of winter rye to produce auxin in a liquid culture was studied. The isolates of coryneform bacteria produced indolyl-3-acetic acid (IAA) into the medium in the amount of 9.0-95.0 microg/ml and the isolates of actinomycetes in the amount of 39.5-83.0 microg/ml. The maximal IAA accumulation in culture liquid of actinomycetes coincided, in general, with the beginning of the stationary growth phase. The dependences of IAA synthesis by actinomycetes on the composition and pH of nutrient medium, tryptophan concentration, and aeration conditions were determined. Biological activity of the bacterial IAA was assessed. Treatment of winter rye seeds with coryneform auxin-producing bacteria increased the germination capacity and enhanced an intensive seedling growth in vitro.

  5. Development of Nano-Liposomal Formulations of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitors and their Pharmacological Interactions on Drug-Sensitive and Drug-Resistant Cancer Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trummer, Brian J.

    , due to leaky tumor vasculature and the resulting Enhanced Permeability and Retention (EPR) phenomenon. In Chapter 2 we report that both gefitinib and the structurally similar EGFR inhibitor erlotinib display environment-dependent fluorescence properties. Peak excitation was 345 nm, and the emission peak ranged from 365 to 476 nm, depending upon the polarity of the environment and physical state of the drug. The fluorescence was negligible in aqueous solution, but intense in organic solvents or membrane bilayers. The environment-sensitive fluorescence properties of these drugs enabled rapid evaluation of numerous parameters affecting liposomal drug incorporation and performance. Up to 4-6 mol% of gefitinib could be incorporated in the liposome bilayer, based upon hydrophobic interactions with membrane bilayers. In contrast, 40-60 mol% could be loaded into the aqueous core of pre-formed liposomes at high efficiency, using a remote loading procedure. A stable formulation consisting of distearoylphosphatidylcholine: polyethylene glycol-distereoylphosphatidylethanolamine: cholesterol (DSPC:PEGDSPE:Chol, 9:1:5 mol:mol:mol) and containing drug at 50-60 mol% gefitinib (L-GEF) showed minimal leakage in serum-containing medium over 24 h at 37°C, which should be sufficient to improve biodistribution in vivo. Chapter 3 investigated the pharmacological activity of liposome-encapsulated gefitinib, alone and in combination with several prevalent anticancer agents. Experiments with MCF7 breast cancer cell lines demonstrated that liposome encapsulated gefitinib formulation (L-GEF) had a 2-fold higher IC50 (concentration of drug resulting in half-maximal growth inhibition) than free gefitinib. Lower in vitro potency would be consistent with delayed drug release from the carrier. Therapeutic effects were investigated in combination with the cytotoxic agents paclitaxel and doxorubicin. The drug-resistant MCF7R cell line was 23-fold more resistant to paclitaxel than the parental, drug

  6. [Effects of estrogen on epidermis growth of mice and proliferation of human epidermal cell line HaCaT and its mechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tao; Chen, Jing; Huang, Zongwei; Fang, Li; Chen, Yu; Chen, Yajie; Peng, Yizhi

    2016-05-01

    To observe the effects of estrogen on epidermis growth of mice and proliferation of keratinocytes (human epidermal cell line HaCaT), and to explore its mechanism. (1) Five adult C57BL/6 mice in estrus cycle were identified by vaginal exfoliative cytology diagnosis and set as estrus group, while another 5 adult C57BL/6 mice with ovary resected before sexual development were set as ovariectomized group. The full-thickness skin from the tail root of mice in two groups were collected. The thickness of epidermis was observed and measured after HE staining. The distribution of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive cells in epidermis was observed by immunohistochemical staining, the number of which was counted. (2) HaCaT cells in logarithmic growth phase were cultured with RPMI 1640 nutrient solution containing 10% fetal bovine serum, and they were divided into negative control group (NC), pure estradiol group (PE), protein kinase B (Akt) inhibitor group (AI), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor group (EI) according to the random number table, with 20 wells in each group. To nutrient solution of each group, 1 μL dimethyl sulfoxide, 1 μL 17β-estradiol (100 nmol/L), 1 μL LY294002 (10 μmol/L), and 1 μL PD98059 (30 μmol/L) were added in group NC, group PE, group AI, and group EI respectively, and the last two groups were added with 1 μL 17β-estradiol (100 nmol/L) in addition. At post culture hour (PCH) 0 (immediately after culture), 24, 48, 72, 5 wells of cells from each group were collected to detect the proliferation activity of cells by cell counting kit 8 and microplate reader. (3) HaCaT cells in logarithmic growth phase were collected, grouped, and treated with the above-mentioned methods, with 3 wells in each group. At PCH 72, cell cycle distribution was detected by flow cytometer to calculate proliferation index (PI) of cells. (4) HaCaT cells in logarithmic growth phase were collected, grouped, and treated with the above

  7. Hibernation in an antarctic fish: on ice for winter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamish A Campbell

    Full Text Available Active metabolic suppression in anticipation of winter conditions has been demonstrated in species of mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians, but not fish. This is because the reduction in metabolic rate in fish is directly proportional to the decrease in water temperature and they appear to be incapable of further suppressing their metabolic rate independently of temperature. However, the Antarctic fish (Notothenia coriiceps is unusual because it undergoes winter metabolic suppression irrespective of water temperature. We assessed the seasonal ecological strategy by monitoring swimming activity, growth, feeding and heart rate (f(H in N. coriiceps as they free-ranged within sub-zero waters. The metabolic rate of wild fish was extrapolated from f(H recordings, from oxygen consumption calibrations established in the laboratory prior to fish release. Throughout the summer months N. coriiceps spent a considerable proportion of its time foraging, resulting in a growth rate (G(w of 0.18 +/- 0.2% day(-1. In contrast, during winter much of the time was spent sedentary within a refuge and fish showed a net loss in G(w (-0.05 +/- 0.05% day(-1. Whilst inactive during winter, N. coriiceps displayed a very low f(H, reduced sensory and motor capabilities, and standard metabolic rate was one third lower than in summer. In a similar manner to other hibernating species, dormancy was interrupted with periodic arousals. These arousals, which lasted a few hours, occurred every 4-12 days. During arousal activity, f(H and metabolism increased to summer levels. This endogenous suppression and activation of metabolic processes, independent of body temperature, demonstrates that N. coriiceps were effectively 'putting themselves on ice' during winter months until food resources improved. This study demonstrates that at least some fish species can enter a dormant state similar to hibernation that is not temperature driven and presumably provides seasonal energetic

  8. Twentieth Century Winter Changes in Southern Hemisphere Synoptic Weather Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgen S. Frederiksen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last sixty years, there have been large changes in the southern hemisphere winter circulation and reductions in rainfall particularly in the southern Australian region. Here we examine the corresponding changes in dynamical modes of variability ranging from storm tracks, onset-of-blocking modes, northwest cloud-band disturbances, Antarctic low-frequency modes, intraseasonal oscillations, and African easterly waves. Our study is performed using a global two-level primitive equation instability-model with reanalyzed observed July three-dimensional basic states for the periods 1949–1968, 1975–1994, and 1997–2006. We relate the reduction in the winter rainfall in the southwest of Western Australia since the mid-1970s and in south-eastern Australia since the mid-1990s to changes in growth rate and structures of leading storm track and blocking modes. We find that cyclogenesis and onset-of-blocking modes growing on the subtropical jet have significantly reduced growth rates in the latter periods. On the other hand there is a significant increase in the growth rate of northwest cloud-band modes and intraseasonal oscillation disturbances that cross Australia and are shown to be related to recent positive trends in winter rainfall over northwest Western Australia and central Australia, in general. The implications of our findings are discussed.

  9. Anti-insulin-like growth factor-IIP3 DNAzymes inhibit cell proliferation and induce caspase-dependent apoptosis in human hepatocarcinoma cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang M

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Min Zhang,1 Gregor PC Drummen,2 Su Luo11Medical Department, Beihua University, Jilin, People's Republic of China; 2Cellular Stress and Ageing Program, Bionanoscience and Bio-Imaging Program, Bio & Nano-Solutions, Düsseldorf, GermanyBackground: Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II is a fetal growth protein and an important proangiogenic factor controlled by four promoters (P, of which P2–P4 are inactive in the adult liver. Reactivation and dysregulation of IGF-IIP3 in particular is associated with the attenuation of apoptosis and increased proliferation in a number of liver cancer cell types. Its involvement in experimental liver carcinogenesis makes it a potential target for cancer gene therapy. We designed two IGF-IIP3 specific DNAzymes (DRz1 and DRz2 that target IGF-IIP3 messenger RNA (mRNA with the aim of reducing IGF-II expression through promoter 3.Methods: IGF-IIP3 mRNA and protein expression levels were assessed using real-time polymerase chain reaction and gel electrophoresis/western blotting after transfection with Lipofectamine® in SMMC-7721, Huh7, and HepG2 cell lines. Cell proliferation was determined via MTT assay; apoptosis was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy and with flow cytometry; procaspase-3 and -9 expression were detected via western blotting; and caspase activity was assayed colorimetrically. Standard procedures were used to calculate means and standard deviations, and P-values below 0.05 were considered to indicate significant differences.Results: DRzs were transfected into hepatocellular carcinoma cells and the results showed that DRz1, in particular, could decrease the expression of IGF-IIP3 by nearly 50%. Furthermore, DRz1 significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. In addition, the downregulation of IGF-IIP3 expression was associated with increased caspase-3 and -9 activity in SMMC-7721 cells after 24 hours of transfection. In all experiments, the efficacy of DRz2 to influence IGF-IIP3

  10. Identification of novel target genes of nerve growth factor (NGF) in human mastocytoma cell line (HMC-1 (V560G c-Kit)) by transcriptome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Priyanka; Koch, Alexandra; Breyer, Bjoern; Schneider, Heike; Dittrich-Breiholz, Oliver; Kracht, Michael; Tamura, Teruko

    2011-04-18

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a potent growth factor that plays a key role in neuronal cell differentiation and may also play a role in hematopoietic differentiation. It has been shown that NGF induced synergistic action for the colony formation of CD34 positive hematopoietic progenitor cells treated with macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF or CSF-1), or stem cell factor (SCF). However, the exact role of NGF in hematopoietic system is unclear. It is also not clear whether NGF mediated signals in hematopoietic cells are identical to those in neuronal cells. To study the signal transduction pathways induced by NGF treatment in hematopoietic cells, we utilized the mastocytoma cell line HMC-1(V560G c-Kit) which expresses the NGF receptor, tropomyosin-receptor-kinase (Trk)A, as well as the constitutively activated SCF receptor, V560G c-Kit, which can be inhibited completely by treatment with the potent tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate (imatinib). NGF rescues HMC-1(V560G c-Kit) cells from imatinib mediated cell death and promotes proliferation. To examine the NGF mediated proliferation and survival in these cells, we compared the NGF mediated upregulated genes (30 and 120 min after stimulation) to the downregulated genes by imatinib treatment (downregulation of c-Kit activity for 4 h) by transcriptome analysis. The following conclusions can be drawn from the microarray data: Firstly, gene expression profiling reveals 50% overlap of genes induced by NGF-TrkA with genes expressed downstream of V560G c-Kit. Secondly, NGF treatment does not enhance expression of genes involved in immune related functions that were down regulated by imatinib treatment. Thirdly, more than 55% of common upregulated genes are involved in cell proliferation and survival. Fourthly, we found Kruppel-like factor (KLF) 2 and Smad family member 7 (SMAD7) as the NGF mediated novel downstream genes in hematopoietic cells. Finally, the downregulation of KLF2 gene enhanced imatinib

  11. Glue-paste linings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuster-López, Laura; Andersen, Cecil Krarup; Bouillon, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    processes of lined canvas paintings. The impact of cyclic relative humidity on the biological and physical stability of the laminate structure is reported. Carefully constructed mock-ups, simulating lined canvas paintings, were used to examine the effect of pest infestation, mould growth, mechanical damage...

  12. Expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) receptors and expression of TGF beta 1, TGF beta 2 and TGF beta 3 in human small cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damstrup, L; Rygaard, K; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1993-01-01

    A panel of 21 small cell lung cancer cell (SCLC) lines were examined for the presence of Transforming growth factor beta receptors (TGF beta-r) and the expression of TGF beta mRNAs. By the radioreceptor assay we found high affinity receptors to be expressed in six cell lines. scatchard analysis......(r) = 65,000 and 90,000 and the betaglycan (type III) with M(r) = 280,000. Northern blotting showed expression of TGF beta 1 mRNA in ten, TGF beta 2 mRNA in two and TGF beta 3 mRNA in seven cell lines. Our results provide, for the first time, evidence that a large proportion of a broad panel of SCLC cell...... lines express TGF beta-receptors and also produce TGF beta mRNAs....

  13. Testicular atrophy and loss of nerve growth factor-immunoreactive germ cell line in rats exposed to n-hexane and a protective effect of simultaneous exposure to toluene or xylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nylen, P.; Johnson, A.C.; Hoeglund, G.; Ebendal, T.; Eriksdotter-Nilsson, M.; Henschen, A.; Olson, L.; Hansson, T.; Kronevi, T.; Kvist, U.

    1989-07-01

    Testicular and germ cell line morphology in rats were studied 2 weeks, 10 months and 14 months after cessation of a 61-day inhalation exposure to 1000 ppm n-hexane. Androgen biosynthetic capacity of testis, testosterone blood concentration, vas deferens morphology and noradrenaline (NA) concentration, epididymal sperm morphology, and fertility were also studied. Severe testicular atrophy involving the seminiferous tubules with loss of the nerve growth factor (NGF) immunoreactive germ cell line was found. Total loss of the germ cell line was found in a fraction of animals up to 14 months post-exposure, indicating permanent testicular damage. No impairment of androgen synthesis or androgen dependent accessory organs was observed. Simultaneous administration of 1000 ppm n-hexane and 1000 ppm toluene, or 1000 ppm n-hexane and 1000 ppm xylene, did not cause germ cell line alterations or testicular atrophy. Toluene and xylene were thus found to protect from n-hexane induced testicular atrophy. (orig.).

  14. CONSTRAINTS ON BLACK HOLE GROWTH, QUASAR LIFETIMES, AND EDDINGTON RATIO DISTRIBUTIONS FROM THE SDSS BROAD-LINE QUASAR BLACK HOLE MASS FUNCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Brandon C.; Hernquist, Lars; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Vestergaard, Marianne; Fan Xiaohui; Hopkins, Philip

    2010-01-01

    We present an estimate of the black hole mass function of broad-line quasars (BLQSOs) that self-consistently corrects for incompleteness and the statistical uncertainty in the mass estimates, based on a sample of 9886 quasars at 1 1 it is highly incomplete at M BH ∼ 9 M sun and L/L Edd ∼ BL > 150 ± 15 Myr for black holes at z = 1 with a mass of M BH = 10 9 M sun , and we constrain the maximum mass of a black hole in a BLQSO to be ∼3 x 10 10 M sun . Our estimated distribution of BLQSO Eddington ratios peaks at L/L Edd ∼ 0.05 and has a dispersion of ∼0.4 dex, implying that most BLQSOs are not radiating at or near the Eddington limit; however, the location of the peak is subject to considerable uncertainty. The steep increase in number density of BLQSOs toward lower Eddington ratios is expected if the BLQSO accretion rate monotonically decays with time. Furthermore, our estimated lifetime and Eddington ratio distributions imply that the majority of the most massive black holes spend a significant amount of time growing in an earlier obscured phase, a conclusion which is independent of the unknown obscured fraction. These results are consistent with models for self-regulated black hole growth, at least for massive systems at z > 1, where the BLQSO phase occurs at the end of a fueling event when black hole feedback unbinds the accreting gas, halting the accretion flow.

  15. Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltranferase-2 behaves as a cancer testis gene and promotes growth and tumorigenicity of the breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Pellon-Maison

    Full Text Available The de novo synthesis of glycerolipids in mammalian cells begins with the acylation of glycerol-3-phosphate, catalyzed by glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT. GPAT2 is a mitochondrial isoform primarily expressed in testis under physiological conditions. Because it is aberrantly expressed in multiple myeloma, it has been proposed as a novel cancer testis gene. Using a bioinformatics approach, we found that GPAT2 is highly expressed in melanoma, lung, prostate and breast cancer, and we validated GPAT2 expression at the protein level in breast cancer by immunohistochemistry. In this case GPAT2 expression correlated with a higher histological grade. 5-Aza-2' deoxycytidine treatment of human cells lines induced GPAT2 expression suggesting epigenetic regulation of gene expression. In order to evaluate the contribution of GPAT2 to the tumor phenotype, we silenced its expression in MDA-MB-231 cells. GPAT2 knockdown diminished cell proliferation, anchorage independent growth, migration and tumorigenicity, and increased staurosporine-induced apoptosis. In contrast, GPAT2 over-expression increased cell proliferation rate and resistance to staurosporine-induced apoptosis. To understand the functional role of GPAT2, we performed a co-expression analysis in mouse and human testis and found a significant association with semantic terms involved in cell cycle, DNA integrity maintenance, piRNA biogenesis and epigenetic regulation. Overall, these results indicate the GPAT2 would be directly associated with the control of cell proliferation. In conclusion, we confirm GPAT2 as a cancer testis gene and that its expression contributes to the tumor phenotype of MDA-MB-231 cells.

  16. Effect of RYR1T Gene Polymorphism on the Initial Growth and Fattening and Slaughter Values of Polish Synthetic Line 990 Pigs Reared in Standardized Litters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pietruszka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the ryanodine receptor gene - RYR1T polymorphism on the initial growth and fattening and slaughter values of Polish Synthetic Line 990 pigs reared in standardized litters. The study was carried on 276 offspring of hyperprolific sows. The sows gave birth to at least 12 live-born piglets. On the first day after birth, litters were equalised to 12 piglets in litter. The body weight was examined on the 21st (21BW, 28th (28BW, 63rd (63BW and 180th (180BW days of life. During evaluation, the live average daily gain (LADG from birth to day 180 of life and the average daily gain (ADG from day 63 to day 180 of life were determined. The percentage meat content (PMC, backfat thickness (BFT and loin eye thickness (LET was determined using PIGLOG 105 ultrasound apparatus. Two alleles of the RYR1 gene (RYR1C, RYR1T and three genotypes (C/C, C/T and T/T were identified. The 21BW and 28BW of the T/T genotype were significantly lower than that of the C/C and C/T. The highest PMC was characteristic of the T/T genotype, whereas the lowest one of the C/C genotype (p ⪬ 0.05. The T/T genotype had a higher LET than the C/C genotype (p ⪬ 0.05. No significant differences with respect to LADG, ADG and BFT between RYR1 genotypes were found. It can be stated that early identification of homozygous animals with respect to the RYR1T gene may allow the prediction of the body weight of animals in the initial period of their rearing.

  17. Communicating Certainty About Nuclear Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, A.

    2013-12-01

    I have been spending much of my time in the past several years trying to warn the world about the continuing danger of nuclear weapons, and that the solution is a rapid reduction in the nuclear arsenal. I feel that a scientist who discovers dangers to society has an ethical duty to issue a warning, even if the danger is so scary that it is hard for people to deal with. The debate about nuclear winter in the 1980s helped to end the nuclear arms race, but the planet still has enough nuclear weapons, even after reductions planned for 2017 under the New START treaty, to produce nuclear winter, with temperatures plunging below freezing in the summer in major agricultural regions, threatening the food supply for most of the planet. New research by myself, Brian Toon, Mike Mills, and colleagues over the past six years has found that a nuclear war between any two countries, such as India and Pakistan, using 50 atom bombs each of the size dropped on Hiroshima could produce climate change unprecedented in recorded human history, and a world food crisis because of the agricultural effects. This is much less than 1% of the current global arsenal. Communicating certainty - what we know for sure - has been much more effective than communicating uncertainty. The limited success I have had has come from persistence and serendipity. The first step was to do the science. We have published peer-reviewed articles in major journals, including Science, Nature, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Journal of Geophysical Research, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Physics Today, and Climatic Change. But policymakers do not read these journals. Through fairly convoluted circumstances, which will be described in this talk, we were able to get papers published in Scientific American and the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists. I have also published several encyclopedia articles on the subject. As a Lead Author of Chapter 8 (Radiative Forcing) of the recently published Fifth Assessment

  18. Comparison of Cultivars and Seasonal Variation in Blueberry (Vaccinium Species) Leaf Extract on Adult T-Cell Leukemia Cell Line Growth Suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Kai, Hisahiro; Fuse, Takuichi; Kunitake, Hisato; Morishita, Kazuhiro; Matsuno, Koji

    2014-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of blueberry leaves on the proliferation of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cell lines have previously been reported. A comparison of blueberry leaf extracts from different cultivars and seasonal variation were investigated regarding their effects on ATL cell line proliferation. The inhibitory effects of 80% ethanol leaf extracts from different blueberry cultivars collected from April to December in 2006 or 2008 were evaluated using two ATL cell lines. The bioactivities of ...

  19. Winter therapy for the accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    Hundreds of people are hard at work during the year-end technical stop as all the accelerators are undergoing maintenance, renovation and upgrade operations in parallel.   The new beam absorber on its way to Point 2 before being lowered into the LHC tunnel for installation. The accelerator teams didn’t waste any time before starting their annual winter rejuvenation programme over the winter. At the end of November, as the LHC ion run was beginning, work got under way on the PS Booster, where operation had already stopped. On 14 December, once the whole complex had been shut down, the technical teams turned their attention to the other injectors and the LHC. The year-end technical stop (YETS) provides an opportunity to carry out maintenance work on equipment and repair any damage as well as to upgrade the machines for the upcoming runs. Numerous work projects are carried out simultaneously, so good coordination is crucial. Marzia Bernardini's team in the Enginee...

  20. Responses of Winter Wheat Yields to Warming-Mediated Vernalization Variations Across Temperate Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuchen Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rapid climate warming, with much higher warming rates in winter and spring, could affect the vernalization fulfillment, a critical process for induction of crop reproductive growth and consequent grain filling in temperate winter crops. However, regional observational evidence of the effects of historical warming-mediated vernalization variations on temperate winter crop yields is lacking. Here, we statistically quantified the interannual sensitivity of winter wheat yields to vernalization degree days (VDD during 1975–2009 and its spatial relationship with multi-year mean VDD over temperate Europe (TE, using EUROSTAT crop yield statistics, observed and simulated crop phenology data and gridded daily climate data. Our results revealed a pervasively positive interannual sensitivity of winter wheat yields to variations in VDD (γVDD over TE, with a mean γVDD of 2.8 ± 1.5 kg ha−1 VDD−1. We revealed a significant (p < 0.05 negative exponential relationship between γVDD and multi-year mean VDD for winter wheat across TE, with higher γVDD in winter wheat planting areas with lower multi-year mean VDD. Our findings shed light on potential vulnerability of winter wheat yields to warming-mediated vernalization variations over TE, particularly considering a likely future warmer climate.

  1. Moving singularity creep crack growth analysis with the /Delta T/c and C/asterisk/ integrals. [path-independent vector and energy rate line integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonesifer, R. B.; Atluri, S. N.

    1982-01-01

    The physical meaning of (Delta T)c and its applicability to creep crack growth are reviewed. Numerical evaluation of (Delta T)c and C(asterisk) is discussed with results being given for compact specimen and strip geometries. A moving crack-tip singularity, creep crack growth simulation procedure is described and demonstrated. The results of several crack growth simulation analyses indicate that creep crack growth in 304 stainless steel occurs under essentially steady-state conditions. Based on this result, a simple methodology for predicting creep crack growth behavior is summarized.

  2. Modulation of nuclear T3 binding by T3 in a human hepatocyte cell-line (Chang-liver) - T3 stimulation of cell growth but not of malic enzyme, glucose-6-phosphatdehydrogenase or 6-phosphogluconate-dehydrogenase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, L E; Kristensen, S R; Kvetny, J

    1991-01-01

    The T3 modulation of nuclear T3 binding (NBT3), the T3 effect on cell growth, and the T3 and insulin effects on malic enzyme (ME), glucose-6-phosphat-dehydrogenase (G6PD) and 6-phosphogluconat-dehydrogenase (G6PD) were studied in a human hepatocyte cell-line (Chang-liver). T3 was bound to a high...... modulation of NBT3 associated to receptor saturation; 2) stimulation of cell growth; 3) contrary to the findings in rat hepatocytes no stimulation of ME, G6PD or 6PGD. Insulin enhanced ME and 6PGD....

  3. Growth of broiler chicks fed diets containing tannin-free and tannin-containing near-isogenic lines of Faba bean (Vicia Faba L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Loon, van Y.P.J.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Norel, van A.; Poel, van der A.F.B.

    1996-01-01

    Seeds from six pairs of near-isogenic lines of Vicia faba L., each pair consisting of a tannin-free (TF) and a tannin-containing (TC) partner line, were used to study the effect of breeding for the absence of condensed tannins on the seed content of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), and starch

  4. Estimation of the genetic parameters of meat characteristics and of their genetic correlations with growth and body composition in an experimental broiler line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bihan-Duval, E; Berri, C; Baeza, E; Millet, N; Beaumont, C

    2001-07-01

    Genetic parameters of breast meat characteristics [pH 15 min postmortem (pH15min), ultimate pH (pHu), CIELAB color parameters (L*, lightness; a*, redness; b*, yellowness) and drip loss (DL)] as well as their genetic correlations with BW and body composition [breast yield (BRY) and abdominal fat percentage (AFP)] were estimated in an experimental meat-type chicken line. Heritability of the pH of meat was high for pHu (0.35 +/- 0.03) and even more so for pH15min (0.49 +/- 0.01). Color parameters appeared to be the most heritable traits, with heritability values ranging from 0.50 to 0.57. Drip loss heritability was estimated at 0.39 +/- 0.04. The rate and the extent of pH decline seemed to be controlled by different genes, as shown by the extremely low estimated genetic correlation (0.02 +/- 0.04) between pH15min and pHu. The ultimate pH of the meat was genetically very strongly related to its lightness (-0.91 +/- 0.02) and water-holding capacity (-0.83 +/- 0.04). These results suggest that selection for pHu could be exploited to prevent increased incidence of pale and exudative meat. The pH15min was poorly correlated with the other meat characteristics, with estimated correlations of 0.13, -0.23, 0.05, and -0.29 for L*, a*, b*, and DL, respectively. These results may be explained by the fact that, in our experimental conditions, pH15min remained high (between 6.01 and 6.75). Body weight and BRY exhibited poor genetic correlations (ranging from -0.06 to 0.13) with the pH of the meat at 15 min and 24 h postmortem. Both of the former traits were moderately negatively correlated with a* and b* values. A significant negative genetic correlation was observed between abdominal fatness and pHu. These results do not support the idea that selection for growth and breast development has a detrimental effect on breast meat quality even if, in the long term, the color intensity could be decreased.

  5. Inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B enhances the tumor growth of ovarian cancer cell line derived from a low-grade papillary serous carcinoma in p53-independent pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Xue; Yang, Gong; Bai, Peng; Gui, Shunping; Nyuyen, Tri M. Bui; Mercado-Uribe, Imelda; Yang, Mei; Zou, Juan; Li, Qintong; Xiao, Jianguo; Chang, Bin; Liu, Guangzhi; Wang, He; Liu, Jinsong

    2016-01-01

    NF-kB can function as an oncogene or tumor suppressor depending on cancer types. The role of NF-kB in low-grade serous ovarian cancer, however, has never been tested. We sought to elucidate the function of NF-kB in the low-grade serous ovarian cancer. The ovarian cancer cell line, HOC-7, derived from a low-grade papillary serous carcinoma. Introduction of a dominant negative mutant, IkBαM, which resulted in decrease of NF-kB function in ovarian cancer cell lines. The transcription ability, tumorigenesis, cell proliferation and apoptosis were observed in derivative cell lines in comparison with parental cells. Western blot analysis indicated increased expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-xL and reduced expression of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax, Bad, and Bid in HOC-7/IĸBαM cell. Further investigations validate this conclusion in KRAS wildtype cell line SKOV3. Interesting, NF-kB can exert its pro-apoptotic effect by activating mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation in SKOV3 ovarian cancer cell, whereas opposite changes detected in p-MEK in HOC-7 ovarian cancer cell, the same as some chemoresistant ovarian cancer cell lines. In vivo animal assay performed on BALB/athymic mice showed that injection of HOC-7 induced subcutaneous tumor growth, which was completely regressed within 7 weeks. In comparison, HOC-7/IĸBαM cells caused sustained tumor growth and abrogated tumor regression, suggesting that knock-down of NF-kB by IĸBαM promoted sustained tumor growth and delayed tumor regression in HOC-7 cells. Our results demonstrated that NF-kB may function as a tumor suppressor by facilitating regression of low grade ovarian serous carcinoma through activating pro-apoptotic pathways

  6. Inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B enhances the tumor growth of ovarian cancer cell line derived from a low-grade papillary serous carcinoma in p53-independent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xue; Yang, Gong; Bai, Peng; Gui, Shunping; Nyuyen, Tri M Bui; Mercado-Uribe, Imelda; Yang, Mei; Zou, Juan; Li, Qintong; Xiao, Jianguo; Chang, Bin; Liu, Guangzhi; Wang, He; Liu, Jinsong

    2016-08-02

    NF-kB can function as an oncogene or tumor suppressor depending on cancer types. The role of NF-kB in low-grade serous ovarian cancer, however, has never been tested. We sought to elucidate the function of NF-kB in the low-grade serous ovarian cancer. The ovarian cancer cell line, HOC-7, derived from a low-grade papillary serous carcinoma. Introduction of a dominant negative mutant, IkBαM, which resulted in decrease of NF-kB function in ovarian cancer cell lines. The transcription ability, tumorigenesis, cell proliferation and apoptosis were observed in derivative cell lines in comparison with parental cells. Western blot analysis indicated increased expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-xL and reduced expression of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax, Bad, and Bid in HOC-7/IĸBαM cell. Further investigations validate this conclusion in KRAS wildtype cell line SKOV3. Interesting, NF-kB can exert its pro-apoptotic effect by activating mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation in SKOV3 ovarian cancer cell, whereas opposite changes detected in p-MEK in HOC-7 ovarian cancer cell, the same as some chemoresistant ovarian cancer cell lines. In vivo animal assay performed on BALB/athymic mice showed that injection of HOC-7 induced subcutaneous tumor growth, which was completely regressed within 7 weeks. In comparison, HOC-7/IĸBαM cells caused sustained tumor growth and abrogated tumor regression, suggesting that knock-down of NF-kB by IĸBαM promoted sustained tumor growth and delayed tumor regression in HOC-7 cells. Our results demonstrated that NF-kB may function as a tumor suppressor by facilitating regression of low grade ovarian serous carcinoma through activating pro-apoptotic pathways.

  7. Effect of anticancer drugs on production of transforming growth factor and expression of p53 AND Bcl-2 proteins by MCF-7 and T47D cell lines of human breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoika, R S; Yakymovych, I A; Kashchak, N I; Boyko, M M; Korynevska, A V; Klyuchyvska, O Yu; Shafranska, G I; Yakymovych, M Ya; Zhylchuk, V Ye; Kudryavets, Yu Y; Vorontsova, A L

    2008-03-01

    To compare the capability of methotrexate, cisplatin, doxorubicine and vincristine to induce production of the transforming growth factor beta(1) (TGF-beta(1)) in two cell lines - MCF-7 and T47D - of human breast carcinoma, as well as to study sensitivity of these cells to TGF-beta(1) and mentioned anticancer drugs. ELISA for detection of TGF-beta content in conditioned culture media and Western-blot analysis of the proapoptotic p53 and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins were applied. T47D cells showing higher resistance to growth inhibiting effect of TGF-beta(1) were also refractory to cisplatin. There was no difference between MCF-7 and T47D cells in their sensitivity to methotrexate and doxorubicine, although T47D cells were more sensitive to vincristine. It was found that methotrexate and vincristine did not affect TGF-beta(1) production, while doxorubicine used at a dose of 1-100 ug/ml, significantly induced TGF-beta(1) production in both cell lines. p53 expression in T47D cells was higher than in MCF-7 cells where only doxorubicin induced strongly p53 expression. It should be noted, that Bcl-2 was better expressed in MCF-7 cells, while it was almost undetectable in T47D cells. In cells of human mammary carcinoma of MCF-7 and T47D lines doxorubicine, unlike vincristine and methotrexate, in dose depending manner induces production of TGF-beta(1). TGF-beta(1) production in carcinoma cells was associated with doxorubicine-mediated p53 expression in MCF-7 cells or high basal level of p53 in T47D cells. The cells of MCF-7 line were more sensitive to growth inhibition by exogenous TGF-beta(1) and to cisplatine action than T47D cells, but there was no difference between these cell lines in sensitivity to other anticancer drugs.

  8. The broad-spectrum metalloproteinase inhibitor BB-94 inhibits growth, HER3 and Erk activation in fulvestrant-resistant breast cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Tove; Yde, Christina Westmose; Kveiborg, Marie

    2014-01-01

    and consequently increased cell growth. In this study, we investigated the importance of HER receptors, in particular HER3, and HER ligand shedding for growth and signaling in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells and MCF-7-derived sublines resistant to the antiestrogen fulvestrant. The HER3/HER4 ligand heregulin 1β...... induced phosphorylation of HER3, Akt and Erk, and partly rescued fulvestrant-inhibited growth of MCF-7 cells. HER3 ligands were found to be produced and shed from the fulvestrant-resistant cells as conditioned medium from fulvestrant-resistant MCF-7 cells induced phosphorylation of HER3 and Akt in MCF-7......-resistant cells, was able to inhibit growth and activation of HER3 and Erk in resistant cells. Compared to MCF-7, fulvestrant-resistant cells have increased HER3 phosphorylation, but knockdown of HER3 had no inhibitory effect on resistant cell growth. The EGFR inhibitor gefitinib exhibited only a minor growth...

  9. Sources of Nitrogen for Winter Wheat in Organic Cropping Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Schjønning, Per; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2013-01-01

    mineralizable N (PMN), microbial biomass N (MBN)] were monitored during two growth periods; at one site, biomass C/N ratios were also determined. Soil for labile N analysis was shielded from N inputs during spring application to isolate cumulated system effects. Potentially mineralizable N and MBN were...... explained 76 and 82% of the variation in grain N yields in organic cropping systems in 2007 and 2008, showing significant effects of, respectively, topsoil N, depth of A horizon, cumulated inputs of N, and N applied to winter wheat in manure. Thus, soil properties and past and current management all......In organic cropping systems, legumes, cover crops (CC), residue incorporation, and manure application are used to maintain soil fertility, but the contributions of these management practices to soil nitrogen (N) supply remain obscure. We examined potential sources of N for winter wheat (Triticum...

  10. Inducible knockout of the interleukin-2 receptor alpha chain: expression of the high-affinity IL-2 receptor is not required for the in vitro growth of HTLV-I-transformed cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, J H; Waldmann, T A; Sodroski, J G; Marasco, W A

    1997-10-27

    Adult T cell leukemia (ATL) is an aggressive malignancy that is associated with HTLV-I infection and characterized by constitutive expression of the high-affinity interleukin-2 receptor. The alpha subunit of the high-affinity receptor (IL-2Ralpha), which is normally present only on activated T cells, is specifically upregulated by HTLV-I and constitutively expressed on fresh leukemic cells from ATL patients as well as cell lines transformed by HTLV-I in vitro. Here we directly address the functional significance of IL-2Ralpha expression in HTLV-I transformed cell lines by using an endoplasmic reticulum-targeted single-chain antibody to inhibit the cell surface expression of IL-2Ralpha. Using constitutive and tetracycline-repressible systems to express the ER-targeted antibody against IL-2Ralpha, we have reduced cell surface expression of IL-2Ralpha by more that 2 logs of mean fluorescence intensity to virtually undetectable levels in the IL-2-independent HTLV-I-transformed cell lines C8166-45 and HUT102. No toxicity was associated with the intracellular retention of IL-2Ralpha, and the growth rate of the IL-2Ralpha-negative cells was in each case comparable to that of the parental cell line. We conclude that cell surface expression of IL-2Ralpha is dispensable for the in vitro growth of these HTLV-I-transformed cells. Copyright 1997 Academic Press.

  11. Remote Diagnosis of Nitrogen Status in Winter Oilseed Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S.

    2016-12-01

    Winter oilseed rape is one of the most important oilseed crops in the world. Compared with cereal crops, it requires high amount of nitrogen (N) supplies, but it is also characterized by low N use efficiency. The N nutrition index (NNI), defined as the ratio of the actual plant N concentration (PNC) to the critical PNC at a given biomass level, has been widely used to diagnose plant N status and to aid optimizing N fertilization. But traditional techniques to determine NNI in the lab are time-consuming and expensive. Remote sensing provides a promising approach for large-scale and rapid monitoring and diagnosis of crop N status. In this study, we conducted the experiment in the winter oilseed rape field with eight fertilization treatments in the growing season of 2014 and 2015. PNC, dry mass, and canopy spectra were measured during the different growth stages of winter oilseed rape. The N dilution curve was developed with measurements, and NNI was computed and analyzed for different treatments and different growth stage. For the same treatment, NNI decreased as more leaves were developing. Two methods were applied to remotely estimating NNI for winter oilseed rape: (1) NNI was estimated directly with vegetation indices (VIs) derived from canopy spectra; (2) the actual PNC and the critical PNC at the given biomass level were estimated separately with different types of VIs, and NNI was then computed with the two parts of the estimations. We found that VIs based solely on bands in the visible region provided the most accurate estimates of PNC. Estimating NNI directly with VIs had better performance than estimating the actual PNC and the critical PNC separately.

  12. 33 CFR 100.109 - Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME. 100.109 Section 100.109 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.109 Winter Harbor...

  13. Coupling estimated effects of QTLs for physiological traits to a crop growth model: Predicting yield variation among recombinant inbred lines in barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, X.Y.; Chasalow, S.D.; Dourleijn, C.J.; Stam, P.; Kropff, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Advances in the use of molecular markers to elucidate the inheritance of quantitative traits enable the integration of genetic information on physiological traits into crop growth models. The objective of this study was to assess the ability of a crop growth model with QTL-based estimates of

  14. Epidermal growth factor decreases PEPT2 transport capacity and expression in the rat kidney proximal tubule cell line SKPT0193 cl.2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bravo, Silvina A; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Amstrup, Jan

    2004-01-01

    The renal peptide transporter PEPT2 plays an important role in absorption of di- and tripetides in the proximal tubule; however, knowledge of regulation of PEPT2 by growth factors and hormones is limited. In the present study, we examined the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on PEPT2 tran...

  15. Winter Annual Weed Response to Nitrogen Sources and Application Timings prior to a Burndown Corn Herbicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A. Nelson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Autumn and early preplant N applications, sources, and placement may affect winter annual weed growth. Field research evaluated (1 the effect of different nitrogen sources in autumn and early preplant on total winter annual weed growth (2006–2010, and (2 strip-till and broadcast no-till N applied in autumn and early preplant on henbit (Lamium amplexicaule L. growth (2008–2010 prior to a burndown herbicide application. Total winter annual weed biomass was greater than the nontreated control when applying certain N sources in autumn or early preplant for no-till corn. Anhydrous ammonia had the lowest average weed density (95 weeds m−2, though results were inconsistent over the years. Winter annual weed biomass was lowest (43 g m−2 when applying 32% urea ammonium nitrate in autumn and was similar to applying anhydrous ammonia in autumn or early preplant and the nontreated control. Henbit biomass was 28% greater when applying N in the autumn compared to an early preplant application timing. Nitrogen placement along with associated tillage with strip-till placement was important in reducing henbit biomass. Nitrogen source selection, application timing, and placement affected the impact of N on winter annual weed growth and should be considered when recommending a burndown herbicide application timing.

  16. Animals in Winter. Young Discovery Library Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sairigne, Catherine

    This book is written for children 5 through 10. Part of a series designed to develop their curiosity, fascinate them and educate them, this volume introduces the habits of a variety of animals during the winter. Topics include: (1) surviving during winter, including concepts such as migration, hibernation, and skin color change; (2) changing…

  17. How to Have a Healthy Winter | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Without a doubt, winter is here. Between the icy weather and the recent hustle and bustle of the holidays, everyone is at an increased risk of getting sick. With that in mind, Occupational Health Services has a few simple tips for staying healthy this winter.

  18. Belichten Zantedeschia in winter biedt perspectief

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van P.J.; Trompert, J.P.T.

    2011-01-01

    Zantedeschia produceert in de Nederlandse winter geen bloemen. In de praktijk wordt met assimilatiebelichting wel bloei in de winter verkregen met de cultivar 'Crystal Blush'. Onderzoek door PPO laat zien welke hoeveelheid licht nodig is en dat ook gekleurde Zantedeschia's van een goede kwaliteit

  19. Nuclear Winter: Scientists in the Political Arena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badash, Lawrence

    2001-03-01

    The nuclear winter phenomenon is used to illustrate the many paths by which scientific advice reaches decision makers in the United States government. Because the Reagan administration was hostile to the strategic policy that the scientific discovery seemed to demand, the leading proponent of nuclear winter, Carl Sagan, used his formidable talent for popularization to reach a larger audience.

  20. 43 CFR 423.37 - Winter activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Winter activities. 423.37 Section 423.37 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE....37 Winter activities. (a) You must not tow persons on skis, sleds, or other sliding devices with a...

  1. 36 CFR 1002.19 - Winter activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Winter activities. 1002.19... RECREATION § 1002.19 Winter activities. (a) Skiing, snowshoeing, ice skating, sledding, innertubing.... (c) Failure to abide by area designations or activity restrictions established under this section is...

  2. 36 CFR 2.19 - Winter activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Winter activities. 2.19... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.19 Winter activities. (a) Skiing, snowshoeing, ice... designations or activity restrictions established under this section is prohibited. ...

  3. Chapter 7: Migration and winter ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Jeffrey F. Kelly; Jean-Luc E. Cartron

    2000-01-01

    The willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii) is a Neotropical migrant that breeds in North America, but winters in Central and northern South America. Little specific information is known about migration and wintering ecology of the southwestern willow flycatcher (E. t. extimus) (Yong and Finch 1997). Our report applies principally...

  4. Interim Report 'Winter smog and traffic'.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, H.; Blom, T.; Bogaard, van den C.; Boluyt, N.; Bree, van L.; Brunekreef, B.; Hoek, G.; Zee, van der S.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents a halfway score of the research project "Winter smog and Traffic", one of the themes of the research programme "Air Pollution and Health". A state of the art is presented of the health effects associated with exposure to winter smog and of the toxicological effects caused by the

  5. Effect of Postsowing Compaction on Cold and Frost Tolerance of North China Plain Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiyun Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Improper postsowing compaction negatively affects soil temperature and thereby cold and frost tolerance, particularly in extreme cold weather. In North China Plain, the temperature falls to 5 degrees below zero, even lower in winter, which is period for winter wheat growing. Thus improving temperature to promote wheat growth is important in this area. A field experiment from 2013 to 2016 was conducted to evaluate effects of postsowing compaction on soil temperature and plant population of wheat at different stages during wintering period. The effect of three postsowing compaction methods—(1 compacting wheel (CW, (2 crosskill roller (CR, and (3 V-shaped compacting roller after crosskill roller (VCRCR—on winter soil temperatures and relation to wheat shoot growth parameters were measured. Results showed that the highest soil midwinter temperature was in the CW treatment. In the 20 cm and 40 cm soil layer, soil temperatures were ranked in the following order of CW > VCRCR > CR. Shoot numbers under CW, CR, and VCRCR treatments were statistically 12.40% and 8.18% higher under CW treatment compared to CR or VCRCR treatments at the end of wintering period. The higher soil temperature under CW treatment resulted in higher shoot number at the end of wintering period, apparently due to reduced shoot death by cold and frost damage.

  6. Representing winter wheat in the Community Land Model (version 4.5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yaqiong; Williams, Ian N.; Bagley, Justin E.; Torn, Margaret S.; Kueppers, Lara M.

    2017-05-01

    Winter wheat is a staple crop for global food security, and is the dominant vegetation cover for a significant fraction of Earth's croplands. As such, it plays an important role in carbon cycling and land-atmosphere interactions in these key regions. Accurate simulation of winter wheat growth is not only crucial for future yield prediction under a changing climate, but also for accurately predicting the energy and water cycles for winter wheat dominated regions. We modified the winter wheat model in the Community Land Model (CLM) to better simulate winter wheat leaf area index, latent heat flux, net ecosystem exchange of CO2, and grain yield. These included schemes to represent vernalization as well as frost tolerance and damage. We calibrated three key parameters (minimum planting temperature, maximum crop growth days, and initial value of leaf carbon allocation coefficient) and modified the grain carbon allocation algorithm for simulations at the US Southern Great Plains ARM site (US-ARM), and validated the model performance at eight additional sites across North America. We found that the new winter wheat model improved the prediction of monthly variation in leaf area index, reduced latent heat flux, and net ecosystem exchange root mean square error (RMSE) by 41 and 35 % during the spring growing season. The model accurately simulated the interannual variation in yield at the US-ARM site, but underestimated yield at sites and in regions (northwestern and southeastern US) with historically greater yields by 35 %.

  7. [Effects of straw mulching and irrigation on solar energy utilization efficiency of winter wheat farmland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Quanqi; Chen, Yuhai; Wu, Wei; Yu, Shunzhang; Zhou, Xunbo; Dong, Qingyu; Yu, Songlie

    2006-02-01

    The study showed that straw mulching decreased the basic seedlings and tillers of winter wheat and the leaf area index (LAI) at earlier growth stage, but increased the LAI at latter growth stage. Straw mulching and irrigation reduced the transmittance and reflectance of PAR, resulting in the increase of PAR capture ratio mainly at the height of 40-60 cm. The solar energy utilization ratio of grain was decreased by straw mulching, while that of stem and leaf was increased. The total solar energy utilization efficiency of winter wheat could also be increased by straw mulching.

  8. Aluminium toxicity in winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabó A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium is the most frequent metal of the earth crust; it occurs mainly as biologically inactive, insoluble deposit. Environmental problems, industrial contaminations and acid rains increase the soil acidity, leading to the mobilization of Al. Half of the world’s potential arable lands are acidic; therefore, Al-toxicity decreases crop productivity. Wheat is a staple food for 35% of the world population. The effects of Al-stress (0.1 mM were studied on winter wheat; seedlings were grown hydroponically, at acidic pH. After two weeks, the root weight was decreased; a significant difference was found in the P- and Ca-content. The shoot weight and element content changed slightly; Al-content in the root was one magnitude higher than in the shoot, while Al-translocation was limited. The root plasma membrane H+-ATPase has central role in the uptake processes; Al-stress increased the Mg2+-ATPase activity of the microsomal fraction.

  9. Nitrogen uptake, nitrate leaching and root development in winter-grown wheat and fodder radish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Hansen, Elly Møller; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag

    2017-01-01

    Early seeding of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has been proposed as a means to reduce N leaching as an alternative to growing cover crops like fodder radish (Raphanus sativus L.). The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of winter wheat, seeded early and normally, and of fodder...... and reduced N leaching during the winter compared with the normal seeding time. Early-seeded wheat (WWearly) was, however, not as efficient as fodder radish at reducing N leaching. Proper establishment of WWearly was a prerequisite for benefiting from early seeding, as indicated by the 2012–2013 results...... radish on N dynamics and root growth. Field experiments were carried out on a humid temperate sandy loam soil. Aboveground biomass and soil inorganic N were determined in late autumn; N uptake and grain yield of winter wheat were measured at harvest. Nitrate leaching was estimated from soil water samples...

  10. A global analysis of the comparability of winter chill models for fruit and nut trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedeling, Eike; Brown, Patrick H

    2011-05-01

    Many fruit and nut trees must fulfill a chilling requirement to break their winter dormancy and resume normal growth in spring. Several models exist for quantifying winter chill, and growers and researchers often tacitly assume that the choice of model is not important and estimates of species chilling requirements are valid across growing regions. To test this assumption, Safe Winter Chill (the amount of winter chill that is exceeded in 90% of years) was calculated for 5,078 weather stations around the world, using the Dynamic Model [in Chill Portions (CP)], the Chilling Hours (CH) Model and the Utah Model [Utah Chill Units (UCU)]. Distributions of the ratios between different winter chill metrics were mapped on a global scale. These ratios should be constant if the models were strictly proportional. Ratios between winter chill metrics varied substantially, with the CH/CP ratio ranging between 0 and 34, the UCU/CP ratio between -155 and +20 and the UCU/CH ratio between -10 and +5. The models are thus not proportional, and chilling requirements determined in a given location may not be valid elsewhere. The Utah Model produced negative winter chill totals in many Subtropical regions, where it does not seem to be useful. Mean annual temperature and daily temperature range influenced all winter chill ratios, but explained only between 12 and 27% of the variation. Data on chilling requirements should always be amended with information on the location and experimental conditions of the study in which they were determined, ideally including site-specific conversion factors between winter chill models. This would greatly facilitate the transfer of such information across growing regions, and help prepare growers for the impact of climate change.

  11. Picophytoplankton variability: Influence of winter convective mixing and advection in the northeastern Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemal, Suchandan; Anil, Arga Chandrashekar; Shankar, D.; Remya, R.; Roy, Rajdeep

    2018-04-01

    The deepening of mixed layer and ensuing changes in optical and physicochemical properties of euphotic zone can influence phytoplankton community dynamics in the northeastern Arabian Sea during winter monsoon. The response of picophytoplankton community to such changes during winter convective mixing is not well understood. Herein, we have compared variations in the picophytoplankton community structure during early (November-December 2012), peak (end-January 2014) and late (mid-February 2015) winter monsoon from three separate cruises in the southern northeastern Arabian Sea. The higher Synechococcus abundance owing to entrainment of nutrients in mixed layer was observed during peak winter monsoon, while the concomitant changes in nitrate concentration, light and oxygen environment restricted Prochlorococcus growth resulting in lower abundance during the same period. This highlights the diverse responses of picophytoplankton groups to physicochemical changes of water column during winter convective mixing. The divinyl chlorophyll b/a ratio (marker for Prochlorococcus ecotypes) indicated prevalence of one low-light adapted ecotype (sensitive to light shock) in sub-surface water, one high-light adapted ecotype in surface water during early winter monsoon and both disappeared during intense mixing period in peak winter monsoon. Subsequently, a distinct low-light adapted ecotype, capable to tolerate light shock, was noticed during late winter monsoon and we argue that this ecotype is introduced to southern northeastern Arabian Sea through advection from north by sub-surface circulation. The total picophytoplankton biomass available to microbial loop is restored during late winter monsoon, when stratification begins, with a higher abundance of Synechococcus and the re-occurrence of Prochlorococcus population in the region. These inferences indicate that variability in picophytoplankton community structure and their contribution to the microbial loop are driven by

  12. Adult plant leaf rust resistance derived from the soft red winter wheat cultivar Caldwell maps to chromosome 3BS

    Science.gov (United States)

    'Caldwell' is a U.S. soft red winter wheat that has partial, adult plant resistance to the leaf rust pathogen Puccinia triticina. A line of 'Thatcher*2/Caldwell' with adult plant resistance derived from Caldwell was crossed with 'Thatcher' to develop a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs). ...

  13. The oceanography of winter leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morison, J. H.; McPhee, M. G.; Curtin, T. B.; Paulson, C. A.

    1992-07-01

    Leads in pack ice have long been considered important to the thermodynamics of the polar regions. A winter lead affects the ocean around it because it is a density source. As the surface freezes, salt is rejected and forms more dense water which sinks under the lead. This sets up a circulation with freshwater flowing in from the sides near the surface and dense water flowing away from the lead at the base of the mixed layer. If the mixed layer is fully turbulent, this pattern may not occur; rather, the salt rejected at the surface may simply mix into the surface boundary layer. In either event the instability produced at the surface of leads is the primary source of unstable buoyancy flux and, as such, exerts a strong influence on the mixed layer. Here as many as possible of the disparate and almost anecdotal observations of lead oceanography are assembled and combined with theoretical arguments to predict the form and scale of oceanographic disturbances caused by winter leads. The experimental data suggest the velocity disturbances associated with lead convection are about 1-5 cm s-1. These appear as jets near the surface and the base of the mixed layer when ice velocities across the lead are less than about 5 cm s-1. The salinity disturbances are about 0.01 to 0.05 psu. Scaling arguments suggest that the geostrophic currents set up by the lead density disturbances are also of the order of 1-5 cm s-1. The disturbances are most obvious when freezing is rapid and ice velocity is low because the salinity and velocity disturbances in the upper ocean are not smeared out by turbulence. In this vein, lead convection may be characterized at one extreme as free convection in which the density disturbance forces the circulation. At the other extreme, lead convection may be characterized as forced convection in which the density disturbance is mixed rapidly by boundary layer turbulence. The lead number Lo, which is the ratio of the pressure term to the turbulence term in the

  14. Half a Century of Schladming Winter Schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietschmann, H.

    2012-01-01

    The Schladming Winter Schools have started as early as in 1962. Over the times the yearly Schools have closely followed the actual developments in nuclear, particle, or more generally, in theoretical physics. Several new achievements have first been dealt with in length in the lectures at the Schladming Winter School. It has seen very prominent lecturers, among them a series of Nobel laureates (some of them reporting on their works even before they got their Nobel prizes). I will try to highlight the role of the Schladming Winter Schools in pro- mulgating new developments of theoretical physics in depth at the lectures given over the past 50 years. (author)

  15. Effects of x-irradiation on cell division, oxygen consumption, and growth medium pH of an insect cell line cultured in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koval, T.M.; Myser, W.C.; Hink, W.F.

    1975-01-01

    Cultured Trichoplusia ni cells in exponential growth were administered x-ray doses of 10,000 R and then subcultured. The untreated cell population began exponential growth within a few hours after subculture, eventually reaching stationary growth phase 96 hr later at a cell density of 2.08 x 10 6 cells/ml, whereas the irradiated cell population did not change for 24 hr after irradiation and then began exponential growth at a rate similar to that of control cells, also reaching stationary phase at 96 hr, but at a cell density of 0.93 x 10 6 cells/ml, which is less than half the maximum density of controls. From 24 to 96 hr after treatment, the x-irradiated cells were characterized by an increased consumption of oxygen that was nearly twice the amount utilized by control cells. The pH of the cell growth medium increases over 96 hr from 6.3 to 6.6 for irradiated as well as for untreated cultures, but since the number of x-rayed cells is less than half the number of untreated cells, the pH increase, per cell, of medium from irradiated cultures is about twice that of medium from control cultures

  16. Production of Ethanol From Newly Developed and Improved Winter Barley Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Nhuan P; Brooks, Wynse S; Griffey, Carl A; Toht, Matthew J

    2017-05-01

    Winter barley has attracted strong interest as a potential feedstock for fuel ethanol production in regions with mild winter climate such as the mid-Atlantic and northeastern USA. Ten recently developed and improved winter barley cultivars and breeding lines including five hulled and five hull-less lines were experimentally evaluated for potential ethanol production. The five hulled barley lines included three released cultivars (Thoroughbred, Atlantic, and Secretariat) and two breeding lines (VA09B-34 and VA11B-4). The five hull-less lines also included three released cultivars (Eve, Dan, and Amaze 10) and two breeding lines (VA08H-65 and VA13H-34). On the average, the hull-less barley cultivars produced more ethanol per unit mass because of their higher starch and β-glucan contents. However, since the hulled barley cultivars had higher agronomic yield, the potential ethanol production per acre of land for the two types were approximately equal. Among the ten cultivars tested, the hull-less cultivar Amaze 10 was the best one for ethanol production. The ethanol yield values obtained for this cultivar were 2.61 gal per bushel and 292 gal per acre.

  17. Unusial winter 2011/2012 in Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Faško, P.; Lapin, M.; Matejovič, P.; Pecho, Jozef

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2012), s. 19-26 ISSN 1335-339X Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : winter characteristics * climate variabilit * climate change * global warming Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  18. Habitat characteristics of wintering Wood Warbler Phylloscopus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Habitat characteristics of wintering Wood Warbler Phylloscopus sibilatrix in the Centre Region of Cameroon: conservation implications. Taku Awa II, Tsi A Evaristus, Robin C Whytock, Tsetagho Guilain, John Mallord ...

  19. VT Mean Winter Precipitation - 1971-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) ClimatePrecip_PRECIPW7100 includes mean winter precipitation data (October through March) for Vermont (1971-2000). It's a raster dataset derived...

  20. Winter cooling in the northern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Prasad, T.G.

    The upper thermo-haline structure and the surface meteorological parameters of the central and eastern Arabian Sea during the inter-monsoon (April-May, 1994) and winter monsoon (February-March, 1995) periods, were analysed to understand physical...

  1. Overview of climatic effects of nuclear winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.M.; Malone, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    A general description of the climatic effects of a nuclear war are presented. This paper offers a short history of the subject, a discussion of relevant parameters and physical processes, and a description of plausible nuclear winter scenario. 9 refs

  2. Irradiation-induced regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor in six human squamous cell carcinoma lines of the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artman, Meri Tuuli

    2014-01-01

    Radiation therapy is frequently used to treat squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN), although, it can be unsuccessful due to radiation resistance of the tumor. Currently, there are no established predictive markers for radiation resistance in SCCHN. The aim of this work was to investigate PAI-1 and VEGF secretion as markers for radiation resistance in six human SCCHN cell lines. The cell lines differed in their basal secretion levels and in their in vitro radiation sensitivity. PAI-1 and VEGF levels increased after irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. A significant correlation was detected between radiation-induced PAI-1 and VEGF secretion, which suggests that irradiation-induced secretion of PAI-1 and VEGF are partially regulated by related mechanisms. However, neither basal levels nor radiation-induced PAI-1 and VEGF secretion correlated with radiation resistance. Therefore, PAI-1 and VEGF are most likely not predictive markers for radiation resistance in SCCHN.

  3. Gliotoxin Targets Nuclear NOTCH2 in Human Solid Tumor Derived Cell Lines In Vitro and Inhibits Melanoma Growth in Xenograft Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Hubmann

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Deregulation of NOTCH2 signaling is implicated in a wide variety of human neoplasias. The current concept of targeting NOTCH is based on using gamma secretase inhibitors (GSI to regulate the release of the active NOTCH intracellular domain. However, the clinical outcome of GSI remains unsatisfactory. Therefore we analyzed human solid tumor derived cell lines for their nuclear NOTCH activity and evaluated the therapeutic potential of the NOTCH2 transactivation inhibitor gliotoxin in comparison to the representative GSI DAPT. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA were used as a surrogate method for the detection of NOTCH/CSL transcription factor complexes. The effect of gliotoxin on cell viability and its clinical relevance was evaluated in vitro and in a melanoma xenograft mouse model. Cell lines derived from melanoma (518A2, hepatocellular carcinoma (SNU398, HCC-3, Hep3B, and pancreas carcinoma (PANC1 express high amounts of nuclear NOTCH2. Gliotoxin efficiently induced apoptosis in these cell lines whereas the GSI DAPT was ineffective. The specificity of gliotoxin was demonstrated in the well differentiated nuclear NOTCH negative cell line Huh7, which was resistant to gliotoxin treatment in vitro. In xenotransplanted 518A2 melanomas, a single day dosing schedule of gliotoxin was well tolerated without any study limiting side effects. Gliotoxin significantly reduced the tumor volume in early (83 mm3 vs. 115 mm3, p = 0.008 as well as in late stage (218 mm3 vs. 576 mm3, p = 0.005 tumor models. In conclusion, NOTCH2 appears to be a key target of gliotoxin in human neoplasias and gliotoxin deserves further evaluation as a potential therapeutic agent in cancer management.

  4. Establishment, growth and in vivo differentiation of a new clonal human cell line, EM-G3, derived from breast cancer progenitors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brožová, Markéta; Kleibl, Z.; Netíková, I.; Ševčík, J.; Scholzová, E.; Březinová, J.; Chaloupková, Alena; Veselý, Pavel; Dundr, P.; Zadinová, M.; Krásná, Luboslava; Matoušková, Eva

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 2 (2007), s. 247-257 ISSN 0167-6806 R&D Projects: GA MZd NR8145; GA MZd(CZ) NR8345 Grant - others:Univerzita Karlova(CZ) 93/2005/C Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : breast cancer * cell line * progenitor cells * differentiation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.453, year: 2007

  5. Drought and Winter Drying (Pest Alert)

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA Forest Service

    Drought and winter drying have periodically caused major damage to trees. Drought reduces the amount of water available in the soil. In the case of winter drying, the water may be in the soil, but freezing of the soil makes the water unavailable to the tree. In both cases, more water is lost through transpiration than is available to the plant. Symptoms of drought and...

  6. Coming to grips with nuclear winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherr, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    This editorial examines the politics related to the concept of nuclear winter which is a term used to describe temperature changes brought on by the injection of smoke into the atmosphere by the massive fires set off by nuclear explosions. The climate change alone could cause crop failures and lead to massive starvation. The author suggests that the prospect of a nuclear winter should be a deterrent to any nuclear exchange

  7. Wet winter pore pressures in railway embankments

    OpenAIRE

    Briggs, Kevin M; Smethurst, Joel A; Powrie, William; O'Brien, Anthony S

    2013-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the influence of extreme wet winter weather on pore water pressures within clay fill railway embankments, using field monitoring data and numerical modelling. Piezometer readings taken across the London Underground Ltd network following the wet winter of 2000/2001 were examined, and showed occurrences of hydrostatic pore water pressure within embankments but also many readings below this. A correlation was found between the maximum pore water pressures and the permeabi...

  8. Pitaya Extracts Induce Growth Inhibition and Proapoptotic Effects on Human Cell Lines of Breast Cancer via Downregulation of Estrogen Receptor Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah de Almeida Bauer Guimarães

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in the world and is also the leading cause of cancer death in women. The use of bioactive compounds of functional foods contributes to reduce the risk of chronic diseases, such as cancer and vascular disorders. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant potential and the influence of pitaya extract (PE on cell viability, colony formation, cell cycle, apoptosis, and expression of BRCA1, BRCA2, PRAB, and Erα in breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-435. PE showed high antioxidant activity and high values of anthocyanins (74.65 ± 2.18. We observed a selective decrease in cell proliferation caused by PE in MCF-7 (ER+ cell line. Cell cycle analysis revealed that PE induced an increase in G0/G1 phase followed by a decrease in G2/M phase. Also, PE induced apoptosis in MCF-7 (ER+ cell line and suppressed BRCA1, BRCA2, PRAB, and Erα gene expression. Finally, we also demonstrate that no effect was observed with MDA-MB-435 cells (ER− after PE treatment. Taken together, the present study suggests that pitaya may have a protective effect against breast cancer.

  9. Pitaya Extracts Induce Growth Inhibition and Proapoptotic Effects on Human Cell Lines of Breast Cancer via Downregulation of Estrogen Receptor Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Deborah de Almeida Bauer; De Castro, Danielle Dos Santos Bonfim; de Oliveira, Felipe Leite; Nogueira, Eduardo Matos; da Silva, Marco Antônio Mota; Teodoro, Anderson Junger

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in the world and is also the leading cause of cancer death in women. The use of bioactive compounds of functional foods contributes to reduce the risk of chronic diseases, such as cancer and vascular disorders. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant potential and the influence of pitaya extract (PE) on cell viability, colony formation, cell cycle, apoptosis, and expression of BRCA 1 , BRCA 2 , PRAB, and Er α in breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-435). PE showed high antioxidant activity and high values of anthocyanins (74.65 ± 2.18). We observed a selective decrease in cell proliferation caused by PE in MCF-7 (ER + ) cell line. Cell cycle analysis revealed that PE induced an increase in G 0 /G 1 phase followed by a decrease in G 2 /M phase. Also, PE induced apoptosis in MCF-7 (ER + ) cell line and suppressed BRCA 1 , BRCA 2 , PRAB, and Er α gene expression. Finally, we also demonstrate that no effect was observed with MDA-MB-435 cells (ER - ) after PE treatment. Taken together, the present study suggests that pitaya may have a protective effect against breast cancer.

  10. Expression of the Wilms' tumor gene WT1 in human malignant mesothelioma cell lines and relationship to platelet-derived growth factor A and insulin- like growth factor 2 expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.W. Langerak (Anton); K.A. Williamson (K.); K. Miyagawa (K.); A. Hagemeijer (Anne); M.A. Versnel (Marjan); N. Hastie (Nick)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractMutations in the WT1 tumor suppressor gene are known to contribute to the development of Wilms' tumor (WT) and associated gonadal abnormalities. WT1 is expressed principally in the fetal kidney, developing gonads, and spleen and also in the mesothelium, which lines the coelomic cavities.

  11. Multistate proteomics analysis reveals novel strategies used by a hibernator to precondition the heart and conserve ATP for winter heterothermy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabek, Katharine R.; Karimpour-Fard, Anis; Epperson, L. Elaine; Hindle, Allyson; Hunter, Lawrence E.

    2011-01-01

    The hibernator's heart functions continuously and avoids damage across the wide temperature range of winter heterothermy. To define the molecular basis of this phenotype, we quantified proteomic changes in the 13-lined ground squirrel heart among eight distinct physiological states encompassing the hibernator's year. Unsupervised clustering revealed a prominent seasonal separation between the summer homeotherms and winter heterotherms, whereas within-season state separation was limited. Further, animals torpid in the fall were intermediate to summer and winter, consistent with the transitional nature of this phase. A seasonal analysis revealed that the relative abundances of protein spots were mainly winter-increased. The winter-elevated proteins were involved in fatty acid catabolism and protein folding, whereas the winter-depleted proteins included those that degrade branched-chain amino acids. To identify further state-dependent changes, protein spots were re-evaluated with respect to specific physiological state, confirming the predominance of seasonal differences. Additionally, chaperone and heat shock proteins increased in winter, including HSPA4, HSPB6, and HSP90AB1, which have known roles in protecting against ischemia-reperfusion injury and apoptosis. The most significant and greatest fold change observed was a disappearance of phospho-cofilin 2 at low body temperature, likely a strategy to preserve ATP. The robust summer-to-winter seasonal proteomic shift implies that a winter-protected state is orchestrated before prolonged torpor ensues. Additionally, the general preservation of the proteome during winter hibernation and an increase of stress response proteins, together with dephosphorylation of cofilin 2, highlight the importance of ATP-conserving mechanisms for winter cardioprotection. PMID:21914784

  12. Simulated winter browsing may lead to induced susceptibility of willows to beavers in spring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veraart, A.J.; Nolet, B.A.; Rosell, F.; De Vries, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Browsing may lead to an induced resistance or susceptibility of the plant to the herbivore. We tested the effect of winter browsing by Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber L., 1758) on food quality of holme willows (Salix dasyclados Wimm.) in and after the following growth season. Shrubs were pruned in

  13. Primary cultured fibroblasts derived from patients with chronic wounds: a methodology to produce human cell lines and test putative growth factor therapy such as GMCSF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coppock Donald L

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple physiologic impairments are responsible for chronic wounds. A cell line grown which retains its phenotype from patient wounds would provide means of testing new therapies. Clinical information on patients from whom cells were grown can provide insights into mechanisms of specific disease such as diabetes or biological processes such as aging. The objective of this study was 1 To culture human cells derived from patients with chronic wounds and to test the effects of putative therapies, Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF on these cells. 2 To describe a methodology to create fibroblast cell lines from patients with chronic wounds. Methods Patient biopsies were obtained from 3 distinct locations on venous ulcers. Fibroblasts derived from different wound locations were tested for their migration capacities without stimulators and in response to GM-CSF. Another portion of the patient biopsy was used to develop primary fibroblast cultures after rigorous passage and antimicrobial testing. Results Fibroblasts from the non-healing edge had almost no migration capacity, wound base fibroblasts were intermediate, and fibroblasts derived from the healing edge had a capacity to migrate similar to healthy, normal, primary dermal fibroblasts. Non-healing edge fibroblasts did not respond to GM-CSF. Six fibroblast cell lines are currently available at the National Institute on Aging (NIA Cell Repository. Conclusion We conclude that primary cells from chronic ulcers can be established in culture and that they maintain their in vivo phenotype. These cells can be utilized for evaluating the effects of wound healing stimulators in vitro.

  14. Pitaya Extracts Induce Growth Inhibition and Proapoptotic Effects on Human Cell Lines of Breast Cancer via Downregulation of Estrogen Receptor Gene Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Guimar?es, Deborah de Almeida Bauer; De Castro, Danielle dos Santos Bonfim; de Oliveira, Felipe Leite; Nogueira, Eduardo Matos; da Silva, Marco Ant?nio Mota; Teodoro, Anderson Junger

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in the world and is also the leading cause of cancer death in women. The use of bioactive compounds of functional foods contributes to reduce the risk of chronic diseases, such as cancer and vascular disorders. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant potential and the influence of pitaya extract (PE) on cell viability, colony formation, cell cycle, apoptosis, and expression of BRCA1, BRCA2, PRAB, and Erα in breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7...

  15. Epidermal Growth Factor-like Domain 7 Predicts Response to First-Line Chemotherapy and Bevacizumab in Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben Frøstrup; Nielsen, Boye Schnack; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2014-01-01

    in responding patients of 4 [95% confidence interval (CI), 4-6] compared with 8.5 (95% CI, 7-11) in nonresponders, P = 0.0008. This difference translated into a borderline significant difference in PFS (P = 0.06). Furthermore, a significant relationship between high EGFL7 VA and KRAS mutation was detected (P...... = 0.049). The results showed no significant relationship between the miR126 VA and the clinical endpoints. Our study suggests a predictive value of EGFL7 in regard to first-line chemotherapy and bevacizumab in patients with mCRC and supports the mechanism of a dual blocking of the vascular endothelial...

  16. A case study of a low lightning rate storm during the Florida winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Earle R.; Watson, Andrew I.; Maier, Launa M.; Jafferis, William; Weems, John

    1989-01-01

    Meteorological and cloud electrical data collected during a winter storm on January 21, 1988 at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida are presented. A pronounced transition from area-integrated convergence to divergence with associated peak electrical activity was observed, which appears to be characteristic for both the summer and the winter storms at KSC. The mesoscale precipitation region behind the squall line was substantially electrified over an area far larger than the KSC complex. It is noted that, in such a situation, the accumulated electric charge and peak lightning currents may be an order of magnitude greater than those encountered in isolated summer thunderstorms, and the lightning hazard is correspondingly greater.

  17. The effects of a growth-inhibiting tripeptide, acetylGlu-Ser-GlyNH2 (Ac-ESG), on gene expression and cell cycle progression of two lymphoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Reichelt, Wenche H; Luna, Luisa; Elgjo, Kjell; Reichelt, Karl L

    2003-01-01

    We recently isolated and characterized a tripeptide, acetylGlu-Ser-GlyNH2 (Ac-ESG), which inhibits proliferation of lymphoid cells. In this paper we describe the effects of Ac-ESG on growth-related gene expression and cell cycle progression in two lymphoma cell lines, Ramos and Molt, representing B and T lymphocytes, respectively. RNA was extracted from Molt and Ramos cells with or without the tripeptide treatment. Gene expression was examined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Northern blot hybridization, and cell cycle progression was detected by flow cytometry. In the Molt cells, p53 gene expression was increased following treatment while c-myc was decreased after treatment shorter than 24 hours; N-ras expression was significantly reduced at picomolar concentration for 24-hour treatment; cyclinD1 and cdk4 expression did not show any change; DNA flow cytometry demonstrated that Molt cells were arrested or delayed predominantly in G2-M. Untreated Ramos cells had higher gene expression levels of c-myc, N-Ras and cdk4 than Molt cells, but lower p53 expression. These cells were not sensitive to Ac-ESG. The tripeptide Ac-ESG alters the expression of several growth-related genes in the Molt cell line and brings about an arrest or delay of cells in G2-M.

  18. Profile of differentially expressed genes mediated by the type III epidermal growth factor receptor mutation expressed in a small-cell lung cancer cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, M.W.; Andersen, Thomas Thykjær; Ørntoft, Torben Falck

    2001-01-01

    negative small-cell-lung cancer cell line, GLC3, stably transfected with the EGFRvIII gene in a Tet-On system. By comparison of mRNA levels in EGFRvIII-GLC3 with those of Tet-On-GLC3, it was found that the levels of mRNAs encoding several transcription factors (ATF-3, JunD, and c-Myb), cell adhesion......Previous studies have shown a correlation between expression of the EGF receptor type III mutation (EGFRvIII) and a more malignant phenotype of various cancers including: non-small-cell lung cancer, glioblastoma multiforme, prostate cancer and breast cancer. Thus, a detailed molecular genetic...... understanding of how the EGFRvIII contributes to the malignant phenotype is of major importance for future therapy. The GeneChip Hu6800Set developed by Affymetrix was used to identify changes in gene expression caused by the expression of EGFRvIII. The cell line selected for the study was an EGF receptor...

  19. Response to zinc deficiency of two rice lines with contrasting tolerance is determined by root growth maintenance and organic acid exudation rates, and not by zinc-transporter activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widodo, Basuki; Broadley, Martin R; Rose, Terry; Frei, Michael; Pariasca-Tanaka, Juan; Yoshihashi, Tadashi; Thomson, Michael; Hammond, John P; Aprile, Alessio; Close, Timothy J; Ismail, Abdelbagi M; Wissuwa, Matthias

    2010-04-01

    *Zinc (Zn)-deficient soils constrain rice (Oryza sativa) production and cause Zn malnutrition. The identification of Zn-deficiency-tolerant rice lines indicates that breeding might overcome these constraints. Here, we seek to identify processes underlying Zn-deficiency tolerance in rice at the physiological and transcriptional levels. *A Zn-deficiency-tolerant line RIL46 acquires Zn more efficiently and produces more biomass than its nontolerant maternal line (IR74) at low [Zn](ext) under field conditions. We tested if this was the result of increased expression of Zn(2+) transporters; increased root exudation of deoxymugineic acid (DMA) or low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs); and/or increased root production. Experiments were performed in field and controlled environment conditions. *There was little genotypic variation in transcript abundance of Zn-responsive root Zn(2+)-transporters between the RIL46 and IR74. However, root exudation of DMA and LMWOA was greater in RIL46, coinciding with increased root expression of putative ligand-efflux genes. Adventitious root production was maintained in RIL46 at low [Zn](ext), correlating with altered expression of root-specific auxin-responsive genes. *Zinc-deficiency tolerance in RIL46 is most likely the result of maintenance of root growth, increased efflux of Zn ligands, and increased uptake of Zn-ligand complexes at low [Zn](ext); these traits are potential breeding targets.

  20. Sex-specific responses to winter flooding, spring waterlogging and post-flooding recovery in Populus deltoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Ling-Feng; Yang, Fan; Han, Chun-Yu; Pu, Yu-Jin; Ding, Yang; Zhang, Li-Jia

    2017-05-31

    Winter flooding events are common in some rivers and streams due to dam constructions, and flooding and waterlogging inhibit the growth of trees in riparian zones. This study investigated sex-specific morphological, physiological and ultrastructural responses to various durations of winter flooding and spring waterlogging stresses, and post-flooding recovery characteristics in Populus deltoides. There were no significant differences in the morphological, ultrastructural and the majority of physiological traits in trees subjected to medium and severe winter flooding stresses, suggesting that males and females of P. deltoides were winter flooding tolerant, and insensitive to winter flooding duration. Males were more tolerant to winter flooding stress in terms of photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence than females. Females displayed greater oxidative damage due to flooding stress than males. Males developed more efficient antioxidant enzymatic systems to control reactive oxygen species. Both sexes had similarly strong post-flooding recovery capabilities in terms of plant growth, and physiological and ultrastructural parameters. However, Males had better recovery capabilities in terms of pigment content. These results increase the understanding of poplars's adaptation to winter flooding stress. They also elucidate sex-specific differences in response to flooding stress during the dormant season, and during post-flooding recovery periods.

  1. Tumor-derived hepatocyte growth factor is associated with poor prognosis of patients with glioma and influences the chemosensitivity of glioma cell line to cisplatin in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo You-feng

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined the association of tumor-derived hepatocyte growth factor (HGF with the clinicopathological features of gliomas and investigated the effect of HGF inhibition on the biological behavior of tumor cells in vitro in order to determine whether HGF is a valuable prognostic predictor for glioma patients. Methods Seventy-six cases of glioma were collected. The tumor-derived HGF expression, cell proliferation index (PI and intratumoral microvessels were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Correlation between immunostaining and clinicopathological parameters, as well as the follow-up data of patients, was analyzed statistically. U87MG glioma cells were transfected with short interference (si-RNA for HGF, and the cell viability, migratory ability and chemosensitivity to cisplatin were evaluated in vitro. Results Both high HGF expression in tumor cells (59.2%, 45/76 and high PI were significantly associated with high-grade glioma and increased microvessels in tumors (P P = 0.004 and high-expression of HGF (P = 0.008 emerged as independent prognostic factors for the overall survival of glioma patients. The tumor-derived HGF mRNA and protein expressions were significantly decreased in vitro after transfection of HGF siRNA. HGF siRNA inhibited the cell growth and reduced cell migratory ability. Moreover, HGF siRNA transfection enhanced the chemosensitivity of U87MG glioma cells to cisplatin. Conclusion This study indicated that there was significant correlation among tumor cell-derived HGF, cell proliferation and microvessel proliferation in gliomas. HGF might influence tumor progression by modulating the cell growth, migration and chemoresistance to drugs. Increased expression of HGF may be a valuable predictor for prognostic evaluation of glioma patients.

  2. Estimating winter survival of winter wheat by simulations of plant frost tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergjord Olsen, A.K.; Persson, T.; Wit, de A.; Nkurunziza, L.; Sindhøj, E.; Eckersten, H.

    2018-01-01

    Based on soil temperature, snow depth and the grown cultivar's maximum attainable level of frost tolerance (LT50c), the FROSTOL model simulates development of frost tolerance (LT50) and winter damage, thereby enabling risk calculations for winter wheat survival. To explore the accuracy of this

  3. Key areas for wintering North American herons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikuska, T.; Kushlan, J.A.; Hartley, S.

    1998-01-01

    Nearly all North American heron populations are migratory, but details of where they winter are little known. Locations where North American herons winter were identified using banding recovery data. North American herons winter from Canada through northern South America but especially in eastern North America south of New York, Florida, California, Louisiana, Texas, Mexico and Cuba, these areas accounting for 63% of winter recoveries. We identified regions where recoveries for various species clustered as 'key areas.' These forty-three areas constitute a network of areas that hold sites that likely are important to wintering herons. The relative importance of each area and site within the network must be evaluated by further on the ground inventory. Because of biases inherent in the available data, these hypothesized key areas are indicative rather than exhaustive. As a first cut, this network of areas can serve to inform further inventory activities and can provide an initial basis to begin planning for the year-round conservation of North American heron populations.

  4. A single L288I substitution in the fusion protein of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 enhances virus growth in semi-suitable cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Ryosuke; Takada, Marina; Kokuho, Takehiro; Tsuboi, Takamitsu; Kameyama, Ken-Ichiro; Takeuchi, Kaoru

    2017-08-01

    The bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 BN-CE vaccine strain was obtained by serial passage of the BN-1 strain in chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEF). We previously identified a substitution (L288I) in the fusion (F) protein between the two strains. To examine the effect of the substitution on CEF adaptation and attenuation, we generated a recombinant BN-1 strain with the L288I substitution in the F protein (F L288I -EGFP). F L288I -EGFP replicated more efficiently than a recombinant BN-1 strain (wt-EGFP) in semi-suitable cell lines, suggesting that the L288I substitution was established in the BN-1 strain during the process of adaptation in CEF.

  5. Melatonin Suppresses the Growth of Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines (OVCAR-429 and PA-1 and Potentiates the Effect of G1 Arrest by Targeting CDKs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ju Shen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin is found in animals as well as plants. In animals, it is a hormone that anticipates the daily onset of darkness and regulates physiological functions, such as sleep timing, blood pressure, and reproduction. Melatonin has also been found to have anti-tumor properties. Malignant cancers are the most common cause of death, and the mortality rate of ovarian tumor is the highest among gynecological diseases. This study investigated the anti-tumor effects of melatonin on the ovarian cancer lines, OVCAR-429 and PA-1. We observed the accumulation of melatonin-treated cells in the G1 phase due to the down-regulation of CDK 2 and 4. Our results suggest that in addition to the known effects on prevention, melatonin may also provide anti-tumor activity in established ovarian cancer.

  6. Effects of γ-radiation on cell growth, cell cycle and promoter methylation of 22 cell cycle genes in the 1321NI astrocytoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamian, Yaman; Abou Alchamat, Ghalia; Murad, Hossam; Madania, Ammar

    2017-09-01

    DNA damage caused by radiation initiates biological responses affecting cell fate. DNA methylation regulates gene expression and modulates DNA damage pathways. Alterations in the methylation profiles of cell cycle regulating genes may control cell response to radiation. In this study we investigated the effect of ionizing radiation on the methylation levels of 22 cell cycle regulating genes in correlation with gene expression in 1321NI astrocytoma cell line. 1321NI cells were irradiated with 2, 5 or 10Gy doses then analyzed after 24, 48 and 72h for cell viability using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliu bromide) assay. Flow cytometry were used to study the effect of 10Gy irradiation on cell cycle. EpiTect Methyl II PCR Array was used to identify differentially methylated genes in irradiated cells. Changes in gene expression was determined by qPCR. Azacytidine treatment was used to determine whether DNA methylation affectes gene expression. Our results showed that irradiation decreased cell viability and caused cell cycle arrest at G2/M. Out of 22 genes tested, only CCNF and RAD9A showed some increase in DNA methylation (3.59% and 3.62%, respectively) after 10Gy irradiation, and this increase coincided with downregulation of both genes (by 4 and 2 fold, respectively). with azacytidine confirmed that expression of CCNF and RAD9A genes was regulated by methylation. 1321NI cell line is highly radioresistant and that irradiation of these cells with a 10Gy dose increases DNA methylation of CCNF and RAD9A genes. This dose down-regulates these genes, favoring G2/M arrest. Copyright © 2017 Medical University of Bialystok. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Combination treatment of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and γ-secretase inhibitor (DAPT) cause growth inhibition and apoptosis induction in the human gastric cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrad, Elham; Niapour, Ali; Farassati, Faris; Amani, Mojtaba

    2018-04-01

    Current medication for gastric cancer patients has a low success rate with resistance and side effects. According to recent studies, γ-secretase inhibitors is used as therapeutic drugs in cancer. Moreover, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is a natural compound proposed for the treatment/chemo-prevention of cancers. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of ATRA in combination with N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl-l-alanyl)]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (DAPT) as γ-secretase inhibitor on viability and apoptosis of the AGS and MKN-45 derived from human gastric cancer. AGS and MKN-45 gastric cancer cell lines were treated with different concentrations of ATRA or DAPT alone or ATRA plus DAPT. The viability, death detection and apoptosis of cells was examined by MTT assay and Ethidium bromide/acridine orange staining. The distribution of cells in different phases of cell cycle was also evaluated through flow cytometry analyses. In addition, caspase 3/7 activity and the expression of caspase-3 and bcl-2 were examined. DAPT and ATRA alone decreased gastric cancer cells viability in a concentration dependent manner. The combination of DAPT and ATRA exhibited significant synergistic inhibitory effects. The greater percentage of cells were accumulated in G0/G1 phase of cell cycle in combination treatment. The combination of DAPT and ATRA effectively increased the proportion of apoptotic cells and the level of caspase 3/7 activities compared to single treatment. Moreover, augmented caspase-3 up-regulation and bcl-2 down-regulation were found following combined application of DAPT and ATRA. The combination of DAPT and ATRA led to more reduction in viability and apoptosis in respect to DAPT or ATRA alone in the investigated cell lines.

  8. Contribution of allelopathy and competition to weed suppression by winter wheat, triticale and winter rye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiss, Antje; Fomsgaard, Inge S.; Mathiassen, Solvejg Kopp

    of competitive traits, such as early vigour, crop height and leaf area index and presence of phytotoxic compounds of the group of benzoxazinoids to weed suppression. Four cultivars of each of the winter cereals wheat, triticale and rye were grown in field experiments at two locations. Soil samples were taken...... 2016. Competitive traits were measured throughout the growing season. Partial least squares regression with weed biomass as response variable was used for modelling. Competitive traits, as well as benzoxazinoid concentrations contributed significantly to the models on winter wheat, winter triticale...... and winter rye data and explained 63, 69 and 58% of the variance in weed biomass in the first two components, respectively. Consequently, it can be concluded that competitive, as well as allelopathic traits, contributed significantly to weed suppressive outcome in winter cereals. This knowledge...

  9. Root development of fodder radish and winter wheat before winter in relation to uptake of nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlström, Ellen Margrethe; Hansen, Elly Møller; Mandel, A.

    2015-01-01

    The nitrate (N) present in soil at the end of autumn is prone to leach during winter and spring in temperate climates if not taken up by plants. In Denmark catch crops are used as a regulatory tool to reduce N leaching and therefore a shift from winter cereals to spring cereals with catch crops has...... occurred. Quantitative data is missing on N leaching of a catch crop compared to a winter cereal in a conventional cereal-based cropping system. The aim of the study was to investigate whether fodder radish (Raphanus sativus L.) (FR) would be more efficient than winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (WW......) at depleting the soil of mineral nitrogen (Nmin) before winter. A secondary aim was to study the agreement between three different root measuring methods: root wash (RW), core break (CB) and minirhizotron (MR). The third aim of the was to correlate the N uptake of FR and WW with RLD. An experiment was made...

  10. Winter refuge for Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes in Hanoi during Winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, Takashi; Cuong, Tran Chi; Dong, Tran Duc; Yen, Nguyen Thi; Le, Nguyen Hoang; Phong, Tran Vu; Minakawa, Noboru

    2014-01-01

    Dengue occurs throughout the year in Hanoi, Vietnam, despite winter low temperatures density drastically decreased in winter. Aedes aegypti preferred concrete tanks and this preference increased in winter. Even in winter, the lowest water temperature found in concrete tanks was >14°C, exceeding the developmental zero point of Ae. aegypti. Although jars, drums and concrete tanks were the dominant containers previously (1994-97) in Hanoi, currently the percentage of residences with concrete tanks was still high while jars and drums were quite low. Our study showed that concrete tanks with broken lids allowing mosquitoes access were important winter refuge for Ae. aegypti. We also indicate a concern about concrete tanks serving as foci for Ae. aegypti to expand their distribution in cooler regions.

  11. Diacylglycerol kinase α mediates 17-β-estradiol-induced proliferation, motility, and anchorage-independent growth of Hec-1A endometrial cancer cell line through the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor GPR30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filigheddu, Nicoletta; Sampietro, Sara; Chianale, Federica; Porporato, Paolo E; Gaggianesi, Miriam; Gregnanin, Ilaria; Rainero, Elena; Ferrara, Michele; Perego, Beatrice; Riboni, Francesca; Baldanzi, Gianluca; Graziani, Andrea; Surico, Nicola

    2011-12-01

    Increased levels of endogenous and/or exogenous estrogens are one of the well known risk factors of endometrial cancer. Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs) are a family of enzymes which phosphorylate diacylglycerol (DAG) to produce phosphatidic acid (PA), thus turning off and on DAG-mediated and PA-mediated signaling pathways, respectively. DGK α activity is stimulated by growth factors and oncogenes and is required for chemotactic, proliferative, and angiogenic signaling in vitro. Herein, using either specific siRNAs or the pharmacological inhibitor R59949, we demonstrate that DGK α activity is required for 17-β-estradiol (E2)-induced proliferation, motility, and anchorage-independent growth of Hec-1A endometrial cancer cell line. Impairment of DGK α activity also influences basal cell proliferation and growth in soft agar of Hec-1A, while it has no effects on basal cell motility. Moreover, we show that DGK α activity induced by E2, as well as its observed effects, are mediated by the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor GPR30 (GPER). These findings suggest that DGK α may be a potential target in endometrial cancer therapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Multicenter phase II study of capecitabine plus cisplatin as first-line therapy for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative advanced gastric cancer: Yokohama Clinical Oncology Group Study YCOG1107.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kei; Kunisaki, Chikara; Kosaka, Takashi; Takagawa, Ryo; Takahashi, Masazumi; Izumisawa, Yusuke; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Sato, Sho; Tanaka, Yusaku; Yamaguchi, Naotaka; Kimura, Jun; Ono, Hidetaka A; Makino, Hirochika; Akiyama, Hirotoshi; Endo, Itaru

    2017-11-01

    S-1 plus cisplatin therapy is the recommended standard first-line regimen for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2)-negative advanced unresectable or recurrent gastric cancer (AGC) in the Japanese Gastric Cancer Treatment Guidelines. By contrast, capecitabine plus cisplatin (XP) therapy has been second-line therapy for these patients. This prospective study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of XP as a first-line regimen for HER2-negative patients with AGC. In this multicenter, open-label, phase II study, patients received cisplatin (80 mg/m 2 i.v. day 1) plus capecitabine (1000 mg/m 2 orally, twice daily, days 1-14) at 3 week intervals until disease progression or non-continuation for various reasons. The primary endpoint was overall response rate; secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and toxicity profiles. Thirty-six patients with HER2-negative AGC were enrolled in this study. Of these, 16 patients with evaluable lesions were assessable for efficacy and 36 were assessable for toxicity. One patient achieved a complete response and five partial responses. The overall response rate was 37.5% [95% confidence interval (CI) 13.7-61.2%] calculated on an intention-to-treat basis. The median PFS and median OS were 5.2 months (95% CI 4.2-6.2 months) and 16.9 months (95% CI 5.8-27.9 months), respectively. Treatment-related adverse events were generally mild; the most common grade 3/4 adverse event was neutropenia (27.8%), followed by anorexia (19.4%), leucopenia (16.7%), anemia (16.7%), and nausea (13.9%). XP as first-line therapy is effective and well tolerated by patients with HER2-negative AGC.

  13. The engineering approach to winter sports

    CERN Document Server

    Cheli, Federico; Maldifassi, Stefano; Melzi, Stefano; Sabbioni, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    The Engineering Approach to Winter Sports presents the state-of-the-art research in the field of winter sports in a harmonized and comprehensive way for a diverse audience of engineers, equipment and facilities designers, and materials scientists. The book examines the physics and chemistry of snow and ice with particular focus on the interaction (friction) between sports equipment and snow/ice, how it is influenced by environmental factors, such as temperature and pressure, as well as by contaminants and how it can be modified through the use of ski waxes or the microtextures of blades or ski soles. The authors also cover, in turn, the different disciplines in winter sports:  skiing (both alpine and cross country), skating and jumping, bob sledding and skeleton, hockey and curling, with attention given to both equipment design and on the simulation of gesture and  track optimization.

  14. Productivity of determinate growth tomato lines tolerant to heat under the organic system Produtividade de linhagens de tomate rasteiro tolerantes ao calor sob o sistema orgânico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândido A da Costa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to evaluate the productive response of heat tolerant lines of determinate growth tomato under the organic production system. The experiment was carried out in the Instituto de Ciências Agrárias of UFMG, Montes Claros, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The experimental design was of randomized complete blocks with eight treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of eight heat tolerant processing type tomato lines obtained from the Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center (AVRDC, China: CLN1621L, CLN1621F, CLN1621E, CLN1466P, CLN2026E, CLN2026D, CLN2026C and CLN2001C. There was an inverse relationship between the average weight of the fruits and the number of fruits per plant. The highest average fruit weight of some lines was compensated by the lowest quantity of fruits, in such a way that there were no significant differences among the lines. Symptoms of nutritional deficiency and incidences of pests and diseases were not verified in any of the studied lines. All lines presented potential for genetic improvement research and cultivation using organic production systems under higher temperature conditions.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho produtivo de linhagens de tomate rasteiro tolerantes ao calor sob o sistema orgânico de produção. O experimento foi realizado no Núcleo de Ciências Agrárias da UFMG, Montes Claros-MG. Foi utilizado o delineamento em blocos casualizados com oito tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de oito linhagens de tomate do tipo rasteiro tolerantes ao calor obtidos na Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center (AVRDC, China: CLN1621L, CLN1621F, CLN1621E, CLN1466P, CLN2026E, CLN2026D, CLN2026C e CLN2001C. Houve uma relação inversa entre o peso médio dos frutos e o número de frutos produzidos por planta. O maior peso médio de frutos de algumas linhagens foi compensado pelo menor número de frutos, de tal

  15. Prevalence of operator fatigue in winter maintenance operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camden, Matthew C; Medina-Flintsch, Alejandra; Hickman, Jeffrey S; Bryce, James; Flintsch, Gerardo; Hanowski, Richard J

    2018-02-02

    Similar to commercial motor vehicle drivers, winter maintenance operators are likely to be at an increased risk of becoming fatigued while driving due to long, inconsistent shifts, environmental stressors, and limited opportunities for sleep. Despite this risk, there is little research concerning the prevalence of winter maintenance operator fatigue during winter emergencies. The purpose of this research was to investigate the prevalence, sources, and countermeasures of fatigue in winter maintenance operations. Questionnaires from 1043 winter maintenance operators and 453 managers were received from 29 Clear Road member states. Results confirmed that fatigue was prevalent in winter maintenance operations. Over 70% of the operators and managers believed that fatigue has a moderate to significant impact on winter maintenance operations. Approximately 75% of winter maintenance operators reported to at least sometimes drive while fatigued, and 96% of managers believed their winter maintenance operators drove while fatigued at least some of the time. Furthermore, winter maintenance operators and managers identified fatigue countermeasures and sources of fatigue related to winter maintenance equipment. However, the countermeasures believed to be the most effective at reducing fatigue during winter emergencies (i.e., naps) were underutilized. For example, winter maintenance operators reported to never use naps to eliminate fatigue. These results indicated winter maintenance operations are impacted by operator fatigue. These results support the increased need for research and effective countermeasures targeting winter maintenance operator fatigue. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Simultaneous suppression of epidermal growth factor receptor and c-erbB-2 reverses aneuploidy and malignant phenotype of a human ovarian carcinoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pack, Svetlana D; Alper, Ozgül M; Stromberg, Kurt; Augustus, Meena; Ozdemirli, Metin; Miermont, Anne M; Klus, Greg; Rusin, Marek; Slack, Rebecca; Hacker, Neville F; Ried, Thomas; Szallasi, Zoltan; Alper, Ozge

    2004-02-01

    Coexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and c-erbB-2 in 47-68% of ovarian cancer cells indicate their strong association with tumor formation. We examined the effects of simultaneous antisense- or immunosuppression of EGFR and c-erbB-2 expression on the invasive phenotype, aneuploidy, and genotype of cultured human ovarian carcinoma cells (NIH:OVCAR-8). We report here that suppression of both EGFR and c-erbB-2 results in regression of aneuploidy and genomic imbalances in NIH:OVCAR-8 cells, restores a more normal phenotype, and results in a more normal gene expression profile. Combined with cytogenetic analysis, our data demonstrate that the regression of aneuploidy is due to the selective apoptosis of double antisense transfected cells with highly abnormal karyotype.

  17. Constitutive activation of a slowly migrating isoform of Stat3 in mycosis fungoides: tyrphostin AG490 inhibits Stat3 activation and growth of mycosis fungoides tumor cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M; Kaltoft, K; Nordahl, M

    1997-01-01

    . Jaks link cytokine receptors to Stats, and abnormal Jak/Stat signaling has been observed in some hemopoietic cancers. In MF tumor cells, a slowly migrating isoform of Stat3, Stat3(sm), was found to be constitutively activated, i.e., (i) Stat3(sm) was constitutively phosphorylated on tyrosine residues......, and tyrosine phosphorylation was not enhanced by growth factor stimulation; (ii) band shift assays and immunoprecipitations of DNA/Stat complexes showed constitutive DNA-binding properties of Stat3(sm); and (iii) Stat3(sm) was constitutively associated with Jak3. The abnormal activation of Stat3(sm) was highly...... specific. Thus, neither the fast migrating isoform of Stat3 (Stat3(fm)) nor other Stats (Stat1, Stat2, and Stat4 through Stat6) were constitutively activated. The Jak kinase inhibitor, tyrphostin AG490, blocked the constitutive activation of Stat3(sm) and inhibited spontaneous as well as interleukin 2...

  18. [Tibial plateau fractures in winter sports. Current treatment options].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, V

    2014-01-01

    Tibial plateau fractures overall and especially in winter sports are rare. However, the incidence in recent years is increasing. In a retrospective study from 2009-2012, we found 52 injuries affiliated with winter sports. Noticeable was the high rate of severe injury patterns. In 20 of the 52 cases, there were complete articular or bicondylar fractures (38 %). In 25 cases (48 %), fragment dislocation corresponding to the Moore classification was observed. The operative algorithm was based on the initial soft tissue damage and the type of fracture. A two or more stage procedure with first line soft tissue management and temporary external fixation stabilization was performed 12 times. The final internal osteosynthesis was based on the morphology of the fracture, i.e., direct exposition and stabilization of relevant fracture patterns. In 24 cases (46 %), there was a need for two (or more) approaches. In the anterior aspect of the tibial head, customary implants were used; posterior pathologies were stabilized with low-dimension implants. Summarizing with regard to the literature, there is a more discriminating view of tibial plateau fractures, regarding all relevant fracture patterns. Thus, different options in operative access and choice of implants can be made.

  19. Differential effects of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-6 (IGFBP-6 on migration of two ovarian cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong eYang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available IGFBP-6 inhibits angiogenesis as well as proliferation and survival of rhabdomyosarcoma cells. However, it promotes migration of these cells in an IGF-independent manner. The IGF system is implicated in ovarian cancer, so we studied the effects of IGFBP-6 in ovarian cancer cells.Methods: The effects of wild type (wt and a non-IGF-binding mutant (m of IGFBP-6 on migration of HEY and SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells, which respectively represent aggressive and transitional cancers, were studied. ERK and JNK phosphorylation were measured by Western blotting.Results: IGF-II, wt- and mIGFBP-6 each promoted SKOV3 cell migration by 77-98% (p<0.01. In contrast, IGF-II also increased HEY cell migration to 155 ± 13% of control (p<0.001, but wtIGFBP-6 and mIGFBP-6 decreased migration to 62 ± 5% and 66 ± 3% respectively (p<0.001. In these cells, coincubation of IGF-II with wt but not mIGFBP-6 increased migration. MAP kinase pathways are involved in IGFBP-6-induced rhabdomyosarcoma cell migration, so activation of these pathways in HEY and SKOV3 cells was studied. wt and mIGFBP-6 increased ERK phosphorylation by 62-99% in both cell lines (p<0.05. wtIGFBP-6 also increased JNK phosphorylation by 139-153% in both cell lines (p<0.05, but the effect of mIGFBP-6 was less clear. ERK and JNK inhibitors partially inhibited the migratory effects of wt and mIGFBP-6 in SKOV3 cells, whereas the ERK inhibitor partially restored wt and mIGFBP-6-induced inhibition of HEY cell migration. The JNK inhibitor had a lesser effect on the actions of wtIGFBP-6 and no effect on the actions of mIGFBP-6 in HEY cells.Conclusions: IGFBP-6 has opposing effects on migration of HEY and SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells, but activates MAP kinase pathways in both. Delineating the pathways underlying the differential effects on migration will increase our understanding of ovarian cancer metastasis and shed new light on the IGF-independent effects of IGFBP-6.

  20. [Winter sport injuries in childhood (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausbrandt, D; Höllwarth, M; Ritter, G

    1979-01-01

    3374 accidents occurring on the field of sport during the years 1975--1977 accounted for 19% of all accidents dealt with at the Institute of Kinderchirurgie in Graz. 51% of the accidents were caused by the typical winter sports: skiing, tobogganing, ice-skating and ski-jumping with skiing accounting for 75% of the accidents. The fracture localization typical of the different kinds of winter sport is dealt with in detail. The correct size and safety of the equipment were found to be particularly important in the prevention of such accidents in childhood.

  1. Severe European winters in a secular perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Andreas; Hänsel, Stephanie

    2017-04-01

    Temperature conditions during the winter time are substantially shaped by a strong year-to-year variability. European winters since the late 1980s - compared to previous decades and centuries - were mainly characterised by a high temperature level, including recent record-warm winters. Yet, comparably cold winters and severe cold spells still occur nowadays, like recently observed from 2009 to 2013 and in early 2017. Central England experienced its second coldest December since start of observations more than 350 years ago in 2010, and some of the lowest temperatures ever measured in northern Europe (below -50 °C in Lapland) were recorded in January 1999. Analysing thermal characteristics and spatial distribution of severe (historical) winters - using early instrumental data - helps expanding and consolidating our knowledge of past weather extremes. This contribution presents efforts towards this direction. We focus on a) compiling and assessing a very long-term instrumental, spatially widespread and well-distributed, high-quality meteorological data set to b) investigate very cold winter temperatures in Europe from early measurements until today. In a first step, we analyse the longest available time series of monthly temperature averages within Europe. Our dataset extends from the Nordic countries up to the Mediterranean and from the British Isles up to Russia. We utilise as much as possible homogenised times series in order to ensure reliable results. Homogenised data derive from the NORDHOM (Scandinavia) and HISTALP (greater alpine region) datasets or were obtained from national weather services and universities. Other (not specifically homogenised) data were derived from the ECA&D dataset or national institutions. The employed time series often start already during the 18th century, with Paris & Central England being the longest datasets (from 1659). In a second step, daily temperature averages are involved. Only some of those series are homogenised, but

  2. Nuclear winter: The evidence and the risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, O.

    1985-01-01

    Global concern over nuclear extinction, centered on the holocaust itself, now has turned to the more terrifying consequences of a post-war nuclear winter: ''the long-term effects - destruction of the environment, spread of epidemic diseases, contamination by radioactivity, and ... collapse of agriculture-[that] would spread famine and death to every country.'' Nuclear Winter, the latest in a series of studies by a number of different groups is clinical, analytical, systematic, and detailed. Two physicists and biologist analyze the effects on the climate, plants, animals, and living systems; the human costs; the policy implications

  3. Mechanical weed control in organic winter wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Euro Pannacci; Francesco Tei; Marcello Guiducci

    2017-01-01

    Three field experiments were carried out in organic winter wheat in three consecutive years (exp. 1, 2005-06; exp. 2, 2006- 07; exp. 3, 2007-08) in central Italy (42°57’ N - 12°22’ E, 165 m a.s.l.) in order to evaluate the efficacy against weeds and the effects on winter wheat of two main mechanical weed control strategies: i) spring tine harrowing used at three different application times (1 passage at T1, 2 passages at the time T1, 1 passage at T1 followed by 1 passage at T1 + 14 days) in t...

  4. Nuclear winter: The evidence and the risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, O.

    1985-01-01

    Global concern over nuclear extinction, centered on the holocaust itself, now has turned to the more terrifying consequences of a post-war nuclear winter: ''the long-term effects - destruction of the environment, spread of epidemic diseases, contamination by radioactivity, and ... collapse of agriculture-(that) would spread famine and death to every country.'' Nuclear Winter, the latest in a series of studies by a number of different groups is clinical, analytical, systematic, and detailed. Two physicists and biologist analyze the effects on the climate, plants, animals, and living systems; the human costs; the policy implications.

  5. High Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2015-01-01

    . The High Line project has been carried out as part of an open conversion strategy. The result is a remarkable urban architectural project, which works as a catalyst for the urban development of Western Manhattan. The greater project includes the restoration and reuse of many old industrial buildings......At just over 10 meters above street level, the High Line extends three kilometers through three districts of Southwestern Manhattan in New York. It consists of simple steel construction, and previously served as an elevated rail line connection between Penn Station on 34th Street and the many...... in close proximity to the park bridge and new projects being added to fit the context. The outcome is a conglomeration of non-contemporary urban activities along the High Line, where mechanical workshops, small wholesale stores. etc. mix with new exclusive residential buildings, eminent cafés...

  6. Leaf growth rate per unit thermal time follows QTL-dependent daily patterns in hundreds of maize lines under naturally fluctuating conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadok, Walid; Naudin, Philippe; Boussuge, Benoit; Muller, Bertrand; Welcker, Claude; Tardieu, Francois

    2007-02-01

    We have analysed daily patterns of leaf elongation rate (LER) in large data sets with 318 genotypes placed in naturally fluctuating temperature and evaporative demand, and examined the effect of targeted alleles on these patterns. The method consisted, firstly, in expressing elongation rate per unit thermal time, so it became temperature independent; secondly, in a joint analysis of diurnal fluctuations of elongation rate and of micrometeorological conditions in several experiments, and finally, in a comparison of daily patterns between groups of genotypes possessing targeted alleles. (1) Conditions for using thermal time at a time step of 15 min were first tested successfully in 318 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of three mapping populations. (2) An analysis of 1989 time courses revealed a robust daily pattern of LER per unit thermal time (LERth) over several experiments. LERth was constant during the night and was reproducible (for a given RIL) over up to 10 consecutive nights in different experiments. It declined rapidly during the early morning, closely following the daily pattern of transpiration rate. (3) Groups of RILs carrying alleles conferring a high response to temperature had markedly higher night-time plateau of LER than those with low responses. Groups of RILs with high response to evaporative demand had rapid decreases in elongation rate at the transition between night and day, while this decrease was slower in groups of RILs with low response. These results open the way for using kinetics of responses to environmental stimuli as a phenotyping tool in genetic analyses.

  7. World lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Waser Jürgen; Fuchs Raphael; Ribicic Hrvoje; Schindler Benjamin; Blöschl Günther; Gröller Eduard

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present World Lines as a novel interactive visualization that provides complete control over multiple heterogeneous simulation runs. In many application areas decisions can only be made by exploring alternative scenarios. The goal of the suggested approach is to support users in this decision making process. In this setting the data domain is extended to a set of alternative worlds where only one outcome will actually happen. World Lines integrate simulation visualization and...

  8. Road salt application planning tool for winter de-icing operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenouth, William R.; Gharabaghi, Bahram; Perera, Nandana

    2015-05-01

    Road authorities, who are charged with the task of maintaining safe, driveable road conditions during severe winter storm events are coming under increasing pressure to protect salt vulnerable areas (SVAs). For the purpose of modelling urban winter hydrology, the temperature index method was modified to incorporate ploughing and salting considerations and was calibrated using winter field data from two sites in Southern Ontario and validated using data collected from a section of Highway 401 - Canada's busiest highway. The modified temperature index model (MTIM) accurately predicted salt-induced melt (R2 = 0.98 and 0.99, RMSE = 19.9 and 282.4 m3, CRM = -0.003 and 0.006 for calibration and validation sites respectively), and showed a demonstrable ability to calculate the Bare Pavement Regain Time (BPRT). The BPRT is a key factor on road safety and the basis for many winter maintenance performance standards for different classes of highways. Optimizing salt application rate scenarios can be achieved using the MTIM with only two meteorological forecast inputs for the storm event - readily available on-line through the Road Weather Information System (RWIS) - and can serve as a simple yet effective tool for winter road maintenance practitioners seeking to optimize salt application rates for a given storm event in salt vulnerable areas.

  9. xCELLigence system for real-time label-free monitoring of growth and viability of cell lines from hematological malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez-Serra J

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Jordi Martinez-Serra,1 Antonio Gutierrez,1 Saúl Muñoz-Capó,1 María Navarro-Palou,1 Teresa Ros,1 Juan Carlos Amat,1 Bernardo Lopez,1 Toni F Marcus,1 Laura Fueyo,2 Angela G Suquia,2 Jordi Gines,3 Francisco Rubio,1 Rafael Ramos,4 Joan Besalduch11Department of Hematology, 2Department of Clinical Analysis, 3Department of Pharmacy, 4Department of Pathology, University Hospital Son Espases, Palma de Mallorca, Balearic Islands, SpainAbstract: The xCELLigence system is a new technological approach that allows the real-time cell analysis of adherent tumor cells. To date, xCELLigence has not been able to monitor the growth or cytotoxicity of nonadherent cells derived from hematological malignancies. The basis of its technology relies on the use of culture plates with gold microelectrodes located in their base. We have adapted the methodology described by others to xCELLigence, based on the pre-coating of the cell culture surface with specific substrates, some of which are known to facilitate cell adhesion in the extracellular matrix. Pre-coating of the culture plates with fibronectin, compared to laminin, collagen, or gelatin, significantly induced the adhesion of most of the leukemia/lymphoma cells assayed (Jurkat, L1236, KMH2, and K562. With a fibronectin substrate, nonadherent cells deposited in a monolayer configuration, and consequently, the cell growth and viability were robustly monitored. We further demonstrate the feasibility of xCELLigence for the real-time monitoring of the cytotoxic properties of several antineoplastic agents. In order to validate this technology, the data obtained through real-time cell analysis was compared with that obtained from using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method. This provides an excellent label-free tool for the screening of drug efficacy in nonadherent cells and discriminates optimal time points for further molecular analysis of cellular events associated with treatments

  10. The response of winter wheat to water stress and nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, F.; Qi, M.; Wang, H.; Changjiu, Z.

    1995-01-01

    The response of winter wheat to water stress imposed at different crop growth stages by deficit irrigation and fertilizer use under several schemes of irrigation were evaluated on fine sandy soil and sand loam soil. The results showed that according to grain yield response factor K, the order of sensitive growth stages of winter wheat to water stress in decreasing sequence were booting to flowering ( K= 0.90), winter afterward to booting ( K= 0.69), flowering to milking ( K= 0.44) and milking to ripening ( K= 0.25). Field water efficiency would get 16.7 kg/mm.ha when no water stress in growth period, and when water stress has occurred in some growth stages, the value of it decreased by 5 - 20 percent. It was also found that high fertilizer application rate without split application would not significantly influence the yield on fine sandy soil. But schedule of irrigation affected the translocation of nitrogen in the plant. When water stress occurred in later growth stage, the ratio of NUE in gain to straw decreased, and fertilizer was available for crop only about one month after fertilizer application, excessive fertilizer rate would result in decrease of NUE by leaching of nitrogen in sandy soil. Total recovery of fertilizer at harvest was half amount of application. 6 refs; 10 tabs; ( author)

  11. On-line monitoring of Aspergillus niger GH1 growth in a bioprocess for the production of ellagic acid and ellagitannase by solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Zárate, Pedro; Wong-Paz, Jorge E; Rodríguez-Duran, Luis V; Buenrostro-Figueroa, Juan; Michel, Mariela; Saucedo-Castañeda, Gerardo; Favela-Torres, Ernesto; Ascacio-Valdés, Juan A; Contreras-Esquivel, Juan C; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

    2018-01-01

    The present work describes the monitoring of CO 2 production by Aspergillus niger GH1 in a bioprocess for the production of ellagitannase (EAH) and ellagic acid by solid state fermentation. Pomegranate ellagitannins, mainly punicalagin, were used as carbon source and EAH inducer. A second condition, using ellagitannins and maltose as growth promoting carbon source, was tested. The ellagic acid production was quantified and the EAH activity was assayed. The accumulated metabolites were identified by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Higher CO 2 production (7.79mg/grams of dry material) was reached in media supplemented with maltose. Short-time lag phase (7.79h) and exponential phase (10.42h) were obtained using only ellagitannins, despite its lower CO 2 production (3.79mg/grams of dry material). Without the use of maltose lower ellagic acid (11.85mg/L/h) and EAH (21.80U/L/h) productivities were reached. The use of maltose enhances the productivity of EA (33.18mg/L/h) and EAH (33.70U/L/h). Besides of punicalin and ellagic acid, two unknown compounds with mass weight of 702 and 290g/mol (ions 701 and 289m/z in negative mode, respectively) were identified and characterized by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Efficacy of plasma vascular endothelial growth factor in monitoring first-line chemotherapy in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Anant

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Along with the development of new cancer therapeutics, more effective tools for the estimation of response to therapy and prediction of disease progression are required for the better management of inoperable cancer patients. Methods We studied 134 newly diagnosed and primarily untreated advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients and 100 controls. Forty two patients received platinum-based chemotherapy. Plasma VEGF levels were quantified in all samples at baseline and also before second and third chemotherapy cycle in 42 patients and correlated with response to therapy as assessed by computed tomography after the third chemotherapy cycle. Results We observed that, patients who went into remission had significantly lower baseline VEGF levels before second and third cycles of chemotherapy when compared with patients with no change and progression. Plasma VEGF levels showed a greater decrease from cycle 1 to 2 and from cycle 1 to 3 in patients who showed remission in comparison to those with no change or progression. Plasma VEGF levels before the second cycle detected poor response to therapy with a sensitivity and specificity of 76.9% and 75.0%, respectively (area under the ROC curve = 0.724. Early prediction of disease progression was achieved with a sensitivity and specificity of 71.4% for plasma VEGF before cycle 2 (area under the ROC curve = 0.805. The kinetics of VEGF form cycle 1 to 2 and cycle 1 to 3 also gave significant information for predicting disease progression as well as insufficient therapy response. Conclusion Monitoring of plasma VEGF levels during the course of first-line chemotherapy could identify patients who are likely to have insufficient response to therapy and disease progression at an early stage. This may help in individualizing treatment and could lead to better management of the advanced stage lung cancer.

  13. Growth Inhibition and Apoptosis Induction of Essential Oils and Extracts of Nepeta cataria L. on Human Prostatic and Breast Cancer Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, Seyed Ahmad; Asili, Javad; Hossein Nia, Shima; Yazdian-Robati, Rezvan; Sahranavard, Mehrdad; Tayarani-Najaran, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Nepeta cataria L. has been used in traditional medicine of some countries. Here the cytotoxic and apoptogenic activity of methanol extracts, n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and acqueous extracts and the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of the plant were evaluated with PC3, DU-145 and MCF-7 cell lines. Cell viability, histograms of PI stained fragmented DNA in apoptotic cells and Western blot analysis of proteins involved in the cascade of apoptosis were compared in all samples. Thirty components were identified as volatile, representing 99.7% of essential oil composition after GC-MS analysis of the oil obtained from aerial parts of the N. cataria by hydro-distillation. The major oil components of the essential oil were nepetalactone stereoisomers. Comparing IC50 values showed estrogen receptor positive PC3 cells were more sensitive to the cytotoxic effects of N. cataria in comparison with low hormone-receptor presenting DU-145 cells. Among multiple extracts and essential oils of the plant, only the ethyl acetate extract could significantly decrease cell viability in PC3 cells, in a concentration dependent manner. Ethyl acetate extract of N. cataria treated cells showed a sub-G1 peak in PC3 cells in a concentration dependent manner that indicates the involvement of an apoptotic process in ethyl acetate extract-induced cell death. Western blotting analysis showed that in PC3 cells treated with ethyl acetate (48 h) caspase 3 and PARP were cleaved to active forms. Overall, the results suggest that further analytical elucidation of N. cataria in respect to finding new cytotoxic chemicals with anti-tumor activity is warranted.

  14. [Effects of irrigation with mine wastewater on physiological characters and heavy metals accumulation of winter wheat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shou-Chen; Ma, Shou-Tian; Shao, Yun; Jiang, Li-Na; Li, Chun-Xi

    2013-11-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of irrigation with mine wastewater on the physiological characters and heavy metals accumulation of winter wheat. Three treatments were installed, i. e., irrigation with coal-washing wastewater (T1), irrigation with coal-washing wastewater after its precipitation (T2), and irrigation with coal gangue leacheate (T3), taking the well water irrigation as the control (CK). The plants were irrigated with mine wastewater after the turning green stage. Irrigation with mine wastewater had negative effects on the winter wheat growth and grain yield. At anthesis stage, the leaf area, dry mass per stem, root activity, and net photosynthetic rate of winter wheat in treatments T1, T2, and T3 were significantly lower than those in CK (P wheat under mine wastewater irrigation were significantly higher than those in CK, suggesting that the irrigation with mine wastewater could result in the heavy metals accumulation in wheat grain.

  15. Winter habitat occurrence patterns of temperate migrant birds in Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, D.K.; Robbins, C.S.; Sauer, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    We used mist nets and point counts to sample bird populations in 61 sites in Belize during January-March of 1987-1991. Sites were classified as forest, second growth, woody agricultural crops (citrus, mango, cacao, and cashew), or non-woody agricultural crops (rice and sugar cane). We evaluated patterns of occurence of wintering temperate migrant bird species in these habitats. Mist net captures of 22 of 31 migrant species differed significantly among habitats. Of these, 13 species were captured more frequently in the agricultural habitats. American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla), Black-and-white Warbler (Mniotilta varia), and Magnolia Warbler (Dendroica magnolia) were among the species captured most frequently in woody agricultural habitats; captures of Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas), Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea), and Northern (lcterus galbula) and Orchard orioles (I. spur/anus) were highest in the non-woody agricultural sites. We relate these occurrence patterns to trends in breeding populations in North America. While count data provide a wide picture of winter habitat distribution of migrants, more intensive work is necessary to assess temporal and geographic variation of migrant bird use of agricultural habitats.

  16. Stay Safe and Healthy This Winter!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-11-23

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics offer some simple ways to stay safe and healthy during the winter holiday season.  Created: 11/23/2010 by CDC Office of Women’s Health.   Date Released: 11/23/2010.

  17. Music Activities for Lemonade in Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2014-01-01

    "Lemonade in Winter: A Book About Two Kids Counting Money" is a children's book about math; however, when sharing it in the music classroom, street cries and clapping games emerge. Jenkins' and Karas' book provides a springboard to lessons addressing several music elements, including form, tempo, and rhythm, as well as…

  18. Winter Video Series Coming in January | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Scientific Library’s annual Summer Video Series was so successful that it will be offering a new Winter Video Series beginning in January. For this inaugural event, the staff is showing the eight-part series from National Geographic titled “American Genius.” 

  19. Highway user expectations for ITD winter maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Providing a high Level of Service (LOS) to ensure the safety and mobility for the traveling public is a key objective for winter : maintenance operations. The goal of this research was to obtain a better understanding of Idaho highway users expect...

  20. Winter chemistry of North Slope lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, M. K.; White, D. M.; Lilly, M. R.; Hinzman, L. D.; Hilton, K. M.; Busey, R.

    2006-12-01

    Lakes are important water resources on the North Slope of Alaska. Oilfield exploration and production requires water for facility use as well as transportation. Ice road construction requires winter extraction of fresh water. Since most North Slope lakes are relatively shallow, the quantity and quality of the water remaining under the ice by the end of the winter are important environmental management issues. Currently permits are based on the presence of overwintering fish populations and their sensitivity to low oxygen. Sampling during the winter of 2004 2005 sheds light on the winter chemistry of several pumped lakes and one unpumped lake on the North Slope. Dissolved oxygen, conductivity, pH, and temperature profiles were taken along with ice thickness and water depth measurements. Water samples were extracted and analyzed for Na, Ca, K, Mg, Fe, DOC, and alkalinity in the laboratory. Lake properties, rather than pumping activities, were the best predictors of oxygen depletion, with the highest levels of dissolved oxygen maintained in the lake with the least dissolved constituents. As would be expected, specific conductance increased with depth in the lake while dissolved oxygen decreased with depth. Dissolved oxygen and specific conductance data suggested that the lakes began to refresh in May. The summarized data provides a view of North Slope lake chemistry trends, while continued studies investigate the chemical impacts of pumping North Slope lakes through continued sampling and modeling efforts.

  1. How marketers handled deliveries last winter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-01

    A special study on how fuel oil marketers handled deliveries last winter is presented. A questionnaire was sent to the marketers asking how many fuel oil trucks they had, how penalties for small deliveries are assessed, and if many customers are calling for a summer fill. The results of the questionnaire are presented.

  2. Winter predation by insectivorous birds and consequences for arthropods and plants in summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Nicholas A; Wouk, Jennifer

    2012-12-01

    Top-down effects of predators can have important consequences for ecosystems. Insectivorous birds frequently have strong predation effects on herbivores and other arthropods, as well as indirect effects on herbivores' host plants. Diet studies have shown that birds in temperate ecosystems consume arthropods in winter as well as in summer, but experimental studies of bird predation effects have not attempted to quantitatively separate winter predation impacts from those in summer. To understand if winter foraging by insectivorous birds has consequences for arthropods or plants, we performed a meta-analysis of published bird exclusion studies in temperate forest and shrubland habitats. We categorized 85 studies from 41 publications by whether birds were excluded year-round or only in summer, and analyzed arthropod and plant response variables. We also performed a manipulative field experiment in which we used a factorial design to exclude birds from Quercus velutina Lam. saplings in winter and summer, and censused arthropods and herbivore damage in the following growing season. In the meta-analysis, birds had stronger negative effects on herbivores in studies that included winter exclusion, and this effect was not due to study duration. However, this greater predation effect did not translate to a greater impact on plant damage or growth. In the field experiment, winter exclusion did not influence herbivore abundance or their impacts on plants. We have shown that winter feeding by temperate insectivorous birds can have important consequences for insect herbivore populations, but the strength of these effects may vary considerably among ecosystems. A full understanding of the ecological roles of insectivorous birds will require explicit consideration of their foraging in the non-growing season, and we make recommendations for how future studies can address this.

  3. The responses of microbial temperature relationships to seasonal change and winter warming in a temperate grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgander, Johanna; Olsson, Pål Axel; Rousk, Johannes

    2018-01-18

    Microorganisms dominate the decomposition of organic matter and their activities are strongly influenced by temperature. As the carbon (C) flux from soil to the atmosphere due to microbial activity is substantial, understanding temperature relationships of microbial processes is critical. It has been shown that microbial temperature relationships in soil correlate with the climate, and microorganisms in field experiments become more warm-tolerant in response to chronic warming. It is also known that microbial temperature relationships reflect the seasons in aquatic ecosystems, but to date this has not been investigated in soil. Although climate change predictions suggest that temperatures will be mostly affected during winter in temperate ecosystems, no assessments exist of the responses of microbial temperature relationships to winter warming. We investigated the responses of the temperature relationships of bacterial growth, fungal growth, and respiration in a temperate grassland to seasonal change, and to 2 years' winter warming. The warming treatments increased winter soil temperatures by 5-6°C, corresponding to 3°C warming of the mean annual temperature. Microbial temperature relationships and temperature sensitivities (Q 10 ) could be accurately established, but did not respond to winter warming or to seasonal temperature change, despite significant shifts in the microbial community structure. The lack of response to winter warming that we demonstrate, and the strong response to chronic warming treatments previously shown, together suggest that it is the peak annual soil temperature that influences the microbial temperature relationships, and that temperatures during colder seasons will have little impact. Thus, mean annual temperatures are poor predictors for microbial temperature relationships. Instead, the intensity of summer heat-spells in temperate systems is likely to shape the microbial temperature relationships that govern the soil-atmosphere C

  4. Are winter and summer dormancy symmetrical seasonal adaptive strategies? The case of temperate herbaceous perennials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Lauren M; Volaire, Florence A

    2017-02-01

    Dormancy in higher plants is an adaptive response enabling plant survival during the harshest seasons and has been more explored in woody species than in herbaceous species. Nevertheless, winter and summer shoot meristem dormancy are adaptive strategies that could play a major role in enhancing seasonal stress tolerance and resilience of widespread herbaceous plant communities. This review outlines the symmetrical aspects of winter and summer dormancy in order to better understand plant adaptation to severe stress, and highlight research priorities in a changing climate. Seasonal dormancy is a good model to explore the growth-stress survival trade-off and unravel the relationships between growth potential and stress hardiness. Although photoperiod and temperature are known to play a crucial, though reversed, role in the induction and release of both types of dormancy, the thresholds and combined effects of these environmental factors remain to be identified. The biochemical compounds involved in induction or release in winter dormancy (abscisic acid, ethylene, sugars, cytokinins and gibberellins) could be a priority research focus for summer dormancy. To address these research priorities, herbaceous species, being more tractable than woody species, are excellent model plants for which both summer and winter dormancy have been clearly identified. Summer and winter dormancy, although responding to inverse conditions, share many characteristics. This analogous nature can facilitate research as well as lead to insight into plant adaptations to extreme conditions and the evolution of phenological patterns of species and communities under climate change. The development of phenotypes showing reduced winter and/or enhanced summer dormancy may be expected and could improve adaptation to less predictable environmental stresses correlated with future climates. To this end, it is suggested to explore the inter- and intraspecific genotypic variability of dormancy and its

  5. Nuclear Winter: The implications for civil defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chester, C.V.; Perry, A.M.; Hobbs, B.F.

    1987-01-01

    ''Nuclear Winter'' is the term given to hypothesized cooling in the northern hemisphere following a nuclear war due to injection of smoke from burning cities into the atmosphere. The voluminous literature on this subject produced since the original paper in 1983 by Turco, Toon, Ackerman, Pollack, and Sagen (TTAPS) has been reviewed. The widespread use of 3-dimensional global circulation models have resulted in reduced estimates of cooling; 15 to 25 0 C for a summer war and a few degrees for a winter war. More serious may be the possibility of suppression of convective precipitation by the altered temperature profiles in the atmosphere. However, very large uncertainties remain in input parameters, the models, and the results of calculations. We believe the state of knowledge about nuclear winter is sufficiently developed to conclude: Neither cold nor drought are likely to be direct threats to human survival for populations with the wherewithal to survive normal January temperatures; The principal threat from nuclear winter is to food production, and could present problems to third parties without food reserves; and Loss of a crop year is neither a new nor unexpected threat from nuclear war to the US and the Soviet Union. Both have at least a year's food reserve at all times. Both face formidable organizational problems in distributing their reserves in a war-damaged environment. The consequences of nuclear winter could be expected to fall more heavily on the Soviet Union than the US due to its higher latitude and less productive agriculture. This may be especially true if disturbances of rainfall amounts and distribution persist for more than a year. 6 refs

  6. Nuclear Winter: Implications for civil defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chester, C.V.; Perry, A.M.; Hobbs, B.F.

    1988-05-01

    ''Nuclear Winter'' is the term given to the cooling hypothesized to occur in the Northern Hemisphere following a nuclear war as the result of the injection of smoke from burning cities into the atmosphere. The voluminous literature on this subject produced since the paper was published in 1983 by Turco, Toon, Ackerman, Pollack, and Sagen (TTAPS) has been reviewed. Three-dimensional global circulation models have resulted in reduced estimates of cooling---15 to 25/degree/C for a summer war and a few degrees for a winter war. More serious may be the possibility of suppression of convective precipitation by the altered temperature profiles in the atmosphere. However, very large uncertainties remain in input parameters, the models, and the results of calculations. We believe the state of knowledge about nuclear winter is sufficiently developed to conclude: Neither cold nor drought is likely to be a direct threat to human survival for populations with the wherewithal to survive normal January temperatures. The principal threat from nuclear winter is to food production, and this could present problems to third parties who are without food reserves. Loss of a crop year is neither a new nor an unexpected threat from nuclear war to the United States and the Soviet Union. Both have at least a year's food reserve at all times. Both face formidable organizational problems in distributing their reserves in a war-damaged environment. The consequences of nuclear winter could be expected to fall more heavily on the Soviet Union than the United States due to its higher latitude and less productive agriculture. This may be especially true if disturbances of rainfall amounts and distribution persist for more than a year.

  7. Estimation of winter rye (Secale cereale L. susceptibility to infection by powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis F. sp. secalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk Bujak

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In cold and wet years, powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis causes losses in the yield of winter rye (Secale cerale L. amounting to 20%. In order to control the incidence of this disease and reduce the use of fungicides, it is recommendable to grow winter rye cultivars that are resistant or tolerant to infection by Blumeria graminis. The first step in the programmes of resistance-oriented cultivation of winter rye is the choice of adequate components for crossing. Such components should be characterized by resistance to powdery mildew infection, a trait which would be passed onto the new genotypes to be obtained. The paper discusses the outcome of research aimed at selecting inbred lines of winter rye distinguishable by the lowest susceptibility to infection by Blumeria graminis. The evaluation covered 233 winter rye genotypes which had been inoculated with a field population of the pathogen mentioned. The level of infection was defined in a five-point scale from 0 to 4 (the authors’ own scale. Next, the results were analyzed statistically. The genotypes under study were divided using Duncan’s test into homogeneous groups. Seven such groups were distinguished. The first homogeneous group, of the lowest level of infection, comprised five inbred lines of rye. These lines can serve as components for crossing experiments in programmes of resistance-oriented breeding.

  8. An Asian poverty line? Issues and options

    OpenAIRE

    Klasen, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Given Asia's record of rapid economic growth and the conceptual and empirical problems of the current international income poverty line ('dollar-a-day'), this paper discusses whether there is merit to develop an Asia-specific poverty line that addresses some of the shortcomings of the dollar-a-day line and additionally considers Asia's particular economic situation. We consider various ways of creating an Asia-specific poverty line, including an Asia-specific international income poverty line...

  9. Effects of inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and downstream pathways of receptor tyrosine kinases involving phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin or mitogen-activated protein kinase in canine hemangiosarcoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Mami; Hoshino, Yuki; Izumi, Yusuke; Sakai, Hiroki; Takagi, Satoshi

    2016-07-01

    Canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) is a progressive malignant neoplasm with no current effective treatment. Previous studies showed that receptor tyrosine kinases and molecules within their downstream pathways involving phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (m-TOR) or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were overexpressed in canine, human, and murine tumors, including HSA. The present study investigated the effects of inhibitors of these pathways in canine splenic and hepatic HSA cell lines using assays of cell viability and apoptosis. Inhibitors of the MAPK pathway did not affect canine HSA cell viability. However, cell viability was significantly reduced by exposure to inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and the PI3K/Akt/m-TOR pathway; these inhibitors also induced apoptosis in these cell lines. These results suggest that these inhibitors reduce the proliferation of canine HSA cells by inducing apoptosis. Further study of these inhibitors, using xenograft mouse models of canine HSA, are warranted to explore their potential for clinical application.

  10. Cordyceps militaris (L. Link Fruiting Body Reduces the Growth of a Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Line by Increasing Cellular Levels of p53 and p21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Bizarro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cordyceps militaris (L. Link, an edible entomopathogenic fungus widely used in traditional Chinese medicine, has numerous potential medicinal properties including antitumor activity. The methanolic extract of C. militaris fruiting body was recently shown to have tumor cell growth inhibitory activity in several human tumor cell lines. Nonetheless, the mechanism of action involved is still not known. This work aimed at further studying the effect of the methanolic extract of C. militaris regarding its antitumor mechanism of action, using the non-small cell lung cancer cell line (NCI-H460 as a model. Results showed that treatment with the extract decreased cellular proliferation, induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 and increased apoptosis. In addition, the extract increased the levels of p53 and p21. Moreover, an increase in p-H2A.X and 53BP1 levels, together with an increase in the number of 53BP1 foci/cell (all indicative of DNA damage, were also observed after treatment with the extract. This work suggests that this extract affected NCI-H460 cellular viability through a mechanism involving DNA damage and p53 activation. This further supports the potential of this extract as a source of bioactive compounds, which may be used in anticancer strategies.

  11. Dynamic and thermodynamic impacts of the winter Arctic Oscillation on summer sea ice extent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H. S.; Stewart, A.

    2017-12-01

    Arctic summer sea ice extent exhibits substantial interannual variability, as is highlighted by the remarkable recovery in sea ice extent in 2013 following the record minimum in the summer of 2012. Here, we explore the mechanism via which Arctic Oscillation (AO)-induced ice thickness changes impact summer sea ice, using observations and reanalysis data. A positive AO weakens the basin-scale anticyclonic sea ice drift and decreases the winter ice thickness by 15cm and 10cm in the Eurasian and the Pacific sectors of the Arctic respectively. Three reanalysis datasets show that the (upward) surface heat fluxes are reduced over wide areas of the Arctic, suppressing the ice growth during the positive AO winters. The winter dynamic and thermodynamic thinning preconditions the ice for enhanced radiative forcing via the ice-albedo feedback in late spring-summer, leading to an additional 8-10 cm of thinning over the Pacific sector of the Arctic. Because of these winter AO-induced dynamic and thermodynamics effects, the winter AO explains about 22% (r = -0.48) of the interannual variance of September sea ice extent from year 1980 to 2015.

  12. Relationships between NDVI and Leaf Area Index for spring and winter camelina in Northeastern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabro, Jay; Allen, Brett; long, Dan; Isbell, Terry; Gesch, Russ; Brown, Jack; Hatfield, Jerry; Archer, David; Oblath, Emily; Vigil, Merle; Kiniry, Jim

    2016-04-01

    To our knowledge no research has been reported on the relationship between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and leaf area index (LAI) in spring and winter camelina. Relationships between NDVI and LAI for winter camelina (Camelina sativa) "Joelle" and spring camelina "CO46" were determined and evaluated in a 3-yr field study conducted in Sidney Montana under dryland conditions. The NDVI and LAI were measured weekly throughout the growing season. The NDVI was continually measured at one sample per second across the whole plot using a Crop Circle ACS-470 active crop canopy sensor. The LAI was measured at two locations at 12 samples per plot using an AccuPar model LP-80 Ceptometer. Treatments were replicated four times in a randomized complete block design in plots of 3 m×9 m. Temporal dynamics of NDVI and LAI in various growth stages of both spring and winter camelina were evaluated throughout 2013, 2014 and 2015 growing seasons. Significant linear relationships between NDVI and LAI were obtained for both spring and winter camelina when all the measurements were pooled across three growing seasons. Coefficients of determination (R2) of linearity were 0.77 and 0.79 for spring and winter camelina, respectively.

  13. Toward enabling winter occupations: testing a winter coat designed for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Stephanie L; Boger, Jennifer N; Mihailidis, Alex

    2011-02-01

    Previous research indicates that older adults have difficulties using winter clothing, which contributes to their risk of isolation during winter. Research has also shown that a winter coat that requires less flexibility, strength, and dexterity would help support this population. This pilot study evaluated the measured and perceived effectiveness of a winter coat prototype that had a funnel sleeve design. Eight older adults trialed three coats (the participant's own coat, a coat fitted with sleeve gripper, and the prototype coat), which were evaluated though shoulder range of motion measurements and by the participant completing a survey. Less shoulder range of motion was used to put on the prototype coat. Survey findings support range of motion data that Sleeve Gripper has limited utility. A funnel sleeve design may require less range of motion at the shoulder compared to other coats.

  14. CULTIVATION OF WINTER TRITICALE. TRITICALE APPLICATION IN THE CREATION OF FUNCTIONAL FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Mikhaylovich Zhukov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of growth regulators in crops of winter triticale has a positive effect on the growth and development of plants. Processing of seed material reduces infection of plants with diseases. Treatment with growth regulators improves productive tillering that helps to increase productivity. The use of seedlings in the production of functional food products is a perspective direction of usage of triticale. High content of essential amino acids and biologically active substances in triticale seedlings leads to their high nutritional and biological value.

  15. Reproduction of Lightning Incidence Resulted in Line Surge Arrester Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Hironao; Kozuka, Masahiro; Itamoto, Naoki; Ishii, Masaru

    There is possibility that lightning strokes to transmission lines with large peaks and/or long duration of currents cause arrester failures. Hence it is important to evaluate reliability of transmission lines considering arrester failures caused by lightning strokes. Actually, arrester failures were caused by a winter lightning stroke to the tower top of one circuit transmission line. In this letter, the lightning stroke associated with the arrester failures is evaluated based on observation of electromagnetic field and analysis by EMTP simulation.

  16. Growth factor-dependent activation of the Ras-Raf-MEK-MAPK pathway in the human pancreatic carcinoma cell line PANC-1 carrying activated K-ras: implications for cell proliferation and cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giehl, K; Skripczynski, B; Mansard, A; Menke, A; Gierschik, P

    2000-06-08

    Human ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas frequently carry activating point mutations in the K-ras protooncogene. We have analysed the activity of the Ras-Raf-MEK-MAPK cascade in the human pancreatic carcinoma cell line PANC-1 carrying an activating K-ras mutation. Serum-starved cells and cells grown in medium with serum did not show constitutively activated c-Raf, MEK-1, or p42 MAPK. Stimulation of cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF) or fetal calf serum (FCS) resulted in activation of N-Ras, but not K-Ras, as well as activation of c-Raf, MEK-1, and p42 MAPK. Preincubation of serum-starved cells with MEK-1 inhibitor PD98059 abolished EGF- and FCS-induced MAPK activation, identifying MEK as the upstream activator of MAPK. PANC-1 cells exhibited marked serum-dependence of anchorage-dependent and -independent cell growth as well as cell migration. EGF, alone or in combination with insulin and transferrin, did not induce cell proliferation of serum-starved PANC-1 cells, indicating that activation of MAPK alone was not sufficient to induce cell proliferation. FCS-induced DNA synthesis was inhibited by 40% by the MEK-1 inhibitor. On the other hand, treatment with either FCS or EGF alone resulted in marked, MEK-dependent increase of directed cell migration. Collectively, our results show that the activating K-ras mutation in PANC-1 cells does not result in constitutively increased Raf-MEK-MAPK signaling. Signal transduction via the Ras-Raf-MEK-MAPK cascade is maintained in these cells and is required for growth factor-induced cell proliferation and directed cell migration. Oncogene (2000).

  17. Observational and Synoptic Analyses of the Winter Precipitation Regime Change over Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Gillies, Robert R.; Wang, Shih-Yu; Booth, Marty R.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated a widespread decline in snowpack over Utah accompanied by a decline in the snow–precipitation ratio while anecdotal evidence claims have been put forward that measured changes in Utah’s snowpack are spurious and do not reflect actual change. Using two distinct lines of investigation, this paper further analyzes the winter precipitation regime in the state of Utah. First, by means of observation-based, gridded daily temperature, precipitation, and remotely sense...

  18. Winter wheat optimizes allocation in response to carbon limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianbei; Hammerbacher, Almuth; Trumbore, Susan; Hartmann, Henrik

    2016-04-01

    • Plant photosynthesis is not carbon-saturated at current atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) thus carbon allocation priority is of critical importance in determining plant response to environmental changes, including increasing [CO2]. • We quantified the percentage of daytime net assimilation (A) allocated to whole-plant nighttime respiration (R) and structural growth (SG), nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) and secondary metabolites (SMs) during winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) vegetative growth (over 4 weeks) at glacial, ambient, and elevated [CO2] (170, 390 and 680 ppm). • We found that R/A remained relatively constant (11-14%) across [CO2] treatments, whereas plants allocated less C to growth and more C to export at low [CO2] than elevated [CO2]; low [CO2] grown plants tended to invest overall less C into NSC and SMs than to SG due to reduced NSC availability; while leaf SMs/NSC was greater at 170 ppm than at 680 ppm [CO2] this was the opposite for root SMs/NSC; biomass, especially NSC, were preferentially allocated to leaves instead of stems and roots, likely to relieve C limitation induced by low [CO2]. • We conclude that C limitation may force plants to reduce C allocation to long-term survival in order to secure short-term survival. Furthermore, they optimized allocation of the available resource by concentrating biomass and storage to those tissues responsible for assimilation.

  19. Effects of over-winter green cover on soil solution nitrate concentrations beneath tillage land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premrov, Alina; Coxon, Catherine E; Hackett, Richard; Kirwan, Laura; Richards, Karl G

    2014-02-01

    There is a growing need to reduce nitrogen losses from agricultural systems to increase food production while reducing negative environmental impacts. The efficacy of vegetation cover for reducing nitrate leaching in tillage systems during fallow periods has been widely investigated. Nitrate leaching reductions by natural regeneration (i.e. growth of weeds and crop volunteers) have been investigated to a lesser extent than reductions by planted cover crops. This study compares the efficacy of natural regeneration and a sown cover crop (mustard) relative to no vegetative cover under both a reduced tillage system and conventional plough-based system as potential mitigation measures for reducing over-winter soil solution nitrate concentrations. The study was conducted over three winter fallow seasons on well drained soil, highly susceptible to leaching, under temperate maritime climatic conditions. Mustard cover crop under both reduced tillage and conventional ploughing was observed to be an effective measure for significantly reducing nitrate concentrations. Natural regeneration under reduced tillage was found to significantly reduce the soil solution nitrate concentrations. This was not the case for the natural regeneration under conventional ploughing. The improved efficacy of natural regeneration under reduced tillage could be a consequence of potential stimulation of seedling germination by the autumn reduced tillage practices and improved over-winter plant growth. There was no significant effect of tillage practices on nitrate concentrations. This study shows that over winter covers of mustard and natural regeneration, under reduced tillage, are effective measures for reducing nitrate concentrations in free draining temperate soils. © 2013.

  20. India Annual Winter Cropped Area, 2001-2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — India Annual Winter Cropped Area, 2001 - 2016 consists of annual winter cropped areas for most of India (except the Northeastern states) from 2000-2001 to 2015-2016....

  1. AGA predicts winter jump in residential gas price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The American Gas Association predicts the average heating bill for residential gas consumers could increase by as much as 18% this winter. AGA Pres. Mike Baly said, Last year's winter was warmer than normal. If the 1992-93 winter is similar, AGA projects that residential natural gas heating bills will go up about 6%. If we see a return to normal winter weather, our projection show the average bill could rise by almost 18%

  2. Seed wintering and deterioration characteristics between weedy and cultivated rice

    OpenAIRE

    Baek, Jung-Sun; Chung, Nam-Jin

    2012-01-01

    Background Incidences of weedy rice continuously occurred in paddy fields because its shattering seeds were able to over-winter. In this research, the seed deterioration of weedy rice was investigated compared with cultivated rice, and the wintering characteristics of these two types of rice were investigated with the field wintering test, freezing resistance test, and accelerated aging test. Results For the wintering test, the seeds of weedy rice were placed on the soil surface of a paddy wi...

  3. Measuring Transpiration to Regulate Winter Irrigation Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelson, Lisa [Auburn University

    2006-11-08

    Periodic transpiration (monthly sums) in a young loblolly pine plantation between ages 3 and 6 was measured using thermal dissipation probes. Fertilization and fertilization with irrigation were better than irrigation alone in increasing transpiration of young loblolly pines during winter months, apparently because of increased leaf area in fertilized trees. Irrigation alone did not significantly increase transpiration compared with the non-fertilized and non-irrigated control plots.

  4. Catastrophic winter storms. An escalating problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Changnon, S.A. [Changnon Climatologist, Mahomet, IL 61853 (United States)

    2007-09-15

    Winter storms are a major weather problem in the USA and their losses have been rapidly increasing. A total of 202 catastrophic winter storms, each causing more than $1 million in damages, occurred during 1949-2003, and their losses totaled $35.2 billion (2003 dollars). Catastrophic winter storms occurred in most parts of the contiguous USA, but were concentrated in the eastern half of the nation where 88% of all storm losses occurred. They were most frequent in the Northeast climate district (95 storms), and were least frequent in the West district (14 catastrophic storms). The annual average number of storms is 3.7 with a 1-year high of 9 storms, and 1 year had no storms. Temporal distributions of storms and their losses exhibited considerable spatial variability across the nation. For example, when storms were very frequent in the Northeast, they were infrequent elsewhere, a result of spatial differences in storm-producing synoptic weather conditions over time. The time distribution of the nation's 202 storms during 1949-2003 had a sizable downward trend, whereas the nation's storm losses had a major upward trend for the 55-year period. This increase over time in losses, given the decrease in storm incidences, was a result of significant temporal increases in storm sizes and storm intensities. Increases in storm intensities were small in the northern sections of the nation, but doubled across the southern two-thirds of the nation, reflecting a climatic shift in conditions producing intense winter storms.

  5. Postharvest tillage reduces Downy Brome infestations in winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Pacific Northwest, downy brome continues to infest winter wheat producing regions especially in low-rainfall areas where the winter wheat-summer fallow rotation is the dominate production system. In Washington, a study was conducted for 2 years at each of two locations in the winter wheat -su...

  6. The seesaw effect of winter temperature change on the recruitment of cotton bollworms Helicoverpa armigera through mismatched phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Gadi V P; Shi, Peijian; Hui, Cang; Cheng, Xiaofei; Ouyang, Fang; Ge, Feng

    2015-12-01

    Knowing how climate change affects the population dynamics of insect pests is critical for the future of integrated pest management. Rising winter temperatures from global warming can drive increases in outbreaks of some agricultural pests. In contrast, here we propose an alternative hypothesis that both extremely cold and warm winters can mismatch the timing between the eclosion of overwintering pests and the flowering of key host plants. As host plants normally need higher effective cumulative temperatures for flowering than insects need for eclosion, changes in flowering time will be less dramatic than changes in eclosion time, leading to a mismatch of phenology on either side of the optimal winter temperature. We term this the "seesaw effect." Using a long-term dataset of the Old World cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in northern China, we tested this seesaw hypothesis by running a generalized additive model for the effects of the third generation moth in the preceding year, the winter air temperature, the number of winter days below a critical temperature and cumulative precipitation during winter on the demography of the overwintering moth. Results confirmed the existence of the seesaw effect of winter temperature change on overwintering populations. Pest management should therefore consider the indirect effect of changing crop phenology (whether due to greenhouse cultivation or to climate change) on pest outbreaks. As arthropods from mid- and high latitudes are actually living in a cooler thermal environment than their physiological optimum in contrast to species from lower latitudes, the effects of rising winter temperatures on the population dynamics of arthropods in the different latitudinal zones should be considered separately. The seesaw effect makes it more difficult to predict the average long-term population dynamics of insect pests at high latitudes due to the potential sharp changes in annual growth rates

  7. Effects of changing climate and cultivar on the phenology and yield of winter wheat in the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kenan; Yang, Xiaoguang; Tian, Hanqin; Pan, Shufen; Liu, Zhijuan; Lu, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how changing climate and cultivars influence crop phenology and potential yield is essential for crop adaptation to future climate change. In this study, crop and daily weather data collected from six sites across the North China Plain were used to drive a crop model to analyze the impacts of climate change and cultivar development on the phenology and production of winter wheat from 1981 to 2005. Results showed that both the growth period (GP) and the vegetative growth period (VGP) decreased during the study period, whereas changes in the reproductive growth period (RGP) either increased slightly or had no significant trend. Although new cultivars could prolong the winter wheat phenology (0.3∼3.8 days per decade for GP), climate warming impacts were more significant and mainly accounted for the changes. The harvest index and kernel number per stem weight have significantly increased. Model simulation indicated that the yield of winter wheat exhibited increases (5.0∼19.4%) if new cultivars were applied. Climate change demonstrated a negative effect on winter wheat yield as suggested by the simulation driven by climate data only (-3.3 to -54.8 kg ha(-1) year(-1), except for Lushi). Results of this study also indicated that winter wheat cultivar development can compensate for the negative effects of future climatic change.

  8. An NOy Algorithm for Arctic Winter 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenstein, M.; Jost, H.; Greenblatt, J. B.; Podolske, J. R.; Gao, R. S.; Popp, P. J.; Toon, G. C.; Webster, C. R.; Herman, R. L.; Hurst, D. F.; hide

    2000-01-01

    NOy, total reactive nitrogen, and the long-lived tracer N2O, nitrous oxide, were measured by both in situ and remote sensing instruments during the Arctic winter 1999-2000 SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE). The correlation function NOy:N2O observed before the winter Arctic vortex forms, which is known as NOy(sup), is an important reference relationship for conditions in the evolving vortex. NOy(sup) can, with suitable care, be used to quantify vortex denitrification by sedimentation of polar stratospheric cloud particles when NOy data is taken throughout the winter. Observed NOy values less than the reference value can be interpreted in terms of semi-permanent removal of active nitrogen by condensation and sedimentation processes. In this paper we present a segmented function representing NOy(sup) applicable over the full range of altitudes sampled during SOLVE. We also assess the range of application of this function and some of its limitations.

  9. Observations of radiation bursts from winter thunderclouds and lighting over the Japan sea coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemoto, D.; Tsuchiya, H.; Enoto, T.; Yamada, S.; Yuasa, T.; Kawaharada, M.; Kitaguchi, T.; Nakazawa, K.; Kokubun, M.; Iwata, K.; Kato, H.; Okano, M.; Tamagawa, T.; Makishima, K.

    2013-12-01

    Radiation bursts associated with lightning and thunderstorms are reported by an increasing number of experiments, either ground-based or space-borne. These bursts are thought to be produced via Bremsstrahlung by energetic electrons, which are accelerated in the electrical fields within thunderclouds. GROWTH (Gamma-Ray Observation of Winther THunderclouds) experiment has been operating over 7 seasons since 2006, in Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power plant located in Niigata prefecture, Japan, facing the Japan sea (Tsuchiya et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 165002, 2007). It aims to detect radiation from winter thunderclouds in this region, which are known to have very low cloud-base altitudes and to involve huge lightning energies. With GROWTH, we have so far detected 20 radiation bursts, which can be classified distinctly into 12 long-duration events (Tsuchiya et al., JGR 116, D09113, 2011) and 8 short-lived ones. The former ones have durations up to several minutes without correlation with lightning, and are likely to be associated with thunderclouds themselves. The latter ones are coincident with lightning discharges, and last for less than 1 second. In both types of events, gamma-ray energy spectra extend typically up 10 MeV. As described below, the present study covers both types of events. In a long burst which occurred on 2010 December 30, the gamma-ray intensity gradually increased and the spectrum continuously hardened over a few minutes, and then the emission abruptly ceased (Tsuchiya et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 015001, 2013). This sudden termination preceded (by 800 ms or less) a lightning flash that occurred 5 km away form the GROWTH site. We are also analyzing two short bursts detected on 2012 January 13, and another on 2012 December 9, all of which lasted no longer than 300 ms. In the spectrum of one of them, we found evidence of excess emission around 511 keV. The line emission increased in coincidence with the continuum radiation, but lasted for more than

  10. The influence of sowing period and seeding norm on autumn vegetation, winter hardiness and yield of winter cereal crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potapova G. N.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available the winter wheat and triticale in the middle part of the Ural Mountains haven’t been seeded before. The technology of winter crop cultivation should be improved due to the production of new varieties of winter rye. Winter hardiness and yield of winter rye are higher in comparison with winter triticale and especially with winter wheat. The sowing period and the seeding rate influence the amount of yield and winter hardiness. The winter hardiness of winter cereals and the yield of the rye variety Iset sowed on August 25 and the yield of the triticale variety Bashkir short-stalked and wheat Kazanskaya 560 sowed on August 15 were higher. It is important to sow winter grain in local conditions in the second half of August. The sowing this period allows to provide plants with the necessary amount of positive temperatures (450–500 °C. This helps the plants to form 3–4 shoots of tillering and a mass of 10 dry plants reaching 3–5 grams. The winter grain crops in the middle part of the Ural Mountains should be sown with seeding rates of 6 and 7 million of sprouting grains per 1 ha, and the seeds must be cultivated with fungicidal preparation before seeding.

  11. Comparison of growth, yield and fiber quality of the obsolete SA30 yellow leaf with four sets of modern yellow and green leaf near isogenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Virescent Yellow leaf cotton line Seed Accession 30 (SA30) was crossed with four modern parental lines (DP5690, DES119, SG747 and MD51ne) to develop four sets of near isogenic lines (NILs) segregating for green and yellow leaves. Comparisons of these lines were made in the field in a two year re...

  12. Within-Winter Flexibility in Muscle Masses, Myostatin, and Cellular Aerobic Metabolic Intensity in Passerine Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, David L; King, Marisa O; Culver, William; Zhang, Yufeng

    Metabolic rates of passerine birds are flexible traits that vary both seasonally and among and within winters. Seasonal variation in summit metabolic rates (M sum = maximum thermoregulatory metabolism) in birds is consistently correlated with changes in pectoralis muscle and heart masses and sometimes with variation in cellular aerobic metabolic intensity, so these traits might also be associated with shorter-term, within-winter variation in metabolic rates. To determine whether these mechanisms are associated with within-winter variation in M sum , we examined the effects of short-term (ST; 0-7 d), medium-term (MT; 14-30 d), and long-term (LT; 30-yr means) temperature variables on pectoralis muscle and heart masses, pectoralis expression of the muscle-growth inhibitor myostatin and its metalloproteinase activators TLL-1 and TLL-2, and pectoralis and heart citrate synthase (CS; an indicator of cellular aerobic metabolic intensity) activities for two temperate-zone resident passerines, house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis). For both species, pectoralis mass residuals were positively correlated with ST temperature variables, suggesting that cold temperatures resulted in increased turnover of pectoralis muscle, but heart mass showed little within-winter variation for either species. Pectoralis mRNA and protein expression of myostatin and the TLLs were only weakly correlated with ST and MT temperature variables, which is largely consistent with trends in muscle masses for both species. Pectoralis and heart CS activities showed weak and variable trends with ST temperature variables in both species, suggesting only minor effects of temperature variation on cellular aerobic metabolic intensity. Thus, neither muscle or heart masses, regulation by the myostatin system, nor cellular aerobic metabolic intensity varied consistently with winter temperature, suggesting that other factors regulate within-winter metabolic variation in these birds.

  13. [Effects of different irrigation modes on winter wheat grain yield and water- and nitrogen use efficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Hong-wen; Zhang, Qiu; Dai, Xing-long; Cao, Qian; Wang, Cheng-yu; Zhou, Xiao-hu; He, Ming-rong

    2011-10-01

    Taking the widely planted winter wheat cultivar Tainong 18 as test material, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of different irrigation modes on the winter wheat grain yield and water- and nitrogen use efficiency in drier year (2009-2010) in Tai' an City of Shandong Province, China. Five treatments were installed, i. e., irrigation before sowing (CK), irrigation before sowing and at jointing stage (W1), irrigation before sowing and at jointing stages and at over-wintering stage with alternative irrigation at milking stage (W2), irrigation before sowing and at jointing and flowering stages (optimized traditional irrigation mode, W3), and irrigation before sowing and at over-wintering, jointing, and milking stages (traditional irrigation mode, W4). The irrigation amount was 600 m3 hm(-2) one time. Under the condition of 119.7 mm precipitation in the winter wheat growth season, no significant difference was observed in the grain yield between treatments W2 and W4, but the water use efficiency was significantly higher in W2 than in W4. Comparing with treatment W3, treatments W2 and W4 had obviously higher grain yield, but the water use efficiency had no significant difference. The partial factor productivity from N fertilization was the highest in W2 and W4, and the NO3(-)-N accumulation amount in 0-100 cm soil layer at harvest was significantly higher in W2 than in W3 and W4, suggesting that W2 could reduce NO3(-)-N leaching loss. Under the conditions of our experiment, irrigation before sowing and jointing stages and at over-wintering stage with alternative irrigation at milking stage was the optimal irrigation mode in considering both the grain yield and the water- and nitrogen use efficiency.

  14. NUTRITION AS POSSIBLE ETHIOLOGICAL AGENT OF WINTER DISEASE SYNDROME IN SEA BREAM (Sparus aurata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Šarušić

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The circumstance of winter disease phenomenon in intensively reared sea bream (Sparus aurata L. has been described. It’s occurence in Mediterranean has been registered and reported by several authors. The aim of this paper is to contribute to the comprehension on the aethiology of this syndrome which is causing significant losses in one year old cultured fish. Different types of commercial diets were introduced during 1994/95 rearing season to the sea bream reared in floating cages. The feeds were displaying differences in energetic compound level and vitamin A, D3 and E content. Health difficulties and mortality in the observed fish groups at the beginning of the problem, did not indicate any biotic agent as being responsible for such condition. Clinical features and mortality in the groups affected by winter disease syndrome were increasing by low sea temperature and correlating with feeding period by food containing low levels of protein, lipids and vitamins. Pathological findings were in particularly related to the organs involved in digestion. Growth rate was characteristic for the group that were suffering winter disease, where increasing in length was not followed by body weight. Clinical signs, simptomathology related to the organs involved in digestion, liver histology analyses, weight losses and pattern of weight and length relation, correlation between used feeds and occurrence of winter disease, implicated nutrition as one of most possible ethiological agent of this condition. Nutritional interventions applied contributed in comprehension of the winter disease syndrome. The relationship between nutritional requirements, particularly regerding autumn-winter period, has been researched and analyzed. The results approved our basic hypothesis.

  15. Disentangling the mechanisms behind winter snow impact on vegetation activity in northern ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyi; Wang, Tao; Guo, Hui; Liu, Dan; Zhao, Yutong; Zhang, Taotao; Liu, Qiang; Piao, Shilong

    2018-04-01

    Although seasonal snow is recognized as an important component in the global climate system, the ability of snow to affect plant production remains an important unknown for assessing climate change impacts on vegetation dynamics at high-latitude ecosystems. Here, we compile data on satellite observation of vegetation greenness and spring onset date, satellite-based soil moisture, passive microwave snow water equivalent (SWE) and climate data to show that winter SWE can significantly influence vegetation greenness during the early growing season (the period between spring onset date and peak photosynthesis timing) over nearly one-fifth of the land surface in the region north of 30 degrees, but the magnitude and sign of correlation exhibits large spatial heterogeneity. We then apply an assembled path model to disentangle the two main processes (via changing early growing-season soil moisture, and via changing the growth period) in controlling the impact of winter SWE on vegetation greenness, and suggest that the "moisture" and "growth period" effect, to a larger extent, result in positive and negative snow-productivity associations, respectively. The magnitude and sign of snow-productivity association is then dependent upon the relative dominance of these two processes, with the "moisture" effect and positive association predominating in Central, western North America and Greater Himalaya, and the "growth period" effect and negative association in Central Europe. We also indicate that current state-of-the-art models in general reproduce satellite-based snow-productivity relationship in the region north of 30 degrees, and do a relatively better job of capturing the "moisture" effect than the "growth period" effect. Our results therefore work towards an improved understanding of winter snow impact on vegetation greenness in northern ecosystems, and provide a mechanistic basis for more realistic terrestrial carbon cycle models that consider the impacts of winter snow

  16. production lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingshan Li

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, serial production lines with finished goods buffers operating in the pull regime are considered. The machines are assumed to obey Bernoulli reliability model. The problem of satisfying customers demand is addressed. The level of demand satisfaction is quantified by the due-time performance (DTP, which is defined as the probability to ship to the customer a required number of parts during a fixed time interval. Within this scenario, the definitions of DTP bottlenecks are introduced and a method for their identification is developed.

  17. What Is a Mild Winter? Regional Differences in Within-Species Responses to Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Sebastian G; Ruf, Thomas; Bieber, Claudia; Arnold, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is known to affect ecosystems globally, but our knowledge of its impact on large and widespread mammals, and possibly population-specific responses is still sparse. We investigated large-scale and long-term effects of climate change on local population dynamics using the wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) as a model species. Our results show that population increases across Europe are strongly associated with increasingly mild winters, yet with region-specific threshold temperatures for the onset of exponential growth. Additionally, we found that abundant availability of critical food resources, e.g. beech nuts, can outweigh the negative effects of cold winters on population growth of wild boar. Availability of beech nuts is highly variable and highest in years of beech mast which increased in frequency since 1980, according to our data. We conclude that climate change drives population growth of wild boar directly by relaxing the negative effect of cold winters on survival and reproduction, and indirectly by increasing food availability. However, region-specific responses need to be considered in order to fully understand a species' demographic response to climate change.

  18. Line facilities outline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    This book deals with line facilities. The contents of this book are outline line of wire telecommunication ; development of line, classification of section of line and theory of transmission of line, cable line ; structure of line, line of cable in town, line out of town, domestic cable and other lines, Optical communication ; line of optical cable, transmission method, measurement of optical communication and cable of the sea bottom, Equipment of telecommunication line ; telecommunication line facilities and telecommunication of public works, construction of cable line and maintenance and Regulation of line equipment ; regulation on technique, construction and maintenance.

  19. Physiological Characterization of Kenyan Sorghum Lines for Tolerance To Aluminium

    OpenAIRE

    Cheprot, R. K.; Matonyei, T. K.; Maritim, K. K.; Were, B. A.; Dangasuk, O. G.; Onkware, A. O.; Gudu, S.

    2014-01-01

    Eighty nine Kenyan sorghum lines were screened for tolerance to aluminium toxicity in nutrient solution. Relative net root growth; root tip aluminium content and variation in organic acid exudation were used to determine the tolerance or sensitivity of the sorghum lines at 148 µM Al for six days. The lines showed variable reduction in root growth under the Al stress. On the basis of the relative net root growths, three lines were tolerant, nineteen were moderately tolerant and sixty seven wer...

  20. Changes in plasma gonadotrophins, testosterone, prolactin, thyroxine and triiodothyronine concentrations in male Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) of a heavy body weight line during photo-induced testicular growth and regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henare, S J; Kikuchi, M; Talbot, R T; Cockrem, J F

    2011-12-01

    1. Simultaneous changes of cloacal gland area (CGA) and plasma luteinising hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone (T), prolactin (PRL), thyroxine (T(4)) and triiodothyronine (T(3)) during photo-induced testicular growth and regression were measured in commercially bred Japanese quail from a heavy body weight line. 2. Somatically mature male Japanese quail were transferred from short days (light:dark 8L:16D) at 10°C, to long days (16L:8D) at 20°C; and sexually mature male Japanese quail were transferred from long to short days. All variables were measured at transfer and every 5 d thereafter for 35 d. 3. Transfer from short to long days caused significant increases in LH, FSH, T and testis weight (TW) after 5 d, and in CGA after 10 d. T(3) decreased after 5 d, whereas T(4) increased significantly after 25 long days and PRL did not undergo any consistent change. The testicular growth rate was k = 0·1146. 4. Transferring quail from long to short days caused significant decreases in LH and FSH after 5 d, and decreases in T, TW and CGA after 10 d. T(4) decreased after 5 d whilst T(3) increased significantly by day 15. PRL decreased significantly after 10 d then rose before declining again. The testicular regression rate was k = 0·0582. 5. The rates of photo-induced testicular development and regression in a strain of large Japanese quail did not differ from rates reported for other strains of quail. CGA was a better indicator of TW than plasma T concentrations during growth and regression. The role of PRL in photo-induced reproductive cycles in male Japanese quail remains to be determined. 6. The photoperiod-induced changes in gonad size and hormone concentrations, together provide valuable information that can be used in future studies of the endocrinology and neuroendocrinology of photoperiodism in birds.